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Sample records for gut hormone secretion

  1. Regulation of gut hormone secretion. Studies using isolated perfused intestines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Berit; Holst, Jens Juul.

    2016-01-01

    hormones is highly increased after gastric bypass operations, which have turned out to be an effective therapy of not only obesity but also type 2 diabetes. These effects are likely to be due, at least in part, to increases in the secretion of these gut hormones (except GIP). Therefore, stimulation...... of the endogenous hormone represents an appealing therapeutic strategy, which has spurred an interest in understanding the regulation of gut hormone secretion and a search for particularly GLP-1 and PYY secretagogues. The secretion of the gut hormones is stimulated by oral intake of nutrients often including...

  2. Enteroendocrine secretion of gut hormones in diabetes, obesity and after bariatric surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens Juul

    2013-01-01

    Gastric bypass surgery is associated with a major weight loss and often causes remission in patients with type 2 diabetes. Surgery is also associated with dramatic increases in the secretion of the gut hormones, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY), both of which regulate appetite...... and food intake, while GLP-1 in addition functions as an incretin hormone, stimulating insulin secretion. It has been possible to probe the role of GLP-1 for the diabetes resolution after gastric bypass using a GLP-1 receptor antagonist, and it is clear that the enhanced beta cell sensitivity to glucose...... which underlies the enhanced insulin secretion in the patients after the operation depends critically on the increased GLP-1 secretion. Both hormones seem to contribute importantly to the reduction in food intake after bypass and, therefore, to the weight loss. Currently, there are no data to indicate...

  3. Gut hormones and gastric bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens J.

    2016-01-01

    Gut hormone secretion in response to nutrient ingestion appears to depend on membrane proteins expressed by the enteroendocrine cells. These include transporters (glucose and amino acid transporters), and, in this case, hormone secretion depends on metabolic and electrophysiological events elicited...... that determines hormone responses. It follows that operations that change intestinal exposure to and absorption of nutrients, such as gastric bypass operations, also change hormone secretion. This results in exaggerated increases in the secretion of particularly the distal small intestinal hormones, GLP-1, GLP-2......, oxyntomodulin, neurotensin and peptide YY (PYY). However, some proximal hormones also show changes probably reflecting that the distribution of these hormones is not restricted to the bypassed segments of the gut. Thus, cholecystokinin responses are increased, whereas gastric inhibitory polypeptide responses...

  4. Could the improvement of obesity-related co-morbidities depend on modified gut hormones secretion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finelli, Carmine; Padula, Maria Carmela; Martelli, Giuseppe; Tarantino, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and its associated diseases are a worldwide epidemic disease. Usual weight loss cures - as diets, physical activity, behavior therapy and pharmacotherapy - have been continuously implemented but still have relatively poor long-term success and mainly scarce adherence. Bariatric surgery is to date the most effective long term treatment for morbid obesity and it has been proven to reduce obesity-related co-morbidities, among them nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and mortality. This article summarizes such variations in gut hormones following the current metabolic surgery procedures. The profile of gut hormonal changes after bariatric surgery represents a strategy for the individuation of the most performing surgical procedures to achieve clinical results. About this topic, experts suggest that the individuation of the crosslink among the gut hormones, microbiome, the obesity and the bariatric surgery could lead to new and more specific therapeutic interventions for severe obesity and its co-morbidities, also non surgical. PMID:25469034

  5. Bile acids are important direct and indirect regulators of the secretion of appetite- and metabolism-regulating hormones from the gut and pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhre, Rune Ehrenreich; Albrechtsen, Nicolai Jacob Wewer; Larsen, Olav

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Bile acids (BAs) facilitate fat absorption and may play a role in glucose and metabolism regulation, stimulating the secretion of gut hormones. The relative importance and mechanisms involved in BA-stimulated secretion of appetite and metabolism regulating hormones from the gut...... and pancreas is not well described and was the purpose of this study. METHODS: The effects of bile acids on the secretion of gut and pancreatic hormones was studied in rats and compared to the most well described nutritional secretagogue: glucose. The molecular mechanisms that underlie the secretion...... was studied by isolated perfused rat and mouse small intestine and pancreas preparations and supported by immunohistochemistry, expression analysis, and pharmacological studies. RESULTS: Bile acids robustly stimulate secretion of not only the incretin hormones, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP...

  6. Bile acids are important direct and indirect regulators of the secretion of appetite- and metabolism-regulating hormones from the gut and pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhre, Rune Ehrenreich; Albrechtsen, Nicolai Jacob Wewer; Larsen, Olav

    2018-01-01

    ), and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), but also glucagon and insulin in vivo, to levels comparable to those resulting from glucose stimulation. The mechanisms of GLP-1, neurotensin, and peptide YY (PYY) secretion was secondary to intestinal absorption and depended on activation of basolateral membrane Takeda G......OBJECTIVE: Bile acids (BAs) facilitate fat absorption and may play a role in glucose and metabolism regulation, stimulating the secretion of gut hormones. The relative importance and mechanisms involved in BA-stimulated secretion of appetite and metabolism regulating hormones from the gut...... and pancreas is not well described and was the purpose of this study. METHODS: The effects of bile acids on the secretion of gut and pancreatic hormones was studied in rats and compared to the most well described nutritional secretagogue: glucose. The molecular mechanisms that underlie the secretion...

  7. Effects of oleic acid and olive oil on gastric emptying, gut hormone secretion and appetite in lean and overweight or obese males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Morten; Graff, Jesper; Fuglsang, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    lean subjects, free fatty acid (FFA) promotes gut hormone release, delays gastric emptying, and reduces appetite and energy intake more than an isocaloric load of triglyceride (TG). In obesity, the gastrointestinal sensitivity to lipids may be reduced. Therefore, we compared the effects of the FF...... oleic acid and the TG olive oil on gut hormone secretion, gastric emptying, appetite, and energy intake in lean and overweight/obese subjects....

  8. The relationship between gut hormone secretion and gastric emptying in different phases of the migrating motor complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, L.; Oester-Joergensen, E.; Quist, N. [Odense University Hospital, Odense (Denmark); and others

    1996-05-01

    No studies are available on the relationship between the response of gut hormones and gastric emptying in different phases of the migrating motor complex. This study examined whether basal gut hormone concentrations in plasma before food ingestion are predictors of emptying characteristics and whether different hormone secretion patterns are associated with specific alteration in emptying rate. 12 healthy men were examined on two occasion: one with meal ingestion in phase I and the other with meal ingestion in phase II. The meal consisted of an omelette labelled with {sup 99m}Tc followed by 150 ml water labelled with {sup 111}In. Plasma concentrations of gastrin, cholecystokinin, motilin, and peptide YY were measured in the fasting state, immediately after food ingestion, and at 15 min-min intervals in the postprandial period. New findings from the present study include a higher incremental integrated postprandial motilin response in phase I than in phase II, and a linear relationship between median total integrated motilin response and solid emptying at 120 min in phase I. Furthermore, in phase I a linear relationship between total integrated area of cholecystokinin and solid emptying at 120 min was demonstrated. The findings from the present investigation have to be considered in the future design of studies that focus on postprandial release of gastrointestinal hormones. The transition from phase III to phase I is a reproducible and easily recognized pressure event. Therefore, the authors recommend the use of food ingestion immediately after termination of duodenal phase III. 14 refs.

  9. A double-blind placebo-controlled study on the effects of omeprazole on gut hormone secretion and gastric emptying rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, L; Qvist, N; Oster-Jørgensen, E

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The present study was designed to investigate whether an effect of omeprazole on gastric emptying is related to changes in the secretion of selected gut hormones. METHODS: The studies were performed in healthy men after 10 days' treatment with 40 mg omeprazole daily/placebo. Food inge...

  10. The relationship between gut hormone secretion and gastric emptying in different phases of the migrating motor complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, L; Oster-Jørgensen, E; Qvist, N

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: No studies are available on the relationship between the response of gut hormones and gastric emptying in different phases of the migrating motor complex. This study examined whether basal gut hormone concentrations in plasma before food ingestion are predictors of emptying characteri......BACKGROUND: No studies are available on the relationship between the response of gut hormones and gastric emptying in different phases of the migrating motor complex. This study examined whether basal gut hormone concentrations in plasma before food ingestion are predictors of emptying...... a higher incremental integrated postprandial motilin response in phase I than in phase II (998 pmol/l*30 min (495 to 2010) versus 210 pmol/l*30 min (-270 to 2323), p linear relationship between median total integrated motilin response and solid emptying at 120 min in phase I (Rs = 0.58; p...... linear relationship between total integrated area of cholecystokinin and solid emptying at 120 min was demonstrated (Rs = 0.62; p

  11. The relationship between gut hormone secretion and gastric emptying in different phases of the migrating motor complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, L; Oster-Jørgensen, E; Qvist, N

    1996-01-01

    a higher incremental integrated postprandial motilin response in phase I than in phase II (998 pmol/l*30 min (495 to 2010) versus 210 pmol/l*30 min (-270 to 2323), p total integrated motilin response and solid emptying at 120 min in phase I (Rs = 0.58; p......BACKGROUND: No studies are available on the relationship between the response of gut hormones and gastric emptying in different phases of the migrating motor complex. This study examined whether basal gut hormone concentrations in plasma before food ingestion are predictors of emptying...... total integrated area of cholecystokinin and solid emptying at 120 min was demonstrated (Rs = 0.62; p

  12. Meal induced gut hormone secretion is altered in aerobically trained compared to sedentary young healthy males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Michael Taulo; Taudorf, Lærke; Hartmann, Bolette

    2013-01-01

    Postprandial insulin release is lower in healthy aerobically trained (T) compared to untrained (UT) individuals. This may be mediated by a lower release of the two incretin hormones [glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP)] in T. The aim of this study...... concentration was higher in T versus UT, but the response in the following 3 h after a liquid meal was similar in T and UT. Satiety measures did not differ between groups throughout the test. It is possible that in aerobically T subjects, a lower GIP release is partly responsible for a lower postprandial...

  13. Gut hormone secretion, gastric emptying, and glycemic responses to erythritol and xylitol in lean and obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wölnerhanssen, Bettina K; Cajacob, Lucian; Keller, Nino

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing prevalence of obesity and a possible association with increasing sucrose consumption, nonnutritive sweeteners are gaining popularity. Given that some studies indicate that artificial sweeteners might have adverse effects, alternative solutions are sought. Xylitol and erythritol...... satiation, reduce gastric emptying (GE), and modulate glucose homeostasis. Although glucose ingestion stimulates sweet taste receptors in the gut and leads to incretin and gastrointestinal hormone release, the effects of xylitol and erythritol have not been well studied. Ten lean and 10 obese volunteers...

  14. Gut hormone secretion, gastric emptying, and glycemic responses to erythritol and xylitol in lean and obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wölnerhanssen, Bettina K; Cajacob, Lucian; Keller, Nino; Doody, Alison; Rehfeld, Jens F; Drewe, Juergen; Peterli, Ralph; Beglinger, Christoph; Meyer-Gerspach, Anne Christin

    2016-06-01

    With the increasing prevalence of obesity and a possible association with increasing sucrose consumption, nonnutritive sweeteners are gaining popularity. Given that some studies indicate that artificial sweeteners might have adverse effects, alternative solutions are sought. Xylitol and erythritol have been known for a long time and their beneficial effects on caries prevention and potential health benefits in diabetic patients have been demonstrated in several studies. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and cholecystokinin (CCK) are released from the gut in response to food intake, promote satiation, reduce gastric emptying (GE), and modulate glucose homeostasis. Although glucose ingestion stimulates sweet taste receptors in the gut and leads to incretin and gastrointestinal hormone release, the effects of xylitol and erythritol have not been well studied. Ten lean and 10 obese volunteers were given 75 g of glucose, 50 g of xylitol, or 75 g of erythritol in 300 ml of water or placebo (water) by a nasogastric tube. We examined plasma glucose, insulin, active GLP-1, CCK, and GE with a [(13)C]sodium acetate breath test and assessed subjective feelings of satiation. Xylitol and erythritol led to a marked increase in CCK and GLP-1, whereas insulin and plasma glucose were not (erythritol) or only slightly (xylitol) affected. Both xylitol and erythritol induced a significant retardation in GE. Subjective feelings of appetite were not significantly different after carbohydrate intake compared with placebo. In conclusion, acute ingestion of erythritol and xylitol stimulates gut hormone release and slows down gastric emptying, whereas there is no or only little effect on insulin release. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-06-08

    Jun 8, 1974 ... with Addison's disease, diarrhoea or salt-losing nephritis. (asymptomatic hyponatraemia).~ Schwartz et al.3 stud;ed two patients with anaplastic bronchus carcinoma and hyponatraemia in 1957, and they suggested that there was an inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH). It is now well ...

  16. Pituitary-hormone secretion by thyrotropinomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelfsema, Ferdinand; Kok, Simon; Kok, Petra; Pereira, Alberto M.; Biermasz, Nienke R.; Smit, Jan W.; Frolich, Marijke; Keenan, Daniel M.; Veldhuis, Johannes D.; Romijn, Johannes A.

    2009-01-01

    Hormone secretion by somatotropinomas, corticotropinomas and prolactinomas exhibits increased pulse frequency, basal and pulsatile secretion, accompanied by greater disorderliness. Increased concentrations of growth hormone (GH) or prolactin (PRL) are observed in about 30% of thyrotropinomas leading

  17. Effect of Antibiotics on Gut Microbiota, Gut Hormones and Glucose Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Kristian H; Frost, Morten; Bahl, Martin Iain

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbiota has been designated as an active regulator of glucose metabolism and metabolic phenotype in a number of animal and human observational studies. We evaluated the effect of removing as many bacteria as possible by antibiotics on postprandial physiology in healthy humans. Meal tests...... tolerance, insulin secretion or plasma lipid concentrations were found. Apart from an acute and reversible increase in peptide YY secretion, no changes were observed in postprandial gut hormone release. As evaluated by selective cultivation of gut bacteria, a broad-spectrum 4-day antibiotics course...... with vancomycin, gentamycin and meropenem induced shifts in gut microbiota composition that had no clinically relevant short or long-term effects on metabolic variables in healthy glucose-tolerant males. clinicaltrials.gov NCT01633762....

  18. Effect of L-Tryptophan and L-Leucine on Gut Hormone Secretion, Appetite Feelings and Gastric Emptying Rates in Lean and Non-Diabetic Obese Participants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer-Gerspach, Anne Christin; Häfliger, Simon; Meili, Julian

    2016-01-01

    in relation to peptide release. In contrast, the role of proteins or amino acids is less clear. Our aim was to compare the effects of the amino acids L-tryptophan (L-trp) and L-leucine (L-leu) separately on gastric emptying and gut peptide secretion. PARTICIPANTS/METHODS: The study was conducted...... as a randomized (balanced), double-blind, parallel-group trial. A total of 10 lean and 10 non-diabetic obese participants were included. Participants received intragastric loads of L-trp (0.52 g and 1.56 g) and L-leu (1.56 g), dissolved in 300 mL tap water; 75 g glucose and 300 mL tap water served as control...

  19. The Gut Hormones in Appetite Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Suzuki

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has received much attention worldwide in association with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancer. At present, bariatric surgery is the only effective treatment for obesity in which long-term weight loss is achieved in patients. By contrast, pharmacological interventions for obesity are usually followed by weight regain. Although the exact mechanisms of long-term weight loss following bariatric surgery are yet to be fully elucidated, several gut hormones have been implicated. Gut hormones play a critical role in relaying signals of nutritional and energy status from the gut to the central nervous system, in order to regulate food intake. Cholecystokinin, peptide YY, pancreatic polypeptide, glucagon-like peptide-1, and oxyntomodulin act through distinct yet synergistic mechanisms to suppress appetite, whereas ghrelin stimulates food intake. Here, we discuss the role of gut hormones in the regulation of food intake and body weight.

  20. Gastric emptying, glucose metabolism and gut hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeulen, Mechteld A R; Richir, Milan C; Garretsen, Martijn K

    2011-01-01

    To study the gastric-emptying rate and gut hormonal response of two carbohydrate-rich beverages. A specifically designed carbohydrate-rich beverage is currently used to support the surgical patient metabolically. Fruit-based beverages may also promote recovery, due to natural antioxidant and carb......To study the gastric-emptying rate and gut hormonal response of two carbohydrate-rich beverages. A specifically designed carbohydrate-rich beverage is currently used to support the surgical patient metabolically. Fruit-based beverages may also promote recovery, due to natural antioxidant...... and carbohydrate content. However, gastric emptying of fluids is influenced by its nutrient composition; hence, safety of preoperative carbohydrate loading should be confirmed. Because gut hormones link carbohydrate metabolism and gastric emptying, hormonal responses were studied....

  1. Gut

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muscogiuri, Giovanna; Balercia, Giancarlo; Barrea, Luigi

    2017-01-01

    The gut regulates glucose and energy homeostasis; thus, the presence of ingested nutrients into the gut activates sensing mechanisms that affect both glucose homeostasis and regulate food intake. Increasing evidence suggest that gut may also play a key role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes...... which may be related to both the intestinal microbiological profile and patterns of gut hormones secretion. Intestinal microbiota includes trillions of microorganisms but its composition and function may be adversely affected in type 2 diabetes. The intestinal microbiota may be responsible...... metabolism. Thus, the aim of this manuscript is to review the current evidence on the role of the gut in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes, taking into account both hormonal and microbiological aspects....

  2. An Analysis of Cosecretion and Coexpression of Gut Hormones From Male Rat Proximal and Distal Small Intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Berit; Pedersen, Jens; Albrechtsen, Nicolai Jacob Wewer

    2015-01-01

    Gut endocrine cells are generally thought to have distinct localization and secretory products. Recent studies suggested that the cells are highly related and have potential to express more than one hormone. We studied co-expression and co-secretion of gut hormones in separate segments of rat sma...

  3. Pituitary-hormone secretion by thyrotropinomas

    OpenAIRE

    Roelfsema, Ferdinand; Kok, Simon; Kok, Petra; Pereira, Alberto M.; Biermasz, Nienke R.; Smit, Jan W.; Frolich, Marijke; Keenan, Daniel M.; Veldhuis, Johannes D.; Romijn, Johannes A.

    2008-01-01

    Hormone secretion by somatotropinomas, corticotropinomas and prolactinomas exhibits increased pulse frequency, basal and pulsatile secretion, accompanied by greater disorderliness. Increased concentrations of growth hormone (GH) or prolactin (PRL) are observed in about 30% of thyrotropinomas leading to acromegaly or disturbed sexual functions beyond thyrotropin (TSH)-induced hyperthyroidism. Regulation of non-TSH pituitary hormones in this context is not well understood. We there therefore ev...

  4. Postprandial gut hormone responses and glucose metabolism in cholecystectomized patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, David P; Hare, Kristine J; Martens, Pernille

    2013-01-01

    -rich liquid meal (2,200 kJ). Basal and postprandial plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, GLP-1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2), cholecystokinin (CCK), and gastrin were measured. Furthermore, gastric emptying and duodenal and serum......Preclinical studies suggest that gallbladder emptying, via bile acid-induced activation of the G protein-coupled receptor TGR5 in intestinal L cells, may play a significant role in the secretion of the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and, hence, postprandial glucose homeostasis. We...... examined the secretion of gut hormones in cholecystectomized subjects to test the hypothesis that gallbladder emptying potentiates postprandial release of GLP-1. Ten cholecystectomized subjects and 10 healthy, age-, gender-, and body mass index-matched control subjects received a standardized fat...

  5. Enteroendocrine L Cells Sense LPS after Gut Barrier Injury to Enhance GLP-1 Secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorène J. Lebrun

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1 is a hormone released from enteroendocrine L cells. Although first described as a glucoregulatory incretin hormone, GLP-1 also suppresses inflammation and promotes mucosal integrity. Here, we demonstrate that plasma GLP-1 levels are rapidly increased by lipopolysaccharide (LPS administration in mice via a Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4-dependent mechanism. Experimental manipulation of gut barrier integrity after dextran sodium sulfate treatment, or via ischemia/reperfusion experiments in mice, triggered a rapid rise in circulating GLP-1. This phenomenon was detected prior to measurable changes in inflammatory status and plasma cytokine and LPS levels. In human subjects, LPS administration also induced GLP-1 secretion. Furthermore, GLP-1 levels were rapidly increased following the induction of ischemia in the human intestine. These findings expand traditional concepts of enteroendocrine L cell biology to encompass the sensing of inflammatory stimuli and compromised mucosal integrity, linking glucagon-like peptide secretion to gut inflammation. : Lebrun et al. demonstrate that enteroendocrine L cells sense lipopolysaccharides (pro-inflammatory bacterial compounds after gut injury and respond by secreting glucagon-like peptide 1. These findings expand concepts of L cell function to include roles as both a nutrient and pathogen sensor, linking glucagon-like peptide secretion to gut inflammation. Keywords: glucagon-like peptide 1, lipopolysaccharides, enteroendocrine cells, TLR4, gut injury, intestinal ischemia, inflammation

  6. Incretin hormone secretion over the day

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahren, B; Carr, RD; Deacon, Carolyn F.

    2010-01-01

    The two incretin hormones glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are key factors in the regulation of islet function and glucose metabolism, and incretin-based therapy for type 2 diabetes has gained considerable interest during recent years. Regulat......The two incretin hormones glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are key factors in the regulation of islet function and glucose metabolism, and incretin-based therapy for type 2 diabetes has gained considerable interest during recent years....... Regulation of incretin hormone secretion is less well characterized. The main stimulus for incretin hormone secretion is presence of nutrients in the intestinal lumen, and carbohydrate, fat as well as protein all have the capacity to stimulate GIP and GLP-1 secretion. More recently, it has been established...... that a diurnal regulation exists with incretin hormone secretion to an identical meal being greater when the meal is served in the morning compared to in the afternoon. Finally, whether incretin hormone secretion is altered in disease states is an area with, so far, controversial results in different studies...

  7. Pituitary-hormone secretion by thyrotropinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelfsema, Ferdinand; Kok, Simon; Kok, Petra; Pereira, Alberto M; Biermasz, Nienke R; Smit, Jan W; Frolich, Marijke; Keenan, Daniel M; Veldhuis, Johannes D; Romijn, Johannes A

    2009-01-01

    Hormone secretion by somatotropinomas, corticotropinomas and prolactinomas exhibits increased pulse frequency, basal and pulsatile secretion, accompanied by greater disorderliness. Increased concentrations of growth hormone (GH) or prolactin (PRL) are observed in about 30% of thyrotropinomas leading to acromegaly or disturbed sexual functions beyond thyrotropin (TSH)-induced hyperthyroidism. Regulation of non-TSH pituitary hormones in this context is not well understood. We there therefore evaluated TSH, GH and PRL secretion in 6 patients with up-to-date analytical and mathematical tools by 24-h blood sampling at 10-min intervals in a clinical research laboratory. The profiles were analyzed with a new deconvolution method, approximate entropy, cross-approximate entropy, cross-correlation and cosinor regression. TSH burst frequency and basal and pulsatile secretion were increased in patients compared with controls. TSH secretion patterns in patients were more irregular, but the diurnal rhythm was preserved at a higher mean with a 2.5 h phase delay. Although only one patient had clinical acromegaly, GH secretion and IGF-I levels were increased in two other patients and all three had a significant cross-correlation between the GH and TSH. PRL secretion was increased in one patient, but all patients had a significant cross-correlation with TSH and showed decreased PRL regularity. Cross-ApEn synchrony between TSH and GH did not differ between patients and controls, but TSH and PRL synchrony was reduced in patients. We conclude that TSH secretion by thyrotropinomas shares many characteristics of other pituitary hormone-secreting adenomas. In addition, abnormalities in GH and PRL secretion exist ranging from decreased (joint) regularity to overt hypersecretion, although not always clinically obvious, suggesting tumoral transformation of thyrotrope lineage cells.

  8. Obesity: An overview of possible role(s) of gut hormones, lipid sensing and gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Alok Kumar; Dubey, Vinay; Ghosh, Asit Ranjan

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is one of the major challenges for public health in 21st century, with 1.9 billion people being considered as overweight and 600 million as obese. There are certain diseases such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and several forms of cancer which were found to be associated with obesity. Therefore, understanding the key molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of obesity could be beneficial for the development of a therapeutic approach. Hormones such as ghrelin, glucagon like peptide 1 (GLP-1) peptide YY (PYY), pancreatic polypeptide (PP), cholecystokinin (CCK) secreted by an endocrine organ gut, have an intense impact on energy balance and maintenance of homeostasis by inducing satiety and meal termination. Glucose and energy homeostasis are also affected by lipid sensing in which different organs respond in different ways. However, there is one common mechanism i.e. formation of esterified lipids (long chain fatty acyl CoAs) and the activation of protein kinase C δ (PKC δ) involved in all these organs. The possible role of gut microbiota and obesity has been addressed by several researchers in recent years, indicating the possible therapeutic approach toward the management of obesity by the introduction of an external living system such as a probiotic. The proposed mechanism behind this activity is attributed by metabolites produced by gut microbial organisms. Thus, this review summarizes the role of various physiological factors such as gut hormone and lipid sensing involved in various tissues and organ and most important by the role of gut microbiota in weight management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Normal secretion and action of the gut incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide in young men with low birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jakob Hagen; Pilgaard, Kasper; Vilsbøll, Tina

    2005-01-01

    polypeptide (GIP) in young LBW men (n = 24) and matched normal birth weight controls (NBW) (n = 25). RESULTS: LBW subjects were 5 cm shorter but had a body mass index similar to NBW. LBW subjects had significantly elevated fasting and postprandial plasma glucose, as well as postprandial (standard meal test......CONTEXT: Low birth weight (LBW) is associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. An impaired incretin effect was reported previously in type 2 diabetic patients. OBJECTIVE: We studied the secretion and action of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic...

  10. Cholecystokinin-From Local Gut Hormone to Ubiquitous Messenger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F

    2017-01-01

    pancreatic enzyme secretion and growth, gallbladder contraction, and gut motility, satiety and inhibit acid secretion from the stomach. Moreover, they are major neurotransmitters in the brain and the periphery. CCK peptides also stimulate calcitonin, insulin, and glucagon secretion, and they may act...

  11. [Secretion of growth hormone in hyperthyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervás, F; Morreale de Escobar, G; Escobar Del Rey, F; Pozuelo, V

    1976-01-01

    The authors studied growth hormone (GH) secretion in a group of adult controls and another group of hyperthyroid patients after stimulation with intravenous insulin-induced (0,1 IU/kg) hypoglycemia, aiming to clear out the problem of discrepancies in literature concerning GH secretion in hyperthyroidism. They concluded that in this syndrome, GH levels are significantly higher than those of controls. The GH releasing response is normal, though it could be expected to be decreased due to decreased pituitary GH contents as a result of permanent somatotrophic cell stimulation.

  12. Parathyroid hormone secretion in chronic renal failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, J C; Rasmussen, A Q; Ladefoged, S D

    1996-01-01

    The aim of study was to introduce and evaluate a method for quantifying the parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion during hemodialysis in secondary hyperparathyroidism due to end-stage renal failure. We developed a method suitable for inducing sequential hypocalcemia and hypercalcemia during....../ionized calcium curves were constructed, and a mean calcium set-point of 1.16 mmol/liter was estimated compared to the normal mean of about 1.13 mmol/liter. In conclusion, we demonstrate that it is important to use a standardized method to evaluate parathyroid hormone dynamics in chronic renal failure. By the use...

  13. [Dynamics of hormone secretion during chronic emotional stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiragova, M G; Kovalev, S V; Svirskaia, R I

    1979-05-01

    Study of spontaneous secretion of corticosteroids and thyroid hormones and the direct hormonal response to stress revealed the pathogenic effect of chronic combined emotional stress upon the hormonal function of adrenal glands. The hippocampus takes part in formation of the emotional tension in response to stress stimulus and of the following hormonal secretion.

  14. Effect of adrenal hormones on thyroid secretion and thyroid hormones on adrenal secretion in the sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, I R; Jacks, F

    1975-01-01

    1. Previous work has shown that after stressful stimuli, sheep initially secrete increased amounts of thyroid hormone, at a time when adrenal secretion is also elevated. 2. This study was designed to evaluate (a) any short-term activation or inhibition of thyroid secretion by exogenous cortisol or ACTH administered in quantities comparable to those secreted after stress in sheep and (b) any short-term effect that exogenous thyroxine or triiodothyronine may have on the concentration of plasma cortisol in the sheep. 3. Thyroid activity was measured by determination of plasma protein bound 125I (PB125I) and total 125I in thyroid vein and mixed venous (jugular) blood. Plasma cortisol and thyroxine concentrations were measured by a competitive protein-binding assay at intervals for up to 5 hr after commencement of the experiment. 4. No evidence of an activation of thyroid secretion was found during cortisol or ACTH infusion, as monitored by thyroid vein PB125I. Similarly there was no evidence of any inhibition of thyroid function, as measured by continued secretion of thyroid hormones into thyroid vein blood. 5. No effect on plasma cortisol concentration due to thyroid hormone treatment was observed. 6. It was concluded that (a) elevated circulating corticosteroids in physiological concentrations have no short-term effects on thyroid activity in the sheep and (b) the short-term alterations in thyroid and adrenal cortical secretion observed during stress in the sheep could not be attributed to direct interaction of elevated thyroid hormone concentrations with adrenal cortical secretion. PMID:170400

  15. Parathyroid hormone secretion in chronic renal failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, J C; Rasmussen, A Q; Ladefoged, S D

    1996-01-01

    The aim of study was to introduce and evaluate a method for quantifying the parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion during hemodialysis in secondary hyperparathyroidism due to end-stage renal failure. We developed a method suitable for inducing sequential hypocalcemia and hypercalcemia during....../ionized calcium curves were constructed, and a mean calcium set-point of 1.16 mmol/liter was estimated compared to the normal mean of about 1.13 mmol/liter. In conclusion, we demonstrate that it is important to use a standardized method to evaluate parathyroid hormone dynamics in chronic renal failure. By the use...... of a standardized method we show that the calcium set-point is normal or slightly elevated, indicating normal parathyroid reactivity to calcium in chronic renal failure....

  16. Parathyroid hormone secretion in chronic renal failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, J C; Rasmussen, A Q; Ladefoged, S D

    1996-01-01

    /ionized calcium curves were constructed, and a mean calcium set-point of 1.16 mmol/liter was estimated compared to the normal mean of about 1.13 mmol/liter. In conclusion, we demonstrate that it is important to use a standardized method to evaluate parathyroid hormone dynamics in chronic renal failure. By the use...... of a standardized method we show that the calcium set-point is normal or slightly elevated, indicating normal parathyroid reactivity to calcium in chronic renal failure.......The aim of study was to introduce and evaluate a method for quantifying the parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion during hemodialysis in secondary hyperparathyroidism due to end-stage renal failure. We developed a method suitable for inducing sequential hypocalcemia and hypercalcemia during...

  17. From endocrine to rheumatism: do gut hormones play roles in rheumatoid arthritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Yen; Tsai, Chang-Youh

    2014-02-01

    RA is characterized by chronic inflammation in the musculoskeletal system, in which TNF-α is the key cytokine trigger. TNF-α, previously known as cachectin, is implicated in the modulation of body composition and energy expenditure. Gut hormones, including acyl ghrelin, des-acyl ghrelin, GIP, GLP-1 and PYY, have been known to be the major regulators of appetite, nutrition, energy expenditure and body mass formation. Emerging evidence indicates that blockade of TNF-α by biologics not only ameliorates rheumatoid inflammation, but can affect the secretion and action of gut hormones on appetite, body composition, energy expenditure, muscle catabolism and bone remodelling. A link between the gastrointestinal endocrine axis and the immune system may be established through the interaction of proinflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α and these gut hormones. With the ever-increasing understanding of rheumatoid inflammation and the invention of more biologics to modulate the cytokine network, more attention should be given to the possible immunomodulatory roles of gut hormones in autoimmune inflammatory reactions.

  18. Effects of Diet Soda on Gut Hormones in Youths With Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Rebecca J.; Walter, Mary; Rother, Kristina I.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE In patients with type 2 diabetes, but not type 1 diabetes, abnormal secretion of incretins in response to oral nutrients has been described. In healthy youths, we recently reported accentuated glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) secretion in response to a diet soda sweetened with sucralose and acesulfame-K. In this study, we examined the effect of diet soda on gut hormones in youths with diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Subjects aged 12?25 years with type 1 diabetes (n = 9) or type...

  19. The metabolic actions of neurotensin secreted from the gut

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratner, Cecilia; Johnsen, Cecilie Hundahl; Holst, Birgitte

    2016-01-01

    Neurotensin (NT) is a 13 amino acid peptide hormone primarily expressed in the brain and in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. NT in the brain is generally considered an anorexigenic neuropeptide, but the potential metabolic actions of GI tract NT have not been investigated extensively. In the GI t...... coact on some but not all target organs. In line with the recent focus on developing antiobesity agents targeting more than one signaling pathway, NT may be a candidate for such polytherapy drugs in combination with other gut hormones such as GLP-1...

  20. Gut hormones - Novel tools in the treatment of insulin resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parlevliet, Edwin Tijmen

    2010-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus has now become a global epidemic. The past decade hormones from the gastrointestinal tract have gained much interest as potential new therapeutic drugs in the battle against this disease. Gut peptides play an important role in regulating food intake and energy homeostasis.

  1. Influence of hyperthyroidism on growth hormone secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcavi, R; Dieguez, C; Zini, M; Muruais, C; Casanueva, F; Portioli, I

    1993-05-01

    Hyperthyroidism is associated with altered GH secretion. Whether this is due to changes of somatotroph responsiveness or reflects an alteration in negative feedback signals at the hypothalamic level is unknown. We therefore performed a series of studies to shed some light onto this issue. Study 1: GHRH (1 microgram/kg b.w.) was injected i.v. in 38 hyperthyroid patients and in 30 normal subjects; in 11 of the patients the GHRH test was repeated following methimazole-induced remission of hyperthyroidism. Study 2: hGH (2 U i.v.) or saline were administered 3 hours prior to GHRH; six hyperthyroid patients and six normal subjects were studied. Study 3: ten normal subjects and ten hyperthyroid patients were given 75 g oral glucose or water 30 minutes before GHRH. Study 4: 11 normal subjects and eight hyperthyroid patients were studied. TRH or vehicle were dissolved in 250 ml of saline solution and infused at a rate of 400 micrograms/h for 150 minutes. Thirty minutes after the beginning of the infusions, L-arginine (30 g infused over 45 min i.v.) was administered. Hyperthyroid patients were compared to normal subjects. Growth hormone was measured by RIA at 15-minute intervals. GH responses to GHRH were subnormal in hyperthyroid patients. Following antithyroid drug treatment with methimazole, GH responses to GHRH increased in these patients in comparison to pretreatment values. Serum IGF-I levels, which were elevated before treatment, decreased after methimazole administration. Exogenous GH administration induced a clear decrease of GH responses to GHRH in both control and hyperthyroid subjects. On the other hand, oral glucose load decreased the GH responses to GHRH in normal but not in hyperthyroid subjects. TRH administration did not modify the GH responses to arginine in either normal subjects or hyperthyroid patients. Hyperthyroidism is associated with increased serum IGF-I levels and marked alterations in the neuroregulation of GH secretion. These changes involve

  2. Effect of Antibiotics on Gut Microbiota, Gut Hormones and Glucose Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Kristian H; Frost, Morten; Bahl, Martin Iain

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbiota has been designated as an active regulator of glucose metabolism and metabolic phenotype in a number of animal and human observational studies. We evaluated the effect of removing as many bacteria as possible by antibiotics on postprandial physiology in healthy humans. Meal tests...... with measurements of postprandial glucose tolerance and postprandial release of insulin and gut hormones were performed before, immediately after and 6 weeks after a 4-day, broad-spectrum, per oral antibiotic cocktail (vancomycin 500 mg, gentamycin 40 mg and meropenem 500 mg once-daily) in a group of 12 lean...... and glucose tolerant males. Faecal samples were collected for culture-based assessment of changes in gut microbiota composition. Acute and dramatic reductions in the abundance of a representative set of gut bacteria was seen immediately following the antibiotic course, but no changes in postprandial glucose...

  3. Gut transit is associated with gastrointestinal symptoms and gut hormone profile in patients with cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalaitzakis, Evangelos; Sadik, Riadh; Holst, Jens Juul

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Liver cirrhosis is associated with increased prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms, insulin resistance, and altered gut transit. We aimed to assess the prevalence of gut transit abnormalities in patients with cirrhosis, compared with healthy controls, and to evaluate the rela......BACKGROUND & AIMS: Liver cirrhosis is associated with increased prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms, insulin resistance, and altered gut transit. We aimed to assess the prevalence of gut transit abnormalities in patients with cirrhosis, compared with healthy controls, and to evaluate...... the relation of gut transit with gastrointestinal symptoms and postprandial glucose and hormone profiles. METHODS: Half gastric emptying, small bowel residence, and colonic filling times were measured with a validated radiologic procedure in 42 consecutive patients with cirrhosis. In a subgroup of 25 patients......, gastrointestinal symptoms were evaluated by using a validated questionnaire and a caloric satiation test. Postprandial glucose, insulin, leptin, ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide 1, and PYY responses were also studied. Eighty-three healthy subjects served as controls for the transit studies and 10 for the hormone...

  4. Tear secretion and tear stability of women on hormonal contraceptives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faustina Kemdinum Idu

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Injectable hormonal contraceptives had no significant effects on tear secretion and tear stability of healthy women of childbearing age. Further studies may be required to determine the effects of hormonal contraceptives on tear volume and stability of women with dry eyes.

  5. Proton therapy of hormone-secreting hypophyseal adenomas: gluconeogenesis assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konnova, L.A.; Konnov, B.A.; Mel'nikov, L.A.; Lebedeva, N.A.

    1993-01-01

    Analysis of blood plasma aminograms of patients with hormone secreting hypophyseal adenomas (somatotropinomas and prolactinomas), that were obtained before and after a course of proton therapy, has confirmed the gluconeogenic effect of hypophyseal hormones and evidenced the relationship between this effect and dismetabolism of some amino acids

  6. Sweat secretion rates in growth hormone disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sneppen, S B; Main, K M; Juul, A

    2000-01-01

    While increased sweating is a prominent symptom in patients with active acromegaly, reduced sweating is gaining status as part of the growth hormone deficiency (GHD) syndrome.......While increased sweating is a prominent symptom in patients with active acromegaly, reduced sweating is gaining status as part of the growth hormone deficiency (GHD) syndrome....

  7. Mortality and reduced growth hormone secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stochholm, Kirstine; Christiansen, Jens; Laursen, Torben

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Data regarding the mortality rates of patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD), whether or not treated with growth hormone (GH), are limited, but an increased mortality rate among hypopituitary patients compared with the general population has been documented. Cardiovascular dise...

  8. Effects of Dietary Bacillus licheniformis on Gut Physical Barrier, Immunity, and Reproductive Hormones of Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Du, Wei; Lei, Kai; Wang, Baikui; Wang, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Yingshan; Li, Weifen

    2017-09-01

    Previous study showed that dietary Bacillus licheniformis (B. licheniformis) administration contributes to the improvement of laying performance and egg quality in laying hens. In this study, we aimed to further evaluate its underlying mechanisms. Three hundred sixty Hy-Line Variety W-36 hens (28 weeks of age) were randomized into four groups, each group with six replications (n = 15). The control group received the basal diet and the treatment groups received the same basal diets supplemented with 0.01, 0.03, and 0.06% B. licheniformis powder (2 × 10 10  cfu/g) for an 8-week trial. The results demonstrate that B. licheniformis significantly enhance the intestinal barrier functions via decreasing gut permeability, promoting mucin-2 transcription, and regulating inflammatory cytokines. The systemic immunity of layers in B. licheniformis treatment groups is improved through modulating the specific and non-specific immunity. In addition, gene expressions of hormone receptors, including estrogen receptor α, estrogen receptor β, and follicle-stimulating hormone receptor, are also regulated by B. licheniformis. Meanwhile, compared with the control, B. licheniformis significantly increase gonadotropin-releasing hormone level, but markedly reduce ghrelin and inhibin secretions. Overall, our data suggest that dietary inclusion of B. licheniformis can improve the intestinal barrier function and systemic immunity and regulate reproductive hormone secretions, which contribute to better laying performance and egg quality of hens.

  9. Diacylglycerol acyltransferase-1 (DGAT1 inhibition perturbs postprandial gut hormone release.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua V Lin

    Full Text Available Diacylglycerol acyltransferase-1 (DGAT1 is a potential therapeutic target for treatment of obesity and related metabolic diseases. However, the degree of DGAT1 inhibition required for metabolic benefits is unclear. Here we show that partial DGAT1 deficiency in mice suppressed postprandial triglyceridemia, led to elevations in glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 and peptide YY (PYY only following meals with very high lipid content, and did not protect from diet-induced obesity. Maximal DGAT1 inhibition led to enhanced GLP-1 and PYY secretion following meals with physiologically relevant lipid content. Finally, combination of DGAT1 inhibition with dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 (DPP-4 inhibition led to further enhancements in active GLP-1 in mice and dogs. The current study suggests that targeting DGAT1 to enhance postprandial gut hormone secretion requires maximal inhibition, and suggests combination with DPP-4i as a potential strategy to develop DGAT1 inhibitors for treatment of metabolic diseases.

  10. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Secreting Pheochromocytoma Underlying Glucocorticoid Induced Pheochromocytoma Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil A. Geva

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Context. Pheochromocytomas are hormone secreting tumors of the medulla of the adrenal glands found in 0.1–0.5% of patients with hypertension. The vast majority of pheochromocytomas secrete catecholamines, but they have been occasionally shown to also secrete interleukins, calcitonin, testosterone, and in rare cases adrenocorticotropic hormone. Pheochromocytoma crisis is a life threatening event in which high levels of catecholamines cause a systemic reaction leading to organ failure. Case Description. A 70-year-old man was admitted with acute myocardial ischemia following glucocorticoid administration as part of an endocrine workup for an adrenal mass. Cardiac catheterization disclosed patent coronary arteries and he was discharged. A year later he returned with similar angina-like chest pain. During hospitalization, he suffered additional events of chest pain, shortness of breath, and palpitations following administration of glucocorticoids as preparation for intravenous contrast administration. Throughout his admission, the patient demonstrated both signs of Cushing’s syndrome and high catecholamine levels. Following stabilization of vital parameters and serum electrolytes, the adrenal mass was resected surgically and was found to harbor an adrenocorticotropic hormone secreting pheochromocytoma. This is the first documented case of adrenocorticotropic hormone secreting pheochromocytoma complicated by glucocorticoid induced pheochromocytoma crisis. Conclusion. Care should be taken when administering high doses of glucocorticoids to patients with suspected pheochromocytoma, even in a patient with concomitant Cushing’s syndrome.

  11. Control of Pituitary Thyroid-stimulating Hormone Synthesis and Secretion by Thyroid Hormones during Xenopus Metamorphosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serum thyroid hormone (TH) concentrations in anuran larvae rise rapidly during metamorphosis. Such a rise in an adult anuran would inevitably trigger a negative feedback response resulting in decreased synthesis and secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) by the pituitary....

  12. Increasing Goat Productivity Through the Improvement of Endogenous Secretion of Pregnant Hormones Using Follicle Stimulating Hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriyanto Andriyanto

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Previous studies reported that the improvement of endogenous estrogen and progesterone secretions during gestation improved fetal prenatal growth, birth weight, mammary gland growth and development, milk production, litter size, pre- and post-weaning growths. An experiment was conducted to apply the improvement of endogenous secretion of pregnant hormones during pregnancy to increase goat productivity. Thirty-six female ettawah-cross does were divided into 2 groups. Group 1 (control: 18 does included does without improvement of endogenous secretion of pregnant hormones and Group 2 (treatment: 18 does included does with improvement of endogenous secretion of pregnant hormones using follicle stimulating hormones to stimulate super ovulation. The application of this technology increased total offspring born (control: 25 offspring; treatment: 42 offspring, average litter size (control: 1.88; treatment: 2.33, offspring birth weight (control: 2.85±0.50 kg; treatment: 3.82±0.40 kg, and does milk production (control: 1.36±0.34 L/does/day; treatment: 2.10±0.21 L/does/day. Offspring born to does with improved endogenous secretion of pregnant hormones had better weaning weight (control: 11.17±1.99 kg/offspring; treatment: 14.5±1.11 kg/offspring. At weaning period, does with improved endogenous secretion of pregnant hormones produced offspring with total weaning weight twice as heavy as control does (control: 189.9 kg; treatment: 403.6 kg. By a simple calculation of economic analysis, this technology application could increase gross revenue per does until weaning by Rp. 432.888,89. It was concluded that this technology is economically feasible to be applied in small-scale farm. Key Words: follicle stimulating hormone, pregnant hormones, endogenous secretion, super ovulation, ettawah-cross does

  13. Silent pituitary macroadenoma co-secreting growth hormone and thyroid stimulating hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Orhan; Ertorer, M Eda; Aydin, M Volkan; Erdogan, Bulent; Altinors, Nur; Zorludemir, Suzan; Guvener, Nilgun

    2005-04-01

    Silent pituitary adenomas are a group of tumors showing heterogenous morphological features with no hormonal function observed clinically. To date no explanation has been provided as to why these tumors remain "silent". We report a case of a silent macroadenoma with both growth hormone (GH) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) staining and secretion but with no clinical manifestations, in particular, the absence of features of acromegaly or hyperthyroidism. The relevant literature is reviewed.

  14. Cephalic phase secretion of insulin and other enteropancreatic hormones in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veedfald, Simon; Plamboeck, Astrid; Deacon, Carolyn F

    2016-01-01

    Enteropancreatic hormone secretion is thought to include a cephalic phase, but the evidence in humans is ambiguous. We studied vagally induced gut hormone responses with and without muscarinic blockade in 10 glucose-clamped healthy men (age: 24.5 ± 0.6 yr, means ± SE; body mass index: 24.0 ± 0.5 kg...... and abolished the MSF response. Neither insulin, C-peptide, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), nor glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels changed in response to MSF or atropine. Glucagon and ghrelin levels were markedly attenuated by atropine prior to and during the clamp: at t = 105 min...... and 3.7 ± 21 pg/ml (means ± SE), P phase response was absent for insulin, glucagon, GLP-1, GIP, and ghrelin....

  15. Pituitary tumour causing gigantism. Morphology and in vitro hormone secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anniko, M; Ritzén, E M

    1986-01-01

    True gigantism with overproduction of growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) was diagnosed in a 13-year-old boy. The clinical history indicated that the tumour had caused an oversecretion of GH since the age of 4-5 years. At diagnosis, the sella turcica was markedly enlarged. No infiltrative growth was noted at surgery. Endocrine investigations showed elevated GH and PRL secretion. Light and electron microscopy of tumour tissue revealed densely packed pleomorphic cells of both GH and PRL type. In addition, oncocyte-like cells were observed. Organ culture of pieces of tumour tissue demonstrated continued secretion of GH and PRL into the medium for more than 5 days in vitro. Addition of bromocriptine to the medium caused a rapid decline in PRL secretion while GH secretion remained the same. X-ray irradiation in vitro also caused a decrease in PRL secretion. These effects of bromocriptine and X-ray on hormone secretion in vitro mirrored the corresponding effect of treatment, when the patient showed signs of tumour recurrence after pituitary surgery. It is concluded that also in childhood, the in vitro response of tumour tissue to various treatments may be explored as a possible way to predict the efficacy of pharmacological or irradiation treatment of pituitary tumours.

  16. Purification and cultivation of human pituitary growth hormone secreting cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymer, W. C.

    1979-01-01

    Efforts were directed towards maintenance of actively secreting human pituitary growth hormone cells (somatotrophs) in vitro. The production of human growth hormone (hGH) by this means would be of benefit for the treatment of certain human hypopituitary diseases such as dwarfism. One of the primary approaches was the testing of agents which may logically be expected to increase hGH release. The progress towards this goal is summarized. Results from preliminary experiments dealing with electrophoresis of pituitary cell for the purpose of somatotroph separation are described.

  17. Measurement of human serum parathyroid hormone in disorders of calcium metabolism and during administration of certain gut hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coetzee, J.; Klaff, L.J.; Epstein, S.

    1980-01-01

    A sensitive radio-immunoassay for parathyroid hormone (PTH) using the commercially available antisera AS 211/32 and AS 211/41 has been established. The lower limit of sensitivity of the assay is 0,25 ng/ml. Seventy-nine per cent of normal subjects have PTH levels in the measurable range, with a mean of 0,49 ng/ml (SD more or less 0,26 ng/ml). Only 1 of 9 patients with proven primary hyperparathyroidism had a normal serum PTH value. The mean serum PTH value in this group was 3,0 more or less 0,26 ng/ml, which differed significantly from that in the normal group (P<0,001). The serum PTH level of 33 patients on chronic haemodialysis was uniformly raised, while in 8 patients with hypoparathyroidism PTH levels were undetectable. Patients with malignant disease presented a mixed picture, with raised, normal or undetectable PTH levels. We investigated a possible relationship between the gut hormones, gastrin, secretin and cholecystokininpancreozymin (CCK-PZ) and PTH secretion in human volunteers. No effect was found, although the investigations were conducted over relatively short time periods

  18. Inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone treated with frusemide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaux, G; Waterlot, Y; Genette, F; Hallemans, R; Demanet, J C

    1982-07-10

    Seven out of nine patients with chronic inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone were successfully treated with 40 mg frusemide daily. One patient needed 80 mg, and the remaining patient achieved only a small increase in diuresis after 40 mg frusemide; this was probably related to his low creatinine clearance. In order to maintain a salt intake high enough to compensate for the loss of urine electrolytes 3 to 6 g sodium chloride was added as tablets to the sodium-free diet in six patients. Hypokalaemia occurred in five patients but was easily corrected with either supplements of potassium chloride or a potassium-sparing diuretic. These findings add further weight to evidence that Frusemide is a good alternative for the treatment of patients with inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone who cannot tolerate water restriction.

  19. Incretin hormone secretion in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Pernille Fog; Nilas, Lisbeth; Madsbad, Sten

    2009-01-01

    . Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with insulin resistance, and the pathophysiologic mechanisms behind PCOS resemble those of type 2 diabetes mellitus; therefore, women with PCOS may have alterations in the incretin hormone response. Metformin is widely used in the treatment of both type 2...... diabetes mellitus and PCOS. Metformin may exert some of its effect on glucose metabolism by increasing GLP-1 biosynthesis and secretion and thereby increasing the incretin effect. The objective of the study was to measure incretin hormone secretion in women with PCOS and to evaluate the effect of metformin...... treatment. Cross-sectional comparison of 40 women with PCOS (19 lean and 21 obese) and 26 healthy control women (9 lean and 17 obese) and longitudinal evaluation of the effects of 8 months of metformin 1000 mg twice daily in women with PCOS were performed. Plasma concentrations of GIP and GLP-1 were...

  20. Computed tomographic study of hormone-secreting microadenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemminghytt, S.; Kalkhoff, R.K.; Daniels, D.L.; Williams, A.L.; Grogan, J.P.; Haughton, V.M.

    1983-01-01

    A review was made of the computed tomographic (CT) studies of 33 patients with hormone-secreting microadenomas that had been verified by transsphenoidal surgery and endocrinologic evaluation. In previous studies in small series of patients, the CT appearance of pituitary microadenomas has been reported as hypodense, isodense, and hyperdense. In this study, CT showed a region of diminished enhancement and ususally an enlarged pituitary gland in cases of prolactin-secreting adenomas. HGH- or ACTH-secreting adenomas were less consistently hypodense. It is concluded that hypodensity and enlargement in the pituitary gland are the most useful criteria for identification of microadenomas. Some technical factors that may affect the CT appearance of microadenomas and lead to conflicting reports are discussed

  1. Ghrelin: ghrelin as a regulatory Peptide in growth hormone secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatib, Nazli; Gaidhane, Shilpa; Gaidhane, Abhay M; Khatib, Mahanaaz; Simkhada, Padam; Gode, Dilip; Zahiruddin, Quazi Syed

    2014-08-01

    Ghrelin is a type of growth hormone (GH) secretagogue that stimulates the release of GH. It is a first hormone linking gastrointestinal-pituitary axis. This review highlights the interaction of ghrelin with GHRH and somatostatin to regulate the secretion of GH and intends to explore the possible physiological role of the ghrelin-pituitary-GH axis linkage system. Ghrelin is highly conserved among species and is classified into octanoylated (C8:0), decanoylated (C10:0), decenoylated (C10:1) and nonacylated,ghrelin. Acylated ghrelin is the major active form of human ghrelin. The primary production site of ghrelin is the stomach, and it interacts with stomach ghrelin as well as hypothalamic GHRH and somatostatin in the regulation of pituitary GH secretion. Ghrelin stimulate GH release through the GHS receptor to increase intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+] levels via IP3 signal transduction pathway. Ghrelin is a specific endogenous ligand for the GHS receptor and provides a definitive proof of the occurance of a GHS-GHS receptor signalling system in the regulation of GH secretion. Studies suggests that ghrelin is a powerful pharmacological agent that exerts a potent, time-dependent stimulation of pulsatile secretion of GH.

  2. Modification of hormonal secretion in clinically silent pituitary adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daems, Tania; Verhelst, Johan; Michotte, Alex; Abrams, Pascale; De Ridder, Dirk; Abs, Roger

    2009-01-01

    Silent pituitary adenomas are a subtype of adenomas characterized by positive immunoreactivity for one or more hormones classically secreted by normal pituitary cells but without clinical expression, although in some occasions enhanced or changed secretory activity can develop over time. Silent corticotroph adenomas are the classical example of this phenomenon. A series of about 500 pituitary adenomas seen over a period of 20 years were screened for modification in hormonal secretion. Biochemical and immunohistochemical data were reviewed. Two cases were retrieved, one silent somatotroph adenoma and one thyrotroph adenoma, both without specific clinical features or biochemical abnormalities, which presented 20 years after initial surgery with evidence of acromegaly and hyperthyroidism, respectively. While the acromegaly was controlled by a combination of somatostatin analogs and growth hormone (GH) receptor antagonist therapy, neurosurgery was necessary to manage the thyrotroph adenoma. Immunohistochemical examination demonstrated an increase in the number of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)-immunoreactive cells compared to the first tissue. Apparently, the mechanisms responsible for the secretory modifications are different, being a change in secretory capacity in the silent somatotroph adenoma and a quantitative change in the silent thyrotroph adenoma. These two cases, one somatotroph and one thyrotroph adenoma, are an illustration that clinically silent pituitary adenomas may in rare circumstances evolve over time and become active, as previously demonstrated in silent corticotroph adenomas.

  3. MRI of the TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone) -secreting pituitary adenoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Byung Chul; Kim, Dong Ik; Chung, Tae Sup; Cho, Yong Kook; Lee, Eun Gig; Jung, Joon Keun

    1995-01-01

    To demonstrate and evaluate the value of MRI findings of the TSH(Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone, TSH, Thyrotropin)-secreting pituitary adenoma. The authors reviewed retrospectively the MR images of 4 patients with TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma. Evaluation of the anatomical location, signal characteristics, enhancement patterns, size, shape and circunferential changes were made. No characteristic common MR findings in size, shape, signal intensity, and circumferential changes of TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma waere observed among 4 cases (size; 5 x 7 mm to 10 x 11 mm, shape; ovoid to round signal intensity; high in 1 case on T1 and T2WI, isosignal intensity in the other 3 cases, circumferential change; stalk deviation in 1 case, no stalk deviation in 3 cases). But, the tumors were centrally located at the anterior pituitary gland and showed relatively homogeneous signal intensity on MR images of all 4 patients. We conclude that centrally-located mass at the anterior pituitary gland with homogeneous signal intensity on MR image may be suggestive of the TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma, although the MR findings are not specific for the disease

  4. Gigantism caused by growth hormone secreting pituitary adenoma

    OpenAIRE

    Rhee, Noorisaem; Jeong, Kumi; Yang, Eun Mi; Kim, Chan Jong

    2014-01-01

    Gigantism indicates excessive secretion of growth hormones (GH) during childhood when open epiphyseal growth plates allow for excessive linear growth. Case one involved a 14.7-year-old boy presented with extreme tall stature. His random serum GH level was 38.4 ng/mL, and failure of GH suppression was noted during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT; nadir serum GH, 22.7 ng/mL). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain revealed a 12-mm-sized pituitary adenoma. Transsphenoidal surgery was...

  5. Diagnosis of the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Ellen Astrid; Bie, Peter; Ottesen, Michael

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hyponatremia is a frequent condition in elderly patients. In diagnostic workup, a 24-hour urine sample is used to measure urinary osmolality and urinary sodium concentration necessary to confirm the diagnosis of the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH...... natriuretic peptides, renin, and aldosterone were measured in the supine and upright positions of patients and compared with nine healthy age-matched control patients. RESULTS: The patients had low plasma osmolality (median 266 mOsm/kg) and measurable levels of arginine vasopressin (median 1.8 pg/mL). Values...

  6. Host Genotype and Gut Microbiome Modulate Insulin Secretion and Diet-Induced Metabolic Phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreznar, Julia H; Keller, Mark P; Traeger, Lindsay L; Rabaglia, Mary E; Schueler, Kathryn L; Stapleton, Donald S; Zhao, Wen; Vivas, Eugenio I; Yandell, Brian S; Broman, Aimee Teo; Hagenbuch, Bruno; Attie, Alan D; Rey, Federico E

    2017-02-14

    Genetic variation drives phenotypic diversity and influences the predisposition to metabolic disease. Here, we characterize the metabolic phenotypes of eight genetically distinct inbred mouse strains in response to a high-fat/high-sucrose diet. We found significant variation in diabetes-related phenotypes and gut microbiota composition among the different mouse strains in response to the dietary challenge and identified taxa associated with these traits. Follow-up microbiota transplant experiments showed that altering the composition of the gut microbiota modifies strain-specific susceptibility to diet-induced metabolic disease. Animals harboring microbial communities with enhanced capacity for processing dietary sugars and for generating hydrophobic bile acids showed increased susceptibility to metabolic disease. Notably, differences in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion between different mouse strains were partially recapitulated via gut microbiota transfer. Our results suggest that the gut microbiome contributes to the genetic and phenotypic diversity observed among mouse strains and provide a link between the gut microbiome and insulin secretion. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Changes in Gut Hormones After Roux en Y Gastric bypass, Sleeve Gastrectomy, and Adjustable Gastric Banding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Ilić

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The obesity epidemic has burdened healthcare systems worldwide. Bariatric surgery is currently the most effective method for long-term weight loss in obese adults, but the exact mechanism of weight loss is poorly understood. Bariatric procedures were initially classified by their presumed mechanism of action into restrictive, malabsoptive, or mixed procedures; however, due to recent advancements in the field of neuroendocrinology, hormones are increasing being recognized as important regulators of satiation, hunger, and energy expenditure. Studies examining changes in gut hormones following bariatric surgery have yielded conflicting results and the relationship between these hormones and weight loss is nothing but clear. This review will summarize the effect of Roux en Y gastric bypass, sleeve gastrectomy and adjustable gastric banding on various gut hormones including ghrelin, cholecystokinin, glucagon-like polypeptide-1, peptide YY3, and pancreatic polypeptide. Furthermore, the relationship between these hormones and weight loss will be examined.

  8. Diversification of Type VI Secretion System Toxins Reveals Ancient Antagonism among Bee Gut Microbes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret I. Steele

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Microbial communities are shaped by interactions among their constituent members. Some Gram-negative bacteria employ type VI secretion systems (T6SSs to inject protein toxins into neighboring cells. These interactions have been theorized to affect the composition of host-associated microbiomes, but the role of T6SSs in the evolution of gut communities is not well understood. We report the discovery of two T6SSs and numerous T6SS-associated Rhs toxins within the gut bacteria of honey bees and bumble bees. We sequenced the genomes of 28 strains of Snodgrassella alvi, a characteristic bee gut microbe, and found tremendous variability in their Rhs toxin complements: altogether, these strains appear to encode hundreds of unique toxins. Some toxins are shared with Gilliamella apicola, a coresident gut symbiont, implicating horizontal gene transfer as a source of toxin diversity in the bee gut. We use data from a transposon mutagenesis screen to identify toxins with antibacterial function in the bee gut and validate the function and specificity of a subset of these toxin and immunity genes in Escherichia coli. Using transcriptome sequencing, we demonstrate that S. alvi T6SSs and associated toxins are upregulated in the gut environment. We find that S. alvi Rhs loci have a conserved architecture, consistent with the C-terminal displacement model of toxin diversification, with Rhs toxins, toxin fragments, and cognate immunity genes that are expressed and confer strong fitness effects in vivo. Our findings of T6SS activity and Rhs toxin diversity suggest that T6SS-mediated competition may be an important driver of coevolution within the bee gut microbiota.

  9. Gut hormones in the treatment of short-bowel syndrome and intestinal failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Palle B

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The approval of teduglutide, a recombinant analog of human glucagon-like peptide (GLP) 2, by the US Food and Drug Administration (Gattex) and the European Medicines Agency (Revestive) has illustrated the potential of selected gut hormones as treatments in patients with short......-bowel syndrome and intestinal failure. Gut hormones may improve the structural and functional intestinal adaptation following intestinal resection by decreasing a rapid gastric emptying and hypersecretion, by increasing the intestinal blood flow, and by promoting intestinal growth. This review summarizes......-1 may be less potent. Synergistic effects may be seen by co-treatment with GLP-2. SUMMARY: Gut hormones promote intestinal adaptation and absorption, decreasing fecal losses, thereby decreasing or even eliminating the need for parenteral support. This will aid the intestinal rehabilitation...

  10. Cholinergic and VIPergic effects on thyroid hormone secretion in the mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahren, B.

    1985-01-01

    The thyroid gland is known to harbor cholinergic and VIPergic nerves. In the present study, the influences of cholinergic stimulation by carbachol, cholinergic blockade by methylatropine and stimulation with various VIP sequences on basal, TSH-induced and VIP-induced thyroid hormone secretion were investigated in vivo in mice. The mice were pretreated with 125 I and thyroxine; the subsequent release of 125 I is an estimation of thyroid hormone secretion. It was found that basal radioiodine secretion was inhibited by both carbachol and methylatropine. Furthermore, TSH-induced radioiodine secretion was inhibited already by a low dose of carbachol. Moreover, a high dose of carbachol could inhibit VIP-induced radioiodine secretion. Methylatropine did not influence TSH- or VIP-stimulated radioiodine secretion, but counteracted the inhibitory action of carbachol on TSH- and VIP-induced radioiodine release. In addition, contrary to VIP, six various synthesized VIP fragments had no effect on basal or stimulated radioiodine release. It is concluded that basal thyroid hormone secretion is inhibited by both cholinergic activation and blockade. Furthermore, TSH-induced thyroid hormone secretion is more sensitive to inhibition with cholinergic stimulation than is VIP-induced thyroid hormone secretion. In addition, the VIP stimulation of thyroid hormone secretion seems to require the full VIP sequence

  11. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) inhibits stimulated thyroid hormone secretion in the mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahren, B.

    1987-01-01

    It is known that epidermal growth factor (EGF) inhibits iodide uptake in the thyroid follicular cells and lowers plasma levels of thyroid hormones upon infusion into sheep and ewes. In this study, the effects of EGF on basal and stimulated thyroid hormone secretion were investigated in the mouse. Mice were pretreated with 125 I and thyroxine; the subsequent release of 125 I is an estimation of thyroid hormone secretion. It was found that basal radioiodine secretion was not altered by intravenous injection of EGF (5 micrograms/animal). However, the radioiodine secretion stimulated by both TSH (120 microU/animal) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP; 5 micrograms/animal) were inhibited by EGF (5 micrograms/animal). At a lower dose level (0.5 microgram/animal), EGF had no influence on stimulated radioiodine secretion. In conclusion, EGF inhibits stimulated thyroid hormone secretion in the mouse

  12. Endogenous incretin hormone augmentation of acute insulin secretion in normoglycemic relatives of type 2 diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alford, Frank P; Rantzau, Christian; Henriksen, Jan-Erik

    2014-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The pathophysiological role of gut incretin hormone argumentation on acute insulin release in the genesis of type 2 diabetes (TDM2) is uncertain. We examined retrospectively at 0 year and 10 years the endogenous incretin hormone action (IHA) on acute insulin release and glucose...

  13. Just a Gut Feeling: Central Nervous Effects of Peripheral Gastrointestinal Hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Christian L; Doyle, Robert Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Despite greater health education, obesity remains one of the greatest health challenges currently facing the world. The prevalence of obesity among children and adolescents and the rising rates of prediabetes and diabetes are of particular concern. A deep understanding of regulatory pathways and development of new anti-obesity drugs with increased efficacy and safety are of utmost necessity. The 2 major biological players in the regulation of food intake are the gut and the brain as peptides released from the gut in response to meals convey information about the energy needs to brain centers of energy homeostasis. There is evidence that gut hormones not only pass the blood-brain barrier and bind to receptors located in different brain areas relevant for body weight regulation, but some are also expressed in the brain as part of hedonic and homeostatic pathways. Regarding obesity interventions, the only truly effective treatment for obesity is bariatric surgery, the long-term benefits of which may actually involve increased activity of gut hormones including peptide YY3-36 and glucagon-like peptide 1. This review discusses critical gut-hormones involved in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis and their effects on peripheral tissues versus central nervous system actions. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Pituitary glycoprotein hormone a-subunit secretion by cirrhotic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira M.C.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Secretion of the a-subunit of pituitary glycoprotein hormones usually follows the secretion of intact gonadotropins and is increased in gonadal failure and decreased in isolated gonadotropin deficiency. The aim of the present study was to determine the levels of the a-subunit in the serum of patients with cirrhosis of the liver and to compare the results obtained for eugonadal cirrhotic patients with those obtained for cirrhotic patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Forty-seven of 63 patients with cirrhosis (74.6% presented hypogonadism (which was central in 45 cases and primary in 2, 7 were eugonadal, and 9 women were in normal menopause. The serum a-subunit was measured by the fluorimetric method using monoclonal antibodies. Cross-reactivity with LH, TSH, FSH and hCG was 6.5, 1.2, 4.3 and 1.1%, respectively, with an intra-assay coefficient of variation (CV of less than 5% and an interassay CV of 5%, and sensitivity limit of 4 ng/l. The serum a-subunit concentration ranged from 36 to 6253 ng/l, with a median of 273 ng/l. The median was 251 ng/l for patients with central hypogonadism and 198 ng/l for eugonadal patients. The correlation between the a-subunit and basal LH levels was significant both in the total sample (r = 0.48, P<0.01 and in the cirrhotic patients with central hypogonadism (r = 0.33, P = 0.02. Among men with central hypogonadism there was a negative correlation between a-subunit levels and total testosterone levels (r = 0.54, P<0.01 as well as free testosterone levels (r = -0.53, P<0.01. In conclusion, although the a-subunit levels are correlated with LH levels, at present they cannot be used as markers for hypogonadism in patients with cirrhosis of the liver.

  15. Parathyroid hormone secretion in chronic human endogenous hypercortisolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanna C.M.M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a common manifestation of Cushing's syndrome, but the mechanisms responsible for this abnormality have not been defined. With the objective of analyzing parathyroid hormone (PTH secretion in chronic hypercortisolism (CH, we evaluated 11 healthy subjects and 8 patients with CH, 6 with Cushing's disease and 2 with adrenal adenoma. These volunteers were submitted to tests of PTH stimulation through hypocalcemia (EDTA, PTH suppression through hypercalcemia (iv and oral calcium, and evaluation of bone mineral density (BMD by DEXA. During the test of PTH stimulation, the calcium and magnesium concentrations of the normal and CH groups were similar. Patients with CH showed an increased PTH response to the hypocalcemic stimulus compared to controls. PTH values were significantly higher in the CH group at 70 (17.5 ± 3.5 vs 10.2 ± 1.3 pmol/l, P = 0.04, and 120 min (26.1 ± 5.9 vs 11.3 ± 1.9 pmol/l, P = 0.008 of EDTA infusion. The area under the curve for PTH during EDTA infusion was also significantly higher in patients with CH than in normal subjects (1867 ± 453 and 805 ± 148 pmol l-1 2 h-1, P = 0.02. During the test of PTH suppression, calcium, magnesium and PTH levels of the patients with hypercortisolism and controls were similar. BMD was decreased in patients with hypercortisolism in the spine (0.977 ± 0.052 vs 1.205 ± 0.038 g/cm² in controls, P<0.01. In conclusion, our results show that subjects with CH present decreased bone mass mainly in trabecular bone. The use of dynamic tests permitted the detection of increased PTH secretion in response to a hypocalcemic stimulus in CH patients that may probably be involved in the occurrence of osteoporosis in this state.

  16. Gigantism caused by growth hormone secreting pituitary adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Noorisaem; Jeong, Kumi; Yang, Eun Mi; Kim, Chan Jong

    2014-06-01

    Gigantism indicates excessive secretion of growth hormones (GH) during childhood when open epiphyseal growth plates allow for excessive linear growth. Case one involved a 14.7-year-old boy presented with extreme tall stature. His random serum GH level was 38.4 ng/mL, and failure of GH suppression was noted during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT; nadir serum GH, 22.7 ng/mL). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain revealed a 12-mm-sized pituitary adenoma. Transsphenoidal surgery was performed and a pituitary adenoma displaying positive immunohistochemical staining for GH was reported. Pituitary MRI scan was performed 4 months after surgery and showed recurrence/residual tumor. Medical treatment with a long-acting somatostatin analogue for six months was unsuccessful. As a result, secondary surgery was performed. Three months after reoperation, the GH level was 0.2 ng/mL and insulin-like growth factor 1 was 205 ng/mL. Case two involved a 14.9-year-old boy, who was referred to our department for his tall stature. His basal GH level was 9.3 ng/mL, and failure of GH suppression was reported during OGTT (nadir GH, 9.0 ng/mL). Pituitary MRI showed a 6-mm-sized pituitary adenoma. Surgery was done and histopathological examination demonstrated a pituitary adenoma with positive staining for GH. Three months after surgery, the GH level was 0.2 ng/mL and nadir GH during OGTT was less than 0.1 ng/mL. Pituitary MRI scans showed no residual tumor. We present two cases of gigantism caused by a GH-secreting pituitary adenoma with clinical and microscopic findings.

  17. Gigantism caused by growth hormone secreting pituitary adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noorisaem Rhee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Gigantism indicates excessive secretion of growth hormones (GH during childhood when open epiphyseal growth plates allow for excessive linear growth. Case one involved a 14.7-year-old boy presented with extreme tall stature. His random serum GH level was 38.4 ng/mL, and failure of GH suppression was noted during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT; nadir serum GH, 22.7 ng/mL. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the brain revealed a 12-mm-sized pituitary adenoma. Transsphenoidal surgery was performed and a pituitary adenoma displaying positive immunohistochemical staining for GH was reported. Pituitary MRI scan was performed 4 months after surgery and showed recurrence/residual tumor. Medical treatment with a long-acting somatostatin analogue for six months was unsuccessful. As a result, secondary surgery was performed. Three months after reoperation, the GH level was 0.2 ng/mL and insulin-like growth factor 1 was 205 ng/mL. Case two involved a 14.9-year-old boy, who was referred to our department for his tall stature. His basal GH level was 9.3 ng/mL, and failure of GH suppression was reported during OGTT (nadir GH, 9.0 ng/mL. Pituitary MRI showed a 6-mm-sized pituitary adenoma. Surgery was done and histopathological examination demonstrated a pituitary adenoma with positive staining for GH. Three months after surgery, the GH level was 0.2 ng/mL and nadir GH during OGTT was less than 0.1 ng/mL. Pituitary MRI scans showed no residual tumor. We present two cases of gigantism caused by a GH-secreting pituitary adenoma with clinical and microscopic findings.

  18. Gigantism caused by growth hormone secreting pituitary adenoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Noorisaem; Jeong, Kumi; Yang, Eun Mi

    2014-01-01

    Gigantism indicates excessive secretion of growth hormones (GH) during childhood when open epiphyseal growth plates allow for excessive linear growth. Case one involved a 14.7-year-old boy presented with extreme tall stature. His random serum GH level was 38.4 ng/mL, and failure of GH suppression was noted during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT; nadir serum GH, 22.7 ng/mL). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain revealed a 12-mm-sized pituitary adenoma. Transsphenoidal surgery was performed and a pituitary adenoma displaying positive immunohistochemical staining for GH was reported. Pituitary MRI scan was performed 4 months after surgery and showed recurrence/residual tumor. Medical treatment with a long-acting somatostatin analogue for six months was unsuccessful. As a result, secondary surgery was performed. Three months after reoperation, the GH level was 0.2 ng/mL and insulin-like growth factor 1 was 205 ng/mL. Case two involved a 14.9-year-old boy, who was referred to our department for his tall stature. His basal GH level was 9.3 ng/mL, and failure of GH suppression was reported during OGTT (nadir GH, 9.0 ng/mL). Pituitary MRI showed a 6-mm-sized pituitary adenoma. Surgery was done and histopathological examination demonstrated a pituitary adenoma with positive staining for GH. Three months after surgery, the GH level was 0.2 ng/mL and nadir GH during OGTT was less than 0.1 ng/mL. Pituitary MRI scans showed no residual tumor. We present two cases of gigantism caused by a GH-secreting pituitary adenoma with clinical and microscopic findings. PMID:25077093

  19. Gastric emptying, glucose metabolism and gut hormones: Evaluation of a common preoperative carbohydrate beverage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, M.A.R.; Richir, M.C.; Garretsen, M.K.; van Schie, A.; Ghatei, M.A.; Holst, J.J.; Heijboer, A.C.; Uitdehaag, B.M.J.; Diamant, M.; Eekhoff, E.M.W.; van Leeuwen, P.A.M.; Ligthart-Melis, G.C.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the gastric-emptying rate and gut hormonal response of two carbohydrate-rich beverages. A specifically designed carbohydrate-rich beverage is currently used to support the surgical patient metabolically. Fruit-based beverages may also promote recovery, due to natural antioxidant

  20. Gastric emptying, glucose metabolism and gut hormones: evaluation of a common preoperative carbohydrate beverage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Mechteld A. R.; Richir, Milan C.; Garretsen, Martijn K.; van Schie, Annelies; Ghatei, Mohammed A.; Holst, Jens J.; Heijboer, Annemieke C.; Uitdehaag, Bernard M. J.; Diamant, Michaela; Eekhoff, E. Marelise W.; van Leeuwen, Paul A. M.; Ligthart-Melis, Gerdien C.

    2011-01-01

    To study the gastric-emptying rate and gut hormonal response of two carbohydrate-rich beverages. A specifically designed carbohydrate-rich beverage is currently used to support the surgical patient metabolically. Fruit-based beverages may also promote recovery, due to natural antioxidant and

  1. Physiological Regulation of Gut Peptide Hormone (PYY) Levels by Age, Sex, Hormonal and Nutritional Status in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebashy, M.I.A.; Mazen, G.M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Peptide YY hormone (PYY) was recently appreciated as an important gut hormonal regulator of appetite. PYY is produced by the gut and released into the circulation after food intake and is found to decrease appetite. The main form of PYY, both stored and circulated, is PYY(3-36), the N-terminal truncated form of the full length peptide so, peripheral injections of PYY(3-36) in rats inhibit food intake in experimental animals as well as in lean and obese human subjects. Also, this hormone has been suggested to be an attractive therapeutic option for obesity. PYY levels are influenced by age and the highest hormone level is achieved in early postnatal life (day 30) and is decreased thereafter. PYY levels were also dependent on thyroid hormone status and being decreased in hyperthyroid rats. The PYY levels observed in acute and chronic food restricted rats indicated that, in situations of decreased energy intake, the lower PYY levels could serve to regulate central pathways and facilitate food intake. Contrary, in pregnant rats, PYY levels were enhanced at late gestation. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of age, sex, thyroid status, pregnancy and food restriction on PYY levels in rats. The underling mechanisms through which PYY levels alternated as a result of sex, age, pregnancy, thyroidal and nutritional status were discussed in the light of recent research outcomes

  2. Altered gut and adipose tissue hormones in overweight and obese individuals: cause or consequence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lean, M E J; Malkova, D

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this article is to review the research into the main peripheral appetite signals altered in human obesity, together with their modifications after body weight loss with diet and exercise and after bariatric surgery, which may be relevant to strategies for obesity treatment. Body weight homeostasis involves the gut-brain axis, a complex and highly coordinated system of peripheral appetite hormones and centrally mediated neuronal regulation. The list of peripheral anorexigenic and orexigenic physiological factors in both animals and humans is intimidating and expanding, but anorexigenic glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), cholecystokinin (CCK), peptide YY (PYY) and orexigenic ghrelin from the gastrointestinal tract, pancreatic polypeptide (PP) from the pancreas and anorexigenic leptin from adiposites remain the most widely studied hormones. Homeostatic control of food intake occurs in humans, although its relative importance for eating behaviour is uncertain, compared with social and environmental influences. There are perturbations in the gut-brain axis in obese compared with lean individuals, as well as in weight-reduced obese individuals. Fasting and postprandial levels of gut hormones change when obese individuals lose weight, either with surgical or with dietary and/or exercise interventions. Diet-induced weight loss results in long-term changes in appetite gut hormones, postulated to favour increased appetite and weight regain while exercise programmes modify responses in a direction expected to enhance satiety and permit weight loss and/or maintenance. Sustained weight loss achieved by bariatric surgery may in part be mediated via favourable changes to gut hormones. Future work will be necessary to fully elucidate the role of each element of the axis, and whether modifying these signals can reduce the risk of obesity.

  3. Evaluation of insulin expression and secretion in genetically engineered gut K and L-cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Zalinah

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene therapy could provide an effective treatment of diabetes. Previous studies have investigated the potential for several cell and tissue types to produce mature and active insulin. Gut K and L-cells could be potential candidate hosts for gene therapy because of their special features. Results In this study, we isolated gut K and L-cells to compare the potential of both cell types to produce insulin when exposed to similar conditions. The isolated pure K and L-cells were transfected with recombinant plasmids encoding insulin and with specific promoters for K or L-cells. Insulin expression was studied in response to glucose or meat hydrolysate. We found that glucose and meat hydrolysate efficiently induced insulin secretion from K and L-cells. However, the effects of meat hydrolysate on insulin secretion were more potent in both cells compared with glucose. Results of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays showed that L-cells secreted more insulin compared with K-cells regardless of the stimulator, although this difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion The responses of K and L-cells to stimulation with glucose or meat hydrolysate were generally comparable. Therefore, both K and L-cells show similar potential to be used as surrogate cells for insulin gene expression in vitro. The potential use of these cells for diabetic gene therapy warrants further investigation.

  4. Acute effects of clonidine and growth-hormone-releasing hormone on growth hormone secretion in patients with hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giustina, A; Buffoli, M G; Bussi, A R; Wehrenberg, W B

    1991-01-01

    Patients with hyperthyroidism have reduced growth hormone (GH) responses to pharmacological stimuli and reduced spontaneous nocturnal GH secretion. The stimulatory effect of clonidine on GH secretion has been suggested to depend on an enhancement of hypothalamic GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) release. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of clonidine and GHRH on GH secretion in patients with hyperthyroidism. Eight hyperthyroid females with recent diagnosis of Graves' disease (age range 20-55 years, body mass index range 19.2-26.2 kg/m2) and 6 healthy female volunteers (age range 22-35 years, body mass index range 19-25 kg/m2) underwent two experimental trials at no less than 7-day intervals: (a) an intravenous infusion of clonidine 150 micrograms in 10 ml of saline, or (b) a bolus intravenous injection of human GHRH (1-29)NH2, 100 micrograms in 1 ml of saline. Hyperthyroid patients showed blunted GH peaks after clonidine (7.1 +/- 1.7 micrograms/l) as compared to normal subjects receiving clonidine (28.5 +/- 4.9 micrograms/l, p less than 0.05). GH peaks after GHRH were also significantly lower in hyperthyroid subjects (8.0 +/- 1.7 micrograms/l) as compared to normal subjects receiving GHRH (27.5 +/- 4.4 micrograms/l, p less than 0.05). No significant differences in the GH values either after clonidine or GHRH were observed in the two groups of subjects examined. Our data demonstrate that the GH responses to clonidine as well as to GHRH in patients with hyperthyroidism are inhibited in a similar fashion with respect to normal subjects.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Effects of sleeve gastrectomy and ileal transposition, alone and in combination, on food intake, body weight, gut hormones, and glucose metabolism in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nausheen, S; Shah, I H; Pezeshki, A; Sigalet, D L; Chelikani, P K

    2013-08-15

    Bariatric surgeries are hypothesized to produce weight loss and improve diabetes control by multiple mechanisms including gastric restriction and lower gut stimulation; the relative importance of these mechanisms remains poorly understood. We compared the effects of a typical foregut procedure, sleeve gastrectomy, (SG) with a primarily hindgut surgery, ileal transposition (IT), alone and together (SGIT), or sham manipulations, on food intake, body weight, gut hormones, glucose tolerance, and key markers of glucose homeostasis in peripheral tissues of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (450-550 g, n = 7-9/group). SG, IT, and SGIT surgeries produced transient reduction in food intake and weight gain; the effects of SG and IT on intake and body weight were nonadditive. SG, IT, and SGIT surgeries resulted in increased tissue expression and plasma concentrations of the lower gut hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 and peptide YY and decreased plasma glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide, insulin, and leptin concentrations. Despite transient effects on intake and weight gain, the SG, IT, and SGIT surgeries produced a significant improvement in glucose tolerance. In support of glycemic improvements, the protein abundance of key markers of glucose metabolism (e.g., GLUT4, PKA, IRS-1) in muscle and adipose tissue were increased, whereas the expression of key gluconeogenic enzyme in liver (G-6-Pase) were decreased following the surgeries. Therefore, our data suggest that enhanced lower gut stimulation following SG, IT, and SGIT surgeries leads to transient reduction in food intake and weight gain together with enhanced secretion of lower gut hormones and improved glucose clearance by peripheral tissues.

  6. Do anabolic nutritional supplements stimulate human growth hormone secretion in elderly women with heart failure?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, Ellen T.H.C.; Schutzler, Scott E.; Wei, Jeanne Y.; Azhar, Gohar; Wolfe, Robert R.

    2017-01-01

    Growth hormone treatment has gained attention over the past decade as a treatment for heart failure. Human growth hormone (HGH) must be administered by injections (usually daily), so there is considerable advantage to stimulation of endogenous secretion by amino acid-based nutritional

  7. Receptors and effects of gut hormones in three osteoblastic cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Peter JM

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years the interest on the relationship of gut hormones to bone processes has increased and represents one of the most interesting aspects in skeletal research. The proportion of bone mass to soft tissue is a relationship that seems to be controlled by delicate and subtle regulations that imply "cross-talks" between the nutrient intake and tissues like fat. Thus, recognition of the mechanisms that integrate a gastrointestinal-fat-bone axis and its application to several aspects of human health is vital for improving treatments related to bone diseases. This work analysed the effects of gut hormones in cell cultures of three osteoblastic cell lines which represent different stages in osteoblastic development. Also, this is the first time that there is a report on the direct effects of glucagon-like peptide 2, and obestatin on osteoblast-like cells. Methods mRNA expression levels of five gut hormone receptors (glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide [GIP], glucagon-like peptide 1 [GLP-1], glucagon-like peptide 2 [GLP-2], ghrelin [GHR] and obestatin [OB] were analysed in three osteoblastic cell lines (Saos-2, TE-85 and MG-63 showing different stages of osteoblast development using reverse transcription and real time polymerase chain reaction. The responses to the gut peptides were studied using assays for cell viability, and biochemical bone markers: alkaline phosphatase (ALP, procollagen type 1 amino-terminal propeptides (P1NP, and osteocalcin production. Results The gut hormone receptor mRNA displayed the highest levels for GIP in Saos-2 and the lowest levels in MG-63, whereas GHR and GPR39 (the putative obestatin receptor expression was higher in TE-85 and MG-63 and lower in Saos-2. GLP-1 and GLP-2 were expressed only in MG-63 and TE-85. Treatment of gut hormones to cell lines showed differential responses: higher levels in cell viability in Saos-2 after GIP, in TE-85 and MG-63 after GLP-1, GLP-2, ghrelin and

  8. Altered gut and adipose tissue hormones in overweight and obese individuals: cause or consequence?

    OpenAIRE

    Lean, M E J; Malkova, D

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to review the research into the main peripheral appetite signals altered in human obesity, together with their modifications after body weight loss with diet and exercise and after bariatric surgery, which may be relevant to strategies for obesity treatment. Body weight homeostasis involves the gut?brain axis, a complex and highly coordinated system of peripheral appetite hormones and centrally mediated neuronal regulation. The list of peripheral anorexigenic and or...

  9. The role of gut hormones and the hypothalamus in appetite regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Keisuke; Simpson, Katherine A; Minnion, James S; Shillito, Joyceline C; Bloom, Stephen R

    2010-01-01

    The World Health Organisation has estimated that by 2015 approximately 2.3 billion adults will be overweight and more than 700 million obese. Obesity is associated with an increased risk of diabetes, cardiovascular events, stroke and cancer. The hypothalamus is a crucial region for integrating signals from central and peripheral pathways and plays a major role in appetite regulation. In addition, there are reciprocal connections with the brainstem and higher cortical centres. In the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, there are two major neuronal populations which stimulate or inhibit food intake and influence energy homeostasis. Within the brainstem, the dorsal vagal complex plays a role in the interpretation and relaying of peripheral signals. Gut hormones act peripherally to modulate digestion and absorption of nutrients. However, they also act as neurotransmitters within the central nervous system to control food intake. Peptide YY, pancreatic polypeptide, glucagon-like peptide-1 and oxyntomodulin suppress appetite, whilst ghrelin increases appetite through afferent vagal fibres to the caudal brainstem or directly to the hypothalamus. A better understanding of the role of these gut hormones may offer the opportunity to develop successful treatments for obesity. Here we review the current understanding of the role of gut hormones and the hypothalamus on food intake and body weight control.

  10. Galanin does not affect the growth hormone-releasing hormone-stimulated growth hormone secretion in patients with hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giustina, A; Bussi, A R; Legati, F; Bossoni, S; Licini, M; Schettino, M; Zuccato, F; Wehrenberg, W B

    1992-12-01

    Patients with hyperthyroidism have reduced spontaneous and stimulated growth hormone (GH) secretion. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of galanin, a novel neuropeptide which stimulates GH secretion in man, on the GH response to GHRH in patients with hyperthyroidism. Eight untreated hyperthyroid patients with Graves' disease (6F, 2M, aged 25-50 years) and six healthy volunteers (3F, 3M, aged 27-76 years) underwent from -10 to 30 min in random order: (i) porcine galanin, iv, 500 micrograms in 100 ml saline; or (ii) saline, iv, 100 ml. A bolus of human GHRH(1-29)NH2, 100 micrograms, was injected iv at 0 min. Hyperthyroid patients showed blunted GH peaks after GHRH+saline (10.2 +/- 2.5 micrograms/l) compared to normal subjects (20.7 +/- 4.8 micrograms/l, p hyperthyroid subjects (12.5 +/- 3 micrograms/l) compared to normal subjects (43.8 +/- 6 micrograms/l, p hyperthyroidism suggests that hyperthyroxinemia may either increase the somatostatin release by the hypothalamus or directly affect the pituitary GH secretory capacity.

  11. Optimized FPGA Implementation of the Thyroid Hormone Secretion Mechanism Using CAD Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghazo, Jaafar M

    2017-02-01

    The goal of this paper is to implement the secretion mechanism of the Thyroid Hormone (TH) based on bio-mathematical differential eqs. (DE) on an FPGA chip. Hardware Descriptive Language (HDL) is used to develop a behavioral model of the mechanism derived from the DE. The Thyroid Hormone secretion mechanism is simulated with the interaction of the related stimulating and inhibiting hormones. Synthesis of the simulation is done with the aid of CAD tools and downloaded on a Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) Chip. The chip output shows identical behavior to that of the designed algorithm through simulation. It is concluded that the chip mimics the Thyroid Hormone secretion mechanism. The chip, operating in real-time, is computer-independent stand-alone system.

  12. MRI of growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas: factors determining pretreatment hormone levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeki, N.; Iuchi, T.; Eda, M.; Yamaura, A. [Dept. of Neurological Surgery, Chiba University School of Medicine (Japan); Isono, S. [Dept. of Neurological Surgery, Anesthesiology, Chiba University School of Medicine, Chiba (Japan)

    1999-10-01

    Preoperative serum growth hormone (GH) level is one of the most important determinants of outcome. Our aim was to assess MRI findings which may correlate with pretreatment GH levels in GH-secreting adenomas. We retrospectively studied 29 patients with acromegaly caused by a pituitary adenoma. Tumor size (height, width, thickness and volume), suprasellar extension, sphenoid or cavernous sinus invasion, signal intensity and contrast enhancement were studied. Linear regression analysis or Fisher's exact probability test was used for statistical analysis. Factors related to high GH levels were the maximum dimension of the tumour (r = 0.496, P < 0.01), its volume (r = 0.439, P < 0.05), spenoid sinus invasion (P < 0.01) and intracavernous carotid artery encasement (P < 0.01). The other items were not related to serum GH levels. Since we believe surgery is the first choice of treatment and the cavernous sinus is difficult of access with a conventional surgical approach, preoperative assessment of invasion into the cavernous sinus is critical for predicting the surgical outcome. Low GH levels (5-50 ng/ml) were found with tumours medial to the intercarotid line and high levels (more than 101 ng/ml) with invasive tumours with carotid artery encasement. Variable GH levels were noted with tumours extending beyond the intercarotid line. Because functioning adenomas invading the cavernous sinus tend to have markedly high hormone levels, and only patients with carotid artery encasement showed markedly elevated GH levels, we believe carotid artery encasement a reliable MRI indicator of cavernous sinus invasion. (orig.)

  13. [Neuronal and hormonal regulatory mechanisms of tears production and secretion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrugacz, Małgorzata; Zywalewska, Nella; Bakunowicz-Lazarczyk, Alina

    2005-01-01

    The ocular surface, tear film, lacrimal glands act as a functional unit to preserve the quality of the refractive surface of the eye, and to resist injury and protect the eye against bodily and environmental conditions. Homeostasis of this functional unit involves neuronal and hormonal regulatory mechanisms. The eye appears to be a target organ for sex hormones particulary the androgen, as they modulate the immune system and trophic functions of the lacrimal and Meibomian glands.

  14. Sweet Taste Receptor Activation in the Gut Is of Limited Importance for Glucose-Stimulated GLP-1 and GIP Secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saltiel, Monika Yosifova; Kuhre, Rune Ehrenreich; Christiansen, Charlotte Bayer

    2017-01-01

    Glucose stimulates the secretion of the incretin hormones: glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP). It is debated whether the sweet taste receptor (STR) triggers this secretion. We investigated the role of STR activation for glucose-stimulated incretin...

  15. Gut hormone activity of children born to women with and without gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler-Laney, P C; Bush, N C; Rouse, D J; Mancuso, M S; Gower, B A

    2014-02-01

    What is already known about this subject Children born to women with gestational diabetes have greater risk for obesity. Obesity in adults and children is associated with blunted postprandial gut hormone responses. What this study adds Children of women with gestational diabetes have a blunted postprandial response of GLP-1. Children of women with gestational diabetes have high fasting PYY concentrations. Intrauterine exposure to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) increases risk for obesity. Obesity is associated with a blunted postprandial gut hormone response, which may impair satiety and thereby contribute to weight gain. The postprandial response of gut hormones among children of women with GDM has not previously been investigated. To examine whether children of women with GDM have suppressed peptide-tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY) and glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1), and higher concentrations of ghrelin, following a meal challenge. A secondary objective was to investigate associations of these hormones with children's free-living energy intake. Children (n = 42) aged 5-10 years were stratified into two groups: offspring of GDM mothers (OGD) and of non-diabetic mothers (CTRL). Body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and circulating PYY, GLP-1 and total ghrelin were measured during a liquid meal challenge. Energy intake was assessed by three 24-h diet recalls. Between-groups analyses of fasting and incremental area under the curve (AUC) found no differences in ghrelin. Incremental AUC for GLP-1 was greater among the CTRL vs. OGD (P potential role of postprandial GLP-1 suppression and high-fasting PYY concentrations on the feeding behaviour and risk for obesity among children exposed to GDM in utero. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  16. Effect of single-dose radiation on cell survival and growth hormone secretion by rat anterior pituitary cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hochberg, Z.; Kuten, A.; Hertz, P.; Tatcher, M.; Kedar, A.; Benderly, A.

    1983-01-01

    Cranial irradiation has been shown to impair growth hormone secretion in children. In this study a cell culture of dispersed rat anterior pituitary cells was exposed to single doses of radiation in the range of 100 to 1500 rad. Survival curves were obtained for the different anterior pituitary cell lines, and growth hormone secretion was measured in the tissue culture medium. Both survival and growth hormone secretion curves showed an initial shoulder in the range of 0 to 300 rad, followed by a decline between 300 to 750 rad. It is concluded that growth hormone secreting acidophilic pituicytes are sensitive to radiation at single doses greater than 300 rad

  17. Changes in somatotropic hormone secretion in patients with acute myocardial infarct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milanov, S.; Milkov, V.; Atanasov, I.; Sotirov, I.; Kamenova, Ts.

    1982-01-01

    Secretion of somatotropic hormone (STH) was estimated by radioimmunoassay during intravenous glucose-tolerance test (IGTT) in 17 patients with acute myocardial infarct (AMI) and 10 patients with chronic ischemic heart disease, without evidence of recent myocardial infarct. In both groups of patients the basal STH levels were elevated, as compared to those in normal individuals, with statistical significance (p<0.001). During the IGTT, somatotropic hormone in AMI patients was slightly reduced, which was out of proportion to the blood glucose changes. During IGTT in patients with chronic ischemic heart disease, the somatotropic hormone secretion, though increased, followed the blood glucose changes. These changes in STH secretion during IGTT in AMI patients are indicative of impaired hypothalamo-pituitary interrelations mediated by central nervous route. (author)

  18. A regulator of G Protein signaling, RGS3, inhibits gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH-stimulated luteinizing hormone (LH secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musgrove Lois C

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Luteinizing hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland regulates gonadal function. Luteinizing hormone secretion is regulated both by alterations in gonadotrope responsiveness to hypothalamic gonadotropin releasing hormone and by alterations in gonadotropin releasing hormone secretion. The mechanisms that determine gonadotrope responsiveness are unknown but may involve regulators of G protein signaling (RGSs. These proteins act by antagonizing or abbreviating interaction of Gα proteins with effectors such as phospholipase Cβ. Previously, we reported that gonadotropin releasing hormone-stimulated second messenger inositol trisphosphate production was inhibited when RGS3 and gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor cDNAs were co-transfected into the COS cell line. Here, we present evidence for RGS3 inhibition of gonadotropin releasing hormone-induced luteinizing hormone secretion from cultured rat pituitary cells. Results A truncated version of RGS3 (RGS3T = RGS3 314–519 inhibited gonadotropin releasing hormone-stimulated inositol trisphosphate production more potently than did RSG3 in gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor-bearing COS cells. An RSG3/glutathione-S-transferase fusion protein bound more 35S-Gqα than any other member of the G protein family tested. Adenoviral-mediated RGS3 gene transfer in pituitary gonadotropes inhibited gonadotropin releasing hormone-stimulated luteinizing hormone secretion in a dose-related fashion. Adeno-RGS3 also inhibited gonadotropin releasing hormone stimulated 3H-inositol phosphate accumulation, consistent with a molecular site of action at the Gqα protein. Conclusions RGS3 inhibits gonadotropin releasing hormone-stimulated second messenger production (inositol trisphosphate as well as luteinizing hormone secretion from rat pituitary gonadotropes apparently by binding and suppressing the transduction properties of Gqα protein function. A version of RGS3 that is amino

  19. Nature of altered growth hormone secretion in hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iranmanesh, A; Lizarralde, G; Johnson, M L; Veldhuis, J D

    1991-01-01

    Hyperthyroidism is accompanied by various neuroendocrine regulatory disturbances that affect not only the thyrotropic, but also the gonadotropic, corticotropic, and somatotropic axes. To examine the nature of alterations in neuroendocrine control mechanisms that direct the somatotropic axis in hyperthyroidism, we have applied a novel deconvolution technique designed to estimate the number, amplitude, and mass of significant underlying GH secretory events after the influence of GH metabolic clearance has been removed mathematically. To this end, blood was sampled at 10-min intervals for 24 h in seven hyperthyroid and seven age-matched euthyroid men. The subsequent GH time series were assayed by immunoradiometric assay (sensitivity, 0.08 ng/mL) and submitted to quantitative deconvolution analysis. We found that hyperthyroid compared to euthyroid men 1) had significantly more GH secretory bursts per 24 h (viz. 15 +/- 1.0 vs. 10 +/- 1.1; P = 0.017); 2) secreted 3 times as much GH per burst (3.7 +/- 0.80 vs. 1.3 +/- 0.42 ng/mL distribution vol; P = 0.013); 3) achieved a maximal rate of GH secretion in each burst 2.3-fold higher than that in control men (0.14 +/- 0.028 vs. 0.060 +/- 0.015 ng/mL.min; P = 0.017); and 4) had 3.7-fold higher 24-h endogenous GH production rates (P less than 0.01). Neither hyperthyroid nor euthyroid men had significant interburst (tonic) GH secretion. We conclude that the somatotropic axis in hyperthyroid men is marked by a higher frequency of spontaneous GH secretory bursts, a higher rate of maximal GH secretion attained per burst, and a larger mass of GH released per burst. These neuroregulatory disturbances result in a nearly 4-fold increase in the 24-h production rate of GH in thyrotoxicosis.

  20. Radioimmunoassay of hormonal secretion of the gonadal axis in patients with puberty metrorrhagia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balova, V.; Maleeva, A.; Khristov, L.

    1982-01-01

    Thirty two girls aged 10 to 16 years, admitted to the Institute of Obstetries and Genecology, are investigated. The concentration levels of gonadal axis hormones are determined, and the obtained results are compared with the hormonal concentrations in normal girls of comparable age. It is established that the luteinizing hormone level is considerably and statistically significantly increased (P> 0.001), exceeding as much as four times average the level of the follicle-stimulating hormone (LH:FSH = 4:1), whereas in normal conditions there is a 2:1 ratio. Presumably, in cases of puberty metrorrhagia the uterine bleedings are associated with enhanced and disturbed secretion of Gonadotropic hormones, occurring as a result of the altered immunoreactivity of the organism. (author)

  1. Roles of sex hormones on the regulation of leptin secretion in pregnant golden hamster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Cheng; Yang Liguo

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of sex hormones on the secretion of leptin and the causative factor of the gestational leptin spike in the golden hamster. Methods: Three months old female golden hamster were used as animal model. As a source of high level estradiol and progesterone, silicane rubber tubes impregnates with estradiol and progesterone were prepared and their bioactivity were determined. Antisera against estradiol and progesterone were prepared and activity tested to be used, for the elimination of the effects of endogenous hormones on leptin secretion in the subsequent experiments. Biological activity of the antiserum was determined by evaluating effects of these antisera on the weight of uterus or ovary. Groups of pregnant animals were ovariectomied during day 11 of pregnancy to explore the effect of the gonad on the secretion of leptin. Groups of virgin animals were ovariectomied and the silicone rubber tubes containing estradiol and progesterone were implanted to determine the effect of high-level estradiol and progesterone on the secretion of leptin in vivo. Results: Plasma concentration of leptin decreased and the gestational leptin profile disappeared with absence of the secretion spike on day 12 after ovariectomy on the day 11 of pregnancy. Injections of antiserum against estradiol or progesterone had no significant effect on the plasma concentration of leptin. Leptin level significantly decreased after ovariectomy in the virgin golden hamsters (p < 0.05). Implantation of silicone rubber tubes of estradiol or progesterone after ovariectomy could not restore leptin levels, but implantation of tubes containing both estradiol and progesterone could prevent the decrease of leptin levels. Conclusion: Our results suggested that sex hormones had important regulatory effect on the secretion of leptin. Estradiol plus progesterone had stimulatory effects on the secretion of leptin in vivo. High estradiol and progesterone levels during pregnancy was

  2. Digestive physiology of the pig symposium: secretion of gastrointestinal hormones and eating control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinert, R E; Feinle-Bisset, C; Geary, N; Beglinger, C

    2013-05-01

    Nutrient ingestion triggers numerous changes in gastrointestinal (GI) peptide hormone secretion that affect appetite and eating. Evidence for these effects comes from research in laboratory animals, healthy humans, and, increasingly, obese patients after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery, which has marked effects on GI hormone function and is currently the most effective therapy for morbid obesity. Increases in cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY) and decreases in ghrelin secretion after meals are triggered by changes in the nutrient content of the intestine. One apparent physiological function of each is to initiate a reflex-like feedback control of eating. Here we briefly review this function, with an emphasis on the controls of their secretion. Each is secreted from enteroendocrine cells that are directly or indirectly affected by caloric load, macronutrient composition, and other characteristics of ingested food such as fatty acid chain length. In addition, digestive hydrolysis is a critical mechanism that controls their secretion. Although there are relatively few data in agricultural animals, the generally consistent results across widely divergent mammals suggests that most of the processes described are also likely to be relevant to GI hormone functions and eating in agricultural animals.

  3. Approach to testing growth hormone (GH) secretion in obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovic, Vera

    2013-05-01

    Identification of adults with GH deficiency (GHD) is challenging because clinical features of adult GHD are not distinctive and because clinical suspicion must be confirmed by biochemical tests. Adults are selected for testing for adult GHD if they have a high pretest probability of GHD, ie, if they have hypothalamic-pituitary disease, if they have received cranial irradiation or central nervous system tumor treatment, or if they survived traumatic brain injury or subarachnoid hemorrhage. Testing should only be carried out if a decision has already been made that if deficiency is found it will be treated. There are many pharmacological GH stimulation tests for the diagnosis of GHD; however, none fulfill the requirements for an ideal test having high discriminatory power; being reproducible, safe, convenient, and economical; and not being dependent on confounding factors such as age, gender, nutritional status, and in particular obesity. In obesity, GH secretion is reduced, GH clearance is enhanced, and stimulated GH secretion is reduced, causing a false-positive result. This functional hyposomatotropism in obesity is fully reversed by weight loss. In conclusion, GH stimulation tests should be avoided in obese subjects with very low pretest probability.

  4. Effects of randomized whey-protein loads on energy intake, appetite, gastric emptying, and plasma gut-hormone concentrations in older men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giezenaar, Caroline; Trahair, Laurence G; Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie D; Hausken, Trygve; Standfield, Scott; Jones, Karen L; Lange, Kylie; Horowitz, Michael; Chapman, Ian; Soenen, Stijn

    2017-09-01

    Background: Protein- and energy-rich supplements are used widely for the management of malnutrition in the elderly. Information about the effects of protein on energy intake and related gastrointestinal mechanisms and whether these differ between men and women is limited. Objective: We determined the effects of whey protein on energy intake, appetite, gastric emptying, and gut hormones in healthy older men and women. Design: Eight older women and 8 older men [mean ± SEM age: 72 ± 1 y; body mass index (in kg/m 2 ): 25 ± 1] were studied on 3 occasions in which they received protein loads of 30 g (120 kcal) or 70 g (280 kcal) or a flavored water control drink (0 kcal). At regular intervals over 180 min, appetite (visual analog scales), gastric emptying (3-dimensional ultrasonography), and blood glucose and plasma gut-hormone concentrations [insulin, glucagon, ghrelin, cholecystokinin, gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), and peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY)] were measured, and ad libitum energy intake was quantified from a buffet meal (180-210 min; energy intake, appetite, and gastric emptying in the men have been published previously). Results: Energy intake at the buffet meal was ∼80% higher in older men than in older women ( P 0.05). There was no effect of sex on gastric emptying, appetite, gastrointestinal symptoms, glucose, or gut hormones ( P > 0.05). There was a protein load-dependent slowing of gastric emptying, an increase in concentrations of insulin, glucagon, cholecystokinin, GIP, GLP-1, and PYY, and an increase in total energy intake (drink plus meal: 12% increase with 30 g and 32% increase with 70 g; P < 0.001). Energy intake at the buffet meal was inversely related to the stomach volume and area under the curve of hormone concentrations ( P < 0.05). Conclusion: In older men and women, whey-protein drinks load-dependently slow gastric emptying and alter gut hormone secretion compared with a control but have no

  5. Gastrointestinal hormone secretion in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzuchun; Li, Shengxian; Xu, Hua; Zhou, Huan; Feng, Rilu; Liu, Wei; Sun, Yun; Ma, Jing

    2015-11-01

    Is the secretion of gastrointestinal hormones impaired in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)? Gastrointestinal hormone levels were abnormal in patients with PCOS. The hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY) are both involved in signaling satiety. Secretion of GLP-1 and PYY in response to nutrients in the small intestine plays an important role in energy metabolism. Most PCOS patients are overweight or obese, which suggests dysregulation of appetite. In order to evaluate levels of gastrointestinal hormones in PCOS, a cohort study was undertaken, involving 30 PCOS patients and 29 BMI-matched healthy women recruited from Shanghai Renji Hospital between 1 March 2013 and 30 May 2014. After an overnight fast, all participants underwent an oral glucose tolerance test. Blood was sampled frequently for measurement of blood glucose and plasma insulin, total GLP-1 and PYY concentrations. Fasting and postprandial insulin levels were significantly higher in patients with PCOS compared with the healthy controls (P controls either fasting or postprandially. PYY levels were lower in obese PCOS patients than in lean PCOS patients (P hormone responses to oral glucose rather than a physiological meal. Deficient secretion of GLP-1 and PYY does not contribute to excessive food intake in the pathophysiology of PCOS. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Link Between Increased Satiety Gut Hormones and Reduced Food Reward After Gastric Bypass Surgery for Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstone, Anthony P; Miras, Alexander D; Scholtz, Samantha; Jackson, Sabrina; Neff, Karl J; Pénicaud, Luc; Geoghegan, Justin; Chhina, Navpreet; Durighel, Giuliana; Bell, Jimmy D; Meillon, Sophie; le Roux, Carel W

    2016-02-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery is an effective long-term intervention for weight loss maintenance, reducing appetite, and also food reward, via unclear mechanisms. To investigate the role of elevated satiety gut hormones after RYGB, we examined food hedonic-reward responses after their acute post-prandial suppression. These were randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover experimental medicine studies. Two groups, more than 5 months after RYGB for obesity (n = 7-11), compared with nonobese controls (n = 10), or patients after gastric banding (BAND) surgery (n = 9) participated in the studies. Studies were performed after acute administration of the somatostatin analog octreotide or saline. In one study, patients after RYGB, and nonobese controls, performed a behavioral progressive ratio task for chocolate sweets. In another study, patients after RYGB, and controls after BAND surgery, performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging food picture evaluation task. Octreotide increased both appetitive food reward (breakpoint) in the progressive ratio task (n = 9), and food appeal (n = 9) and reward system blood oxygen level-dependent signal (n = 7) in the functional magnetic resonance imaging task, in the RYGB group, but not in the control groups. Octreotide suppressed postprandial plasma peptide YY, glucagon-like peptide-1, and fibroblast growth factor-19 after RYGB. The reduction in plasma peptide YY with octreotide positively correlated with the increase in brain reward system blood oxygen level-dependent signal in RYGB/BAND subjects, with a similar trend for glucagon-like peptide-1. Enhanced satiety gut hormone responses after RYGB may be a causative mechanism by which anatomical alterations of the gut in obesity surgery modify behavioral and brain reward responses to food.

  7. Giant growth-hormone secreting pituitary tumour with etracranial extension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ip Taipang; Chan Fuluk; Kung Annie Waichee; Lam Karen Siuling [Univ. of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital (Hong Kong). Depts. of Medicine and Diagnostic Radiology

    1996-02-01

    A 19 year old female patient with typical features of acromegaly was found to have an extensive pituitary tumour with suprasellar, lateral and inferior extensions. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) also showed a portion of the tumour extending from the right cavernous sinus through the foramen ovale to become extracranial. Serum growth hormone (GH) was 52.6 mU/L basally and remained elevated after oral glucose, confirming the diagnosis of acromegaly. Treatment with the long-acting somatostatin analogue, octreotide, for 6 months led to a 30% reduction in tumour volume of the intracranial portion but no effect on the extracranial and sphenoidal extensions. She was subsequently treated with trans-sphenoidal surgery followed by external irradiation. The possibility of perineural spread of the tumour was considered. 9 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  8. Giant growth-hormone secreting pituitary tumour with etracranial extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ip Taipang; Chan Fuluk; Kung Annie Waichee; Lam Karen Siuling

    1996-01-01

    A 19 year old female patient with typical features of acromegaly was found to have an extensive pituitary tumour with suprasellar, lateral and inferior extensions. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) also showed a portion of the tumour extending from the right cavernous sinus through the foramen ovale to become extracranial. Serum growth hormone (GH) was 52.6 mU/L basally and remained elevated after oral glucose, confirming the diagnosis of acromegaly. Treatment with the long-acting somatostatin analogue, octreotide, for 6 months led to a 30% reduction in tumour volume of the intracranial portion but no effect on the extracranial and sphenoidal extensions. She was subsequently treated with trans-sphenoidal surgery followed by external irradiation. The possibility of perineural spread of the tumour was considered. 9 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  9. Relationship between thyroid functions and urinary growth hormone secretion in patients with hyper- and hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murao, K; Takahara, J; Sato, M; Tamaki, M; Niimi, M; Ishida, T

    1994-10-01

    Thyroid hormone plays an important role in growth hormone (GH) synthesis and secretion. To study the relationship between thyroid function and urinary GH secretion in the hyperthyroid and hypothyroid states, we measured thyroid hormones, simultaneously with serum and urinary GH levels, in 54 patients with thyroid diseases. GH-releasing hormone (GRH) test was performed in 18 patients in order to evaluate serum and urinary GH responses to GRH in hyper- and hypothyroid states. Serum thyroid hormone levels were strongly correlated with the urinary GH levels in the patients, and the correlation was greater than that between serum thyroid hormone and serum GH levels. Urinary GH levels were significantly higher in the hyperthyroid patients than in the euthyroid and hypothyroid patients, although serum GH levels were not significantly different among these three groups. Serum GH response to GRH was significantly decreased in hyperthyroid patients as compared to euthyroid patients. However, urinary GH levels after GRH administration were not decreased in the hyperthyroid patients. These results suggest that hyperthyroid states increase GH in urine and may accelerate the urinary clearance of GH.

  10. Gastric emptying, glucose metabolism and gut hormones: evaluation of a common preoperative carbohydrate beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Mechteld A R; Richir, Milan C; Garretsen, Martijn K; van Schie, Annelies; Ghatei, Mohammed A; Holst, Jens J; Heijboer, Annemieke C; Uitdehaag, Bernard M J; Diamant, Michaela; Eekhoff, E Marelise W; van Leeuwen, Paul A M; Ligthart-Melis, Gerdien C

    2011-09-01

    To study the gastric-emptying rate and gut hormonal response of two carbohydrate-rich beverages. A specifically designed carbohydrate-rich beverage is currently used to support the surgical patient metabolically. Fruit-based beverages may also promote recovery, due to natural antioxidant and carbohydrate content. However, gastric emptying of fluids is influenced by its nutrient composition; hence, safety of preoperative carbohydrate loading should be confirmed. Because gut hormones link carbohydrate metabolism and gastric emptying, hormonal responses were studied. In eight volunteers, gastric emptying rates of both 400 mL of a ready-to-use beverage (A: Nutricia preOp; 50.4 g carbohydrates-mainly polysaccharides; 260 mOsm/kg) and 400 mL over-the-counter fruit-based lemonade (B: Roosvicee Original; 48 g carbohydrates--mainly fruit-associated saccharides; 805 mOsm/kg) were determined scintigraphically (using hepatate Tc-99(m)) according to a crossover design. Plasma glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1), peptide YY, total glucagon, and ghrelin were studied. Gastric emptying showed no differences in residual volumes. Earlier onset in emptying for beverage A versus B was observed (trend), with significantly higher glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and glucagon responses at 15-90 min. GLP-1 was inversely related to residual volume. Fruit-based lemonade is a safe alternative for preoperative purposes. It induces a more limited glucose, insulin, and C-peptide response. Later onset in gastric emptying (B versus A: trend), lower glucagon release, and differences in beverage content and osmolarity may have contributed to those differences. Efficient emptying was reflected by early GLP-1 levels. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Growth hormone secretion is diminished and tightly controlled in humans enriched for familial longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Spoel, Evie; Jansen, Steffy W; Akintola, Abimbola A

    2016-01-01

    Reduced growth hormone (GH) signaling has been consistently associated with increased health and lifespan in various mouse models. Here, we assessed GH secretion and its control in relation with human familial longevity. We frequently sampled blood over 24 h in 19 middle-aged offspring of long......-living families from the Leiden Longevity Study together with 18 of their partners as controls. Circulating GH concentrations were measured every 10 min and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP3) every 4 h. Using deconvolution analysis, we found that 24-h.......39-0.53)] compared with controls [0.66 (0.56-0.77)], indicating tighter control of GH secretion. No significant differences were observed in circulating levels of IGF-1 and IGFBP3 between offspring and controls. In conclusion, GH secretion in human familial longevity is characterized by diminished secretion rate...

  12. Effect of growth hormone replacement therapy on pituitary hormone secretion and hormone replacement therapies in GHD adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubina, Erika; Mersebach, Henriette; Rasmussen, Ase Krogh

    2004-01-01

    We tested the impact of commencement of GH replacement therapy in GH-deficient (GHD) adults on the circulating levels of other anterior pituitary and peripheral hormones and the need for re-evaluation of other hormone replacement therapies, especially the need for dose changes.......We tested the impact of commencement of GH replacement therapy in GH-deficient (GHD) adults on the circulating levels of other anterior pituitary and peripheral hormones and the need for re-evaluation of other hormone replacement therapies, especially the need for dose changes....

  13. Growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma:clinical and MR imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hong Suk; Chang, Kee Hyun; Han, Moon Hee; Sim, Jung Suk; Lee, Sang Hyun; Song, Jae Uoo; Yoo, In Kyu; Jung, Hee Won; Yeon, Kyung Mo

    1996-01-01

    To describe clinical and MRI findings of growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma, to determine if there are any characteristic MRI findings different from those of other pituitary adenomas, to evaluate the relationship between tumor size and serum growth hormone level, and to assess the results of immunohi-stochemical study. We retrospectively analysed clinical and MRI findings of 29 patients with growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma confirmed by serum growth hormone level and surgery. We also evaluated the relationship between the tumor volume and serum growth hormone level, and the results of immunohistochemical study. Coronal and sagittal T1-weighted MR images in all patients and gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted MR images in 28 patients were obtained with 2.0 T(24 cases) and 0.5 T(5 cases) MR imagers. The images were analyzed in terms of tumor size, signal intensity, degree of contrast enhancement, extent of tumor growth and the presence or absence of cystic change, hemorrhage and calcification. Clinical manifestations included facial feature change and soft tissue swelling of hands and feet(n=29), headache(n=12), impaired visual acuity(n=9), symptoms of hyperprolactinemia(n=8), visual field defect(n=5), and others(n=6). On MR images, all of the 29 cases were seen to be macroadenomas and the size of the tumors averaged 2.2cm(1-5.2cm). Supra- and infrasellar extensions were seen in 21 and 22 patients, respectively. Cavernous sinus invasion was noted in seven, and in one this was bilateral. Signal intensity was isointense with cortical grey matter in 26 cases(90%). Cystic change or necrosis was seen in eight cases(28%), hemorrhage in four(14%), and calcification in two(7%). After enhancement, most(25/28) of the tumors enhanced less than normal pituitary in degree. There was no correlation between serum growth hormone level and tumor size. Immunohistochemical study showed positive growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas were various and included

  14. Growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma:clinical and MR imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hong Suk; Chang, Kee Hyun; Han, Moon Hee; Sim, Jung Suk; Lee, Sang Hyun; Song, Jae Uoo; Yoo, In Kyu; Jung, Hee Won; Yeon, Kyung Mo [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-10-01

    To describe clinical and MRI findings of growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma, to determine if there are any characteristic MRI findings different from those of other pituitary adenomas, to evaluate the relationship between tumor size and serum growth hormone level, and to assess the results of immunohi-stochemical study. We retrospectively analysed clinical and MRI findings of 29 patients with growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma confirmed by serum growth hormone level and surgery. We also evaluated the relationship between the tumor volume and serum growth hormone level, and the results of immunohistochemical study. Coronal and sagittal T1-weighted MR images in all patients and gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted MR images in 28 patients were obtained with 2.0 T(24 cases) and 0.5 T(5 cases) MR imagers. The images were analyzed in terms of tumor size, signal intensity, degree of contrast enhancement, extent of tumor growth and the presence or absence of cystic change, hemorrhage and calcification. Clinical manifestations included facial feature change and soft tissue swelling of hands and feet(n=29), headache(n=12), impaired visual acuity(n=9), symptoms of hyperprolactinemia(n=8), visual field defect(n=5), and others(n=6). On MR images, all of the 29 cases were seen to be macroadenomas and the size of the tumors averaged 2.2cm(1-5.2cm). Supra- and infrasellar extensions were seen in 21 and 22 patients, respectively. Cavernous sinus invasion was noted in seven, and in one this was bilateral. Signal intensity was isointense with cortical grey matter in 26 cases(90%). Cystic change or necrosis was seen in eight cases(28%), hemorrhage in four(14%), and calcification in two(7%). After enhancement, most(25/28) of the tumors enhanced less than normal pituitary in degree. There was no correlation between serum growth hormone level and tumor size. Immunohistochemical study showed positive growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas were various and included

  15. Intraoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging During Endoscopic Transsphenoidal Surgery of Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netuka, David; Májovský, Martin; Masopust, Václav; Belšán, Tomáš; Marek, Josef; Kršek, Michal; Hána, Václav; Ježková, Jana; Hána, Václav; Beneš, Vladimír

    2016-07-01

    The effect of intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) on the extent of sellar region tumors treated endonasally has been described in previous research. However, the effects of iMRI on endocrinologic outcome of growth hormone-secreting adenomas have been studied in only a few small cohort studies. Inclusion criteria were primary transsphenoidal surgery for growth hormone-secreting adenoma from January 2009 to December 2014, a minimum follow-up of 1 year, complete endocrinologic data, at least 1 iMRI, and at least 2 postoperative magnetic resonance images. The cohort consisted of 105 patients (54 females, 51 males) with a mean age of 48.3 years (range, 7-77 years). There were 16 microadenomas and 89 macroadenomas. Endocrinologic remission in the whole cohort was achieved in 64 of the patients (60.9%). Resection after iMRI was attempted in 22 of the cases (20.9%). Resection after iMRI led to hormonal remission in 9 cases (8.6%). Endocrinologic postoperative deficit was observed in 10 cases (12.5%). Postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leakage indicated the necessity to reoperate in 3 cases (3.8%). No neurologic deterioration was observed. iMRI influences not only the morphologic extent of pituitary adenomas resection but also the endocrinologic results. We encourage the routine application of iMRI in pituitary adenoma surgery, including hormone-secreting pituitary tumors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Human-derived gut microbiota modulates colonic secretion in mice by regulating 5-HT3 receptor expression via acetate production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Yogesh; Schmidt, Bradley A; Linden, David R; Larson, Eric D; Grover, Madhusudan; Beyder, Arthur; Farrugia, Gianrico; Kashyap, Purna C

    2017-07-01

    Serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)], an important neurotransmitter and a paracrine messenger in the gastrointestinal tract, regulates intestinal secretion by its action primarily on 5-HT 3 and 5-HT 4 receptors. Recent studies highlight the role of gut microbiota in 5-HT biosynthesis. In this study, we determine whether human-derived gut microbiota affects host secretory response to 5-HT and 5-HT receptor expression. We used proximal colonic mucosa-submucosa preparation from age-matched Swiss Webster germ-free (GF) and humanized (HM; ex-GF colonized with human gut microbiota) mice. 5-HT evoked a significantly greater increase in short-circuit current (Δ I sc ) in GF compared with HM mice. Additionally, 5-HT 3 receptor mRNA and protein expression was significantly higher in GF compared with HM mice. Ondansetron, a 5-HT 3 receptor antagonist, inhibited 5-HT-evoked Δ I sc in GF mice but not in HM mice. Furthermore, a 5-HT 3 receptor-selective agonist, 2-methyl-5-hydroxytryptamine hydrochloride, evoked a significantly higher Δ I sc in GF compared with HM mice. Immunohistochemistry in 5-HT 3A -green fluorescent protein mice localized 5-HT 3 receptor expression to enterochromaffin cells in addition to nerve fibers. The significant difference in 5-HT-evoked Δ I sc between GF and HM mice persisted in the presence of tetrodotoxin (TTX) but was lost after ondansetron application in the presence of TTX. Application of acetate (10 mM) significantly lowered 5-HT 3 receptor mRNA in GF mouse colonoids. We conclude that host secretory response to 5-HT may be modulated by gut microbiota regulation of 5-HT 3 receptor expression via acetate production. Epithelial 5-HT 3 receptor may function as a mediator of gut microbiota-driven change in intestinal secretion. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We found that gut microbiota alters serotonin (5-HT)-evoked intestinal secretion in a 5-HT 3 receptor-dependent mechanism and gut microbiota metabolite acetate alters 5-HT 3 receptor expression in

  17. Neuromedin s as novel putative regulator of luteinizing hormone secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigo, E; Roa, J; López, M; Castellano, J M; Fernandez-Fernandez, R; Navarro, V M; Pineda, R; Aguilar, E; Diéguez, C; Pinilla, L; Tena-Sempere, M

    2007-02-01

    Neuromedin S (NMS), a 36 amino acid peptide structurally related to neuromedin U, was recently identified in rat brain as ligand for the G protein-coupled receptor FM4/TGR-1, also termed neuromedin U receptor type-2 (NMU2R). Central expression of NMS appears restricted to the suprachiasmatic nucleus, and NMS has been involved in the regulation of dark-light rhythms and suppression of food intake. Reproduction is known to be tightly regulated by metabolic and photoperiodic cues. Yet the potential contribution of NMS to the control of reproductive axis remains unexplored. We report herein analyses of hypothalamic expression of NMS and NMU2R genes, as well as LH responses to NMS, in different developmental and functional states of the female rat. Expression of NMS and NMU2R genes was detected at the hypothalamus along postnatal development, with significant fluctuations of their relative levels (maximum at prepubertal stage and adulthood). In adult females, hypothalamic expression of NMS (which was confined to suprachiasmatic nucleus) and NMU2R significantly varied during the estrous cycle (maximum at proestrus) and was lowered after ovariectomy and enhanced after progesterone supplementation. Central administration of NMS evoked modest LH secretory responses in pubertal and cyclic females at diestrus, whereas exaggerated LH secretory bursts were elicited by NMS at estrus and after short-term fasting. Conversely, NMS significantly decreased elevated LH concentrations of ovariectomized rats. In summary, we provide herein novel evidence for the ability of NMS to modulate LH secretion in the female rat. Moreover, hypothalamic expression of NMS and NMU2R genes appeared dependent on the functional state of the female reproductive axis. Our data are the first to disclose the potential implication of NMS in the regulation of gonadotropic axis, a function that may contribute to the integration of circadian rhythms, energy balance, and reproduction.

  18. Urea for long-term treatment of syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaux, G; Genette, F

    1981-10-24

    The efficacy of oral urea in producing a sufficiently high osmotic diuresis was tested in seven patients with the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone. In all patients urea corrected the hyponatraemia despite a normal fluid intake. Five patients were controlled (serum sodium concentration greater than 128 mmol(mEq)/1) with a dose of 30 g urea daily, and two with 60 g daily. The patients who needed 30 g drank 1-2 1 of fluid daily, while those who needed 60 g drank up to 3.1 per day. No major side effects were noted, even after treatment periods of up to 270 days. These findings suggest that urea is a safe and efficacious treatment of the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone.

  19. Morvan syndrome: a rare cause of syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion

    OpenAIRE

    DEMIRBAS, SEREF; AYKAN, MUSA BARIS; ZENGIN, HAYDAR; MAZMAN, SEMIR; SAGLAM, KENAN

    2017-01-01

    The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) accounts for an important part of hyponatremia cases. The causes of SIADH can be detected almost always. As a rare disorder, Morvan Syndrome can be defined by the sum of peripheral nerve hyperexcitability, autonomic instability and neuropsychiatric features. Antibodies to voltage-gated potassium channels (Anti ? VGKC-Ab) including contactin associated protein-like 2 antibodies (CASPR2-Ab) and leucine-rich glioma inactivated ...

  20. Human pituitary and placental hormones control human insulin-like growth factor II secretion in human granulosa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramasharma, K.; Li, C.H.

    1987-01-01

    Human granulosa cells cultured with calf serum actively proliferated for 18-20 generations and secreted progesterone into the medium; progesterone levels appeared to decline with increase in generation number. Cells cultured under serum-free conditions secreted significant amounts of progesterone and insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II). The progesterone secretion was enhanced by the addition of human follitropin, lutropin, and chorionic gonadotropin but not by growth hormone. These cells, when challenged to varying concentrations of human growth hormone, human chorionic somatomammotropin, human prolactin, chorionic gonadotropin, follitropin, and lutropin, secreted IGF-II into the medium as measured by specific IGF-II RIA. Among these human hormones, chorionic gonadotropin, follitropin, and lutropin were most effective in inducing IGF-II secretion from these cells. When synthetic lutropin-releasing hormone and α-inhibin-92 were tested, only lutropin-releasing hormone was effective in releasing IGF-II. The results described suggest that cultured human granulosa cells can proliferate and actively secrete progesterone and IGF-II into the medium. IGF-II production in human granulosa cells was influenced by a multi-hormonal complex including human growth hormone, human chorionic somatomammotropin, and prolactin

  1. Possible stimulatory effect of quercetin on secretion of selected pituitary hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Tušimová

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Quercetin is found in various types of foods such as apples, red onions, grapes, berries, citrus fruits, cherries, broccoli, tea etc. It is characterized by antioxidative, anti-carcinogenic, bacteriostatic and anti-inflammatory effects on the animal organism. The aim of our study was to examine its effect on endocrine system of the rabbit in vivo. Twenty healthy adult female rabbits were divided into four groups (control group and three experimental groups. Various concentrations of quercetin (10, 100 and 1000 µg/kg body weight were intramuscularly administrated to rabbits in experimental groups during 30 days. A sensitive, biochemical method, ELISA was used to determine the concentrations of selected hormones (follicle-stimulating hormone - FSH, luteinizing hormone – LH, prolactin – PRL after 30 days of administration. Non-significant differences between groups were found after application of different quercetin concentrations. Stimulatory effect was observed on FSH secretion by higher dose of quercetin. Similarly, LH and PRL increased at concentration 100 µg/kg and 1000 µg/kg. Our results indicate the possible effect of quercetin on secretion of selected pituitary hormones.

  2. alpha-difluoromethylornithine modifies gonadotropin-releasing hormone release and follicle-stimulating hormone secretion in the immature female rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyssen, S M; Becú-Villalobos, D; Lacau-Mengido, I M; Libertun, C

    1997-06-01

    Polyamines play an essential role in tissue growth and differentiation, in body weight increment, in brain organization, and in the molecular mechanisms of hormonal action, intracellular signaling, and cell-to-cell communication. In a previous study, inhibition of their synthesis by alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), a specific and irreversible inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase, during development in female rats, was followed by prolonged high follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) serum level and a delayed puberty onset. Those changes were relatively independent of body mass and did not impair posterior fertility. The present work studies the mechanisms and site of action of polyamine participation in FSH secretion during development. DFMO was injected in female rats between Days 1 and 9 on alternate days. At 10 days of age, hypothalami from control and DFMO rats were perifused in vitro, and basal and potassium-induced gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) release were measured. The response to membrane depolarization was altered in DFMO hypothalami. Increased GnRH release in response to a low K+ concentration was evidenced. Adenohypophyses of the same treated prepubertal rats were perifused in vitro and the response to GnRH pulses was checked. In DFMO-treated rats, higher FSH release was observed, with no changes in LH or PRL secretion. Finally, pituitary GnRH receptor number in adenohypophyseal membranes from treated and control groups was quantified. A significant reduction in specific binding was evident in hypophyses from DFMO-treated rats when compared with binding in the control group. In summary, DFMO treatment in a critical developmental period in the female rat impacts the immature GnRH neuronal network and immature gonadotropes. A delay in maturation is evidenced by a higher sensitivity to secretagogs in both pituitary glands and hypothalamic explants. These events could explain the prolonged high FSH serum levels and delayed puberty onset seen in

  3. [Research advances in association between childhood obesity and gut microbiota].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiao-Lin; Wan, Chao-Min

    2017-03-01

    In recent years, more and more studies have noted the close association between gut microbiota and the development and progression of obesity. Gut microbiota may act on obesity by increasing energy intake, affecting the secretion of intestinal hormones, inducing chronic systemic inflammation, and producing insulin resistance. This article reviews the association between childhood obesity and gut microbiota, as well as possible mechanisms, in an attempt to provide a reference for the etiology, prevention and treatment of childhood obesity.

  4. Associations of Circulating Gut Hormone and Adipocytokine Levels with the Spectrum of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Huei Tseng

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD is complex and poorly understood. We aim to investigate the association of various circulating peptide hormones with heterogenous manifestations of GERD.One hundred and four patients that had experienced typical GERD symptoms (heartburn and/or acid regurgitation for at least 3 episodes per week in the past 3 months were enrolled. All patients received a baseline assessment of symptom severity and frequency with the Reflux Disease Questionnaire and an upper endoscopy to classify GERD into erosive esophagitis (EE, n = 67, non-erosive esophagitis (NE, n = 37, and Barrett's esophagus (BE, n = 8. Fifty asymptomatic subjects with an endoscopically normal esophagus were recruited as the control group. Complete anthropometric measures and blood biochemistry were obtained and fasting serum levels of adipocytokines (adiponectin and leptin and gut hormones (ghrelin and peptide YY (PYY were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in all subjects.All circulating peptide hormone levels were not statistically different between the GERD and control groups. However, GERD patients appeared to have lower PYY levels [median (25th-75th percentile, 80.1 (49.8-108.3 vs. 99.4 (65.8-131.9 pg/ml, p = 0.057] compared with control subjects. Among the GERD patients, ghrelin levels were inversely associated with the frequency and severity of acid regurgitation. In male GERD patients, EE was associated with significantly higher PYY levels [107.0 (55.0-120.8 vs. 32.8 (28.7-84.5 pg/ml, p = 0.026] but lower adiponectin levels [6.7 (5.6-9.3 vs. 9.9 (9.6-10.6 μg/ml, p = 0.034] than NE. Patients with BE had significantly lower adiponectin levels [6.0 (5.1-9.2 vs. 9.2 (7.1-11.2 μg/ml, p = 0.026] than those without BE.Humoral derangement of circulating peptide hormones might participate in inflammation and symptom perception in patients suffering from GERD. Further studies to clarify the exact role of these hormones

  5. A neurokinin 3 receptor-selective agonist accelerates pulsatile luteinizing hormone secretion in lactating cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Sho; Wakabayashi, Yoshihiro; Yamamura, Takashi; Ohkura, Satoshi; Matsuyama, Shuichi

    2017-07-01

    Pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion, which is indispensable for follicular development, is suppressed in lactating dairy and beef cattle. Neurokinin B (NKB) neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus are considered to play an essential role in generating the pulsatile mode of GnRH/luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion. The present study aimed to clarify the role of NKB-neurokinin 3 receptor (NK3R) signaling in the pulsatile pattern of GnRH/gonadotropin secretion in postpartum lactating cattle. We examined the effects of the administration of an NK3R-selective agonist, senktide, on gonadotropin secretion in lactating cattle. The lactating cattle, at approximately 7 days postpartum, were intravenously infused with senktide (30 or 300 nmol/min) or vehicle for 24 h. The administration of 30 or 300 nmol/min senktide significantly increased LH pulse frequency compared to in the control group during 0-4 or 20-24 h after infusion, respectively. Moreover, LH and follicle-stimulating hormone levels were gradually increased by 300 nmol/min administration of senktide during the 0-4-h sampling period. Ultrasonography of the ovaries was performed to identify the first postpartum ovulation in senktide-administered lactating cattle. The interval from calving to first postpartum ovulation was significantly shorter in the 300 nmol/min senktide-administered group than in the control group. Taken together, these findings suggest that senktide infusion elicits an increase in LH pulse frequency that may stimulate follicular development and, in turn, induce the first postpartum ovulation in lactating cattle. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Society for the Study of Reproduction. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Nutritional status in the neuroendocrine control of growth hormone secretion: the model of anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scacchi, Massimo; Pincelli, Angela Ida; Cavagnini, Francesco

    2003-07-01

    Growth hormone (GH) plays a key role not only in the promotion of linear growth but also in the regulation of intermediary metabolism, body composition, and energy expenditure. On the whole, the hormone appears to direct fuel metabolism towards the preferential oxidation of lipids instead of glucose and proteins, and to convey the energy derived from metabolic processes towards the synthesis of proteins. On the other hand, body energy stores and circulating energetic substrates take an important part in the regulation of somatotropin release. Finally, central and peripheral peptides participating in the control of food intake and energy expenditure (neuropeptide Y, leptin, and ghrelin) are also involved in the regulation of GH secretion. Altogether, nutritional status has to be regarded as a major determinant in the regulation of the somatotropin-somatomedin axis in animals and humans. In these latter, overweight is associated with marked impairment of spontaneous and stimulated GH release, while acute dietary restriction and chronic undernutrition induce an amplification of spontaneous secretion together with a clear-cut decrease in insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) plasma levels. Thus, over- and undernutrition represent two conditions connoted by GH hypersensitivity and GH resistance, respectively. Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric disorder characterized by peculiar changes of the GH-IGF-I axis. In these patients, low circulating IGF-I levels are associated with enhanced GH production rate, highly disordered mode of somatotropin release, and variability of GH responsiveness to different pharmacological challenges. These abnormalities are likely due not only to the lack of negative IGF-I feedback, but also to a primary hypothalamic alteration with increased frequency of growth hormone releasing hormone discharges and decreased somatostatinergic tone. Given the reversal of the above alterations following weight recovery, these abnormalities can be seen as

  7. Estriol administration modulates luteinizing hormone secretion in women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genazzani, Alessandro D; Meczekalski, Blazej; Podfigurna-Stopa, Agnieszka; Santagni, Susanna; Rattighieri, Erica; Ricchieri, Federica; Chierchia, Elisa; Simoncini, Tommaso

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate the influence of estriol administration on the hypothalamus-pituitary function and gonadotropins secretion in patients affected by functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA). Controlled clinical study. Patients with FHA in a clinical research environment. Twelve hypogonadotropic patients affected by FHA. Pulsatility study of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) test (10 μg in bolus) at baseline condition and after 8 weeks of therapy with 2 mg/day of estriol. Measurements of plasma LH, FSH, estradiol (E(2)), androstenedione (A), 17α-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), cortisol, androstenedione (A), testosterone (T), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (fT(3)), free thyroxine (fT(4)), and insulin, and pulse detection. After treatment, the FHA patients showed a statistically significant increase of LH plasma levels (from 0.7 ± 0.1 mIU/mL to 3.5 ± 0.3 mIU/mL) and a statistically significant increase of LH pulse amplitude with no changes in LH pulse frequency. In addition, the LH response to the GnRH bolus was a statistically significant increase. Estriol administration induced the increase of LH plasma levels in FHA and improved GnRH-induced LH secretion. These findings suggest that estriol administration modulates the neuroendocrine control of the hypothalamus-pituitary unit and induces the recovery of LH synthesis and secretion in hypogonadotropic patients with FHA. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Hyperthyroidism due to thyroid-stimulating hormone secretion after surgery for Cushing's syndrome: a novel cause of the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamada, Daisuke; Onodera, Toshiharu; Kitamura, Tetsuhiro; Yamamoto, Yuichi; Hayashi, Yoshitaka; Murata, Yoshiharu; Otsuki, Michio; Shimomura, Iichiro

    2013-07-01

    Hyperthyroidism with the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of TSH (SITSH) occurred by a decrease in hydrocortisone dose after surgery for Cushing's syndrome. This is a novel cause of SITSH. The aim of this study was to describe and discuss 2 cases of SITSH patients that were found after surgery for Cushing's syndrome. We also checked whether SITSH occurred in 7 consecutive patients with Cushing's syndrome after surgery. A 45-year-old Japanese woman with ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome and a 37-year-old Japanese man with ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome presented SITSH caused by insufficient replacement of hydrocortisone for postoperative adrenal insufficiency. When the dose of hydrocortisone was reduced to less than 20 mg/d within 18 days after surgery, SITSH occurred in both cases. We examined whether the change of the hydrocortisone dose induced the secretion of TSH. Free T₃ and TSH were normalized by the hydrocortisone dose increase of 30 mg/d, and these were elevated by the dose decrease of 10 mg/d. We also checked TSH and thyroid hormone levels of the 7 consecutive patients with Cushing's syndrome after surgery. Six (66.6 %) of 9 patients showed SITSH. This is the first report that insufficient replacement of hydrocortisone after surgery for Cushing's syndrome caused SITSH. Hyperthyroidism by SITSH as well as adrenal insufficiency can contribute to withdrawal symptoms of hydrocortisone replacement. We need to consider the possibility of SITSH for the pathological evaluation of withdrawal syndrome of hydrocortisone replacement.

  9. Quantitative and temporal analyses of murine antibody response in serum and gut secretions to infection with Giardia muris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, D P; Underdown, B J

    1986-04-01

    We analyzed the appearance and level of Giardia muris-specific antibody of immunoglobulin A (IgA), IgG, and IgM isotypes, at weekly intervals, over the course of a 7-week infection in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. Using sensitive immunoradiometric assays, we observed that IgA antibody was the only detectable anti-G. muris antibody in intestinal secretions throughout the course of infection. No secreted IgG or IgM anti-G. muris antibody was detected even in concentrated intestinal secretions. The expulsion of G. muris by the mice was associated closely with the appearance and increasing levels of secreted anti-G. muris IgA antibody. Both IgG and IgA serum antibody to G. muris were detected, but no serum IgM antibody was detected. Serum IgA and IgG anti-G. muris antibody remained at high levels up to 10 weeks following clearance of the parasite. An interesting observation indicated that serum IgA antibody to G. muris developed more slowly in response to infection than secreted IgA antibody. An analysis of the molecular weight distribution of total serum IgA in infected mice determined that infection produced a transient but significant shift in serum IgA to high-molecular-weight (greater than or equal to dimeric IgA) forms. The results indicate that a substantial IgA antibody response occurs in sera and in gut secretions of G. muris-resistant mice and that IgA antibody is the dominant and possibly the only effector antibody active in intestinal secretions during G. muris infection in mice.

  10. The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion after giant leaf frog (Phyllomedusa bicolor) venom exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leban, Vid; Kozelj, Gordana; Brvar, Miran

    2016-09-15

    In Europe body purification and natural balance restoring rituals are becoming increasingly popular, but an introduction of Amazonian shamanic rituals in urban Europe can result in unexpected adverse events. A 44-year-old woman attended a Kambô or Sapo ritual in Slovenia where dried skin secretion from a giant leaf frog (Phyllomedusa bicolor) was applied to five freshly burned wounds at her shoulder. Afterwards, she drank 6 litres of water and gradually developed nausea and vomiting, confusion, lethargy, muscle weakness, spasms and cramps, seizure, decreased consciousness level and short-term memory loss. The initial laboratory tests showed profound plasma hypoosmolality (251 mOsm/kg) proportional to hyponatremia (116 mmol/L) combined with inappropriately elevated urine osmolality (523 mOsm/kg) and high urine sodium concentration (87 mmol/L) indicating a syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion. The patient was treated with 0.9% sodium chloride and a restriction of water intake. Plasma osmolality and hyponatremia improved one day after venom exposure, but the symptoms disappeared as late as the third day. In patients presenting with neurological symptoms and a line of small body burns Phyllomedusa bicolor venom exposure should be suspected. Acute symptomatic hyponatremia after Phyllomedusa bicolor venom exposure is the result of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion that can be exacerbated by excessive water intake. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Secretion of Growth Hormone in Response to Muscle Sensory Nerve Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindeland, Richard E.; Roy, R. R.; Edgerton, V. R.; Gosselink, K. L.; Grossman, E. J.; Sawchenko, P. E.; Wade, Charles E. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) secretion is stimulated by aerobic and resistive exercise and inhibited by exposure to actual or simulated (bedrest, hindlimb suspension) microgravity. Moreover, hypothalamic growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF) and preproGRF mRNA are markedly decreased in spaceflight rats. These observations suggest that reduced sensory input from inactive muscles may contribute to the reduced secretion of GH seen in "0 G". Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of muscle sensory nerve stimulation on secretion of GH. Fed male Wistar rats (304 +/- 23 g) were anesthetized (pentobarbital) and the right peroneal (Pe), tibial (T), and sural (S) nerves were cut. Electrical stimulation of the distal (D) or proximal (P) ends of the nerves was implemented for 15 min. to mimic the EMG activity patterns of ankle extensor muscles of a rat walking 1.5 mph. The rats were bled by cardiac puncture and their anterior pituitaries collected. Pituitary and plasma bioactive (BGH) and immunoactive (IGH) GH were measured by bioassay and RIA.

  12. Hormone-sensitive lipase deficiency suppresses insulin secretion from pancreatic islets of Lepob/ob mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiya, Motohiro; Yahagi, Naoya; Tamura, Yoshiaki; Okazaki, Hiroaki; Igarashi, Masaki; Ohta, Keisuke; Takanashi, Mikio; Kumagai, Masayoshi; Takase, Satoru; Nishi, Makiko; Takeuchi, Yoshinori; Izumida, Yoshihiko; Kubota, Midori; Ohashi, Ken; Iizuka, Yoko; Yagyu, Hiroaki; Gotoda, Takanari; Nagai, Ryozo; Shimano, Hitoshi; Yamada, Nobuhiro

    2009-01-01

    It has long been a matter of debate whether the hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL)-mediated lipolysis in pancreatic β-cells can affect insulin secretion through the alteration of lipotoxicity. We generated mice lacking both leptin and HSL (Lep ob/ob /HSL -/- ) and explored the role of HSL in pancreatic β-cells in the setting of obesity. Lep ob/ob /HSL -/- developed elevated blood glucose levels and reduced plasma insulin levels compared with Lep ob/ob /HSL +/+ in a fed state, while the deficiency of HSL did not affect glucose homeostasis in Lep +/+ background. The deficiency of HSL exacerbated the accumulation of triglycerides in Lep ob/ob islets, leading to reduced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. The deficiency of HSL also diminished the islet mass in Lep ob/ob mice due to decreased cell proliferation. In conclusion, HSL affects insulin secretary capacity especially in the setting of obesity.

  13. Role of obestatin on growth hormone secretion: An in vitro approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazos, Yolanda; Alvarez, Carlos J.P.; Camina, Jesus P.; Al-Massadi, Omar; Seoane, Luisa M.; Casanueva, Felipe F.

    2009-01-01

    Obestatin, the ghrelin-associated peptide, showed to activate MAPK signaling with no effect on Akt nor cell proliferating activity in rat tumor somatotroph cells (growth cells, GC). A sequential analysis of the obestatin transmembrane signaling pathway indicated a route involving the consecutive activation of G i , PI3k, novel PKCε, and Src for ERK1/2 activation. Furthermore, obestatin treatment triggers growth hormone (GH) release in the first 30 min, being more acute at 15 min. At 1 h, obestatin treated cells showed the same levels in GH secretion than controls. Added to this functionality, obestatin was secreted by GC cells. Based on the capacity to stimulate GH release from somatotroph cells, obestatin may act directly in the pituitary through an autocrine/paracrine mechanism.

  14. Role of obestatin on growth hormone secretion: An in vitro approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pazos, Yolanda [Area de Endocrinologia Molecular y Celular, Instituto de Investigacion Sanitaria (IDIS), Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago (CHUS), Santiago de Compostela (Spain); CIBER Fisiopatologia de la Obesidad y Nutricion (CB06/03), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (Spain); Alvarez, Carlos J.P. [Area de Endocrinologia Molecular y Celular, Instituto de Investigacion Sanitaria (IDIS), Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago (CHUS), Santiago de Compostela (Spain); CIBER Fisiopatologia de la Obesidad y Nutricion (CB06/03), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (Spain); Universidad de Santiago de Compostela (USC), Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Camina, Jesus P. [Area de Endocrinologia Molecular y Celular, Instituto de Investigacion Sanitaria (IDIS), Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago (CHUS), Santiago de Compostela (Spain); CIBER Fisiopatologia de la Obesidad y Nutricion (CB06/03), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (Spain); Al-Massadi, Omar [Area de Endocrinologia Molecular y Celular, Instituto de Investigacion Sanitaria (IDIS), Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago (CHUS), Santiago de Compostela (Spain); CIBER Fisiopatologia de la Obesidad y Nutricion (CB06/03), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (Spain); Universidad de Santiago de Compostela (USC), Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Seoane, Luisa M. [Area de Endocrinologia Molecular y Celular, Instituto de Investigacion Sanitaria (IDIS), Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago (CHUS), Santiago de Compostela (Spain); CIBER Fisiopatologia de la Obesidad y Nutricion (CB06/03), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (Spain); Casanueva, Felipe F. [Area de Endocrinologia Molecular y Celular, Instituto de Investigacion Sanitaria (IDIS), Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago (CHUS), Santiago de Compostela (Spain); CIBER Fisiopatologia de la Obesidad y Nutricion (CB06/03), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (Spain); Universidad de Santiago de Compostela (USC), Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2009-12-25

    Obestatin, the ghrelin-associated peptide, showed to activate MAPK signaling with no effect on Akt nor cell proliferating activity in rat tumor somatotroph cells (growth cells, GC). A sequential analysis of the obestatin transmembrane signaling pathway indicated a route involving the consecutive activation of G{sub i}, PI3k, novel PKC{epsilon}, and Src for ERK1/2 activation. Furthermore, obestatin treatment triggers growth hormone (GH) release in the first 30 min, being more acute at 15 min. At 1 h, obestatin treated cells showed the same levels in GH secretion than controls. Added to this functionality, obestatin was secreted by GC cells. Based on the capacity to stimulate GH release from somatotroph cells, obestatin may act directly in the pituitary through an autocrine/paracrine mechanism.

  15. Human longevity is characterised by high thyroid stimulating hormone secretion without altered energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, S W; Akintola, A A; Roelfsema, F; van der Spoel, E; Cobbaert, C M; Ballieux, B E; Egri, P; Kvarta-Papp, Z; Gereben, B; Fekete, C; Slagboom, P E; van der Grond, J; Demeneix, B A; Pijl, H; Westendorp, R G J; van Heemst, D

    2015-06-19

    Few studies have included subjects with the propensity to reach old age in good health, with the aim to disentangle mechanisms contributing to staying healthier for longer. The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis maintains circulating levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroid hormone (TH) in an inverse relationship. Greater longevity has been associated with higher TSH and lower TH levels, but mechanisms underlying TSH/TH differences and longevity remain unknown. The HPT axis plays a pivotal role in growth, development and energy metabolism. We report that offspring of nonagenarians with at least one nonagenarian sibling have increased TSH secretion but similar bioactivity of TSH and similar TH levels compared to controls. Healthy offspring and spousal controls had similar resting metabolic rate and core body temperature. We propose that pleiotropic effects of the HPT axis may favour longevity without altering energy metabolism.

  16. Hypertrophic Pachymeningitis and the Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion: Coincidence or Cause?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsch, Igor Alexander; Schiffer, Anne; Konturek, Peter C

    2017-01-01

    To investigate a potential cause of the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). A 70-year-old female patient had nausea and collapsed. Although euvolemic, pathological laboratory findings showed hyponatremia and hypoosmolality, and cerebral magnetic resonance imaging showed hypertrophic pachymeningitis. Secondary hypertrophic pachymeningitis was excluded. Other nonneurological reasons for SIADH were also excluded. Moderate fluid restriction restored an almost normal serum osmolality and sodium. This case of SIADH was conservatively treated with moderate fluid restriction that almost restored normal serum osmolality and sodium levels. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Human longevity is characterised by high thyroid stimulating hormone secretion without altered energy metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, S W; Akintola, A A; Roelfsema, F

    2015-01-01

    hormone (TH) in an inverse relationship. Greater longevity has been associated with higher TSH and lower TH levels, but mechanisms underlying TSH/TH differences and longevity remain unknown. The HPT axis plays a pivotal role in growth, development and energy metabolism. We report that offspring...... of nonagenarians with at least one nonagenarian sibling have increased TSH secretion but similar bioactivity of TSH and similar TH levels compared to controls. Healthy offspring and spousal controls had similar resting metabolic rate and core body temperature. We propose that pleiotropic effects of the HPT axis...... may favour longevity without altering energy metabolism....

  18. Morvan syndrome: a rare cause of syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirbas, Seref; Aykan, Musa Baris; Zengin, Haydar; Mazman, Semir; Saglam, Kenan

    2017-01-01

    The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) accounts for an important part of hyponatremia cases. The causes of SIADH can be detected almost always. As a rare disorder, Morvan Syndrome can be defined by the sum of peripheral nerve hyperexcitability, autonomic instability and neuropsychiatric features. Antibodies to voltage-gated potassium channels (Anti - VGKC-Ab) including contactin associated protein-like 2 antibodies (CASPR2-Ab) and leucine-rich glioma inactivated protein 1 antibodies (LGI1-Ab) were previously known for the potential association with this condition. We present a Morvan Syndrome in a patient who presented with various neuropsychiatric symptoms and SIADH.

  19. The gut hormone ghrelin partially reverses energy substrate metabolic alterations in the failing heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitacchione, Gianfranco; Powers, Jeffrey C; Grifoni, Gino; Woitek, Felix; Lam, Amy; Ly, Lien; Settanni, Fabio; Makarewich, Catherine A; McCormick, Ryan; Trovato, Letizia; Houser, Steven R; Granata, Riccarda; Recchia, Fabio A

    2014-07-01

    The gut-derived hormone ghrelin, especially its acylated form, plays a major role in the regulation of systemic metabolism and exerts also relevant cardioprotective effects; hence, it has been proposed for the treatment of heart failure (HF). We tested the hypothesis that ghrelin can directly modulate cardiac energy substrate metabolism. We used chronically instrumented dogs, 8 with pacing-induced HF and 6 normal controls. Human des-acyl ghrelin [1.2 nmol/kg per hour] was infused intravenously for 15 minutes, followed by washout (rebaseline) and infusion of acyl ghrelin at the same dose. (3)H-oleate and (14)C-glucose were coinfused and arterial and coronary sinus blood sampled to measure cardiac free fatty acid and glucose oxidation and lactate uptake. As expected, cardiac substrate metabolism was profoundly altered in HF because baseline oxidation levels of free fatty acids and glucose were, respectively, >70% lower and >160% higher compared with control. Neither des-acyl ghrelin nor acyl ghrelin significantly affected function and metabolism in normal hearts. However, in HF, des-acyl and acyl ghrelin enhanced myocardial oxygen consumption by 10.2±3.5% and 9.9±3.7%, respectively (Pmetabolism in normal dogs, whereas they enhance free fatty acid oxidation and reduce glucose oxidation in HF dogs, thus partially correcting metabolic alterations in HF. This novel mechanism might contribute to the cardioprotective effects of ghrelin in HF. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Regulation of hormone release by cultured cells from a thyrotropin-growth hormone-secreting pituitary tumor. Direct inhibiting effects of 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine and dexamethasone on thyrotropin secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberts, S W; Oosterom, R; Verleun, T; Krenning, E P; Assies, H

    1984-08-01

    The regulation of TSH and GH secretion was investigated in cultured tumor cells prepared from a mixed TSH/GH secreting pituitary tumor. The tumor tissue had been removed transsphenoidally from a patient with hyperthyroidism and inappropriately high serum TSH levels and acromegaly. TSH and GH secretion by cultured cells were stimulated in a parallel way by TRH (300 nM) and LHRH (50 nM), but were unaffected by bromocriptine (10 nM). Exposure of the tumor cells to dexamethasone (0.1 microM) or T3 (50 nM) had differential effects on hormone secretion. GH secretion was greatly stimulated by dexamethasone, but unaffected by T3. TSH secretion was inhibited both by T3 and by dexamethasone. So, T3 and glucocorticoids inhibit TSH release by the human pituitary tumor cells studied at least partly by means of a direct effect.

  1. Pegvisomant treatment in gigantism caused by a growth hormone-secreting giant pituitary adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müssig, K; Gallwitz, B; Honegger, J; Strasburger, C J; Bidlingmaier, M; Machicao, F; Bornemann, A; Ranke, M B; Häring, H-U; Petersenn, S

    2007-03-01

    Gigantism is rare with the majority of cases caused by a growth hormone (GH)-secreting pituitary adenoma. Treatment options for GH-secreting pituitary adenomas have been widened with the availability of long-acting dopamine agonists, depot preparations of somatostatin analogues, and recently the GH receptor antagonist pegvisomant. A 23-year-old male patient presented with continuous increase in height during the past 6 years due to a GH-secreting giant pituitary adenoma. Because of major intracranial extension and failure of octreotide treatment to shrink the tumour, the tumour was partially resected by a trans-frontal surgical approach. At immunohistochemistry, the tumour showed a marked expression of GH and a sparsely focal expression of prolactin. Somatostatin receptors (sst) 1-5 were not detected. Tumour tissue weakly expressed dopamine receptor type 2. The Gs alpha subunit was intact. Conversion from somatostatin analogue to pegvisomant normalized insulin-like-growth-factor-I (IGF-I) levels and markedly improved glucose tolerance. Pegvisomant is a potent treatment option in patients with pituitary gigantism. In patients who do not respond to somatostatin analogues, knowledge of the SST receptor status may shorten the time to initiation of pegvisomant treatment.

  2. Salicylic acid, a plant defense hormone, is specifically secreted by a molluscan herbivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kästner, Julia; von Knorre, Dietrich; Himanshu, Himanshu; Erb, Matthias; Baldwin, Ian T; Meldau, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Slugs and snails are important herbivores in many ecosystems. They differ from other herbivores by their characteristic mucus trail. As the mucus is secreted at the interface between the plants and the herbivores, its chemical composition may play an essential role in plant responses to slug and snail attack. Based on our current knowledge about host-manipulation strategies employed by pathogens and insects, we hypothesized that mollusks may excrete phytohormone-like substances into their mucus. We therefore screened locomotion mucus from thirteen molluscan herbivores for the presence of the plant defense hormones jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA). We found that the locomotion mucus of one slug, Deroceras reticulatum, contained significant amounts of SA, a plant hormone that is known to induce resistance to pathogens and to suppress plant immunity against herbivores. None of the other slugs and snails contained SA or any other hormone in their locomotion mucus. When the mucus of D. reticulatum was applied to wounded leaves of A. thaliana, the promotor of the SA-responsive gene pathogenesis related 1 (PR1) was activated, demonstrating the potential of the mucus to regulate plant defenses. We discuss the potential ecological, agricultural and medical implications of this finding.

  3. Salicylic acid, a plant defense hormone, is specifically secreted by a molluscan herbivore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Kästner

    Full Text Available Slugs and snails are important herbivores in many ecosystems. They differ from other herbivores by their characteristic mucus trail. As the mucus is secreted at the interface between the plants and the herbivores, its chemical composition may play an essential role in plant responses to slug and snail attack. Based on our current knowledge about host-manipulation strategies employed by pathogens and insects, we hypothesized that mollusks may excrete phytohormone-like substances into their mucus. We therefore screened locomotion mucus from thirteen molluscan herbivores for the presence of the plant defense hormones jasmonic acid (JA, salicylic acid (SA and abscisic acid (ABA. We found that the locomotion mucus of one slug, Deroceras reticulatum, contained significant amounts of SA, a plant hormone that is known to induce resistance to pathogens and to suppress plant immunity against herbivores. None of the other slugs and snails contained SA or any other hormone in their locomotion mucus. When the mucus of D. reticulatum was applied to wounded leaves of A. thaliana, the promotor of the SA-responsive gene pathogenesis related 1 (PR1 was activated, demonstrating the potential of the mucus to regulate plant defenses. We discuss the potential ecological, agricultural and medical implications of this finding.

  4. Thyroid hormone modulates food intake and glycemia via ghrelin secretion in Zucker fatty rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, K; Joharapurkar, A; Dhanesha, N; Patel, V; Kshirsagar, S; Raval, P; Raval, S; Jain, M R

    2014-10-01

    Hyperthyroidism is known to increase food intake and central administration of thyroid hormone shows acute orexigenic effects in rodents. We investigated whether T3 influences appetite and glucose homeostasis by modulating circulating ghrelin, an important orexigenic hormone, in Zucker fatty rats. The acute anorectic effects of T3 and ghrelin mimetic MK-0677 were studied in rats trained for fasting induced food intake. The serum concentration of T3, ghrelin, glucose, triglycerides, and liver glycogen were estimated. The involvement of sympathetic nervous system was evaluated by conducting similar experiments in vagotomized rats. T3 increased food intake and glucose in rats over 4 h, with increase in serum T3 and decrease in liver glycogen. T3 treatment was associated with increase in serum ghrelin. An additive effect on appetite and glucose was observed when T3 (oral) was administered with central (intracerebroventricular) administration of a ghrelin mimetic, MK-0677. Ghrelin antagonist, compound 8a, antagonized the hyperglycemic and hyperphagic effects of T3. In vagotomized rats, T3 did not show increase in appetite as well as glucose. Serum ghrelin levels were unchanged in these animals after T3 treatment. However, T3 showed increase in serum triglyceride levels indicating its peripheral lipolytic effect, in vagotomized as well as sham treated animals. To conclude, acute orexigenic and hyperglycemic effects of T3 are associated with ghrelin secretion and activity. This effect seems to be mediated via vagus nerves, and is independent of glucoregulatory hormones. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. The effect of normobaric hypoxic confinement on metabolism, gut hormones and body composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor B. Mekjavic

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To assess the effect of normobaric hypoxia on metabolism, gut hormones and body composition, eleven normal weight, aerobically trained ( O2peak: 60.6±9.5 ml·kg-1·min-1 men (73.0±7.7 kg; 23.7±4.0 yrs, BMI 22.2±2.4 kg·m-2 were confined to a normobaric (altitude⋍940m normoxic (NORMOXIA; PIO2⋍133.2 mmHg or normobaric hypoxic (HYPOXIA; PIO was reduced from 105.6 to 97.7 mmHg over 10 days environment for 10 days in a randomized cross-over design. The wash-out period between confinements was 3 weeks. During each 10-day period, subjects avoided strenuous physical activity and were under continuous nutritional control. Before, and at the end of each exposure, subjects completed a meal tolerance test, during which blood glucose, insulin, GLP-1, ghrelin, peptide-YY, adrenaline, noradrenaline, leptin, and gastro-intestinal blood flow and appetite sensations were measured. There was no significant change in body weight in either of the confinements (NORMOXIA: -0.7±0.2 kg; HYPOXIA: -0.9±0.2 kg, but a significant increase in fat mass in NORMOXIA (0.23±0.45 kg, but not in HYPOXIA (0.08±0.08 kg. HYPOXIA confinement increased fasting noradrenaline and decreased energy intake, the latter most likely associated with increased fasting leptin. The majority of all other measured variables/responses were similar in NORMOXIA and HYPOXIA. To conclude, normobaric hypoxic confinement without exercise training results in negative energy balance due to primarily reduced energy intake.

  6. Effects of experimentally induced mild hyperthyroidism on growth hormone and insulin secretion and sex steroid levels in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovejoy, J C; Smith, S R; Bray, G A; Veldhuis, J D; Rood, J C; Tulley, R

    1997-12-01

    Although triiodothyronine (T3) exerts major regulatory actions in both animals and humans, most clinical studies of T3 administration have been relatively short-term. The present study examined the effects of more than 2 months (63 days) of low-dose T3 treatment on overnight pulsatile growth hormone (GH) secretion, short-term insulin secretion, and of sex steroid levels in seven healthy, lean men studied at an inpatient metabolic unit. At baseline, there were strong correlations between sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and several measures of GH production, including total GH production (r = .99), GH interburst interval (r = -.75), and GH mass (r = .82). SHBG was also inversely correlated with basal insulin secretion (r = -.74). There was a 42% increase in serum levels of total testosterone (18.5 +/- 1.3 to 26.3 +/- 1.8 nmol/L, P = .005) and a 150% increase in SHBG (18.0 +/- 2.2 to 44.9 +/- 7.0 nmol/L, P = .008) following T3 treatment. Estradiol and free testosterone levels were unchanged by treatment, although free testosterone decreased from 142.8 +/- 18.4 to 137.3 +/- 19.5 pmol/L. T3 treatment significantly reduced the GH interburst interval (P secretion. There were no statistically significant effects of T3 treatment on insulin secretion, although insulin peak amplitude, mass secreted per burst, and total production all decreased. We conclude that experimentally induced T3 excess in healthy men produces significant and sustained changes in sex hormone levels and GH secretion. Furthermore, there are strong associations between SHBG and both GH and insulin secretion independent of thyroid hormone excess that require additional study.

  7. The VGF-Derived Neuropeptide TLQP-21 Shows No Impact on Hormone Secretion in the Isolated Perfused Rat Pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte Bayer; Svendsen, B; Holst, Jens Juul

    2015-01-01

    investigated the impact of TLQP-21 on insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin secretion in the perfused rat pancreas. We found that administration of 5 and 50 nM TLQP-21 had no impact on pancreatic hormone secretion at 3.5 or 8 mM glucose levels. Increasing TLQP-21 (200 nM) and glucose concentration (3.5 and 16 m...

  8. Impact of Metabolic Hormones Secreted in Human Breast Milk on Nutritional Programming in Childhood Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badillo-Suárez, Pilar Amellali; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Nieves-Morales, Xóchitl

    2017-09-01

    Obesity is the most common metabolic disease whose prevalence is increasing worldwide. This condition is considered a serious public health problem due to associated comorbidities such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Perinatal morbidity related to obesity does not end with birth; this continues affecting the mother/infant binomial and could negatively impact on metabolism during early infant nutrition. Nutrition in early stages of growth may be essential in the development of obesity in adulthood, supporting the concept of "nutritional programming". For this reason, breastfeeding may play an important role in this programming. Breast milk is the most recommended feeding for the newborn due to the provided benefits such as protection against obesity and diabetes. Health benefits are based on milk components such as bioactive molecules, specifically hormones involved in the regulation of food intake. Identification of these molecules has increased in recent years but its action has not been fully clarified. Hormones such as leptin, insulin, ghrelin, adiponectin, resistin, obestatin and insulin-like growth factor-1 copeptin, apelin, and nesfatin, among others, have been identified in the milk of normal-weight women and may influence the energy balance because they can activate orexigenic or anorexigenic pathways depending on energy requirements and body stores. It is important to emphasize that, although the number of biomolecules identified in milk involved in regulating food intake has increased considerably, there is a lack of studies aimed at elucidating the effect these hormones may have on metabolism and development of the newborn. Therefore, we present a state-of-the-art review regarding bioactive compounds such as hormones secreted in breast milk and their possible impact on nutritional programming in the infant, analyzing their functions in appetite regulation.

  9. Dopamine-regulated adrenocorticotropic hormone secretion in lactating rats: functional plasticity of melanotropes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oláh, Márk; Fehér, Pálma; Ihm, Zsófia; Bácskay, Ildikó; Kiss, Timea; Freeman, Marc E; Nagy, Gyorgy M; Vecsernyés, Miklós

    2009-01-01

    Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) is processed to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and beta-lipotropin in corticotropes of the anterior lobe, and to alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) and beta-endorphin in melanotropes of the intermediate lobe (IL) of the pituitary gland. While ACTH secretion is predominantly under the stimulatory influence of the hypothalamic factors, hormone secretion of the IL is tonically inhibited by neuroendocrine dopamine (NEDA) neurons. Lobe-specific POMC processing is not absolute. For example, D(2) type DA receptor (D2R)-deficient mice have elevated plasma ACTH levels, although it is known that corticotropes do not express D2R(s). Moreover, observations that suckling does not influence alpha-MSH release, while it induces an increase in plasma ACTH is unexplained. The aim of the present study was to investigate the involvement of the NEDA system in the regulation of ACTH secretion and the participation of the IL in ACTH production in lactating rats. Untreated and estradiol (E(2))-substituted ovariectomized (OVX) females were also studied. The concentration of ACTH in the IL was higher in lactating rats than in OVX rats, while the opposite change in alpha-MSH level of the IL was observed. DA levels in the IL and the neural lobe were lower in lactating rats than in OVX rats. Suckling-induced ACTH response was eliminated by pretreatment with the DA receptor agonist, bromocriptine (BRC). Inhibition of DA biosynthesis by alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine (alphaMpT) and blockade of D2R by domperidone (DOM) elevated plasma ACTH levels, but did not influence plasma alpha-MSH levels in lactating rats. The same drugs had opposite effects in OVX and OVX + E(2) animals. In lactating mothers, BRC was able to block ACTH responses induced by both alphaMpT and DOM. Surgical denervation of the IL elevated basal plasma levels of ACTH. Taken together, these data indicate that melanotropes synthesize ACTH during lactation and its release from these cells is

  10. Studies on the relationship between leptin secretion and several pregnancy-related hormones during pregnancy in the golden hamster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chen; Yang Liguo; Gen Watanabe; Kazuyoshi Taya

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To determine the relationships between leptin secretion and several pregnancy related hormones, the body weight as well as food intaken in the golden hamster during pregnancy and early lactation. Methods: 100 golden hamsters were mated and divided into 16 groups. Blood specimens were taken at 11:00 daily and were determined for plasma leptin, growth hormone (GH), follicular stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), progesterone estradiol and inhibin with RIA. Relationships between leptin level and food intake as well as material body weight were also noted. Results: A plasma leptin peak level occurred on day 12 of the pregnancy. Leptin levels were significantly correlated with levels of gonadal hormones but not with pituitary hormones. Food intake and material total body weight (including the fetus) bore no significant correlationship with plasma leptin throughout the whole pregnancy stage. However, if the fetus weight was subtracted, the net maternal body weight would be significantly correlated with the leptin concentration. Conclusion: These results suggest that leptin-resistance may exits in the golden hamster during pregnancy. Some pregnancy-related hormones, especially gonadal hormones, have regulatory effect on the secretion of leptin. Positive correlation between leptin and net maternal body weight suggests that leptin is still a signal of the body weight to the central nerves system during pregnancy

  11. Clinical applications of somatostatin analogs for growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang JW

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ji-wen Wang,1,2 Ying Li,3 Zhi-gang Mao,1,2 Bin Hu,1,2 Xiao-bing Jiang,1,2 Bing-bing Song,4 Xin Wang,4 Yong-hong Zhu,4 Hai-jun Wang1,21Department of Neurosurgery and Pituitary Tumor Center, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, 2Key Laboratory of Pituitary Adenoma in Guangdong Province, 3State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, 4Department of Histology and Embryology, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: Excessive growth hormone (GH is usually secreted by GH-secreting pituitary adenomas and causes gigantism in juveniles or acromegaly in adults. The clinical complications involving cardiovascular, respiratory, and metabolic systems lead to elevated morbidity in acromegaly. Control of serum GH and insulin-like growth factor (IGF 1 hypersecretion by surgery or pharmacotherapy can decrease morbidity. Current pharmacotherapy includes somatostatin analogs (SAs and GH receptor antagonist; the former consists of lanreotide Autogel (ATG and octreotide long-acting release (LAR, and the latter refers to pegvisomant. As primary medical therapy, lanreotide ATG and octreotide LAR can be supplied in a long-lasting formulation to achieve biochemical control of GH and IGF-1 by subcutaneous injection every 4–6 weeks. Lanreotide ATG and octreotide LAR provide an effective medical treatment, whether as a primary or secondary therapy, for the treatment of GH-secreting pituitary adenoma; however, to maximize benefits with the least cost, several points should be emphasized before the application of SAs. A comprehensive assessment, especially of the observation of clinical predictors and preselection of SA treatment, should be completed in advance. A treatment process lasting at least 3 months should be implemented to achieve a long-term stable blood concentration. More satisfactory surgical outcomes for noninvasive macroadenomas treated

  12. Effects of chewing on appetite, food intake and gut hormones: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miquel-Kergoat, Sophie; Azais-Braesco, Veronique; Burton-Freeman, Britt; Hetherington, Marion M

    2015-11-01

    To seek insights into the relationship between chewing, appetite, food intake and gut hormones, and to consider potentially useful recommendations to promote benefits of chewing for weight management. Papers were obtained from two electronic databases (Medline and Cochrane), from searches of reference lists, and from raw data collected from the figures in the articles. A total of 15 papers were identified that detailed 17 trials. All 15 papers were included in the systematic review; however, a further five studies were excluded from the meta-analysis because appropriate information on hunger ratings was not available. The meta-analysis was conducted on a total of 10 papers that detailed 13 trials. Five of 16 experiments found a significant effect of chewing on satiation or satiety using self-report measures (visual analogue scales, VASs). Ten of 16 experiments found that chewing reduced food intake. Three of five studies showed that increasing the number of chews per bite increased relevant gut hormones and two linked this to subjective satiety. The meta-analysis found evidence of both publication bias and between study heterogeneity (IA(2) = 93.4%, tau(2) = 6.52, p chewing. Prolonged mastication significantly reduces self-reported hunger levels (hunger: − 2.31 VAS point, 95% CI [− 4.67, − 1.38], p chewing may decrease self-reported hunger and food intake, possibly through alterations in gut hormone responses related to satiety. Although preliminary, the results identify a need for additional research in the area. Focused, uniform, experimental designs are required to clearly understand the relationships that exist between mastication, appetite, satiety, food intake and, ultimately, body weight.

  13. Leptine: an hormone secreted by adipose tissue. First study in Uruguayan population sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisabarro, Raul; Irrazabal, Ernesto; Recalde, Alicia; Barrios, Enrique; Arocena, Beatriz; Garcia Loriente, Jose Maria; Lorenzo Bonifazio, Juan

    1999-01-01

    The recent discovery of leptine, an hormone secreted by adipose tissue which modulates the energetic expenditure has signified a gigantic advance in studying obesity facts. In spite of a recent description of absence of leptine in humans, the obesity human model answers to leptine resistance. In this paper, we revise the actual concepts and show leptine values of a sample of 101 middle aged uruguayans, male and female, of normal weight and over weighted (table 1), correlated with corporal mass index (CMI) as an indirect measure of total body fat and waist diameter as an indirect measure of visceral fat, and hips (periferical fat). Bioimpedance studies were carried out to get the corporal composition. Results: good correlation between corporal fat and leptine, but fat distribution was not found representative. All in all, this data set confirms the correlation between leptine and total body fat mass

  14. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion: Revisiting a classical endocrine disorder

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    Binu P Pillai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyponatremia occurs in about 30% of hospitalized patients and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH is a common cause of hyponatremia. SIADH should be differentiated from other causes of hyponatremia like diuretic therapy, hypothyroidism and hypocortisolism. Where possible, all attempts should be made to identify and rectify the cause of SIADH. The main problem in SIADH is fluid excess, and hyponatremia is dilutional in nature. Fluid restriction is the main stay in the treatment of SIADH; however, cerebral salt wasting should be excluded in the clinical setting of brain surgeries, subarachnoid hemorrhage, etc. Fluid restriction in cerebral salt wasting can be hazardous. Sodium correction in chronic hyponatremia (onset >48 hours should be done slowly to avoid deleterious effects in brain.

  15. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone and Cortisol Secretion Changes among the Law Enforcement Personnel during the Mission to the Areas of Armed Conflicts

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    Roman V. Koubassov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol changes among law enforcement personnel during mission to the areas of armed conflicts were studied. At the beginning of the mission an increase of all hormones was detected, which corresponded to basic points of general adaptation syndrome theory. A further investigation revealed an imbalance of hormonal secretions in the hypophysis-adrenal system. Such an imbalance can lead to disregulation of interhormonal relations and can be a factor in decreasing the organism’s stress resistance.

  16. Development of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone-Secreting Neurons from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

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    Carina Lund

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH neurons regulate human puberty and reproduction. Modeling their development and function in vitro would be of interest for both basic research and clinical translation. Here, we report a three-step protocol to differentiate human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs into GnRH-secreting neurons. Firstly, hPSCs were differentiated to FOXG1, EMX2, and PAX6 expressing anterior neural progenitor cells (NPCs by dual SMAD inhibition. Secondly, NPCs were treated for 10 days with FGF8, which is a key ligand implicated in GnRH neuron ontogeny, and finally, the cells were matured with Notch inhibitor to bipolar TUJ1-positive neurons that robustly expressed GNRH1 and secreted GnRH decapeptide into the culture medium. The protocol was reproducible both in human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells, and thus provides a translational tool for investigating the mechanisms of human puberty and its disorders.

  17. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion induced by the phytotherapy Harpagophytum procumbers: case report

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    Renata Reis Carvalho

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH is the inability of antidiuretic hormone (ADH suppression, compromising the mechanisms of water excretion and urinary concentration. It manifests as hyponatremia and its symptoms, especially neurological. There are many causes that trigger such disease, notably: central nervous system disorders, malignant neoplasm, drugs and others. Case Report: A 65 years female hypertensive patient presented clinical and laboratory manifestations of hyponatremia due to SIADH. It happened twice under use of herbal medication for osteoarthritis treatment. Discussion: The drug-related hyponatremia can be triggered by direct effect of the drug or by association with SIADH. The clinical manifestations presented could have been related to psychiatric condition and may have severe outcome if not properly diagnosed. The association of an herbal medicine to SIADH could be confirmed after a new episode of hyponatremia related to Harpagophytum procumbers reintroduction. Our literature review did not find this herbal medicine associated with SIADH, so far. Conclusion: SIADH may be caused by herbal medicine described from now on their association in the literature.

  18. Insulin Secretion and Incretin Hormone Concentration in Women with Previous Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

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    Sung Hoon Yu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundWe examined the change in the levels of incretin hormone and effects of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1 on insulin secretion in women with previous gestational diabetes (pGDM.MethodsA 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT was conducted on 34 women with pGDM. In addition, 11 women with normal glucose tolerance, matched for age, height and weight, were also tested. The insulin, GIP, GLP-1, and glucagon concentrations were measured, and their anthropometric and biochemical markers were also measured.ResultsAmong 34 women with pGDM, 18 had normal glucose tolerance, 13 had impaired glucose tolerance (IGT and 1 had diabetes. No significant differences were found in GLP-1 concentration between the pGDM and control group. However, a significantly high level of glucagon was present in the pGDM group at 30 minutes into the OGTT. The GIP concentration was elevated at 30 minutes and 60 minutes in the pGDM group. With the exception of the 30-minute timepoint, women with IGT had significantly high blood glucose from 0 to 120 minutes. However, there was no significant difference in insulin or GLP-1 concentration. The GIP level was significantly high from 0 to 90 minutes in patients diagnosed with IGT.ConclusionGLP-1 secretion does not differ between pGDM patients and normal women. GIP was elevated, but that does not seem to induce in increase in insulin secretion. Therefore, we conclude that other factors such as heredity and environment play important roles in the development of type 2 diabetes.

  19. Clinical applications of somatostatin analogs for growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas

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    Wang, Ji-wen; Li, Ying; Mao, Zhi-gang; Hu, Bin; Jiang, Xiao-bing; Song, Bing-bing; Wang, Xin; Zhu, Yong-hong; Wang, Hai-jun

    2014-01-01

    Excessive growth hormone (GH) is usually secreted by GH-secreting pituitary adenomas and causes gigantism in juveniles or acromegaly in adults. The clinical complications involving cardiovascular, respiratory, and metabolic systems lead to elevated morbidity in acromegaly. Control of serum GH and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) 1 hypersecretion by surgery or pharmacotherapy can decrease morbidity. Current pharmacotherapy includes somatostatin analogs (SAs) and GH receptor antagonist; the former consists of lanreotide Autogel (ATG) and octreotide long-acting release (LAR), and the latter refers to pegvisomant. As primary medical therapy, lanreotide ATG and octreotide LAR can be supplied in a long-lasting formulation to achieve biochemical control of GH and IGF-1 by subcutaneous injection every 4–6 weeks. Lanreotide ATG and octreotide LAR provide an effective medical treatment, whether as a primary or secondary therapy, for the treatment of GH-secreting pituitary adenoma; however, to maximize benefits with the least cost, several points should be emphasized before the application of SAs. A comprehensive assessment, especially of the observation of clinical predictors and preselection of SA treatment, should be completed in advance. A treatment process lasting at least 3 months should be implemented to achieve a long-term stable blood concentration. More satisfactory surgical outcomes for noninvasive macroadenomas treated with presurgical SA may be achieved, although controversy of such adjuvant therapy exists. Combination of SA and pegvisomant or cabergoline shows advantages in some specific cases. Thus, an individual treatment program should be established for each patient under a full evaluation of the risks and benefits. PMID:24421637

  20. Encephalitis associated with inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion due to chikungunya infection in Recife, State of Pernambuco, Brazil

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    Norma Lucena-Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract The symptoms of chikungunya virus (CHIKV infection include fever, headache, muscle aches, skin rash, and polyarthralgia, characterized by intense pain, edema, and temporary functional impairment. This is the first report of encephalitis caused by CHIKV infection associated with an atypical presentation of syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion, evolving to cognitive impairment and apraxia of speech.

  1. Dual control of pituitary thyroid stimulating hormone secretion by thyroxine and triiodothyronine in athyreotic patients

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    Hoermann, Rudolf; Midgley, John E. M.; Dietrich, Johannes W.; Larisch, Rolf

    2017-01-01

    Background: Patient responses to levothyroxine (LT4) monotherapy vary considerably. We sought to differentiate contributions of FT4 and FT3 in controlling pituitary thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) secretion. Methods: We retrospectively assessed the relationships between TSH and thyroid hormones in 319 patients with thyroid carcinoma through 2914 visits on various LT4 doses during follow-up for 5.5 years (median, IQR 4.2, 6.9). We also associated patient complaints with the relationships. Results: Under varying dose requirements (median 1.84 µg/kg, IQR 1.62, 2.11), patients reached TSH targets below 0.4, 0.1 or 0.01 mIU/l at 73%, 54% and 27% of visits. While intercept, slope and fit of linearity of the relationships between lnTSH and FT4/FT3 varied between individuals, gender, age, LT4 dose and deiodinase activity influenced the relationships in the cohort (all p < 0.001). Deiodinase activity impaired by LT4 dose significantly affected the lnTSH–FT4 relationship. Dose increase and reduced conversion efficiency displaced FT3–TSH equilibria. In LT4-treated patients, FT4 and FT3 contributed on average 52% versus 38%, and by interaction 10% towards TSH suppression. Symptomatic presentations (11%) accompanied reduced FT3 concentrations (–0.23 pmol/l, p = 0.001) adjusted for gender, age and BMI, their relationships being shifted towards higher TSH values at comparable FT3/FT4 levels. Conclusions: Variation in deiodinase activity and resulting FT3 levels shape the TSH–FT4 relationship in LT4-treated athyreotic patients, suggesting cascade control of pituitary TSH production by the two hormones. Consequently, measurement of FT3 and calculation of conversion efficiency may identify patients with impaired biochemistry and a resulting lack of symptomatic control. PMID:28794850

  2. IgA response in serum and gut secretion in sensitized mice fed with the dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus extract

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    Maciel M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Induced oral tolerance to mucosal-exposed antigens in immunized animals is of particular interest for the development of immunotherapeutic approaches to human allergic diseases. This is a unique feature of mucosal surfaces which represent the main contact interface with the external environment. However, the influence of oral tolerance on specific and natural polyreactive IgA antibodies, the major defense mechanism of the mucosa, is unknown. We have shown that oral administration of an extract of the dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp to primed mice caused down-regulation of IgE responses and an increase in tumor growth factor-ß secretion. In the present study, we observed that primed inbred female A/Sn mice (8 to 10 weeks old fed by gavage a total weight of 1.0-mg Dp extract on the 6th, 7th and 8th days post-immunization presented normal secretion of IL-4 and IL-10 in gut-associated lymphoid tissue and a decreased production of interferon gamma induced by Dp in the draining lymph nodes (13,340 ± 3,519 vs 29,280 ± 2,971 pg/ml. Mice fed the Dp extract also showed higher levels of serum anti-Dp IgA antibodies and an increase of IgA-secreting cells in mesenteric lymph nodes (N = 10, reflecting an increase in total fecal IgA antibodies (N = 10. The levels of secretory anti-Dp IgA antibodies increased after re-immunization regardless of Dp extract feeding. Oral tolerance did not interfere with serum or secretory IgA antibody reactivity related to self and non-self antigens. These results suggest that induction of oral tolerance to a Dp extract in sensitized mice triggered different regulatory mechanisms which inhibited the IgE response and stimulated systemic and secretory IgA responses, preserving the natural polyreactive IgA antibody production.

  3. Gut satiety hormones cholecystokinin and glucagon-like Peptide-17-36 amide mediate anorexia induction by trichothecenes T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, diacetoxyscirpenol and neosolaniol.

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    Zhang, Jie; Liu, Shengli; Zhang, Hua; Li, Yuanyuan; Wu, Wenda; Zhang, Haibin

    2017-11-15

    The food-borne trichothecene mycotoxins have been documented to cause human and animal food poisoning. Anorexia is a hallmark of the trichothecene mycotoxins-induced adverse effects. Type B trichothecenes have been previously demonstrated to elicit robust anorectic responses, and this response has been directly linked to secretion of the gut satiety hormones cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucagon-like peptide-1 7-36 amide (GLP-1). However, less is known about the anorectic effects and underlying mechanisms of the type A trichothecenes, including T-2 toxin (T-2), HT-2 toxin (HT-2), diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS), neosolaniol (NEO). The purpose of this study was to relate type A trichothecenes T-2, HT-2, DAS and NEO-induced anorectic response to changes plasma concentrations of CCK and GLP-1. Following both oral gavage and intraperitoneal (IP) administration of 1mg/kg bw T-2, HT-2, DAS and NEO evoked robust anorectic response and secretion of CCK and GLP-1. Elevations of plasma CCK markedly corresponded to anorexia induction by T-2, HT-2, DAS and NEO. Following oral exposure, plasma CCK was peaked at 6h, 6h, 2h, 2h and lasted up to 24h, 24h, > 6h, > 6h for T-2, HT-2, DAS and NEO, respectively. IP exposed to four toxins all induced elevation of CCK with peak point and duration at 6h and >24h, respectively. In contrast to CCK, GLP-1 was moderately elevated by these toxins. Following both oral and IP exposure, T-2 and HT-2 evoked plasma GLP-1 elevation with peak point and duration at 2h and 6h, respectively. Plasma GLP-1 was peaked at 2h and still increased at 6h for IP and oral administration with DAS and NEO, respectively. In conclusion, CCK plays a contributory role in anorexia induction but GLP-1 might play a lesser role in this response. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Novel Mechanism of Fatty Acid Sensing in Enteroendocrine Cells: Specific Structures in Oxo-Fatty Acids Produced by Gut Bacteria are Responsible for CCK Secretion in STC-1 Cells via GPR40.

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    Hira, Tohru; Ogasawara, Shono; Yahagi, Asuka; Kamachi, Minami; Li, Jiaxin; Nishimura, Saki; Sakaino, Masayoshi; Yamashita, Takatoshi; Kishino, Shigenobu; Ogawa, Jun; Hara, Hiroshi

    2018-06-25

    The secretion of gut hormones, such as cholecystokinin (CCK) is stimulated by fatty acids. Although a chain length-dependent mechanism has been proposed, other structural relationships to releasing activity remain unclear. We aimed to elucidate specific structures in fatty acids that are responsible for their CCK-releasing activity, and related sensing mechanisms in enteroendocrine cells. We examined CCK secretory activities in a murine CCK-producing cell line STC-1 by exposing the cells to various modified fatty acids produced by gut lactic acid bacteria. The effects of fatty acids on gastric emptying rate as a CCK-mediated function were examined using acetaminophen- and phenol red-methods in rats. Out of more than thirty octadecanoic (C18)-derived fatty acids tested, five oxo-fatty acids potently stimulated CCK secretion without cytotoxic effects in STC-1 cells. Three fatty acids had a distinct specific structure containing one double-bond, whereas the other two had two double-bonds, nearby an oxo residue. CCK secretion induced by representative fatty acids (10-oxo-trans-11-18:1 and 13-oxo-cis-9,cis-15-18:2) was attenuated by a fatty acid-receptor GPR40 antagonist. Oral administration of 13-oxo-cis-9,cis-15-18:2 lowered the gastric emptying rate in rats in a dose- and structure-dependent manner. These results revealed a novel fatty acid-sensing mechanism in enteroendocrine cells. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. The effect of Korean pine nut oil on in vitro CCK release, on appetite sensations and on gut hormones in post-menopausal overweight women

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    Hendriks Henk FJ

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Appetite suppressants may be one strategy in the fight against obesity. This study evaluated whether Korean pine nut free fatty acids (FFA and triglycerides (TG work as an appetite suppressant. Korean pine nut FFA were evaluated in STC-1 cell culture for their ability to increase cholecystokinin (CCK-8 secretion vs. several other dietary fatty acids from Italian stone pine nut fatty acids, oleic acid, linoleic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, and capric acid used as a control. At 50 μM concentration, Korean pine nut FFA produced the greatest amount of CCK-8 release (493 pg/ml relative to the other fatty acids and control (46 pg/ml. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind cross-over trial including 18 overweight post-menopausal women was performed. Subjects received capsules with 3 g Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis nut FFA, 3 g pine nut TG or 3 g placebo (olive oil in combination with a light breakfast. At 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180 and 240 minutes the gut hormones cholecystokinin (CCK-8, glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1, peptide YY (PYY and ghrelin, and appetite sensations were measured. A wash-out period of one week separated each intervention day. CCK-8 was higher 30 min after pine nut FFA and 60 min after pine nut TG when compared to placebo (p This study suggests that Korean pine nut may work as an appetite suppressant through an increasing effect on satiety hormones and a reduced prospective food intake.

  6. Growth retardation and reduced growth hormone secretion in cystic fibrosis. Clinical observations from three CF centers.

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    Ciro, D'Orazio; Padoan, Rita; Blau, Hannah; Marostica, Anna; Fuoti, Maurizio; Volpi, Sonia; Pilotta, Alba; Meyerovitch, Joseph; Sher, Daniel; Assael, Baroukh M

    2013-03-01

    Growth delay in cystic fibrosis is frequent and is usually the result of several interacting causes. It most often derives from severe respiratory impairment and severe malabsorption. There are however patients whose clinical condition is not severe enough to be held accountable for this phenomenon. We aimed at describing patients who showed growth delay, who were not affected by severe pulmonary disease or malabsorption and who, when tested, showed a reduced GH secretion after stimulation with conventional agents. We noticed a disproportionately large prevalence of growth hormone (GH) release deficit (GHRD) in pediatric cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. We examined all patients under our care in the period 2006-11, who were older than 5 and younger than 16 years old. We focussed on those who fell below the 3rd height percentile, or whose growth during the previous 18 months faltered by >2SD, and who did not present clinical conditions that could reasonably explain their failure to thrive. These patients were subjected to standard GH provocative tests. Out of 285 who matched the age criterion, 33 patients also matched the height percentile criterion. While 15/33 suffered clinical conditions that could reasonably explain their failure to thrive, 18/33 underwent GH release provocative tests and 12/18 showed a release deficit. We conclude that impaired GH secretion is more frequent among CF patients compared to the prevalence of GH deficiency in the general population and that GH release impairment may be an independent cause of growth delay in CF. Our findings are in agreement with recent studies that have described low GH levels in CF piglets and in neonates with CF [1]. Copyright © 2012 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Pivagabine decreases stress-related hormone secretion in women with hypothalamic amenorrhea.

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    Genazzani, A D; Stomati, M; Bersi, C; Luisi, S; Fedalti, M; Santuz, M; Esposito, G; Petraglia, F; Genazzani, A R

    2000-09-01

    Stress-induced neuroendocrine activities influence the regulation of endocrine glands and axes. Weight loss-related hypothalamic amenorrhea is a typical stress-induced physiopathological condition. It is characterized by increased adrenal cortex activation and by reduced GH, LH, FSH and gonadal steroid hormone levels. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of pivagabine, a neurotropic drug (1800 mg/day for 7 days) or placebo administration on ACTH, cortisol, GH, LH, FSH and PRL plasma levels in patients with hypothalamic amenorrhea related to weight loss. Hormonal parameters and the pulsatile release of cortisol (6-hour pulsatility, sampling every 10 minutes) were evaluated before and after 7 days of treatment. Pivagabine administration significantly reduced mean plasma ACTH (from 21.7+/-1.7 to 15.4+/-1.2 pg/ml, p<0.05) and cortisol levels (from 12.2+/-0.7 to 9.7+/-0.7 ng/ml, p<0.05) and increased GH levels (from 1.4+/-0.5 to 3.0+/-0.9 ng/ml, p<0.05). A significant reduction of cortisol pulse amplitude was observed (p<0.01) while no change in pulse frequency occurred. No changes were observed in placebo-treated subjects. LH, FSH and PRL levels were not modified by placebo or pivagabine administration. In conclusion, in patients with hypothalamic amenorrhea related to weight loss pivagabine induced a significant decrease of cortisol secretion and an increase of GH release by pivagabine administration, suggesting that this drug exerts a specific neuroendocrine modulatory role.

  8. Differential Secretion of Satiety Hormones With Progression of Obesity in JCR: LA-corpulent Rats

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    Parnell, Jill A.; Reimer, Raylene A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To characterize the gastrointestinal tract at the onset and in well-established obesity. Methods and Procedures Lean (+/?) and obese (cp/cp) male JCR:LA-cp rats lacking a functional leptin receptor were killed at 3.5 weeks and 9 months of age and plasma concentrations of satiety hormones determined. The small intestine, colon, and stomach were measured, weighed, and mRNA levels of satiety genes quantified. Results At the onset of obesity, obese rats had greater intestine, colon, and liver mass when adjusted for body weight compared to lean rats. Conversely, adult rats with established obesity had lower intestine and colon mass and length after adjustment for body weight. Early changes in gene expression included decreased ghrelin mRNA levels in stomach and increased peptide YY (PYY) mRNA levels in duodenum of young obese rats. After massive accumulation of adipose tissue had occurred, adult obese rats had increased proglucagon and ghrelin mRNA expression in the proximal intestine. In the distal small intestine, obese rats had lower proglucagon, ghrelin, and PYY mRNA levels. Finally, at the onset and in well-established obesity, obese rats had higher plasma insulin, amylin, glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and PYY, a finding, with the exception of insulin, unique to this model. Plasma total ghrelin levels were significantly lower at the onset of obesity and established obesity compared to the lean rats. Discussion Several defects are manifested in the obese gut early on in the disease before the accumulation of large excesses of body fat and represent potential targets for early intervention in obesity. PMID:18239578

  9. Direct suppressive effect of acute metabolic and respiratory alkalosis on parathyroid hormone secretion in the dog.

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    Lopez, Ignacio; Rodriguez, Mariano; Felsenfeld, Arnold J; Estepa, Jose Carlos; Aguilera-Tejero, Escolastico

    2003-08-01

    Acute alkalosis may directly affect PTH secretion. The effect of acute metabolic and respiratory alkalosis was studied in 20 dogs. PTH values were lower in the metabolic (5.6 +/- 0.8 pg/ml) and respiratory (1.8 +/- 0.6 pg/ml) alkalosis groups than in the control group (27 +/- 5 pg/ml). Acute alkalosis is an independent factor that decreases PTH values during normocalcemia and delays the PTH response to hypocalcemia. We recently showed that acute metabolic and respiratory acidosis stimulated PTH secretion. This study was designed to evaluate whether acute metabolic and respiratory alkalosis suppressed parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion. Three groups of 10 dogs were studied: control, acute metabolic alkalosis, and acute respiratory alkalosis. Metabolic alkalosis was induced with an infusion of sodium bicarbonate and respiratory alkalosis by hyperventilation. Calcium chloride was infused to prevent alkalosis-induced hypocalcemia during the first 60 minutes. During the next 30 minutes, disodium EDTA was infused to induce hypocalcemia and to evaluate the PTH response to hypocalcemia. Because the infusion of sodium bicarbonate resulted in hypernatremia, the effect of hypernatremia was studied in an additional group that received hypertonic saline. After 60 minutes of a normocalcemic clamp, PTH values were less (p respiratory (1.8 +/- 0.6 pg/ml) alkalosis groups than in the control group (27 +/- 5 pg/ml); the respective blood pH values were 7.61 +/- 0.01, 7.59 +/- 0.02, and 7.39 +/- 0.02. The maximal PTH response to hypocalcemia was similar among the three groups. However, the maximal PTH response was observed after a decrease in ionized calcium of 0.20 mM in the control group but not until a decrease of 0.40 mM in the metabolic and respiratory alkalosis groups. In contrast to the metabolic alkalosis group, hypernatremia (157 +/- 2 mEq/liter) in the hypertonic saline group was associated with an increased PTH value (46 +/- 4 pg/ml). Finally, the half-life of intact PTH

  10. A thyrotropin-secreting macroadenoma with positive growth hormone and prolactin immunostaining: A case report and literature review.

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    Kuzu, F; Bayraktaroğlu, T; Zor, F; G N, B D; Salihoğlu, Y S; Kalaycı, M

    2015-01-01

    Thyrotropin (thyroid stimulating hormone [TSH]) secreting pituitary adenomas (TSHoma) are rare adenomas presenting with hyperthyroidism due to impaired negative feedback of thyroid hormone on the pituitary and inappropriate TSH secretion. This article presents a case of TSH-secreting macroadenoma without any clinical hyperthyroidism symptoms accompanying immunoreaction with growth hormone (GH) and prolactin. A 36-year-old female patient was admitted with complaints of irregular menses and blurred vision. On physical exam, she had bitemporal hemianopsia defect. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evaluation showed suprasellar macroadenoma measuring 33 mm × 26 mm × 28 mm was detected on pituitary MRI. She had no hyperthyroidism symptoms clinically. Although free T4 and free T3 levels were elevated, TSH level was inappropriately within the upper limit of normal. Response to T3 suppression and thyrotropin releasing hormone-stimulation test was inadequate. Other pituitary hormones were normal. Transsphenoidal adenomectomy was performed due to parasellar compression findings. Immunohistochemically widespread reaction was observed with TSH, GH and prolactin in the adenoma. The patient underwent a second surgical procedure 2 months later due to macroscopic residual tumor, bitemporal hemianopsia and a suprasellar homogenous uptake with regular borders on indium-111 octreotide scintigraphy. After second surgery; due to ongoing symptoms and residual tumor, she was managed with octreotide and cabergoline treatment. On her follow-up with medical treatment, TSH and free T4 values were within normal limits. Although silent TSHomas are rare, they may arise with compression symptoms as in our case. The differential diagnosis of secondary hyperthyroidism should include TSHomas and thyroid hormone receptor resistance syndrome.

  11. Adrenal Gland Microenvironment and Its Involvement in the Regulation of Stress-induced Hormone Secretion during Sepsis.

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    Waldemar Kanczkowski

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Survival of all living organisms depends on maintenance of a steady state of homeostasis, which process relies on its ability to react and adapt to various physical and emotional threats. The defense against stress is executed by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the sympathetic-adrenal medullary system. Adrenal gland is a major effector organ of stress system. During stress adrenal gland rapidly respond with increased secretion of glucocorticoids and catecholamines into circulation, which hormones, in turn, affect metabolism, to provide acutely energy, vasculature to increase blood pressure and the immune system to prevent it from extensive activation. Sepsis resulting from microbial infections is a sustained and extreme example of stress situation. In many critical ill patients levels of both corticotropin-releasing hormone and adrenocorticotropin, two major regulators of adrenal hormone production, are suppressed. Levels of glucocorticoids however, remain normal or are elevated in these patients, suggesting a shift from central to local intraadrenal regulation of adrenal stress response. Among many mechanisms potentially involved in this process, reduced glucocorticoid metabolism and local intraadrenal activation of hormone production mediated by adrenocortical and chromaffin cell interactions, the adrenal vascular system and the immune-adrenal crosstalk play a key role. Consequently, any impairment in function of these systems, can ultimately affect adrenal stress response. The purpose of this mini review is to present and discuss recent advances in our understanding of the adrenal gland microenvironment, and its role in regulation of stress-induced hormone secretion.

  12. Acute motor and sensory axonal neuropathy-associated syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion

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    Weeraporn Srisung

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A 36-year-old man presented with a six week history of progressive ascending weakness. Physical examination showed generalized motor weakness, more severe in the lower extremities (LE, muscle wasting, absent LE reflexes, dysesthesia, and no cranial nerve involvement. Neurologic workup was consistent with acute motor and sensory axonal neuropathy (AMSAN, a variant of Guillain-Barre syndrome. Concomitantly on admission, serum chemistry panel showed a sodium (Na 115 mmol/L with normal kidney function. Urine showed Na <20 mmol/L, and specific gravity 1.045. Urine osmolality was not available initially. He received IV fluid for volume expansion. The Na did not significantly improve after he became euvolemic. Fluid restriction was then tried with mild improvement. Endocrine work-up ruled out hypothyroidism and adrenal insufficiency. Repeat labs showed serum Na 124 mmol/L, urine Na 191 mmol/L and urine Osm 531 mOsm, and the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH was diagnosed. Our case report suggests that SIADH should be high on the differential diagnosis for hyponatremia in patients with AMSAN, especially in the setting of euvolemia.

  13. Does priming with sex steroids improve the diagnosis of normal growth hormone secretion in short children?

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    Ashraf Soliman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is still controversy for priming with sex steroid before growth hormone (GH testing. Objective: We studied GH response to stimulation in 92 children >9 years with idiopathic short stature (height standard deviation score [HtSDS]-2. They were divided randomly into two groups. Children in Group 1 (n = 50 were primed with premarin in girls and testosterone in boys and those in Group 2 were not primed (n = 42. All children were tested using standard clonidine test and their serum insulin-like growth factor-I concentration (IGF-I. Additionally the growth and GH-IGF-I data of the two groups of children were compared with those for 32 short children (HtSDS 9 years. The peak GH response to clonidine provocation test did not differ before (n = 42 versus after 9 years (n = 32 of age. Conclusions: In this randomized study priming with sex steroids before GH testing did not significantly increase the yield of diagnosing short patients with normal GH secretion. In addition, GH response to provocation did not vary significantly between young (9 years short children.

  14. Irisin inhibition of growth hormone secretion in cultured tilapia pituitary cells.

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    Lian, Anji; Li, Xin; Jiang, Quan

    2017-01-05

    Irisin, the product of fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5) gene, is well-documented to be a regulator of energy metabolism. At present, not much is known about its biological function in non-mammalian species. In this study, a full-length tilapia FDNC5 was cloned and its tissue expression pattern has been confirmed. Based on the sequence obtained, we produced and purified recombinant irisin which could induce uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) gene expression in tilapia hepatocytes. Further, the rabbit polyclonal irisin antiserum was produced and its specificity was confirmed by antiserum preabsorption. In tilapia pituitary cells, irisin inhibited growth hormone (GH) gene expression and secretion and triggered rapid phosphorylation of Akt, Erk1/2, and p38 MAPK. Furthermore, irisin-inhibited GH mRNA expression could be prevented by inhibiting PI3K/Akt, MEK1/2, and p38 MAPK, respectively. Apparently, fish irisin can act directly at the pituitary level to inhibit GH transcript expression via multiple signaling pathways. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Hyperthyroidism and acromegaly due to a thyrotropin- and growth hormone-secreting pituitary tumor. Lack of hormonal response to bromocriptine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, H E; Linfoot, J A; Braunstein, G D; Kovacs, K; Young, R T

    1983-05-01

    A 47-year-old woman with acromegaly and hyperthyroidism was found to have an inappropriately normal serum thyrotropin level (1.5 to 2.5 microU/ml) that responded poorly to thyrotropin-releasing hormone but showed partial responsiveness to changes in circulating thyroid hormones. Serum alpha-subunit levels were high-normal and showed a normal response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone. Growth hormone and thyrotropin hypersecretion persisted despite radiotherapy and bromocriptine treatment. Selective trans-sphenoidal removal of a pituitary adenoma led to normalization of both growth hormone and thyrotropin levels. Both thyrotropes and somatotropes were demonstrated in the adenoma by the immunoperoxidase technique and electron microscopy.

  16. Studies on the mechanism of action of enterotoxin-induced fluid secretion in the gut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schirgi-Degen, A.

    1992-12-01

    The mechanism of action of Clostridium difficile enterotoxin A (CA), of Escherichia coli enterotoxin (STa) and of cholera toxin (CT), which are known to cause severe diarrhea, were studied in a preparation of ligated jejunal loops of anesthetized rats in vivo. The toxins were administered intraluminally. Pharmacological agents, which were tested for their potency to influence toxin-related effects, were administered subcutaneously. Net fluid transport was determined gravimetrically, prostaglandin (PG) E 2 -output into the lumen, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) contents in the mucosa were measured by radioimmunoassay, serotonin-(5-HT)-output into the lumen was determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The histopathological effects of CA and CT were examined by light- and scanning electron microscopy. All three toxins caused net fluid secretion (FS). 5-HT 2 -(ketanserin) and 5-HT 3 -receptor antagonists (tropisetron, ondansetron, granisetron) dose-dependently reduced or abolished CT- and STa-induced net FS, CA-induced net FS was not influenced. Indomethacin reduced CA-, CT- and STa-induced net FS. Elevation of PGE 2 -output occurred after exposure to CA and CT and was reduced by indomethacin. CA caused severe histopathological lesions and also CT time-dependently caused morphological changes, which may take part in the secretory response. It is concluded that 5-HT, using both 5-HT 2 - and 5-HT 3 -receptors, mediates CT- and STa, but not CA-induced FS. PGE 2 is involved in FS caused by all three toxins. CAMP and cGMP are presumedly no causative mediators of toxin-induced FS

  17. Effect of metabolic control on parathyroid hormone secretion in diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula F.J.A.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The metabolic derangement caused by diabetes mellitus may potentially affect bone mineral metabolism. In the present study we evaluated the effect of diabetes metabolic control on parathyroid hormone (PTH secretion during stimulation with EDTA infusion. The study was conducted on 24 individuals, 8 of them normal subjects (group N: glycated hemoglobin - HbA1C = 4.2 ± 0.2%; range = 3.5-5.0%, 8 patients with good and regular metabolic control (group G-R: HbA1C = 7.3 ± 0.4%; range = 6.0-8.5%, and 8 patients with poor metabolic control (group P: HbA1C = 12.5 ± 1.0%; range: 10.0-18.8%. Blood samples were collected at 10-min intervals throughout the study (a basal period of 30 min and a 2-h period of EDTA infusion, 30 mg/kg body weight and used for the determination of ionized calcium, magnesium, glucose and intact PTH. Basal ionized calcium levels were slightly lower in group P (1.19 ± 0.01 mmol/l than in group N (1.21 ± 0.01 mmol/l and group G-R (1.22 ± 0.01 mmol/l. After EDTA infusion, the three groups presented a significant fall in calcium, but with no significant difference among them at any time. Basal magnesium levels and levels determined during EDTA infusion were significantly lower (P<0.01 in group P than in group N. The induction of hypocalcemia caused an elevation in PTH which was similar in groups N and G-R but significantly higher than in group P throughout the infusion period (+110 min, N = 11.9 ± 2.1 vs G-R = 13.7 ± 1.6 vs P = 7.5 ± 0.7 pmol/l; P<0.05 for P vs N and G-R. The present results show that PTH secretion is impaired in patients with poorly controlled diabetes.

  18. Gamma irradiation effects on human growth hormone producing pituitary adenoma tissue. An analysis of morphology and hormone secretion in an in vitro model system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anniko, M [Karolinska sjukhuset, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology; Arndt, J [Karolinska sjukhuset, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Radiophysics, Radiumhemmet; Raehn, T [Karolinska sjukhuset, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Werner, S [Karolinska sjukhuset, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Endocrinology

    1982-01-01

    Irradiation-induced effects on pituitary cell morphology and secretion of growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) have been analysed using an in vitro system. Specimens for organ culture were were obtained from three patients with pituitary tumours causing acromegaly but with different clinical activity of disease. Specimens were followed in vitro 1 h - 6 days after single-dose gamma irradiation (/sup 60/Co) with 70 100 and 150 Gy, respectively. These doses are used in clinical work for the stereotactic radiosuregery of pituitary adenomas. Considerable fluctuations in hormone secretion/release occurred during the first 24h after irradiation. All three tumours showed individual differences concern ing irradiation-induced morphological damage. Only a minor variation occurred between specimens from the same tumour. An individual sensitivity to irradiation of pituitary tumours in vitro is documented. The great number of surviving pituitary tumour cells one week after irradiation-many with an intact ultrastructure and containing hormone granules-indicated an initial high degree of radioresistance.

  19. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) or hyponatraemia associated with valproic Acid : four case reports from the Netherlands and a case/non-case analysis of vigibase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beers, Erna; van Puijenbroek, Eugène P; Bartelink, Imke H; van der Linden, Carolien M J; Jansen, Paul A F

    The Netherlands Pharmacovigilance Centre Lareb received four cases of severe symptomatic hyponatraemia or syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) in association with valproic acid use, in which a causal relationship was suspected. This study describes these cases and gives

  20. Treatment of the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone by urea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaux, G; Brimioulle, S; Genette, F; Mockel, J

    1980-07-01

    Recent data have shown the role of urea in the urinary concentrating mechanism. We studied the effects of exogenous urea administration in hyponatremia associated with the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). In 20 patients with SIADH, we observed a positive correlation between serum sodium and blood urea levels (r = 0.65; p less than 0.01). In one patient with an oat cell carcinoma and SIADH-induced hyponatremia, we observed the same positive correlation (r = 0.80; p less than 0.01) but also a negative one between the excreted fraction of filtered sodium and urinary urea (r = -0.67; p less than 0.001). The short-term administration of low doses of urea (4 to 10 g) resulted in correcting the "salt-losing" tendency of this patient. Longer term administration of high doses of urea (30 g/day) was attempted with the same patient as well as with a healthy volunteer subject with Pitressin-induced SIADH. in both patients, urea treatment lowered urinary sodium excretion as long as hyponatremia was significant (less than 130 meq/liter). Urea treatment also induced a persistent osmotic diuresis, allowing a normal daily intake of water despite SIADH. This was clearly shown during the long-term treatment of a third patient with SIADH who was taking 30 g urea/day during 11 weeks. It is concluded that urea is a good alternative in the treatment of patients with SIADH who presented with persistent hyponatremia despite the restriction of water intake.

  1. Effects on steroid hormones secretion resulting from the acute stimulation of sectioning the superior ovarian nerve to pre-pubertal rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales-Ledesma Leticia

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the adult rat, neural signals arriving to the ovary via the superior ovarian nerve (SON modulate progesterone (P4, testosterone (T and estradiol (E2 secretion. The aims of the present study were to analyze if the SON in the pre-pubertal rat also modulates ovarian hormone secretion and the release of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and luteinizing (LH hormone. P4, T, E2, FSH and LH serum levels were measured 30 or 60 minutes after sectioning the SON of pre-pubertal female rats. Our results indicate that the effects on hormone levels resulting from unilaterally or bilaterally sectioning the SON depends on the analyzed hormone, and the time lapse between surgery and autopsy, and that the treatment yielded asymmetric results. The results also suggest that in the pre-pubertal rat the neural signals arriving to the ovaries via the SON regulate the enzymes participating in P4, T and E2 synthesis in a non-parallel way, indicating that the mechanisms regulating the synthesis of each hormone are not regulated by the same signals. Also, that the changes in the steroids hormones are not explained exclusively by the modifications in gonadotropins secretion. The observed differences in hormone levels between rats sacrificed 30 and 60 min after surgery reflect the onset of the compensatory systems regulating hormones secretion.

  2. Anxiety, Depression, and the Microbiome: A Role for Gut Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lach, Gilliard; Schellekens, Harriet; Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F

    2018-01-01

    The complex bidirectional communication between the gut and the brain is finely orchestrated by different systems, including the endocrine, immune, autonomic, and enteric nervous systems. Moreover, increasing evidence supports the role of the microbiome and microbiota-derived molecules in regulating such interactions; however, the mechanisms underpinning such effects are only beginning to be resolved. Microbiota-gut peptide interactions are poised to be of great significance in the regulation of gut-brain signaling. Given the emerging role of the gut-brain axis in a variety of brain disorders, such as anxiety and depression, it is important to understand the contribution of bidirectional interactions between peptide hormones released from the gut and intestinal bacteria in the context of this axis. Indeed, the gastrointestinal tract is the largest endocrine organ in mammals, secreting dozens of different signaling molecules, including peptides. Gut peptides in the systemic circulation can bind cognate receptors on immune cells and vagus nerve terminals thereby enabling indirect gut-brain communication. Gut peptide concentrations are not only modulated by enteric microbiota signals, but also vary according to the composition of the intestinal microbiota. In this review, we will discuss the gut microbiota as a regulator of anxiety and depression, and explore the role of gut-derived peptides as signaling molecules in microbiome-gut-brain communication. Here, we summarize the potential interactions of the microbiota with gut hormones and endocrine peptides, including neuropeptide Y, peptide YY, pancreatic polypeptide, cholecystokinin, glucagon-like peptide, corticotropin-releasing factor, oxytocin, and ghrelin in microbiome-to-brain signaling. Together, gut peptides are important regulators of microbiota-gut-brain signaling in health and stress-related psychiatric illnesses.

  3. Bariatric surgery, gut morphology and enteroendocrine cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carl Frederik

    40 hormones. In this PhD study, gut morphology and the population of endocrine cells have been examined in three rodent animal models using stereological techniques. First, in a rodent model of type-2 diabetes (T2DM), the Zucker diabetic fatty rat (ZDF), the population of endocrine L-cells...... to contribute to the positive effects of bariatic surgery but the mechanisms remain largely unknown. The endocrine cells of the gastrointestinal tract that produce and secrete hormones are difficult to examine as they are distributed as single cells. Several types of endocrine cells together produce more than...... and the gut morphology were quantified. The number of Lcells was 4.8 million in the normal rat and the L-cells were found to double in number in the diabetic ZDF rat model. Second, the L-cell population, gut morphology and endocrine cell gene expression were examined in a rodent model of Roux-en-Y gastric...

  4. Effect of gonadotropin secretion rate on the radiosensitivity of the rat luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone neuron and gonadotroph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winterer, J.; Barnes, K.M.; Lichter, A.S.; Deluca, A.M.; Loriaux, D.L.; Cutler, G.B. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that the functional state of hypothalamic LHRH neurons and pituitary gonadotrophs might alter their radiosensitivity, we determined the experimental conditions under which the gonadotropin response to castration could be impaired by a single dose of cranial irradiation. Single doses of cranial irradiation greater than 2000 rads were lethal to unshielded rats. Shielding of the oropharynx and esophagus allowed the animals to survive doses up to 5000 rads. Doses between 2000 and 5000 rads had no effect on basal gonadotropin levels for as long as 3 months after irradiation. Irradiation caused a dose- and time-dependent impairment, however, in the gonadotropin response to castration. Impairment of the gonadotropin levels of castrate animals occurred in animals that were irradiated either before or after castration. However, rats irradiated in the castrate state showed a decreased susceptibility to irradiation damage. Additionally, stimulation of the pituitary by LHRH agonist (LHRHa) 3 h before irradiation significantly reduced the impairment of gonadotropin secretion 12-20 weeks after irradiation (P less than 0.05). Thus, increased functional activity of the rat hypothalamus or pituitary at the time of irradiation, induced by either castration or acute LHRHa administration, was associated with some protection against the gonadotropin-lowering effect of irradiation. Based upon these data, we hypothesize that stimulation of gonadotropin secretion at the time of therapeutic cranial irradiation in humans might protect against subsequent impairment of gonadotropin secretion

  5. Gut Hormones, Appetite Suppression and Cachexia in Patients with Pulmonary TB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Suzanne W.; Pan, William S.; Lozano Beltran, Daniel; Oleyda Baldelomar, Lizet; Solano, Marco Antonio; Tuero, Iskra; Friedland, Jon S.; Torrico, Faustino; Gilman, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Cachexia is a hallmark of pulmonary tuberculosis and is associated with poor prognosis. A better understanding of the mechanisms behind such weight loss could reveal targets for therapeutic intervention. The role of appetite-regulatory hormones in tuberculosis is unknown. Methods and Findings 41 subjects with newly-diagnosed pulmonary TB (cases) were compared to 82 healthy controls. We measured appetite, body mass index (BMI), % body fat (BF), plasma peptide YY (PYY), leptin, ghrelin, and resistin for all subjects. Measurements were taken at baseline for controls and at treatment days 0, 30, and 60 for cases. Baseline appetite, BMI, and BF were lower in cases than in controls and improved during treatment. PYY, ghrelin, and resistin were significantly elevated in cases and fell during treatment. Leptin was lower in cases and rose with treatment. Appetite was inversely related to PYY in cases. High pre-treatment PYY predicted reduced gains in appetite and BF. PYY was the strongest independent predictor of appetite in cases across all time points. Conclusions Appetite-regulatory hormones are altered in TB patients. As hormones normalize during treatment, appetite is restored and nutritional status improves. High baseline PYY is an indicator of poor prognosis for improvement in appetite and nutrition during treatment. Wasting in TB patients may partly be mediated by upregulation of PYY with resulting appetite suppression. PMID:23358528

  6. Evidence for inhibition of steroid hormone secretion by arginine vasotocin (AVT) in tissue culture of isolated ovarian follicular cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoklosowa, S.; Gregoraszczuk, E.; Galas, J. [Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Cracow (Poland); Rzasa, J. [Akademia Rolnicza, Cracow (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    Two follicular compartments, granulosa (G) and theca interna (T) cells isolated from porcine ovaries were cultured alone or in co-culture (GT). Cells were grown as monolayers in a control medium without hormone and in a media supplemented with arginine-vasotocin (AVT) at a concentration of either 10{sup -7} M or 2x10{sup -7} M. Progesterone (P4), estrogen (E2) and androgen (A) concentrations in the culture media were taken as measures of the effect of AVT on the function of follicular cells. Steroids were analyzed by radioimmunoassay. AVT action in this culture system was expressed as a decrease in progesterone secretion by cultures of granulosa cells alone, and specially as a change in the pattern of estradiol and androgen secretion by co-cultures. Control T and G cells cultured alone secreted small amounts of A (238.0 pg/10{sup 5} cells, respectively), and E2 (272.5 pg/10{sup 5} cells, 10.6 pg/10{sup 5} cells, respectively) while in co-culture these two cell types interacted and the result of this positive interaction was a significant increase in secretion of these two steroids (941.0 pg/10{sup 5} cell androgen secretion and 854.1 pg/10{sup 5} cells estradiol secretion). This phenomenon is similar to that observed in the intact follicle `in vivo`. AVT introduced to the culture medium impaired the effect of this positive interaction of mixed G and T cells on the production of high levels of E2 and A by untreated co-cultures. (author). 37 refs, 9 figs, 1 tab.

  7. Evidence for inhibition of steroid hormone secretion by arginine vasotocin (AVT) in tissue culture of isolated ovarian follicular cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoklosowa, S.; Gregoraszczuk, E.; Galas, J.; Rzasa, J.

    1994-01-01

    Two follicular compartments, granulosa (G) and theca interna (T) cells isolated from porcine ovaries were cultured alone or in co-culture (GT). Cells were grown as monolayers in a control medium without hormone and in a media supplemented with arginine-vasotocin (AVT) at a concentration of either 10 -7 M or 2x10 -7 M. Progesterone (P4), estrogen (E2) and androgen (A) concentrations in the culture media were taken as measures of the effect of AVT on the function of follicular cells. Steroids were analyzed by radioimmunoassay. AVT action in this culture system was expressed as a decrease in progesterone secretion by cultures of granulosa cells alone, and specially as a change in the pattern of estradiol and androgen secretion by co-cultures. Control T and G cells cultured alone secreted small amounts of A (238.0 pg/10 5 cells, respectively), and E2 272.5 pg/10 5 cells, 10.6 pg/10 5 cells, respectively) while in co-culture these two cell types interacted and the result of this positive interaction was a significant increase in secretion of these two steroids (941.0 pg/10 5 cell androgen secretion and 854.1 pg/10 5 cells estradiol secretion). This phenomenon is similar to that observed in the intact follicle 'in vivo'. AVT introduced to the culture medium impaired the effect of this positive interaction of mixed G and T cells on the production of high levels of E2 and A by untreated co-cultures. (author). 37 refs, 9 figs, 1 tab

  8. Secretion of biologically active glycoforms of bovine follicle stimulating hormone in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirnberger, D.; Steinkellner, H.; Abdennebi, L.; Remy, J.J.; Wiel, van de D.

    2001-01-01

    We chose the follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), a pituitary heterodimeric glycoprotein hormone, as a model to assess the ability of the plant cell to express a recombinant protein that requires extensive N-glycosylation for subunit folding and assembly, intracellular trafficking, signal

  9. The effects of melatonin on bovine uniparental embryos development in vitro and the hormone secretion of COCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shujuan Wang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin is a unique multifunctional molecule that mediates reproductive functions in animals. In this study, we investigated the effects of melatonin on bovine parthenogenetic and androgenetic embryonic development, oocyte maturation, the reactive oxygen species (ROS levels in parthenogenetic and androgenetic embryos and cumulus—oocyte complexes (COCs hormone secretion with melatonin supplementation at four concentrations (0, 10, 20, and 30 pmol/mL, respectively. The results showed that melatonin significantly promoted the rates of bovine parthenogenetic and androgenetic embryonic cleavage and morula and blastocysts development (P < 0.05. The rate of cleavage was higher in the androgenetic embryo than that in the parthenogenetic embryo. Compared with the parthenogenetic embryos, the androgenetic embryos had a poor developmental competence from morula to blastocyst stage. Moreover, the levels of ROS were significantly lower in the parthenogenetic and androgenetic embryoes with melatonin-treated group than that of the control group (P < 0.05. Melatonin supplemented significantly increased the maturation rate of oocyte in vitro (P < 0.05. More importantly, melatonin significantly promoted the secretion of progesterone and estradiol by COCs (P < 0.05. To reveal the regulatory mechanism of melatonin on steroids synthesis, we found that steroidogenic genes (CYP11A1, CYP19A1 and StAR were upregulated, suggesting that melatonin regulated estradiol and progesterone secretion through mediating the expression of steroidogenic genes (CYP11A1, CYP19A1 and StAR. In addition, MT1 and MT2 were identified in bovine early parthenogenetic and androgenetic embryos using western blot. It could be concluded that melatonin had beneficial effects on bovine oocyte in vitro maturation, COC hormone secretion, early development of subsequent parthenogenetic and androgenetic embryos. It is inferred that melatonin could be used to enhance the efficiency of in

  10. Increasing doses of fiber do not influence short-term satiety or food intake and are inconsistently linked to gut hormone levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly J. Willis

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: People who eat more fiber often have a lower body weight than people who eat less fiber. The mechanism for this relationship has been explained, in part, by increased satiety, which may occur as a result of changes in appetite-suppressing gut hormone levels, and decreases in food intake at subsequent meals. Objective: We hypothesized that increasing doses of mixed fiber, consumed in muffins for breakfast, would proportionally influence satiety, gut hormone levels, and subsequent food intake. Design: This was a randomized, double-blind, crossover study. Healthy men (n=10 and women (n=10 with a BMI of 24±2 (mean±SEM participated in this study. Fasting subjects consumed a muffin with 0, 4, 8, or 12 g of mixed fibers and approximately 500 kcal. Visual analog scales rated hunger and satiety for 3 h; blood was drawn to measure ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1, and peptide YY3–36 (PYY3–36 at various intervals; and food intake was measured at an ad libitum lunch. Results: Responses to satiety-related questions did not differ among treatments. However, despite lack of differences in satiety, gut hormone levels differed among treatments. Ghrelin was higher after the 12 g fiber dose than after the 4 and 8 g fiber doses. GLP-1 was higher after the 0 g fiber dose than after the 12 and 4 g fiber doses, and PYY3–36 did not differ among fiber doses. Food intake was also indistinguishable among doses. Conclusion: Satiety, gut hormone response, and food intake did not change in a dose-dependent manner after subjects consumed 0, 4, 8, and 12 g of mixed fiber in muffins for breakfast.

  11. Metastatic Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma Secreting Thyroid Hormone and Radioiodine Avid without Stimulation: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed A. Abid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This is an extremely rare case of a patient with metastatic follicular thyroid cancer who continued to produce thyroid hormone and was iodine scan positive without stimulation after thyroidectomy and radioiodine (I-131 therapy. Patient Findings. A 76-year-old Caucasian male was diagnosed with metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma on lung nodule biopsy. Total thyroidectomy was performed and he was ablated with 160 mCi of I-131 after recombinant human thyrotropin (rhTSH stimulation. Whole body scan (WBS after treatment showed uptake in bilateral lungs, right sacrum, and pelvis. The thyroglobulin decreased from 2,063 to 965 four months after treatment but rapidly increased to 2,506 eleven months after I-131. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH remained suppressed and free T4 remained elevated after I-131 therapy without thyroid hormone supplementation. He was treated with an additional 209 mCi with WBS findings positive in lung and pelvis. Despite I-131, new metastatic lesions were noted in the left thyroid bed and large destructive lesion to the first cervical vertebrae four months after the second I-131 dose. Conclusions. This case is exceptional because of its rarity and also due to the dissociation between tumor differentiation and aggressiveness. The metastatic lesions continued to secrete thyroid hormone and remained radioiodine avid with rapid progression after I-131 therapy.

  12. Simultaneous dynamic study of gastric emptying and changes of serum levels of gut hormones in patients after peptic ulcer surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obradovic, V. B.; Artiko, V.; Petrovic, N.S.; Petrovic, M. N.; Stefanovic, B. M.

    2006-01-01

    The aim was to examine the influence of different modalities of peptic ulcer surgery on the gastric emptying (GE) pattern and related serum level changes of selected gut hormones. Fifty eight subjects were examined. In 48 of them peptic ulcer surgery was performed at least six months before the examination: Billroth I (B1) in 11, Billroth II (B2) in 16, B1 with the selective vagotomy - Harkins 1 (H1) in 9 and B2 with the selective vagotomy - Harkins 2 (H2) in 12. Ten healthy volunteers (C) were also examined. The results of gastric emptying showed that the lag phase duration was inversely related to the GE rates, and the GE pattern was linear in both controls (C) and in operated patients, except in B2 group, in which the GE pattern was exponential. In comparison with C group, GE was slower in B1, H1 and H2 groups, and faster in B2 group. The plasma gastrin values in C group, showing two peaks, were higher in relation to other groups. In relation to C group, higher values of motilyn were obtained in patients after the selective vagotomy. The plasma somatostatin values recorded in B1 and H1 groups, showing the marked peaks, were higher in relation to C group. In relation to C group the highest plasma neurotensin values were obtained in B2 group. In order to understand entirely the influence of peptic ulcer surgery on the GI function, further research of the role of specific hormones and neuropeptides is needed, which would enable more precise selection of the therapy in order to prevent postvagotomy and postgastrectomy syndromes. (author)

  13. Effect of reducing portion size at a compulsory meal on later energy intake, gut hormones, and appetite in overweight adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Hannah B; Ahern, Amy L; Solis-Trapala, Ivonne; Walker, Celia G; Reimann, Frank; Gribble, Fiona M; Jebb, Susan A

    2015-07-01

    Larger portion sizes (PS) are associated with greater energy intake (EI), but little evidence exists on the appetitive effects of PS reduction. This study investigated the impact of reducing breakfast PS on subsequent EI, postprandial gastrointestinal hormone responses, and appetite ratings. In a randomized crossover design (n = 33 adults; mean BMI 29 kg/m(2) ), a compulsory breakfast was based on 25% of gender-specific estimated daily energy requirements; PS was reduced by 20% and 40%. EI was measured at an ad libitum lunch (240 min) and snack (360 min) and by weighed diet diaries until bed. Blood was sampled until lunch in 20 participants. Appetite ratings were measured using visual analogue scales. EI at lunch (control: 2,930 ± 203; 20% reduction: 2,853 ± 198; 40% reduction: 2,911 ± 179 kJ) and over the whole day except breakfast (control: 7,374 ± 361; 20% reduction: 7,566 ± 468; 40% reduction: 7,413 ± 417 kJ) did not differ. Postprandial PYY, GLP-1, GIP, insulin, and fullness profiles were lower and hunger, desire to eat, and prospective consumption higher following 40% reduction compared to control. Appetite ratings profiles, but not hormone concentrations, were associated with subsequent EI. Smaller portions at breakfast led to reductions in gastrointestinal hormone secretion but did not affect subsequent energy intake, suggesting small reductions in portion size may be a useful strategy to constrain EI. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  14. [Influence of nutrition on hormone secretion. I. Study in Agua Preta (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, N; Guimarães, E D; Aguiar, F; Viana, T; Matos, E; Basto de Medeiros, R; Martins, G C; Bazante, M O; Pimenta, P P

    1975-01-01

    A positive correlation between the circulating growth hormone levels and the nutritional status was reported in 9 children of both sexes, aged 1 to 6 years, suffering from 2nd degree malnutrition. The mean serum insulin levels, the mean urinary 17-KS and 17-OHCS levels were low before the dietary therapy. No significant correlation between the levels of these hormones and the nutritional status was found. The hormone levels gradually returned to normal after the dietary therapy and the nutritional status of the children improved, according to the observed biochemical, clinical and anthropometric data.

  15. Regulation of glucagon secretion by incretins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens Juul; Christensen, M; Lund, A

    2011-01-01

    Glucagon secretion plays an essential role in the regulation of hepatic glucose production, and elevated fasting and postprandial plasma glucagon concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) contribute to their hyperglycaemia. The reason for the hyperglucagonaemia is unclear, but recent...... studies have shown lack of suppression after oral but preserved suppression after isoglycaemic intravenous glucose, pointing to factors from the gut. Gastrointestinal hormones that are secreted in response to oral glucose include glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) that strongly inhibits glucagon secretion......, and GLP-2 and GIP, both of which stimulate secretion. When the three hormones are given together on top of isoglycaemic intravenous glucose, glucagon suppression is delayed in a manner similar to that observed after oral glucose. Studies with the GLP-1 receptor antagonist, exendin 9-39, suggest...

  16. Human longevity is characterised by high thyroid stimulating hormone secretion without altered energy metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, S. W.; Akintola, A. A.; Roelfsema, F.; van der Spoel, E.; Cobbaert, C. M.; Ballieux, B. E.; Egri, P.; Kvarta-Papp, Z.; Gereben, B.; Fekete, C.; Slagboom, P. E.; van der Grond, J.; Demeneix, B. A.; Pijl, H.; Westendorp, R. G. J.

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have included subjects with the propensity to reach old age in good health, with the aim to disentangle mechanisms contributing to staying healthier for longer. The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis maintains circulating levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroid hormone (TH) in an inverse relationship. Greater longevity has been associated with higher TSH and lower TH levels, but mechanisms underlying TSH/TH differences and longevity remain unknown. The HPT a...

  17. Type VI secretion systems of human gut Bacteroidales segregate into three genetic architectures, two of which are contained on mobile genetic elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Michael J; Roelofs, Kevin G; Comstock, Laurie E

    2016-01-15

    Type VI secretion systems (T6SSs) are contact-dependent antagonistic systems employed by Gram negative bacteria to intoxicate other bacteria or eukaryotic cells. T6SSs were recently discovered in a few Bacteroidetes strains, thereby extending the presence of these systems beyond Proteobacteria. The present study was designed to analyze in a global nature the diversity, abundance, and properties of T6SSs in the Bacteroidales, the most predominant Gram negative bacterial order of the human gut. By performing extensive bioinformatics analyses and creating hidden Markov models for Bacteroidales Tss proteins, we identified 130 T6SS loci in 205 human gut Bacteroidales genomes. Of the 13 core T6SS proteins of Proteobacteria, human gut Bacteroidales T6SS loci encode orthologs of nine, and an additional five other core proteins not present in Proteobacterial T6SSs. The Bacteroidales T6SS loci segregate into three distinct genetic architectures with extensive DNA identity between loci of a given genetic architecture. We found that divergent DNA regions of a genetic architecture encode numerous types of effector and immunity proteins and likely include new classes of these proteins. TheT6SS loci of genetic architecture 1 are contained on highly similar integrative conjugative elements (ICEs), as are the T6SS loci of genetic architecture 2, whereas the T6SS loci of genetic architecture 3 are not and are confined to Bacteroides fragilis. Using collections of co-resident Bacteroidales strains from human subjects, we provide evidence for the transfer of genetic architecture 1 T6SS loci among co-resident Bacteroidales species in the human gut. However, we also found that established ecosystems can harbor strains with distinct T6SS of all genetic architectures. This is the first study to comprehensively analyze of the presence and diversity of T6SS loci within an order of bacteria and to analyze T6SSs of bacteria from a natural community. These studies demonstrate that more than

  18. Loss of a neural AMP-activated kinase mimics the effects of elevated serotonin on fat, movement, and hormonal secretions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine A Cunningham

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK is an evolutionarily conserved master regulator of metabolism and a therapeutic target in type 2 diabetes. As an energy sensor, AMPK activity is responsive to both metabolic inputs, for instance the ratio of AMP to ATP, and numerous hormonal cues. As in mammals, each of two genes, aak-1 and aak-2, encode for the catalytic subunit of AMPK in C. elegans. Here we show that in C. elegans loss of aak-2 mimics the effects of elevated serotonin signaling on fat reduction, slowed movement, and promoting exit from dauer arrest. Reconstitution of aak-2 in only the nervous system restored wild type fat levels and movement rate to aak-2 mutants and reconstitution in only the ASI neurons was sufficient to significantly restore dauer maintenance to the mutant animals. As in elevated serotonin signaling, inactivation of AAK-2 in the ASI neurons caused enhanced secretion of dense core vesicles from these neurons. The ASI neurons are the site of production of the DAF-7 TGF-β ligand and the DAF-28 insulin, both of which are secreted by dense core vesicles and play critical roles in whether animals stay in dauer or undergo reproductive development. These findings show that elevated levels of serotonin promote enhanced secretions of systemic regulators of pro-growth and differentiation pathways through inactivation of AAK-2. As such, AMPK is not only a recipient of hormonal signals but can also be an upstream regulator. Our data suggest that some of the physiological phenotypes previously attributed to peripheral AAK-2 activity on metabolic targets may instead be due to the role of this kinase in neural serotonin signaling.

  19. Ileal transposition surgery produces ileal length-dependent changes in food intake, body weight, gut hormones and glucose metabolism in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramzy, A R; Nausheen, S; Chelikani, P K

    2014-03-01

    Enhanced stimulation of the lower gut is hypothesized to play a key role in the weight loss and resolution of diabetes following bariatric surgeries. Ileal transposition (IT) permits study of the effects of direct lower gut stimulation on body weight, glucose homeostasis and other metabolic adaptations without the confounds of gastric restriction or foregut exclusion. However, the underlying mechanisms and the length of the ileum sufficient to produce metabolic benefits following IT surgery remain largely unknown. To determine the effects of transposing varying lengths of the ileum to upper jejunum on food intake, body weight, glucose tolerance and lower gut hormones, and the expression of key markers of glucose and lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue in rats. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=9/group) were subjected to IT surgery with translocation of 5, 10 or 20 cm of the ileal segment to proximal jejunum or sham manipulations. Daily food intake and body weight were recorded, and an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test was performed. Blood samples were assayed for hormones and tissue samples for mRNA (RT-qPCR) and/or protein abundance (immunoblotting) of regulatory metabolic markers. We demonstrate that IT surgery exerts ileal length-dependent effects on multiple parameters including: (1) decreased food intake and weight gain, (2) improved glucose tolerance, (3) increased tissue expression and plasma concentrations of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY), and decreased leptin concentrations and (4) upregulation of key markers of glucose metabolism (glucose transporter-4 (GLUT-4), insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1), adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), hexokinase (HK) and phosphofructokinase (PFK)) together with a downregulation of lipogenic markers (fatty acid synthase (FAS)) in muscle and adipose tissue. Together, our data demonstrate that the reduction in food intake and weight gain, increase in lower

  20. Growth hormone concentrations in mammary secretions and plasma of the periparturient bitch and in plasma of the neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenmakers, I; Kooistra, H S; Okkens, A C; Hazewinkel, H A; Bevers, M M; Mol, J A

    1997-01-01

    The presence of growth hormone (GH) in mammary secretions of bitches was investigated in relation to plasma GH concentrations at about the time of parturition and during the first weeks of lactation. Plasma GH concentrations in neonates were measured during the first weeks of lactation, to determine whether GH in maternal milk contributes to plasma concentrations of GH in the neonate. Gastrointestinal uptake of GH was studied by measurement of plasma bovine GH (bGH) concentrations after intragastric administration of bGH. High concentrations of GH were found in the mammary secretions of the bitches, particularly before parturition and in colostrum, exceeding maternal plasma concentration up to 100-1000 times. GH concentrations in milk were not not significantly correlated with GH concentrations in plasma of bitches or neonates. Bovine GH could not be detected in neonatal plasma for 4 h after intragastric administration of bGH. The presence of high concentrations of canine GH (cGH) in ante-partum and colostral mammary secretions is consistent with the progesterone-induced mammary biosynthesis of GH. GH in milk is probably not absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract into the blood circulation of the newborn in its intact form.

  1. Circannual changes in progesterone secretion in intact ewes, luteinizing hormone secretion in ovariectomized estradiol-implanted ewes, and prolactin secretion in three sheep breeds anticipated to differ in seasonality of reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, Katherine J; Knight, James W; Pelzer, Kevin D; Akers, R Michael; Notter, David R

    2013-05-01

    Changes in progesterone secretion in intact ewes (7 or 9 per breed) and luteinizing hormone secretion in ovariectomized, estradiol-implanted ewes (9 or 10 per breed) were monitored for 12 mo in Suffolk, tropically adapted St. Croix, and OOS ewes. The OOS line is a composite population of 50% Dorset, 25% Rambouillet, and 25% Finnish Landrace breeding that was selected for 10 yr for ability to lamb in October and early November. Ewes were isolated from rams, and blood samples were collected twice weekly. Circulating prolactin concentrations were also determined from blood samples collected near the summer and winter solstice and vernal and autumnal equinox. Intact OOS ewes entered anestrus later, began the subsequent breeding season sooner, and had a shorter seasonal anestrus than Suffolk and St. Croix ewes (P ≤ 0.005). St. Croix ewes did not differ from Suffolk ewes in date of onset or cessation of breeding or duration of anestrus (P ≥ 0.06). Breed differences in duration of luteinizing hormone inhibition in ovariectomized ewes were essentially identical to those observed for duration of anestrous. Prolactin concentrations varied during the year: annual changes were larger in relatively seasonal Suffolk ewes than in tropically-derived St. Croix ewes (Psheep did not have a shorter seasonal anestrus than Suffolk sheep under temperate conditions and ram isolation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Appetite, food intake and gut hormone responses to intense aerobic exercise of different duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Adrian; Blannin, Andrew

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate the effect of acute bouts of high-intensity aerobic exercise of differing durations on subjective appetite, food intake and appetite-associated hormones in endurance-trained males. Twelve endurance-trained males (age = 21 ± 2 years; BMI = 21.0 ± 1.6 kg/m 2 ; VO 2max  = 61.6 ± 6.0 mL/kg/min) completed four trials, within a maximum 28 day period, in a counterbalanced order: resting (REST); 15 min exercise bout (15-min); 30 min exercise bout (30-min) and 45 min exercise bout (45-min). All exercise was completed on a cycle ergometer at an intensity of ~76% VO 2max Sixty minutes post exercise, participants consumed an ad libitum meal. Measures of subjective appetite and blood samples were obtained throughout the morning, with plasma analyzed for acylated ghrelin, total polypeptide tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY) and total glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) concentrations. The following results were obtained: Neither subjective appetite nor absolute food intake differed between trials. Relative energy intake (intake - expenditure) was significantly greater after REST (2641 ± 1616 kJ) compared with both 30-min (1039 ± 1520 kJ) and 45-min (260 ± 1731 kJ), and significantly greater after 15-min (2699 ± 1239 kJ) compared with 45-min (condition main effect, P  exercise in 30-min and 45-min, respectively (condition × time interaction, P  exercise trials (condition × time interaction, P  = 0.011); the greatest, most enduring suppression, was observed in 45-min. PYY concentration was unchanged with exercise. In conclusion, high-intensity aerobic cycling lasting up to 45 min did not suppress subjective appetite or affect absolute food intake, but did reduce relative energy intake, in well-trained endurance athletes. Findings question the role of appetite hormones in regulating subjective appetite in the acute post-exercise period. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  3. Effects of repeated potassium iodide administration on genes involved in synthesis and secretion of thyroid hormone in adult male rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebsir, Dalila; Manens, Line; Grison, Stephane; Lestaevel, Philippe; Ebrahimian, Teni; Suhard, David; Phan, Guillaume; Dublineau, Isabelle; Tack, Karine; Benderitter, Marc; Pech, Annick; Jourdain, Jean-Rene; Souidi, Maâmar

    2018-02-26

    A single dose of potassium iodide (KI) is recommended to reduce the risk of thyroid cancer during nuclear accidents. However in case of prolonged radioiodine exposure, more than one dose of KI may be necessary. This work aims to evaluate the potential toxic effect of repeated administration of KI. Adult Wistar rats received an optimal dose of KI 1 mg/kg over a period of 1, 4 or 8 days. hormonal status (TSH, FT4) of treated rats was unaffected. Contrariwise, a sequential Wolff-Chaikoff effect was observed, resulting in a prompt decrease of NIS and MCT8 mRNA expression (-58% and -26% respectively), followed by a delayed decrease of TPO mRNA expression (-33%) in conjunction with a stimulation of PDS mRNA expression (+62%). we show for the first time that repeated administration of KI at 1 mg/kg/24h doesn't cause modification of thyroid hormones level, but leads to a reversible modification of the expression of genes involved in the synthesis and secretion of thyroid hormones. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Narrative Time and the Thyroid: Hormone Secretions and Storytelling in Italo Svevo's "Doctor Menghi's Drug"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Fratto

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the wake of fin-de-siècle discoveries in the field of endocrinology, bodily glands and the hormones they produced featured prominently in the literary works, visual arts, and popular culture of early twentieth-century Europe. Experimental surgery promised rejuvenation and intellectual vitality through gland transplantation and grafting, while phenomena of all sorts began to be associated to hormone production in causal links—from bodily rhythms to behavioral patterns, from the pace of history to the trajectory of nations. Italo Svevo was fascinated by Basedow and Graves’s discoveries on the thyroid, a gland that was supposed to determine the speed and promptness of one’s body according to the amount of hormones it produced—hypothyroidism, or scarcity of hormones, would entail lethargic behavior and slow movements, while hyperthyroidism, or the abundant production of hormones, would lead to excessive activity and consumption. Through the analysis of an early short story by Svevo, “Doctor Menghi’s Drug” (ca. 1904, this paper addresses how the activity of the thyroid affects not only bodily rhythms, but also narrative time—intended as both the time of the story (diegetic time and the pace of storytelling—and it explores how metabolic processes act as constraints for literary creativity by complicating narrative time and raising questions of narrative agency.

  5. Secretion and dipeptidyl peptidase-4-mediated metabolism of incretin hormones after a mixed meal or glucose ingestion in obese compared to lean, nondiabetic men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carr, Richard D; Larsen, Marianne O; Jelic, Katarina

    2010-01-01

    Context: Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are cleaved by dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4); plasma activity of DPP-4 may be increased in obesity. The impact of this increase on incretin hormone secretion and metabolism is not known. Objective......: The aim of the study was to assess incretin hormone secretion and degradation in lean and obese nondiabetic subjects. Design, Settings, and Participants: We studied the ingestion of a mixed meal (560 kcal) or oral glucose (2 g/kg) in healthy lean (n = 12; body mass index, 20-25 kg/m(2)) or obese (n = 13...... incretin hormones show dissociated changes in obesity: GLP-1 but not GIP secretion is lower after meal ingestion and oral glucose, whereas GIP but not GLP-1 metabolism is increased after meal ingestion. 2) Increased plasma DPP-4 activity in obesity is not associated with a generalized augmented incretin...

  6. Effect of Testosterone Treatment on Adipokines and Gut Hormones in Obese Men on a Hypocaloric Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng Tang Fui, Mark; Hoermann, Rudolf; Grossmann, Mathis

    2017-04-01

    In obese men with lowered testosterone levels, testosterone treatment augments diet-associated loss of body fat. We hypothesized that testosterone treatment modulates circulating concentrations of hormonal mediators of fat mass and energy homeostasis in obese men undergoing a weight loss program. Prespecified secondary analysis of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Tertiary referral center. Obese men (body mass index ≥30 kg/m 2 ) with a repeated total testosterone level ≤12 nmol/L. One hundred participants mean age 53 years (interquartile range 47 to 60 years) receiving 10 weeks of a very low-energy diet followed by 46 weeks of weight maintenance were randomly assigned at baseline to 56 weeks of intramuscular testosterone undecanoate (cases, n = 49) or matching placebo (controls, n = 51). Eighty-two men completed the study. Between-group differences in leptin, adiponectin, ghrelin, glucagon like peptide-1, gastric inhibitory polypeptide, peptide YY, pancreatic polypeptide, and amylin levels. At study end, compared with controls, cases had greater reductions in leptin [mean adjusted difference (MAD), -3.6 ng/mL (95% CI, -5.3 to -1.9); P diet-associated weight loss. Testosterone treatment may reduce leptin resistance in obese men.

  7. Dietary Whey and Casein Differentially Affect Energy Balance, Gut Hormones, Glucose Metabolism, and Taste Preference in Diet-Induced Obese Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezeshki, Adel; Fahim, Andrew; Chelikani, Prasanth K

    2015-10-01

    -like peptide 1 concentrations were greater in WH than in CA or WHCA rats. The improvements in glucose tolerance were greater in WH than in WHCA rats. The plasma membrane glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4)-to-total GLUT4 ratio in skeletal muscle was greater in CA and WHCA rats than in CO rats; other markers of glucose and energy metabolism in the adipose and cardiac tissues did not differ. In Expt. 2, during 4 conditioning trials, daily food intake was decreased in WH, CA, and WHCA rats by 26-37%, 30-43%, and 23-33%, respectively, compared with CO rats. Preferences for WH and CA rats were 45% and 31% lower, respectively, than those for CO rats, but that for WHCA rats did not differ. Together, these data demonstrate that in obese rats, whey, casein, and their combination improve energy balance through differential effects on food intake, taste preference, energy expenditure, glucose tolerance, and gut hormone secretion. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  8. Fructose stimulates GLP-1 but not GIP secretion in mice, rats, and humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhre, Rune Ehrenreich; Gribble, Fiona M; Hartmann, Bolette

    2014-01-01

    Nutrients often stimulate gut hormone secretion, but the effects of fructose are incompletely understood. We studied the effects of fructose on a number of gut hormones with particular focus on glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP). In healthy humans......, fructose intake caused a rise in blood glucose and plasma insulin and GLP-1, albeit to a lower degree than isocaloric glucose. Cholecystokinin secretion was stimulated similarly by both carbohydrates, but neither peptide YY3-36 nor glucagon secretion was affected by either treatment. Remarkably, while...... glucose potently stimulated GIP release, fructose was without effect. Similar patterns were found in the mouse and rat, with both fructose and glucose stimulating GLP-1 secretion, whereas only glucose caused GIP secretion. In GLUTag cells, a murine cell line used as model for L cells, fructose...

  9. On the relationship between glucose absorption and glucose‐stimulated secretion of GLP‐1, neurotensin, and PYY from different intestinal segments in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhre, Rune Ehrenreich; Christiansen, Charlotte Bayer; Saltiel, Monika Yosifova

    2017-01-01

    luminal glucose (20%, w/v) increased GLP‐1 and NT secretion five to eightfold compared to basal secretion. Compared to the USI, basal and stimulated GLP‐1 secretion from the colon was 8–10 times lower and no NT secretion was detected. Luminal glucose stimulated secretion of PYY four to fivefold from......Ingested glucose powerfully stimulates the secretion of appetite‐ and metabolism‐regulating peptide hormones from the gut – including glucagon‐like peptide‐1 (GLP‐1), neurotensin (NT), and polypeptide YY (PYY). However, the regional origin of these secretions after glucose stimulation is not well...

  10. Effect of pioglitazone on glucose metabolism and luteinizing hormone secretion in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Dorte; Hermann, Anne Pernille; Andersen, Marianne

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To thoroughly examine the mechanisms for insulin resistance in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and to evaluate the effects of pioglitazone treatment on insulin resistance, beta-cell function, LH secretion, and glucose metabolism. DESIGN: Randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled study. ......, impaired insulin-stimulated oxidative and nonoxidative glucose metabolism, which was partly reversed by pioglitazone treatment....

  11. Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormones are your body's chemical messengers. They travel in your bloodstream to tissues or organs. They work ... glands, which are special groups of cells, make hormones. The major endocrine glands are the pituitary, pineal, ...

  12. Hormonal assay in gastric secretion of portal hypertension and peptic ulceration by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megahed, Y.M.; El-Haieg, M.O.; Abdel-Aziz, S.M.; Moustafa, N.A.; Refaat, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper aims to study the relation between the plasma levels and the gastric secretion in cases of portal hypertension and the duodenal ulcer. The relation between gastrin levels and bleeding in case of duodenal ulcer was also studied regarding the role of acidity, gastrin level, and the portal pressure on the pathogenesis of bleeding from oesophageal varices. Finally, the relation between gastrin secretion and state of liver functions was tested. The radioimmunoassay ( RIA ) is the basic test in assessment of the gastrin. The obtained results revealed the following: 1. The fasting serum gastrin was increased in case of liver cirrhosis 2. The level of gastrin was markedly increased in case of peptic ulceration 3. The incidence of peptic ulceration was increased in case of liver cirrhosis.3 tab

  13. A patient who sufferred pulmonary tuberculosis with syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone, after radiotherapy for pulmonary adenocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Kashin; Horiguchi, Takahiko; Hata, Hideharu; Sasaki, Yasushi; Hirose, Masahiro; Shiga, Mamoru; Kondo, Rieko; Tachikawa, Souichi

    2007-01-01

    A 62-year-old man presented in June 2006 with right thoracic pain, cough, and weight loss, which had persisted for 3 months. Chest X-ray showed a mass-like shadow in the right pulmonary apex, suggesting a stage IIIb adenocarcinoma which was confirmed by biopsy. We gave a total radiation dose of 60 Gy, after this which general malaise and weakness were noted. The results of endocrinological examinations suggested syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). Thoracic CT showed ground-glass opacity (GGO) in both lungs, and we could not rule out pulmonary tuberculosis. A sputum was positive for acid-fast stain and polymerase polymerase chain reaction-Tuberculosa (PCR-Tb), suggesting that SIADH was associated with pulmonary tuberculosis. Water restriction, i.v. physiological saline, and anti-tuberculosis therapy relieved hyponatremia and the symptoms. (author)

  14. Hormone-sensitive lipase null mice exhibit signs of impaired insulin sensitivity whereas insulin secretion is intact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulder, Hindrik; Sörhede-Winzell, Maria; Contreras, Juan Antonio

    2003-01-01

    of increased amounts of insulin. Impaired insulin sensitivity was further indicated by retarded glucose disposal during an insulin tolerance test. A euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp revealed that hepatic glucose production was insufficiently blocked by insulin in HSL null mice. In vitro, insulin......-stimulated glucose uptake into soleus muscle, and lipogenesis in adipocytes were moderately reduced, suggesting additional sites of insulin resistance. Morphometric analysis of pancreatic islets revealed a doubling of beta-cell mass in HSL null mice, which is consistent with an adaptation to insulin resistance....... Insulin secretion in vitro, examined by perifusion of isolated islets, was not impacted by HSL deficiency. Thus, HSL deficiency results in a moderate impairment of insulin sensitivity in multiple target tissues of the hormone but is compensated by hyperinsulinemia....

  15. GPR142 Controls Tryptophan-Induced Insulin and Incretin Hormone Secretion to Improve Glucose Metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua V Lin

    Full Text Available GPR142, a putative amino acid receptor, is expressed in pancreatic islets and the gastrointestinal tract, but the ligand affinity and physiological role of this receptor remain obscure. In this study, we show that in addition to L-Tryptophan, GPR142 signaling is also activated by L-Phenylalanine but not by other naturally occurring amino acids. Furthermore, we show that Tryptophan and a synthetic GPR142 agonist increase insulin and incretin hormones and improve glucose disposal in mice in a GPR142-dependent manner. In contrast, Phenylalanine improves in vivo glucose disposal independently of GPR142. Noteworthy, refeeding-induced elevations in insulin and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide are blunted in Gpr142 null mice. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate GPR142 is a Tryptophan receptor critically required for insulin and incretin hormone regulation and suggest GPR142 agonists may be effective therapies that leverage amino acid sensing pathways for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  16. GPR142 Controls Tryptophan-Induced Insulin and Incretin Hormone Secretion to Improve Glucose Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Hua V.; Efanov, Alexander M.; Fang, Xiankang; Beavers, Lisa S.; Wang, Xuesong; Wang, Jingru; Gonzalez Valcarcel, Isabel C.; Ma, Tianwei

    2016-01-01

    GPR142, a putative amino acid receptor, is expressed in pancreatic islets and the gastrointestinal tract, but the ligand affinity and physiological role of this receptor remain obscure. In this study, we show that in addition to L-Tryptophan, GPR142 signaling is also activated by L-Phenylalanine but not by other naturally occurring amino acids. Furthermore, we show that Tryptophan and a synthetic GPR142 agonist increase insulin and incretin hormones and improve glucose disposal in mice in a G...

  17. Inhibition of growth hormone and prolactin secretion by a serine proteinase inhibitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rappay, G.; Nagy, I.; Makara, G.B.; Horvath, G.; Karteszi, M.; Bacsy, E.; Stark, E.

    1984-01-01

    The action of the tripeptide aldehyde t-butyloxycarbonyl-DPhe-Pro-Arg-H (boc-fPR-H), belonging to a family of serine proteinase inhibitors, on the release of immunoreactive prolactin (iPRL) and growth hormone (iGH) has been studied. In rat anterior pituitary cell cultures and pituitary quarters 1 mM boc-fPR-H inhibited basal iPRL and iGH release. Thyroliberin-induced iPRL release by cultured cells was also markedly inhibited with a concomitant accumulation of intracellular iPRL. During the short- and long-term exposure of cells to boc-fPR-H there were no changes in total cell protein contents and in activities of some lysosomal marker enzymes. The marked inhibition of basal as well as stimulated hormone release in the presence of the enzyme inhibitor might suggest that at least a portion of the hormones is released via a proteolytic enzyme-dependent process

  18. Modifications of thyroid hormones secretion and production in newborn rats from hyperthyroic dams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira, M.F.G.; Neves, E.S.S.; Neves, S.R.S.; Catanho, M.T.J.A.

    1997-01-01

    The onset of fetal thyroid function occurs about 17-18 days after conception in the rat. The maternal hyperthyroidism which occurs during gestation provokes alterations in the rat after its birth; due to this alterations, we decided to analyze the metabolic and hormonal modification in the newborn rats. The hyperthyroidism was induced in normal dams, which were being trated for 2 days with T4 2mg (thyroxine per 100g body wt/day) before mating. Another dam group which was submitted to an inducement of hyperthyroidism maintained the treatment with T4 and six day after gestation were being treated for 9 days. It was seen that the rat which was born from hyperthyroic dams suffered alterations on its T4 and T3 hormone levels concerning the days 10, 20 and 30 after birth. T4 e T3 were performed with Immu chem cooted tube - I 125 RIA KIT .The administration of T4 affected the fetal thyroid function gland to, causing a decrease of both T4 and T3 levels, as was also modifications on their weight and size, even after the birth, indicating that the maternal hyperthyroidism influences on the post-natal life of the rat. The growth is affected throught post-natal life by thyroid hormones, which have a facilitatory influence on GH economy, as opposed to the inhibitory effects on TSH economy. (author). 12 refs., 4 figs

  19. The effect of vasopressin on hormone secretion and blood flow from the thyroid vein in sheep with exteriorized thyroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, I R

    1968-12-01

    1. Vasopressin has been shown to activate the thyroid in some species, and also to be released into the bloodstream after emotional and other stresses.2. Emotional stimuli applied to sheep have previously been shown to increase thyroid secretion and the possible influence of vasopressin in this process has been investigated. Sheep bearing exteriorized thyroid glands were used, so that thyroid vein blood could be collected in undisturbed conscious animals.3. (125)I or (131)I (50 muc) was injected I.M. into the sheep; 4-7 days later, samples of thyroid vein blood were collected at 10 min intervals for 4 hr, and the concentration of total and protein bound (125)I or (131)I was measured. Intravenous infusions of 0.3, 3.0 or 31 m-u./min arginine or lysine vasopressin, or close arterial infusions of 3.0 or 31 m-u./min arginine vasopressin were administered 1.5 hr after commencement of blood sampling. Blood flow from the thyroid was measured by a plethysmographic technique during similar experiments.4. No significant changes in thyroid hormone secretion were observed as a result of vasopressin infusion, and it was concluded that vasopressin release does not play a part in the activation of the thyroid resulting from emotional stimulus in the sheep.

  20. Humoral Hypercalcemia of Malignancy with a Parathyroid Hormone-Related Peptide-Secreting Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma Accompanied by a Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsushi Takeda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (HHM is caused by the oversecretion of parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP from malignant tumors. Although any tumor may cause HHM, that induced by intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC or gastric cancer (GC is rare. We report here a 74-year-old male who displayed HHM with both ICC and GC and showed an elevated serum PTHrP level. Treatment of the hypercalcemia with saline, furosemide, elcatonin, and zoledronic acid corrected his serum calcium level and improved symptoms. Because treatment of ICC should precede that of GC, we chose chemotherapy with cisplatin (CDDP and gemcitabine (GEM. Chemotherapy reduced the size of the ICC and decreased the serum PTHrP level. One year after diagnosis, the patient was alive in the face of a poor prognosis for an ICC that produced PTHrP. Immunohistochemical staining for PTHrP was positive for the ICC and negative for the GC, leading us to believe that the cause of the HHM was a PTHrP-secreting ICC. In conclusion, immunohistochemical staining for PTHrP may be useful in discovering the cause of HHM in the case of two cancers accompanied by an elevated serum PHTrP level. Chemotherapy with CDDP and GEM may be the most appropriate treatment for a PTHrP-secreting ICC.

  1. Effect of flurbiprofen axetil pretreatment on the pain degree as well as stress hormone and mediator secretion after abdominal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Chen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of flurbiprofen axetil pretreatment on the pain degree as well as stress hormone and mediator secretion after abdominal surgery. Methods: Patients undergoing abdominal surgery in our hospital between May 2015 and March 2017 were selected and randomly divided into two groups, intervention group received flurbiprofen axetil pretreatment combined with routine intravenous anesthesia, and the control group only accepted conventional intravenous anesthesia. The levels of pain neurotransmitters and cytokines, stress hormones and mediators in serum were detected before operation as well as 12 h and 24 h after operation. Results: 12 h and 24 h after operation, serum NPY, SP, Glu, TNF-α, IL-2, IL-6, IL- 10, ACTH, Cor, Ins, NE and E levels of both groups of patients were significantly higher than those before operation while SOD, GHS-Px and HO-1 levels were significantly lower than those before operation, and serum NPY, SP, Glu, TNF-α, IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, ACTH, Cor, Ins, NE and E levels of intervention group 12 h and 24 h after operation were significantly lower than those of control group while SOD, GHS-Px and HO-1 levels were significantly higher than those of control group. Conclusion: Flurbiprofen axetil pretreatment can reduce the pain degree and stress response after abdominal surgery.

  2. The influence of nutrients, biliary-pancreatic secretions, and systemic trophic hormones on intestinal adaptation in a Roux-en-Y bypass model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taqi, Esmaeel; Wallace, Laurie E; de Heuvel, Elaine

    2010-01-01

    The signals that govern the upregulation of nutrient absorption (adaptation) after intestinal resection are not well understood. A Gastric Roux-en-Y bypass (GRYB) model was used to isolate the relative contributions of direct mucosal stimulation by nutrients, biliary-pancreatic secretions......, and systemic enteric hormones on intestinal adaptation in short bowel syndrome....

  3. Comparison of the in vitro effects of TCDD, PCB 126 and PCB 153 on thyroid-restricted gene expression and thyroid hormone secretion by the chicken thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katarzyńska, Dorota; Hrabia, Anna; Kowalik, Kinga; Sechman, Andrzej

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the in vitro effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126; a coplanar PCB congener) and 2,2'4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB153; non-coplanar PCB) on mRNA expression of thyroid-restricted genes, i.e. sodium iodide symporter (NIS), thyroid peroxidase (TPO) and thyroglobulin (TG), and thyroid hormone secretion from the thyroid gland of the laying chicken. Relative expression levels of NIS, TG and TPO genes and thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) secretion from the thyroidal explants were quantified by the real-time qPCR and RIA methods, respectively. In comparison with the control group, TCDD and PCB 126 significantly increased mRNA expression of TPO and TG genes. TCDD did not affect NIS mRNA levels, but PCB 126 decreased its expression. No effect of PCB 153 on the expression of these genes was observed. TCDD and PCB 126 significantly decreased T4 and T3 secretion. There was no significant effect of PCB 153 on these hormone secretions. In conclusion, the results obtained show that in comparison with non-coplanar PCB 153, TCDD and coplanar PCB 126 can directly affect thyroid hormone synthesis and secretion, and in consequence, they may disrupt the endocrine function of the thyroid gland of the laying chicken. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. OXIDATIVE STRESS: ITS ROLE IN INSULIN SECRETION, HORMONE RECEPTION BY ADIPOCYTES AND LIPOLYSIS IN ADIPOSE TISSUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Ivanov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is one of the pathogenetic components of many diseases during which generation of reactive oxigen species increases and the capacity of the antioxidant protection system diminishes. In the research of the last decades special attention has been given to adipose tissue, production of adipokines by it and their role in development of immunoresistance associated with formation of the metabolic syndrome and diabetes.Search for methods of therapeutic correction of adipokine secretion disorders, their influence on metabolism of separate cells and the organism on the whole as well as development of new approaches to correction of disorders in cell sensitivity to insulin are extremely topical nowadays. Systematization and consolidation of accumulated data allow to determine the strategies of further research more accurately; as a result, we have attempted to summarize and analyze the accumulated data on the role of adipose tissue in oxidative stress development.On the basis of literature data and the results of the personal investigations, the role of adipose tissue in forming oxidative stress in diabetes has been analyzed in the article. Brief description of adipose tissue was given as a secretory organ regulating metabolic processes in adipocytes and influencing functions of various organs and systems of the body. Mechanisms of disorder in insulin secretion as well as development of insulin sesistance in type I diabetes were described along with the contribution of lipolysis in adipose tissue to these processes.

  5. How effective is external pituitary irradiation for growth hormone-secreting pituitary tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feek, C.M.; McLelland, J.; Seth, J.; Toft, A.D.; Irvine, W.J.; Padfield, P.L.; Edwards, C.R.W.

    1984-01-01

    Forty-six patients with GH-secreting pituitary tumours were treated with external pituitary irradiation through two opposed fields to a total dose of 3750 cGy over 15 fractions. Thirty-patients received external radiotherapy as primary treatment; 16 received radiotherapy combined with pituitary surgery. The mean (+- SD) serum GH in the former group was 74.3 +- 74.8 mU/l before treatment, falling by 28% per year over 0-5 years and by 16% per year over 0-20 years. The mean (+- SD) serum GH in the latter group was 265.4 +- 209.3 mU/l before treatment, falling by 76% in the first year-a direct result of surgery-then by 30% per year over 1-5 years and 16% per year over 1-20 years. Progressive failure of normal anterior pituitary function developed by 10 years, with variable loss of gonadotrophin, corticotrophin and thyrotrophin function. The respective figures for patients treated with radiotherapy alone were 47.4, 29.6 and 16.0% and for the combined group 70.2, 53.9 and 38.1%. Whilst external pituitary irradiation appears to reduce serum GH concentrations in patients with GH-secreting pituitary tumours the major disadvantages are the time taken to achieve a cure and the high incidence of hypopituitarism. (author)

  6. Growth and growth hormone secretion in children following treatment of brain tumours with radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darendeliler, F.; Livesey, E.A.; Hindmarsh, P.C.; Brook, C.G.D. (Endocrine Unit, The Middlesex Hospital, London (UK))

    1990-01-01

    We have studied the growth of 144 children after treatment of brain tumours distant from the hypothalamo-pituitary axis. All had cranial irradiation and 87 spinal irradiation. In 56 patients observed without intervention for 3 years, height SDS in the cranial (CR) group (n=20) declined from 0.02 to -0.44 and in the craniospinal (CS) group (n=36) from -0.28 to -1.11. Failure of spinal growth had a marked effect in the CS group. The onset of puberty was slightly but not significantly advanced; median ages at onset of puberty were 10.3 years in girls and 12.1 years in boys. Of the total group 86.4% had clinical and biochemical evidence of growth hormone insufficiency. Fifty-two children, 33 (28 CS; 5 CR) of whome were prepubertal, received biosynthetic human growth hormone, in a dose of 15 mU/m{sup 2}/week by daily injection for a period of one year. Height velocity SDS increased significantly in both groups from -2.74 to +1.90 (CS) and from -1.0 to +4.26 (CR). Spinal response to GH treatment was restricted in the craniospinal group. (authors).

  7. Growth and growth hormone secretion in children following treatment of brain tumours with radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darendeliler, F.; Livesey, E.A.; Hindmarsh, P.C.; Brook, C.G.D.

    1990-01-01

    We have studied the growth of 144 children after treatment of brain tumours distant from the hypothalamo-pituitary axis. All had cranial irradiation and 87 spinal irradiation. In 56 patients observed without intervention for 3 years, height SDS in the cranial (CR) group (n=20) declined from 0.02 to -0.44 and in the craniospinal (CS) group (n=36) from -0.28 to -1.11. Failure of spinal growth had a marked effect in the CS group. The onset of puberty was slightly but not significantly advanced; median ages at onset of puberty were 10.3 years in girls and 12.1 years in boys. Of the total group 86.4% had clinical and biochemical evidence of growth hormone insufficiency. Fifty-two children, 33 (28 CS; 5 CR) of whome were prepubertal, received biosynthetic human growth hormone, in a dose of 15 mU/m 2 /week by daily injection for a period of one year. Height velocity SDS increased significantly in both groups from -2.74 to +1.90 (CS) and from -1.0 to +4.26 (CR). Spinal response to GH treatment was restricted in the craniospinal group. (authors)

  8. Ghrelin – a pleiotropic hormone secreted from endocrine X/A-like cells of the stomach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas eStengel

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The gastric X/A-like endocrine cell receives growing attention due it its peptide products with ghrelin being the best characterized. This peptide hormone was identified a decade ago as a stimulator of food intake and to date remains the only known peripherally produced and centrally acting orexigenic hormone. In addition, subsequent studies identified numerous other functions of this peptide including the modulation of gastrointestinal motility, the maintenance of energy homeostasis and an impact on reproduction. Moreover, ghrelin is also involved in the response to stress and assumed to play a role in coping functions and exert a modulatory action on immune pathways. Our knowledge on the regulation of ghrelin has markedly advanced during the past years by the identification of the ghrelin acylating enzyme, ghrelin-O-acyltransferase, and by the description of changes in expression, activation and release under different metabolic as well as physically and psychically challenging conditions. However, our insight on regulatory processes of ghrelin at the cellular and subcellular levels is still very limited and warrants further investigation.

  9. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone-Independent Cushing Syndrome with Bilateral Cortisol-Secreting Adenomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eu Jeong Ku

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A 48-year-old woman was incidentally found to have bilateral adrenal masses, 2.8 cm in diameter on the right, and 2.3 cm and 1.7 cm in diameter on the left, by abdominal computed tomography. The patient had a medical history of hypertension, which was not being controlled by carvedilol, at a dose of 25 mg daily. She presented with signs and symptoms that suggested Cushing Syndrome. We diagnosed adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH-independent Cushing Syndrome based on the results of basal and dynamic hormone tests. Adrenal vein sampling (AVS was performed to localize a functioning adrenal cortical mass. AVS results were consistent with hypersecretion of cortisol from both adrenal glands, with a cortisol lateralization ratio of 1.1. Upon bilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy, bilateral ACTH-independent adrenal adenomas were found. The patient's signs and symptoms of Cushing Syndrome improved after surgery just as the blood pressure was normalized. After surgery, the patient was started on glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid replacement therapy.

  10. Cocaine effects on pulsatile secretion of anterior pituitary, gonadal, and adrenal hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelson, J H; Mello, N K; Teoh, S K; Ellingboe, J; Cochin, J

    1989-12-01

    Pulse frequency analysis of LH, PRL, testosterone, and cortisol was carried out with the Cluster Analysis Program in eight male cocaine abusers and eight aged-matched normal men. Four of the eight cocaine abusers had hyperprolactinemia (range, 22.08-44.65 micrograms/L). Cocaine users as a group had significantly higher mean peak height (P less than 0.02) than control subjects. Cocaine users with hyperprolactinemia had higher mean peak height than control subjects or cocaine users with normal PRL levels (P less than 0.01). Cocaine users with hyperprolactinemia also had higher mean amplitude increments than control subjects (P less than 0.02). Cocaine users with hyperprolactinemia had a higher mean valley than controls (P less than 0.01) and cocaine users with normal PRL levels (P less than 0.03). However, there were no significant differences in PRL peak frequency, peak duration, or interpulse intervals between cocaine users with or without hyperprolactinemia and control subjects. There were minimal differences between cocaine users and control subjects in pulse frequency analysis of LH parameters; the small differences in mean LH levels and average interpulse interval were not in the abnormal range and were probably not biologically significant. No differences between cocaine users and controls were detected for pulse frequency analysis of testosterone or cortisol. Cocaine-induced hyperprolactinemia may contribute to disorders of sexual and reproductive function in men who abuse the drug, and recent reports that PRL modulates immune function suggest that cocaine-induced derangements of PRL secretion may also contribute to cocaine-related comorbidity in infectious disease. Since cocaine users with hyperprolactinemia had a higher mean valley as well as a higher peak pulse PRL height than control subjects, but did not have greater PRL pulse frequencies, we conclude that hyperprolactinemia in these men may be due to a cocaine-induced derangement of dopaminergic

  11. Honey improves spermatogenesis and hormone secretion in testicular ischaemia-reperfusion-induced injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, M; Abbaszadeh, A; Khanipour Khayat, Z; Anbari, K; Baharvand, P; Gharravi, A M

    2018-02-01

    This study was conducted to survey the protective effect of pre-treatment with Persian honey during post-ischaemia reperfusion on ischaemia-reperfusion (IR)-induced testis injury. Animals were divided into four groups of IR, honey + ischaemia- reperfusion (HIR), vitamin C + ischaemia- reperfusion (VIR) and carbohydrates + ischaemia- reperfusion (CIR). The testes were examined for spermatogenesis index. Detection of single- and double-stranded DNA breaks at the early stages of apoptosis was performed. Total serum concentration of FSH, LH and testosterone was measured using ELISA. All data were expressed as mean ± SD in each group, and significance was set at p ≤ .05. Spermatogenesis index was significant in the HIR group (p honey decreases the cellular damage and apoptosis during testicular I/R injury, with significant protective effects on reproductive hormone production. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Hyperthyroidism due to inappropriate secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone: diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermus, A; Ross, H; van Liessum, P; Naber, A; Smals, A; Kloppenborg, P

    1991-06-01

    The case histories of three patients with hyperthyroidism due to overproduction of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) by the pituitary gland are described. In the first patient treatment with the T3-metabolite 3,5,3'-triiodothyroacetic acid (TRIAC) led to complete clinical and biochemical normalization. In the second patient treatment with the dopaminergic agonist bromocriptine led to a temporal amelioration of hyperthyroidism. In the third patient, who was the only one with a proven pituitary adenoma, hypersecretion of TSH could be controlled by administration of the somatostatin analogue octreotide. It is emphasized that patients with this disorder should preferably not be treated with thyrostatic drugs, radioactive iodine or thyroid surgery. The success rate of these treatment modalities is lower than normal, they may lead to an increase of goiter size, and they potentially may promote growth or development of a TSH-producing adenoma. Treatment should be aimed at diminishing TSH hypersecretion.

  13. Effect of two bakery products on short-term food intake and gut-hormones in young adults: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santaliestra-Pasías, A M; Garcia-Lacarte, M; Rico, M C; Aguilera, C M; Moreno, L A

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the effect of conventional bread and a whole grain bread on appetite and energy intake, satiety and satiety gut-hormones. A randomized controlled crossover pilot study was carried out in 11 university students (age: 18.7 ± 0.9 years; body mass index: 22.7 ± 2.7 kg/m(2)). Participants consumed two different mid-morning cereal-based snacks, including a conventional or whole grain bread. Two testing days were completed, including satiety questionnaires, blood sampling and consumption of standardized breakfast, mid-morning test-snacks and ad libitum lunch. Several gut-hormones were analysed and satiation was assessed using Visual Analogue Scale scores. The consumption of whole grain bread increased satiety perception, decreased the remained energy intake during the testing day, and decreased the postprandial response of peptide YY, compared with conventional bread (p < 0.005). These data suggest that the consumption of whole grain bread might be a useful strategy to improve satiety.

  14. The bioactive effects of casein proteins on enteroendocrine cell health, proliferation and incretin hormone secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Anna L; Green, Brian D

    2016-11-15

    Previous studies suggest that casein exerts various anti-diabetic effects. However, it is not known which casein proteins are bioactive, nor their effects on enteroendocrine cells. This study evaluated the effects of intact whole casein, intact individual proteins (alpha, beta and kappa casein) and hydrolysates on an enteroendocrine cell line. High content analysis accurately monitored changes in cell health and intracellular glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) content. Cheese ripening duration and GLP-1 secretory responses were also considered. Beta casein significantly stimulated enteroendocrine cell proliferation and all caseins were potent GLP-1 secretagogues (except kappa casein). Interestingly the GLP-1 secretory activity was almost always lost or significantly reduced upon hydrolysis with proteolytic enzymes. Only pepsin-derived beta casein hydrolysates had significantly increased potency compared with the intact protein, but this was diminished with prolonged hydrolysis. In conclusion casein proteins are not detrimental to enteroendocrine cells, and alpha and beta casein are particularly beneficial stimulating proliferation and GLP-1 secretion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of stage of development and sex on gonadotropin-releasing hormone secretion in in vitro hypothalamic perifusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacau-Mengido, I M; González Iglesias, A; Díaz-Torga, G; Thyssen-Cano, S; Libertun, C; Becú-Villalobos, D

    1998-04-01

    Marked sexual and ontogenic differences have been described in gonadotropin regulation in the rat. These could arise from events occurring both at the hypothalamic or hypophyseal levels. The present experiments were designed to evaluate the capacity of the hypothalamus in releasing GnRH in vitro, basally and in response to depolarization with KCl, during ontogeny in the rat. To that end we chose two well-defined developmental ages that differ markedly in sexual and ontogenic characteristics of gonadotropin regulation, 15 and 30 days. We compared GnRH release from hypothalami of females, neonatal androgenized females and males. Mediobasal hypothalami were perifused in vitro, and GnRH measured in the effluent. Basal secretion of the decapeptide increased with age in the three groups with no sexual differences encountered. When studying GnRH release induced by membrane depolarization, no differences within sex or age were encountered. On the other hand FSH serum levels decreased with age in females and increased in males, and in neonatal androgenized females followed a similar pattern to that of females. LH levels were higher in infantile females than in age-matched males or androgenized females. Such patterns of gonadotropin release were therefore not correlated to either basal or K+-induced GnRH release from the hypothalamus. We conclude that sexual and ontogenic differences in gonadotropin secretion in the developing rat are not dependent on the intrinsic capability of the hypothalamus to release GnRH in response to membrane depolarization. The hormonal differences observed during development and between sexes are probably related to differences in the sensitivity of the GnRH neuron to specific secretagogue and neurotransmitter regulation, and/or to differences in hypophyseal GnRH receptors and gonadotrope sensitivity.

  16. Effects of different sweet preloads on incretin hormone secretion, gastric emptying, and postprandial glycemia in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tongzhi; Zhao, Beiyi R; Bound, Michelle J; Checklin, Helen L; Bellon, Max; Little, Tanya J; Young, Richard L; Jones, Karen L; Horowitz, Michael; Rayner, Christopher K

    2012-01-01

    Macronutrient "preloads" can stimulate glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), slow gastric emptying, and reduce postprandial glycemic excursions. After sweet preloads, these effects may be signaled by sodium-glucose cotransporter-1 (SGLT1), sweet taste receptors, or both. We determined the effects of 4 sweet preloads on GIP and GLP-1 release, gastric emptying, and postprandial glycemia. Ten healthy subjects were studied on 4 separate occasions each. A preload drink containing 40 g glucose, 40 g tagatose/isomalt mixture (TIM), 40 g 3-O-methylglucose (3OMG; a nonmetabolized substrate of SGLT1), or 60 mg sucralose was consumed 15 min before a (13)C-octanoic acid-labeled mashed potato meal. Blood glucose, plasma total GLP-1 and GIP, serum insulin, and gastric emptying were determined. Both glucose and 3OMG stimulated GLP-1 and GIP release in advance of the meal (each P < 0.05), whereas TIM and sucralose did not. The overall postprandial GLP-1 response was greater after glucose, 3OMG, and TIM than after sucralose (P < 0.05), albeit later after TIM than the other preloads. The blood glucose and insulin responses in the first 30 min after the meal were greatest after glucose (each P < 0.05). Gastric emptying was slower after both 3OMG and TIM than after sucralose (each P < 0.05). In healthy humans, SGLT1 substrates stimulate GLP-1 and GIP and slow gastric emptying, regardless of whether they are metabolized, whereas the artificial sweetener sucralose does not. Poorly absorbed sweet tastants (TIM), which probably expose a greater length of gut to nutrients, result in delayed GLP-1 secretion but not in delayed GIP release. These observations have the potential to optimize the use of preloads for glycemic control. This trial was registered at www.actr.org.au as ACTRN12611000775910.

  17. Glycoprotein hormone α subunit secretion by pituitary adenomas: influence of external irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macfarlane, I.A.; Beardwell, C.G.; Shalet, S.M.; Darbyshire, P.J.; Hayward, E.; Sutton, M.L.

    1980-01-01

    In ninety-nine patients with pituitary adenomas, forty-six with acromegaly, the serum level of the glycoprotein hormone α subunit was elevated in eighteen cases. Thirteen of these were acromegalic and one had an FSH-producing tumour. Alpha levels varied little during the day, from one day to the next and over a 6 month period. In twenty-five patients with a variety of other hypothalamic-pituitary disorders examined, one patient with a craniopharyngioma had a mildly elevated α level. External pituitary irradiation was followed by an acute and often transient fall in α level in several of these patients. Of the fifty-four patients with pituitary adenomas who had received external irradiation before testing, only five had elevated α subunit levels compared with thirteen patients of the forty-five who had not been irradiated. This difference in incidence of elevated α level was statistically significant (P<0.025). It is concluded that external irradiation may reduce α subunit level chronically in many patients with pituitary adenoma. (author)

  18. Short-term treatment with olanzapine does not modulate gut hormone secretion: olanzapine disintegrating versus standard tablets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidarsdottir, Solrun; Roelfsema, Ferdinand; Streefland, Trea

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Treatment with olanzapine (atypical antipsychotic drug) is frequently associated with various metabolic anomalies, including obesity, dyslipidemia, and diabetes mellitus. Recent data suggest that olanzapine orally disintegrating tablets (ODT), which dissolve instantaneously in the mouth...

  19. Influence of hormonal control on LH pulsatility and secretion in women with classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelot, Anne; Chakhtoura, Zeina; Plu-Bureau, Geneviève; Coudert, Mathieu; Coussieu, Christiane; Badachi, Yasmina; Dulon, Jérome; Charbit, Beny; Touraine, Philippe

    2012-10-01

    Women with classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) exhibit reduced fertility due to several factors including anovulation. This has been attributed to a disturbed gonadotropic axis as in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), but there is no precise evaluation. Our aim was to evaluate the gonadotropic axis and LH pulsatility patterns and to determine factor(s) that could account for the potential abnormality of LH pulsatility. Case/control study. Sixteen CAH women (11 with the salt-wasting form and five with the simple virilizing form), aged from 18 to 40 years, and 16 age-matched women, with regular menstrual cycles (28 ± 3 days), were included. LH pulse patterns over 6 h were determined in patients and controls. No differences were observed between patients and controls in terms of mean LH levels, LH pulse amplitude, or LH frequency. In CAH patients, LH pulsatility patterns were heterogeneous, leading us to perform a clustering analysis of LH data, resulting in a two-cluster partition. Patients in cluster 1 had similar LH pulsatility patterns to the controls. Patients in cluster 2 had: lower LH pulse amplitude and frequency and presented menstrual cycle disturbances more frequently; higher 17-OH progesterone, testosterone, progesterone, and androstenedione levels; and lower FSH levels. LH pulsatility may be normal in CAH women well controlled by hormonal treatment. Undertreatment is responsible for hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, with low LH pulse levels and frequency, but not PCOS. Suppression of progesterone and androgen concentrations during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle should be a major objective in these patients.

  20. A Natural Variant of Obestatin, Q90L, Inhibits Ghrelin's Action on Food Intake and GH Secretion and Targets NPY and GHRH Neurons in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Hassouna, Rim; Zizzari, Philippe; Viltart, Odile; Yang, Seung-Kwon; Gardette, Robert; Videau, Catherine; Badoer, Emilio; Epelbaum, Jacques; Tolle, Virginie

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ghrelin and obestatin are two gut-derived peptides originating from the same ghrelin/obestatin prepropeptide gene (GHRL). While ghrelin stimulates growth hormone (GH) secretion and food intake and inhibits γ-aminobutyric-acid synaptic transmission onto GHRH (Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone) neurons, obestatin blocks these effects. In Humans, GHRL gene polymorphisms have been associated with pathologies linked to an unbalanced energy homeostasis. We hypothesized that one polymorph...

  1. A functional thyrotropin- and growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma with a ultrastructurally monomorphic feature: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Y; Kameya, T; Kasuga, A; Naritaka, H; Kanda, N; Maruyama, H; Saruta, T

    1998-04-01

    A 38-yr-old female with a TSH- and GH-secreting pituitary adenoma is described, who had both overt symptoms, hyperthyroidism and acromegaly. Her serum TSH was not suppressed despite high concentrations of free T3 and free T4, and her alpha-subunit/TSH molar ratio was high. Her serum GH was consistently high, and was not suppressed by an oral glucose tolerance test. Preoperative testing revealed that, although the TSH response was impaired, TSH, alpha-subunit and GH were increased by TRH injection, and that these hormones were reduced by bromocriptine or somatostatin analog. Although she did not have hyperprolactinemia, the in vitro culture and immunohistochemical studies revealed that the adenoma cells produced and released PRL, in addition to TSH, alpha-subunit and GH. Immunohistochemical studies showed the presence of GH in the cytoplasm of many adenoma cells. TSH beta-positive adenoma cells were less frequently seen than GH-positive adenoma cells. No cells showed the coexistence of GH and TSH beta, and a few cells were positive for PRL. By electron microscopy, the adenoma was found to be composed of a single cell type resembling thyrotrophs, and did not have any characteristics of somatotrophs. This case was considered to be of interest, because the adenoma was ultrastructurally monomorphous, but immunohistochemically polymorphous.

  2. The Disorders of Growth Hormone Secretion in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Compared to Patients with the Non-Functional Pituitary Adenomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.M. Urmanova

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective of the study — to investigate the disorders of growth hormone (GH secretion in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS compared to patients with non-functional pituitary adenomas (NFPA. Under our supervision during period from September 2015 to March 2016, there were 15 female outpatients of childbearing age with PCOS and 15 — with NFPA. Average age of patients was 25.5 and 28.9 years, respectively. The duration of disease ranged from 7 months to 9 years. It was found that in both groups, there were neuroendocrine disorders typical for each pathology. So, in the first group of patients with PCOS, the following violations were most often: obesity, striae, acanthosis, аcne, hyperandrogenemia, hyperpolyme­norrhea, and in the second one — secondary amenorrhea, hyperprolactinemia, panhypopituitarism. In both groups, there was anovulation, as well as decline of GH and insulin-like growth factor‑1 (IGF‑1 secretion. In addition, patients with NFPA had significantly decreased basal levels of tropic hormones — GH, luteinizing hormone (LH and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH on the background of hyperprolactinemia and normal values of IGF‑1, while in patients with PCOS, the levels of GH, LH, FSH were reduced on the background of hyperandrogenemia and IGF‑1 decline. Thus, it was found that in the group of patients with PCOS, there was the most significant reduction of basal IGF‑1 levels, whereas GH deficiency was less frequent. Patients with NFPA had panhypopituitarism, namely combined deficiency of GH, LH, FSH, thyroid stimulating hormone, while IGF‑1 deficiency was less frequent. Disorders of GH and IGF‑1 secretion identified in our study confirm the literature data that patients with PCOS have a reduction in the levels of GH and IGF‑1 on the background of hyperinsulinemia and hyperandrogenaemia.

  3. The clinical study on the relationship between growth hormone secretion and pituitary magnetic resonance imaging findings in children with short stature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Ryuji

    1996-01-01

    The relationship between pituitary size evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and pituitary function was studied in 104 boys and 81 girls with short stature. Eighteen boys and 10 girls had normal secretion of growth hormone (GH) based on growth hormone provocative tests. Their height and volume of pituitary gland with normal anatomy were significantly correlated with their age. The pituitary height of girls was higher than that of boys. Sixty boys and 29 girls had growth hormone deficiency (GHD), and 3 boys of them had multiple pituitary deficiencies (MPHD) with pituitary interruption syndrome (transected pituitary stalk, severe small anterior lobe, ectopic posterior lobe). Pituitary height of the groups with GHD were almost less than normal groups. Thirteen girls with Turner syndrome out of 81 girls with short stature showed no difference in pituitary height compared to normal girls. (author)

  4. Long-term etanercept therapy favors weight gain and ameliorates cachexia in rheumatoid arthritis patients: roles of gut hormones and leptin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Yen; Tsai, Chang-Youh; Lee, Pui-Ching; Lee, Shou-Dong

    2013-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease that damages the synovial joints, and patients with it are often anorexic and cachectic with high morbidity and mortality. Biological therapy with anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α has been proven effective as a treatment for RA. However, the long-term effects of anti-TNF-α therapy on body weight, appetite, plasma gut hormones and leptin have not been investigated. Twenty RA patients received subcutaneous injections of etanercept, a chimeric protein of human IgG1 Fc and TNF receptor p75, twice weekly for 12 consecutive months. Sequential changes in body weight, body fat, appetite rating, lipid profiles, gut hormones and leptin were measured at baseline and at 3 and 12 months after treatment. Ten RA patients who received non-biological disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs were enrolled as the controls and were appraised at baseline and at 12 months after treatment (a nonrandomized study). Significant weight gain, hyperuricemia, decreased fasting plasma glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) levels, and loss of post-oral glucose suppression of plasma leptin concentration were found in the patients after the 12-month course of etanercept therapy, but not in the controls. A transient decrease in fasting plasma acyl ghrelin occurred at 3 months during etanercept treatment. Appetite score and serum lipid profiles did not change in either group. Long-term therapy with anti-TNF-α is promising in ameliorating body mass decrease in patients with active RA. Plasma levels of ghrelin, GIP and leptin may play significant roles in maintaining energy homeostasis in the anti-inflammatory responses during RA remission.

  5. Effects of octreotide infusion, surgery and estrogen on suppression of height increase and 20K growth hormone ratio in a girl with gigantism due to a growth hormone-secreting macroadenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minagawa, M; Yasuda, T; Someya, T; Kohno, Y; Saeki, N; Hashimoto, Y

    2000-01-01

    We treated an extremely tall 13-year-old girl with a growth hormone (GH)-secreting macroadenoma and GH levels of 120-495 ng/ml with a combination of preoperative octreotide infusion, surgery and postoperative octreotide infusion plus estrogen, which resulted in reduced tumor size prior to surgery, reduced GH levels and completely suppressed growth after surgery. 20K GH is produced by alternative splicing of 22K GH mRNA and the ratio of 20K GH to 22K GH is within a small range in the normal population and high in a GH-secreting tumor. The 20K/22K GH ratio in this patient was persistently elevated during each phase of the treatment and may serve as a sensitive index of tumor-derived GH secretion. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Juvenile hormone biosynthesis and secretion by the female Corpora allata of the larval gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.) utilizing in vitro organ culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    Junvenile hormone synthesis and secretion in the female larval gypsy moth was investigated. In vitro culturing methods were developed including: incubating 2 pair of CC-CA gland complexes in 50 ul of osmotically balanced Grace's insect medium containing 1 uCi 3 H-methyl-methionine for 6 hr. JH homologues were identified and quantified using TLC and HPLC. In vitro methods were employed to investigate trends of JH secretion in 4th and ultimate female larval instar CA. Fourth instar CA produced JH peaks of 0.15 pmole/pr/hr between days 2 and 3, but the rate declined to half by day 4. Ultimate instar larvae began secreting 0.48 pmole/pr/hr, but by day 10, had decreased JH output to negligible levels which continued until pupation. Effects upon in vitro JH secretion produced by precocene II and caffeine were examined. Feulgen staining techniques revealed an equal number of cells (30) in 4th and last instar CA. Last instar Ca were 3 times larger than 4th in volume but their actual in vitro JH secretion at peak levels was only 20% greater. In vitro methods demonstrated that JH secretory trends differ in younger versus mature larval instars. Glandular volume increased in last instars but JH secretion was only 20% greater than in 4th's when compared on the basis of volume. Precocene II elicited a negative response on in vivo JH secretion at levels 10 times less than caffeine. Caffeine was judged not to significantly alter JH secretion

  7. Acromegaly caused by a growth hormonereleasing hormone secreting carcinoid tumour of the lung : the effect of octreotide treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Heide, L. J. M.; Van den Berg, G.; Wolthuis, A.; Van Schelven, W. D.

    2007-01-01

    in acromegaly, the overproduction of growth hormone is usually caused by a pituitary adenoma. We report a 74-year-old woman with acromegaly caused by ectopic overproduction of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH), a rare diagnosis. The GHRH appeared to be produced by a carcinoid tumour of the

  8. Induction of a hypothyroid state during juvenile development delays pubertal reactivation of the neuroendocrine system governing luteinising hormone secretion in the male rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, D R; Bhat, G K; Stah, C D; Pohl, C R; Plant, T M

    2006-09-01

    The present study aimed to determine the influence of thyroid status on the timing of the pubertal resurgence in gonadotrophin-releasing hormone pulse generator activity [tracked by circulating luteinising hormone (LH) levels] in male rhesus monkeys. Six juvenile monkeys were orchidectomised and then treated with the antithyroid drug, methimazole, from 15-19 months until 36 months of age, at which time thyroxine (T(4)) replacement was initiated. Four additional agonadal monkeys served as controls. Blood samples were drawn weekly for hormonal assessments. Body weight, crown-rump length and bone age were monitored at regular intervals. By 8 weeks of methimazole treatment, plasma T(4) had fallen sharply, and the decline was associated with a plasma thyroid-stimulating hormone increase. In controls, plasma LH levels remained undetectable until the pubertal rise occurred at 29.3 +/- 0.2 months of age. This developmental event occurred in only half of the methimazole-treated animals before 36 months of age when T(4) replacement was initiated. The hypothyroid state was associated with a profound arrest of growth and bone maturation, but increased body mass indices and plasma leptin levels. T(4) replacement in methimazole-treated monkeys was associated with the pubertal rise in LH in the remaining three animals and accelerated somatic development in all six animals. Although pubertal resurgence in LH secretion occurred at a later chronological age in methimazole-treated animals compared to controls, bone age, crown-rump length and body weight at that time did not differ between groups. There were no long-term differences in plasma prolactin between groups. We conclude that juvenile hypothyroidism in male primates causes a marked delay in the pubertal resurgence of LH secretion, probably occasioned at the hypothalamic level. Whether this effect is meditated by an action of thyroid hormone directly on the hypothalamus or indirectly as a result of the concomitant deficit in

  9. Anti-Aquaporin-4 Antibody-Positive Neuromyelitis Optica Presenting with Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion as an Initial Manifestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Nakajima

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of neuromyelitis optica (NMO-characteristic brain lesions corresponds to sites of high aquaporin-4 (AQP4 expression, and the brainstem and hypothalamus lesions that express high levels of AQP4 protein are relatively characteristic of NMO. The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH is one of the important causes of hyponatremia and results from an abnormal production or sustained secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH. SIADH has been associated with many clinical states or syndromes, and the hypothalamic-neurohypophyseal system regulates the feedback control system for ADH secretion. We report the case of a 63-year-old man with NMO, whose initial manifestation was hyponatremia caused by SIADH. Retrospective analysis revealed that the serum anti-AQP4 antibody was positive, and an MRI scan showed a unilateral lesion in the hypothalamus. SIADH recovered completely with regression of the hypothalamic lesion. As such, NMO should even be considered in patients who develop SIADH and have no optic nerve or spinal cord lesions but have MRI-documented hypothalamic lesions.

  10. A thyrotropin‑secreting macroadenoma with positive growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A thyrotropin‑secreting macroadenoma with positive growth hormone and prolactin immunostaining: A case report and literature review. ... thyroid hormone receptor resistance syndrome. Key words: Inappropriate thyroid stimulating hormone, thyrotropin‑secreting pituitary adenoma, thyroid stimulating hormone adenoma ...

  11. Importance of the gut-brain axis in the control of glucose homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migrenne, Stéphanie; Marsollier, Nicolas; Cruciani-Guglielmacci, Céline; Magnan, Christophe

    2006-12-01

    Adult mammals finely match glucose production to glucose utilization, thus allowing glycaemia to be maintained in a physiological range of 0.8-1.2mg/dl whatever the energetic status of the mammal (i.e. fed or fasted, rested or exercised). To accomplish this, peripheral signals originating from the gut 'inform' the central nervous system, which in turn is able to monitor the status of both peripheral glucose stores and ongoing fuel availability. Indeed, both secretion and action of hormones regulating endogenous glucose production and utilization are regulated by the autonomic nervous system. These gut signals are either hormonal (e.g. glucagon-like peptide-1, ghrelin and cholecystokinine) or neuronal (e.g. afferent vagus nerve fibres). Recent data, combined with the development of incretin analogues for treatment of diabetes, highlight the importance of the gut-brain axis, especially glucagon-like peptide-1 and ghrelin, in the control of glucose homeostasis.

  12. The alpha cell expresses glucagon-like peptide-2 receptors and glucagon-like peptide-2 stimulates glucagon secretion from the rat pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Heer, J; Pedersen, J; Orskov, C

    2007-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is a gut hormone regulating intestinal growth and nutrient absorption. Recently, GLP-2 has been reported to stimulate glucagon secretion in healthy humans. We sought to clarify the mechanism and physiological significance of this endocrine effect. ...... of the glucagonotropic action of GLP-2 in humans....

  13. The role of Sep (O-phosphoserine) tRNA: Sec (selenocysteine) synthase (SEPSECS) in proliferation, apoptosis and hormone secretion of trophoblast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H-D; Zhang, W-G; Sun, M-N; Duan, Q-F; Li, F-L; Li, H

    2013-11-01

    To investigate whether Sep (O-phosphoserine) tRNA: Sec (selenocysteine) synthase (SEPSECS), which plays an essential role in the synthesis of selenoprotein, affects proliferation, apoptosis and hormone secretion of human trophoblast cells. Human trophoblast JEG-3 cells were divided into four groups: control group, SEPSECS silenced-expression group, empty vector group and SEPSECS over-expression group. Over-expression and silenced-expression were achieved by transfection with plasmid DNA or RNA oligonucleotide, respectively. 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl] -2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and colony formation assays were performed to investigate cell proliferation, while apoptosis was tested by annexin V-FITC, PI double staining and caspases-3 activation assays, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine the level of progesterone (PG) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). SEPSECS silenced-expression clearly inhibited proliferation of JEG-3 cells (p < 0.05), significantly induced cell apoptosis (p < 0.01) and reduced the production of PG and hCG (p < 0.05). On the contrary, SEPSECS over-expression significantly promoted both cell proliferation (p < 0.01) and secretion of PG and hCG (p < 0.05). SEPSECS significantly affects proliferation, apoptosis and hormone secretion of human trophoblast cells, suggesting that a potential relationship exists among SEPSECS, cell proliferation, apoptosis and hormone production of human placental trophoblast cells. Furthermore, this may provide a clue to uncover the relationship between selenium and human placental in association with an emphasis on the importance of selenium adequacy during pregnancy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Efficacy of transsphenoidal surgery in achieving biochemical cure of growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas among patients with cavernous sinus invasion: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briceno, Vanessa; Zaidi, Hasan A; Doucette, Joanne A; Onomichi, Kaho B; Alreshidi, Amer; Mekary, Rania A; Smith, Timothy R

    2017-05-01

    Growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas in adults can result in severe craniofacial disfigurement and potentially fatal medical complications. Surgical resection leading to remission of the disease is dependent on complete surgical resection of the tumor. Lesions that invade the cavernous sinus may not be safely accessible via an endonasal transsphenoidal surgery (TSS), and the rates of biochemical remission of patients with residual disease vary widely in the literature. We conducted a meta-analysis to examine the prevalence of biochemical remission after TSS among patients with growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas with and without cavernous sinus invasion. Embase, PubMed, and Cochrane Library databases were searched for relevant publications. Fourteen studies with 972 patients with biochemically confirmed growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas were included in the meta-analysis. The overall remission prevalence under a fixed-effect model was 47.6% (95% CI = 40.8-54.4%) for patients with invasive macroadenomas (I 2  = 74.6%, p < 0.01); 76.4% (95% CI = 72.2-80.1%) for patients with non-invasive macroadenomas (I 2  = 59.6%, p = 0.03); and 74.2% (95% CI = 66.3-80.7%) for patients with non-invasive microadenomas (I 2  = 36.4, p = 0.10). The significant difference among the three groups resulted from the difference between patients with or without cavernous sinus invasion (p = 0.01) and not from the size of adenomas among those without cavernous sinus invasion (p = 0.66). The prevalence of biochemical remission in patients with cavernous sinus invasion was lower than in patients without cavernous sinus invasion after TSS for acromegaly.

  15. Effects of glucagon-like peptide 1 on counterregulatory hormone responses, cognitive functions, and insulin secretion during hyperinsulinemic, stepped hypoglycemic clamp experiments in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nauck, Michael A; Heimesaat, Markus M; Behle, Kai

    2002-01-01

    and neuroglucopenic symptoms were assessed, and cognitive function was tested at each plateau. Insulin secretion rates were estimated by deconvolution (two-compartment model of C-peptide kinetics). At insulin concentrations of approximately 45 mU/liter, glucose infusion rates were similar with and without GLP-1 (P......Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and analogues are being evaluated as a new therapeutic principle for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. GLP-1 suppresses glucagon secretion, which could lead to disturbances of hypoglycemia counterregulation. This has, however, not been tested. Nine healthy volunteers.......97). The other counterregulatory hormones and autonomic or neuroglucopenic symptom scores increased, and cognitive functions decreased with decreasing glucose concentrations, but there were no significant differences comparing experiments with GLP-1 or placebo, except for a significant reduction of GH responses...

  16. Growth hormone (GH) secretion and pituitary size in children with short stature. Efficacy of GH therapy in GH-deficient children, depending on the pituitary size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilczer, Maciej; Szalecki, Mieczysław; Smyczynska, Joanna; Stawerska, Renata; Kaniewska, Danuta; Lewinski, Andrzej

    2005-10-01

    Certain relationships between pituitary size and growth hormone (GH) secretion have previously been observed, however they are still a matter of controversy. Organic abnormalities of the hypothalamic-hypophyseal region are important for predicting growth response to GH therapy. Evaluation of relations between GH secretion and the pituitary size in short children and estimation of the efficacy of GH therapy in children with GH deficiency (GHD). The analysis comprised 216 short children (159 boys). Two GH stimulation tests, as well as magnetic resonance image (MRI) examination, were performed in each patient. All the patients with GHD were treated with GH for, at least, one year. Significant correlations were found between pituitary height and GH secretion (p < 0.05). Patients were classified into three (3) groups: 1) pituitary hypoplasia (HP) for height age; 2) HP for the chronological age but not for the height age; 3) normal pituitary size. Significant differences in GH secretion were observed among the groups (6.1+/-5.3 vs. 8.1+/-4.4 vs. 12.3+/-9.1 ng/mL, respectively). There was a negative correlation between GH peak and height gain during GH therapy (r = -0.34). The highest growth improvement was noticed in patients with HP for the height age. Pituitary hypoplasia for the height age is related to more severe GH deficiency and the best response to GH therapy.

  17. Effect of reducing portion size at a compulsory meal on later energy intake, gut hormones, and appetite in overweight adults.

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, HB; Ahern, AL; Solis-Trapala, I; Walker, CG; Reimann, F; Gribble, FM; Jebb, SA

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Larger portion sizes (PS) are associated with greater energy intake (EI), but little evidence exists on the appetitive effects of PS reduction. This study investigated the impact of reducing breakfast PS on subsequent EI, postprandial gastrointestinal hormone responses, and appetite ratings. METHODS: In a randomized crossover design (n = 33 adults; mean BMI 29 kg/m(2) ), a compulsory breakfast was based on 25% of gender-specific estimated daily energy requirements; PS was reduced b...

  18. A longitudinal study of growth and growth hormone secretion in children during treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marky, I.; Mellander, L.; Lannering, B.; Albertsson-Wikland, K.

    1991-01-01

    Diminished growth rate during treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is of the multifactorial etiology. Effects on GH secretion have been shown after discontinuation of treatment including prophylactic CNS irradiation. Seventeen children treated for ALL with three different CNS preventive schedules were followed longitudinally with repeated estimations of the spontaneous GH secretion during a 24-month period. No difference was found in GH secretion during this time between patients who had received no radiotherapy and those who had received 18 or 24 Gy as CNS prophylaxis. During dexamethasone treatment the GH secretion was completely suppressed, which can be a mediator for the diminished growth rate during the first 2 years of ALL treatment. We conclude that there is no clinical reason to perform GH analysis within the first 24 months of treatment for ALL

  19. Normal sweat secretion despite impaired growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor-I axis in obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael Højby; Juul, Anders; Main, Katharina M

    2011-01-01

    Adults with GH deficiency are known to exhibit reduced sweating. Whether sweating capacity is impacted in obese subjects with impaired GH secretion have not previously been investigated. The main objective was to investigate sweat secretion rate and the GH-IGF-I axis in obese subjects before...... and after weight loss. Sixteen severely obese women (BMI, 40.6 ± 1.1 kg/m(2)) were investigated before and after a diet-induced weight loss. Sixteen age-matched nonobese women served as controls. The obese subjects presented the characteristic decreased GH release, hyperinsulinaemia, increased FFA levels......, and impaired insulin sensitivity, which all were normalised after diet-induced weight loss of 30 ± 5 kg. Sweat secretion rates were similar comparing obese and nonobese subjects (78 ± 10 versus 82 ± 9 mg/30 minutes) and sweat secretion did not change after a diet-induced weight loss in obese subjects. We...

  20. Prebiotic Fibre Supplementation In Combination With Metformin Modifies Appetite, Energy Metabolism, And Gut Satiety Hormones In Obese Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyra, Kim Alicia

    The prebiotic fibre, oligofructose (OFS), reduces energy intake and improves glycemic control in rodents and man. Metformin (MT) is a commonly used insulin-sensitizing agent that may limit weight gain in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Our objective was to determine if using OFS as an adjunct to MT therapy (AD) modifies satiety hormone production and metabolism in obese rats. Independently, OFS and MT decreased energy intake, body fat, hepatic triglyceride content, plasma leptin and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) levels. OFS and AD but not MT rats showed superior glycemic control during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) compared to C. Area under the curve for GIP was lowest in ADThe prebiotic fibre, oligofructose (OFS), reduces energy intake and improves glycemic control in rodents and man. Metformin (MT) is a commonly used insulin-sensitizing agent that may limit weight gain in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Our objective was to determine if using OFS as an adjunct to MT therapy (AD) modifies satiety hormone production and metabolism in obese rats. Independently, OFS and MT decreased energy intake, body fat, hepatic triglyceride content, plasma leptin and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) levels. OFS and AD but not MT rats showed superior glycemic control during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) compared to C. Area under the curve for GIP was lowest in AD

  1. Processing of thyrotropin-releasing hormone prohormone (pro-TRH) generates a biologically active peptide, prepro-TRH-(160-169), which regulates TRH-induced thyrotropin secretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulant, M.; Vaudry, H.; Roussel, J.P.; Astier, H.; Nicolas, P.

    1990-01-01

    Rat thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) prohormone contains five copies of the TRH progenitor sequence Gln-His-Pro-Gly linked together by connecting sequences whose biological activity is unknown. Both the predicted connecting peptide prepro-TRH-(160-169) (Ps4) and TRH are predominant storage forms of TRH precursor-related peptides in the hypothalamus. To determine whether Ps4 is co-released with TRH, rat median eminence slices were perfused in vitro. Infusion of depolarizing concentrations of KCl induced stimulation of release of Ps4- and TRH-like immunoreactivity. The possible effect of Ps4 on thyrotropin release was investigated in vitro using quartered anterior pituitaries. Infusion of Ps4 alone had no effect on thyrotropin secretion but potentiated TRH-induced thyrotropin release in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the occurrence of specific binding sites for 125 I-labeled Tyr-Ps4 in the distal lobe of the pituitary was demonstrated by binding analysis and autoradiographic localization. These findings indicate that these two peptides that arise from a single multifunctional precursor, the TRH prohormone, act in a coordinate manner on the same target cells to promote hormonal secretion. These data suggest that differential processing of the TRH prohormone may have the potential to modulate the biological activity of TRH

  2. Differential Effects of Continuous Exposure to the Investigational Metastin/Kisspeptin Analog TAK-683 on Pulsatile and Surge Mode Secretion of Luteinizing Hormone in Ovariectomized Goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    TANAKA, Tomomi; OHKURA, Satoshi; WAKABAYASHI, Yoshihiro; KUROIWA, Takenobu; NAGAI, Kiyosuke; ENDO, Natsumi; TANAKA, Akira; MATSUI, Hisanori; KUSAKA, Masami; OKAMURA, Hiroaki

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the present study was to determine if the estradiol-induced luteinizing hormone (LH) surge is influenced by the constant exposure to TAK-683, an investigational metastin/kisspeptin analog, that had been established to depress the pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and LH secretion in goats. Ovariectomized goats subcutaneously received TAK-683 (TAK-683 group, n=6) or vehicle (control group, n=6) constantly via subcutaneous implantation of an osmotic pump. Five days after the start of the treatment, estradiol was infused intravenously in both groups to evaluate the effects on the LH surge. Blood samples were collected at 6-min intervals for 4 h prior to the initiation of either the TAK-683 treatment or the estradiol infusion, to determine the profiles of pulsatile LH secretion. They were also collected at 2-h intervals from –4 h to 32 h after the start of estradiol infusion for analysis of LH surges. The frequency and mean concentrations of LH pulses in the TAK-683 group were remarkably suppressed 5 days after the start of TAK-683 treatment compared with those of the control group (P<0.05). On the other hand, a clear LH surge was observed in all animals of both groups. There were no significant differences in the LH concentrations for surge peak and the peak time of the LH surge between the TAK-683 and control groups. These findings suggest that the effects of continuous exposure to kisspeptin or its analog on the mechanism(s) that regulates the pulsatile and surge mode secretion of GnRH/LH are different in goats. PMID:24047956

  3. Effects of itopride hydrochloride on plasma gut-regulatory peptide and stress-related hormone levels in healthy human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagiri, Fumihiko; Shiga, Toru; Inoue, Shin; Sato, Yuhki; Itoh, Hiroki; Takeyama, Masaharu

    2006-01-01

    Itopride hydrochloride (itopride), a gastrokinetic drug, has recently been evaluated for its clinical usefulness in functional dyspepsia. We investigated effects of itopride on human plasma gastrin-, somatostatin-, motilin-, and cholecystokinin (CCK)-like immunoreactive substances (IS); adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-immunoreactive substances (IS), and cortisol under stress conditions in healthy subjects. A single administration of itopride caused significant increases in plasma somatostatin- and motilin-IS levels compared to placebo. Itopride significantly decreased plasma CCK-IS, and suppressed the ACTH-IS level compared to placebo. We hypothesize that itopride may have an accelerating gastric emptying effect, and a modulatory effect on the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and autonomic nervous functions. These effects might be beneficial in stress-related diseases, suggesting that itopride has clinicopharmacological activities.

  4. Insulin secretion and incretin hormones after oral glucose in non-obese subjects with impaired glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, E; Olsson, T; Söderberg, S

    2004-01-01

    of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, GLP-1, and GIP. Insulin secretion (TIS) and insulin sensitivity (OGIS) were assessed using models describing the relationship between glucose, insulin and C-peptide data. These models allowed estimation also of the hepatic extraction of insulin. The age (54.2 +/- 9.7 [mean......Subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) are usually overweight and exhibit insulin resistance with a defective compensation of insulin secretion. In this study, we sought to establish the interrelation between insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity after oral glucose in non-obese subjects...... over the whole 180-minute period was higher in IGT (26.2 +/- 2.4 v 20.0 +/- 2.0 nmol/L; P =.035). Hepatic insulin extraction correlated linearly with OGIS (r = 0.71; P

  5. Gut microbiome and bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, Lidia; Rouleau, Matthieu; Wakkach, Abdelilah; Blin-Wakkach, Claudine

    2018-04-11

    The gut microbiome is now viewed as a tissue that interacts bidirectionally with the gastrointestinal, immune, endocrine and nervous systems, affecting the cellular responses in numerous organs. Evidence is accumulating of gut microbiome involvement in a growing number of pathophysiological processes, many of which are linked to inflammatory responses. More specifically, data acquired over the last decade point to effects of the gut microbiome on bone mass regulation and on the development of bone diseases (such as osteoporosis) and of inflammatory joint diseases characterized by bone loss. Mice lacking a gut microbiome have bone mass alteration that can be reversed by gut recolonization. Changes in the gut microbiome composition have been reported in mice with estrogen-deficiency osteoporosis and have also been found in a few studies in humans. Probiotic therapy decreases bone loss in estrogen-deficient animals. The effect of the gut microbiome on bone tissue involves complex mechanisms including modulation of CD4 + T cell activation, control of osteoclastogenic cytokine production and modifications in hormone levels. This complexity may contribute to explain the discrepancies observed betwwen some studies whose results vary depending on the age, gender, genetic background and treatment duration. Further elucidation of the mechanisms involved is needed. However, the available data hold promise that gut microbiome manipulation may prove of interest in the management of bone diseases. Copyright © 2018 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Diagnostic challenges and management of a patient with acromegaly due to ectopic growth hormone-releasing hormone secretion from a bronchial carcinoid tumour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Kyriakakis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A male patient presented at the age of 30 with classic clinical features of acromegaly and was found to have elevated growth hormone levels, not suppressing during an oral glucose tolerance test. His acromegaly was originally considered to be of pituitary origin, based on a CT scan, which was interpreted as showing a pituitary macroadenoma. Despite two trans-sphenoidal surgeries, cranial radiotherapy and periods of treatment with bromocriptine and octreotide, his acromegaly remained active clinically and biochemically. A lung mass was discovered incidentally on a chest X-ray performed as part of a routine pre-assessment for spinal surgery 5 years following the initial presentation. This was confirmed to be a bronchial carcinoid tumour, which was strongly positive for growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH and somatostatin receptor type 2 by immunohistochemistry. The re-examination of the pituitary specimens asserted the diagnosis of pituitary GH hyperplasia. Complete resolution of the patient’s acromegaly was achieved following right lower and middle lobectomy. Seventeen years following the successful resection of the bronchial carcinoid tumour the patient remains under annual endocrine follow-up for monitoring of the hypopituitarism he developed after the original interventions to his pituitary gland, while there has been no evidence of active acromegaly or recurrence of the carcinoid tumour. Ectopic acromegaly is extremely rare, accounting for <1% of all cases of acromegaly. Our case highlights the diagnostic challenges differentiating between ectopic acromegaly and acromegaly of pituitary origin and emphasises the importance of avoiding unnecessary pituitary surgery and radiotherapy. The role of laboratory investigations, imaging and histology as diagnostic tools is discussed.

  7. Anorexia induction by the trichothecene deoxynivalenol (vomitoxin) is mediated by the release of the gut satiety hormone peptide YY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Brenna M; Clark, Erica S; Pestka, James J

    2012-12-01

    Consumption of deoxynivalenol (DON), a trichothecene mycotoxin known to commonly contaminate grain-based foods, suppresses growth of experimental animals, thus raising concerns over its potential to adversely affect young children. Although this growth impairment is believed to result from anorexia, the initiating mechanisms for appetite suppression remain unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that DON induces the release of satiety hormones and that this response corresponds to the toxin's anorectic action. Acute ip exposure to DON had no effect on plasma glucagon-like peptide-1, leptin, amylin, pancreatic polypeptide, gastric inhibitory peptide, or ghrelin; however, the toxin was found to robustly elevate peptide YY (PYY) and cholecystokinin (CCK). Specifically, ip exposure to DON at 1 and 5mg/kg bw induced PYY by up to 2.5-fold and CCK by up to 4.1-fold. These responses peaked within 15-120 min and lasted up to 120 min (CCK) and 240 min (PPY), corresponding with depressed rates of food intake. Direct administration of exogenous PYY or CCK similarly caused reduced food intake. Food intake experiments using the NPY2 receptor antagonist BIIE0246 and the CCK1A receptor antagonist devazepide, individually, suggested that PYY mediated DON-induced anorexia but CCK did not. Orolingual exposure to DON induced plasma PYY and CCK elevation and anorexia comparable with that observed for ip exposure. Taken together, these findings suggest that PYY might be one critical mediator of DON-induced anorexia and, ultimately, growth suppression.

  8. Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor 1 secretions in eating disorders: Correlations with psychopathological aspects of the disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambilla, Francesca; Santonastaso, Paolo; Caregaro, Lorenza; Favaro, Angela

    2018-05-01

    Hormonal alterations in Eating Disorders (ED) may result from the biochemical stress of malnutrition/starvation. The correlations between some hormonal impairments, particularly of the somatotropic axis, and the psychopathological aspects of ED are still undefined. We measured the plasma concentrations of the somatotropic hormone (GH) and the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in 136 patients with various forms of ED, 65 with restricted Anorexia Nervosa (ANR), 19 with bingeing-purging Anorexia Nervosa (ANBP), 12 with purging-non binging Anorexia Nervosa (ANP), 26 with Bulimia Nervosa (BN), 8 with ED not otherwise specified-anorexic type (EDNOS-AN), 7 with ED not otherwise specified-bulimic type (EDNOS-BN) and in 30 healthy controls. Psychological assessment of patients and controls was performed using two outpatient rating scales, the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2) and the Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90). Significant negative or positive correlations were observed between GH-IGF-1 concentrations and impairments on several EDI-2 subscales (drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction, interoceptive awareness, sense of ineffectiveness, interpersonal distrust, maturity fear) and on SCL-90 subitems (depression, hostility, obsessivity compulsivity, anxiety), suggesting a possible hormonal modulatory effect on specific aspects of ED psychopathology. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Preservation of active incretin hormones by inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase IV suppresses meal-induced incretin secretion in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deacon, C F; Wamberg, S; Bie, P

    2002-01-01

    protection has not been fully assessed, largely because suitable assays which distinguish between intact and degraded peptides have been unavailable. Using newly developed assays for intact GLP-1 and GIP, the effect of DPP IV inhibition on incretin hormone metabolism was examined. Conscious dogs were given...

  10. Early developmental and temporal characteristics of stress-induced secretion of pituitary-adrenal hormones in prenatally stressed rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, L K; Kalin, N H

    1991-08-30

    Previous experiments revealed that 14-day-old prenatally stressed rats have significantly elevated concentrations of plasma adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone suggesting these animals have an overactive hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system. In these studies, however, stress-induced hormone levels were determined only immediately after exposure to an acute stressor. Therefore, in the current study, we examined in postnatal days 7, 14 and 21 prenatally stressed rats the stress-induced time course of this pituitary-adrenal hormone elevation. Plasma ACTH and corticosterone were measured in the basal state and at 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 h after a 10-min exposure period to foot shocks administered in the context of social isolation. Results indicated that at all 3 ages, plasma ACTH in prenatally stressed rats was significantly elevated. Corticosterone concentrations were also significantly higher in prenatally stressed than in control rats, especially in day 14 rats. Analysis of stress-induced hormone fluctuations over time indicated that by 14 days of age, both prenatally stressed than in control and control rats had significant increases in plasma ACTH and corticosterone after exposure to stress. Furthermore, although prenatally stressed rats had significantly higher pituitary-adrenal hormone concentrations than control animals, the post-stress temporal patterns of decline in ACTH and corticosterone levels were similar between groups. Results suggest that throughout the preweaning period, prenatal stress produces an HPA system that functions in a manner similar to that of controls but at an increased level.

  11. Gastrointestinal hormones and their targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F.

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal hormones are peptides released from endocrine cells and neurons in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are currently known to be expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, which makes the gut the largest hormone producing organ in the body. Modern biology makes...... it feasible to conceive the hormones under five headings: The structural homology groups a majority of the hormones into nine families, each of which is assumed to originate from one ancestral gene. The individual hormone gene often has multiple phenotypes due to alternative splicing, tandem organization......, or differentiated maturation of the prohormone. By a combination of these mechanisms, more than 100 different hormonally active peptides are released from the gut. Gut hormone genes are also widely expressed in cells outside the gut, some only in extraintestinal endocrine cells and neurons but others also in other...

  12. Association of the pituitary-testicular axis function and sex hormone-binding globulin with melatonin secretion in morbidly obese men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostrowska, Z.; Buntner, B.; Marek, B.; Zwirska-Korczala, K.

    1995-01-01

    A possible relationship between melatonin (MEL) secretion and pituitary-testicular function as well as the circadian rhythmicity of serum MEL, lutropin (LH), folitropin (FSH), estradiol (E 2 ), total testosterone (T) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were evaluated in 16 men with the primary obesity (body mass index - BMI > 43 kg/m 2 ; waist-to-hip circumference ratio - WHR > 1.0) and in 17 healthy volunteers with normal body weight. The mean 24-h MEL level was significantly higher in obese patients than in healthy control individuals. Moreover, all obese men showed some abnormalities of MEL circadian pattern such as decreased ratio between day and night MEL levels, abnormal secretory peaks during the light hours and lower interindividual variability for timing amplitude. Abnormal circadian variations of MEL were associated with reduced 24-h mean values of LH, FSH, T and SHBG, whereas E 2 levels were elevated. (author). 49 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  13. Experiment K-6-22. Growth hormone regulation, synthesis and secretion in microgravity. Part 1: Somatotroph physiology. Part 2: Immunohistochemical analysis of hypothalamic hormones. Part 3: Plasma analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindeland, R.; Vale, W.; Hymer, W.; Sawchenko, P.; Vasques, M.; Krasnov, I.; Kaplanski, A.; Victorov, I.

    1990-01-01

    The objectives of the 1887 mission were: (1) to determine if the results of the SL-3 pituitary gland experiment (1) were repeatable; and (2) to determine what effect a longer mission would have on the rat pituitary gland growth hormone (GH) system. In the 1887 experiment two issues were considered especially important. First, it was recognized that cells prepared from individual rat pituitary glands should be considered separately so that the data from the 5 glands could be analyzed in a statistically meaningful way. Second, results of the SL-3 flight involving the hollow fiber implant and HPLC GH-variant experiments suggested that the biological activity of the hormone had been negatively affected by flight. The results of the 1887 experiment documented the wisdom of addressing both issues in the protocol. Thus, the reduction in secretory capacity of flight cells during subsequent extended cell culture on Earth was documented statistically, and thereby established the validity of the SL-3 result. The results of both flight experiments thus support the contention that there is a secretory lesion in pituitary GH cells of flight animals. The primary objective of both missions was a clear definition of the effect of spaceflight on the GH cell system. There can no longer be any reasonable doubt that this system is affected in microgravity. One explanation for the reason(s) underlying the better known effects of spaceflight on organisms, viz. changes in bone, muscle and immune systems may very well rest with such changes in bGH. In spite of the fact that rats in the Cosmos 1887 flight were on Earth for two days after flight, the data show that the GH system had still not recovered from the effects of flight. Many questions remain. One of the more important concerns the GRF responsiveness of somatotrophs after flight. This will be tested in an upcoming experiment.

  14. Metabolomic insights into the intricate gut microbial–host interaction in the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magali ePalau-Rodriguez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Gut microbiota has recently been proposed as a crucial environmental factor in the development of metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes, mainly due to its contribution in the modulation of several processes including host energy metabolism, gut epithelial permeability, gut peptide hormone secretion and host inflammatory state. Since the symbiotic interaction between the gut microbiota and the host is essentially reflected in specific metabolic signatures, much expectation is placed on the application of metabolomic approaches to unveil the key mechanisms linking the gut microbiota composition and activity with disease development. The present review aims to summarize the gut microbial-host co-metabolites identified so far by targeted and untargeted metabolomic studies in humans, in association with impaired glucose homeostasis and/or obesity. An alteration of the co-metabolism of bile acids, branched fatty acids, choline, vitamins (i.e. niacin, purines and phenolic compounds has been associated so far with the obese or diabese phenotype, in respect to healthy controls. Furthermore, anti-diabetic treatments such as metformin and sulfonylurea have been observed to modulate the gut microbiota or at least their metabolic profiles, thereby potentially affecting insulin resistance through indirect mechanisms still unknown. Despite the scarcity of the metabolomic studies currently available on the microbial-host crosstalk, the data-driven results largely confirmed findings independently obtained from in vitro and animal model studies, putting forward the mechanisms underlying the implication of a dysfunctional gut microbiota in the development of metabolic disorders.

  15. Excessive islet NO generation in type 2 diabetic GK rats coincides with abnormal hormone secretion and is counteracted by GLP-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Salehi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A distinctive feature of type 2 diabetes is inability of insulin-secreting beta-cells to properly respond to elevated glucose eventually leading to beta-cell failure. We have hypothesized that an abnormally increased NO production in the pancreatic islets might be an important factor in the pathogenesis of beta-cell dysfunction. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show now that islets of type 2 spontaneous diabetes in GK rats display excessive NO generation associated with abnormal iNOS expression in insulin and glucagon cells, increased ncNOS activity, impaired glucose-stimulated insulin release, glucagon hypersecretion, and impaired glucose-induced glucagon suppression. Pharmacological blockade of islet NO production by the NOS inhibitor N(G-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME greatly improved hormone secretion from GK islets suggesting islet NOS activity being an important target to inactivate for amelioration of islet cell function. The incretin hormone GLP-1, which is used in clinical practice suppressed iNOS and ncNOS expression and activity with almost full restoration of insulin release and partial restoration of glucagon release. GLP-1 suppression of iNOS expression was reversed by PKA inhibition but unaffected by the proteasome inhibitor MG132. Injection of glucose plus GLP-1 in the diabetic rats showed that GLP-1 amplified the insulin response but induced a transient increase and then a poor depression of glucagon. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that abnormally increased NO production within islet cells is a significant player in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes being counteracted by GLP-1 through PKA-dependent, nonproteasomal mechanisms.

  16. A Case of Cushing’s Syndrome due to Ectopic Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Secretion from Esthesioneuroblastoma with Long Term Follow-Up after Resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslee N. Matheny

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of a 52-year-old male who developed Cushing’s Syndrome due to ectopic adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH secretion from a large esthesioneuroblastoma (ENB of the nasal sinuses. The patient initially presented with polyuria, polydipsia, weakness, and confusion. Computed tomography scan of the head and magnetic resonance imaging showed a 7 cm skull base mass centered in the right cribriform plate without sella involvement. Work-up revealed ACTH-dependent hypercortisolemia, which did not suppress appropriately after high-dose dexamethasone. Subsequent imaging of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis did not reveal other possible ectopic sources of ACTH secretion besides the ENB. His hospital course was complicated by severe hypokalemia and hyperglycemia before successful surgical resection of the tumor, the biopsy of which showed ENB. Postoperatively, his ACTH level dropped below the limit of detection. In the ensuing 4 months, he underwent adjuvant chemoradiation with carboplatin and docetaxel with good response and resolution of hypokalemia and hyperglycemia, with no sign of recurrence as of 30 months postoperatively. His endogenous cortisol production is rising but has not completely recovered.

  17. Insulin hypersecretion together with high luteinizing hormone concentration augments androgen secretion in oral glucose tolerance test in women with polycystic ovarian disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anttila, L; Koskinen, P; Jaatinen, T A; Erkkola, R; Irjala, K; Ruutiainen, K

    1993-08-01

    Female hyperandrogenism is often associated with hyperinsulinaemia and insulin resistance. We evaluated the hormone responses in an oral glucose tolerance test to investigate the interactions of gonadotrophins, insulin, C-peptide and androgens in women with polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD). In 28 patients with ultrasonographically diagnosed PCOD, hyperinsulinaemia and insulin resistance were mainly associated with obesity. Both basal and cumulative sum of insulin to C-peptide ratios were high in obese subjects, suggesting decreasing hepatic removal of insulin caused by obesity. Nevertheless, in some lean PCOD women, despite normal fasting insulin concentrations, insulin hypersecretion existed. The mean concentration of testosterone decreased significantly during the oral glucose tolerance test both in PCOD and control women, and of androstenedione in the PCOD patients only. However, an increase in androgen responses was found in a subgroup of PCOD patients, who had both elevated luteinizing hormone (LH) concentrations and hyperinsulinaemic response to oral glucose. In the remaining PCOD patients an inverse correlation between LH and insulin was found. The patients with hyperinsulinaemia together with LH hypersecretion may represent a subgroup of PCOD with deranged regulation of androgen secretion.

  18. A case of syndrome involving the inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone developed during radiation therapy in a patient with invasive thymoma complicated with myasthenia gravis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chikuie, Naoki; Ishida, Simon; Sato, Tomohiko; Furutama, Daisuke; Sugino, Shyouichi; Kimura, Humihiro; Hanafusa, Toshiaki

    2007-01-01

    We present the case of a 56-year-old male with a syndrome involving the inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH), which developed during radiation therapy for invasive thymoma, complicated with myasthenia gravis (MG). Chest computed tomography revealed a huge mediastinal mass lesion spreading to the pulmonary artery, vena cava and pericardium. He was diagnosed with invasive thymoma, based on the pathological findings of a mediastinal tumor biopsy under computed tomography guidance. He received outpatient radiotherapy for the invasive thymoma, and two weeks after the initiation of radiation at a dose of 22 Gy, was admitted to our hospital because of hypercapnea due to weakness of the diaphragm and disturbance of consciousness. Laboratory examinations of the patient showed hyponatremia, plasma hypoosmolarity in the presence of concentrated urine and inappropriately increased concentration of the plasma antidiuretic hormone. He was also diagnosed as having myasthenia gravis, based on the existence of an anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody. The SIADH was treated by fluid restriction and sodium chloride, and MG was treated with plasma exchange and prednisolone. He recovered from respiratory failure, and his hyponatremia was improved. To our knowledge, this is a rare description of an invasive thymoma associated with SIADH. (author)

  19. Atrial fibrillation associated with a thyroid stimulating hormone-secreting adenoma of the pituitary gland leading to a presentation of acute cardiac decompensation: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Jyothis T

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Hyperthyroidism is a well established cause of atrial fibrillation (AF. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone-secreting pituitary tumours are rare causes of pituitary hyperthyroidism. Whilst pituitary causes of hyperthyroidism are much less common than primary thyroid pathology, establishing a clear aetiology is critical in minimising complications and providing appropriate treatment. Measuring Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH alone to screen for hyperthyroidism may be insufficient to appropriately evaluate the thyroid status in such cases. Case presentation A 63-year-old Caucasian man, previously fit and well, presented with a five-day history of shortness of breath associated with wheeze and dry cough. He denied symptoms of hyperthyroidism and his family, social and past history were unremarkable. Initial investigation was in keeping with a diagnosis of atrial fibrillation (AF with fast ventricular response leading to cardiac decompensation. TSH 6.2 (Normal Range = 0.40 – 4.00 mU/L, Free T3 of 12.5 (4.00 – 6.8 pmol/L and Free T4 51(10–30 pmol/L. Heterophilic antibodies were ruled out. Testosterone was elevated at 43.10 (Normal range: 10.00 – 31.00 nmol/L with an elevated FSH, 18.1 (1.0–7.0 U/L and elevated LH, 12.4 (1.0–8.0 U/L. Growth Hormone, IGF-1 and prolactin were normal. MRI showed a 2.4 cm pituitary macroadenoma. Visual field tests showed a right inferotemporal defect. While awaiting neurosurgical removal of the tumour, the patient was commenced on antithyroid medication (carbimazole and maintained on this until successful trans-sphenoidal excision of the macroadenoma had been performed. AF persisted post-operatively, but was electrically cardioverted subsequently and he remains in sinus rhythm at twelve months follow-up off all treatment. Conclusion This case reiterates the need to evaluate thyroid function in all patients presenting with atrial fibrillation. TSH-secreting pituitary adenomas must be considered

  20. Long-term treatment with bromocriptine of a plurihormonal pituitary adenoma secreting thyrotropin, growth hormone and prolactin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimatsu, A; Murabe, H; Nakamura, Y; Mizuta, H; Ihara, C; Nakao, K

    1999-02-01

    A 48-year-old female presented with acromegaly, amenorrhea and hyperthyroidism associated with high serum free T4 levels and measurable TSH concentrations. The administration of GHRH induced significant increases in GH, PRL and TSH. Conversely, intravenous infusion of dopamine or oral administration of bromocriptine effectively inhibited GH, PRL and TSH secretion. Serum alpha-subunit levels were neither affected by GHRH, dopamine nor bromocriptine. Transsphenoidal surgery was performed and immunostaining of the tissue showed that the adenoma cells were positive for GH, PRL or TSH. The patient was treated with bromocriptine at a daily oral dose of 10 mg after surgery. Serum TSH were initially suppressed but returned within reference intervals with persistent normalized free T4 levels. Serum PRL became undetectable and GH levels were stable around 6 ng/ml except the periods of poor drug compliance, when serum TSH, GH and PRL levels rose considerably. The patient was followed-up for 10 years without any change in the residual adenoma tissues as detected by magnetic resonance imaging. These findings suggest that long-term bromocriptine therapy is effective in treating the hypersecretory state of a plurihormonal adenoma secreting TSH, GH and PRL.

  1. Gut microbiota–derived short-chain fatty acids and kidney diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li L

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Lingzhi Li, Liang Ma, Ping Fu Kidney Research Institute, Department of Nephrology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China Abstract: Gut microbiota and its metabolites play pivotal roles in host physiology and pathology. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs, as a group of metabolites, exert positive regulatory effects on energy metabolism, hormone secretion, immune inflammation, hypertension, and cancer. The functions of SCFAs are related to their activation of transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors and their inhibition of histone acetylation. Though controversial, growing evidence suggests that SCFAs, which regulate inflammation, oxidative stress, and fibrosis, have been involved in kidney disease through the activation of the gut–kidney axis; however, the molecular relationship among gut microbiota–derived metabolites, signaling pathways, and kidney disease remains to be elucidated. This review will provide an overview of the physiology and functions of SCFAs in kidney disease. Keywords: gut microbiome, short-chain fatty acids, kidney diseases, gut–kidney axis

  2. Effects of Fat and Protein Preloads on Pouch Emptying, Intestinal Transit, Glycaemia, Gut Hormones, Glucose Absorption, Blood Pressure and Gastrointestinal Symptoms After Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nam Q; Debreceni, Tamara L; Burgstad, Carly M; Neo, Melissa; Bellon, Max; Wishart, Judith M; Standfield, Scott; Bartholomeusz, Dylan; Rayner, Chris K; Wittert, Gary; Horowitz, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to determine the effects of fat and protein preloads on pouch emptying (PE), caecal arrival time (CAT), glucose absorption, blood glucose (BSL), gut hormones, haemodynamics and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in subjects who had undergone Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) >12 months previously. Ten RYGB subjects were studied on three occasions, in randomised order, receiving 200-ml preloads of either water, fat (30 ml olive oil) or whey protein (55 g), 30 min before a mixed meal. PE, CAT, BSL, plasma 3-O-methyl-D-glucopyranose (3-OMG), insulin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucagon, blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR) and GI symptoms were assessed over 270 min. Although fat and protein preloads did not alter PE of either solids or liquids, the CAT of solids, but not liquids, was longer than that after the water preload (fat 68 ± 5 min and protein 71 ± 6 min vs. water 46 ± 5 min; P = 0.02). BSL elevated promptly after the meal on all days (P area under the curve (AUC(0-75 min)), 18.7 ± 18.2 vs. 107.2 ± 30.4 and 76.1 ± 19.3 mmol/L/min; P < 0.05). Compared to water preload, the protein and fat preloads were associated with greater increases in plasma insulin, GLP-1 and glucagon concentrations, a reduction in BP, and greater increases in HR, fullness, bloating and nausea. Plasma 3-OMG levels were lower after the protein than after the water and fat preloads (P < 0.001). Given its effects to attenuate post-prandial glycaemia, reduce intestinal glucose absorption and potentiate the "incretin response", without inducing more adverse post-prandial GI symptom, protein preload may prove clinically useful in RYGB patients and warrant further evaluation, particularly in those with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and/or dumping syndrome.

  3. EJE PRIZE 2018: A gut feeling about glucagon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knop, Filip K

    2018-06-01

    Hyperglucagonaemia (in the fasting as well as in the postprandial state) is considered a core pathophysiological component of diabetes and is found to contribute substantially to the hyperglycaemic state of diabetes. Hyperglucagonaemia is usually viewed upon as a consequence of pancreatic alpha cell insensitivity to the glucagon-suppressive effects of glucose and insulin. Since we observed that the well-known hyperglucagonaemic response to oral glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes is exchanged by normal suppression of plasma glucagon levels following isoglycaemic intravenous glucose administration in these patients, we have been focusing on the gut and gut-derived factors as potential mediators of diabetic hyperglucagonaemia. In a series of clinical experiments, we have elucidated the role of gut-derived factors in diabetic hyperglucagonaemia and shown that glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide promotes hyperglucagonaemia and that glucagon, hitherto considered a pancreas-specific hormone, may also be secreted from extrapancreatic tissues - most likely from proglucagon-producing enteroendocrine cells. Furthermore, our observation that fasting hyperglucagonaemia is unrelated to the diabetic state, but strongly correlates with obesity, liver fat content and circulating amino acids, has made us question the common 'pancreacentric' and 'glucocentric' understanding of hyperglucagonaemia and led to the hypothesis that steatosis-induced hepatic glucagon resistance (and reduced amino acid turnover) and compensatory glucagon secretion mediated by increased circulating amino acids constitute a complete endocrine feedback system: the liver-alpha cell axis. This article summarises the physiological regulation of glucagon secretion in humans and considers new findings suggesting that the liver and the gut play key roles in determining fasting and postabsorptive circulating glucagon levels. © 2018 European Society of Endocrinology.

  4. Secretion of incretin hormones and the insulinotropic effect of gastric inhibitory polypeptide in women with a history of gestational diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, J J; Gallwitz, B; Askenas, M

    2005-01-01

    clamp experiment (140 mg/dl [7.8 mmol/l] over 120 min) with i.v. infusion of GIP (2 pmol kg(-1) min(-1); 30-90 min) was performed in 14 women in each group. Capillary and venous blood samples were drawn for the measurement of glucose (glucose oxidase), insulin, C-peptide, GIP and GLP-1 (specific...... a hyperglycaemic clamp experiment. The secretion of GIP and GLP-1 was assessed following oral glucose ingestion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: On separate occasions we performed an OGTT and administered an i.v. bolus of 20 pmol GIP/kg body weight in 20 women with pGDM and 20 control women. An additional hyperglycaemic...... immunoassays). Indices of insulin sensitivity and beta cell function were calculated. Statistical analyses were carried out using repeated measures ANOVA. RESULTS: Following oral glucose ingestion, plasma glucose, insulin and C-peptide concentrations increased to higher levels in the women with pGDM than...

  5. Overproduction and secretion of a novel amino-terminal form of parathyroid hormone from a severe type of parathyroid hyperplasia in uremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Toshio; D'Amour, Pierre; Rousseau, Louise; Brossard, Jean-Hugues; Sakai, Makoto; Kasumoto, Hiroomi; Igaki, Naoya; Goto, Takeo; Cantor, Tom; Fukagawa, Masafumi

    2006-05-01

    Measurement of bioactive parathyroid hormone (PTH) is essential for optimal management of bone abnormalities in dialysis patients. This can be accomplished by PTH measurements using third-generation PTH assays, which detect more or less of the first six amino acids of the PTH structure. Such assays do not detect non-(1-84) PTH fragments, such as human PTH (7-84), which are recognized by the second-generation PTH assays that use a detection antibody that recognizes an epitope within the 13-34 region of the PTH structure. Therefore, third-generation PTH results are expected to be lower than those that are obtained with second-generation PTH assays. Rare exceptions to this rule have been reported for patients with severe primary hyperparathyroidism or parathyroid cancer. Sera and gland extracts were analyzed from a dialysis patient with high bone turnover disease and with surprising higher PTH levels by a third-generation assay than by a second-generation assay. This finding normalized after the surgical removal of an enlarged gland with a single nodule, an advanced type of nodular hyperplasia. HPLC fractionation of sera and gland extracts revealed the overproduction and secretion of a PTH molecule with an intact amino-terminus structure distinct from (1-84) PTH. This form of PTH was readily detectable by third-generation PTH assays but was poorly reactive in second-generation PTH assays. Therefore, parathyroid glands with advanced uremic nodular hyperplasia may overproduce and secrete a novel, biologically active form of PTH with an intact 1-6 region but a presumably modified 12-18 region required for the detection in second-generation PTH assays.

  6. Effect of Boron on Thymic Cytokine Expression, Hormone Secretion, Antioxidant Functions, Cell Proliferation, and Apoptosis Potential via the Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinases 1 and 2 Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Erhui; Ren, Man; Liu, Wenwen; Liang, Shuang; Hu, Qianqian; Gu, Youfang; Li, Shenghe

    2017-12-27

    Boron is an essential trace element in animals. Appropriate boron supplementation can promote thymus development; however, a high dose of boron can lead to adverse effects and cause toxicity. The influencing mechanism of boron on the animal body remains unclear. In this study, we examined the effect of boron on cytokine expression, thymosin and thymopoietin secretion, antioxidant function, cell proliferation and apoptosis, and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) pathway in the thymus of rats. We found that supplementation with 10 and 20 mg/L boron to the drinking water significantly elevated levels of interleukin 2 (IL-2), interferon γ (IFN-γ), interleukin 4 (IL-4), and thymosin α1 in the thymus of rats (p boron had no apparent effect on many of the above indicators. In contrast, supplementation with 480 and 640 mg/L boron had the opposite effect on the above indicators in rats and elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) (p boron to the drinking water had a U-shaped dose-effect relationship with thymic cytokine expression, hormone secretion, antioxidant function, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. Specifically, supplementation with 10 and 20 mg/L boron promoted thymocyte proliferation and enhanced thymic functions. However, supplementation with 480 and 640 mg/L boron inhibited thymic functions and increased the number of apoptotic thymocytes, suggesting that the effects of boron on thymic functions may be caused via the ERK1/2 signaling pathway.

  7. GUTs without guts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gato-Rivera, B. [NIKHEF Theory Group, Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Instituto de Física Fundamental, IFF-CSIC, Serrano 123, Madrid 28006 (Spain); Schellekens, A.N., E-mail: t58@nikhef.nl [NIKHEF Theory Group, Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Instituto de Física Fundamental, IFF-CSIC, Serrano 123, Madrid 28006 (Spain); IMAPP, Radboud Universiteit, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2014-06-15

    The structure of a Standard Model family is derived in a class of brane models with a U(M)×U(N) factor, from two mildly anthropic requirements: a massless photon and a universe that does not turn into a plasma of massless charged particles. If we choose M=3 and N=2, the only option is shown to be the Standard Model with an undetermined number of families. We do not assume the U(1) embedding, charge quantization, family repetition, nor the fermion representations; all of these features are derived, assuming a doublet Higgs. With a slightly stronger assumption even the Higgs representation is determined. We also consider a more general class, requiring an asymptotically free strong SU(M) (with M⩾3) interaction from the first factor and an electromagnetic U(1) embedded in both factors. We allow Higgs symmetry breaking of the U(N)×U(1) flavor group by at most one Higgs boson in any representation, combined with any allowed chiral symmetry breaking by SU(M). For M=3 there is a large number of solutions with an unbroken U(1). In all of these, “quarks” have third-integral charges and color singlets have integer charges in comparison to leptons. Hence Standard Model charge quantization holds for any N. Only for N=2 these models allow an SU(5) GUT extension, but this extension offers no advantages whatsoever for understanding the Standard Model; it only causes complications, such as the doublet–triplet splitting problem. Although all these models have a massless photon, all except the Standard Model are ruled out by the second anthropic requirement. In this class of brane models the Standard Model is realized as a GUT with its intestines removed, to keep only the good parts: a GUT without guts.

  8. GUTs without guts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gato-Rivera, B.; Schellekens, A.N.

    2014-01-01

    The structure of a Standard Model family is derived in a class of brane models with a U(M)×U(N) factor, from two mildly anthropic requirements: a massless photon and a universe that does not turn into a plasma of massless charged particles. If we choose M=3 and N=2, the only option is shown to be the Standard Model with an undetermined number of families. We do not assume the U(1) embedding, charge quantization, family repetition, nor the fermion representations; all of these features are derived, assuming a doublet Higgs. With a slightly stronger assumption even the Higgs representation is determined. We also consider a more general class, requiring an asymptotically free strong SU(M) (with M⩾3) interaction from the first factor and an electromagnetic U(1) embedded in both factors. We allow Higgs symmetry breaking of the U(N)×U(1) flavor group by at most one Higgs boson in any representation, combined with any allowed chiral symmetry breaking by SU(M). For M=3 there is a large number of solutions with an unbroken U(1). In all of these, “quarks” have third-integral charges and color singlets have integer charges in comparison to leptons. Hence Standard Model charge quantization holds for any N. Only for N=2 these models allow an SU(5) GUT extension, but this extension offers no advantages whatsoever for understanding the Standard Model; it only causes complications, such as the doublet–triplet splitting problem. Although all these models have a massless photon, all except the Standard Model are ruled out by the second anthropic requirement. In this class of brane models the Standard Model is realized as a GUT with its intestines removed, to keep only the good parts: a GUT without guts

  9. The Changing Concept of Gut Endocrinology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F

    2017-01-01

    Gastrointestinal hormones are released from enteroendocrine cells in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are expressed, which make the gut the largest endocrine organ in the body. At present, it is feasible to conceive the hormones under 5 headings: the structural homology groups most...

  10. Circadian Control of the Estrogenic Circuits Regulating GnRH Secretion and the Preovulatory Luteinizing Hormone Surge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lance J Kriegsfeld

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Female reproduction requires the precise temporal organization of interacting, estradiol-sensitive neural circuits that converge to optimally drive hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis functioning. In mammals, the master circadian pacemaker in the suprachaismatic nucleus (SCN of the anterior hypothalamus coordinates reproductively-relevant neuroendocrine events necessary to maximize reproductive success. Likewise, in species where periods of fertility are brief, circadian oversight of reproductive function ensures that estradiol-dependent increases in sexual motivation coincide with ovulation. Across species, including humans, disruptions to circadian timing (e.g., through rotating shift work, night shift work, poor sleep hygiene lead to pronounced deficits in ovulation and fecundity. Despite the well-established roles for the circadian system in female reproductive functioning, the specific neural circuits and neurochemical mediators underlying these interactions are not fully understood. Most work to date has focused on the direct and indirect communication from the SCN to the GnRH system in control of the preovulatory LH surge. However, the same clock genes underlying circadian rhythms at the cellular level in SCN cells are also common to target cell populations of the SCN, including the GnRH neuronal network. Exploring the means by which the master clock synergizes with subordinate clocks in GnRH cells and its upstream modulatory systems represents an exciting opportunity to further understand the role of endogenous timing systems in female reproduction. Herein we provide an overview of the state of knowledge regarding interactions between the circadian timing system and estradiol-sensitive neural circuits driving GnRH secretion and the preovulatory LH surge.

  11. Adrenocorticotropin, beta-endorphin, and beta-lipotropin in normal thyroid and lung: possible implications for ectopic hormone secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, J A; Funder, J W; Tracy, K; Morgan, F J; Campbell, D J; Lewis, P; Hearn, M T

    1982-12-01

    The expression of the proopiomelanocortin (POMC) gene by normal lung and thyroid was examined by measurement of the content of ACTH, beta-lipotropin (beta LPH), and beta-endorphin (beta EP) in porcine lung and thyroid tissue. Acid extracts of normal porcine lung and thyroid tissue each contained appreciable amounts of immunoreactive (ir) ACTH, ir-beta LPH, and ir-beta EP. The content of ir-beta LPH in both tissues exceeded by severalfold, on a molar basis, the content of ir-ACTH and ir-beta EP, suggesting that the common precursor POMC was processed predominantly to peptides other than ir-ACTH and ir-beta EP. A porcine thyroid extract (Calcitare, porcine calcitonin, Armour) showed equivalent levels of beta EP-like immunoreactivity and bioactivity, measured by opiate radioreceptor assay; in contrast, ACTH-like bioactivity, measured by rat zona fasciculata steroidogenesis, was only 4% of ACTH-like immunoreactivity. On reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography, Calcitare showed multiple peaks of ACTH-like immunoreactivity, one of which coeluted with porcine ACTH-(1-39), and two much smaller peaks of beta EP-like immunoreactivity, of which the smaller coeluted with porcine beta EP. These data suggest that both lung and thyroid gland synthesize POMC, which in normal tissue is usually predominantly processed to species other than ACTH and beta EP. Ectopic secretion of ACTH and beta EP by lung and thyroid neoplasms may thus represent the loss of a system(s) normally responsible for processing the precursor beyond ACTH and beta EP.

  12. Secretion of anti-Müllerian hormone in the Florida manatee Trichechus manatus latirostris, with implications for assessing conservation status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Rhian C.; Reynolds, John E.; Wetzel, Dana L.; Schwierzke-Wade, Leslie; Bonde, Robert K.; Breuel, Kevin F.; Roudebush, William E.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental and anthropogenic stressors can affect wildlife populations in a number of ways. For marine mammals (e.g. the Florida manatee Trichechus manatus latirostris), certain stressors or conservation risk factors have been identified, but sublethal effects have been very difficult to assess using traditional methods. The development of 'biomarkers' allows us to correlate effects, such as impaired reproduction, with possible causes. A recently developed biomarker (anti-Müllerian hormone, AMH) provides an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of gonadal function. The study objective was to determine AMH levels in wild manatees. In total, 28 male and 17 female manatee serum samples were assayed. Animal demographics included collection date, body weight (kg) and total length (cm). In certain cases, age of individuals was also known. AMH levels ranged from 160 to 2451.85 ng ml-1 (mean = 844.65 ng ml-1) in males and 0.00 to 0.38 ng ml-1 (mean = 0.10 ng ml-1) in females. Linear regression analyses revealed a significant relationship between male AMH levels and body weight (R2 = 0.452; p 2 = 0.338; p < 0.001). Due to the small sample size, regression analyses for female AMH and body weight and length were not significant. This represents the first report of AMH detection in a marine mammal. AMH levels in male manatees are the highest of any species observed to date, whereas levels in females are within reported ranges. Further studies will promote improved conservation decision by assessing AMH levels in the manatee as a function of various stressors including, but not limited to, nutritional status, serious injuries (e.g. watercraft collisions), exposure to biotoxins or contaminants, or disease.

  13. miR-1338-5p Modulates Growth Hormone Secretion and Glucose Utilization by Regulating ghitm in Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia (GIFT, Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Jun; Bao, Jing Wen; Li, Hong Xia; Chen, De Ju; He, Jie; Tao, Yi Fan; Xu, Pao

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous, non-coding small RNA molecules about 22 nt in length, which could regulate the expressions of target genes and participate in growth and development of organisms. Genetically improved farmed tilapia (GIFT, Oreochromis niloticus ) is an important economic freshwater species in China and the growth performance is one of the main breeding indicators. Growth hormone inducible transmembrane protein ( ghitm ) plays an important role in growth and development of both mammals and invertebrates; however, little studies have been reported on fish. Our previous experiments indicated that miR-1338-5p expression may be negatively correlated with ghitm expression. In this study, we firstly used qRT-PCR and northern blot to verify the expression of miR-1338-5p and ghitm , and determined the binding site of miR-1338-5p in the ghitm 3'-untranslated region (UTR) by luciferase reporter assay. Secondly, juveniles GIFT injected with miR-1338-5p antagomir were used to analyze the regulatory function of the miR-1338-5p- ghitm pair in vivo . The results showed that the ghitm 3'-UTR was complementary to the 5' 2-8-nt site of miR-1338-5p. Inhibition of miR-1338-5p promoted ghitm expression in the pituitary and liver of GIFT. ghitm could interfere in the growth hormone (Gh)-growth hormone receptor (Ghr)-insulin-like growth factor (Igf) signaling pathway by competing with the ghr1 for combination with Gh, and then reduce the growth of GIFT. Moreover, the reduction of Gh in serum may regulate insulin secretion and result in the increasing sugar and fat storage in serum and liver. Our results suggest that miR-1338-5p participates in the growth and development of GIFT through the regulation of ghitm , which provides theoretical support for the study of the fish growth mechanism.

  14. Dual paraneoplastic syndromes: small cell lung carcinoma-related oncogenic osteomalacia, and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion: report of a case and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantisattamo, Ekamol; Ng, Roland C K

    2011-07-01

    Acquired isolated renal phosphate wasting associated with a tumor, known as oncogenic osteomalacia or tumor-induced osteomalacia, is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome caused by overproduction of fibroblast growth factor 23. Oncogenic osteomalacia is usually associated with benign mesenchymal tumors. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH), on the other hand, is a common paraneoplastic syndrome caused by small cell carcinoma (SCC). Concomitant oncogenic osteomalacia and SIADH associated with SCC is very rare with only 4 other cases reported in the literature. The authors report a case of small cell lung cancer (SCLC)-related renal wasting hypophosphatemia and concurrent SIADH, and review the literature reporting 9 other cases of SCC associated with oncogenic osteomalacia. Almost half of reported cases of renal phosphate wasting associated with SCC concomitantly presented with SIADH. These cases had initial serum phosphorus level lower and survival periods shorter than those without SIADH. This rare combination of a dual paraneoplastic syndrome and low serum phosphorus may be a poor prognostic sign. In addition, both renal phosphate wasting and SIADH usually occur in a short period of time before identification of SCC. Therefore, renal wasting hypophosphatemia with concomitant SIADH/hyponatremia should prompt a search for SCC rather than a benign mesenchymal tumor.

  15. Hypothesis: Musculin is a hormone secreted by skeletal muscle, the body's largest endocrine organ. Evidence for actions on the endocrine pancreas to restrain the beta-cell mass and to inhibit insulin secretion and on the hypothalamus to co-ordinate the neuroendocrine and appetite responses to exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engler, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that skeletal muscle may act as an endocrine organ by secreting interleukin-6 (IL-6) into the systemic circulation. From an analysis of the actions of IL-6 and of additional literature, we postulate that skeletal muscle also secretes an unidentified hormone, which we have named Musculin (Latin: musculus = muscle), which acts on the pancreatic beta-cell to restrain the size of the (beta-cell mass and to tonically inhibit insulin secretion and biosynthesis. It is suggested that the amount of Musculin secreted is determined by, and is positively correlated with, the prevailing insulin sensitivity of skeletal muscle, thereby accounting for the hyperinsulinemia that occurs in insulin resistant disorders such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, and the polycystic ovary syndrome. In addition, it is postulated that Musculin acts on the hypothalamus (arcuate nucleus, dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus) to co-ordinate the neuroendocrine and appetite responses to exercise. However, the possibilities that Musculin may act on additional central nervous system sites and that an additional hormone(s) may be responsible for these actions are not excluded. It is suggested that a search be made for Musculin, since analogues of such a substance may be of therapeutic benefit in the treatment of the current global diabetes and obesity epidemic.

  16. Glucokinase, the pancreatic glucose sensor, is not the gut glucose sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murphy, R; Tura, A; Clark, P M

    2008-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotrophic peptide (GIP) are released from intestinal endocrine cells in response to luminal glucose. Glucokinase is present in these cells and has been proposed as a glucose sensor. The physiological...... role of glucokinase can be tested using individuals with heterozygous glucokinase gene (GCK) mutations. If glucokinase is the gut glucose sensor, GLP-1 and GIP secretion during a 75 g OGTT would be lower in GCK mutation carriers compared with controls. METHODS: We compared GLP-1 and GIP concentrations...... measured at five time-points during a 75 g OGTT in 49 participants having GCK mutations with those of 28 familial controls. Mathematical modelling of glucose, insulin and C-peptide was used to estimate basal insulin secretion rate (BSR), total insulin secretion (TIS), beta cell glucose sensitivity...

  17. Gastrointestinal hormone research - with a Scandinavian annotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal hormones are peptides released from neuroendocrine cells in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are currently known to be expressed in the gut, which makes it the largest hormone-producing organ in the body. Modern biology makes it feasible to conceive the hormones...... as a blood-borne hormone, a neurotransmitter, a local growth factor or a fertility factor. The targets of gastrointestinal hormones are specific G-protein-coupled receptors that are expressed in the cell membranes also outside the digestive tract. Thus, gut hormones not only regulate digestive functions...

  18. Novel gut-based pharmacology of metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Napolitano

    Full Text Available Metformin, a biguanide derivate, has pleiotropic effects beyond glucose reduction, including improvement of lipid profiles and lowering microvascular and macrovascular complications associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. These effects have been ascribed to adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK activation in the liver and skeletal muscle. However, metformin effects are not attenuated when AMPK is knocked out and intravenous metformin is less effective than oral medication, raising the possibility of important gut pharmacology. We hypothesized that the pharmacology of metformin includes alteration of bile acid recirculation and gut microbiota resulting in enhanced enteroendocrine hormone secretion. In this study we evaluated T2DM subjects on and off metformin monotherapy to characterize the gut-based mechanisms of metformin. Subjects were studied at 4 time points: (i at baseline on metformin, (ii 7 days after stopping metformin, (iii when fasting blood glucose (FBG had risen by 25% after stopping metformin, and (iv when FBG returned to baseline levels after restarting the metformin. At these timepoints we profiled glucose, insulin, gut hormones (glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1, peptide tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP and bile acids in blood, as well as duodenal and faecal bile acids and gut microbiota. We found that metformin withdrawal was associated with a reduction of active and total GLP-1 and elevation of serum bile acids, especially cholic acid and its conjugates. These effects reversed when metformin was restarted. Effects on circulating PYY were more modest, while GIP changes were negligible. Microbiota abundance of the phylum Firmicutes was positively correlated with changes in cholic acid and conjugates, while Bacteroidetes abundance was negatively correlated. Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes representation were also correlated with levels of serum PYY. Our study suggests that

  19. Ghrelin: much more than a hunger hormone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghrelin is a multifaceted gut hormone that activates its receptor, growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R). Ghrelin's hallmark functions are its stimulatory effects on growth hormone release, food intake and fat deposition. Ghrelin is famously known as the 'hunger hormone'. However, ample recen...

  20. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin activates the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and alters sex steroid hormone secretion without affecting growth of mouse antral follicles in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karman, Bethany N., E-mail: bklement@illinois.edu; Basavarajappa, Mallikarjuna S., E-mail: mbshivapur@gmail.com; Craig, Zelieann R., E-mail: zelieann@illinois.edu; Flaws, Jodi A., E-mail: jflaws@illinois.edu

    2012-05-15

    The persistent environmental contaminant, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is an ovarian toxicant. These studies were designed to characterize the actions of TCDD on steroidogenesis and growth of intact mouse antral follicles in vitro. Specifically, these studies tested the hypothesis that TCDD exposure leads to decreased sex hormone production/secretion by antral follicles as well as decreased growth of antral follicles in vitro. Since TCDD acts through binding to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), and the AHR has been identified as an important factor in ovarian function, we also conducted experiments to confirm the presence and activation of the AHR in our tissue culture system. To do so, we exposed mouse antral follicles for 96 h to a series of TCDD doses previously shown to have effects on ovarian tissues and cells in culture, which also encompass environmentally relevant and pharmacological exposures (0.1–100 nM), to determine a dose response for TCDD in our culture system for growth, hormone production, and expression of the Ahr and Cyp1b1. The results indicate that TCDD decreases progesterone, androstenedione, testosterone, and estradiol levels in a non-monotonic dose response manner without altering growth of antral follicles. The addition of pregnenolone substrate (10 μM) restores hormone levels to control levels. Additionally, Cyp1b1 levels were increased by 3–4 fold regardless of the dose of TCDD exposure, evidence of AHR activation. Overall, these data indicate that TCDD may act prior to pregnenolone formation and through AHR transcriptional control of Cyp1b1, leading to decreased hormone levels without affecting growth of antral follicles. -- Highlights: ►TCDD disrupts sex steroid hormone levels, but not growth of antral follicles. ►Pregnenolone co-treatment by-passes TCDD-induced steroid hormone disruption. ►TCDD affects steroid hormone levels through an AHR pathway in antral follicles.

  1. Central hypogonadism due to a giant, "silent" FSH-secreting, atypical pituitary adenoma: effects of adenoma dissection and short-term Leydig cell stimulation by luteinizing hormone (LH) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santi, Daniele; Spaggiari, Giorgia; Casarini, Livio; Fanelli, Flaminia; Mezzullo, Marco; Pagotto, Uberto; Granata, Antonio R M; Carani, Cesare; Simoni, Manuela

    2017-06-01

    We present a case report of an atypical giant pituitary adenoma secreting follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). A 55-year-old patient presented for erectile dysfunction, loss of libido and fatigue. The biochemical evaluation showed very high FSH serum levels in the presence of central hypogonadism. Neither testicular enlargement nor increased sperm count was observed, thus a secretion of FSH with reduced biological activity was supposed. The histological examination after neuro-surgery showed an atypical pituitary adenoma with FSH-positive cells. Hypogonadism persisted and semen analyses impaired until azoospermia in conjunction with the reduction in FSH levels suggesting that, at least in part, this gonadotropin should be biologically active. Thus, we hypothesized a concomitant primary testicular insufficiency. The patient underwent short-term treatment trials with low doses of either recombinant luteinizing hormone (LH) or human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in three consecutive treatment schemes, showing an equal efficacy in stimulating testosterone (T) increase. This is the first case of atypical, giant FSH-secreting pituitary adenoma with high FSH serum levels without signs of testicular hyperstimulation, in presence of hypogonadism with plausible combined primary and secondary etiology. Hypophysectomized patients may represent a good model to assess both pharmacodynamics and effective dose of LH and hCG in the male.

  2. Progestogen treatments for cycle management in a sheep model of assisted conception affect the growth patterns, the expression of luteinizing hormone receptors, and the progesterone secretion of induced corpora lutea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letelier, Claudia; García-Fernández, Rosa Ana; Contreras-Solis, Ignacio; Sanchez, María Angeles; Garcia-Palencia, Pilar; Sanchez, Belen; Gonzalez-Bulnes, Antonio; Flores, Juana María

    2010-03-01

    To determine, in a sheep model, the effect of a short-term progestative treatment on growth dynamics and functionality of induced corpora lutea. Observational, model study. Public university. Sixty adult female sheep. Synchronization and induction of ovulation with progestogens and prostaglandin analogues; ovarian ultrasonography, blood sampling, and ovariectomy. Determination of pituitary function and morphologic characteristics, expression of luteinizing hormone (LH) receptors, and progesterone secretion of corpora lutea. The use of progestative pretreatments for assisted conception affect the growth patterns, the expression of LH receptors, and the progesterone secretion of induced corpora lutea. The current study indicates, in a sheep model, the existence of deleterious effects from progestogens on functionality of induced corpora lutea. Copyright 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Incretin secretion: direct mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balk-Møller, Emilie; Holst, Jens Juul; Kuhre, Rune Ehrenreich

    2014-01-01

    The incretin hormones glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) are secreted from gastro-intestinal K- and L-cells, respectively, and play an important role in post-prandial blood glucose regulation. They do this by direct stimulation of the pancreatic β...... enzyme responsible for incretin degradation (dipeptidyl peptidase-4) is inhibited (drugs are already on the market) while the secretion of endogenous GLP-1 secretion is stimulated at the same time may prove particularly rewarding. In this section we review current knowledge on the mechanisms for direct...

  4. The effect of a very low calorie diet on insulin sensitivity, beta cell function, insulin clearance, incretin hormone secretion, androgen levels and body composition in obese young women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Pernille F; Jensen, Frank K; Holst, Jens Juul

    2012-01-01

    Evaluation of the effect of an 8-week very low calorie diet (VLCD, 500-600 kcal daily) on weight, body fat distribution, glucose, insulin and lipid metabolism, androgen levels and incretin secretion in obese women.......Evaluation of the effect of an 8-week very low calorie diet (VLCD, 500-600 kcal daily) on weight, body fat distribution, glucose, insulin and lipid metabolism, androgen levels and incretin secretion in obese women....

  5. Effects of Two Dietary Fibers as Part of Ready-to-Eat Cereal (RTEC Breakfasts on Perceived Appetite and Gut Hormones in Overweight Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Lafond

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of an enzyme-hydrolyzed arabinoxylan from wheat (AXOS versus an intact arabinoxylan from flax (FLAX added to a ready-to-eat cereal (RTEC on the postprandial appetitive, hormonal, and metabolic responses in overweight women (BMI 25.0–29.9 kg/m2 were evaluated. Subsequent meal energy intake was also assessed. Two randomized, double-blind, crossover design studies were completed. For trial 1, the participants consumed the following RTEC breakfast, matched for total weight and varied in energy content: low-fiber (LF, 4 g; high-fiber (HF, 15 g as either AXOS or FLAX. For trial 2, the participants consumed LF, HF-AXOS, and HF-FLAX RTECs but also consumed another LF breakfast that was isocaloric (LF-iso to that of the HF breakfasts. Perceived appetite and blood samples (trial 2 only were assessed before and after breakfast. An ad libitum lunch was offered 4 h post-breakfast. No differences in postprandial appetite responses were observed among any breakfasts in either trial. The HF-AXOS and HF-FLAX led to increased postprandial GLP-1 and peptide YY (PYY concentrations vs. LF-iso. No differences were observed in lunch meal energy intake among breakfast meals in either trial. Collectively, these data suggest that 15 g of low molecular weight fiber added to RTECs did not affect perceived appetite or subsequent energy intake despite differences in satiety hormone signaling in overweight females.

  6. Exercise-induced stress behavior, gut-microbiota-brain axis and diet: a systematic review for athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Allison; Mach, Núria

    2016-01-01

    Fatigue, mood disturbances, under performance and gastrointestinal distress are common among athletes during training and competition. The psychosocial and physical demands during intense exercise can initiate a stress response activating the sympathetic-adrenomedullary and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axes, resulting in the release of stress and catabolic hormones, inflammatory cytokines and microbial molecules. The gut is home to trillions of microorganisms that have fundamental roles in many aspects of human biology, including metabolism, endocrine, neuronal and immune function. The gut microbiome and its influence on host behavior, intestinal barrier and immune function are believed to be a critical aspect of the brain-gut axis. Recent evidence in murine models shows that there is a high correlation between physical and emotional stress during exercise and changes in gastrointestinal microbiota composition. For instance, induced exercise-stress decreased cecal levels of Turicibacter spp and increased Ruminococcus gnavus, which have well defined roles in intestinal mucus degradation and immune function. Diet is known to dramatically modulate the composition of the gut microbiota. Due to the considerable complexity of stress responses in elite athletes (from leaky gut to increased catabolism and depression), defining standard diet regimes is difficult. However, some preliminary experimental data obtained from studies using probiotics and prebiotics studies show some interesting results, indicating that the microbiota acts like an endocrine organ (e.g. secreting serotonin, dopamine or other neurotransmitters) and may control the HPA axis in athletes. What is troubling is that dietary recommendations for elite athletes are primarily based on a low consumption of plant polysaccharides, which is associated with reduced microbiota diversity and functionality (e.g. less synthesis of byproducts such as short chain fatty acids and neurotransmitters). As more

  7. Peptide Hormones in the Gastrointestinal Tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F.

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal hormones are peptides released from endocrine cells and neurons in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are currently known to be expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, which makes the gut the largest hormone-producing organ in the body. Modern biology makes it feasi...

  8. The separate and combined impact of the intestinal hormones, GIP, GLP-1, and GLP-2, on glucagon secretion in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Asger; Vilsbøll, Tina; Bagger, Jonatan I

    2011-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with reduced suppression of glucagon during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), whereas isoglycemic intravenous glucose infusion (IIGI) results in normal glucagon suppression in these patients. We examined the role of the intestinal hormones glucose...

  9. Human gut endogenous proteins as a potential source of angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE-I)-, renin inhibitory and antioxidant peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Lakshmi A; Hayes, Maria; Montoya, Carlos A; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Moughan, Paul J

    2016-02-01

    It is well known that endogenous bioactive proteins and peptides play a substantial role in the body's first line of immunological defence, immune-regulation and normal body functioning. Further, the peptides derived from the luminal digestion of proteins are also important for body function. For example, within the peptide database BIOPEP (http://www.uwm.edu.pl/biochemia/index.php/en/biopep) 12 endogenous antimicrobial and 64 angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE-I) inhibitory peptides derived from human milk and plasma proteins are listed. The antimicrobial peptide database (http://aps.unmc.edu/AP/main.php) lists over 111 human host-defence peptides. Several endogenous proteins are secreted in the gut and are subject to the same gastrointestinal digestion processes as food proteins derived from the diet. The human gut endogenous proteins (GEP) include mucins, serum albumin, digestive enzymes, hormones, and proteins from sloughed off epithelial cells and gut microbiota, and numerous other secreted proteins. To date, much work has been carried out regarding the health altering effects of food-derived bioactive peptides but little attention has been paid to the possibility that GEP may also be a source of bioactive peptides. In this review, we discuss the potential of GEP to constitute a gut cryptome from which bioactive peptides such as ACE-I inhibitory, renin inhibitory and antioxidant peptides may be derived. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Open Secrets

    OpenAIRE

    Madison, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The law of trade secrets is often conceptualized in bilateral terms, as creating and enforcing rights between trade secret owners, on the one hand, and misappropriators on the other hand. This paper, a chapter in a forthcoming collection on the law of trade secrets, argues that trade secrets and the law that guards them can serve structural and insitutional roles as well. Somewhat surprisingly, given the law’s focus on secrecy, among the institutional products of trade secrets law are commons...

  11. Morning and afternoon appetite and gut hormone responses to meal and stress challenges in obese individuals with and without binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnell, S; Grillot, C; Ungredda, T; Ellis, S; Mehta, N; Holst, J; Geliebter, A

    2017-12-13

    Eating late in the day is common, and stress can induce eating. Little is understood about how time of day and stress interact to affect appetite and thereby body weight. These may be particularly important influences in binge eaters, who tend to binge in the evening, and in response to stress. Obese participants with (n=16) and without (n=16) Binge Eating Disorder (BED) participated in two identical test protocols beginning either in the morning or the afternoon (AM condition/PM condition), each following an 8 h fast. For each protocol they first received a standardized liquid meal (9:00am/4:00pm), then a stress test (Socially-Evaluated Cold Pressor Test, 11:10am/6:1pm), then a multi-item ad libitum buffet meal (11:40am/6:40pm), while rating appetite and stress and having blood drawn for hormone measures. Appetite at baseline was greater in the PM than AM condition (higher hunger, lower fullness). Following the liquid meal, AUC values for hunger and ghrelin were greater, and AUC values for PYY lower, in the PM than AM condition. Only those with BED showed lower fullness AUC in the PM condition, as well as a pattern of higher initial PM and lower initial AM ghrelin. Following the stress test, cortisol and ghrelin increased in both the AM and PM conditions, but higher ghrelin AUC and lower cortisol AUC were observed in the PM condition. Again, only participants with BED showed lower fullness AUC in the PM condition. Buffet meal intake was similar across groups and conditions, but those with BED reported greater loss of control and binge resemblance than those without. Afternoon/evening may be a high-risk period for overeating, particularly when paired with stress exposure, and for those with binge eating.International Journal of Obesity accepted article preview online, 13 December 2017. doi:10.1038/ijo.2017.307.

  12. Continuous 24-hour intravenous infusion of recombinant human growth hormone (GH)-releasing hormone-(1-44)-amide augments pulsatile, entropic, and daily rhythmic GH secretion in postmenopausal women equally in the estrogen-withdrawn and estrogen-supplemented states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, W S; Anderson, S M; Hull, L T; Azimi, P P; Bowers, C Y; Veldhuis, J D

    2001-02-01

    How estrogen amplifies GH secretion in the human is not known. The present study tests the clinical hypothesis that estradiol modulates the stimulatory actions of a primary GH feedforward signal, GHRH. To this end, we investigated the ability of short-term (7- to 12-day) supplementation with oral estradiol vs. placebo to modulate basal, pulsatile, entropic, and 24-h rhythmic GH secretion driven by a continuous iv infusion of recombinant human GHRH-(1--44)-amide vs. saline in nine healthy postmenopausal women. Volunteers underwent concurrent blood sampling every 10 min for 24 h on four occasions in a prospectively randomized, single blind, within-subject cross-over design (placebo/saline, placebo/GHRH, estradiol/saline, estradiol/GHRH). Intensively sampled serum GH concentrations were quantitated by ultrasensitive chemiluminescence assay. Basal, pulsatile, entropic (feedback-sensitive), and 24-h rhythmic modes of GH secretion were appraised by deconvolution analysis, the approximate entropy (ApEn) statistic, and cosine regression, respectively. ANOVA revealed that continuous iv infusion of GHRH in the estrogen-withdrawn (control) milieu 1) amplified individual basal (P = 0.00011) and pulsatile (P < 10(-13)) GH secretion rates by 12- and 11-fold, respectively; 2) augmented GH secretory burst mass and amplitude each by 10-fold (P < 10(-11)), without altering GH secretory burst frequency, duration, or half-life; 3) increased the disorderliness (ApEn) of GH release patterns (P = 0.0000002); 4) elevated the mesor (cosine mean) and amplitude of the 24-h rhythm in serum GH concentrations by nearly 30-fold (both P < 10(-12)); 5) induced a phase advance in the clocktime of the GH zenith (P = 0.021); and 6) evoked a new 24-h rhythm in GH secretory burst mass with a maximum at 0018 h GH (P < 10(-3)), while damping the mesor of the 24-h rhythm in GH interpulse intervals (P < 0.025). Estradiol supplementation alone 1) increased the 24-h mean and integrated serum GH concentration

  13. Modifications of thyroid hormones secretion and production in newborn rats from hyperthyroic dams; Alteracoes na secrecao e producao dos hormonios tireoideanos em filhotes de ratas femeas com hipertireoidismo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, M.F.G.; Neves, E.S.S.; Neves, S.R.S.; Catanho, M.T.J.A. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Biologicas

    1997-12-01

    The onset of fetal thyroid function occurs about 17-18 days after conception in the rat. The maternal hyperthyroidism which occurs during gestation provokes alterations in the rat after its birth; due to this alterations, we decided to analyze the metabolic and hormonal modification in the newborn rats. The hyperthyroidism was induced in normal dams, which were being trated for 2 days with T4 2mg (thyroxine per 100g body wt/day) before mating. Another dam group which was submitted to an inducement of hyperthyroidism maintained the treatment with T4 and six day after gestation were being treated for 9 days. It was seen that the rat which was born from hyperthyroic dams suffered alterations on its T4 and T3 hormone levels concerning the days 10, 20 and 30 after birth. T4 e T3 were performed with Immu chem cooted tube - I{sup 125} RIA KIT .The administration of T4 affected the fetal thyroid function gland to, causing a decrease of both T4 and T3 levels, as was also modifications on their weight and size, even after the birth, indicating that the maternal hyperthyroidism influences on the post-natal life of the rat. The growth is affected throught post-natal life by thyroid hormones, which have a facilitatory influence on GH economy, as opposed to the inhibitory effects on TSH economy. (author). 12 refs., 4 figs.

  14. GLP-1 secretion is stimulated by 1,10-phenanthroline via colocalized T2R5 signal transduction in human enteroendocrine L cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jiyoung; Kim, Ki-Suk; Kim, Kang-Hoon; Lee, In-Seung; Jeong, Hyeon-soo; Kim, Yumi; Jang, Hyeung-Jin, E-mail: hjjang@khu.ac.kr

    2015-12-04

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) hormone is known to regulate blood glucose by an insulinotropic effect and increases proliferation as and also prevents apoptosis of pancreatic β cells. We know that GLP-1 is secreted by nutrients such as fatty acids and sweet compounds but also bitter compounds via stimulation of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) in the gut. Among these, bitter compounds are multiply-contained in phytochemicals or artificial materials and perceived as ligands of various bitter taste receptors. We hypothesized that GLP-1 hormone is secreted through stimulation of a single bitter taste receptor by 1,10-phenanthroline which is known agonist of taste receptor type 2 member 5 (T2R5). To prove this hypothesis, we used the representatively well-known 1,10-phenanthroline as ligand of single receptor and evaluated the existence of T2R5 by double-labeling immunofluorescence and then 1,10-phenanthroline is able to secrete GLP-1 hormone through stimulation of T2R5 in human enteroendocrine cells. Consequently, we verify that GLP-1 hormone is colocalized with T2R5 in the human duodenum and ileum tissue and is secreted by 1,10-phenanthroline via T2R5 signal transduction in differentiated human enteroendocrine L cells. - Highlights: • Taste receptor type 2 member 5 (T2R5) is colocalized with GLP-1 hormone in human enteroendocrine cells. • GLP-1 secretion is stimulated by 1,10-phenanthroline via stimulation of T2R5. • Inhibition of the bitter taste pathway reduce GLP-1 secretion.

  15. GLP-1 secretion is stimulated by 1,10-phenanthroline via colocalized T2R5 signal transduction in human enteroendocrine L cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jiyoung; Kim, Ki-Suk; Kim, Kang-Hoon; Lee, In-Seung; Jeong, Hyeon-soo; Kim, Yumi; Jang, Hyeung-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) hormone is known to regulate blood glucose by an insulinotropic effect and increases proliferation as and also prevents apoptosis of pancreatic β cells. We know that GLP-1 is secreted by nutrients such as fatty acids and sweet compounds but also bitter compounds via stimulation of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) in the gut. Among these, bitter compounds are multiply-contained in phytochemicals or artificial materials and perceived as ligands of various bitter taste receptors. We hypothesized that GLP-1 hormone is secreted through stimulation of a single bitter taste receptor by 1,10-phenanthroline which is known agonist of taste receptor type 2 member 5 (T2R5). To prove this hypothesis, we used the representatively well-known 1,10-phenanthroline as ligand of single receptor and evaluated the existence of T2R5 by double-labeling immunofluorescence and then 1,10-phenanthroline is able to secrete GLP-1 hormone through stimulation of T2R5 in human enteroendocrine cells. Consequently, we verify that GLP-1 hormone is colocalized with T2R5 in the human duodenum and ileum tissue and is secreted by 1,10-phenanthroline via T2R5 signal transduction in differentiated human enteroendocrine L cells. - Highlights: • Taste receptor type 2 member 5 (T2R5) is colocalized with GLP-1 hormone in human enteroendocrine cells. • GLP-1 secretion is stimulated by 1,10-phenanthroline via stimulation of T2R5. • Inhibition of the bitter taste pathway reduce GLP-1 secretion.

  16. Calcitonin gene-related peptide: neuroendocrine communication between the pancreas, gut, and brain in regulation of blood glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendharkar, Sayali A; Walia, Monika; Drury, Marie; Petrov, Maxim S

    2017-11-01

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), a ubiquitous neuropeptide, plays a diverse and intricate role in chronic low-grade inflammation, including conditions such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and diabetes of the exocrine pancreas. Diabetes of exocrine pancreas is characterised by chronic hyperglycemia and is associated with persistent low-grade inflammation and altered secretion of certain pancreatic and gut hormones. While CGRP may regulate glucose homeostasis and the secretion of pancreatic and gut hormones, its role in chronic hyperglycemia after acute pancreatitis (CHAP) is not known. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between CGRP and CHAP. Fasting blood samples were collected to measure insulin, HbA1c, CGRP, amylin, C-peptide, glucagon, pancreatic polypeptide (PP), somatostatin, gastric inhibitory peptide, glicentin, glucagon-like peptide-1 and 2, and oxyntomodulin. Modified Poisson regression analysis and linear regression analyses were conducted. Five statistical models were used to adjust for demographic, metabolic, and pancreatitis-related risk factors. A total of 83 patients were recruited. CGRP was significantly associated with CHAP in all five models (P-trend <0.005). Further, it was significantly associated with oxyntomodulin (P<0.005) and glucagon (P<0.030). Oxyntomodulin and glucagon independently contributed 9.7% and 7%, respectively, to circulating CGRP variance. Other pancreatic and gut hormones were not significantly associated with CGRP. CGRP is involved in regulation of blood glucose in individuals after acute pancreatitis. This may have translational implications in prevention and treatment of diabetes of the exocrine pancreas.

  17. String GUTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldazabal, G.; Ibanez, L.E.; Uranga, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    Standard SUSY-GUTs such as those based on SU(5) or SO(10) lead to predictions for the values of α s and sin 2 θ W in amazing agreement with experiment. In this article we investigate how these models may be obtained from string theory, thus bringing them into the only known consistent framework for quantum gravity. String models with matter in standard GUT representations require the realization of affine Lie algebras at higher levels. We start by describing some methods to build level k=2 symmetric orbifold string models with gauge groups SU(5) or SO(10). We present several examples and identify generic features of the type of models constructed. Chiral fields appropriate to break the symmetry down to the standard model generically appear in the massless spectrum. However, unlike in standard SUSY-GUTs, they often behave as string moduli, i.e., they do not have self-couplings. We also discuss briefly the doublet-triplet Higgs splitting. We find that, in some models, built-in sliding-singlet type of couplings exist. (orig.)

  18. The relationship of luteinizing hormone secretion to sleep in women during the early follicular phase: effects of sleep reversal and a prolonged three-hour sleep-wake schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapen, S; Boyar, R; Hellman, L; Weitzman, E D

    1976-06-01

    The relationship of luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion to sleep in adult women was investigated in two ways: an acute 180 degrees sleep-wake cycle reversal in a group of six women and a schedule in which a young woman engaged in a three hour sleep-wake cycle (two hours awake, one hour allowed for sleep continuously for ten days--the study was carried out on the eighth day). Each subject in the reversal study had a baseline period during which plasma samples were collected every twenty minutes for twenty-four hours and nocturnal sleep was monitored electrophysiologically during the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. During a succeeding cycle, the study was repeated after sleep-wake reversal. LH secretory patterns were analyzed by comparing the 24-hour mean plasma LH concentration with the hourly averages in percentage terms, using Stage 2 sleep onset as the zero point. LH secretion was depressed to approximately the same degree in both the baseline and reversal studies. The average hourly percentage difference from the 24-hour mean for the four-hour period following sleep onset was -13.4% and -13.1% for the baseline and reversal, respectively. These percentage deviations represented practically the entire negative deviation for the 24-hour period in both studies. The difference between the first four-hour period after sleep onset and the second was significant. The subject on a three-hour cycle had a baseline in which a large decrease in LH secretion occurred after sleep onset (-52.2% during the third hour). Her LH secretory pattern during the three-hour sleep-wake schedule was characterized by a fall during sleep periods, particularly when slow wave sleep (SWS) predominated. However, no correlation was found between specific sleep stages and LH secretion in the six women of the reversal study. These results confirm a relationship of LH secretion to sleep in adult women, one which is different from that described during puberty.

  19. Expression of the antiapoptotic gene seladin-1 and octreotide-induced apoptosis in growth hormone-secreting and nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciani, Paola; Gelmini, Stefania; Ferrante, Emanuele; Lania, Andrea; Benvenuti, Susanna; Baglioni, Silvana; Mantovani, Giovanna; Cellai, Ilaria; Ammannati, Franco; Spada, Anna; Serio, Mario; Peri, Alessandro

    2005-11-01

    Seladin-1 (from selective Alzheimer's disease indicator-1) is a recently discovered gene that has been found to be down-regulated in brain regions affected by Alzheimer's disease. Seladin-1 effectively protects neurons against beta-amyloid-mediated toxicity and prevents apoptosis via inhibition of the activation of caspase-3, a key mediator of the apoptotic cascade. Although seladin-1 is expressed in the pituitary gland, no study addressed the expression or the function of this gene in pituitary adenomas. The aim of the present study was to determine the expression level of the seladin-1 gene in pituitary tumors, i.e. GH-secreting and nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPA), and to determine whether differential expression might be associated with different somatostatin (sst)-induced apoptosis. We found by quantitative real-time RT-PCR that the expression level of seladin-1 was significantly higher in NFPA (n = 21) than in GH-secreting adenomas (n = 30; mean +/- se, 25.69 +/- 6.39 vs. 8.02 +/- 2.68 pg/microg total RNA; P = 0.006). Although the amount of activated caspase-3 did not differ between the two groups of tumors, in primary cell cultures, octreotide was able to increase apoptosis, evaluated by the level of cleaved cytokeratin 18 and the presence of apoptotic nuclei, in GH-secreting adenomas, but not in NFPA. This different response was not attributable to differences in the amount of transcript of sst receptors 2 and 5, which was similar in the two groups of tumors. Our results suggest that differential seladin-1 expression in pituitary adenomas may be associated with a different apoptotic response to sst analogs.

  20. Comparing olive oil and C4-dietary oil, a prodrug for the GPR119 agonist, 2-oleoyl glycerol, less energy intake of the latter is needed to stimulate incretin hormone secretion in overweight subjects with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandøe, Mette Johannsen; Hansen, Katrine Bagge; Windeløv, Johanne Agerlin

    2018-01-01

    of common triglycerides, e.g., olive oil. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We studied the effect over 180 min of (a) 19 g olive oil plus 200 g carrot, (b) 10.7 g C4 dietary oil plus 200 g carrot and (c) 200 g carrot, respectively, on plasma responses of gut and pancreatic hormones in 13 overweight patients with type 2...... diabetes (T2D). Theoretically, both oil meals result in formation of 7.7 g 2-OG during digestion. RESULTS: Both olive oil and C4-dietary oil resulted in greater postprandial (P ≤ 0.01) glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) responses (incremental area under...... curve (iAUC)): iAUCGLP-1: 645 ± 194 and 702 ± 97 pM × min; iAUCGIP: 4,338 ± 764 and 2,894 ± 601 pM × min) compared to the carrot meal (iAUCGLP-1: 7 ± 103 pM × min; iAUCGIP: 266 ± 234 pM × min). iAUC for GLP-1 and GIP were similar for C4-dietary oil and olive oil, although olive oil resulted in a higher...

  1. Morvan's syndrome with anti contactin associated protein like 2 – voltage gated potassium channel antibody presenting with syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjani Kumar Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Morvan's syndrome is a rare autoimmune disorder characterized by triad of peripheral nerve hyperexcitability, autonomic dysfunction, and central nervous system symptoms. Antibodies against contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CASPR2, a subtype of voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC complex, are found in a significant proportion of patients with Morvan's syndrome and are thought to play a key role in peripheral as well as central clinical manifestations. We report a patient of Morvan's syndrome with positive CASPR2–anti-VGKC antibody having syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone as a cause of persistent hyponatremia.

  2. Whey proteins have beneficial effects on intestinal enteroendocrine cells stimulating cell growth and increasing the production and secretion of incretin hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Anna L; Calderwood, Danielle; Hobson, Laura; Green, Brian D

    2015-12-15

    Whey protein has been indicated to curb diet-induced obesity, glucose intolerance and delay the onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Here the effects of intact crude whey, intact individual whey proteins and beta-lactoglobulin hydrolysates on an enteroendocrine (EE) cell model were examined. STC-1 pGIP/neo cells were incubated with several concentrations of yogurt whey (YW), cheese whey (CW), beta-lactoglobulin (BLG), alpha-lactalbumin (ALA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA). The findings demonstrate that BLG stimulates EE cell proliferation, and also GLP-1 secretion (an effect which is lost following hydrolysis with chymotrypsin or trypsin). ALA is a highly potent GLP-1 secretagogue which also increases the intracellular levels of GLP-1. Conversely, whey proteins and hydrolysates had little impact on GIP secretion. This appears to be the first investigation of the effects of the three major proteins of YW and CW on EE cells. The anti-diabetic potential of whey proteins should be further investigated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Genetic Markers of Insulin Sensitivity and Insulin Secretion Are Associated With Spontaneous Postnatal Growth and Response to Growth Hormone Treatment in Short SGA Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rikke Beck; Thankamony, Ajay; Day, Felix

    2015-01-01

    with spontaneous postnatal weight gain (regression coefficient [B]: 0.12 SD scores per allele; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.01-0.23; P = .03) and also in response to GH therapy with first-year height velocity (B: 0.18 cm/y per allele; 95% CI, 0.02-0.35; P = .03) and change in IGF-1 (B: 0.17 SD scores per allele......PURPOSE: The wide heterogeneity in the early growth and metabolism of children born small for gestational age (SGA), both before and during GH therapy, may reflect common genetic variations related to insulin secretion or sensitivity. METHOD: Combined multiallele single nucleotide polymorphism......; 95% CI, 0.00-0.32; P = .03). The association with first-year height velocity was independent of reported predictors of response to GH therapy (adjusted P = .04). The insulin secretion allele score (GS-InSec) was positively associated with spontaneous postnatal height gain (B: 0.15; 95% CI, 0...

  4. Postprandial responses of incretin and pancreatic hormones in non-diabetic patients with end-stage renal disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idorn, Thomas; Knop, Filip K; Jørgensen, Morten

    2014-01-01

    of the insulinotropic gut-derived incretin hormones and pancreatic hormones play a critical role in the maintenance of a normal postprandial glucose tolerance. METHODS: We studied patients with ESRD and either normal (n = 10) or impaired (n = 10) glucose tolerance, and control subjects (n = 11). Plasma concentrations...... glucose responses were comparable between groups (P > 0.082). Patients with ESRD exhibited higher fasting levels of GIP and glucagon compared with controls (P corrected GLP-1 and glucagon responses were enhanced (P corrected insulin responses and insulin excursions...... increased secretion of the insulinotropic incretin hormone GLP-1. Fasting levels and baseline-corrected responses of glucagon were elevated and gastric emptying was delayed in the ESRD patients. These perturbations seem to be caused by uraemia per se and may contribute to the disturbed glucose metabolism...

  5. contribution of growth hormone-releasing hormone and

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The strategy used was to stimulate GH secretion in 8 young ... treatment with two oral doses of 50 mg atenolol (to inhibit .... had normal baseline thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) ..... production rate of 14% per decade has been documented.'".

  6. Measurement of the incretin hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhre, Rune Ehrenreich; Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai Jacob; Hartmann, Bolette

    2015-01-01

    The two incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), are secreted from the gastrointestinal tract in response to meals and contribute to the regulation of glucose homeostasis by increasing insulin secretion. Assessment of plasma concentrat......The two incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), are secreted from the gastrointestinal tract in response to meals and contribute to the regulation of glucose homeostasis by increasing insulin secretion. Assessment of plasma...... concentrations of GLP-1 and GIP is often an important endpoint in both clinical and preclinical studies and, therefore, accurate measurement of these hormones is important. Here, we provide an overview of current approaches for the measurement of the incretin hormones, with particular focus on immunological...

  7. Gastrointestinal Hormones Induced the Birth of Endocrinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wabitsch, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The physiological studies by British physiologists William Maddock Bayliss and Ernest Henry Starling, at the beginning of the last century, demonstrated the existence of specific messenger molecules (hormones) circulating in the blood that regulate the organ function and physiological mechanisms. These findings led to the concept of endocrinology. The first 2 hormones were secretin, discovered in 1902, and gastrin, discovered in 1905. Both hormones that have been described are produced in the gut. This chapter summarizes the history around the discovery of these 2 hormones, which is perceived as the birth of endocrinology. It is noteworthy that after the discovery of these 2 gastrointestinal hormones, many other hormones were detected outside the gut, and thereafter gut hormones faded from both the clinical and scientific spotlight. Only recently, the clinical importance of the gut as the body's largest endocrine organ producing a large variety of hormones has been realized. Gastrointestinal hormones are essential regulators of metabolism, growth, development and behavior and are therefore the focus of a modern pediatric endocrinologist. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Secretion of incretin hormones (GIP and GLP-1) and incretin effect after oral glucose in first-degree relatives of patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nauck, Michael A; El-Ouaghlidi, Andrea; Gabrys, Bartholomäus

    2004-01-01

    ) and an "isoglycaemic" intravenous glucose infusion. Blood was drawn over 240 min for plasma glucose (glucose oxidase), insulin, C-peptide, GIP and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1; specific immunoassays). RESULTS: The pattern of glucose concentrations could precisely be copied by the intravenous glucose infusion (p=0......AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Since insulin secretion in response to exogenous gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) is diminished not only in patients with type 2 diabetes, but also in their normal glucose-tolerant first-degree relatives, it was the aim to investigate the integrity of the entero-insular axis...... in such subjects. METHODS: Sixteen first-degree relatives of patients with type 2 diabetes (4 male, 12 female, age 50+/-12 years, BMI 26.1+/-3.8 kg/m(2)) and 10 matched healthy controls (negative family history, 6 male, 4 female, 45+/-13 years, 26.1+/-4.2 kg/m(2)) were examined with an oral glucose load (75 g...

  9. Copepod guts as biogeochemical hotspots in the sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Kam W.; Glud, Ronnie N.; Glud, Anni

    2011-01-01

    The environmental conditions inside the gut of Calanus hyperboreus and C. glacialis were measured with microelectrodes. An acidic potential hydrogen (pH) gradient was present in the gut of C. hyperboreus, and the lowest pH recorded was 5.40. The gut pH of a starved copepod decreased by 0.53 after...... the copepod resumed feeding for a few hours, indicating the secretion of acidic digestive fluid. A copepod feeding on Thalassiosira weissflogii (diatom) had slightly lower pH than that feeding on Rhodomonas salina (cryptophyte). Oxygen was undersaturated in the gut of both C. hyperboreus and C. glacialis......, with a steep gradient from the anal opening to the metasome region. The central metasome region was completely anoxic. Food remains in the gut led to a lower oxygen level, and a diatom diet induced a stronger oxygen gradient than a cryptophyte diet. The acidic and suboxic–anoxic environments of the copepod gut...

  10. Incretin hormones as a target for therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens Juul

    2016-01-01

    Incretin hormones are responsible for the incretin effect, which is the amplification of insulin secretion when nutrients are taken in orally, as opposed to intravenously.......Incretin hormones are responsible for the incretin effect, which is the amplification of insulin secretion when nutrients are taken in orally, as opposed to intravenously....

  11. (LH) secretion in fasted prepubertal ewes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. NJ TONUKARI

    2012-01-10

    Jan 10, 2012 ... decreased luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion in fasted prepubertal ewes .... kisspeptin-10 injection could restore the baseline levels of. LH changed by ..... Terasawa E (2005). Role of GABA in the mechanism of the onset of.

  12. Cortisol secretion in patients with normoprolactinemic amenorrhea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesgaard, S; Hagen, C; Andersen, A N

    1988-01-01

    with normoprolactinemic amenorrhea have elevated basal serum cortisol, the reason probably being hypersecretion of corticotropin-releasing hormone. Secondly that dopaminergic blockade with metoclopramide stimulates ACTH and cortisol secretion in patients presumed to have raised dopaminergic activity....

  13. Incretin hormones and the satiation signal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens Juul

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has indicated that appetite-regulating hormones from the gut may have therapeutic potential. The incretin hormone, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), appears to be involved in both peripheral and central pathways mediating satiation. Several studies have also indicated that GLP-1...

  14. [Glucose homeostasis and gut-brain connection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vadder, Filipe; Mithieux, Gilles

    2015-02-01

    Since the XIX(th) century, the brain has been known for its role in regulating food intake (via the control of hunger sensation) and glucose homeostasis. Further interest has come from the discovery of gut hormones, which established a clear link between the gut and the brain in regulating glucose and energy homeostasis. The brain has two particular structures, the hypothalamus and the brainstem, which are sensitive to information coming either from peripheral organs or from the gut (via circulating hormones or nutrients) about the nutritional status of the organism. However, the efforts for a better understanding of these mechanisms have allowed to unveil a new gut-brain neural axis as a key regulator of the metabolic status of the organism. Certain nutrients control the hypothalamic homeostatic function via this axis. In this review, we describe how the gut is connected to the brain via different neural pathways, and how the interplay between these two organs drives the energy balance. © 2015 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  15. Estrogen enhances expression of the complement C5a receptor and the C5a-agonist evoked calcium influx in hormone secreting neurons of the hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Imre; Varju, Patricia; Szabo, Emese; Hrabovszky, Erik; Okada, Noriko; Okada, Hidechika; Liposits, Zsolt

    2008-01-01

    In the present study we examined presence of the complement C5a receptor (C5aR) in hypothalamic neurosecretory neurons of the rodent brain and effect of estrogen on C5aR expression. Whole cell patch clamp measurements revealed that magnocellular neurons in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of hypothalamic slices of the rats responded to the C5aR-agonist PL37-MAP peptide with calcium ion current pulses. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) producing neurons in slices of the preoptic area of the mice also reacted to the peptide treatment with inward calcium current. PL37-MAP was able to evoke the inward ion current of GnRH neurons in slices from ovariectomized animals. The amplitude of the inward pulses became higher in slices obtained from 17beta-estradiol (E2) substituted mice. Calcium imaging experiments demonstrated that PL37-MAP increased the intracellular calcium content in the culture of the GnRH-producing GT1-7 cell line in a concentration-dependent manner. Calcium imaging also showed that E2 pretreatment elevated the PL37-MAP evoked increase of the intracellular calcium content in the GT1-7 cells. The estrogen receptor blocker Faslodex in the medium prevented the E2-evoked increase of the PL37-MAP-triggered elevation of the intracellular calcium content in the GT1-7 cells demonstrating that the effect of E2 might be related to the presence of estrogen receptor. Real-time PCR experiments revealed that E2 increased the expression of C5aR mRNA in GT1-7 neurons, suggesting that an increased C5aR synthesis could be involved in the estrogenic modulation of calcium response. These data indicate that hypothalamic neuroendocrine neurons can integrate immune and neuroendocrine functions. Our results may serve a better understanding of the inflammatory and neurodegeneratory diseases of the hypothalamus and the related neuroendocrine and autonomic compensatory responses.

  16. VIP secreting tumours in infancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, R.P.; Slavotinek, J.P.; Dorney, S.F.A.

    1990-01-01

    Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) secreting neural crest tumours are an uncommon but important treatable cause of intractable childhood diarrhoea. The radiological appearances of two cases are presented with a review of radiological findings in childhood VIP secreting neural crest tumours. Twenty eight cases of childhood VIP secreting neural crest tumours were reviewed. Nineteen (68%) were ganglioneuroblastomas and nine (32%) were ganglioneuromas. The majority of tumours (66%) were in a paravertebral location in the abdomen indicating that a search for such a tumour should be initiated at this site. Eighteen of the twenty eight cases reviewed discussed relevant radiological investigations. Calcification was detected in 50% of abdominal radiographs. Gut dilatation was often a prominent feature. A mass was detected in 5 of 5 cases where ultrasound findings were reported, and seven of seven cases with CT findings reported. Prior to the availability of CT and ultrasound the most useful investigation was IVU which demonstrated evidence of a mass in 5 of 9 cases. The presence of paravertebral calcification and gut dilatation on the plain radiograph of a child with intractable diarrhoea suggests the presence of a VIP secreting neural crest tumour. If an abdominal tumour is not found in the appropriate clinical setting and VIP levels are elevated, a widespread search of the paravertebral region is indicated. (orig.)

  17. Thyroid hormone signaling in the hypothalamus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkemade, Anneke; Visser, Theo J.; Fliers, Eric

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Proper thyroid hormone signaling is essential for brain development and adult brain function. Signaling can be disrupted at many levels due to altered thyroid hormone secretion, conversion or thyroid hormone receptor binding. RECENT FINDINGS: Mutated genes involved in thyroid

  18. Physiology of bile secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteller, Alejandro

    2008-10-07

    The formation of bile depends on the structural and functional integrity of the bile-secretory apparatus and its impairment, in different situations, results in the syndrome of cholestasis. The structural bases that permit bile secretion as well as various aspects related with its composition and flow rate in physiological conditions will first be reviewed. Canalicular bile is produced by polarized hepatocytes that hold transporters in their basolateral (sinusoidal) and apical (canalicular) plasma membrane. This review summarizes recent data on the molecular determinants of this primary bile formation. The major function of the biliary tree is modification of canalicular bile by secretory and reabsorptive processes in bile-duct epithelial cells (cholangiocytes) as bile passes through bile ducts. The mechanisms of fluid and solute transport in cholangiocytes will also be discussed. In contrast to hepatocytes where secretion is constant and poorly controlled, cholangiocyte secretion is regulated by hormones and nerves. A short section dedicated to these regulatory mechanisms of bile secretion has been included. The aim of this revision was to set the bases for other reviews in this series that will be devoted to specific issues related with biliary physiology and pathology.

  19. Tail gut cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, G Mallikarjuna; Haricharan, P; Ramanujacharyulu, S; Reddy, K Lakshmi

    2002-01-01

    The tail gut is a blind extension of the hindgut into the tail fold just distal to the cloacal membrane. Remnants of this structure may form tail gut cyst. We report a 14-year-old girl with tail gut cyst that presented as acute abdomen. The patient recovered after cyst excision.

  20. SUSY GUT Model Building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raby, Stuart

    2008-01-01

    In this talk I discuss the evolution of SUSY GUT model building as I see it. Starting with 4 dimensional model building, I then consider orbifold GUTs in 5 dimensions and finally orbifold GUTs embedded into the E 8 xE 8 heterotic string.

  1. SO(10) GUT baryogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Peihong; Sarkar, Utpal

    2008-01-01

    Baryogenesis, through the decays of heavy bosons, was considered to be one of the major successes of the grand unified theories (GUTs). It was then realized that the sphaleron processes erased any baryon asymmetry from the GUT-baryogenesis at a later stage. In this Letter, we discuss the idea of resurrecting GUT-baryogenesis [M. Fukugita, T. Yanagida, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89 (2002) 131602] in a large class of SO(10) GUTs. Our analysis shows that fast lepton number violating but baryon number conserving processes can partially wash out the GUT-baryogenesis produced lepton and/or baryon asymmetry associated with or without the sphaleron and/or Yukawa interactions

  2. Gut metabolome meets microbiome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamichhane, Santosh; Sen, Partho; Dickens, Alex M

    2018-01-01

    It is well established that gut microbes and their metabolic products regulate host metabolism. The interactions between the host and its gut microbiota are highly dynamic and complex. In this review we present and discuss the metabolomic strategies to study the gut microbial ecosystem. We...... highlight the metabolic profiling approaches to study faecal samples aimed at deciphering the metabolic product derived from gut microbiota. We also discuss how metabolomics data can be integrated with metagenomics data derived from gut microbiota and how such approaches may lead to better understanding...

  3. Probiotics and the Gut Immune System: Indirect Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Fata, Giorgio; Weber, Peter; Mohajeri, M Hasan

    2018-03-01

    The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) represents the largest interface between the human organism and the external environment. In the lumen and upper part of the mucus layer, this organ hosts an enormous number of microorganisms whose composition affects the functions of the epithelial barrier and the gut immune system. Consequentially, the microorganisms in the GIT influence the health status of the organism. Probiotics are living microorganisms which, in specific conditions, confer a health benefit to the host. Among others, probiotics have immunomodulatory properties that usually act directly by (a) increasing the activity of macrophages or natural killer cells, (b) modulating the secretion of immunoglobulins or cytokines, or indirectly by (c) enhancing the gut epithelial barrier, (d) altering the mucus secretion, and (e) competitive exclusion of other (pathogenic) bacteria. This review focuses on specific bacteria strains with indirect immunomodulatory properties. Particularly, we describe here the mechanisms through which specific probiotics enhance the gut epithelial barrier and modulate mucus production. Moreover, we describe the antimicrobial properties of specific bacteria strains. Recent data suggest that multiple pathologies are associated with an unbalanced gut microflora (dysbiosis). Although the cause-effect relationship between pathology and gut microflora is not yet well established, consumption of specific probiotics may represent a powerful tool to re-establish gut homeostasis and promote gut health.

  4. SnapShot: Hormones of the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coate, Katie C; Kliewer, Steven A; Mangelsdorf, David J

    2014-12-04

    Specialized endocrine cells secrete a variety of peptide hormones all along the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, making it one of the largest endocrine organs in the body. Nutrients and developmental and neural cues trigger the secretion of gastrointestinal (GI) hormones from specialized endocrine cells along the GI tract. These hormones act in target tissues to facilitate digestion and regulate energy homeostasis. This SnapShot summarizes the production and functions of GI hormones. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Gut Melatonin in Vertebrates: Chronobiology and Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Saumen Kumar Maitra

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin, following discovery in the bovine pineal gland, has been detected in several extra-pineal sources including gastrointestinal tract or gut. Arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT is the key regulator of its biosynthesis. Melatonin in pineal is rhythmically produced with a nocturnal peak in synchronization with environmental light-dark cycle. A recent study on carp reported first that melatonin levels and intensity of a ~23kDa AANAT protein in each gut segment also exhibit significant daily variations but, unlike pineal, show a peak at midday in all seasons. Extensive experimental studies ruled out direct role of light-dark conditions in determining temporal pattern of gut melatoninergic system in carp, and opened up possible role of environmental non-photic cue(s as its synchronizer. Based on mammalian findings, physiological significance of gut derived melatonin also appears unique because its actions at local levels sharing paracrine and/or autocrine functions have been emphasized. The purpose of this mini-review is to summarize existing data on the chronobiology and physiology of gut melatonin and to emphasize their relation with the same hormone derived in the pineal in vertebrates including fish.

  6. The human gut resistome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schaik, Willem

    2015-06-05

    In recent decades, the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance among bacterial pathogens has become a major threat to public health. Bacteria can acquire antibiotic resistance genes by the mobilization and transfer of resistance genes from a donor strain. The human gut contains a densely populated microbial ecosystem, termed the gut microbiota, which offers ample opportunities for the horizontal transfer of genetic material, including antibiotic resistance genes. Recent technological advances allow microbiota-wide studies into the diversity and dynamics of the antibiotic resistance genes that are harboured by the gut microbiota ('the gut resistome'). Genes conferring resistance to antibiotics are ubiquitously present among the gut microbiota of humans and most resistance genes are harboured by strictly anaerobic gut commensals. The horizontal transfer of genetic material, including antibiotic resistance genes, through conjugation and transduction is a frequent event in the gut microbiota, but mostly involves non-pathogenic gut commensals as these dominate the microbiota of healthy individuals. Resistance gene transfer from commensals to gut-dwelling opportunistic pathogens appears to be a relatively rare event but may contribute to the emergence of multi-drug resistant strains, as is illustrated by the vancomycin resistance determinants that are shared by anaerobic gut commensals and the nosocomial pathogen Enterococcus faecium.

  7. Hormonal control of euryhalinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, Yoshio; McCormick, Stephen D.; McCormick, Stephen D.; Farrell, Anthony Peter; Brauner, Colin J.

    2013-01-01

    Hormones play a critical role in maintaining body fluid balance in euryhaline fishes during changes in environmental salinity. The neuroendocrine axis senses osmotic and ionic changes, then signals and coordinates tissue-specific responses to regulate water and ion fluxes. Rapid-acting hormones, e.g. angiotensins, cope with immediate challenges by controlling drinking rate and the activity of ion transporters in the gill, gut, and kidney. Slow-acting hormones, e.g. prolactin and growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1, reorganize the body for long-term acclimation by altering the abundance of ion transporters and through cell proliferation and differentiation of ionocytes and other osmoregulatory cells. Euryhaline species exist in all groups of fish, including cyclostomes, and cartilaginous and teleost fishes. The diverse strategies for responding to changes in salinity have led to differential regulation and tissue-specific effects of hormones. Combining traditional physiological approaches with genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic analyses will elucidate the patterns and diversity of the endocrine control of euryhalinity.

  8. Impaired Follistatin Secretion in Cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rinnov, Anders Rasmussen; Plomgaard, Peter; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2016-01-01

    compared to healthy control participants. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: To experimentally increase the glucagon-insulin ratio (mimicking the hormonal effect of exercise), we infused glucagon/somatostatin (to inhibit insulin secretion) and compared the acute follistatin increase in eight male cirrhosis...... controls (27.6 ± 3.8 vs 34.5 ± 2.9%, respectively; P = .001). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with cirrhosis show impaired capacity to acutely secrete follistatin. The decrease in acute follistatin release may contribute to the loss of muscle mass in liver cirrhosis....

  9. Secret Places.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridolfi, Kerry

    1997-01-01

    Argues that children are as deep as the ocean, with secret places inside of them waiting to be opened. Notes that it is powerful for students to learn they can make sense of the world through words, and describes inviting them into poetry as they read poetry, create poetry packets, and write and revise poems. (SR)

  10. Gut microbiota and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gérard, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The human intestine harbors a complex bacterial community called the gut microbiota. This microbiota is specific to each individual despite the existence of several bacterial species shared by the majority of adults. The influence of the gut microbiota in human health and disease has been revealed in the recent years. Particularly, the use of germ-free animals and microbiota transplant showed that the gut microbiota may play a causal role in the development of obesity and associated metabolic disorders, and lead to identification of several mechanisms. In humans, differences in microbiota composition, functional genes and metabolic activities are observed between obese and lean individuals suggesting a contribution of the gut microbiota to these phenotypes. Finally, the evidence linking gut bacteria to host metabolism could allow the development of new therapeutic strategies based on gut microbiota modulation to treat or prevent obesity.

  11. Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone in Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid Evsey Fridlyand

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH is produced by the hypothalamus and stimulates growth hormone synthesis and release in the anterior pituitary gland. In addition GHRH is an important regulator of cellular functions in many cells and organs. Expression of GHRH G-Protein Coupled Receptor (GHRHR has been demonstrated in different peripheral tissues and cell types including pancreatic islets. Among the peripheral activities, recent studies demonstrate a novel ability of GHRH analogs to increase and preserve insulin secretion by beta-cells in isolated pancreatic islets, which makes them potentially useful for diabetes treatment. This review considers the role of GHRHR in the beta-cell and addresses the unique engineered GHRH agonists and antagonists for treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. We discuss the similarity of signaling pathways activated by GHRHR in pituitary somatotrophs and in pancreatic beta-cells and possible ways as to how the GHRHR pathway can interact with glucose and other secretagogues to stimulate insulin secretion. We also consider the hypothesis that novel GHRHR agonists can improve glucose metabolism in Type 2 diabetes by preserving the function and survival of pancreatic beta-cells. Wound healing and cardioprotective action with new GHRH agonists suggesting that they may prove useful in ameliorating certain diabetic complications. These findings highlight the future potential therapeutic effectiveness of modulators of GHRHR activity for the development of new therapeutic approaches in diabetes and its complications.

  12. Long-term outcomes of surgery and radiotherapy for secreting and non-secreting pituitary adenoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Mi Young; Kim, Jin Hee; Oh, Young Kee; Kim, El

    2016-01-01

    To investigate treatment outcome and long term complication after surgery and radiotherapy (RT) for pituitary adenoma. From 1990 to 2009, 73 patients with surgery and RT for pituitary adenoma were analyzed in this study. Median age was 51 years (range, 25 to 71 years). Median tumor size was 3 cm (range, 1 to 5 cm) with suprasellar (n = 21), cavernous sinus extension (n = 14) or both (n = 5). Hormone secreting tumor was diagnosed in 29 patients; 16 patients with prolactin, 12 patients with growth hormone, and 1 patient with adrenocorticotrophic hormone. Impairment of visual acuity or visual field was presented in 33 patients at first diagnosis. Most patients (n = 64) received RT as postoperative adjuvant setting. Median RT dose was 45 Gy (range, 45 to 59.4 Gy). Median follow-up duration was 8 years (range, 3 to 22 years). In secreting tumors, hormone normalization rate was 55% (16 of 29 patients). For 25 patients with evaluable visual field and visual acuity test, 21 patients (84%) showed improvement of visual disturbance after treatment. The 10-year tumor control rate for non-secreting and secreting adenoma was 100% and 58%, respectively (p < 0.001). Progression free survival rate at 10 years was 98%. Only 1 patient experienced endocrinological recurrence. Following surgery, 60% (n = 44) suffered from pituitary function deficit. Late complication associated with RT was only 1 patient, who developed cataract. Surgery and RT are very effective and safe in hormonal and tumor growth control for secreting and non-secreting pituitary adenoma

  13. Long-term outcomes of surgery and radiotherapy for secreting and non-secreting pituitary adenoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mi Young; Kim, Jin Hee; Oh, Young Kee; Kim, El [Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    To investigate treatment outcome and long term complication after surgery and radiotherapy (RT) for pituitary adenoma. From 1990 to 2009, 73 patients with surgery and RT for pituitary adenoma were analyzed in this study. Median age was 51 years (range, 25 to 71 years). Median tumor size was 3 cm (range, 1 to 5 cm) with suprasellar (n = 21), cavernous sinus extension (n = 14) or both (n = 5). Hormone secreting tumor was diagnosed in 29 patients; 16 patients with prolactin, 12 patients with growth hormone, and 1 patient with adrenocorticotrophic hormone. Impairment of visual acuity or visual field was presented in 33 patients at first diagnosis. Most patients (n = 64) received RT as postoperative adjuvant setting. Median RT dose was 45 Gy (range, 45 to 59.4 Gy). Median follow-up duration was 8 years (range, 3 to 22 years). In secreting tumors, hormone normalization rate was 55% (16 of 29 patients). For 25 patients with evaluable visual field and visual acuity test, 21 patients (84%) showed improvement of visual disturbance after treatment. The 10-year tumor control rate for non-secreting and secreting adenoma was 100% and 58%, respectively (p < 0.001). Progression free survival rate at 10 years was 98%. Only 1 patient experienced endocrinological recurrence. Following surgery, 60% (n = 44) suffered from pituitary function deficit. Late complication associated with RT was only 1 patient, who developed cataract. Surgery and RT are very effective and safe in hormonal and tumor growth control for secreting and non-secreting pituitary adenoma.

  14. Growth hormone and selective attention : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quik, Elise H.; van Dam, P. Sytze; Kenemans, J. Leon

    Introduction: The relation between growth hormone (GH) secretion and general cognitive function has been established. General cognitive functioning depends on core functions including selective attention, which have not been addressed specifically in relation to GH. The present review addresses

  15. Bile Formation and Secretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, James L.

    2014-01-01

    Bile is a unique and vital aqueous secretion of the liver that is formed by the hepatocyte and modified down stream by absorptive and secretory properties of the bile duct epithelium. Approximately 5% of bile consists of organic and inorganic solutes of considerable complexity. The bile-secretory unit consists of a canalicular network which is formed by the apical membrane of adjacent hepatocytes and sealed by tight junctions. The bile canaliculi (~1 μm in diameter) conduct the flow of bile countercurrent to the direction of portal blood flow and connect with the canal of Hering and bile ducts which progressively increase in diameter and complexity prior to the entry of bile into the gallbladder, common bile duct, and intestine. Canalicular bile secretion is determined by both bile salt-dependent and independent transport systems which are localized at the apical membrane of the hepatocyte and largely consist of a series of adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transport proteins that function as export pumps for bile salts and other organic solutes. These transporters create osmotic gradients within the bile canalicular lumen that provide the driving force for movement of fluid into the lumen via aquaporins. Species vary with respect to the relative amounts of bile salt-dependent and independent canalicular flow and cholangiocyte secretion which is highly regulated by hormones, second messengers, and signal transduction pathways. Most determinants of bile secretion are now characterized at the molecular level in animal models and in man. Genetic mutations serve to illuminate many of their functions. PMID:23897680

  16. Impaired crosstalk between pulsatile insulin and glucagon secretion in prediabetic individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohrer, Stefan; Menge, Björn A; Grüber, Lena

    2012-01-01

    Postprandial hyperglucagonemia is frequently found in patients with diabetes. Recently, a loss of the inverse relationship between pulsatile insulin and glucagon secretion has been reported in patients with type 2 diabetes. The crosstalk between pulsatile islet hormone secretion in prediabetic...

  17. Hormone assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisentraut, A.M.

    1977-01-01

    An improved radioimmunoassay is described for measuring total triiodothyronine or total thyroxine levels in a sample of serum containing free endogenous thyroid hormone and endogenous thyroid hormone bound to thyroid hormone binding protein. The thyroid hormone is released from the protein by adding hydrochloric acid to the serum. The pH of the separated thyroid hormone and thyroid hormone binding protein is raised in the absence of a blocking agent without interference from the endogenous protein. 125 I-labelled thyroid hormone and thyroid hormone antibodies are added to the mixture, allowing the labelled and unlabelled thyroid hormone and the thyroid hormone antibody to bind competitively. This results in free thyroid hormone being separated from antibody bound thyroid hormone and thus the unknown quantity of thyroid hormone may be determined. A thyroid hormone test assay kit is described for this radioimmunoassay. It provides a 'single tube' assay which does not require blocking agents for endogenous protein interference nor an external solid phase sorption step for the separation of bound and free hormone after the competitive binding step; it also requires a minimum number of manipulative steps. Examples of the assay are given to illustrate the reproducibility, linearity and specificity of the assay. (UK)

  18. A controlled study on serum insulin-like growth factor-I and urinary excretion of growth hormone in fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, S; Main, K; Danneskiold-Samsøe, B

    1995-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that secretory deficiencies of growth hormone may play a pathophysiological role in fibromyalgia (FM). Our objective was thus to evaluate the secretion of growth hormone in FM.......It has been hypothesized that secretory deficiencies of growth hormone may play a pathophysiological role in fibromyalgia (FM). Our objective was thus to evaluate the secretion of growth hormone in FM....

  19. Gut microbiota sustains hematopoiesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theilgaard-Mönch, Kim

    2017-01-01

    In this issue of Blood, Josefsdottir et al provide substantial evidence that commensal gut microbes regulate and sustain normal steady-state hematopoiesis.1......In this issue of Blood, Josefsdottir et al provide substantial evidence that commensal gut microbes regulate and sustain normal steady-state hematopoiesis.1...

  20. Building GUTs from strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldazabal, G.; Ibanez, L.E.; Uranga, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    We study in detail the structure of Grand Unified Theories derived as the low-energy limit of orbifold four-dimensional strings. To this aim, new techniques for building level-two symmetric orbifold theories are presented. New classes of GUTs in the context of symmetric orbifolds are then constructed. The method of permutation modding is further explored and SO(10) GUTs with both 45- or 54-plets are obtained. SU(5) models are also found through this method. It is shown that, in the context of symmetric orbifold SO(10) GUTs, only a single GUT Higgs, either a 54 or a 45, can be present and it always resides in an order-two untwisted sector. Very restrictive results also hold in the case of SU(5). General properties and selection rules for string GUTs are described. Some of these selection rules forbid the presence of some particular GUT-Higgs couplings which are sometimes used in SUSY-GUT model building. Some semi-realistic string GUT examples are presented and their properties briefly discussed. (orig.)

  1. The brain-gut interaction: the conversation and the implications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    experience? If we look ... hormonal system.3 The brain-gut axis can be compared with a complex ... efferent neurons.11 The part of the nervous system that is connected with the .... habits.16,22 In addition, there is a substantial psychological co-morbidity .... Research focusing on the role of anxiety in the exacerbation of IBS.

  2. COMPARATIVE GUT PHYSIOLOGY SYMPOSIUM: Comparative physiology of glucagon-like peptide-2: Implications and applications for production and health of ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, E E; Evock-Clover, C M; Walker, M P; Elsasser, T H; Kahl, S

    2015-02-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is a 33-amino acid peptide derived from proteolytic cleavage of proglucagon by prohormone convertase 1/3 in enteroendocrine L cells. Studies conducted in humans, in rodent models, and in vitro indicate that GLP-2 is secreted in response to the presence of molecules in the intestinal lumen, including fatty acids, carbohydrates, amino acids, and bile acids, which are detected by luminal chemosensors. The physiological actions of GLP-2 are mediated by its G protein-coupled receptor expressed primarily in the intestinal tract on enteric neurons, enteroendocrine cells, and myofibroblasts. The biological activity of GLP-2 is further regulated by dipeptidyl peptidase IV, which rapidly cleaves the N-terminus of GLP-2 that is responsible for GLP-2 receptor activation. Within the gut, GLP-2 increases nutrient absorption, crypt cell proliferation, and mesenteric blood flow and decreases gut permeability and motility, epithelial cell apoptosis, and inflammation. Outside the gut, GLP-2 reduces bone resorption, can suppress appetite, and is cytoprotective in the lung. Thus, GLP-2 has been studied intensively as a therapeutic to improve intestinal function of humans during parenteral nutrition and following small bowel resection and, more recently, as a treatment for osteoporosis and obesity-related disorders and to reduce cellular damage associated with inflammation of the gut and lungs. Recent studies demonstrate that many biological actions and properties of GLP-2 in ruminants are similar to those in nonruminants, including the potential to reduce intestinal nitro-oxidative stress in calves caused by parasitic diseases such as coccidiosis. Because of its beneficial impacts on nutrient absorption, gut healing, and normal gut development, GLP-2 therapy offers significant opportunities to improve calf health and production efficiency. However, GLP-2 therapies require an extended time course to achieve desired physiological responses, as well as

  3. Therapy for obesity based on gastrointestinal hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Jonatan I; Christensen, Mikkel; Knop, Filip K

    2011-01-01

    It has long been known that peptide hormones from the gastrointestinal tract have significant impact on the regulation of nutrient metabolism. Among these hormones, incretins have been found to increase insulin secretion, and thus incretin-based therapies have emerged as new modalities...

  4. Effects of whole grain rye, with and without resistant starch type 2 supplementation, on glucose tolerance, gut hormones, inflammation and appetite regulation in an 11-14.5 hour perspective; a randomized controlled study in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Jonna C; Björck, Inger M E; Nilsson, Anne C

    2017-04-21

    The prevalence of obesity is increasing worldwide and prevention is needed. Whole grain has shown potential to lower the risk of obesity, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. One possible mechanism behind the benefits of whole grain is the gut fermentation of dietary fiber (DF), e.g. non-starch polysaccharides and resistant starch (RS), in whole grain. The purpose of the study is to investigate the effect of whole grain rye-based products on glucose- and appetite regulation. Twenty-one healthy subjects were provided four rye-based evening test meals in a crossover overnight study design. The test evening meals consisted of either whole grain rye flour bread (RFB) or a 1:1 ratio of whole grain rye flour and rye kernels bread (RFB/RKB), with or without added resistant starch (+RS). White wheat flour bread (WWB) was used as reference evening meal. Blood glucose, insulin, PYY, FFA, IL-6 as well as breath H 2 and subjective rating of appetite were measured the following morning at fasting and repeatedly up to 3.5 h after a standardized breakfast consisting of WWB. Ad libitum energy intake was determined at lunch, 14.5 h after evening test and reference meals, respectively. The evening meal with RFB/RKB + RS decreased postprandial glucose- and insulin responses (iAUC) (P appetite regulation in a semi-acute perspective. Meanwhile, RFB and RFB/RKB improved subjective appetite ratings. The effects probably emanate from gut fermentation events. The study was registered at: ClinicalTrials.gov, register number NCT02347293 ( www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02347293 ). Registered 15 January 2015.

  5. Network identification of hormonal regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vis, D.J.; Westerhuis, J.A.; Hoefsloot, H.C.J.; Roelfsema, F.; Greef, J. van der; Hendriks, M.M.W.B.; Smilde, A.K.

    2014-01-01

    Relations among hormone serum concentrations are complex and depend on various factors, including gender, age, body mass index, diurnal rhythms and secretion stochastics. Therefore, endocrine deviations from healthy homeostasis are not easily detected or understood. A generic method is presented for

  6. Hormone supply of the organism in prolonged emotional stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiragova, M. G.; Stulnikov, B. V.; Svirskaya, R. I.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of prolonged emotional stress of varying genesis on the hormonal function of the pancreas, thyroid gland, and adrenal cortex was studied. The amount of the hormonal secretion was found to depend on the type of adaptation activity and its duration. High secretion of the hormones observed outside the adaptation activity was examined as an index of the phase transition of defense reactions to the phase of overstress.

  7. Low calorie sweeteners: Evidence remains lacking for effects on human gut function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Charlotte; Mclaughlin, John

    2016-10-01

    The importance of nutrient induced gut-brain signalling in the regulation of human food intake has become an increasing focus of research. Much of the caloric excess consumed comes from dietary sugars, but our knowledge about the mechanisms mediating the physiological and appetitive effects of sweet tastants in the human gut and gut-brain axis is far from complete. The comparative effects of natural sugars vs low calorie sweeteners are also poorly understood. Research in animal and cellular models has suggested a key functional role in gut endocrine cells for the sweet taste receptors previously well described in oral taste. However human studies to date have very consistently failed to show that activation of the sweet taste receptor by low calorie sweeteners placed in the human gut fails to replicate any of the effects on gastric motility, gut hormones or appetitive responses evoked by caloric sugars. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Criminological approach of aggressive conduct and its hormonal etiology

    OpenAIRE

    Pacheco De la Cruz, José Luis; Universidad de San Martín de Porres

    2017-01-01

    Hormones are chemicals substances produced by glands, are secreted into the bloodstream and move throughout the body influencing human behavior. Thanks to the study of physiological and pathophysiological mechanisms, identified the behavioral effects of the testosterone hormone, cortisol, norepinephrine and serotonin. Recent studies have also demonstrated the importance of vasopressin, dopamine, insulin, thyroid hormone and nitric oxide. These scientific contributions identified the importanc...

  9. Supersymmetric GUTs and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarides, G.; Shafi, Q.

    1982-06-01

    By examining the behaviour of supersymmetric GUTs in the very early universe we find two classes of realistic models. In one of them supersymmetry is broken at or near the superheavy GUT scale. The cosmological implications of such models are expected to be similar to those of nonsupersymmetric GUTs. In the second class of models, the superheavy GUT scale is related to the supersymmetry breaking scale a la Witten. Two types of cosmological scenarios appear possible in this case, either with or without an intermediate (new) inflationary phase. They can be experimentally distinguished, since the former predicts an absence and the latter an observable number density of superheavy monopoles. A mechanism for generating baryon asymmetry in such models is pointed out. Further constraint on model building appears if global R invariance is employed to resolve the strong CP problem. (author)

  10. Radiation and Gut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potten, C.S.; Hendry, J.H.

    1995-08-01

    Texts on gut with reference to radiation (or other cytotoxic and carcinogenic agents) consist of primary research papers, review articles, or books which are now very out-of-date. With this in mind, the present book was conceived. Here, with chapters by experts in the field, we cover the basic structure and cell replacement process in the gut, the physical situation relevant for gut radiation exposure and a description of some of the techniques used to study radiation effects, in particular the clonal regeneration assay that assesses stem cell functional capacity. Chapters comprehensively cover the effects of radiation in experimental animal model systems and clinical experiences. The effects of radiation on the supportive tissue of the gut is also reviewed. The special radiation situation involving ingested radionuclides is reviewed and the most important late response-carcinogenesis-within the gut is considered. This book follows a volume on 'Radiation and Skin' (1985) and another on 'Radiation and Bone Marrow' is in preparation. The present volume is intended to cover the anatomy and renewal characteristics of the gut, and its response in terms of carcinogenicity and tissue injury in mammalian species including in particular man. The book is expected to be useful to students and teachers in these topics, as well as clinical oncologists (radiotherapists) and medical oncologists, and industrial health personnel. 70 figs., 20 tabs., 869 refs

  11. Interactions between the thyroid hormones and the hormones of the growth hormone axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laron, Zvi

    2003-12-01

    The normal secretion and action of the thyroid hormones and the hormones of the GH/IGF-I (growth hormone/ insulin-like growth factor I) axis are interdependent. Their interactions often differ in man from animal studies in rodents and sheep. Thus neonates with congenital hypothyroidism are of normal length in humans but IUGR (intrauterine growth retardation) in sheep. Postnatally normal GH/IGF-I secretion and action depends on an euthyroid state. Present knowledge on the interactions between the two axes is reviewed in states of hypo- and hyperthyroidism, states of GH/IGF-I deprivation and hypersecretion, as well as the relationship between IGF-I and thyroid cancer. Emphasis is given to data in children and aspects of linear growth and skeletal maturation.

  12. Gut microbiota and energy balance: role in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaut, Michael

    2015-08-01

    The microbial community populating the human digestive tract has been linked to the development of obesity, diabetes and liver diseases. Proposed mechanisms on how the gut microbiota could contribute to obesity and metabolic diseases include: (1) improved energy extraction from diet by the conversion of dietary fibre to SCFA; (2) increased intestinal permeability for bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in response to the consumption of high-fat diets resulting in an elevated systemic LPS level and low-grade inflammation. Animal studies indicate differences in the physiologic effects of fermentable and non-fermentable dietary fibres as well as differences in long- and short-term effects of fermentable dietary fibre. The human intestinal microbiome is enriched in genes involved in the degradation of indigestible polysaccharides. The extent to which dietary fibres are fermented and in which molar ratio SCFA are formed depends on their physicochemical properties and on the individual microbiome. Acetate and propionate play an important role in lipid and glucose metabolism. Acetate serves as a substrate for de novo lipogenesis in liver, whereas propionate can be utilised for gluconeogenesis. The conversion of fermentable dietary fibre to SCFA provides additional energy to the host which could promote obesity. However, epidemiologic studies indicate that diets rich in fibre rather prevent than promote obesity development. This may be due to the fact that SCFA are also ligands of free fatty acid receptors (FFAR). Activation of FFAR leads to an increased expression and secretion of enteroendocrine hormones such as glucagon-like-peptide 1 or peptide YY which cause satiety. In conclusion, the role of SCFA in host energy balance needs to be re-evaluated.

  13. The interrelationships of thyroid and growth hormones: effect of growth hormone releasing hormone in hypo- and hyperthyroid male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, A W; Shulman, D; Root, J; Diamond, F

    1986-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) and the thyroid hormones interact in the hypothalamus, pituitary and peripheral tissues. Thyroid hormone exerts a permissive effect upon the anabolic and metabolic effects of GH, and increases pituitary synthesis of this protein hormone. GH depresses the secretion of thyrotropin and the thyroid hormones and increases the peripheral conversion of thyroxine to triiodothyronine. In the adult male rat experimental hypothyroidism produced by ingestion of propylthiouracil depresses the GH secretory response to GH-releasing hormone in vivo and in vitro, reflecting the lowered pituitary stores of GH in the hypothyroid state. Short term administration of large amounts of thyroxine with induction of the hyperthyroid state does not affect the in vivo GH secretory response to GH-releasing hormone in this animal.

  14. Leaky Gut As a Danger Signal for Autoimmune Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghui Mu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal epithelial lining, together with factors secreted from it, forms a barrier that separates the host from the environment. In pathologic conditions, the permeability of the epithelial lining may be compromised allowing the passage of toxins, antigens, and bacteria in the lumen to enter the blood stream creating a “leaky gut.” In individuals with a genetic predisposition, a leaky gut may allow environmental factors to enter the body and trigger the initiation and development of autoimmune disease. Growing evidence shows that the gut microbiota is important in supporting the epithelial barrier and therefore plays a key role in the regulation of environmental factors that enter the body. Several recent reports have shown that probiotics can reverse the leaky gut by enhancing the production of tight junction proteins; however, additional and longer term studies are still required. Conversely, pathogenic bacteria that can facilitate a leaky gut and induce autoimmune symptoms can be ameliorated with the use of antibiotic treatment. Therefore, it is hypothesized that modulating the gut microbiota can serve as a potential method for regulating intestinal permeability and may help to alter the course of autoimmune diseases in susceptible individuals.

  15. Gut Microbiota-brain Axis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Xing Wang; Yu-Ping Wang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To systematically review the updated information about the gut microbiota-brain axis.Data Sources:All articles about gut microbiota-brain axis published up to July 18,2016,were identified through a literature search on PubMed,ScienceDirect,and Web of Science,with the keywords of"gut microbiota","gut-brain axis",and "neuroscience".Study Selection:All relevant articles on gut microbiota and gut-brain axis were included and carefully reviewed,with no limitation of study design.Results:It is well-recognized that gut microbiota affects the brain's physiological,behavioral,and cognitive functions although its precise mechanism has not yet been fully understood.Gut microbiota-brain axis may include gut microbiota and their metabolic products,enteric nervous system,sympathetic and parasympathetic branches within the autonomic nervous system,neural-immune system,neuroendocrine system,and central nervous system.Moreover,there may be five communication routes between gut microbiota and brain,including the gut-brain's neural network,neuroendocrine-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis,gut immune system,some neurotransmitters and neural regulators synthesized by gut bacteria,and barrier paths including intestinal mucosal barrier and blood-brain barrier.The microbiome is used to define the composition and functional characteristics of gut microbiota,and metagenomics is an appropriate technique to characterize gut microbiota.Conclusions:Gut microbiota-brain axis refers to a bidirectional information network between the gut microbiota and the brain,which may provide a new way to protect the brain in the near future.

  16. Effects of zinc on male sex hormones and semen quality in rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    collected and assayed for Luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), Prolactin (PL), testosterone (T), progesterone .... a role in the production, storage and secretion of .... This study was done to assess the effects of oral zinc.

  17. Aldosterone and parathyroid hormone interactions as mediators of metabolic and cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomaschitz, A.; Ritz, E.; Pieske, B.; Rus-Machan, J.; Kienreich, K.; Verheyen, N.; Gaksch, M.; Grubler, M.; Fahrleitner-Pammer, A.; Mrak, P.; Toplak, H.; Kraigher-Krainer, E.; Marz, W.; Pilz, S.

    2014-01-01

    Inappropriate aldosterone and parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion is strongly linked with development and progression of cardiovascular (CV) disease. Accumulating evidence suggests a bidirectional interplay between parathyroid hormone and aldosterone. This interaction may lead to a disproportionally

  18. Healthy human gut phageome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manrique, Pilar; Bolduc, Benjamin; Walk, Seth T; van der Oost, John; de Vos, Willem M; Young, Mark J

    2016-09-13

    The role of bacteriophages in influencing the structure and function of the healthy human gut microbiome is unknown. With few exceptions, previous studies have found a high level of heterogeneity in bacteriophages from healthy individuals. To better estimate and identify the shared phageome of humans, we analyzed a deep DNA sequence dataset of active bacteriophages and available metagenomic datasets of the gut bacteriophage community from healthy individuals. We found 23 shared bacteriophages in more than one-half of 64 healthy individuals from around the world. These shared bacteriophages were found in a significantly smaller percentage of individuals with gastrointestinal/irritable bowel disease. A network analysis identified 44 bacteriophage groups of which 9 (20%) were shared in more than one-half of all 64 individuals. These results provide strong evidence of a healthy gut phageome (HGP) in humans. The bacteriophage community in the human gut is a mixture of three classes: a set of core bacteriophages shared among more than one-half of all people, a common set of bacteriophages found in 20-50% of individuals, and a set of bacteriophages that are either rarely shared or unique to a person. We propose that the core and common bacteriophage communities are globally distributed and comprise the HGP, which plays an important role in maintaining gut microbiome structure/function and thereby contributes significantly to human health.

  19. Network identification of hormonal regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Vis

    Full Text Available Relations among hormone serum concentrations are complex and depend on various factors, including gender, age, body mass index, diurnal rhythms and secretion stochastics. Therefore, endocrine deviations from healthy homeostasis are not easily detected or understood. A generic method is presented for detecting regulatory relations between hormones. This is demonstrated with a cohort of obese women, who underwent blood sampling at 10 minute intervals for 24-hours. The cohort was treated with bromocriptine in an attempt to clarify how hormone relations change by treatment. The detected regulatory relations are summarized in a network graph and treatment-induced changes in the relations are determined. The proposed method identifies many relations, including well-known ones. Ultimately, the method provides ways to improve the description and understanding of normal hormonal relations and deviations caused by disease or treatment.

  20. Hormone action. Part I. Peptide hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birnbaumer, L.; O'Malley, B.W.

    1985-01-01

    The major sections of this book on the hormonal action of peptide hormones cover receptor assays, identification of receptor proteins, methods for identification of internalized hormones and hormone receptors, preparation of hormonally responsive cells and cell hybrids, purification of membrane receptors and related techniques, assays of hormonal effects and related functions, and antibodies in hormone action

  1. GUTs and supersymmetric GUTs in the very early universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.

    1983-01-01

    This talk is intended as background material for many of the other talks treating the possible applications of GUTs to the very early universe. It starts with a review of the present theoretical and phenomenological status of GUTs and then goes on to raise some new issues for their prospective cosmological applications which arise in supersymmetric (susy) GUTs. (author)

  2. Control of lupus nephritis by changes of gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Qinghui; Zhang, Husen; Liao, Xiaofeng; Lin, Kaisen; Liu, Hualan; Edwards, Michael R; Ahmed, S Ansar; Yuan, Ruoxi; Li, Liwu; Cecere, Thomas E; Branson, David B; Kirby, Jay L; Goswami, Poorna; Leeth, Caroline M; Read, Kaitlin A; Oestreich, Kenneth J; Vieson, Miranda D; Reilly, Christopher M; Luo, Xin M

    2017-07-11

    Systemic lupus erythematosus, characterized by persistent inflammation, is a complex autoimmune disorder with no known cure. Immunosuppressants used in treatment put patients at a higher risk of infections. New knowledge of disease modulators, such as symbiotic bacteria, can enable fine-tuning of parts of the immune system, rather than suppressing it altogether. Dysbiosis of gut microbiota promotes autoimmune disorders that damage extraintestinal organs. Here we report a role of gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of renal dysfunction in lupus. Using a classical model of lupus nephritis, MRL/lpr, we found a marked depletion of Lactobacillales in the gut microbiota. Increasing Lactobacillales in the gut improved renal function of these mice and prolonged their survival. We used a mixture of 5 Lactobacillus strains (Lactobacillus oris, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus johnsonii, and Lactobacillus gasseri), but L. reuteri and an uncultured Lactobacillus sp. accounted for most of the observed effects. Further studies revealed that MRL/lpr mice possessed a "leaky" gut, which was reversed by increased Lactobacillus colonization. Lactobacillus treatment contributed to an anti-inflammatory environment by decreasing IL-6 and increasing IL-10 production in the gut. In the circulation, Lactobacillus treatment increased IL-10 and decreased IgG2a that is considered to be a major immune deposit in the kidney of MRL/lpr mice. Inside the kidney, Lactobacillus treatment also skewed the Treg-Th17 balance towards a Treg phenotype. These beneficial effects were present in female and castrated male mice, but not in intact males, suggesting that the gut microbiota controls lupus nephritis in a sex hormone-dependent manner. This work demonstrates essential mechanisms on how changes of the gut microbiota regulate lupus-associated immune responses in mice. Future studies are warranted to determine if these results can be replicated in human subjects.

  3. Diet, gut microbiota and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Cicely; Thiennimitr, Parameth; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C

    2017-02-01

    The consumption of a diet high in fat and sugar can lead to the development of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), cardiovascular disease and cognitive decline. In the human gut, the trillions of harmless microorganisms harboured in the host's gastrointestinal tract are called the 'gut microbiota'. Consumption of a diet high in fat and sugar changes the healthy microbiota composition which leads to an imbalanced microbial population in the gut, a phenomenon known as "gut dysbiosis". It has been shown that certain types of gut microbiota are linked to the pathogenesis of obesity. In addition, long-term consumption of a high fat diet is associated with cognitive decline. It has recently been proposed that the gut microbiota is part of a mechanistic link between the consumption of a high fat diet and the impaired cognition of an individual, termed "microbiota-gut-brain axis". In this complex relationship between the gut, the brain and the gut microbiota, there are several types of gut microbiota and host mechanisms involved. Most of these mechanisms are still poorly understood. Therefore, this review comprehensively summarizes the current evidence from mainly in vivo (rodent and human) studies of the relationship between diet, gut microbiota and cognition. The possible mechanisms that the diet and the gut microbiota have on cognition are also presented and discussed.

  4. Cell Secretion: Current Structural and Biochemical Insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Trikha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential physiological functions in eukaryotic cells, such as release of hormones and digestive enzymes, neurotransmission, and intercellular signaling, are all achieved by cell secretion. In regulated (calcium-dependent secretion, membrane-bound secretory vesicles dock and transiently fuse with specialized, permanent, plasma membrane structures, called porosomes or fusion pores. Porosomes are supramolecular, cup-shaped lipoprotein structures at the cell plasma membrane that mediate and control the release of vesicle cargo to the outside of the cell. The sizes of porosomes range from 150nm in diameter in acinar cells of the exocrine pancreas to 12nm in neurons. In recent years, significant progress has been made in our understanding of the porosome and the cellular activities required for cell secretion, such as membrane fusion and swelling of secretory vesicles. The discovery of the porosome complex and the molecular mechanism of cell secretion are summarized in this article.

  5. Handling stress may confound murine gut microbiota studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cary R. Allen-Blevins

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Accumulating evidence indicates interactions between human milk composition, particularly sugars (human milk oligosaccharides or HMO, the gut microbiota of human infants, and behavioral effects. Some HMO secreted in human milk are unable to be endogenously digested by the human infant but are able to be metabolized by certain species of gut microbiota, including Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis (B. infantis, a species sensitive to host stress (Bailey & Coe, 2004. Exposure to gut bacteria like B. infantisduring critical neurodevelopment windows in early life appears to have behavioral consequences; however, environmental, physical, and social stress during this period can also have behavioral and microbial consequences. While rodent models are a useful method for determining causal relationships between HMO, gut microbiota, and behavior, murine studies of gut microbiota usually employ oral gavage, a technique stressful to the mouse. Our aim was to develop a less-invasive technique for HMO administration to remove the potential confound of gavage stress. Under the hypothesis that stress affects gut microbiota, particularly B. infantis, we predicted the pups receiving a prebiotic solution in a less-invasive manner would have the highest amount of Bifidobacteria in their gut. Methods This study was designed to test two methods, active and passive, of solution administration to mice and the effects on their gut microbiome. Neonatal C57BL/6J mice housed in a specific-pathogen free facility received increasing doses of fructooligosaccharide (FOS solution or deionized, distilled water. Gastrointestinal (GI tracts were collected from five dams, six sires, and 41 pups over four time points. Seven fecal pellets from unhandled pups and two pellets from unhandled dams were also collected. Qualitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR was used to quantify and compare the amount of Bifidobacterium, Bacteroides, Bacteroidetes, and

  6. Gut perturbation and probiotics in neonatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Biasucci

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that foetal colonisation begins prior to birth. There are other major determinants for neonatal gut colonisation other than that of a possible prenatal transfer of maternal bacteria to the foetus, including the delivery and feeding mode, as well as perinatal antibiotic exposure. Generally, vaginally born infants are first colonised by bacteria from the maternal vagina, whereas the gut microbiota of infants born by caesarean section (CS more often resembles that of maternal skin and oral microbiota. Indeed, CS delivered babies seem to have a higher incidence of obesity, type 1 diabetes and asthma. The mode of feeding also plays an important role in influencing early intestinal microbiota. A more eubiotic microbiota composition is conferred to breastfed infants than to their formula-fed counterparts. Nowadays, we have evidence of antibiotic induced intestinal dysbiosis, which is, in turn, associated to an increased risk of developing overweight/obesity, as well as asthma, wheezing and/or inflammatory bowel disease, later in life. Overall, the early gut dysbiosis may have long-term negative effects on an infant’s healthy immunological, hormonal and metabolic development. There has been extensive evaluation of how probiotic supplementation early in life may re-establish gut eubiosis and reduce the negative long-term effects of early dysbiosis. The most commonly used and studied probiotic strains and species include Lactobacilli, Bifidobacteria and S. boulardii. Accumulated evidence in neonatology suggests that some probiotic strains may be effective in preventing antibiotic associated diarrhea, necrotizing enterocolitis in premature infants and/or eczema. L. reuteri may also be effective in treating infantile colic.

  7. The endogenous preproglucagon system is not essential for gut growth homeostasis in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pernille Wismann

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: The present study indicates that the endogenous preproglucagon system, exemplified by the entire GCG gene and the receptors for GLP-1 and GLP-2, does not play a major role in normal gut development in the mouse. Furthermore, elevation in local intestinal and circulating levels of GLP-1 and GLP-2 achieved after VSG has limited impact on intestinal morphometry. Hence, although exogenous treatment with GLP-1 and GLP-2 analogs enhances gut growth, the contributions of endogenously-secreted GLP-1 and GLP-2 to gut growth may be more modest and highly context-dependent.

  8. Philosophy with Guts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Robert R.

    2014-01-01

    Western philosophy, from Plato on, has had the tendency to separate feeling and thought, affect and cognition. This article argues that a strong philosophy (metaphorically, with "guts") utilizes both in its work. In fact, a "complete act of thought" also will include action. Feeling motivates thought, which formulates ideas,…

  9. GUT FERMENTATION SYNDROME

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    individuals who became intoxicated after consuming carbohydrates, which became fermented in the gastrointestinal tract. These claims of intoxication without drinking alcohol, and the findings on endogenous alcohol fermentation are now called Gut. Fermentation Syndrome. This review will concentrate on understanding ...

  10. Healthy human gut phageome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manrique, Pilar; Bolduc, Benjamin; Walk, Seth T.; Oost, van der John; Vos, de Willem M.; Young, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    The role of bacteriophages in influencing the structure and function of the healthy human gut microbiome is unknown. With few exceptions, previous studies have found a high level of heterogeneity in bacteriophages from healthy individuals. To better estimate and identify the shared phageome of

  11. Gut microbiota and malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Million, Matthieu; Diallo, Aldiouma; Raoult, Didier

    2017-05-01

    Malnutrition is the leading cause of death worldwide in children under the age of five, and is the focus of the first World Health Organization (WHO) Millennium Development Goal. Breastfeeding, food and water security are major protective factors against malnutrition and critical factors in the maturation of healthy gut microbiota, characterized by a transient bifidobacterial bloom before a global rise in anaerobes. Early depletion in gut Bifidobacterium longum, a typical maternal probiotic, known to inhibit pathogens, represents the first step in gut microbiota alteration associated with severe acute malnutrition (SAM). Later, the absence of the Healthy Mature Anaerobic Gut Microbiota (HMAGM) leads to deficient energy harvest, vitamin biosynthesis and immune protection, and is associated with diarrhea, malabsorption and systemic invasion by microbial pathogens. A therapeutic diet and infection treatment may be unable to restore bifidobacteria and HMAGM. Besides refeeding and antibiotics, future trials including non-toxic missing microbes and nutrients necessary to restore bifidobacteria and HMAGM, including prebiotics and antioxidants, are warranted in children with severe or refractory disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Human Gut Microbiota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, Hermie J. M.; de Goffau, Marcus. C.; Schwiertz, A

    2016-01-01

    The microbiota in our gut performs many different essential functions that help us to stay healthy. These functions include vitamin production, regulation of lipid metabolism and short chain fatty acid production as fuel for epithelial cells and regulation of gene expression. There is a very

  13. Genomics: A gut prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, de W.M.; Nieuwdorp, M.

    2013-01-01

    Microbial cells make up the majority of cells in the human body, and most of these reside in the intestinal tract. Researchers have long recognized that some intestinal microorganisms are associated with health, but the beneficial impact of most of the gut's microbes on human metabolism has been

  14. A natural variant of obestatin, Q90L, inhibits ghrelin's action on food intake and GH secretion and targets NPY and GHRH neurons in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rim Hassouna

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ghrelin and obestatin are two gut-derived peptides originating from the same ghrelin/obestatin prepropeptide gene (GHRL. While ghrelin stimulates growth hormone (GH secretion and food intake and inhibits γ-aminobutyric-acid synaptic transmission onto GHRH (Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone neurons, obestatin blocks these effects. In Humans, GHRL gene polymorphisms have been associated with pathologies linked to an unbalanced energy homeostasis. We hypothesized that one polymorphism located in the obestatin sequence (Q to L substitution in position 90 of the ghrelin/obestatin prepropeptide, rs4684677 may impact on the function of obestatin. In the present study, we tested the activity of native and Q90L obestatin to modulate ghrelin-induced food intake, GH secretion, cFos activity in GHRH and Neuropeptide Y (NPY neurons and γ-aminobutyric-acid activity onto GHRH neurons. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Food intake, GH secretion and electrophysiological recordings were assessed in C57BL/6 mice. cFos activity was measured in NPY-Renilla-GFP and GHRH-eGFP mice. Mice received saline, ghrelin or ghrelin combined to native or Q90L obestatin (30 nmol each in the early light phase. Ghrelin stimulation of food intake and GH secretion varied considerably among individual mice with 59-77% eliciting a robust response. In these high-responders, ghrelin-induced food intake and GH secretion were reduced equally by native and Q90L obestatin. In contrast to in vivo observations, Q90L was slightly more efficient than native obestatin in inhibiting ghrelin-induced cFos activation within the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus and the nucleus tractus solitarius of the brainstem. After ghrelin injection, 26% of NPY neurons in the arcuate nucleus expressed cFos protein and this number was significantly reduced by co-administration of Q90L obestatin. Q90L was also more potent that native obestatin in reducing ghrelin-induced inhibition of

  15. A natural variant of obestatin, Q90L, inhibits ghrelin's action on food intake and GH secretion and targets NPY and GHRH neurons in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassouna, Rim; Zizzari, Philippe; Viltart, Odile; Yang, Seung-Kwon; Gardette, Robert; Videau, Catherine; Badoer, Emilio; Epelbaum, Jacques; Tolle, Virginie

    2012-01-01

    Ghrelin and obestatin are two gut-derived peptides originating from the same ghrelin/obestatin prepropeptide gene (GHRL). While ghrelin stimulates growth hormone (GH) secretion and food intake and inhibits γ-aminobutyric-acid synaptic transmission onto GHRH (Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone) neurons, obestatin blocks these effects. In Humans, GHRL gene polymorphisms have been associated with pathologies linked to an unbalanced energy homeostasis. We hypothesized that one polymorphism located in the obestatin sequence (Q to L substitution in position 90 of the ghrelin/obestatin prepropeptide, rs4684677) may impact on the function of obestatin. In the present study, we tested the activity of native and Q90L obestatin to modulate ghrelin-induced food intake, GH secretion, cFos activity in GHRH and Neuropeptide Y (NPY) neurons and γ-aminobutyric-acid activity onto GHRH neurons. Food intake, GH secretion and electrophysiological recordings were assessed in C57BL/6 mice. cFos activity was measured in NPY-Renilla-GFP and GHRH-eGFP mice. Mice received saline, ghrelin or ghrelin combined to native or Q90L obestatin (30 nmol each) in the early light phase. Ghrelin stimulation of food intake and GH secretion varied considerably among individual mice with 59-77% eliciting a robust response. In these high-responders, ghrelin-induced food intake and GH secretion were reduced equally by native and Q90L obestatin. In contrast to in vivo observations, Q90L was slightly more efficient than native obestatin in inhibiting ghrelin-induced cFos activation within the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus and the nucleus tractus solitarius of the brainstem. After ghrelin injection, 26% of NPY neurons in the arcuate nucleus expressed cFos protein and this number was significantly reduced by co-administration of Q90L obestatin. Q90L was also more potent that native obestatin in reducing ghrelin-induced inhibition of γ-aminobutyric-acid synaptic transmission onto GHRH neurons. These data support

  16. A Natural Variant of Obestatin, Q90L, Inhibits Ghrelin's Action on Food Intake and GH Secretion and Targets NPY and GHRH Neurons in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassouna, Rim; Zizzari, Philippe; Viltart, Odile; Yang, Seung-Kwon; Gardette, Robert; Videau, Catherine; Badoer, Emilio; Epelbaum, Jacques; Tolle, Virginie

    2012-01-01

    Background Ghrelin and obestatin are two gut-derived peptides originating from the same ghrelin/obestatin prepropeptide gene (GHRL). While ghrelin stimulates growth hormone (GH) secretion and food intake and inhibits γ-aminobutyric-acid synaptic transmission onto GHRH (Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone) neurons, obestatin blocks these effects. In Humans, GHRL gene polymorphisms have been associated with pathologies linked to an unbalanced energy homeostasis. We hypothesized that one polymorphism located in the obestatin sequence (Q to L substitution in position 90 of the ghrelin/obestatin prepropeptide, rs4684677) may impact on the function of obestatin. In the present study, we tested the activity of native and Q90L obestatin to modulate ghrelin-induced food intake, GH secretion, cFos activity in GHRH and Neuropeptide Y (NPY) neurons and γ-aminobutyric-acid activity onto GHRH neurons. Methodology/Principal findings Food intake, GH secretion and electrophysiological recordings were assessed in C57BL/6 mice. cFos activity was measured in NPY-Renilla-GFP and GHRH-eGFP mice. Mice received saline, ghrelin or ghrelin combined to native or Q90L obestatin (30 nmol each) in the early light phase. Ghrelin stimulation of food intake and GH secretion varied considerably among individual mice with 59–77% eliciting a robust response. In these high-responders, ghrelin-induced food intake and GH secretion were reduced equally by native and Q90L obestatin. In contrast to in vivo observations, Q90L was slightly more efficient than native obestatin in inhibiting ghrelin-induced cFos activation within the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus and the nucleus tractus solitarius of the brainstem. After ghrelin injection, 26% of NPY neurons in the arcuate nucleus expressed cFos protein and this number was significantly reduced by co-administration of Q90L obestatin. Q90L was also more potent that native obestatin in reducing ghrelin-induced inhibition of γ-aminobutyric-acid synaptic

  17. Brain-Gut-Microbe Communication in Health and Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Sue eGrenham; Gerard eClarke; Gerard eClarke; John F Cryan; John F Cryan; Timothy G Dinan; Timothy G Dinan

    2011-01-01

    Bidirectional signalling between the gastrointestinal tract and the brain is regulated at neural, hormonal and immunological levels. This construct is known as the brain-gut axis and is vital for maintaining homeostasis. Bacterial colonisation of the intestine plays a major role in the post-natal development and maturation of the immune and endocrine systems. These processes are key factors underpinning central nervous system (CNS) signalling. Recent research advances have seen a tremendous i...

  18. Thirty days of resveratrol supplementation does not affect postprandial incretin hormone responses, but suppresses postprandial glucagon in obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knop, F K; Konings, E; Timmers, S

    2013-01-01

    AIMS: Resveratrol, a natural polyphenolic compound produced by various plants (e.g. red grapes) and found in red wine, has glucose-lowering effects in humans and rodent models of obesity and/or diabetes. The mechanisms behind these effects have been suggested to include resveratrol......-induced secretion of the gut incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1. We investigated postprandial incretin hormone and glucagon responses in obese human subjects before and after 30 days of resveratrol supplementation. METHODS: Postprandial plasma responses of the incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide-1...... and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucagon were evaluated in 10 obese men [subjects characteristics (mean ± standard error of the mean): age 52 ± 2 years; BMI 32 ± 1 kg/m(2) , fasting plasma glucose 5.5 ± 0.1 mmol/l] who had been given a dietary supplement of resveratrol (Resvida(®) 150 mg...

  19. The mysterious case of the C. elegans gut granule: death fluorescence, anthranilic acid and the kynurenine pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eGems

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite decades of research on the nematode C. elegans, it still contains many hidden secrets. One such is the function of the prominent organelles known as gut granules, which are numerous in the intestinal cells of nematodes throughout the suborder Rhabditina. A striking feature of gut granules is the blue fluorescence that they emit under ultraviolet light. Clues to gut granule function include their acidic interior and capacity for endocytosis, both lysosome-like features (though gut granules are much bigger than normal lysosomes. This and the fluorescent material within identify gut granules as lysosome-like organelles (LROs, akin to pigment-containing melanosomes in mammals and eye pigment granules in Drosophila. Thus, the identity of the blue fluorescent substance could provide a key to understanding gut granule function.

  20. Hormone Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hormones quantified from marine mammal and sea turtle tissue provide information about the status of each animal sampled, including its sex, reproductive status and...

  1. Hormone Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it also can be a sign of endometrial cancer. All bleeding after menopause should be evaluated. Other side effects reported by women who take hormone therapy include fluid retention and breast soreness. This soreness usually lasts for a short ...

  2. The effect of 30 months of low-dose replacement therapy with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) on insulin and C-peptide kinetics, insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity, glucose effectiveness, and body composition in GH-deficient adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenfalck, A M; Maghsoudi, S; Fisker, S

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the long-term (30 months) metabolic effects of recombinant human GH (rhGH) given in a mean dose of 6.7 microg/kg x day (= 1.6 IU/day), in 11 patients with adult GH deficiency. Glucose metabolism was evaluated by an oral glucose tolerance test and an iv...... (frequently sampled iv glucose tolerance test) glucose tolerance test, and body composition was estimated by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Treatment with rhGH induced persistent favorable changes in body composition, with a 10% increase in lean body mass (P ... in glucose tolerance, beta-cell response was still inappropriate. Our conclusion is that long-term rhGH-replacement therapy in GH deficiency adults induced a significant deterioration in glucose tolerance, profound changes in kinetics of C-peptide, and insulin and prehepatic insulin secretion, despite...

  3. Plants altering hormonal milieu: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Tiwari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present review article is to investigate the herbs which can alter the levels of hormones like Follicle stimulating hormone, Prolactin, Growth hormone, Insulin, Thyroxine, Estrogen, Progesterone, Testosterone, and Relaxin etc. Hormones are chemical signal agents produced by different endocrine glands for regulating our biological functions. The glands like pituitary, thyroid, adrenal, ovaries in women and testes in men all secrete a number of hormones with different actions. However, when these hormones are perfectly balanced then people become healthy and fit. But several factors like pathophysiological as well as biochemical changes, disease conditions, changes in the atmosphere, changes in the body, diet changes etc. may result in imbalance of various hormones that produce undesirable symptoms and disorders. As medicinal plants have their importance since ancient time, people have been using it in various ways as a source of medicine for regulation of hormonal imbalance. Moreover, it is observed that certain herbs have a balancing effect on hormones and have great impact on well-being of the people. So, considering these facts we expect that the article provides an overview on medicinal plants with potential of altering hormone level.

  4. Plants altering hormonal milieu: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Tiwari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present review article is to investigate the herbs which can alter the levels of hormones like Follicle stimulating hormone, Prolactin, Growth hormone, Insulin, Thyroxine, Estrogen, Progesterone, Testosterone, and Relaxin etc. Hormones are chemical signal agents produced by different endocrine glands for regulating our biological functions. The glands like pituitary, thyroid, adrenal, ovaries in women and testes in men all secrete a number of hormones with different actions. However, when these hormones are perfectly balanced then people become healthy and fit. But several factors like pathophysiological as well as biochemical changes, disease conditions, changes in the atmosphere, changes in the body, diet changes etc. may result in imbalance of various hormones that produce undesirable symptoms and disorders. As medicinal plants have their importance since ancient time, people have been using it in various ways as a source of medicine for regulation of hormonal imbalance. Moreover, it is observed that certain herbs have a balancing effect on hormones and have great impact on well-being of the people. So, considering these facts we expect that the article provides an overview on medicinal plants with potential of altering hormone level.

  5. Effect of Valsartan on the hormones of Pituitary-gonadal axis Performance in mature female Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Hosseini

    2013-02-01

    Conclusion: Valsartan , as a receptor antagonist of Ang II inhibits the secretion of gonadotropin hormones and accelerates their effect on blocking the follicular cells of the female sex ,causing the reduction of female hormones.

  6. Kisspeptin stimulates growth hormone release by utilizing Neuropeptide Y pathways and is dependent on the presence of ghrelin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although kisspeptin is the primary stimulator of gonadotropin releasing hormone secretion and therefore the hypothalamic-pituitary gonadal axis, new findings suggest kisspeptin can also regulate additional neuroendocrine processes including release of growth hormone (GH). Central delivery of kisspep...

  7. Immunoglobins in mammary secretions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurley, W L; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2013-01-01

    Immunoglobulins secreted in colostrum and milk by the lactating mammal are major factors providing immune protection to the newborn. Immunoglobulins in mammary secretions represent the cumulative immune response of the lactating animal to exposure to antigenic stimulation that occurs through...... the immunoglobulins found in mammary secretions in the context of their diversity of structure, origin, mechanisms of transfer, and function....

  8. LUTEINIZING HORMONE SECRETION IN NELLORE HEIFER’S AFTER WEANING TO FIRST OVULATION CONCENTRAÇÃO DE LH EM NOVILHAS DA RAÇA NELORE DA DESMAMA À PRIMEIRA OVULAÇÃO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Cardoso

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The aim was to evaluate the LH secretion in B. indicus heifers, on the presence or absence of gonadal steroid, generating information about the mechanisms evolved on sexual maturation in Nellore heifers. LH and progesterone concentration were quantified by RIA. First ovulation was determined by plasma progesterone concentration (>1 ng/ml. Greater mean LH concentrations was observed in ovariectomized (OVX; P?0.05 compared to intact heifers (INT. Mean LH concentration increased (P?0.05 during the sexual maturation, in both intact and ovariectomized heifers. The number of peaks was higher (P?0.05 in ovariectomized heifer. The results suggest decrease in estradiol hypothalamus negative feedback during Nellore heifer’s sexual maturation. It was possible to conclude that in pre-pubertal Nellore heifers the increase on positive gonadal steroids feedback was necessary to increase LH secretion before first ovulation.

    KEY WORDS: Cattle, endocrinology, hypothalamus, puberty, steroids.
    O presente trabalho teve por objetivo investigar a variação na secreção de LH na presença ou não de esteroides gonadais e, dessa forma, gerar informações sobre os mecanismos envolvidos na maturação sexual de novilhas da raça Nelore. Quantificou-se a concentração de LH e progesterona por radioimunoensaio. A primeira ovulação foi determinada pela concentração plasmática de progesterona (>1 ng/ml. As novilhas ovariectomizadas (OVX apresentaram maior concentração basal de LH (P?0,05 que as novilhas inteiras (INT. Houve uma concentração de LH durante a maturação sexual, tanto nas novilhas INT quanto nas OVX. O número de picos de secreção de LH foi maior (P?0,05 nas novilhas OVX. Os resultados indicam uma diminuição da sensibilidade do hipotálamo aos esteroides gonadais durante o processo de maturação sexual nas novilhas da raça Nelore. Conclui-se que, em novilhas pré-púberes da raça Nelore, o

  9. Gut Microbiota and Metabolic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyu Yeon Hur

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Gut microbiota plays critical physiological roles in the energy extraction and in the control of local or systemic immunity. Gut microbiota and its disturbance also appear to be involved in the pathogenesis of diverse diseases including metabolic disorders, gastrointestinal diseases, cancer, etc. In the metabolic point of view, gut microbiota can modulate lipid accumulation, lipopolysaccharide content and the production of short-chain fatty acids that affect food intake, inflammatory tone, or insulin signaling. Several strategies have been developed to change gut microbiota such as prebiotics, probiotics, certain antidiabetic drugs or fecal microbiota transplantation, which have diverse effects on body metabolism and on the development of metabolic disorders.

  10. Regulation of ghrelin secretion and action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camiña, Jesus P; Carreira, Marcos C; Micic, Dragan; Pombo, Manuel; Kelestimur, Fahrettin; Dieguez, Carlos; Casanueva, Felipe F

    2003-10-01

    The pulsatile release of growth hormone (GH) from anterior pituitary gland is regulated by the interplay of at least two hypothalamic hormones, GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) and somatostatin, via their engagement with specific cell surface receptors on the anterior pituitary somatotroph. Furthermore, release of GH in vivo may also be controlled by a third type of receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor, a G-protein-coupled receptor, called GHS receptor type 1a (GHSR1a), which was identified in the pituitary and the hypothalamus in humans using a nonpeptidyl growth hormone secretagogue (MK-0677). Ghrelin, the endogenous ligand for the GHS-R1a, is a 28-amino-acid peptide isolated from human stomach that is modified by a straight chain octanoyl group covalently linked to Ser3, which is essential for its endocrine activity. This hormone, predominantly expressed and secreted by the stomach, has a dual action on GH secretion and food intake, showing interdependency between these actions. The finding that fasting and food intake, respectively, increase and decrease the secretion of ghrelin suggests that this hormone may be the bridge connecting somatic growth and body composition with energy metabolism, and appears to play a role in the alteration of energy homeostasis and body weight in pathophysiological states such as hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. Despite this, little is known about the intracellular signaling through which ghrelin exerts its regulatory actions. Activation of intracellular calcium mobilization is one of the earliest known cellular signals elicited by ghrelin. In HEK- 293 cells expressing the GHS-R1a, ghrelin induces a biphasic cytosolic calcium elevation characterized by a spike phase of the response, which reflects Ins(1,4,5)P3- dependent calcium mobilization of intracellular stores, and a sustained phase of the response, which is due to calcium influx across the plasma membrane triggered by aperture of capacitative calcium channels

  11. Effect of a corticotropin releasing hormone receptor antagonist on colonic sensory and motor function in patients with irritable bowel syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Sagami, Y; Shimada, Y; Tayama, J; Nomura, T; Satake, M; Endo, Y; Shoji, T; Karahashi, K; Hongo, M; Fukudo, S

    2004-01-01

    Background and aims: Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) is a major mediator of the stress response in the brain-gut axis. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is presumed to be a disorder of the brain-gut link associated with an exaggerated response to stress. We hypothesised that peripheral administration of α-helical CRH (αhCRH), a non-selective CRH receptor antagonist, would improve gastrointestinal motility, visceral perception, and negative mood in response to gut stimulation in IBS patient...

  12. Comparative gut physiology symposium: The microbe-gut-brain axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Comparative Gut Physiology Symposium titled “The Microbe-Gut-Brain Axis” was held at the Joint Annual Meeting of the American Society of Animal Science and the American Dairy Science Association on Thursday, July 21, 2016, in Salt Lake City Utah. The goal of the symposium was to present basic r...

  13. Roles of the Gut in Glucose Homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens Juul; Gribble, Fiona; Horowitz, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract plays a major role in the regulation of postprandial glucose profiles. Gastric emptying is a highly regulated process, which normally ensures a limited and fairly constant delivery of nutrients and glucose to the proximal gut. The subsequent digestion and absorption...... of nutrients are associated with the release of a set of hormones that feeds back to regulate subsequent gastric emptying and regulates the release of insulin, resulting in downregulation of hepatic glucose production and deposition of glucose in insulin-sensitive tissues. These remarkable mechanisms normally...... keep postprandial glucose excursions low, regardless of the load of glucose ingested. When the regulation of emptying is perturbed (e.g., pyloroplasty, gastric sleeve or gastric bypass operation), postprandial glycemia may reach high levels, sometimes followed by profound hypoglycemia. This article...

  14. Stress-induced release of GUT peptides in young women classified as restrained or unrestrained eaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilterscheid, Esther; Laessle, Reinhold

    2015-12-01

    Basal release of GUT peptides has been found to be altered in restrained eaters. Stress-induced secretion, however, has not yet been described, but could be a biological basis of overeating that exposes restrained eaters to a higher risk of becoming obese. The aim of the present study was to compare restrained and unrestrained eaters with respect to stress-induced release of the GUT peptides ghrelin and PYY. 46 young women were studied. Blood sampling for peptides was done before and after the Trier Social Stress Test. Ghrelin secretion after stress was significantly elevated in the restrained eaters, whereas no significant differences were detected for PYY. Stress-induced release of GUT peptides can be interpreted as a cause as well as a consequence of restrained eating.

  15. GLP-1 nanomedicine alleviates gut inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbazhagan, Arivarasu N; Thaqi, Mentor; Priyamvada, Shubha; Jayawardena, Dulari; Kumar, Anoop; Gujral, Tarunmeet; Chatterjee, Ishita; Mugarza, Edurne; Saksena, Seema; Onyuksel, Hayat; Dudeja, Pradeep K

    2017-02-01

    The gut hormone, glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) exerts anti-inflammatory effects. However, its clinical use is limited by its short half-life. Previously, we have shown that GLP-1 as a nanomedicine (GLP-1 in sterically stabilized phospholipid micelles, GLP-1-SSM) has increased in vivo stability. The current study was aimed at testing the efficacy of this GLP-1 nanomedicine in alleviating colonic inflammation and associated diarrhea in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) induced mouse colitis model. Our results show that GLP-1-SSM treatment markedly alleviated the colitis phenotype by reducing the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β, increasing goblet cells and preserving intestinal epithelial architecture in colitis model. Further, GLP-1-SSM alleviated diarrhea (as assessed by luminal fluid) by increasing protein expression of intestinal chloride transporter DRA (down regulated in adenoma). Our results indicate that GLP-1 nanomedicine may act as a novel therapeutic tool in alleviating gut inflammation and associated diarrhea in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Pituitary and mammary growth hormone in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhatti, Sofie Fatima Mareyam

    2006-01-01

    Several pathological (e.g. obesity and chronic hypercortisolism) and non-pathological (e.g. ageing) states in humans are characterized by a reduction in pituitary growth hormone (GH) secretion. Chronic hypercortisolism in humans is also associated with an impaired GH response to various stimuli.

  17. Role of gastrointestinal hormones in postprandial reduction of bone resorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Dennis B; Alexandersen, Peter; Bjarnason, Nina H

    2003-01-01

    Collagen type I fragments, reflecting bone resorption, and release of gut hormones were investigated after a meal. Investigations led to a dose escalation study with glucagon like peptide-2 (GLP-2) in postmenopausal women. We found a dose-dependent effect of GLP-2 on the reduction of bone...

  18. A possible new syndrome with growth-hormone secreting pituitary adenoma, colonic polyposis, lipomatosis, lentigines and renal carcinoma in association with familial testicular germ cell malignancy: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai Phuong L

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Germ-cell testicular cancer has not been definitively linked to any known hereditary cancer susceptibility disorder. Familial testicular cancer in the presence of other findings in affected and unaffected family members might indicate a previously-unidentified hereditary cancer syndrome. Case presentation The patient was diagnosed with a left testicular seminoma at age 28, and treated with left orchiectomy followed by adjuvant cobalt radiation. His family history is significant for testicular seminoma in his son, bladder cancer in his sister, and lipomatosis in his father. His evaluation as part of an etiologic study of familial testicular cancer revealed multiple colon polyps (adenomatous, hyperplastic, and hamartomatous first found in his 50 s, multiple lipomas, multiple hyperpigmented skin lesions, left kidney cancer diagnosed at age 64, and a growth-hormone producing pituitary adenoma with associated acromegaly diagnosed at age 64. The patient underwent genetic testing for Cowden syndrome (PTEN gene, Carney complex (PRKAR1A gene, and multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 1 (MEN1 gene; no deleterious mutations were identified. Discussion The constellation of benign and malignant neoplasms in the context of this patient's familial testicular cancer raised the possibility that these might be manifestations of a known hereditary susceptibility cancer syndrome; however, genetic testing for the three syndromes that were most likely to explain these findings did not show any mutation. Alternatively, this family's phenotype might represent a novel neoplasm susceptibility disorder. This possibility cannot be evaluated definitively on the basis of a single case report; additional observations and studies are necessary to investigate this hypothesis further.

  19. Flipped GUT inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, John; Gonzalo, Tomás E.; Harz, Julia; Huang, Wei-Chih

    2015-01-01

    We analyse the prospects for constructing hybrid models of inflation that provide a dynamical realisation of the apparent closeness between the supersymmetric GUT scale and the possible scale of cosmological inflation. In the first place, we consider models based on the flipped SU(5)×U(1) gauge group, which has no magnetic monopoles. In one model, the inflaton is identified with a sneutrino field, and in the other model it is a gauge singlet. In both cases we find regions of the model paramet...

  20. Bioidentical Hormones and Menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Endocrinologist Search Featured Resource Menopause Map™ View Bioidentical Hormones January 2012 Download PDFs English Espanol Editors Howard ... take HT for symptom relief. What are bioidentical hormones? Bioidentical hormones are identical to the hormones that ...

  1. Metagenomic Surveys of Gut Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Shubhra Mandal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Gut microbiota of higher vertebrates is host-specific. The number and diversity of the organisms residing within the gut ecosystem are defined by physiological and environmental factors, such as host genotype, habitat, and diet. Recently, culture-independent sequencing techniques have added a new dimension to the study of gut microbiota and the challenge to analyze the large volume of sequencing data is increasingly addressed by the development of novel computational tools and methods. Interestingly, gut microbiota maintains a constant relative abundance at operational taxonomic unit (OTU levels and altered bacterial abundance has been associated with complex diseases such as symptomatic atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes, obesity, and colorectal cancer. Therefore, the study of gut microbial population has emerged as an important field of research in order to ultimately achieve better health. In addition, there is a spontaneous, non-linear, and dynamic interaction among different bacterial species residing in the gut. Thus, predicting the influence of perturbed microbe–microbe interaction network on health can aid in developing novel therapeutics. Here, we summarize the population abundance of gut microbiota and its variation in different clinical states, computational tools available to analyze the pyrosequencing data, and gut microbe–microbe interaction networks.

  2. Clinical hyperthyroidism due to non-neoplastic inappropriate thyrotrophin secretion.

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, A. W.; MacFarlane, I. A.; van Heyningen, C.; Foy, P. M.

    1990-01-01

    We report a case of hyperthyroidism due to inappropriate thyrotrophin (TSH) secretion in a patient with selective pituitary resistance to thyroid hormone action. Symptoms of hyperthyroidism in patients with this disorder are usually mild, implying some peripheral tissue resistance to the metabolic effects of thyroid hormone. Our patient had unusually severe symptoms, including marked weight loss and cardiac arrythmias which required carbimazole and beta-blocker therapy for control. Somatostat...

  3. Calcitonin and parathyroid hormone in blood serum of cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tkacheva, G A; Kirsanov, A G; Burenin, I S [Akademiya Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR, Moscow. Onkologicheskij Nauchnyj Tsentr

    1982-01-01

    A comparative radiommunoassay in the ratio of calcitonin and parathyroid hormone secretion was carried out in healthy controls (young and older than 40 years), patients with benign tumors, inflamatory processes and malignancies of the stomach, kidney, breast, prostate and lung. A significant increase in the ''calcitonin index'' (ratio of molar concentrations of calcitonin and parathyroid hormone) was established in patients with cancer of the breast, prostate and skeletal metastases of lung cancer, irrespective of the presence of primary tumor. This index is irrelevant in cases of gastric and renal carcinoma and cannot be used as indication of skeletal dissemination because of the predominant level of parathyroid hormone secretion.

  4. GUT Scale Fermion Mass Ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinrath, Martin

    2014-01-01

    We present a series of recent works related to group theoretical factors from GUT symmetry breaking which lead to predictions for the ratios of quark and lepton Yukawa couplings at the unification scale. New predictions for the GUT scale ratios y μ /y s , y τ /y b and y t /y b in particular are shown and compared to experimental data. For this comparison it is important to include possibly large supersymmetric threshold corrections. Due to this reason the structure of the fermion masses at the GUT scale depends on TeV scale physics and makes GUT scale physics testable at the LHC. We also discuss how this new predictions might lead to predictions for mixing angles by discussing the example of the recently measured last missing leptonic mixing angle θ 13 making this new class of GUT models also testable in neutrino experiments

  5. First Foods and Gut Microbes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Martin Frederik; Bahl, Martin Iain; Michaelsen, Kim F.

    2017-01-01

    , are generally recognized to be of particular importance for the healthy development of children. While dietary changes are known to affect the adult gut microbiota, there is a gap in our knowledge on how the introduction of new dietary components into the diet of infants/young children affects the gut...... microbiota development. This perspective paper summarizes the currently very few studies addressing the effects of complementary diet on gut microbiota, and highlights the recent finding that transition to family foods greatly impacts the development of gut microbial diversity. Further, we discuss potential......(breast/formula). Consequently, the neonatal period and early infancy has attracted much attention. However, after this first period the gut microbial composition continues to develop until the age of 3 years, and these 1st years have been designated "a window of opportunity" for microbial modulation. The beginning and end...

  6. Expression of receptors for gut peptides in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma and tumour-free pancreas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, C.; Biemond, I.; Offerhaus, G. J.; Verspaget, W.; Lamers, C. B.

    1997-01-01

    Gut hormones that modulate the growth of normal pancreas may also modulate the growth of cancers originating from pancreas. This study visualized and compared the receptors for cholecystokinin (CCK), bombesin (BBS), secretin and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in tumour-free tissue sections of

  7. Important species differences regarding lymph contribution to gut hormone responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Marie; Hjøllund, Karina R; Hartmann, Bolette

    2015-01-01

    pigs of the YDL-strain were catheterized in the portal vein, carotid artery and cisterna chyli (lymph). Neuromedin C (NC) was infused through an ear vein catheter, before and after injection of a selective DPP-4 inhibitor (vildagliptin). Total and intact GLP-1 levels were measured throughout the 150min....../presence of vildagliptin. In contrast, total and intact GLP-1 levels increased significantly in the portal vein and carotid artery. DPP-4 activity was lower in lymph than plasma, and was reduced further by vildagliptin. CONCLUSION: Our observations indicate that the lymphatic system does not transport high levels...

  8. Cholecystokinin-From Local Gut Hormone to Ubiquitous Messenger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F

    2017-01-01

    Cholecystokinin (CCK) was discovered in 1928 in jejunal extracts as a gallbladder contraction factor. It was later shown to be member of a peptide family, which are all ligands for the CCK1 and CCK2 receptors. CCK peptides are known to be synthetized in small intestinal endocrine I-cells and cere...

  9. Mammalian Gut Immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassaing, Benoit; Kumar, Manish; Baker, Mark T.; Singh, Vishal; Vijay-Kumar, Matam

    2016-01-01

    The mammalian intestinal tract is the largest immune organ in the body and comprises cells from non-hemopoietic (epithelia, Paneth cells, goblet cells) and hemopoietic (macrophages, dendritic cells, T-cells) origin, and is also a dwelling for trillions of microbes collectively known as the microbiota. The homeostasis of this large microbial biomass is prerequisite to maintain host health by maximizing beneficial symbiotic relationships and minimizing the risks of living in such close proximity. Both microbiota and host immune system communicate with each other to mutually maintain homeostasis in what could be called a “love–hate relationship.” Further, the host innate and adaptive immune arms of the immune system cooperate and compensate each other to maintain the equilibrium of a highly complex gut ecosystem in a stable and stringent fashion. Any imbalance due to innate or adaptive immune deficiency or aberrant immune response may lead to dysbiosis and low-grade to robust gut inflammation, finally resulting in metabolic diseases. PMID:25163502

  10. Report on achievements in fiscal 1998. Venture business growing type consortium - small business creating infrastructure (Development of simplified analysis system by using bio-markers of internal secretion disturbing substances - environmental hormone acting substances); 1998 nendo naibunpi kakuran busshitsu (kankyo hormone sayo busshitsu) no bio marker ni yoru kanben bunseki system no kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Using the vitellogenin levels in male fishes as a parameter of pollution caused by internal secretion disturbing substances would allow collective measurement of compounding action of pollutants, acquisition of time averaged values, and large reduction in analysis cost. The present research and development works are intended to put such technological seeds into practical use, and promote its proliferation. The following subjects were implemented: (1) fabrication of effective anti-bodies, (2) their application to fresh water fishes, salmon, and trout, (3) their application to sea water fishes, (4) effects on mummichog and medaka, (5) correlation between spawning actions and vitellogenin manifestation in male fish, (6) discussions on chemical analysis methods and the correlativity therewith, and (7) establishment of methods for field investigation and evaluation. In Item (1), an ELISA system using vitellogenin anti-bodies of different fishes was established. A universal anti-body reacting commonly to all of fish vitellogenins was developed. In Items (2), (3) and (4), an evaluation system was established on actions of internal secretion disturbing substances on sea water fish and fresh water fish by using fish vitellogenins. In Item (5), effects on spawning of medaka, and effects on procreation activities (sterility) were evaluated by using vitellogenin. (NEDO)

  11. Signals from the gut microbiota to distant organs in physiology and disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, Bjoern O; Bäckhed, Gert Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    The ecosystem of the human gut consists of trillions of bacteria forming a bioreactor that is fueled by dietary macronutrients to produce bioactive compounds. These microbiota-derived metabolites signal to distant organs in the body, which enables the gut bacteria to connect to the immune...... and hormone system, to the brain (the gut-brain axis) and to host metabolism, as well as other functions of the host. This microbe-host communication is essential to maintain vital functions of the healthy host. Recently, however, the gut microbiota has been associated with a number of diseases, ranging from...... obesity and inflammatory diseases to behavioral and physiological abnormalities associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. In this Review, we will discuss microbiota-host cross-talk and intestinal microbiome signaling to extraintestinal organs. We will review mechanisms of how this communication might...

  12. Influence of Gut Microbiota on Subclinical Inflammation and Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Melo Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is the main condition that is correlated with the appearance of insulin resistance, which is the major link among its comorbidities, such as type 2 diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, and several types of cancer. Obesity affects a large number of individuals worldwide; it degrades human health and quality of life. Here, we review the role of the gut microbiota in the pathophysiology of obesity and type 2 diabetes, which is promoted by a bacterial diversity shift mediated by overnutrition. Whole bacteria, their products, and metabolites undergo increased translocation through the gut epithelium to the circulation due to degraded tight junctions and the consequent increase in intestinal permeability that culminates in inflammation and insulin resistance. Several strategies focusing on modulation of the gut microbiota (antibiotics, probiotics, and prebiotics are being experimentally employed in metabolic derangement in order to reduce intestinal permeability, increase the production of short chain fatty acids and anorectic gut hormones, and promote insulin sensitivity to counteract the inflammatory status and insulin resistance found in obese individuals.

  13. Probabilistic Infinite Secret Sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Csirmaz, László

    2013-01-01

    The study of probabilistic secret sharing schemes using arbitrary probability spaces and possibly infinite number of participants lets us investigate abstract properties of such schemes. It highlights important properties, explains why certain definitions work better than others, connects this topic to other branches of mathematics, and might yield new design paradigms. A probabilistic secret sharing scheme is a joint probability distribution of the shares and the secret together with a colle...

  14. Cell secretion machinery: Studies using the AFM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jena, Bhanu P.

    2006-01-01

    A new field in biology, 'nano-cell biology', has emerged from the successful use of force microscopy in understanding the structure and dynamics of cells and biomolecules, at nm resolution and in real time. Atomic force microscopy, in combination with conventional tools and approaches (electron microscopy, electrophysiology, X-ray diffraction, photon correlation spectroscopy, mass spectroscopy, biochemistry, and molecular biology), has revealed for the first time, the universal molecular machinery and mechanism of secretion in cells. Secretion occurs in all living cells and involves the delivery of intracellular products to the cell exterior. Secretory products are packaged and stored in membranous sacs or vesicles within the cell. When the cell needs to secrete these products, the secretory vesicles containing them, dock and fuse at plasma membrane-associated supramolecular structures called Porosome, to release their contents. Specialized cells for neurotransmission, enzyme secretion, or hormone release utilize a highly regulated secretory process. During secretion, swelling of secretory vesicles results in a build-up of intravesicular pressure, allowing expulsion of vesicular contents. The extent of vesicle swelling dictates the amount of vesicular contents expelled. The discovery of the porosome as the universal secretory machinery, its isolation, its structure and dynamics at nm resolution and in real time, its biochemical composition and functional reconstitution into artificial lipid membrane, have been determined. The molecular mechanism of secretory vesicle swelling, and the fusion of opposing bilayers, i.e., the fusion of secretory vesicle membrane at the base of the porosome membrane, has also been resolved

  15. Authentication Without Secrets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierson, Lyndon G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Robertson, Perry J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This work examines a new approach to authentication, which is the most fundamental security primitive that underpins all cyber security protections. Current Internet authentication techniques require the protection of one or more secret keys along with the integrity protection of the algorithms/computations designed to prove possession of the secret without actually revealing it. Protecting a secret requires physical barriers or encryption with yet another secret key. The reason to strive for "Authentication without Secret Keys" is that protecting secrets (even small ones only kept in a small corner of a component or device) is much harder than protecting the integrity of information that is not secret. Promising methods are examined for authentication of components, data, programs, network transactions, and/or individuals. The successful development of authentication without secret keys will enable far more tractable system security engineering for high exposure, high consequence systems by eliminating the need for brittle protection mechanisms to protect secret keys (such as are now protected in smart cards, etc.). This paper is a re-release of SAND2009-7032 with new figures numerous edits.

  16. Gut microbiota alterations and dietary modulation in childhood malnutrition - The role of short chain fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekmez, Ceyda Tugba; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Brahe, Lena Kirchner

    2018-02-17

    The gut microbiome affects the health status of the host through different mechanisms and is associated with a wide variety of diseases. Both childhood undernutrition and obesity are linked to alterations in composition and functionality of the gut microbiome. One of the possible mechanisms underlying the interplay between microbiota and host metabolism is through appetite-regulating hormones (including leptin, ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide-1). Short chain fatty acids, the end product of bacterial fermentation of non-digestible carbohydrates, might be able to alter energy harvest and metabolism through enteroendocrine cell signaling, adipogenesis and insulin-like growth factor-1 production. Elucidating these mechanisms may lead to development of new modulation practices of the gut microbiota as a potential prevention and treatment strategy for childhood malnutrition. The present overview will briefly outline the gut microbiota development in the early life, gut microbiota alterations in childhood undernutrition and obesity, and whether this relationship is causal. Further we will discuss possible underlying mechanisms in relation to the gut-brain axis and short chain fatty acids, and the potential of probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics for modulating the gut microbiota during childhood as a prevention and treatment strategy against undernutrition and obesity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  17. Gut microbiota and metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festi, Davide; Schiumerini, Ramona; Eusebi, Leonardo Henry; Marasco, Giovanni; Taddia, Martina; Colecchia, Antonio

    2014-11-21

    Gut microbiota exerts a significant role in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome, as confirmed by studies conducted both on humans and animal models. Gut microbial composition and functions are strongly influenced by diet. This complex intestinal "superorganism" seems to affect host metabolic balance modulating energy absorption, gut motility, appetite, glucose and lipid metabolism, as well as hepatic fatty storage. An impairment of the fine balance between gut microbes and host's immune system could culminate in the intestinal translocation of bacterial fragments and the development of "metabolic endotoxemia", leading to systemic inflammation and insulin resistance. Diet induced weight-loss and bariatric surgery promote significant changes of gut microbial composition, that seem to affect the success, or the inefficacy, of treatment strategies. Manipulation of gut microbiota through the administration of prebiotics or probiotics could reduce intestinal low grade inflammation and improve gut barrier integrity, thus, ameliorating metabolic balance and promoting weight loss. However, further evidence is needed to better understand their clinical impact and therapeutic use.

  18. Gut Protozoa: Friends or Foes of the Human Gut Microbiota?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabé, Magali; Lokmer, Ana; Ségurel, Laure

    2017-12-01

    The importance of the gut microbiota for human health has sparked a strong interest in the study of the factors that shape its composition and diversity. Despite the growing evidence suggesting that helminths and protozoa significantly interact with gut bacteria, gut microbiome studies remain mostly focused on prokaryotes and on populations living in industrialized countries that typically have a low parasite burden. We argue that protozoa, like helminths, represent an important factor to take into account when studying the gut microbiome, and that their presence - especially considering their long coevolutionary history with humans - may be beneficial. From this perspective, we examine the relationship between the protozoa and their hosts, as well as their relevance for public health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Flipped GUT inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, John [Theoretical Particle Physics and Cosmology Group, Department of Physics, King’s College London, Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Theory Division, CERN, Route de Meyrin 385, 1217 Meyrin (Switzerland); Gonzalo, Tomás E.; Harz, Julia; Huang, Wei-Chih [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2015-03-23

    We analyse the prospects for constructing hybrid models of inflation that provide a dynamical realisation of the apparent closeness between the supersymmetric GUT scale and the possible scale of cosmological inflation. In the first place, we consider models based on the flipped SU(5)×U(1) gauge group, which has no magnetic monopoles. In one model, the inflaton is identified with a sneutrino field, and in the other model it is a gauge singlet. In both cases we find regions of the model parameter spaces that are compatible with the experimental magnitudes of the scalar perturbations, A{sub s}, and the tilt in the scalar perturbation spectrum, n{sub s}, as well as with an indicative upper limit on the tensor-to-scalar perturbation ratio, r. We also discuss embeddings of these models into SO(10), which is broken at a higher scale so that its monopoles are inflated away.

  20. Flipped GUT inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, John [Theoretical Particle Physics and Cosmology Group, Department of Physics, King' s College London, Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Gonzalo, Tomás E.; Harz, Julia; Huang, Wei-Chih, E-mail: john.ellis@cern.ch, E-mail: tomas.gonzalo.11@ucl.ac.uk, E-mail: j.harz@ucl.ac.uk, E-mail: wei-chih.huang@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2015-03-01

    We analyse the prospects for constructing hybrid models of inflation that provide a dynamical realisation of the apparent closeness between the supersymmetric GUT scale and the possible scale of cosmological inflation. In the first place, we consider models based on the flipped SU(5)×U(1) gauge group, which has no magnetic monopoles. In one model, the inflaton is identified with a sneutrino field, and in the other model it is a gauge singlet. In both cases we find regions of the model parameter spaces that are compatible with the experimental magnitudes of the scalar perturbations, A{sub s}, and the tilt in the scalar perturbation spectrum, n{sub s}, as well as with an indicative upper limit on the tensor-to-scalar perturbation ratio, r. We also discuss embeddings of these models into SO(10), which is broken at a higher scale so that its monopoles are inflated away.

  1. Flipped GUT Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John; Harz, Julia; Huang, Wei-Chih

    2015-01-01

    We analyse the prospects for constructing hybrid models of inflation that provide a dynamical realisation of the apparent closeness between the supersymmetric GUT scale and the possible scale of cosmological inflation. In the first place, we consider models based on the flipped SU(5)$\\times$U(1) gauge group, which has no magnetic monopoles. In one model, the inflaton is identified with a sneutrino field, and in the other model it is a gauge singlet. In both cases we find regions of the model parameter spaces that are compatible with the experimental magnitudes of the scalar perturbations, $A_s$, and the tilt in the scalar perturbation spectrum, $n_s$, as well as with an indicative upper limit on the tensor-to-scalar perturbation ratio, $r$. We also discuss embeddings of these models into SO(10), which is broken at a higher scale so that its monopoles are inflated away.

  2. Dynamic quantum secret sharing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Heng-Yue; Wen, Qiao-Yan; Gao, Fei; Qin, Su-Juan; Guo, Fen-Zhuo

    2012-01-01

    In this Letter we consider quantum secret sharing (QSS) between a sender and a dynamic agent group, called dynamic quantum secret sharing (DQSS). In the DQSS, the change of the agent group is allowable during the procedure of sharing classical and quantum information. Two DQSS schemes are proposed based on a special kind of entangled state, starlike cluster states. Without redistributing all the shares, the changed agent group can reconstruct the sender's secret by their cooperation. Compared with the previous quantum secret sharing scheme, our schemes are more flexible and suitable for practical applications. -- Highlights: ► We consider quantum secret sharing between a sender and a dynamic agent group, called dynamic quantum secret sharing (DQSS). ► In the DQSS, the change of the agent group is allowable during the procedure of sharing classical and quantum information. ► Two DQSS schemes are proposed based on a special kind of entangled state, starlike cluster states. ► Without redistributing all the shares, the changed agent group can reconstruct the sender's secret by their cooperation. ► Compared with the previous quantum secret sharing scheme, our schemes are more flexible and suitable for practical applications.

  3. Chronic food restriction and the circadian rhythms of pituitary-adrenal hormones, growth hormone and thyroid-stimulating hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armario, A; Montero, J L; Jolin, T

    1987-01-01

    Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to food restriction so that they ate 65% of food ingested by control rats. While control rats had free access to food over the 24-hour period, food-restricted rats were provided with food daily at 10 a.m. The experimental period lasted for 34 days. On day 35, rats from both experimental groups were killed at 08.00, 11.00, 14.00, 24.00 and 02.00 h. Food restriction modified the circadian rhythms of ACTH and corticosterone. In addition, total circulating corticosterone throughout the day was higher in food-restricted than in control rats. In contrast, food restriction resulted in depressed secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone and growth hormone. The results indicate that time of food availability entrained circadian corticosterone rhythm but not thyroid-stimulating hormone and growth hormone rhythms.

  4. Beyond gut feelings: how the gut microbiota regulates blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Francine Z; Mackay, Charles R; Kaye, David M

    2018-01-01

    Hypertension is the leading risk factor for heart disease and stroke, and is estimated to cause 9.4 million deaths globally every year. The pathogenesis of hypertension is complex, but lifestyle factors such as diet are important contributors to the disease. High dietary intake of fruit and vegetables is associated with reduced blood pressure and lower cardiovascular mortality. A critical relationship between dietary intake and the composition of the gut microbiota has been described in the literature, and a growing body of evidence supports the role of the gut microbiota in the regulation of blood pressure. In this Review, we describe the mechanisms by which the gut microbiota and its metabolites, including short-chain fatty acids, trimethylamine N-oxide, and lipopolysaccharides, act on downstream cellular targets to prevent or contribute to the pathogenesis of hypertension. These effects have a direct influence on tissues such as the kidney, the endothelium, and the heart. Finally, we consider the role of the gut microbiota in resistant hypertension, the possible intergenerational effect of the gut microbiota on blood pressure regulation, and the promising therapeutic potential of gut microbiota modification to improve health and prevent disease.

  5. GUTs and supersymmetric GUTs in the very early universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.

    1982-10-01

    This talk is intended as background material for many of the other talks treating the possible applications of GUTs to the very early universe. I start with a review of the present theoretical and phenomenological status of GUTs before going on to raise some new issues for their prospective cosmological applications which arise in supersymmetric (susy) GUTs. The first section is an update on conventional GUTs, which is followed by a reminder of some of the motivations for going supersymmetric. There then follows a simple primer on susy and a discussion of the structure and phenomenology of simple sysy GUTs. Finally we come to the cosmological issues, including problems arising from the degeneracy of susy minima, baryosynthesis and supersymmetric inflation, the possibility that gravity is an essential complication in constructing susy GUTs and discussing their cosmology, and the related question of what mass range is allowed for the gravitino. Several parts of this write-up contain new material which has emerged either during the Workshop or subsequently. They are included here for completeness and the convenience of the prospective reader. Wherever possible, these anachronisms will be flagged so as to keep straight the historical record

  6. Pulsatile luteinising hormone releasing hormone for ovulation induction in subfertility associated with polycystic ovary syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bayram, N.; van Wely, M.; Vandekerckhove, P.; Lilford, R.; van der Veen, F.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In normal menstrual cycles, gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion is pulsatile, with intervals of 60-120 minutes in the follicular phase. Treatment with pulsatile GnRH infusion by the intra-venous or subcutaneous route using a portable pump has been used successfully in

  7. First Foods and Gut Microbes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Martin Frederik; Bahl, Martin Iain; Michaelsen, Kim F.

    2017-01-01

    The establishment of the human gut microbiota in early life has been associated with later health and disease. During the 1st months after birth, the microbial composition in the gut is known to be affected by the mode of delivery, use of antibiotics, geographical location and type of feeding...... of this window is currently debated, but it likely coincides with the complementary feeding period, marking the gradual transition from milk- based infant feeding to family diet usually occurring between 6 and 24 months. Furthermore, the 'first 1000 days,' i.e., the period from conception until age 2 years...... microbiota development. This perspective paper summarizes the currently very few studies addressing the effects of complementary diet on gut microbiota, and highlights the recent finding that transition to family foods greatly impacts the development of gut microbial diversity. Further, we discuss potential...

  8. Prenatal Androgen Exposure Causes Hypertension and Gut Microbiota Dysbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Shermel; Sarsour, Nadeen; Salehi, Marziyeh; Schroering, Allen; Mell, Blair; Joe, Bina; Hill, Jennifer W

    2018-02-22

    Conditions of excess androgen in women, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), often exhibit intergenerational transmission. One way in which the risk for PCOS may be increased in daughters of affected women is through exposure to elevated androgens in utero. Hyperandrogenemic conditions have serious health consequences, including increased risk for hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Recently, gut dysbiosis has been found to induce hypertension in rats, such that blood pressure can be normalized through fecal microbial transplant. Therefore, we hypothesized that the hypertension seen in PCOS has early origins in gut dysbiosis caused by in utero exposure to excess androgen. We investigated this hypothesis with a model of prenatal androgen (PNA) exposure and maternal hyperandrogenemia by single-injection of testosterone cypionate or sesame oil vehicle (VEH) to pregnant dams in late gestation. We then completed a gut microbiota and cardiometabolic profile of the adult female offspring. The metabolic assessment revealed that adult PNA rats had increased body weight and increased mRNA expression of adipokines: adipocyte binding protein 2, adiponectin, and leptin in inguinal white adipose tissue. Radiotelemetry analysis revealed hypertension with decreased heart rate in PNA animals. The fecal microbiota profile of PNA animals contained higher relative abundance of bacteria associated with steroid hormone synthesis, Nocardiaceae and Clostridiaceae, and lower abundance of Akkermansia, Bacteroides, Lactobacillus, Clostridium. The PNA animals also had an increased relative abundance of bacteria associated with biosynthesis and elongation of unsaturated short chain fatty acids (SCFAs). We found that prenatal exposure to excess androgen negatively impacted cardiovascular function by increasing systolic and diastolic blood pressure and decreasing heart rate. Prenatal androgen was also associated with gut microbial dysbiosis and altered abundance of bacteria involved in

  9. Prebiotic Fiber Increases Hepatic Acetyl CoA Carboxylase Phosphorylation and Suppresses Glucose-Dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide Secretion More Effectively When Used with Metformin in Obese Rats1,2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyra, Kim A.; Saha, Dolan C.; Reimer, Raylene A.

    2013-01-01

    Independently, metformin (MET) and the prebiotic, oligofructose (OFS), have been shown to increase glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1) secretion. Our objective was to determine whether using OFS as an adjunct with MET augments GLP-1 secretion in obese rats. Male, diet-induced obese Sprague Dawley rats were randomized to: 1) high-fat/-sucrose diet [HFHS; control (C); 20% fat, 50% sucrose wt:wt]; 2) HFHS+10% OFS (OFS); 3) HFHS + MET [300 mg/kg/d (MET)]; 4) HFHS+10% OFS+MET (OFS +MET). Body composition, glycemia, satiety hormones, and mechanisms related to dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) activity in plasma, hepatic AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK; Western blots), and gut microbiota (qPCR) were examined. Direct effects of MET and SCFA were examined in human enteroendocrine cells. The interaction between OFS and MET affected fat mass, hepatic TG, secretion of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and leptin, and AMPKα2 mRNA and phosphorylated acetyl CoA carboxylase (pACC) levels (P < 0.05). Combined, OFS and MET reduced GIP secretion to a greater extent than either treatment alone (P < 0.05). The hepatic pACC level was increased by OFS+MET by at least 50% above all other treatments, which did not differ from each other (P < 0.05). OFS decreased plasma DPP4 activity (P < 0.001). Cecal Bifidobacteria (P < 0.001) were markedly increased and C. leptum decreased (P < 0.001) with OFS consumption. In human enteroendocrine cells, the interaction between MET and SCFA affected GLP-1 secretion (P < 0.04) but was not associated with higher GLP-1 than the highest individual doses. In conclusion, the combined actions of OFS and MET were associated with important interaction effects that have the potential to improve metabolic outcomes associated with obesity. PMID:22223580

  10. Gut dysfunction in Parkinson's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Adreesh; Biswas, Atanu; Das, Shyamal Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Early involvement of gut is observed in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and symptoms such as constipation may precede motor symptoms. α-Synuclein pathology is extensively evident in the gut and appears to follow a rostrocaudal gradient. The gut may act as the starting point of PD pathology with spread toward the central nervous system. This spread of the synuclein pathology raises the possibility of prion-like propagation in PD pathogenesis. Recently, the role of gut microbiota in PD pathogenesis has received attention and some phenotypic correlation has also been shown. The extensive involvement of the gut in PD even in its early stages has led to the evaluation of enteric α-synuclein as a possible biomarker of early PD. The clinical manifestations of gastrointestinal dysfunction in PD include malnutrition, oral and dental disorders, sialorrhea, dysphagia, gastroparesis, constipation, and defecatory dysfunction. These conditions are quite distressing for the patients and require relevant investigations and adequate management. Treatment usually involves both pharmacological and non-pharmacological measures. One important aspect of gut dysfunction is its contribution to the clinical fluctuations in PD. Dysphagia and gastroparesis lead to inadequate absorption of oral anti-PD medications. These lead to response fluctuations, particularly delayed-on and no-on, and there is significant relationship between levodopa pharmacokinetics and gastric emptying in patients with PD. Therefore, in such cases, alternative routes of administration or drug delivery systems may be required. PMID:27433087

  11. Insulin-like growth factor-1 is a negative modulator of glucagon secretion

    OpenAIRE

    Mancuso, Elettra; Mannino, Gaia C.; Fatta, Concetta Di; Fuoco, Anastasia; Spiga, Rosangela; Andreozzi, Francesco; Sesti, Giorgio

    2017-01-01

    Glucagon secretion involves a combination of paracrine, autocrine, hormonal, and autonomic neural mechanisms. Type 2 diabetes often presents impaired glucagon suppression by insulin and glucose. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-1) has elevated homology with insulin, and regulates pancreatic ?-cells insulin secretion. Insulin and IGF-1 receptors share considerable structure homology and function. We hypothesized the existence of a mechanism linking the inhibition of ?-cells glucagon secretion...

  12. [A case of GH and TSH secreting pituitary macroadenoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gołkowski, Filip; Buziak-Bereza, Monika; Stefańska, Agnieszka; Trofimiuk, Małgorzata; Pantofliński, Jacek; Huszno, Bohdan; Czepko, Ryszard; Adamek, Dariusz

    2006-01-01

    A case of GH and TSH secreting pituitary macroadenoma is reported. A 45-year-old female presented clinical features of acromegaly (the abnormal growth of the hands and feet, with lower jaw protrusion), diabetes mellitus, hypertension, nodular goiter and hyperthyroidism of unclear origin. NMR pituitary imaging revealed intra and extrasellar tumor. The laboratory examinations showed very high plasma levels of GH and IGF-1 and normal level of TSH coexisting with high plasma levels of free thyroid hormones. Pharmacological pretreatment with somatostatin analogues caused the substantial reduction of GH and TSH plasma levels. Histological and immunohistochemical examination of the tissue obtained at transsphenoidal surgery showed GH and TSH secreting adenoma. The laboratory examinations after surgery showed normal GH and IGF-1 plasma levels and reduced insulin requirement, what indicates radical operation. The very low plasma levels of TSH and free thyroid hormones after surgery and immunohistochemical examination suggest central hyperthyroidism due to TSH secreting pituitary tumor (thyrotropinoma).

  13. Gut-Brain Glucose Signaling in Energy Homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soty, Maud; Gautier-Stein, Amandine; Rajas, Fabienne; Mithieux, Gilles

    2017-06-06

    Intestinal gluconeogenesis is a recently identified function influencing energy homeostasis. Intestinal gluconeogenesis induced by specific nutrients releases glucose, which is sensed by the nervous system surrounding the portal vein. This initiates a signal positively influencing parameters involved in glucose control and energy management controlled by the brain. This knowledge has extended our vision of the gut-brain axis, classically ascribed to gastrointestinal hormones. Our work raises several questions relating to the conditions under which intestinal gluconeogenesis proceeds and may provide its metabolic benefits. It also leads to questions on the advantage conferred by its conservation through a process of natural selection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Antivirulence activity of the human gut metabolome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, L Caetano M; McDonald, Julie A K; Schroeter, Kathleen; Carlucci, Christian; Ferreira, Rosana B R; Wang, Melody; Yurist-Doutsch, Sophie; Hira, Gill; Jacobson, Kevan; Davies, Julian; Allen-Vercoe, Emma; Finlay, B Brett

    2014-07-29

    The mammalian gut contains a complex assembly of commensal microbes termed microbiota. Although much has been learned about the role of these microbes in health, the mechanisms underlying these functions are ill defined. We have recently shown that the mammalian gut contains thousands of small molecules, most of which are currently unidentified. Therefore, we hypothesized that these molecules function as chemical cues used by hosts and microbes during their interactions in health and disease. Thus, a search was initiated to identify molecules produced by the microbiota that are sensed by pathogens. We found that a secreted molecule produced by clostridia acts as a strong repressor of Salmonella virulence, obliterating expression of the Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 as well as host cell invasion. It has been known for decades that the microbiota protects its hosts from invading pathogens, and these data suggest that chemical sensing may be involved in this phenomenon. Further investigations should reveal the exact biological role of this molecule as well as its therapeutic potential. Importance: Microbes can communicate through the production and sensing of small molecules. Within the complex ecosystem formed by commensal microbes living in and on the human body, it is likely that these molecular messages are used extensively during the interactions between different microbial species as well as with host cells. Deciphering such a molecular dialect will be fundamental to our understanding of host-microbe interactions in health and disease and may prove useful for the design of new therapeutic strategies that target these mechanisms of communication. Copyright © 2014 Antunes et al.

  15. Thyrotropin secreting pituitary adenoma accompanying a silent somatotropinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berker, Dilek; Isik, Serhat; Aydin, Yusuf; Tutuncu, Yasemin; Akdemir, Gokhan; Ozcan, Hatice Nursun; Guler, Serdar

    2011-01-01

    Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) secreting pituitary adenomas are rare tumors manifested as hyperthyroidism with goiter in the presence of elevated TSH. We present a case with pituitary adenoma secreting both TSH and growth hormone (GH) with the prominent clinical findings of hyperthyroidism but without clinical findings of acromegaly. Pituitary magnetic resonance imaging revealed a macroadenoma. Transsphenoidal surgery was performed twice. The immunohistochemical staining showed that tumor cells were strongly reactive to GH and relatively mildly reactive to TSH. Control pituitary imaging revealed a residual macroadenoma, and long acting octreotide treatment was administered. After two years of the treatment, tumor size remained the same while thyroid function tests and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I) values returned to normal ranges. In conclusion, we always recommend hormonal examinations for all patients who have pituitary adenoma without signs and symptoms of acromegaly.

  16. Autosomal Dominant Growth Hormone Deficiency (Type II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alatzoglou, Kyriaki S; Kular, Dalvir; Dattani, Mehul T

    2015-06-01

    Isolated growth hormone deficiency (IGHD) is the commonest pituitary hormone deficiency resulting from congenital or acquired causes, although for most patients its etiology remains unknown. Among the known factors, heterozygous mutations in the growth hormone gene (GH1) lead to the autosomal dominant form of GHD, also known as type II GHD. In many cohorts this is the commonest form of congenital isolated GHD and is mainly caused by mutations that affect the correct splicing of GH-1. These mutations cause skipping of the third exon and lead to the production of a 17.5-kDa GH isoform that exerts a dominant negative effect on the secretion of the wild type GH. The identification of these mutations has clinical implications for the management of patients, as there is a well-documented correlation between the severity of the phenotype and the increased expression of the 17.5-kDa isoform. Patients with type II GHD have a variable height deficit and severity of GHD and may develop additional pituitary hormone defiencies over time, including ACTH, TSH and gonadotropin deficiencies. Therefore, their lifelong follow-up is recommended. Detailed studies on the effect of heterozygous GH1 mutations on the trafficking, secretion and action of growth hormone can elucidate their mechanism on a cellular level and may influence future treatment options for GHD type II.

  17. Post-translational processing and secretion of atrial natriuretic factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shields, P.P.

    1988-01-01

    The post-translational processing and regulated secretion of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) were studied in primary cultures of rat cardiac myocytes. Cultures were established from neonatal rat atria or ventricles, and were maintained for 7-14 days in complete serum free medium. The cultures contained high and constant levels of ANF-(1-126), the known storage form of the hormone in vivo. The cultures also secreted ANF-(1-126), instead of the known circulating form of the hormone, ANF-(99-126). However, the inclusion of the glucocorticoids dexamethasone or hydrocortisone in the culture medium increased the levels of ir-ANF contained and secreted by the cultures, and caused both atrial and ventricular cultures to secrete principally ANF-(99-126) instead of ANF-(1-126). The secreted peptide was shown to be authentic ANF-(99-126) by chromatographic, amino acid composition and radiosequence analysis, thus confirming that the cultures were accurately processing ANF to the in vivo circulating form in the presence of glucocorticoids. Glucocorticoids also caused an increase in size and clustering of atrial myocytes as determined by immunocytochemical analysis, but the morphological effects could be dissociated from the stimulation of ANF-(99-126) secretion by manipulating the timing of glucocorticoid exposure. The location of ANF-(99-126) formation was investigated using biosynthetically labeled 35 S-Cys-ANF-(1-126) in conjunction with actively processing cultures

  18. Connecting the immune system, systemic chronic inflammation and the gut microbiome: The role of sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzetto, Lisa; Fava, Francesca; Tuohy, Kieran M; Selmi, Carlo

    2018-05-31

    Unresolved low grade systemic inflammation represents the underlying pathological mechanism driving immune and metabolic pathways involved in autoimmune diseases (AID). Mechanistic studies in animal models of AID and observational studies in patients have found alterations in gut microbiota communities and their metabolites, suggesting a microbial contribution to the onset or progression of AID. The gut microbiota and its metabolites have been shown to influence immune functions and immune homeostasis both within the gut and systematically. Microbial derived-short chain fatty acid (SCFA) and bio-transformed bile acid (BA) have been shown to influence the immune system acting as ligands specific cell signaling receptors like GPRCs, TGR5 and FXR, or via epigenetic processes. Similarly, intestinal permeability (leaky gut) and bacterial translocation are important contributors to chronic systemic inflammation and, without repair of the intestinal barrier, might represent a continuous inflammatory stimulus capable of triggering autoimmune processes. Recent studies indicate gender-specific differences in immunity, with the gut microbiota shaping and being concomitantly shaped by the hormonal milieu governing differences between the sexes. A bi-directional cross-talk between microbiota and the endocrine system is emerging with bacteria being able to produce hormones (e.g. serotonin, dopamine and somatostatine), respond to host hormones (e.g. estrogens) and regulate host hormones' homeostasis (e.g by inhibiting gene prolactin transcription or converting glucocorticoids to androgens). We review herein how gut microbiota and its metabolites regulate immune function, intestinal permeability and possibly AID pathological processes. Further, we describe the dysbiosis within the gut microbiota observed in different AID and speculate how restoring gut microbiota composition and its regulatory metabolites by dietary intervention including prebiotics and probiotics could help in

  19. Thyroid-stimulating hormone pituitary adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Michelle J; Erickson, Dana; Castro, M Regina; Atkinson, John L D

    2008-07-01

    Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-secreting pituitary adenomas are rare, representing secreting or clinically silent TSH-immunostaining pituitary tumors among all pituitary adenomas followed at their institution between 1987 and 2003. Patient records, including clinical, imaging, and pathological and surgical characteristics were reviewed. Twenty-one patients (6 women and 15 men; mean age 46 years, range 26-73 years) were identified. Of these, 10 patients had a history of clinical hyperthyroidism, of whom 7 had undergone ablative thyroid procedures (thyroid surgery/(131)I ablation) prior to the diagnosis of pituitary adenoma. Ten patients had elevated TSH preoperatively. Seven patients presented with headache, and 8 presented with visual field defects. All patients underwent imaging, of which 19 were available for imaging review. Sixteen patients had macroadenomas. Of the 21 patients, 18 underwent transsphenoidal surgery at the authors' institution, 2 patients underwent transsphenoidal surgery at another facility, and 1 was treated medically. Patients with TSH-secreting tumors were defined as in remission after surgery if they had no residual adenoma on imaging and had biochemical evidence of hypo-or euthyroidism. Patients with TSH-immunostaining tumors were considered in remission if they had no residual tumor. Of these 18 patients, 9 (50%) were in remission following surgery. Seven patients had residual tumor; 2 of these patients underwent further transsphenoidal resection, 1 underwent a craniotomy, and 4 underwent postoperative radiation therapy (2 conventional radiation therapy, 1 Gamma Knife surgery, and 1 had both types of radiation treatment). Two patients had persistently elevated TSH levels despite the lack of evidence of residual tumor. On pathological analysis and immunostaining of the surgical specimen, 17 patients had samples that stained positively for TSH, 8 for alpha-subunit, 10 for growth hormone, 7 for prolactin, 2 for adrenocorticotrophic hormone

  20. Secret quality of love.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strachan-Hall, Elaine

    2016-09-01

    Many of us can recite three Donabedian dimensions of the quality of care of structure, process and outcome. Recently, I was introduced to another of Avedis Donabedian's quotes about the 'secret quality of love'.

  1. Six secrets of champagne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liger-Belair, Gérard

    2015-12-01

    Popping open a bottle of champagne is one of life's great delights, but how much do you really know about the science behind this greatest of wines? Gérard Liger-Belair reveals his six favourite champagne secrets.

  2. Radioimmunoassay of antidiuretic hormone. Application to rats and to man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fressinaud-Masdefeix, Philippe.

    1976-06-01

    The general principles of antidiuretic hormone secretion are known from kidney function explorations and the use of biological methods. Radioimmunoassay of the hormone should contribute towards a better understanding of this secretion in the fields of both physiology and pathology. After a review on antidiuretic hormone and the methods used so far for its investigation, part two of this work concentrates on the development of our own radioimmunological system applied to this hormone. The system is specific, though interference in the measurement from metabolite(s) of the hormone cannot be absolutely ruled out; reproducible, as witnessed by the 'inter-test' variation coefficient of 8%; and sensitive, since the hormone is easily measured in the urine, when secretion is slowed down. In spite of its sensitivity however the hormone determination in the plasma is not possible for a small sample volume because of the difficulty of obtaining high-affinity specific antibodies. To our knowledge only one plasma ADH determination is in common use to date. Part three is devoted to the application of this technique in rats and man, and the results obtained [fr

  3. Cardiovascular and Antiobesity Effects of Resveratrol Mediated through the Gut Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Julia K; Raederstorff, Daniel; Weber, Peter; Steinert, Robert E

    2017-11-01

    Encouraging scientific research into the health effects of dietary bioactive resveratrol has been confounded by its rapid first-pass metabolism, which leads to low in vivo bioavailability. Preliminary studies have shown that resveratrol can modulate gut microbiota composition, undergo biotransformation to active metabolites via the intestinal microbiota, or affect gut barrier function. In rodents, resveratrol can modify the relative Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes ratio and reverse the gut microbial dysbiosis caused by a high-fat diet. By upregulating the expression of genes involved in maintaining tight junctions between intestinal cells, resveratrol contributes to gut barrier integrity. The composition of the gut microbiome and rapid metabolism of resveratrol determines the production of resveratrol metabolites, which are found at greater concentrations in humans after ingestion than their parent molecule and can have similar biological effects. Resveratrol may affect cardiovascular risk factors such as elevated blood cholesterol or trimethylamine N -oxide concentrations. Modulating the composition of the gut microbiota by resveratrol may affect central energy metabolism and modify concentrations of satiety hormones to produce antiobesity effects. Encouraging research from animal models could be tested in humans. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. Evidence of Extrapancreatic Glucagon Secretion in Man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Asger; Bagger, Jonatan I; Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai J

    2016-01-01

    . We applied novel analytical methods of plasma glucagon (sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and mass-spectrometry-based proteomics) and show that 29-amino acid glucagon circulates in patients without a pancreas and that glucose stimulation of the gastrointestinal tract elicits significant......Glucagon is believed to be a pancreas-specific hormone and hyperglucagonemia has been shown to contribute significantly to the hyperglycemic state of patients with diabetes. This hyperglucagonemia has been thought to arise from alpha cell insensitivity to suppressive effects of glucose and insulin...... hyperglucagonemia in these patients. These findings emphasize the existence of extrapancreatic glucagon (perhaps originating from the gut) in man and suggest that it may play a role in diabetes secondary to total pancreatectomy....

  5. Oral delivery of Bifidobacterium longum expressing α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone to combat ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Pijin; Yang, Yan; Ding, Qing; Li, Xiuying; Sun, Hanxiao; Liu, Zhaobing; Huang, Junli; Gong, Yahui

    2016-02-01

    α-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) is a tridecapeptide derived from pro-opiomelanocortin that exhibits potent anti-inflammatory properties by regulating the production of inflammatory mediators. This peptide has been well established in several inflammatory models, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, its extremely short duration in vivo limits its clinical application. To address this limitation, Bifidobacterium was used here as a carrier to deliver α-MSH. We utilized α-MSH-engineered Bifidobacterium against IBD, which is closely linked to immune and intestinal microbiota dysfunction. First, we constructed a Bifidobacterium longum secreting α-MSH (B. longum-α-MSH). We then tested the recombinant α-MSH expression and determined its bioactivity in HT-29 cells. To assess its effectiveness, B. longum-α-MSH was used against an ulcerative colitis (UC) model in rats induced by dextran sulfate sodium. The data showed that α-MSH expression in B. longum-α-MSH was effective, and its biological activity was similar to the synthesized one. This UC model experiment indicated that B. longum-α-MSH successfully colonized the intestinal gut, expressed bioactive α-MSH and had a significant anti-inflammatory effect. The results demonstrate the feasibility of preventing IBD by using B. longum-α-MSH.

  6. Gut immunity in Lepidopteran insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kai; Yang, Bing; Huang, Wuren; Dobens, Leonard; Song, Hongsheng; Ling, Erjun

    2016-11-01

    Lepidopteran insects constitute one of the largest fractions of animals on earth, but are considered pests in their relationship with man. Key to the success of this order of insects is its ability to digest food and absorb nutrition, which takes place in the midgut. Because environmental microorganisms can easily enter Lepidopteran guts during feeding, the innate immune response guards against pathogenic bacteria, virus and microsporidia that can be devoured with food. Gut immune responses are complicated by both resident gut microbiota and the surrounding peritrophic membrane and are distinct from immune responses in the body cavity, which depend on the function of the fat body and hemocytes. Due to their relevance to agricultural production, studies of Lepidopteran insect midgut and immunity are receiving more attention, and here we summarize gut structures and functions, and discuss how these confer immunity against different microorganisms. It is expected that increased knowledge of Lepidopteran gut immunity may be utilized for pest biological control in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR OF A DELAY-DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION MODEL FOR THE HORMONAL REGULATION OF THE MENSTRUAL CYCLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    During the menstrual cycle, pituitary hormones stimulate the growth and development of ovarian follicles and the release of an ovum to be fertilized. The ovarian follicles secrete hormones during the cycle that regulate the production of the pituitary hormones creating positi...

  8. A controlled study on serum insulin-like growth factor-I and urinary excretion of growth hormone in fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, S; Main, K; Danneskiold-Samsøe, B

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. It has been hypothesized that secretory deficiencies of growth hormone may play a pathophysiological role in fibromyalgia (FM). Our objective was thus to evaluate the secretion of growth hormone in FM. METHODS. The 24-h urinary growth hormone excretion and serum levels of insulin...

  9. Carbohydrates and the human gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassard, Christophe; Lacroix, Christophe

    2013-07-01

    Due to its scale and its important role in maintaining health, the gut microbiota can be considered as a 'new organ' inside the human body. Many complex carbohydrates are degraded and fermented by the human gut microbiota in the large intestine to both yield basic energy salvage and impact gut health through produced metabolites. This review will focus on the gut microbes and microbial mechanisms responsible for polysaccharides degradation and fermentation in the large intestine. Gut microbes and bacterial metabolites impact the host at many levels, including modulation of inflammation, and glucose and lipid metabolisms. A complex relationship occurs in the intestine between the human gut microbiota, diet and the host. Research on carbohydrates and gut microbiota composition and functionality is fast developing and will open opportunities for prevention and treatment of obesity, diabetes and other related metabolic disorders through manipulation of the gut ecosystem.

  10. Exercise, fitness, and the gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Owen; Molloy, Michael G; Shanahan, Fergus

    2016-03-01

    Exercise and gut symptomatology have long been connected. The possibility that regular exercise fosters intestinal health and function has been somewhat overlooked in the scientific literature. In this review, we summarize current knowledge and discuss a selection of recent, relevant, and innovative studies, hypotheses and reviews that elucidate a complex topic. The multiorgan benefits of regular exercise are extensive. When taken in moderation, these benefits transcend improved cardio-respiratory fitness and likely reach the gut in a metabolic, immunological, neural, and microbial manner. This is applicable in both health and disease. However, further work is required to provide safe, effective recommendations on physical activity in specific gastrointestinal conditions. Challenging methodology investigating the relationship between exercise and gut health should not deter from exploring exercise in the promotion of gastrointestinal health.

  11. Global F-theory GUTs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumenhagen, Ralph; /Munich, Max Planck Inst.; Grimm, Thomas W.; /Bonn U.; Jurke, Benjamin; /Munich, Max Planck Inst.; Weigand, Timo; /SLAC

    2010-08-26

    We construct global F-theory GUT models on del Pezzo surfaces in compact Calabi-Yau fourfolds realized as complete intersections of two hypersurface constraints. The intersections of the GUT brane and the flavour branes as well as the gauge flux are described by the spectral cover construction. We consider a split S[U(4) x U(1){sub X}] spectral cover, which allows for the phenomenologically relevant Yukawa couplings and GUT breaking to the MSSM via hypercharge flux while preventing dimension-4 proton decay. General expressions for the massless spectrum, consistency conditions and a new method for the computation of curvature-induced tadpoles are presented. We also provide a geometric toolkit for further model searches in the framework of toric geometry. Finally, an explicit global model with three chiral generations and all required Yukawa couplings is defined on a Calabi-Yau fourfold which is fibered over the del Pezzo transition of the Fano threefold P{sup 4}.

  12. Global F-theory GUTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumenhagen, Ralph; Grimm, Thomas W.; Jurke, Benjamin; Weigand, Timo

    2010-01-01

    We construct global F-theory GUT models on del Pezzo surfaces in compact Calabi-Yau fourfolds realized as complete intersections of two hypersurface constraints. The intersections of the GUT brane and the flavour branes as well as the gauge flux are described by the spectral cover construction. We consider a split S[U(4)xU(1) X ] spectral cover, which allows for the phenomenologically relevant Yukawa couplings and GUT breaking to the MSSM via hypercharge flux while preventing dimension-4 proton decay. General expressions for the massless spectrum, consistency conditions and a new method for the computation of curvature-induced tadpoles are presented. We also provide a geometric toolkit for further model searches in the framework of toric geometry. Finally, an explicit global model with three chiral generations and all required Yukawa couplings is defined on a Calabi-Yau fourfold which is fibered over the del Pezzo transition of the Fano threefold P 4 [4].

  13. Hormones and absence epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Tolmacheva, E.A.; Budziszewska, B.; Stein, J.

    2017-01-01

    Hormones have an extremely large impact on seizures and epilepsy. Stress and stress hormones are known to reinforce seizure expression, and gonadal hormones affect the number of seizures and even the seizure type. Moreover, hormonal concentrations change drastically over an individual's lifetime,

  14. The gut microbiota, obesity and insulin resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    The human gut is densely populated by commensal and symbiotic microbes (the "gut microbiota"), with the majority of the constituent microorganisms being bacteria. Accumulating evidence indicates that the gut microbiota plays a significant role in the development of obesity, obesity-associated inflam...

  15. 33 CFR 117.537 - Townsend Gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Townsend Gut. 117.537 Section 117... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maine § 117.537 Townsend Gut. The draw of the Southport (SR27) Bridge, at mile 0.7, across Townsend Gut between Boothbay Harbor and Southport, Maine shall open on...

  16. GLP-1 secretion is increased by inflammatory stimuli in an IL-6-dependent manner, leading to hyperinsulinemia and blood glucose lowering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahles, Florian; Meyer, Christina; Möllmann, Julia; Diebold, Sebastian; Findeisen, Hannes M; Lebherz, Corinna; Trautwein, Christian; Koch, Alexander; Tacke, Frank; Marx, Nikolaus; Lehrke, Michael

    2014-10-01

    Hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia are both predictors for adverse outcome in critically ill patients. Hyperinsulinemia is induced by inflammatory stimuli as a relevant mechanism for glucose lowering in the critically ill. The incretine hormone GLP-1 was currently found to be induced by endotoxin, leading to insulin secretion and glucose lowering under inflammatory conditions in mice. Here, we describe GLP-1 secretion to be increased by a variety of inflammatory stimuli, including endotoxin, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and IL-6. Although abrogation of IL-1 signaling proved insufficient to prevent endotoxin-dependent GLP-1 induction, this was abolished in the absence of IL-6 in respective knockout animals. Hence, we found endotoxin-dependent GLP-1 secretion to be mediated by an inflammatory cascade, with IL-6 being necessary and sufficient for GLP-1 induction. Functionally, augmentation of the GLP-1 system by pharmacological inhibition of DPP-4 caused hyperinsulinemia, suppression of glucagon release, and glucose lowering under endotoxic conditions, whereas inhibition of the GLP-1 receptor led to the opposite effect. Furthermore, total GLP-1 plasma levels were profoundly increased in 155 critically ill patients presenting to the intensive care unit (ICU) in comparison with 134 healthy control subjects. In the ICU cohort, GLP-1 plasma levels correlated with markers of inflammation and disease severity. Consequently, GLP-1 provides a novel link between the immune system and the gut with strong relevance for metabolic regulation in context of inflammation. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  17. Genome Sequences of Apibacter spp., Gut Symbionts of Asian Honey Bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Waldan K; Steele, Margaret I; Moran, Nancy A

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Honey bees have distinct gut microbiomes consisting almost entirely of several host-specific bacterial species. We present the genomes of three strains of Apibacter spp., bacteria of the Bacteroidetes phylum that are endemic to Asian honey bee species (Apis dorsata and Apis cerana). The Apibacter strains have similar metabolic abilities to each other and to Apibacter mensalis, a species isolated from a bumble bee. They use microaerobic respiration and fermentation to catabolize a limited set of monosaccharides and dicarboxylic acids. All strains are capable of gliding motility and encode a type IX secretion system. Two strains and A. mensalis have type VI secretion systems, and all strains encode Rhs or VgrG proteins used in intercellular interactions. The characteristics of Apibacter spp. are consistent with adaptions to life in a gut environment; however, the factors responsible for host-specificity and mutualistic interactions remain to be uncovered. PMID:29635372

  18. Conditionally Pathogenic Gut Microbes Promote Larval Growth by Increasing Redox-Dependent Fat Storage in High-Sugar Diet-Fed Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whon, Tae Woong; Shin, Na-Ri; Jung, Mi-Ja; Hyun, Dong-Wook; Kim, Hyun Sik; Kim, Pil Soo; Bae, Jin-Woo

    2017-12-01

    Changes in the composition of the gut microbiota contribute to the development of obesity and subsequent complications that are associated with metabolic syndrome. However, the role of increased numbers of certain bacterial species during the progress of obesity and factor(s) controlling the community structure of gut microbiota remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate the inter-relationship between Drosophila melanogaster and their resident gut microbiota under chronic high-sugar diet (HSD) conditions. Chronic feeding of an HSD to Drosophila resulted in a predominance of resident uracil-secreting bacteria in the gut. Axenic insects mono-associated with uracil-secreting bacteria or supplemented with uracil under HSD conditions promoted larval development. Redox signaling induced by bacterial uracil promoted larval growth by regulating sugar and lipid metabolism via activation of p38a mitogen-activated protein kinase. The present study identified a new redox-dependent mechanism by which uracil-secreting bacteria (previously regarded as opportunistic pathobionts) protect the host from metabolic perturbation under chronic HSD conditions. These results illustrate how Drosophila and gut microbes form a symbiotic relationship under stress conditions, and changes in the gut microbiota play an important role in alleviating deleterious diet-derived effects such as hyperglycemia. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 27, 1361-1380.

  19. Pontine and extrapontine osmotic myelinolysis after the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH associated with fluoxetine: case report Mielinólise osmótica pontina e extrapontina após a síndrome da secreção inapropriada de hormônio antidiurético associada com fluoxetina: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alexandre Twardowschy

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Osmotic demyelination syndrome (ODS may be precipitated by aggressive correction of a hypo or hyper-osmolar states. We describe the case of a 53-year-old woman that was started on fluoxetine 20 mg/day for depression and nine days later was found to have fluoxetine-induced syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone. After hyponatremia correction the mental status of the patient gradually improved, but subsequently she had intermittent difficulty in speaking, naming objects, memory deficits and psychomotor slowness. Magnetic resonance revealed bilateral symmetric hyperintense lesions in the basal ganglia, temporal lobe and hippocampal formation compatible with ODS. These symptoms gradually resolved and she was discharged home without any deficits. Two months later, a new image showed lesion in pons and the other lesions had disappeared. Fluoxetine therapy had never been related with a complication like that.A síndrome de desmielinização osmótica (SDO pode ser precipitada pela correção agressiva de um estado hiper ou hipoosmolar. Nós descrevemos o caso de mulher de 53 anos que havia iniciado o uso de fluoxetina 20 mg/dia para depressão e que nove dias depois foi diagnosticada como tendo síndrome da secreção inapropriada de hormônio antidiurético induzida por fluoxetina. Depois da correção da hiponatremia o estado mental da paciente gradualmente melhorou, mas subsequentemente ela apresentou dificuldade intermitente para fala e para nomear objetos, déficits de memória recente e lentidão psicomotora. Ressonância magnética revelou lesões hiperintensas bilaterais e simétricas na região dos gânglios da base, lobo temporal e hipocampo compatíveis com SDO. Estes sintomas gradualmente se resolveram e a paciente foi de alta sem qualquer déficit. Dois meses mais tarde uma nova imagem cerebral mostrou lesão na ponte e ausência das lesões antigas. Até onde sabemos a terapia com fluoxetina nunca foi relacionada a

  20. Brain-Gut-Microbe Communication in Health and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue eGrenham

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Bidirectional signalling between the gastrointestinal tract and the brain is regulated at neural, hormonal and immunological levels. This construct is known as the brain-gut axis and is vital for maintaining homeostasis. Bacterial colonisation of the intestine plays a major role in the post-natal development and maturation of the immune and endocrine systems. These processes are key factors underpinning central nervous system (CNS signalling. Recent research advances have seen a tremendous improvement in our understanding of the scale, diversity and importance of the gut microbiome. This has been reflected in the form of a revised nomenclature to the more inclusive brain-gut-enteric microbiota axis and a sustained research effort to establish how communication along this axis contributes to both normal and pathological conditions. In this review, we will briefly discuss the critical components of this axis and the methodological challenges that have been presented in attempts to define what constitutes a normal microbiota and chart its temporal development. Emphasis is placed on the new research narrative that confirms the critical influence of the microbiota on mood and behaviour. Mechanistic insights are provided with examples of both neural and humoral routes through which these effects can be mediated. The evidence supporting a role for the enteric flora in brain-gut axis disorders is explored with the spotlight on the clinical relevance for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, a stress-related functional gastrointestinal disorder. We also critically evaluate the therapeutic opportunities arising from this research and consider in particular whether targeting the microbiome might represent a valid strategy for the management of CNS disorders and ponder the pitfalls inherent in such an approach. Despite the considerable challenges that lie ahead, this is an exciting area of research and one that is destined to remain the centre of focus for some

  1. Enterochromaffin cells of the human gut: sensors for spices and odorants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Thomas; Voland, Petra; Kunz, Lars; Prinz, Christian; Gratzl, Manfred

    2007-05-01

    Release of serotonin from mucosal enterochromaffin cells triggered by luminal substances is the key event in the regulation of gut motility and secretion. We were interested to know whether nasal olfactory receptors are also expressed in the human gut mucosa by enterochromaffin cells and whether their ligands and odorants present in spices, fragrances, detergents, and cosmetics cause serotonin release. Receptor expression was studied by the reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction method in human mucosal enterochromaffin cells isolated by laser microdissection and in a cell line derived from human enterochromaffin cells. Activation of the cells by odorants was investigated by digital fluorescence imaging using the fluorescent Ca(2+) indicator Fluo-4. Serotonin release was measured in culture supernatants by a serotonin enzyme immunoassay and amperometry using carbon fiber microelectrodes placed on single cells. We found expression of 4 olfactory receptors in microdissected human mucosal enterochromaffin cells and in a cell line derived from human enterochromaffin cells. Ca(2+) imaging studies revealed that odorant ligands of the identified olfactory receptors cause Ca(2+) influx, elevation of intracellular free Ca(2+) levels, and, consequently, serotonin release. Our results show that odorants present in the luminal environment of the gut may stimulate serotonin release via olfactory receptors present in human enterochromaffin cells. Serotonin controls both gut motility and secretion and is implicated in pathologic conditions such as vomiting, diarrhea, and irritable bowel syndrome. Thus, olfactory receptors are potential novel targets for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases and motility disorders.

  2. Cadmium transport by the gut and Malpighian tubules of Chironomus riparius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, Erin M.; Pierce, Laura M.; Gillis, Patricia L.; Wood, Chris M.; O'Donnell, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Many aquatic insects are very insensitive to cadmium in short-term laboratory studies. LC50 values for larvae of the midge Chironomus riparius are over 25,000 times the Criterion Maximum Concentration in the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA (2000)) species sensitivity distribution (SSD). Excretion or sequestration of cadmium may contribute to insensitivity and we have therefore examined cadmium transport by isolated guts and renal tissues of C. riparius larvae. Regional differences of Cd transport along the gut were identified using a Cd 2+ -selective microelectrode in conjunction with the Scanning Ion-Selective Electrode Technique (SIET). Cd is transported into the anterior midgut (AMG) cells from the lumen and out of the cells into the hemolymph. The transport of Cd from the gut lumen to the hemolymph exposes other tissues such as the nervous system and muscles to Cd. The gut segments which remove Cd from the hemolymph at the highest rate are the posterior midgut (PMG) and the ileum. In addition, assays using an isolated Malpighian (renal) tubule preparation have shown that the Malpighian tubules (MT) both sequester and secrete Cd. For larvae bathed in 10 μmol l -1 Cd, the tubules can secrete the entire hemolymph burden of Cd in ∼15 h.

  3. Radioimmunoassay and the hormones of thyroid function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stahl, R.J.

    1975-01-01

    Radioimmunoassay (RIA) has provided the tools for wide-reaching investigations that have changed and continue to change many important concepts of thyroid physiology and pathophysiology. The RIA for human thyrotropin (TSH) was developed in 1965; development of the RIA for triiodothyronine (T 3 ), thyroxine(T 4 ), thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG), and recently, thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) and thyroglobulin (Tg) followed. The capacity to measure nanogram and picogram concentrations with relative ease and speed has permitted the demonstration of dynamic relationships of the intrathyroidal and circulating thyroid hormones to each other and to the pituitary and hypothalamic regulating hormones. Evidence for the presence of cross-influences between TRH and other hypothalamic regulating hormones on the secretion of pituitary hormones has accumulated. The impact of the new information on clinical practice is now becoming evident. There is new appreciation of the value of assaying serum T 3 and TSH concentrations in the clinical management of patients with disturbed function of the thyroid, pituitary, or hypothalamus. The necessary components for RIA performance can be purchased separately or in kit form from commercial sources. With appropriate quality-control procedures, precise, sensitive, and reliable data can be generated. Awareness of the specific technical problems relating to the RIA of these hormones is absolutely necessary to assure reliable results. The availability of kits or their components permits the performance of these studies in the community hospital and in reliable commercial-service laboratories. (U.S.)

  4. On the regulation of ghrelin secretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, A.

    2003-04-01

    The newly discovered endogenous ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor, ghrelin, is not only a potent stimulus for growth hormone secretion, but exerts also potent orexigenic (appetite stimulatory) effects. The purpose of this thesis was to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the regulation of this peptide in three different studies. Ghrelin serum levels were analyzed with a commercially available radioimmunoassay (RIA). In 18 patients on chronic hemodialysis ghrelin levels were investigated and acetomorphine parameters were determined in order to correlate the nutritional status to the ghrelin serum levels. The potential elimination of ghrelin during dialysis was also tested. Ghrelin levels were significantly elevated compared to controls. No correlation was found between Ghrelin serum levels and anthropometric parameters. It can be speculated that chronic hemodialysis patients are not only resistant to growth hormone, but also to ghrelin. In 8 healthy volunteers a potential involvement of ghrelin in the response of growth hormone to acute exercise was tested. During three different exercise intensities (low, submaximal and maximal exercise) ghrelin levels were measured. No changes in ghrelin plasma concentrations could be detected. These findings suggest that ghrellin is not involved in the growth hormone response to acute exercise. The purpose of the third study was to enlighten the mechanisms underlying the postprandial decrease of ghrelin. During a double-blind placebo-controlled study increasing systemic glucose concentrations were attained with infusion of glucose, in order to represent fasting and postprandial conditions. Ghrelin levels were studied during coinfusion of insulin, somatostatin and placebo. It could be demonstrated that, the regulation of the postprandial decrease in ghrelin is not regulated by insulin or glucose, but by somatostatin. (author)

  5. Plurihormonal pituitary adenoma immunoreactive for thyroid-stimulating hormone, growth hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and prolactin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Cynthia T; Kovacs, Kalman; Rotondo, Fabio; Horvath, Eva; Cusimano, Michael; Booth, Gillian L

    2012-01-01

    To describe the case of a patient with an unusual plurihormonal pituitary adenoma with immunoreactivity for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), growth hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, prolactin, and α-subunit. We report the clinical, laboratory, imaging, and pathology findings of a patient symptomatic from a plurihormonal pituitary adenoma and describe her outcome after surgical treatment. A 60-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with headaches, blurry vision, fatigue, palpitations, sweaty hands, and weight loss. Her medical history was notable for hyperthyroidism, treated intermittently with methimazole. Magnetic resonance imaging disclosed a pituitary macroadenoma (2.3 by 2.2 by 2.0 cm), and preoperative blood studies revealed elevated levels of TSH at 6.11 mIU/L, free thyroxine at 3.6 ng/dL, and free triiodothyronine at 6.0 pg/mL. She underwent an uncomplicated transsphenoidal resection of the pituitary adenoma. Immunostaining of tumor tissue demonstrated positivity for not only TSH but also growth hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, prolactin, and α-subunit. The Ki-67 index of the tumor was estimated at 2% to 5%, and DNA repair enzyme O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase immunostaining was mostly negative. Electron microscopy showed the ultrastructural phenotype of a glycoprotein-producing adenoma. Postoperatively, her symptoms and hyperthyroidism resolved. Thyrotropin-secreting pituitary adenomas are rare. Furthermore, recent reports suggest that 31% to 36% of adenomas may show evidence of secretion of multiple pituitary hormones. This case emphasizes the importance of considering pituitary causes of thyrotoxicosis and summarizes the clinical and pathology findings in a patient with a plurihormonal pituitary adenoma.

  6. Sex hormones in the modulation of irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulak, Agata; Taché, Yvette; Larauche, Muriel

    2014-03-14

    Compelling evidence indicates sex and gender differences in epidemiology, symptomatology, pathophysiology, and treatment outcome in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Based on the female predominance as well as the correlation between IBS symptoms and hormonal status, several models have been proposed to examine the role of sex hormones in gastrointestinal (GI) function including differences in GI symptoms expression in distinct phases of the menstrual cycle, in pre- and post-menopausal women, during pregnancy, hormonal treatment or after oophorectomy. Sex hormones may influence peripheral and central regulatory mechanisms of the brain-gut axis involved in the pathophysiology of IBS contributing to the alterations in visceral sensitivity, motility, intestinal barrier function, and immune activation of intestinal mucosa. Sex differences in stress response of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and autonomic nervous system, neuroimmune interactions triggered by stress, as well as estrogen interactions with serotonin and corticotropin-releasing factor signaling systems are being increasingly recognized. A concept of "microgenderome" related to the potential role of sex hormone modulation of the gut microbiota is also emerging. Significant differences between IBS female and male patients regarding symptomatology and comorbidity with other chronic pain syndromes and psychiatric disorders, together with differences in efficacy of serotonergic medications in IBS patients confirm the necessity for more sex-tailored therapeutic approach in this disorder.

  7. Cholinergic signalling in gut immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhawan, Shobhit; Cailotto, Cathy; Harthoorn, Lucien F.; de Jonge, Wouter J.

    2012-01-01

    The gut immune system shares many signalling molecules and receptors with the autonomic nervous system. A good example is the vagal neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh), for which many immune cell types express cholinergic receptors (AChR). In the last decade the vagal nerve has emerged as an

  8. Neuroimmune modulation of gut function

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is considerable interest in the mechanisms and pathways involved in the neuro-immune regulation of gut function. The number of cell types and possible interactions is staggering and there are a number of recent reviews detailing various aspects of these interactions, many of which focus on ...

  9. Xenobiotic Metabolism and Gut Microbiomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anubhav Das

    Full Text Available Humans are exposed to numerous xenobiotics, a majority of which are in the form of pharmaceuticals. Apart from human enzymes, recent studies have indicated the role of the gut bacterial community (microbiome in metabolizing xenobiotics. However, little is known about the contribution of the plethora of gut microbiome in xenobiotic metabolism. The present study reports the results of analyses on xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in various human gut microbiomes. A total of 397 available gut metagenomes from individuals of varying age groups from 8 nationalities were analyzed. Based on the diversities and abundances of the xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, various bacterial taxa were classified into three groups, namely, least versatile, intermediately versatile and highly versatile xenobiotic metabolizers. Most interestingly, specific relationships were observed between the overall drug consumption profile and the abundance and diversity of the xenobiotic metabolizing repertoire in various geographies. The obtained differential abundance patterns of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and bacterial genera harboring them, suggest their links to pharmacokinetic variations among individuals. Additional analyses of a few well studied classes of drug modifying enzymes (DMEs also indicate geographic as well as age specific trends.

  10. The gut-liver axis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visschers, Ruben G. J.; Luyer, Misha D.; Schaap, Frank G.; Olde Damink, Steven W. M.; Soeters, Peter B.

    2013-01-01

    The liver adaptively responds to extra-intestinal and intestinal inflammation. In recent years, the role of the autonomic nervous system, intestinal failure and gut microbiota has been investigated in the development of hepatic, intestinal and extra-intestinal disease. The autonomic nervous system

  11. Neutrino assisted GUT baryogenesis revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei-Chih; Päs, Heinrich; Zeißner, Sinan

    2018-03-01

    Many grand unified theory (GUT) models conserve the difference between the baryon and lepton number, B -L . These models can create baryon and lepton asymmetries from heavy Higgs or gauge boson decays with B +L ≠0 but with B -L =0 . Since the sphaleron processes violate B +L , such GUT-generated asymmetries will finally be washed out completely, making GUT baryogenesis scenarios incapable of reproducing the observed baryon asymmetry of the Universe. In this work, we revisit the idea to revive GUT baryogenesis, proposed by Fukugita and Yanagida, where right-handed neutrinos erase the lepton asymmetry before the sphaleron processes can significantly wash out the original B +L asymmetry, and in this way one can prevent a total washout of the initial baryon asymmetry. By solving the Boltzmann equations numerically for baryon and lepton asymmetries in a simplified 1 +1 flavor scenario, we can confirm the results of the original work. We further generalize the analysis to a more realistic scenario of three active and two right-handed neutrinos to highlight flavor effects of the right-handed neutrinos. Large regions in the parameter space of the Yukawa coupling and the right-handed neutrino mass featuring successful baryogenesis are identified.

  12. Gut Homeostasis, Microbial Dysbiosis, and Opioids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fuyuan; Roy, Sabita

    2017-01-01

    Gut homeostasis plays an important role in maintaining animal and human health. The disruption of gut homeostasis has been shown to be associated with multiple diseases. The mutually beneficial relationship between the gut microbiota and the host has been demonstrated to maintain homeostasis of the mucosal immunity and preserve the integrity of the gut epithelial barrier. Currently, rapid progress in the understanding of the host-microbial interaction has redefined toxicological pathology of opioids and their pharmacokinetics. However, it is unclear how opioids modulate the gut microbiome and metabolome. Our study, showing opioid modulation of gut homeostasis in mice, suggests that medical interventions to ameliorate the consequences of drug use/abuse will provide potential therapeutic and diagnostic strategies for opioid-modulated intestinal infections. The study of morphine's modulation of the gut microbiome and metabolome will shed light on the toxicological pathology of opioids and its role in the susceptibility to infectious diseases.

  13. The gut microbiota in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Trine; Allin, Kristine Højgaard; Pedersen, Oluf

    2016-01-01

    The exploration of the gut microbiota has intensified within the past decade with the introduction of cultivation-independent methods. By investigation of the gut bacterial genes, our understanding of the compositional and functional capability of the gut microbiome has increased. It is now widely...... recognized that the gut microbiota has profound effect on host metabolism and recently changes in the gut microbiota have been associated with type 2 diabetes. Animal models and human studies have linked changes in the gut microbiota to the induction of low-grade inflammation, altered immune response......, and changes in lipid and glucose metabolism. Several factors have been identified that might affect the healthy microbiota, potentially inducing a dysbiotic microbiota associated with a disease state. This increased understanding of the gut microbiota might potentially contribute to targeted intervention...

  14. Interaction between gut immunity and polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaojun; Nie, Shaoping; Xie, Mingyong

    2017-09-22

    The human gut is colonized with a vast and diverse microbial ecosystem, and these bacteria play fundamental roles in the well being of our bodies. Gut-associated lymphoid tissues, the largest mucosal immune system, should never be overlooked for their profound effect in maintaining the host immunity. Therefore, we discussed the relationship between gut immunity and host health, primarily from two aspects: the homeostasis of gut microbiota, and the function of gut-associated lymphoid tissues. Polysaccharides, widely concerned as bioactive macromolecules in recent centuries, have been proved to benefit the intestinal health. Dietary polysaccharides can improve the ratio of probiotics, regulate the intestinal microenvironment like decreasing the gut pH, and stimulate the macrophages or lymphocytes in gut tissues to fight against diseases like cancer. Based on various experimental and clinical evidence, the impacts of dietary polysaccharides on intestinal health are summarized, in order to reveal the possible immunomodulatory mechanisms of polysaccharides.

  15. New trends in combined use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonists with gonadotropins or pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone in ovulation induction and assisted reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, K; Danforth, D R; Williams, R F; Hodgen, G D

    1992-10-01

    The use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists as adjunctive therapy with gonadotropins for ovulation induction in in vitro fertilization and other assisted reproductive technologies has become common clinical practice. With the recent advent of potent gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonists free from the marked histamine-release effects that stymied earlier compounds, an attractive alternative method may be available. We have established the feasibility of combining gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist-induced inhibition of endogenous gonadotropins with exogenous gonadotropin therapy for ovulation induction in a nonhuman primate model. Here, the principal benefits to be gained from using the gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist rather than the gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist are the immediate inhibition of pituitary gonadotropin secretion without the "flare effect," which brings greater safety and convenience for patients and the medical team and saves time and money. We have also recently demonstrated the feasibility of combining gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist with pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone therapy for the controlled restoration of gonadotropin secretion and gonadal steroidogenesis culminating in apparently normal (singleton) ovulatory cycles. This is feasible only with gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonists because, unlike gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists, they achieve control of the pituitary-ovarian axis without down regulation of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor system. This capacity to override gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist-induced suppression of pituitary-ovarian function may allow new treatment modalities to be employed for women who suffer from chronic hyperandrogenemia with polycystic ovarian disease.

  16. Type VI secretion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, Dor; Orth, Kim

    2015-03-30

    Bacteria employ a variety of tools to survive in a competitive environment. Salomon and Orth describe one such tool-the Type 6 Secretion Systems used by bacteria to deliver a variety of toxins into competing cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Salivary Gland Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, H. L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes materials and procedures for an experiment utilizing a live dog to demonstrate: (1) physiology of the salivary gland; (2) parasympathetic control of the salivary gland; (3) influence of varying salivary flow rates on sodium and potassium ions, osmolarity and pH; and (4) salivary secretion as an active process. (DS)

  18. 'Secret' Shuttle payloads revealed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Joel W.

    1993-05-01

    A secret military payload carried by the orbiter Discovery launched on January 24 1985 is discussed. Secondary payloads on the military Shuttle flights are briefly reviewed. Most of the military middeck experiments were sponsored by the Space Test Program established at the Pentagon to oversee all Defense Department space research projects.

  19. A Public Secret

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnbæk, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    This article is based on anthropological fieldwork undertaken at two elite universities in Beijing. It addresses the paradoxical situation of the many instances of suicide among Chinese elite university students in Beijing, which constitute a public secret. The pressure of education weighs heavily...

  20. MONA Implementation Secrets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarlund, Nils; Møller, Anders; Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    2002-01-01

    a period of six years. Compared to the first naive version, the present tool is faster by several orders of magnitude. This speedup is obtained from many different contributions working on all levels of the compilation and execution of formulas. We present a selection of implementation "secrets" that have...