Full Text Available Nutrient acquisition and transfer are essential steps in the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM symbiosis, which is formed by the majority of land plants. Mineral nutrients are taken up by AM fungi from the soil and transferred to the plant partner. Within the cortical plant root cells the fungal hyphae form tree-like structures (arbuscules where the nutrients are released to the plant-fungal interface, i.e. to the periarbuscular space, before being taken up by the plant. In exchange, the AM fungi receive valuable carbohydrates from the plant host. Besides the well-studied uptake of phosphorus (P, the uptake and transfer of nitrogen (N plays a crucial role in this mutualistic interaction. In the AM fungus Rhizophagus irregularis (formerly called Glomus intraradices, two ammonium transporters (AMT were previously described, namely GintAMT1 and GintAMT2. Here, we report the identification and characterization of a newly identified R. irregularis AMT, GintAMT3. Phylogenetic analyses revealed high sequence similarity to previously identified AM fungal AMTs and a clear separation from other fungal AMTs. Topological analysis indicated GintAMT3 to be a membrane bound pore forming protein, and GFP tagging showed it to be highly expressed in the intraradical mycelium (IRM of a fully established AM symbiosis. Expression of GintAMT3 in yeast successfully complemented the yeast AMT triple deletion mutant (MATa ura3 mep1Δ mep2Δ::LEU2 mep3Δ::KanMX2. GintAMT3 is characterized as a low affinity transport system with an apparent Km of 1.8 mM and a Vmax of 240 nmol-1 min-1 108 cells-1, which is regulated by substrate concentration and carbon supply.
Archdeacon, Talis Saule
Endise julgestustöötaja Edgars Gulbise suhtes on alustatud mitu kriminaalprotsessi: tollitöötaja auto süütamise, kelmuse, võltsitud haridust tõendava dokumendi kasutamise ning teadliku valevandumise eest. President Zatlers kritiseeris julgestusteenistust ning põhiseaduse kaitse bürood
25. IV Tallinna Õpetajate Majas Eesti Kujurite Ühenduse seminar, mis keskendub monumentaalskulptuurile kaasaegses linnaruumis. Esinevad Bernard Gerboud Pariisist, Pekka Jylhä Soomest, Kristaps Gulbis ja Irena Buzinska Lätist, Jüri Soolep, Triin Ojari, Rael Artel, Jaan Elken ja Aili Vahtrapuu. Seminari juhatab Jaak Soans
Reet Varblase kureeritud näitus "Oma raha" Tallinna Kunstihoone galeriis 12. XI-4. XII. Gints Gabransi videotest, Jaan Jaanisoo masin-installatsioonist, Siim-Tanel Annuse tööst. 2. XII galeriis toimunud kunstnike, kultuurihuviliste ja rahamaailma esindajate (Eesti Panga asepresident Rein Minka, endine president Vahur Kraft, rahandusministri nõuniku kt Veiko Valkiainen) kohtumisest
This study aimed to analyze the influence of advertising, sales promotion, public relations, personal selling, and direct marketing to decision purchase. This research collects empirical evidence. This research was conducted at Mikie Holiday Fundland, Jamin Ginting street, 50 km Pecen village, Berastagi, North Sumatra, with a total sample of 100 respondents. Based on the research, the results of significance test the effect simultaneously with the F test, the variable of advertising, sales pr...
Analisis Pengaruh Lokasi, Harga, Kualitas Pendidikan dan Fasilitas Terhadap Minat dan Dampaknya Pada Keputusan Orang Tua Murid Memilih Jasa Pendidikan (Studi Pada Orang Tua Siswa di SD. High/Scope Indonesia Medan)
Purba, Mery Lani
Mery Lani Purba, 2011, The Analysis of Location, Price, Education Quality, and Facilities Influence toward Interest and the Impact of Parents’ Decision to Chose Education Services (Study on Parents in SD. High/Scope Indonesia Medan), under the guidance of Prof. Dr. Paham Ginting, MS (chairman), Dr. Endang Sulistya Rini, SE, M.Si (members). SD. High/Scope Indonesia Medan is the one of international private elementary schools in Medan. SD. High/Scope Indonesia Medan is a franchise business ...
Carla Lucia Esposito
Full Text Available Glioblastoma (GBM is the most frequent and aggressive primary brain tumor in adults, and despite advances in neuro-oncology, the prognosis for patients remains dismal. The signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3 has been reported as a key regulator of the highly aggressive mesenchymal GBM subtype, and its direct silencing (by RNAi oligonucleotides has revealed a great potential as an anti-cancer therapy. However, clinical use of oligonucleotide-based therapies is dependent on safer ways for tissue-specific targeting and increased membrane penetration. The objective of this study is to explore the use of nucleic acid aptamers as carriers to specifically drive a STAT3 siRNA to GBM cells in a receptor-dependent manner. Using an aptamer that binds to and antagonizes the oncogenic receptor tyrosine kinase PDGFRβ (Gint4.T, here we describe the design of a novel aptamer-siRNA chimera (Gint4.T-STAT3 to target STAT3. We demonstrate the efficient delivery and silencing of STAT3 in PDGFRβ+ GBM cells. Importantly, the conjugate reduces cell viability and migration in vitro and inhibits tumor growth and angiogenesis in vivo in a subcutaneous xenograft mouse model. Our data reveals Gint4.T-STAT3 conjugate as a novel molecule with great translational potential for GBM therapy.
Dionicia Gloria León-Martínez
Full Text Available To explore the molecular mechanisms that prevail during the establishment of the arbuscular mycorrhiza symbiosis involving the genus Glomus, we transcriptionally analysed spores of Glomus intraradices BE3 during early hyphal growth. Among 458 transcripts initially identified as being expressed at presymbiotic stages, 20% of sequences had homology to previously characterized eukaryotic genes, 30% were homologous to fungal coding sequences, and 9% showed homology to previously characterized bacterial genes. Among them, GintPbr1a encodes a homolog to Phenazine Biosynthesis Regulator (Pbr of Burkholderia cenocepacia, an pleiotropic regulatory protein that activates phenazine production through transcriptional activation of the protein D isochorismatase biosynthetic enzyme phzD (Ramos et al., 2010. Whereas GintPbr1a is expressed during the presymbiotic phase, the G. intraradices BE3 homolog of phzD (BGintphzD is transcriptionally active at the time of the establishment of the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis. DNA from isolated bacterial cultures found in spores of G. intraradices BE3 confirmed that both BGintPbr1a and BGintphzD are present in the genome of its potential endosymbionts. Taken together, our results indicate that spores of G. intraradices BE3 express bacterial phenazine biosynthetic genes at the onset of the fungal-plant symbiotic interaction.
Informācijpratības un sadarbības prasmes attīstīšana ar WebQuest mācību modeli. Gulbis M., zinātniskais vadītājs Dr.chem.,. docents Logins J., kvalifikācijas darbs, 41 lappuses, 6 attēli, 7 tabulas, 2 pielikumi, 25 literatūras avoti. Latviešu valodā. WEBQUEST, PROJEKTA APRAKSTS, DARBA UZDEVUMI, SPIRTI, FENOLI, INFORMĀCIJPRATĪBA, SADARBĪBAS PRASMES. Darbā veikta literatūras izpēte par WebQuest mācību modeļa izmantošanu ķīmijas mācību procesā, lai attīstītu skolēnu informācijpratību un sa...
Zangari, Amanda; Binzel, R. P.; Person, M. J.
Multi-chord, high signal-to-noise Pluto occultations have been observed several times over the past two decades, including events in 1988, 2002, 2006, 2007, 2010 and 2011 (Elliot et al. 1989, 2003, 2007; Person et al. 2008, 2010, 2011). We fit separate immersion and emersion occultation light-curve models to each of the individual light curves obtained from these efforts. Asymmetries in the light curves result in the half-light temperatures for opposite sides of a single chord to differ by up to 20 Kelvin in the largest case. The temperature difference for each chord is consistent using both isothermal (b=0) and non-isothermal (e.g. b=-2.2) models based on the methodology described by Elliot & Young (1992). We examine the relationship between the location of immersion and emersion points on Pluto and these temperatures at the half-light radius and will present results for correlations between these location/temperature data and surface composition maps, Pluto geometry, and accumulated insolation patterns. This work was supported by NASA Planetary Astronomy Grant to MIT (NNX10AB27G), and NSF Astronomy and Astrophysics Grant to MIT (0707609). The authors would like to acknowledge the late Professor James L. Elliot for his efforts in beginning this work. References: Elliot, J. L., Dunham, E. W., Bosh, A. S., et al. 1989, Icarus, 77,148 Elliot, J. L., Ates, A., Babcock, B. A., et al. 2003, Nature, 424,165 Elliot, J. L., Person, M. J., Gulbis, A. A. S., et al. 2007, AJ, 134, 1 Elliot, J. L., & Young, L. A. 1992, AJ, 103, 991. Person, M. J., Elliot, J. L., Gulbis, A. A. S., et al. 2008, AJ, 136, 1510 Person, M. J., Elliot, J. L., Bosh, A. S., et al. 2010, Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, 42, 983 Person, M. J., Dunham, E. W., Bida, T., et al. 2011, EPSC-DPS Joint Meeting 2011, 1374.
Zhang, Lin; Jiang, Caiyun; Zhou, Jiachao; Declerck, Stéphane; Tian, Changyan; Feng, Gu
Plants associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) acquire phosphorus via roots and extraradical hyphae. How soil P level affects P accumulation within hyphae and how P in hyphae influences the accumulation of metal minerals remains little explored. A bi-compartmented in vitro cultivation system separating a root compartment (RC), containing a Ri T-DNA transformed carrot root associated to the AMF Rhizophagus irregularis DAOM 197198, from a hyphal compartment (HC), containing only the extraradical hyphae, was used. The HC contained a liquid growth medium (i.e., the modified Strullu-Romand medium containing P in the form of KH 2 PO 4 ) without (0 μM) or adjusted to 35, 100, and 700 μM of KH 2 PO 4 . The accumulation of P and metal minerals (Ca, Mg, K, Na, Fe, Cu, Mn) within extraradical hyphae and AMF-colonized roots, and the expression of the phosphate transporter gene GintPT were assessed. The expression of GintPT in the extraradical hyphae did not differ in absence of KH 2 PO 4 or in presence of 35 and 100 μM KH 2 PO 4 in the HC but was markedly reduced in presence of 700 μM KH 2 PO 4 . Hyphal P concentration was significantly lowest in absence of KH 2 PO 4 , intermediate at 35 and 100 μM KH 2 PO 4 and significantly highest in presence of 700 μM KH 2 PO 4 in the HC. The concentrations of K, Mg, and Na were positively associated with the concentration of P in the extraradical hyphae developing in the HC. Similarly, P concentration in extraradical hyphae in the HC was related to P concentration in the growth medium and influenced the concentration of K, Mg, and Na. The accumulation of the metal mineral K, Mg, and Na in the extraradical hyphae developing in the HC was possibly related to their function in neutralizing the negative charges of PolyP accumulated in the hyphae.
Kane, J. F.; Gulbis, A. A. S.; Elliot, J. L.
The colors of Kuiper belt objects (KBOs) can indicate different compositions, environmental conditions, or formation characteristics within the Kuiper belt. Photometric color observations of these objects, combined with dynamical information, can provide insight into their composition, the extent to which space-weathering or impact gardening have played a role in surface modification, and the processes at work during the formation of our solar system. Data from the Deep Ecliptic Survey (DES; Millis et al., 2002, AJ, 123, 2083) have been used to determine the plane of the Kuiper belt, identifying "core" and "halo" populations with respect to this plane (Elliot et al. 2005, AJ, 129, 1117). Gulbis et al. (2005, Icarus, submitted) found the colors of the core KBOs, those having inclinations within approximately 4.6 degrees of the Kuiper-belt plane, to be primarily red, unlike the halo objects. We have combined newly obtained Sloan g', r', and i' observations from the 6.5-m Clay telescope at Las Campanas Observatory of 12 KBOs with previously published data to examine the transition between these populations as a function of color. By comparing the colors of objects as a function of inclination, we can establish trends distinguishing the core and halo populations. For inclination bins containing equal numbers of KBOs, we find that the percentage of red objects (B-R > median B-R of the sample) decreases in a smooth, but nonlinear fashion. This research is partially supported by an MIT fellowship, an NSF GSRF and NSF grant AST0406493.
Calvo-Polanco, Monica; Molina, Sonia; Zamarreño, Angel María; García-Mina, Jose María; Aroca, Ricardo
It is known that the presence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi within the plant roots enhances the tolerance of the host plant to different environmental stresses, although the positive effect of the fungi in plants under waterlogged conditions has not been well studied. Tolerance of plants to flooding can be achieved through different molecular, physiological and anatomical adaptations, which will affect their water uptake capacity and therefore their root hydraulic properties. Here, we investigated the root hydraulic properties under non-flooded and flooded conditions in non-mycorrhizal tomato plants and plants inoculated with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis. Only flooded mycorrhizal plants increased their root hydraulic conductivity, and this effect was correlated with a higher expression of the plant aquaporin SlPIP1;7 and the fungal aquaporin GintAQP1. There was also a higher abundance of the PIP2 protein phoshorylated at Ser280 in mycorrhizal flooded plants. The role of plant hormones (ethylene, ABA and IAA) in root hydraulic properties was also taken into consideration, and it was concluded that, in mycorrhizal flooded plants, ethylene has a secondary role regulating root hydraulic conductivity whereas IAA may be the key hormone that allows the enhancement of root hydraulic conductivity in mycorrhizal plants under low oxygen conditions.
Wang, Ning; Feng, Zengwei; Zhou, Yang; Zhu, Honghui; Yao, Qing
The growth of plant roots and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can be inhibited by low pH; however, it is largely unknown which is more sensitive to low pH. This study aimed to compare the physiological and molecular responses of external hyphae (EH) and roots to low pH in terms of growth, development and functioning. We established AM symbiosis in a two-compartmented system (root compartment, RC; hyphal compartment, HC) using AMF and transformed hairy roots and exposed them to pH 6.5 and/or pH 4.5. The results showed that pH 4.5 significantly decreased root cell viability, while EH at pH 6.5 attenuated the effect. In either RC or HC, pH 4.5 reduced biomass, P content, colonization, ALP activity in roots, and ALP activity and polyphosphate accumulation in EH. GintPT expression in EH was inhibited by pH 4.5 in HC but not in RC. The expression of mycorrhiza-responsive LePTs was significantly reduced by the lower colonization due to decreased pH in either RC or HC, while the expression of non-mycorrhiza-responsive LePTs was not affected. Variation partitioning analysis indicated that EH was less sensitive to low pH than roots. The interactions between roots and EH under low pH stress merit further investigation. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Sickafoose, Amanda A.; Bosh, A. S.; Person, M. J.; Zuluaga, C. A.; Levine, S. E.; Pasachoff, J. M.; Babcock, B. A.; Dunham, E. W.; McLean, I.; Wolf, J.; Abe, F.; Bida, T. A.; Bright, L. P.; Brothers, T.; Christie, G.; Collins, P. L.; Durst, R. F.; Gilmore, A. C.; Hamilton, R.; Harris, H. C.; Johnson, C.; Kilmartin, P. M.; Kosiarek, M. R.; Leppik, K.; Logsdon, S.; Lucas, R.; Mathers, S.; Morley, C. J. K.; Natusch, T.; Nelson, P.; Ngan, H.; Pfüller, E.; de, H.-P.; Sallum, S.; Savage, M.; Seeger, C. H.; Siu, H.; Stockdale, C.; Suzuki, D.; Thanathibodee, T.; Tilleman, T.; Tristam, P. J.; Van Cleve, J.; Varughese, C.; Weisenbach, L. W.; Widen, E.; Wiedemann, M.
The 29 June 2015 observations of a stellar occultation by Pluto, from SOFIA and ground-based sites in New Zealand, indicate that haze was present in the lower atmosphere (Bosh et al., this conference). Previously, slope changes in the occultation light curve profile of Pluto’s lower atmosphere have been attributed to haze, a steep thermal gradient, and/or a combination of the two. The most useful diagnostic for differentiating between these effects has been observing occultations over a range of wavelengths: haze scattering and absorption are functions of particle size and are wavelength dependent, whereas effects due to a temperature gradient should be largely independent of observational wavelength. The SOFIA and Mt. John data from this event exhibit obvious central flashes, from multiple telescopes observing over a range of wavelengths at each site (Person et al. and Pasachoff et al., this conference). SOFIA data include Red and Blue observations from the High-speed Imaging Photometer for Occultations (HIPO, at ~ 500 and 850 nm), First Light Infrared Test Camera (FLITECAM, at ~1800 nm), and the Focal Plan Imager (FPI+, at ~ 600 nm). Mt. John data include open filter, g', r', i', and near infrared. Here, we analyze the flux at the bottom of the light curves versus observed wavelength. We find that there is a distinct trend in flux versus wavelength, and we discuss applicable Mie scattering models for different particle size distributions and compositions (as were used to characterize haze in Pluto's lower atmosphere in Gulbis et al. 2015).SOFIA is jointly operated by the Universities Space Research Association, Inc. (USRA), under NASA contract NAS2-97001, and the Deutsches SOFIA Institut (DSI) under DLR contract 50 OK 0901 to the University of Stuttgart. Support for this work was provided by the National Research Foundation of South Africa, NASA SSO grants NNX15AJ82G (Lowell Observatory), PA NNX10AB27G (MIT), and PA NNX12AJ29G (Williams College), and the NASA
Full Text Available ÜBER BEZIEHUNGEN DER ALTPREUSSISCHEN GEWÄSSERNAMEN ZU TIER- bzw. VOGELNAMENZusammenfassungIm vorliegenden Artikel wird der derivative Zusammenhang der altpr. Gewässernamen mit Tier- bzw. Vogelnamen behandelt. Dabei werden die hidronymischen Parallelen der anderen baltischen Sprachen angeführt. Bei einer gewissen Anzahl von altpr. Gewässernamen läßt sich dieser derivative Zusammenhang mit Tier- bzw. Vogelnamen mit viel Wahrscheinlichkeit feststellen, z. B. Bebra — altpr. bebrus „Biber“, Gerthin — altpr. gerto „Henne“, gertis „Hahn“, Gulbig — altpr. gulbis „Schwan“, Geyserich — altpr. geeyse „Reiher“, Iwanthi — lit. ývas „Uhu“, Kavnyne — altpr. caune „Marder“, Lusygeynen — altpr. luysis „Luchs“, Serenappe — lit. šérnas „Wildschwein“Sirgun — altpr. sirgis „Hengst“, Suna — altpr. sunis „Hund“. Jedoch der äußere Gleichklang bei Tier- bzw. Vogel- und Gewässernamen kann manchmal auch zufällig sein. In solchen Fällen ist es schwer zu unterscheiden, ob der Gewässername auf einen Tier- bzw. Vogelnamen oder auf eine idg. (bzw. baltische Wurzel zurückzuführen ist, z. B. Alne — altpr. alne „tyer“ oder idg. *el-/*ol- „fliesen, strömen“, Arelen — altpr. arelis „Adler“ oder idg. *ar-(*er-/*or- „in Bewegung setzen, erregen“, Asswene — lit. ašvà „Stute“ oder lat. aqua, got. ahva „Wasser, Jawthe — lit. jáutis „Ochse“ oder lit. jáuti „vermischen“, lett. jaut „mischen“, Warne — altpr. warne „Krähe“ oder idg. *uer-/*uor- „Wasser, Regen, Fluß“, Wilkus — altpr. wilkis „Wolf“ oder lit. vil̃kti, lett. vilkt „schleppen, ziehen“.
Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.
less are invited to present their research and results as a paper, in the style typically published by scientific journals. The student is allowed to choose a topic within the broad scope of physics, including cross-over fields such as astro- or biophysics. In 2008 over 2000 papers were submitted and 25 awards were given. In line with 'First Step' is the International Conference for Young Scientists (ICYS) . The conference started in 1994 in Viségrad, Hungary. Here too, the participants present the results of their research, not by submitting a research paper but by giving a presentation to an audience of peers and a jury of specialists. The subjects of the presentations are in physics, mathematics, computer science, environmental sciences, engineering or life sciences. The jury awards the presentations according to the level of the content and the presentation. The last three competitions presented here are younger and did not start within Eastern European countries. The International Olympics of Astrophysics and Astronomy (IOAA) was organized for the second time in Bandung, Indonesia in 2008 and 24 countries participated . As the title of the competition indicates, problems are directed towards theoretical and experimental aspects of astronomy. A little bit older is the European Union Science Olympiad (EUSO) . This started in 2001, but the first competition took place in Dublin, Ireland, in 2003. The last competition was organized in March-April 2009 in Murcia, Spain. This competition addresses younger students, aged 17 years or less. It tries to combine biology, chemistry and physics. Although the problems are formulated in an interdisciplinary way, the students remain specialists, one in physics and the others in biology and chemistry. For even younger students, there is the International Junior Science Olympiad (IJSO) . This competition started in December 2004 on the initiative of Professor Masno Ginting from Indonesia. The last competition took
purposively avoided to make the contents of this paper intelligible to a wider audience. The article is which numbered as 10, again from Turkey. Article is entitled as “A New Tv Practice In Distance Education In Turkey” writen by Ufuk KUCUKCAN, Department of Cinema and Television in Communication Science Faculty and Anadolu University Educational TV Coordinator in Open Education Faculty, His paper attempts to reveal possible answers to that question and also to come up with answers to what stages there should be in such process considering the “strategic plan”, which is one of the outcomes of this search conference. The eleventh article arrived from Universitas Terbuka, INDONESIAAbstrak, which is written Maya MARIA, Aminudin ZUHAIRI, Kurnia Endah RIANA and Ginta GINTING which is on “Students' Behaviour In Decision Making Process To Attend Distance Learning Programs At Universitas Terbuka, Indonesia” Tujuan dari peneletian perilaku mahasiswa dalam memilih perguruan tinggi-studi pada Universitas Terbuka adalah menganalisis perilaku mahasiswa memilih kuliah di UT berdasarkan pendekatan Theory of Planned Behavior. Metodologi penelitian ini menggunakan model Theory of Planned Behaviour dari Fishbein dan Ajzen sebagai kerangka teoriThe purpose of the research was to analyse students’ behaviour in choosing a distance learning program at Universitas Terbuka (UT, Indonesia, using the theory of planned behavior model developed by Fishbein and Ajzen (1975.Total responden sebanyak 102 mahasiswa UT dari 3 UPBJJ-UT terpilih yang mewakili 3 wilayah dengan skala besar, sedang dan kecil yaitu Jakarta, Malang dan Kupang. The respondents of the research were 102 students from 3 Regional Offices of Jakarta, Malang and Kupang, representing different area and size. Structural Equation Model digunakan untuk menguji model dan hipotesis dalam penelitian. Temuan dalam penelitian menunjukkan norma subyektif berpengaruh signifikan terhadap niat memilih UT dan niat untuk memilih UT secara