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Sample records for gulbis gints birzietis

  1. Four genes essential for recombination define GInts, a new type of mobile genomic island widespread in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardaji, Leire; Echeverría, Myriam; Rodríguez-Palenzuela, Pablo; Martínez-García, Pedro M; Murillo, Jesús

    2017-04-10

    Integrases are a family of tyrosine recombinases that are highly abundant in bacterial genomes, actively disseminating adaptive characters such as pathogenicity determinants and antibiotics resistance. Using comparative genomics and functional assays, we identified a novel type of mobile genetic element, the GInt, in many diverse bacterial groups but not in archaea. Integrated as genomic islands, GInts show a tripartite structure consisting of the ginABCD operon, a cargo DNA region from 2.5 to at least 70 kb, and a short AT-rich 3' end. The gin operon is characteristic of GInts and codes for three putative integrases and a small putative helix-loop-helix protein, all of which are essential for integration and excision of the element. Genes in the cargo DNA are acquired mostly from phylogenetically related bacteria and often code for traits that might increase fitness, such as resistance to antimicrobials or virulence. GInts also tend to capture clusters of genes involved in complex processes, such as the biosynthesis of phaseolotoxin by Pseudomonas syringae. GInts integrate site-specifically, generating two flanking direct imperfect repeats, and excise forming circular molecules. The excision process generates sequence variants at the element attachment site, which can increase frequency of integration and drive target specificity.

  2. GintAMT3 – a low-affinity ammonium transporter of the arbuscular mycorrhizal Rhizophagus irregularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia eCalabrese

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nutrient acquisition and transfer are essential steps in the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM symbiosis, which is formed by the majority of land plants. Mineral nutrients are taken up by AM fungi from the soil and transferred to the plant partner. Within the cortical plant root cells the fungal hyphae form tree-like structures (arbuscules where the nutrients are released to the plant-fungal interface, i.e. to the periarbuscular space, before being taken up by the plant. In exchange, the AM fungi receive valuable carbohydrates from the plant host. Besides the well-studied uptake of phosphorus (P, the uptake and transfer of nitrogen (N plays a crucial role in this mutualistic interaction. In the AM fungus Rhizophagus irregularis (formerly called Glomus intraradices, two ammonium transporters (AMT were previously described, namely GintAMT1 and GintAMT2. Here, we report the identification and characterization of a newly identified R. irregularis AMT, GintAMT3. Phylogenetic analyses revealed high sequence similarity to previously identified AM fungal AMTs and a clear separation from other fungal AMTs. Topological analysis indicated GintAMT3 to be a membrane bound pore forming protein, and GFP tagging showed it to be highly expressed in the intraradical mycelium (IRM of a fully established AM symbiosis. Expression of GintAMT3 in yeast successfully complemented the yeast AMT triple deletion mutant (MATa ura3 mep1Δ mep2Δ::LEU2 mep3Δ::KanMX2. GintAMT3 is characterized as a low affinity transport system with an apparent Km of 1.8 mM and a Vmax of 240 nmol-1 min-1 108 cells-1, which is regulated by substrate concentration and carbon supply.

  3. GintAMT3 – a Low-Affinity Ammonium Transporter of the Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Rhizophagus irregularis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Silvia; Pérez-Tienda, Jacob; Ellerbeck, Matthias; Arnould, Christine; Chatagnier, Odile; Boller, Thomas; Schüßler, Arthur; Brachmann, Andreas; Wipf, Daniel; Ferrol, Nuria; Courty, Pierre-Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Nutrient acquisition and transfer are essential steps in the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis, which is formed by the majority of land plants. Mineral nutrients are taken up by AM fungi from the soil and transferred to the plant partner. Within the cortical plant root cells the fungal hyphae form tree-like structures (arbuscules) where the nutrients are released to the plant-fungal interface, i.e., to the periarbuscular space, before being taken up by the plant. In exchange, the AM fungi receive carbohydrates from the plant host. Besides the well-studied uptake of phosphorus (P), the uptake and transfer of nitrogen (N) plays a crucial role in this mutualistic interaction. In the AM fungus Rhizophagus irregularis (formerly called Glomus intraradices), two ammonium transporters (AMT) were previously described, namely GintAMT1 and GintAMT2. Here, we report the identification and characterization of a newly identified R. irregularis AMT, GintAMT3. Phylogenetic analyses revealed high sequence similarity to previously identified AM fungal AMTs and a clear separation from other fungal AMTs. Topological analysis indicated GintAMT3 to be a membrane bound pore forming protein, and GFP tagging showed it to be highly expressed in the intraradical mycelium of a fully established AM symbiosis. Expression of GintAMT3 in yeast successfully complemented the yeast AMT triple deletion mutant (MATa ura3 mep1Δ mep2Δ::LEU2 mep3Δ::KanMX2). GintAMT3 is characterized as a low affinity transport system with an apparent Km of 1.8 mM and a Vmax of 240 nmol-1 min-1 108 cells-1, which is regulated by substrate concentration and carbon supply. PMID:27252708

  4. Gulbis investigation reveals fake CV / Talis Saule Archdeacon

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Archdeacon, Talis Saule

    2007-01-01

    Endise julgestustöötaja Edgars Gulbise suhtes on alustatud mitu kriminaalprotsessi: tollitöötaja auto süütamise, kelmuse, võltsitud haridust tõendava dokumendi kasutamise ning teadliku valevandumise eest. President Zatlers kritiseeris julgestusteenistust ning põhiseaduse kaitse bürood

  5. Riia, Euroopa ja euroopalik ruum / Reet Varblane

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Varblane, Reet, 1952-

    2004-01-01

    Riia skulptuurikvadriennaal "Euroopa ruum" Riia Arsenalis, Läti raudteemuuseumis ja linnaruumis 4. VI-25. VII. Kuraatorid Kristaps Gulbis, Aigars Bikse. Preemia saanud ungari rühmituse Little Warsaw (Balint Havas, Andras Galik) tööst "Marmori tänav" ning Gints Gabransi (Läti), Tulay Schakiri (Soome), Eestit esindanud Daniela, Paul Rodgersi, Ekke Väli, Jüri Ojaveri jt. töödest. Tagasivaates 1950-ndate skulptuuri linnaruumi paigutatud fotode kaudu esindas Eestit Arseni Mölder. Heli Ryhäneni ja Anne Meskaneni näitusest "Skulptuurid" Tallinna Kunstihoone galeriis

  6. Perevozki na svoi strahh i risk / Martinsh Etkin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Etkin, Martinsh

    2002-01-01

    Vaatamata kaupade transportimisega seotud riskidele, kasutatakse kindlustamist riskide maandamiseks harva. Kommenteerivad Schenker BTL-i jurist Inese Minajeva, AS Latvijas balzams juht Juris Gulbis, Kuehne & Nagel Latvia direktor Edvin Ozolins ja Latvijas Auto juhatuse esimees Pavel Goshev. Diagrammid

  7. Linnaruum - kas ainult arhitektuur? / Mari-Liis Tammi-Kelder

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tammi-Kelder, Mari-Liis

    2004-01-01

    25. IV Tallinna Õpetajate Majas Eesti Kujurite Ühenduse seminar, mis keskendub monumentaalskulptuurile kaasaegses linnaruumis. Esinevad Bernard Gerboud Pariisist, Pekka Jylhä Soomest, Kristaps Gulbis ja Irena Buzinska Lätist, Jüri Soolep, Triin Ojari, Rael Artel, Jaan Elken ja Aili Vahtrapuu. Seminari juhatab Jaak Soans

  8. Euro on teel / Ivar Jung

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jung, Ivar

    2005-01-01

    Reet Varblase kureeritud näitus "Oma raha" Tallinna Kunstihoone galeriis 12. XI-4. XII. Gints Gabransi videotest, Jaan Jaanisoo masin-installatsioonist, Siim-Tanel Annuse tööst. 2. XII galeriis toimunud kunstnike, kultuurihuviliste ja rahamaailma esindajate (Eesti Panga asepresident Rein Minka, endine president Vahur Kraft, rahandusministri nõuniku kt Veiko Valkiainen) kohtumisest

  9. Kevad näitusesaalides / Andri Ksenofontov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ksenofontov, Andri, 1962-

    2005-01-01

    Gints Gabransi näitusest Rotermanni soolalaos. Liina Jänese koostatud ja Siiri Nõva kujundatud näitusest "Valve Pormeister. Eesti maa-arhitektuuri uuendaja" Eesti Arhitektuurimuuseumis. Külli K. Kaatsi ja Daniele Mosca näitusest "Salajased aiad" Tallinna Kunstihoone galeriis

  10. Grammatika läti moodi / Rael Artel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Artel, Rael, 1980-

    1999-01-01

    Läti nüüdiskunsti näitus "Grammatika" Rotermanni soolalaos. Kuraator Solvita Krese. Eriks Bozhise, rühmituse F5, Renars Kruminshi, Martinsh Ratniksi, Ieva Rubeze, Armins Ozolinshi, Barbara Gaile, Gints Gabransi, Monika I. Pormale, Izolde Cesniece töödest.

  11. Pengaruh Perbandingan Sari Buah Markisa dengan Pepaya dan Konsentrasi Gula terhadap Mutu Permen(Hard Candy)

    OpenAIRE

    Wahyuni, Try

    2014-01-01

    TRY WAHYUNI : The effect of passion fruit ratio with papaya and sugar concentration to quality of hard candy, supervised by Linda Masniary Lubis and Sentosa Ginting. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of passion fruit ratio with papaya and sugar concentration of the quality of hard candy. Method of this study was randomized complete design with two factors, ratio of passion fruit and papaya (T) (50% : 50%, 60% : 40%, 70% : 30%, 80% : 20%) and sugar concentrat...

  12. Analisis Pengaruh Lokasi, Harga, Kualitas Pendidikan dan Fasilitas Terhadap Minat dan Dampaknya Pada Keputusan Orang Tua Murid Memilih Jasa Pendidikan (Studi Pada Orang Tua Siswa di SD. High/Scope Indonesia Medan)

    OpenAIRE

    Purba, Mery Lani

    2011-01-01

    Mery Lani Purba, 2011, The Analysis of Location, Price, Education Quality, and Facilities Influence toward Interest and the Impact of Parents’ Decision to Chose Education Services (Study on Parents in SD. High/Scope Indonesia Medan), under the guidance of Prof. Dr. Paham Ginting, MS (chairman), Dr. Endang Sulistya Rini, SE, M.Si (members). SD. High/Scope Indonesia Medan is the one of international private elementary schools in Medan. SD. High/Scope Indonesia Medan is a franchise business ...

  13. Pengaruh Kualitas Pelayanan, Harga, Faktor Emosional, dan Lokasi terhadap Kepuasan dan Loyalitas Konsumen pada Hotel Internasional Sibayak Berastagi

    OpenAIRE

    Nainggolan, Nora Pitri

    2011-01-01

    Nora Pitri Nainggolan, 2011, The Effect Of Service Quality, Price, Emotional Factors And Location To Customer Satisfaction And Loyalty At Hotel Internasional Sibayak Berastagi, under the guidance of Prof. Dr. Paham Ginting, MS (chairman), Dr. Yeni Absah, SE, M. Si (members). Hospitality company in Indonesia is growing rapidly. Hospitality developments also occurred in the city of Berastagi where there are a variety of hospitality establishments in considerable amounts. The number of hospi...

  14. Pengaruh Bauran Promosi Terhadap Keputusan Konsumen Berkunjung ke Mikie Holiday Fundland Berastagi Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Aprilya, Fetty

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the influence of advertising, sales promotion, public relations, personal selling, and direct marketing to decision purchase. This research collects empirical evidence. This research was conducted at Mikie Holiday Fundland, Jamin Ginting street, 50 km Pecen village, Berastagi, North Sumatra, with a total sample of 100 respondents. Based on the research, the results of significance test the effect simultaneously with the F test, the variable of advertising, sales pr...

  15. Alcohol consumption and the risk of renal cancers in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Wozniak MB, Brennan P, Brenner DR, Overvad K, Olsen A, Tjønneland A, Boutron-Ruault MC, Clavel-Chapelon F, Fagherazzi G, Katzke V, Kühn T, Boeing H, Bergmann MM, Steffen A, Naska A, Trichopoulou A, Trichopoulos D, Saieva C, Grioni S, Panico S, Tumino R, Vineis P, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB, Peeters PH, Hjartåker A, Weiderpass E, Arriola L, Molina-Montes E, Duell EJ, Santiuste C, Alonso de la Torre R, Barricarte Gurrea A, Stocks T, Johansson M, Ljungberg B, Wareham N, Khaw KT, Travis RC, Cross AJ, Murphy N, Riboli E, Scelo G.Int J Cancer. 2015 Oct 15;137(8):1953-66. [Epub 2015 Apr 28]. doi: 10.1002/ijc.29559.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, Raman; Brennan, P; Brenner; Overvad, K; Olsen, A; Tjønneland, A; Boutron-Ruault, M C; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Fagherazzi; Katzke, V; Kühn, T; Boeing, H; Bergmann, M M; Steffen, A; Naska, A; Trichopoulou, A; Trichopoulos, D; Saieva, C; Grioni, S; Panico, S; Tumino, R; Vineis, P; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Peeters, P H; Hjartåker, A; Weiderpass, E; Arriola, L; Molina-Montes, E; Duell, E J; Santiuste, C; Alonso de la Torre, R; Barricarte Gurrea, A; Stocks, T; Johansson, M; Ljungberg, B; Wareham, N; Khaw, K T; Travis, R C; Cross, A J; Murphy, N; Riboli, E; Scelo, G

    2017-03-01

    Epidemiologic studies have reported that moderate alcohol consumption is inversely associated with the risk of renal cancer. However, there is no information available on the associations in renal cancer subsites. From 1992 to 2010, 477,325 men and women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort were followed for incident renal cancers (n = 931). Baseline and lifetime alcohol consumption was assessed by country-specific, validated dietary questionnaires. Information on past alcohol consumption was collected by lifestyle questionnaires. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated from Cox proportional hazard models. In multivariate analysis, total alcohol consumption at baseline was inversely associated with renal cancer; the HR and 95% CI for the increasing categories of total alcohol consumption at recruitment vs. the light drinkers category were 0.78 (0.62-0.99), 0.82 (0.64-1.04), 0.70 (0.55-0.90), and 0.91 (0.63-1.30), respectively, (ptrend = 0.001). A similar relationship was observed for average lifetime alcohol consumption and for all renal cancer subsites combined or for renal parenchyma subsite. The trend was not observed in hypertensive individuals and not significant in smokers. In conclusion, moderate alcohol consumption was associated with a decreased risk of renal cancer. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Informācijpratības un sadarbības prasmes attīstīšana ar WebQuest mācību modeli

    OpenAIRE

    Gulbis, Mārtiņš

    2011-01-01

    Informācijpratības un sadarbības prasmes attīstīšana ar WebQuest mācību modeli. Gulbis M., zinātniskais vadītājs Dr.chem.,. docents Logins J., kvalifikācijas darbs, 41 lappuses, 6 attēli, 7 tabulas, 2 pielikumi, 25 literatūras avoti. Latviešu valodā. WEBQUEST, PROJEKTA APRAKSTS, DARBA UZDEVUMI, SPIRTI, FENOLI, INFORMĀCIJPRATĪBA, SADARBĪBAS PRASMES. Darbā veikta literatūras izpēte par WebQuest mācību modeļa izmantošanu ķīmijas mācību procesā, lai attīstītu skolēnu informācijpratību un sa...

  17. General form of the color potential produced by color charges of the quark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Gouranga C.

    2013-03-01

    Constant electric charge e satisfies the continuity equation ∂ μ j μ ( x) = 0 where j μ ( x) is the current density of the electron. However, the Yang-Mills color current density j μa ( x) of the quark satisfies the equation D μ [ A] j μa ( x) = 0 which is not a continuity equation (∂ μ j μa ( x) = 0) which implies that a color charge q a ( t) of the quark is not constant but it is time dependent where a = 1 ,2 , . . .8 are color indices. In this paper we derive general form of color potential produced by color charges of the quark. We find that the general form of the color potential produced by the color charges of the quark at rest is given by {\\varPhi^a}(x)=A_0^a( {t,x} )={{q^b}( {t-{r/c} )}}{r}{{[ {{exp [ {gint {drfrac{{Q( {t-frac{r/c} )-1}}{r}} } ]}}{{gint {dr{Q( {t-frac{r/c} )}}{r}} }}} ]}_{ab }} where dr integration is an indefinite integration, {Q_{ab }}( {{tau_0}} )={f^{abd }}{q^d}( {{tau_0}} ),r=| {overrightarrow{x}-overrightarrow{X}( {{tau_0}} )} |,{tau_0}=t-r/c is the retarded time, c is the speed of light, overrightarrow{X}( {{tau_0}} ) is the position of the quark at the retarded time and the repeated color indices b, d(= 1 , 2 , . . . 8) are summed. For constant color charge q a we reproduce the Coulomb-like potential {\\varPhi^a}(x)={{q^a}}/r which is consistent with the Maxwell theory where constant electric charge e produces the Coulomb potential \\varPhi (x)=e/r.

  18. Results from the 2009 April 21 Pluto Occultation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Leslie; Buie, M. W.; Olkin, C. B.; Young, E. F.; Wasserman, L. W.; Regester, J.; Spencer, J. R.; Shoemaker, K.; Tamblyn, P. M.; Gulbis, A. A. S.; Van Heerden, H. J.

    2009-09-01

    We observed the 2009 April 21 occultation by Pluto of a I=14.6 from five sites in Africa: (1) a 0.35-m telescope at Les Makes Observatory at Reunion Island (L. Wasserman, J. Regester), (2) a portable 0.35-m telescope at Mokuti Lodge, Namibia, near the east entrance of Etosha National Park (M. Buie, L. Young), (3) a 0.75-m telescope at HESS, Namibia (E. Young, J. Spencer), (4) a 1.5-m telescope at Boyden Observatory (C. Olkin, K. Shoemaker, H. Van Heerden) and (5) the 1.9-m telescope at SAAO (P. Tamblyn, A. Gulbis). Data was acquired at all five sites. Reunion Island turned out to be north of the shadow. A grazing event was observed at Etosha. HESS experienced scattered clouds; ingress was observed through up to 5 magnitudes of extinction. Deep occultations were observed at Boyden and SAAO. These lightcurves will allow us to measure the pressure, temperature, and bulk abundance of Pluto's changing atmosphere. We will present the combined analysis of these lightcurves.

  19. Dataset on the electronic and thermal transport properties of quaternary compounds of (PbTe0.95−x(PbSex(PbS0.05

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianta Ginting

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled “High thermoelectric performance in pseudo quaternary compounds of (PbTe0.95−x(PbSex(PbS0.05 by simultaneous band convergence and nano precipitation” (Ginting et al., 2017 [1]. We measured electrical and thermal transport properties such as temperature-dependent Hall carrier density nH, Hall mobility μH, thermal diffusivity D, heat capacity Cp, and power factor S2σ in (PbTe0.95−x(PbSex(PbS0.05 (x=0.0, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, 0.35, and 0.95 compounds with other related compounds from references. From the theoretical fitting of thermal conductivity κ, we found that the temperature-dependent thermal conductivity follows nano-structure model as well as alloy scattering. Transmission electron microscopy images shows that there are numerous nano-scale precipitates in a matrix. Owing to the low thermal conductivity and high power factor, we report high thermoelectric performances such as the high ZT, engineering ZTeng, efficiency η.

  20. Dataset on the electronic and thermal transport properties of quaternary compounds of (PbTe)0.95-x(PbSe)x(PbS)0.05.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginting, Dianta; Lin, Chan-Chieh; Rathnam, Lydia; Hwang, Junpil; Kim, Woochul; Al Orabi, Rabih Al Rahal; Rhyee, Jong-Soo

    2017-08-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled "High thermoelectric performance in pseudo quaternary compounds of (PbTe) 0.95- x (PbSe) x (PbS) 0.05 by simultaneous band convergence and nano precipitation" (Ginting et al., 2017) [1]. We measured electrical and thermal transport properties such as temperature-dependent Hall carrier density n H , Hall mobility μ H , thermal diffusivity D , heat capacity C p , and power factor S 2 σ in (PbTe) 0.95- x (PbSe) x (PbS) 0.05 ( x =0.0, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, 0.35, and 0.95) compounds with other related compounds from references. From the theoretical fitting of thermal conductivity κ , we found that the temperature-dependent thermal conductivity follows nano-structure model as well as alloy scattering. Transmission electron microscopy images shows that there are numerous nano-scale precipitates in a matrix. Owing to the low thermal conductivity and high power factor, we report high thermoelectric performances such as the high ZT , engineering ZT eng , efficiency η .

  1. О связях прусских гидронимов с названиями животных и птиц

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feliksas Daubaras

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available ÜBER BEZIEHUNGEN DER ALTPREUSSISCHEN GEWÄSSERNAMEN ZU TIER- bzw. VOGELNAMENZusammenfassungIm vorliegenden Artikel wird der derivative Zusammenhang der altpr. Gewässernamen mit Tier- bzw. Vogelnamen behandelt. Dabei werden die hidronymischen Parallelen der anderen baltischen Sprachen angeführt. Bei einer gewissen Anzahl von altpr. Gewässernamen läßt sich die­ser derivative Zusammenhang mit Tier- bzw. Vogelnamen mit viel Wahrscheinlichkeit feststellen, z. B. Bebra — altpr. bebrus „Biber“, Gerthin — altpr. gerto „Henne“, gertis „Hahn“, Gulbig — altpr. gulbis „Schwan“, Geyserich — altpr. geeyse „Reiher“, Iwanthi — lit. ývas „Uhu“, Kavnyne — altpr. caune „Marder“, Lusygeynen — altpr. luysis „Luchs“, Serenappe — lit. šérnas „Wildschwein“Sirgun — altpr. sirgis „Hengst“, Suna — altpr. sunis „Hund“. Jedoch der äußere Gleichklang bei Tier- bzw. Vogel- und Gewässernamen kann manchmal auch zufällig sein. In solchen Fällen ist es schwer zu unterscheiden, ob der Gewässername auf einen Tier- bzw. Vogelnamen oder auf ei­ne idg. (bzw. baltische Wurzel zurückzuführen ist, z. B. Alne — altpr. alne „tyer“ oder idg. *el-/*ol- „fliesen, strömen“, Arelen — altpr. arelis „Adler“ oder idg. *ar-(*er-/*or- „in Bewegung setzen, erregen“, Asswene — lit. ašvà „Stute“ oder lat. aqua, got. ahva „Wasser, Jawthe — lit. jáutis „Ochse“ oder lit. jáuti „vermischen“, lett. jaut „mischen“, Warne — altpr. warne „Krähe“ oder idg. *uer-/*uor-  „Wasser, Regen, Fluß“, Wilkus — altpr. wilkis „Wolf“ oder lit. vil̃kti, lett. vilkt „schleppen, ziehen“.

  2. Characterization of Three New Glutaredoxin Genes in the Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Rhizophagus irregularis: Putative Role of RiGRX4 and RiGRX5 in Iron Homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamayo, Elisabeth; Benabdellah, Karim; Ferrol, Nuria

    2016-01-01

    Glutaredoxins (GRXs) are small ubiquitous oxidoreductases involved in the regulation of the redox state in living cells. In an attempt to identify the full complement of GRXs in the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Rhizophagus irregularis, three additional GRX homologs, besides the formerly characterized GintGRX1 (renamed here as RiGRX1), were identified. The three new GRXs (RiGRX4, RiGRX5 and RiGRX6) contain the CXXS domain of monothiol GRXs, but whereas RiGRX4 and RiGRX5 belong to class II GRXs, RiGRX6 belongs to class I together with RiGRX1. By using a yeast expression system, we observed that the newly identified homologs partially reverted sensitivity of the GRX deletion yeast strains to external oxidants. Furthermore, our results indicated that RiGRX4 and RiGRX5 play a role in iron homeostasis in yeast. Gene expression analyses revealed that RiGRX1 and RiGRX6 were more highly expressed in the intraradical (IRM) than in the extraradical mycelium (ERM). Exposure of the ERM to hydrogen peroxide induced up-regulation of RiGRX1, RiGRX4 and RiGRX5 gene expression. RiGRX4 expression was also up-regulated in the ERM when the fungus was grown in media supplemented with a high iron concentration. These data indicate the two monothiol class II GRXs, RiGRX4 and RiGRX5, might be involved in oxidative stress protection and in the regulation of fungal iron homeostasis. Increased expression of RiGRX1 and RiGRX6 in the IRM suggests that these GRXs should play a key role in oxidative stress protection of R. irregularis during its in planta phase. PMID:26900849

  3. External hyphae of Rhizophagus irregularis DAOM 197198 are less sensitive to low pH than roots in arbuscular mycorrhizae: evidence from axenic culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Feng, Zengwei; Zhou, Yang; Zhu, Honghui; Yao, Qing

    2017-10-01

    The growth of plant roots and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can be inhibited by low pH; however, it is largely unknown which is more sensitive to low pH. This study aimed to compare the physiological and molecular responses of external hyphae (EH) and roots to low pH in terms of growth, development and functioning. We established AM symbiosis in a two-compartmented system (root compartment, RC; hyphal compartment, HC) using AMF and transformed hairy roots and exposed them to pH 6.5 and/or pH 4.5. The results showed that pH 4.5 significantly decreased root cell viability, while EH at pH 6.5 attenuated the effect. In either RC or HC, pH 4.5 reduced biomass, P content, colonization, ALP activity in roots, and ALP activity and polyphosphate accumulation in EH. GintPT expression in EH was inhibited by pH 4.5 in HC but not in RC. The expression of mycorrhiza-responsive LePTs was significantly reduced by the lower colonization due to decreased pH in either RC or HC, while the expression of non-mycorrhiza-responsive LePTs was not affected. Variation partitioning analysis indicated that EH was less sensitive to low pH than roots. The interactions between roots and EH under low pH stress merit further investigation. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Measurements of Secondary Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropies with the South Pole Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueker, Martin

    The South Pole Telescope is a 10m millimeter-wavelength telescope for finding galaxy clusters via the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (tSZ) effect. This thesis is divided into two parts. The first part describes the development of the kilopixel SPT-SZ receiver and the frequency-domain multiplexor (fMUX). The second part describes the first SPT power spectrum measurement and the first detection of the tSZ power spectrum. The SPT-SZ focal plane consists of 960 spiderweb coupled transition-edge sensors. Due to strong electro-thermal feedback, these devices have good sensitivity and linearity, though risk spontaneous oscillations. Adding heat capacity to these devices can ensure stability, so long as the loopgain, L , is less than Gint/G 0, the ratio between the thermal conductances linking the TES to the heat capacity and linking the heat capacity to the bath. I describe as experimental technique for measuring the internal thermal structure of these devices, allowing for rapid sensor evaluation. The fMUX readout system reduces wiring complexity in this receiver by AC-biasing each sensor at a unique frequency and sending signals from multiple bolometers along one pair of wires. The Series SQUID Arrays (SSAs) used to read changes in bolometer current are notably non-linear and extremely sensitive to ambient magnetic fields. The SSAs are housed in compact magnetic shielding modules which reduces their effective area to 80 mphi0/gauss. The SSA are fedback with a flux-locked loop to improve their linearity and dynamic range, and decrease their input reactance. The FLL is bandwidth of 1 MHz with a measured loopgain of 10. In the current implementation, this bandwidth is limited between the SQUID input coil and other reactances, which I study in Chapter 4. In the second part of the thesis I present power spectrum measurements for the first 100 deg2 field observed by the SPT. On angular scales where the primary CMB anisotropy is dominant, ℓ ≲ 3000, the SPT power spectrum is

  5. A 2016 Ganymede stellar occultation event

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aversa, Emiliano; Oliva, Fabrizio; Sindoni, Giuseppe; Hinse, Tobias Cornelius; Plainaki, Christina; Aoki, Shohei; Person, Michael J.; Carlson, Robert W.; Orton, Glenn S.

    2017-04-01

    .9-2.5 micron range. Unfortunately, a planned MORIS movie-mode sequence at higher rate failed in starting acquisition. The field of view of the instruments was not large enough to include a reference unocculted body, hence sky fluctuations are the major noise source. At SOAO, a CCD camera in clear filter was used to obtain a shorter sequence of images at a lower rate (about 1 Hz). However, since the larger field of view allowed to observe simultaneously Ganymede and Callisto, we can use the latter as a reference unocculted body in order to cancel out telluric fluctuations. Results from the occultation light curve analysis on the three datasets will be discussed. Acknowledgments - The Infrared Telescope Facility is operated by the University of Hawaii under contract NNH14CK55B with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. We express special thanks to Bobby Bus as support astronomer for both MORIS and SpeX observations. SOAO is managed by the Korean Astronomy and Space Science Istitute (KASI). References - [1] Carlson et al.,1973,Science,182,4107. [2] Broadfoot et al.,1981,Journ.of Geophys.Res.,86,8259. [3] Barth et al.,1996,EOS Suppl.77,F430. [4] Hall et al.,1998,ApJ,499,475. [5] McGrath et al.,2004,Cambridge Univ.Press,ISBN 0-521-81808-7,2004,p.457-483. [6] McGrath et al.,2013,Journ.of Geophys.Res.,118,2043. [7] Feldman et al.,2000,ApJ,535,1085. [8] Kivelson et al.,1996,Nature,384,537. [9] Plainaki et al.,2015,Icarus,245,306. [10] Gulbis et al.,2011,PASP,123,461. [11] Rayner et al.2003,PASP,115,362.

  6. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2009-11-01

    less are invited to present their research and results as a paper, in the style typically published by scientific journals. The student is allowed to choose a topic within the broad scope of physics, including cross-over fields such as astro- or biophysics. In 2008 over 2000 papers were submitted and 25 awards were given. In line with 'First Step' is the International Conference for Young Scientists (ICYS) [7]. The conference started in 1994 in Viségrad, Hungary. Here too, the participants present the results of their research, not by submitting a research paper but by giving a presentation to an audience of peers and a jury of specialists. The subjects of the presentations are in physics, mathematics, computer science, environmental sciences, engineering or life sciences. The jury awards the presentations according to the level of the content and the presentation. The last three competitions presented here are younger and did not start within Eastern European countries. The International Olympics of Astrophysics and Astronomy (IOAA) was organized for the second time in Bandung, Indonesia in 2008 and 24 countries participated [8]. As the title of the competition indicates, problems are directed towards theoretical and experimental aspects of astronomy. A little bit older is the European Union Science Olympiad (EUSO) [9]. This started in 2001, but the first competition took place in Dublin, Ireland, in 2003. The last competition was organized in March-April 2009 in Murcia, Spain. This competition addresses younger students, aged 17 years or less. It tries to combine biology, chemistry and physics. Although the problems are formulated in an interdisciplinary way, the students remain specialists, one in physics and the others in biology and chemistry. For even younger students, there is the International Junior Science Olympiad (IJSO) [10]. This competition started in December 2004 on the initiative of Professor Masno Ginting from Indonesia. The last competition took

  7. From the Editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugur Demiray

    2011-04-01

    purposively avoided to make the contents of this paper intelligible to a wider audience. The article is which numbered as 10, again from Turkey. Article is entitled as “A New Tv Practice In Distance Education In Turkey” writen by Ufuk KUCUKCAN, Department of Cinema and Television in Communication Science Faculty and Anadolu University Educational TV Coordinator in Open Education Faculty, His paper attempts to reveal possible answers to that question and also to come up with answers to what stages there should be in such process considering the “strategic plan”, which is one of the outcomes of this search conference. The eleventh article arrived from Universitas Terbuka, INDONESIAAbstrak, which is written Maya MARIA, Aminudin ZUHAIRI, Kurnia Endah RIANA and Ginta GINTING which is on “Students' Behaviour In Decision Making Process To Attend Distance Learning Programs At Universitas Terbuka, Indonesia” Tujuan dari peneletian perilaku mahasiswa dalam memilih perguruan tinggi-studi pada Universitas Terbuka adalah menganalisis perilaku mahasiswa memilih kuliah di UT berdasarkan pendekatan Theory of Planned Behavior. Metodologi penelitian ini menggunakan model Theory of Planned Behaviour dari Fishbein dan Ajzen sebagai kerangka teoriThe purpose of the research was to analyse students’ behaviour in choosing a distance learning program at Universitas Terbuka (UT, Indonesia, using the theory of planned behavior model developed by Fishbein and Ajzen (1975.Total responden sebanyak 102 mahasiswa UT dari 3 UPBJJ-UT terpilih yang mewakili 3 wilayah dengan skala besar, sedang dan kecil yaitu Jakarta, Malang dan Kupang. The respondents of the research were 102 students from 3 Regional Offices of Jakarta, Malang and Kupang, representing different area and size. Structural Equation Model digunakan untuk menguji model dan hipotesis dalam penelitian. Temuan dalam penelitian menunjukkan norma subyektif berpengaruh signifikan terhadap niat memilih UT dan niat untuk memilih UT secara