WorldWideScience

Sample records for gunshot bullet embolus

  1. Laparoscopic Bullet Removal in a Penetrating Abdominal Gunshot

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    Christos Stefanou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Penetrating abdominal trauma has been traditionally treated by exploratory laparotomy. Nowadays laparoscopy has become an accepted practice in hemodynamically stable patient without signs of peritonitis. We report a case of a lower anterior abdominal gunshot patient treated laparoscopically. A 32-year-old male presented to the Emergency Department with complaint of gunshot penetrating injury at left lower anterior abdominal wall. The patient had no symptoms or obvious bleeding and was vitally stable. On examination we identified 1 cm diameter entry wound at the left lower abdominal wall. The imaging studies showed the bullet in the peritoneal cavity but no injured intraperitoneal and retroperitoneal viscera. We decided to remove the bullet laparoscopically. Twenty-four hours after the intervention the patient was discharged. The decision for managing gunshot patients should be based on clinical and diagnostic findings. Anterior abdominal injuries in a stable patient without other health problems can be managed laparoscopically.

  2. Gunshot Wound in Lumbar Spine with Intradural Location of a Bullet

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    G. Bordon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of a migratory bullet in the spinal canal after a gunshot injury is a rare finding, specially without causing permanent neurologic damage. We present the case of a patient who suffered a gunshot wound with an entry point in the posterior arc of L2-L3 and a migratory bullet detected at the level of L5-S1 in the CT scan. The patient complained about intense headache, dizziness, and variable sensitive impairment in lower legs apparently depending on the patient’s position in bed. We decided to remove the bullet in order to prevent the delayed neurological damage and lead toxicity. We discuss technical details of this surgery.

  3. Lead poisoning due to gunshot bullet in contact with cerebrospinal fluid: case report

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    Paulo Roberto de Madureira

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Lead poisoning due to retained gunshot bullets is a well-known clinical problem that is fairly frequently described in the literature. The risk factors for this occurrence relate mainly to whether the lead bullet is in contact with the joint fluid or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. The treatment for these cases entails chelation therapy while symptoms are shown and definitive surgical removal of the bullet as a potential source of lead. The aim of this paper is to describe a clinical case of lead poisoning due to a retained gunshot bullet in contact with CSF. CASE REPORT: A 42-year-old male was hit by gunshot bullets during a holdup, and one of them was retained in the spinal cord. Six years later, he developed intense low back pain and underwent laminectomy. Nine years later, he then underwent arthrodesis on L5-S1, but he developed intense abdominal pain after the surgical procedure. For five years, he was treated with calcium versenate in five-day cycles, with a good response. The chelation therapy cycles showed great efficacy during symptomatic periods, thus reducing the symptoms and signs of poisoning and promoting great amounts of lead excretion, thereby reducing the total lead burden responsible for the symptoms. Fortunately, over the last four years, the symptoms have improved and the urine levels of aminolevulinic acid (ALA have declined, to reach complete normalization. This shows that a healing process is probably taking place on the spinal wound, thereby isolating the bullet fragments from CSF contact.

  4. Atypical gunshot wound: Bullet trajectory analyzed by computed tomography

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    Tae Ro

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: If an abnormal trajectory is maintained, it is possible for a bullet to traverse half the length of the body without the patient realizing it. Accurate CT analysis and quick decisions in surgical and medical management are critical takeaways to provide quality care to patients with these injuries.

  5. Fractures Due to Gunshot Wounds: Do Retained Bullet Fragments Affect Union?

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    Riehl, John T; Connolly, Keith; Haidukewych, George; Koval, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Many types of projectiles, including modern hollow point bullets, fragment into smaller pieces upon impact, particularly when striking bone. This study was performed to examine the effect on time to union with retained bullet material near a fracture site in cases of gunshot injury. All gunshot injuries operatively treated with internal fixation at a Level 1 Trauma Center between March 2008 and August 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Retained bullet load near the fracture site was calculated based on percentage of material retained compared to the cortical diameter of the involved bone. Analyses were performed to assess the effect of the lead-cortical ratio and amount of comminution on time to fracture union. Thirty-two patients (34 fractures) met the inclusion criteria, with an equal number of comminuted (17) and non-comminuted fractures (17). Seventeen of 34 fractures (50%) united within 4 months, 16/34 (47%) developed a delayed union, and 1/34 (3%) developed a nonunion requiring revision surgery. Sixteen of 17 fractures (94%) that united by 4 months had a cumulative amount of bullet fragmentation retained near the fracture site of less than 20% of the cortical diameter. Nine out of 10 fractures (90%) with retained fragments near the fracture site was equal to or exceeding 20% of the cortical diameter had delayed or nonunion. Fracture comminution had no effect on time to union. The quantity of retained bullet material near the fracture site was more predictive of the rate of fracture union than was comminution. Fractures with bullet fragmentation equal to or exceeding 20% of the cortical width demonstrated a significantly higher rate of delayed union/nonunion compared to those fractures with less retained bullet material, which may indicate a local cytotoxic effect from lead on bone healing. These findings may influence decisions on timing of secondary surgeries. Level III.

  6. Hydrodynamics of back spatter by blunt bullet gunshot with a link to bloodstain pattern analysis

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    Comiskey, P. M.; Yarin, A. L.; Attinger, D.

    2017-07-01

    A theoretical model describing the blood spatter pattern resulting from a blunt bullet gunshot is proposed. The predictions are compared to experimental data acquired in the present work. This hydrodynamic problem belongs to the class of the impact hydrodynamics with the pressure impulse generating the blood flow. At the free surface, the latter is directed outwards and accelerated toward the surrounding air. As a result, the Rayleigh-Taylor instability of the flow of blood occurs, which is responsible for the formation of blood drops of different sizes and initial velocities. Thus, the initial diameter, velocity, and acceleration of the atomized blood drops can be determined. Then, the equations of motion are solved, describing drop trajectories in air accounting for gravity, and air drag. Also considered are the drop-drop interactions through air, which diminish air drag on the subsequent drops. Accordingly, deposition of two-phase (blood-drop and air) jets on a vertical cardstock sheet located between the shooter and the target (and perforated by the bullet) is predicted and compared with experimental data. The experimental data were acquired with a porous polyurethane foam sheet target impregnated with swine blood, and the blood drops were collected on a vertical cardstock sheet which was perforated by the blunt bullet. The highly porous target possesses a low hydraulic resistance and therefore resembles a pool of blood shot by a blunt bullet normally to its free surface. The back spatter pattern was predicted numerically and compared to the experimental data for the number of drops, their area, the total stain area, and the final impact angle as functions of radial location from the bullet hole in the cardstock sheet (the collection screen). Comparisons of the predicted results with the experimental data revealed satisfactory agreement. The predictions also allow one to find the impact Weber number on the collection screen, which is necessary to predict stain

  7. Bullet embolization to the external iliac artery after gunshot injury to the abdominal aorta: a case report

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    Jaha Luan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Abdominal vascular trauma is fairly common in modern civilian life and is a highly lethal injury. However, if the projectile is small enough, if its energy is diminished when passing through the tissue and if the arterial system is elastic enough, the entry wound into the artery may close without exsanguination and therefore may not be fatal. A projectile captured may even travel downstream until it is arrested by the smaller distal vasculature. The occurrence of this phenomenon is rare and was first described by Trimble in 1968. Case presentation Here we present a case of a 29-year-old Albanian man who, due to a gunshot injury to the back, suffered fracture of his twelfth thoracic and first lumbar vertebra, injury to the posterior wall of his abdominal aorta and then bullet embolism to his left external iliac artery. It is interesting that the signs of distal ischemia developed several hours after the exploratory surgery, raising the possibility that the bullet migrated in the interim or that there was a failure to recognize it during the exploratory surgery. Conclusion In all cases where there is a gunshot injury to the abdomen or chest without an exit wound and with no projectile in the area, there should be a high index of suspicion for possible bullet embolism, particularly in the presence of the distal ischemia.

  8. Combat-related intradural gunshot wound to the thoracic spine: significant improvement and neurologic recovery following bullet removal.

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    Louwes, Thijs M; Ward, William H; Lee, Kendall H; Freedman, Brett A

    2015-02-01

    The vast majority of combat-related penetrating spinal injuries from gunshot wounds result in severe or complete neurological deficit. Treatment is based on neurological status, the presence of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistulas, and local effects of any retained fragment(s). We present a case of a 46-year-old male who sustained a spinal gunshot injury from a 7.62-mm AK-47 round that became lodged within the subarachnoid space at T9-T10. He immediately suffered complete motor and sensory loss. By 24-48 hours post-injury, he had recovered lower extremity motor function fully but continued to have severe sensory loss (posterior cord syndrome). On post-injury day 2, he was evacuated from the combat theater and underwent a T9 laminectomy, extraction of the bullet, and dural laceration repair. At surgery, the traumatic durotomy was widened and the bullet, which was laying on the dorsal surface of the spinal cord, was removed. The dura was closed in a water-tight fashion and fibrin glue was applied. Postoperatively, the patient made a significant but incomplete neurological recovery. His stocking-pattern numbness and sub-umbilical searing dysthesia improved. The spinal canal was clear of the foreign body and he had no persistent CSF leak. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging of the spine revealed contusion of the spinal cord at the T9 level. Early removal of an intra-canicular bullet in the setting of an incomplete spinal cord injury can lead to significant neurological recovery following even high-velocity and/or high-caliber gunshot wounds. However, this case does not speak to, and prior experience does not demonstrate, significant neurological benefit in the setting of a complete injury.

  9. Atypical gunshot injury to the right side of the face with the bullet lodged in the carotid sheath: a case report

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    Ongom, Peter A; Kijjambu, Stephen C; Jombwe, Josephat

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Gunshot injuries of the head and neck from the AK-47 rifle (a common assault rifle, submachine gun type) are a significant contributor to morbidity and mortality among civilians in Sub-Saharan Africa. They may cause significant damage to the closely arranged structures in this region, and the bullet’s trajectory can be very difficult to determine. We present an unusual case of gunshot injury with an atypical bullet entry wound, profound injury to the face, lodgment in the right c...

  10. Atypical gunshot injury to the right side of the face with the bullet lodged in the carotid sheath: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongom, Peter A; Kijjambu, Stephen C; Jombwe, Josephat

    2014-01-27

    Gunshot injuries of the head and neck from the AK-47 rifle (a common assault rifle, submachine gun type) are a significant contributor to morbidity and mortality among civilians in Sub-Saharan Africa. They may cause significant damage to the closely arranged structures in this region, and the bullet's trajectory can be very difficult to determine. We present an unusual case of gunshot injury with an atypical bullet entry wound, profound injury to the face, lodgment in the right carotid sheath, and 'wandering'; a first of its kind in East Africa. A 27-year-old African-Ugandan woman of Nilotic ethnicity was referred to the Accident and Emergency Department of a tertiary hospital in Uganda, having sustained complex injuries due to an inadvertent AK-47 rifle gunshot injury. The gunshot injury was to the right side of her face with a large ragged entry wound and no exit wound. Prior basic wound care and radiological imaging showed a comminuted fracture of her mandible with lodgment of the bullet in her neck, anterior to her sixth and seventh cervical vertebrae. Standard debridement of her wound was done. A computed tomography scan showed an apparent cephalad shift ('wandering') of the bullet, leaving it lying partially anterior to her fifth cervical vertebra as well as within her carotid sheath. Other injuries were to her facial and trigeminal nerves, and her middle ear. The 'wandering' bullet was successfully removed surgically. It had caused no damage to any part of her neck structure. AK-47 rifle bullet injuries may present with uncharacteristically large entry wounds and cause complex structural injuries at the area of impact. The consequent trajectory is difficult to predict making regional examination and radiological investigations essential in management. Bullets may be retained, leaving no exit wound. Securing the airway, controlling hemorrhage and identifying other injuries are the first vital steps. This case illustrates all these interventions and the

  11. Penetrating gunshot wound to the head: transotic approach to remove the bullet and masseteric-facial nerve anastomosis for early facial reanimation.

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    Donnarumma, Pasquale; Tarantino, Roberto; Gennaro, Paolo; Mitro, Valeria; Valentini, Valentino; Magliulo, Giuseppe; Delfini, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Gunshot wounds to the head (GSWH) account for the majority of penetrating brain injuries, and are the most lethal. Since they are rare in Europe, the number of neurosurgeons who have experienced this type of traumatic injury is decreasing, and fewer cases are reported in the literature. We describe a case of gunshot to the temporal bone in which the bullet penetrated the skull resulting in the facial nerve paralysis. It was excised with the transotic approach. Microsurgical anastomosis among the masseteric nerve and the facial nerve was performed. GSWH are often devastating. The in-hospital mortality for civilians with penetrating craniocerebral injury is very high. Survivors often have high rate of complications. When facial paralysis is present, masseteric-facial direct neurorraphy represent a good treatment.

  12. [Choriocarcinoma causing a pulmonary embolus.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theliade, J.E.; Skovby, A.M.; Kirk, V.

    2008-01-01

    A 32 year-old women experienced dyspnea and thoracic pain that persisted with variable intensity over a course of eight months until acute worsening necessitated admission. A CT scan demonstrated a central pulmonary embolus. Subsequent surgical embolectomy produced a grained substance that was hi...

  13. [Choriocarcinoma causing a pulmonary embolus.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theliade, J.E.; Skovby, A.M.; Kirk, V.

    2008-01-01

    A 32 year-old women experienced dyspnea and thoracic pain that persisted with variable intensity over a course of eight months until acute worsening necessitated admission. A CT scan demonstrated a central pulmonary embolus. Subsequent surgical embolectomy produced a grained substance that was hi...... that was histologically compatible with a choriocarcinoma. Trophoblast tumors are rare, but unspecific symptoms from lungs, liver, kidney or brain warrant control of S-hCG in women, even when pregnancy has not been recognized or menopause has been reached Udgivelsesdato: 2008/1/28...

  14. Gunshot injuries in the spine.

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    de Barros Filho, T E P; Cristante, A F; Marcon, R M; Ono, A; Bilhar, R

    2014-07-01

    Review article. To review the literature regarding treatment approaches in cases of gunshot wounds (GSWs) affecting the spine. Brazil. Narrative review of medical literature. GSWs are an increasing cause of morbidity and mortality. Most patients with spinal GSW have complete neurological deficit. The injury is more common in young men and is frequently immobilizing. The initial approach should follow advanced trauma life support, and broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy should be initiated immediately, especially in patients with perforation of the gastrointestinal tract. The indications for surgery in spinal GSW are deterioration of the neurologic condition in a patient with incomplete neurological deficit, the presence of liquor fistula, spinal instability, intoxication by the metal from the bullet or risk of bullet migration. Surgical treatment is associated with a higher complication rate than conservative treatment. Therefore, the surgeon must know the treatment limitations and recognize patients who would truly benefit from surgery.

  15. Cluster Bulleticity

    OpenAIRE

    Massey, Richard; Kitching, Thomas; Nagai, Daisuke

    2010-01-01

    The unique properties of dark matter are revealed during collisions between clusters of galaxies, such as the bullet cluster (1E 0657−56) and baby bullet (MACS J0025−12). These systems provide evidence for an additional, invisible mass in the separation between the distributions of their total mass, measured via gravitational lensing, and their ordinary ‘baryonic’ matter, measured via its X-ray emission. Unfortunately, the information available from these systems is limited by their rarity. C...

  16. Lead poisoning after gunshot wound

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    Paulo Roberto de Madureira

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Despite the absence of symptoms in the majority of patients carrying lead bullet fragments in their bodies, there needs to be an awareness of the possible signs and symptoms of lead intoxication when bullets are lodged in large joints like knees, hips and shoulders. Such patients merit closer follow-up, and even surgical procedure for removing the fragments. OBJECTIVE: To describe a patient who developed clinical lead intoxication several years after a gunshot wound. DESIGN: Case report. CASE REPORT: A single white 23-year-old male, regular job as a bricklayer, with a history of chronic alcohol abuse, showed up at the emergency department complaining of abdominal pain with colic, weakness, vomiting and diarrhea with black feces. All the symptoms had a duration of two to three weeks, and had been recurrent for the last two years, with calming during interval periods of two to three weeks. Abdominal radiograms showed a bullet lodged in the left hip, with a neat bursogram of the whole synovial capsule. A course of chelating treatment using calcium versenate (EDTACaNa2 intravenously was started. After the chelation therapy the patient had recurrence of his symptoms and a radical solution for the chronic mobilization of lead was considered. A hip arthroplasty procedure was performed, leading to complete substitution of the left hip.

  17. Bullet embolism of pulmonary artery: a case report

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    Mauricio Gustavo Ieiri Yamanari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The authors report the case of a patient victim of gunshots, with a very rare complication: venous bullet embolism from the left external iliac vein to the lingular segment of the left pulmonary artery. Diagnosis is made with whole-body radiography or computed tomography. Digital angiography is reserved for supplementary diagnosis or to be used as a therapeutic procedure.

  18. Bullet embolism of pulmonary artery: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanari, Mauricio Gustavo Ieiri; Mansur, Maria Clara Dias; Kay, Fernando Uliana; Silverio, Paulo Rogerio Barboza; Jayanthi, Shri Krishna; Funari, Marcelo Buarque de Gusmao

    2014-01-01

    The authors report the case of a patient victim of gunshots, with a very rare complication: venous bullet embolism from the left external iliac vein to the lingular segment of the left pulmonary artery. Diagnosis is made with whole-body radiography or computed tomography. Digital angiography is reserved for supplementary diagnosis or to be used as a therapeutic procedure. (author)

  19. Complete endoscopic management of a retained bullet in the bladder.

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    Friedman, Ariella A; Trinh, Quoc-Dien; Kaul, Sanjeev; Bhandari, Akshay

    2013-01-01

    A 25-year-old male gunshot victim presented at our institution with gross hematuria following Foley catheter insertion. Computed tomography and cystogram did not show a bladder perforation, but were notable for a left ischial fracture and the presence of a bullet within the bladder. After failed attempts at retrieving the bullet with a resectoscope and loop, as well as a cystoscope and stone crusher, a 26 French nephroscope was inserted transurethrally, and the bullet was successfully engaged and removed using a Perc NCircle (Cook Medical, Bloomington, IN) grasper. The extra-peritoneal injury was managed conservatively with catheter drainage. To our knowledge, this represents the first case of successful transurethral management of a retained intravesical bullet. Such an approach may benefit patients with retained intravesical bullets or other challenging intravesical foreign bodies and may be helpful in select circumstances to spare patients from more extensive surgeries.

  20. Detection of gunshot primer residue on bone in an experimental setting-an unexpected finding.

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    Berryman, Hugh E; Kutyla, Alicja K; Russell Davis, J

    2010-03-01

    Pork ribs with intact muscle tissue were used in an experimental attempt to identify bullet wipe on bone at distances from 1 to 6 feet with 0.45 caliber, full metal jacket ammunition. This resulted in the unexpected finding of primer-derived gunshot residue (GSR) deep within the wound tract. Of significance is the fact that the GSR was deposited on the bone, under the periosteum, after the bullet passed through a Ziploc bag and c. 1 inch of muscle tissue. It is also important to note that the GSR persisted on the bone after the periosteum was forcibly removed. The presence of primer-derived GSR on bone provides the potential to differentiate gunshot trauma from blunt trauma when the bone presents an atypical gunshot wound. In this study, the presence of gunshot primer residue at a distance of 6 feet demonstrates the potential for establishing maximum gun-to-target distance for remote shootings.

  1. Unremitting embolus from cardiac myxoma at circumflex artery trifurcation.

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    Milicevic, Goran; Gavranovic, Zeljka; Cupic, Hrvoje; Cerovec, Dusko; Stipic, Hrvoje; Jukic, Mladen; Letica, Dalibor; Predrijevac, Mladen

    2008-06-06

    Embolisation of coronary artery from cardiac myxoma is very rare and it is not clear what happens with embolic material inside coronary artery after myocardial infarction. The natural course of myxomatous embolus is important because it determines the mode of surgical intervention. Different options of the course of embolus have been speculated, from spontaneous resorption to growth at artery wall. We report a case of embolisation of the circumflex artery trifurcation from a villous left atrial myxoma. The course of the embolus was displayed by coronary angiography repeated 6 months after myocardial infarction. Unlike the previously published case report, we found the embolus to be unremitting.

  2. Embolus radiolabelling in a new canine model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufman, H.H.; Huchton, J.D.; Woo, J.; Cannon, D.C.; Anderson, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    Embolus radiolabelling with 131 I fibrinogen was studied in a canine model of internal carotid artery embolization. The dog was chosen as the experimental animal because of its maxillocarotid artery which permits collateral flow round the occlusion and helps to prevent strokes. Clot was prepared by incubating blood at room temperature to inactivate plasminogen activators and then refrigerating it to promote clot retraction. Emboli persisting 48 hours were seen in 80% of animals. Major strokes were not seen when 0.25 to 0.30 cm 3 were used. Autoradiography and well counting revealed uptake of isotope. The test, when refined, should provide a tool for the investigation of thromboemboli. (author)

  3. CASE REPORT Air embolus revisited – a diagnostic and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hazards of ionizing radiation and the potential for contrast media to ... the vascular sys- tem through lacerations to major veins, due to the sucking effect of the ... A further, indirect mechanism of systemic arterial air embolus is recognised.

  4. Cranio-cerebral gunshot wounds

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    C. Majer1, G. Iacob2

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Cranio-cerebral gunshots wounds(CCGW are the most devastating injuriesto the central nervous system, especiallymade by high velocity bullets, the mostdevastating, severe and usually fatal type ofmissile injury to the head.Objective: To investigate and compare,using a retrospective study on five cases theclinical outcomes of CCGW. Predictors ofpoor outcome were: older age, delayedmode of transportation, low admissionCGS score with haemodynamic instability,CT visualization of diffuse brain damage,bihemispheric, multilobar injuries withlateral and midline sagittal planestrajectories made by penetrating highvelocity bullets fired from a very closerange, brain stem and ventricular injurywith intraventricular and/or subarachnoidhemorrhage, mass effect and midline shift,evidence of herniation and/or hematomas,high ICP and/or hypotension, abnormalcoagulation states on admission ordisseminated intravascular coagulation. Lessharmful effects were generated by retainedmissiles, bone fragments with CNSinfection, DAI lesions and neuronaldamages associated to cavitation, seizures.Material and methods: 5 patients (4 maleand 1 female, age ranged 22-65 years, withCCGW, during the period 2004-2009,caused by military conflict and accidentalfiring. After initial resuscitation all patientswere assessed on admission by the GlasgowComa Scale (GCS. After investigations: Xrayskull, brain CT, Angio-CT, cerebralMRI, SPECT; baseline investigations,neurological, haemodynamic andcoagulability status all patients underwentsurgical treatment following emergencyintervention. The survival, mortality andfunctional outcome were evaluated byGlasgow Outcome Scale (GOS score.Results: Referring on five cases weevaluate on a retrospective study the clinicaloutcome, imagistics, microscopic studies onneuronal and axonal damage generated bytemporary cavitation along the cerebralbullet’s track, therapeutics, as the review ofthe literature. Two patients with anadmission CGS 9 and 10

  5. Application of proton-induced X-ray emission technique to gunshot residue analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, P.; Panigrahi, N.; Rao, M.S.; Varier, K.M.; Sen, S.; Mehta, G.K.

    1982-01-01

    The proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique was applied to the identification and analysis of gunshot residues. Studies were made of the type of bullet and bullet hole identification, firearm discharge element profiles, the effect of various target backings, and hand swabbings. The discussion of the results reviews the sensitivity of the PIXE technique, its nondestructive nature, and its role in determining the distance from the gun to the victim and identifying the type of bullet used and whether a wound was made by a bullet or not. The high sensitivity of the PIXE technique, which is able to analyze samples as small as 0.1 to 1 ng, and its usefulness for detecting a variety of elements should make it particularly useful in firearms residue investigations

  6. Low velocity gunshot wounds result in significant contamination regardless of ballistic characteristics.

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    Weinstein, Joseph; Putney, Emily; Egol, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Controversy exists among the orthopedic community regarding the treatment of gunshot injuries. No consistent treatment algorithm exists for treatment of low energy gunshot wound (GSW) trauma. The purpose of this study was to critically examine the wound contamination following low velocity GSW based upon bullet caliber and clothing fiber type found within the injury track. Four types of handguns were fired at ballistic gel from a 10-foot distance. Various clothing materials were applied (denim, cotton, polyester, and wool) circumferentially around the tissue agar in a loose manor. A total of 32 specimens were examined. Each caliber handgun was fired a minimum of 5 times into a gel. Regardless of bullet caliber there was gross contamination of the entire bullet track in 100% of specimens in all scenarios and for all fiber types. Furthermore, as would be expected, the degree of contamination appeared to increase as the size of the bullet increased. Low velocity GSWs result in significant contamination regardless of bullet caliber and jacket type. Based upon our results further investigation of low velocity GSW tracks is warranted. Further clinical investigation should focus on the degree to which debridement should be undertaken.

  7. Endoscopic Removal of a Bullet That Migrated to the Third Ventricle Causing Hydrocephalus.

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    Aydoseli, Aydın; Unal, Tugrul Cem; Aras, Yavuz; Sabanci, Pulat Akın; Altunrende, Emre; Izgi, Nail

    2017-09-01

    Hydrocephalus caused by an intraventricular bullet is a rare event. We report a case of endoscopic removal of an intraventricular bullet. A 66-year-old man was admitted with a gunshot wound to the head after a suicide attempt. The bullet migrated from the frontal parenchyma to the third ventricle day 4 of admission. On day 21 of admission, the patient developed hydrocephalus with obstruction of the cerebral aqueduct. The bullet was accessed through an endoscopic third ventriculostomy and removed using an endoscope. Hydrocephalus may develop in patients with intraventricular foreign objects. When such objects must be removed, the endoscopic approach is a safe, efficient, and minimally invasive procedure. To our knowledge, this is the first case in the literature of foreign object removal from the ventricle via a transcortical endoscopic approach. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Delayed oedema in the pyramidal tracts remote from intracerebral missile path following gunshot injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiex, R.; Uhl, E. [Department of Neurosurgery, Aachen University, Pauwelsstrasse 30, 52057, Aachen (Germany); Thron, A. [Department of Neuroradiology, Aachen University, Pauwelsstrasse 30, 52057, Aachen (Germany)

    2004-02-01

    A 60-year-old man developed a severe left hemiparesis and central facial palsy, accompanied by somnolence and dysarthria 9 days after a gunshot wound to the right temporal region, from which he slowly recovered over 3 months. MRI disclosed bilateral oedema of the pyramidal tracts. This was interpreted as a consequence of the impact of the pressure wave caused by the bullet, after excluding an infectious or vascular cause. (orig.)

  9. Experimental study of chemical embolus therapy combined with radiotherapy for VX2 bone tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Mochizuki, Kazuo; Ishii, Yoshiaki

    2000-01-01

    We conducted an experimental study, using a combination of coarse crystal cisplatin and radiotherapy for bone tumors, to evaluate the possibility of the clinical application of chemical embolus therapy in the field of orthopedic surgery. Experimental femoral bone tumors were produced, in rabbits, using VX2 carcinoma. The rabbits were allocated to five groups: untreated control, embolus, chemical embolus, irradiation alone, and chemical embolus and irradiation combination. These therapies were evaluated comparatively, in terms of local antitumor effects (including body weight, X-ray findings, angiography, and histopathology) and in terms of inhibition of pulmonary metastasis. Local antitumor effects, as evaluated by all parameters, except for body weight, were significantly greater for the chemical and irradiation combination group than for the chemical embolus, irradiation alone, untreated control, and embolus groups. There was no significant difference in the inhibition of pulmonary metastasis among the chemical embolus and irradiation combination, chemical embolus, and irradiation alone groups. These findings demonstrated the synergistic effect of the combination of chemical embolus therapy and radiotherapy. In this study, however, no significant difference was found between the chemical embolus therapy alone and the combination therapy groups in the inhibitory effect on pulmonary tumor metastasis, suggesting the need to conduct combination therapy repeatedly in the clinical setting. (author)

  10. Management of migrating intracranial bullets: lessons learned from surviving an AK-47 bullet through the lateral brainstem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rammo, Richard A; DeFazio, Michael V; Bullock, M Ross

    2012-01-01

    Survival after a gunshot wound (GSW) to the head is becoming more common, with an accompanying increase in spontaneous migration of these intracranial bullet fragments. This phenomenon is well described in current literature and is a potentially life-threatening delayed complication of GSW to the head. We present the case of a 17-year-old boy who survived a penetrating GSW to the cranium and cerebellum after an accident involving an AK (Automatic Kalashnikov)-47 (7.62 mm). Following initial attempts to remove the bullet and associated hematoma from the cerebellar hemisphere, intraoperative fluoroscopy revealed that the bullet had migrated to lie within the right middle cerebellar peduncle with the development of intraoperative cardiac arrhythmia. The bullet could not be retrieved without risk of damage to the superior and inferior cerebellar arteries. The patient then developed bacterial meningitis, and further imaging revealed the bullet had again migrated under the cerebellar cortex to an accessible location. The infection was treated with aggressive antibiotic therapy and the bullet was removed from the posterior fossa, thus preventing recurrence of infection and further migration. The patient regained full motor, speech, and proprioceptive function within months after injury. The potential for spontaneous migration exists with any penetrating brain injury involving a retained foreign body. When a retained intracranial foreign body is unable to be safely extracted during initial debridement, close clinical evaluation is essential and plain-film or computed tomographic imaging should be considered in order to enhance the early detection of delayed-onset life-threatening deterioration, such as meningitis and occlusion of cerebrospinal fluid drainage, because of spontaneous migration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Civilian Penetrating Gunshot Injury to the Neurocranium in Enugu.

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    Onyia, Ephraim Eziechina; Chikani, Mark C; Mezue, Wilfred C; Uche, Enoch O; Iloabachie, Izuchukwu; Mesi, Matthew; Ejembi, Sunday; Agunwa, Chuka

    2017-01-01

    Civilian penetrating gunshot injuries to the neurocranium are no longer uncommon in Nigeria. Such injuries are however poorly reported. They are associated with poor outcome and, at close range, are frequently fatal, especially when inflicted by high-velocity weapons. Prompt transfer to neurosurgical service and urgent intervention may improve outcome in those that are not mortally wounded. Fifty-two patients with civilian penetrating gunshot wounds seen over a 10-year period (2004-2014) at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital and Memfys Hospital for Neurosurgery Enugu were reviewed retrospectively, and their data were analyzed to evaluate factors that impacted on outcome. Only patients with clinical and imaging evidence of cranial gunshot injuries who reached hospital alive were included in the study. The overall mortality and Glasgow outcome score were analyzed. Fifty-two patients with isolated civilian penetrating gunshot wounds were identified (M:F = 7.7:1); mean (standard deviation) age was 32.8 (11.9) years. There was a high correlation (0.983) between the sex of the patients and the outcome. The overall mortality was 30.8%, whereas the mortality for patients with postresuscitation Glasgow coma scale (GCS) score ≤8 was 57%, as against 12.9% in those in whom postresuscitation GCS was >8; meaning that 87.1% of patients in whom postresuscitation GCS was >8 survived. Thirty-one patients (59.6%) had papillary abnormalities. Majority of patients with monohemispheric lesions survived while all those with diencephalic, transventricular, and posterior fossa involvement had 100% mortality. Admitting GCS and bullet trajectory were predictive of outcome.

  12. Civilian penetrating gunshot injury to the neurocranium in Enugu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ephraim Eziechina Onyia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Civilian penetrating gunshot injuries to the neurocranium are no longer uncommon in Nigeria. Such injuries are however poorly reported. They are associated with poor outcome and, at close range, are frequently fatal, especially when inflicted by high-velocity weapons. Prompt transfer to neurosurgical service and urgent intervention may improve outcome in those that are not mortally wounded. Materials and Methods: Fifty-two patients with civilian penetrating gunshot wounds seen over a 10-year period (2004–2014 at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital and Memfys Hospital for Neurosurgery Enugu were reviewed retrospectively, and their data were analyzed to evaluate factors that impacted on outcome. Only patients with clinical and imaging evidence of cranial gunshot injuries who reached hospital alive were included in the study. The overall mortality and Glasgow outcome score were analyzed. Results: Fifty-two patients with isolated civilian penetrating gunshot wounds were identified (M:F = 7.7:1; mean (standard deviation age was 32.8 (11.9 years. There was a high correlation (0.983 between the sex of the patients and the outcome. The overall mortality was 30.8%, whereas the mortality for patients with postresuscitation Glasgow coma scale (GCS score ≤8 was 57%, as against 12.9% in those in whom postresuscitation GCS was> 8; meaning that 87.1% of patients in whom postresuscitation GCS was> 8 survived. Thirty-one patients (59.6% had papillary abnormalities. Majority of patients with monohemispheric lesions survived while all those with diencephalic, transventricular, and posterior fossa involvement had 100% mortality. Conclusions: Admitting GCS and bullet trajectory were predictive of outcome.

  13. Stunning effect of different rifle-bullets for slaughter of outdoor cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Retz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The slaughter method via gunshot implies a stunning of cattle by means of a targeted shot from a rifle and is as an alternative to regular slaughter at abattoirs. This method is only permitted under restricted circumstances and if the cattle is held on a pasture all the year. However, there is a considerable lack of specifications regulated by law concerning calibre and bullet-type. In this study, four different calibres, two bullet-types and two different shot placements were investigated with respect to their stunning efficiency. All of the calibres exhibited an entry-energy over 400 J and provided sufficient stunning potential. Yet, only calibre .22 Magnum caused no exit of the bullet out of the scull, which provides higher safety conditions for man and cattle.

  14. Shored gunshot wound of exit. A phenomenon with identity crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, J C

    1983-09-01

    Shored gunshot wound of exit is produced when the outstretched skin is impaled, sandwiched, and crushed between the outgoing bullet and the unyielding object over the exit site, thus leaving an abrasion collar on the wound margin. Proper coaptation of the wound margin is impossible because of the loss of skin just like those observed in entrance wounds. In contrast to the entrance wound, the supported exit wound shows a scalloped or punched-out abrasion collar and sharply contoured skin in between the radiating skin lacerations marginating the abrasion (Fig. 1). Should gunpowder be observed around the exit site, it is often unevenly distributed, and is not associated with searing, gunpowder stippled abrasion, tatooing, and deposition of soot.

  15. Postmortem computed tomography (PMCT) and autopsy in deadly gunshot wounds--a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhoff, S M; Scaparra, E F; Grimm, J; Scherr, M; Graw, M; Reiser, M F; Peschel, O

    2016-05-01

    Postmortem computed tomography (PMCT) data in gunshot-related death were evaluated by two reader groups and compared to the gold standard autopsy for the determination of forensic pathology criteria. Reader group I consisted of two board-certified radiologists whereas one board-certified radiologist and one board-certified forensic pathologist formed group II. PMCT data of 51 gunshot-related deaths were evaluated for the forensic pathology criteria number of gun shots, localization of gunshot injury, caliber, and direction of the gunshot differentiating between entry and exit wound as well as associated injury to surrounding tissue. The results of both reader groups were compared to the each other and to autopsy findings considered as gold standard. Reader groups I and II and as gold standard the autopsy evaluation showed in general a good correlation between all results. The overall discrepancy rate was 12/51 (23.4%) cases for group I and 8/51 (15.6%) for group II. Ultimately, the designated reader is able to draw the following conclusion from the presented data. At first, physical autopsy is better than PMCT regarding the localization of most gunshot injuries. Second, PMCT presents with better results than physical autopsy in locating fragmented bullets/fragment clouds, and finally, PMCT results of two radiologists were equivalent to the results of one evaluating radiologist and one pathologist with the exception of caliber assessment. However, referring to the pure numbers, the slight but not significant difference in the overall discrepancy rate of both reader groups might indicate the advantage of combining expertise in evaluating imaging in cases of gunshot-related death.

  16. Identification of chemical signatures of gunshot residues in different fabrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, Joao Carlos Dias de

    2010-01-01

    The modern forensic science goes hand in hand with scientific research. The forensic scientists are faced every day with many cases requiring the analysis of residues from firing gun (gunshot residues). This works describes the development of a methodology to determine chemical signatures of shots from a firearm, by measuring the concentrations of Pb, Ba e Sb in the residues from these shots deposited near the entrance hole of bullets, based on the technique with high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HRICP-MS). Shots were performed on five types of target-fabrics and collected testimonies from regions close to the entrance hole of projectiles. The results showed that the method enabled us to identify and distinguish the residues of the .38 caliber revolver and pistols .40 and 9mm caliber. The use of ternary graphs as a tool for data analysis helped to identify specific patterns of distribution of blank samples and gunshot residues deposited after firing revolvers and pistols. The methodology enabled the assignment of the origin of the shot through the confirmation of the residues collected also from the hands of shooters. As a result the methodology in police procedures and aims to add a valuable contribution to forensic investigations. (author)

  17. Primary gastric cancer presenting with a metastatic embolus in the common carotid artery: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Ying

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although about 30% of gastric cancers have distant metastasis at the time of initial diagnosis, metastatic tumor embolus in the main blood vessels is not common, especially in the main artery. The report presents, for the first time, an extremely rare clinical case of a metastatic embolus in the common carotid artery (CCA from primary gastric cancer. Metastatic embolus from the primary tumor should be considered when patients present with gastric cancer accompanied by intravascular emboli. The patient should be actively examined further so as to allow early detection and treatment.

  18. "Luck's always to blame": silent wounds of a penetrating gunshot trauma sustained 20 years ago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomos, Ioannis; Manali, Effrosyni D; Argentos, Stylianos; Raptakis, Thomas; Papiris, Spyros A

    2015-01-01

    Gunshot tracheal injuries represent life-threatening events and usually necessitate emergent surgical intervention. We report a case of an exceptional finding of a patient with retained ballistic fragments in the soft tissues of the thorax, proximal to the right subclavian artery and the trachea, carrying silently his wounds for two decades without any medical or surgical intervention. The bullet pellet on the upper part of the trachea seen accidentally in the chest computed tomography, was also found during bronchoscopy. In short "luck's always to blame".

  19. Distributed radar network for real-time tracking of bullet trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yimin; Li, Xin; Jin, Yuanwei; Amin, Moeness G.; Eydgahi, Ali

    2009-05-01

    Gunshot detection, sniper localization, and bullet trajectory prediction are of significant importance in military and homeland security applications. While the majority of existing work is based on acoustic and electro-optical sensors, this paper develops a framework of networked radar systems that uses distributed radar sensor networks to achieve the aforementioned objectives. The use of radio frequency radar systems allows the achievement of subtime- of-flight tracking response, enabling to response before the bullet reaches its target and, as such, effectively leading to the reduction of injuries and casualties in military and homeland security operations. The focus of this paper is to examine the MIMO radar concept with concurrent transmission of low-correlation waveforms from multiple radar sets to ensure wide surveillance coverage and maintain a high waveform repetition frequency for long coherent time interval required to achieve return signal concentration.

  20. A new model for the characterization of infection risk in gunshot injuries:Technology, principal consideration and clinical implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilker Conrad

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The extent of wound contamination in gunshot injuries is still a topic of controversial debate. The purpose of the present study is to develop a model that illustrates the contamination of wounds with exogenous particles along the bullet path. Material and methods To simulate bacteria, radio-opaque barium titanate (3-6 μm in diameter was atomized in a dust chamber. Full metal jacket or soft point bullets caliber .222 (n = 12, v0 = 1096 m/s were fired through the chamber into a gelatin block directly behind it. After that, the gelatin block underwent multi-slice CT in order to analyze the permanent and temporary wound cavity. Results The permanent cavity caused by both types of projectiles showed deposits of barium titanate distributed over the entire bullet path. Full metal jacket bullets left only few traces of barium titanate in the temporary cavity. In contrast, the soft point bullets disintegrated completely, and barium titanate covered the entire wound cavity. Discussion Deep penetration of potential exogenous bacteria can be simulated easily and reproducibly with barium titanate particles shot into a gelatin block. Additionally, this procedure permits conclusions to be drawn about the distribution of possible contaminants and thus can yield essential findings in terms of necessary therapeutic procedures.

  1. Intracardiac foreign body resulting from a transmediastinal gunshot mimics an extracardiac foreign body: An image presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsun-Yi Fu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A transmediastinal gunshot wound (TMGW is one of the most severe traumatic injuries, with a high mortality rate. Prompt diagnosis and emergency surgical intervention with or without cardiopulmonary bypass are usually required to save lives. We report a particular case of TMGW in which the computed tomography imaging findings indicated an extracardiac foreign body. However, intraoperative findings revealed an intracardiac foreign body, and urgent cardiopulmonary bypass was performed to remove the foreign body. We suggest that cardiopulmonary bypass should be on standby during an exploratory sternotomy for TMGW, when the trajectory of the bullet hints at a cardiac-penetrating injury according to imaging studies and the location of the bullet remains unaffected by the patient's postural changes.

  2. Evaluating How Circle of Willis Topology Affects Embolus Distribution in the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jani, Neel; Mukherjee, Debanjan; Shadden, Shawn

    2016-11-01

    Embolic stroke occurs when fragmented cellular or acellular material (emboli) travels to the brain to occlude an artery. Understanding the transport of emboli across unsteady, pulsatile flow in complex arterial geometries is challenging and influenced by a range of factors, including patient anatomy. The work herein develops the modeling and mechanistic understanding of how embolus transport is affected by the arterial connections at the base of the brain known as the Circle of Willis (CoW). A majority of the human population has an incomplete CoW anatomy, with connections either missing or ill-developed. We employ numerical simulations combining image-based modeling, computational fluid dynamics, discrete particle dynamics, and a sampling based analysis to compare collateral flow through the most prevalent CoW topologies, to determine embolus distribution fractions among vessels in the CoW, and to investigate the role of inertial effects in causing differences in flow and embolus distribution. The computational framework developed enables characterization of the complex interplay of anatomy, hemodynamics, and embolus properties in the context of embolic stroke as well as statistical analysis of embolism risks across common CoW variations.

  3. GUNSHOT FRACTURES OF TIBIA AND FEMUR - EXCELLENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-10-10

    Oct 10, 2011 ... fractures due to gunshot injury grafted with reamed bone marrow and immobilised with Surgical ... open fractures, which pose a challenging problem .... Table 2. Gustillo-Anderson Classification of fractures and infection.

  4. Transient threshold shift after gunshot noise exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saedi, B; Ghasemi, M; Motiee, M; Mojtahed, M; Safavi, A

    2013-01-01

    Many people, such as soldiers, are routinely exposed to gunshot noise during target practice. It is suspected that this high-intensity noise may affect audition through repeated Transient Threshold Shifts (TTS); it can also mechanically alter auditory components such as waves. This study investigates the scope of gunshot noise from the AK-47 rifle (Kalashnikov) and the impact on the shooters' audition. Forty soldiers (80 ears) were recruited in this study. They were all young and being exposed to gunshot noise for the first time. Gunshot characteristics were measured before exposure. The soldiers underwent auditory evaluation with Pure Tone Audiometry (PTA) and Oto-Acoustic Emission (OAE) once before exposure and immediately (less than one hour) after exposure. The AK-47 gunshot noise pressure level varied between L(AIm) = 73.7 dBA to L(AIm) = 111.4 dBA. Fourteen participants had subclinical hearing impairment in their pre-exposure evaluation; this number increased to 16 after the exposure. Six months post-exposure and later, the number of cases with impairment had fallen to eight (improvement in 50%). Both pre- and post-exposure OAE results were within normal values, while PTA results indicated a significant threshold alteration only at 6 kHz. The results of this study confirm that exposure to gunshot noise with no ear protection can represent a significant hazard for auditory function, especially at higher frequencies.

  5. Lead intoxication and knee osteoarthritis after a gunshot: long-term follow-up case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gameiro, Vinicius Schott; de Araújo, Gabriel Costa Serrão; Bruno, Felipe Motta Moreira

    2013-06-24

    This case is of a man who suffered gunshots and developed saturnism. Projectiles were removed from the abdomen, but one was left in the knee for 14 years. The patient presented with weight loss, headaches, loss of sight, tiredness, cramps, painful joints and trembling. We identified ataxic movements such as intense trembling of the limbs and anaemia. The abdominal pain caused eight internments in different hospitals, and the patient always received the diagnosis of intestinal subocclusion. We removed the bullet and did a wide synovectomy. The patient did not receive a clinical treatment with chelates. The symptoms of lead poisoning ceased, but he developed knee osteoarthritis, during the 7 years of follow-up.

  6. Detecting gunshots using wearable accelerometers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles E Loeffler

    Full Text Available Gun violence continues to be a staggering and seemingly intractable issue in many communities. The prevalence of gun violence among the sub-population of individuals under court-ordered community supervision provides an opportunity for intervention using remote monitoring technology. Existing monitoring systems rely heavily on location-based monitoring methods, which have incomplete geographic coverage and do not provide information on illegal firearm use. This paper presents the first results demonstrating the feasibility of using wearable inertial sensors to recognize wrist movements and other signals corresponding to firearm usage. Data were collected from accelerometers worn on the wrists of subjects shooting a number of different firearms, conducting routine daily activities, and participating in activities and tasks that could be potentially confused with firearm discharges. A training sample was used to construct a combined detector and classifier for individual gunshots, which achieved a classification accuracy of 99.4 percent when tested against a hold-out sample of observations. These results suggest the feasibility of using inexpensive wearable sensors to detect firearm discharges.

  7. Non- Surgical Approach in a Case of Placenta Accreta Complicated by a Pulmonary Embolus

    OpenAIRE

    İncebiyik, Adnan; Yalcin, Funda; Hilali, Nese Gul; Camuzcuoglu, Aysun; Camuzcuoglu, Hakan; Vural, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Placenta accreta, which is a serious complication of pregnancy that can be treated with a spectrum of treatment methods ranging from medical treatment to hysterectomy, is characterized by the abnormal adherence of the placental tissue to the uterine wall. The presence of a simultaneous pulmonary embolus necessitates more conservative treatment approaches due to anticoagulant treatment and limited lung capacity of the patient. In this case report, a case with these risk factors that was treate...

  8. Damage to apparel layers and underlying tissue due to hand-gun bullets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Debra; Kieser, Jules; Mabbott, Alexander; Mott, Charlotte; Champion, Stephen; Girvan, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Ballistic damage to the clothing of victims of gunshot wounds to the chest can provide useful forensic evidence. Anyone shot in the torso will usually be wearing clothing which will be damaged by the penetrating impact event and can reportedly be the source of some of the debris in the wound. Minimal research has previously been reported regarding the effect of bullets on apparel fabrics and underlying tissue. This paper examines the effect of ammunition (9 mm full metal jacket [FMJ] DM11 A1B2, 8.0 g; and soft point flat nose Remington R357M3, 10.2 g) on clothing layers that cover the torso (T-shirt, T-shirt plus hoodie, T-shirt plus denim jacket) and underlying structures represented by porcine thoracic wall (skin, underlying tissue, ribs). Impacts were recorded using a Phantom V12 high speed camera. Ejected bone debris was collected before wound tracts were dissected and measured; any debris found was recovered for further analysis. Size and mass of bony debris was recorded; fibre debris recovered from the wound and impact damage to fabrics were imaged using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Remington R357M3 ammunition was characteristically associated with stellate fabric damage; individual fibres were less likely to show mushrooming. In contrast, 9 mm FMJ ammunition resulted in punch-out damage to fabric layers, with mushrooming of individual fibres being more common. Entry wound sizes were similar for both types of ammunition and smaller than the diameter of the bullet that caused them. In this work, the Remington R357M3 ammunition resulted in larger exit wounds due to the bullet construction which mushroomed. That fabric coverings did not affect the amount of bony debris produced is interesting, particularly given there was some evidence that apparel layers affected the size of the wound. Recent work has suggested that denim (representative of jeans) can exacerbate wounding caused by high-velocity bullet impacts to the thigh when the bullet does not

  9. ROTATING BULLETS FROM A VARIABLE PROTOSTAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xuepeng [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 2 West Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); Arce, Héctor G. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Zhang, Qizhou [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Launhardt, Ralf; Henning, Thomas, E-mail: xpchen@pmo.ac.cn [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-06-20

    We present Submillimeter Array (SMA) CO (2–1) observations toward the protostellar jet driven by SVS 13 A, a variable protostar in the NGC 1333 star-forming region. The SMA CO (2–1) images show an extremely high-velocity jet composed of a series of molecular “bullets.” Based on the SMA CO observations, we discover clear and large systematic velocity gradients, perpendicular to the jet axis, in the blueshifted and redshifted bullets. After discussing several alternative interpretations, such as twin-jets, jet precession, warped disk, and internal helical shock, we suggest that the systematic velocity gradients observed in the bullets result from the rotation of the SVS 13 A jet. From the SMA CO images, the measured rotation velocities are 11.7–13.7 km s{sup −1} for the blueshifted bullet and 4.7 ± 0.5 km s{sup −1} for the redshifted bullet. The estimated specific angular momenta of the two bullets are comparable to those of dense cores, about 10 times larger than those of protostellar envelopes, and about 20 times larger than those of circumstellar disks. If the velocity gradients are due to the rotation of the SVS 13 A jet, the significant amount of specific angular momenta of the bullets indicates that the rotation of jets/outflows is a key mechanism to resolve the so-called “angular momentum problem” in the field of star formation. The kinematics of the bullets suggests that the jet launching footprint on the disk has a radius of ∼7.2–7.7 au, which appears to support the extended disk-wind model. We note that further observations are needed to comprehensively understand the kinematics of the SVS 13 A jet, in order to confirm the rotation nature of the bullets.

  10. Acoustic methods for measuring bullet velocity

    OpenAIRE

    Courtney, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This article describes two acoustic methods to measure bullet velocity with an accuracy of 1% or better. In one method, a microphone is placed within 0.1 m of the gun muzzle and a bullet is fired at a steel target 45 m away. The bullet's flight time is the recorded time between the muzzle blast and sound of hitting the target minus the time for the sound to return from the target to the microphone. In the other method, the microphone is placed equidistant from both the gun muzzle and the stee...

  11. A multitechnique approach for bullet characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreenivas, K.; Venkatasubramanian, V.S.; Sankar Das, M.

    1978-01-01

    The possibility of using lead isotopic composition of bullet lead in conjunction with chemical composition (with respect to minor and trace elements) for the characterisation of bullet lead samples is demonstrated. Lead isotope analysis was done by using a mass spectrometer M.S. 702, while trace analyses were carried out by a combination of neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry. It is pointed out that this multi-technique approach to the problem of bullet characterization can be gainfully employed in forensic investigations. (author)

  12. Pulmonary embolus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... how well your lungs are working: Arterial blood gases Pulse oximetry The following imaging tests can help ... 2018, A.D.A.M., Inc. Duplication for commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM ...

  13. Potential Hazard to Human Health from Exposure to Fragments of Lead Bullets and Shot in the Tissues of Game Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pain, Deborah J.; Cromie, Ruth L.; Newth, Julia; Brown, Martin J.; Crutcher, Eric; Hardman, Pippa; Hurst, Louise; Mateo, Rafael; Meharg, Andrew A.; Moran, Annette C.; Raab, Andrea; Taggart, Mark A.; Green, Rhys E.

    2010-01-01

    Background Lead is highly toxic to animals. Humans eating game killed using lead ammunition generally avoid swallowing shot or bullets and dietary lead exposure from this source has been considered low. Recent evidence illustrates that lead bullets fragment on impact, leaving small lead particles widely distributed in game tissues. Our paper asks whether lead gunshot pellets also fragment upon impact, and whether lead derived from spent gunshot and bullets in the tissues of game animals could pose a threat to human health. Methodology/Principal Findings Wild-shot gamebirds (6 species) obtained in the UK were X-rayed to determine the number of shot and shot fragments present, and cooked using typical methods. Shot were then removed to simulate realistic practice before consumption, and lead concentrations determined. Data from the Veterinary Medicines Directorate Statutory Surveillance Programme documenting lead levels in raw tissues of wild gamebirds and deer, without shot being removed, are also presented. Gamebirds containing ≥5 shot had high tissue lead concentrations, but some with fewer or no shot also had high lead concentrations, confirming X-ray results indicating that small lead fragments remain in the flesh of birds even when the shot exits the body. A high proportion of samples from both surveys had lead concentrations exceeding the European Union Maximum Level of 100 ppb w.w. (0.1 mg kg−1 w.w.) for meat from bovine animals, sheep, pigs and poultry (no level is set for game meat), some by several orders of magnitude. High, but feasible, levels of consumption of some species could result in the current FAO/WHO Provisional Weekly Tolerable Intake of lead being exceeded. Conclusions/Significance The potential health hazard from lead ingested in the meat of game animals may be larger than previous risk assessments indicated, especially for vulnerable groups, such as children, and those consuming large amounts of game. PMID:20436670

  14. Potential hazard to human health from exposure to fragments of lead bullets and shot in the tissues of game animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah J Pain

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lead is highly toxic to animals. Humans eating game killed using lead ammunition generally avoid swallowing shot or bullets and dietary lead exposure from this source has been considered low. Recent evidence illustrates that lead bullets fragment on impact, leaving small lead particles widely distributed in game tissues. Our paper asks whether lead gunshot pellets also fragment upon impact, and whether lead derived from spent gunshot and bullets in the tissues of game animals could pose a threat to human health. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Wild-shot gamebirds (6 species obtained in the UK were X-rayed to determine the number of shot and shot fragments present, and cooked using typical methods. Shot were then removed to simulate realistic practice before consumption, and lead concentrations determined. Data from the Veterinary Medicines Directorate Statutory Surveillance Programme documenting lead levels in raw tissues of wild gamebirds and deer, without shot being removed, are also presented. Gamebirds containing > or =5 shot had high tissue lead concentrations, but some with fewer or no shot also had high lead concentrations, confirming X-ray results indicating that small lead fragments remain in the flesh of birds even when the shot exits the body. A high proportion of samples from both surveys had lead concentrations exceeding the European Union Maximum Level of 100 ppb w.w. (0.1 mg kg(-1 w.w. for meat from bovine animals, sheep, pigs and poultry (no level is set for game meat, some by several orders of magnitude. High, but feasible, levels of consumption of some species could result in the current FAO/WHO Provisional Weekly Tolerable Intake of lead being exceeded. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The potential health hazard from lead ingested in the meat of game animals may be larger than previous risk assessments indicated, especially for vulnerable groups, such as children, and those consuming large amounts of game.

  15. Potential hazard to human health from exposure to fragments of lead bullets and shot in the tissues of game animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pain, Deborah J; Cromie, Ruth L; Newth, Julia; Brown, Martin J; Crutcher, Eric; Hardman, Pippa; Hurst, Louise; Mateo, Rafael; Meharg, Andrew A; Moran, Annette C; Raab, Andrea; Taggart, Mark A; Green, Rhys E

    2010-04-26

    Lead is highly toxic to animals. Humans eating game killed using lead ammunition generally avoid swallowing shot or bullets and dietary lead exposure from this source has been considered low. Recent evidence illustrates that lead bullets fragment on impact, leaving small lead particles widely distributed in game tissues. Our paper asks whether lead gunshot pellets also fragment upon impact, and whether lead derived from spent gunshot and bullets in the tissues of game animals could pose a threat to human health. Wild-shot gamebirds (6 species) obtained in the UK were X-rayed to determine the number of shot and shot fragments present, and cooked using typical methods. Shot were then removed to simulate realistic practice before consumption, and lead concentrations determined. Data from the Veterinary Medicines Directorate Statutory Surveillance Programme documenting lead levels in raw tissues of wild gamebirds and deer, without shot being removed, are also presented. Gamebirds containing > or =5 shot had high tissue lead concentrations, but some with fewer or no shot also had high lead concentrations, confirming X-ray results indicating that small lead fragments remain in the flesh of birds even when the shot exits the body. A high proportion of samples from both surveys had lead concentrations exceeding the European Union Maximum Level of 100 ppb w.w. (0.1 mg kg(-1) w.w.) for meat from bovine animals, sheep, pigs and poultry (no level is set for game meat), some by several orders of magnitude. High, but feasible, levels of consumption of some species could result in the current FAO/WHO Provisional Weekly Tolerable Intake of lead being exceeded. The potential health hazard from lead ingested in the meat of game animals may be larger than previous risk assessments indicated, especially for vulnerable groups, such as children, and those consuming large amounts of game.

  16. Computed Tomography of gunshot wounds to the head. Personal experience in 23 cases. Ferite da arma da fuoco del cranio osservate con Tomografia Computerizzata. Esperienza personale in 23 casi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salzano, A.; De Rosa, A. (Ospedale Loreto Mare, Neaples (Italy). Servizio di Radiologia); Scialpi, M. (Ospedale Civile SS. Annunziata, Taranto (Italy). Unita' Operativa di Radiodiagnostica, Sez. di Tomografia Computerizzata); Rossi, E.; Carbone, M.; Brunese, L. (Neaples Univ. Federico 2, Neaples (Italy). Ist. di Scienze Radiologiche); Nocera, V. (Ospedale A. Cardarelli, Naples (Italy). Servizio di Radiologia); Muto, M. (Azienda di Rilievo Nazionale A. Cardarelli, Neaples (Italy). Servizio di Neuroradiologia)

    Gunshot wounds to the head are usually mortal injures. Their frequency has been increasing in the last years because of increasing crime rates. Emergency Computed Tomography (CT) makes a useful tool for depicting bullet course and brain damage, and thus helps plan treatment. It has been investigated on the CT signs of subdural hematoma, lacerocontusive focus, subarachnoid hemorrhage, hemoencephalus, skull bone fracture and thecal hollow and report them as an aid to the neurosurgeon and the radiologist, for best treatment planning, and in an attempt to establish use prognostic criteria. It has been reviewed 23 cases of gunshot injuries to the head studied with CT at the Emergency Unit of Loreto Mare 2048ital in Naples, Italy. Twenty patients were men and 3 women; their mean age was 31 years (range: 18-49). Three women and 2 men had been injured accidentally by wandering bullets, and one case was an attempted suicide; all the other cases resulted from shootings. It was found 22 penetrating gunshot wounds: 13 of them with thecal entry hole and intracranial bullet retention and 9 with an entry and exit hole. One case was a superficial wound. Crash skull fractures were seen in 22 cases and they were fragmented in 12, with overlapping thecal fragments in 4, and with deep fragments in 2 cases. Gunshot wounds to the head are complex and severe traumas with high mortality rates because of both early and late effects and complications. CT provides the neurosurgeon with abundant findings for diagnosis and surgical planning, which may result in improved survival rates. In these patients emergency CT plays a fundamental diagnostic role in depicting brain damage and thus remains the method of choice for thorough, rapid and accurate brain and skull studies, as well as to detect possible injury to the chest and abdomen.

  17. Isotopic analysis of bullet lead samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankar Das, M.; Venkatasubramanian, V.S.; Sreenivas, K.

    1976-01-01

    The possibility of using the isotopic composition of lead for the identification of bullet lead is investigated. Lead from several spent bullets were converted to lead sulphide and analysed for the isotopic abundances using an MS-7 mass spectrometer. The abundances are measured relative to that for Pb 204 was too small to permit differentiation, while the range of variation of Pb 206 and Pb 207 and the better precision in their analyses permitted differentiating samples from one another. The correlation among the samples examined has been pointed out. The method is complementary to characterisation of bullet leads by the trace element composition. The possibility of using isotopically enriched lead for tagging bullet lead is pointed out. (author)

  18. Non-invasive Investigation and Management of Aortic Saddle Embolus in a 7-Month-Old Infant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connell, Martin J.; Duff, Desmond F.; Hayes, Roisin M.

    2002-01-01

    There are few reports in the literature on the ultrasound appearance of aortic saddle embolus, and none relating to small children. This unusual condition is usually diagnosed angiographically. The purpose of this report is to show how effectively high-frequency ultrasound can identify a saddle embolus with its associated collateral circulation in a young child, and to demonstrate its usefulness in monitoring the efficacy of treatment. In this case the embolus occurred as a complication of parvovirus B19 myocarditis and was diagnosed and followed up entirely by ultrasound examination,with no invasive procedure performed. The early development of an extensive collateral circulation prevented distal tissue necrosis and allowed a conservative approach to management

  19. [Surgical peculiarities of gunshot injuries to arteries of the extremities caused by modern small arms and light weapons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samokhvalov, I M; Reva, V A; Denisov, A V; Ozeretskovskiĭ, L B; Pronchenko, A A

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the given study was development of surgical tactics in case of femoral artery injury, caused by medium-calibre bullet, on the basis acute experiment on large biological objects. Experimental animals were shot into mid third of the femora by a rifle cartridge in 7,62-mm calibre (AK-47 made in 1943). The analysis of microstructure, made in 5 cross-sections performed every 1-centimetre way from the wound canal, showed that there were no any damages of arterial wall. Authors came to conclusion that the surgical debridement of the gunshot wound, made by a rifle cartridge in 7,62-mm calibre of AK-47, should consist of exsection of devitalized section of artery.

  20. Splenic angiomyxoma with intravascular tumor embolus in a dog: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Mi; Kim, Ah-Young; Lee, Eun-Joo; Park, Jin-Kyu; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Park, Se-Il; Jeong, Kyu-Shik

    2016-07-01

    A 13-year-old castrated male Yorkshire terrier dog had a soft splenic mass, which measured 11 cm in the greatest diameter. Microscopically, the parenchyma of the spleen was completely replaced by myxoid substances. Numerous spindle and stellate cells were loosely arranged in the myxoid stroma, and variable vessels of variable sizes were observed in a loose matrix with poorly defined margins. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that tumor cells were positive for desmin and alpha-SMA, but negative for S-100. Interestingly, intravascular tumor embolus with positive α-SMA expression was observed. This case is meaningful, because angiomyxoma, a rare tumor of dogs, occurs in the spleen. Even in human cases, splenic angiomyxoma was not reported.

  1. Mechanical Thrombectomy with the Embolus Retriever with Interlinked Cages in Acute Ischemic Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steglich-Arnholm, H; Kondziella, D; Wagner, A

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The Embolus Retriever with Interlinked Cages (ERIC) device is a novel stent retriever for mechanical thrombectomy. It consists of interlinked cages and could improve procedural benchmarks and clinical outcome compared with classic stent retrievers. This study compares.......00). However, in patients treated with the ERIC device, thrombectomy procedures were less time-consuming (67 versus 98 minutes,P= .009) and a rescue device was needed less often (18% versus 39%,P= .02) compared with classic stent retrievers. CONCLUSIONS: Mechanical thrombectomy with the ERIC device...... the rates of recanalization, favorable clinical outcome, procedural adverse events, and benchmarks between the ERIC device and classic stent retrievers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 545 patients treated with thrombectomy between 2012 and 2015, 316 patients were included. The mean age was 69 ±13 years...

  2. New optional IVC filter for percutaneous retrieval - in vitro evaluation of embolus capturing efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenther, R.W.; Mossdorf, A.; Pfeffer, J.; Buecker, A.; Neuerburg, J.; Hoej, A.R.; Moelgaard-Nielsen, A.; Schmitz-Rode, T.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: In-vitro evaluation of a new caval filter (Cook Celect Filter) developed for delayed percutaneous retrieval in comparison to the Guenther Tulip filter. Materials and Methods: The new Celect filter is constructed on the basis of the Tulip filter and consists of 4 primary anchoring legs and additional 8 thinner secondary wires to stabilize the filter and to guarantee adequate filtering efficiency. The filtering wires are of the same amount and equal distribution as the filtering wires of the Tulip filter. The secondary wires are arranged in such a way that percutaneous filter retrieval should be possible even if the wires are incorporated into the caval wall. In a flow model (tube size diameter 15-, diameter 22- and diameter 30 mm), the filter was exposed to single and multiple emboli (blood clots) of different sizes (3 x 5, 3 x 10, 5 x 10, 3 x 20, 5 x 20, 7 x 10, 7 x 20 to 10 x 24 mm) to analyse the embolus capturing efficiency under different conditions including eccentric and concentric, horizontal and vertical positions in comparison to the Tulip filter. All testing was carried out in SPSS analytic software; statistical significance was assumed for p-values <0.05. Results: The in-vitro embolus capturing efficiency of the Celect filter proved to be equivalent to the Tulip filter. In the single-embolus test, 91.6% of the clots were captured by the Celect filter and 87.2% by the Tulip filter (p=0.042). Large clots ranging from 7 x 10 to 10 x 24 mm were captured in all cases, whereas the capture rates for the 3 x 5-mm and 3 x 10-mm clots were lower. The filters captured significantly more clots in the concentric than in the eccentric location. There was no significant difference between the overall capture rates of the two filters in the multi-clot test (72.2% vs. 75.1%), which showed deterioration of filter function during multiple clot exposure. With the 15-mm tube, the Celect filter had a significantly higher capture rate than the Tulip filter, whereas it

  3. Pattern of gunshot deaths in a Nigerian Tertiary Health Institution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Internet Journal of Medical Update - EJOURNAL ... This was a prospective descriptive autopsy study of gunshot deaths seen in the University College Hospital (UCH), Ibadan, over a period of twelve months from January to December 2006. All the ... It is important to note the absence of suicidal gunshot deaths in this study.

  4. Pattern at Presentation of Extremity Gunshot Injuries in Warri, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TNHJOURNALPH

    In recent years, the incidence of civilian gunshot injuries has ... In the United States of. America, it is the commonest cause of death in ... agitations in different parts of Africa including. Nigeria that has ... violence crimes in Nigeria, there is need for ... Gt by the police and .... Eighty five cases of gunshot injuries were recorded in ...

  5. Postmortem ventilation in cases of penetrating gunshot and stab wounds to the chest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germerott, Tanja; Preiss, Ulrich S; Ross, Steffen G; Thali, Michael J; Flach, Patricia M

    2013-11-01

    We sought to determine the effect of postmortem ventilation in combination with a suction pump in cases showing penetrating trauma to the chest with haemo- and/or pneumothorax, for better evaluation of the lungs in postmortem computed tomography (PMCT). The study included 6 subjects (1 female, 5 male; age 32-67years) with a penetrating gunshot or stab wound to the chest and consecutive pneumo- and/or haemothorax. The pneumo- and haemothorax were evacuated by a suction pump, and postmortem ventilation was applied using a home care ventilator. PMCT images with and without postmortem ventilation were compared, as well as the autopsy results. In three cases haemo- and pneumothorax was clearly reduced. Postmortem ventilation led to distinct re-expansion of the lungs in two cases, and to re-expansion of single lung lobes in two cases with shotgun injuries. No visible effect was seen in the remaining two cases, because of extensive destruction of lung tissue and blood aspiration. In two cases the injuries sustained in the individual lung lobes were successfully located during postmortem ventilation. The bullet channel was apparent in one case; in another case, injury of the pericardium became visible by generating pneumopericardium. The present method is capable of improving evaluation of the postmortem lung in the presence of single stab or gunshot wounds and if there is no severe destruction of the respiratory system and aspiration. Forensic autopsy should still be considered as the gold standard, although in some cases the present method might be helpful, especially where no autopsy is required. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A bullet-sired bone cyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brogdon, B.G. [University of South Alabama Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Mobile, AL (United States); Cottrell, W.C. [Orthopaedic Associates of West Florida, Clearwater, FL (United States); Nimityongskul, P. [University of South Alabama Medical Center, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Mobile, AL (United States); Takhtani, D. [Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2006-12-15

    Random gunfire deposited a bullet in the proximal tibial metaphysis of a 9-year- old girl. The wound was not incapacitating and was treated conservatively. Within 17 months, soreness developed in the proximal leg, and radiography revealed a large unicameral cyst within which the bullet freely tumbled. Eventually, fear of impending fracture prompted further radiography, computed tomography, surgical intervention and pathological examination of the cyst wall. We believe this is only the second description in the English-language literature of this rare sequence of events. (orig.)

  7. A bullet-sired bone cyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brogdon, B.G.; Cottrell, W.C.; Nimityongskul, P.; Takhtani, D.

    2006-01-01

    Random gunfire deposited a bullet in the proximal tibial metaphysis of a 9-year- old girl. The wound was not incapacitating and was treated conservatively. Within 17 months, soreness developed in the proximal leg, and radiography revealed a large unicameral cyst within which the bullet freely tumbled. Eventually, fear of impending fracture prompted further radiography, computed tomography, surgical intervention and pathological examination of the cyst wall. We believe this is only the second description in the English-language literature of this rare sequence of events. (orig.)

  8. Vitrectomy in double-perforation gunshot injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd El Alim Mohamed A

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed Abd El Alim MohamedOphthalmology department, Ain Shams University, Cairo, EgyptObjective: This study sought to evaluate the result of pars plana vitrectomy in patients with gunshot wounds involving double perforation.Methods: This was a retrospective, noncomparative, interventional case series.Results: Eighteen patients (18 eyes with double-perforation gunshot injuries were treated from February 2010 to March 2012. The group included 16 men (88% and two women (11%; the mean age was 24 (15–33 years. In each case, vitrectomy was scheduled 1–6 weeks after repair of the entrance site. Associated retinal detachments were observed in two eyes (11%, retinal incarceration was observed surrounding the exit site in three eyes (16%, and retention of an intraocular foreign body was observed in two cases. After a follow-up period of 8 ± 2 months, two eyes (11% had achieved visual acuity (VA of 0.5, nine eyes (50% had achieved VA between 0.5 and 0.1, and seven eyes (38% had achieved VA between 0.1 and hand movement. The main reasons for functional failure (VA 0.1 to hand movement were macular dragging (due to fibrosis at the exit site near the macula in seven cases (38%, submacular hemorrhage in four cases (22%, and epimacular fibrosis in five cases (27%. All cases developed postoperative exotropia. One case (5% developed postoperative hemorrhage. No cases exhibited signs of postoperative redetachment.Conclusion: The outcome of pars plana vitrectomy in cases with double perforations is variable. Factors including the surgeon's skill level, the time to surgery, and the efficacy of the intraocular tamponade affect the postoperative outcome.Keywords: pars plana vitrectomy, gunshot injury, double perforation

  9. Treatment Protocol for High Velocity/High Energy Gunshot Injuries to the Face

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peled, Micha; Leiser, Yoav; Emodi, Omri; Krausz, Amir

    2011-01-01

    Major causes of facial combat injuries include blasts, high-velocity/high-energy missiles, and low-velocity missiles. High-velocity bullets fired from assault rifles encompass special ballistic properties, creating a transient cavitation space with a small entrance wound and a much larger exit wound. There is no dispute regarding the fact that primary emergency treatment of ballistic injuries to the face commences in accordance with the current advanced trauma life support (ATLS) recommendations; the main areas in which disputes do exist concern the question of the timing, sequence, and modes of surgical treatment. The aim of the present study is to present the treatment outcome of high-velocity/high-energy gunshot injuries to the face, using a protocol based on the experience of a single level I trauma center. A group of 23 injured combat soldiers who sustained bullet and shrapnel injuries to the maxillofacial region during a 3-week regional military conflict were evaluated in this study. Nine patients met the inclusion criteria (high-velocity/high-energy injuries) and were included in the study. According to our protocol, upon arrival patients underwent endotracheal intubation and were hemodynamically stabilized in the shock-trauma unit and underwent total-body computed tomography with 3-D reconstruction of the head and neck and computed tomography angiography. All patients underwent maxillofacial surgery upon the day of arrival according to the protocol we present. In view of our treatment outcomes, results, and low complication rates, we conclude that strict adherence to a well-founded and structured treatment protocol based on clinical experience is mandatory in providing efficient, appropriate, and successful treatment to a relatively large group of patients who sustain various degrees of maxillofacial injuries during a short period of time. PMID:23449809

  10. Experimental closure of gunshot wounds by fibrin glue with antibiotics in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đenić Nebojša

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Gunshot wounds caused by the automatic rifle M70AB2 (AK-47 7.62 mm, after the primary surgical management, were closed with delayed primary suture during the next four to seven days. This period coincides with the fibroblastic phase of wound healing. Fibrin glue is used as a local hemostatic and as a matrix for the local dosed release of antibiotics. Antibiotics addition to fibrin glue resulted in continuous diffusion into the surrounding next 4 to 7 days. The aim of this study was to create the preconditions for gunshot wounds closing without complications by the application of fibrin glue with antibiotics 24 h after primary surgical treatment. Methods. A total of 14 pigs were wounded in the gluteofemoral region by the bullet M67, initial velocity of 720 m/s. All wounded animals were surgically treated according to the principles of the warsurgery doctrine. Seven wounds were closed with primary delayed suture four days after the primary surgical treatment (traditional approach. Fibrin glue with antibiotics was introduced in seven wounds during the primary surgical treatment and primary delayed suture was done after 24 h. The macroscopic appearance and the clinical assessment of the wound were done during the primary surgical treatment and during its revision after 24 h, as well as histopathological findings at the days 4 and 7 after wounding. Results. Gunshot wounds caused by the automatic rifle M70AB2 (AK-47 7.62 mm, and treated with fibrin glue with antibiotics after primary surgical management, were closed with primary delayed suture after 24 h. In further wound evolution there were no complications. Conclusion. Uncomplicated soft-tissue wounds caused by an automatic M70AB2 rifle may be closed primarily with delayed suture without the risk of developing complications if on revision, 24 h after primary surgery, there were no present necrotic tissues, hematoma, and any signs of infection when fibrin glue with antibiotics

  11. Craniomaxillofacial falling bullet injuries and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuker, Sabri T; Sadda, Raid

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to bring attention to craniocerebral maxillofacial perforating/penetrating injuries due to AK-47 Kalashnikov falling bullets (FBs); these dangerous injuries to both civilians and soldiers are rare. A review of the literature shows no reports on AK-47 FBs leading to double craniocerebral perforation and settling into the maxillofacial region. The number of victims, the AK-47's availability, the associated morbidity and mortality rates, and the rarity of cases prompted this article. The treatment of injuries to the craniocerebral facial clinical profile due to FBs is challenging, and an understanding of the neurosurgical and maxillofacial management of these low-velocity FB injuries is required. We treated 11 cases due to AK-47 rifle FBs and 1 due to anti-aircraft Dashka 12.7-mm FBs. Craniocerebral facial injuries were treated and lodged bullets removed from different challenging locations in the base of the skull, without increasing morbidity and with avoidance of unnecessary surgical trauma to the affected area by the bullets. The required identification of such injuries can be difficult, and the removal of the lodged bullet to prevent secondary complications and reduce the chance of secondary infection can be graver than in other parts of the body. AK-47 FBs are a major public health concern internationally and require serious attention in terms of protection and management for civilians and soldiers in uniform. Copyright 2010 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. CT for gunshot wounds of the pelvis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sclafani, S.J.; Mann, R.; Trooskin, S.; Scalea, T.; Vieux, E.; Kantor, A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on mandatory laparotomy which remains the standard for transpelvic gunshot wounds. To limit the morbidity and hospital stay related to negative laparotomy, we prospectively evaluated the safety and efficacy of CT in stable patients with transpelvic gunshot wounds. Patients were considered if the entry of exit wound was below the iliac crest and above the perineum. Inclusion criteria were stable vital signs, absence of peritoneal signs or blood per rectum, and peritoneal lavage count less than 25,000 red blood cells per milliliter. Proctoscopy and angiography were performed as indicated by trajectory. Eighteen patients were admitted to this study in an 18-month period. All patients had a trauma score of 12 on presentation. Diagnostic peritoneal lavage was negative in 17 patients. Proctoscopy was negative in 7 patients. Angiography was negative in 7 patients. CT diagnosed 15 pelvic fractures, 2 colon injuries, and 2 bladder injuries. Three patients require laparotomy. Fifteen of 18 patient were spared laparotomy. There were no deaths and no complications

  13. Elemental quantification of large gunshot residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, A. [Ion Implantation Laboratory, Institute of Physics, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, P.O. Box 15051, CEP 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Graduate Program on Materials Science, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, CEP 91540-000 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Silva, L.M. [Ion Implantation Laboratory, Institute of Physics, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, P.O. Box 15051, CEP 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Graduate Program on Materials Science, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, CEP 91540-000 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Forensic Institute of Porto Alegre, Av. Princesa Isabel 1056, CEP 90230-010 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Souza, C.T. de; Stori, E.M. [Ion Implantation Laboratory, Institute of Physics, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, P.O. Box 15051, CEP 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Boufleur, L.A. [Ion Implantation Laboratory, Institute of Physics, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, P.O. Box 15051, CEP 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Graduate Program on Materials Science, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, CEP 91540-000 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Amaral, L. [Ion Implantation Laboratory, Institute of Physics, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, P.O. Box 15051, CEP 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); and others

    2015-04-01

    In the present work we embarked on the evaluation of the Sb/Pb, Ba/Pb and Sb/Ba elemental ratios found in relatively large particles (of the order of 50–150 μm across) ejected in the forward direction when a gun is fired. These particles are commonly referred to as gunshot residues (GSR). The aim of this work is to compare the elemental ratios of the GSR with those found in the primer of pristine cartridges in order to check for possible correlations. To that end, the elemental concentration of gunshot residues and the respective ammunition were investigated through PIXE (Particle-Induced X-ray Emission) and micro-PIXE techniques. The ammunition consisted of a .38 SPL caliber (ogival lead type) charged in a Taurus revolver. Pristine cartridges were taken apart for the PIXE measurements. The shooting sessions were carried out in a restricted area at the Forensic Institute at Porto Alegre. Residues ejected at forward directions were collected on a microporous tape. The PIXE experiments were carried out employing 2.0 MeV proton beams with a beam spot size of 1 mm{sup 2}. For the micro-PIXE experiments, the samples were irradiated with 2.2 MeV proton beams of 2 × 2 μm{sup 2}. The results found for the ratios of Sb/Pb, Ba/Pb and Sb/Ba do not correlate with those stemming from the analysis of the primer.

  14. Facial Gunshot Wounds: Trends in Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Yoav; Cole, Patrick; Hollier, Larry H.

    2009-01-01

    Facial gunshot wounds, often comprising significant soft and bone tissue defects, pose a significant challenge for reconstructive surgeons. Whether resulting from assault, accident, or suicide attempt, a thorough assessment of the defects is essential for devising an appropriate tissue repair and replacement with a likely secondary revision. Immediately after injury, management is centered on advanced trauma life support with patient stabilization as the primary goal. Thorough examination along with appropriate imaging is critical for identifying any existing defects. Whereas past surgical management advocated delayed definitive treatment using serial debridement, today’s management favors use of more immediate reconstruction. Recent advances in microsurgical technique have shifted favor from local tissue advancement to distant free flap transfers, which improve cosmesis and function. This has resulted in a lower number of surgeries required to achieve reconstruction. Because of the diversity of injury and the complexity of facial gunshot injuries, a systematic algorithm is essential to help manage the different stages of healing and to ensure that the best outcome is achieved. PMID:22110801

  15. Elemental quantification of large gunshot residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, A.; Silva, L.M.; Souza, C.T. de; Stori, E.M.; Boufleur, L.A.; Amaral, L.

    2015-01-01

    In the present work we embarked on the evaluation of the Sb/Pb, Ba/Pb and Sb/Ba elemental ratios found in relatively large particles (of the order of 50–150 μm across) ejected in the forward direction when a gun is fired. These particles are commonly referred to as gunshot residues (GSR). The aim of this work is to compare the elemental ratios of the GSR with those found in the primer of pristine cartridges in order to check for possible correlations. To that end, the elemental concentration of gunshot residues and the respective ammunition were investigated through PIXE (Particle-Induced X-ray Emission) and micro-PIXE techniques. The ammunition consisted of a .38 SPL caliber (ogival lead type) charged in a Taurus revolver. Pristine cartridges were taken apart for the PIXE measurements. The shooting sessions were carried out in a restricted area at the Forensic Institute at Porto Alegre. Residues ejected at forward directions were collected on a microporous tape. The PIXE experiments were carried out employing 2.0 MeV proton beams with a beam spot size of 1 mm 2 . For the micro-PIXE experiments, the samples were irradiated with 2.2 MeV proton beams of 2 × 2 μm 2 . The results found for the ratios of Sb/Pb, Ba/Pb and Sb/Ba do not correlate with those stemming from the analysis of the primer

  16. Photonic Switching Devices Using Light Bullets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goorjian, Peter M. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A unique ultra-fast, all-optical switching device or switch is made with readily available, relatively inexpensive, highly nonlinear optical materials. which includes highly nonlinear optical glasses, semiconductor crystals and/or multiple quantum well semiconductor materials. At the specified wavelengths. these optical materials have a sufficiently negative group velocity dispersion and high nonlinear index of refraction to support stable light bullets. The light bullets counter-propagate through, and interact within the waveguide to selectively change each others' directions of propagation into predetermined channels. In one embodiment, the switch utilizes a rectangularly planar slab waveguide. and further includes two central channels and a plurality of lateral channels for guiding the light bullets into and out of the waveguide. An advantage of the present all-optical switching device lies in its practical use of light bullets, thus preventing the degeneration of the pulses due to dispersion and diffraction at the front and back of the pulses. Another advantage of the switching device is the relative insensitivity of the collision process to the time difference in which the counter-propagating pulses enter the waveguide. since. contrary to conventional co-propagating spatial solitons, the relative phase of the colliding pulses does not affect the interaction of these pulses. Yet another feature of the present all-optical switching device is the selection of the light pulse parameters which enables the generation of light bullets in nonlinear optical materials. including highly nonlinear optical glasses and semiconductor materials such as semiconductor crystals and/or multiple quantum well semiconductor materials.

  17. Gunshot (Pellets injury to the maxillofacial complex: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran D.N

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Gunshot injuries are rather serious but uncommon type of trauma in India. A 45-year-old male was presented with gunshot (pellets embedded in the maxillofacial area for 22 years. There is no consensus in the literature whether to attempt their removal or leave them in situ. Our patient had no long-term sequela like infection, fistula formation, carcinogenesis or metal poisoning to date except for chill feeling on cold days. Management of this patient presented a dilemma in treatment in view of the effects of foreign bodies in the maxillofacial area. Key words: Maxillofacial injuries; Wounds, gunshot; Firearms

  18. Risk factors for intracranial infection secondary to penetrating craniocerebral gunshot wounds in civilian practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Carlos Mario; Polo, Jonathan; España, Julian Andres

    2013-01-01

    To determine risk factors for intracranial infection secondary to penetrating craniocerebral gunshot wounds (PCGWs) in civilian practice, in patients who underwent surgery with removal of bullet fragments, wound debridement, and watertight dural closure. An observational, analytical, prospective, cohort-type study was conducted with follow-up in a group of patients with PCGWs caused by a low-velocity projectile admitted between January 2000 and November 2010. There were 160 patients, 59 of whom were administered prophylactic antibiotics based on the decision of the treating neurosurgeon. Average follow-up time was 39 months (range, 3-92 months). Infection occurred in 40 patients (25%); 20 patients received antibiotics (20 of 59 [33.9%]), and 20 patients did not receive antibiotics (20 of 101 [19.8%]). Three variables were independent risk factors for infection: (i) persistence of parenchymal osseous or metallic fragments after surgery (P projectile trajectory through a natural cavity with contaminating flora (P = 0.03, RR 2.84); and (iii) prolonged hospitalization time (P Projectile trajectory through potentially contaminating cavities, persistence of intraparenchymal osseous or metallic fragments after surgery, and prolonged hospital stay were independent risk factors for intracranial infection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Quality of CT pulmonary angiography for suspected pulmonary embolus in pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    U-King-Im, Jean Marie; Freeman, Susan J.; Boylan, Teresa; Cheow, Heok K.

    2008-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess the quality of CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) for suspected pulmonary embolus (PE) in the pregnant population. We retrospectively identified 40 consecutive pregnant patients who underwent CTPA from January 2005 to December 2006. Forty consecutive age-matched non-pregnant women were used as a control group. Studies were subjectively graded according to overall image quality by two readers in consensus, in randomised and blinded manner. Moreover, contrast enhancement of pulmonary arteries was subjectively and objectively evaluated. The proportion of sub-optimal studies was more than three times higher in the pregnant group (27.5%, n = 11) compared with the non-pregnant group (7.5%, n = 3; p = 0.015). Mean contrast enhancement was consistently higher in the non-pregnant group compared with pregnant group, both subjectively and objectively. The percentage of inadequately opacified vascular segments was more than two times higher in the pregnant group (28.7%, n = 264) than in the non-pregnant group (13.3%, n 122; p = 0.0001). The incidence of sub-optimal CTPA studies is higher in pregnancy when compared with an age-matched non-pregnant control group. In addition to radiation issues, this should also be considered when implementing diagnostic strategies for suspected PE in pregnancy. (orig.)

  20. Civilian Penetrating Gunshot Injury to the Neurocranium in Enugu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons ... Table 1: Clinicodemographic profile of civilian penetrating gunshot neurocranial injuries ... (*Armed robbery, cultists, terrorism). [Downloaded free from ...

  1. Perimortem caesarean section following maternal gunshot wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Gunevsel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Perimortem caesarean section is an ethically difficult decision for emergency medicine resuscitation teams. A 34-years-old woman was attacked by her husband with a gunshot. At the time arrival to the emergency room, there was no pulse, no spontaneous breath and blood pressure was unobtainable. Although extensive advanced cardiopulmonary resuscita-tion was performed for 7 minutes, no cardiac activity was regained. During the cardiopulmonary resuscitation efforts, an abdominal ultrasonography was performed and revealed a fetal heart rate with bradycardia. Low segment caesarean section was performed by the obstetrician in the resuscitation room and a female newborn was delivered within less than one minute of the skin incision. Decision on terminating the CPR efforts should not be made in maternal cardiac arrests older than 28 weeks′ gestational age, unless the viability of the fetus had been evaluated.

  2. A civilian perspective on ballistic trauma and gunshot injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pape Hans-Christoph

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gun violence is on the rise in some European countries, however most of the literature on gunshot injuries pertains to military weaponry and is difficult to apply to civilians, due to dissimilarities in wound contamination and wounding potential of firearms and ammunition. Gunshot injuries in civilians have more focal injury patterns and should be considered distinct entities. Methods A search of the National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health MEDLINE database was performed using PubMed. Results Craniocerebral gunshot injuries are often lethal, especially after suicide attempts. The treatment of non space consuming haematomas and the indications for invasive pressure measurement are controversial. Civilian gunshot injuries to the torso mostly intend to kill; however for those patients who do not die at the scene and are hemodynamically stable, insertion of a chest tube is usually the only required procedure for the majority of penetrating chest injuries. In penetrating abdominal injuries there is a trend towards non-operative care, provided that the patient is hemodynamically stable. Spinal gunshots can also often be treated without operation. Gunshot injuries of the extremities are rarely life-threatening but can be associated with severe morbidity. With the exception of craniocerebral, bowel, articular, or severe soft tissue injury, the use of antibiotics is controversial and may depend on the surgeon's preference. Conclusion The treatment strategy for patients with gunshot injuries to the torso mostly depends on the hemodynamic status of the patient. Whereas hemodynamically unstable patients require immediate operative measures like thoracotomy or laparotomy, hemodynamically stable patients might be treated with minor surgical procedures (e.g. chest tube or even conservatively.

  3. A civilian perspective on ballistic trauma and gunshot injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Gun violence is on the rise in some European countries, however most of the literature on gunshot injuries pertains to military weaponry and is difficult to apply to civilians, due to dissimilarities in wound contamination and wounding potential of firearms and ammunition. Gunshot injuries in civilians have more focal injury patterns and should be considered distinct entities. Methods A search of the National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health MEDLINE database was performed using PubMed. Results Craniocerebral gunshot injuries are often lethal, especially after suicide attempts. The treatment of non space consuming haematomas and the indications for invasive pressure measurement are controversial. Civilian gunshot injuries to the torso mostly intend to kill; however for those patients who do not die at the scene and are hemodynamically stable, insertion of a chest tube is usually the only required procedure for the majority of penetrating chest injuries. In penetrating abdominal injuries there is a trend towards non-operative care, provided that the patient is hemodynamically stable. Spinal gunshots can also often be treated without operation. Gunshot injuries of the extremities are rarely life-threatening but can be associated with severe morbidity. With the exception of craniocerebral, bowel, articular, or severe soft tissue injury, the use of antibiotics is controversial and may depend on the surgeon's preference. Conclusion The treatment strategy for patients with gunshot injuries to the torso mostly depends on the hemodynamic status of the patient. Whereas hemodynamically unstable patients require immediate operative measures like thoracotomy or laparotomy, hemodynamically stable patients might be treated with minor surgical procedures (e.g. chest tube) or even conservatively. PMID:20565804

  4. Gunshot-induced fractures of the extremities: a review of antibiotic and debridement practices

    OpenAIRE

    Sathiyakumar, Vasanth; Thakore, Rachel V.; Stinner, Daniel J.; Obremskey, William T.; Ficke, James R.; Sethi, Manish K.

    2015-01-01

    The use of antibiotic prophylaxis and debridement is controversial when treating low- and high-velocity gunshot-induced fractures, and established treatment guidelines are currently unavailable. The purpose of this review was to evaluate the literature for the prophylactic antibiotic and debridement policies for (1) low-velocity gunshot fractures of the extremities, joints, and pelvis and (2) high-velocity gunshot fractures of the extremities. Low-velocity gunshot fractures of the extremities...

  5. Civilian duodenal gunshot wounds: surgical management made simpler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talving, Peep; Nicol, Andrew J; Navsaria, Pradeep H

    2006-04-01

    Low-velocity gunshot wounds cause most civilian duodenal injuries. The objective of this study was to describe a simplified surgical algorithm currently in use in a South African civilian trauma center and to verify its validity by measuring morbidity and mortality. A retrospective chart review of patients with duodenal gunshot injuries during the study period January 1999 to December 2003 was performed. Data points accrued included patient demographics, admission hemodynamic status and resuscitative measures, laparotomy damage control procedures, methods of surgical repair of the duodenal injury, associated injuries, length of intensive care and hospital stays, complications, and mortality. A total of 75 consecutive patients with gunshot injuries to the duodenum were reviewed. Primary repair was performed in 54 patients (87%), resection and reanastomosis in 7 (11%), and pancreatoduodenectomy in 1 (2%) during the initial phases. The overall morbidity and mortality were 58% and 28%, respectively. Duodenum-related complications were recorded in nine (15%) patients: two duodenal fistulas, one duodenal obstruction, and six cases of suture-line dehiscence. Overall and duodenum-related morbidity rates in patients with combined pancreatoduodenal injuries were 83% and 17%, respectively. Duodenum-related mortality occurred in three (4.8%) patients. Most civilian low-velocity duodenal gunshot injuries treated with simple primary repair result in overall morbidity, mortality, and duodenum-related complication rates comparable to those in reports where more complex surgical procedures were employed. Primary repair is also applicable for most combined pancreatic and duodenal gunshot injuries.

  6. Progressive Propaganda Critics and the Magic Bullet Myth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sproule, J. Michael

    1989-01-01

    Examines the development and historical inaccuracies of the "magic bullet" interpretation of American propaganda studies, which asserts that propaganda critics between the world wars treated messages as "magic bullets" directly and powerfully infused into passive receivers. Considers why this misconception of the progressive…

  7. Penile lesion from gunshot wound: a 43-case experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavalcanti Andre G.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the main aspects of diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of 43 patients with gunshot wounds to the penis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The location of the lesion, the presence of associated lesions, the performance of complementary exams, surgical treatment, postoperative complications and long term follow-up of 43 patients with penile lesions from gunshot wounds were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: Of 43 cases assessed, 41 were submitted to surgical exploration (95.3% and 2 were submitted to conservative treatment (4.7%. We found penile lesions involving the corpus cavernosum in 37 cases; the remaining 4 patients presented no lesions involving the corpus cavernosum, urethra or testicles but did in the superficial structures. Ten cases presented an association with testicular lesions and 14 cases association with anterior urethral lesions. CONCLUSION: Penile lesions from gunshot wounds should be treated with immediate surgical intervention. In exceptional situations featuring superficial lesions only conservative treatment may be applied.

  8. Cell adhesion during bullet motion in capillaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeishi, Naoki; Imai, Yohsuke; Ishida, Shunichi; Omori, Toshihiro; Kamm, Roger D; Ishikawa, Takuji

    2016-08-01

    A numerical analysis is presented of cell adhesion in capillaries whose diameter is comparable to or smaller than that of the cell. In contrast to a large number of previous efforts on leukocyte and tumor cell rolling, much is still unknown about cell motion in capillaries. The solid and fluid mechanics of a cell in flow was coupled with a slip bond model of ligand-receptor interactions. When the size of a capillary was reduced, the cell always transitioned to "bullet-like" motion, with a consequent decrease in the velocity of the cell. A state diagram was obtained for various values of capillary diameter and receptor density. We found that bullet motion enables firm adhesion of a cell to the capillary wall even for a weak ligand-receptor binding. We also quantified effects of various parameters, including the dissociation rate constant, the spring constant, and the reactive compliance on the characteristics of cell motion. Our results suggest that even under the interaction between P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) and P-selectin, which is mainly responsible for leukocyte rolling, a cell is able to show firm adhesion in a small capillary. These findings may help in understanding such phenomena as leukocyte plugging and cancer metastasis. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Bone-patch type secondary projectiles: A report on two shots fired at point-blank range using hollow point bullets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malbranque, S; Jousset, N; Nedelcu, C; Rougé-Maillart, C

    2014-12-01

    The number of head wounds due to firearms remains low in France because these cases are primarily linked to suicide (or attempted suicide) and, to a lesser extent, to attacks or hunting accidents [1]. Characterized by the impact of a projectile, which in most cases is made of metal, at high levels of kinetic energy, such acts generally result in severe trans-cerebral lesions with significant levels of morbidity/mortality [2]. Seldom are cases reported in the literature that give a detailed study of intracranial foreign bodies made of bone in such situations [3]. Here we report on the case of two suicides resulting from a transcranial gunshot wounds caused by weapons and ammunition issued by the French police force. Each case helped distinguish a characteristic bone fragment, in the form of a "patch", equivalent in size to the caliber of the bullet. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Experimental studies on the plasma bullet propagation and its inhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karakas, Erdinc; Laroussi, Mounir

    2010-01-01

    Plasma bullets generated by atmospheric pressure low temperature plasma jets have recently been an active research topic due to their unique properties and their enhanced plasma chemistry. In this paper, experimental insights into the plasma bullet lifetime and its velocity are reported. Data obtained from intensified charge-coupled device camera and time-resolved optical emission spectroscopy (OES) elucidated the existence of a weakly ionized channel between the plasma bullet and its source (such as the plasma pencil). Factors responsible for the inhibition of the propagation of the bullet, such as low helium mole fraction, the magnitude of the applied voltage, and the secondary discharge ignition time, are also revealed. A new technique is discussed to accurately measure the plasma bullet velocity, using time-resolved OES. This new technique shows that during its lifetime the plasma bullet goes through launching, propagation, and ending phases. In addition, it is noted that the plasma bullet exhibits an unstable behavior at the early beginning and late ending of the propagation.

  11. Management of comminuted but continuous mandible defects after gunshot injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Majeed; Warraich, Riaz; Rashad, Ashkan; von See, Constantin; Channar, Kashif A; Rana, Madiha; Stoetzer, Marcus; Gellrich, Nils-Claudius

    2014-01-01

    Firearm injuries continue as a major public health problem, contributing significant morbidity, mortality, and expense to our society. There are four main steps in the management of patients with gunshot wounds to the face: securing an airway, controlling haemorrhage, identifying other injuries and definitive repair of the traumatic facial deformities. The objective of this study was to determine late outcome of two treatment options by open reduction and internal fixation versus closed reduction and maxillomandibular fixation (MMF) in the treatment of gunshot injuries of the mandible. Sixty patients of gunshot injury were randomly allocated in two groups. In group A, 30 patients were treated by open reduction and internal fixation and in group B, 30 patients were treated by closed reduction and maxillomandibular fixation. Patients were discharged as the treatment completed and recalled for follow up. Up to 3 months after injury, fortnightly complications like infection, malocclusion, malunion of fractured fragments, facial asymmetry, sequestration of bone and exposed plates were evaluated and the differences between two groups were assessed. The follow-up period ranged from 3 months to 10 months. Patients treated by open reduction tended to have less complications as compared to closed reduction. Based on this study open reduction and internal fixation is the best available method for the treatment of gunshot mandible fractures without continuity defect. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Difficult management of posterior urethra gunshot wound combined ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Posterior urethra gunshot wounds are poorly described in the literature. They are often associated with pelvic vital lesions making difficult early repair of urethral injuries. They can be complicated by urethrorectal fistula, which makes their management more complicated. We report a new case of posterior urethra disruption ...

  13. Pattern of gunshot deaths in a Nigerian Tertiary Health Institution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arun Kumar Agnihotri

    manner of death, likely motive in cases of homicidal or suicidal gunshot, type of gun used and site(s) of injury. ... Young males and victims of armed robbery attacks are most susceptible. It is important to note ... in the hands of criminals. Armed ...

  14. Physicomathematical Simulation Analysis for Small Bullets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Margaris

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A full six degrees of freedom (6-DOF flight dynamics model is proposed for the accurate prediction of short and long-range trajectories of small bullets via atmospheric flight to final impact point. The mathematical model is based on the full equations of motion set up in the no-roll body reference frame and is integrated numerically from given initial conditions at the firing site. The projectile maneuvering motion depends on the most significant force and moment variations, in addition to gravity and Magnus effect. The computational flight analysis takes into consideration the Mach number and total angle of attack effects by means of the variable aerodynamic coefficients. For the purposes of the present work, linear interpolation has been applied for aerodynamic coefficients from the official tabulated database. The developed computational method gives satisfactory agreement with published data of verified experiments and computational codes on atmospheric projectile trajectory analysis for various initial firing flight conditions.

  15. [Transcatheter embolization for huge pulmonary arteriovenous fistula using metallic "spider" and spring embolus--application of hand-made metallic "spider" using partial monorail technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirota, S; Sako, M; Fujita, Y; Hasegawa, Y; Sugimoto, K; Suzuki, Y; Kono, M

    1992-07-25

    We performed transcatheter embolization in two cases with huge pulmonary arteriovenous fistula (AVF) using a metallic "spider" and spring embolus. Conventional spring embolus or detachable balloon could not be used in these cases. Metallic spider was indicated for pulmonary AVF with a feeding artery diameter of more than 16 mm to prevent embolus passing through the AVF. In the first case, we used large handmade metallic spiders of 25 mm in diameter followed by embolization by numerous spring coils. At that time, a partial monorail technique was newly devised to carry the large metallic spider into the feeding artery, otherwise the spider could not pass into a 9F catheter. After embolization, symptoms and PaO2 in arterial blood improved remarkably in both cases. In the second case, a spring coil migrated into the normal pulmonary artery, but no infarction resulted. In conclusion, the metallic spider was very useful for embolization of hugee pulmonary AVF to avoid the embolus passing through and to tangle spring coils together with it. If commercially available "spiders" are too small, ones can be made easily.

  16. Optical bullets and "rockets" in nonlinear dissipative systems and their transformations and interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Crespo, J M; Grelu, Philippe; Akhmediev, Nail

    2006-05-01

    We demonstrate the existence of stable optical light bullets in nonlinear dissipative media for both cases of normal and anomalous chromatic dispersion. The prediction is based on direct numerical simulations of the (3+1)-dimensional complex cubic-quintic Ginzburg-Landau equation. We do not impose conditions of spherical or cylindrical symmetry. Regions of existence of stable bullets are determined in the parameter space. Beyond the domain of parameters where stable bullets are found, unstable bullets can be transformed into "rockets" i.e. bullets elongated in the temporal domain. A few examples of the interaction between two optical bullets are considered using spatial and temporal interaction planes.

  17. HOMICIDE BY CERVICAL SPINAL CORD GUNSHOT INJURY WITH SHOTGUN FIRE PELLETS: CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Turliuc, Serban Turliuc, Iustin Mihailov, Andrei Cucu, Gabriel Dumitrescu,Claudia Costea

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This case present a rare forensic case of cervical spinal gunshot injury of a female by her husband, a professional hunter, during a family fight with a shotgun fire pellets. The gunshot destroyed completely the cervical spinal cord, without injury to the neck vessels and organs and with the patient survival for seven days. We discuss notions of judicial ballistics, assessment of the patient with spinal cord gunshot injury and therapeutic strategies. Even if cervical spine gunshot injuries are most of the times lethal for majority of patients, the surviving patients need the coordination of a multidisciplinary surgical team to ensure the optimal functional prognostic.

  18. Assessment of bullet effectiveness based on a human vulnerability model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Susu; Xu, C; Wen, Y; Li, G; Zhou, J

    2017-12-25

    Penetrating wounds from explosively propelled fragments and bullets are the most common causes of combat injury. There is a requirement to assess the potential effectiveness of bullets penetrating human tissues in order to optimise preventive measures and wound trauma management. An advanced voxel model based on the Chinese Visible Human data was built. A digital human vulnerability model was established in combination with wound reconstruction and vulnerability assessment rules, in which wound penetration profiles were obtained by recreating the penetration of projectiles into ballistic gelatin. An effectiveness evaluation method of bullet penetration using the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) was developed and solved using the Monte Carlo sampling method. The effectiveness of rifle bullets was demonstrated to increase with increasing velocity in the range of 300-700 m/s. When imparting the same energy, the effectiveness of the 5.56 mm bullet was higher than the 7.62 mm bullet in this model. The superimposition of simulant penetration profiles produced from ballistic gelatin simulant has been used to predict wound tracts in damaged tissues. The authors recognise that determining clinical effectiveness based on the AIS scores alone without verification of outcome by review of clinical hospital records means that this technique should be seen more as a manner of comparing the effectiveness of bullets than an injury prediction model. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. The destabilizing effect of body armour on military rifle bullets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, P J; Sørensen, O H

    1997-01-01

    Soft body armour is designed to give protection against fragments and some low velocity bullets but is not designed to stop high velocity rifle bullets. Reports have claimed that soft body armour might disturb the stability of bullets that penetrate it, and that this might increase the size of the lesions. The reason for such an effect might be early yaw of the bullet, so we studied the behaviour of bullets which had passed through soft body armour. A 7.62 x 39 mm AK-47 rifle was fired from a permanent stand using full metal jacketed lead core bullets at a range of 30 m. Soft body armour composed for 14 and 28 layers of aramid fibres (Kevlar) was placed at 90 degrees and 60 degrees to the line of fire. Yaw was measured by the shadowgraph technique and a TERMA Doppler radar. A total of ten shots without body armour, and ten shots with each of the two types of body armour at the two angles were used. The results of the shadowgraph and Doppler radar measurements showed a proportional correlation between the two methods of determining the bullet yaw. The semiquantitative approach of the Doppler radar measurement was in agreement with the more concise measurement using the photographic technique. Velocity loss and loss of spin rate from penetrating 14 or 28 ply Kevlar was negligible. We observed induced instability after penetration of 14 and particularly 28 ply Kevlar, dependence of yaw with respect to the number of layers of Kevlar as well as to the angle of the body armour with respect to the line of fire.

  20. Aerial firing and stray bullet injuries: a rising tide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Syed Asad; Tahir, Syed Mohammad; Makhdoom, Asadullah; Shaikh, Abdul Razaque; Siddique, Akmal Jamal

    2015-04-01

    Aerial firing is shooting, using fire arm, into the air usually during a celebration. This observational study aimed to quantify magnitude and impact of stray bullet injuries by aerial firing at surgical emergencies of the Liaquat University Hospital (a university hospital), Hyderabad, Sindh, Pakistan from January 2009 to December 2010 (2 years). During the study period, 144 firearm injuries due to stray bullet reported to the A and E departments of the university hospital. All patients referred to surgical unit providing emergency cover on that day irrespective of the severity of the injury for medico-legal reasons. For this study, the cases were divided into those having trivial injury and do not require any active surgical intervention and those having serious injury mandating surgical intervention. One hundred and two cases of stray bullet injury sustained trivial injury and followed as outpatients after an overnight period of indoor hospitalization; however, 42 patients with stray bullet injuries requiring surgical intervention were hospitalized. The most common events leading to aerial firing and stray bullet injuries were marriage ceremonies, followed by a political rallies and New Year celebrations. Stray bullet injury also reported after aerial firing on cricket/hockey team victories, Pakistan Independence Day (14th August), cultural day in Sindh and Basant (Kite) festival in Punjab. The most frequent sites with serious stray bullet injury were chest (15), head and neck (10), abdomen (9) and limbs (8), respectively. Surgical interventions performed included chest intubation, exploration of wound tract to retrieve bullet if lodged superficially and was palpable, laparotomy to managed intra-abdominal injury, reduction of fracture site followed by reconstruction, flap reconstruction and graft for nonhealing wound. The mean duration of hospital stay was 19 days. No mortality was observed in this series of patients. We conclude that the prevalence of aerial

  1. EDITORIAL: Plasma jets and plasma bullets Plasma jets and plasma bullets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, M. G.; Ganguly, B. N.; Hicks, R. F.

    2012-06-01

    -mentioned early studies has witnessed a considerable and exciting growth in terms of new phenomena observed, new physics and chemistry uncovered, new plasma jet sources conceived, and new applications developed. Examples include the observations of plasma bullets on a nanosecond scale [16], the similarity of plasma bullets to streamers [17], arrays of plasma jets as metamaterials [18], and a rapid increase of applications in biomedicine [19]. However the considerable growth in the research of plasma jets has not been adequately supported, so far, by a sound fundamental underpinning, partly resulting from a somewhat underdevelopment of effective diagnostics and modelling tools. Recognizing the critical importance of basic science for future growth of low-temperature plasma jet technology, this special issue on plasma jets and bullets aims to address some of the most important fundamental questions. Many of the special issue papers continue the established line of investigation to characterize the formation of plasma bullets, using typically ultrafast imaging, electrical detection including electric field and plasma conductivity measurement, and optical emission spectrometry [20]-[26]. These offer strong experimental evidence for the well-known hypothesis that a plasma jet is a form of streamer, and that the ionization wave plays a critical role in their formation. The interaction of two parallel plasma jets [27] and manipulation of plasma jet characteristics [28, 29] are also reported using a similar combination of experimental techniques. Some of the common characteristics of plasma jets are summarized in a review paper in this special issue [30]. A somewhat different line of investigation is employed in a detailed experimental characterization of deterministic chaos in atmospheric plasma jets [31], one of the few non-bullet modes of plasma jets. Although chaos in ionized gases have been observed in other types of discharge plasmas, their applications have not so far been linked

  2. Difficult management of posterior urethra gunshot wound combined with urethro-rectal fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid Kerkeni

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Posterior urethra gunshot wounds are poorly described in the literature. They are often associated with pelvic vital lesions making difficult early repair of urethral injuries. They can be complicated by urethro-rectal fistula, which makes their management more complicated. We report a new case of posterior urethra disruption due to a gunshot wound and complicated by urethro-rectal fistula.

  3. Difficult management of posterior urethra gunshot wound combined with urethro-rectal fistula

    OpenAIRE

    Walid Kerkeni; Ahmed Saadi; Mohamed Hédi Rebai; Abderrazak Bouzouita; Mohamed Cherif; Amine Derouiche; Tahar Khalfallah; Mohamed Riadh Ben Slama; Mohamed Chebil

    2015-01-01

    Posterior urethra gunshot wounds are poorly described in the literature. They are often associated with pelvic vital lesions making difficult early repair of urethral injuries. They can be complicated by urethro-rectal fistula, which makes their management more complicated. We report a new case of posterior urethra disruption due to a gunshot wound and complicated by urethro-rectal fistula.

  4. Fatal gunshots to the head and neck regions in Benin City, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the magnitude of fatal gunshot injuries to the head and neck in Benin City. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a prospective study of fatal gun shots to the head and neck region with respect to age, sex, intent for the gunshots, type of gun, area of the head and neck affected and who did the ...

  5. The burden of gunshot injuries on orthopaedic healthcare resources in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Case; Thiart, Gerhard; McCollum, Graham; Roche, Stephen; Maqungo, Sithombo

    2017-06-30

    Injuries inflicted by gunshot wounds (GSWs) are an immense burden on the South African (SA) healthcare system. In 2005, Allard and Burch estimated SA state hospitals treated approximately 127 000 firearm victims annually and concluded that the cost of treating an abdominal GSW was approximately USD1 467 per patient. While the annual number of GSW injuries has decreased over the past decade, an estimated 54 870 firearm-related injuries occurred in SA in 2012. No study has estimated the burden of these GSWs from an orthopaedic perspective. To estimate the burden and average cost of treating GSW victims requiring orthopaedic interventions in an SA tertiary level hospital. This retrospective study surveyed more than 1 500 orthopaedic admissions over a 12-month period (2012) at Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, SA. Chart review subsequently yielded data that allowed analysis of cost, theatre time, number and type of implants, duration of admission, diagnostic imaging studies performed, blood products used, laboratory studies ordered and medications administered. A total of 111 patients with an average age of 28 years (range 13 - 74) were identified. Each patient was hit by an average of 1.69 bullets (range 1 - 7). These patients sustained a total of 147 fractures, the majority in the lower extremities. Ninety-five patients received surgical treatment for a total of 135 procedures, with a cumulative surgical theatre time of >306 hours. Theatre costs, excluding implants, were in excess of USD94 490. Eighty of the patients received a total of 99 implants during surgery, which raised theatre costs an additional USD53 381 cumulatively, or USD667 per patient. Patients remained hospitalised for an average of 9.75 days, and total ward costs exceeded USD130 400. Individual patient costs averaged about USD2 940 (ZAR24 945) per patient. This study assessed the burden of orthopaedic firearm injuries in SA. It was estimated that on average, treating an orthopaedic GSW patient

  6. An unusual case of foreign body pulmonary embolus: case report and review of penetrating trauma at a pediatric trauma center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boomer, Laura A; Watkins, Daniel J; O'Donovan, Julie; Kenney, Brian D; Yates, Andrew R; Besner, Gail E

    2015-03-01

    Penetrating thoracic trauma is relatively rare in the pediatric population. Embolization of foreign bodies from penetrating trauma is very uncommon. We present a case of a 6-year-old boy with a penetrating foreign body from a projectile dislodged from a lawn mower. Imaging demonstrated a foreign body that embolized to the left pulmonary artery, which was successfully treated non-operatively. We reviewed the penetrating thoracic trauma patients in the trauma registry at our institution between 1/1/03 and 12/31/12. Data collected included demographic data, procedures performed, complications and outcome. Sixty-five patients were identified with a diagnosis of penetrating thoracic trauma. Fourteen of the patients had low velocity penetrating trauma and 51 had high velocity injuries. Patients with high velocity injuries were more likely to be older and less likely to be Caucasian. There were no statistically significant differences between patients with low vs. high velocity injuries regarding severity scores or length of stay. There were no statistically significant differences in procedures required between patients with low and high velocity injuries. Penetrating thoracic trauma is rare in children. The case presented here represents the only report of cardiac foreign body embolus we could identify in a pediatric patient.

  7. Dissipative light-bullets in the filamentation of femtosecond pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porras, M.A.; Gonzalo, I.

    2010-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. With the growing interest in filamentation in solid and liquid media, the regime of filamentation with anomalous dispersion is receiving more attention. In this work we show that basics aspects of the filament dynamics in this regime can be explained in terms of a novel type of light-bullet, which is not of solitary or of conical types, but a wave-packet that maximizes the energy dissipation into the medium while remaining localized and stationary in propagation. We first show that a nonlinear optical medium at a given carrier wave length at which dispersion is anomalous, supports 'dissipative' light-bullets, i.e., waves localized in space and time and that propagate without change as a result of a balance between nonlinear compression and nonlinear absorption. Among them, the particular dissipative light-bullet with the highest possible dissipation is unique in a given medium, in the sense that all its properties are fixed by the properties of the medium at the carrier wave length. In this light-bullet, self-focusing continuously transports energy towards the pulse center by an amount that just compensates for the nonlinear losses. Figure 1(a) shows the radial profiles of the dissipative light-bullets that maximizes energy dissipation for several orders of multi-photon absorption responsible for the nonlinear losses. We have also found that this dissipative light-bullet tends to be spontaneously formed in the filamentary dynamics in media with anomalous dispersion. Figure 1(b) shows the peak intensity, the total energy and losses of a pulse that undergoes self-focusing and filamentation in an ideal medium with only Kerr nonlinearity and multi-photon absorption. This simple model reproduces the particularly long filament 'segments' and the 'burst' observed in experiments and in more accurate simulations. The peak intensity in the filament is identical to that of the dissipative light-bullet with maximum dissipation, and the

  8. Tear Gas, Expanding Bullets and Plain-Clothed Personnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiesener, Cornelius Rust

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the interplay between human rights law and humanitarian law in relation to riot control agents (such as tear gas), expanding bullets and plain-clothed forces. While outlawed under humanitarian law, they are widely used by police in peace time and not subject to similar bans...

  9. Bullet Points, New Writing, and the Marketization of Public Discourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Leeuwen, Theo; Djonov, Emilia

    2014-01-01

    Bullet lists epitomize both new writing practices, which are promoted through ubiquitous software such as Microsoft's PowerPoint, and the marketization of public discourse. The argument is illustrated with an analysis of the recontextualization of the Australian Treasurer's Budget speech...

  10. A Bullet-Block Experiment that Explains the Chain Fountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantaleone, J.; Smith, R.

    2018-05-01

    It is common in science for two phenomena to appear to be very different, but in fact follow from the same basic principles. Here we consider such a case, the connection between the chain fountain and a bullet-block collision experiment. When an upward moving bullet strikes a wooden block resting on a horizontal table, the block will rise to a higher height when the bullet strikes near the end of the block. This is because the quickly rotating block experiences an additional upward "reaction" force from its contact with the table. Such a reaction force also explains the chain fountain. When a chain falls from a pile in a container to the floor below, the chain rises up above the container. This rise occurs because the quickly rotating links in the container push off of the surface beneath them. We derive a model that accurately describes our measurements in the bullet-block experiment, and then use this same model to calculate an approximate expression for the distance the chain rises above the container. More extensive discussions of the chain fountain are available elsewhere.

  11. Surgical correction of severe enophthalmos caused by bullet injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S M Balaji

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ballistic injuries of oral and maxillofacial region are usually fatal due to close propinquity with the vital structures. The severity of injury depends on the caliber of the weapon used and distance from which the patient is shot. The preliminary care of facial ballistic wounds strictly adheres to the basics of trauma resuscitation. Early and appropriate surgical management has proved to be influential on the final outcome and esthetic result. Treatment of facial gunshot wounds should be planned and carried out carefully to avoid esthetic complications. It takes even multiple-staged corrections to achieve the targeted functional and esthetic treatment plan. Prevention and control of infection is one of the most important goals to achieve the success of the treatment. Herewith, we present a case of facial gunshot injury with fractures in the orbital floor, medial wall maxillary sinus, and buttress of the zygomatic bone causing deficit, which was successfully managed by surgical reconstruction.

  12. Simulation of impact ballistic of Cu-10wt%Sn frangible bullet using smoothed particle hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, Mas Irfan P.; Widyastuti, Simaremare, Peniel

    2018-04-01

    Frangible bullet is designed to disintegrate upon impact against a hard target. Understanding the impact response and performance of frangible bullet is therefore of highly interest. In this paper, simulation of impact ballistic of Cu-IOwt%Sn frangible bullet using smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method is presented. The frangible bullet is impacted against a hard, cylindrical stainless steel target. Effect of variability of the frangible bullet material properties due to the variation of sintering temperature in its manufacturing process to the bullet frangibility factor (FF) is investigated numerically. In addition, the bullet kinetic energy during impact as well as its ricochet and fragmentation are also examined and simulated. Failure criterion based upon maximum strain is employed in the simulation. It is shown that the SPH simulation can produce good estimation for kinetic energy of bullet after impact, thus giving the FF prediction with respect to the variation of frangible bullet material properties. In comparison to explicit finite element (FE) simulation, in which only material/element deletion is shown, convenience in showing frangible bullet fragmentation is shown using the SPH simulation. As a result, the effect of sintering temperature to the way of the frangible bullet fragmented can be also observed clearly.

  13. [Characteristics and Treatment Strategies for Penetrating Injuries on the Example of Gunshot and Blast Victims without Ballistic Body Armour in Afghanistan (2009 - 2013)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güsgen, Christoph; Willms, Arnulf; Richardsen, Ines; Bieler, Dan; Kollig, Erwin; Schwab, Robert

    2017-08-01

    Much like other countries, Germany has recently seen terrorist attacks being planned, executed or prevented at the last minute. This highlights the need for expertise in the treatment of penetrating torso traumas by bullets or explosions. Data on the treatment of firearm injuries and, even more so, blast injuries often stems from crises or war regions. However, it is difficult to compare injuries from such regions with injuries from civilian terrorist attacks due to the ballistic body protection (protective vests, body armour) worn by soldiers. Methods An analysis was performed based on data from patients who were treated in the German Military Hospital Mazar-e Sharif for gunshots or injuries from explosions in the years 2009 to 2013. The data selection was based on patients with penetrating injuries to the thorax and/or abdomen. For better comparability with civilian attack scenarios, this study only included civilian patients without ballistic body protection (body armour, protective vests). Results Out of 117 analysed patients, 58 were affected by firearms and 59 by explosive injuries of the thorax or abdomen. 60% of patients had a thoracic injury, 69% had an abdominal injury, and 25.6% had combined thoracic-abdominal injuries. Blast injury patients were significantly more affected by thoracic trauma. As regards abdominal injuries, liver, intestinal, and colonic lesions were leading in number. Patients with blast injuries had significantly more injured organs and a significantly higher ISS averaging 29. 26% of the shot patients and 41% of the blast wounded patients received Damage Control Surgery (DCS). Despite a lower ISS, gunshot victims did not have a lower total number of operations per patient. Overall mortality was 13.7% (10.3% gunshot wounds, 16.7% blast injury). The highest mortality rate (25.7%) was recorded for patients with combined thoracoabdominal injuries (vs. 8.3% for thoracic and 8.7% for abdominal injuries). The ISS of deceased patients was

  14. Psychiatric analysis of suicide attempt subjects due to maxillofacial gunshot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztürk, Serdar; Bozkurt, Ali; Durmus, Muzaffer; Deveci, Mustafa; Sengezer, Mustafa

    2006-11-01

    The studies of maxillofacial gunshot injuries mainly focused on evaluating the surgical interventions and physical outcomes of the procedures. In this study we aimed to analyze the pre- and post-injury psychiatric status of the patients with self-inflicted gunshot wounds to the face. This study is based on 12 subjects who attempted suicide resulting in extensive maxillofacial injuries using guns placed beneath their chins. The psychiatric evaluation was conducted by interview and using SCID-I, SCID-II, MMPI, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and Suicide Probability Scale. Two subjects were healthy, 1 had bereavement, 6 had current and 5 had previous MDD (major depressive disorder), 2 had dysthymic disorder, 3 had alcohol abuse, 2 had drug abuse and 4 had antisocial personality disorder. The suicidal group was more socially introverted according to MMPI. According to Rosenberg self-esteem subscale, self esteem, the constancy of self respect and depressive mood subtests were statistically significant in the suicide group compared to the healthy controls (P suicide. The changes in the physical facial appearance after the suicide attempt caused impairment of self-esteem and the constancy of self-respect. Similar to other studies, none of our patients reattempted suicide and all tried to return to their pre-injury lifestyle and appeared to accommodate to the stigma of their physical deformities. Early diagnosis and treatment should be considered as a factor to reduce the risk for suicide attempt.

  15. Are lead-free hunting rifle bullets as effective at killing wildlife as conventional lead bullets? A comparison based on wound size and morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trinogga, Anna, E-mail: anna_trinogga@gmx.de; Fritsch, Guido; Hofer, Heribert; Krone, Oliver

    2013-01-15

    Fragmentation of the lead core of conventional wildlife hunting rifle bullets causes contamination of the target with lead. The community of scavenger species which feed on carcasses or viscera discarded by hunters are regularly exposed to these lead fragments and may die by acute or chronic lead intoxication, as demonstrated for numerous species such as white-tailed eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) where it is among the most important sources of mortality. Not only does hunting with conventional ammunition deposit lead in considerable quantities in the environment, it also significantly delays or threatens the recovery of endangered raptor populations. Although lead-free bullets might be considered a suitable alternative that addresses the source of these problems, serious reservations have been expressed as to their ability to quickly and effectively kill a hunted animal. To assess the suitability of lead-free projectiles for hunting practice, the wounding potential of conventional bullets was compared with lead-free bullets under real life hunting conditions. Wound dimensions were regarded as good markers of the projectiles' killing potential. Wound channels in 34 killed wild ungulates were evaluated using computed tomography and post-mortem macroscopical examination. Wound diameters caused by conventional bullets did not differ significantly to those created by lead-free bullets. Similarly, the size of the maximum cross-sectional area of the wound was similar for both bullet types. Injury patterns suggested that all animals died by exsanguination. This study demonstrates that lead-free bullets are equal to conventional hunting bullets in terms of killing effectiveness and thus equally meet the welfare requirements of killing wildlife as painlessly as possible. The widespread introduction and use of lead-free bullets should be encouraged as it prevents environmental contamination with a seriously toxic pollutant and contributes to the conservation of a wide

  16. Are lead-free hunting rifle bullets as effective at killing wildlife as conventional lead bullets? A comparison based on wound size and morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinogga, Anna; Fritsch, Guido; Hofer, Heribert; Krone, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Fragmentation of the lead core of conventional wildlife hunting rifle bullets causes contamination of the target with lead. The community of scavenger species which feed on carcasses or viscera discarded by hunters are regularly exposed to these lead fragments and may die by acute or chronic lead intoxication, as demonstrated for numerous species such as white-tailed eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) where it is among the most important sources of mortality. Not only does hunting with conventional ammunition deposit lead in considerable quantities in the environment, it also significantly delays or threatens the recovery of endangered raptor populations. Although lead-free bullets might be considered a suitable alternative that addresses the source of these problems, serious reservations have been expressed as to their ability to quickly and effectively kill a hunted animal. To assess the suitability of lead-free projectiles for hunting practice, the wounding potential of conventional bullets was compared with lead-free bullets under real life hunting conditions. Wound dimensions were regarded as good markers of the projectiles' killing potential. Wound channels in 34 killed wild ungulates were evaluated using computed tomography and post-mortem macroscopical examination. Wound diameters caused by conventional bullets did not differ significantly to those created by lead-free bullets. Similarly, the size of the maximum cross-sectional area of the wound was similar for both bullet types. Injury patterns suggested that all animals died by exsanguination. This study demonstrates that lead-free bullets are equal to conventional hunting bullets in terms of killing effectiveness and thus equally meet the welfare requirements of killing wildlife as painlessly as possible. The widespread introduction and use of lead-free bullets should be encouraged as it prevents environmental contamination with a seriously toxic pollutant and contributes to the conservation of a wide variety

  17. Diet-derived microRNAs: unicorn or silver bullet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witwer, Kenneth W; Zhang, Chen-Yu

    2017-01-01

    In ancient lore, a bullet cast from silver is the only effective weapon against monsters. The uptake of active diet-derived microRNAs (miRNAs) in consumers may be the silver bullet long sought after in nutrition and oral therapeutics. However, the majority of scientists consider the transfer and regulation of consumer's gene activity by these diet-derived miRNAs to be a fantasy akin to spotting a unicorn. Nevertheless, groups like Dr. Chen-Yu Zhang's lab in Nanjing University have stockpiled breathtaking amounts of data to shoot down these naysayers. Meanwhile, Dr. Ken Witwer at John Hopkins has steadfastly cautioned the field to beware of fallacies caused by contamination, technical artifacts, and confirmation bias. Here, Dr. Witwer and Dr. Zhang share their realities of dietary miRNAs by answering five questions related to this controversial field.

  18. Lead poisoning from retained bullets: pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linden, M.A.; Manton, W.I.; Stewart, R.M.; Thal, E.R.; Feit, H.

    1982-01-01

    Lead intoxication (plumbism) from retained bullets has rarely been reported but may be fatal if unrecognized. Bullets lodged within joint spaces or pseudocysts are more likely to develop this complication, although patients with retained missiles in other locations may also be at risk. Subtle findings such as the occurrence of unexplained anemia, abdominal colic, nephropathy, or neurologic deterioration in patients with retained missiles may suggest consideration of plumbism. An intercurrent metabolic stress such as infection, endocrinopathy, or alcoholism may be a precipitating factor. Among the various diagnostic studies available, mass spectrometric stable isotope dilution analysis may be the most reliable. It is important to employ chelation therapy prior to any operative intervention. This will reduce the mobilization of lead from bone during or following the surgical procedure

  19. Outcome of the Treatment of Gunshot Open Fractures of the Lower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Outcome of the Treatment of Gunshot Open Fractures of the Lower ... the increase in civilian populations in developing countries due to increasing violence in our society. ... The most common complication was wound in infection in 5 (15.2%).

  20. Bullet Trap Feasibility Assessment and Implementation Plan. (Technology Identification).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-03-01

    paralisis of of lead objects or its peripherical nerves and, in compounds (parasiticides, some cases, death. dyes , mordants , polyvinyl- To a correct...impact of the projectiles. In addition, bullet traps reduce or eliminate safety problems caused by ricochets off natural or other materials on current...rubber granules canted back at a natural angle of repose. Underneath this large pile of rubber granules is a conveyor belt and support structure. Behind

  1. ''Heavy light bullets'' in electron-positron plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berezhiani, V.I.; Mahajan, S.M.

    1995-03-01

    The nonlinear propagation of circularly polarized electromagnetic waves with relativistically strong amplitudes in an unmagnetized hot electron-positron plasma with a small fraction of ions is investigated. The possibility of finding localized solutions in such a plasma is explored. It is shown that these plasmas support the propagation of ''heavy light bullets''; nondiffracting and nondispersive electromagnetic (EM) pulses with large density bunching. (author). 24 refs, 12 figs

  2. Interaction of Interstellar Shocks with Dense Obstacles: Formation of ``Bullets''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.

    The so-called cumulative effect take place in converging conical shock waves arising behind dense obstacles overtaken by incident interstellar shock. A significant part of energy of converging flow of matter swept-up by a radiative conical shock can be transferred to a dense jet-like ejection (``bullet'') directed along the cone axis. Possible applications of this effect for star-forming regions (e.g., OMC-1) and supernova remnants (e.g., Vela SNR) are discussed.

  3. Image-guided ureteral reconstruction using rendezvous technique for complex ureteric transection after gunshot injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabi, Mohammad; Mat'hami, Abdulaziz; Said, Mohammad T; Bulbul, Muhammad; Haddad, Maurice; Al-Kutoubi, Aghiad

    2016-01-01

    Management of complex ureteric transection poses a significant clinical challenge, particularly after gunshot injuries due to marked distortion of anatomy and associated tissue loss. We report two cases of total ureteric transection due to gunshot injury successfully repaired using fluoroscopy-guided rendezvous procedure and double J stent placement. This minimally invasive approach may offer a safe and effective technique to repair complete ureteral transection and obviate the need for complex surgical procedures.

  4. Field kit and method for testing for the presence of gunshot residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodacy, Philip J.; Walker, Pamela K.

    2003-09-02

    A field test kit for gunshot residue comprises a container having at least compartments separated by a barrier. A surface is tested by wiping it with a swab and placing the swab in a first compartment. The barrier is then breached, permitting reagent in the second compartment to flow onto the swab. The first compartment is transparent, and a color change will be observed if the reagent reacts with gunshot residue.

  5. Self-Inflicted Orbito-Cranial Injury Secondary to Gunshot: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yam Bahadur Roka

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The eye may be injured by various penetrating and non-penetrating injuries like sticks, pencils, rods, gunshot and chopsticks. Self-inflicted gunshot injuries have been rarely reported in literature. This case is interesting in multiple aspects which include poverty, lack of education and the failure of government to ensure control of the use of firearms in Nepal. We report a case of self-inflicted gun injury which was managed successfully.

  6. Oral lead bullet fragment exposure in northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Richard; Holladay, Jeremy; Holladay, Steven; Tannenbaum, Lawrence; Selcer, Barbara; Meldrum, Blair; Williams, Susan; Jarrett, Timothy; Gogal, Robert

    2011-11-01

    Lead (Pb) is a worldwide environmental contaminant known to adversely affect multiple organ systems in both mammalian and avian species. In birds, a common route of exposure is via oral ingestion of lead particles. Data are currently lacking for the retention and clearance of Pb bullet fragments in gastrointestinal (GI) tract of birds while linking toxicity with blood Pb levels. In the present study, northern bobwhite quail fed a seed-based diet were orally gavaged with Pb bullet fragments (zero, one or five fragments/bird) and evaluated for rate of fragment clearance, and changes in peripheral blood, renal, immune, and gastrointestinal parameters. Based on radiographs, the majority of the birds cleared or absorbed the fragments by seven days, with the exception of one five-fragment bird which took between 7 and 14 days. Blood Pb levels were higher in males than females, which may be related to egg production in females. In males but not females, feed consumption, body weight gain, packed cell volume (PCV), plasma protein concentration, and δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δ-ALAD) activity were all adversely affected by five Pb fragments. Birds of both sexes that received a single Pb fragment displayed depressed δ-ALAD, suggesting altered hematologic function, while all birds dosed with five bullet fragments exhibited greater morbidity.

  7. A Measuring Method About the Bullet Velocity in Electromagnetic Rail Gun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianming LIU

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The operating principle of electromagnetic rail gun by store capacitor was analyzed. A simulation model about the bullet velocity in the electromagnetic rail gun was built. The results of computer simulation experiment showed the relationships between the bullet velocity and the capacitor charging voltage and the pellet mass. By ten coil targets, a new kind of measuring method for the bullet velocity in electromagnetic rail gun was presented. The results of the actual experiment were analyzed. The improving method for measuring bullet velocity was put forward.

  8. Ventricular Tachycardia from a Central Line Fracture Fragment Embolus: A Rare Complication of a Commonly Used Procedure—A Case Report and Review of the Relevant Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saptarshi Biswas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 22-year-old male admitted with multiple gunshot wounds (GSW had central line placed initially for hemodynamic monitoring and later for long term antibiotics and total parenteral nutrition (TPN. On postoperative day 4 he presented with bouts of nonsustained ventricular tachycardia; the cause was unknown initially and later attributed to a catheter fragment accidentally severed and lodged in the right heart. Percutaneous retrieval technique was used to successfully extract the catheter fragment and complete recovery was achieved.

  9. Is it possible to determine firearm calibre and shooting range from the examination of gunshot residue in close range gunshot wounds? An experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisa Gradaščević

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of the study was determining the type of weapon and shooting distance depending on chemical analysis of inorganic gunshot residue from the skin gunshot wounds in experimental animals (pigs.Methods: Experimental study was conducted in order to determine components and their percentage in gunshot residue (GSR. In 60 samples, pig skin was shot by fi ring projectiles from four different weapons and from three different distances (contact wound and near contact wound from 5 cm and 10 cm. The methodology included determining the presence of inorganic material: antimony, barium, lead, nickel, zinc and copper in the skin and subcutaneous tissue using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS.Results: Formula for determining weapon type was provided cutt-off points for different weapons, with 78.6% of original grouped cases being correctly classifi ed. Formula for determining weapon type was provided cutt-off points for different distances, with 58.9% of original grouped cases being correctly classified, which was slightly less reliable compared to weapon type discrimination analysis.Conclusion: The presented study showed that chemical analysis of GSR in entrance wound with AAS could be useful in determining the type of weapon, as well as the shooting distance, i.e. in our study, determiningwhether the wound is contact or near contact. This could be particularly useful in postmortally putrefi ed or charred bodies with gunshot wounds.

  10. The density and velocity of plasma bullets propagating along one dielectric tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longfei Ji

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study shows that the propagation of plasma bullets along one dielectric tube is strongly affected by many discharge parameters, such as the waveform of applied voltage (AC or pulsed DC, peak voltage, He flow rate, and the frequency of AC voltage. Analysis indicates that the density and velocity of plasma bullets are mainly determined by the electric field at the front of plasma bullets. These discharge parameters may significantly influence the distribution of plasma potential along the tube, thus control the electric field at the front of plasma bullets and their propagation. An increase in the pulsed DC voltage with its rise time of <40-50 ns can lead to an obvious improvement in the electric field at the front of plasma bullets, resulting in generation of a plasma in the high density gas and a fast propagation of plasma bullets. He flowing through the tube can contribute to the surface diffusion of charged species, and greatly increase the electric field at the front of plasma bullets. During the propagation of plasma bullets, their density is decreased due to the surface recombination of charged species, such as electrons and ions.

  11. [The forensic medical characteristics of the entrance bullet holes created by the shots from pneumatic rifles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legin, G A; Bondarchuk, A O; Perebetjuk, A N

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare the injurious action of three types of the bullets for the pneumatic weapons shot from different distances using the Gamo pump air pistol and the BAM B22-1 pneumatic rifle. The following four kinds of the bullets were tested: "the fireball", "Luman cap 0.3", "Luman Field Target 0.68" and "DIABOLO". It was experimentally shown that the injurious action of the bullets fired from the same distance from the pneumatic weapons depends on the type of both the bullet and the weapon, as well as the properties of the target material. Specifically, the action of bullets fired from the piston pneumatic rifle remained stable whereas that of the bullets shot from the gas-balloon air pistol decreased as the gas was exhausted. The studies by the contact-diffusion method have demonstrated that the entrance bullet holes created by the shots from pneumatic weapons are surrounded by dispersed metal particles which makes it possible to estimate the shooting distance. Moreover, the bullets fired from the pneumatic weapons leave the muzzle face imprint on certain target materials.

  12. Intra-myocardial Bullet causing heart block in a patient with multiple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    consolidation and bullet lodged above the diaphragm. The chest radiograph showed bullet lodged above the diaphragm. ARDS resolved markedly over the following. 7 days. However, there were persistent bronchial breath sounds in the left lower lung with purulent secretions and collapse with consolidation. CT scan of the ...

  13. Plasma bullet current measurements in a free-stream helium capillary jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jun-Seok; Walsh, James L.; Bradley, James W.

    2012-06-01

    A commercial current monitor has been used to measure the current associated with plasma bullets created in both the positive and negative half cycles of the sinusoidal driving voltage sustaining a plasma jet. The maximum values of the positive bullet current are typically ˜750 µA and persist for 10 µs, while the peaks in the negative current of several hundred μA are broad, persisting for about 40 µs. From the time delay of the current peaks with increasing distance from the jet nozzle, an average bullet propagation speed has been measured; the positive and negative bullets travel at 17.5 km s-1 and 3.9 km s-1 respectively. The net space charge associated with the bullet(s) has also been calculated; the positive and negative bullets contain a similar net charge of the order of 10-9 C measured at all monitor positions, with estimated charged particle densities nb of ˜1010-1011 cm-3 in the bullet.

  14. Plasma bullet current measurements in a free-stream helium capillary jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jun-Seok; Walsh, James L; Bradley, James W

    2012-01-01

    A commercial current monitor has been used to measure the current associated with plasma bullets created in both the positive and negative half cycles of the sinusoidal driving voltage sustaining a plasma jet. The maximum values of the positive bullet current are typically ∼750 µA and persist for 10 µs, while the peaks in the negative current of several hundred μA are broad, persisting for about 40 µs. From the time delay of the current peaks with increasing distance from the jet nozzle, an average bullet propagation speed has been measured; the positive and negative bullets travel at 17.5 km s −1 and 3.9 km s −1 respectively. The net space charge associated with the bullet(s) has also been calculated; the positive and negative bullets contain a similar net charge of the order of 10 −9 C measured at all monitor positions, with estimated charged particle densities n b of ∼10 10 –10 11 cm −3 in the bullet. (special)

  15. Electric field measurements on plasma bullets in N2 using four-wave mixing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schans, M.; Böhm, P.; Nijdam, S.; IJzerman, W.L.; Czarnetzki, U.

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasma jets driven by pulsed DC or kHz AC voltages typically consist of discrete guided ionisation waves called plasma bullets. In this work, the electric field of plasma bullets generated in a pulsed DC jet with N2 as feed gas is investigated. Electric field measurements in N2

  16. Learning game physics with Bullet Physics and OpenGL

    CERN Document Server

    Dickinson, Chris

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive set of straight-forward, easy-to-follow tutorials in OpenGL and Bullet Physics that will teach you how modern game physics and 3D graphics work.If you're a beginner or intermediate programmer with a basic understanding of 3D mathematics, and you want a stronger foundation in 3D graphics and physics, then this book is perfect for you! You'll even learn some of the fundamental concepts in 3D mathematics and software design that lies beneath them both, discovering some techniques and tricks in graphics and physics that you can use in any game development project.

  17. Caffeine citrate - Is it a silver bullet in neonatology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Bikash; Jawa, Gaurav

    2017-10-01

    Caffeine citrate is one of the most prescribed drug in the present day NICU for apnea. Its efficacy, tolerability, wide therapeutic index and safety margin has made it the drug of choice among the methylxanthines. Its therapeutic uses in apnea of prematurity, mechanical ventilation, bronchopulmonary dysplasia has made it a "silver bullet" in neonatology. However, there are still controversies surrounding this drug. This review is aimed to update the reader about the basic pharmacology, current therapeutic uses, adverse effects, controversies as well as present and future research of caffeine. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Determining tissue-lead levels in large game mammals harvested with lead bullets: human health concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, L J S; Wainman, B C; Jayasinghe, R K; VanSpronsen, E P; Liberda, E N

    2009-04-01

    Recently, the use of lead isotope ratios has definitively identified lead ammunition as a source of lead exposure for First Nations people, but the isotope ratios for lead pellets and bullets were indistinguishable. Thus, lead-contaminated meat from game harvested with lead bullets may also be contributing to the lead body burden; however, few studies have determined if lead bullet fragments are present in big game carcasses. We found elevated tissue-lead concentrations (up to 5,726.0 microg/g ww) in liver (5/9) and muscle (6/7) samples of big game harvested with lead bullets and radiographic evidence of lead fragments. Thus, we would advise that the tissue surrounding the wound channel be removed and discarded, as this tissue may be contaminated by lead bullet fragments.

  19. Firework displays as sources of particles similar to gunshot residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grima, Matthew; Butler, Mark; Hanson, Robert; Mohameden, Ahmed

    2012-03-01

    In light of past research being targeted to find specific particles which may be similar to gunshot residue (GSR), this project was formulated to detect any possible particulate by random particle fallout onto substrates at firework displays and to assess the impact this may have on GSR evidence. Firework residue was collected at a display site, from amongst spectators as well as from the author's hair 90min after the display. SEM-EDX analysis has detected such particulate in all three scenarios, with the firework particle population at large providing a solid ground for discrimination from GSR. Wind dispersal was found to decrease the particle population and subsequently, the latter's discriminatory power. Some particles, if treated individually were found to be indistinguishable from GSR. Findings also include residues which may mimic strontium based GSR as well as GSR which may be mixed with that from previous firings. The continuous changes made to primer and propellant compositions by manufacturers also call for greater consideration when classifying particles as originating from pyrotechnic devices. Furthermore, authorities such as police forces should be made more aware about the incidence of such particle transfer in firework related periods. Copyright © 2011 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Peculiarities of forensic medical expertise of gunshot wounds inflicted through a bulletproof vest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozertskovskiĭ, L B; Tiurin, M V; Denisov, A V

    2013-01-01

    A series of experimental studies was conducted with the object of elucidating the mechanisms of the bullet after-penetration effect produced by a handgun shot into the armoured vest with special reference to the changes developing in the space behind the barrier. The application of the pulsed radiographic technique revealed a transient cavity the presence of which accounts for the injuries to soft tissues, bones, and internal organs in the projection of the bullet impact without damage to the armour plates.

  1. Designing the ideal model for assessment of wound contamination after gunshot injuries: a comparative experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    von See Constantin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modern high-velocity projectiles produce temporary cavities and can thus cause extensive tissue destruction along the bullet path. It is still unclear whether gelatin blocks, which are used as a well-accepted tissue simulant, allow the effects of projectiles to be adequately investigated and how these effects are influenced by caliber size. Method Barium titanate particles were distributed throughout a test chamber for an assessment of wound contamination. We fired .22-caliber Magnum bullets first into gelatin blocks and then into porcine hind limbs placed behind the chamber. Two other types of bullets (.222-caliber bullets and 6.5 × 57 mm cartridges were then shot into porcine hind limbs. Permanent and temporary wound cavities as well as the spatial distribution of barium titanate particles in relation to the bullet path were evaluated radiologically. Results A comparison of the gelatin blocks and hind limbs showed significant differences (p Conclusion Gelatin is only of limited value for evaluating the path of high-velocity projectiles and the contamination of wounds by exogenous particles. There is a direct relationship between the presence of gas cavities in the tissue along the bullet path and caliber size. These cavities, however, are only mildly contaminated by exogenous particles.

  2. Characteristics and management of gunshot wounds in dogs and cats: 84 cases (1986-1995).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullington, R J; Otto, C M

    1997-03-01

    To determine history, signalment, physical examination findings, treatment, complications, outcome, and prognostic indicators of dogs and cats treated for gunshot wounds at an urban veterinary referral hospital. Retrospective study. 82 dogs and 2 cats. Young (exploratory laparotomy. Animals with thoracic injuries usually could be managed with conservative treatment or thoracocentesis. Only 1 animal underwent thoracotomy. Wound infection developed in 4 animals. Initial treatment of animals with gunshot wounds should include administration of antibiotics effective against gram-positive and -negative bacteria. Most dogs with gunshot wounds that receive adequate treatment can be expected to survive. However, dogs with vertebral column or abdominal wounds may have a worse prognosis than dogs with thoracic or limb injuries.

  3. Gunshot-induced fractures of the extremities: a review of antibiotic and debridement practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathiyakumar, Vasanth; Thakore, Rachel V; Stinner, Daniel J; Obremskey, William T; Ficke, James R; Sethi, Manish K

    2015-09-01

    The use of antibiotic prophylaxis and debridement is controversial when treating low- and high-velocity gunshot-induced fractures, and established treatment guidelines are currently unavailable. The purpose of this review was to evaluate the literature for the prophylactic antibiotic and debridement policies for (1) low-velocity gunshot fractures of the extremities, joints, and pelvis and (2) high-velocity gunshot fractures of the extremities. Low-velocity gunshot fractures of the extremities were subcategorized into operative and non-operative cases, whereas low-velocity gunshot fractures of the joints and pelvis were evaluated based on the presence or absence of concomitant bowel injury. In the absence of surgical necessity for fracture care such as concomitant absence of gross wound contamination, vascular injury, large soft-tissue defect, or associated compartment syndrome, the literature suggests that superficial debridement for low-velocity ballistic fractures with administration of antibiotics is a satisfactory alternative to extensive operative irrigation and debridement. In operative cases or those involving bowel injuries secondary to pelvic fractures, the literature provides support for and against extensive debridement but does suggest the use of intravenous antibiotics. For high-velocity ballistic injuries, the literature points towards the practice of extensive immediate debridement with prophylactic intravenous antibiotics. Our systematic review demonstrates weak evidence for superficial debridement of low-velocity ballistic fractures, extensive debridement for high-velocity ballistic injuries, and antibiotic use for both types of injury. Intra-articular fractures seem to warrant debridement, while pelvic fractures with bowel injury have conflicting evidence for debridement but stronger evidence for antibiotic use. Given a relatively low number of studies on this subject, we recommend that further high-quality research on the debridement and

  4. Intravital and post-mortem CT examinations of cerebral gunshot injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumacher, M.; Oehmichen, M.; Koenig, H.G.; Einighammer, H.; Koeln Univ.; Tuebingen Univ.; Duesseldorf Univ.

    1983-01-01

    The value of CT was assessed in 24 patients who died of cerebral gun-shot injuries and in two patients with more recent injuries in order to reconstruct the mode of injury and for adding forensic information. The post-mortem and intravital appearances are described and are compared with ultrasound rotation compound scans of the isolated brains. CT showed good agreement with pathological findings. Ultrasound produced images with an accuracy between CT and photographs of the brain specimen. Both methods are regarded as valuable additions to the pathological and forensic information concerning gunshot injuries. (orig.) [de

  5. [Epidemiology of gunshot wounds at Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua General Hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moye-Elizalde, G A; Ruiz-Martínez, F; Suarez-Santamaría, J J; Ruiz-Ramírez, M; Reyes-Gallardo, A; Díaz-Apodaca, B A

    2013-01-01

    Since 2007, Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua has been considered as one of the most violent cities in the world. The General Hospital in this city is the main facility where patients with gunshot wounds are taken. The increased number of admissions of patients with these injuries to many hospitals in the country deserves special attention, as it has an impact on hospital resources and management protocols. To disseminate the epidemiology of fractures caused by gunshot wounds and the hospital care of these patients. A retrospective, observational cohort study was conducted of patients admitted to the Traumatology and Orthopedics Service, Cd. Juárez General Hospital, in Chihuahua, Mexico, from January 2008 to December 2010. All of them sustained fractures resulting from gunshot wounds. A total of 1281 patients with a diagnosis of gunshot wounds were admitted to the hospital; 402 of them were included in this study with 559 fractures; 329 were males and 73 females. Of the 559 fractures, 257 involved the upper limb, 294 the lower limb, and 8 the pelvis. Gunshot wounds-related fractures were classified according to the Gustilo classification. Seventy-nine patients had grade I fractures, 302 grade III, and 21 patients had both grades. Conservative treatment was used in 44.3% of fractures and osteosynthesis in 55%. One patient underwent amputation upon admission. The most widely used osteosynthesis methods were external fixator (37%), straight plates (21%) and intramedullary nail (17%). Five patients (1.3%) underwent amputation: two with femur fracture and 3 with humeral fracture. There were 27 deep infections (6%); one of them resulted in late amputation of the pelvic limb. The most common associated injuries included: chest injuries in 20 patients and abdominal injuries in 17. The range of hospital stay was 1-18 days, with a mean stay of 11 days. The overall mortality rate considering the total number of patients admitted (1,281) was 99 patients (7.72%). From 2006 to 2010 the

  6. Pediatric gunshot penetrating head injury: a case report with 2-year follow-up

    OpenAIRE

    Steven Tandean; Marsal Risfandi; Iskandar Japardi

    2018-01-01

    Gunshot is a rare subset of penetrating head injury, and generally the victim dies before arriving at the hospital. This paper reported a case of an intracranial gunshot injury in a 12 year-old boy that was shot by his friend, whose primary intention was to play around, using a revolver. A missile projectile penetrated from mid frontal and came out from right occipital. Vital signs were stable with GCS 8 from physical examination. A rational management strategy should permit a good outcome. T...

  7. Using Gunshot Detection Systems to Fight Explosive Fishing Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showen, R. L.; Dunson, J. C.; Woodman, G.; Christopher, S.; Wilson, S.

    2015-12-01

    Blast fishing (using explosives to catch fish) causes extensive damage to coral reefs, especially in the Coral Triangle in Southeast Asia. Subsistence fishermen and larger consortiums, often with criminal links, throw an explosive into a school of fish, killing all sea life within range. This unsustainable practice is becoming more prevalent, and threatens the protein supply of as many as a billion people. Ending blast fishing will require combined technical and societal methods aimed at both deterring the practice, and catching those responsible. Our work aims to significantly improve enforcement. We are re-purposing SST's ShotSpotter gunshot detection system, (trusted and valued by police around the world), substituting hydrophones for the present microphones. Using multilateration and trained human reviewers, the system can give prompt blast alerts, location data, and acoustic waveforms to law enforcement officials. We hope to establish a prototype system in Malaysia in 2015, and have already secured governmental approvals for installation and tests with local law enforcement. The Scubazoo media firm in Malaysia is working with resorts, dive operations, and celebrity sponsors, and is planning to produce videos to illustrate the severity of the problem to both governments and the public. Because there is little hard data concerning the prevalence of blast fishing in either marine protected areas or open waters, the system can also indicate to the world the actual blast rates and patterns of use. The Teng Hoi environmental NGO in Hong Kong showed in 2004 that acoustic waves from typical bombs propagate on the order of 20 km, so an underwater locator system with a small number of sensors can feasibly cover a sizable coral region. Our present plans are to mount sensors on piers, buoys, and boats, but if possible we would also like to integrate with other existing acoustic arrays to strengthen the fight against blast fishing.

  8. Brown sequard syndrome following firearm injury with a bullet lodged in the upper cervical canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brohi, S.R.; Brohi, Q.R.

    2008-01-01

    A case of stray bullet injury in a child is reported who presented with Brown-Sequard syndrome and CSF leak from the wound at the nape of neck. Patient was assessed by plain radiography and CT scans showing bullet lying in the cervical spinal canal under the C1 and C2 laminae. Laminectomy at C1/C2 level was done and bullet was carefully removed. Patient improved neurologically and CSF discharge stopped. The case report indicated the atypical neurological presentation and possibility of survival in high cervical spinal firearm injury. (author)

  9. CT assessment of thoracic gunshot wounds. Our personal experience; Ruolo della Tomografia Computerizzata nelle lesioni da arma da fuoco del torace. Esperienza personale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salzano, A.; De Rosa, A. [Ospedale Loreto Mare, Neaples (Italy). Servizio di Radiologia; Carbone, M.; Rossi, E.; Burnese, L. [Neaples Univ., Neaples (Italy). Ist. di Scienze Radiologiche; Muto, M.; Tuccillo, M. [Azienda Ospedaliera di Rilievo Nazionale A. Cardarelli, Neaples (Italy). Servizio di Neuroradiologia, 2 Servizio di Radiologia; Nunziata, A. [Pronto Soccorso Est, ASL NA1, Neaples (Italy). Area di Diagnostica per Immagini

    1999-11-01

    CT is a valuable tool in assessing thoracic gunshot wounds. CT is also the method of choice in emergency, because it permits rapid depiction of bullet damage to the chest and to other body districts. This in turn permits correct assessment of the main thoracic injuries, plus adequate and prompt planning of surgical treatment or support intensive care. It is reported on the role of CT in diagnosing the complex pleuropulmonary, cardiovascular and thoracic wall injuries caused by gunshot wounds, with their specific and acute signs which differ greatly fro those of other types of chest trauma. In the last 4 years, it was observed an amount of 76 cases of gunshot injury, twenty-six of them involved the chest. The patients, 25 men and 1 woman (mean age: 32 years, range: 17-48), were all submitted to emergency CT with iv contrast agent injection and the CT-angiography technique. The reanimator was always presented to monitor the patients' vital functions and shock state. CT of the chest was integrated with CT of the abdomen and pelvis in 4 cases and with CT of the skull in 3 cases, to detect associated bullet wounds if any. Chest radiography shows major gunshot wound damage to the chest and lungs, except for heart injuries and minimal pneumothorax. When abdominal and skull injuries are associated, CT should be the method of choice because it permits prompt and panoramic assessment of the severity of pulmonary and extra thoracic damage. This results in prompt and targeted treatment, avoiding unnecessary delays which may damage the patient further. [Italian] L'impiego della TC nella valutazione del paziente con lesioni da arma da fuoco del torace risulta essenziale e prioritario rispetto ad altre metodiche di diagnostica per immagini, poiche' consente di avere la rapida visione d'insieme dei danni provocati dal proiettile nel suo impatto con le strutture toraciche e con altri distretti corporei coinvolti. Cio' permette il corretto inquadramento

  10. Epidemiology, demographics, and outcomes of craniomaxillofacial gunshot wounds in a level I trauma center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tholpady, Sunil S; DeMoss, Patrick; Murage, Kariuki P; Havlik, Robert J; Flores, Roberto L

    2014-07-01

    Gunshot injuries to the craniomaxillofacial region are a challenge to the trauma and reconstructive surgeon. Although management of these injuries has been standardized and early rather than late intervention is advocated, the patient characteristics before, during, and after have been poorly elucidated. A prospectively maintained Level I trauma center database was queried as to gunshot wounds of the craniomaxillofacial skeleton. Over a five-year period (2007-2011), 168 patients were identified with these injuries. Charts were reviewed as to demographics, presentations, and outcomes and these were tested for significant relationships with hospital length of stay, numbers and types of procedures, morbidity, and mortality. Gunshot wounds to the craniofacial skeleton resulted in 71 deaths in this patient population. Those that died were significantly older, presented with a lower GCS, had a shorter LOS, and a higher INR than those that lived. Subgroup analysis of mechanism demonstrated mortality was more likely to occur as a result of self-inflicted injury in whites and due to assault in the African-American population. Data gathered from this study disputes some commonly held beliefs regarding the epidemiology of gunshot injuries and should allow for better characterization of which outcomes are consistent with which presentations. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Analysis Of Gunshot Injuries In A Semi-Urban Community In Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Gunshot injuries are taking a worrisome dimension in all parts of Nigeria with associated significant morbidity mortality. Most cases of gun shot injuries in our community prefer to be managed by traditional healers rather than medical doctors. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the pattern and outcome of ...

  12. Extremity gunshot injuries in civilian practice: the National Orthopaedic Hospital Igbobi experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yinusa, W; Ogirima, M O

    2000-01-01

    A combined retrospective and prospective study of Gunshot Injuries (GSI) that presented to the National Orthopaedic Hospital, Igbobi (NOHL) between 1991 and 1995 was undertaken with the aim of determining the characteristics of these injuries in Lagos, Nigeria. 232 patients with 281 gunshot wounds and 212 gunshot fractures were seen during this period. 68.9% of patients in the study were in the age group 21-40 years with a mean age at presentation of 32.46 +/- 11.21 years. The male to female ratio was 9:1. 87 (37.5%) presented within 6 hours of injury. Armed robbery dominated the events surrounding the shootings with high velocity weapon (HVW) accounting for 47% of the cases. While the femur was the commonest single bone to be fractured the treatment of fractures generally was largely conservative as only 5 fractures were eventually treated by open reduction and internal fixation. Wound infection was the commonest complication (25%) with amputation being performed in 5.6% of cases. This study does not confirm the belief that high velocity weapon causes greater morbidity than low velocity weapon. Even though the average duration of hospitalisation was 33.5 +/- 23.4 days, we advise that for our present state of development gunshot fractures should not be primarily treated with internal fixation.

  13. Pure air-plasma bullets propagating inside microcapillaries and in ambient air

    KAUST Repository

    Lacoste, Deanna; Bourdon, Anne; Kuribara, Koichi; Urabe, Keiichiro; Stauss, Sven; Terashima, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the characterization of air-plasma bullets in microcapillary tubes and in ambient air, obtained without the use of inert or noble gases. The bullets were produced by nanosecond repetitively pulsed discharges, applied in a dielectric barrier discharge configuration. The anode was a tungsten wire with a diameter of 50 μm, centered in the microcapillary, while the cathode was a silver ring, fixed on the outer surface of the fused silica tube. The effects of the applied voltage and the inner diameter of the microcapillary tube on the plasma behavior were investigated. Inside the tubes, while the topology of the bullets seems to be strongly dependent on the diameter, their velocity is only a function of the amplitude of the applied voltage. In ambient air, the propagation of air bullets with a velocity of about 1.25 ×105 m s-1 is observed.

  14. Effects of human decomposition on test fired bullet – An experimental research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Rao

    2016-03-01

    The observations through comparison microscope indicated that the individual characteristic (microscopic markings on the bullet in the form of microstriae showed complete corrosion or obscuring by the 10th day. The surface appeared smooth, onset of corrosion process was noted on the 2nd day and by the 4th day 50% obscuring of the marks was noted. This change in the markings of the metal surface of the bullet was uniform to all the ammunitions used in this study. The control bullets showed no such changes during the period of study. The study confirms the existence of a potential danger in dealing with crime bullets retrieved from putrefied bodies. It also highlights the importance of early retrieval of dead bodies in firearm deaths and the importance of proper storage facilities to deal with cases of firearm deaths.

  15. Pure air-plasma bullets propagating inside microcapillaries and in ambient air

    KAUST Repository

    Lacoste, Deanna

    2014-11-04

    This paper reports on the characterization of air-plasma bullets in microcapillary tubes and in ambient air, obtained without the use of inert or noble gases. The bullets were produced by nanosecond repetitively pulsed discharges, applied in a dielectric barrier discharge configuration. The anode was a tungsten wire with a diameter of 50 μm, centered in the microcapillary, while the cathode was a silver ring, fixed on the outer surface of the fused silica tube. The effects of the applied voltage and the inner diameter of the microcapillary tube on the plasma behavior were investigated. Inside the tubes, while the topology of the bullets seems to be strongly dependent on the diameter, their velocity is only a function of the amplitude of the applied voltage. In ambient air, the propagation of air bullets with a velocity of about 1.25 ×105 m s-1 is observed.

  16. Formation of hydroxyl radical (sm-bulletOH) in illuminated surface waters contaminated with acidic mine drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, J.M.; Lucas, S.; Allen, S.K.

    1996-01-01

    Formation rates and steady-state concentrations of hydroxyl radical ( sm-bullet OH) in illuminated surface water samples collected in west-central Indiana that receive acidic mine drainage runoff are reported. Formation rates for sm-bullet OH in samples were measured by the addition of 1 x 10 -3 M benzene prior to illuminate in order to effectively scavenge all of the sm-bullet OH formed, thereby yielding phenol. The sm-bullet OH formation rates were calculated from the measured phenol formation rates. Steady-state concentrations of sm-bullet OH were measured by the addition of 5 x 10 -7 M nitrobenzene to the samples prior to illumination. Estimated sunlight sm-bullet OH formation rates range from 16 microM h -1 to 265 microM h -1 . Estimated sunlight steady-state sm-bullet OH concentrations range from 6.7 x 10 -15 to 4.0 x 10 -12 M. Both the formation rates and steady-state concentrations for sm-bullet OH are thus two to three orders of magnitude higher than values reported in the literature for other sunlit surface water samples. Due to the very high rates of formation and steady-state concentrations for sm-bullet OH in these samples, the authors conclude that aqueous-phase reactions involving sm-bullet OH represent a significant pathway by which organic pollutants in illuminated surface waters receiving acidic mine drainage runoff may be consumed

  17. Micro-CT features of intermediate gunshot wounds severely damaged by fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fais, Paolo; Giraudo, Chiara; Boscolo-Berto, Rafael; Amagliani, Alessandro; Miotto, Diego; Feltrin, Giampietro; Viel, Guido; Ferrara, S Davide; Cecchetto, Giovanni

    2013-03-01

    Incineration or extensive burning of the body, causing changes in the content and distribution of fluids, fixation and shrinking processes of tissues, can alter the typical macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of firearm wounds, hampering or at least complicating the reconstruction of gunshot fatalities. The present study aims at evaluating the potential role of micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) for detecting and quantifying gunshot residue (GSR) particles in experimentally produced intermediate-range gunshot wounds severely damaged by fire. Eighteen experimental shootings were performed on 18 sections of human calves surgically amputated for medical reasons at three different firing distances (5, 15 and 30 cm). Six stab wounds produced with an ice pick were used as controls. Each calf section underwent a charring cycle, being placed in a wood-burning stove for 4 min at a temperature of 400 °C. At visual inspection, the charred entrance wounds could not be differentiated from the exit lesions and the stab wounds. On the contrary, micro-CT analysis showed the presence of GSR particles in all burnt entrance gunshot wounds, while GSR was absent in the exit and stab wounds. The GSR deposits of the firearm lesions inflicted at very close distance (5 cm) were mainly constituted of huge particles (diameter >150 μm) with an irregular shape and well-delineated edges; at greater distances (15 and 30 cm), agglomerates of tiny radiopaque particles scattered in the epidermis and dermis layers were evident. Statistical analysis demonstrated that also in charred firearm wounds the amount of GSR roughly correlates with the distance from which the gun was fired. The obtained results suggest that micro-CT analysis can be a valid screening tool for identifying entrance gunshot wounds and for differentiating firearm wounds from sharp-force injuries in bodies severely damaged by fire.

  18. 18 GHz SZ Measurements of the Bullet Cluster Siddharth S. Malu ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1E0657-56, known as the 'Bullet cluster', is one of the hottest known clusters. It is a cluster collision/merger event at z ∼0.296, with the larger, westward cluster being ∼10 times the mass of the smaller 'bullet'. It is known to have a strong radio halo (Liang et al. 2000), and the Sunyaev–Zel'dovich effect (Andreani et al. 1999;.

  19. [Injury patterns and roentgen findings in gunshot wounds with rare flint ammunition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollak, S; Lindermann, A

    1990-01-01

    Smoothbore shotgun barrels can fire cartridges with common pellet loads as well as shotgun slugs and rubber bullets. Other than conventional shot, the cylindrical Brenneke-type rifled shotgun slugs sometimes cause perforating wounds. The shotgun ammunition for use in self-defence can have a single projectile or several rubber pellets. Where the propellant is black powder, short range shots will probably leave searing marks and intensive soot deposits. Fired at close range, rubber bullets can penetrate through the skin into the body, fired at greater distance they cause contusions. A case of homicide (repeated firing with a 12-ga. pump gun) is used to present and discuss the injury patterns and X-ray findings after impact of Brenneke-type slugs and rubber bullets as well as of "classical" shot pellets.

  20. [Gunshot and stab wounds in Germany--epidemiology and outcome: analysis from the TraumaRegister DGU®].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieler, D; Franke, A F; Hentsch, S; Paffrath, T; Willms, A; Lefering, R; Kollig, E W

    2014-11-01

    The management of gunshot wounds is a rare challenge for trauma surgeons in Germany and Central Europe as a result of the low incidence of this type of trauma. Penetrating injuries occur with an incidence of 5% in Germany. They are caused by gunshots or more commonly by knives or other objects, for example during accidents. Since even the number of patients who are treated at level 1 trauma centres is limited by the low incidence, the objective of this study was to assess the epidemiology and outcome of gunshot and stab wounds in Germany. Since 2009, the trauma registry of the German Trauma Society (TraumaRegister DGU®) has been used to assess not only whether a trauma was penetrating but also whether it was caused by a gunshot or a stabbing. On the basis of this registry, we identified relevant cases and defined the observation period. Data were taken from the standard documentation forms that participating German hospitals completed between 2009 and 2011. We did not specify exclusion criteria in order to obtain as comprehensive a picture as possible of the trauma entities investigated in this study. As a result of the high incidence of gunshot wounds to the head and the implications of this type of injury for the entire group, a subgroup of patients without head injuries was analysed. From 2009 to 2011, there were 305 patients with gunshot wounds and 871 patients with stab wounds. The high proportion of suicide-related gunshot wounds to the head resulted in a cumulative mortality rate of 39.7%. Stab wounds were associated with a lower mortality rate (6.2%). Every fourth patient with a gunshot or stab wound presented with haemorrhagic shock, which was considerably more frequently seen during the prehospital phase than during the inhospital phase of patient management. Of the patients with gunshot wounds, 26.9% required transfusions. This percentage was three times higher than that for patients with blunt trauma. In Germany, gunshot and stab wounds have a low

  1. Decreasing prevalence and seasonal variation of gunshot trauma in raptors admitted to the wildlife center of Virginia: 1993-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Jean; Lickey, Adrienne; Sleeman, Jonathan M

    2005-09-01

    A retrospective study was conducted to identify the epidemiologic factors associated with gunshot injuries in raptors presented to the Wildlife Center of Virginia from 1993 to 2002. Of the 3,156 raptors admitted, 118 raptors (3.7%), representing 15 species, were admitted with gunshot trauma as the primary cause of morbidity and mortality. The majority of cases consisted of four species: red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis; 47%), red-shouldered hawk (Buteo lineatus; 14%), turkey vulture (Cathartes aura; 10%), and bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus; 8%). For species with greater than 40 admissions during the study period, the proportion of gunshot trauma of all causes of morbidity and mortality ranged from raptors with gunshot trauma were admitted during the fall and winter months (75%) compared with the spring and summer (25%). A significant decrease in the absolute number of gunshot cases per year was observed over the time period studied. The population-level effect of gunshot trauma is unknown for these species; however, it appears to be minor compared with other causes of morbidity and mortality.

  2. Radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies: magic bullets for colorectal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slade, Linda

    1997-01-01

    Radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) have been heralded as highly specific detection agents for many types of tumours. However, because of the many problems that have been associated with the use of these agents, their development and successes did not meet expectations. This paper discusses the use of radiolabelled MoAbs in the diagnosis and staging of colorectal cancer, the type of antibodies and radionuclides investigated over the past thirty years, and the advantages and disadvantages of each. An attempt is made to define the role of radioimmunoscintigraphy (RIS) in the investigation and management of patients with colorectal cancer. It appears that this technique can improve tumour detection, especially when used in conjunction with other imaging modalities. High sensitivities and specificities have been found using radio-labelled MoAbs for investigation of colorectal carcinoma. However, the author estimates there are a number of areas that require further research and improvement before naming radiolabelled MoAbs as 'magic bullets' for colorectal cancer. 8 refs., 3 tabs

  3. Gunshot injuries of the spine - a review of 49 cases managed at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The spinal injury was complete in 38 and incomplete in 8, with 3 having no neurological deficit. The level was cervical in 13, thoracic in 24 and lumbar in 12. Only 9 patients improved neurologically. The spine was considered stable in 43 cases. Stabilisation was performed in the 6 unstable cases. The bullets were removed ...

  4. [Suicide by double bolt gunshot wound to the head: case report and review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grellner, W; Buhmann, D; Wilske, J

    2000-01-01

    Suicidal gunshot wounds from a livestock stunner with infliction of two shots against the head are extremely rare events. A case with these characteristics is presented and the corresponding literature is reviewed. A 61-year-old butcher was found dead with two entry wounds of the forehead on the right side and in the centre being typical for captive bolt pistols (symmetrically localized powder burns). The issues of the sequence of shots and the capacity of action are discussed on the basis of morphological findings and pathophysiological considerations. A literature review revealed only 4 case reports with double gunshot wounds of the skull caused by "humane killers" (Tovo 1956, Wolff and Laufer 1965, Schiermeyer 1973, Pollak 1977).

  5. Gunshot wounds to the hand. The Martin Luther King, Jr, General Hospital experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, P; Hansraj, K K; Cox, E E; Ashley, E M

    1995-01-01

    This article is a retrospective review of patients who presented to Martin Luther King, Jr./Drew Medical Center with gunshot wounds and had either isolated or associated injuries to the hand. The following is an account of those injuries noting the location, soft-tissue or bony involvement, and interventional methods that were implemented in the treatment of these patients who resided primarily in South Central Los Angeles. Prompt evaluation and initiation of treatment is essential in the management of both high- and low-velocity gunshot wounds so as to decrease the potential morbidity that often follows. Society must also look at the prevalence of these injuries and address the underlying issues that often are the root of the acts of violence.

  6. Quantitative/Statistical Approach to Bullet-to-Firearm Identification with Consecutively Manufactured Barrels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Striupaitis; R.E. Gaensslen

    2005-01-30

    Efforts to use objective image comparison and bullet scanning technologies to distinguish bullets from consecutively manufactured handgun barrels from two manufacturers gave mixed results. The ability of a technology to reliably distinguish between matching and non-matching bullets, where the non-matching bullets were as close in pattern to the matching ones as is probably possible, would provide evidence that the distinctions could be made ''objectively'', and independently of human eyes. That evidence is identical or very close to what seems to be needed to satisfy Daubert standards. It is fair to say that the FTI IBIS image comparison technology correctly distinguished between all the Springfield barrel bullets, and between most but not all of the HiPoint barrel bullets. In the HiPoint cases that were not distinguished 100% of the time, they would he distinguished correctly at least 83% of the time. These results, although obviously limited to the materials used in the comparisons, provide strong evidence that barrel-to-bullet matching is objectively reliable. The results with SciClops were less compelling. The results do not mean that bullet-to-barrel matching is not objectively reliable--rather, they mean that this version of the particular technology could not quite distinguish between these extremely similar yet different bullets as well as the image comparison technology did. In a number of cases, the numerical results made the correct distinctions, although they were close to one another. It is hard to say from this data that this technology differs in its ability to make distinctions between the manufacturers, because the results are very similar with both. The human examiner results were as expected. We did not expect any misidentifications, and there were not any. It would have been preferable to have a higher return rate, and thus more comparisons in the overall sample. As noted, the ''consecutively manufactured barrel

  7. [Clinical experience with various techniques integrated treat the wounded with gunshot fractures of limbs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, V K; Akhmedov, B G; Chililov, A M

    To increase an efficiency of complex treatment of patients with diaphyseal gunshot fractures of long bones by introduction of modern minimally invasive surgical techniques of internal osteosynthesis into clinical practice of civil health care and to improve the outcomes in victims. Prospective comparative clinical trial included 104 victims from the Republic of Yemen with gunshot wounds of limbs of various severity for the period 2009-2011. There were diaphyseal fractures of long bones of limbs associated with soft tissue injuries. Men were predominant (80.7%). Age ranged from 15 to 80 years (mean 38,5 ± 5,7 years). Various surgical techniques of simultaneous and staged treatment were used for gunshot fractures of long bones of limbs. Additional immune therapy was prescribed to prevent infectious complications in the most severe cases. Victims were comprehensively treated according to different staged treatment: conventional surgical treatment with external fixation devices or early primary minimally invasive functionally stable osteosynthesis with LCP/BIOS plates were applied for low-energy fractures; in case of high-energy fractures the first stage included external fixation devices deployment followed by their subsequent replacement during delayed minimally invasive osteosynthesis. The essence of improvement is pursuit to simultaneous minimally invasive surgery by using of current plates for osteosynthesis and preventive immunotherapy of immune dysfunction to eliminate infectious complications. As a result, we obtained 2-fold decrease of surgical invasiveness (r≤0,01) and hospital-stay (r≤0,01). Repeated osteosynthesis was not made. Also 4-fold and 40-fold reduction of infectious and noninfectious complications was observed. This management was accompanied by reduced rehabilitation tine and significantly improved quality of life. Improved technique and algorithm of complex treatment of diaphyseal gunshot fractures of long bones of limbs were described

  8. Experimental closure of gunshot wounds by fibrin glue with antibiotics in pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Đenić Nebojša; Višnjić Milan; Dragović Saša; Bojanić Vladmila; Bojanić Zoran; Đurđević Dragan; Đinđić Boris; Kostov Miloš

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aim. Gunshot wounds caused by the automatic rifle M70AB2 (AK-47) 7.62 mm, after the primary surgical management, were closed with delayed primary suture during the next four to seven days. This period coincides with the fibroblastic phase of wound healing. Fibrin glue is used as a local hemostatic and as a matrix for the local dosed release of antibiotics. Antibiotics addition to fibrin glue resulted in continuous diffusion into the surrounding n...

  9. Safety of Silicone Oil Removal in Cases of Gunshot Perforating Eye Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoraba, Hammouda Hamdy; Elgouhary, Sameh Mohamed; Mansour, Hosam Osman; Abdel-Fattah, Hitham Mamoun; Heikal, Mohamed Amin; Elgemaey, Emad Mohamed

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and safety of silicone oil (SO) removal in cases of gunshot perforating eye injuries (PEI). A retrospective, consecutive, interventional study from medical records regarding cases of gunshot PEI during the periods of Egyptian political instability (January 2011 until December 2013). The main outcomes were to evaluate the feasibility of SO removal in cases of gunshot PEI and management of retinal detachment (RD) after SO removal in such cases. One hundred ninety-six eyes of 193 patients were reviewed. SO was removed in 72 eyes of 70 patients (36.7%). After SO removal, five eyes (6.9%) developed RD. One case refused any other intervention. RD in the remaining four cases was treated with revision surgery and SO reinjection. The retina remained stable throughout follow-up. None of the eyes developed phthisis bulbi after SO removal. Mean follow-up after SO removal was 10.86 months (range: 3 months to 30 months). Mean follow-up after management of RD after SO removal was 17.7 months (range: 13 months to 21 months). Patients aged younger than 20 years were associated with extensive fibrous proliferation, which might affect the safety profile of SO removal in cases of gunshot PEI. Rate of RD after SO removal in cases of apparent retinal stability and localized fibrous proliferation was 6.9%. Retinal detachment after SO removal in such cases can be treated with revision surgery and SO reinjection. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2017;48:242-250.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. China's bullet trains facilitate market integration and mitigate the cost of megacity growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Siqi; Kahn, Matthew E

    2013-04-02

    Megacity growth in the developing world is fueled by a desire to access their large local labor markets. Growing megacities suffer from high levels of traffic congestion and pollution, which degrade local quality of life. Transportation technology that allows individuals to access the megacity without living within its boundaries offers potentially large social benefits, because individuals can enjoy the benefits of urban agglomeration while not paying megacity real estate rents and suffering from the city's social costs. This paper presents evidence supporting the claim that China's bullet trains are playing this role. The bullet train is regarded as one of the most significant technological breakthroughs in passenger transportation developed in the second half of the 20th century. Starting in 2007, China has introduced several new bullet trains that connect megacities such as Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou with nearby cities. Through facilitating market integration, bullet trains will stimulate the development of second- and third-tier cities. By offering households and firms a larger menu of location alternatives, bullet trains help to protect the quality of life of the growing urban population. We document that this transport innovation is associated with rising real estate prices in the nearby secondary cities.

  11. Gunshot Injury of Pelvi-Ureteric Junction: Management by the Rendezvous Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhon, Virender; Suryavanshi, Manav

    2017-01-01

    Background: Gunshot injury of ureter is common, but isolated injury of pelvi-ureteric junction (PUJ) has not been reported. Moreover, its management is evolving from the traditional urinary diversion, stenting followed later by definitive surgical repair to a more upfront minimally invasive endourologic approach. Case Presentation: An adolescent boy presented with gunshot laceration injury of left PUJ with associated small intestinal injury. Radiological investigations confirmed a contained urinary leak. Retrograde stenting was not effective. The same guidewire was retained into the urinoma and an antegrade percutaneous access was obtained. A snare was used to retrieve the guidewire and obtain a through and through access. A ureteropelvic drainage catheter was inserted over this guidewire and secured in the upper ureter, bypassing the region of injury. Three weeks later, the drainage tube was removed and the same tract was used for antegrade stenting. A retrograde pyelogram done 3 months later during stent removal demonstrated no leak. The patient is asymptomatic for urinary symptoms on 6 months of follow-up. Conclusion: Rendezvous technique is a feasible alternative to open repair of gunshot pelvi-ureteric junction injury. Long-term follow-up is awaited.

  12. Gunshot-like wound caused by sling shot injury – a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinuthinee N

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Naidu Vinuthinee,1,2 Anuar Azreen-Redzal,1 Jaafar Juanarita,1 Embong Zunaina2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Hospital Sultanah Bahiyah, Alor Setar, Kedah, Malaysia; 2Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia Abstract: We report a rare case of sling shot injury that presented with a gunshot-like wound with preseptal cellulitis, in a toddler. An 11-month-old Malay child presented with a gunshot-like wound over the forehead following sling shot injury. On examination, he had a deep circular laceration wound over the forehead, measuring 2.0 cm in diameter, with minimal bleeding. There was no obvious foreign body seen inside the wound and no palpable foreign body surrounding the wound. The gunshot-like wound was associated with left preseptal cellulitis. A skull X-ray showed a white opaque foreign body in the left frontal bone. Computed tomography (CT scan of orbit and brain revealed a left comminuted fracture of the left orbital roof, and left frontal brain contusion with prelesional edema. Wound exploration was performed and revealed a 0.5 cm unshattered marble embedded in the left frontal bone. The marble and bone fragments were removed. The left preseptal cellulitis responded well to intravenous antibiotic and topical antibiotic. Keywords: preseptal cellulitis, orbital roof fracture, pediatric trauma

  13. Characteristics of behind armor blunt trauma produced by bullets with different structural materials: an experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-qing WANG

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the effect of structural materials of bullets on behind armor blunt trauma (BABT. Methods Ten healthy male Landraces were randomly divided into two groups (5 each: 56 type 7.62-mm rifle bullet group and SS109 5.56-mm rifle bullet group. The kinetic energy of two types of bullets was adjusted to the same level (about 1880J by the way of grow downwards gunpowder. Then the animals as protected with both grade NIJ Ⅲ ceramic hard armor and grade Ⅱ police soft body armor, were shot at the left midclavicular line of fourth intercostal space (shooting distance was 25m. The damage to the animals was observed. Other 2 healthy male Landraces were selected, and biomechanical sensor was subcutaneously implanted into the soft tissue in precordium and intracalvarium to detect the pressure at the time point of bullet contact under the protection of armor, and the relationship between pressure and damage was analyzed. Results Respiration, heart rate and systolic arterial pressure of animals in two groups were all elevated after injury, but there was no significant difference between the two groups. No obvious change was found on blood oxygen saturation of both groups. Gross anatomy showed the predominant local injury was cardiac and pulmonary contusions. The area of pulmonary hemorrhage of 7.62mm group was 6.00%±3.18%, significantly higher than that of 5.56mm group (3.59%±2.11%, P<0.05. Histopathological examination revealed acute injuries of lung tissues, myocardial tissue and cerebral cortical neurons. The contents of cardiac troponin T (TnT, creatine kinase (CK and creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB isoenzyme were all increased 3 hours after injury, and the rise was higher in 7.62mm group than in 5.56mm group (P<0.05. Biomechanical testing showed the pressure of precordium and intracalvarium was elevated at the moment of bullet contact, and the rise was higher in 7.62mm group than in 5.56mm group (P<0.05. Conclusions

  14. Analysis of Anti-Bullet Resistance of Armored Steels of Foreign Manufacture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Zuzov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies penetrating armour plates from the steel alloys such as Armox 560T, Domex protect 500, Weldox 700 E, Hardox 400, and Armstal 500, which are used for armour protection. In all tests for five different thick (6 mm, 8 mm, 10 mm, 6 + 6 mm, and 8 + 8mm plates was used one of the most common bullets, i.e. a 7.62 mm "APM2" (hard steel core bullet with an impact velocity of 830 m / s and 920 m / s. The article presents the developed rational finite element models of plates and bullets, which allow us to obtain results with acceptable accuracy and minimum time of solution using the LS-DYNA solver. Predicts the rational thickness values and the steel properties to ensure protection according to the European standard EN1063 ("BR7". Also conducts analysis of influence of the friction coefficient on the results of numerical simulation.The main results of calculations include the residual velocity and kinetic energy of the bullet after penetrating and the pattern of the plate fracture mechanism (for each plate type and thickness. As a result of the studies, it was found that the monolayer 6 mm, 8 mm and 10 mm thick plates from all the investigated steel alloys do not provide a protection level of "BR7" (with an initial bullet velocity of 830 m / s and, on the other hand, the two-layer plates from the alloys Armox 560T, Domex protect 500, and Armstal 500 with a total thickness of 12 mm provide such level of protection. It was also revealed that the influence of the coefficient of friction on the resistance to the bullet penetration is very small, so friction can be neglected.At an initial velocity of 920 m / s a bullet penetrated two-layer 6x2 mm thick plates from all the steel alloys under consideration, while with a thickness of 8x2 mm the bullet could not penetrate (except the Weldox 700E alloy plate.

  15. Does the declining lethality of gunshot injuries mask a rising epidemic of gun violence in the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, Anupam B; Sun, Eric C; Prasad, Vinay

    2014-07-01

    Recent mass shootings in the U.S. have reignited the important public health debate concerning measures to decrease the epidemic of gun violence. Editorialists and gun lobbyists have criticized the recent focus on gun violence, arguing that gun-related homicide rates have been stable in the last decade. While true, data from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention also demonstrate that although gun-related homicide rates were stable between 2002 and 2011, rates of violent gunshot injuries increased. These seemingly paradoxical trends may reflect the declining lethality of gunshot injuries brought about by surgical advances in the care of the patient with penetrating trauma. Focusing on gun-related homicide rates as a summary statistic of gun violence, rather than total violent gunshot injuries, can therefore misrepresent the rising epidemic of gun violence in the U.S.

  16. Lead isotope ratio analysis of bullet samples by using quadrupole ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Shu-ichi; Hokura, Akiko; Nakai, Izumi; Oishi, Masahiro

    2006-01-01

    The measurement conditions for the precise analysis of the lead stable isotope ratio by using an ICP-MS equipped with a quadrupole mass spectrometer were studied in order to apply the technique to the forensic identification of bullet samples. The values of the relative standard deviation obtained for the ratio of 208 Pb/ 206 Pb, 207 Pb/ 206 Pb and 204 Pb/ 206 Pb were lower than 0.2% after optimization of the analytical conditions, including the optimum lead concentration of the sample solution to be about 70 ppb and an integration time for 1 m/s of 15 s. This method was applied to an analysis of lead in bullets for rifles and handguns; a stable isotope ratio of lead was found to be suitable for the identification of bullets. This study has demonstrated that the lead isotope ratio measured by using a quadrupole ICP-MS was useful for a practical analysis of bullet samples in forensic science. (author)

  17. Science Fair Projects. LC Science Tracer Bullet. TB 07-6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howland, Joyce, Comp.

    2007-01-01

    Selected sources in this bibliography provide guidance to students, parents, and teachers throughout the process of planning, developing, implementing and competing in science fair activities. Sources range in suitability from elementary to high school levels. This guide updates "Library of Congress Science Tracer Bullet" 01-4. More specialized…

  18. An experimental study on image findings of MRI and their pathomorphological basis in limb gunshot wound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leng Luqing; Gu Ming; Ke Zhenwu; Guo Qiaonan; Ma Zongli; Pan Chuanjing

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To observe the MRI findings of limb gunshot wound and investigate their pathomorphological basis through animal models. Methods: Sixteen mongrel dogs were divided into four groups randomly. The hind legs of dogs shot with handgun were undergone 0.5 T MRI scans at 5 h, 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h after wounded, respectively. The gross changes, HE staining light microscopic findings and MRI findings of wounds were observed. Results: Permanent tract was a zone of tissue defect. In the tract, blood of 5 h group's and pus of 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h groups showed T 1 WI hypointense signal and T 2 WI hyperintense signal. In contusion zone, the main pathological change was homogeneous coagulating necrosis of muscle fibers. MRI images showed irregular line, dot, or block T 1 WI isointense signal, T 2 WI hypointense signal, and no enhanced after Gd-DTPA injected in all groups. In concussion zone, the main pathological changes of 5 h group were edema, degeneration, and lysis of cells and lots of erythrocytes in the tissue interspace. Besides these, a large quantity of leucocytes and pus cells appeared, the lysis of degenerated cells near the contusion zone and the edema of such area, with passage of time, were more obviously in groups 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h. In MRI, concussion zone showed slightly hypointense T 1 WI signal, hyperintense T 2 WI, signal and T 2 WI signal got higher and the adjacent contusion zone got clearer with time pass. Concussion zone could be enhanced obviously. Conclusion: MRI can reflect the lesion of tissue in limb gunshot wound accurately during seventy-two hours after wound. The T 2 WI and contrast-enhanced T 1 WI are valuable. The special tissue-defect area, coagulating necrosis of cells, and large range injury of blood vessels and cells are the important pathomorphological basis which cause the MRI findings of gunshot wound different from normal trauma. (author)

  19. Gunshot induced injuries in orthopaedic trauma research. A bibliometric analysis of the most influential literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, M; Engelmann, E; Dunn, R; Ahmad, S S; Laubscher, M; Keel, M J B; Maqungo, S; Hoppe, S

    2017-09-01

    A growing burden of gunshot injuries demands evidence-based ballistic trauma management. No comprehensive systematic overview of the current knowledge is available to date. This study aims to identify and analyze the most influential publications in the field of orthopedic ballistic trauma research. All databases available in the Thomson Reuters Web of Knowledge were searched to conduct this bibliometrical study. The most cited orthopedic ballistic trauma articles published between 1950 and 2015 were identified by use of a multi-step approach. Publications with ten citations and more were analyzed for citations, journal, authorship, geographic origin, area of research, anatomical site, study type, study category, and level of evidence. Citations of the 128 included studies ranged from 113 to 10. These were published in fifty different journals between 1953 and 2011. Most publications (n=106; 83%) originated from the USA, were retrospective (n=85; 66.4%), level IV studies (n=90; 70.3%), reported on spinal gunshot injuries (n=49; 38.33%) and were published between 1980 and 2000 (n=111; 86.7%). This bibliometric study provides the first comprehensive overview of influential publications in the field of orthopedic ballistic trauma research. More prospective studies and high-quality systematic reviews are needed. Centres with a high burden of gunshot injuries from the developing world need to share their experience in form of international publications, to provide a more comprehensive picture of the global gun-related orthopedic injury burden. bibliometric analysis: level III. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. [Left ventricular projectile migration after an accidental close-range gunshot wound].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driessen, A; Tjardes, T; Eikermann, C; Trojan, S; Fröhlich, M; Grimaldi, G; Kosse, N

    2016-07-01

    We report the case of a 24-year-old female after sustaining a shotgun wound in the left upper extremity and chest. Initial emergency diagnostics revealed numerous shotgun pellets scattered throughout the left-side soft tissue, chest and upper lung lobe with one pellet having migrated into the left ventricle of the heart.Due to the devastating injury pattern, gunshot wounds are interdisciplinarily challenging and should include extended initial diagnostics, such as contrast agent CT. The potential toxicity of elevated lead blood levels have to be taken into further account.

  1. Covered Stent and Coils Embolization of a Pulmonary Artery Pseudoaneurysm After Gunshot Wound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huet, Nicolas, E-mail: nhuet@chu-grenoble.fr; Rodiere, Mathieu, E-mail: mrodiere@chu-grenoble.fr [Hôpital Universitaire de Grenoble and Université Grenoble Alpes, Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging (France); Badet, Michel, E-mail: michel.badet@ch-chambery.fr [Centre Hospitalier Métropôle Savoie, site de Chambéry, Intensive Care Unit (France); Michoud, Marie, E-mail: marie.michoud@ch-chambery.fr [Centre Hospitalier Métropôle Savoie, Site de Chambéry, Department of Radiology (France); Brichon, Pierre-Yves, E-mail: pybrichon@chu-grenoble.fr [Hôpital Universitaire de Grenoble and Université Grenoble Alpes, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery (France); Ferretti, Gilbert, E-mail: gferretti@chu-grenoble.fr; Thony, Frédéric, E-mail: fthony@chu-grenoble.fr [Hôpital Universitaire de Grenoble and Université Grenoble Alpes, Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging (France)

    2016-05-15

    We report the first case of endovascular covered stent implantation for the treatment of a large pulmonary artery pseudoaneurysm (PAPA) following a right thoracic gunshot wound. After resuscitation and hemodynamic stabilization, a CT angiography was performed to analyze the neck size of the PAPA and its position relative to the branches of the parent artery. Covered stent implantation with additional coil embolization was successfully performed. At the 4-year follow-up, the stents remained patent and there was neither pseudoaneurysm recurrence nor treatment-related complication.

  2. Covered Stent and Coils Embolization of a Pulmonary Artery Pseudoaneurysm After Gunshot Wound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huet, Nicolas; Rodiere, Mathieu; Badet, Michel; Michoud, Marie; Brichon, Pierre-Yves; Ferretti, Gilbert; Thony, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    We report the first case of endovascular covered stent implantation for the treatment of a large pulmonary artery pseudoaneurysm (PAPA) following a right thoracic gunshot wound. After resuscitation and hemodynamic stabilization, a CT angiography was performed to analyze the neck size of the PAPA and its position relative to the branches of the parent artery. Covered stent implantation with additional coil embolization was successfully performed. At the 4-year follow-up, the stents remained patent and there was neither pseudoaneurysm recurrence nor treatment-related complication.

  3. Reconstructive and rehabilitation challenges following a cranio-orbital gunshot wound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Sachin S; Rhee, John S; Wells, Timothy S

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of a 26-year-old man who sustained a close-range gunshot wound to the head. His injuries included significant left orbital injury resulting in a ruptured, blind eye and severely comminuted fractures of the left orbital roof, superior and inferior orbital rims, and orbital floor. Associated injuries included left frontal lobe injury, anterior and posterior table fractures of the left frontal sinus, and a comminuted left zygomaticomaxillary complex fracture. We employed an interdisciplinary surgical approach with collaboration among the Otolaryngology, Neurosurgery, and Oculoplastic Surgery services performed in two stages. Management of such extensive craniofacial injuries can be challenging and requires a coordinated, interdisciplinary approach.

  4. Lead bullet fragments in venison from rifle-killed deer: potential for human dietary exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Grainger Hunt

    Full Text Available Human consumers of wildlife killed with lead ammunition may be exposed to health risks associated with lead ingestion. This hypothesis is based on published studies showing elevated blood lead concentrations in subsistence hunter populations, retention of ammunition residues in the tissues of hunter-killed animals, and systemic, cognitive, and behavioral disorders associated with human lead body burdens once considered safe. Our objective was to determine the incidence and bioavailability of lead bullet fragments in hunter-killed venison, a widely-eaten food among hunters and their families. We radiographed 30 eviscerated carcasses of White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus shot by hunters with standard lead-core, copper-jacketed bullets under normal hunting conditions. All carcasses showed metal fragments (geometric mean = 136 fragments, range = 15-409 and widespread fragment dispersion. We took each carcass to a separate meat processor and fluoroscopically scanned the resulting meat packages; fluoroscopy revealed metal fragments in the ground meat packages of 24 (80% of the 30 deer; 32% of 234 ground meat packages contained at least one fragment. Fragments were identified as lead by ICP in 93% of 27 samples. Isotope ratios of lead in meat matched the ratios of bullets, and differed from background lead in bone. We fed fragment-containing venison to four pigs to test bioavailability; four controls received venison without fragments from the same deer. Mean blood lead concentrations in pigs peaked at 2.29 microg/dL (maximum 3.8 microg/dL 2 days following ingestion of fragment-containing venison, significantly higher than the 0.63 microg/dL averaged by controls. We conclude that people risk exposure to bioavailable lead from bullet fragments when they eat venison from deer killed with standard lead-based rifle bullets and processed under normal procedures. At risk in the U.S. are some ten million hunters, their families, and low

  5. Antimony sinks in the weathering crust of bullets from Swiss shooting ranges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackermann, Sonia; Giere, Reto; Newville, Matthew; Majzlan, Juraj

    2009-01-01

    Shooting ranges represent sites heavily polluted by Pb, Sb, Cu, Ni, and Zn, which are released during the weathering of bullets. The pristine bullets are made of a Pb-Sb core, Fe mantle, and minor amounts of Cu, Ni, and Zn in an interlayer between the core and mantle. At two selected sampling sites (Losone and Lucerne, both in Switzerland), corroding bullets were collected to determine the sinks of Sb within the weathering crust of the bullets. Bulk Sb concentrations in the crust were found to be as high as 1.3 wt.%. The oxalate-extractable fraction of Fe showed that the amorphous Fe oxides (e.g., ferrihydrite) prevail over goethite and lepidocrocite, which were identified by bulk X-ray diffraction experiments. Crystalline Pb phases are litharge (only found by X-ray diffraction) and cerussite, which result from weathering of the Pb core. No distinct Sb minerals were identified by X-ray diffraction. Investigations with electron microprobe (EMP) showed that Sb is mostly accumulated in those regions in the weathering crust where there is also a high concentration of Fe. In the weathering crust from Losone, such Fe-rich regions with Sb are represented by material that cements or rims silicate mineral grains. The cement was identified as lepidocrocite by micro-Raman analysis. At Lucerne, Sb is found in Fe-oxide aggregates, in sawdust particles where it may be bound to organic matter, or in aggregates enriched in Pb and depleted in Fe. Bulk EXAFS experiments suggested that the Fe oxides are the most important sink for Sb. Our modelling of Sb next-nearest neighbours suggests two types of inner-sphere complexes on the surfaces of Fe oxides. These are edge- and corner-sharing adsorption complexes. Hence, the predominant sink of Sb in the weathering crust of the bullets at the selected shooting ranges is Fe oxides, amorphous or crystalline

  6. A Molecular-line Study of the Interstellar Bullet Engine IRAS05506+2414

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, Raghvendra; Lee, Chin-Fei; Sánchez Contreras, Carmen; Patel, Nimesh; Morris, Mark R.; Claussen, Mark

    2017-12-01

    We present interferometric and single-dish molecular line observations of the interstellar bullet-outflow source IRAS 05506+2414, whose wide-angle bullet spray is similar to the Orion BN/KL explosive outflow and likely arises from an entirely different mechanism than the classical accretion-disk-driven bipolar flows in young stellar objects. The bullet-outflow source is associated with a large pseudo-disk and three molecular outflows—a high-velocity outflow (HVO), a medium-velocity outflow (MVO), and a slow, extended outflow (SEO). The size (mass) of the pseudo-disk is 10,350 au × 6400 au (0.64-0.17 M ⊙) from a model-fit assuming infall and rotation, we derive a central stellar mass of 8-19 M ⊙. The HVO (MVO) has an angular size ˜5180 (˜3330) au and a projected outflow velocity of ˜140 km s-1 (˜30 km s-1). The SEO size (outflow speed) is ˜0.9 pc (˜6 km s-1). The HVO’s axis is aligned with (orthogonal to) that of the SEO (pseudo-disk). The velocity structure of the MVO is unresolved. The scalar momenta in the HVO and SEO are very similar, suggesting that the SEO has resulted from the HVO interacting with ambient-cloud material. The bullet spray shares a common axis with the pseudo-disk and has an age comparable to that of MVO (few hundred years), suggesting that these three structures are intimately linked. We discuss several models for the outflows in IRAS 05506+2414 (including dynamical decay of a stellar cluster, chance encounter of a runaway star with a dense cloud, and close passage of two protostars), and conclude that second-epoch imaging to derive proper motions of the bullets and nearby stars can help to discriminate between them.

  7. Stabilizing lead bullets in shooting range soil by phosphate-based surface coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Hua

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil lead (Pb is well known as a threat to human health and ecosystem. Although relatively insoluble, lead bullets in shooting range soil can be readily released into soluble forms through natural weathering processes and thus pose significant human and environmental risks. In this study, laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate if the Pb bullets in shooting range soil can be stabilized through surface coating of phosphate-based materials. Results indicated that FePO4 or AlPO4 coatings, insoluble metal phosphates, have been successfully formed on the surface of the Pb bullets. The EPA Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP test showed that FePO4 or AlPO4 surface coating would effectively reduce the Pb solubility or leachability of the bullets. The surface coating under pH of <5.5 for 7 days could achieve 92–100% reduction, with 85–98% by FePO4 coating and 77–98% by AlPO4 coating as compared with the non-coating. Leachable Pb concentration in the contaminated shooting range soil was reduced by 85–98% or 77–98% as a result of the FePO4 or AlPO4 solution treatment. This study demonstrated that the FePO4 or AlPO4–based surface coating on lead bullets can effectively inhibit the Pb weathering and significantly reduce the Pb release from soil through in situ chemical stabilization, which could be potentially applicable as a cost-effective and environmental-sound technology for the remediation of Pb-contaminated shooting range soil.

  8. Long Wavelength Electromagnetic Light Bullets Generated by a 10.6 micron CO2 Ultrashort Pulsed Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-29

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0365 Long Wavelength Electromagnetic Light Bullets Generated by a 10.6 micron CO2 Ultrashort Pulsed Source Jerome Moloney...SUBTITLE "Long Wavelength Electromagnetic Light Bullets Generated by a 10.6 micron CO2 Ultrashort Pulsed Source 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA9550-15-1-0272 5b...Wavelength Electromagnetic Light Bullets Generated by a 10 µm CO2 Ultrashort Pulsed Source Grant/Contract Number AFOSR assigned control number. It must

  9. Synthesis of [Dy(DPA)(HDPA)] and its potential as gunshot residue marker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo Lucena, Marcella A. [PGMTR - CCEN, Federal University of Pernambuco - UFPE, Avenida Professor Luiz Freire, S/N, Cidade Universitária, 50740-540 Recife (Brazil); Rodrigues, Marcelo Oliveira; Gatto, Claudia C. [LIMA, Chemistry Institute, University of Brasília-UNB, P.O. Box 04478, 70904-970 Brasília (Brazil); Talhavini, Marcio; Maldaner, Adriano O. [National Institute of Criminalistics, Brazilian Federal Police, SAIS Quadra 07, Lote 23, 70610-200 Brasília, DF (Brazil); Alves, Severino [Fundamental Chemistry Department-DQF, Federal University of Pernambuco - UFPE, Avenida Professor Luiz Freire, S/N, Cidade Universitária, 50740-540 Recife (Brazil); Weber, Ingrid T., E-mail: ingrid@ufpe.br [PGMTR - CCEN, Federal University of Pernambuco - UFPE, Avenida Professor Luiz Freire, S/N, Cidade Universitária, 50740-540 Recife (Brazil); LIMA, Chemistry Institute, University of Brasília-UNB, P.O. Box 04478, 70904-970 Brasília (Brazil)

    2016-02-15

    The 2D metal-organic framework (MOF) [Dy(DPA)(HDPA)] (where H{sub 2}DPA=dipicolinic acid) was synthesized under hydrothermal conditions and exhibited a whitish yellow color (CIE coordinates: 0.362, 0.416) when excited at 365 nm. This color arises from the simultaneous blue ({sup 4}F{sub 9/2}–{sup 6}H{sub 15/2}), yellow ({sup 4}F{sub 9/2}–{sup 6}H{sub 13/2}) and red ({sup 4}F{sub 9/2}–{sup 6}H{sub 11/2}) transitions of Dy{sup 3+}. This MOF exhibited a high potential for use as a luminescent marker for gunshot residue (GSR) and in the ammunition encoding process because it was possible to observe visually the luminescent gunshot residue (LGSR) on the shooter’s hands, both on the firearm and at the firing range, using an UV lamp. These particles were easily collected and characterized by photoluminescence spectroscopy and SEM–EDS. The particles exhibited a typical morphology and a composition, making them easy to differentiate from particles of occupational or environmental origin. - Highlights: • First example of a luminescent GSR marker based on Dy{sup 3+} luminescence. • New luminescent marker which can be used for ammunition encoding process. • Thermal and chemically stable MOF which can be used to visually identify GSR.

  10. Gunshot wound injuries of the prostate and posterior urethra: reconstructive armamentarium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tausch, Timothy J; Cavalcanti, Andre G; Soderdahl, Douglas W; Favorito, Luciano; Rabelo, Paulo; Morey, Allen F

    2007-10-01

    Descriptions of posterior urethral penetrating injuries are rare in the literature and their management is poorly described. We reviewed the medical records of 19 men who sustained posterior urethral gunshot wounds and report our experience with various treatment options. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 19 men (mean age 27 years) who sustained posterior urethral gunshot wound injuries confirmed by retrograde urethrography and/or exploratory laparotomy. Treatment options included immediate primary repair in 2 patients, delayed reconstruction in 15 and complete prostatectomy in 2. Outcomes were described by flow rates and lower urinary tract symptoms. Of 15 patients who underwent delayed repair 13 (86.6%) demonstrated normal flow rates and lack of lower urinary tract symptoms. The 2 remaining patients experienced obliterative stricture recurrences and were treated with open surgery. Both patients who underwent immediate primary repair had normal flow rates. Of the 2 men who underwent immediate prostatectomy 1 had moderate incontinence requiring absorbent pad use and the other was lost to followup after he was discharged home with a suprapubic catheter in place. An initial management strategy based on the principles of maximizing urinary catheter drainage, with direct retropubic repair/urethral realignment when possible and definitive perineal reconstruction when necessary, appears to provide acceptable outcomes while minimizing the number of subsequent interventions required.

  11. Chemometric classification of gunshot residues based on energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis and inductively coupled plasma analysis with mass-spectrometric detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steffen, S.; Otto, M.; Niewoehner, L.; Barth, M.; Brozek-Mucha, Z.; Biegstraaten, J.; Horvath, R.

    2007-01-01

    A gunshot residue sample that was collected from an object or a suspected person is automatically searched for gunshot residue relevant particles. Particle data (such as size, morphology, position on the sample for manual relocation, etc.) as well as the corresponding X-ray spectra and images are stored. According to these data, particles are classified by the analysis-software into different groups: 'gunshot residue characteristic', 'consistent with gunshot residue' and environmental particles, respectively. Potential gunshot residue particles are manually checked and - if necessary - confirmed by the operating forensic scientist. As there are continuing developments on the ammunition market worldwide, it becomes more and more difficult to assign a detected particle to a particular ammunition brand. As well, the differentiation towards environmental particles similar to gunshot residue is getting more complex. To keep external conditions unchanged, gunshot residue particles were collected using a specially designed shooting device for the test shots revealing defined shooting distances between the weapon's muzzle and the target. The data obtained as X-ray spectra of a number of particles (3000 per ammunition brand) were reduced by Fast Fourier Transformation and subjected to a chemometric evaluation by means of regularized discriminant analysis. In addition to the scanning electron microscopy in combination with energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis results, isotope ratio measurements based on inductively coupled plasma analysis with mass-spectrometric detection were carried out to provide a supplementary feature for an even lower risk of misclassification

  12. Chemometric classification of gunshot residues based on energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis and inductively coupled plasma analysis with mass-spectrometric detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steffen, S. [Bundeskriminalamt (BKA), Forensic Science Institute KT23, Thaerstr. 11, D - 65193 Wiesbaden (Germany); Otto, M. [TU Bergakademie Freiberg (TU BAF), Institute for Analytical Chemistry, Leipziger Str. 29, D - 09599 Freiberg (Germany)], E-mail: matthias.otto@chemie.tu-freiberg.de; Niewoehner, L.; Barth, M. [Bundeskriminalamt (BKA), Forensic Science Institute KT23, Thaerstr. 11, D - 65193 Wiesbaden (Germany); Brozek-Mucha, Z. [Instytut Ekspertyz Sadowych (IES), Westerplatte St. 9, PL - 31-033 Krakow (Poland); Biegstraaten, J. [Nederlands Forensisch Instituut (NFI), Fysische Technologie, Laan van Ypenburg 6, NL-2497 GB Den Haag (Netherlands); Horvath, R. [Kriminalisticky a Expertizny Ustav (KEU PZ), Institute of Forensic Science, Sklabinska 1, SK - 812 72 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2007-09-15

    A gunshot residue sample that was collected from an object or a suspected person is automatically searched for gunshot residue relevant particles. Particle data (such as size, morphology, position on the sample for manual relocation, etc.) as well as the corresponding X-ray spectra and images are stored. According to these data, particles are classified by the analysis-software into different groups: 'gunshot residue characteristic', 'consistent with gunshot residue' and environmental particles, respectively. Potential gunshot residue particles are manually checked and - if necessary - confirmed by the operating forensic scientist. As there are continuing developments on the ammunition market worldwide, it becomes more and more difficult to assign a detected particle to a particular ammunition brand. As well, the differentiation towards environmental particles similar to gunshot residue is getting more complex. To keep external conditions unchanged, gunshot residue particles were collected using a specially designed shooting device for the test shots revealing defined shooting distances between the weapon's muzzle and the target. The data obtained as X-ray spectra of a number of particles (3000 per ammunition brand) were reduced by Fast Fourier Transformation and subjected to a chemometric evaluation by means of regularized discriminant analysis. In addition to the scanning electron microscopy in combination with energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis results, isotope ratio measurements based on inductively coupled plasma analysis with mass-spectrometric detection were carried out to provide a supplementary feature for an even lower risk of misclassification.

  13. A Fortunate Story of an Unusual AK-47 Bullet Trajectory: Always Keep a Smartphone in Your Pocket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thabouillot, Oscar; Perrier, Pierre; Roche, Nicolas-Charles; Agard, David; Barbier, Olivier; Martin, Guillaume; Viant, Eric; Leclere, Jean-Baptiste

    2016-06-01

    This is a report of a fortunate story of an unusual AK-47 bullet trajectory which took place during the Paris (France) attack of November 13th, 2015. A young man, trying to protect his girlfriend, interfered between her and a shooter. He had been wounded in the posterior compartment of the thigh. The bullet penetrated him and, instead of exiting, rebound against his Smartphone, which was in the front pocket of his pants. Thanks to that, the missile bullet did not injure his girlfriend but ended its trajectory in the fat tissue of his thigh. Thabouillot O , Perrier P , Roche NC , Agard D , Barbier O , Martin G , Viant E , Leclere JB . A fortunate story of an unusual AK-47 bullet trajectory: always keep a Smartphone in your pocket. Prehosp Disaster Med, 2016;31(3):343-345.

  14. Penetrating Obturator Artery Injury after Gunshot Wounds: A Successful Multidisciplinary Trauma Team Approach to a Potentially Lethal Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraqa, Tareq I; Shin, Ji-Sun J; Diallo, Ismael; Sachwani-Daswani, Gul R; Mercer, Leo C

    2017-11-17

    Obturator artery injury (OAI) from pelvic gunshot wounds (GSW) is a rarely reported condition. Hemorrhages from pelvic trauma (PT) are mostly venous. Arterial hemorrhages represent about 10-20% of PTs. When arterial hemorrhages from PT occur, they are a severe and deadly complication often causing significant hemodynamic instability and eventual shock. A  23-year-old male presented to our emergency service via a private vehicle with multiple gunshot wounds to both thighs and to the lower back, resulted in rectal and obturator artery (OA) injuries. The patient underwent a successful coil-embolization of the right OA. Given the density of structures within the pelvis, patients who sustain gunshot wounds to the pelvic region are at high risk for injury to the small bowel, sigmoid colon, rectum, bladder, and/or vascular structures. While bleeding is the major cause of early mortality in PT, rectal injuries carry the highest mortality due to visceral injuries. A high clinical index of suspicion is needed to diagnose an iliac artery injury or injury to its branches. Prompt computed tomographic angiogram (CTA) and embolization of the OA is the best method to control and stop the bleeding and improve the mortality outcome. Clinicians caring for patients presenting with pelvic gunshot wounds should pay attention to the delayed presentation of internal hemorrhage from the OAs. A multidisciplinary team approach is crucial in the successful management of penetrating injuries to the obturator artery.

  15. Automatic identification of bullet signatures based on consecutive matching striae (CMS) criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Wei; Thompson, Robert M; Song, John; Vorburger, Theodore V

    2013-09-10

    The consecutive matching striae (CMS) numeric criteria for firearm and toolmark identifications have been widely accepted by forensic examiners, although there have been questions concerning its observer subjectivity and limited statistical support. In this paper, based on signal processing and extraction, a model for the automatic and objective counting of CMS is proposed. The position and shape information of the striae on the bullet land is represented by a feature profile, which is used for determining the CMS number automatically. Rapid counting of CMS number provides a basis for ballistics correlations with large databases and further statistical and probability analysis. Experimental results in this report using bullets fired from ten consecutively manufactured barrels support this developed model. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  16. USING THE BULLET CLUSTER AS A GRAVITATIONAL TELESCOPE TO STUDY z ∼> 7 LYMAN BREAK GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, Nicholas; Bradač, Maruša; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Treu, Tommaso; Clowe, Douglas; Jones, Christine; Stiavelli, Massimo; Zaritsky, Dennis; Cuby, Jean-Gabriel; Clément, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    We use imaging obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 to search for z 850 dropouts at z ∼ 7 and J 110 dropouts at z ∼ 9 lensed by the Bullet Cluster. In total we find 10 z 850 dropouts in our 8.27 arcmin 2 field. Using magnification maps from a combined weak- and strong-lensing mass reconstruction of the Bullet Cluster and correcting for estimated completeness levels, we calculate the surface density and luminosity function of our z 850 dropouts as a function of intrinsic (accounting for magnification) magnitude. We find results consistent with published blank field surveys, despite using much shallower data, and demonstrate the effectiveness of cluster surveys in the search for z ∼ 7 galaxies.

  17. [Bullet and shrapnel injuries in the face and neck regions. Current aspects of wound ballistics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauer, T; Huschitt, N; Kulla, M; Kneubuehl, B; Willy, C

    2011-08-01

    A basic understanding of the ballistic behaviour of projectiles or fragments after entering the human body is essential for the head and neck surgeon in the military environment in order to anticipate the diagnostic and therapeutic consequences of this type of injury. Although a large number of factors influence the missile in flight and after penetration of the body, the most important factor is the amount of energy transmitted to the tissue. Long guns (rifles or shotguns) have a much higher muzzle energy compared to handguns, explaining why the remote effects beyond the bullet track play a major role. While most full metal jacket bullets release their energy after 12-20 cm (depending on the calibre), soft point bullets release their energy immediately after entry into the human body. This results in a major difference in extremity wounds, but not so much in injuries with long bullet paths (e.g. diagonal shots). Shrapnel wounds are usually produced with similarly high kinetic energy to those caused by hand- and long guns. However, fragments tend to dissipate the entire amount of energy within the body, which increases the degree of tissue disruption. Of all relevant injuries in the head and neck region, soft tissue injuries make up the largest proportion (60%), while injuries to the face are seen three times more often than injuries to the neck. Concomitant intracranial or spinal injury is seen in 30% of cases. Due to high levels of wound contamination, the infection rate is approximately 15%, often associated with a complicated and/or multiresistant spectrum of germs.

  18. Adaptive Generation and Diagnostics of Linear Few-Cycle Light Bullets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Bock

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently we introduced the class of highly localized wavepackets (HLWs as a generalization of optical Bessel-like needle beams. Here we report on the progress in this field. In contrast to pulsed Bessel beams and Airy beams, ultrashort-pulsed HLWs propagate with high stability in both spatial and temporal domain, are nearly paraxial (supercollimated, have fringe-less spatial profiles and thus represent the best possible approximation to linear “light bullets”. Like Bessel beams and Airy beams, HLWs show self-reconstructing behavior. Adaptive HLWs can be shaped by ultraflat three-dimensional phase profiles (generalized axicons which are programmed via calibrated grayscale maps of liquid-crystal-on-silicon spatial light modulators (LCoS-SLMs. Light bullets of even higher complexity can either be freely formed from quasi-continuous phase maps or discretely composed from addressable arrays of identical nondiffracting beams. The characterization of few-cycle light bullets requires spatially resolved measuring techniques. In our experiments, wavefront, pulse and phase were detected with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor, 2D-autocorrelation and spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction (SPIDER. The combination of the unique propagation properties of light bullets with the flexibility of adaptive optics opens new prospects for applications of structured light like optical tweezers, microscopy, data transfer and storage, laser fusion, plasmon control or nonlinear spectroscopy.

  19. Simulating direct shear tests with the Bullet physics library: A validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadi, Ehsan; Bezuijen, Adam

    2018-01-01

    This study focuses on the possible uses of physics engines, and more specifically the Bullet physics library, to simulate granular systems. Physics engines are employed extensively in the video gaming, animation and movie industries to create physically plausible scenes. They are designed to deliver a fast, stable, and optimal simulation of certain systems such as rigid bodies, soft bodies and fluids. This study focuses exclusively on simulating granular media in the context of rigid body dynamics with the Bullet physics library. The first step was to validate the results of the simulations of direct shear testing on uniform-sized metal beads on the basis of laboratory experiments. The difference in the average angle of mobilized frictions was found to be only 1.0°. In addition, a very close match was found between dilatancy in the laboratory samples and in the simulations. A comprehensive study was then conducted to determine the failure and post-failure mechanism. We conclude with the presentation of a simulation of a direct shear test on real soil which demonstrated that Bullet has all the capabilities needed to be used as software for simulating granular systems.

  20. Measurement of bullet impact conditions using automated in-flight photography system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Decker

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of impact conditions is critical to evaluating the terminal impact performance of a projectile. For a small caliber bullet, in-flight velocity has been precisely measured for decades using detection screens, but accurately quantifying the orientation of the bullet on a target has been more challenging. This report introduces the Automated Small-Arms Photogrammetry (ASAP analysis method used to measure, model, and predict the orientation of a small caliber bullet before reaching an impact surface. ASAP uses advanced hardware developed by Sydor Technologies to record a series of infrared digital photographs. Individual images (four orthogonal pairs are processed using computer vision algorithms to quantify the orientation of the projectile and re-project its precise position and orientation into a three-dimensional muzzle-fixed coordinate system. An epicyclic motion model is fit to the measured data, and the epicyclic motion is extrapolated to the target location. Analysis results are fairly immediate and may be reviewed during testing. Prove-out demonstrations have shown that the impact-angle prediction capability is less than six hundredths of a degree for the 5.56 mm ball round tested. Keywords: Yaw, Terminal ballistics, Exterior ballistics, Test & evaluation, Computer vision, Image processing, Angle of attack

  1. Experimentally Studied Influence of the Bullet Head Shape on Dispersion Characteristics at Subsonic Airspeeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Ilukhin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents description and results of experiments on a ballistic track and subsonic wind tunnel. The subject of study is important an issue such as the assessment of the influence of the bullet head shape on the accuracy of shooting parameters at subsonic muzzle velocity. The article points to the features of examined precision of guided and unguided aircraft, refers to the main disturbing factors. In addition, it outlines the most well known ways to improve the flight precision of unguided munitions. The article presents the geometric parameters of bullets and their scale models used in the experiments. It describes the experimental facilities and the studies themselves. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of experimental air-gun firings. Results for different muzzle velocities of flight are compared. The paper notes an ambiguity in comparison of accuracy and head drag coefficient. The results are clearly aligned with the data purging in the little turbulent subsonic wind tunnel. The article describes in detail the use of the method for visualizing a structure of the flow for the delimitation of attached flow and estimation of stagnation zone. A revealed physical picture has comprehensive theoretical underpinning. The conclusions of the work also give a advices on selecting a bullet to have the best dispersion parameters.

  2. Confluence or independence of microwave plasma bullets in atmospheric argon plasma jet plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Chen, Zhaoquan; Mu, Haibao; Xu, Guimin; Yao, Congwei; Sun, Anbang; Zhou, Yuming; Zhang, Guanjun

    2018-03-01

    Plasma bullet is the formation and propagation of a guided ionization wave (streamer), normally generated in atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ). In most cases, only an ionization front produces in a dielectric tube. The present study shows that two or three ionization fronts can be generated in a single quartz tube by using a microwave coaxial resonator. The argon APPJ plumes with a maximum length of 170 mm can be driven by continuous microwaves or microwave pulses. When the input power is higher than 90 W, two or three ionization fronts propagate independently at first; thereafter, they confluence to form a central plasma jet plume. On the other hand, the plasma bullets move independently as the lower input power is applied. For pulsed microwave discharges, the discharge images captured by a fast camera show the ionization process in detail. Another interesting finding is that the strongest lightening plasma jet plumes always appear at the shrinking phase. Both the discharge images and electromagnetic simulations suggest that the confluence or independent propagation of plasma bullets is resonantly excited by the local enhanced electric fields, in terms of wave modes of traveling surface plasmon polaritons.

  3. High-velocity facial gunshot wounds: multidisciplinary care from prehospital to discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnott, J D; Morris, G; Medland, P J; Porter, K

    2016-01-28

    A case is presented in which a high velocity rifle (shotgun) was fired into the inferior part of a patient's face in an attempted suicide causing widespread trauma to the inferior and left side of the patient's face. He presented to his general practitioner where an ambulance was called. The patient is followed from prehospital care (air ambulance) to resuscitation in accident and emergency and through the first stages of reconstructive surgery. The article focuses on the multidisciplinary approach to the patient's prehospital care and initial resuscitation at a major trauma centre. CT reconstruction images of the patient's skull allow visualisation of the extent of bone damage at presentation. Medical photography allows visualisation of the extent of the initial damage and shows how reconstructive surgery was undertaken early and in progressive stages. A literature review was performed allowing discussion of the current evidence and best practice in the management of facial gunshot wounds. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  4. A study of gunshot suicides in Northern Ireland from 1989 to 1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, A

    1996-01-01

    A study of 104 gunshot suicides, including six women, in Northern Ireland over a 5-year period. Forty-five suicides in the security forces are compared with 59 which took place in the civilian population. The former were commonly associated with marital problems and overwhelmingly occurred in young males under the age of 40, whereas the civilian deaths were predominantly associated with mental ill health, with a wider age range distribution. The security forces used rifled weapons in 44 cases, whereas civilians used shotguns in 46 cases. Twelve out of the 45 were witnessed, compared to one in the civilian population. The security forces favoured the head as site of entry in 40 cases compared to 35 in the civilian population. Alcohol consumption was involved in 23 of the security forces suicides and 18 civilian. Of the 6 women, one was in the security forces and 4 had a history of mental illness.

  5. Cerebral microdialysis and PtiO2 to decide unilateral decompressive craniectomy after brain gunshot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boret Henry

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Decompressive craniectomy (DC following brain injury can induce complications (hemorrhage, infection, and hygroma. It is then considered as a last-tier therapy, and can be deleteriously delayed. Focal neuromonitoring (microdialysis and PtiO2 can help clinicians to decide bedside to perform DC in case of intracranial pressure (ICP around 20 to 25 mmHg despite maximal medical treatment. This was the case of a hunter, brain injured by gunshot. DC was performed at day 6, because of unstable ICP, ischemic trend of PtiO2, and decreased cerebral glucose but normal lactate/pyruvate ratio. His evolution was good despite left hemiplegia due to initial injury.

  6. Suicide with One Cranial Gunshot by a .320 Caliber Pocket Revolver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Tattoli

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Suicide using a firearm is the most commonly used method of committing suicide for men and women. In this paper, we present and discuss a suicide case in which an 86-year-old man shot himself using a .320 caliber pocket revolver. Proper crime scene investigation, recovery of the weapon used, and precise interpretation of autopsy findings play a fundamental role in determining the exact cause and manner of death. Accurate analysis of the injuries and a thorough knowledge of weapons and ballistics are essential for an adequate investigation in these unusual cases. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a cranial gunshot inflicted by a .320 caliber pocket revolver.

  7. Failure mechanism of resistance-spot-welded specimens impacted on base material by bullets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunlei Fan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The tests of bullet impact on the base material (BM of a simple specimen with a single resistance-spot-welded (RSW nugget of TRIP800 steel are performed to investigate the response of the RSW specimen to the ballistic debris impact on the RSW specimen. A one-stage gas gun is used to fire the bullets while a laser velocity interferometer system for any reflector (VISAR is used to measure the velocity histories of the free surfaces of the RSW specimen. The recovered RSW specimens are examined with the three-dimensional super depth digital microscope (SDDM and the scanning electro microscope (SEM. For the tests of small multiple-bullet impact, it is revealed that the wave train of the VISAR measured results and the detachment of the base material interfaces in the recovered RSW specimens are directly related to the reflection and refraction of the curved stress waves incoming to the interfaces and the free surfaces in the RSW specimens. The detachment of BM interfaces can lead to the impact failure of the RSW joints for the larger multiple-bullet impact at higher velocity, the mechanism of which is different from the case for normal incidence (spalling. For the tests of single large bullet impact, it is brought to light experimentally that the plastic strain concentration at the “notch tip” spurs either the crack near the RSW joint or the split of the nugget. The numerical simulation shows up the process of splitting the nugget: a crack initiates at the “notch tip”, propagates across the nugget interface and splits the nugget into two parts. It is indicated that the interaction between the stress waves and many interfaces/free surfaces in the RSW specimen under ballistic impact causes variable local stress triaxialities and stress Lode angles, which affects the deformation and fracture mechanism of the RSW specimen including stretching and shearing failure. It is shown that the impact failure of the RSW joints is a mixture of brittle

  8. Failure mechanism of resistance-spot-welded specimens impacted on base material by bullets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chunlei; Ma, Bohan; Chen, Danian; Wang, Huanran; Ma, Dongfang

    2018-01-01

    The tests of bullet impact on the base material (BM) of a simple specimen with a single resistance-spot-welded (RSW) nugget of TRIP800 steel are performed to investigate the response of the RSW specimen to the ballistic debris impact on the RSW specimen. A one-stage gas gun is used to fire the bullets while a laser velocity interferometer system for any reflector (VISAR) is used to measure the velocity histories of the free surfaces of the RSW specimen. The recovered RSW specimens are examined with the three-dimensional super depth digital microscope (SDDM) and the scanning electro microscope (SEM). For the tests of small multiple-bullet impact, it is revealed that the wave train of the VISAR measured results and the detachment of the base material interfaces in the recovered RSW specimens are directly related to the reflection and refraction of the curved stress waves incoming to the interfaces and the free surfaces in the RSW specimens. The detachment of BM interfaces can lead to the impact failure of the RSW joints for the larger multiple-bullet impact at higher velocity, the mechanism of which is different from the case for normal incidence (spalling). For the tests of single large bullet impact, it is brought to light experimentally that the plastic strain concentration at the "notch tip" spurs either the crack near the RSW joint or the split of the nugget. The numerical simulation shows up the process of splitting the nugget: a crack initiates at the "notch tip", propagates across the nugget interface and splits the nugget into two parts. It is indicated that the interaction between the stress waves and many interfaces/free surfaces in the RSW specimen under ballistic impact causes variable local stress triaxialities and stress Lode angles, which affects the deformation and fracture mechanism of the RSW specimen including stretching and shearing failure. It is shown that the impact failure of the RSW joints is a mixture of brittle fracture and ductile

  9. Investigation of effective forensic cleaning methods for bullet and cartridge case samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuherk, Cassie Marie

    Bullet and cartridge case evidence may potentially link weapons and crimes through the comparison of toolmark patterns. This analysis relies on the clarity of the toolmarks and the ability of the examiner to identify patterns on the evidence. These patterns may be distorted by debris such as soil, blood, cyanoacrylate, and construction materials. Despite the potential importance of bullet and cartridge case evidence, few investigations of proper cleaning methods have been conducted. The present study was designed to examine the effects of various cleaning solutions and application methods on copper and brass bullets and cartridge cases. Additionally, this research investigated the efficacy of these cleaning protocols on the common evidence contaminants blood and cyanoacrylate. No cleaning method was found to be universally effective on both contaminant types and nondestructive to the metal surface. Ultrasonication was the most efficient application method employed when used in conjunction with an appropriate cleaning solution. Acetone proved to be safe and successful at removing heavy cyanoacrylate deposits from brass cartridge cases without damaging the metal. Although sulfuric acid removed most of the cyanoacrylate from the brass cartridge case, ultrasonication of the fumed cartridge cases in sulfuric acid caused the nickel-plated primer caps to turn black. Additionally, etching occurred when sulfuric acid was allowed to dry on the cartridge case surface. Citric acid, salt-flour-vinegar paste, TergazymeRTM, and water did not effectively remove the cyanoacrylate from the cartridge cases, but the solutions were safe to use on the brass and sometimes resulted in a shinier surface. Regardless of the cleaning method employed, the bloodstained bullets retained most or all of the underlying brown tarnish. Ultrasonication with sulfuric acid was successful at removing some blood-initiated tarnishing; however, the removal of residues was not complete, making it difficult

  10. Diagnostic and therapeutic aspects in the treatment of gunshot wounds of the viscerocranium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröbe, A; Klatt, J; Heiland, M; Schmelzle, R; Pohlenz, P

    2011-02-01

    Gunshot wounds of the viscerocranium are a rare occurrence during times of peace in Europe. The removal of projectiles is recommended; in some cases, however, this is controversial. The material properties of projectiles and destruction of anatomical landmarks make it difficult to determine their precise location. Therefore, navigation systems and cone-beam computed tomography (CT) provide the surgeon with continuous intraoperative orientation in real-time. The aim of this study was to report our experiences for image-guided removal of projectiles, the use of cone-beam computed tomography and the resulting intra- and postoperative complications. We investigated 50 patients with gunshot wounds of the facial skeleton retrospectively, 32 had image-guided surgical removal of projectiles in the oral and maxillofacial region, 18 had surgical removal of projectiles without navigation assistance and in 28 cases we used cone-beam CT in the case of dislocated projectiles and fractured bones. There was a significant correlation (p = 0.0136) between the navigated versus not navigated surgery and complication rate (8 vs. 32%, p = 0.0132) including major bleeding, soft tissue infections and nerve damage. Furthermore, we could reduce operating time while using a navigation system and cone-beam CT (p = 0.038). A high tendency between operating time and navigated surgery (p = 0.1103) was found. In conclusion, there is a significant correlation between reduced intra- and postoperative complications including wound infections, nerve damage and major bleeding and the appropriate use of a navigation system. In all these cases we were able to present reduced operating time. Cone-beam CT plays a key role as a useful diagnostic tool in detecting projectiles or metallic foreign bodies intraoperatively.

  11. Timing of Pars Plana Vitrectomy in Management of Gunshot Perforating Eye Injury: Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammouda Hamdy Ghoraba

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to report the difference in either anatomical or functional outcome of vitreoretinal intervention in cases of gunshot perforating eye injury if done 2–4 weeks or after the 4th week after the original trauma. Patients were treated with pars plana vitrectomy and silicon oil. Surgeries were performed in the period from February 2011 until the end of December 2014. 253 eyes of 237 patients were reviewed. 46 eyes were excluded. 207 eyes of 197 patients were analyzed. The included eyes were classified based on the timing of vitrectomy in relation to the initial trauma into two groups: 149 eyes (the first group operated on between the 3rd and the 4th week and 58 eyes (the second group operated on after the 4th week after the trauma. Following one surgical intervention, in the first group, attached retina was achieved in 93.28% of patients. In the second group, attached retina was achieved in 96.55% of patients. All RD cases could be attached by a second surgery. Visual acuity improved in 81.21% of patients, did not change in 15.43% of patients, and declined in 3.35% of patients. In the second group, visual acuity improved in 81.03% of patients, did not change in 12.06% of patients, and worsened in 6.89% of patients. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in either anatomical or functional results. We recommend interfering before the 5th week after the trauma as retinal detachment is encountered more in cases operated on after the 4th week. The visual outcome depends on the site of entry and exit (the route of gunshot.

  12. Gunshot wounds to the spine in post-Katrina New Orleans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trahan, Jayme; Serban, Daniel; Tender, Gabriel C

    2013-11-01

    Gunshot wounds (GSW) to the spine represent a major health concern within today's society. Our study assessed the epidemiologic characteristics of patients with GSW to the spine treated in New Orleans. A retrospective chart review was performed from January 2007 through November 2011 on all the patients who were seen in the emergency room and diagnosed with a gunshot wound to the spine. Epidemiologic factors, as well as the results of admission toxicology screening, were noted. Outcome analysis was performed on patients undergoing conservative versus operative management for their injuries. Clinical outcomes were assessed using the ASIA classification system. Complications related to initial injury, neurosurgical procedures, and hospital stay were noted. A total of 147 patients were enrolled. Of those diagnosed with a GSW to the spine, 88 (59.8%) received an admission toxicology screen. Seventy-three (83%) patients out of those tested had a positive screen, with the most common substances detected being cannabis, cocaine, and alcohol. In regards to management, 127 (87%) patients were treated conservatively and only one (0.7%) patient improved clinically from ASIA D to E. Of the 20 patients who underwent surgery, one (5%) patient had clinical improvement post-operatively from ASIA C to D. This study evaluates the largest number of patients with GSW to the spine per year treated in a single centre, illustrating the violent nature of New Orleans. In this urban population, there was a clear correlation between drug use and suffering a GSW to the spine. Surgical intervention was seldom indicated in these patients and was predominately used for fixation of unstable fractures and decompression of compressive injuries, particularly below T11. Minimally invasive techniques were used successfully at our institution to minimize the risk of post-operative CSF leak. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Non-operative management of abdominal gunshot injuries: Is it safe in all cases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    İflazoğlu, Nidal; Üreyen, Orhan; Öner, Osman Zekai; Meral, Ulvi Mehmet; Yülüklü, Murat

    2018-01-01

    In line with advances in diagnostic methods and expectation of a decrease in the number of negative laparotomies, selective non-operative management of abdominal gunshot wounds has been increasingly used over the last three decades. We aim to detect the possibility of treatment without surgery and present our experience in selected cases referred from Syria to a hospital at the Turkish-Syrian border. Between February 2012 and June 2014, patients admitted with abdominal gunshot wounds were analyzed. Computed tomography was performed for all patients on admission. Patients who were hemodynamically stable and did not have symptoms of peritonitis at the time of presentation were included in the study. The primary outcome parameters were mortality and morbidity. Successful selective non-operative management (Group 1) and unsuccessful selective non-operative management (Group 2) groups were compared in terms of complications, blood transfusion, injury site, injury severity score (ISS), and hospital stay. Of 158 truncal injury patients, 18 were considered feasible for selective non-operative management. Of these, 14 (78%) patients were treated without surgery. Other Four patients were operated upon progressively increasing abdominal pain and tenderness during follow-up. On diagnostic exploration, all of these cases had intestinal perforations. No mortality was observed in selective non-operative management. There was no statistically significant difference between Group 1 and Group 2, in terms of length of hospital stay (96 and 127 h, respectively). Also, there was no difference between groups in terms of blood transfusion necessity, injury site, complication rate, and injury severity score (p>0.05). Decision making on patient selection for selective non-operative management is critical to ensure favorable outcomes. It is not possible to predict the success of selective non-operative management in advance. Cautious clinical examination and close monitoring of these

  14. The role of early surgical intervention in civilian gunshot wounds to the head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helling, T S; McNabney, W K; Whittaker, C K; Schultz, C C; Watkins, M

    1992-03-01

    Surgical management of gunshot wounds of the head has remained a controversial issue in the care of civilian patients. In an attempt to determine who might benefit from aggressive surgical intervention, we examined 89 patients over a 3-year period who had suffered cranial gunshot wounds and had at least one computed tomographic scan of the head after admission. Patients were divided into those receiving early (less than 24 hours) surgical intervention (ES, n = 27), late (greater than 24 hours) surgical intervention (LS, n = 6) or no surgical intervention (NS, n = 56). Overall mortality was 63%. Ten of 27 patients (37%) in the ES group died compared with 46 of 56 patients (82%) in the NS group (p less than 0.0001). Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores in the ES group averaged 7.86 +/- 4.72 and in the NS group 5.59 +/- 4.42 (p less than 0.05). The GCS scores in the LS group (all of whom survived) were significantly higher than those of the other two groups, 12.17 +/- 4.10. The number of patients with GCS scores of 3 or 4 on admission was significantly less in the ES (41%) than in the NS group (66%, p = 0.035) and survival was better with surgery (36%) than without (3%, p = 0.007). Patients with mass lesions (clot, ventricular blood) were more often found in the ES group (17/27) than in the NS group (18/56) (p = 0.008). Patients with bihemispheric injuries fared better with surgery (7 of 14 survivors) than without (2 of 33 survivors, p = 0.0003). Only one infectious complication (brain abscess) was encountered in the LS group. No delayed intracranial complications in survivors in the NS group were seen.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Non-fatal gunshot trauma among a sample of adolescents in Djibouti: prevalence and sociodemographic associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Michael L; Lewis, Erin R

    2014-01-01

    Firearm trauma is the second most common cause of serious injury among adolescents in the Republic of Djibouti. The aim of this study was to explore the sociodemographic correlates of serious injury and non-fatal gunshot trauma among adolescents in Djibouti. Using multinomial logistic regression, we compared a sample of adolescents (N = 1,711) who self-reported a non-firearm-related serious injury (n = 587) and those who reported a firearm-related injury (n = 101) with non-injured participants (n = 1,023) during a 12-month recall period. Analyses targeted demographic, behavioral, social, mental health, and family factors. After adjusting for covariates, participants reporting a non-firearm-related serious injury were more likely to report having been involved in physical fights (relative risk ratio [RRR] = 145; confidence interval [CI] = [1.04, 2.02), being bullied (RRR = 2.83; CI = [2.24, 3.56]), feeling lonely (RRR = 1.48; CI = [1.11, 1.96]), having signs of depression (RRR = 1.27; CI = [1.02, 1.58]), and be truant from school (RRR = 1.68; CI = [1.25, 2.28]). Those who reported a gunshot injury recorded being bullied (RRR = 2.83; CI = [1.77, 4.53]) and physically attacked at higher rates (RRR = 1.78; CI = [1.09, 2.89]). Serious injuries, whether firearm related or not, are important threats to adolescent health in Djibouti with potentially serious health-related correlates. More research, particularly multilevel designs, are needed to explain context-relevant factors associated with serious trauma in Djibouti.

  16. Economic assessment of wild bird mortality induced by the use of lead gunshot in European wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreotti, Alessandro; Guberti, Vittorio; Nardelli, Riccardo; Pirrello, Simone; Serra, Lorenzo; Volponi, Stefano; Green, Rhys E

    2018-01-01

    In European wetlands, at least 40 bird species are exposed to the risk of lead poisoning caused by ingestion of spent lead gunshot. Adopting a methodology developed in North America, we estimated that about 700,000 individuals of 16 waterbird species die annually in the European Union (EU) (6.1% of the wintering population) and one million in whole Europe (7.0%) due to acute effects of lead poisoning. Furthermore, threefold more birds suffer sub-lethal effects. We assessed the economic loss due to this lead-induced mortality of these 16 species by calculating the costs of replacing lethally poisoned wild birds by releasing captive-bred ones. We assessed the cost of buying captive-bred waterbirds for release from market surveys and calculated how many captive-bred birds would have to be released to compensate for the loss, taking into account the high mortality rate of captive birds (72.7%) in the months following release into the wild. Following this approach, the annual cost of waterbird mortality induced by lead shot ingestion is estimated at 105 million euros per year in the EU countries and 142 million euros in the whole of Europe. An alternative method, based upon lost opportunities for hunting caused by deaths due to lead poisoning, gave similar results of 129 million euros per year in the EU countries and 185 million euros per year in the whole of Europe. For several reasons these figures should be regarded as conservative. Inclusion of deaths of species for which there were insufficient data and delayed deaths caused indirectly by lead poisoning and effects on reproduction would probably increase the estimated losses substantially. Nevertheless, our results suggest that the benefits of a restriction on the use of lead gunshot over wetlands could exceed the cost of adapting to non-lead ammunition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. [Unsuccessful suicidal attempt with use of self-prepared bullet -- case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malec, Katarzyna; Gasiński, Mateusz; Kuchta, Krzysztof; Kozok, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    Gunshot injuries of the viscerocranium are rarely reported during times of peace in Europe. Penetrating wounds to the maxillofacial region pose a significant challenge for surgeons as they often comprise serious soft and bone tissue defects.We present a case report of 38-year-old male with gunshot wound to the viscerocranium after suicidal attempt. The patient's general condition was stable. The inlet wound was found in the submental region in the central line penetrating deep into the floor of the mouth, to the left, avoiding large vessels and hypoglossal nerve. No exit wound was identified. The ophthalmic examination revealed the limitation of motion in the left eyeball and diplopia in the whole field of vision. The revision was performed under general anesthesia. Control CT scan revealed the presence of one metallic fragment wedged in the hard palate. Second look of oral cavity with particular emphasis on the hard palate was performed. Shrapnel proved to be wedged in the bone of the hard palate very firmly and complete removal without damaging the function of the palate was impossible. The decision was made to withdraw from surgical removal of the remaining piece of the projectile. In most cases, it is recommended to remove all foreign material from human body. However, in the illustrated case we decided to leave small debris in the craniofacial skeleton. In our opinion, further surgical revision would result in greater tissue damage, disproportionate to the benefits of the removal of all fragments of the projectile.

  18. Gunshot Wounds in Military Working Dogs in Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom: 29 cases (2003-2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    oxygenmask held in proximity to the dog’s face or taped to a basket-style muzzle ) during evacuation to the VTF. None of the WIA dogs received IV crystalloid...military working dogs in Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom: 29 cases (2003–2009) Janice L. Baker, DVM; Karyn A. Havas, DVM; Laura A...received on the battlefield, and ultimate outcome of U.S. military working dogs that incurred gunshot wound (GSW) injury in Operation Enduring Freedom

  19. Airborne DoA estimation of gunshot acoustic signals using drones with application to sniper localization systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Rigel P.; Ramos, António L. L.; Apolinário, José A.

    2017-05-01

    Shooter localization systems have been subject of a growing attention lately owing to its wide span of possible applications, e.g., civil protection, law enforcement, and support to soldiers in missions where snipers might pose a serious threat. These devices are based on the processing of electromagnetic or acoustic signatures associated with the firing of a gun. This work is concerned with the latter, where the shooter's position can be obtained based on the estimation of the direction-of-arrival (DoA) of the acoustic components of a gunshot signal (muzzle blast and shock wave). A major limitation of current commercially available acoustic sniper localization systems is the impossibility of finding the shooter's position when one of these acoustic signatures is not detected. This is very likely to occur in real-life situations, especially when the microphones are not in the field of view of the shockwave or when the presence of obstacles like buildings can prevent a direct-path to sensors. This work addresses the problem of DoA estimation of the muzzle blast using a planar array of sensors deployed in a drone. Results supported by actual gunshot data from a realistic setup are very promising and pave the way for the development of enhanced sniper localization systems featuring two main advantages over stationary ones: (1) wider surveillance area; and (2) increased likelihood of a direct-path detection of at least one of the gunshot signals, thereby adding robustness and reliability to the system.

  20. The benefit of a tough skin: bullet holes, weathering and the preservation of heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mol, Lisa; Gomez-Heras, M.; Brassey, C.; Green, O.; Blenkinsop, T.

    2017-02-01

    Projectile damage to building stone is a widespread phenomenon. Sites damaged 100 years ago during the First World War still see daily use, while in a more contemporary setting numerous reports show the damage to buildings in Babylon, Mosul and Palmyra. While research has been carried out on the long-term effects of conflict such as fire damage, little is known about the protracted damage sustained through the impact of bullets, shrapnel and other metal projectiles outside of the field of engineering focused on ceramics and metals. To investigate alterations to mineral structure caused by projectile damage, impacts were created in medium-grained, well-compacted, mesoporous sandstone samples using 0.22 calibre lead bullets shot at a distance of 20 m. Half these samples were treated with a surface consolidant (Wacker OH 100), to mimic natural cementation of the rock surface. These samples were then tested for changes to surface hardness and moisture movement during temperature cycles of 15-65°C. Petrographic thin section analysis was carried out to investigate the micro-scale deformation associated with high-speed impact. The results surprisingly show that stress build-up behind pre-existing cementation of the surface, as found in heritage sites that have been exposed to moisture and temperature fluctuations for longer periods of time, can be alleviated with a bullet impact. However, fracture networks and alteration of the mineral matrices still form a weak point within the structure, even at a relatively low impact calibre. This initial study illustrates the need for geomorphologists, geologists, engineers and heritage specialists to work collectively to gain further insights into the long-term impact of higher calibre armed warfare on heritage deterioration.

  1. A Bullet Entered through the Open Mouth and Ended Up in the Parapharyngeal Space and Skull Base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saileswar Goswami

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Shot from a revolver from a close range, a bullet pierced the chest of a policeman and entered through the open mouth of a young male person standing behind. The entry wound was found in the cheek mucosa adjacent to the left lower third molar. After hitting and fracturing the body and the ramus of the mandible, the bullet was deflected and was finally lodged in the parapharyngeal space and skull base, anterolateral to the transverse process of the atlas. The great vessels of the neck were not injured. The patient’s condition was very critical but his life could be saved. The bullet was approached through a modified Blair’s incision and was found to be lying over the carotid sheath. It was removed safely and the patient recovered completely.

  2. Three-dimensional Bessel light bullets in self-focusing Kerr media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Weiping; Belic, Milivoj; Huang Tingwen

    2010-01-01

    We study three-dimensional (3D) Bessel light-bullet solutions of the nonlinear Schroedinger equation with a photonic lattice potential in the form of squared Bessel functions in polar coordinates, both analytically and numerically. Analytical solutions are obtained by the Hartree approximation, and numerical simulations are performed, to compare with the analytical solutions and to confirm the stability of localized solutions. The 3D spatial wave packets are built by the products of hyperbolic secant and Bessel functions. These solitons appear in different forms, such as 3D vortex solitons and multipole solitons.

  3. Dark matter line emission constraints from NuSTAR observations of the Bullet Cluster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riemer-Sørensen, S.; Wik, D.; Madejski, G.

    2015-01-01

    Some dark matter candidates, e.g., sterile neutrinos, provide observable signatures in the form of mono-energetic line emission. We present the first search for dark matter line emission in the range in a pointed observation of the Bullet Cluster with NuSTAR. We do not detect any significant line...... emission and instead we derive upper limits (95% CL) on the flux, and interpret these constraints in the context of sterile neutrinos and more generic dark matter candidates. NuSTAR does not have the sensitivity to constrain the recently claimed line detection at , but improves on the constraints...... for energies of 10–25 keV....

  4. Lipossomas: a bala mágica acertou? Liposomes: has the magic bullet hit the target?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno C. Santos

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Efficient drug delivery systems are as important as drug themselves. A powerful drug unable to reach the target cell is useless in practice. Ehrlich's Magic Bullet was the first carrier system to be proposed. The evolution in this domain has been quite slow as the natural mechanisms of mammals against foreign products are hard to overcome. However, lipid-based systems (liposomes and related vesicles have attained reasonable success. The basic preparations and structural features of liposomes and related vesicles as well as their applications are addressed from the chemist's and biochemist's point of view.

  5. Detection of blood aspiration in deadly head gunshots comparing postmortem computed tomography (PMCT) and autopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaparra, E; Peschel, O; Kirchhoff, C; Reiser, M; Kirchhoff, S M

    2016-11-01

    The aim of our study was to analyze the reliability of postmortem computed tomography (PMCT) versus autopsy in detecting signs of blood aspiration in a distinct group of patients following deadly head, mouth or floor of mouth gunshot injuries. In this study, in 41 cases PMCT was compared to autopsy reports, the gold standard of postmortem exams, regarding detection of blood aspiration. PMCT was evaluated for the presence and level of typical signs of blood aspiration in the major airways and lung using a semi-quantitative scale ranging from level 0 (no aspiration) to 3 (significant aspiration) also taking density values of the described potential aspiratory changes into account. Overall, in 29 (70.7%) of 41 enrolled cases PMCT and autopsy revealed the same level of aspiration. A difference of one level between PMCT and autopsy resulted for 5 (12.2%) of the remaining 12 cases. More than one level difference between both methods resulted for 7 cases (17.2%). Autopsy described no signs of aspiration in 10 cases, compared to 31 cases with reported blood aspiration. In contrast, PMCT revealed no signs of blood aspiration in 15 cases whereas 26 cases were rated as positive for signs of aspiration in the major airways. In 18 of these 26 cases considered positive for blood aspiration by autopsy and PMCT, clear signs of aspiration signs were also described bilaterally by both methods. The presented study provides evidence for the assumption that PMCT seems to be helpful in the detection of blood aspiration in cases of deadly head gunshots. In conclusion, it seems reasonable to suggest performing PMCT additionally to traditional postmortem exams in cases of suspected aspiration to rule out false-negative cases and to possibly allow for a more detailed and rather evidence based examination reconnoitering the cause of death. However, the adequate use of PMCT in this context needs further evaluation and the definition of an objective scale for aspiration detection on PMCT needs

  6. Variation of gunshot injury patterns in mortality associated with human rights abuses and armed conflict: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraybar, Jose Pablo

    2015-09-01

    The analysis of the distribution of gunshot injuries in a sample of 777 sets of human remains of proven human rights abuse from Somaliland, the Balkans and Peru is compared to frequencies of injuries sustained by combatants in contemporary conflicts reported in the literature. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) reduced the data to three components accounting for 82.94% of the variance. The first component with 38.31% of variance shows segments Arms and thorax/abdomen to be positively correlated (0.887 and 0.662, respectively); the segment head/neck is strongly correlated (0.951) to the second component while the segment thorax/abdomen shows a low, negative correlation (-0.388). Finally in the third component only the legs are strongly correlated (0.991). Data was further subjected to a K-means cluster analysis to determine the likely groupings combining the four types of injuries. Each of the three clusters reproduced similar patterns observed in the PCA: Cluster 1 shows the prevalence of injuries to the thorax/abdomen and extremities in addition to injuries to the head/neck; Cluster 2 shows injuries to the head/neck and Cluster 3 injuries to the thorax/abdomen and a lower representation of the arms and legs. Most of the cases (70.5%), irrespective of geography and type of site (attack or detention), were grouped into Cluster 2. Such comparison shows that in human rights abuse, irrespective of their geography, gunshot injuries tend to follow a pattern favouring the head/neck and thorax/abdomen areas over the extremities, the reverse pattern observed in contemporary combat operations. In those settings gunshot wound trauma is the second cause of mortality/morbidity (after fragmenting ammunition) and its distribution concentrates on the extremities, thorax/abdomen and head; following the pattern of protective armour when it is used. Considering that human rights abuses are often presented as encounters between two armed groups in the context of counter

  7. General-Purpose Heat Source development: Safety Verification Test Program. Bullet/fragment test series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, T.G.; Tate, R.E.; Axler, K.M.

    1985-05-01

    The radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) that will provide power for space missions contains 18 General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules. Each module contains four /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/-fueled clads and generates 250 W/sub (t)/. Because a launch-pad or post-launch explosion is always possible, we need to determine the ability of GPHS fueled clads within a module to survive fragment impact. The bullet/fragment test series, part of the Safety Verification Test Plan, was designed to provide information on clad response to impact by a compact, high-energy, aluminum-alloy fragment and to establish a threshold value of fragment energy required to breach the iridium cladding. Test results show that a velocity of 555 m/s (1820 ft/s) with an 18-g bullet is at or near the threshold value of fragment velocity that will cause a clad breach. Results also show that an exothermic Ir/Al reaction occurs if aluminum and hot iridium are in contact, a contact that is possible and most damaging to the clad within a narrow velocity range. The observed reactions between the iridium and the aluminum were studied in the laboratory and are reported in the Appendix.

  8. Generation and control of sound bullets with a nonlinear acoustic lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spadoni, Alessandro; Daraio, Chiara

    2010-04-20

    Acoustic lenses are employed in a variety of applications, from biomedical imaging and surgery to defense systems and damage detection in materials. Focused acoustic signals, for example, enable ultrasonic transducers to image the interior of the human body. Currently however the performance of acoustic devices is limited by their linear operational envelope, which implies relatively inaccurate focusing and low focal power. Here we show a dramatic focusing effect and the generation of compact acoustic pulses (sound bullets) in solid and fluid media, with energies orders of magnitude greater than previously achievable. This focusing is made possible by a tunable, nonlinear acoustic lens, which consists of ordered arrays of granular chains. The amplitude, size, and location of the sound bullets can be controlled by varying the static precompression of the chains. Theory and numerical simulations demonstrate the focusing effect, and photoelasticity experiments corroborate it. Our nonlinear lens permits a qualitatively new way of generating high-energy acoustic pulses, which may improve imaging capabilities through increased accuracy and signal-to-noise ratios and may lead to more effective nonintrusive scalpels, for example, for cancer treatment.

  9. A self-adherent, bullet-shaped microneedle patch for controlled transdermal delivery of insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong, Keum-Yong; Seo, Min-Soo; Hwang, Dae Youn; O'Cearbhaill, Eoin D; Sreenan, Seamus; Karp, Jeffrey M; Yang, Seung Yun

    2017-11-10

    Proteins are important biologic therapeutics used for the treatment of various diseases. However, owing to low bioavailability and poor skin permeability, transdermal delivery of protein therapeutics poses a significant challenge. Here, we present a new approach for transdermal protein delivery using bullet-shaped double-layered microneedle (MN) arrays with water-swellable tips. This design enabled the MNs to mechanically interlock with soft tissues by selective distal swelling after skin insertion. Additionally, prolonged release of loaded proteins by passive diffusion through the swollen tips was obtained. The bullet-shaped MNs provided an optimal geometry for mechanical interlocking, thereby achieving significant adhesion strength (~1.6Ncm -2 ) with rat skin. By harnessing the MN's reversible swelling/deswelling property, insulin, a model protein drug, was loaded in the swellable tips using a mild drop/dry procedure. The insulin-loaded MN patch released 60% of insulin when immersed in saline over the course of 12h and approximately 70% of the released insulin appeared to have preserved structural integrity. An in vivo pilot study showed a prolonged release of insulin from swellable MN patches, leading to a gradual decrease in blood glucose levels. This self-adherent transdermal MN platform can be applied to a variety of protein drugs requiring sustained release kinetics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. To drink or grasp? How bullet ants ( Paraponera clavata) differentiate between sugars and proteins in liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandt, Jennifer; Larson, Hannah K.; Tellez, Peter; McGlynn, Terrence P.

    2013-12-01

    Flexibility in behavior can increase the likelihood that a forager may respond optimally in a fluctuating environment. Nevertheless, physiological or neuronal constraints may result in suboptimal responses to stimuli. We observed foraging workers of the giant tropical ant (also referred to as the "bullet ant"), Paraponera clavata, as they reacted to liquid solutions with varying concentrations of sugar and protein. We show that when protein/sucrose concentration is high, many bullet ants will often try to grasp at the droplet, rather than gather it by drinking. Because P. clavata actively hunt for prey, fixed action patterns and rapid responses to protein may be adaptively important, regardless of the medium in which it is presented. We conclude that, in P. clavata, food-handling decisions are made in response to the nutrient content of the food rather than the texture of the food. Further, we suggest that colonies that maintain a mixture of individuals with consistent fixed or flexible behavioral responses to food-handling decisions may be better adapted to fluctuating environmental conditions, and we propose future studies that could address this.

  11. Audio gunshot detection and localization systems: History, basic design, and future possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Jordan R.

    For decades, law enforcement organizations have increasingly utilized audio detection and localization systems to identify potential gunshot incidents and to respond accordingly. These systems have grown from simple microphone configurations used to estimate location into complex arrays that seem to pinpoint gunfire to within mere feet of its actual occurrence. Such technology comes from a long and dynamic history of developing equipment dating back to the First World War. Additionally, though basic designs require little in terms of programming or engineering experience, the mere presence of this tool invokes a firestorm of debate amongst economists, law enforcement groups, and the general public, which leads to questions about future possibilities for its use. The following pages will retell the history of these systems from theoretical conception to current capabilities. This work will also dissect these systems to reveal fundamental elements of their inner workings, in order to build a basic demonstrative system. Finally, this work will discuss some legal and moral points of dissension, and will explore these systems’ roles in society now and in the future, in additional applications as well.

  12. Raman spectroscopic analysis of gunshot residue offering great potential for caliber differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Justin; Sikirzhytski, Vitali; Lednev, Igor K

    2012-05-15

    Near-infrared (NIR) Raman microspectroscopy combined with advanced statistics was used to differentiate gunshot residue (GSR) particles originating from different caliber ammunition. The firearm discharge process is analogous to a complex chemical reaction. The reagents of this process are represented by the chemical composition of the ammunition, firearm, and cartridge case. The specific firearm parameters determine the conditions of the reaction and thus the subsequent product, GSR. We found that Raman spectra collected from these products are characteristic for different caliber ammunition. GSR particles from 9 mm and 0.38 caliber ammunition, collected under identical discharge conditions, were used to demonstrate the capability of confocal Raman microspectroscopy for the discrimination and identification of GSR particles. The caliber differentiation algorithm is based on support vector machines (SVM) and partial least squares (PLS) discriminant analyses, validated by a leave-one-out cross-validation method. This study demonstrates for the first time that NIR Raman microspectroscopy has the potential for the reagentless differentiation of GSR based upon forensically relevant parameters, such as caliber size. When fully developed, this method should have a significant impact on the efficiency of crime scene investigations.

  13. Attenuated total reflectance-FT-IR spectroscopy for gunshot residue analysis: potential for ammunition determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Justin; Sikirzhytski, Vitali; Lednev, Igor K

    2013-08-06

    The ability to link a suspect to a particular shooting incident is a principal task for many forensic investigators. Here, we attempt to achieve this goal by analysis of gunshot residue (GSR) through the use of attenuated total reflectance (ATR) Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) combined with statistical analysis. The firearm discharge process is analogous to a complex chemical process. Therefore, the products of this process (GSR) will vary based upon numerous factors, including the specific combination of the firearm and ammunition which was discharged. Differentiation of FT-IR data, collected from GSR particles originating from three different firearm-ammunition combinations (0.38 in., 0.40 in., and 9 mm calibers), was achieved using projection to latent structures discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The technique was cross (leave-one-out), both internally and externally, validated. External validation was achieved via assignment (caliber identification) of unknown FT-IR spectra from unknown GSR particles. The results demonstrate great potential for ATR-FT-IR spectroscopic analysis of GSR for forensic purposes.

  14. Study of gunshot residues from Sintox® ammunition containing marking substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia Polovková

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Two types of factory marked Sintox® ammunition were investigated from the composition of gunshot residue particles (GSR and occurrence of marking substance points of view. The experiments were carried out with two cartridges of caliber 9 mm Luger (9 × 19 Parabellum of two producers (Ruag Ammotec, Switzerland and Men, Germany. The first cartridge (type Action 4, Ruag Ammotec contains gadolinium as a marking element, while the other cartridge (type PEP II, Men is marked with gallium in gunpowder. Scanning electron microscopy equipped with EDAX analyzer (SEM/EDX was used to detect and analyze the GSR particles in samples collected from the cartridges, barrels and shooter’s hands. Besides those, particles from the hit clothes placed at different shooting distances were collected and analyzed. The spreading of GSR cloud from the gun was observed using the high-speed camera. Results obtained clearly revealed that the way of ammunition production/construction and type of marking of ammunition can significantly influence the presence and detection reliability of marking elements in GSR. The detectability is affected also by the shooting distance.

  15. Hereditary Neuropathy with Liability to Pressure Palsies Masked by Previous Gunshots and Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Gencik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Although hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP presents with a distinct phenotype on history, clinical exam, and nerve conduction studies, it may be masked if diagnostic work-up suggests other causes. Case Report. In a 37-year-old male with pseudoradicular lumbar pain, neurological exam revealed sore neck muscles, peripheral facial nerve palsy, right anacusis and left hypoacusis, hemihypesthesia of the right face, mild distal quadriparesis, diffuse wasting, and generally reduced tendon reflexes. He had a history of skull fracture due to a gunshot behind the right ear and tuberculosis for which he had received adequate treatment for 3 years; MRI revealed a disc prolapse at C6/7 and Th11/12. Nerve conduction studies were indicative of demyelinating polyneuropathy with conduction blocks. Despite elevated antinuclear antibodies and elevated CSF-protein, HNPP was diagnosed genetically after having excluded vasculitis, CIDP, radiculopathy, and the side effects of antituberculous treatment. Conclusions. HNPP may manifest with mild, painless, distal quadriparesis. The diagnosis of HNPP may be blurred by a history of tuberculosis, tuberculostatic treatment, hepatitis, and the presence of elevated CSF-protein.

  16. Atmospheric pressure plasma jets : properties of plasma bullets and the dynamics of the interaction with dielectric surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobota, A.; Slikboer, E.; Guaitella, O.Y.N.

    2015-01-01

    Cold atmospheric pressure plasma jets, although mostly researched for applications in surface treatment, are rarely investigated in the presence of a surface. This paper presents the properties of plasma bullets formed in the capillary as well as the dynamics of the propagation of the plasma on

  17. The Dream About the Magic Silver Bullet – the Complexity of Designing for Tablet-Mediated Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahnke, Isa; Svendsen, Niels Vandel; Johansen, Simon Kristoffer

    2014-01-01

    learning. We report the gaps and interrelations between the dreams and the practice of the teachers. They dream about an interconnected praxis – the magic silver bullet – and establish their visions of inter- connectivity because of their breakdown experiences of media tablets aiding complexity instead...

  18. Dodging Bullets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witte, Caroline T.; Burger, Martijn J.; Ianchovichina, Elena I.

    2017-01-01

    and geographic constraints on location choice. In the nonresource sector, the least geographically diversified firms are most sensitive to conflict. Other types of political violence, including intermittent violence in the form of terrorist acts and assassinations, or persistent but low-impact events......The relationship between political violence and greenfield foreign direct investment is contingent on the type of violence, the characteristics of the investment-receiving sector, and the international scope of the investing firm. Analysis using a dynamic fixed effects model for a panel of 90...... developing countries shows that nationwide political conflict is negatively associated with total and nonresource-related greenfield FDI, but not with resource-related greenfield FDI. The insensitivity of resource FDI to political conflict is explained by the high profitability of natural-resource extraction...

  19. Modified Johnson–Cook Model-based Numerical Simulation of Small Arms Bullets Penetration in the Aluminum Alloy Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Shash

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we simulated and studied the penetration process of 7,62 x 63 mm bullets "NATO Ball" (with a soft lead core and 7.62 x 63 mm ones «APM2» (with hard steel core in three kinds of aluminum plates, namely AA5083- H116, AA6082-T4, and AA7075-T6 with three different thicknesses of 10 mm, 20 mm, and 30 mm. The impact velocity was 830 m / s in all tests. Based on the test results and numerical calculations, all plates and a bullet were modeled as the deformable ones with modified constitutive Johnson-Cook relationship and Cockcroft-Latham fracture criterion. Then they were used in modeling by three-dimensional nonlinear finite element in Ansys Ls-Dyna package. The influence of the finite element size in the finite element model on the length and results of calculations has been investigated as well.The main calculation results, we have received, include the residual bullet velocity and the residual kinetic energy of the bullet after drilling a hole in the plate and plate failure mechanism for each type and thickness of the plate with two types of bullets. We have noticed that the residual velocities of the bullets for small thicknesses of aluminum alloys (up to 10 mm have relatively equal values upon penetration of the bullets "NATO Ball" and «APM2» (a bit more, as well as the calculation-obtained failure mechanisms are adequate to experimental. In addition, resistance of AA7075-T651 aluminum alloy to penetration is higher than that of AA5083-H116 and AA6082-T4 ones.It should also be noted that the accuracy of the results depends mainly on the size of the grid elements. The more is the number of elements, the higher is the accuracy of the results, but the longer is the solution time. Therefore, we advice to use the finite element size of 0.2 mm, at most, to obtain the highly accurate results that are adequate to the experimental results.

  20. Can cadaverous pollution from environmental lead misguide to false positive results in the histochemical determination of gunshot residues? Study on cadaveric skin samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boracchi, Michele; Andreola, Salvatore; Collini, Federica; Gentile, Guendalina; Maciocco, Francesca; Maghin, Francesca; Zoja, Riccardo

    2017-08-01

    Histochemical determination of lead in gunshot residues (GSR) raises the question of possible environmental contamination by heavy metals. Authors assess the specificity of the Sodium Rhodizonate Test in the search of lead derived from environmental pollution. Sodium Rhodizonate Test and 5% HCl Sodium Rhodizonate test were applied to skin samples taken from two groups of victims, whose cause of death was not related to gunshot wounds: group A included 25 corpses found in open spaces after a long time; group B included 16 corpses exhumed after a period of 11 years. The use of these histochemical tests to skin samples from these two groups did not show metal debris histochemically similar to the lead present in GSR. These tests were confirmed to be specific in highlighting the GSR coming from gunshot, without being affected by the potential environmental contamination of the heavy metal pollutants, coming from air or soil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. HEALTH CARE OUTCOMES IN THE CIVILIAN POPULATION WITH GUNSHOT WOUNDS OF THE NECK IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE LOCAL MILITARY CONFLICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Владимир Владимирович Масляков

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions. For the civilian population with gunshot wounds of the neck at the pre-hospital stage the following medical procedures were performed: bandaging the wound – 45 (34,8 %; anesthesia by not narcotic analgesics 12 (9,3  anesthesia by narcotic analgesics – 2 (1,5 %; a hemostasis – 6 (4,6 %; no medical procedures performed – 64 (49,6 %. In the early postoperative period 51,9 % patients with gunshot wounds of the neck developed complications, purulent and septic complications having been registered in 21,7 % cases. The mortality rate was 32,5 %. The common causes of the lethal outcome in patients with gunshot wounds of the neck were hemorrhagic shock – 13,1 %; traumatic shock – 6,2 %; thromboses and embolisms – 3,1 %; purulent and septic complications – 10 %.

  2. Inconsistency in 9 mm bullets: correlation of jacket thickness to post-impact geometry measured with non-destructive X-ray computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornby, John; Landheer, Dirk; Williams, Tim; Barnes-Warden, Jane; Fenne, Paul; Norman, Danielle G; Attridge, Alex; Williams, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    Fundamental to any ballistic armour standard is the reference projectile to be defeated. Typically, for certification purposes, a consistent and symmetrical bullet geometry is assumed, however variations in bullet jacket dimensions can have far reaching consequences. Traditionally, characteristics and internal dimensions have been analysed by physically sectioning bullets--an approach which is of restricted scope and which precludes subsequent ballistic assessment. The use of a non-destructive X-ray computed tomography (CT) method has been demonstrated and validated (Kumar et al., 2011 [15]); the authors now apply this technique to correlate bullet impact response with jacket thickness variations. A set of 20 bullets (9 mm DM11) were selected for comparison and an image-based analysis method was employed to map jacket thickness and determine the centre of gravity of each specimen. Both intra- and inter-bullet variations were investigated, with thickness variations of the order of 200 μm commonly found along the length of all bullets and angular variations of up to 50 μm in some. The bullets were subsequently impacted against a rigid flat plate under controlled conditions (observed on a high-speed video camera) and the resulting deformed projectiles were re-analysed. The results of the experiments demonstrate a marked difference in ballistic performance between bullets from different manufacturers and an asymmetric thinning of the jacket is observed in regions of pre-impact weakness. The conclusions are relevant for future soft armour standards and provide important quantitative data for numerical model correlation and development. The implications of the findings of the work on the reliability and repeatability of the industry standard V50 ballistic test are also discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. An exploratory study of the potential of LIBS for visualizing gunshot residue patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-López, María; Alvarez-Llamas, César; Pisonero, Jorge; García-Ruiz, Carmen; Bordel, Nerea

    2017-04-01

    The study of gunshot residue (GSR) patterns can assist in the reconstruction of shooting incidences. Currently, there is a real need of methods capable of furnishing simultaneous elemental analysis with higher specificity for the GSR pattern visualization. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) provides a multi-elemental analysis of the sample, requiring very small amounts of material and no sample preparation. Due to these advantages, this study aims at exploring the potential of LIBS imaging for the visualization of GSR patterns. After the spectral characterization of individual GSR particles, the distribution of Pb, Sb and Ba over clothing targets, shot from different distances, were measured in laser raster mode. In particular, an array of spots evenly spaced at 800μm, using a stage displacement velocity of 4mm/s and a laser frequency of 5Hz was employed (e.g. an area of 130×165mm 2 was measured in less than 3h). A LIBS set-up based on the simultaneous use of two spectrographs with iCCD cameras and a motorized stage was used. This set-up allows obtaining information from two different wavelength regions (258-289 and 446-463nm) from the same laser induced plasma, enabling the simultaneous detection of the three characteristic elements (Pb, Sb, and Ba) of GSR particles from conventional ammunitions. The ability to visualize the 2D distribution GSR pattern by LIBS may have an important application in the forensic field, especially for the ballistics area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A practice report of bladder injuries due to gunshot wounds in Syrian refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inci, Mehmet; Karakuş, Ali; Rifaioglu, Mehmet Murat; Yengil, Erhan; Atçi, Nesrin; Akin, Ömer; Tuzcu, Kasım; Kiper, Ahmet; Demirbaş, Onur; Şahan, Mustafa

    2014-09-01

    This study was intended to report our recent experience of bladder injuries due to gunshots in the Syrian conflict and review the literature regarding diagnosis and treatment. Twenty-two cases with abdominal and inguinal firearm wounds and bladder ruptures sustained in the Syrian conflict were reported. Age, mechanism/location of damage, associated injuries, Revised Trauma Score (RTS), Injury Severity Score (ISS), Trauma Injury Severity Score (TRISS), and complications were analyzed. The severity of the bladder injuries was classified according to the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma Organ Injury Scaling (AAST-OIS grade ?II database).The type of the bladder rupture was defined according to the classification System for Bladder Injury Based on Findings at CT Cystography. The mean age was 26 years (range, 18-36). The mean ISS was 22 (10-57), mean TRISS was 0.64 (0.004-0.95), and mean RTS was 6.97 (3.30-7.84). In the mortality group, the mean ISS, TRISS, and RTS were 48 (36-57), 0.016 (0.004-0.090), and 4.10 (3.30-4.92), respectively; whereas, the mean ISS, TRISS, and RTS were found as 21 (10-26), 0.64 (0.49-0.95), and 7.24 (5.65-7.84), respectively in the survival group (P=0.06). CT-cystography showed seventeen type 2, three type 4, and two type 5 bladder injuries. According to AAST-OIS, there were nine grade IV, six grade III, five grade II, and two grade V injuries. In war settings, when injuries are often severe and multiple surgical exploration and closure are mandatory, mortality risk is associated with high ISS and low TRISS and RTS values.

  5. Penetrating Bihemispheric Traumatic Brain Injury: A Collective Review of Gunshot Wounds to the Head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turco, Lauren; Cornell, David L; Phillips, Bradley

    2017-08-01

    Head injuries that cross midline structures of the brain are bihemispheric. Other terms have been used to describe such injuries, but bihemispheric is the most accurate and should be standard nomenclature. Bihemispheric head injuries are associated with greater mortality and morbidity than other penetrating traumatic brain injuries (TBIs). Currently, there is a tendency to manage severe gunshot wounds (GSWs) to the head nonoperatively, despite reports of improved outcome in military patients treated aggressively. Thus, controversy exists in the management of civilian TBI. PubMed was searched for query terms, and PRISMA guidelines were used. Studies were selected by relevance and inclusion of data regarding etiology, diagnosis, and management of bihemispheric TBI. Case reports, studies not in English, and records lacking information on mechanism or bihemispheric injuries were excluded. Thirteen studies were included and most contained level IV evidence. The mean mortality rate of all head GSWs was 62% in adults and 32% in children. Bihemispheric GSWs had greater mortality rates of 82% in adults and 60% in children. There was a larger proportion of self-inflicted injury in studies with greater rates of bihemispheric injuries. Bihemispheric injuries have greater mortality rates than other penetrating TBI. Violation of midline brain structures such as the diencephalon and mesencephalon, increased rate of self-inflicted wounds, and lack of a standard management algorithm may increase the lethality of these injuries. Although bihemispheric injuries historically have been considered nonsalvageable, an aggressive surgical approach has been shown to improve outcomes, particularly in the military population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Traumatic arteriovenous fistula due to an old gunshot injury: a victim from the Afghanistan War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabbagh, Ali; Mar'ashi, Ali S; Malek, Bahman

    2007-10-01

    A 75-year-old man referred to the outpatient vascular surgery clinic of Taleghani Hospital (Shaheed Beheshti University of Medicine, Tehran, Iran) due to a local nontender mass in his groin. In his history, it was discovered that the mass had appeared a few months after a gunshot injury. He had a history of shortness of breath with a New York Heart Association functional class fluctuating between II and III, but no history of smoking or addiction. In the physical examination, a 5-cm by 5-cm nonpulsatile mass with engorged vessels was found in the anterior portion of the left groin, which was not tender. An elective arterial angiography revealed an arteriovenous fistula joining the femoral artery to the femoral vein at the left groin. The cardiac assessments revealed cor pulmonale (with a restrictive pattern and diastolic dysfunction) and pulmonary hypertension due to primary pulmonary dysfunction. The patient was anesthetized with a balanced general anesthesia method, considering all relevant cardiac and respiratory monitoring methods and specially withholding drugs increasing pulmonary vascular bed pressure, suppressing the myocardium, or increasing the regurgitant flow across the mitral and, especially, the tricuspid valve. The moment the fistula was closed, a rapid fall in the patient's heart rate was noted, from approximately 60 beats per minute to above 40 beats per minute; this decreased heart rate continued up to a few hours after the surgery and did not accompany any significant hemodynamic derangement including the patient's blood pressure. The patient received his postoperative care in the ordinary surgical ward and was discharged a few days later.

  7. Copper Determination in Gunshot Residue by Cyclic Voltammetric and Inductive Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Hashim Nurul’Afiqah Hashimah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of gunshot residue (GSR is a crucial evidences for a forensic analyst in the fastest way. GSR analysis insists a suitable method provides a relatively simple, rapid and precise information on the spot at the crime scene. Therefore, the analysis of Cu(II in GSR using cyclic voltammetry (CV on screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE is a better choice compared to previous alternative methods such as Inductive Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES those required a long time for analysis. SPCE is specially designed to handle with microvolumes of sample such as GSR sample. It gives advantages for identification of copper in GSR on-site preliminary test to prevent the sample loss on the process to be analyzed in the laboratory. SPCE was swabbed directly on the shooter’s arm immediately after firing and acetate buffer was dropped on SPCE before CV analysis. For ICP-OES analysis, cotton that had been soaked in 0.5 M nitric acid was swabbed on the shooter’s arm immediately after firing and kept in a tightly closed sampling tube. Gold coated SPCE that had been through nanoparticles modification exhibits excellent performance on voltammograms. The calibration was linear from 1 to 50 ppm of copper, the limit of detection for copper was 0.3 ppm and a relative standard deviation was 6.1 %. The method was successfully applied to the determination of copper in GSR. The Cu determination on SPCE was compared and validated by ICP-OES method with 94 % accuracy.

  8. [Blunt trauma with bullet-proof vests. Skin lesions are no reliable predictor of injury severity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doll, D; Illert, B; Bohrer, S; Richter, C; Woelfl, C

    2009-04-01

    It is well known that so-called bullet-proof vests offer protection against a wide range of penetrating trauma, but their protection against blunt trauma is less well understood. Fast projectiles may result in hematomas and contusions behind the armour. We report a traffic accident involving a young soldier wearing a ballistic protection vest resulting in a right thoracoabdominal blunt trauma leading to a confined liver compression rupture. As nearly no skin marks were detectable, we point out that every emergency department surgeon should be very suspicious if a patient wore a ballistic vest at the time of the accident--there may be no skin marks despite severe intra-abdominal trauma. Our patient recovered following hypotensive ICU treatment, thrombocyte mobilization, and factor VIIa substitution.

  9. Targeting the latest hallmark of cancer: another attempt at 'magic bullet' drugs targeting cancers' metabolic phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuperlovic-Culf, M; Culf, A S; Touaibia, M; Lefort, N

    2012-10-01

    The metabolism of tumors is remarkably different from the metabolism of corresponding normal cells and tissues. Metabolic alterations are initiated by oncogenes and are required for malignant transformation, allowing cancer cells to resist some cell death signals while producing energy and fulfilling their biosynthetic needs with limiting resources. The distinct metabolic phenotype of cancers provides an interesting avenue for treatment, potentially with minimal side effects. As many cancers show similar metabolic characteristics, drugs targeting the cancer metabolic phenotype are, perhaps optimistically, expected to be 'magic bullet' treatments. Over the last few years there have been a number of potential drugs developed to specifically target cancer metabolism. Several of these drugs are currently in clinical and preclinical trials. This review outlines examples of drugs developed for different targets of significance to cancer metabolism, with a focus on small molecule leads, chemical biology and clinical results for these drugs.

  10. Numerical Simulations of Light Bullets, Using The Full Vector, Time Dependent, Nonlinear Maxwell Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goorjian, Peter M.; Silberberg, Yaron; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    This paper will present results in computational nonlinear optics. An algorithm will be described that solves the full vector nonlinear Maxwell's equations exactly without the approximations that we currently made. Present methods solve a reduced scalar wave equation, namely the nonlinear Schrodinger equation, and neglect the optical carrier. Also, results will be shown of calculations of 2-D electromagnetic nonlinear waves computed by directly integrating in time the nonlinear vector Maxwell's equations. The results will include simulations of 'light bullet' like pulses. Here diffraction and dispersion will be counteracted by nonlinear effects. The time integration efficiently implements linear and nonlinear convolutions for the electric polarization, and can take into account such quantum effects as Karr and Raman interactions. The present approach is robust and should permit modeling 2-D and 3-D optical soliton propagation, scattering, and switching directly from the full-vector Maxwell's equations.

  11. The drone ambulance [A-UAS]: golden bullet or just a blank?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Voorde, P; Gautama, S; Momont, A; Ionescu, C M; De Paepe, P; Fraeyman, N

    2017-07-01

    Defibrillation within the first minutes after sudden cardiac arrest can save many quality-adjusted life years. Yet, despite enormous investments, 'healthcare' is still unable to provide this for the majority of patients. Emergency Medical Services often have a too long mean response time and many issues surround Public Access Defibrillation programs. In this article we argument that AED-equipped drones could be the 'magic bullet'. They are easily deployed and fast, and have a relatively low operational cost. As such they could rapidly bring an AED next to the victim, irrespective of most geographical circumstances, give visual feedback and situational awareness to the EMS dispatcher and thus assist a bystander to provide better CPR. Although there are many real-life barriers to actual deployment, we argument these might all get solved once we have solved the described technological issues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. NuSTAR observations of the bullet cluster: constraints on inverse compton emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wik, Daniel R.; Hornstrup, Allan; Molendi, S.

    2014-01-01

    and have degree-scale fields of view, their backgrounds are both high and difficult to characterize. The associated uncertainties result in lower sensitivity to IC emission and a greater chance of false detection. In this work, we present 266 ks NuSTAR observations of the Bullet cluster, which is detected......-but not perfectly-described as an isothermal plasma with kT = 14.2 ± 0.2 keV. To slightly improve the fit, a second temperature component is added, which appears to account for lower temperature emission from the cool core, pushing the primary component to kT ~ 15.3 keV. We see no convincing need to invoke an IC...

  13. Oligo-branched peptides for tumor targeting: from magic bullets to magic forks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falciani, Chiara; Pini, Alessandro; Bracci, Luisa

    2009-02-01

    Selective targeting of tumor cells is the final goal of research and drug discovery for cancer diagnosis, imaging and therapy. After the invention of hybridoma technology, the concept of magic bullet was introduced into the field of oncology, referring to selective killing of tumor cells, by specific antibodies. More recently, small molecules and peptides have also been proposed as selective targeting agents. We analyze the state of the art of tumor-selective agents that are presently available and tested in clinical settings. A novel approach based on 'armed' oligo-branched peptides as tumor targeting agents, is discussed and compared with existing tumor-selective therapies mediated by antibodies, small molecules or monomeric peptides. Oligo-branched peptides could be novel drugs that combine the advantages of antibodies and small molecules.

  14. The influence of environmental conditions on lead transfer from spent gunshot to sediments and water: Other routes for Pb poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binkowski, Łukasz J

    2017-11-01

    Lead (Pb) from spent gunshot and fishing sinkers is recognized as the main source of Pb poisoning among waterfowl. It is also suspected to directly pollute water and sediments, but no appropriate, comprehensive evaluation of this issue has so far been carried out. An experiment on Pb pellets in microcosms (n = 160) with two sediment types (mud and gravel), three water pH values (4, 7 and 9) and two wind levels (wind and windless simulation) was therefore run. Substantial differences in Pb transfer (measured with ICP-OES) between sediment types and pH levels of water were observed. Simulated wind conditions were a significant factor only for some variables and circumstances. The strongest Pb deposit to water and sediments occurred in mud microcosms with water of pH value of 4. Median pellet erosion during the experiment differed little between sediment types. The experiment revealed that Pb transfer from spent gunshot to the environment occurs only in specific environmental conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparative outcome of bomb explosion injuries versus high-powered gunshot injuries of the upper extremity in a civilian setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luria, Shai; Rivkin, Gurion; Avitzour, Malka; Liebergall, Meir; Mintz, Yoav; Mosheiff, Ram

    2013-03-01

    Explosion injuries to the upper extremity have specific clinical characteristics that differ from injuries due to other mechanisms. To evaluate the upper extremity injury pattern of attacks on civilian targets, comparing bomb explosion injuries to gunshot injuries and their functional recovery using standard outcome measures. Of 157 patients admitted to the hospital between 2000 and 2004, 72 (46%) sustained explosion injuries and 85 (54%) gunshot injuries. The trauma registry files were reviewed and the patients completed the DASH Questionnaire (Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder and Hand) and SF-12 (Short Form-12) after a minimum period of 1 year. Of the 157 patients, 72 (46%) had blast injuries and 85 (54%) had shooting injuries. The blast casualties had higher Injury Severity Scores (47% vs. 22% with a score of > 16, P = 0.02) and higher percent of patients treated in intensive care units (47% vs. 28%, P = 0.02). Although the Abbreviated Injury Scale score of the upper extremity injury was similar in the two groups, the blast casualties were found to have more bilateral and complex soft tissue injuries and were treated surgically more often. No difference was found in the SF-12 or DASH scores between the groups at follow up. The casualties with upper extremity blast injuries were more severely injured and sustained more bilateral and complex soft tissue injuries to the upper extremity. However, the rating of the local injury to the isolated limb is similar, as was the subjective functional recovery.

  16. Evaluation of gunshot residue (GSR) evidence: Surveys of prevalence of GSR on clothing and frequency of residue types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannigan, Thomas J; McDermott, Sean D; Greaney, Claire M; O'Shaughnessy, John; O'Brien, Cliona M

    2015-12-01

    The evaluative approach is a logical approach to interpreting scientific findings in criminal cases, applying knowledge regarding the transfer, persistence and recovery of particulate material. The application of this approach to interpreting the finding of gunshot residue on the clothing of a suspect requires knowledge of background levels of GSR on clothing and on the frequency of different residue types in a particular environment. The cuffs of 100 upper outer garments submitted to a forensic laboratory in connection with non-firearms offences were sampled for gunshot residue. No 3-component lead/antimony/barium particles were found on 98 of them. Two 3-component particles were found on one of them and one 3-component particle was found on another. The frequency of occurrence of various particle types regarded as consistent with GSR was also explored. The findings show that, while 3-component particles were somewhat more likely to be encountered by chance on clothing than on hands, they are still relatively uncommon events. To investigate the frequency of occurrence of particular residue types, 100 discharged rounds of ammunition recovered at crime scenes were sampled and the types of residue present were determined. The results show that some residue types are significantly more common than others. Both sets of data will be of value in evaluating the significance of finding GSR on clothing of suspects in criminal cases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Gunshot residue and brakepads: Compositional and morphological considerations for forensic casework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, William; Lucas, Nick; Seyfang, Kelsey E; Kirkbride, K Paul; Popelka-Filcoff, Rachel S

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has raised the possibility that automotive brake pads can produce particles that are both compositionally and morphologically similar to gunshot residue (GSR). These studies, published in the early 2000s, coincided with the reduction or removal of unnecessary sources of lead from the automotive industry. The question therefore arises whether modern brake pads might still be a relevant source of 'GSR-like' particles. In the present study, a total of 75 brake pads taken from a range of cars currently on the road in Adelaide, South Australia, were collected from service centres. These pads were screened by XRF, and 12 were selected as representatives of the types of pads available on the market. Some pads generated XRF results for elements particularly relevant to GSR analysis. Signals for barium and antimony were commonly observed, with some pads showing results possibly attributable to lead. The surfaces of these 12 pads were directly sampled using aluminium stubs equipped with carbon-filled adhesive tape. Following this, they were screened using SEM-EDS and an automated GSR particle search in order to detect particles containing lead, barium or antimony. No particles containing all of these elements were found, although a large number of particles containing both barium and antimony were located. Other particulate samples were collected using stubs from persons or objects associated with brakes in order to examine whether particles similar to GSR might be present on them. No three-component particles were detected in samples collected from the wheel rims or the hands of those exposed to automobiles. From this study of common, contemporary cars, brake pads and brake pad technicians, it was determined that the possibility of obtaining three-component 'GSR-like' particles from brake pads appears to be much lower now than when this issue was first raised in the early 2000s. While some brake pads do produce particles containing barium and antimony

  18. Terminal Performance of Lead Free Pistol Bullets in Ballistic Gelatin Using Retarding Force Analysis from High Speed Video

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-04

    acceleration can be calculated. The change in kinetic energy can also be computed. In the video, temporary and permanent cavities are also visible. In this...notable that the video method above also allows the energy deposited as a funtion of penetration depth to be computed, when velocity is expressed...deposit as a function of penetration depth. The approach in this study employs the energy lost by the bullet in the first 15 cm of penetration , E15

  19. A model for beta skin dose estimation due to the use of a necklace with uranium depleted bullets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavalle Heibron, P.H.; Pérez Guerrero, J.S.; Oliveira, J.F. de

    2015-01-01

    Depleted uranium bullets were use as munitions during the Kuwait – Iraq war and the International Atomic Energy Agency sampling expert’s team found fragments in the environment when the war was over. Consequently, there is a possibility that members of the public, especially children, collects DU fragments and use it, for example, to make a necklace. This paper estimates the beta skin dose to a child that uses a necklace made with a depleted uranium bullet. The theoretical model for dose estimation is based on Loevinguer’s equation with a correction factor adjusted for the maximum beta energy in the range between 0.1 and 2.5 MeV calculated taking into account the International Atomic Energy Agency expected doses rates in air at one meter distance of a point source of 37 GBq, function of the maximum beta energy. The dose rate estimated by this work due to the child use of a necklace with one depleted uranium bullet of 300 g was in good agreement with other results founded in literature. (authors)

  20. Fixation Strength of Polyetheretherketone Sheath-and-Bullet Device for Soft Tissue Repair in the Foot and Ankle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Jay; Fischer, Brian; Nute, Michael; Rizza, Robert

    Tendon transfers are often performed in the foot and ankle. Recently, interference screws have been a popular choice owing to their ease of use and fixation strength. Considering the benefits, one disadvantage of such devices is laceration of the soft tissues by the implant threads during placement that potentially weaken the structural integrity of the grafts. A shape memory polyetheretherketone bullet-in-sheath tenodesis device uses circumferential compression, eliminating potential damage from thread rotation and maintaining the soft tissue orientation of the graft. The aim of this study was to determine the pullout strength and failure mode for this device in both a synthetic bone analogue and porcine bone models. Thirteen mature bovine extensor tendons were secured into ten 4.0 × 4.0 × 4.0-cm cubes of 15-pound per cubic foot solid rigid polyurethane foam bone analogue models or 3 porcine femoral condyles using the 5 × 20-mm polyetheretherketone soft tissue anchor. The bullet-in-sheath device demonstrated a mean pullout of 280.84 N in the bone analog models and 419.47 N in the porcine bone models. (p = .001). The bullet-in-sheath design preserved the integrity of the tendon graft, and none of the implants dislodged from their original position. Copyright © 2017 The American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Two bullets to the head and an early winter: fate permits Kutuzov to defeat Napoleon at Moscow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushchayev, Sergiy V; Belykh, Evgenii; Fishchenko, Yakiv; Salei, Aliaksei; Teytelboym, Oleg M; Shabaturov, Leonid; Cruse, Mark; Preul, Mark C

    2015-07-01

    General Mikhail Kutuzov (circa 1745-1813) brilliantly repelled Napoleon's invasion of Russia. Honored as a national hero and a savior of Russia, Kutuzov has a unique medical story. He was shot in the head twice while fighting the Turks (1774 and 1788) and survived the serious injuries seemingly against all odds. The first bullet "ran through the head from one temple to the other behind both eyes." The second bullet entered the cheek, destroyed upper teeth, traveled through the head, and exited the occiput. Massot, a French surgeon with the Russian army, wrote after treating Kutuzov's seemingly two mortal wounds: "It must be believed that fate appoints Kutuzov to something great, because he was still alive after two injuries, a death sentence by all the rules of medical science." Aided by Massot's expert surgical technique, Kutuzov lived to become intimately engaged in events that altered world history. His health did, however, suffer significant effects due to the bullet wounds. In 1812, as Napoleon's Grande Armée approached, Kutuzov realized he could not confront Napoleon and he strategically retreated from Moscow, submitting the French to the harsh winter and Russian cavalry. Napoleon's devastated army retreated to Paris, and Kutuzov became the personification of Russian spirit and character. Kutuzov's survival of two nearly mortal head wounds created the legends, additional mystery, and drama surrounding him, not the least astonishing of which was the skilled neurosurgical care that probably saved his life.

  2. Ferromagnetic behavior in linear charge-transfer complexes. Structural and magnetic characterization of octamethylferrocene salts: (Fe(C sub 5 Me sub 4 H) sub 2 ) sup sm bullet + (A) sup sm bullet minus (A = TCNE, TCNQ)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J.S.; Glatzhofer, D.T.; O' Hare, D.M. (E.I. de Pont de Nemours and Co., Inc., Wilmington, DE (USA)); Reiff, W.M. (Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (USA)); Chakraborty, A.; Epstein, A.J. (Ohio Sate Univ., Columbus (USA))

    1989-07-26

    The reaction of Fe{sup II}({eta}{sup 5}-C{sub 5}Me{sub 4}H){sub 2} with cyano acceptors A (A = TCNE (tetracyanoethylene), TCNQ (7,7,8,8-tetracyano-p-quanodimethane), n-C{sub 4}(CN){sub 6} (n-hexacyanobutadiene), C{sub 6}(CN){sub 6} (tris(dicyanomethylene)cyclopropane), DDQ (2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyanobenzoquinone), TCNQF{sub 4} (perfluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyano-p-quinodimethane) results in formation of 1:1 charge-transfer salts of (Fe{sup III})(C{sub 5}Me{sub 4}H){sub 2}){sup {sm bullet}+}(A){sup {sm bullet}{minus}} composition. The TCNE and TCNQ complexes have been structurally characterized. The high-temperature magnetic susceptibility for polycrystalline samples of these complexes can be fit by the Curie-Qeiss law, {chi} = C(T-{theta}){sup {minus}1}, with {theta} = +0.5 {plus minus} 2.2 K, and {mu}{sub eff} ranges from 2.71 to 3.97 {mu}{sub B}, suggesting that the polycrystalline samples measured had varying degrees of orientation. The 7.0 K EPR spectrum of the radical cation exhibits an axially symmetric powder pattern with g{sub {parallel}} = 4.11 and g{sub {perpendicular}} = 1.42, and the EPR parameters are essentially identical with those reported for ferrocenium and decamethylferrocenium. No EPR spectrum is observed at 78 K. Akin to the (Fe(C{sub 5}Me{sub 5}){sub 2}){sup {sm bullet}+} salts, these salts have {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectra consistent with complete charge transfer; however, unlike the case for the former complexes, quadrupole splittings of 0.30 and 0.220 mm/s are observed at 4.8 and 298 K, respectively. The absence of strong interionic magnetic coupling for the (Fe(C{sub 5}Me{sub 4}H){sub 2}){sup {sm bullet}+} salts contrasts with the behavior of the (Fe(C{sub 5}Me{sub 5}){sub 2}){sup {sm bullet}+} salts. 26 refs., 13 figs., 8 tabs.

  3. Bullet scintigraphy: can gamma camera be used for depleted uranium accident measurements?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spaic, R.; Markovic, S.; Pavlovic, S.; Radic, Z.; Pavlovic, R.; Ajdinovic, B.; Baskot, B.; Djurovic, B.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to see could gamma cameras be used for measurement of internal contamination with depleted uranium. Radioactive waste depleted uranium, which is by-product from the production of enriched fuel for nuclear rectors and weapons now, is used for manufacture bullets, which are used in Iraq, Republic of Srpska and Yugoslavia. In this paper is measured minimum detectable activity (MDA) of gamma cameras for depleted uranium, iodine and technetium. For detection of the depleted uranium are used low energy X-rays, energy of 100 keV with 20% windows width. About 40% of gamma emissions of the depleted uranium are in these limits. Measured MDA activities 50-100 Bq for depleted uranium, iodine and technetium are about then times more then same for WBC (5 Bq). Gamma cameras can be used for relatively measurement of depleted uranium activity, what can be used for absorbed dose estimation. Detection of low level internal contamination with depleted uranium can be done with gamma cameras. (authors)

  4. Scape goats, silver bullets, and other pitfalls in the path to sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Webster

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper draws from 'The Lathe of Heaven' by Ursula Le Guin to highlight some of the most likely pitfalls on the political road to a sustainable planet. Through the literary device of dreams that can change the world, Le Guin explores how the individual’s egoistic desire to save humanity can be twisted by the limitations of our psyche and our society, turning an already uncomfortable future Earth into a devastated planet. It is a stinging critique of answers handed down from above, and a call to action for those of us who just get by here below. Her story warns of the ancient “road to hell”, paved and trodden by would be saviors with the best intentions but also points to the license that public apathy provides to the powerful when the costs of environmental harm are borne by the powerless. These disconnects, combined with cycles of rationalization, silver bullet mentalities, and the tendency to scapegoat others for negative side effects, can all derail sustainability transitions. 'Lathe' provides an allegorical assessment of this process, but much more study is needed to fully understand and regulate the resulting governance treadmill.

  5. Simulation of white light generation and near light bullets using a novel numerical technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia, Haider

    2018-01-01

    An accurate and efficient simulation has been devised, employing a new numerical technique to simulate the derivative generalised non-linear Schrödinger equation in all three spatial dimensions and time. The simulation models all pertinent effects such as self-steepening and plasma for the non-linear propagation of ultrafast optical radiation in bulk material. Simulation results are compared to published experimental spectral data of an example ytterbium aluminum garnet system at 3.1 μm radiation and fits to within a factor of 5. The simulation shows that there is a stability point near the end of the 2 mm crystal where a quasi-light bullet (spatial temporal soliton) is present. Within this region, the pulse is collimated at a reduced diameter (factor of ∼2) and there exists a near temporal soliton at the spatial center. The temporal intensity within this stable region is compressed by a factor of ∼4 compared to the input. This study shows that the simulation highlights new physical phenomena based on the interplay of various linear, non-linear and plasma effects that go beyond the experiment and is thus integral to achieving accurate designs of white light generation systems for optical applications. An adaptive error reduction algorithm tailor made for this simulation will also be presented in appendix.

  6. Manufacturing immunity to disease in a test tube: the magic bullet realized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Richard A

    2006-12-11

    Although it took over one hundred years, Ehrlich's concept of the magic bullet is now a reality. Today, therapeutic antibodies are, arguably, the most important class of new drugs for the treatment of illnesses ranging from Alzheimer's disease to cancer. The emergence of therapeutic antibodies had to wait for advances in immunochemistry that allowed construction of antibodies in vitro. The centerpiece of the new technology is the combinatorial antibody library, which essentially allows one to synthesize an artificial immune system with a diversity that exceeds that of the natural repertoire. The construction of such libraries was perceived to be difficult because, if the natural immune system was to be used as the starting material, construction of the libraries would entail protocols that are the opposite of usual cloning. In gene cloning one starts with complexity and reduces it to a singularity. In the generation of diversity by construction of combinatorial antibody libraries, one starts with a collection of clones, randomly expands their complexity, and then returns them to recoverable singularities. The methods developed to accomplish this seemingly formidable task now allow construction of antibodies in a test tube to any antigen. These synthetic antibodies may be qualitatively and quantitatively superior to those of nature.

  7. Island Latissimus Dorsi Muscle Flap and a Perforator Flap in Repairing Post-Gunshot Thoracic Spine CSF Fistula: Case Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nangole F. Wanjala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Persistent posttraumatic CSF fluid leakage may present a challenge to manage. Failure to address the leakage may result in complications such as meningitis, septicemia, radiculopathy, muscle weakness, and back pains. While the majority of the leakages may be managed conservatively, large dura defects as a result of gunshot wounds or motor vehicle accidents are best managed by surgical interventions. This may range from primary closure of the defect to fascial grafts, adhesive glues, and flaps. We present our experience with the use of flaps in a patient who had sustained such wounds in the thoracic spine. An island latissimus dorsal flap and a perforator fasciocutaneous flap were used to close the defect. Postoperatively the patient recovered well and the wounds healed without any complications.

  8. Impact-disrupted gunshot residue: A sub-micron analysis using a novel collection protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Spathis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of gunshot residue (GSR has played an integral role within the legal system in relation to shooting cases. With a characteristic elemental composition of lead, antimony, barium, and a typically discriminative spheroidal morphology, the presence and distribution of GSR can aid in firearm investigations. In this experiment, three shots of low velocity rim-fire ammunition were fired over polished silicon collection substrates placed at six intervals over a 100 cm range. The samples were analysed using a Field Emission Gun Scanning Electron Microscope (FEG-SEM in conjunction with an X-flash Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX detector, allowing for GSR particle analyses of composition and structure at the sub-micron level. The results of this experiment indicate that although classic spheroidal particles are present consistently throughout the entire range of samples their sizes vary significantly, and at certain distances from the firearm particles with an irregular morphology were discerned, forming “impact-disrupted” GSR particles, henceforth colloquially referred to as “splats”. Upon further analysis, trends with regards to the formation of these splat particles were distinguished. An increase in splat frequency was observed starting at 10 cm from the firearm, with 147 mm−2 splat density, reaching a maximal flux at 40 cm (451 mm−2, followed by a gradual decrease to the maximum range sampled. Moreover, the structural morphology of the splats changes throughout the sampling range. At the distances closest to the firearm, molten-looking particles were formed, demonstrating the metallic residues were in a liquid state when their flight path was disrupted. However, at increased distances-primarily where the discharge plume was at maximum dispersion and moving away from the firearm, the residues have had time to cool in-fight resulting in semi-congealed and solid particles that subsequently disrupted upon impact, forming more

  9. Gunshot wounds to the face: level I urban trauma center: a 10-year level I urban trauma center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Clifford; Boyd, J Brian; Dickenson, Brian; Putnam, Brant

    2012-04-01

    Gunshot wounds (GSWs) to the face are an infrequent occurrence outside of a war zone. However, when they occur, they constitute a significant reconstructive challenge. We present our 10-year experience at an urban level I trauma center to define the patterns of injury, assess the morbidity and mortality, and estimate the cost to the health care system. A retrospective review was performed on all patients admitted to Harbor-UCLA Medical Center with GSWs to the head and neck region between January 1997 and January 2007. Those who had sustained GSWs to the face requiring operative intervention were closely reviewed. Between 1997 and 2007, a total of 702 patients were admitted to the Harbor UCLA Emergency Department having sustained GSWs to the head and neck region, of which 501 patients survived. Of the survivors, 28 patients (26 male, 2 female) sustained GSWs to their face requiring operative intervention. The mean age of these patients was 28 (±8.3) years. They generally presented within a few hours of the injury, but 1 individual arrived over 24 hours later. Low-velocity single gunshots (from handguns) were predominantly involved, with facial fractures occurring in all cases. Fractures were of a localized shattering type without the major displacement of bony complexes seen in motor vehicle accidents. Most required wound debridement and fracture fixation. A few patients (14.2%) underwent free tissue transfer for reconstruction (3 fibular flaps, 1 TRAM). Tracheostomy was performed in 35.7% of patients. Mean length of hospital stay was 8.3 (±7.1) days, with 50% of cases requiring admission to the intensive care unit. Mean length of intensive care unit stay was 5.2 (±5.7) days. The average cost per patient exceeded $100,000.

  10. Direction, site and the muzzle target distance of bullet in the head and neck at close range as an indication of suicide or homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwanjutha, T

    1988-05-01

    Direction, site and muzzle target distance can indicate suicide or homicide. This conclusion can be drawn from autopsies of 57 cases of suicide and 68 cases of homicide by handgun fired at close range to the head and neck together with going to the crimescene in some cases. This study was carried out in Bangkok during the period from January 1983 to January 1986. In order to determine whether it was suicide or homicide, the path of the bullet, the site, the muzzle target distance must be considered. The angle of the bullet would be either elevated (from below upward), horizontal or an angle of depression (from above downward). For suicide, the direction of the bullet should be at an angle of elevation in the majority of cases. The position of the handgun in relation to the head in suicide was most often in tight contact and near contact. For homicide, the direction of the bullet should be horizontal in most cases. The bullet was at close range in the majority of the cases. There are 8 common sites for suicide and homicide and 10 different sites in the case of homicide which are at neck, left cheek, left aural region, lip, left occipital area orbit, chin, left eyebrow, submental and nose.

  11. The virtual double-slit experiment to High School level (Part I: behavior classical analysis (with bullets and waves and development of computational software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Cardoso Ferreira

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7941.2016v33n2p697   This paper analyses the double-slit virtual experiment and it composed of two parts: The part I covers the classical theory (with bullets and waves and the part II covers the interference with electrons or photons. Firstly, we have analyzed the same experiment that shoots a stream of bullets. In front of the gun we have a wall that has in it two holes just big enough to let a bullet through. Beyond the wall is a backstop (say a thick wall of wood which will absorb the bullets when they hit it. In this case, the probabilities just add together. The effect with both holes open is the sum of effects with each holes open alone. We have shown it for high school level. Next, we have analyzed a same experiment with water waves. The intensity observed when both holes are open is certainly not the sum of the intensity of the wave from hole 1 (which we find by measuring when hole 2 is blocked off and the intensity of the wave form hole 2 (seen when hole 1 is blocked. Finally, we have shown a software developed by students about double-slit experiment with bullets.

  12. Abordagem terapêutica dos projéteis retidos no coração Management of bullets lodged in the heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enoch Brandão de Souza Meira

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Paciente do sexo masculino, 29 anos, apresentando ferimento por arma de fogo, com projétil alojado no coração e que chegou ao hospital hemodinamicamente estável. O diagnóstico, evidenciando a localização da bala, foi feito pelo ecocardiograma transesofágico (ET. Após 18 dias, foi submetido à cirurgia eletiva, sem circulação extracorpórea (CEC, para retirada do projétil encravado em parede anterior do ventrículo direito (VD e septo interventricular (SIV, com sucesso. Os autores discutem a conduta terapêutica para os projéteis retidos no coração, com base na literatura consultada, concluindo que a cirurgia para remoção dos mesmos pode ser indicada em pacientes assintomáticos individualizados.A 29-year-old man presented with a bullet lodged in his heart. He arrived at the hospital in a hemodynamically stable condition. The transesophageal echocardiogram performed for diagnosis revealed the location of the bullet. After 18 days, he underwent an elective off-pump cardiac surgery fto remove the bullet from the right ventricle wall and interventricular septum. The postoperative evolution was uneventful. The authors discuss the therapeutic options for removing bullets from thr heart, based on published data. They concluded that some asymptomatic patients with a bullet embedded in the heart should undergo surgery.

  13. SPECTROSCOPIC CONFIRMATION OF A z = 6.740 GALAXY BEHIND THE BULLET CLUSTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradac, Marusa; Hall, Nicholas [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Vanzella, Eros [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, via G.B. Tiepolo 11, 34131 Trieste (Italy); Treu, Tommaso [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Fontana, Adriano [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via Frascati 33, 00040 Monteporzio (Italy); Gonzalez, Anthony H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Clowe, Douglas [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ohio University, Clippinger Labs 251B, Athens, OH 45701 (United States); Zaritsky, Dennis; Clement, Benjamin [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Stiavelli, Massimo, E-mail: marusa@physics.ucdavis.edu [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2012-08-10

    We present the first results of our spectroscopic follow-up of 6.5 < z < 10 candidate galaxies behind clusters of galaxies. We report the spectroscopic confirmation of an intrinsically faint Lyman break galaxy (LBG) identified as a z{sub 850LP}-band dropout behind the Bullet Cluster. We detect an emission line at {lambda} = 9412 A at >5{sigma} significance using a 16 hr long exposure with FORS2 VLT. Based on the absence of flux in bluer broadband filters, the blue color of the source, and the absence of additional lines, we identify the line as Ly{alpha} at z = 6.740 {+-} 0.003. The integrated line flux is f = (0.7 {+-} 0.1 {+-} 0.3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -17} erg{sup -1} s{sup -1} cm{sup -2} (the uncertainties are due to random and flux calibration errors, respectively) making it the faintest Ly{alpha} flux detected at these redshifts. Given the magnification of {mu} = 3.0 {+-} 0.2 the intrinsic (corrected for lensing) flux is f {sup int} = (0.23 {+-} 0.03 {+-} 0.10 {+-} 0.02) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -17} erg{sup -1} s{sup -1} cm{sup -2} (additional uncertainty due to magnification), which is {approx}2-3 times fainter than other such measurements in z {approx} 7 galaxies. The intrinsic H{sub 160W}-band magnitude of the object is m{sup int}{sub H{sub 1{sub 6{sub 0{sub W}}}}}=27.57{+-}0.17, corresponding to 0.5 L* for LBGs at these redshifts. The galaxy is one of the two sub-L* LBG galaxies spectroscopically confirmed at these high redshifts (the other is also a lensed z = 7.045 galaxy), making it a valuable probe for the neutral hydrogen fraction in the early universe.

  14. On non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma jets and plasma bullet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xinpei

    2012-10-01

    Because of the enhanced plasma chemistry, atmospheric pressure nonequilibrium plasmas (APNPs) have been widely studied for several emerging applications such as biomedical applications. For the biomedical applications, plasma jet devices, which generate plasma in open space (surrounding air) rather than in confined discharge gaps only, have lots of advantages over the traditional dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) devices. For example, it can be used for root canal disinfection, which can't be realized by the traditional plasma device. On the other hand, currently, the working gases of most of the plasma jet devices are noble gases or the mixtures of the noble gases with small amount of O2, or air. If ambient air is used as the working gas, several serious difficulties are encountered in the plasma generation process. Amongst these are high gas temperatures and disrupting instabilities. In this presentation, firstly, a brief review of the different cold plasma jets developed to date is presented. Secondly, several different plasma jet devices developed in our lab are reported. The effects of various parameters on the plasma jets are discussed. Finally, one of the most interesting phenomena of APNP-Js, the plasma bullet is discussed and its behavior is described. References: [1] X. Lu, M. Laroussi, V. Puech, Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 21, 034005 (2012); [2] Y. Xian, X. Lu, S. Wu, P. Chu, and Y. Pan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 123702 (2012); [3] X. Pei, X. Lu, J. Liu, D. Liu, Y. Yang, K. Ostrikov, P. Chu, and Y. Pan, J. Phys. D 45, 165205 (2012).

  15. Another shock for the Bullet cluster, and the source of seed electrons for radio relics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimwell, Timothy W.; Markevitch, Maxim; Brown, Shea; Feretti, Luigina; Gaensler, B. M.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Lage, Craig; Srinivasan, Raghav

    2015-05-01

    With Australia Telescope Compact Array observations, we detect a highly elongated Mpc-scale diffuse radio source on the eastern periphery of the Bullet cluster 1E 0657-55.8, which we argue has the positional, spectral and polarimetric characteristics of a radio relic. This powerful relic (2.3 ± 0.1 × 1025 W Hz-1) consists of a bright northern bulb and a faint linear tail. The bulb emits 94 per cent of the observed radio flux and has the highest surface brightness of any known relic. Exactly coincident with the linear tail, we find a sharp X-ray surface brightness edge in the deep Chandra image of the cluster - a signature of a shock front in the hot intracluster medium (ICM), located on the opposite side of the cluster to the famous bow shock. This new example of an X-ray shock coincident with a relic further supports the hypothesis that shocks in the outer regions of clusters can form relics via diffusive shock (re-)acceleration. Intriguingly, our new relic suggests that seed electrons for reacceleration are coming from a local remnant of a radio galaxy, which we are lucky to catch before its complete disruption. If this scenario, in which a relic forms when a shock crosses a well-defined region of the ICM polluted with aged relativistic plasma - as opposed to the usual assumption that seeds are uniformly mixed in the ICM - is also the case for other relics, this may explain a number of peculiar properties of peripheral relics.

  16. Direct measuring of single-cycle mid-IR light bullets path length in LiF by the laser coloration method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chekalin Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A colour-centre structure formed in a LiF crystal under filamentation of a femtosecond mid-IR laser pulse with a power slightly exceeding the critical power for self-focusing has been experimentally and theoretically investigated. A single-cycle light bullet was recorded for the first time by observation of strictly periodic oscillations for the density of the color centers induced in an isotropic LiF crystal under filamentation of a laser beam with a wavelength tuned in the range from 2600 to 3900 nm, which is due to the periodic change in the light field amplitude in the light bullet formed under filamentation under propagation in dispersive medium. The light bullet path length was not more than one millimeter.

  17. Risk factors and acute in-hospital costs for infected pressure ulcers among gunshot-spinal cord injury victims in southeastern Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Teena; Marchaim, Dror; Awali, Reda A; Levine, Miriam; Sathyaprakash, Smitha; Chalana, Indu K; Ahmed, Farah; Martin, Emily T; Sieggreen, Mary; Sobel, Jack D; Kaye, Keith S

    2016-03-01

    Management of pressure ulcers (PrUs) in patients with gunshot-spinal cord injuries (SCIs) presents unique medical and economic challenges for practitioners. A retrospective chart review was conducted at 3 acute care hospitals in metropolitan Detroit for patients admitted with PrUs due to gunshot-SCIs between January 2004 and December 2008. Multivariate analysis using logistic regression was conducted to choose for the independent predictors of infected PrUs. Mean adjusted in-hospital costs per patient and per hospitalization were calculated and compared between infected and noninfected PrUs. The study cohort included 201 gunshot-SCI patients with PrUs contributing to 395 admissions, including readmissions, between 2004 and 2008. Seventy-six patients (38%) had infected PrUs at time of the index admission. Independent predictors of infected PrUs on index admission included Charlson Comorbidity Index ≥2 (odds ratio, 2.18, P = .026) and stage III/IV PrU (odds ratio, 4.82; P cost of $19,969 ± $6639 per patient. The mean adjusted cost per hospitalization for patients with infected PrUs was significantly higher than that for patients with noninfected PrUs ($16,735 ± $8310 vs $12,356 ± $7007; P costs. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Test and Numerical Analysis for Penetration Residual Velocity of Bullet Considering Failure Strain Uncertainty of Composite Plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Myungseok; Lee, Minhyung [Sejong Univ., Sejong (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    The ballistic performance data of composite materials is distributed due to material inhomogeneity. In this paper, the uncertainty in residual velocity is obtained experimentally, and a method of predicting it is established numerically for the high-speed impact of a bullet into laminated composites. First, the failure strain distribution was obtained by conducting a tensile test using 10 specimens. Next, a ballistic impact test was carried out for the impact of a fragment-simulating projectile (FSP) bullet with 4ply ([0/90]s) and 8ply ([0/90/0/90]s) glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) plates. Eighteen shots were made at the same impact velocity and the residual velocities were obtained. Finally, simulations were conducted to predict the residual velocities by using the failure strain distributions that were obtained from the tensile test. For this simulation, two impact velocities were chosen at 411.7m/s (4ply) and 592.5m/s (8ply). The simulation results show that the predicted residual velocities are in close agreement with test results. Additionally, the modeling of a composite plate with layered solid elements requires less calculation time than modeling with solid elements.

  19. Detection of lead nanoparticles in game meat by single particle ICP-MS following use of lead-containing bullets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollander, Barbro; Widemo, Fredrik; Ågren, Erik; Larsen, Erik H; Loeschner, Katrin

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated whether game meat may contain nanoparticles of lead from ammunition. Lead nanoparticles in the range 40 to 750 nm were detected by ICP-MS in single particle mode in game shot with lead-containing bullets. The median diameter of the detected nanoparticles was around 60 nm. The particle mass concentration ranged from 290 to 340 ng/g meat and the particle number concentrations from 27 to 50 million particles/g meat. The size limit of detection strongly depended on the level of dissolved lead and was in the range of 40 to 80 nm. In game meat sampled more than 10 cm away from the wound channel, no lead particles with a diameter larger than 40 nm were detected. In addition to dissolved lead in meat that originated from particulates, the presence of lead nano particles in game meat represents a hitherto unattended source of lead with a largely unknown toxicological impact to humans. Graphical Abstract Detection of lead nanoparticles in game meat by single particle ICP-MS following use of leadcontaining bullets.

  20. Self-action of Bessel wave packets in a system of coupled light guides and formation of light bullets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balakin, A. A., E-mail: balakin.alexey@yandex.ru; Mironov, V. A.; Skobelev, S. A., E-mail: sk.sa1981@gmail.com [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Applied Physics (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-15

    The self-action of two-dimensional and three-dimensional Bessel wave packets in a system of coupled light guides is considered using the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The features of the self-action of such wave fields are related to their initial strong spatial inhomogeneity. The numerical simulation shows that for the field amplitude exceeding a critical value, the development of an instability typical of a medium with the cubic nonlinearity is observed. Various regimes are studied: the self-channeling of a wave beam in one light guide at powers not strongly exceeding a critical value, the formation of the “kaleidoscopic” picture of a wave packet during the propagation of higher-power radiation along a stratified medium, the formation of light bullets during competition between self-focusing and modulation instabilities in the case of three-dimensional wave packets, etc. In the problem of laser pulse shortening, the situation is considered when the wave-field stratification in the transverse direction dominates. This process is accompanied by the self-compression of laser pulses in well enough separated light guides. The efficiency of conversion of the initial Bessel field distribution to two flying parallel light bullets is about 50%.

  1. Lead arthritis and lead poisoning following bullet wounds: a clinicopathologic, ultrastructural, and microanalytic study of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, R E; Swedo, J; Cartwright, J; Viegas, S; Custer, E M

    1988-02-01

    Bullet wounds causing lead synovitis in the wrist and knee are reported in two patients, one of whom also developed clinical plumbism. Very high lead levels in the synovial fluid are believed to be responsible for toxicity changes that occurred in the synovium and bone. Ultrastructurally, these alterations included the formation of nuclear lead inclusions, dilation, and degranulation of the rough endoplasmic reticulum and deposition of crystalline precipitates in the matrix of the mitochondria in macrophages, osteoclasts, and synoviocytes, as well as the development of cytoplasmic lead inclusions in osteoclasts. Energy-dispersive x-ray elemental analysis (EDXEA) indicated that the nuclear inclusions contained only lead, whereas precipitates within the mitochondria and elsewhere in the cytoplasm were composed of complexes containing lead, calcium, and phosphorus. Similarly constituted extracellular complexes were incorporated into newly formed trabecular bone laid down as a physiologic response to the bullet lodged within the wrist bones. This bone subsequently exhibited defects in bone resorption, which were characterized by depressed osteoclastic function and a unique lesion termed incomplete osteocytic osteolysis. The genesis of this latter lesion is uncertain. The sequestration of the partially degraded bone fragments containing lead complexes into the marrow and eventually into the joint spaces and synovium permitted the recycling of bone lead, and this may have played an important role in inducing clinical plumbism in one of the patients in this study.

  2. Combination of natural fiber Boehmeria nivea (ramie) with matrix epoxide for bullet proof vest body armor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anggoro, Didi Dwi, E-mail: anggorophd@gmail.com; Kristiana, Nunung, E-mail: nuna.c631@gmail.com [Master of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Diponegoro University Jln. Prof. Sudharto, Tembalang, Semarang, 50239 (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    Ballistic protection equipment, such as a bulletproof vest, is a soldier’s most important means of preserving life and survivability in extreme combat conditions. The bulletproof vests are designed to protect the user’s chest from injury without disturbing the ability to perform his duties. Aromatic polyamide or aramid fibers known under the trade name Kevlar, Trawon and so is synthetic fiber materials commonly used in the manufacture of bulletproof vests. This synthetic fibers have high tensile strength and ductility. Kevlar is expensive and imported material. In this study, will introduce local natural raw materials, ramie fiber (Boehmeria nivea) which is cheaper and environmentally friendly. It has enough tenacity and tensile strength as a bulletproof vest. This experiment uses two panels, there are Panel A as front surface of Panel B. Panel A is a combination of ramie and epoxide matrix, while panel B is only ramie. From several variations of experimental combinations between Panel A and Panel B, optimal combination obtained with 16 layers of panel A and 31-34 layers of panel B which is able to protect againts cal. 7.65 mm × 17 mm (.32 ACP) bullet fired through pistol .32 Pindad from a distance of 20 meters. Panel with a size of 20 cm × 20 cm has a total thickness between 12,922 to13,745 mm and a total weight between 506,26 to 520,926gram. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations indicated that the porosity and surface area of the ramie fiber is smooth, fiber surfaces showed topography with micropores. SEM also showed well-arranged structure of fibers bonding. Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis indicated 100 % carbon contents in ramie fiber. Test result indicates that panel from composite ramie-epoxide can reach the level 1of International Standard of NIJ - 010104. Compared to panel from polyester fiber, the panel from composite ramie-epoxide (0,50-0,52 kg) is lighter weight than panel polyester fiber (1,642 kg)

  3. Spectroscopic Confirmation of a z = 6.740 Galaxy behind the Bullet Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradač, Maruša; Vanzella, Eros; Hall, Nicholas; Treu, Tommaso; Fontana, Adriano; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Clowe, Douglas; Zaritsky, Dennis; Stiavelli, Massimo; Clément, Benjamin

    2012-08-01

    We present the first results of our spectroscopic follow-up of 6.5 dropout behind the Bullet Cluster. We detect an emission line at λ = 9412 Å at >5σ significance using a 16 hr long exposure with FORS2 VLT. Based on the absence of flux in bluer broadband filters, the blue color of the source, and the absence of additional lines, we identify the line as Lyα at z = 6.740 ± 0.003. The integrated line flux is f = (0.7 ± 0.1 ± 0.3) × 10-17 erg-1 s-1 cm-2 (the uncertainties are due to random and flux calibration errors, respectively) making it the faintest Lyα flux detected at these redshifts. Given the magnification of μ = 3.0 ± 0.2 the intrinsic (corrected for lensing) flux is f int = (0.23 ± 0.03 ± 0.10 ± 0.02) × 10-17 erg-1 s-1 cm-2 (additional uncertainty due to magnification), which is ~2-3 times fainter than other such measurements in z ~ 7 galaxies. The intrinsic H 160W-band magnitude of the object is m^int_{H_160W}=27.57+/- 0.17, corresponding to 0.5 L* for LBGs at these redshifts. The galaxy is one of the two sub-L* LBG galaxies spectroscopically confirmed at these high redshifts (the other is also a lensed z = 7.045 galaxy), making it a valuable probe for the neutral hydrogen fraction in the early universe. Observations were carried out using the Very Large Telescope at the ESO Paranal Observatory under Program ID 088.A-0542. Also based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555 and NNX08AD79G. These observations are associated with programs GO10200, GO10863, and GO11099.

  4. Combination of natural fiber Boehmeria nivea (ramie) with matrix epoxide for bullet proof vest body armor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anggoro, Didi Dwi; Kristiana, Nunung

    2015-01-01

    Ballistic protection equipment, such as a bulletproof vest, is a soldier’s most important means of preserving life and survivability in extreme combat conditions. The bulletproof vests are designed to protect the user’s chest from injury without disturbing the ability to perform his duties. Aromatic polyamide or aramid fibers known under the trade name Kevlar, Trawon and so is synthetic fiber materials commonly used in the manufacture of bulletproof vests. This synthetic fibers have high tensile strength and ductility. Kevlar is expensive and imported material. In this study, will introduce local natural raw materials, ramie fiber (Boehmeria nivea) which is cheaper and environmentally friendly. It has enough tenacity and tensile strength as a bulletproof vest. This experiment uses two panels, there are Panel A as front surface of Panel B. Panel A is a combination of ramie and epoxide matrix, while panel B is only ramie. From several variations of experimental combinations between Panel A and Panel B, optimal combination obtained with 16 layers of panel A and 31-34 layers of panel B which is able to protect againts cal. 7.65 mm × 17 mm (.32 ACP) bullet fired through pistol .32 Pindad from a distance of 20 meters. Panel with a size of 20 cm × 20 cm has a total thickness between 12,922 to13,745 mm and a total weight between 506,26 to 520,926gram. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations indicated that the porosity and surface area of the ramie fiber is smooth, fiber surfaces showed topography with micropores. SEM also showed well-arranged structure of fibers bonding. Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis indicated 100 % carbon contents in ramie fiber. Test result indicates that panel from composite ramie-epoxide can reach the level 1of International Standard of NIJ - 010104. Compared to panel from polyester fiber, the panel from composite ramie-epoxide (0,50-0,52 kg) is lighter weight than panel polyester fiber (1,642 kg)

  5. Alternatives to currently used antimalarial drugs: in search of a magic bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagavathula, Akshaya Srikanth; Elnour, Asim Ahmed; Shehab, Abdulla

    2016-11-04

    bullet against malaria. Future studies should focus on effective single-dose molecules that can act against all stages of malaria in order to prevent transmission. Newer medicines have also raised concerns in terms of efficacy and safety. Overall, more evidence is needed to effectively reduce the current malaria burden. Treatment strategies that target the blood stage with transmission-blocking properties are needed to prevent future drug resistance.

  6. Evaluation of Total Nitrite Pattern Visualization as an Improved Method for Gunshot Residue Detection and its Application to Casework Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Jason; Upton, Colin; Springer, Elyah

    2018-04-23

    Visualization of nitrite residues is essential in gunshot distance determination. Current protocols for the detection of nitrites include, among other tests, the Modified Griess Test (MGT). This method is limited as nitrite residues are unstable in the environment and limited to partially burned gunpowder. Previous research demonstrated the ability of alkaline hydrolysis to convert nitrates to nitrites, allowing visualization of unburned gunpowder particles using the MGT. This is referred to as Total Nitrite Pattern Visualization (TNV). TNV techniques were modified and a study conducted to streamline the procedure outlined in the literature to maximize the efficacy of the TNV in casework, while reducing the required time from 1 h to 5 min, and enhancing effectiveness on blood-soiled samples. The TNV method was found to provide significant improvement in the ability to detect significant nitrite residues, without sacrificing efficiency, that would allow for the determination of the muzzle-to-target distance. © 2018 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  7. An alarming presentation of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease following a self-inflicted gunshot wound to the head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnish, Carissa; Gross, Brian; Rittenhouse, Katelyn; Bupp, Katherine; Vellucci, Ashley; Anderson, Jeffrey; Riley, Deborah; Rogers, Frederick B

    2015-05-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE), also known as prion diseases, are characterized by rapid and fatal neurological decline. They not only detrimentally affect the patient, but also present additional challenges to healthcare systems due to the infectivity of the tissues and the difficulty of inactivating the prion. The most common TSE is Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), which can occur after familial, spontaneous or acquired transmission. TSEs received more attention after the development of variant CJD (vCJD), also known as Mad Cow Disease, in the UK during the mid-1990s. Unlike familial or spontaneous CJD, this variant was connected to consumption of cattle contaminated with the prion disease, bovine spongiform encephalopathy.This development increased interest in the etiology of CJD and other TSEs and the risk it presents as an infectious disease. The following details the case of a 59-year-old male infected with CJD presented to our level II trauma center for treatment following a self-inflicted gunshot wound to the head. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Biographical Sources in the Sciences--Life, Earth and Physical Sciences (1989-2006). LC Science Tracer Bullet. TB 06-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitag, Ruth, Comp.; Bradley, Michelle Cadoree, Comp.

    2006-01-01

    This guide offers a systematic approach to the wide variety of published biographical information on men and women of science in the life, earth and physical sciences, primarily from 1989 to 2006, and complements Library of Congress Science Tracer Bullet "TB88-3" ("Biographical Sources in the Sciences," compiled 1988 [ED306074]) and "TB06-7"…

  9. Focusing Cosmic Telescopes: Exploring Redshift z ~ 5-6 Galaxies with the Bullet Cluster 1E0657 - 56

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradač, Maruša; Treu, Tommaso; Applegate, Douglas; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Clowe, Douglas; Forman, William; Jones, Christine; Marshall, Phil; Schneider, Peter; Zaritsky, Dennis

    2009-12-01

    The gravitational potential of clusters of galaxies acts as a cosmic telescope allowing us to find and study galaxies at fainter limits than otherwise possible and thus probe closer to the epoch of formation of the first galaxies. We use the Bullet cluster 1E0657 - 56 (z = 0.296) as a case study, because its high mass and merging configuration makes it one of the most efficient cosmic telescopes we know. We develop a new algorithm to reconstruct the gravitational potential of the Bullet cluster based on a non-uniform adaptive grid, combining strong and weak gravitational lensing data derived from deep Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys F606W-F775W-F850LP and ground-based imaging. We exploit this improved mass map to study z ~ 5-6 Lyman break galaxies (LBGs), which we detect as dropouts. One of the LBGs is multiply imaged, providing a geometric confirmation of its high redshift, and is used to further improve our mass model. We quantify the uncertainties in the magnification map reconstruction in the intrinsic source luminosity, and in the volume surveyed, and show that they are negligible compared to sample variance when determining the luminosity function of high-redshift galaxies. With shallower and comparable magnitude limits to Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF) and Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS), the Bullet cluster observations, after correcting for magnification, probe deeper into the luminosity function of the high-redshift galaxies than GOODS and only slightly shallower than HUDF. We conclude that accurately focused cosmic telescopes are the most efficient way to sample the bright end of the luminosity function of high-redshift galaxies and—in case they are multiply imaged—confirm their redshifts. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5

  10. Implications for wildlife and humans of dietary exposure to lead from fragments of lead rifle bullets in deer shot in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knott, Jeff; Gilbert, Jo; Hoccom, David G.; Green, Rhys E.

    2010-01-01

    Lead poisoning caused by ingested spent lead shotgun pellets has long been known to be a cause of unnecessary mortality in waterfowl and has led to legislation limiting its use in many countries. Recent evidence has shown that the problem extends to terrestrial ecosystems and to fragmented rifle bullets eaten by scavengers as well as shotgun pellets. Dietary exposure of human consumers to lead from spent ammunition in game meat also poses potential risks to human health. To assess the degree of fragmentation of lead bullets used to kill wild deer, twelve deer were shot in the thorax using copper-jacketed lead-cored bullets, as part of planned deer management operations. The thoracic region of the eviscerated carcasses and the abdominal viscera of each deer were X-rayed. An average of 356 metal fragments was visible on radiographs of the carcass and 180 fragments in the viscera. The weight of fragments was estimated by reference to an X-rayed scale of fragments of known weight. The average total weight of metal fragments, likely to be mostly lead, was estimated to be 1.2 g for the carcass and 0.2 g for the viscera. The total estimated weight of fragments in the entire carcass was estimated to be 17% of the weight of the bullet. Most fragments were small in size, with those in the viscera being smaller than those in the carcass. Metal fragments in the viscera were sufficiently small that at least 80% of the metallic bullet-derived lead in the viscera would be expected to be ingested by scavenging birds, such as buzzards and eagles, which feed on them.

  11. Implications for wildlife and humans of dietary exposure to lead from fragments of lead rifle bullets in deer shot in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knott, Jeff, E-mail: jeff.knott@rspb.org.uk [Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, The Lodge, Sandy, Bedfordshire SG19 2DL (United Kingdom); Gilbert, Jo; Hoccom, David G. [Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, The Lodge, Sandy, Bedfordshire SG19 2DL (United Kingdom); Green, Rhys E. [Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, The Lodge, Sandy, Bedfordshire SG19 2DL (United Kingdom); Conservation Science Group, Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EJ (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-01

    Lead poisoning caused by ingested spent lead shotgun pellets has long been known to be a cause of unnecessary mortality in waterfowl and has led to legislation limiting its use in many countries. Recent evidence has shown that the problem extends to terrestrial ecosystems and to fragmented rifle bullets eaten by scavengers as well as shotgun pellets. Dietary exposure of human consumers to lead from spent ammunition in game meat also poses potential risks to human health. To assess the degree of fragmentation of lead bullets used to kill wild deer, twelve deer were shot in the thorax using copper-jacketed lead-cored bullets, as part of planned deer management operations. The thoracic region of the eviscerated carcasses and the abdominal viscera of each deer were X-rayed. An average of 356 metal fragments was visible on radiographs of the carcass and 180 fragments in the viscera. The weight of fragments was estimated by reference to an X-rayed scale of fragments of known weight. The average total weight of metal fragments, likely to be mostly lead, was estimated to be 1.2 g for the carcass and 0.2 g for the viscera. The total estimated weight of fragments in the entire carcass was estimated to be 17% of the weight of the bullet. Most fragments were small in size, with those in the viscera being smaller than those in the carcass. Metal fragments in the viscera were sufficiently small that at least 80% of the metallic bullet-derived lead in the viscera would be expected to be ingested by scavenging birds, such as buzzards and eagles, which feed on them.

  12. Pellet in the stomach: Where did it come from?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baris Dogu Yildiz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gunshot might have unexpected findings in the victim owing to the ballistics of the injury. The trajectory of the bullet plays a central role in the surprising findings in gunshot injuries. We are presenting a case with pellets seen in the stomach after a gunshot.

  13. Detection of lead nanoparticles in game meat by single particle ICP-MS following use of lead-containing bullets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kollander, Barbro; Widemo, Fredrik; Ågren, Erik

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated whether game meat may contain nanoparticles of lead from ammunition. Lead nanoparticles in the range 40 to 750 nm were detected by ICP-MS in single particle mode in game shot with lead-containing bullets. The median diameter of the detected nanoparticles was around 60 nm....... The particle mass concentration ranged from 290 to 340 ng/g meat and the particle number concentrations from 27 to 50 million particles/g meat. The size limit of detection strongly depended on the level of dissolved lead and was in the range of 40 to 80 nm. In game meat sampled more than 10 cm away from...... the wound channel, no lead particles with a diameter larger than 40 nm were detected. In addition to dissolved lead in meat that originated from particulates, the presence of lead nano particles in game meat represents a hitherto unattended source of lead with a largely unknown toxicological impact...

  14. Development of a biosensor protein bullet as a fluorescent method for fast detection of Escherichia coli in drinking water.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Gutiérrez-Del-Río

    Full Text Available Drinking water can be exposed to different biological contaminants from the source, through the pipelines, until reaching the final consumer or industry. Some of these are pathogenic bacteria and viruses which may cause important gastrointestinal or systemic diseases. The microbiological quality of drinking water relies mainly in monitoring three indicator bacteria of faecal origin, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis and Clostridium perfringens, which serve as early sentinels of potential health hazards for the population. Here we describe the analysis of three chimeric fluorescent protein bullets as biosensor candidates for fast detection of E. coli in drinking water. Two of the chimeric proteins (based on GFP-hadrurin and GFP-pb5 chimera proteins failed with respect to specificity and/or sensitivity, but the GFP-colS4 chimera protein was able to carry out specific detection of E. coli in drinking water samples in a procedure encompassing about 8 min for final result and this biosensor protein was able to detect in a linear way between 20 and 103 CFU of this bacterium. Below 20 CFU, the system cannot differentiate presence or absence of the target bacterium. The fluorescence in this biosensor system is provided by the GFP subunit of the chimeric protein, which, in the case of the better performing sensor bullet, GFP-colS4 chimera, is covalently bound to a flexible peptide bridge and to a bacteriocin binding specifically to E. coli cells. Once bound to the target bacteria, the excitation step with 395 nm LED light causes emission of fluorescence from the GFP domain, which is amplified in a photomultiplier tube, and finally this signal is converted into an output voltage which can be associated with a CFU value and these data distributed along mobile phone networks, for example. This method, and the portable fluorimeter which has been developed for it, may contribute to reduce the analysis time for detecting E. coli presence in drinking

  15. Development of a biosensor protein bullet as a fluorescent method for fast detection of Escherichia coli in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Del-Río, Ignacio; Marín, Laura; Fernández, Javier; Álvarez San Millán, María; Ferrero, Francisco Javier; Valledor, Marta; Campo, Juan Carlos; Cobián, Natalia; Méndez, Ignacio; Lombó, Felipe

    2018-01-01

    Drinking water can be exposed to different biological contaminants from the source, through the pipelines, until reaching the final consumer or industry. Some of these are pathogenic bacteria and viruses which may cause important gastrointestinal or systemic diseases. The microbiological quality of drinking water relies mainly in monitoring three indicator bacteria of faecal origin, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis and Clostridium perfringens, which serve as early sentinels of potential health hazards for the population. Here we describe the analysis of three chimeric fluorescent protein bullets as biosensor candidates for fast detection of E. coli in drinking water. Two of the chimeric proteins (based on GFP-hadrurin and GFP-pb5 chimera proteins) failed with respect to specificity and/or sensitivity, but the GFP-colS4 chimera protein was able to carry out specific detection of E. coli in drinking water samples in a procedure encompassing about 8 min for final result and this biosensor protein was able to detect in a linear way between 20 and 103 CFU of this bacterium. Below 20 CFU, the system cannot differentiate presence or absence of the target bacterium. The fluorescence in this biosensor system is provided by the GFP subunit of the chimeric protein, which, in the case of the better performing sensor bullet, GFP-colS4 chimera, is covalently bound to a flexible peptide bridge and to a bacteriocin binding specifically to E. coli cells. Once bound to the target bacteria, the excitation step with 395 nm LED light causes emission of fluorescence from the GFP domain, which is amplified in a photomultiplier tube, and finally this signal is converted into an output voltage which can be associated with a CFU value and these data distributed along mobile phone networks, for example. This method, and the portable fluorimeter which has been developed for it, may contribute to reduce the analysis time for detecting E. coli presence in drinking water.

  16. Being a neighbor to Syria: a retrospective analysis of patients brought to our clinic for cranial gunshot wounds in the Syrian civil war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aras, M; Altaş, M; Yilmaz, A; Serarslan, Y; Yilmaz, N; Yengil, E; Urfali, B

    2014-10-01

    Toward the end of 2010, the Arab spring, the waves of revolutionary demonstrations and protests influenced also Syria, where violent clashes turned into a civil war. Hundreds of thousands of people became refugees. The use of excessive force unfortunately culminated in numerous deaths and injuries in many cities. Being the closest city to Aleppo, Damascus and Homs, the biggest cities of Syria, Antioch/Hatay has been the city where initial emergency treatments were performed. For this reason, we examined and retrospectively analyzed the medical records of the patients treated in the clinics of our hospital due to cranial gunshot wounds during the war. The medical records of 186 patients who were injured in the Syrian War and brought to, followed up and treated in the Neurosurgery Clinic of Mustafa Kemal University, Faculty of Medicine in Hatay, a Turkish city on the Syrian border, between April 2011 and June 2013. A total of 186 patients were evaluated in a period of more than 2 years. Of all 91.4% of the patients were adults (male/female: 152/18) and 8.6% of them were pediatric patients (male/female: 14/2). The average age of the patients was 31 years, with an age range of between 2 months and 67 years. According to Glasgow coma score (GCS) of the patients at the time of admission, GCS was 3 in 32 patients (17.2%), between 4 and 7 in 70 patients (37.6%), and between 8 and 15 in 84 patients (45.1%). We observed that the patients with GCS of 4-7 had a significantly lower mortality among the 56 patients treated surgically compared with the 14 patients treated medically. Cranial gunshot wounds are responsible for high mortality and morbidity. A multiplicity of factors plays a role on morbidity and mortality. These are the duration of transport, the injury pattern, the velocities of the weapons used, and the Glasgow Coma Scales of the patients at the time of admission. The authors recommend that the patients with cranial gunshot wounds who has GCS of 4-7 should be

  17. CIVILIAN GUNSHOT WOUNDS TO THE CHEST: A CLINICOPATHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF AN ANNUAL CASELOAD AT A LEVEL 1 TRAUMA CENTRE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijering, V M; Hattam, A T; Navsaria, P H; Nicol, A J; Edu, S

    2017-06-01

    Gunshot wounds (GSW) to the chest are common presentations to trauma centres in South Africa. The clinical management and outcome of GSW to the chest are significantly altered by missile trajectory and the associated anatomical structures injured making them challenging injuries to treat. Currently, the management of GSW chest is based on scant evidence and treatment is typically according to algorithms based largely on the anecdotal experience of high volume institutions and experienced clinicians. Ethical approval was obtained for this study. The Electronic Trauma Health Registry (eTHR) Application of the Trauma Centre at Groote Schuur Hospital in Cape Town was interrogated for the year 2015 for all patients with GSW chest. The data was then analysed using descriptive statistics. A total of 141 patients with GSW to the chest were admitted to the Trauma Centre with a median age of 26 years. More than half of the patients, 53. 2% (n = 75) sustained an isolated GSW to the chest. Overall, 29.1% (n = 41) patients sustained a thoracoabdominal injury, which accounts for a significant higher amount of emergency surgeries compared to patients with non thoracoabdominal injuries (54% vs 15%, p = chest surgery of which 5 patients survived. Overall mortality was 7.1% (n = 10) of which 5 patients died from a thoracic cause. Civilian GSW to the chest are common injuries seen in Cape Town, often with concomitant injuries leading to increased morbidity. Significantly more emergency surgeries were done in patients with thoracoabdominal injury. Overall few patients needed chest-related emergency operative intervention (9.2%) with a survival rate of 38.5%. Overall mortality of patients with GSW chest who reached the hospital was 7.1% of whom 50% died from a thoracic cause.

  18. Effect of time to operation on mortality for hypotensive patients with gunshot wounds to the torso: The golden 10 minutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meizoso, Jonathan P; Ray, Juliet J; Karcutskie, Charles A; Allen, Casey J; Zakrison, Tanya L; Pust, Gerd D; Koru-Sengul, Tulay; Ginzburg, Enrique; Pizano, Louis R; Schulman, Carl I; Livingstone, Alan S; Proctor, Kenneth G; Namias, Nicholas

    2016-10-01

    Timely hemorrhage control is paramount in trauma; however, a critical time interval from emergency department arrival to operation for hypotensive gunshot wound (GSW) victims is not established. We hypothesize that delaying surgery for more than 10 minutes from arrival increases all-cause mortality in hypotensive patients with GSW. Data of adults (n = 309) with hypotension and GSW to the torso requiring immediate operation from January 2004 to September 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with resuscitative thoracotomies, traumatic brain injury, transfer from outside institutions, and operations occurring more than 1 hour after arrival were excluded. Survival analysis using multivariate Cox regression models was used for comparison. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) are reported. Statistical significance was considered at p ≤ 0.05. The study population was aged 32 ± 12 years, 92% were male, Injury Severity Score was 24 ± 15, systolic blood pressure was 81 ± 29 mm Hg, Glasgow Coma Scale score was 13 ± 4. Overall mortality was 27%. Mean time to operation was 19 ± 13 minutes. After controlling for organ injury, patients who arrived to the operating room after 10 minutes had a higher likelihood of mortality compared with those who arrived in 10 minutes or less (HR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.10-3.26; p = 0.02); this was also true in the severely hypotensive patients with systolic blood pressure of 70 mm Hg or less (HR, 2.67; 95% CI, 0.97-7.34; p = 0.05). The time associated with a 50% cumulative mortality was 16 minutes. Delay to the operating room of more than 10 minutes increases the risk of mortality by almost threefold in hypotensive patients with GSW. Protocols should be designed to shorten time in the emergency department. Further prospective observational studies are required to validate these findings. Therapeutic study, level IV.

  19. RNA/DNA co-analysis from bloodstains on aged polyvinyl-alcohol gloves prepared for securing evidence from the hands of victims of fatal gunshot injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabmüller, Melanie; Courts, Cornelius; Madea, Burkhard; Eichhorst, Tim; Schyma, Christian

    2018-01-01

    In contrast to cumulative techniques (e.g., tape-lift) for qualitative gunshot residues (GSR) analysis, topographic methods are commonly applied to preserve the integrity of evidence from a shooter's or victim's hand in cases of gun-related crimes. Topographic sampling techniques employing adhesive foils, latex, or the polyvinyl alcohol (PVAL) method enable unambiguous sampling of biological and non-biological trace material while preserving its spatial distribution and relation to each other. The PVAL method in particular allows for a topographically veridic and quantitative conservation of traces of GSR and biological stains that are embedded in the PVAL glove, because it completely removes these traces from the hand. The present study investigated the success rates of STR profiling and the detection of blood and brain-specific gene expression from minimal traces of blood splatter as well as parallel to the positive detection of gunshot residues embedded in 17 PVAL gloves taken from the hands of deceased persons in the context of homicide cases in the period between 1996 and 2003. The water-soluble PVAL matrix is shown to be fully compatible with successful STR profiling and the detection of blood- and brain-specific miRNA expression, even after up to 20 years of storage, demonstrating that this sampling technique offers advantages compared to other more simplistic sampling methods like taping.

  20. Investigation about the influence of the mechanical properties of lead core and brass jacket of a NATO 7.62 mm ball bullet in numerical simulations of ballistic impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scapin M.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present work a validated numerical approach has been used in order to build a robust and reliable FE model of the impact of a NATO 7.62 mm ball bullet, against an aluminium transmission shaft. The bullet is a full metal jacket type, with a lead alloy core and a brass jacket. Target shaft is made by an Al6061-T6 aluminium alloy. According to the soft core (lead alloy of the bullet, most effort has been spent in order to evaluate the effect of bullet materials mechanical properties on the numerical results. Numerical analyses, carried out using the non-linear dynamic finite element solver Abaqus∖Explicit 6.10, have been performed focusing on core and jacket material behaviour (target material, Al6061-T6, has been previously calibrated by the authors. Thus numerical analyses have been performed considering for the mechanical behaviour of the bullet both a simplified approach (as reported in literature and new material data (with strain rate effect obtained by means of experimental tests on the two materials (lead and brass with specimens cut directly from the bullet. Finally the results of the analyses have been compared with real experimental ballistic tests.

  1. Muzzle-loading weapons discharging spherical lead bullets: two case studies and experimental simulation using a skin-soap composite model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Große Perdekamp, Markus; Braunwarth, Roland; Kromeier, Jan; Nadjem, Hadi; Pollak, Stefan; Thierauf, Annette

    2013-07-01

    In current forensic practice, fatal injuries from black powder guns are rare events. In contact and close-range shots, the intensity of GSR deposition (soot, powder particles) is much greater than that in shots with smokeless powder ammunition. The same applies to any burning effects from the combustion gases. Besides, a wad of felt interposed between the propellant and the lead bullet may enter the wound channel. Apart from these findings seen in close-range shots, another characteristic feature results from the mostly spherical shape of the missiles causing maximum tissue damage at the entrance site. Two fatal injuries inflicted with muzzle-loading weapons are reported. In the first case, suicide was committed with a cal. 11.6 mm miniature cannon by firing a contact shot to the back of the neck. In test shots using black powder (1 and 2 g) as propellant, the mean bullet velocity measured 1 m away from the weapon was 87.11 and 146.85 m/s, respectively, corresponding to a kinetic energy of 32.49 and 92.95 J, respectively. Contact test shots to composite models consisting of ballistic soap covered by pig skin at the entrance site were evaluated by CT and revealed cone-like cavitations along the bullet path as known from spherical missiles and penetration depths up to 25 cm. The second case presented deals with a homicidal close-range shot discharged from a muzzle-loading percussion pistol cal. .44. The skin around the entrance site (root of the nose) was densely covered with blackish soot and powder particles, whereas the eyebrows and eyelashes showed singeing of the hairs. The flattened bullet and the wad had got stuck under the scalp of the occipital region. In both cases, there was a disproportionally large zone of tissue destruction in the initial parts of the wound tracks.

  2. Hybrid treatment of bullet embolism at the abdominal aortic bifurcation, complicated with thoracoabdominal aorta pseudoaneurysm and common iliac artery occlusion: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Bastos Metzger

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Embolization due to a firearm projectile entering the bloodstream is a rare event that is unlikely to be suspected during initial treatment of trauma patients. We describe and discuss a case of bullet embolism of the abdominal aortic bifurcation, complicated by a pseudoaneurysm of the thoracoabdominal aorta and occlusion of the right common iliac artery, but successfully treated using a combination of endovascular methods and conventional surgery.

  3. Survivors of self-inflicted gunshot wounds to the head: characterization of ocular injuries and health care costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Amit K; Baker, Meredith S; Sobel, Rachel K; Whelan, David A; Carter, Keith D; Allen, Richard C

    2014-06-01

    Suicides and attempted suicides are major public health issues in the United States and around the world. Self-inflicted gunshot wounds (SIGSWs) are a common method of attempting suicide, the head being the most commonly injured body region; however, the literature lacks an overview of the orbital and ocular injuries as well as outcomes associated with SIGSWs. To characterize the ocular and orbital injuries and outcomes of patients presenting with SIGSWs and to examine the cost associated with these injuries. Retrospective medical record review was performed of all patients who presented to the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics between 2003 to 2013 with the admitting diagnosis of self-inflicted injuries via firearms. Patients with no periorbital or ocular injuries and/or those who did not survive for at least 2 months following the incident were excluded. Ocular injuries and outcomes and health care costs and reimbursements, which were generated by a financial report obtained from the hospital finance department that included data from both the hospital billing and cost accounting systems. All patients in this study (n = 18) were men with a mean age of 47.2 years. Eight patients (44.4%) displayed submental missile entry points, 7 (38.9%) displayed intraoral entry points, and 3 (16.7%) displayed pericranial entry points. Patients with pericranial entries sustained more severe ocular injuries and had poorer ocular outcomes. Seven patients (38.9%) were found at final follow-up to have visual acuity of 20/40 or better in each eye and all showed missile trajectories in the sagittal plane. The mean cost of treatment of these patients totaled $117,338 while the mean reimbursement amount was $124,388. Data regarding ocular injuries and outcomes may assist ophthalmologists in the treatment of patients with SIGSWs in the future. Many patients had extremely functional vision at final follow-ups, which highlights the importance of specialists conducting examinations

  4. Reconstruction of methods of execution of the death penalty by shooting in the years 1949-1954 based on exhumation research of "prison fields" in Osobowicki Cemetery in Wroclaw. Part II--analysis of gunshot injuries and an attempt at reconstructing the course of execution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szleszkowski, Łukasz; Thannhäuser, Agata; Kawecki, Jerzy; Szwagrzyk, Krzysztof; Swiatek, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of gunshot injuries in prisoners who were executed in Wroclaw penitentiary in the years 1949-1954 shows divergences from legal regulations describing the method of execution. This observation leads to the conclusion that the predominant method of execution of the death penalty was a gunshot or gunshots to the back of the head, which is analogous to the results of exhumation works on collective graves of war prisoners executed during World War II in the territory of the former Soviet Union.

  5. Influence Factors Regarding the Effectiveness of Automated Ballistic Comparison on 0.38 Special Caliber Bullets and Cartridge Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Lehi Sudy; Vieira Muterlle, Palloma

    2018-03-01

    Factors influencing effectiveness of automated comparisons, test-fired bullets, and cartridge cases from 0.38 Special revolvers were logged into the Evofinder ® Ballistic ID System. Tests were performed as follows: First test correlated test-fires of the same type, second test compared different types of ammunition components, third test replicated the second test in a larger database, and fourth test replicated the third test with students having no previous firearm identification experience. System effectiveness with projectiles in the first test was 0.89. With cartridge cases, effectiveness was 0.79 with combined results, but analysis of separate results by breech face and firing pin revealed low effectiveness by breech face (0.40). In the second, third, and fourth tests, effectiveness with projectiles were 0.61, 0.51, and 0.44. In addition, these tests had effectiveness with cartridge cases equivalent to 0.55, 0.43, and 0.44. Results are useful to establish routine protocols, system improvements, or comparative assessment of other electronic systems. © 2018 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  6. Atmospheric-pressure plasma jets: Effect of gas flow, active species, and snake-like bullet propagation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, S.; Wang, Z.; Huang, Q.; Tan, X.; Lu, X. [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Ostrikov, K. [CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, PO Box 218, Lindfield NSW 2070 (Australia); School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney NSW 2006 (Australia); State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China)

    2013-02-15

    Cold atmospheric-pressure plasma jets have recently attracted enormous interest owing to numerous applications in plasma biology, health care, medicine, and nanotechnology. A dedicated study of the interaction between the upstream and downstream plasma plumes revealed that the active species (electrons, ions, excited OH, metastable Ar, and nitrogen-related species) generated by the upstream plasma plume enhance the propagation of the downstream plasma plume. At gas flows exceeding 2 l/min, the downstream plasma plume is longer than the upstream plasma plume. Detailed plasma diagnostics and discharge species analysis suggest that this effect is due to the electrons and ions that are generated by the upstream plasma and flow into the downstream plume. This in turn leads to the relatively higher electron density in the downstream plasma. Moreover, high-speed photography reveals a highly unusual behavior of the plasma bullets, which propagate in snake-like motions, very differently from the previous reports. This behavior is related to the hydrodynamic instability of the gas flow, which results in non-uniform distributions of long-lifetime active species in the discharge tube and of surface charges on the inner surface of the tube.

  7. Environment and air pollution like gun and bullet for low-income countries: war for better health and wealth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiang; Azam, Muhammad; Islam, Talat; Zaman, Khalid

    2016-02-01

    The objective of the study is to examine the impact of environmental indicators and air pollution on "health" and "wealth" for the low-income countries. The study used a number of promising variables including arable land, fossil fuel energy consumption, population density, and carbon dioxide emissions that simultaneously affect the health (i.e., health expenditures per capita) and wealth (i.e., GDP per capita) of the low-income countries. The general representation for low-income countries has shown by aggregate data that consist of 39 observations from the period of 1975-2013. The study decomposes the data set from different econometric tests for managing robust inferences. The study uses temporal forecasting for the health and wealth model by a vector error correction model (VECM) and an innovation accounting technique. The results show that environment and air pollution is the menace for low-income countries' health and wealth. Among environmental indicators, arable land has the largest variance to affect health and wealth for the next 10-year period, while air pollution exerts the least contribution to change health and wealth of low-income countries. These results indicate the prevalence of war situation, where environment and air pollution become visible like "gun" and "bullet" for low-income countries. There are required sound and effective macroeconomic policies to combat with the environmental evils that affect the health and wealth of the low-income countries.

  8. Helicopter In-flight Resuscitation with Freeze-dried Plasma of a Patient with a High-velocity Gunshot Wound to the Neck in Afghanistan - A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellerfors, Mikael; Linde, Joacim; Gryth, Dan

    2015-10-01

    Massive hemorrhage with coagulopathy is one of the leading causes of preventable death in the battlefield. The development of freeze-dried plasma (FDP) allows for early treatment with coagulation-optimizing resuscitation fluid in the prehospital setting. This report describes the first prehospital use of FDP in a patient with carotid artery injury due to a high-velocity gunshot wound (HVGSW) to the neck. It also describes in-flight constitution and administration of FDP in a Medevac Helicopter. Early administration of FDP may contribute to hemodynamic stabilization and reduction in trauma-induced coagulopathy and acidosis. However, large-scale studies are needed to define the prehospital use of FDP and other blood products.

  9. The dynamic development of the muzzle imprint by contact gunshot: high-speed documentation utilizing the "skin-skull-brain model".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thali, M J; Kneubuehl, B P; Dirnhofer, R; Zollinger, U

    2002-07-17

    Many contact gunshots produce a muzzle imprint in the skin of the victim. Different mechanisms have been discussed in literature as being responsible for the creation of the muzzle imprint. Experimenting upon the synthetic non biological skin-skull-brain model, our goal was to document and study the creation of the muzzle imprint with the aid of high-speed photography. In our experiments, we could document with our high-speed photography (at exposure rates in the range of nanoseconds) the bulging, the pressing against the muzzle, and the splitting of the artificial skin. Furthermore, it was possible to photographically record the back pattern of synthetic tissue particles. And, the soot and gunpowder cavity could be reproduced experimentally. In conclusion the experiments completed with the skin-skull-brain model, using high-speed photography for documentation, show the promising possibilities of experimental ballistics with body models.

  10. Colon diversion versus primary colonic repair in gunshot abdomen with penetrating colon injury in Libyan revolution conflict 2011 (a single center experience).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansor, Salah; Bendardaf, Rashed; Bougrara, Muftah; Hagam, Mohamed

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study is comparing colon diversion versus primary repair in penetrating colon gunshot injuries. A retrospective study of 63 cases of gunshot abdomen with penetrating colon injury were admitted to Al-jalla Hospital in 2011 in Benghazi, Libya. After surgical intervention, these patients were observed for any postoperative complications. During the study period, 63 eligible patients included, 62 (98.4%) were males and 1 (1.6%) was female. And the mean age was 29.24 years. Eighteen patients had an injury on the right side of the colon, while 16, 6, 11, 6, 2, 3, and 1 patients had an injury on the transverse, left, sigmoid, rectum, right transverse, left transverse, and total colonic injury, respectively. In the first group, 23 patients (36.5%) was treated with colon diversion, (2 with Hartmann's operation, 21 with loop colostomy). In the second group, 40 patients (63.4 %) was treated with primary repair. Eighteen (28.5%) with right hemicolectomy, 5 (7.9%) with transverse colon resection and anastomosis, and 17 (26.9%) with simple repair. We evaluate the rate of postoperative complication and compare the postoperative morbidity between both groups. In our study, there was no significant statistical difference between types of operations and rate of complications (P = 0.18). We could not see any advantage of the diversion over the primary repair. To reduce risk of the psychological trauma, complications of colostomy, unnecessary repeated hospitalization, decrease of economic cost, and complications of stoma revision operation, we should consider that the primary repair of penetrating colon injuries is an acceptable alternative method of treatment over the colostomy.

  11. Sunyaev-Zel'Dovich effect observations of the bullet cluster (1E 0657-56) with APEX-SZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halverson, N.W.; Lanting, T.; Ade, P.A.R.; Basu, K.; Bender, A.N.; Benson, B.A.; Bertoldi, F.; Cho, H.-M.; Chon, G.; Clarke, J.; Dobbs, M.; Ferrusca, D.; Gusten, R.; Holzapfel, W.L.; Kovacs, A.; Kennedy, J.; Kermish, Z.; Kneissl, R.; Lee, A.T.; Lueker, M.; Mehl, J.; Menten, K.M.; Muders, D.; Nord, M.; Pacaud, F.; Plagge, T.; Reichardt, C.; Richards, P.L.; Schaaf, R.; Schilke, P.; Schuller, F.; Schwan, D.; Spieler, H.; Tucker, C.; Weiss, A.; Zahn, O.

    2008-07-25

    We present observations of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE) in the Bullet cluster (1E 0657-56) using the APEX-SZ instrument at 150 GHz with a resolution of 1'. The main results are maps of the SZE in this massive, merging galaxy cluster. The cluster is detected with 23 sigma significance within the central 1' radius of the source position. The SZE map has a broadly similar morphology to that in existing X-ray maps of this system, and we find no evidence for significant contamination of the SZE emission by radio or IR sources. In order to make simple quantitative comparisons with cluster gas models derived from X-ray observations, we fit our data to an isothermal elliptical beta model, despite the inadequacy of such a model for this complex merging system. With an X-ray derived prior on the power-law index, beta = 1.04+0.16-0.10, we find a core radius rc = 142" +- 18", an axial ratio of 0.889 +- 0.072, and a central temperature decrement of -771 +- 71 muKCMB, including a +-5.5percent flux calibration uncertainty. Combining the APEX-SZ map with a map of projected electron surface density from Chandra X-ray observations, we determine the mass-weighted temperature of the cluster gas to be Tmg = 10.8 +- 0.9 keV, significantly lower than some previously reported X-ray spectroscopic temperatures. Under the assumption of an isothermal cluster gas distribution in hydrostatic equilibrium, we compute the gas mass fraction for prolate and oblate spheroidal geometries and find it to be consistent with previous results from X-ray and weak-lensing observations. This work is the first result from the APEX-SZ experiment and represents the first reported scientific result from observations with a large array of multiplexed superconducting transition-edge sensor bolometers.

  12. A comparison of surface topography characterization technologies for use in comparing spent bullet and cartridge case signatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batishko, C.R.; Hickman, B.J.; Cuta, F.M.

    1992-11-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory was tasked by the US Department of Energy to provide technical assistance to the Federal Bureau of Investigation in evaluating and ranking technologies potentially useful in high-speed comparison of unique spent bullet and cartridge case surface signatures. Information sources included vendor input, current relevant literature, vendor phone contacts, other FBI resources, relevant PNL reports, and personal contact with numerous PNL technical staff. A comprehensive list of technologies was reduced to a list of 38 by grouping very similar methodologies, and further reduced to a short list of six by applying a set of five minimum functional requirements. A total of 14 primary criteria, many having secondary criteria, were subsequently used to evaluate each technology. The ranked short list results are reported and supported in this document, and their scores normalized to a hypothetical ideal system are as follows: (1) confocal microscopy 82.13; (2) laser dynamic focusing 72.04; (3)moire interferometry V70.94; (4)fringe field capacitance;(5)laser triangulation 66.18; (6)structured/sectioned light 65.55. Information available within the time/budget constraints which was used for the evaluation and ranking was not sufficiently detailed to evaluate specific implementations of the technologies. Each of the technologies in the short list was judged potentially capable of meeting the minimum requirements. Clever, novel engineering solutions resulting in a more cost-effective system, or a closer fit to the ``ideal system,`` could result in a reordering of the short list when actual technical proposals are evaluated. Therefore, it is recommended that a Request for Proposal not be limited to only the highest ranked technology, but include all six technologies in the short list.

  13. A comparison of surface topography characterization technologies for use in comparing spent bullet and cartridge case signatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batishko, C.R.; Hickman, B.J.; Cuta, F.M.

    1992-11-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory was tasked by the US Department of Energy to provide technical assistance to the Federal Bureau of Investigation in evaluating and ranking technologies potentially useful in high-speed comparison of unique spent bullet and cartridge case surface signatures. Information sources included vendor input, current relevant literature, vendor phone contacts, other FBI resources, relevant PNL reports, and personal contact with numerous PNL technical staff. A comprehensive list of technologies was reduced to a list of 38 by grouping very similar methodologies, and further reduced to a short list of six by applying a set of five minimum functional requirements. A total of 14 primary criteria, many having secondary criteria, were subsequently used to evaluate each technology. The ranked short list results are reported and supported in this document, and their scores normalized to a hypothetical ideal system are as follows: (1) confocal microscopy 82.13; (2) laser dynamic focusing 72.04; (3)moire interferometry V70.94; (4)fringe field capacitance;(5)laser triangulation 66.18; (6)structured/sectioned light 65.55. Information available within the time/budget constraints which was used for the evaluation and ranking was not sufficiently detailed to evaluate specific implementations of the technologies. Each of the technologies in the short list was judged potentially capable of meeting the minimum requirements. Clever, novel engineering solutions resulting in a more cost-effective system, or a closer fit to the ideal system,'' could result in a reordering of the short list when actual technical proposals are evaluated. Therefore, it is recommended that a Request for Proposal not be limited to only the highest ranked technology, but include all six technologies in the short list.

  14. “Time is brain” the Gifford factor - or: Why do some civilian gunshot wounds to the head do unexpectedly well? A case series with outcomes analysis and a management guide

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, David J.; Lam, Fred C.; Siracuse, Jeffrey J.; Thomas, Ajith; Kasper, Ekkehard M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Review of intracranial gunshot wounds (GSWs) undergoing emergent neurosurgical intervention despite a very low Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score on admission in order to identify predictors of good outcome, with correlates to recent literature. Methods: A retrospective review of select cases of GSWs presenting to our trauma center over the past 5 years with poor GCS requiring emergent neurosurgical intervention and a minimum of 1-year follow-up. Results: Out of a total of 17 patients...

  15. Destratification efficiency by hypolimnitic water lifter with air bullets. Kihodan wo mochiita shinsosui yosui shisetsu ni yoru mitsudo seiso no kongo koritsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, H; Suga, K [Utsunomiya University, Tochigi (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Asaeda, T [Saitama University, Saitama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1994-02-21

    The intermittent aeration and circulation method is used frequently to destruct temperature stratification in a reservoir to prevent it from eutrophication. This method uses a cylinder erected in water, into which air bullets are shot out intermittently to circulate and mix heavier water mass upward. The present study has performed numerical analysis on the process to mix density stratifications by operating an intermittent water lifter cylinder for an extended period of time, and discussed responses of each factor to variation. The numerical computation has been carried out according to the equation of motion for water and air in the water lifter cylinder, and the numerical model that hypothesizes the double plume after air bubbles have departed from the water lifter cylinder. The result indicated that the amount of hypolimnitic water lifted against the amount of air injected can be expressed by an empirical formula that uses only the relative air bullet volumes. An evaluation formula for the water lifting efficiency has also been derived. It has been found for the stratification mixing that trends in the mixing efficiency can be identified by two parameters of dimensionless air bubble amount and stratification strength. 17 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Filamentation and light bullet formation dynamics in solid-state dielectric media with weak, moderate and strong anomalous group velocity dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gražulevičiūtė, I; Garejev, N; Majus, D; Tamošauskas, G; A Dubietis; Jukna, V

    2016-01-01

    We present a series of measurements, which characterize filamentation dynamics of intense ultrashort laser pulses in the space–time domain, as captured by means of three-dimensional imaging technique in sapphire and fused silica, in the wavelength range of 1.45–2.25 μm, accessing the regimes of weak, moderate and strong anomalous group velocity dispersion (GVD). In the regime of weak anomalous GVD (at 1.45 μm), pulse splitting into two sub-pulses producing a pair of light bullets with spectrally shifted carrier frequencies in both nonlinear media is observed. In contrast, in the regimes of moderate (at 1.8 μm) and strong (at 2.25 μm) anomalous GVD we observe notably different transient dynamics, which however lead to the formation of a single self-compressed quasistationary light bullet with an universal spatiotemporal shape comprised of an extended ring-shaped periphery and a localized intense core that carries the self-compressed pulse. (paper)

  17. Filamentation and light bullet formation dynamics in solid-state dielectric media with weak, moderate and strong anomalous group velocity dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gražulevičiūtė, I.; Garejev, N.; Majus, D.; Jukna, V.; Tamošauskas, G.; Dubietis, A.

    2016-02-01

    We present a series of measurements, which characterize filamentation dynamics of intense ultrashort laser pulses in the space-time domain, as captured by means of three-dimensional imaging technique in sapphire and fused silica, in the wavelength range of 1.45-2.25 μm, accessing the regimes of weak, moderate and strong anomalous group velocity dispersion (GVD). In the regime of weak anomalous GVD (at 1.45 μm), pulse splitting into two sub-pulses producing a pair of light bullets with spectrally shifted carrier frequencies in both nonlinear media is observed. In contrast, in the regimes of moderate (at 1.8 μm) and strong (at 2.25 μm) anomalous GVD we observe notably different transient dynamics, which however lead to the formation of a single self-compressed quasistationary light bullet with an universal spatiotemporal shape comprised of an extended ring-shaped periphery and a localized intense core that carries the self-compressed pulse.

  18. American Spinal Injury Association A (sensory and motor complete) is not different from American Spinal Injury Association B (sensory incomplete, motor complete) in gunshot-related spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Eric; Eftekhary, Nima; Nwosu, Kenneth; Fukunaga, Dudley; Liu, Charles; Rolfe, Kevin

    2017-12-01

    We receive a large number of patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) due to penetrating gunshot wounds (GSW) at our national rehabilitation center. Although many patients are labeled American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) B sensory incomplete because of sensory sparing, especially deep anal pressure, with purported prognostic value, we have not observed a clinical difference from patients labeled ASIA A complete. We hypothesized that sensory sparing, if meaningful, should reduce the occurrence of pressure ulcers. To determine if ASIA classifications A and B are important distinctions for patients with SCIs secondary to civilian gunshot wounds. A retrospective chart review was performed on all patients with civilian gunshot-induced SCI transferred to Rancho Los Amigos Rehabilitation Center between 1999 and 2014. Outcome measures were occurrence of pressure ulcers and surgical intervention for pressure ulcers. We included a total of 487 patients who sustained civilian gunshot wounds to the spine and were provided care at Rancho Los Amigos Rehabilitation Center from 2001 to 2014. Occurrence of pressure ulcers and surgical intervention for pressure ulcers among patients who suffered civilian-induced gunshot wounds to the spine. Retrospective chart review identified 487 SCIs due to gunshot wounds that were treated at Rancho Los Amigos from 2001 to 2014. Injury characteristics including ASIA classification, pressure ulcers, and pressure ulcer surgeries were recorded. Comprehensive surgical data were obtained for all patients. Chart reviews and telephone interviews were performed to determine the occurrence of any pressure ulcers and pressure ulcer surgeries. Statistical analysis was performed to compare data by spinal region and ASIA grade. There were no conflicts of interest from any of the authors, and there was no funding obtained for this study. There was no statistical difference for cervical ASIA A versus ASIA B for the occurrence of pressure ulcers or the

  19. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2000-07-11

    Jul 11, 2000 ... gunshot injuries, analyse factors that affect prognosis and suggest a ... benefited patients with bullet or shrapnel injuries of the brain.12. In Korea and ..... relationship between alcohol and both crime and suicide. This study ...

  20. Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Microanalysis for Chemical and Morphological Characterisation of the Inorganic Component of Gunshot Residue: Selected Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzanna Brożek-Mucha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chosen aspects of examinations of inorganic gunshot particles by means of scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry technique are presented. The research methodology of particles was worked out, which included a precise and repeatable procedure of the automatic detection and identification of particles as well as the representation of the obtained analytical data in the form of the frequencies of occurrence of particles of certain chemical or morphological class within the whole population of particles revealed in a specimen. On this basis, there were established relationships between the chemical and morphological properties of populations of particles and factors, such as the type of ammunition, the distance from the gun muzzle to the target, the type of a substrate the particles sediment on, and the time between shooting and collecting the specimens. Each of these aspects of examinations of particles revealed a great potential of being utilised in casework, while establishing various circumstances of shooting incidents leads to the reconstruction of the course of the studied incident.

  1. A simple method for detection of gunshot residue particles from hands, hair, face, and clothing using scanning electron microscopy/wavelength dispersive X-ray (SEM/WDX).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kage, S; Kudo, K; Kaizoji, A; Ryumoto, J; Ikeda, H; Ikeda, N

    2001-07-01

    We devised a simple and rapid method for detection of gunshot residue (GSR) particles, using scanning electron microscopy/wavelength dispersive X-ray (SEM/WDX) analysis. Experiments were done on samples containing GSR particles obtained from hands, hair, face, and clothing, using double-sided adhesive coated aluminum stubs (tape-lift method). SEM/WDX analyses for GSR were carried out in three steps: the first step was map analysis for barium (Ba) to search for GSR particles from lead styphnate primed ammunition, or tin (Sn) to search for GSR particles from mercury fulminate primed ammunition. The second step was determination of the location of GSR particles by X-ray imaging of Ba or Sn at a magnification of x 1000-2000 in the SEM, using data of map analysis, and the third step was identification of GSR particles, using WDX spectrometers. Analysis of samples from each primer of a stub took about 3 h. Practical applications were shown for utility of this method.

  2. Bread and bullets

    OpenAIRE

    Akerlof, George A.; Snower, Dennis J.

    2016-01-01

    Standard economics omits the role of narratives (the stories that people tell themselves and others) when they make all kinds of decisions. Narratives play a role in understanding the environment; focusing attention; predicting events; motivating action; assigning social roles and identities; defining power relations; and establishing and conveying social norms. This paper describes the role narratives play in decision making, as it also juxtaposes this description against the backdrop of the...

  3. Vessel-diameter quantification and embolus detection in CTA images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, H.

    2008-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is the sudden obstruction of an artery in the lungs, usually due to a blood clot. There are more than 50 cases of PE per 100,000 persons every year in the USA. Of these cases, 11% die in the first hour and in total, the untreated mortality rate of PE is estimated to be 30%.

  4. Delayed onset of fatal basilar thrombotic embolus after whiplash injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viktrup, L; Knudsen, G M; Hansen, S H

    1995-01-01

    in a collision. CASE DESCRIPTION: After whiplash trauma in a car accident, a 50-year-old taxi driver suffered from headache and episodic visual disturbances. Two months after the accident he suddenly lost consciousness and was admitted to the hospital. A CT scan performed at that time was indicative of basilar...

  5. Mitochondrial genome of the bullet tuna Auxis rochei from Indo-West Pacific collection provides novel genetic information about two subspecies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingming; Guo, Liang; Zhang, Heng; Yang, Sen; Chen, Xinghan; Lin, Haoran; Meng, Zining

    2016-09-01

    Previously morphological studies supported the division of the bullet tuna into the two subspecies, Auxis rochei rochei and A. rochei eudorax. As a cosmopolitan species, A. rochei rochei ranges in the Indo-West Pacific and Atlantic oceans, while A. rochei eudorax inhabits in eastern Pacific region. Here, we used the HiSeq next-generation sequencing technique to determine the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of A. rochei from Indo-West Pacific collection, and then compared our data with mitogenomic sequences of the Atlantic and eastern Pacific retrieved from NCBI database. Results showed the mitogenome of A. rochei from three geographic collections shared the same genes and gene order, similar to typical teleosts. Also, we examined a low level of nucleotide diversity among these mitogenomic sequences. Interestingly, nucleotide diversity of intra-subspecies (Atlantic versus Indo-West) was higher than that of inter-subspecies (Atlantic versus eastern Pacific, Indo-West versus eastern Pacific).

  6. Impact analysis of side door of a car and bullet proof vest with material ‘SAM2X5-630’ using finite element analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhode, Trushant; Patil, Girish; Rajkumar, E.

    2017-11-01

    The components which are bound to impact are subjected to deformation even though it may be for a small scale. The efforts are always on for finding the best material to take impact that has no failure or moreover, less plastic deformation. A newly found material which is glass matrix steel named as ‘SAM2X5-630’ has astounding high elastic limit of 12.5GPa. Thus it can take powerful impact & regain its original shape avoiding the deformation of component under impact. The paper is focused on performing the Finite element analysis to assess the behaviour of ‘SAM2X5-630’ steel under impact loading of side door of car as well as impact of bullet on bulletproof jacket on which the material is assigned. The displacement or deformation occurred during impact is found to be lesser than known materials like Kevlar in bulletproof vest and Aluminium alloy in car door.

  7. Rate constants and temperature effects for reactions of Cl2sm-bullet- with unsaturated alcohols and hydrocarbons in aqueous and acetonitrile/water solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padmaja, S.; Neta, P.; Huie, R.E.

    1992-01-01

    Absolute rate constants for reactions of the dichlorine radical anion, Cl 2 sm-bullet- , with unsaturated alcohols and hydrocarbons have been measured at various temperatures. The alcohol reactions were measured in aqueous solutions and the hydrocarbon reactions in 1:1 aqueous acetonitirle (ACN) solutions. The rate constants for two alcohols and one hydrocarbon were also examined as a function of solvent composition. The room temperature rate constants varied between 10 6 and 10 9 M -1 s -1 . The pre-exponential factors, A, were about (1-5) x 10 9 M -1 s -1 for the alcohols in aqueous solutions and about (0.1-1) x 10 9 M -1 s -1 for the hydrocarbons in aqueous ACN solutions. The activation energies, E a , varied considerably, between 4 and 12 kJ mol -1 for the alcohols and between 2 and 8 kJ mol -1 for the hydrocarbons. The rate constants, k 298 , decrease with increasing ionization potential (IP) of the unsaturated compound, in agreement with an electrophilic addition mechanism. The activation energies for the unsaturated alcohols decrease when the IP decreases from 9.7 to 9.1 eV but appear to level off at lower IP. Most alkenes studied had IP a . Upon addition of ACN to the aqueous solution, the values of log k 298 decreased linearly by more than 1 order of magnitude with increasing ACN mole fraction. This decrease appears to result from a combination of changes in the activation energy and in the pre-exponential factor. The reason for these changes may lie in changes in the solvation shell of the Cl 2 sm-bullet- radical, which will affect the A factor, in combination with changes in solvation of Cl - , which will affect the energetics of the reactions as well. 20 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs

  8. Herida por proyectil de arma de fuego en un niño: Presentación de un caso Gunshot wound in a child: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Quintana Díaz

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta la evolución de un paciente masculino de 10 años que sufrió una herida por proyectil de arma de fuego en el párpado superior izquierdo jugando con otro niño, lo que lo provocó una ptosis palpebral marcada. Se realizó estudio radiográfico preoperatorio donde se encontró el proyectil alojado en la pared orbitaria superior. Se constató una excelente evolución posoperatoria del paciente una vez intervenido quirúrgicamente.The evolution of a 10-year-old male patient who had a marked palpebral ptosis as a result of a wound made by a bullet in the left upper eyelid while playing with another child, is presented. A preoperative radiographic study was conducted and the projectile was found in the upper orbital wall. An excellent postoperative evolution was observed once the patient underwent surgery.

  9. Fast detection and characterization of organic and inorganic gunshot residues on the hands of suspects by CMV-GC-MS and LIBS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarifa, Anamary; Almirall, José R

    2015-05-01

    A rapid method for the characterization of both organic and inorganic components of gunshot residues (GSR) is proposed as an alternative tool to facilitate the identification of a suspected shooter. In this study, two fast screening methods were developed and optimized for the detection of organic compounds and inorganic components indicative of GSR presence on the hands of shooters and non-shooters. The proposed methods consist of headspace extraction of volatile organic compounds using a capillary microextraction of volatiles (CMV) device previously reported as a high-efficiency sampler followed by detection by GC-MS. This novel sampling technique has the potential to yield fast results (LIBS) screening method for the detection of the inorganic components indicative of the presence of GSR (Sb, Pb and Ba) is described. The sampling method for the inorganics consists of liquid extraction of the target elements from the same cotton swabs (previously analyzed for VOCs) and an additional 30 swab samples followed by spiking 1μL of the extract solution onto a Teflon disk and then analyzed by LIBS. Advantages of LIBS include fast analysis (~12s per sample) and high selectivity and sensitivity, with expected LODs 0.1-18ng for each of the target elements after sampling. The analytical performance of the LIBS method is also compared to previously reported methods (inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy). The combination of fast CMV sampling, unambiguous organic compound identification with GC-MS and fast LIBS analysis provides the basis for a new comprehensive screening method for GSR. Copyright © 2015 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Orthogonal identification of gunshot residue with complementary detection principles of voltammetry, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy: sample, screen, and confirm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mahony, Aoife M; Samek, Izabela A; Sattayasamitsathit, Sirilak; Wang, Joseph

    2014-08-19

    Field-deployable voltammetric screening coupled with complementary laboratory-based analysis to confirm the presence of gunshot residue (GSR) from the hands of a subject who has handled, loaded, or discharged a firearm is described. This protocol implements the orthogonal identification of the presence of GSR utilizing square-wave stripping voltammetry (SWSV) as a rapid screening tool along with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) to confirm the presence of the characteristic morphology and metal composition of GSR particles. This is achieved through the judicious modification of the working electrode of a carbon screen-printed electrode (CSPE) with carbon tape (used in SEM analysis) to fix and retain a sample. A comparison between a subject who has handled and loaded a firearm and a subject who has had no contact with GSR shows the significant variations in voltammetric signals and the presence or absence of GSR-consistent particles and constituent metals. This initial electrochemical screening has no effect on the integrity of the metallic particles, and SEM/EDX analysis conducted prior to and postvoltammetry show no differences in analytical output. The carbon tape is instrumental in retaining the GSR sample after electrochemical analysis, supported by comparison with orthogonal detection at a bare CSPE. This protocol shows great promise as a two-tier detection system for the presence of GSR from the hands of a subject, whereby initial screening can be conducted rapidly onsite by minimally trained operators; confirmation can follow at the same substrate to substantiate the voltammetric results.

  11. Operative Versus Nonoperative Management of Civilian Gunshot Wounds to the Spinal Cord: Novel Use of the Functional Independence Measure for Validated Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCunniff, Peter T; Ramey, James S; Scott, Meredith L; Roach, Mary J; Vallier, Heather A; Moore, Timothy A; Kelly, Michael L

    2017-10-01

    Surgery for patients with gunshot wound spinal cord injury (GSCI) remains controversial. Few recent studies provide standardized follow-up and detailed functional outcomes. To our knowledge, the research we present in this study is unique in that we are the first to incorporate Functional Independence Measure (FIM) scores as an outcomes measure for neurologic recovery in patients with GSCI. Patients with GSCI were divided into surgical and nonsurgical groups. Neurologic function was measured according to the American Spinal Injury Association impairment scale and defined as either complete or incomplete injury. Outcomes were then analyzed separately for complete and incomplete GSCI groups during hospitalization and rehabilitation. Baseline admissions characteristics were similar between surgical and nonsurgical groups except for a greater median injury severity score in the nonsurgical group (34 vs. 27; P = 0.02). For complete GSCI, total length of stay (LOS) was significantly longer in the surgical group (52 vs. 42 days; P = 0.04), and no difference was observed in overall FIM scores (58 vs. 54; P = 0.7). For incomplete GSCI, rehabilitation LOS was longer (35 vs. 21; P = 0.02) and a trend towards longer total LOS was observed in the surgical group (40 vs. 32; P = 0.07). No difference was observed in overall FIM scores (61 vs. 62; P = 0.9). Surgery for patients with GSCI is associated with increased LOS and is not associated with improved FIM scores for patients with either complete or incomplete spinal cord injuries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Juxtarenal Aortic Pseudoaneurysm – Right Renal Vein Fistula with Circumaortic Renal Collar-Delayed Manifestation of a Gunshot Injury – an Uncommon Entity Diagnosed with CT Angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, Lalit; Jain, Neeraj; Agrawal, Sachin; Chauhan, Udit; Goel, Vandana; Puri, Sunil Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Delayed presentation of post-traumatic aortic pseudoaneurysm and its fistulous communication with the right renal vein is a very rare entity. Most of the cases described in literature are due to abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) rupture into the left renal vein. To the best of our knowledge, communication with the right renal vein has not been described in published literature. Our patient also had a circumaortic renal collar, which is a rare renal vein anomaly. Aortic pseudoaneurysm, its fistulous communication with the right renal vein and circumaortic renal collar in a single patient is of extremely rare occurrence. A 29-year-old male presented to the cardiology department with complaints of breathlessness, abdominal pain and hematuria for the last 6 months. On clinical examination there was evidence of audible bruit over the abdomen. He had a past history of a gunshot injury around two years back. CT angiography revealed a large partially calcified pseudoaneurysm arising from the right lateral wall of the abdominal aorta with the neck of the pseudoaneurysm at juxtarenal location with a fistula between the anterior wall of the pseudoaneurysm and the posterior wall of the right renal vein. There was an associated incidental finding of circumaortic left renal vein with gross aneurysmal dilatation of both pre- and retro-aortic part of the renal vein. Delayed presentation of aortic pseudoaneurysm with its fistulous communication with the right renal vein is a rare entity. CT angiography is a non-invasive modality for diagnosis of the exact site of communication, length of aneurysm, proximal and distal extent of the affected segment and its relationship with surrounding structures

  13. Non-fatal gunshot wounds in the context of intimate partner violence. The importance of a multidisciplinary approach: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puentes, Katerina; Ribeiro, Cristina; Jardim, Patrícia; Santos, Agostinho; Magalhães, Teresa

    2011-07-01

    According to Portuguese law, if a case of intimate partner violence is noticed or suspected by a professional working in public services, reporting it to the police, medico-legal services or directly to the public prosecutor is mandatory. However, in most cases, reporting does not take place, despite its vital importance in triggering the multidisciplinary intervention that will ensure the correct and timely diagnosis and protection of the victim. In the present case, the victim, a 37 year-old woman, was sexually and physically abused by her husband in their home, and was physically abused again at the victim's mother's house. The victim mentioned that her husband struck her in the head with a hammer and shot a handgun while in her mother's house. However, she denied having a gunshot wound. The couple's daughter was also slapped in the face by her father. The police took the victim to the emergency room of a central hospital to receive medical attention, while the medical examiner on duty was called to the same emergency room to perform a medico-legal evaluation in the context of the intimate partner violence reported to the police. Medico-legal assessment revealed scalp injuries that had not been detected during the first inspection by the emergency room attending physicians who had performed a neurological examination, which revealed no neurological dysfunction. A cranial computed tomography with three-dimensional reconstitution and virtual dissection, requested by the medical examiner, revealed two projectiles trapped in between the inner and the outer table of the cranium, with linear fractures only in the inner table and no brain injuries. Gynecological examination with the collection of biological evidence, also performed by the medical examiner, made it possible to identify a male DNA profile matching her husband's. The victim was subjected to neurosurgery and a follow-up, and was released one month after the traumatic event. A forensic psychological

  14. Holocaust With(out Bullets: The Public and Property of the Jewish People from Šabac and the Kladovo Transport 1941–1944

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Petrović Todosijević

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to illustrate the role the municipal authorities in Šabac, which were headed by wartime mayor Branko Petrović, and which were part of Milan Aćimović’s collaborationist administration and Milan Nedić’s government, played in the process of usurping the right to property of the Jewish people from Šabac and from the Kladovo Transport, initially through the Committee for Registration and Evaluation of Jewish Property, and later through the Commissariat for Jewish Property.   Article received: May 2, 2017; Article accepted: May 8, 2017; Published online: September 15, 2017 Original scholarly paper How to cite this article: Petrović Todosijević, Sanja. "Holocaust With(out Bullets: The Public and Property of the Jewish People from Šabac and the Kladovo Transport 1941–1944." AM Journal of Art and Media Studies 13 (2017: 5-15. doi: 10.25038/am.v0i13.181

  15. Gunshot wounds to the head. Correlations between CT and clinical findings, neurosurgical treatment and long-term sequels; Traumi cranio-encefalici da proiettile: correlazione tra tomografia computerizzata, clinica, trattamento neurochirurgico e sequele a distanza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salzano, A.; Nocera, V. [Ospedale S. Giovanni di Dio, Frattamaggiore, NA (Italy). Servizio di Radiologia; De Rosa, A.; Nunziata, A. [Ospedale Loreto Mare, Neaples (Italy). Servizio di Radiologia; Rossi, E.; Brunese, L. [Universita' degli Studi Federico II, Neaples (Italy). Ist. di Scienze Radiologiche; Tuccillo, M. [Azienda Ospedaliera di Rilievo Nazionale A. Cardarelli, Neaples (Italy). Servizio di Radiologia; Grassi, R. [Seconda Universita' degli Studi, Neaples (Italy). Ist. di Radiologia

    2000-03-01

    With the aim of demonstrating the usefulness of computerised tomography (CT) findings in the planning of brain neurosurgery in gunshot victims, for prompt and successful treatment, 30 patients with brain gunshot wounds were examined with CT over 5 years. The mortality rate of firearm wounds of the skull base was 34% higher than that of the hemisphere; this is due to carotid hemorrhage and midbrain damage. Such traumas require emergency radiological diagnosis and neurosurgical treatment because of their severity and early irreversible complications. Complex operations and skilled surgeons may prevent disabling postoperative sequels. CT findings are indispensable and must be correctly interpreted. The radiologist and the neurosurgeon must collaborate closely and both must consider several diagnostic factors affecting surgical planning. [Italian] Scopo dello studio e' stato quello di dimostrare l'utilita' della semeiologia della tomografia computerizzata in relazione con la pianificazione dell'intervento neochirurgico, al fine di attuare con tempestivita' interventi chirurgici soddisfacenti e meno lesivi. Lo studio comprende 30 casi di lesioni cranio-encefaliche da arma da fuoco esaminate con tomografia computerizzata nel periodo di 5 anni. Materiali e metodi utilizzati sono analiticamente descritti. L'esperienza dimostra che nelle lesioni da arma da fuoco del basicranio si nota una mortalita' del 34% superiore rispetto a quelle piu' craniali come quelle emisferiche in relazione a emorragie carotidee e lesioni tronco-mesencefaliche. Tali traumi esigono diagnosi radiologica e terapia neurochirurgica d'urgenza per la gravita' e le precoci complicanze irreversibili. Cio' richiede interventi complessi e manualita' esperte e rapide al fine di evitare sequele postoperatorie invalidanti. La corretta e indispensabile interpretazione dei segni radiologici della tomografia computerizzata deve avvenire in stretta

  16. GUNSHOT INJURIES IN KANO, NIGERIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    this user

    the root causes of violence such as poverty, unemployment, and substance abuse will reduce the incidence of ... incidence is highest in lower income countries.2 This ... is scarcity of information in most developing .... inequalities and poverty have contributed to the rising ... conflict on a non violent basis, promoting gender.

  17. Generalization of Rindler Potential at Cluster Scales in Randers-Finslerian Spacetime: a Possible Explanation of the Bullet Cluster 1E0657-558?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zhe; Li, Ming-Hua; Lin, Hai-Nan; Li, Xin

    2012-12-01

    The data of the Bullet Cluster 1E0657-558 released on November 15, 2006 reveal that the strong and weak gravitational lensing convergence κ-map has an 8σ offset from the Σ-map. The observed Σ-map is a direct measurement of the surface mass density of the Intracluster medium (ICM) gas. It accounts for 83% of the averaged mass-fraction of the system. This suggests a modified gravity theory at large distances different from Newton's inverse-square gravitational law. In this paper, as a cluster scale generalization of Grumiller's modified gravity model (Phys. Rev. Lett.105 (2010) 211303), we present a gravity model with a generalized linear Rindler potential in Randers-Finslerian spacetime without invoking any dark matter. The galactic limit of the model is qualitatively consistent with the MOND and Grumiller's. It yields approximately the flatness of the rotational velocity profile at the radial distance of several kpcs and gives the velocity scales for spiral galaxies at which the curves become flattened. Plots of convergence κ for a galaxy cluster show that the peak of the gravitational potential has chances to lie on the outskirts of the baryonic mass center. Assuming an isotropic and isothermal ICM gas profile with temperature T = 14.8 keV (which is the center value given by observations), we obtain a good match between the dynamical mass MT of the main cluster given by collisionless Boltzmann equation and that given by the King β-model. We also consider a Randers+dark matter scenario and a Λ-CDM model with the NFW dark matter distribution profile. We find that a mass ratio η between dark matter and baryonic matter about 6 fails to reproduce the observed convergence κ-map for the isothermal temperature T taking the observational center value.

  18. Dolphins. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niskern, Diana, Comp.

    The family Delphinidae is the largest family of toothed whales. It includes not only those mammals commonly referred to as dolphins, such as the bottlenosed dolphin often seen in captivity, but also the killer whale. This literature and resources guide is not intended to be a comprehensive bibliography on dolphins; the guide is designed--as the…

  19. Tribology. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havas, George D., Comp.

    Tribology is the science and technology of interacting surfaces in relative motion. It incorporates a number of scientific fields, including friction, wear, lubrication, materials science, and various branches of surface physics and surface chemistry. Tribology forms a vital part of engineering science. The interacting surfaces may be on machinery…

  20. Algae. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niskern, Diana, Comp.

    The plants and plantlike organisms informally grouped together as algae show great diversity of form and size and occur in a wide variety of habitats. These extremely important photosynthesizers are also economically significant. For example, some species contaminate water supplies; others provide food for aquatic animals and for man; still others…

  1. Depleted uranium - 'the silver bullet'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz-Ferrada, C.; Wollongong University, NSW

    2001-01-01

    Article 35 of the Geneva protocols, signed by 150 countries in 1949 and an additional protocol signed from 1977 onwards prohibited the use of weapons that cause and inflict unnecessary injury and suffering. In the recent wars such as Bosnia, Kosovo and the Gulf War, more than 31,000 missiles were launched against enemy lines containing DU and more than 300 tonnes of DU during the Gulf War alone. DU is a radioactive and toxic element. In humans it can cause lung cancer, damage to the liver and kidney affecting the bone marrow and consequently destroying stem cells that form the white cells resulting in mutations and the long lasting effect of genetic damage

  2. Magnetic Bead—Magic Bullet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Ruffert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Microfluidics is assumed to be one of the leading and most promising areas of research since the early 1990s. In microfluidic systems, small spherical magnetic particles with superparamagnetic properties, called magnetic beads, play an important role in the design of innovative methods and tools, especially in bioanalysis and medical sciences. The intention of this review paper is to address main aspects from the state-of-the-art in the area of magnetic bead research, while demonstrating the broad variety of applications and the huge potential to solve fundamental biological and medical problems in the fields of diagnostics and therapy. Basic issues and demands related to the fabrication of magnetic particles and physical properties of nanosize magnets are discussed in Section 2. Of main interest are the control and adjustment of the nanoparticles’ properties and the availability of adequate approaches for particle detection via their magnetic field. Section 3 presents an overview of magnetic bead applications in nanomedicine. In Section 4, practical aspects of sample manipulation and separation employing magnetic beads are described. Finally, the benefits related to the use of magnetic bead-based microfluidic systems are summarized, illustrating ongoing questions and open tasks to be solved on the way to an approaching microfluidic age.

  3. The use of navigation (BrainLAB Vector vision(2)) and intraoperative 3D imaging system (Siemens Arcadis Orbic 3D) in the treatment of gunshot wounds of the maxillofacial region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröbe, Alexander; Weber, Christoph; Schmelzle, Rainer; Heiland, Max; Klatt, Jan; Pohlenz, Philipp

    2009-09-01

    Gunshot wounds are a rare occurrence during times of peace. The removal of projectiles is recommended; in some cases, however, this is a controversy. The reproduction of a projectile image can be difficult if it is not adjacent to an anatomical landmark. Therefore, navigation systems give the surgeon continuous real-time orientation intraoperatively. The aim of this study was to report our experiences for image-guided removal of projectiles and the resulting intra- and postoperative complications. We investigated 50 patients retrospectively; 32 had image-guided surgical removal of projectiles in the oral and maxillofacial region. Eighteen had surgical removal of projectiles without navigation assistance. There was a significant correlation (p = 0.0136) between the navigated surgery vs. not-navigated surgery and complication rate, including major bleeding (n = 4 vs. n = 1, 8% vs. 2%), soft tissue infections (n = 7 vs. n = 2, 14% vs. 4%), and nerval damage (n = 2 vs. n = 0, 4% vs. 0%; p = 0.038) and between the operating time and postoperative complications. A high tendency between operating time and navigated surgery (p = 0.1103) was shown. When using navigation system, we could reduce operating time. In conclusion, there is a significant correlation between reduced intra- and postoperative complications, including wound infections, nerval damage, and major bleeding, and the appropriate use of a navigation system. In all these cases, we could present reduced operating time. Cone-beam computed tomography plays an important role in detecting projectiles or metallic foreign bodies intraoperatively.

  4. Fatal contact shot to the chest caused by the gas jet from a muzzle-loading pistol discharging only black powder and no bullet: case study and experimental simulation of the wounding effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Große Perdekamp, Markus; Glardon, Matthieu; Kneubuehl, Beat P; Bielefeld, Lena; Nadjem, Hadi; Pollak, Stefan; Pircher, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    In modern medico-legal literature, only a small number of publications deal with fatal injuries from black powder guns. Most of them focus on the morphological features such as intense soot soiling, blast tattooing and burn effects in close-range shots or describe the wound ballistics of spherical lead bullets. Another kind of "unusual" and potentially lethal weapons are handguns destined for firing only blank cartridges such as starter and alarm pistols. The dangerousness of these guns is restricted to very close and contact range shots and results from the gas jet produced by the deflagration of the propellant. The present paper reports on a suicide committed with a muzzle-loading percussion pistol cal. 45. An unusually large stellate entrance wound was located in the precordial region, accompanied by an imprint mark from the ramrod and a faint greenish discoloration (apparently due to the formation of sulfhemoglobin). Autopsy revealed an oversized powder cavity, multiple fractures of the anterior thoracic wall as well as ruptures of the heart, the aorta, the left hepatic lobe and the diaphragm. In total, the zone of mechanical destruction had a diameter of approx. 15 cm. As there was no exit wound and no bullet lodged in the body, the injury was caused exclusively by the inrushing combustion gases of the propellant (black powder) comparable with the gas jet of a blank cartridge gun. In contact shots to ballistic gelatine using the suicide's pistol loaded with black powder but no projectile, the formation of a nearly spherical cavity could be demonstrated by means of a high-speed camera. The extent of the temporary cavity after firing with 5 g of black powder roughly corresponded to the zone of destruction found in the suicide's body.

  5. Two-gun suicide by simultaneous shots to the head: interdisciplinary reconstruction on the basis of scene investigation, autopsy findings, GSR analysis and examination of firearms, bullets and cartridge cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse Perdekamp, Markus; Nadjem, Hadi; Merkel, Joachim; Braunwarth, Roland; Pollak, Stefan; Thierauf, Annette

    2011-07-01

    Suicidal shots fired simultaneously to the head from two handguns are rare. The authors report about a recent case in which a Smith & Wesson cal. 9 mm pistol and a Smith & Wesson cal. .357 Magnum revolver were used. Sitting on a sofa, a 33-year-old man (member of a shooting club) fired two simultaneous shots to the head; the pistol held in the left hand was discharged into the left temple, and the revolver held in the right hand was fired into the mouth. Both weapons remained in the respective hands. An upside-down muzzle imprint in the left temporal region and recoil injuries of a mandibular incisor, and the lower lip indicated that both the pistol and the revolver had been held in an inverted manner at the time of discharge. Blood stains (backspatter) and gunshot residues were present on both firing hands, whereas forward spatter originating from the exit wounds was deposited on the wall behind the suicide's head.

  6. Participação da radiologia nas perícias necroscópicas de baleados realizadas no Instituto Médico-Legal do Rio de Janeiro The role of radiology in autopsy in gunshot wounds cases performed at "Instituto Médico Legal" of Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Falcão de Oliveira

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este trabalho aborda as conseqüências de laudos necroscópicos incompletos de baleados, nos casos em que não foi possível o uso de recursos radiológicos para localizar os projéteis de arma de fogo. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foram analisados 8.185 laudos necroscópicos do Instituto Médico-Legal Afrânio Peixoto, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, referentes à demanda total de cadáveres no período de 1º de janeiro a 31 de dezembro de 2001, dos quais 3.122 casos corresponderam a necropsias de baleados. RESULTADOS: Desses casos, 309 corpos foram sepultados contendo ainda, no seu interior, projéteis de arma de fogo, podendo suscitar futuras indagações judiciais. No mesmo período foram solicitadas 23 exumações, 12 delas com a finalidade de recolher projéteis. Foram calculados os gastos relacionados à realização de necropsias de baleados - R$ 996,85 - e custos alusivos à realização de exumações com a finalidade de recolher projéteis de arma de fogo - R$ 1.155,40, visando a estabelecer o montante financeiro que poderia ser poupado pelos cofres públicos, a ser alocado para finalidades outras, se a perícia médico-legal de baleados, no exame inicial, obtivesse sucesso. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados permitiram concluir que todos os atos necroscópicos de baleados devem seguir protocolos específicos, uma vez que perícias incompletas exigem exumação posterior, com gastos adicionais desnecessários.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the consequences of incomplete necropsy reports of gunshot victims, in cases in which radiological methods were not used to locate the firearm projectiles. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 8,185 necropsy reports of "Instituto Médico-Legal Afrânio Peixoto", Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were reviewed. This corresponds to the total number of corpses of the period from January to December 2001, and 3,122 of these consisted of autopsies of gunshot victims. RESULTS: Out of these 3,122, 309 bodies were buried with the firearm

  7. Gunshot Wounds of the South Mrican War*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1971-10-09

    Oct 9, 1971 ... the brain, the heart, the gullet, the porta of the liver, or the spinal marrow ... large blood-vessels and arteries in the region of the throat had been cut. ..... 'in many places in South Africa the surrounding condi- tions were most ...

  8. Gunshot Wounds of the South Mrican War*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1971-10-09

    Oct 9, 1971 ... of the wounds which were to be caused by the Mauser and. Lee-Metford ... Trojan War and at the beginning of the Christian era, when it was written ..... 9 Oktober 1971. The South African War was the first, and probably the.

  9. Nanobody: the "magic bullet" for molecular imaging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, Rubel; Goel, Shreya; Cai, Weibo

    2014-01-01

    Molecular imaging involves the non-invasive investigation of biological processes in vivo at the cellular and molecular level, which can play diverse roles in better understanding and treatment of various diseases. Recently, single domain antigen-binding fragments known as 'nanobodies' were bioengineered and tested for molecular imaging applications. Small molecular size (~15 kDa) and suitable configuration of the complementarity determining regions (CDRs) of nanobodies offer many desirable features suitable for imaging applications, such as rapid targeting and fast blood clearance, high solubility, high stability, easy cloning, modular nature, and the capability of binding to cavities and difficult-to-access antigens. Using nanobody-based probes, several imaging techniques such as radionuclide-based, optical and ultrasound have been employed for visualization of target expression in various disease models. This review summarizes the recent developments in the use of nanobody-based probes for molecular imaging applications. The preclinical data reported to date are quite promising, and it is expected that nanobody-based molecular imaging agents will play an important role in the diagnosis and management of various diseases.

  10. Asbestos and Asbestosis. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderson, Karen L., Comp.

    Asbestos is a naturally occurring mineral found in several forms and because of its temperature-resisting properties, flexibility, and strength, it was widely used in the construction industry, automobile industry, and textile industry. Asbestos becomes dangerous when it crumbles and breaks releasing fibers that can cause asbestosis and certain…

  11. Soil Erosion. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buydos, John F., Comp.

    Soil erosion is the detachment and movement of topsoil or soil material from the upper part of the soil profile. It may occur in the form of rill, gully, sheet, or wind erosion. Agents of erosion may be water, wind, glacial ice, agricultural implements, machinery, and animals. Soil conservation measures require a thorough understanding of the…

  12. Adaptive Counterterrorism Tools over Silver Bullets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Rosenqvist; Wiil, Uffe Kock

    Forging information network structures to understand spider webs of fixers, go-betweens and jihadists related to acts of terrorism is a complex task. Adapting models to represent the expected structure of networks for future pattern and missing link detection is even more challenging. In this paper...... in order to coordinate or reach consensus. Terrorism information structures are by nature emergent and evolving and as a consequence the retrievable knowledge keeps shifting patterns. We implement spatial and navigational hypertext techniques to support this nature. Working with knowledge, it is a common...... error to believe that the proliferation of terrorist violence is due to the wider availability of information through the Internet. This misconception, that all you need is knowledge, also applies to counterterrorism strategies. Actually experience, skill and resources of the individuals involved...

  13. Magic ferritin: A novel chemotherapeutic encapsulation bullet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simsek, Ece; Akif Kilic, Mehmet

    2005-01-01

    The dissociation of apoferritin into subunits at pH 2 followed by its reformation at pH 7.4 in the presence of doxorubicin-HCl gives rise to a solution containing five doxorubicin-HCl molecules trapped within the apoferritin. This is the first report showing that ferritin can encapsulate an anti-cancer drug into its cavity

  14. Acid Rain. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollmann, Pauline, Comp.

    The term "acid rain," also called "acid precipitation," generally refers to any precipitation having a pH value of less than 5.6. This guide to the literature on acid rain in the collections of the Library of Congress is not necessarily intended to be a comprehensive bibliography. It is designed to provide the reader with a set…

  15. No silver bullet in international development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Daneri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Development economics has started to propose solutions to the problem of development in underdeveloped countries since the 17th century. Over time, various solutions have been proposed by many different development researchers and economists. Most of these solutions have the common characteristic of looking for a so-called “silver bullet” to the problem of development, that is to say a single solution to be applied to all underdeveloped countries, which over time might be freedom, foreign aid, good governance or other single approach. The purpose of this paper is to argue that, being development generally intended as a sort of “adequate level of production of goods and services by public and private subjects in a given country”, the solution to the problem of development cannot be a single one, given that the basic theory of production in economics in based on 4 factors of production (entrepreneurship, labor, capital and land, so that the level and quality of these 4 factors and all the sub-factors influencing them (such as the climate in the case of land or the culture in the case of entrepreneurship will be the real responsible for the development process in a country.

  16. Endangered Species (Plants). LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niskern, Diana, Comp.

    This guide is intended for those who wish to study the literature dealing with various aspects of endangered plant species. This document includes the following sections, some of which are bibliographies: (1) "Introductions to the Topic"; (2) "Subject Headings" (for endangered species of plants used by the Library of Congress); (3) "General…

  17. Bullet-Block Science Video Puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakur, Asif

    2015-01-01

    A science video blog, which has gone viral, shows a wooden block shot by a vertically aimed rifle. The video shows that the block hit dead center goes exactly as high as the one shot off-center. (Fig. 1). The puzzle is that the block shot off-center carries rotational kinetic energy in addition to the gravitational potential energy. This leads a…

  18. Electric Vehicles. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buydos, John E., Comp.

    This document reviews the literature in the collections of the Library of Congress on electric vehicles. Not intended as a comprehensive bibliography, this guide is designed as the title implies, to put the reader "on target." This is of greatest utility to the beginning student of the topic. (AA)

  19. Research activities: magic bullet and all that

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basten, Tony.

    1990-01-01

    The Centenary Institute of Cancer Medicine and Cell Biology is the brain-child of the University of Sydney and its campus teaching hospital, Royal Prince Alfred. At present its research portfolio includes studies of cancer, autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis or multiple sclerosis (in which white cells or antibodies attack our own tissues), and certain infections diseases, including leprosy and AIDS. Experiments involving radioactively labelled monoclonal antibodies in immunological and molecular biology studies are briefly presented. ills

  20. Combinación de colgajos locales y libre microvascularizado para reconstrucción del tercio facial inferior tras traumatismo por arma de fuego Combination of local and free microvascularized flaps for reconstruction of the lower third of the face after gunshot injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Villanueva-Alcojol

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El traumatismo por arma de fuego en el territorio maxilofacial constituye uno de los mayores retos a los que se enfrenta el cirujano a la hora de la reconstrucción. La diferencia esencial con otro tipo de traumatismos es la severidad de la lesión y la pérdida de tejidos óseos y blandos. Podemos encontrar en la literatura numerosos artículos sobre reconstrucción facial tras extirpación oncológica; sin embargo, hay pocos documentos que discutan la utilización de colgajos locales y libres microvascularizados para reconstrucción de defectos tras traumatismos de alta energía, y los algoritmos terapéuticos para reconstrucción postraumática. En este trabajo se presenta un caso de reconstrucción del tercio inferior facial tras intento de autolisis y se hace una revisión de los principios de tratamiento de este tipo de pacientes.Gunshot wounds to the maxillofacial region are a challenging problem for the surgeon responsible for reconstruction. The essential difference with respect to other injuries is the severity of the lesion and soft and hard tissue loss. Extensive literature exists on facial reconstruction following tumor extirpation, but there are few reports on the use of local flaps and free tissue transfer for the post-traumatic reconstruction of high-energy defects and therapeutic algorithms for post-traumatic reconstruction. The authors report the case of a patient with reconstruction of the lower third of the face after a suicide attempt and review the principles of treatment of these patients.

  1. Embolus location affects the sensitivity of a rapid quantitative D-dimer assay in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Monyé, Wouter; Sanson, Bernd-Jan; Mac Gillavry, Melvin R.; Pattynama, Peter M. T.; Büller, Harry R.; van den Berg-Huysmans, Annette A.; Huisman, Menno V.

    2002-01-01

    D-dimer blood tests have been suggested to rule out pulmonary embolism. Despite evidence of the safety of withholding anticoagulant treatment in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism and a normal D-dimer assay result, clinicians remain reluctant to use a D-dimer assay as a sole diagnostic test.

  2. Airway status in civilian maxillofacial gunshot Injuries in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The airway was threatened in 20/92 cases at admission; 12/20 cases were treated with oro-or nasotracheal intubation, and 9/12 later had elective tracheostomies; 8/20 needed immediate surgical airways, 5 tracheostomies and 3 cricothyroidotomies (all later converted to tracheostomies). Three of thirty-seven patients with ...

  3. [Ballistic concepts and management of gunshot wounds at members].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabeck, L; Hock, N; Goffin, J; Ngatchou, W

    2017-01-01

    Ballistic trauma is not the prerogative of battlefields and currently extends to civil environments. Any surgeon or emergency room can be faced with such trauma whose management requires an understanding of wound ballistics. The aim of this retrospective is reviewing the management of ballistic trauma within the C.H.U. Saint-Pierre hospital over a period of ten years. Data recorded included demographics data, lesions, clinical parameters, imaging, treatment and outcome. It appears that the wounds of the members have a low mortality rate but a significant rate of complications. Patients should be managed according to the ATLS protocol and according hemodynamic stability and location of the injury, benefit from imaging. Unstable patients will be operated in emergency, stable patients will be treated according to the extent of damage and the type of fracture either conservatively or by external fixator and intramedullary centromedullary. Debridement and antibiotics are recommended as a nerve exploration if there is a peripheral paralysis. The management of trauma in our sample appear not optimal in light of the literature especially in terms of setting the vascular point of debridement, antibiotic and nerve repair resulting in significant consequences. Two management protocols according to patients' hemodynamic status are offered.

  4. The burden of gunshot injuries on orthopaedic healthcare resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-12-31

    cost-saving measures, including redirection of financial resources to primary prevention initiatives. S Afr Med J .... various surgical disciplines must share. The longest ..... Treasury Reporting Rates of Exchange as of December 31, 2012. https://.

  5. SPINE GUNSHOT WOUNDS AT THE CENTRAL MILITARY HOSPITAL IN MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ISAAC ENRIQUE HERNÁNDEZ TÉLLEZ

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To compare the measurement of the Cobb angle in printed radiographs and digitalized radiographs displayed with the "PixViewer" tool. Methods: Pre-operative radiographs of 23 patients were performed in printed films and using the software "PixViewer". The same evaluator, a spine surgeon, chose the proximal and distal end vertebrae at the limit of the main curve in printed radiographs without identifying patients, and measured the Cobb angle based on these parameters. The same parameters and measurements were performed in digitalized radiographs. The measurements were compared, as well as the choice of end vertebrae. Results: The average change in the Cobb angle between the methods was 1.48±1.73°. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC was 0.99, demonstrating excellent reproducibility. Conclusion: The Cobb method can be used to evaluate scoliosis through the "PixViewer" tool with the same reliability of the classic method on printed radiographs.

  6. Anaesthetic Challenges In Gunshot Injury To The Neck | Adegboye ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Health Sciences. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 22, No 1 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  7. Pattern Of Extremity Gunshot Injuries Seen In Lagos University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , ... mostly (80%) by armed robbers. Shot guns were used in shooting 47.5% of patients. Conclusion: The study showed that young adult males were more affected by GSI. Most of the shootings occurred at night by armed robbers. NQJHM Vol.

  8. Spectrum of Gunshot Injuries in Civilian Practice at a Tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Outcome of treatment depended on promptness of definitive care and the nature of injuries at presentation (p= 0.001 and p=0.026 respectively). Conclusion: Injuries from high velocity guns were common. Armed robbery, assault and accidental discharge from law enforcement agents were the major sources. Outcome was ...

  9. Epidemiology of gunshot injuries in Kano, Nigeria | Mohammed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Surgical Research. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 7, No 3 (2005) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected ...

  10. An update on TED gunshot detection system development status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidhar, Gil A.; Aphek, Ori; Gurovich, Martin

    2009-05-01

    In recent years the TED system has been under development, starting from new SWIR sensor technology, optics and real-time sensor technologies and following with complete system architecture as a soldier mounted optical gun shot detection system with high precision and imaging means. For the first time, the modules and the concept of operation of the system will be explained, with emphasis on new sensor-to-shooter capabilities. Actual field trial results will be shown.

  11. Epidemiology of armed robbery‑related gunshot injuries in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-05-11

    May 11, 2011 ... with a range of 14–67 years, 84 (65.1%) were young males between 20 and 40 ... travelers to prefer travelling at night rather than travelling during the day ... means that the distance to hospital might be a factor in delaying ...

  12. Epidemiology of gunshot bodies referred for forensic medicine in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazaher Ghorbani

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Based on results of this study, age of victims is higher than previously ob-served patterns, such as gender of victims, location of shots, type of weapon used is different with international reports due to differences in availability of Iranian weapons and cultural differences. The results of this study can be a base for other investigations’s changes in trends of total firearm death rates, mass fatal shooting incidents, rates of firearm homicide, suicide and unintentional firearm deaths, and of total homicides and suicides.

  13. Penetrating spinal injuries and their management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Penetrating spinal trauma due to missile/gunshot injuries has been well reported in the literature and has remained the domain of military warfare more often. Civic society′s recent upsurge in gunshot injuries has created a dilemma for the treating neurosurgeon in many ways as their management has always involved certain debatable and controversial issues. Both conservative and surgical management of penetrating spinal injuries (PSI have been practiced widely. The chief neurosurgical concern in these types of firearm injuries is the degree of damage sustained during the bullet traversing through the neural tissue and the after-effects of the same in long term. We had an interesting case of a penetrating bullet injury to cervical spine at C2 vertebral level. He was operated and the bullets were removed from posterior midline approach. Usually, the management of such cases differs from region to region depending on the preference of the surgeon but still certain common principles are followed world over. Thus, we realized the need to review the literature regarding spinal injuries with special emphasis on PSI and to study the recent guidelines for their treatment in light of our case.

  14. Measuring Training ROI: Silver Bullet or Urban Legend

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    TSRD Doc NAWC Training Systems Division. Training Systems Requirements Analysis Webpage, 30 August 2007 Training System Plan Engineering Specs...QUESTIONNAIRES PERFORMANCE CONTRACTING MONITORING MEASURES OF EFFECTIVENESS 1-X: MSN EFFECTIVENESS (OUTPUT-ORIENTED) e.g.: SAFETY ENVIROMENTAL IMPACT...All costs required to research and develop a system before committing it to production ( engineering design, manufacturing of test articles, testing

  15. Green Growth—Magic Bullet or Damp Squib?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eckehard Rosenbaum

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper identifies various conceptualisations of green growth with a view to identify the causal mechanisms that can support a green growth policy agenda to investigate the implications of these conceptualisations for measuring progress towards green growth, to identify possible trade-offs and integrate measures, and to explore the governance challenges that a green growth agenda is likely to pose against the background that many environmental problems have a bearing on multiple levels of governance.

  16. Heparin: The Silver Bullet of Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas K. Khattar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Various neurological diseases have recently been associated with neuroinflammation and worsening outcomes. Subarachnoid hemorrhage has been shown to generate a potent neuroinflammatory response. Heparin is a potential effective anti-inflammatory agent to prevent initial injury as well as delayed neurological decline. Different mechanisms of action for heparin have been proposed including, but not limited to the binding and neutralization of oxyhemoglobin, decreased transcription and signal transduction of endothelin-1, inhibition of binding to vessel wall selectins and vascular leakage into the subarachnoid space as well as direct binding and neutralization of inflammatory molecules. With a reasonably safe side-effect profile, heparin has shown significant promise in small series in human studies of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in decreasing both initial and delayed neurological injury. Further studies are needed to validate various neuroprotective features of heparin in subarachnoid hemorrhage as well as other disease states.

  17. Magic Bullet: Real-Time Anytime Treatment Learning, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Quality vehicle health management systems are critical to the successful operation of modern sounding rockets, and other unmanned vehicles. Unfortunately, the...

  18. Transgenic probiotica as drug delivery systems : the golden bullet?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuvaraj, Saravanan; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; Bos, Nicolaas A.

    Functional human proteins are constitutively produced in genetically modified bacteria that survive on human mucosal surfaces, to the benefit of the host. The successful Phase I clinical trial with IL-10-producing Lactococcus lactis for Crohn's disease has opened new avenues for the use of

  19. Crony Attack: Strategic Attack’s Silver Bullet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    physical assets or financial assets. The form of crony attack that most closely resembles classic strategic attack is to deny, degrade, or destroy a money...February 1951. Reprinted in Airpower Studies Coursebook , Air Command and Staff College, Maxwell AFB, AL, 2002, 152–58. Hirsch, Michael. “NATO’s Game of

  20. Simulation of granular soil behaviour using the bullet physics library

    OpenAIRE

    Izadi, Ehsan; Bezuijen, Adam

    2015-01-01

    A physics engine is computer software which provides a simulation of certain physical systems, such as rigid body dynamics, soft body dynamics and fluid dynamics. Physics engines were firstly developed for using in animation and gaming industry ; nevertheless, due to fast calculation speed they are attracting more and more attetion from researchers of the engineering fields. Since physics engines are capable of performing fast calculations on multibody rigid dynamic systems, soil particles ca...

  1. THE ABUNDANCE OF BULLET GROUPS IN ΛCDM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández-Trincado, J. G.; Forero-Romero, J. E. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de los Andes, Cra. 1 No. 18A-10, Edificio Ip, Bogotá (Colombia); Foex, G.; Motta, V. [Instituto de Física y Astronomía, Universidad de Valparaíso, Avda. Gran Bretaña 1111, Playa Ancha, Valparaíso 2360102 (Chile); Verdugo, T., E-mail: jfernandez@obs-besancon.fr, E-mail: je.forero@uniandes.edu.co [Centro de Investigaciones de Astronomía, AP 264, Mérida 5101-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2014-06-01

    We estimate the expected distribution of displacements between the two dominant dark matter (DM) peaks (DM-DM displacements) and between the DM and gaseous baryon peak (DM-gas displacements) in DM halos with masses larger than 10{sup 13} h {sup –1} M {sub ☉}. As a benchmark, we use the observation of SL2S J08544–0121, which is the lowest mass system (1.0 × 10{sup 14} h {sup –1} M {sub ☉}) observed so far, featuring a bi-modal DM distribution with a dislocated gas component. We find that (50 ± 10)% of the DM halos with circular velocities in the range 300-700 km s{sup –1} (groups) show DM-DM displacements equal to or larger than 186 ± 30 h {sup –1} kpc as observed in SL2S J08544–0121. For DM halos with circular velocities larger than 700 km s{sup –1} (clusters) this fraction rises to (70 ± 10)%. Using the same simulation, we estimate the DM-gas displacements and find that 0.1%-1.0% of the groups should present separations equal to or larger than 87 ± 14 h {sup –1} kpc, corresponding to our observational benchmark; for clusters, this fraction rises to (7 ± 3)%, consistent with previous studies of DM to baryon separations. Considering both constraints on the DM-DM and DM-gas displacements, we find that the number density of groups similar to SL2S J08544–0121 is ∼6.0 × 10{sup –7} Mpc{sup –3}, three times larger than the estimated value for clusters. These results open up the possibility for a new statistical test of ΛCDM by looking for DM-gas displacements in low mass clusters and groups.

  2. Mud, Blood, and Bullet Holes: Teaching History with War Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    From handwritten letters of the American Revolution to typed emails from Iraq and Afghanistan, correspondence from U.S. troops offers students deep insight into the specific conflicts and experiences of soldiers. Over 100,000 correspondences have been donated to the Legacy Project, a national initiative launched in 1998 to preserve war letters by…

  3. Agmatine: multifunctional arginine metabolite and magic bullet in clinical neuroscience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laube, Gregor; Bernstein, Hans-Gert

    2017-07-26

    Agmatine, the decarboxylation product of arginine, was largely neglected as an important player in mammalian metabolism until the mid-1990s, when it was re-discovered as an endogenous ligand of imidazoline and α 2 -adrenergic receptors. Since then, a wide variety of agmatine-mediated effects have been observed, and consequently agmatine has moved from a wallflower existence into the limelight of clinical neuroscience research. Despite this quantum jump in scientific interest, the understanding of the anabolism and catabolism of this amine is still vague. The purification and biochemical characterization of natural mammalian arginine decarboxylase and agmatinase still are open issues. Nevertheless, the agmatinergic system is currently one of the most promising candidates in order to pharmacologically interfere with some major diseases of the central nervous system, which are summarized in the present review. Particularly with respect to major depression, agmatine, its derivatives, and metabolizing enzymes show great promise for the development of an improved treatment of this common disease. © 2017 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  4. Caffeine citrate – Is it a silver bullet in neonatology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bikash Shrestha

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Caffeine citrate is one of the most prescribed drug in the present day NICU for apnea. Its efficacy, tolerability, wide therapeutic index and safety margin has made it the drug of choice among the methylxanthines. Its therapeutic uses in apnea of prematurity, mechanical ventilation, bronchopulmonary dysplasia has made it a “silver bullet” in neonatology. However, there are still controversies surrounding this drug. This review is aimed to update the reader about the basic pharmacology, current therapeutic uses, adverse effects, controversies as well as present and future research of caffeine.

  5. Strategic Alignment in Business Education: The Second Magic Bullet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcoba, Jesu

    2014-01-01

    There is a need for strategic thinking in higher education. Loyalty to a business school's values and need to differentiate lead one to reflect on the actions undertaken within the institution and how they align with the business school's aims. This article contributes to this issue through what is called strategic alignment, which is the…

  6. Earthquakes and Earthquake Engineering. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buydos, John F., Comp.

    An earthquake is a shaking of the ground resulting from a disturbance in the earth's interior. Seismology is the (1) study of earthquakes; (2) origin, propagation, and energy of seismic phenomena; (3) prediction of these phenomena; and (4) investigation of the structure of the earth. Earthquake engineering or engineering seismology includes the…

  7. Application of life cycle analysis: The case of green bullets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogard, J.S.; Yuracko, K.L.; Murray, M.E.; Lowden, R.A.; Vaughn, N.L.

    1998-06-01

    Life-cycle analysis (LCA) has been used to analyze the desirability of replacing lead with a composite of tungsten and tin in projectile slugs used in small arms ammunition at US Department of Energy (DOE) training facilities for security personnel. The analysis includes consideration of costs, performance, environmental and human health impacts, availability of raw materials, and stakeholder acceptance. The DOE expends approximately 10 million rounds of small-arms ammunition each year training security personnel. This deposits over 300,000 pounds of lead and copper annually into DOE firing ranges, contributing to lead migration in the surrounding environment. Human lead intake occurs by inhalation of contaminated indoor firing range air and air containing lead particles that are resuspended during regular maintenance and cleanup, and by skin absorption while cleaning weapons. Projectiles developed by researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) using a composite of tungsten and tin perform as well as, or better than, those fabricated using lead. A cost analysis shows that tungsten-tin is less costly to use than lead, since, for the current number of rounds used annually, the higher tungsten-tin purchase price is small compared with higher maintenance costs associated with lead. The tungsten-tin composite presents a much smaller potential for adverse human health and environmental impacts than lead. Only a small fraction of the world`s tungsten production occurs in the United States, however, and market-economy countries account for only around 15% of world tungsten production. Life cycle analysis clearly shows that advantages outweigh risks in replacing lead with tungsten-tin in small-caliber projectiles at DOE training facilities. Concerns about the availability of raw tungsten are mitigated by the ease of converting back to lead (if necessary) and the recyclability of tungsten-tin rounds.

  8. Application of life cycle analysis: The case of green bullets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogard, J.S.; Yuracko, K.L.; Lowden, R.A.; Murray, M.E.; Vaughn, N.L.

    1998-11-01

    Life-cycle analysis (LCA) provides a general framework for assessing and summarizing all of the information important to a decision. LCA has been used to analyze the desirability of replacing lead (Pb) with a composite of tungsten (W) and tin (Sn) in projectile slugs used in small arms ammunition at US Department of Energy (DOE) training facilities for security personnel. The analysis includes consideration of costs, performance, environmental and human health impacts, availability of raw materials, and stakeholder acceptance. The DOE expends approximately 10 million rounds of small-arms ammunition each year training security personnel. This deposits over 300,000 pounds of lead and copper annually into DOE firing ranges, contributing to lead migration in the surrounding environment. Human lead intake occurs by inhalation of contaminated indoor firing range air and air containing lead particles that are resuspended during regular maintenance and cleanup, and by skin absorption while cleaning weapons. Projectiles developed by researchers at Oak Ridge National laboratory (ORNL) using a composite of tungsten and tin perform as well as, or better than, those fabricated using lead. A cost analysis shows that tungsten-tin is less costly to use than lead, since, for the current number of rounds used annually, the higher tungsten-tin purchase price is small compared with higher maintenance costs associated with lead. The tungsten-tin composite presents a much smaller potential for adverse human health and environmental impacts than lead. Only a small fraction of the world`s tungsten production occurs in the US, however, and market-economy countries account for only around 15% of world tungsten production. Stakeholders would prefer tungsten-tin on the basis of total cost, performance, reduced environmental impact and lower human toxicity. Lead is preferable on the basis of material availability.

  9. Silver diamine fluoride: a caries "silver-fluoride bullet".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, A; Stamford, T C M; Niederman, R

    2009-02-01

    The antimicrobial use of silver compounds pivots on the 100-year-old application of silver nitrate, silver foil, and silver sutures for the prevention and treatment of ocular, surgical, and dental infections. Ag(+) kills pathogenic organisms at concentrations of linings, water purification systems, hospital gowns, and caries prevention. To distill the current best evidence relative to caries, this systematic review asked: Will silver diamine fluoride (SDF) more effectively prevent caries than fluoride varnish? A five-database search, reference review, and hand search identified 99 human clinical trials in three languages published between 1966 and 2006. Dual review for controlled clinical trials with the patient as the unit of observation, and excluding cross-sectional, animal, in vitro studies, and opinions, identified 2 studies meeting the inclusion criteria. The trials indicated that SDF's lowest prevented fractions for caries arrest and caries prevention were 96.1% and 70.3%, respectively. In contrast, fluoride varnish's highest prevented fractions for caries arrest and caries prevention were 21.3% and 55.7%, respectively. Similarly, SDF's highest numbers needed to treat for caries arrest and caries prevention were 0.8 (95% CI=0.5-1.0) and 0.9 (95% CI=0.4-1.1), respectively. For fluoride varnish, the lowest numbers needed to treat for caries arrest and prevention were 3.7 (95% CI=3.4-3.9) and 1.1 (95% CI=0.7-1.4), respectively. Adverse events were monitored, with no significant differences between control and experimental groups. These promising results suggest that SDF is more effective than fluoride varnish, and may be a valuable caries-preventive intervention. As well, the availability of a safe, effective, efficient, and equitable caries-preventive agent appears to meet the criteria of both the WHO Millennium Goals and the US Institute of Medicine's criteria for 21st century medical care.

  10. Bullet Ultrasonic Obstruction Detection & Distance Measurement Using AVR Microcontroller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Pandey

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the practical implementation of a short range ultrasonic obstruction detection and distance measurement device. By employing an ultrasonic transducer pair for producing ultrasonic sounds and sensing the reflected sound waves, the obstructions are detected. The hardware interface uses an Atmel ATmega8 AVR microcontroller to facilitate the generation of 40 kHz signal burst which is used in the transmitter circuit, and also to process the received signal for measuring the time of flight of reflected waves and exact distance of the obstruction. The program for this device is developed in WinAVR, and the code generated is dumped into microcontroller using AVR Studio. Educational aspects of this project include the mastery of a programming language and corresponding tools, the design of a functional and intuitive embedded application, and the development of appropriate hardware to build the device.

  11. Unidentified Flying Objects (UFOs). LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. Science and Technology Div.

    This guide lists information sources dealing with unidentified flying objects (UFOs). Not meant to be a comprehensive bibliography, this compilation is designed--as the name of the series implies--to put the reader "on target." Included are: (1) subject headings used by the Library of Congress, under which publications on this subject…

  12. Bullet dents – “Proof marks” or battle damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams, Alan

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available

    It is well known that the breastplates of many armours from the later 16th century and the 17th century bear the hemispherical dents generally known as proof marks. It has been taken as axiomatic that these marks were made in order to demonstrate the armours’ effectiveness against firearms. If however some of these dents are compared with dents which are the result of battle damage, it appears that they were made by energy levels of a different order of magnitude, and offer little guarantee as to the “proof” of the armour.



    Como es bien sabido, muchos petos de armaduras de finales del siglo XVI y del XVII tienen abolladuras semiesféricas conocidas como pruebas de arcabuz. Se ha considerado axiomático que estas abolladuras fueron hechas para demostrar la efectividad de las armaduras frente a las armas de fuego. Sin embargo, si se comparan con otras debidas a daños en combate, parece que fueron producidas por energías de diferente orden o magnitud, al tiempo que ofrecen pocas garantías como “pruebas” de las armaduras.

  13. The origin of the fan of "bullets" in OMC-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, Vasilii

    A possible mechanism for the formation of linear features radially diverging from the common origin in the Orion molecular cloud OMC-1 is considered. It is shown that a fan of ejections may arise by interaction of a spherical shock wave with dense cloudlets situated in the neighbourhood of the shock's source. The mechanism of formation of ejections is based on the well-known cumulative effect arising in converging conical flows.

  14. Bullets and Votes: Violence and Electoral Participation in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro Trelles; Miguel Carreras

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the effect of criminal violence on electoral participation in Mexico. Many scholars have studied the origins of criminal violence, as well as the success or failure of contemporary regimes in dealing with it. However, few have studied how it affects voter turnout. Following recent findings in the behavioral subfield, we hypothesize that as criminal violence increases, citizens abandon public channels of participation and ta...

  15. ICTs are not a magic bullet for women's empowerment | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... communication technologies (ICTs) offer enormous potential for transforming the ... of extensive research carried out by GRACE with financial support from IDRC . ... and therefore cannot easily take advantage of training and other resources; ...

  16. ICTs are not a magic bullet for women's empowerment | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-08

    Oct 8, 2010 ... Cellphones, the Internet, and other information and communication ... enormous potential for transforming the lives of women in developing countries, ... of empowerment offered by ICTs is better met are outlined in the book.

  17. Airway Management in a Patient With Tracheal Disruption due to Penetrating Neck Trauma With Hollow Point Ammunition: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Angela M; Hill, James L; Zagorski, Dave J; McClain, Joseph M; Maronian, Nicole C

    2018-05-01

    Rapid sequence induction and intubation was performed for a patient in respiratory distress after a gunshot wound to the neck. Resistance was noted distal to vocal cords. With a bronchoscope unavailable, the endotracheal tube was advanced with a corkscrew maneuver. Subcutaneous emphysema had developed. The endotracheal tube was advanced into the right mainstem with adequate ventilation. Imaging illustrated tracheoesophageal injury. The patient was emergently explored. An intraluminal bullet was removed, lateral wall tracheal defect was repaired, and a tracheostomy was placed. The intubating provider should secure the airway by the method they are most comfortable, have high suspicion of airway injury, and prepare to manage airway disruption.

  18. Wounding effects of the AK-47 rifle used by Patrick Purdy in the Stockton, California, schoolyard shooting of January 17, 1989.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fackler, M L; Malinowski, J A; Hoxie, S W; Jason, A

    1990-09-01

    The limited disruption produced in tissue simulant by the rifle and bullets used in the Stockton, California, schoolyard shooting is entirely consistent with the autopsy reports on the five children who died of their wounds. It is also entirely consistent with well-documented battlefield studies and with previous tissue-simulant studies from many laboratories. It is inconsistent with many exaggerated accounts of assault-rifle wounding effects described by the media in the aftermath of this incident. This information should be documented for the historical record. However, the critical reason for correcting the misconceptions produced by media reaction to this incident is to prevent inappropriate gunshot-wound treatment.

  19. Application of the proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique to the study of problems in forensic science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, S.; Varier, K.M.; Mehta, G.K.; Sen, P.; Panigrahi, N.

    1981-01-01

    The PIXE technique has been successfully applied to study crime related problems in forensic science. The experimental arrangements and various practical problems involved are discussed. Consistency and reproducibility checks are presented. The results from the gun-shot residue profiles of the associated elements about the bullet hole obtained for various firing distances showed that the sensitivity of the PIXE technique could play a vital role in forensic science in assigning the distance from the gun to the victim and identifying the type of bullet used. PIXE runs on other forensic related specimens demonstrate its usefulness in indetification and evaluation of vital parameters related to a crime. The reliability and the importance of the PIXE method in solving criminal and related problems in forensic science are discussed. (orig.)

  20. High-speed video analysis of forward and backward spattered blood droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comiskey, Patrick; Yarin, Alexander; Attinger, Daniel

    2017-11-01

    High-speed videos of blood spatter due to a gunshot taken by the Ames Laboratory Midwest Forensics Resource Center are analyzed. The videos used in this analysis were focused on a variety of targets hit by a bullet which caused either forward, backward, or both types of blood spatter. The analysis process utilized particle image velocimetry and particle analysis software to measure drop velocities as well as the distributions of the number of droplets and their respective side view area. This analysis revealed that forward spatter results in drops travelling twice as fast compared to backward spatter, while both types of spatter contain drops of approximately the same size. Moreover, the close-to-cone domain in which drops are issued is larger in forward spatter than in the backward one. The inclination angle of the bullet as it penetrates the target is seen to play a significant role in the directional preference of the spattered blood. Also, the aerodynamic drop-drop interaction, muzzle gases, bullet impact angle, as well as the aerodynamic wake of the bullet are seen to greatly influence the flight of the drops. The aim of this study is to provide a quantitative basis for current and future research on bloodstain pattern analysis. This work was financially supported by the United States National Institute of Justice (award NIJ 2014-DN-BXK036).

  1. Virtual animation of victim-specific 3D models obtained from CT scans for forensic reconstructions: Living and dead subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, C; Olsen, K B; Hansen, S H

    2017-09-01

    Post-mortem CT scanning (PMCT) has been introduced at several forensic medical institutions many years ago and has proved to be a useful tool. 3D models of bones, skin, internal organs and bullet paths can rapidly be generated using post-processing software. These 3D models reflect the individual physiognomics and can be used to create whole-body 3D virtual animations. In such way, virtual reconstructions of the probable ante-mortem postures of victims can be constructed and contribute to understand the sequence of events. This procedure is demonstrated in two victims of gunshot injuries. Case #1 was a man showing three perforating gunshot wounds, who died due to the injuries of the incident. Whole-body PMCT was performed and 3D reconstructions of bones, relevant internal organs and bullet paths were generated. Using 3ds Max software and a human anatomy 3D model, a virtual animated body was built and probable ante-mortem postures visualized. Case #2 was a man presenting three perforating gunshot wounds, who survived the incident: one in the left arm and two in the thorax. Only CT scans of the thorax, abdomen and the injured arm were provided by the hospital. Therefore, a whole-body 3D model reflecting the anatomical proportions of the patient was made combining the actual bones of the victim with those obtained from the human anatomy 3D model. The resulted 3D model was used for the animation process. Several probable postures were also visualized in this case. It has be shown that in Case #1 the lesions and the bullet path were not consistent with an upright standing position; instead, the victim was slightly bent forward, i.e. he was sitting or running when he was shot. In Case #2, one of the bullets could have passed through the arm and continued into the thorax. In conclusion, specialized 3D modelling and animation techniques allow for the reconstruction of ante-mortem postures based on both PMCT and clinical CT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  2. Euthanasia of Cattle: Practical Considerations and Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Jan Keith

    2018-04-17

    Acceptable methods for the euthanasia of cattle include overdose of an anesthetic, gunshot and captive bolt. The use of anesthetics for euthanasia is costly and complicates carcass disposal. These issues can be avoided by use of a physical method such as gunshot or captive bolt; however, each requires that certain conditions be met to assure an immediate loss of consciousness and death. For example, the caliber of firearm and type of bullet are important considerations when gunshot is used. When captive bolt is used, a penetrating captive bolt loaded with the appropriate powder charge and accompanied by a follow up (adjunctive) step to assure death are required. The success of physical methods also requires careful selection of the anatomic site for entry of a “free bullet” or “bolt” in the case of penetrating captive bolt. Disease eradication plans for animal health emergencies necessitate methods of euthanasia that will facilitate rapid and efficient depopulation of animals while preserving their welfare to the greatest extent possible. A portable pneumatic captive bolt device has been developed and validated as effective for use in mass depopulation scenarios. Finally, while most tend to focus on the technical aspects of euthanasia, it is extremely important that no one forget the human cost for those who may be required to perform the task of euthanasia on a regular basis. Symptoms including depression, grief, sleeplessness and destructive behaviors including alcoholism and drug abuse are not uncommon for those who participate in the euthanasia of animals.

  3. Euthanasia of Cattle: Practical Considerations and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Keith Shearer

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Acceptable methods for the euthanasia of cattle include overdose of an anesthetic, gunshot and captive bolt. The use of anesthetics for euthanasia is costly and complicates carcass disposal. These issues can be avoided by use of a physical method such as gunshot or captive bolt; however, each requires that certain conditions be met to assure an immediate loss of consciousness and death. For example, the caliber of firearm and type of bullet are important considerations when gunshot is used. When captive bolt is used, a penetrating captive bolt loaded with the appropriate powder charge and accompanied by a follow up (adjunctive step to assure death are required. The success of physical methods also requires careful selection of the anatomic site for entry of a “free bullet” or “bolt” in the case of penetrating captive bolt. Disease eradication plans for animal health emergencies necessitate methods of euthanasia that will facilitate rapid and efficient depopulation of animals while preserving their welfare to the greatest extent possible. A portable pneumatic captive bolt device has been developed and validated as effective for use in mass depopulation scenarios. Finally, while most tend to focus on the technical aspects of euthanasia, it is extremely important that no one forget the human cost for those who may be required to perform the task of euthanasia on a regular basis. Symptoms including depression, grief, sleeplessness and destructive behaviors including alcoholism and drug abuse are not uncommon for those who participate in the euthanasia of animals.

  4. Trace metal analysis by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasmamass spectrometry and x-ray K-edge densitometry of forensic samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, Jonna Elizabeth [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2016-10-25

    This dissertation describes a variety of studies on the determination of trace elements in samples with forensic importance. Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was used to determine the trace element composition of numerous lipstick samples. Lipstick samples were determined to be homogeneous. Most lipstick samples of similar colors were readily distinguishable at a 95% confidence interval based on trace element composition. Numerous strands of a multi-strand speaker cable were analyzed by LA-ICP-MS. The strands in this study are spatially heterogeneous in trace element composition. In actual forensic applications, the possibility of spatial heterogeneity must be considered, especially in cases where only small samples (e.g., copper wire fragments after an explosion) are available. The effects of many unpredictable variables, such as weather, temperature, and human activity, on the retention of gunshot residue (GSR) around projectile wounds were assessed with LAICP- MS. Skin samples around gunshot and stab wounds and larvae feeding in and around the wounds on decomposing pig carcasses were analyzed for elements consistent with GSR (Sb, Pb, Ba, and Cu). These elements were detected at higher levels in skin and larvae samples around the gunshot wounds compared to the stab wounds for an extended period of time throughout decomposition in both a winter and summer study. After decomposition, radiographic images of the pig bones containing possible damage from bullets revealed metallic particles embedded within a number of bones. Metallic particles within the bones were analyzed with x-ray, K-edge densitometry and determined to contain lead, indicating that bullet residue can be retained throughout decomposition and detected within bones containing projectile trauma.

  5. Myositis ossificans circumscripta, secondary to high-velocity gunshot and fragment wound that causes sciatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokkus, Kemal; Sagtas, Ergin; Suslu, Feride Ekimler; Aydin, Ahmet Turan

    2013-10-17

    This report concerns an unusual cause of sciatica. The case presented is of a young man with myositis ossificans that resulted in sciatica and was treated with en bloc excision and low-dose radiotherapy and indomethacine. The aim of this study was to explain the different diagnostic properties of myositis ossificans around the hip and non-classic causes of sciatica.

  6. Gunshot Injuries Involving Musculo-Skeletal System at the Federal Medical Centre, Lagos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A A Dada

    2010-01-01

    Conclusion - Majority ofGSI occurred inmale young people especially policemen and traders. The need for local businessmen to use "cashless" transfer of funds needs to be emphasized. Law enforcement officers need more training and better equipment to effectively confront criminal elements.

  7. [Gunshot wounds caused by non-lethal ammunition on the porcine model post-mortem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabrocký, Peter; Pivko, Juraj; Vondráková, Mária; Tažký, Boris

    2013-10-01

    In this article we focus on the effects of so called non-lethal ammunition. We studied possible mechanism of firearm injury formation as a consequence of using firearm on the body, to present a more comprehensive material in wound ballistics. We pointed out possible actions of a projectile causes on human, respectively other animal organisms, as well as to a manner in which an injury is caused by rifles or shotguns using non-lethal ammunition with rubber projectiles. In the experiment, we have focused on macroscopic analysis of the tissue penetrated by a rubber projectile fired from a long firearm and pump-action shotgun while focusing on the anatomical-morphological analysis of entry wounds to determine the effectiveness respectively, the wounding potential of the projectile. The results of the experiment based on the macroscopic analysis of entry wounds, cavities and exit wounds, show that when a rubber projectile penetrates the body it causes loss of the tissue (i.e. the minus effect) and mechanical disruption of the tissue similar to lethal projectile. Based on the measures and ballistic computations we concluded that in specific cases, like for example in a close range hit, a penetration of vital organs can cause serious or even lethal injuries.

  8. Endovascular management of a gunshot wound injury to the innominate artery and brachiocephalic vein.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werre, A.J.; Vliet, J.A. van der; Biert, J.; Blankensteijn, J.D.; Schultze Kool, L.J.

    2005-01-01

    Surgical repair of penetrating injuries of the thoracic outlet with combined arterial and venous involvement is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. A 37-year-old man presented to the emergency room with a left-sided penetrating zone I neck injury caused by a close-range handgun

  9. Gastropleural fistula: an unusual sequel of gunshot injury to the chest

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Exploratory laparotomy showed three perforations on fundus of the stomach measuring 12cm by 4cm, 4cm by 2cm and 2cm by 1cm which were adhered to the diaphragm and communicating with the left pleural cavity through a diaphragmatic laceration measuring 14cm by 4cm associated with soilage of the left ...

  10. Single-Use Sensor Strips for Reliable Field Analysis of Gunshot Residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-13

    3    List of Figures Fig. 1. Cyclic square-wave voltammogram at the bare GCE for a mixture of trace metals and explosives constituents of GSR: 3...variables obtained after CVA analysis of the GSR samples according to (B) exposure level or (C) 3-class response mode. Samples in (B) correspond to...to (A) exposure level or (B) 3-class response mode. Samples correspond to the same controls outlined in Fig. 6. Fig. 8. Score plot of the

  11. Patients with Glasgow Coma Scale scores 3, 4, 5 after gunshot wounds to the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, H H; Levy, M L; Stone, J L; Masri, L S; Lichtor, T; Lavine, S D; Fitzgerald, L F; Apuzzo, M L

    1995-10-01

    Even this information is only partial. To study fully the effects of treatment would require optimal care at all points from time of injury, including rapid prehospital resuscitation, rapid transport to an optimally equipped and staffed hospital, immediate evaluation and treatment of the initial injury and all complications, rapid and comprehensive rehabilitation, and supportive and flexible home and work settings for the patient on discharge. Patients would need to be stratified for premorbid characteristics, including intelligence, personal traits, and training. Prolonged follow-up, possibly for several years, would be required to determine true outcome. No current study contains sufficient numbers of patients treated optimally and studied for prolonged periods, but this should be done. One way of looking at such patients is to decide that many should be treated to salvage a few. The other way of looking at them is that so many must receive care, at great emotional and economic cost to themselves and others, that such treatment is inappropriate for any of them. Treating all such patients would be a major undertaking. If most of these patients were treated vigorously, a great proportion of them would still die but probably not for a number of days. During this period, their families would be under extreme stress. Once stabilized and receiving ongoing care, some patients would enter a permanent vegetative state and survive for prolonged periods until their prognosis was clear and care was withdrawn, again causing family stress as well as high cost. Some would likely survive although impaired. The charges and real costs of care for all these patients would be tremendous. The question therefore arises as to how to decide what to do about caring for a large group of patients whose maximal care would be costly in emotional and financial terms, particularly at a time when it is recognized that resources for medical care are going to be limited. When discussing such patients as a group with a view toward developing practice guidelines, many considerations must be brought to bear. One consideration is the certainty of the prognosis in both a quantitative and a qualitative sense in an individual case. It is not clear that one can be certain in patients except when there are overwhelmingly unfavorable features. As has been noted, even patients who have been shot through the geographic center of the brain and are posturing can make excellent recoveries. This would push toward aggressive treatment for many patients. Decision making must therefore be considered in terms of bioethics. The major principle-based systems of bioethics are deontologic, arising from accepted principles, and utilitarian, arising from effect on outcome. A virtue-based ethic for physicians arising from "the caring bond and the public trust" is being revived as a balance to analytical ethics. A similar orientation from the point of view of patients is communitarian ethics, that is asking for only what is reasonable and not so much as might harm others. Some of the issues to be considered include the sanctity of life while taking into account the criteria for life--vegetative function versus some level of mental function. One must also review each decision from the viewpoints of all the parties involved--patients, family and friends, physicians, and society--in the context of a heterogeneous society in which individual rights and tolerance enforced by law are primary features. In the patients' terms, there is a desire and right to medical care to maintain a healthy productive life. Even if impaired to some extent, patients may still have an interest in living. Balancing benefits and burdens of life is a complex problem. There is also the right, based on patients' values, to refuse care if there is the wish not to take a chance of having a significantly compromised existence. Such declaration before injury should be honored...

  12. Practical and social barriers to switching from lead to non-toxic gunshot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanstrup, Niels

    2015-01-01

    without jeopardising the hunters’ interests and weakening the hunters’ community. On the contrary, it is believed, though never investigated, that the public image value of hunting not being connected to a pollutant such as lead is of paramount importance for the perception and long-term political...... targeted at sea ducks. In Denmark, the use of lead shot was first regulated in 1985 by setting up a ban on inter alia the use of lead shot for hunting in 26 wetlands designated as Ramsar-sites and for clay pigeon shooting in certain areas. Denmark enforced a total ban on the use of lead shot in 1993 in all...... areas outside forests and with a subsequent enforcement of a lead shot ban in forests in 1996. Since then all use, trade and possession of lead shot has been banned throughout the country (Kanstrup 2006). The phase-out of lead shot raised a number of practical and social barriers. The first barrier...

  13. Single-incision, laparoscopic-assisted jejunal resection and anastomosis following a gunshot wound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Jacob A; Shigemoto, Reynsen; Reese, David J; Case, J Brad

    2015-01-01

    A 2 yr old castrated male Pomeranian was evaluated for a 6 wk history of chronic vomiting, intermittent anorexia, and lethargy. Physical examination revealed a palpable, nonpainful, soft-tissue mass in the midabdominal area. Abdominal radiographs and ultrasound revealed a focal, eccentric thickening of the jejunal wall with associated jejunal mural foreign body and partial mechanical obstruction. Following diagnosis of a partial intestinal obstruction as the cause of chronic vomiting, the patient underwent general anesthesia for a laparoscopic-assisted, midjejunal resection and anastomosis using a single-incision laparoscopic surgery port. The patient was discharged the day after surgery, and clinical signs abated according to information obtained during a telephone interview conducted 2 and 8 wk postoperatively. The dog described in this report is a unique case of partial intestinal obstruction treated by laparoscopic-assisted resection and anastomosis using a single-incision laparoscopic surgery port.

  14. Wounding capacity of muzzle-gas pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schyma, Christian

    2012-05-01

    Suicidal gunshot wounds that are caused by ammunition fired from a 9-mm Luger pistol, with direct contact between the gun muzzle and the victim's head, present a serious injury pattern even with full metal jacket bullets. Wound ballistic experiments were performed to clarify whether muzzle gases from the firearm have an additional wounding potential. Fifteen head models were prepared as follows: an acryl sphere measuring 14 cm in diameter was completely covered with a layer of silicon that was 3 mm thick. These spheres were filled with 10% gelatine. At 4°C, these models were fired at with a 9-mm Luger pistol, loaded with Quick Defense 1 expanding bullets. Five shots were fired with direct muzzle contact, one shot was fired from a distance of 10 cm, four shots were fired from a distance of 2 m, and five shots were fired from a distance of 4 m. Each projectile penetrated the model; all but one projectile deformed regularly. Each acryl sphere shattered into comminuted pieces but was held together by the silicon cover. The gelatine filling was then cut into slices 1 cm thick, and each slice was optically scanned. An evaluation was performed following both Fackler's Wound Profile method and the polygon procedure method. The pattern of gelatine disruption did not differ in shots from intermediate ranges, but the amount of gelatine destruction was always more extended in the case of muzzle contact shots. Depending on the section of the bullet path, crack lengths were 31% to 133% longer in contact shots. The first centimetre and the second half of the bullet path showed the greatest increase. The experimental findings prove the wounding capacity of muzzle gases.

  15. [Werkgartner's muzzle imprint mark--a literature study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geserick, Gunther; Vendura, Klaus; Wirth, Ingo

    2009-01-01

    Since Werkgartner described and correctly interpreted the muzzle imprint mark around the gunshot entrance wound in 1922, this finding has been generally accepted as a sign of a contact shot. In further studies, it could finally be clarified that the muzzle imprint mark is caused by the expansive power of the powder gases with pressure on and abrasion of the skin at the muzzle (weapon imprint). Its shape depends on the firearm, the ammunition and the anatomical conditions, but does not require a bullet. Examinations under a magnifying glass microscope and histological investigations can complete the macroscopic findings. Occasionally, the muzzle imprint mark requires a certain "drying period" in order to become clearly visible. In rare cases, muzzle imprint marks also form on textiles perforated by the projectile. Characteristically shaped muzzled imprint marks can provide clues to the type of the firearm and its position at the time of discharge.

  16. The effect of firearm muzzle gases on the backspatter of blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Michael C; Laber, Terry L; Epstein, Barton P; Zamzow, Dan S; Baldwin, David P

    2011-09-01

    Injuries caused by gunshots can produce what bloodstain pattern analysts know as "backspatter." Observations about the presence or absence of backspatter on an individual may be used in court as evidence of guilt or innocence. The discharge of three firearms (.22 caliber revolver, .38 caliber revolver, and .308 caliber rifle) and the resulting impact of bullets on a blood source were recorded using high-speed digital video imaging. Blood droplets, firearm muzzle gases, and ballistic shock waves were visualized using standard reflected light and shadowgraphy imaging techniques. A significant interaction between air currents, muzzle gases, and particulate material emanating from the firearms upon discharge with backspattered blood was observed. Blood droplets, initially spattered back toward the firearm and the shooter, were observed to change direction under the influence of firearm-induced air currents and were blown forward toward and beyond their original source location. Implications for experts testifying in court and for bloodstain pattern instructors are discussed.

  17. The Effect of Firearm Muzzle Gases on the Backspatter of Blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, M.C.; Laber, T.L.; Epstein, B.P.; Zamzow, D.S.; Baldwin, D.P.

    2010-05-12

    Injuries caused by gunshots can produce what bloodstain pattern analysts know as 'backspatter.' Observations about the presence or absence of backspatter on an individual may be used in court as evidence of guilt or innocence. The discharge of three firearms (.22 caliber revolver, .38 caliber revolver, and .308 caliber rifle) and the resulting impact of bullets on a blood source were recorded using high-speed digital video imaging. Blood droplets, firearm muzzle gases, and ballistic shock waves were visualized using standard reflected light and shadowgraphy imaging techniques. A significant interaction between air currents, muzzle gases, and particulate material emanating from the firearms upon discharge with backspattered blood was observed. Blood droplets, initially spattered back toward the firearm and the shooter, were observed to change direction under the influence of firearm-induced air currents and were blown forward toward and beyond their original source location. Implications for experts testifying in court and for bloodstain pattern instructors are discussed.

  18. Modeling the Biodynamical Response of the Human Thorax with Body Armor from a Bullet Impact

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lobuono, John

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a finite element model of the human thorax with a protective body armor system so that the model can adequately determine the thorax's biodynamical response...

  19. Computer Modeling and Simulation of Bullet Impact to the Human Thorax

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jolly, Johannes

    2000-01-01

    .... The objective of the study was to create a viable finite element model of the human thorax. The model was validated by comparing the results of tests of body armor systems conducted on cadavers to results obtained from finite element analysis...

  20. Modeling the Biodynamical Response of the Human Thorax With Body Armor From a Bullet Impact

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lobuono, John

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a finite element model of the human thorax with a protective body armor system so that the model can adequately determine the thorax's biodynamical response...

  1. Modeling the Biodynamical Response of the Human Thorax with Body Armor from a Bullet Impact

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lobuono, John

    2001-01-01

    .... The finite element model of the human thorax is validated by comparing the model's results to experimental data obtained from cadavers wearing a protective body armor system undergoing a projectile impact...

  2. Modeling the Biodynamical Response of the Human Thorax With Body Armor From a Bullet Impact

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lobuono, John

    2001-01-01

    .... The finite element model of the human thorax is validated by comparing the model's results to experimental data obtained from cadavers wearing a protective body armor system undergoing a projectile impact...

  3. Dodging the toxic bullet: how to protect yourself from everyday environmental health hazards

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boyd, David R

    2010-01-01

    ..., and necessary book." dr. karl-henrik robèrt, md, oncologist and founder of The Natural Step "Boyd brilliantly exposes the womb-to-tomb risks in everything from bad air to bad diets but . . . gives us the practical steps to save our planet and ourselves!" terry tamminen, author of Lives per Gallon: The True Cost of Our Oil Addiction "For pregnant and br...

  4.  Variable fragments of heavy chain antibodies (VHHs: a new magic bullet molecule of medicine?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Smolarek

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available  Serum of animals belonging to the Camelidae family (camels and llamas contains fully active antibodies that are naturally devoid of light chains. Variable domains derived from heavy chain antibodies (hcAb called VHHs or nanobodies™ can bind antigens as effectively as full-length antibodies and are easy to clone and express. Because of their potential, VHHs are being intensively studied as potential therapeutic, diagnostic and imaging tools. The paper reviews the molecular background of heavy chain antibodies and describes methods of obtaining recombinant fragments of heavy chain antibodies as well as their therapeutic, diagnostic and other applications.

  5. Ecoregion prioritization suggests an armoury not a silver bullet for conservation planning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan M Funk

    Full Text Available In the face of accelerating species extinctions, map-based prioritization systems are increasingly useful to decide where to pursue conservation action most effectively. However, a number of seemingly inconsistent schemes have emerged, mostly focussing on endemism. Here we use global vertebrate distributions in terrestrial ecoregions to evaluate how continuous and categorical ranking schemes target and accumulate endangered taxa within the IUCN Red List, Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE, and EDGE of Existence programme. We employed total, endemic and threatened species richness and an estimator for richness-adjusted endemism as metrics in continuous prioritization, and WWF's Global200 and Conservation International's (CI Hotspots in categorical prioritization. Our results demonstrate that all metrics target endangerment more efficiently than by chance, but each selects unique sets of top-ranking ecoregions, which overlap only partially, and include different sets of threatened species. Using the top 100 ecoregions as defined by continuous prioritization metrics, we develop an inclusive map for global vertebrate conservation that incorporates important areas for endemism, richness, and threat. Finally, we assess human footprint and protection levels within these areas to reveal that endemism sites are more impacted but have more protection, in contrast to high richness and threat ones. Given such contrasts, major efforts to protect global biodiversity must involve complementary conservation approaches in areas of unique species as well as those with highest diversity and threat.

  6. Bullets, Bombs, and Bystanders: The Strategic Implications of Collateral Damage in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-15

    Malaysia , Palestine, Turkey, and several others. The significant increase in these wars of liberation was a result of the declining influence of colonial...parts of Malaya and then hunt them down remorselessly.29 Ultimately, the endeavor ended in success for the British and the government of Malaysia ...international news franchises which provide immediate feedback on every aspect of the conflict. Military leaders are unable to shape the news

  7. Biological and Health Effects of Electromagnetic (Nonionizing) Radiation. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halasz, Hisako, Comp.

    The environment we live in today is filled with human-created electromagnetic fields generated by a variety of sources, including radio and television transmitters, power lines, and visual display terminals. (In addition, there exists a natural background of electromagnetic fields.) The term "electromagnetic pollution" is often used to…

  8. China’s bullet trains facilitate market integration and mitigate the cost of megacity growth

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Siqi; Kahn, Matthew E.

    2013-01-01

    Megacity growth in the developing world is fueled by a desire to access their large local labor markets. Growing megacities suffer from high levels of traffic congestion and pollution, which degrade local quality of life. Transportation technology that allows individuals to access the megacity without living within its boundaries offers potentially large social benefits, because individuals can enjoy the benefits of urban agglomeration while not paying megacity real estate rents and suffering...

  9. Earthquake warning system for Japan Railways’ bullet train; implications for disaster prevention in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Y.; Tucker, B. E.

    1988-01-01

    In Japan, the level of public awareness of the dangers of earthquakes is high. The 1923 Kanto earthquake killed about 120,000 people out of a total Japanese population of about 50 million; an equivalent disaster in the U.S would involve 600,000 deaths.

  10. On atmospheric-pressure non-equilibrium plasma jets and plasma bullets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, X; Laroussi, M; Puech, V

    2012-01-01

    Atmospheric-pressure non-equilibrium plasma jets (APNP-Js), which generate plasma in open space rather than in a confined discharge gap, have recently been a topic of great interest. In this paper, the development of APNP-Js will be reviewed. Firstly, the APNP-Js are grouped based on the type of gas used to ignite them and their characteristics are discussed in detail. Secondly, one of the most interesting phenomena of APNP-Js, the ‘plasma bullet’, is discussed and its behavior described. Thirdly, the very recent developments on the behavior of plasma jets when launched in a controlled environment and pressure are also introduced. This is followed by a discussion on the interaction between plasma jets. Finally, perspectives on APNP-J research are presented. (paper)

  11. "Not Rocket Science" or "No Silver Bullet"? Media and Government Discourses about MRSA and Cleanliness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koteyko, Nelya; Nerlich, Brigitte; Crawford, Paul; Wright, Nick

    2008-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant "Staphylococcus aureus" (MRSA), commonly called a superbug, has recently been a major political issue in the UK, playing a significant role in debates over health policy in the general election held in 2005. While science recognizes the lack of evidence with regards to the effectiveness of existing measures…

  12. Of Ballots and Bullets: Explaining Civilian Control of the Military in Turkey, 2002-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    society is “one of the most accurate indicators of the existence of a substantive, participatory democracy . A high degree of...the armed forces is an essential component to a free and open democracy . The states of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) rely on civilian...these forces challenge military supremacy in democracies . Policies or budget decisions that infringe on military prerogatives lead to conflict with

  13. Between ballots and bullets: elections and citizenship in and beyond the nation-state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaffe, R.

    2015-01-01

    This article approaches electoral acts and performances as central sites for the negotiation of citizenship relations. I argue that, in order to understand how these relationships are shaped, we must attend to governmental actors beyond the nation-state, from trade unions to criminal organizations.

  14. Seven Birds with One Magic Bullet: Designing Assignments that Encourage Student Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause-Jensen, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    At the Danish University School of Education we have experimented with a form of assessment called "active participation". A week before each class students are given reading guidelines and questions to help them approach the texts, and on the basis of one of those questions the students each write a two-page essay. The students are…

  15. Land access and livelihoods in post-conflict Timor-Leste: no magic bullets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon P.J. Batterbury

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In Timor-Leste, customary institutions contribute to sustainable and equitable rural development and the establishment of improved access to and management of land, water and other natural resources. Drawing on multi-sited empirical research, we argue that the recognition and valorization of custom and common property management is a prerequisite for sustainable and equitable land tenure reform in Timor-Leste. In a four-community study of the relationship between land access and the practice of rural livelihoods in eastern and western districts of Timor-Leste, where customary management systems are dominant, we found different types of traditional dispute resolution, with deep roots in traditional forms of land management and with varying levels of conflict. The article shows how customary land tenure systems have already managed to create viable moral economies. Interviewees expressed a desire for the government to formalize its recognition and support for customary systems and to provide them with basic livelihood support and services. This was more important than instituting private landholding or state appropriation of community lands, which is perceived to be the focus of national draft land laws and an internationally supported project. We suggest ways in which diverse customary institutions can co-exist and work with state institutions to build collective political legitimacy in the rural hinterlands, within the context of upgrading the quality of rural life, promoting social and ecological harmony, and conflict management.

  16. Carrot Soup, Magic Bullets, and Scientific Research for Education and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabbott, Colette

    2007-01-01

    Following the UN Millennium Summit in 2000, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) set global sector specific development targets to be achieved by the year 2015. In this article, the author explores the role of health and education research in producing technological innovations and global policy options and goals, such as the MDGs. Here, she…

  17. A magic bullet to specifically eliminate mutated mitochondrial genomes from patients' cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Carlos T

    2014-01-01

    When mitochondrial diseases result from mutations found in the mitochondrial DNA, engineered mitochondrial-targeted nucleases such as mitochondrial-targeted zinc finger nucleases are shown to specifically eliminate the mutated molecules, leaving the wild-type mitochondrial DNA intact to replicate and restore normal copy number. In this issue, Gammage and colleagues successfully apply this improved technology on patients' cells with two types of genetic alterations responsible for neuropathy ataxia and retinitis pigmentosa (NARP) syndrome and Kearns Sayre syndrome and progressive external ophthalmoplegia (PEO). PMID:24623377

  18. The Myth of the Silver Bullet: Does Technical Superiority Equate to Battlefield Success?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    Victorian period alone, the British army suffered significant defeats in India and Zululand and strategic defeat in Afghanistan, Sudan, and the Transvaal.28...capability of their systems and fought the battle in a fashion that maximized their weapons potential. It was, “Through the evolution of technological

  19. Beyond Bombs, Bullets and Planes: Developing Airmen-Statements for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-11

    Kaplan. Kaplan believes that “scarcity, crime, overpopulation , tribalism, and disease are rapidly destroying the social fabric of our planet.” Kaplan...challenges.” The report then called for the DoD to “foster a level of understanding and cultural intelligence about the Middle East and Asia

  20. Tracheotomy as a surgical access for removal of bullet in the trachea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shankar Ramasundram

    no history of loss of consciousness or retrograde amnesia in this gentleman. There was a small superficial wound measuring. 0.2 cm x 0.4 cm over the anterior aspect of the neck. There was no active bleeding and no evidence of surgical emphysema. The trachea was palpable and centrally located. Flexible bronchoscope.

  1. Bullet Optical Fiber Humidity Sensor Based on Ag Nanoparticles Dispersed in Leaf Extract of Alstonia Scholaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu VIJAYAN

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available An optical fiber with a clad of Ag nanoparticles dispersed in leaf extract of Alstonia Scholaris is used as an optical humidity sensor. The fabricated sensor showed response to humidity in the range of 40-95%. The specialty of this sensor is that it can be used when stored at room temperature (25 oC up to a maximum of 25 days with 90% retention of original sensitivity. These humidity sensing bio-films showed good operational efficiency for 5 cycles. The plastic optical fiber is versatile and can be used easily for humidity measurement with high sensitivity. The sensor exhibited a short response time of 4-5 sec. and recovery time of 45 sec with repeatability, reproducibility and low hysteresis effect. This Ag dispersed in leaf extract of Alstonia Scholaris showed higher humidity response compared to response shown by the leaf extract alone.

  2. There is no silver bullet: the value of diversification in planning invasive species surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denys Yemshanov; Frank H. Koch; Bo Lu; D. Barry Lyons; Jeffrey P. Prestemon; Taylor Scarr; Klaus Koehler

    2014-01-01

    In this study we demonstrate how the notion of diversification can be used in broad-scale resource allocation for surveillance of invasive species. We consider the problem of short-term surveillance for an invasive species in a geographical environment.Wefind the optimal allocation of surveillance resourcesamongmultiple geographical subdivisions via application of a...

  3. ICI bites demerger bullet, Zeneca guns for Brit-pounds 1.3-billion rights issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D.; Alperowicz, N.

    1993-01-01

    Any lingering doubts as to ICI's (London) intentions to follow through its demerger proposals were dispelled last week. The company will hive off its bioscience business into Zeneca Group plc, which will make a Brit-pounds 1.3-billion ($1.9 billion) rights issue in June 1993. Shareholders, whose approval for the historic move will be sought in late May, will receive one fully paid Zeneca share for each ICI share. Proceeds from the rights issue will be used to reduce Zeneca's indebtedness to ICI by about 70%. Acknowledging that ICI had 'spread the jam too thinly' during its expansion in the 1980s, chief executive Ronnie Hampel says the new ICI will be a cost-conscious, no-frills' organization and that businesses that failed to perform would be restructured or closed. He is 'not expecting any help from the economy' in 1993. Of ICI's remaining petrochemicals and plastics businesses, Hampel says that despite 'stringent measures to reduce the cost base hor-ellipsis it is clear they will not reach a return on capital that will justify reinvestment by ICI.' He does not see them as closure candidates but as 'businesses that will require further restructuring.' Hampel notes 'a dozen clearly identified areas for expansion,' including paints, catalysts, titanium dioxide, and chlorofluorocarbon replacements. Losses in materials, where substantial rationalization has failed to halt the slide, will be reduced on completion of the DuPont deal - expected by midyear. 'Further measures' would be necessary for the 'residual bit of advanced materials in the US,' he says

  4. Municipal Solid Waste Management: Recycling, Resource Recovery, and Landfills. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meikle, Teresa, Comp.

    Municipal solid waste refers to waste materials generated by residential, commercial, and institutional sources, and consists predominantly of paper, glass, metals, plastics, and food and yard waste. Within the definition of the Solid Waste Disposal Act, municipal solid waste does not include sewage sludge or hazardous waste. The three main…

  5. The Magic Bullet: A Tool for Assessing and Evaluating Learning Potential in Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Katrin

    2011-01-01

    This paper outlines a simple and effective model that can be used to evaluate and design educational digital games. It also facilitates the formulation of strategies for using existing games in learning contexts. The model categorizes game goals and learning objectives into one or more of four possible categories. An overview of the model is…

  6. Inequality--"Wicked Problems", Labour Market Outcomes and the Search for Silver Bullets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keep, Ewart; Mayhew, Ken

    2014-01-01

    In recent years concerns about inequality have been growing in prominence within UK policy debates. The many causes of inequality of earnings and income are complex in their interactions and their tendency to reinforce one another. This makes inequality an intractable or "wicked" policy problem, particularly within a contemporary context…

  7. Malcolm X's the ballot or the bullet speech? Its implications for Black ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-05-29

    May 29, 2015 ... Africa, the article proposes that Black Liberation Theology in South Africa moves away from being an ... It is my view that this speech is pertinent to the current political era. 1.It would ... Jr, Malcolm X's critique of white racism in the USA as well as the .... Not only was the brutality of the white police inherited.

  8. Bullet trains and steam engines: exogenous attention zips but endogenous attention chugs along.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarthi, Ramakrishna; VanRullen, Rufin

    2011-04-20

    Analyzing a scene requires shifting attention from object to object. Although several studies have attempted to determine the speed of these attentional shifts, there are large discrepancies in their estimates. Here, we adapt a method pioneered by T. A. Carlson, H. Hogendoorn, and F. A. J. Verstraten (2006) that directly measures pure attentional shift times. We also test if attentional shifts can be handled in parallel by the independent resources available in the two cortical hemispheres. We present 10 "clocks," with single revolving hands, in a ring around fixation. Observers are asked to report the hand position on one of the clocks at the onset of a transient cue. The delay between the reported time and the veridical time at cue onset can be used to infer processing and attentional shift times. With this setup, we use a novel subtraction method that utilizes different combinations of exogenous and endogenous cues to determine shift times for both types of attention. In one experiment, subjects shift attention to an exogenously cued clock (baseline condition) in one block, and in other blocks, subjects perform one further endogenous shift to a nearby clock (test condition). In another experiment, attention is endogenously cued to one clock (baseline condition), and on other trials, an exogenous cue further shifts attention to a nearby clock (test condition). Subtracting report delays in the baseline condition from those obtained in the test condition allows us to isolate genuine attentional shift times. In agreement with previous studies, our results reveal that endogenous attention is much slower than exogenous attention (endogenous: 250 ms; exogenous: 100 ms). Surprisingly, the dependence of shift time on distance is minimal for exogenous attention, whereas it is steep for endogenous attention. In the final experiment, we find that endogenous shifts are faster across hemifields than within a hemifield suggesting that the two hemispheres can simultaneously process at least parts of these shifts.

  9. Anorexia Nervosa/Bulimia. LC Science Tracer Bullet, TB 85-8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halasz, Hisako, Comp.

    This bibliography is intended to help readers locate material on anorexia nervosa and bulimia in the collections of the Library of Congress. A scope note briefly defines the terms "anorexia nervosa" and "bulimia" and discusses similarities and differences between the two eating disorders. Four references are included as introductions to the topic…

  10. Taking the Silver Bullet Colloidal Silver Particles for the Topical Treatment of Biofilm-Related Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Katharina; Facal, Paula; Thomas, Nicky; Vandecandelaere, Ilse; Ramezanpour, Mahnaz; Cooksley, Clare; Prestidge, Clive A; Coenye, Tom; Wormald, Peter-John; Vreugde, Sarah

    2017-07-05

    Biofilms are aggregates of bacteria residing in a self-assembled matrix, which protects these sessile cells against external stress, including antibiotic therapies. In light of emerging multidrug-resistant bacteria, alternative strategies to antibiotics are emerging. The present study evaluated the activity of colloidal silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) of different shapes against biofilms formed by Staphylococcus aureus (SA), methicillin-resistant SA (MRSA), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA). Colloidal quasi-spherical, cubic, and star-shaped AgNPs were synthesized, and their cytotoxicity on macrophages (THP-1) and bronchial epithelial cells (Nuli-1) was analyzed by the lactate dehydrogenase assay. The antibiofilm activity was assessed in vitro by the resazurin assay and in an in vivo infection model in Caenorhabditis elegans. Cubic and star-shaped AgNPs induced cytotoxicity, while quasi-spherical AgNPs were not toxic. Quasi-spherical AgNPs showed substantial antibiofilm activity in vitro with 96% (±2%), 97% (±1%), and 98% (±1%) biofilm killing of SA, MRSA, and PA, respectively, while significantly reducing mortality of infected nematodes. The in vivo antibiofilm activity was linked to the accumulation of AgNPs in the intestinal tract of C. elegans as observed by 3D X-ray tomography. Quasi-spherical AgNPs were physically stable in suspension for over 6 months with no observed loss in antibiofilm activity. While toxicity and stability limited the utilization of cubic and star-shaped AgNPs, quasi-spherical AgNPs could be rapidly synthesized, were stable and nontoxic, and showed substantial in vitro and in vivo activity against clinically relevant biofilms. Quasi-spherical AgNPs hold potential as pharmacotherapy, for example, as topical treatment for biofilm-related infections.

  11. Blockchain-based Smart Contracts in Waste Management : A Silver Bullet?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. (Guido) Ongena; Koen Smit; Jarno Boksebeld; Gerben Adams; Yorin Roelofs; Pascal Ravesteijn

    2018-01-01

    From the article: Blockchain technology may have the potential to fundamentally change society and we might currently witness the dawn of a cryptographically secured trust-free transactions economy. One relatively unexplored application domain is waste management. Incorrect waste management

  12. Interaction of Supernova Blast Waves with Wind-Driven Shells: Formation of "Jets", "Bullets", "Ears", Etc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.

    Most of middle-aged supernova remnants (SNRs) have a distorted and complicated appearance which cannot be explained in the framework of the Sedov-Taylor model. We consider three typical examples of such SNRs (Vela SNR, MSH15-52, G309.2-00.6) and show that their structure could be explained as a result of interaction of a supernova (SN) blast wave with the ambient medium preprocessed by the action of the SN progenitor's wind and ionized emission.

  13. Forensic INAA of bullet-lead and shotshell-pellet evidence specimens with a TRIGA reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinn, Vincent P.

    1988-01-01

    This paper has been published earlier, in the references cited. The main purpose of this paper is to acquaint interested TRIGA reactor groups with the main features of the Forensic INAA of BL and SSP evidence specimens - and to recommend that they consider acquiring the necessary expertise and then provide such analysis services to law enforcement agencies, public defenders, and defence attorneys in their respective areas

  14. Malcolm X's the ballot or the bullet speech? Its implications for Black ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It calls attention to party politics that floods society with propaganda but in reality seems to have little real interest in the social well-being of the masses. In the article, the question as to what Malcolm X would have said about the current South African socioeconomic context is asked. It is clear that both structural apartheid ...

  15. Molecular hydrogen mapping of Herbig-Haro 7-11; a filamentary bullet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lightfoot, J.F.; Glencross, W.M.

    1986-01-01

    A map is presented of the Q-branch H 2 line emission associated with Herbig-Haro 7-11. The molecules are shock-excited and the emitting area stretches 4 arcmin north-west from HH7-11 in a fairly sharp and straight line. The evidence suggests that the emission occurs where a spine of dense molecular gas is being struck by a jet from the young star SVS13. The origin of the Herbig-Haro objects is discussed. It is suggested that HH7-11 are the bow-shocks formed around a helical filament of dense gas moving at 200 km s -1 through the molecular cloud. The filament could be produced by a well-collimated precessing jet from SVS13. HH2. HH12 and HH101 may be explained in a similar way. (author)

  16. A patterned abrasion caused by the impact of a cartridge case may simulate an atypical muzzle imprint mark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Lena; Nadjem, Hadi; Glardon, Matthieu; Kneubuehl, Beat P; Pollak, Stefan; Große Perdekamp, Markus; Pircher, Rebecca

    2016-05-01

    In contact shots, the muzzle imprint is an informative finding associated with the entrance wound. It typically mirrors the constructional components being in line with the muzzle or just behind. Under special conditions, other patterned skin marks located near a gunshot entrance wound may give the impression to be part of the muzzle imprint. A potential mechanism causing a patterned pressure abrasion in close proximity to the bullet entrance site is demonstrated on the basis of a suicidal shot to the temple. The skin lesion in question appeared as a ring-shaped excoriation with a diameter corresponding to that of the cartridge case. Two hypotheses concerning the causative mechanism were investigated by test shots: - After being ejected, the cartridge case ricocheted inside a confined space (car cabin in the particular case) and secondarily hit the skin near the gunshot entrance wound. - The ejection of the cartridge case failed so that the case became stuck in the ejection port and its mouth contacted the skin when the body collapsed after being hit.

  17. Axial-Symmetry Numerical Approaches for Noise Predicting and Attenuating of Rifle Shooting with Suppressors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Wei Lo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The moving bullet out of a rifle barrel is propelled by a fired explosive charge. Subsequently, a disturbed muzzle blast wave is initiated which lasts several milliseconds. In this study, axially symmetric, unsteady, Large Eddy Simulation (LES, and Ffowcs Williams and Hawkins (FWH equations were solved by the implicit-time formulation. For the spatial discretization, second order upwind scheme was employed. In addition, dynamic mesh model was used to where the ballistic domain changed with time due to the motion of bullet. Results obtained for muzzle flow field and for noise recorded were compared with those obtained from experimental data; these two batches of results were in agreement. Five cases of gunshot including one model of an unsuppressed rifle and four models of suppressors were simulated. Besides, serial images of species distributions and velocity vectors-pressure contours in suppressors and near muzzle field were displayed. The sound pressure levels (dB in far field that were post-processed by the fast Fourier transform (FFT were compared. The proposed physical model and the numerical simulations used in the present work are expected to be extended to solve other shooting weapon problems with three-dimensional and complex geometries.

  18. Wounds and weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, H. [Asklepios Klinik St. Georg, Roentgenabteilung, Lohmuehlenstrasse 5, 20099 Hamburg (Germany)], E-mail: Hermann.vogel@ak-stgeorg.lbk-hh.de; Dootz, B. [Asklepios Klinik St. Georg, Roentgenabteilung, Lohmuehlenstrasse 5, 20099 Hamburg (Germany)

    2007-08-15

    Purpose: X-ray findings are described, which are typical for injuries due to conventional weapons. It is intended to demonstrate that radiographs can show findings characteristic for weapons. Material and method: The radiograms have been collected in Vietnam, Croatia, Serbia, Bosnia, Chad, Iran, Afghanistan, USA, Great Britain, France, Israel, Palestine, and Germany. Results: Radiograms of injuries due to hand grenades show their content (globes) and cover fragments. The globes are localized regionally in the victim's body. Survivors of cluster bombs show singular or few globes; having been hit by many globes would have been lethal. Shotguns produce characteristic distributions of the pallets and depth of penetration different from those of hand grenades and cluster bombs; cover fragments are lacking. Gunshot wounds (GSW) can be differentiated in those to low velocity bullets, high velocity projectiles, and projectiles, which disintegrate on impact. The radiogram furnishes the information about a dangerous shock and helps to recognize the weapon. Radiograms of victims of explosion show fragments and injuries due to the blast, information valid for therapy planning and prognosis. The radiogram shows details which can be used in therapy, forensic medicine and in war propaganda - examples could be findings typical for cluster bombs and for dumdum bullets; it shows the cruelty of the employment of weapons against humans and the conflict between the goal of medical care and those of military actions. Conclusion: Radiographs may show, which weapon has been employed; they can be read as war reports.

  19. Wounds and weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, H.; Dootz, B.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: X-ray findings are described, which are typical for injuries due to conventional weapons. It is intended to demonstrate that radiographs can show findings characteristic for weapons. Material and method: The radiograms have been collected in Vietnam, Croatia, Serbia, Bosnia, Chad, Iran, Afghanistan, USA, Great Britain, France, Israel, Palestine, and Germany. Results: Radiograms of injuries due to hand grenades show their content (globes) and cover fragments. The globes are localized regionally in the victim's body. Survivors of cluster bombs show singular or few globes; having been hit by many globes would have been lethal. Shotguns produce characteristic distributions of the pallets and depth of penetration different from those of hand grenades and cluster bombs; cover fragments are lacking. Gunshot wounds (GSW) can be differentiated in those to low velocity bullets, high velocity projectiles, and projectiles, which disintegrate on impact. The radiogram furnishes the information about a dangerous shock and helps to recognize the weapon. Radiograms of victims of explosion show fragments and injuries due to the blast, information valid for therapy planning and prognosis. The radiogram shows details which can be used in therapy, forensic medicine and in war propaganda - examples could be findings typical for cluster bombs and for dumdum bullets; it shows the cruelty of the employment of weapons against humans and the conflict between the goal of medical care and those of military actions. Conclusion: Radiographs may show, which weapon has been employed; they can be read as war reports

  20. Performance of primary repair on colon injuries sustained from low-versus high-energy projectiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazovic, Ranko; Radojevic, Nemanja; Curovic, Ivana

    2016-04-01

    Among various reasons, colon injuries may be caused by low- or high-energy firearm bullets, with the latter producing a temporary cavitation phenomenon. The available treatment options include primary repair and two-stage management, but recent studies have shown that primary repair can be widely used with a high success rate. This paper investigates the differences in performance of primary repair on these two types of colon injuries. Two groups of patients who sustained colon injuries due to single gunshot wounds, were retrospectively categorized based on the type of bullet. Primary colon repair was performed in all patients selected based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria (Stone and Fabian's criteria). An almost absolute homogeneity was attained among the groups in terms of age, latent time before surgery, and four trauma indexes. Only one patient from the low-energy firearm projectile group (4%) developed a postsurgical complication versus nine patients (25.8%) from the high-energy group, showing statistically significant difference (p = 0.03). These nine patients experienced the following postsurgical complications: pneumonia, abscess, fistula, suture leakage, and one multiorgan failure with sepsis. Previous studies concluded that one-stage primary repair is the best treatment option for colon injuries. However, terminal ballistics testing determined the projectile's path through the body and revealed that low-energy projectiles caused considerably lesser damage than their high-energy counterparts. Primary colon repair must be performed definitely for low-energy short firearm injuries but very carefully for high-energy injuries. Given these findings, we suggest that the treatment option should be determined based not only on the bullet type alone but also on other clinical findings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  1. 21 CFR 201.326 - Over-the-counter drug products containing internal analgesic/antipyretic active ingredients...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... higher if you [bullet] are age 60 or older [bullet] have had stomach ulcers or bleeding problems [bullet... stomach ulcers or bleeding problems [bullet] takes a blood thinning (anticoagulant) or steroid drug... bleeding. The chance is higher if the user [bullet] has had stomach ulcers or bleeding problems [bullet...

  2. Measurement of airborne gunshot particles in a ballistics laboratory by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Ernesto; Sarkis, Jorge E Souza; Viebig, Sônia; Saldiva, Paulo

    2012-01-10

    The present study aimed determines lead (Pb), antimony (Sb) and barium (Ba) as the major elements present in GSR in the environmental air of the Ballistics Laboratory of the São Paulo Criminalistics Institute (I.C.-S.P.), São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Micro environmental monitors (mini samplers) were located at selected places. The PM(2.5) fraction of this airborne was collected in, previously weighted filters, and analyzed by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (SF-HR-ICP-MS). The higher values of the airborne lead, antimony and barium, were found at the firing range (lead (Pb): 58.9 μg/m(3); barium (Ba): 6.9 μg/m(3); antimony (Sb): 7.3 μg/m(3)). The mean value of the airborne in this room during 6 monitored days was Pb: 23.1 μg/m(3); Ba: 2.2 μg/m(3); Sb: 1.5 μg/m(3). In the water tank room, the air did not show levels above the limits of concern. In general the airborne lead changed from day to day, but the barium and antimony remained constant. Despite of that, the obtained values suggest that the workers may be exposed to airborne lead concentration that can result in an unhealthy environment and could increase the risk of chronic intoxication. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluating the Efficiency of Air Shower in Removing Lead from Army Combat Uniform Swatches Loaded with Gunshot Residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-25

    about ASs ability to reduce Pb contamination on ACU resulting from activities on IFRs . The results of this study could impact the use of ASs at IFRs by...the 0-, 45-, and 90-degree angles of impact . Analysis of lead mass remaining on swatches after the exposure indicated the percent of lead removed...22 Number and Design of Nozzles ........................................................................ 23 Angle of Impact

  4. 弹体底厚对PELE枪弹横向效应的影响%The Influence of the Bottom Thickness of Bullet to Lateral Efficiency of Large-Caliber PELE Bullet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴志林; 闫少军; 李东卫; 赵成刚

    2009-01-01

    弹体底部厚度是影响横向效应增强型弹药(简称PELE)横向效应的一个重要因素.为了分析弹体底部厚度与PELE的横向效应之间的关系,弹芯、靶板不改变,仅改变弹体底部厚度,以ANSYS/LS-DYNA软件为平台对不同底部厚度的PELE作用不同厚度靶板的过程进行了数值仿真.通过破片的横向速度比较不同弹体底部厚度下PELE的横向效应,获得弹体底部厚度对PELE横向效应作用的影响规律.

  5. ONE PICTURE IS WORTH A THOUSAND BULLETS: THE POWER OF PICTURES AND VIDEOS TO COMBAT FOREIGN ADVERSARIES AND INFLUENCE PERCEPTIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    images. Another concept relative to the psychological implications of using imagery as an influencer lies within the “heuristic” model of...for one’s own forces and to instill fear in one’s enemy.”47 Some examples of symbolism is how Jihadi propaganda often uses photographs of waterfalls ...Organization. “Enhancement of Literacy in Afghanistan (ELA) program.” 30. Shelly Chaiken. “The Heuristic Model of Persuasion.” 3. 31. Ibid. 6. 32

  6. A new paradigm for the Indian power sector: going beyond the 'Silver Bullet' privatisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruet, J.

    2001-07-01

    This paper focuses on the Indian power sector. However, the situation in France will be briefly recalled, for the rationales of privatisation, levels of analysis and issues to be solved are not at all the same, and for a part of the solution could be drawn from the French public experience. Section one deals with the rationale for privatisation in India, as assessed by its supporters. In practice, this policy has not reached its declared targets in India (absence of commitment, delayed projects, assets 'sold for a song'). This allows space for questioning the implicit or explicit assumptions in present reforms. For privatisation is being supported due to so called 'political interference', and 'lack of money', these issues will be put in perspective with some more structural roots in inefficiency of the Indian power sector. Indeed, these two explanations are meaningless in telling why inefficient decisions are selected preferably to efficient ones. Namely, the internal organisation itself of power utilities has to be questioned. Section two focuses on the decision-making in State Electricity Boards, especially on the absence of proper tools for delegation of power (a proper budget allocation, a proper delegation of managerial power, a reporting system which makes people accountable for decisions). It shows how this leads to a decision-making system being more dependent on administrative procedures than dedicated to solve actual issues. This analysis as well explains how the inability to have assumptions strong enough to carry out 'costs vs. benefits' analysis leads to inefficiencies. This ultimately explains the disinterest of private investors or the high premiums they take. Section three calls for an inflexion to the current reforms, which do not take into account these characteristics of public utilities. Further to the experience of reform in Russia, Eastern Europe and China, this section calls for a very 'enterprisation' of SEBs (turning them from bodies with an administration-style way of running into actual public enterprises) prior to addressing the privatisation issue. Section four deals with the potential benefits associated with enterprisation within the public sphere. It conversely presents the risks associated with a delay cost to be borne in case of failure of this public enterprisation. It finally presents a model that integrates the trade-off between these two aspects. (author)

  7. Blade runner. Blade server and virtualization technology can help hospitals save money--but they are far from silver bullets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Daphne

    2009-03-01

    Blade servers and virtualization can reduce infrastructure, maintenance, heating, electric, cooling and equipment costs. Blade server technology is evolving and some elements may become obsolete. There is very little interoperability between blades. Hospitals can virtualize 40 to 60 percent of their servers, and old servers can be reused for testing. Not all applications lend themselves to virtualization--especially those with high memory requirements. CIOs should engage their vendors in virtualization discussions.

  8. E-Cigarette as a Harm Reduction Approach among Tobacco Smoking Khat Chewers: A Promising Bullet of Multiple Gains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Kassim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Khat chewing/use, a green leaf with amphetamine-like effects is socially integrated in the Middle East and Africa. Khat chewing is often associated with tobacco smoking and occurs in closed places, such as a family home setting where the smoke-free laws cannot be implemented. Tobacco cigarette smoking among khat chewers is a significant concern, but there is also second-hand exposure to smoke at home or in places where khat users gather. Evidence suggests that e-cigarettes represent a significantly less harmful form of nicotine intake. Evaluating the effects of e-cigarettes among khat chewers could be important in understanding the impact of e-cigarettes as a harm reduction approach, with the potential to reduce the health risk associated with smoking.

  9. Paper-Based Theses as the Silver Bullet for Increased Research Outputs: First Hear My Story as a Supervisor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretorius, Marius

    2017-01-01

    With increased pressure to publish, academics are pursuing creative ways to achieve enhanced research outputs. One such process is the publication-based thesis (PBT) for both masters and PhD candidates, rather than monographs. While this process is not novel in the sciences, it has not been widely applied by economic and management schools,…

  10. Technology Assisted Language Learning is a silver bullet for enhancing Language competence and performance: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jameel Ahmad

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Technology Assisted Language Learning (TALL is an infallible means to develop profound knowledge and wide range of language skills. It instills in EFL learners an illimitable passion for task-based and skills oriented learning rather than rote memorization. New technological gadgets have commoditized a broad-based learning and teaching avenues and brought the whole learning process to life. A vast variety of authentic online- learning resources, motivational visual prompts, exciting videos, web-based interactivity and customizable language software, email, discussion forums, Skype, Twitter, apps, Internet mobiles, Facebook and YouTube have become obtrusive tools to enhance competence and performance in EFL teaching and learning realms. Technology can also provide various types of scaffolding for students learning to read. Nevertheless, instructors can also enhance their pedagogical effectiveness. However, the main focus of interest in this study is to ascertain to what extent the modern technological devices augment learners’ competence and performance specifically in vocabulary learning, grammatical accuracy and listening/ speaking skills. The remarkable scores of empirical surveys conducted in the present study reveal that TALL does assist learners to improve listening / speaking skills, pronunciation, extensive vocabulary and grammatical accuracy. The findings also manifest that the hybridity, instantaneity and super-diversity of digital learning lay far-reaching impact on learners' motivation for learning and incredibly maneuver learners to immerse in the whole learning process.

  11. Commercialization of Technologies to Lower Defense Costs. Final Demonstration/Validation Report for STAPP Bullet Catcher Evaluation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tumblin, Bill

    2006-01-01

    .... As part of its effort to continue Pollution Prevention (P2), and reduce the impacts of training on the environment, the DoD is being proactive by testing an alternative backstop for use on military small arms firing ranges...

  12. E-Cigarette as a Harm Reduction Approach among Tobacco Smoking Khat Chewers: A Promising Bullet of Multiple Gains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassim, Saba; Farsalinos, Konstantinos E

    2016-02-19

    Khat chewing/use, a green leaf with amphetamine-like effects is socially integrated in the Middle East and Africa. Khat chewing is often associated with tobacco smoking and occurs in closed places, such as a family home setting where the smoke-free laws cannot be implemented. Tobacco cigarette smoking among khat chewers is a significant concern, but there is also second-hand exposure to smoke at home or in places where khat users gather. Evidence suggests that e-cigarettes represent a significantly less harmful form of nicotine intake. Evaluating the effects of e-cigarettes among khat chewers could be important in understanding the impact of e-cigarettes as a harm reduction approach, with the potential to reduce the health risk associated with smoking.

  13. Identification of enhanced cytokine generation following sepsis. Dream of magic bullet for mortality prediction and therapeutic evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Hamishehkar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available "n  "nBackground and the purpose of the study: sepsis is one of the most widespread and lethal disease in Intensive Care Units (ICU. Based on pathophisyology of sepsis, it seems that routine laboratory tests combined with analysis of pro-inflammatory cytokines plasma levels, help clinicians to have more information about disease progress and its correct management. "nMethods:This was a prospective observational study to determine the predictive role of Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-α, Interleukin (IL-1β and IL-6 as three main pro-inflammatory cytokines and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA as two scoring systems in mortality of critically ill patients with severe sepsis. Fifty and five patients with criteria of severe sepsis were included in this study. An exclusion criterion was post Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR status. Cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 were assayed in the first, third and seventh days in blood of patients. Results and major conclusion:Among three measured cytokines, sequential levels of TNF-α and IL-6 showed significant differences between survivors and nonsurvivors. IL-6 had a good correlation with outcome and scoring systems during the period of this study. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC curve indicated that APACHE II (0.858, 0.848, 0.861 and IL-6 (0.797, 0.799, 0.899 had discriminative power in prediction of mortality during sequental measured days. Multiple logestic regression analysis identified that evaluation of APACHE II and TNF-α in the first day and APACHE II and IL-6 in the third and seventh days of severe septic patients are independent outcome predictors. Results of this study suggest that IL-6 and APACHE II are useful cytokine and scoring systems respectively in prediction of mortality and clinical evaluation of severe septic patients.

  14. Paper trails. Document management is no silver bullet, but it can patch holes as hospitals transition to paperless.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Kate Huvane

    2009-10-01

    Hospitals are leveraging content management to ease the transition from a paper-based to electronic environment. Document management is used to scan, index and archive medical records and financial documents. Even fully integrated health systems receive outside documents such as lab results and referrals that must be incorporated into the patient record. The data in scanned documents cannot be used for trending purposes without manual work. The market for natural language processing, a tool used to extract data elements from scanned documents, could ramp up significantly in the near future.

  15. Euthanasia of Cattle: Practical Considerations and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Jan Keith

    2018-01-01

    type of bullet are important considerations when gunshot is used. When captive bolt is used, a penetrating captive bolt loaded with the appropriate powder charge and accompanied by a follow up (adjunctive) step to assure death are required. The success of physical methods also requires careful selection of the anatomic site for entry of a “free bullet” or “bolt” in the case of penetrating captive bolt. Disease eradication plans for animal health emergencies necessitate methods of euthanasia that will facilitate rapid and efficient depopulation of animals while preserving their welfare to the greatest extent possible. A portable pneumatic captive bolt device has been developed and validated as effective for use in mass depopulation scenarios. Finally, while most tend to focus on the technical aspects of euthanasia, it is extremely important that no one forget the human cost for those who may be required to perform the task of euthanasia on a regular basis. Symptoms including depression, grief, sleeplessness and destructive behaviors including alcoholism and drug abuse are not uncommon for those who participate in the euthanasia of animals. PMID:29673140

  16. Lead arthropathy: radiographic, CT and MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Joao Luiz; Lopes Rocha, Arthemizio Antonio; Veloso Ayrimoraes Soares, Mayra; Lopes Viana, Sergio

    2007-01-01

    Lead arthropathy is a well-known complication of gunshot injuries with retained intra-articular bullets. Although several previous reports have discussed the radiological findings of this entity, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings have never been described before in this setting. In this paper the authors review the imaging findings of 11 patients with lead arthropathy (1 of whom had clinical signs of lead poisoning as well), all of them studied by means of radiographs. In addition, non-enhanced CT scans were obtained in 3 patients and gadolinium-enhanced MRI in 1. Classic findings of intra-articular speckled lead deposits (occasionally with a ''lead arthrogram'' appearance), joint space narrowing and preserved bone density were found at radiographs in the great majority of cases. Furthermore, extension of intra-articular lead to adjacent tendon sheaths was observed in almost half of the patients, an observation rarely reported in the literature. CT scans and MRI, in their turn, were superior with regard to soft tissue abnormalities, accurately depicting joint effusion and the thickened synovium with lead particles embedded in it. Post-gadolinium MRI had the advantage of showing the enhancement pattern of the inflamed synovium and associated bone marrow edema pattern. Although it is not possible to establish the role of axial imaging in lead arthropathy from the small number of cases studied, this initial experience shows that both methods hold promise in this setting and may be useful, at least in selected cases. (orig.)

  17. Large area imaging of forensic evidence with MA-XRF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langstraat, Kirsten; Knijnenberg, Alwin; Edelman, Gerda; van de Merwe, Linda; van Loon, Annelies; Dik, Joris; van Asten, Arian

    2017-11-08

    This study introduces the use of macroscopic X-ray fluorescence (MA-XRF) for the detection, classification and imaging of forensic traces over large object areas such as entire pieces of clothing and wall paneling. MA-XRF was sufficiently sensitive and selective to detect human biological traces like blood, semen, saliva, sweat and urine on fabric on the basis of Fe, Zn, K, Cl and Ca elemental signatures. With MA-XRF a new chemical contrast is introduced for human stain detection and this can provide a valuable alternative when the evidence item is challenging for conventional techniques. MA-XRF was also successfully employed for the chemical imaging and classification of gunshot residues (GSR). The full and non-invasive elemental mapping (Pb, Ba, Sr, K and Cl) of intact pieces of clothing allows for a detailed shooting incident reconstruction linking firearms and ammunition to point of impact and providing information on the shooting angle. In high resolution mode MA-XRF can even be used to provide information on the shooting order of different ammunition types. Finally, by using the surface penetration of X-rays we demonstrate that the lead signature of a bullet impact can be easily detected even if covered by multiple layers of wall paint or human blood.

  18. Transition to non-toxic gunshot use in Olympic shooting: policy implications for IOC and UNEP in resolving an environmental problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Vernon George; Guitart, Raimon

    2013-10-01

    Olympic shooters discharge, annually, thousands of tons of lead shot which pose toxic risks to animals and may pollute both surface and ground waters. Non-toxic steel shot is an acceptable and effective substitute, but International Shooting Sports Federation (ISSF) rules prevent its adoption. The present policy and rules of the ISSF on lead shot use contravene the International Olympic Committee (IOC) Charter position on environmental protection. The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), a formal Olympic partner on environmental protection, has no stated policy on contamination from lead ammunition, despite having declared lead a Priority Area for remedial action, and is pressing to remove lead from the global human environment. The IOC Sport and Environment Commission and UNEP could examine the continued use of lead shot ammunition and advise the IOC Executive Board on appropriate changes in policy and rules that could halt the massive lead shot contamination of shooting range environments world-wide.

  19. The Truth About Ballistic Coefficients

    OpenAIRE

    Courtney, Michael; Courtney, Amy

    2007-01-01

    The ballistic coefficient of a bullet describes how it slows in flight due to air resistance. This article presents experimental determinations of ballistic coefficients showing that the majority of bullets tested have their previously published ballistic coefficients exaggerated from 5-25% by the bullet manufacturers. These exaggerated ballistic coefficients lead to inaccurate predictions of long range bullet drop, retained energy and wind drift.

  20. Success Strategies for Linguistically Competent Healthcare: The Magic Bullets and Cautionary Tales of the Active Offer of French-Language Health Services in Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmanova, Elina; Bouchard, Louise; Bonneville, Luc

    2018-01-01

    An active offer of French-language health services (FLHS) was introduced in several Canadian provinces to help create an environment that will anticipate the needs of Francophones in their community and will stimulate the demand for services in French. For the active offer to be implemented, changes in how health services are organized and managed at both organizational and system levels must be introduced. In this perspective paper, we identify several success strategies and potential pitfalls with regards to the implementation of the active offer of FLHS primarily at the level of healthcare organization. Our recommendations are based on a recent health services research study exploring reorganization and management strategies for the delivery of the active offer of FLHS in Ontario and insights from a focus group with healthcare administrators conducted as part of this research. We propose a ";wrap-around strategy" called organizational health literacy to help reorient organizational culture and improve management and sustainability of the active offer of FLHS. These strategies have relevance for advocates and professionals working to promote an active offer of FLHS, including healthcare administrators, human resource professionals, quality-improvement specialists and others. © 2018 Longwoods Publishing.

  1. A magic bullet for the “African” mother? Neo-Imperial reproductive futurism and the pharmaceutical “solution” to the HIV/AIDS Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Karen M

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of a close reading of popular and medical texts which address a debate over the ethics of clinical drug trials funded by the United States and designed mainly for sub-Saharan Africa, I argue that international public health discourse about infant HIV infection in that region reflects and legitimates a neo-imperialist, anti-reproductive justice ideology. Participants share a fetal-centered logic that US-funded biomedicine must shoulder the burden of rescuing sub-Saharan Africa from itself by using the bodies of HIV-positive pregnant women to transmit biomedicine's magic bullet—antiretroviral drugs—to the next generation. The survival of the fetus, disguised as the well-being of the HIV-positive woman and accomplished by the magic of biomedical research, becomes the survival of a region otherwise doomed by its present state of economic, political, and medical incapacity. This version of what queer theorist Lee Edelman (2004, No Future: Queer Theory and the Death Drive) calls “reproductive futurism” redounds to the benefit of the more explicitly women-hating and nationalist ideologies of still-powerful right-wing movements against reproductive and sexual rights.

  2. Science in bullet points: How to compile scientific results to underpin guidelines for CO2 storage for the German transposition of the European CCS Directive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streibel, Martin

    2015-04-01

    In 2012 the German Parliament passed the transposition of the EC Directive 2009/31/EC the "Carbon Dioxide Storage Law" (KSpG). The law focuses on the demonstration of the CO2 storage technology and mainly regulates the storage part of the Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) chain. As the law has a conceptual character, appendix 1 provides a description of criteria for the characterisation and assessment of a potential CO2 storage site starting with field data ending with requirements for dynamic modelling of the storage complex. Appendix 2 describes the expected monitoring system during all relevant phases of a life cycle of a CO2 storage site. The criteria given in the appendices are of general nature, which reflects on one hand that the CO2 storage technology is still being developed and on the other hand that site specific aspects needs to be considered. In 2004 the Federal Ministry of Education and Research of Germany launched the programme GEOTECHNOLOGIEN with one key aspect being the development of technologies for a sustainable storage of carbon dioxide in geological formations. Within this research field more than 30 projects in three phases have been funded until the end of 2014. In order to benefit from the gathered knowledge and use the experiences for the policy/law making process the umbrella project AUGE has been launched in October 2012 with a life time of three years. The aim of the project is to review and compile all results of projects funded during the three phases to underpin the appendices of the KSpG. In the first part of the paper the most important findings of the project with regard to the overall risk of a geological CO2 storage and the procedure of compiling the guidance document will be discussed. Milestones of this project were • the compilation of the results of national, European and international projects; • interviews with stakeholders; • a workshops to define state of the art for certain involved technologies and existing gaps; • a workshop to understand the limitations of existing simulation tools for large scale CO2 storage. In a second part of the paper it is discussed what kind of guidance documents are actually still required for regulation of large scale CO2 storage sites.

  3. Cover systems in the Athabasca oil sands : a summary of the Green Bullet and ten years of reclamation research at Syncrude Canada Ltd.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Kane, M. [O' Kane Consultants Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-02-15

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed the use of a dry cover system over oil sand tailings as land reclamation strategy. Dry covers can range from a single layer of earthen material to several layers of different material types, including native soils, non-reactive tailings or waste rock, geosynthetic materials, and oxygen consuming organic materials. The 3 prototype covers used in the Athabasca deposit in northern Alberta include peat, glacial till and sedge-sphagnum open bog (SSOB). The hydraulic role of the covers was described. This presentation also described how the physical reclamation works, with particular reference to how the area is contoured to ensure proper drainage. Soil and vegetation assessments are undertaken to ensure the reclamation amendments are achieving the goals of the reclamation plan. tabs., figs.

  4. Influence of induced colour centres on the frequency - angular spectrum of a light bullet of mid-IR radiation in lithium fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekalin, S. V.; Kompanets, V. O.; Dormidonov, A. E.; Kandidov, V. P.

    2017-04-01

    The influence of the occurrence of a structure consisting of long-lived colour centres, formed in an LiF crystal upon filamentation of femtosecond mid-IR radiation, on the supercontinuum characteristics is investigated. With an increase in the number of incident pulses, the length and transverse size of the structure of colour centres induced in LiF increase, and the supercontinuum spectrum in the short-wavelength region is markedly transformed due to the occurrence of the waveguide propagation regime, absorption, and scattering of radiation from the newly formed structure of colour centres. Under these conditions, the intensity of the anti-Stokes wing decreases by two orders of magnitude after several tens of pulses. Spectral components arise in the visible range, the angular divergence of which increases with increasing wavelength.

  5. Pathways for the reaction of the butadiene radical cation, [C{sub 4}H{sub 6}]{sup {sm{underscore}bullet}+}, with ethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, M.; Schaefer, H.F. III

    1999-11-04

    The Diels-Alder (DA) reaction, a [4+2] cycloaddition used to build six membered rings, is one of the most valuable cycloadditions in organic chemistry. In cases where the ene does not add to the diene (even with the help of Lewis acids which may reduce the electron density of one reactant by complexation) one electron oxidation (by an oxidizing agent or by photoinduced electron transfer (PET)) may accelerate the reaction. Reaction pathways for the addition of ethylene, 1, to butadiene radical cation, 2, involving H-shifts have been investigated at the coupled cluster UCCSD(T)/DZP//UMP2(fc)/DZP + ZPE level of theory. Activation energies are relatively low for [1,2]- (10.0 kcal mol{sup {minus}1}, TS-4/20) and [1,5]-hydrogen shifts (7.7 kcal mol{sup {minus}1}, TS-4/26) but are relatively high for [1,4]-(33.8 kcal mol{sup {minus}1}, TS-4/14) and [1,3]-H shifts (e.g., 42.2 kcal mol{sup {minus}1}, TS-12/13; 57.2 kcal mol{sup {minus}1}, TS-16/21). Several rearrangement reactions have been found to occur below the energy limit of separated 1 + 2. The cyclopentenyl cation, [C{sub 5}{sub 7}]{sup +}, 18, experimentally observed as reaction product of the butadiene radical cation, 2, and ethylene, 1, in the gas phase may origin from various reaction pathways. The following reaction sequence has been identified as the lowest in energy path from 1 + 2 to 18 with all relative energies ({Delta}E{degree}) of transition structures below that of 1 + 2: (a) ethylene adds to the butadiene radical cation to form an open-chain distonic intermediate, that undergoes a [1,5]-H shift to the 1,4-hexadiene radical cation; (b) intramolecular [2+1] cycloaddition to methyl-cyclopenta-1,3-diyl intermediates, which can interconvert through a bicyclo[2.1.0]pentane radical cation; (c) [1,2]-H shift to the 3-methyl cyclopentene radical cation; (d) methyl radical loss to give cyclopenten-3-yl cation. Along this reaction pathway, {Delta}H{sup 298} is below that of 1 + 2; max. ({Delta}G{sup 298} by {minus}16.0 kcal mol{sup {minus}1}) and only transition structures low in energy ({Delta}H{sup 298} is below that of 1 + 2; max {Delta}G{sup 298{double{underscore}dagger}} = 10.4 kcal mol{sup {minus}1} for [1,5]-H shift relative to 1 + 2) are involved. Ethylene, 1, can also add to 2, simultaneously accepting a transferred hydrogen to give a 1,3-hexadiene radical cation. Back dissociation of the latter into 1 + 2 is favored over methyl radical loss.

  6. Invariant natural killer T-cell control of type 1 diabetes: a dendritic cell genetic decision of a silver bullet or Russian roulette.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driver, John P; Scheuplein, Felix; Chen, Yi-Guang; Grier, Alexandra E; Wilson, S Brian; Serreze, David V

    2010-02-01

    In part, activation of invariant natural killer T (iNKT)-cells with the superagonist alpha-galactosylceramide (alpha-GalCer) inhibits the development of T-cell-mediated autoimmune type 1 diabetes in NOD mice by inducing the downstream differentiation of antigen-presenting dendritic cells (DCs) to an immunotolerogenic state. However, in other systems iNKT-cell activation has an adjuvant-like effect that enhances rather than suppresses various immunological responses. Thus, we tested whether in some circumstances genetic variation would enable activated iNKT-cells to support rather than inhibit type 1 diabetes development. We tested whether iNKT-conditioned DCs in NOD mice and a major histocompatibility complex-matched C57BL/6 (B6) background congenic stock differed in capacity to inhibit type 1 diabetes induced by the adoptive transfer of pathogenic AI4 CD8 T-cells. Unlike those of NOD origin, iNKT-conditioned DCs in the B6 background stock matured to a state that actually supported rather than inhibited AI4 T-cell-induced type 1 diabetes. The induction of a differing activity pattern of T-cell costimulatory molecules varying in capacity to override programmed death-ligand-1 inhibitory effects contributes to the respective ability of iNKT-conditioned DCs in NOD and B6 background mice to inhibit or support type 1 diabetes development. Genetic differences inherent to both iNKT-cells and DCs contribute to their varying interactions in NOD and B6.H2(g7) mice. This great variability in the interactions between iNKT-cells and DCs in two inbred mouse strains should raise a cautionary note about considering manipulation of this axis as a potential type 1 diabetes prevention therapy in genetically heterogeneous humans.

  7. Do We Really Know How to Treat a Child with Bipolar Disorder or One with Severe Mood Dysregulation? Is There a Magic Bullet?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Jairam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Despite controversy, bipolar disorder (BD is being increasingly diagnosed in under 18s. There is scant information regarding its treatment and uncertainty regarding the status of “severe mood dysregulation (SMD” and how it overlaps with BD. This article collates available research on treatment of BD in under 18s and explores the status of SMD. Methods. Literature on treatment of BD in under 18s and on SMD were identified using major search engines; these were then collated and reviewed. Results. Some markers have been proposed to differentiate BD from disruptive behaviour disorders (DBD in children. Pharmacotherapy restricted to short-term trials of mood-stabilizers and atypical-antipsychotics show mixed results. Data on maintenance treatment and non-pharmacological interventions are scant. It is unclear whether SMD is an independent disorder or an early manifestation of another disorder. Conclusions. Valproate, lithium, risperidone, olanzapine, aripiprazole and quetiapine remain first line treatments for acute episodes in the under 18s with BD. Their efficacy in maintenance treatment remains unclear. There is no validated treatment for SMD. It is likely that some children who are currently diagnosed with BD and DBD and possibly most children currently diagnosed with SMD will be subsumed under the proposed category in the DSM V of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder with dysphoria.

  8. Commercialization of Technologies to Lower Defense Costs, Final Demonstration/Validation Report for STAPP Bullet Catcher Evaluation at Fort A.P. Hill

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tumblin, Bill

    2006-01-01

    .... As part of its effort to continue Pollution Prevention (P2), and reduce the impacts of training on the environment, the DoD is being proactive by testing an alternative backstop for use on military small arms firing ranges...

  9. Cover systems in the Athabasca oil sands : a summary of the Green Bullet and ten years of reclamation research at Syncrude Canada Ltd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Kane, M.

    2010-01-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed the use of a dry cover system over oil sand tailings as land reclamation strategy. Dry covers can range from a single layer of earthen material to several layers of different material types, including native soils, non-reactive tailings or waste rock, geosynthetic materials, and oxygen consuming organic materials. The 3 prototype covers used in the Athabasca deposit in northern Alberta include peat, glacial till and sedge-sphagnum open bog (SSOB). The hydraulic role of the covers was described. This presentation also described how the physical reclamation works, with particular reference to how the area is contoured to ensure proper drainage. Soil and vegetation assessments are undertaken to ensure the reclamation amendments are achieving the goals of the reclamation plan. tabs., figs.

  10. Bullet Design and Fabrication of Dual Mode Pyroelectric Sensor: High Sensitive Energymeter for Nd: YAG Laser and Detector for Chopped He-Ne Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. SATAPATHY

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Pyroelectric sensor using TGS has been designed and fabricated which can be operated in laser energy meter mode as well as pyroelectric detector mode. The amplifying circuit configuration has very good signal to noise ratio, very high input impedance and low drift. The pyroelectric sensor has been tested using Q-switched Nd: YAG laser and chopped He-Ne laser. The sensitivity of pyroelectric sensor in energymeter mode is 421.7V/J and the voltage responsivity of the pyroelectric sensor is 3.27 V/W in detector mode.

  11. Bullets and Votes: Violence and Electoral Participation in Mexico Balas y votos: Violencia y participación electoral en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Trelles

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze the effect of criminal violence on electoral participation in Mexico. Many scholars have studied the origins of criminal violence, as well as the success or failure of contemporary regimes in dealing with it. However, few have studied how it affects voter turnout. Following recent findings in the behavioral subfield, we hypothesize that as criminal violence increases, citizens abandon public channels of participation and take refuge in their private spheres. Using longitudinal and geostatistical tools to analyze Mexican municipalities in the last decade, we find that the level of electoral turnout is lower in the most violent regions of the country. In the final section, we use survey data to confirm that citizens exposed to high levels of criminal violence are less likely to vote.En este artículo, analizamos el efecto de la violencia criminal sobre la participación electoral en México. Muchos investigadores estudiaron las causas de la violencia criminal y la respuesta de los diferentes gobiernos frente a este problema. Sin embargo, pocos estudios analizan el impacto de la violencia criminal sobre la participación en las elecciones. Siguiendo algunos hallazgos recientes en la literatura de comportamiento político, argumentamos que cuando la violencia criminal aumenta, los ciudadanos abandonan espacios públicos de participación y se refugian en la esfera privada. Usando métodos geoestadísticos para analizar las municipalidades en México en la ultima década, demostramos que la participación electoral es más baja en las regiones más violentas del país. En la última sección, usamos datos de una encuesta reciente para confirmar que ciudadanos expuestos a niveles altos de criminalidad tienen menos probabilidades de votar.

  12. Malcolm X’s the ballot or the bullet speech? Its implications for Black Liberation Theology in present-day South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rothney S. Tshaka

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to bring one of the greatest speeches of Malcolm X back to life in the current South Africa – the year 2015. It is a year of growing frustration and extreme dissatisfaction with basic living conditions amongst the greater part of black people in the country. Recounting the influences that Malcolm X had on Black Liberation Theology in South Africa, the article proposes that Black Liberation Theology in South Africa moves away from being an inward-looking critical theology to one that identifies with the basic concerns of the most vulnerable in society. It criticises both the political and the economic hegemonies that are currently perceived to perpetuate much of apartheid’s grave social ills in democratic South Africa. It calls attention to party politics that floods society with propaganda but in reality seems to have little real interest in the social well-being of the masses. In the article, the question as to what Malcolm X would have said about the current South African socio-economic context is asked. It is clear that both structural apartheid residues as well as the pure selfish interests of the current political rulers gang up against the chances of black people ever experiencing social justice in the near future.

  13. Simulated Flow Pattern in Massive Pulmonary Embolism: Significance for Selective Intrapulmonary Thrombolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Kilbinger, Markus; Guenther, Rolf W.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: The flow pattern in the central pulmonary arteries proximal to large pulmonary emboli was studied experimentally. The currents to which thrombolytic agents are exposed when administered via an intrapulmonary catheter were visualized in order to explain the lack of benefit of local versus systemic administration. Methods: By illumination of suspended microspheres, the flow pattern proximal to an obstructing embolus was visualized in an in vitro pulmonary arterial flow model. In six dogs massive pulmonary embolism was created. A pigtail catheter was positioned in the pulmonary artery immediately proximal to the central edge of the occluding embolus. To allow visualization of the local flow pattern, a small amount of contrast material (4 ml) was injected through the catheter at a high flow rate (25 ml/sec). The course of the radiopaque spot that emerged from the catheter tip within 160 msec was monitored with digital subtraction angiography at a frame rate of 12.5 frames/sec. In two dogs, the study was repeated after embolus fragmentation with the same catheter position. Results: The flow model study revealed formation of a vortex proximal to the occluding embolus. In vivo experiments showed that the radiopaque spot was whirled by the vortex proximal to the embolus and made only evanescent contact with the edge of the embolus. Regardless of the embolus location, the contrast spot was washed into the non-occluded ipsilateral and contralateral pulmonary arteries within 0.40-0.64 sec. After embolus fragmentation, the contrast spot was carried completely into the formerly occluded artery. Conclusion: Flow studies explain why thrombolytic agents administered via a catheter positioned adjacent to the embolus may have no more effect than systemically administered agents. An enhanced local effect is precluded by the rapid washout into the non-occluded pulmonary arteries and subsequent systemic dilution. These results support the practice of direct intrathrombic

  14. Can surgery improve neurological function in penetrating spinal injury? A review of the military and civilian literature and treatment recommendations for military neurosurgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimo, Paul; Ragel, Brian T; Rosner, Michael; Gluf, Wayne; McCafferty, Randall

    2010-05-01

    Penetrating spinal injury (PSI), although an infrequent injury in the civilian population, is not an infrequent injury in military conflicts. Throughout military history, the role of surgery in the treatment of PSI has been controversial. The US is currently involved in 2 military campaigns, the hallmark of both being the widespread use of various explosive devices. The authors reviewed the evidence for or against the use of decompressive laminectomy to treat PSI to provide a triservice (US Army, Navy, and Air Force) consensus and treatment recommendations for military neurosurgeons and spine surgeons. A US National Library of Medicine PubMed database search that identified all literature dealing with acute management of PSI from military conflicts and civilian urban trauma centers in the post-Vietnam War period was undertaken. Nineteen retrospective case series (11 military and 8 civilian) met the study criteria. Eleven military articles covered a 20-year time span that included 782 patients who suffered either gunshot or blast-related projectile wounds. Four papers included sufficient data that analyzed the effectiveness of surgery compared with nonoperative management, 6 papers concluded that surgery was of no benefit, 2 papers indicated that surgery did have a role, and 3 papers made no comment. Eight civilian articles covered a 9-year time span that included 653 patients with spinal gunshot wounds. Two articles lacked any comparative data because of treatment bias. Two papers concluded that decompressive laminectomy had a beneficial role, 1 paper favored the removal of intracanal bullets between T-12 and L-4, and 5 papers indicated that surgery was of no benefit. Based on the authors' military and civilian PubMed literature search, most of the evidence suggests that decompressive laminectomy does not improve neurological function in patients with PSI. However, there are serious methodological shortcomings in both literature groups. For this and other reasons

  15. Dynamics of motion of a clot through an arterial bifurcation: a finite element analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abolfazli, Ehsan; Fatouraee, Nasser [Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Vahidi, Bahman, E-mail: e.abolfazli@aut.ac.ir, E-mail: nasser@aut.ac.ir, E-mail: bahman_vahidi@ut.ac.ir [Department of Life Science Engineering, Faculty of New Sciences and Technologies, University of Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-10-01

    Although arterial embolism is important as a major cause of brain infarction, little information is available about the hemodynamic factors which govern the path emboli tend to follow. A method which predicts the trajectory of emboli in carotid arteries would be of a great value in understanding ischemic attack mechanisms and eventually devising hemodynamically optimal techniques for prevention of strokes. In this paper, computational models are presented to investigate the motion of a blood clot in a human carotid artery bifurcation. The governing equations for blood flow are the Navier–Stokes formulations. To achieve large structural movements, the arbitrary Lagrangian–Eulerian formulation (ALE) with an adaptive mesh method was employed for the fluid domain. The problem was solved by simultaneous solution of the fluid and the structure equations. In this paper, the phenomenon was simulated under laminar and Newtonian flow conditions. The measured stress–strain curve obtained from ultrasound elasticity imaging of the thrombus was set to a Sussman–Bathe material model representing embolus material properties. Shear stress magnitudes in the inner wall of the internal carotid artery (ICA) were measured. High magnitudes of wall shear stress (WSS) occurred in the areas in which the embolus and arterial are in contact with each other. Stress distribution in the embolus was also calculated and areas prone to rapture were identified. Effects of embolus size and embolus density on its motion velocity were investigated and it was observed that an increase in either embolus size or density led to a reduction in movement velocity of the embolus. Embolus trajectory and shear stress from a simulation of embolus movement in a three-dimensional model with patient-specific carotid artery bifurcation geometry are also presented.

  16. Lead intoxication: a summary of the clinical presentation among Thai patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj; Suwansaksri, Jamsai

    2006-08-01

    Lead is an important toxic metal found in industrial communities. Due to the industrialization in the recent decade in Thailand, lead intoxication as a toxicant-related disorder becomes a new public health problem. A retrospective study on clinical presentation of hospitalized patients with diagnosis of lead intoxication during year 1990-1999 in King Chulalongkorn Memorial hospital, the largest Thai Red Cross Society Hospital, was performed. All 14 cases diagnosed with lead intoxication were identified in our series. Average age of the subjects was 25.55 +/- 21.93 years old. Male predominance was detected in our series (male:female = 12:2). Two main groups of subjects as; (1) childhood aged below 10 years old (male:female = 4:2) and (2) adult aged between 24 and 60 years old (n = 8, all male), can be identified. For the first group, the clinical presentations were convulsion (n = 3), unexplained anemia (n = 1), attention deficit (n = 1) and asymptomatic (n = 1), respectively. All of the subjects in this group presented the history of living at the old battery plant area. Five of the six cases came from the same village. For the second group, the clinical presentations were unexplained abdominal pain (n = 5), chronic renal failure (n = 1), unexplained anemia (n = 1) and asymptomatic (n = 1), respectively. Most of the subjects (75%) in this group presented the history of working in the battery plant for more than 10 years. Another case presented the history of gunshot and residual bullet in the bone marrow. The other one left is an interesting case with the history of prolonged usage of ritual pill and holy paper incineration. Like other studies, battery plant had strong relation with the lead intoxication. Although the total identified cases are rather few, there may be more undetected asymptomatic lead intoxication cases in the community. Specific control of lead resulted from battery plant and monitoring of the workers as public health strategies are still

  17. Side-effects of systemic therapy for the management of breast cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    oncologists, radiotherapists, surgeons, nurses and social workers. ... An increased incidence of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolus has been reported, along with .... Care must be taken when treating patients with pre- existing ...

  18. Pleurisy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... also occur with: Asbestos-related disease Certain cancers Chest trauma Blood clot ( pulmonary embolus ) Rheumatoid arthritis Lupus Symptoms The main symptom of pleurisy is pain in the chest. This pain often occurs when you take a ...

  19. Performance of Lead-Free versus Lead-Based Hunting Ammunition in Ballistic Soap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gremse, Felix; Krone, Oliver; Thamm, Mirko; Kiessling, Fabian; Tolba, René Hany; Rieger, Siegfried; Gremse, Carl

    2014-01-01

    Background Lead-free hunting bullets are an alternative to lead-containing bullets which cause health risks for humans and endangered scavenging raptors through lead ingestion. However, doubts concerning the effectiveness of lead-free hunting bullets hinder the wide-spread acceptance in the hunting and wildlife management community. Methods We performed terminal ballistic experiments under standardized conditions with ballistic soap as surrogate for game animal tissue to characterize dimensionally stable, partially fragmenting, and deforming lead-free bullets and one commonly used lead-containing bullet. The permanent cavities created in soap blocks are used as a measure for the potential wound damage. The soap blocks were imaged using computed tomography to assess the volume and shape of the cavity and the number of fragments. Shots were performed at different impact speeds, covering a realistic shooting range. Using 3D image segmentation, cavity volume, metal fragment count, deflection angle, and depth of maximum damage were determined. Shots were repeated to investigate the reproducibility of ballistic soap experiments. Results All bullets showed an increasing cavity volume with increasing deposited energy. The dimensionally stable and fragmenting lead-free bullets achieved a constant conversion ratio while the deforming copper and lead-containing bullets showed a ratio, which increases linearly with the total deposited energy. The lead-containing bullet created hundreds of fragments and significantly more fragments than the lead-free bullets. The deflection angle was significantly higher for the dimensionally stable bullet due to its tumbling behavior and was similarly low for the other bullets. The deforming bullets achieved higher reproducibility than the fragmenting and dimensionally stable bullets. Conclusion The deforming lead-free bullet closely resembled the deforming lead-containing bullet in terms of energy conversion, deflection angle, cavity shape

  20. Performance of lead-free versus lead-based hunting ammunition in ballistic soap.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Gremse

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lead-free hunting bullets are an alternative to lead-containing bullets which cause health risks for humans and endangered scavenging raptors through lead ingestion. However, doubts concerning the effectiveness of lead-free hunting bullets hinder the wide-spread acceptance in the hunting and wildlife management community. METHODS: We performed terminal ballistic experiments under standardized conditions with ballistic soap as surrogate for game animal tissue to characterize dimensionally stable, partially fragmenting, and deforming lead-free bullets and one commonly used lead-containing bullet. The permanent cavities created in soap blocks are used as a measure for the potential wound damage. The soap blocks were imaged using computed tomography to assess the volume and shape of the cavity and the number of fragments. Shots were performed at different impact speeds, covering a realistic shooting range. Using 3D image segmentation, cavity volume, metal fragment count, deflection angle, and depth of maximum damage were determined. Shots were repeated to investigate the reproducibility of ballistic soap experiments. RESULTS: All bullets showed an increasing cavity volume with increasing deposited energy. The dimensionally stable and fragmenting lead-free bullets achieved a constant conversion ratio while the deforming copper and lead-containing bullets showed a ratio, which increases linearly with the total deposited energy. The lead-containing bullet created hundreds of fragments and significantly more fragments than the lead-free bullets. The deflection angle was significantly higher for the dimensionally stable bullet due to its tumbling behavior and was similarly low for the other bullets. The deforming bullets achieved higher reproducibility than the fragmenting and dimensionally stable bullets. CONCLUSION: The deforming lead-free bullet closely resembled the deforming lead-containing bullet in terms of energy conversion