WorldWideScience

Sample records for guiding preventative wildland

  1. Status of wildland fire prevention evaluation in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larry Doolittle; Linda R. Donoghue

    1991-01-01

    Presents findings of an assessment of the evaluation of wildland prevention efforts by all U.S. Wildland fire management agencies, and offers recommendations for improvements in prevention valuation techniques and procedures.

  2. Smoke management guide for prescribed and wildland fire: 2001 edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin C. Hardy; Roger D. Ottmar; Janice L Peterson; John E. Core; Paula Seamon

    2001-01-01

    The National Wildfire Coordinating Group's (NWCG) Fire Use Working Team has assumed overall responsibility for sponsoring the development and production of this revised Smoke Management Guide for Prescribed and Wildland Fire (the "Guide"). The Mission Statement for the Fire Use Working Team includes the need to coordinate and advocate the use of fire to...

  3. Preventing disaster: Home ignitability in the wildland-urban interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack D. Cohen

    2000-01-01

    Wildland-urban interface (W-UI) fires are a significant concern for federal, state, and local land management and fire agencies. Research using modeling, experiments, and W-UI case studies indicates that home ignitability during wildland fires depends on the characteristics of the home and its immediate surroundings. These findings have implications for hazard...

  4. Economic data for wildland planning and management in the western United States: a source guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric Eisenman; Lee C. Wensel; Edward C. Thor; Thomas W. Stuart

    1980-01-01

    This guide identifies and describes sources of economic data useful to wildland managers and planners in the Western United States. The data are categorized by six types of management activities: outdoor recreation and wilderness; wildlife and fish; range; timber; land and water; and minerals and energy. For each type of activity, data sources are identified as to...

  5. Wildland Fire Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwager, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-09-30

    The Wildland Fire Management Plan (FMP) for Brookhaven National Lab (BNL) is written to comply with Department of Energy (DOE) Integrated Safety Management Policy; Federal Wildland Fire Management Policy and Program Review; and Wildland and Prescribed Fire Management Policy and Implementation Procedures Reference Guide. This current plan incorporates changes resulting from new policies on the national level as well as significant changes to available resources and other emerging issues, and replaces BNL's Wildland FMP dated 2014.

  6. Characterization of wildland-urban interfaces for fire prevention in the province of Valencia (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Madrigal Olmo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study. The present study is the first attempt to characterize and map wildland-urban interfaces (WUIs in eastern Spain (province of Valencia and its relationship with wildfire occurrence. Area of study. The study area is located in eastern Spain in the province of Valencia. The area covers 246,426 ha and includes four administrative departments comprising 86 municipalities.Material and methods. The methodology integrates housing density and vegetation aggregation for large-scale fire prevention using the WUImap ® ARC GIS tool. A PLS model was developed to relate wildfire occurrence and WUI typologies.Main results. The results show that 21% of housing can be considered as WUIs, highlighting the high degree of fire hazard in the study area. The PLS model shows that the 4 typologies outside of WUI present lower significance than most of WUI typologies. The types of WUI most related to fire occurrence (Number of Fires and Area Burned are Insolated and Scattered housing with Low or High vegetation aggregation. The type Insolated housing with low aggregation presents the highest significance to explain wildfire occurrence.Research highlights: A significant relationship between wildfire occurrence the study area and WUI has been demonstrated. The obtained results verify the ability of WUImap tool in classifying large-scale administrative departments and its suitability for application to prioritize preventive actions in the Mediterranean areasKey words: Housing density; PLS (Partial Least Squares model; vegetation aggregation; WUImap.

  7. A methodology for determining operational priorities for prevention and suppression of wildland fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. Rodríguez y Silva; J.R. Molina Martínez; Armando González-Cabán

    2014-01-01

    Traditional uses of the forest (timber, forage) have been giving way to other uses more in demand (recreation, ecosystem services). An observable consequence of this process of forest land use conversion is an increase in more difficult and extreme wildfires. Wildland forest management and protection program budgets are limited, and managers are requesting help in...

  8. Vegetation clearance distances to prevent wildland fire caused damage to telecommunication and power transmission infrastructure (2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. W. Butler; T. Wallace; J. Hogge

    2015-01-01

    Towers and poles supporting power transmission and telecommunication lines have collapsed due to heating from wildland fires. Such occurrences have led to interruptions in power or communication in large municipal areas with associated social and political implications as well as increased immediate danger to humans. Vegetation clearance standards for overhead...

  9. Vegetation clearance distances to prevent wildland fire caused damage to telecommunication and power transmission infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. W. Butler; J. Webb; J. Hogge; T. Wallace

    2015-01-01

    Towers and poles supporting power transmission and telecommunication lines have collapsed due to heating from wildland fires. Such occurrences have led to interruptions in power or communication in large municipal areas with associated social and political implications as well as increased immediate danger to humans. Unfortunately, no studies address the question of...

  10. How risk management can prevent future wildfire disasters in the wildland-urban interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkin, David E; Cohen, Jack D; Finney, Mark A; Thompson, Matthew P

    2014-01-14

    Recent fire seasons in the western United States are some of the most damaging and costly on record. Wildfires in the wildland-urban interface on the Colorado Front Range, resulting in thousands of homes burned and civilian fatalities, although devastating, are not without historical reference. These fires are consistent with the characteristics of large, damaging, interface fires that threaten communities across much of the western United States. Wildfires are inevitable, but the destruction of homes, ecosystems, and lives is not. We propose the principles of risk analysis to provide land management agencies, first responders, and affected communities who face the inevitability of wildfires the ability to reduce the potential for loss. Overcoming perceptions of wildland-urban interface fire disasters as a wildfire control problem rather than a home ignition problem, determined by home ignition conditions, will reduce home loss.

  11. Wildland fire management. Volume 1: Prevention methods and analysis. [systems engineering approach to California fire problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissenberger, S. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    A systems engineering approach is reported for the problem of reducing the number and severity of California's wildlife fires. Prevention methodologies are reviewed and cost benefit models are developed for making preignition decisions.

  12. Teen Drinking Prevention Program. Event Action Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Substance Abuse Prevention.

    Underage drinking presents a serious health risk not only to young people themselves but to entire communities. This program guide is designed to help communities establish their own underage drinking prevention programs. Community norms, actions, and attitudes toward alcohol affect young people, as do the ways in which alcohol is promoted.…

  13. Wildland Fire Management Plan for Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green,T.

    2009-10-23

    This Wildland Fire Management Plan (FMP) for Brookhaven National Lab (BNL) updates the 2003 plan incorporating changes necessary to comply with DOE Order 450.1 and DOE P 450.4, Federal Wildland Fire Management Policy and Program Review; Wildland and Prescribed Fire Management Policy and implementation Procedures Reference Guide. This current plan incorporates changes since the original draft of the FMP that result from new policies on the national level. This update also removes references and dependence on the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service and Department of the Interior, fully transitioning Wildland Fire Management responsibilities to BNL. The Department of Energy policy for managing wildland fires requires that all areas, managed by the DOE and/or its various contractors, that can sustain fire must have a FMP that details fire management guidelines for operational procedures associated with wild fire, operational, and prescribed fires. Fire management plans provide guidance on fire preparedness, fire prevention, wildfire suppression, and the use of controlled, 'prescribed' fires and mechanical means to control the amount of available combustible material. Values reflected in the BNL Wildland FMP include protecting life and public safety; Lab properties, structures and improvements; cultural and historical sites; neighboring private and public properties; and endangered, threatened, and species of concern. Other values supported by the plan include the enhancement of fire-dependent ecosystems at BNL. This FMP will be reviewed periodically to ensure the fire program advances and evolves with the missions of the DOE and BNL. This Fire Management Plan is presented in a format that coverers all aspects specified by DOE guidance documents which are based on the national template for fire management plans adopted under the National Fire Plan. The DOE is one of the signatory agencies on the National Fire Plan. This FMP is to be used and implemented for the

  14. Electric motor predictive and preventive maintenance guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, J.A.

    1992-07-01

    Electric motor performance is vital to the reliable and efficient operation of power plants. The failure of one or more critical motors could cause lost capacity and excessive repair and maintenance cost. However, existing maintenance recommendations proposed by vendors for electric motors have sometimes encouraged many overly conservative maintenance practices. These practices have lead to excessive maintenance activities and costs which have provided no extra margin of operability. EPRI has sponsored RP2814-35 to develop a guide which provides power plants with information and guidance for establishing an effective maintenance program which will aid in preventing unexpected motor failures and assist in planning motor maintenance efforts. The guide includes a technical description which summarizes technical data relative to the four basic types of motors and their components in general use in power plants. The significant causes of motor failures are investigated and described in detail and methods to optimize service life and minimize maintenance cost through appropriate preventive maintenance and conditioning program are presented. This guide provides a foundation for an effective electric motor maintenance program and simplifies the selection of predictive and preventive maintenance tasks. Its use will enable maintenance personnel in nuclear and fossil plants to plan motor repairs during scheduled outages and avoid costly unexpected failures

  15. Wildland arson management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon; David T. Butry

    2008-01-01

    Wildland arson has received scant attention in the resource economics literature, yet is the cause of many large and damaging wildland fires. Research into wildfire management and policy in the United States has been principally concerned with wildfire suppression, fuels treatments, fire science (behavior), and economic efficiency questions. This is unfortunate,...

  16. Bullying 101: The Club Crew's Guide to Bullying Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    PACER Center, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "Bullying 101" is the Club Crew's Guide to Bullying Prevention. A visually-friendly, age-appropriate, 16-page colorful guide for students to read or for parents to use when talking with children, this guide describes and explains what bullying is and is not, the roles of other students, and tips on what each student can do to prevent…

  17. Pollution prevention opportunity assessments, a training and resource guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VALERO, O.J.

    1998-11-03

    The intention of the ''Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment Training and Resource Guide'' is to help Hanford waste generators identify ways to reduce waste through the Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (P20A) process. This document presents pollution prevention tools and provides a step-by-step approach for conducting assessments.

  18. Alcohol Abuse Prevention: A Comprehensive Guide for Youth Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boys' Clubs of America, New York, NY.

    This guide, the culmination of a three year Project TEAM effort by the Boys' Clubs of America, describes numerous strategies for developing an alcohol abuse prevention program. The core of this guide consists of program models developed by the Boys' Club project at seven pilot sites. The models presented cover the following areas: peer leadership,…

  19. Teen Pregnancy Prevention. A Legislator's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiden, Mary

    This publication presents an overview of adolescent pregnancy, including national and state statistical information; funding sources for teen pregnancy prevention programs; examples of the effects of teen pregnancy prevention on society; illustrations of teenagers' perspectives on the issue; recent developments and initiatives in the arena of teen…

  20. The Moving Edge: Perspectives on the Southern Wildland-Urban Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martha C. Monroe; Alison W. Bowers; L. Annie Hermansen

    2003-01-01

    To better understand the wildland-urban interface across the 13 Southern States and to identify issues to be covered in the USDA Forest Service report, "Human Influences on Forest Ecosystems: The Southern Wildland-Urban Interface Assessment," 12 focus groups were conducted in 6 of the Southern States in May and June 2000. The groups were guided through a...

  1. Good Practice Guide Waste Minimization/Pollution Prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J Dorsey

    1999-10-14

    This Good Practice Guide provides tools, information, and examples for promoting the implementation of pollution prevention during the design phases of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) projects. It is one of several Guides for implementing DOE Order 430.1, Life-cycle Asset Management. DOE Order 430.1 provides requirements for DOE, in partnership with its contractors, to plan, acquire, operate, maintain, and dispose of physical assets. The goals of designing for pollution prevention are to minimize raw material consumption, energy consumption, waste generation, health and safety impacts, and ecological degradation over the entire life of the facility (EPA 1993a). Users of this Guide will learn to translate national policy and regulatory requirements for pollution prevention into action at the project level. The Guide was written to be applicable to all DOE projects, regardless of project size or design phase. Users are expected to interpret the Guide for their individual project's circumstances, applying a graded approach so that the effort is consistent with the anticipated waste generation and resource consumption of the physical asset. This Guide employs a combination of pollution prevention opportunity assessment (PPOA) methods and design for environment (DfE) philosophies. The PPOA process was primarily developed for existing products, processes, and facilities. The PPOA process has been modified in this Guide to address the circumstances of the DOE design process as delineated in DOE Order 430.1 and its associated Good Practice Guides. This modified form of the PPOA is termed the Pollution Prevention Design Assessment (P2DA). Information on current nationwide methods and successes in designing for the environment also have been reviewed and are integrated into this guidance.

  2. Good Practice Guide Waste Minimization/Pollution Prevention; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J Dorsey

    1999-01-01

    This Good Practice Guide provides tools, information, and examples for promoting the implementation of pollution prevention during the design phases of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) projects. It is one of several Guides for implementing DOE Order 430.1, Life-cycle Asset Management. DOE Order 430.1 provides requirements for DOE, in partnership with its contractors, to plan, acquire, operate, maintain, and dispose of physical assets. The goals of designing for pollution prevention are to minimize raw material consumption, energy consumption, waste generation, health and safety impacts, and ecological degradation over the entire life of the facility (EPA 1993a). Users of this Guide will learn to translate national policy and regulatory requirements for pollution prevention into action at the project level. The Guide was written to be applicable to all DOE projects, regardless of project size or design phase. Users are expected to interpret the Guide for their individual project's circumstances, applying a graded approach so that the effort is consistent with the anticipated waste generation and resource consumption of the physical asset. This Guide employs a combination of pollution prevention opportunity assessment (PPOA) methods and design for environment (DfE) philosophies. The PPOA process was primarily developed for existing products, processes, and facilities. The PPOA process has been modified in this Guide to address the circumstances of the DOE design process as delineated in DOE Order 430.1 and its associated Good Practice Guides. This modified form of the PPOA is termed the Pollution Prevention Design Assessment (P2DA). Information on current nationwide methods and successes in designing for the environment also have been reviewed and are integrated into this guidance

  3. Complete guide to preventive and predictive maintenance

    CERN Document Server

    Levitt, Joel

    2011-01-01

    This book shares the best practices, mistakes, victories, and essential steps for success which the author has gleaned from working with countless organizations. Unlike other books that only focus on the engineering issues (task lists) or management issues (CMMS), this in-depth resource is the first to give true emphasize to the four aspects of success in preventive maintenance systems - engineering, management, economic, and psychological - thereby enabling readers to have a balanced view and understanding of what is happening in their organizations. Additionally, it blends concrete actionable steps and structures with the theory behind the steps. It includes check sheets, history of PM, stories, photographs, and case histories. It contains a glossary of terms. It provides sample task lists for a variety of equipment with some of the logic behind each task. It offers templates for developing your own tasking. It includes protocols for detailed economic analysis with examples.

  4. Economics of wildland fire management

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Calkin; Krista Gebert

    2009-01-01

    Increased wildland fire activity and associated suppression costs over the last decade have significantly challenged federal agencies' ability to manage the nation's lands and meet public expectations. Three common factors have typically been identified to explain this increasing cost trend: 1) increased development within the wildland urban interface...

  5. African-American wildland memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassandra Y. Johnson; J. Michael Bowker

    2004-01-01

    Collective memory can be used conceptually to examine African-American perceptions of wildlands and black interaction with such places. The middle--American view of wildlands frames these terrains as refuges--pure and simple, sanctified places distinct from the profanity of human modification. However, wild, primitive areas do not exist in the minds of all Americans as...

  6. Pollution Prevention Successes Database (P2SDb) user guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    When Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessments (P2OAs) were launched at the Hanford Site during the summer of 1994, the first comment received from those using them expressed the desire for a method to report assessments electronically. As a temporary measure, macros were developed for use on word processing systems, but a more formal database was obviously needed. Additionally, increased DOE and Washington state reporting requirements for pollution prevention suggested that a database system would streamline the reporting process. The Pollution Prevention Group of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) contracted with the Data Automation Engineering Department from ICF Kaiser Hanford Company (ICFKH) to develop the system. The scope was to develop a database that will track P2OAs conducted by the facilities and contractors at the Hanford Site. It will also track pollution prevention accomplishments that are not the result of P2OAs and document a portion of the Process Waste Assessments conducted in the past. To accommodate the above criteria, yet complete the system in a timely manner, the Pollution Prevention Successes Database (P2SDb) is being implemented in three phases. The first phase will automate the worksheets to provide both input and output of the data associated with the worksheets. The second phase will automate standard summary reports and ad hoc reports. The third phase will provide automated searching of the database to facilitate the sharing of pollution prevention experiences among various users. This User's Guide addresses only the Phase 1 system

  7. Pollution Prevention Successes Database (P2SDb) user guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    When Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessments (P2OAs) were launched at the Hanford Site during the summer of 1994, the first comment received from those using them expressed the desire for a method to report assessments electronically. As a temporary measure, macros were developed for use on word processing systems, but a more formal database was obviously needed. Additionally, increased DOE and Washington state reporting requirements for pollution prevention suggested that a database system would streamline the reporting process. The Pollution Prevention Group of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) contracted with the Data Automation Engineering Department from ICF Kaiser Hanford Company (ICFKH) to develop the system. The scope was to develop a database that will track P2OAs conducted by the facilities and contractors at the Hanford Site. It will also track pollution prevention accomplishments that are not the result of P2OAs and document a portion of the Process Waste Assessments conducted in the past. To accommodate the above criteria, yet complete the system in a timely manner, the Pollution Prevention Successes Database (P2SDb) is being implemented in three phases. The first phase will automate the worksheets to provide both input and output of the data associated with the worksheets. The second phase will automate standard summary reports and ad hoc reports. The third phase will provide automated searching of the database to facilitate the sharing of pollution prevention experiences among various users. This User`s Guide addresses only the Phase 1 system.

  8. Wildland Fire Management Plan for Brookhaven National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwager, K.; Green, T. M.

    2014-01-01

    The DOE policy for managing wildland fires requires that all areas managed by DOE and/or Its various contractors which can sustain fire must have a FMP that details fire management guidelines for operational procedures associated with wildland fire, operational, and prescribed fires. FMPs provide guidance on fire preparedness, fire prevention, wildfire suppression, and the use of controlled ''prescribed'' fires and mechanical means to control the amount of available combustible material. Values reflected in the BNL Wildland FMP include protecting life and public safety; Lab properties, structures and improvements; cultural and historical sites; neighboring private and public properties; and endangered, threatened, and species of concern. Other values supported by the plan include the enhancement of fire-dependent ecosystems at BNL. The plan will be reviewed periodically to ensure fire program advances and will evolve with the missions of DOE and BNL.

  9. Wildland Fire Management Plan for Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwager, K.; Green, T. M.

    2014-10-01

    The DOE policy for managing wildland fires requires that all areas managed by DOE and/or Its various contractors which can sustain fire must have a FMP that details fire management guidelines for operational procedures associated with wildland fire, operational, and prescribed fires. FMPs provide guidance on fire preparedness, fire prevention, wildfire suppression, and the use of controlled ''prescribed'' fires and mechanical means to control the amount of available combustible material. Values reflected in the BNL Wildland FMP include protecting life and public safety; Lab properties, structures and improvements; cultural and historical sites; neighboring private and public properties; and endangered, threatened, and species of concern. Other values supported by the plan include the enhancement of fire-dependent ecosystems at BNL. The plan will be reviewed periodically to ensure fire program advances and will evolve with the missions of DOE and BNL.

  10. Wildland fire in ecosystems: fire and nonnative invasive plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristin Zouhar; Jane Kapler Smith; Steve Sutherland; Matthew L. Brooks

    2008-01-01

    This state-of-knowledge review of information on relationships between wildland fire and nonnative invasive plants can assist fire managers and other land managers concerned with prevention, detection, and eradication or control of nonnative invasive plants. The 16 chapters in this volume synthesize ecological and botanical principles regarding relationships between...

  11. Spatio-temporal wildland arson crime functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    David T. Butry; Jeffrey P. Prestemon

    2005-01-01

    Wildland arson creates damages to structures and timber and affects the health and safety of people living in rural and wildland urban interface areas. We develop a model that incorporates temporal autocorrelations and spatial correlations in wildland arson ignitions in Florida. A Poisson autoregressive model of order p, or PAR(p)...

  12. Wildland fire limits subsequent fire occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sean A. Parks; Carol Miller; Lisa M. Holsinger; Scott Baggett; Benjamin J. Bird

    2016-01-01

    Several aspects of wildland fire are moderated by site- and landscape-level vegetation changes caused by previous fire, thereby creating a dynamic where one fire exerts a regulatory control on subsequent fire. For example, wildland fire has been shown to regulate the size and severity of subsequent fire. However, wildland fire has the potential to influence...

  13. Training Cambodian Village Health Support Guides in Diabetes Prevention: Effects on Guides' Knowledge and Teaching Activities Over 6 Months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Julie; Keuky, Lim; Fraser-King, Lorraine; Kuoch, Theanvy; Scully, Mary

    2016-04-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a pressing public health concern in Cambodia, a country with limited human resource capacity due to genocide. Cambodian village health support guides (Guides) promote health at the local level. This paper reports preliminary results of training Guides in diabetes prevention. The curriculum, called Eat, Walk, Sleep was delivered to Guides in Siem Reap province once over 3 h. Participants completed a pretest and posttest on diabetes knowledge. Guides were offered continuing education through Eat, Walk, Sleep resources and were encouraged to teach Eat, Walk, Sleep in their villages. For each of 6 months following their training, Guides completed a checklist regarding their activities. One hundred eighty-five Guides attended one of ten trainings. Knowledge scores increased significantly from pretest to posttest. During 6 months of follow-up, n = 159 Guides (85 %) completed at least one monthly checklist. Guides reported high rates of uptake and delivery of the Eat, Walk, Sleep curriculum and moderate rates of continuing education about diabetes. Diabetes prevention in Cambodia is nascent. Guides show excellent uptake and dissemination of the curriculum. Future research should examine effect of support for Guide activities and the effect of the curriculum on villager health behaviors, and ultimately, on rates of type 2 diabetes.

  14. 78 FR 32235 - Availability of Compliance Guide for Residue Prevention and Response to Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... discrimination in all its programs and activities on the basis of race, color, national origin, gender, religion...] Availability of Compliance Guide for Residue Prevention and Response to Comments AGENCY: Food Safety and... (FSIS) is announcing the availability of the final revision of the compliance guide for the prevention...

  15. 77 FR 24671 - Compliance Guide for Residue Prevention and Agency Testing Policy for Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service Compliance Guide for Residue Prevention and Agency Testing Policy for Residues AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of availability and... availability of a compliance guide for the prevention of violative residues in livestock slaughter...

  16. Wildland arson: a research assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon; David T. Butry

    2010-01-01

    Wildland arson makes up the majority of fire starts in some parts of the United States and is the second leading cause of fires on Eastern United States Federal forests. Individual arson fires can cause damages to resources and communities totaling over a hundred million dollars. Recent research has uncovered the temporal and spatial patterns of arson fires and their...

  17. Wildlands management for wildlife viewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamsie Cooper; William W. Shaw

    1979-01-01

    Wildlife in general and wildlife viewing in particular play significant roles in enriching the aesthetic experiences of visitors to wildlands. Effective management of wildlife for viewing must be based on human as well as biological information. The integration of the principles and techniques developed for game management with information on the human dimensions of...

  18. Wildland economics: theory and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pete Morton

    2000-01-01

    Since passage of the Wilderness Act, economists have derived the total economic valuation framework for estimating wildland benefits. Over the same time period, policies adopted by public land management agencies have been slow to internalize wilderness economics into management decisions. The lack of spatial resolution and modeler bias associated with the FORPLAN...

  19. A real-time risk assessment tool supporting wildland fire decisionmaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Calkin; Matthew P. Thompson; Mark A. Finney; Kevin D. Hyde

    2011-01-01

    Development of appropriate management strategies for escaped wildland fires is complex. Fire managers need the ability to identify, in real time, the likelihood that wildfire will affect valuable developed and natural resources (e.g., private structures, public infrastructure, and natural and cultural resources). These determinations help guide where and when...

  20. 2013 Vehicle Theft Prevention Quick Reference Guide for the Law Enforcement Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    "This and future versions of the Vehicle TheftPrevention Quick Reference Guide for the Law Enforcement Community will provide comprehensive information for vehicle lines. The parts-marking requirements have been : extended to include: : all passe...

  1. The economic dimension of wildland fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armando Gonzalez-Caban

    2013-01-01

    The economic relevance of wildland fire management and protection programs is ever growing, particularly considering mounting wildfire costs and losses globally, and the justifications required for budget allocations to management and protection of forest ecosystems. However, there are major difficulties in grappling with the problem of rapidly increasing wildland fire...

  2. A national cohesive wildland fire management strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest Service U.S. Department of Agriculture; Office of Wildland Fire Coordination. Department of the Interior

    2011-01-01

    Addressing wildfire is not simply a fire management, fire operations, or wildland-urban interface problem - it is a larger, more complex land management and societal issue. The vision for the next century is to: Safely and effectively extinguish fire, when needed; use fire where allowable; manage our natural resources; and as a Nation, live with wildland fire. Three...

  3. Review of vortices in wildland fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason M. Forthofer; Scott L. Goodrick

    2011-01-01

    Vortices are almost always present in the wildland fire environment and can sometimes interact with the fire in unpredictable ways, causing extreme fire behavior and safety concerns. In this paper, the current state of knowledge of the interaction of wildland fire and vortices is examined and reviewed. A basic introduction to vorticity is given, and the two common...

  4. Guides to Pollution Prevention: Research and Educational Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Office of Research and Development.

    This guide provides an overview of waste generating processes and operations that occur in educational or research institutions and presents options for minimizing waste generation through source reduction and recycling. A broad spectrum of waste chemicals in laboratories, art studios, print shops, maintenance, and other operations can be…

  5. Guides to pollution prevention: Selected hospital waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    The hazardous wastes generated by general medical and surgical hospitals are small in volume relative to those of industrial facilities; however, the wastes are of a wide variety. Some of the hazardous materials used by hospitals that become part of their waste streams include chemotherapy and antineoplastic chemicals, solvents, formaldehyde, photographic chemicals, radionuclides, mercury, waste anesthetic gases; and other toxic, corrosive and miscellaneous chemicals. Additional wastes such as infectious waste, incinerator exhaust, laundry-related waste, utility wastes, and trash were not addressed in the guide. Reducing the generation of these materials at the source, or recycling the wastes on- or off-site, will benefit hospitals by reducing disposal costs and lowering the liabilities associated with hazardous waste disposal. The guide provides an overview of hospital waste generating processes and presents options for minimizing waste generation through source reduction and recycling

  6. Understanding HPV Disease and Prevention: A Guide for School Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood-Rayermann, Suzy; McIntyre, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    Oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) causes 99.7% of all cervical cancers. HPV Types 16 and 18 are responsible for approximately 77% of cases, and peak prevalence occurs in females younger than 25 years of age. The recent implementation of HPV vaccination provides females with the opportunity to prevent infection. School nurses are advocates of…

  7. A practical guide to prevention for forensic nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Angelia C; Delapp, Tina D; Hendrix, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    Interpersonal violence (IPV) is a pervasive issue across the United States, affecting one in five women and costing the nation up to $750 billion per year in additional healthcare spending. Prevention of IPV by forensic nurses may be an underrecognized and underutilized activity as forensic nursing emphasizes collection of evidence and provision of acute care to victims of violence. The "Upstream Adage" parable has been used to identify activities that can be applied to the care of victims. Forensic nurses can expand their practice activities into an "upstream" focus by targeting communities and individuals at different levels of risk and participating in key interventions before violence occurs. The role for forensic nurses to inform, participate, and implement primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention activities can have positive influences on the problem of IPV that extends well beyond the provision of direct care.

  8. The Missoula Fire Sciences Laboratory: A 50-year dedication to understanding wildlands and fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diane M. Smith

    2012-01-01

    In 1960, the USDA Forest Service established the Northern Forest Fire Laboratory (now the Missoula Fire Sciences Laboratory) to find scientific solutions for better managing the nation's wildland resources and to research ways to improve forest fire prevention and suppression. This new state-of-the-art research facility did not emerge from a vacuum, however. This...

  9. Commentary: evidence to guide gun violence prevention in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Daniel W

    2015-03-18

    Gun violence is a major threat to the public's health and safety in the United States. The articles in this volume's symposium on gun violence reveal the scope of the problem and new trends in mortality rates from gunfire. Leading scholars synthesize research evidence that demonstrates the ability of numerous policies and programs-each consistent with lessons learned from successful efforts to combat public health problems-to prevent gun violence. Each approach presents challenges to successful implementation. Future research should inform efforts to assess which approaches are most effective and how to implement evidence-based interventions most effectively.

  10. Wildland fire and organic discourse: Negotiating place and leisure identity in a changing wildland urban inteface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph G. Champ; Daniel R. Williams; Katie Knotek

    2009-01-01

    A lack of research on the conceptual intersection of leisure, place and wildland fire and its role in identity prompted this exploratory study. The purpose of this research was to gather evidence regarding how people negotiate identities under the threat of wildland fire. Qualitative interviews with 16 homeowners and recreationists who value leisure activities in...

  11. Guided Learning at Workstations about Drug Prevention with Low Achievers in Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Heyne; Bogner, Franz X.

    2012-01-01

    Our study focussed on the cognitive achievement potential of low achieving eighth graders, dealing with drug prevention (cannabis). The learning process was guided by a teacher, leading this target group towards a modified learning at workstations which is seen as an appropriate approach for low achievers. We compared this specific open teaching…

  12. Fire Safety's My Job. Eighth Grade. Fire Safety for Texans: Fire and Burn Prevention Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas State Commission on Fire Protection, Austin.

    This booklet comprises the eighth grade component of a series of curriculum guides on fire and burn prevention. Designed to meet the age-specific needs of eighth grade students, its objectives include: (1) focusing on technical aspects of fire hazards and detection, and (2) exploring fire hazards outside the home. Texas essential elements of…

  13. Climate Change, Wildland Fires and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascio, W. E.

    2016-12-01

    Climate change is contributing to an increase in the severity of wildland fires. The annual acreage burned in the U.S. has risen steadily since 1985, and the fire season has lengthened. Wildland fires impair air quality by producing massive quantities of particulate air pollutants and ozone precursors. Together particles and ozone exposures increase the risk of premature death and acute and chronic cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity among vulnerable individuals. Future wildfires are predicted to be larger, more severe and more frequent in some regions of the U.S and will contribute to an even greater proportion of the ambient air pollution, the disease burden and healthcare costs.While the projected magnitude of the public health impact of climate change-related wildfire events is uncertain, it is clear that the proportion of the U.S. population vulnerable to the adverse health effects of wildland fire and its smoke is increasing. An aging population with chronic respiratory diseases and increasing obesity and diabetes that heralds more cardiovascular disease will increase the vulnerability of the population to the adverse effects of wildfire smoke and associated stressors. Additionally, physiological changes attendant to aging decrease the capacity of aged-adults to tolerate wildfire smoke, heat, humidity, evacuation and recovery. Expansion of our cities into the wildland-urban interface is also placing a greater proportion of the population in closer proximity to wildland fire emissions with its associated health risks. The public health community has an opportunity to contribute to the broader national effort to mitigate climate change and wildland fire risk by working closely with the healthcare community to facilitate adaptive responses to climate change. Adaptation will increase the resilience of individuals and their communities and is anticipated to help mitigate the adverse health effects of wildland fire. This abstract does not reflect USEPA policy.

  14. What is the wildland fire threat to homes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack D. Cohen

    2000-01-01

    The threat of life and property losses related to wildfires is a significant issue for federal, state, and local fire and planning agencies who consider the mix of residential areas and wildlands. The wildland fire threat is part of the more general consideration of human development encroaching wildlands. The March, 2000 edition of the Journal of Forestry reflects...

  15. Wildland fire decision support system air quality tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim Larkin; Tim Brown; Pete Lahm; Tom Zimmerman

    2010-01-01

    Smoke and air quality information have an important role in wildland fire decisionmaking that is reinforced in the 2009 "Guidance for Implementation of Federal Wildland Fire Management Policy." A key intent of the guidance is to allow consideration and use of the full range of strategic and tactical options that are available in the response to every wildland...

  16. Chapter 7. Assessing soil factors in wildland improvement programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur R. Tiedemann; Carlos F. Lopez

    2004-01-01

    Soil factors are an important consideration for successful wildland range development or improvement programs. Even though many soil improvement and amelioration practices are not realistic for wildlands, their evaluation is an important step in selection of adapted plant materials for revegetation. This chapter presents information for wildland managers on: the...

  17. Prevention That Works! A Guide for Developing School-Based Drug and Violence Prevention Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Cynthia R.

    This book helps educators produce assessments of their schools' drug and violence prevention programs. It contains over 30 separate resources that can be adapted to specific evaluations (e.g., sample youth and adult participant feedback sheets, sample classroom observation sheets and teacher implementation logs, sample en-route participant…

  18. A method for ensemble wildland fire simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Finney; Isaac C. Grenfell; Charles W. McHugh; Robert C. Seli; Diane Trethewey; Richard D. Stratton; Stuart Brittain

    2011-01-01

    An ensemble simulation system that accounts for uncertainty in long-range weather conditions and two-dimensional wildland fire spread is described. Fuel moisture is expressed based on the energy release component, a US fire danger rating index, and its variation throughout the fire season is modeled using time series analysis of historical weather data. This analysis...

  19. Adolescents' Interaction with Wildlands in Lekki Conservation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To correct this, nature centres, wildlands and parks have become potent medium for recreation as well as generating knowledge and awareness about the environment, sustainability and conservation. Thus, visitations to nature centres and parks do encourage and provide for appreciating nature while encouraging young ...

  20. Public webinar: Wildland Fire Sensors Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    This multi-agency challenge seeks a field-ready prototype system capable of measuring constituents of smoke, including particulates, carbon monoxide, ozone, and carbon dioxide, over the wide range of levels expected during wildland fires. The prototype system should be accurate, ...

  1. Risk complexity and the wildland firefighter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivan Pupulidy

    2012-01-01

    Between 2000 and 2010 the US Forest Service and the Department of the Interior experienced 82 wildland fire fatalities. Our most recent organizational focus has been to eliminate fatalities. The chief of the USFS, in a letter to all employees, asked us to "suspend disbelief" with regard to the concept of a "zero fatality organization". This plea...

  2. Analysis guide - Nuclear criticality risks and their prevention in plants and laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galet, C.; Le Bars, I.

    2011-01-01

    This report first describes the nuclear criticality risks and the prevention principles adopted in plants and laboratories, and reminds the French Basic Safety Rule (BSR) No. I.3.c. Diagrams are then used to introduce (i) the methodology recommended by this BSR, and (ii), for the reference fissile medium and each criticality control mode, the parameters to be considered 'conventionally' in a analysis, the 'typical' failures to be investigated, and the 'standard' scenarios associated with these failures. These diagrams, developed by IRSN and subject to change as feedback is received from experience in operating facilities or in implementation analyses and assessments, constitute a guide to the analysis of nuclear criticality risks, whether this is for compiling safety documents or for assessing them. As regards the possibility of modifying this guide, a sheet to be used for suggesting changes, intended for users of the guide, is provided on the last page of this report. Lastly, this guide is nothing more than the compilation of the 'conventional' and 'essential' precautions for preventing nuclear criticality risks. Although these precautions must always be kept in mind, the reader should never forget that each configuration is a special case and that there may be scenarios that apply only to this particular case. It is therefore appropriate to remind here that all criticality accidents are the result of failures and incident scenarios that have not been considered in the analysis. This guide is therefore a tool which is not intended to be exhaustive, and does not replace the necessary analysis to adapt to every situation

  3. Environmental Restoration Program pollution prevention checklist guide for the feasibility study project phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    Feasibility studies (FS) determine what remedial alternatives are presented to regulators for site cleanup. A key consideration in this process is the waste to be generated. Minimizing the volume and toxicity of this waste will ultimately contribute to the selection of the best remedial option. The purpose of this checklist guide is to assist the user in incorporating pollution prevention/waste minimization (PP/WM) in all FS phase projects of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program. This guide will help users document PP/WM activities for technology transfer and reporting requirements. Automated computer screens will be created from the checklist data to assist users with implementing and evaluating waste reduction. Users can then establish numerical performance measures to measure progress in planning, training, self-assessments, field implementation, documentation, and technology transfer. Cost savings result as users train and assess themselves and perform preliminary waste assessments

  4. Environmental Restoration Program pollution prevention checklist guide for the facility characterization project phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    A facility characterization (FC) is conducted to determine the nature and extent contamination at a potential hazardous facility waste site. The information gathered during an FC includes (1) data on the volume and chemical nature of the waste, (2) information on the extent of contamination and the migration potential of the contaminants, (3) preliminary information on evaluation of alternative concepts that can or cannot be considered, and (4)supportive technical and cost data. For the purposes of identification, the following operational phases will be used for definition for this phase of the decommissioning and decontamination process (1) facility characterization before clean up, (2) characterization during clean up, (3) characterization of waste materials, and (4) site characterization after clean up. A key consideration in this process is the prevention of any waste to be generated from these characterization activities. The purpose of this checklist guide is to assist users with incorporating pollution prevention/waste minimization (PP/WM) in all FC phase projects of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program. This guide will help users document PP/WM activities for technology transfer and reporting requirements. Automated computer screens will be created from the checklist data to assist users with implementing and evaluating waste reduction

  5. WILDLAND FIRE MANAGEMENT PLAN FOR BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ENVIRONMENTAL AND WASTE MANAGEMENT SERVICES DIVISION

    2003-09-01

    This Wildland Fire Management Plan (FMP) for Brookhaven National Lab (BNL) and the Upton Ecological and Research Reserve (Upton Reserve) is based on the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (FWS) fire management planning procedures and was developed in cooperation with the Department of Energy (DOE) by Brookhaven Science Associates. As the Upton Reserve is contained within the BNL 5,265-acre site, it is logical that the plan applies to both the Upton Reserve and BNL. The Department of the Interior policy for managing wildland fires requires that all areas managed by FWS that can sustain fire must have an FMP that details fire management guidelines for operational procedures and specifies values to be protected or enhanced. Fire management plans provide guidance on fire preparedness, fire prevention, wildfire suppression, and the use of controlled, ''prescribed'' fires and mechanical means to control the amount of available combustible material. Values reflected in the BNL/Upton Reserve Wildland FMP include protecting life and public safety; Lab properties, structures and improvements; cultural and historical sites; neighboring private and public properties; and endangered and threatened species and species of concern. Other values supported by the plan include the enhancement of fire-dependent ecosystems at BNL and the Upton Reserve. This FMP will be reviewed periodically to ensure the fire program advances and evolves with the missions of FWS, BNL, and the Upton Reserve. This Fire Management Plan is a modified version of the Long Island National Wildlife Refuge Complex Fire plan (updated in 2000), which contains all FWS fire plan requirements and is presented in the format specified by the national template for fire management plans adopted under the National Fire Plan. The DOE is one of the signatory agencies on the National Fire Plan. FWS shall be, through an Interagency Agreement dated November 2000 (Appendix C), responsible for coordinating and

  6. Chapter 15. Plant pathology and managing wildland plant disease systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. Nelson

    2004-01-01

    Obtaining specific, reliable knowledge on plant diseases is essential in wildland shrub resource management. However, plant disease is one of the most neglected areas of wildland resources experimental research. This section is a discussion of plant pathology and how to use it in managing plant disease systems.

  7. Assessing high reliability practices in the wildland fire community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne E. Black; Kathleen Sutcliffe; Michelle Barton; Deirdre Dether

    2008-01-01

    The Office of Inspector General's 2006 audit of Forest Service fire management operations added yet another voice to the growing chorus calling on the Federal wildland fire community to get more fire on the ground (OIG 2006). The 1995 National Fire Plan and the 2001 Implementation Plan identify the critical role of wildland fire use in reducing hazardous fuels...

  8. Analysing initial attack on wildland fires using stochastic simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremy S. Fried; J. Keith Gilless; James. Spero

    2006-01-01

    Stochastic simulation models of initial attack on wildland fire can be designed to reflect the complexity of the environmental, administrative, and institutional context in which wildland fire protection agencies operate, but such complexity may come at the cost of a considerable investment in data acquisition and management. This cost may be well justified when it...

  9. Measuring wildland fire leadership: the crewmember perceived leadership scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexis L. Waldron; David P. Schary; Bradley J. Cardinal

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this research were to develop and test a scale used to measure leadership in wildland firefighting using two samples of USA wildland firefighters. The first collection of data occurred in the spring and early summer and consisted of an online survey. The second set of data was collected towards late summer and early fall (autumn). The second set of...

  10. Examining the sources of public support for wildland fire policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.D. Absher; J.J. Vaske

    2007-01-01

    Recent severe wildfires have reinforced the need for successful mitigation strategies to be coordinated across all levels of government that address the needs and concerns of homeowners who live in the wildland/urban interface (WUI). Despite the growing body of social science literature on agency-initiated wildland fire policies and homeowner mitigation strategies,...

  11. Research and Development wildland fire and fuels accomplishments and outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew Rollins; Carlos Rodriguez-Franco; Tara Haan; Susan Conard

    2017-01-01

    The Research and Development (R&D) Wildland Fire and Fuels program at the Forest Service, an agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, continues to be an internationally renowned program for generating critical and essential data, knowledge, and applications for all phases of wildland fire management and response. This report provides a primer on the...

  12. Wildland fire management futures: insights from a foresight panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Olson; David N. Bengston; Leif A. DeVaney; Trevor A.C. Thompson

    2015-01-01

    Wildland fire management faces unprecedented challenges in the 21st century: the increasingly apparent effects of climate change, more people and structures in the wildland-urban interface, growing costs associated with wildfire management, and the rise of high-impact fires, to name a few. Given these significant and growing challenges, conventional fire management...

  13. Visual impacts in the urban-wildland interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur W. Magill; Rowan A. Rowntree; Robert O. Brush

    1979-01-01

    The urban-wildland interface is treated as a place where extremes meet--where it is difficult to maintain a visually appealing transition from country to city. Problems are identified in relation to stable cities, urbanizing areas, and developing resorts in the wildlands. The visual problems of urbanization are also discussed in relation to physical impacts such as...

  14. Manitoba Health's emerging work on wildland fire smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey Joaquin; Darlene Oshanski

    2015-01-01

    Smoke caused by wildland fire events is an important public health issue, involving major risks to the health of people and the environment. Smoke from wildland fires can travel hundreds of kilometers, affecting air quality far from the flames. Through a partnership with Health Canada, Manitoba Health's Office of Disaster Management (ODM) has undertaken a number...

  15. Modeling regional-scale wildland fire emissions with the wildland fire emissions information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy H.F. French; Donald McKenzie; Tyler Erickson; Benjamin Koziol; Michael Billmire; K. Endsley; Naomi K.Y. Scheinerman; Liza Jenkins; Mary E. Miller; Roger Ottmar; Susan Prichard

    2014-01-01

    As carbon modeling tools become more comprehensive, spatial data are needed to improve quantitative maps of carbon emissions from fire. The Wildland Fire Emissions Information System (WFEIS) provides mapped estimates of carbon emissions from historical forest fires in the United States through a web browser. WFEIS improves access to data and provides a consistent...

  16. Environmental restoration program pollution prevention checklist guide for the evaluation of alternatives project phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    Evaluation of alternative studies determine what decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) alternatives are presented to regulators for facility and site cleanup. A key consideration in this process is the waste to be generated. Minimizing the volume and toxicity of this waste will ultimately contribute to the selection of the best clean-up option. The purpose of this checklist guide is to assist the user with incorporating pollution prevention/waste minimization (PP/WM) in all Evaluation of Alternatives (EV) phase projects of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program. This guide will assist users with documenting PP/WM activities for technology transfer and reporting requirements. Automated computer screens will be created from the checklist data to help users implement and evaluate waste reduction. Users can then establish numerical performance measures to measure progress in planning, training, self-assessments, field implementation, documentation, and technology transfer. Cost savings result as users train and assess themselves, eliminating expensive process waste assessments and audit teams

  17. Knowledge management: an application to wildfire prevention planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel L Schmoldt

    1989-01-01

    Residential encroachment into wildland areas places an additional burden on fire management activities. Prevention programs, fuel management efforts, and suppression strategies, previously employed in wildland areas, require modification for protection of increased values at risk in this interface area. Knowledge-based computer systems are being investigated as...

  18. Satisfaction of mountain guides with high sun protection as a tool to prevent non-melanoma skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tizek, L; Krause, J; Biedermann, T; Zink, A

    2017-11-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is an occupational disease for outdoor workers in Germany since 2015. Sustainable prevention is demanded and sunscreen promoted as an effective tool. However, studies on the satisfaction of sunscreen users are rare. To evaluate the satisfaction of mountain guides using a high SPF sunscreen product as an appropriate prevention tool for mountain guides. Motivating mountain and ski guides in Germany to use very high protection sunscreen (SPF50+, Actinica Lotion) during a 4- to 8-h workday followed by the completion of a self-filled paper-based questionnaire about their experience and satisfaction with the product. Of 88 mountain and ski guides (61 men, 27 women) included in the study, 61.4% reported regular sunscreen use with the application of very high protection (SPF50+) in 18.6% of all cases. At the end of the workday, 78.6% found the product convenient and easy to include into their daily work and 79.3% felt sufficiently protected against the sun. Overall satisfaction with the use of high SPF products during work is high in mountain and ski guides and could be an effective tool in prevention campaigns. © 2017 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  19. Medication Errors: New EU Good Practice Guide on Risk Minimisation and Error Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goedecke, Thomas; Ord, Kathryn; Newbould, Victoria; Brosch, Sabine; Arlett, Peter

    2016-06-01

    A medication error is an unintended failure in the drug treatment process that leads to, or has the potential to lead to, harm to the patient. Reducing the risk of medication errors is a shared responsibility between patients, healthcare professionals, regulators and the pharmaceutical industry at all levels of healthcare delivery. In 2015, the EU regulatory network released a two-part good practice guide on medication errors to support both the pharmaceutical industry and regulators in the implementation of the changes introduced with the EU pharmacovigilance legislation. These changes included a modification of the 'adverse reaction' definition to include events associated with medication errors, and the requirement for national competent authorities responsible for pharmacovigilance in EU Member States to collaborate and exchange information on medication errors resulting in harm with national patient safety organisations. To facilitate reporting and learning from medication errors, a clear distinction has been made in the guidance between medication errors resulting in adverse reactions, medication errors without harm, intercepted medication errors and potential errors. This distinction is supported by an enhanced MedDRA(®) terminology that allows for coding all stages of the medication use process where the error occurred in addition to any clinical consequences. To better understand the causes and contributing factors, individual case safety reports involving an error should be followed-up with the primary reporter to gather information relevant for the conduct of root cause analysis where this may be appropriate. Such reports should also be summarised in periodic safety update reports and addressed in risk management plans. Any risk minimisation and prevention strategy for medication errors should consider all stages of a medicinal product's life-cycle, particularly the main sources and types of medication errors during product development. This article

  20. Synoptic circulation and temperature pattern during severe wildland fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren E. Heilman

    1996-01-01

    Large-scale changes in the atmosphere associated with a globally changed climate and changes in climatic variability may have important regional impacts on the frequency and severity of wildland fires in the future.

  1. Fire risk in the road landscape patterns of the state of Paraná, Brazil - planning grants for the wildland-urban interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniela Biondi; Antonio Carlos Batista; Angeline Martini

    2013-01-01

    Urban growth worldwide has generated great concern in the planning of the different environments belonging to the wildland-urban interface. One of the problems that arise is the landscape treatment given to roads, which must not only comply with aesthetic and ecological principles, but also be functional, adding functions relating to forest fire prevention and control...

  2. Lung function changes in wildland firefighters working at prescribed burns.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adetona, Olorunfemi; Hall, Daniel, B.; Naeher, L,P.

    2011-10-01

    Although decline in lung function across workshift has been observed in wildland firefighters, measurements have been restricted to days when they worked at fires. Consequently, such results could have been confounded by normal circadian variation associated with lung function. We investigated the across-shift changes in lung function of wildland firefighters, and the effect of cumulative exposure on lung function during the burn season.

  3. Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Emission factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawn Urbanski

    2014-01-01

    While the vast majority of carbon emitted by wildland fires is released as CO2, CO, and CH4, wildland fire smoke is nonetheless a rich and complex mixture of gases and aerosols. Primary emissions include significant amounts of CH4 and aerosol (organic aerosol and black carbon), which are short-lived climate forcers. In addition to CO2 and short-lived climate forcers,...

  4. Wildland fire smoke and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascio, Wayne E

    2018-05-15

    The natural cycle of landscape fire maintains the ecological health of the land, yet adverse health effects associated with exposure to emissions from wildfire produce public health and clinical challenges. Systematic reviews conclude that a positive association exists between exposure to wildfire smoke or wildfire particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) and all-cause mortality and respiratory morbidity. Respiratory morbidity includes asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), bronchitis and pneumonia. The epidemiological data linking wildfire smoke exposure to cardiovascular mortality and morbidity is mixed, and inconclusive. More studies are needed to define the risk for common and costly clinical cardiovascular outcomes. Susceptible populations include people with respiratory and possibly cardiovascular diseases, middle-aged and older adults, children, pregnant women and the fetus. The increasing frequency of large wildland fires, the expansion of the wildland-urban interface, the area between unoccupied land and human development; and an increasing and aging U.S. population are increasing the number of people at-risk from wildfire smoke, thus highlighting the necessity for broadening stakeholder cooperation to address the health effects of wildfire. While much is known, many questions remain and require further population-based, clinical and occupational health research. Health effects measured over much wider geographical areas and for longer periods time will better define the risk for adverse health outcomes, identify the sensitive populations and assess the influence of social factors on the relationship between exposure and health outcomes. Improving exposure models and access to large clinical databases foreshadow improved risk analysis facilitating more effective risk management. Fuel and smoke management remains an important component for protecting population health. Improved smoke forecasting and translation of environmental health science into

  5. Marketing Nature-Oriented Tourism or Rural Development and Wildlands Management in Developing Countries: A Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Denise Ingram; Patrick B. Durst

    1987-01-01

    Annotated bibliography that specifically links tourism marketing and wildlands management. The bibliography is divided into five sections: Information Sources, Wildlands Management, Planning and Development, Tourism Impacts, Marketing and Promotion.Indexed by author and geographical location.

  6. Reducing the wildland fire threat to homes: Where and how much?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack D. Cohen

    1999-01-01

    Understanding how ignitions occur is critical for effectively mitigating home fire losses during wildland fires. The threat of life and property losses during wildland fires is a significant issue for Federal, State, and local agencies that have responsibilities involving homes within and adjacent to wildlands. Agencies have shifted attention to communities adjacent to...

  7. Canadian Wildland Fire Strategy: A vision for an innovative and integrated approach to managing the risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadian Wildland Fire Strategy Project Management Team

    2006-01-01

    The Canadian Wildland Fire Strategy (CWFS) provides a vision for a new, innovative, and integrated approach to wildland fire management in Canada. It was developed under the auspices of the Canadian Council of Forest Ministers and seeks to balance the social, ecological, and economic aspects of wildland fire through a risk management framework that emphasizes hazard...

  8. Symbolic meanings of wildland fire: A study of residents in the U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis B. Paveglio; Matthew S. Carroll; James D. Absher; William Robinson

    2010-01-01

    This study uses symbolic interactionism as a basis for understanding the salience and fundamental meanings of wildland fire to wildland–urban interface (WUI) residents. It contributes to an understanding of how WUI residents actually view wildland fire, its role in forest ecosystems, and its attendant risks for human settlements. Three focus groups were conducted with...

  9. Previniendo el Uso de Drogas entre Ninos y Adolescentes: Una Guia Basada en Investigaciones (Preventing Drug Use among Children and Adolescents: A Research-Based Guide).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloboda, Zili; David, Susan L.

    This question and answer guide provides an overview of the research on the origins and pathways of drug abuse, the basic principles derived from effective drug abuse prevention research, and the application of research results to the prevention of drug use among young people. The basic principles derived from drug abuse prevention research are…

  10. Integrating Hazardous Materials Characterization and Assessment Tools to Guide Pollution Prevention in Electronic Products and Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Carl

    Due to technology proliferation, the environmental burden attributed to the production, use, and disposal of hazardous materials in electronics have become a worldwide concern. The major theme of this dissertation is to develop and apply hazardous materials assessment tools to systematically guide pollution prevention opportunities in the context of electronic product design, manufacturing and end-of-life waste management. To this extent, a comprehensive review is first provided on describing hazard traits and current assessment methods to evaluate hazardous materials. As a case study at the manufacturing level, life cycle impact assessment (LCIA)-based and risk-based screening methods are used to quantify chemical and geographic environmental impacts in the U.S. printed wiring board (PWB) industry. Results from this industrial assessment clarify priority waste streams and States to most effectively mitigate impact. With further knowledge of PWB manufacturing processes, select alternative chemical processes (e.g., spent copper etchant recovery) and material options (e.g., lead-free etch resist) are discussed. In addition, an investigation on technology transition effects for computers and televisions in the U.S. market is performed by linking dynamic materials flow and environmental assessment models. The analysis forecasts quantities of waste units generated and maps shifts in environmental impact potentials associated with metal composition changes due to product substitutions. This insight is important to understand the timing and waste quantities expected and the emerging toxic elements needed to be addressed as a consequence of technology transition. At the product level, electronic utility meter devices are evaluated to eliminate hazardous materials within product components. Development and application of a component Toxic Potential Indicator (TPI) assessment methodology highlights priority components requiring material alternatives. Alternative

  11. Preventing Teen Pregnancy. Learning Guide 4. Project Connect. Linking Self-Family-Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emily Hall Tremaine Foundation, Inc., Hartford, CT.

    This learning guide is designed to connect personal, family, and job responsibilities for adults and out-of-school youth in economically depressed areas of the state (including transitional ex-offenders and corrections populations) so that these individuals learn to manage and balance these aspects of their lives in order to prepare for or…

  12. Guide to DCP Study Close-Out: Milestones and Tasks | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    This guide assists Consortium Lead Organization (CLO) planning for DCP study close-out. Study close-out tasks are organized under milestones, which help mark progress toward completion of the close-out process. Once tasks associated with a milestone are underway, planning for the next milestone may begin. Click on a milestone to view the associated close-out tasks. |

  13. An Ounce of Prevention: An Administrative Guide for Day Care Center Directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Norma; Hall, Don

    One of three training manuals developed for day care center staff, this administrative guide was written to assist day care center directors in developing policies and procedures aimed at improving all aspects of the day care program, and thus reducing the risk of child abuse. Four chapters focus on (1) selection of staff, including recruiting,…

  14. Climate change effects on wildland fire risk in the Northeastern and Great Lakes states predicted by a downscaled multi-model ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Gaige Hunter; DeGaetano, Arthur T.; Stoof, Cathelijne R.; Ward, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    This study is among the first to investigate wildland fire risk in the Northeastern and the Great Lakes states under a changing climate. We use a multi-model ensemble (MME) of regional climate models from the Coordinated Regional Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX) together with the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index System (CFFWIS) to understand changes in wildland fire risk through differences between historical simulations and future projections. Our results are relatively homogeneous across the focus region and indicate modest increases in the magnitude of fire weather indices (FWIs) during northern hemisphere summer. The most pronounced changes occur in the date of the initialization of CFFWIS and peak of the wildland fire season, which in the future are trending earlier in the year, and in the significant increases in the length of high-risk episodes, defined by the number of consecutive days with FWIs above the current 95th percentile. Further analyses show that these changes are most closely linked to expected changes in the focus region's temperature and precipitation. These findings relate to the current understanding of particulate matter vis-à-vis wildfires and have implications for human health and local and regional changes in radiative forcings. When considering current fire management strategies which could be challenged by increasing wildland fire risk, fire management agencies could adapt new strategies to improve awareness, prevention, and resilience to mitigate potential impacts to critical infrastructure and population.

  15. Climate Change and Wildland Fire Intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannigan, M.; Wotton, M.; Marshall, G.

    2016-12-01

    Wildland fires are a frequent occurrence in many regions of the world. These fires are the result of interactions between climate/weather, fuels, and people. Our climate and associated day-to-day weather may be changing rapidly due to human activities that may have dramatic and unexpected impacts on regional and global fire activity. A warmer world means longer fire seasons, more lightning activity, and most importantly drier fuels. Existing studies suggest a general overall increase in fire occurrence and area burned although there is significant temporal and spatial variability. Future trends in fire severity and intensity are more difficult to project due to the complex and non-linear interactions between weather, vegetation and people. However, there are indications that fire severity and intensity are increasing. In this study we examine future fire intensity in Canada. We use 3 GCMs and 3 RCP scenarios to estimate potential fire intensity, fuel consumption and number of significant spread days throughout the boreal forest. We examine not only absolute change in fireline intensity and consumption, but also changing frequency of exceeding intensity thresholds used today to inform fire management decisions about resource effectiveness. We find that potential fuel consumption increases more than 25% in the most extreme scenarios for the majority of the boreal by the end of the century. Similarly, we observe an absolute increase in the number of days that could support significant fire spread by up to 50 days per year and a greater than threefold increase in the potential number of days where head fire intensity exceeds 10000kW/m in the most extreme cases. While fire severity increases in general, it is these changes in the exceedance of certain critical threshold for fire suppression effectiveness that have the potential to significantly impact fire operations. Fire management will be even more challenging in a warmer world.

  16. Hanford Site Guide for Preparing and Maintaining Fenerator Group Pollution Prevention Program Documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PLACE, B.G.

    1999-01-01

    This document provides guidance to generator groups for preparing and maintaining documentation of Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization (P2/WMin) Program activities. The guidance is one of a hierarchical series that includes the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan (DOE-RL, 1998a) and Prime Contractor implementation plans describing programs required by Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) 3002(b) and (300501) (RCRA and EPA, 1994). Documentation guidance for the following five P2/WMin elements are discussed: Fiscal Year (FY) Goals; Budget and Staffing; Waste Minimization (WMinn ) Assessments (WMAs); Pollution Prevention (P2) Reporting; WMin Certification

  17. Hanford Site guide for preparing and maintaining generator group pollution prevention program documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Place, B.G.

    1998-01-01

    This document provides guidance to generator groups for preparing and maintaining documentation of Pollution Prevention Waste Minimization (P2/WMin) Program activities. The guidance is one of a hierarchical series that includes the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan (DOE-RL, 1998a) and Prime contractor implementation plans describing programs required by Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) 3002(b) and 3005(h) (RCRA and EPA, 1994). Documentation guidance for the following five P2/WMin elements are discussed: Fiscal Year (FY) Goals; Budget and Staffing; Waste Minimization (WMin) Assessments (WMAs); Quarterly Pollution Prevention (P2) Reporting WMin Certification

  18. Perspectives of Spatial Scale in a Wildland Forest Epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.W. Dillon; S.E. Haas; D.M. Rizzo; R.K. Meentemeyer

    2014-01-01

    The challenge of observing interactions between plant pathogens, their hosts, and environmental heterogeneity across multiple spatial scales commonly limits our ability to understand and manage wildland forest epidemics. Using the forest pathogen Phytophthora ramorum as a case study, we established 20 multiscale field sites to analyze how host-...

  19. Developing the U.S. Wildland Fire Decision Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erin Noonan-Wright; Tonja S. Opperman; Mark A. Finney; Tom Zimmerman; Robert C. Seli; Lisa M. Elenz; David E. Calkin; John R. Fiedler

    2011-01-01

    A new decision support tool, the Wildland Fire Decision Support System (WFDSS) has been developed to support risk-informed decision-making for individual fires in the United States. WFDSS accesses national weather data and forecasts, fire behavior prediction, economic assessment, smoke management assessment, and landscape databases to efficiently formulate and apply...

  20. The communicative construction of safety in wildland firefighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jody Jahn; Linda L. Putnam; Anne E. Black

    2012-01-01

    This document is a summary of a mixed methods dissertation that examined the communicative construction of safety in wildland firefighting. For the dissertation, I used a two-study mixed methods approach, examining the communicative accomplishment of safety from two perspectives: high reliability organizing (Weick, Sutcliffe, & Obstfeld, 1999), and safety climate (...

  1. Managing wildland fires: integrating weather models into fire projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne M. Rosenthal; Francis Fujioka

    2004-01-01

    Flames from the Old Fire sweep through lands north of San Bernardino during late fall of 2003. Like many Southern California fires, the Old Fire consumed susceptible forests at the urban-wildland interface and spread to nearby city neighborhoods. By incorporating weather models into fire perimeter projections, scientist Francis Fujioka is improving fire modeling as a...

  2. Mountain Bicycling in the Urban-Wildland Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur W. Magill

    1992-01-01

    Mountain bicycling is a rapidly growing sport exerting substantial pressure on recreation areas in the urban-wildland interface. In 1983 there were under a million mountain bike users, today there are 15 million. Little is known about the bicyclists, but hikers and equestrians have complained about encounters with cyclists speeding down trails with little regard for...

  3. Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Modeling fuel consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger D. Ottmar

    2014-01-01

    Fuel consumption specifies the amount of vegetative biomass consumed during wildland fire. It is a two-stage process of pyrolysis and combustion that occurs simultaneously and at different rates depending on the characteristics and condition of the fuel, weather, topography, and in the case of prescribed fire, ignition rate and pattern. Fuel consumption is the basic...

  4. Climate Change, Wildland Fires and Public Health | Science ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change is contributing to an increase in the severity of wildland fires. The annual acreage burned in the U.S. has risen steadily since 1985, and the fire season has lengthened. Wildland fires impair air quality by producing massive quantities of particulate air pollutants and ozone precursors. Together particles and ozone exposures increase the risk of premature death and acute and chronic cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity among vulnerable individuals. Future wildfires are predicted to be larger, more severe and more frequent in some regions of the U.S and will contribute to an even greater proportion of the ambient air pollution, the disease burden and healthcare costs.While the projected magnitude of the public health impact of climate change-related wildfire events is uncertain, it is clear that the proportion of the U.S. population vulnerable to the adverse health effects of wildland fire and its smoke is increasing. An aging population with chronic respiratory diseases and increasing obesity and diabetes that heralds more cardiovascular disease will increase the vulnerability of the population to the adverse effects of wildfire smoke and associated stressors. Additionally, physiological changes attendant to aging decrease the capacity of aged-adults to tolerate wildfire smoke, heat, humidity, evacuation and recovery. Expansion of our cities into the wildland-urban interface is also placing a greater proportion of the population in clo

  5. Wildland-urban interface resident's views on risk and attribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia J. Cohn; Daniel R. Williams; Matthew S. Carroll

    2008-01-01

    Catastrophic wildfires that impact human communities have become increasingly common in recent years. To reduce the potential for damage to human communities, wildland-urban interface (WUI) residents have been encouraged to perform mitigation or fire-safing measures around their homes and communities. Yet homeowners have not wholeheartedly adopted these measures, even...

  6. 78 FR 59949 - Wildland Fire Executive Council Meeting Schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976 (43 U.S.C. 1701 et. seq), the National Wildlife Refuge System improvement Act of 1997 (16 U.S.C. 668dd-668ee), and the National Forest Management Act of 1976... provide advice on coordinated national-level wildland fire policy and to provide leadership, direction...

  7. 78 FR 65698 - Wildland Fire Executive Council Meeting Schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ... Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976 (43 U.S.C. 1701 et. seq), the National Wildlife Refuge System improvement Act of 1997 (16 U.S.C. 668dd-668ee), and the National Forest Management Act of 1976... provide advice on coordinated national-level wildland fire policy and to provide leadership, direction...

  8. Mystic mountain: an educational alternative futures wildland planning game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward C. Thor; James L. Creighton

    1978-01-01

    Alternative futures planning is a generic name for a number of planning approaches which recognize that the future is uncertain. There is not one future, preordained and universally known, but rather a variety of possible futures, any one of which may occur. Mystic Mountain is an educational game which teaches wildland planners and managers important concepts in...

  9. The communicative construction of safety in wildland firefighting (Proceedings)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jody Jahn

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation project used a two-study mixed methods approach, examining the communicative accomplishment of safety from two perspectives: high reliability organizing (Weick, Sutcliffe, & Obstfeld 1999), and safety climate (Zohar 1980). In Study One, 27 firefighters from two functionally similar wildland firefighting crews were interviewed about their crew-...

  10. Integrating models to predict regional haze from wildland fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. McKenzie; S.M. O' Neill; N. Larkin; R.A. Norheim

    2006-01-01

    Visibility impairment from regional haze is a significant problem throughout the continental United States. A substantial portion of regional haze is produced by smoke from prescribed and wildland fires. Here we describe the integration of four simulation models, an array of GIS raster layers, and a set of algorithms for fire-danger calculations into a modeling...

  11. WRIS: a resource information system for wildland management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert M. Russell; David A. Sharpnack; Elliot Amidon

    1975-01-01

    WRIS (Wildland Resource Information System) is a computer system for processing, storing, retrieving, updating, and displaying geographic data. The polygon, representing a land area boundary, forms the building block of WRIS. Polygons form a map. Maps are digitized manually or by automatic scanning. Computer programs can extract and produce polygon maps and can overlay...

  12. Wildlife preservation and recreational use: Conflicting goals of wildland management

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Cole; Richard L. Knight

    1991-01-01

    Large tracts of wildland in North America have been set aside as wilderness areas and national parks. More than 200 million acres (88 million ha) of such lands have been formally designated in Canada and the United States (Eidsvik 1989). The primary goal of these designations is the preservation of undisturbed natural conditions and processes.

  13. Demographic trends, the wildland-urban interface, and wildfire management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger B. Hammer; Susan I. Stewart; Volker C. Radeloff

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we provide an overview of the demographic trends that have impacted and will continue to impact the "wicked" wildfire management problem in the United States, with particular attention to the emergence of the wildland-urban interface (WUI). Although population growth has had an impact on the emergence of the WUI, the deconcentration of...

  14. Data collection instrument and procedure for systematic reviews in the Guide to Community Preventive Services. Task Force on Community Preventive Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaza, S; Wright-De Agüero, L K; Briss, P A; Truman, B I; Hopkins, D P; Hennessy, M H; Sosin, D M; Anderson, L; Carande-Kulis, V G; Teutsch, S M; Pappaioanou, M

    2000-01-01

    A standardized abstraction form and procedure was developed to provide consistency, reduce bias, and improve validity and reliability in the Guide to Community Preventive Services: Systematic Reviews and Evidence-Based Recommendations (the Guide). The content of the abstraction form was based on methodologies used in other systematic reviews; reporting standards established by major health and social science journals; the evaluation, statistical and meta-analytic literature; expert opinion and review; and pilot-testing. The form is used to classify and describe key characteristics of the intervention and evaluation (26 questions) and assess the quality of the study's execution (23 questions). Study procedures and results are collected and specific threats to the validity of the study are assessed across six categories (intervention and study descriptions, sampling, measurement, analysis, interpretation of results and other execution issues). Each study is abstracted by two independent reviewers and reconciled by the chapter development team. Reviewers are trained and provided with feedback. What to abstract and how to summarize the data are discretionary choices that influence conclusions drawn on the quality of execution of the study and its effectiveness. The form balances flexibility for the evaluation of papers with different study designs and intervention types with the need to ask specific questions to maximize validity and reliability. It provides a structured format that researchers and others can use to review the content and quality of papers, conduct systematic reviews, or develop manuscripts. A systematic approach to developing and evaluating manuscripts will help to promote overall improvement of the scientific literature.

  15. Wildfire, wildlands, and people: understanding and preparing for wildfire in the wildland-urban interface - a Forests on the Edge report

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. M. Stein; J. Menakis; M. A. Carr; S. J. Comas; S. I. Stewart; H. Cleveland; L. Bramwell; V. C. Radeloff

    2013-01-01

    Fire has historically played a fundamental ecological role in many of America's wildland areas. However, the rising number of homes in the wildland-urban interface (WUI), associated impacts on lives and property from wildfire, and escalating costs of wildfire management have led to an urgent need for communities to become "fire-adapted." We present maps...

  16. Wildland fire ash: future research directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodí, Merche B.; Martins, Deborah A.; Cerdà, Artemi; Balfour, Victoria N.; Santin, Cristina; Doerr, Stefan H.; Pereira, Paulo; Mataix-Solera, Jorge

    2014-05-01

    Ash is a key component of the forest fires affected land (Cerdà, 1998; Bodí et al., 2011; Pereira et al., 2013a). Ash controls the hydrological processes and determines the water repellency (Dlapa et al., 2012) and the infiltration rates (Cerdà and Doerr, 2008;). Moreover, ash is the key factor on runoff initiation and then on the soil erosion. Little is known about the impact of ash in different ecosystems, but during the last decade a substantial increase in the papers that show the role of ash in the Earth and Soil System were published (Bodí et al., 2012; Pereira et al., 2013b).. Ash is being found as the key component of the post-fire pedological, geomorphological and hydrological response after forest fires (Fernández et al., 2012; Martín et al., 2012; Bodí et al., 2013; Guénon et al., 2013; Pereira et al., 2013c). A recent State-of-the-Art review about wildland fire ash (Bodí et al., 2014) compiles the knowledge regarding the production, composition and eco-hydro-geomorphic effects of wildland fire ash. In the present paper we indicate the knowledge gaps detected and suggest topics that need more research effort concerning: i) data collection and analysis techniques: a) To develop standardized sampling techniques that allow cross comparison among sites and avoid inclusion of the underlying soil unless the burned surface soil forms part of the ash layer, b) To develop standardized methods to define and characterize ash, including its color, physical properties such as particle size distribution or density, proportion of pyrogenic C, chemical and biological reactivity and persistence in the environment, c) To validate, calibrate and test measurements collected through remote sensing with on-the-ground measurements. ii) ash production, deposition redistribution and fate: d) To untangle the significance of the effects of maximum temperature reached during combustion versus the duration of heating, e) To understand the production of ash by measuring its

  17. Ocular Manifestations of Ebola Virus Disease: An Ophthalmologist’s Guide to Prevent Infection and Panic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enzo Maria Vingolo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ebola virus disease (EVD—formerly known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever is a severe hemorrhagic fever caused by lipid-enveloped, nonsegmented, negative-stranded RNA viruses belonging to the genus Ebolavirus. Case fatality rates may reach up to 76% of infected individuals, making this infection a deadly health problem in the sub-Saharan population. At the moment, there are still no indications on ophthalmological clinical signs and security suggestions for healthcare professionals (doctors and nurses or cooperative persons. This paper provides a short but complete guide to reduce infection risks.

  18. Ocular Manifestations of Ebola Virus Disease: An Ophthalmologist's Guide to Prevent Infection and Panic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vingolo, Enzo Maria; Messano, Giuseppe Alessio; Fragiotta, Serena; Spadea, Leopoldo; Petti, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus disease (EVD--formerly known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever) is a severe hemorrhagic fever caused by lipid-enveloped, nonsegmented, negative-stranded RNA viruses belonging to the genus Ebolavirus. Case fatality rates may reach up to 76% of infected individuals, making this infection a deadly health problem in the sub-Saharan population. At the moment, there are still no indications on ophthalmological clinical signs and security suggestions for healthcare professionals (doctors and nurses or cooperative persons). This paper provides a short but complete guide to reduce infection risks.

  19. Ocular Manifestations of Ebola Virus Disease: An Ophthalmologist's Guide to Prevent Infection and Panic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vingolo, Enzo Maria; Messano, Giuseppe Alessio; Fragiotta, Serena; Petti, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus disease (EVD—formerly known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever) is a severe hemorrhagic fever caused by lipid-enveloped, nonsegmented, negative-stranded RNA viruses belonging to the genus Ebolavirus. Case fatality rates may reach up to 76% of infected individuals, making this infection a deadly health problem in the sub-Saharan population. At the moment, there are still no indications on ophthalmological clinical signs and security suggestions for healthcare professionals (doctors and nurses or cooperative persons). This paper provides a short but complete guide to reduce infection risks. PMID:26557674

  20. Forklift safety a practical guide to preventing powered industrial truck incidents and injuries

    CERN Document Server

    Swartz, George

    1999-01-01

    Written for the more than 1.5 million powered industrial truck operators and supervisors in general industry, as well as those in the construction and marine industries, this Second Edition provides an updated guide to training operators in safety and complying with OSHA's 1999 forklift standard. This edition of Forklift Safety includes a new chapter devoted to the new OSHA 1910.178 standard and new information regarding dock safety, narrow aisle trucks, off-dock incidents, tip-over safety, pallet safety, and carbon monoxide.

  1. Hanford Site Guide for Preparing and Maintaining Generator Group Pollution Prevention Documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PLACE, B.G.

    2000-01-01

    This document provides guidance to generator groups for preparing and maintaining documentation of Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization (P2/WMin) Program activities. The guidance is one of a hierarchical series that includes the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan (DOE-RL, 2000) and Prime Contractor implementation plans describing programs required by Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) 3002(b) and 3005(h) (RCRA and EPA, 1994) and Department of Energy Acquisition Regulations (DEAR) (48 CFR 970.5204-2 and 48 CFR 970.5204-78). Documentation guidance for the following five P2/WMin elements is discussed: Fiscal Year (FY) Goals; Budget and Staffing; Pollution Prevention (P2) Reporting; WMin Certification; and Waste Minimization (WMin) Assessments (WMAs)

  2. Hanford Site Guide for Preparing and Maintaining Generator Group Pollution Prevention Program Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PLACE, B.G.

    2000-11-01

    This document provides guidance to generator groups for preparing and maintaining documentation of Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization (P2/WMin) Program activities. The guidance is one of a hierarchical series that includes the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan (DOE-RL, 2000) and Prime Contractor implementation plans describing programs required by Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) 3002(b) and 3005(h) (RCRA and EPA, 1994) and Department of Energy Acquisition Regulations (DEAR) (48 CFR 970.5204-2 and 48 CFR 970.5204-78). Documentation guidance for the following five P2/WMin elements is discussed: Fiscal Year (FY) Goals; Budget and Staffing; Pollution Prevention (P2) Reporting; WMin Certification; and Waste Minimization (WMin) Assessments (WMAs).

  3. Choosing Effective Youth-Focused Prevention Strategies: A Practical Guide for Applied Family Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Jonathan R.

    2010-01-01

    Advances in the field of prevention science have resulted in strategies that target various youth outcomes. In recent years, numerous "best practices" lists have been developed to help professionals identify such strategies. Some scholars have questioned the quality of these lists and cautioned that there are flaws in evaluations of many…

  4. Preventing Tooth Decay: A Guide for Implementing Self-Applied Fluoride in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. of Dental Research (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This guidebook was developed to assist citizens in initiating programs to prevent tooth decay in young children through the use of fluoridation. It contains outlines for determining the needs of the school and community for fluoride in drinking water, and presents the various steps and activities that are necessary for developing and implementing…

  5. A research agenda to guide progress on childhood obesity prevention in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, L; Jones-Smith, J; Jaime Miranda, J; Pratt, M; Reis, R S; Rivera, J A; Sallis, J F; Popkin, B M

    2017-07-01

    Childhood obesity rates in Latin America are among the highest in the world. This paper examines and evaluates the many efforts underway in the region to reduce and prevent further increases in obesity, identifies and discusses unique research challenges and opportunities in Latin America, and proposes a research agenda in Latin America for the prevention of childhood obesity and concomitant non-communicable diseases. Identified research gaps include biological challenges to healthy growth across the life cycle, diet and physical activity dynamics, community interventions promoting healthy child growth, and rigorous evaluation of national food and activity programs and regulatory actions. Addressing these research gaps is critical to advance the evidence-based policy and practice in childhood obesity tailored to the Latin American context that will be effective in addressing obesity. © 2017 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of World Obesity.

  6. Hanford site guide for preparing and maintaining generator group pollution prevention program documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    This manual provides the necessary guidance to contractor generator groups for developing and maintaining documentation of their pollution prevention (P2) program activities. Preparation of program documentation will demonstrate compliance with contractor and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requirements, as well as state and federal regulations. Contractor waste generator groups are no longer required to prepare and update facility waste minimization plans. Developing and maintaining program documentation replace this requirement

  7. Narrative communication in cancer prevention and control: a framework to guide research and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuter, Matthew W; Green, Melanie C; Cappella, Joseph N; Slater, Michael D; Wise, Meg E; Storey, Doug; Clark, Eddie M; O'Keefe, Daniel J; Erwin, Deborah O; Holmes, Kathleen; Hinyard, Leslie J; Houston, Thomas; Woolley, Sabra

    2007-06-01

    Narrative forms of communication-including entertainment education, journalism, literature, testimonials, and storytelling-are emerging as important tools for cancer prevention and control. To stimulate critical thinking about the role of narrative in cancer communication and promote a more focused and systematic program of research to understand its effects, we propose a typology of narrative application in cancer control. We assert that narrative has four distinctive capabilities: overcoming resistance, facilitating information processing, providing surrogate social connections, and addressing emotional and existential issues. We further assert that different capabilities are applicable to different outcomes across the cancer control continuum (e.g., prevention, detection, diagnosis, treatment, survivorship). This article describes the empirical evidence and theoretical rationale supporting propositions in the typology, identifies variables likely to moderate narrative effects, raises ethical issues to be addressed when using narrative communication in cancer prevention and control efforts, and discusses potential limitations of using narrative in this way. Future research needs based on these propositions are outlined and encouraged.

  8. Wrong-site nerve blocks: A systematic literature review to guide principles for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Ellen S; Yonash, Robert A; Martin, Donald E; Atkins, Joshua H; Arnold, Theresa V; Hunt, Christina M

    2018-03-02

    Wrong-site nerve blocks (WSBs) are a significant, though rare, source of perioperative morbidity. WSBs constitute the most common type of perioperative wrong-site procedure reported to the Pennsylvania Patient Safety Authority. This systematic literature review aggregates information about the incidence, patient consequences, and conditions that contribute to WSBs, as well as evidence-based methods to prevent them. A systematic search of English-language publications was performed, using the PRISMA process. Seventy English-language publications were identified. Analysis of four publications reporting on at least 10,000 blocks provides a rate of 0.52 to 5.07 WSB per 10,000 blocks, unilateral blocks, or "at risk" procedures. The most commonly mentioned potential consequence was local anesthetic toxicity. The most commonly mentioned contributory factors were time pressure, personnel factors, and lack of site-mark visibility (including no site mark placed). Components of the block process that were addressed include preoperative nerve-block verification, nerve-block site marking, time-outs, and the healthcare facility's structure and culture of safety. A lack of uniform reporting criteria and divergence in the data and theories presented may reflect the variety of circumstances affecting when and how nerve blocks are performed, as well as the infrequency of a WSB. However, multiple authors suggest three procedural steps that may help to prevent WSBs: (1) verify the nerve-block procedure using multiple sources of information, including the patient; (2) identify the nerve-block site with a visible mark; and (3) perform time-outs immediately prior to injection or instillation of the anesthetic. Hospitals, ambulatory surgical centers, and anesthesiology practices should consider creating site-verification processes with clinician input and support to develop sustainable WSB-prevention practices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Prediction of Alzheimer's Disease Dementia: Data from the GuidAge Prevention Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Stefano, Francesca; Epelbaum, Stephane; Coley, Nicola; Cantet, Christelle; Ousset, Pierre-Jean; Hampel, Harald; Bakardjian, Hovagim; Lista, Simone; Vellas, Bruno; Dubois, Bruno; Andrieu, Sandrine

    2015-01-01

    In therapeutic trials, it is crucial to identify Alzheimer's disease (AD) at its prodromal stage. We assessed the accuracy of the free and cued selective reminding test (FCSRT) compared to other cognitive tests to predict AD dementia in subjects with subjective cognitive decline or mild cognitive impairment. Subjects from the placebo group of the GuidAge trial over 70 years old and without clinical signs of dementia at baseline who completed the 5-year follow-up free of dementia (n = 840) or developed AD dementia (n = 73) were included in our study. Among all the tests, the sum of the 3 free recall of the FCSRT (FCSRT-FR) and the sum of free and cued recall (FCSRT-TR) yielded the best results to predict AD dementia occurrence (all p values <0.05 for comparison of FCSRT-FR ROC and MMSE, CDRsb, and CVF ROCs). FCSRT-FR had an area under the ROC curve of 0.799 (95% CI 0.738-0.85) and the optimal cut-off was 20 (se 68.06% , sp 81.43% , PPV 23.90% , NPV 96,75%). Concerning FCSRT-TR, the AUC was 0.776 and the optimal cut-off was 42 (se 62.5% , sp 82.26% , PPV 23.20% and NPV 96.24%). This study sets the framework for implementing the FCSRT in clinical and therapeutic trials for efficient subject selection.

  10. Prevention of bladder tumor implantion after fluorescence-guided TUR with photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrahmoune, Saoussen; Bezdetnaya, Lina; de Witte, Peter; Leroux, Agnès; Dumas, Dominique; Guillemin, François; D'Hallewin, Marie Ange

    2009-06-01

    The prevalence of bladder cancer is very high, due to its high recurrence rate in superficial bladder cancer (30 to 85%), which is the staging of approximately 80% of the patients at first diagnosis. Risk of recurrence and progression is associated with grade, stage, presence of concomitant carcinoma in situ, size and number of lesions, as well as time to first recurrence. Recurrences can be partly attributed to new occurrences but also to residual tumors after resection. Incomplete tumor removal has been observed in 30 to 50% of TUR's, especially when dealing with T1 or poorly visible malignant or pre-malignant disease1. Fluorescence guided resection with 5 amino levulinic acid (ALA) or its hexyl ester derivative (Hexvix, has now unequivocally been demonstrated to increase detection rate and a growing number of studies indicate this has a positive impact on recurrence and progression ratesImplantation of viable tumor cells, dispersed during resection, is a third factor influencing bladder cancer recurrence. The aim of early intravesical therapy is to interfere with cell viability and thus reduce implantation risks.

  11. The wildland-urban interface raster dataset of Catalonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fermín J. Alcasena

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We provide the wildland urban interface (WUI map of the autonomous community of Catalonia (Northeastern Spain. The map encompasses an area of some 3.21 million ha and is presented as a 150-m resolution raster dataset. Individual housing location, structure density and vegetation cover data were used to spatially assess in detail the interface, intermix and dispersed rural WUI communities with a geographical information system. Most WUI areas concentrate in the coastal belt where suburban sprawl has occurred nearby or within unmanaged forests. This geospatial information data provides an approximation of residential housing potential for loss given a wildfire, and represents a valuable contribution to assist landscape and urban planning in the region. Keywords: Wildland-urban interface, Wildfire risk, Urban planning, Human communities, Catalonia

  12. Landscape dynamics in the wildland-urban interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne C. Zipperer

    2012-01-01

    The wildland–urban interface represents landscape change—changes brought about by urbanization, by shifts in forest management, and altered disturbance regimes, each having ecological, social, and economic ramifications. In this chapter, I will focus on some of the ecological ramifications associated with landscape change, primarily forest fragmentation and...

  13. Controls on carbon consumption during Alaskan wildland fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric S. Kasischke; Elizabeth E. Hoy

    2012-01-01

    A method was developed to estimate carbon consumed during wildland fires in interior Alaska based on medium-spatial scale data (60 m cell size) generated on a daily basis. Carbon consumption estimates were developed for 41 fire events in the large fire year of 2004 and 34 fire events from the small fire years of 2006-2008. Total carbon consumed during the large fire...

  14. Sustainability and the origins of wildland fire research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diane M. Smith

    2015-01-01

    When looking for the origins of wildland fire research in the Forest Service, forester C. E. (Mike) Hardy makes the case for 1922, when Harry Gisborne became the agency’s first full-time fire researcher. Leading fire historian Stephen Pyne argues that fire research originated under the leadership of Coert DuBois, who oversaw the first fire case study in 1911, the first...

  15. Wildland fires, a double impact on the planet

    OpenAIRE

    Peduzzi, Pascal; Kluser, Stéphane; De Bono, Andréa; Giuliani, Gregory

    2004-01-01

    Wildland fires annually burn an area half the size of Australia and generate nearly 40% of total anthropogenic carbon dioxyde (CO2). Their impact in terms of deforestation, climate change and loss of biodiversity is significant. The year 2003 was one of the worst in history in terms of loss of human life and damage to the environment and infrastructure. Although fires are a natural part of many ecosystems, 90% are caused by human activities.

  16. Physiological work demands of Spanish wildland firefighters during wildfire suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Marroyo, Jose A; López-Satue, Jorge; Pernía, Raul; Carballo, Belén; García-López, Juan; Foster, Carl; Villa, José G

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the physiological demands and thermal strain of wildland firefighters during real wildfire suppression. The response of core temperature and heart rate (HR) were analyzed in 200 wildland firefighters during wildfire suppression activities of different duration: 5 h (n = 34). The exercise workload (TRIMP), the physiological strain index (PSI), and cumulative heat strain index (CHSI) were calculated using the time spent in different intensity zones, the HR, and core temperature. Mean HR was significantly higher (P wildfires 5 h (116 ± 32 bpm). The time spent in higher intensity zones increased (P wildfire duration increased. TRIMP accumulation increased with wildfire duration (54.9 ± 3.2, 167.4 ± 5.9, 296.0 ± 8.3, 511.7 ± 12.8 in 5 h, respectively). Neither core temperature (37.4 ± 0.1°C) nor PSI (4.5 ± 0.2) were influenced by wildfire duration. The CHSI increased (p 5 h (10,703 ± 710). The results demonstrate the high work strain sustained by Spanish wildland firefighters during wildfire suppression. Both workload and CHSI increased with the wildfires duration although the pace of work was faster in wildfires of a shorter duration.

  17. Epidemiologic Evidence to Guide the Understanding and Prevention of Gun Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Daniel W; Cerdá, Magdalena; Wintemute, Garen J; Cook, Philip J

    2016-01-01

    Gunfire from assaults, suicides, and unintentional shootings exacts an enormous burden on public health globally. The epidemiologic reviews in this special issue enhance our understanding of various forms of gun violence, inform interventions, and help chart directions for future research. The available science, however, is limited to answer many important questions necessary for mounting successful efforts to reduce gun violence. Certain data are lacking, and there are numerous analytical challenges to deriving unbiased estimates of policy impacts. Significant investments in research over the long term are warranted to answer questions central to successful prevention of gun violence. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Cost and economic benefit of clinical decision support systems for cardiovascular disease prevention: a community guide systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Verughese; Thota, Anilkrishna B; Chattopadhyay, Sajal K; Njie, Gibril J; Proia, Krista K; Hopkins, David P; Ross, Murray N; Pronk, Nicolaas P; Clymer, John M

    2017-05-01

    This review evaluates costs and benefits associated with acquiring, implementing, and operating clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) to prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods developed for the Community Guide were used to review CDSS literature covering the period from January 1976 to October 2015. Twenty-one studies were identified for inclusion. It was difficult to draw a meaningful estimate for the cost of acquiring and operating CDSSs to prevent CVD from the available studies ( n  = 12) due to considerable heterogeneity. Several studies ( n  = 11) indicated that health care costs were averted by using CDSSs but many were partial assessments that did not consider all components of health care. Four cost-benefit studies reached conflicting conclusions about the net benefit of CDSSs based on incomplete assessments of costs and benefits. Three cost-utility studies indicated inconsistent conclusions regarding cost-effectiveness based on a conservative $50,000 threshold. Intervention costs were not negligible, but specific estimates were not derived because of the heterogeneity of implementation and reporting metrics. Expected economic benefits from averted health care cost could not be determined with confidence because many studies did not fully account for all components of health care. We were unable to conclude whether CDSSs for CVD prevention is either cost-beneficial or cost-effective. Several evidence gaps are identified, most prominently a lack of information about major drivers of cost and benefit, a lack of standard metrics for the cost of CDSSs, and not allowing for useful life of a CDSS that generally extends beyond one accounting period. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  19. The World Health Organization (WHO) dataset for guiding suicide prevention policies: A 3-decade French national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fond, Guillaume; Zendjidjian, Xavier; Boucekine, Mohamed; Brunel, Lore; Llorca, Pierre-Michel; Boyer, Laurent

    2015-12-01

    Public health policies aim to prevent suicide in the general population. Assessing their effectiveness is required to further guide public health policies. The present article focuses on the French paradox. The French health care system was classified as the best in the world according the World Health Organization (WHO). However, suicide rates in France remain high compared to other European countries. The aim of the present article was to analyze (i) the evolution of suicide Age-Standardized Death (ASDRs) in France during the last three decades and the associations with socio-economic parameters and (ii) to understand which populations may specifically benefit from further targeted suicide prevention policies. The database of the World Health Organization (WHO), freely available, was explored in April 2015. ASDRs were calculated each year by ratio between the number of deaths by suicide and the total population (per 100,000 inhabitants). Number of deaths by gender and age were also analyzed. Overall, ASDR suicide has decreased since 1987 in France (-32.8% between 1987 and 2010). However, France kept the same rank (10/26) when compared to other European countries between 1987 and 2010. The relative burden of suicide in all-causes mortality increased during the same period (+28.2%) while the total number of deaths by suicide increased only slightly (+3.9%). More specifically, the number of deaths by suicide increased substantially in [35-54] years old (+40%) and 75+ years old (+27%) males, and in [35-54] (+41%) years old females. Between 2000 and 2010, suicide rates significantly decreased when yearly mean income increased, and when general and psychiatric care beds decreased. Although ASDR suicide has decreased in France since 1987, this decline is quite modest when considering its universal access to care, the prevention of depression and suicide public policies. Suicide prevention public policies should focus on evaluation and improvement of prevention and care

  20. Wildland fire risk and social vulnerability in the Southeastern United States: An exploratory spatial data analysis approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassandra Johnson Gaither; N.C. Poudyal; S. Goodrick; J.M. Bowker; S. Malone; J. Gan

    2011-01-01

    The southeastern U.S. is one of the more wildland fire prone areas of the country and also contains some of the poorest or most socially vulnerable rural communities. Our project addresses wildland fire risk in this part of the U.S and its intersection with social vulnerability. We examine spatial association between high wildland fire prone areas which also rank high...

  1. The prevention and treatment of biliary complications occurred after CT-guided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation for hepatic neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jianjun; Zheng Jiasheng; Cui Xiongwei; Cui Shichang; Sun Bin

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the prevention and treatment of biliary complications occurred after CT-guided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for hepatic neoplasms. Methods: A total of 1136 patients, including 920 males and 216 females, with hepatic neoplasms were enrolled in this study. The hepatic tumors consisted of primary hepatocellular carcinoma (n=1037), hepatic metastasis (n=83) and hepatic cavernous hemangioma (n=16). The diameters of the tumors ranged from 0.5 to 16 cm. A total of 1944 RFA procedures were carried out in all patients. Results: Thirty-five patients developed biliary complication (35/1944, 1.80%). Twelve patients developed asymptomatic bile duct dilatation and no special treatment was given. Obstructive jaundice occurred in two patients and percutaneous transhepatic cholangiocholecystic drainage (PTCD) together with subsequent inner stent implantation had to be carried out. Eighteen patients developed biloma, and liver abscess formation secondary to biloma infection occurred in seven of them. Percutaneous transhepatic biloma drainage (PTBD) was adopted in all these patients. One patient suffered from obstructive jaundice complicated by biloma, and both PTCD and PTBD combined with inner stent implantation were simultaneously performed. One patient had the biloma secondary to obstructive jaundice, and PTCD followed by PTBD was conducted in turn. One patient developed obstructive jaundice secondary to biloma, and PTBD followed by PTCD was employed in turn. Conclusion: Obstructive jaundice and biloma are severe biliary complications occurred after CT-guided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation for hepatic tumors, and PTCD and/or PTBD should be carried out without delay to treat these complications. The clinical symptoms can be relieved, or even completely disappear, after treatment. (authors)

  2. The Wildland Fire Decision Support System: Integrating science, technology, and fire management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan Pence; Tom Zimmerman

    2011-01-01

    Federal agency policy requires documentation and analysis of all wildland fire response decisions. In the past, planning and decision documentation for fires were completed using multiple unconnected processes, yielding many limitations. In response, interagency fire management executives chartered the development of the Wildland Fire Decision Support System (WFDSS)....

  3. Wildland-urban interface housing growth during the 1990s in California, Oregon, and Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.B. Hammer; V.C. Radeloff; J.S. Fried; S.I. Stewart

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, we examine housing growth in California, Oregon, and Washington in the wildland-urban interface (WUI), the area where homes and other structures abut or intermingle with wildland vegetation. We combine housing density information from the 1990 and 2000 USA censuses with land cover information from the 1992/93 National Land Cover data set to...

  4. Residents' responses to wildland fire programs: a review of cognitive and behavioral studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    James D. Absher; Jerry J. Vaske; Lori B. Shelby

    2009-01-01

    A compilation and summary of four research studies is presented. They were aimed at developing a theoretical and practical understanding of homeowners’ attitudes and behaviors in the wildland-urban interface (WUI) in relation to the threat from wildland fires. Individual studies focused on models and methods that measured (1) value orientations (patterns of basic...

  5. Human influences on forest ecosystems: the southern wildland-urban interface assessment: summary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward A. Macie; L. Annie Hermansen

    2003-01-01

    This summary report synthesizes the findings contained in the Southern Wildland-Urban Interface Assessment (General Technical Report SRS-55). The Assessment provides a review of critical wildland-urban interface issues, challenges, and needs for the Southern United States. Topics include population and demographic trends, economic and tax issues, land use planning and...

  6. Resource allocation for wildland fire suppression planning using a stochastic program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex Taylor Masarie

    2011-01-01

    Resource allocation for wildland fire suppression problems, referred to here as Fire-S problems, have been studied for over a century. Not only have the many variants of the base Fire-S problem made it such a durable one to study, but advances in suppression technology and our ever-expanding knowledge of and experience with wildland fire behavior have required almost...

  7. Integrating polarimetric synthetic aperture radar and imaging spectrometry for wildland fuel mapping in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.E. Dennison; D.A. Roberts; J. Regelbrugge; S.L. Ustin

    2000-01-01

    Polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and imaging spectrometry exemplify advanced technologies for mapping wildland fuels in chaparral ecosystems. In this study, we explore the potential of integrating polarimetric SAR and imaging spectrometry for mapping wildland fuels. P-band SAR and ratios containing P-band polarizations are sensitive to variations in stand...

  8. Best practices for interacting with the public about wildland fire: Key findings from interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel Berkman

    2012-01-01

    Interviews were conducted with public information and line officers about wildland fire communications with the public. The goal of these interviews was to determine the best practices and most useful content and format for an annotated bibliography about external wildland fire communications, i.e., does the current literature reviewed address the issues of greatest...

  9. Quantifying physical characteristics of wildland fuels using the fuel characteristic classification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cynthia L. Riccardi; Susan J. Prichard; David V. Sandberg; Roger D. Ottmar

    2007-01-01

    Wildland fuel characteristics are used in many applications of operational fire predictions and to understand fire effects and behaviour. Even so, there is a shortage of information on basic fuel properties and the physical characteristics of wildland fuels. The Fuel Characteristic Classification System (FCCS) builds and catalogues fuelbed descriptions based on...

  10. Using social science to understand and improve wildland fire organizations: an annotated reading list

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory Larson; Vita Wright; Cade Spaulding; Kelly Rossetto; Georgi Rausch; Andrea Richards; Stephanie Durnford

    2007-01-01

    The wildland fire community has spent the past decade trying to understand and account for the role of human factors in wildland fire organizations. Social research that is relevant to managing fire organizations can be found in disciplines such as social psychology, management, and communication. However, such research has been published primarily for scientific and...

  11. Using structure locations as a basis for mapping the wildland urban interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avi Bar-Massada; Susan I. Stewart; Roger B. Hammer; Miranda H. Mockrin; Volker C. Radeloff

    2013-01-01

    The wildland urban interface (WUI) delineates the areas where wildland fire hazard most directly impacts human communities and threatens lives and property, and where houses exert the strongest influence on the natural environment. Housing data are a major problem for WUI mapping. When housing data are zonal, the concept of a WUI neighborhood can be captured easily in...

  12. The global wilderness seminar for government agencies: a meeting at the crossroads of wildlands stewardship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy Roeper; Peter Landres; Don Fisher

    2006-01-01

    Two days before the 8th World Wilderness Congress began in Alaska, nearly 200 government wildlands managers from 17 countries met to share ideas about common challenges and to explore ways to improve wildland stewardship globally. The goal for this Global Wilderness Seminar for Government Agencies was to lay the foundation for an operating peer network of government...

  13. Impact of Research and Technical Change in Wildland Recreation: Evaluation Issues and Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Bengston; Zhi Xu

    1993-01-01

    The development and diffusion of new technologies have had tremendous impacts on wildland recreation in recent decades. This article examines the potential economic impacts of research and technical change in wildland recreation. Two evaluation models are presented, a cost-price approach and a research intensity model, which are intended to shed some light on the...

  14. Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: U.S. emissions inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan K. Larkin; Sean M. Raffuse; Tara M. Strand

    2014-01-01

    Emissions from wildland fire are both highly variable and highly uncertain over a wide range of temporal and spatial scales. Wildland fire emissions change considerably due to fluctuations from year to year with overall fire season severity, from season to season as different regions pass in and out of wildfire and prescribed fire periods, and from day to day as...

  15. Model comparisons for estimating carbon emissions from North American wildland fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy H.F. French; William J. de Groot; Liza K. Jenkins; Brendan M. Rogers; Ernesto Alvarado; Brian Amiro; Bernardus De Jong; Scott Goetz; Elizabeth Hoy; Edward Hyer; Robert Keane; B.E. Law; Donald McKenzie; Steven G. McNulty; Roger Ottmar; Diego R. Perez-Salicrup; James Randerson; Kevin M. Robertson; Merritt. Turetsky

    2011-01-01

    Research activities focused on estimating the direct emissions of carbon from wildland fires across North America are reviewed as part of the North American Carbon Program disturbance synthesis. A comparison of methods to estimate the loss of carbon from the terrestrial biosphere to the atmosphere from wildland fires is presented. Published studies on emissions from...

  16. Describing wildland surface fuel loading for fire management: A review of approaches, methods and systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Keane

    2013-01-01

    Wildland fuelbeds are exceptionally complex, consisting of diverse particles of many sizes, types and shapes with abundances and properties that are highly variable in time and space. This complexity makes it difficult to accurately describe, classify, sample and map fuels for wildland fire research and management. As a result, many fire behaviour and effects software...

  17. The effectiveness of a parental guide for prevention of problematic video gaming in children: A public health randomized controlled intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krossbakken, Elfrid; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Mentzoni, Rune Aune; King, Daniel Luke; Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Lorvik, Ingjerd Meen; Pallesen, Ståle

    2018-01-09

    Background and aims Excessive use of video games among children and adolescents is a growing concern. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a brief parental guide with advices and strategies for regulating video gaming in children. Methods A random sample of guardians of children between the age of 8-12 years old (N = 5,864) was drawn from the Norwegian Population Registry and equally randomized into an intervention and a control condition. A parental guide based on clinical and research literature was distributed by postal mail to those in the intervention condition. A 4-month follow-up survey comprising questions about problematic video gaming, gaming behavior, sleep activity, and parental video game regulation behavior was administered. Results Independent t-tests revealed no significant differences between the two conditions (N = 1,657, response rate 30.1%) on any outcome measure. An ANOVA with planned comparisons showed that respondents who reported that they had read and followed the parental guide reported more video game problems and used more parental mediation strategies than those who did not read and follow the guide. Conclusions We found no evidence for the effectiveness of the psychoeducational parental guide on preventing problematic video gaming in children. However, the guide was read and positively assessed by a significant proportion of guardians. Differences between those who studied the guide and those who did not may indicate that parental guides are better aimed at providing important information to those who already have problems rather than as a mean of primary prevention.

  18. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Error processing SSI file About Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Heart disease and stroke are an epidemic in ... secondhand smoke. Barriers to Effective Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Many people with key risk factors for heart ...

  19. Obesity Prevention from Conception: A Workshop to Guide the Development of a Pan-Canadian Trial Targeting the Gestational Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamo, Kristi B; Shen, Garry X; Mottola, Michelle; Nascimento, Simony; Jean-Philippe, Sonia; Ferraro, Zachary M; Nerenberg, Kara; Smith, Graeme; Chari, Radha; Gaudet, Laura; Piccinini-Vallis, Helena; McDonald, Sarah; Atkinson, Stephanie; Godbout, Ariane; Robitaille, Julie; Davidge, Sandra T; Gruslin, Andrée; Prud’homme, Denis; Stacey, Dawn; Rossiter, Melissa; Goldfield, Gary S; Dodd, Jodie

    2014-01-01

    This report summarizes a meeting, Obesity Prevention from Conception, held in Ottawa in 2012. This planning workshop was funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) to bring together researchers with expertise in the area of maternal obesity (OB) and weight gain in pregnancy and pregnancy-related disease to attend a one-day workshop and symposium to discuss the development of a cross-Canada lifestyle intervention trial for targeting pregnant women. This future intervention will aim to reduce downstream OB in children through encouraging appropriate weight gain during the mother’s pregnancy. The workshop served to (i) inform the development of a lifestyle intervention for women with a high pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), (ii) identify site investigators across Canada, and (iii) guide the development of a grant proposal focusing on the health of mom and baby. A brief summary of the presentations as well as the focus groups is presented for use in planning future research.

  20. Family psychosocial risk screening guided by the Pediatric Psychosocial Preventative Health Model (PPPHM) using the Psychosocial Assessment Tool (PAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazak, Anne E; Schneider, Stephanie; Didonato, Stephen; Pai, Ahna L H

    2015-05-01

    Although families of children with cancer and other serious medical conditions have documented psychosocial needs, the systematic identification of needs and delivery of evidence-based care remain challenges. Screening for multifaceted family psychosocial risk is a means by which psychosocial treatment needs for pediatric patients and their families can be identified in an effective and inclusive manner. The Pediatric Psychosocial Preventative Health Model (PPPHM) is a model that can guide systematic assessment of family psychosocial risk. The Psychosocial Assessment Tool (PAT) is a brief parent report screener of psychosocial risk based on the PPPHM that can be used for families of infants through adolescents. The PPPHM and the PAT are described in this paper, along with a summary of data supporting systematic risk assessment. The PPPHM outlines three tiers of family psychosocial risk - Universal (low), Targeted (medium), and Clinical (high). The PAT is a validated measure of psychosocial risk. Scores on the PAT, derived from multiple sites and disease conditions, map on to the PPPHM with indications that one-half to two-thirds of families score at the Universal level of risk based on the PAT. The PAT is a unique screener of psychosocial risk, both in terms of its breadth and underlying model (PPPHM), and its length and format. As an example of a means by which families can be screened early in the treatment process, PAT scores and corresponding PPPHM levels can provide direction for the delivery of evidence-based psychosocial care.

  1. Obesity Prevention from Conception: A Workshop to Guide the Development of a Pan-Canadian Trial Targeting the Gestational Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristi B. Adamo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This report summarizes a meeting, Obesity Prevention from Conception , held in Ottawa in 2012. This planning workshop was funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR to bring together researchers with expertise in the area of maternal obesity (OB and weight gain in pregnancy and pregnancy-related disease to attend a one-day workshop and symposium to discuss the development of a cross-Canada lifestyle intervention trial for targeting pregnant women. This future intervention will aim to reduce downstream OB in children through encouraging appropriate weight gain during the mother's pregnancy. The workshop served to (i inform the development of a lifestyle intervention for women with a high pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI, (ii identify site investigators across Canada, and (iii guide the development of a grant proposal focusing on the health of mom and baby. A brief summary of the presentations as well as the focus groups is presented for use in planning future research.

  2. Analysing Time to Event Data in Dementia Prevention Trials: The Example of the GuidAge Study of EGb761.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherrer, B; Andrieu, S; Ousset, P J; Berrut, G; Dartigues, J F; Dubois, B; Pasquier, F; Piette, F; Robert, P; Touchon, J; Garnier, P; Mathiex-Fortunet, H; Vellas, B

    2015-12-01

    Time-to-event analysis is frequently used in medical research to investigate potential disease-modifying treatments in neurodegenerative diseases. Potential treatment effects are generally evaluated using the logrank test, which has optimal power and sensitivity when the treatment effect (hazard ratio) is constant over time. However, there is generally no prior information as to how the hazard ratio for the event of interest actually evolves. In these cases, the logrank test is not necessarily the most appropriate to use. When the hazard ratio is expected to decrease or increase over time, alternative statistical tests such as the Fleming-Harrington test, provide a better sensitivity. An example of this comes from a large, five-year randomised, placebo-controlled prevention trial (GuidAge) in 2854 community-based subjects making spontaneous memory complaints to their family physicians, which evaluated whether treatment with EGb761 can modify the risk of developing AD. The primary outcome measure was the time to conversion from memory complaint to Alzheimer's type dementia. Although there was no significant difference in the hazard function of conversion between the two treatment groups according to the preplanned logrank test, a significant treatment-by-time interaction for the incidence of AD was observed in a protocol-specified subgroup analysis, suggesting that the hazard ratio is not constant over time. For this reason, additional post hoc analyses were performed using the Fleming-Harrington test to evaluate whether there was a signal of a late effect of EGb761. Applying the Fleming-Harrington test, the hazard function for conversion to dementia in the placebo group was significantly different from that in the EGb761 treatment group (p = 0.0054), suggesting a late effect of EGb761. Since this was a post hoc analysis, no definitive conclusions can be drawn as to the effectiveness of the treatment. This post hoc analysis illustrates the interest of performing

  3. New tendencies in wildland fire simulation for understanding fire phenomena: An overview of the WFDS system capabilities in Mediterranean ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, E.; Tarragó, D.; Planas, E.

    2012-04-01

    Wildfire theoretical modeling endeavors predicting fire behavior characteristics, such as the rate of spread, the flames geometry and the energy released by the fire front by applying the physics and the chemistry laws that govern fire phenomena. Its ultimate aim is to help fire managers to improve fire prevention and suppression and hence reducing damage to population and protecting ecosystems. WFDS is a 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of a fire-driven flow. It is particularly appropriate for predicting the fire behaviour burning through the wildland-urban interface, since it is able to predict the fire behaviour in the intermix of vegetative and structural fuels that comprise the wildland urban interface. This model is not suitable for operational fire management yet due to computational costs constrains, but given the fact that it is open-source and that it has a detailed description of the fuels and of the combustion and heat transfer mechanisms it is currently a suitable system for research purposes. In this paper we present the most important characteristics of the WFDS simulation tool in terms of the models implemented, the input information required and the outputs that the simulator gives useful for understanding fire phenomena. We briefly discuss its advantages and opportunities through some simulation exercises of Mediterranean ecosystems.

  4. Evaluating and operationalizing unmanned aircraft for wildland fire use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, A.

    2015-12-01

    Many potential uses of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) related to wildland fire research and operations have been demonstrated, but the vast majority of these have been proof-of-concept or one-time flights. Scientists, practitioners, and firefighting agencies look forward to the widespread adoption of this powerful technology and its regular use. Similarly, the UAS industry awaits opportunities for commercialization. Our collaboration brings together UAS industry, research and management agencies, and universities in the USA and Canada to investigate the perceived effectiveness of UAS for wildland fire use, and the factors affecting their commercial-scale employment. Our current and future activities include market research, training and technology transfer, and deployment of UAS over fires to promote development of sensors as well as their safe integration into fire operations. We will present initial results, and as a part of our presentation we also invite participation of the AGU community for planned future project phases. We anticipate that the outcomes of our work will be useful to potential users who are unfamiliar with UAS, and to researchers and practitioners with experience or an interest in their use in fire and related natural-resource disciplines.

  5. Modeling the effects of vegetation heterogeneity on wildland fire behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchley, A. L.; Linn, R.; Sieg, C.; Middleton, R. S.

    2017-12-01

    Vegetation structure and densities are known to drive fire-spread rate and burn severity. Many fire-spread models incorporate an average, homogenous fuel density in the model domain to drive fire behavior. However, vegetation communities are rarely homogenous and instead present significant heterogeneous structure and fuel densities in the fires path. This results in observed patches of varied burn severities and mosaics of disturbed conditions that affect ecological recovery and hydrologic response. Consequently, to understand the interactions of fire and ecosystem functions, representations of spatially heterogeneous conditions need to be incorporated into fire models. Mechanistic models of fire disturbance offer insight into how fuel load characterization and distribution result in varied fire behavior. Here we use a physically-based 3D combustion model—FIRETEC—that solves conservation of mass, momentum, energy, and chemical species to compare fire behavior on homogenous representations to a heterogeneous vegetation distribution. Results demonstrate the impact vegetation heterogeneity has on the spread rate, intensity, and extent of simulated wildfires thus providing valuable insight in predicted wildland fire evolution and enhanced ability to estimate wildland fire inputs into regional and global climate models.

  6. LANDFIRE: A nationally consistent vegetation, wildland fire, and fuel assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, Matthew G.

    2009-01-01

    LANDFIRE is a 5-year, multipartner project producing consistent and comprehensive maps and data describing vegetation, wildland fuel, fire regimes and ecological departure from historical conditions across the United States. It is a shared project between the wildland fire management and research and development programs of the US Department of Agriculture Forest Service and US Department of the Interior. LANDFIRE meets agency and partner needs for comprehensive, integrated data to support landscape-level fire management planning and prioritization, community and firefighter protection, effective resource allocation, and collaboration between agencies and the public. The LANDFIRE data production framework is interdisciplinary, science-based and fully repeatable, and integrates many geospatial technologies including biophysical gradient analyses, remote sensing, vegetation modelling, ecological simulation, and landscape disturbance and successional modelling. LANDFIRE data products are created as 30-m raster grids and are available over the internet at www.landfire.gov, accessed 22 April 2009. The data products are produced at scales that may be useful for prioritizing and planning individual hazardous fuel reduction and ecosystem restoration projects; however, the applicability of data products varies by location and specific use, and products may need to be adjusted by local users.

  7. [Exposure to carbon monoxide in wildland firefighters during wildfires suppression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballo Leyenda, Belén; Rodríguez-Marroyo, José A; López-Satué, Jorge; Avila Ordás, Concepción; Pernía Cubillo, Raúl; Villa Vicente, José Gerardo

    2010-01-01

    Health and occupational performance in wildland firefighters are mainly impaired for the carbon monoxide inhalation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the personal exposure to carbon monoxide in wildland firefighters during wildfires suppression. Carbon monoxide exposure was monitorized in 44 subjects during 58 real wildfires. Moreover, we analyzed the time weighted average exposure for an 8h shift (VA-ED). The wildfires were classified according to the work done (direct attack, indirect attack and mixed attack) and the current fuel (grass, bush, understory and mixed). The mean exposure to carbon monoxide was of 18,4 ± 1,7 ppm, what supposed a VA-ED of 7,0 ± 1,0 ppm. The highest exposures to carbon monoxide were found during the mixed attack (20,4 ± 2,3 ppm) and direct attack (17,5 ± 2,7 ppm). We only obtained significant differences (p wildfires suppression and the type of fuel involved. Mean values obtained in this study were within safety limits described by different Spanish (INSHT) and international (NIOSH, OSHA) occupational safety and health agencies.

  8. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Aging & Health A to Z Find a Geriatrics Healthcare Professional Medications & Older Adults Making Your Wishes ... Prevention Hearing Loss Heart Attack High Blood Pressure Nutrition Osteoporosis Shingles Skin Cancer Related News Quitting Smoking, ...

  9. Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A

    2001-01-01

    , breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....

  10. Modeling the protection afforded by burrows, cavities, and roosts during wildland surface fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony Bova; Matthew Dickinson

    2009-01-01

    Wildland surface fires produce many toxic and irritating compounds, such as formaldehyde and acrolein, and harmful gases such as carbon monoxide. Several factors influence the degree of protection offered by animal shelters against combustion products and heat.

  11. Integrating research on wildland fires and air quality: needs and recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrzej Bytnerowicz; Michael J. Arbaugh; Christian Andersen; Allen R. Riebau

    2009-01-01

    A summary is presented that integrates general information on the causes and effects of wildland fires and emissions with various ecological impacts of forest fires and air pollution in forests and other ecosystems. We also...

  12. WILDLAND FIRE MANAGEMENT: Improved Planning Will Help Agencies Better Identify Fire-Fighting Preparedness Needs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hill, Barry

    2002-01-01

    Each year, wildland fires on federal lands burn millions of acres of forests, grasslands, and desert, and federal land management agencies expend hundreds of millions of dollars to fight these fires...

  13. NACP Integrated Wildland and Cropland 30-m Fuel Characteristics Map, U.S.A., 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The data set provides a 30-m comprehensive fuelbed characteristics map for both the wildland and cropland areas of the conterminous United States (CONUS) for 2010....

  14. NACP Integrated Wildland and Cropland 30-m Fuel Characteristics Map, U.S.A., 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: The data set provides a 30-m comprehensive fuelbed characteristics map for both the wildland and cropland areas of the conterminous United States (CONUS)...

  15. Is stump sprout treatment necessary to effectively control Phytophthora ramorum in California's wildlands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yana Valachovic; Richard Cobb; David Rizzo; Brendan Twieg; Chris Lee; Radoslaw Glebocki

    2013-01-01

    In California, wildland hosts that support sporulation of Phytophthora ramorum, such as California bay laurel (Umbellularia californica (Hook. & Arn.) Nutt.) and tanoak (Notholithocarpus densiflorus (Hook. & Arn.) Manos, Cannon & S.H. Oh), also develop prolific basal sprouts following...

  16. Rapid growth of the US wildland-urban interface raises wildfire risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volker C. Radeloff; David P. Helmers; H. Anu Kramer; Miranda H. Mockrin; Patricia M. Alexandre; Avi Bar-Massada; Van Butsic; Todd J. Hawbaker; Sebastián Martinuzzi; Alexandra D. Syphard; Susan I. Stewart

    2018-01-01

    The wildland-urban interface (WUI) is the area where houses and wildland vegetation meet or intermingle, and where wildfire problems are most pronounced. Here we report that the WUI in the United States grew rapidly from 1990 to 2010 in terms of both number of new houses (from 30.8 to 43.4 million; 41% growth) and land area (from 581,000 to 770,000 km2...

  17. Particle size-dependent radical generation from wildland fire smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, Stephen S.; Castranova, Vince; Chen, Bean T.; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Hoover, Mark; Piacitelli, Chris; Gaughan, Denise M.

    2007-01-01

    Firefighting, along with construction, mining and agriculture, ranks among the most dangerous occupations. In addition, the work environment of firefighters is unlike that of any other occupation, not only because of the obvious physical hazards but also due to the respiratory and systemic health hazards of smoke inhalation resulting from combustion. A significant amount of research has been devoted to studying municipal firefighters; however, these studies may not be useful in wildland firefighter exposures, because the two work environments are so different. Not only are wildland firefighters exposed to different combustion products, but their exposure profiles are different. The combustion products wildland firefighters are exposed to can vary greatly in characteristics due to the type and amount of material being burned, soil conditions, temperature and exposure time. Smoke inhalation is one of the greatest concerns for firefighter health and it has been shown that the smoke consists of a large number of particles. These smoke particles contain intermediates of hydrogen, carbon and oxygen free radicals, which may pose a potential health risk. Our investigation looked into the involvement of free radicals in smoke toxicity and the relationship between particle size and radical generation. Samples were collected in discrete aerodynamic particle sizes from a wildfire in Alaska, preserved and then shipped to our laboratory for analysis. Electron spin resonance was used to measure carbon-centered as well as hydroxyl radicals produced by a Fenton-like reaction with wildfire smoke. Further study of reactive oxygen species was conducted using analysis of cellular H 2 O 2 generation, lipid peroxidation of cellular membranes and DNA damage. Results demonstrate that coarse size-range particles contained more carbon radicals per unit mass than the ultrafine particles; however, the ultrafine particles generated more ·OH radicals in the acellular Fenton-like reaction. The

  18. Geospatial Multi-Agency Coordination (GeoMAC) wildland fire perimeters, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Sandra P.; Schneider, Norma J.; Guthrie, John D.

    2011-01-01

    The Geospatial Multi-Agency Coordination (GeoMAC) has been collecting and storing data on wildland fire perimeters since August 2000. The dataset presented via this U.S. Geological Survey Data Series product contains the GeoMAC wildland fire perimeter data for the calendar year 2008, which are based upon input from incident intelligence sources, Global Positioning System (GPS) data, and infrared (IR) imagery. Wildland fire perimeter data are obtained from the incidents, evaluated for completeness and accuracy, and processed to reflect consistent field names and attributes. After a quality check, the perimeters are loaded to GeoMAC databases, which support the GeoMAC Web application for access by wildland fire managers and the public. The wildland fire perimeters are viewed through the Web application. The data are subsequently archived according to year and state and are made available for downloading through the Internet in shapefile and Keyhole Markup Language (KML) format. These wildland fire perimeter data are also retained for historical, planning, and research purposes. The datasets that pertain to this report can be found on the Rocky Mountain Geographic Science Center HTTP site at http://rmgsc.cr.usgs.gov/outgoing/GeoMAC/historic_fire_data/. The links are also provided on the sidebar.

  19. The wildland-urban interface raster dataset of Catalonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcasena, Fermín J; Evers, Cody R; Vega-Garcia, Cristina

    2018-04-01

    We provide the wildland urban interface (WUI) map of the autonomous community of Catalonia (Northeastern Spain). The map encompasses an area of some 3.21 million ha and is presented as a 150-m resolution raster dataset. Individual housing location, structure density and vegetation cover data were used to spatially assess in detail the interface, intermix and dispersed rural WUI communities with a geographical information system. Most WUI areas concentrate in the coastal belt where suburban sprawl has occurred nearby or within unmanaged forests. This geospatial information data provides an approximation of residential housing potential for loss given a wildfire, and represents a valuable contribution to assist landscape and urban planning in the region.

  20. A Causal Inference Analysis of the Effect of Wildland Fire ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildfire smoke is a major contributor to ambient air pollution levels. In this talk, we develop a spatio-temporal model to estimate the contribution of fire smoke to overall air pollution in different regions of the country. We combine numerical model output with observational data within a causal inference framework. Our methods account for aggregation and potential bias of the numerical model simulation, and address uncertainty in the causal estimates. We apply the proposed method to estimation of ozone and fine particulate matter from wildland fires and the impact on health burden assessment. We develop a causal inference framework to assess contributions of fire to ambient PM in the presence of spatial interference.

  1. Legionellosis prevention in building water and HVAC systems a practical guide for design, operation and maintenance to minimize the risk

    CERN Document Server

    Joppolo, Cesare Maria; Pitera, Luca Alberto; Angermann, Jean Pierre; Izard, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This Guidebook is a practical guide for design, operation and maintenance to minimize the risk of legionellosis in building water and HVAC systmes. It is devided into several themes such as: Air conditioning of the air (by water – humidification), Production of hot water for washing (fundamentally but not only hot water for washing) and Evaporative cooling tower.

  2. Prevenir y Combatir El Acoso en La Escuela: Guia de Recursoso para Educadores de los Grados "K" al Grado "12" (Preventing and Countering School-Based Harassment: A Resource Guide for K-12 Educators).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steineger, Melissa

    This guide focuses on the issue of school-based harassment. It is intended to help educators prevent or curtail all forms of harassment by highlighting school-based harassment issues, by describing remedies and prevention strategies, and by providing additional resources. It details some of the problems school-based harassment engenders, and it…

  3. AEGIS: a wildfire prevention and management information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostas Kalabokidis; Alan Ager; Mark Finney; Nikos Athanasis; Palaiologos Palaiologou; Christos Vasilakos

    2016-01-01

    We describe a Web-GIS wildfire prevention and management platform (AEGIS) developed as an integrated and easy-to-use decision support tool to manage wildland fire hazards in Greece (http://aegis.aegean.gr). The AEGIS platform assists with early fire warning, fire planning, fire control and coordination of firefighting forces by providing online access to...

  4. A site-specific approach for assessing the fire risk to structures at the wildland/urban interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack Cohen

    1991-01-01

    The essence of the wildland/urban interface fire problem is the loss of homes. The problem is not new, but is becoming increasingly important as more homes with inadequate adherence to safety codes are built at the wildland/urban interface. Current regulatory codes are inflexible. Specifications for building and site characteristics cannot be adjusted to accommodate...

  5. Collaborative capacity, problem framing, and mutual trust in addressing the wildland fire social problem: An annotated reading list

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey J. Brooks; Alexander N. Bujak; Joseph G. Champ; Daniel R. Williams

    2006-01-01

    We reviewed, annotated, and organized recent social science research and developed a framework for addressing the wildland fire social problem. We annotated articles related to three topic areas or factors, which are critical for understanding collective action, particularly in the wildland-urban interface. These factors are collaborative capacity, problem framing, and...

  6. Spatial products available for identifying areas of likely wildfire ignitions using lightning location data-Wildland Fire Assessment System (WFAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Sopko; Larry Bradshaw; Matt Jolly

    2016-01-01

    The Wildland Fire Assessment System (WFAS, www.wfas.net) is a one-stop-shop giving wildland fire managers the ability to assess fire potential ranging in scale from national to regional and temporally from 1 to 5 days. Each day, broad-area maps are produced from fire weather station and lightning location networks. Three products are created using 24 hour...

  7. A changing landscape in the wildland-urban interface: permanent and seasonal home owners, recreation and fuel management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christine A. Vogt; Stanley J. Cindrity

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports research completed in the fall/winter seasons of 2001/2002 on home owners living in the wildland urban interface for the USDA Forest Service. The primary research focus was to understand human dimensions of wildland fire, particularly attitudes toward and approval of three fuel treatment types (prescribed burning, mechanical thinning, and defensible...

  8. Social science to improve fuels management: a synthesis of research on the impacts of wildland fires on communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen F. McCool; James Burchfield; Daniel R. Williams; Matt Carroll; Patricia Cohn; Yoshitaka Kumagai; Tam Ubben

    2007-01-01

    A series of syntheses were commissioned by the U.S. Forest Service to aid in fuels mitigation project planning. Focusing on research on the social impacts of wildland fire, this synthesis explores decisions and actions taken by communities before, during, and after a wildland fire to minimize its impacts. It then synthesizes the research studying (1) the consequences...

  9. Locating spatial variation in the association between wildland fire risk and social vulnerability across six southern states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelam Poudyal; Cassandra Johnson Gaither; Scott Goodrick; J.M. Bowker; Jianbang Gan

    2012-01-01

    Wildland fire in the South commands considerable attention, given the expanding wildland urban interface (WUI) across the region. Much of this growth is propelled by higher income retirees and others desiring natural amenity residential settings. However, population growth in the WUI increases the likelihood of wildfire fire ignition caused by people, as humans account...

  10. The Howling Prescribed Natural Fire - long-term effects on the modernization of planning and implementation of wildland fire management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom Zimmerman; Laurie Kurth; Mitchell Burgard

    2011-01-01

    Wildland fire management policy and practices have long been driven by the occurrence of significant events. The Howling Prescribed Natural Fire in Glacier National Park in 1994 is a prime example of a significant historical fire event that provided the impetus for program changes and modifications that modernized wildland fire management at the local, regional, and...

  11. Acute oral toxicities of wildland fire control chemicals to birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, N.B.; Spann, J.W.; Hill, E.F.

    2009-01-01

    Wildland fire control chemicals are released into the environment by aerial and ground applications to manage rangeland, grassland, and forest fires. Acute oral 24 h median lethal dosages (LD50) for three fire retardants (Fire-Trol GTS-R?, Phos-Chek D-75F?, and Fire-Trol LCG-R?) and two Class A fire suppressant foams (Silv-Ex? and Phos-Chek WD881?) were estimated for northern bobwhites, Colinus virginianus, American kestrels, Falco sparverius, and red-winged blackbirds, Agelaius phoeniceus. The LD50s of all chemicals for the bobwhites and red-winged blackbirds and for kestrels dosed with Phos-Chek WD881? and Silv-Ex? were above the predetermined 2000 mg chemical/kg body mass regulatory limit criteria for acute oral toxicity. The LD50s were not quantifiable for kestrels dosed with Fire-Trol GTS-R?, Phos-Chek D-75F?, and Fire-Trol LCG-R? because of the number of birds which regurgitated the dosage. These chemicals appear to be of comparatively low order of acute oral toxicity to the avian species tested.

  12. Stochastic cellular automata model for wildland fire spread dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maduro Almeida, Rodolfo; Macau, Elbert E N

    2011-01-01

    A stochastic cellular automata model for wildland fire spread under flat terrain and no-wind conditions is proposed and its dynamics is characterized and analyzed. One of three possible states characterizes each cell: vegetation cell, burning cell and burnt cell. The dynamics of fire spread is modeled as a stochastic event with an effective fire spread probability S which is a function of three probabilities that characterize: the proportion of vegetation cells across the lattice, the probability of a burning cell becomes burnt, and the probability of the fire spread from a burning cell to a neighboring vegetation cell. A set of simulation experiments is performed to analyze the effects of different values of the three probabilities in the fire pattern. Monte-Carlo simulations indicate that there is a critical line in the model parameter space that separates the set of parameters which a fire can propagate from those for which it cannot propagate. Finally, the relevance of the model is discussed under the light of computational experiments that illustrate the capability of the model catches both the dynamical and static qualitative properties of fire propagation.

  13. Tuning a High Transmission Ion Guide to Prevent Gas-Phase Proton Exchange During H/D Exchange MS Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttman, Miklos; Wales, Thomas E.; Whittington, Dale; Engen, John R.; Brown, Jeffery M.; Lee, Kelly K.

    2016-04-01

    Hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) mass spectrometry (MS) for protein structural analysis has been adopted for many purposes, including biopharmaceutical development. One of the benefits of examining amide proton exchange by mass spectrometry is that it can readily resolve different exchange regimes, as evidenced by either binomial or bimodal isotope patterns. By careful analysis of the isotope pattern during exchange, more insight can be obtained on protein behavior in solution. However, one must be sure that any observed bimodal isotope patterns are not artifacts of analysis and are reflective of the true behavior in solution. Sample carryover and certain stationary phases are known as potential sources of bimodal artifacts. Here, we describe an additional undocumented source of deuterium loss resulting in artificial bimodal patterns for certain highly charged peptides. We demonstrate that this phenomenon is predominantly due to gas-phase proton exchange between peptides and bulk solvent within the initial stages of high-transmission conjoined ion guides. Minor adjustments of the ion guide settings, as reported here, eliminate the phenomenon without sacrificing signal intensity. Such gas-phase deuterium loss should be appreciated for all HDX-MS studies using such ion optics, even for routine studies not focused on interpreting bimodal spectra.

  14. Assessing the Role and Impact of Geospatial Data for Wildland Fire Management Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, E. A.; Lev, S. M.

    2016-12-01

    The 2015 Wildland and Fire Science and Technology Task Force Final Report, produced by the National Science and Technology Council, Committee on Environment, Natural Resources, and Sustainability, Subcommittee on Disaster Reduction, highlighted the increasing frequency of large wildfires and the growing demand for science to inform critical resource decisions to manage, mitigate, respond to, and recover from wildland fires. Federal spending on fire suppression from 2005-2015 has more than doubled despite policy changes that prioritize the mitigation of fire risks through the use of fuel treatments, prescribed fire, and management of naturally occurring wildfires to protect life and property. Fire suppression policies over the last century have created forests primed for severe fire, and in the face of a changing climate, the benefits of re-introducing fire into once fire-resilient ecosystems are clear. There are a range of complex factors and regional variation associated with wildland fire risk that complicate our understanding and effective management of this hazard. Data derived from Earth-observing (EO) systems and networks are a crucial input for managers when making decisions about fire suppression and fuel management. EO data can also be used to develop pre- and post-fire metrics that can aid in the evaluating the effectiveness of wildland fire management decisions. A value-tree method for mapping the role of EO systems and networks in delivering societal benefit through key Federal objectives related to wildland fire management will be presented. The value-tree methodology utilizes input from subject matter experts to assess the availability and usability of data and data products and to evaluate the impact of individual EO data inputs for achieving wildland fire management objectives. The results provide a qualitative assessment of the value of the data for the objectives described and identify critical gaps and continuity issues associated with

  15. Scientific and social challenges for the management of fire-prone wildland-urban interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, A Malcolm; Stephens, Scott L

    2009-01-01

    At their worst, fires at the rural-urban or wildland-urban interface cause tragic loss of human lives and homes, but mitigating these fire effects through management elicits many social and scientific challenges. This paper addresses four interconnected management challenges posed by socially disastrous landscape fires. The issues concern various assets (particularly houses, human life and biodiversity), fuel treatments, and fire and human behaviours. The topics considered are: 'asset protection zones'; 'defensible space' and urban fire spread in relation to house ignition and loss; 'stay-or-go' policy and the prediction of time available for safe egress and the possible conflict between the creation of defensible space and wildland management objectives. The first scientific challenge is to model the effective width of an asset protection zone of an urban area. The second is to consider the effect of vegetation around a house, potentially defensible space, on fire arrival at the structure. The third scientific challenge is to present stakeholders with accurate information on rates of spread, and where the fire front is located, so as to allow them to plan safe egress or preparation time in their particular circumstances. The fourth scientific challenge is to be able to predict the effects of fires on wildland species composition. Associated with each scientific challenge is a social challenge: for the first two scientific challenges the social challenge is to co-ordinate fuel management within and between the urban and rural or wildland sides of the interface. For the third scientific challenge, the social challenge is to be aware of, and appropriately use, fire danger information so that the potential for safe egress from a home can be estimated most accurately. Finally, the fourth social challenge is to for local residents of wildland-urban interfaces with an interest in biodiversity conservation to understand the effects of fire regimes on biodiversity, thereby

  16. The Simulations of Wildland Fire Smoke PM25 in the NWS Air Quality Forecasting Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H. C.; Pan, L.; McQueen, J.; Lee, P.; ONeill, S. M.; Ruminski, M.; Shafran, P.; Huang, J.; Stajner, I.; Upadhayay, S.; Larkin, N. K.

    2017-12-01

    The increase of wildland fire intensity and frequency in the United States (U.S.) has led to property loss, human fatality, and poor air quality due to elevated particulate matters and surface ozone concentrations. The NOAA/National Weather Service (NWS) built the National Air Quality Forecast Capability (NAQFC) based on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) Modeling System driven by the NCEP North American Mesoscale Forecast System meteorology to provide ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) forecast guidance publicly. State and local forecasters use the NWS air quality forecast guidance to issue air quality alerts in their area. The NAQFC PM2.5 predictions include emissions from anthropogenic and biogenic sources, as well as natural sources such as dust storms and wildland fires. The wildland fire emission inputs to the NAQFC is derived from the NOAA National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service Hazard Mapping System fire and smoke detection product and the emission module of the U.S. Forest Service (USFS) BlueSky Smoke Modeling Framework. Wildland fires are unpredictable and can be ignited by natural causes such as lightning or be human-caused. It is extremely difficult to predict future occurrences and behavior of wildland fires, as is the available bio-fuel to be burned for real-time air quality predictions. Assumptions of future day's wildland fire behavior often have to be made from older observed wildland fire information. The comparisons between the NAQFC modeled PM2.5 and the EPA AirNow surface observation show that large errors in PM2.5 prediction can occur if fire smoke emissions are sometimes placed at the wrong location and/or time. A configuration of NAQFC CMAQ-system to re-run previous 24 hours, during which wildland fires were observed from satellites has been included recently. This study focuses on the effort performed to minimize the error in NAQFC PM2.5 predictions

  17. Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Wildland Fire Management Environmental Assessment - April 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irving, J.S.

    2003-04-30

    DOE prepared an environmental assessment (EA)for wildland fire management activities on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) (DOE/EA-1372). The EA was developed to evaluate wildland fire management options for pre-fire, fire suppression, and post fire activities. Those activities have an important role in minimizing the conversion of the native sagebrush steppe ecosystem found on the INEEL to non-native weeds. Four alternative management approaches were analyzed: Alternative 1 - maximum fire protection; Alternative 2 - balanced fire protection; Alternative 2 - balanced fire protection; Alternative 3 - protect infrastructure and personnel; and Alternative 4 - no action/traditional fire protection.

  18. Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Wildland Fire Management Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irving, John S

    2003-04-01

    DOE prepared an environmental assessment (EA)for wildland fire management activities on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) (DOE/EA-1372). The EA was developed to evaluate wildland fire management options for pre-fire, fire suppression, and post fire activities. Those activities have an important role in minimizing the conversion of the native sagebrush steppe ecosystem found on the INEEL to non-native weeds. Four alternative management approaches were analyzed: Alternative 1 - maximum fire protection; Alternative 2 - balanced fire protection; Alternative 2 - balanced fire protection; Alternative 3 - protect infrastructure and personnel; and Alternative 4 - no action/traditional fire protection.

  19. Usefulness of lung impedance-guided pre-emptive therapy to prevent pulmonary edema during ST-elevation myocardial infarction and to improve long-term outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shochat, Michael; Shotan, Avraham; Blondheim, David S; Kazatsker, Mark; Dahan, Iris; Asif, Aya; Shochat, Ilia; Rabinovich, Paul; Rozenman, Yoseph; Meisel, Simcha R

    2012-07-15

    Patients sustaining an ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) frequently develop pulmonary congestion or pulmonary edema (PED). We previously showed that lung impedance (LI) threshold decrease of 12% to 14% from baseline during admission for STEMI marks the onset of the transition zone from interstitial to alveolar edema and predicts evolution to PED with 98% probability. The aim of this study was to prove that pre-emptive LI-guided treatment may prevent PED and improve clinical outcomes. Five hundred sixty patients with STEMI and no signs of heart failure underwent LI monitoring for 84 ± 36 hours. Maximal LI decrease throughout monitoring did not exceed 12% in 347 patients who did not develop PED (group 1). In 213 patients LI reached the threshold level and, although still asymptomatic (Killip class I), these patients were then randomized to conventional (group 2, n = 142) or LI-guided (group 3, n = 71) pre-emptive therapy. In group 3, treatment was initiated at randomization (LI = -13.8 ± 0.6%). In contrast, conventionally treated patients (group 2) were treated only at onset of dyspnea occurring 4.1 ± 3.1 hours after randomization (LI = -25.8 ± 4.3%, p <0.001). All patients in group 2 but only 8 patients in group 3 (11%) developed Killip class II to IV PED (p <0.001). Unadjusted hospital mortality, length of stay, 1-year readmission rate, 6-year mortality, and new-onset heart failure occurred less in group 3 (p <0.001). Multivariate analysis adjusted for age, left ventricular ejection fraction, risk factors, peak creatine kinase, and admission creatinine and hemoglobin levels showed improved clinical outcome in group 3 (p <0.001). In conclusion, LI-guided pre-emptive therapy in patients with STEMI decreases the incidence of in-hospital PED and results in better short- and long-term outcomes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Guide: Monitoring Programme for unannounced inspections undertaken against the National Standards for the Prevention and Control of Healthcare Associated Infections

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kabir, Zubair

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To investigate whether primary prevention might be more favourable than secondary prevention (risk factor reduction in patients with coronary heart disease(CHD)). METHODS: The cell-based IMPACT CHD mortality model was used to integrate data for Ireland describing CHD patient numbers, uptake of specific treatments, trends in major cardiovascular risk factors, and the mortality benefits of these specific risk factor changes in CHD patients and in healthy people without recognised CHD. RESULTS: Between 1985 and 2000, approximately 2,530 fewer deaths were attributable to reductions in the three major risk factors in Ireland. Overall smoking prevalence declined by 14% between 1985 and 2000, resulting in about 685 fewer deaths (minimum estimate 330, maximum estimate 1,285) attributable to smoking cessation: about 275 in healthy people and 410 in known CHD patients. Population total cholesterol concentrations fell by 4.6%, resulting in approximately 1,300 (minimum estimate 1,115, maximum estimate 1,660) fewer deaths attributable to dietary changes(1,185 in healthy people and 115 in CHD patients) plus 305 fewer deaths attributable to statin treatment (45 in people without CHD and 260 in CHD patients). Mean population diastolic blood pressure fell by 7.2%, resulting in approximately 170 (minimum estimate 105, maximum estimate 300) fewer deaths attributable to secular falls in blood pressure (140 in healthy people and 30 in CHD patients), plus approximately 70 fewer deaths attributable to antihypertensive treatments in people without CHD. Of all the deaths attributable to risk factor falls, some 1,715 (68%) occurred in people without recognized CHD and 815(32%) in CHD patients. CONCLUSION: Compared with secondary prevention, primary prevention achieved a two-fold larger reduction in CHD deaths. Future national CHD policies should therefore prioritize nationwide interventions to promote healthy diets and reduce smoking.

  1. Effect of a web-based guided self-help intervention for prevention of major depression in adults with subthreshold depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buntrock, C.; Ebert, D. D.; Lehr, D.

    2016-01-01

    -employee contributions). Participants included 406 self-selected adults with subthreshold depression (Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale score≥16, no current MDD according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders [Fourth Edition, Text Revision] criteria). INTERVENTIONS All participants had...... AND MEASURES The primary outcome was time to onset of MDD in the intervention group relative to the control group over a 12-month follow-up period as assessed by blinded diagnostic raters using the telephone-administered Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis Disorders at 6-and 12-month follow......Importance Evidence-based treatments for major depressive disorder (MDD) are not very successful in improving functional and health outcomes. Attention has increasingly been focused on the prevention of MDD. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effectiveness of a web-based guided self-help intervention...

  2. Complications of image-guided radiofrequency ablation of renal cell carcinoma: causes, imaging features and prevention methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byung Kwan; Kim, Chan Kyo [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, The Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea)

    2009-09-15

    Radiofrequency (RF) ablation is an alternative treatment for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in patients unable to undergo surgery. Although RF ablation has a low complication rate because of its minimally invasive nature, unintended heat may be conducted by several critical organs during ablation procedures, leading to a variety of complications. Major complications that usually require treatment include bowel injury, ureteral injury, massive bleeding and residual or recurrent tumour. Minor complications that may require only observation include pain, haematoma, haematuria, neuromuscular injury, pneumothorax, infarction and inflammatory tract mass. The most common cause of complications is the tumour's proximity to neighbouring organs. In addition, careless electrode manipulation and the patient's comorbidities may also lead to complications. To avoid many of these complications, the distance between the tumour and neighbouring organs should be widened using methods such as changing the patient's position, using the RF electrode as a lever and hydrodissection. Furthermore, carefully manipulating the RF electrode and assessing the patient's general condition help to prevent complications. In this review, we discuss the complications resulting from RF ablation of RCC with an emphasis on causes, imaging features and prevention methods. (orig.)

  3. Error associated with model predictions of wildland fire rate of spread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel G. Cruz; Martin E. Alexander

    2015-01-01

    How well can we expect to predict the spread rate of wildfires and prescribed fires? The degree of accuracy in model predictions of wildland fire behaviour characteristics are dependent on the model's applicability to a given situation, the validity of the model's relationships, and the reliability of the model input data (Alexander and Cruz 2013b#. We...

  4. Stochastic representation of fire behavior in a wildland fire protection planning model for California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Keith Gilless; Jeremy S. Fried

    1998-01-01

    A fire behavior module was developed for the California Fire Economics Simulator version 2 (CFES2), a stochastic simulation model of initial attack on wildland fire used by the California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection. Fire rate of spread (ROS) and fire dispatch level (FDL) for simulated fires "occurring" on the same day are determined by making...

  5. Climate and very large wildland fires in the contiguous western USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Natasha Stavros; John Abatzoglou; Narasimhan K. Larkin; Donald McKenzie; E. Ashley Steel

    2014-01-01

    Very large wildfires can cause significant economic and environmental damage, including destruction of homes, adverse air quality, firefighting costs and even loss of life. We examine how climate is associated with very large wildland fires (VLWFs >=50 000 acres, or ~20234 ha) in the western contiguous USA. We used composite records of climate and fire to...

  6. Time to burn: Modeling wildland arson as an autoregressive crime function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon; David T. Butry

    2005-01-01

    Six Poisson autoregressive models of order p [PAR(p)] of daily wildland arson ignition counts are estimated for five locations in Florida (1994-2001). In addition, a fixed effects time-series Poisson model of annual arson counts is estimated for all Florida counties (1995-2001). PAR(p) model estimates reveal highly significant arson ignition autocorrelation, lasting up...

  7. High-resolution infrared thermography for capturing wildland fire behaviour - RxCADRE 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph J. O’Brien; E. Louise Loudermilk; Benjamin Hornsby; Andrew T. Hudak; Benjamin C. Bright; Matthew B. Dickinson; J. Kevin Hiers; Casey Teske; Roger D. Ottmar

    2016-01-01

    Wildland fire radiant energy emission is one of the only measurements of combustion that can be made at wide spatial extents and high temporal and spatial resolutions. Furthermore, spatially and temporally explicit measurements are critical for making inferences about fire effects and useful for examining patterns of fire spread. In this study we describe our...

  8. Wildland fire, risk, and recovery: results of a national survey with regional and racial perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Michael Bowker; Siew Hoon Lim; H. Ken Cordell; Gary T. Green; Sandra Rideout-Hanzak; Cassandra Y. Johnson

    2008-01-01

    We used a national household survey to examine knowledge, attitudes, and preferences pertaining to wildland fire. First, we present nationwide results and trends. Then, we examine opinions across region and race. Despite some regional variation, respondents are fairly consistent in their beliefs about assuming personal responsibility for living in fire-prone areas and...

  9. National strategic plan: modeling and data systems for wildland fire and air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David V. Sandberg; Colin C. Hardy; Roger D. Ottmar; J.A. Kendall Snell; Ann Acheson; Janice L. Peterson; Paula Seamon; Peter Lahm; Dale. Wade

    1999-01-01

    This strategic plan is a technical discussion of the implementation and development of models and data systems used to manage the air quality impacts of wildland and prescribed fires. Strategies and priorities in the plan were generated by the Express Team (chartered by the National Wildfire Coordinating Group) and a diverse group of 86 subject matter experts who...

  10. WRF-Fire: coupled weather-wildland fire modeling with the weather research and forecasting model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janice L. Coen; Marques Cameron; John Michalakes; Edward G. Patton; Philip J. Riggan; Kara M. Yedinak

    2012-01-01

    A wildland fire behavior module (WRF-Fire) was integrated into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) public domain numerical weather prediction model. The fire module is a surface fire behavior model that is two-way coupled with the atmospheric model. Near-surface winds from the atmospheric model are interpolated to a finer fire grid and used, with fuel properties...

  11. Assessing high reliability practices in wildland fire management: an exploration and benchmarking of organizational culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne E. Black; Brooke Baldauf. McBride

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to improve organizational outcomes, including safety, in wildland fire management, researchers and practitioners have turned to a domain of research on organizational performance known as High Reliability Organizing (HRO). The HRO paradigm emerged in the late 1980s in an effort to identify commonalities among organizations that function under hazardous...

  12. Suburban immigrants to wildlands disrupt honest signaling in ultra-violet plumage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Tringali

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization changes habitat in a multitude of ways, including altering food availability. Access to human-provided food can change the relationship between body condition and honest advertisements of fitness, which may result in changes to behavior, demography, and metapopulation dynamics. We compared plumage color, its relationship with body condition and feather growth, and use as signal of dominance between a suburban and a wildland population of Florida Scrub-Jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens. Although plumage color was not related to body condition at either site, suburban birds had plumage with a greater proportion of total reflectance in the ultra-violet (UV and peak reflectance at shorter wavelengths. Despite the use of plumage reflectance as a signal of dominance among individuals in the wildlands, we found no evidence of status signaling at the suburban site. However, birds emigrating from the suburban site to the wildland site tended to be more successful at acquiring breeder status but less successful at reproducing than were immigrants from an adjacent wildland site, suggesting that signaled and realized quality differ. These differences in signaling content among populations could have demographic effects at metapopulation scales and may represent an evolutionary trap whereby suburban immigrants are preferred as mates even though their reproductive success relative to effort is lower.

  13. Spatial variability of wildland fuel characteristics in northern Rocky Mountain ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Keane; Kathy Gray; Valentina Bacciu

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the spatial variability of a number of wildland fuel characteristics for the major fuel components found in six common northern Rocky Mountain ecosystems. Surface fuel characteristics of loading, particle density, bulk density, and mineral content were measured for eight fuel components - four downed dead woody fuel size classes (1, 10, 100, 1000 hr),...

  14. Spatiotemporal variability of wildland fuels in US Northern Rocky Mountain forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Keane

    2016-01-01

    Fire regimes are ultimately controlled by wildland fuel dynamics over space and time; spatial distributions of fuel influence the size, spread, and intensity of individual fires, while the temporal distribution of fuel deposition influences fire's frequency and controls fire size. These "shifting fuel mosaics" are both a cause and a consequence...

  15. Smoke exposure among wildland firefighters: a review and discussion of current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy E. Reinhardt; Roger D. Ottmar

    1997-01-01

    This paper reviews and summarizes literature about smoke exposure and the resulting adverse health effects among wildland firefighters Many studies have been done on this problem between 1973 and 1995 Overall the data indicate that smoke exposure at wildfires and prescribed fires is usually no more than an inconvenience, but on occasion it approaches or exceeds legal...

  16. Influence of herbivory on regrowth of riparian shrubs following a wildland fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen A. Dwire; Sandra E. Ryan; Laura J. Shirley; Danna Lytjen; Nick Otting; Mark K. Dixon

    2006-01-01

    Streamside vegetation frequently regenerates faster than upland vegetation following wildland fire and contributes to the recovery of riparian and stream ecosystems. Limited data are available, however, on the post-fire growth of riparian species and the influence of herbivory on regeneration. To determine post-fire regrowth of riparian vegetation, height, crown area,...

  17. Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Science overview and knowledge needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    William T. Sommers; Rachel A. Loehman; Colin C. Hardy

    2014-01-01

    Wildland fires have influenced the global carbon cycle for 420 million years of Earth history, interacting with climate to define vegetation characteristics and distributions, trigger abrupt ecosystem shifts, and move carbon among terrestrial and atmospheric pools. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the dominant driver of ongoing climate change and the principal emissions...

  18. Impact of Different Personal Protective Clothing on Wildland Firefighters' Physiological Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén Carballo-Leyenda

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Wildfire firefighting is an extremely demanding occupation performed under hot environment. The use of personal protective clothing (PPC is needed to protect subjects from the thermal exposure. However, the additional use of PPC may increase the wildland firefighters' physiological strain, and consequently limit their performance. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of four different PPC on the physiological strain of wildland firefighters under moderate conditions (30°C and 30% RH. Eight active and healthy wildland firefighters performed a submaximal walking test wearing a traditional short sports gear and 4 different PPC. The materials combination (viscose, Nomex, Kevlar, P-140 and fire resistant cotton used during the PPC manufacturing process was different. During all tests, to simulate a real scenario subjects wore a backpack pump (20 kg. Heart rate, respiratory gas exchange, gastrointestinal temperature, blood lactate concentration, perceived exertion and temperature and humidity underneath the PPC were recorded throughout tests. Additionally, parameters of heat balance were estimated. Wearing a PPC did not cause a significant increase in the subjects' physiological response. The gastrointestinal temperature increment, the relative humidity of the microclimate underneath the PPC, the sweat residue in PPC, the sweat efficiency, the dry heat exchange and the total clothing insulation were significantly affected according to the PPC fabric composition. These results suggest that the PPC composition affect the moisture management. This might be taken into account to increase the wildland firefighters' protection in real situations, when they have to work close to the flames.

  19. Partners in wildland fire preparedness: lessons from communities in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamela J. Jakes; Linda Kruger; Martha Monroe; Victoria Sturtevant

    2004-01-01

    By almost any measure, the past decade has been severe in terms of wildland fire in the United States (Table 1). The National Interagency Fire Center (NIFC) maintains a list of ''Historically Significant Wildfires" in the US. - fires that are significant in terms of acres burned, value of the resources destroyed, or lives or property lost. Of the 34...

  20. A Model Option of Courses for Instruction in Wildland Recreation Management at the College Undergraduate Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bury, Richard L.

    Recreational use of wildland is growing rapidly and forms a major portion of the manager's job. About one-third of today's forestry students will be employed by land management agencies or by companies committed to the multiple-use concept. Education, course materials and the supply of forest management graduates have lagged considerably behind…

  1. Human influences on forest ecosystems: the southern wildland-urban interface assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward A. Macie; L. Annie Hermansen; [Editors

    2002-01-01

    This publication provides a review of critical wildland-urban interface issues, challenges, and needs for the Southern United States. Chapter topics include population and demographic trends; economic and tax issues; land use planning and policy; urban effects on forest ecosystems; challenges for forest resource management and conservation; social consequences of...

  2. Assessing the accuracy of wildland fire situation analysis (WFSA) fire size and suppression cost estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffrey H. Donovan; Peter. Noordijk

    2005-01-01

    To determine the optimal suppression strategy for escaped wildfires, federal land managers are requiredto conduct a wildland fire situation analysis (WFSA). As part of the WFSA process, fire managers estimate final fire size and suppression costs. Estimates from 58 WFSAs conducted during the 2002 fire season are compared to actual outcomes. Results indicate that...

  3. Perspectives from the Aldo Leopold Wilderness Research Institute: The Wildland Research institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. M. Bowker; H. Ken Cordell; Neelam C. Poudyal

    2014-01-01

    The Wildland Research Institute (WRi) at the University of Leeds (UK) came into being in October 2009. Its origins go back to a United Kingdom research councilfunded seminar series called Wilderness Britain? which ran between 1998 and 2000 and was coordinated from the University of Leeds. This opened up the wider debate on wilderness and rewilding in the UK and later...

  4. Biotic and abiotic effects of human settlements in the wildland-urban interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avi Bar-Massada; Volker C. Radeloff; Susan I. Stewart

    2014-01-01

    The wildland-urban interface (WUI) is the area in which human settlements adjoin or intermix with ecosystems. Although research on the WUI has been focused on wildfire risk to settlements, we argue here that there is a need to quantify the extent of areas in which human settlements interact with adjoining ecosystems, regardless of their ability to support fire spread....

  5. Weather, fuels, and topography impede wildland fire spread in western US landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa Holsinger; Sean A. Parks; Carol Miller

    2016-01-01

    As wildland fire activity continues to surge across the western US, it is increasingly important that we understand and quantify the environmental drivers of fire and how they vary across ecosystems. At daily to annual timescales, weather, fuels, and topography are known to influence characteristics such as area burned and fire severity. An understudied facet...

  6. An investigation of the influence of heating modes on ignition and pyrolysis of woody wildland fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    B.L. Yashwanth; B. Shotorban; S. Mahalingam; D.R. Weise

    2015-01-01

    The ignition of woody wildland fuel modeled as a one-dimensional slab subject to various modes of heating was investigated using a general pyrolysis code, Gpyro. The heating mode was varied by applying different convective and/or radiative, time-dependent heat flux boundary conditions on one end of the slab while keeping the other end insulated. Dry wood properties...

  7. Wildland fire in ecosystems: effects of fire on cultural resources and archaeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin C. Ryan; Ann Trinkle Jones; Cassandra L. Koerner; Kristine M. Lee

    2012-01-01

    This state-of-knowledge review provides a synthesis of the effects of fire on cultural resources, which can be used by fire managers, cultural resource (CR) specialists, and archaeologists to more effectively manage wildland vegetation, fuels, and fire. The goal of the volume is twofold: (1) to provide cultural resource/archaeological professionals and policy makers...

  8. Influence of absorption by environmental water vapor on radiation transfer in wildland fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Frankman; B. W. Webb; B. W. Butler

    2008-01-01

    The attenuation of radiation transfer from wildland flames to fuel by environmental water vapor is investigated. Emission is tracked from points on an idealized flame to locations along the fuel bed while accounting for absorption by environmental water vapor in the intervening medium. The Spectral Line Weighted-sum-of-gray-gases approach was employed for treating the...

  9. Salient value similarity, social trust, and attitudes toward wildland fire management strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerry J. Vaske; James D. Absher; Alan D. Bright

    2007-01-01

    Using the salient value similarity (SVS) model, we predicted that social trust mediated the relationship between SVS and attitudes toward prescribed burns and mechanical thinning. Data were obtained from a mail survey (n = 532) of Colorado residents living in the wildland-urban interface. Results indicated that respondents shared the same values as U...

  10. Wildland fire in ecosystems: effects of fire on soils and water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel G. Neary; Kevin C. Ryan; Leonard F. DeBano

    2005-01-01

    This state-of-knowledge review about the effects of fire on soils and water can assist land and fire managers with information on the physical, chemical, and biological effects of fire needed to successfully conduct ecosystem management, and effectively inform others about the role and impacts of wildland fire. Chapter topics include the soil resource, soil physical...

  11. Econometric analysis of fire suppression production functions for large wildland fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas P. Holmes; David E. Calkin

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we use operational data collected for large wildland fires to estimate the parameters of economic production functions that relate the rate of fireline construction with the level of fire suppression inputs (handcrews, dozers, engines and helicopters). These parameter estimates are then used to evaluate whether the productivity of fire suppression inputs...

  12. Deploying wildland fire suppression resources with a scenario-based standard response model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert G. Haight; Jeremy S. Fried

    2007-01-01

    Wildland fire managers deploy suppression resources to bases and dispatch them to fires to maximize the percentage of fires that are successfully contained before unacceptable costs and losses occur. Deployment is made with budget constraints and uncertainty about the daily number, location, and intensity of fires, all of which affect initial-attack success. To address...

  13. A survey of vegetation and wildland fire hazards on the Nevada Test Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis J. Hansen; W. Kent Ostler

    2008-01-01

    In the springs of 2004, 2005, and 2006, surveys were conducted on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) to characterize vegetation resources and climatic components of the environment that contribute to wildland fires. The NTS includes both Great Basin Desert and Mojave Desert ecosystems and a transitional zone between these two deserts. The field surveys assessed 211 sites along...

  14. Influence of vegetation moisture on combustion of pyrolysis gases in wildland fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.C. Dover; A.R. Dahale; B. Shotorban; S. Mahalingam; D.R. Weise

    2011-01-01

    Since wildland fires occur in living vegetation, the fuel moisture content must be considered in order to correctly predict the behavior of the fire. One facet of combustion of pyrolysis gases that has not been considered in previous research is the effect of moisture on the combustion process. This effect is investigated by using CHEMKIN software to study an opposed...

  15. Complex restoration challenges: weeds, seeds, and roads in a forested wildland urban interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelle Buonopane; Gabrielle Snider; Becky K. Kerns; Paul S. Doescher

    2013-01-01

    Federal policies in the US strongly emphasize reducing hazardous fuels at the Wildland Urban Interface (WUI). However, these areas present restoration challenges as they often have exotic weeds, frequent human disturbance, and the presence of roads. Understanding seed banks is important in planning for desirable post-disturbance community conditions, developing...

  16. Using the Large Fire Simulator System to map wildland fire potential for the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaWen Hollingsworth; James Menakis

    2010-01-01

    This project mapped wildland fire potential (WFP) for the conterminous United States by using the large fire simulation system developed for Fire Program Analysis (FPA) System. The large fire simulation system, referred to here as LFSim, consists of modules for weather generation, fire occurrence, fire suppression, and fire growth modeling. Weather was generated with...

  17. Organizational learning contributes to guidance for managing wildland fires for multiple objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom Zimmerman; Tim Sexton

    2010-01-01

    Since the inception of organized fire suppression in the early 1900s, wildland fire management has dramatically evolved in operational complexity; ecological significance; social, economic, and political magnitude; areas and timing of application; and recognition of potentially serious consequences. Throughout the past 100 years, fire management has matured from a...

  18. Ground-level air pollution changes during a boreal wildland mega-fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrzej Bytnerowicz; Yu-Mei Hsu; Kevin Percy; Allan Legge; Mark E. Fenn; Susan Schilling; Witold Frączek; Diane Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The 2011 Richardson wildland mega-fire in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) in northern Alberta, Canada had large effects on air quality. At a receptor site in the center of the AOSR ambient PM2.5, O3, NO, NO2, SO2, NH3, HONO, HNO3...

  19. A Four-Level Hierarchy for Organizing Wildland Stream Resource Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harry Parrott; Daniel A. Marion; R. Douglas Perkinson

    1989-01-01

    An analysis of current USDA Forest Service methods of collecting and using wildland stream resource data indicates that required information can be organized into a four-level hierarchy. Information at each level is tiered with information at the preceding level. Level 1 is the ASSOCIATION, which is differentiated by stream size and flow regime. Level 2, STREAM TYPE,...

  20. An improved canopy wind model for predicting wind adjustment factors and wildland fire behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. J. Massman; J. M. Forthofer; M. A. Finney

    2017-01-01

    The ability to rapidly estimate wind speed beneath a forest canopy or near the ground surface in any vegetation is critical to practical wildland fire behavior models. The common metric of this wind speed is the "mid-flame" wind speed, UMF. However, the existing approach for estimating UMF has some significant shortcomings. These include the assumptions that...

  1. Integrating fire behavior models and geospatial analysis for wildland fire risk assessment and fuel management planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan A. Ager; Nicole M. Vaillant; Mark A. Finney

    2011-01-01

    Wildland fire risk assessment and fuel management planning on federal lands in the US are complex problems that require state-of-the-art fire behavior modeling and intensive geospatial analyses. Fuel management is a particularly complicated process where the benefits and potential impacts of fuel treatments must be demonstrated in the context of land management goals...

  2. Wildland recreation in the rural South: an examination of marginality and ethnicity theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassandra Y. Johnson; J. Michael Bowker; Donald B.K. English; Dreamal Worthen

    1998-01-01

    The ethnicity and marginality explanations of minority recreation participation provide the conceptual basis for the authors’ inquiry. These theories are examined for a sample of rural African-Americans and whites. Using logistic regression, the researchers test for black and while differences in: 1) visitation to wildland areas in general; 2) visitation to national...

  3. Risk management: Core principles and practices, and their relevance to wildland fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew P. Thompson; Donald G. MacGregor; Dave Calkin

    2016-01-01

    The Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture faces a future of increasing complexity and risk, pressing financial issues, and the inescapable possibility of loss of human life. These issues are perhaps most acute for wildland fire management, the highest risk activity in which the Forest Service engages. Risk management (RM) has long been put forth as an...

  4. Risk terminology primer: Basic principles and a glossary for the wildland fire management community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew P. Thompson; Tom Zimmerman; Dan Mindar; Mary Taber

    2016-01-01

    Risk management is being increasingly promoted as an appropriate method for addressing wildland fire management challenges. However, a lack of a common understanding of risk concepts and terminology is hindering effective application. In response, this General Technical Report provides a set of clear, consistent, understandable, and usable definitions for terms...

  5. Management adaptation to fires in the wildland-urban risk areas in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gema Herrero-Corral

    2013-01-01

    Forest fires not only cause damage to ecosystems but also result in major socio-economic losses and in the worst cases loss of human life. Specifically, the incidence of fires in the overlapping areas between building structures and forest vegetation (wildland-urban interface, WUI) generates highly-complex emergencies due to the presence of people and goods....

  6. Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Plume rise, atmospheric transport, and chemistry processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren Heilman; Yongqiang Liu; Shawn Urbanski; Vladimir Kovalev; Robert Mickler

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an overview and summary of the current state of knowledge regarding critical atmospheric processes that affect the distribution and concentrations of greenhouse gases and aerosols emitted from wildland fires or produced through subsequent chemical reactions in the atmosphere. These critical atmospheric processes include the dynamics of plume rise,...

  7. Relationships to place in wildland resources management: Developing an effective research approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal Christensen; Alan Watson; James Burchfield

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to understanding human relationships with public lands and considering those relationships in the decision making process. This understanding is based on segmentation analysis to identify groups of local residents that have similar relationships to place (RTP) with a public wildland. The research described in this paper uses a mix of...

  8. Covering the Homeland: National Guard Unmanned Aircraft Systems Support for Wildland Firefighting and Natural Disaster Events

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moose, Robert G

    2008-01-01

    .... The 2007 fire season saw over 85,000 wildland fires consume more than 9.3 million acres. In Southern California alone wildfires forced over half a million people to evacuate their homes destroyed over 3,079 structures and caused...

  9. Wildfire hazard mapping: exploring site conditions in eastern US wildland—ruban interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew P. Peters; Louis R. Iverson; Stephen N. Matthews; Anantha M. Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Wildfires are a serious threat for land managers and property owners, and over the last few decades this threat has expanded as a result of increased rural development. Most wildfires in the north-eastern US occur in the wildland—urban interface, those regions of intermingling urban and non-developed vegetated lands, where access to firefighting resources can...

  10. Emissions from laboratory combustion of wildland fuels: Emission factors and source profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    L.-W. Anthony Chen; Hans Moosmuller; W. Patrick Arnott; Judith C. Chow; John G. Watson; Ronald A. Susott; Ronald E. Babbitt; Cyle E. Wold; Emily N. Lincoln; Wei Min Hao

    2007-01-01

    Combustion of wildland fuels represents a major source of particulate matter (PM) and light-absorbing elemental carbon (EC) on a national and global scale, but the emission factors and source profiles have not been well characterized with respect to different fuels and combustion phases. These uncertainties limit the accuracy of current emission inventories, smoke...

  11. Barriers to implementation of risk management for federal wildland fire management agencies in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave Calkin; Matthew P. Thompson; Alan A. Ager; Mark Finney

    2010-01-01

    In this presentation we review progress towards the implementation of a risk-based management framework for U.S. Federal wildland fire policy and operations. We first describe new developments in wildfire simulation technology that catalyzed the development of risk-based decision support systems for strategic wildfire management. These systems include new analytical...

  12. Assessing wildfire exposure in the Wildland-Urban Interface area of the mountains of central Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argañaraz, J P; Radeloff, V C; Bar-Massada, A; Gavier-Pizarro, G I; Scavuzzo, C M; Bellis, L M

    2017-07-01

    Wildfires are a major threat to people and property in Wildland Urban Interface (WUI) communities worldwide, but while the patterns of the WUI in North America, Europe and Oceania have been studied before, this is not the case in Latin America. Our goals were to a) map WUI areas in central Argentina, and b) assess wildfire exposure for WUI communities in relation to historic fires, with special emphasis on large fires and estimated burn probability based on an empirical model. We mapped the WUI in the mountains of central Argentina (810,000 ha), after digitizing the location of 276,700 buildings and deriving vegetation maps from satellite imagery. The areas where houses and wildland vegetation intermingle were classified as Intermix WUI (housing density > 6.17 hu/km 2 and wildland vegetation cover > 50%), and the areas where wildland vegetation abuts settlements were classified as Interface WUI (housing density > 6.17 hu/km 2 , wildland vegetation cover areas occupied 15% of our study area and contained 144,000 buildings (52%). Most WUI area was Intermix WUI, but most WUI buildings were in the Interface WUI. Our findings suggest that central Argentina has a WUI fire problem. WUI areas included most of the buildings exposed to wildfires and most of the buildings located in areas of higher burn probability. Our findings can help focus fire management activities in areas of higher risk, and ultimately provide support for landscape management and planning aimed at reducing wildfire risk in WUI communities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A Comparison of Adaptive Behaviors among Mentally Retarded and Normal Individuals: A guide to Prevention and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyla Sadros

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Because of the importance of adaptive behaviors in socialand domestic lives, this study aimed at a comparison of various domainsof adaptive behaviors, between mentally retarded and normalindividuals.Methods: A number of 246 normal and 74 mentally retarded individuals(7-18 years of age, mean: 12±3.5 years, participated this study inTehran, Iran. Their adaptive behaviors scores, were obtained using"Adaptive Behavioral Scale, Residential & Community" (ABS-RC: 2,consisting of 18 domains of behavior. The scale was first translatedinto Persian by the professionals and then retranslated into English byanother translator, to ensure content non-distortion.Results: The following domains were significantly lower in mentallyretarded than in normal individuals: independent functioning, economicactivity, language development, number & time, prevocational/vocational activity, self direction, responsibility, socialization,disturbing interpersonal behavior, domestic activity, social engagement,conformity and trustworthiness. No significant difference was documentedin the physical development, stereotype & hyperactive behaviors,sexual behavior as well as self abuse behavior domains, betweenthe two groups.Conclusions: As mentally deficient subjects did worse than normalones in terms of many adaptive behavioral domains, it implies that theadaptive behavioral issues in such people might need a great deal ofattention and intervention. For these retarded people to function betterin their social and residential environment, it would be necessary todevelop their adaptive behaviors. This study may shed light on theimportance of attention to the adaptive behavioral domains of mentallyretarded people and also indicates the necessity of preventive measures,even for normal individuals.

  14. A comparison of adaptive behaviors among mentally retarded and normal individuals: A guide to prevention and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyla Sadrossadat

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Because of the importance of adaptive behaviors in social and domestic lives, this study aimed at a comparison of various domains of adaptive behaviors, between mentally retarded and normal individuals. Methods: A number of 246 normal and 74 mentally retarded in-dividuals (7-18 years of age, mean: 12±3.5 years, participated this study in Tehran, Iran. Their adaptive behaviors scores, were ob-tained using "Adaptive Behavioral Scale, Residential & Commu-nity" (ABS-RC: 2, consisting of 18 domains of behavior. The scale was first translated into Persian by the professionals and then re-translated into English by another translator, to ensure content non-distortion. Results: The following domains were significantly lower in men-tally retarded than in normal individuals: independent function-ing, economic activity, language development, number & time, prevocational/vocational activity, self direction, responsibility, socialization, disturbing interpersonal behavior, domestic activity, social engagement, conformity and trustworthiness. No significant difference was documented in the physical development, stereo-type & hyperactive behaviors, sexual behavior as well as self abuse behavior domains, between the two groups. Conclusions: As mentally deficient subjects did worse than nor-mal ones in terms of many adaptive behavioral domains, it implies that the adaptive behavioral issues in such people might need a great deal of attention and intervention. For these retarded people to function better in their social and residential environment, it would be necessary to develop their adaptive behaviors. This study may shed light on the importance of attention to the adap-tive behavioral domains of mentally retarded people and also indi-cates the necessity of preventive measures, even for normal indi-viduals.

  15. Interactions of wildland fire emissions with power plant and traffic emissions in Southeastern US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odman, M. T.; Hu, Y.; Russell, A. G.

    2015-12-01

    Emissions from wildland fires are a significant source of air pollutants and in certain parts of the world where air quality is already stressed by anthropogenic emissions they can lead to major health and environmental problems. The harmful effects can come simply from the increase of the preexisting primary pollutants in the region by the wildland fire emissions. Moreover, secondary pollutants can also form when wildland fire emissions coexist with emissions from other sources such as power plants and highways. In Southeastern US, where prescribed burning is routinely practiced both for ecosystem health and reduction of wildfire risk, smoke plumes from wildland fires frequently encroach urban areas where there is an abundance of other emissions. Up till now, assessments of the impacts of prescribed burning mostly focused on the primary pollutants and the interactions of wildland fire emissions with anthropogenic emissions has not been studied in detail.Since November 2014, we have been forecasting the individual air quality impacts of two anthropogenic emission categories, namely electric generation and vehicular traffic, as well as prescribed burning using the Decoupled Direct Method (DDM) available in CMAQ version 5.0.2. We use special techniques to provide accurate emissions inputs to our forecasts, including a new weather-based prescribed burn forecasting system that mines a burn permit database for geographic burning patterns. We also use surface and satellite observations along with simulated concentrations and their sensitivities to emissions in an inverse modeling framework to continuously adjust input emissions. The impact forecasts include the interactions between emissions from different sources but do not distinguish their magnitudes. In this study, using our forecasting system we simulated the impacts of power plants and on-road vehicles on ozone and PM2.5 concentrations first with and then without the prescribed burn emissions. Then, we attributed

  16. A Randomized Controlled Trial to Investigate the Effectiveness of the Prevention of Aspiration Pneumonia Using Recommendations for Swallowing Care Guided by Ultrasound Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Yuka; Nakagami, Gojiro; Yabunaka, Koichi; Tohara, Haruka; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Mori, Taketoshi; Sanada, Hiromi

    2018-02-12

    Prevention for aspiration pneumonia requires assessment of aspiration and adequate swallowing care. This randomized controlled trial aimed to investigate the effectiveness of ultrasound examination and recommendations for swallowing care for the reduction of aspiration and pharyngeal post-swallow residue as compared with standard swallowing care. Twenty-three participants were randomized to the intervention group and 23 to the control group. The intervention consisted of four ultrasound examinations during mealtimes and recommendations for swallowing care every 2 weeks during an 8 week period. No recommendations concerning swallowing care based on ultrasound examinations were provided to the control group. The frequency of aspiration or residue was defined as x/y × 100% when aspiration or residue were detected x times from y times concerning the total ultrasound measurements. The proportion of the residents with reduced frequency of aspiration which was detected by ultrasonography at eight weeks were 4.3% in the intervention group and 0% in the control group. The median reduction in the frequency of aspiration and residue in the intervention group was 31%, and that in the control group was 11%. In conclusion, swallowing care guided by frequent ultrasound examinations during mealtimes had a trend of reducing the frequency of aspiration and residue during an 8-week period in individuals relative to standard swallowing care alone.

  17. The INCA trial (Impact of NOD2 genotype-guided antibiotic prevention on survival in patients with liver Cirrhosis and Ascites): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casper, Markus; Mengel, Martin; Fuhrmann, Christine; Herrmann, Eva; Appenrodt, Beate; Schiedermaier, Peter; Reichert, Matthias; Bruns, Tony; Engelmann, Cornelius; Grünhage, Frank; Lammert, Frank

    2015-03-08

    Patients with liver cirrhosis have a highly elevated risk of developing bacterial infections that significantly decrease survival rates. One of the most relevant infections is spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP). Recently, NOD2 germline variants were found to be potential predictors of the development of infectious complications and mortality in patients with cirrhosis. The aim of the INCA (Impact of NOD2 genotype-guided antibiotic prevention on survival in patients with liver Cirrhosis and Ascites) trial is to investigate whether survival of this genetically defined high-risk group of patients with cirrhosis defined by the presence of NOD2 variants is improved by primary antibiotic prophylaxis of SBP. The INCA trial is a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial with two parallel treatment arms (arm 1: norfloxacin 400 mg once daily; arm 2: placebo once daily; 12-month treatment and observational period). Balanced randomization of 186 eligible patients with stratification for the protein content of the ascites (INCA trial is first in the field of hepatology aimed at rapidly transferring and validating information on individual genetic risk into clinical decision algorithms. German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00005616 . Registered 22 January 2014. EU Clinical Trials Register EudraCT 2013-001626-26 . Registered 26 January 2015.

  18. Mapping the Daily Progression of Large Wildland Fires Using MODIS Active Fire Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veraverbeke, Sander; Sedano, Fernando; Hook, Simon J.; Randerson, James T.; Jin, Yufang; Rogers, Brendan

    2013-01-01

    High temporal resolution information on burned area is a prerequisite for incorporating bottom-up estimates of wildland fire emissions in regional air transport models and for improving models of fire behavior. We used the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) active fire product (MO(Y)D14) as input to a kriging interpolation to derive continuous maps of the evolution of nine large wildland fires. For each fire, local input parameters for the kriging model were defined using variogram analysis. The accuracy of the kriging model was assessed using high resolution daily fire perimeter data available from the U.S. Forest Service. We also assessed the temporal reporting accuracy of the MODIS burned area products (MCD45A1 and MCD64A1). Averaged over the nine fires, the kriging method correctly mapped 73% of the pixels within the accuracy of a single day, compared to 33% for MCD45A1 and 53% for MCD64A1.

  19. Carnivore use of avocado orchards across an agricultural-wildland gradient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa M Nogeire

    Full Text Available Wide-ranging species cannot persist in reserves alone. Consequently, there is growing interest in the conservation value of agricultural lands that separate or buffer natural areas. The value of agricultural lands for wildlife habitat and connectivity varies as a function of the crop type and landscape context, and quantifying these differences will improve our ability to manage these lands more effectively for animals. In southern California, many species are present in avocado orchards, including mammalian carnivores. We examined occupancy of avocado orchards by mammalian carnivores across agricultural-wildland gradients in southern California with motion-activated cameras. More carnivore species were detected with cameras in orchards than in wildland sites, and for bobcats and gray foxes, orchards were associated with higher occupancy rates. Our results demonstrate that agricultural lands have potential to contribute to conservation by providing habitat or facilitating landscape connectivity.

  20. Geographic variation in social acceptability of wildland fuels management in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunson, M.; Schindler, Bruce A.

    2004-01-01

    Contemporary natural resource management requires consideration of the social acceptability of management practices and conditions. Agencies wishing to measure, respond to, and influence social acceptability must understand the nuances of public perception regarding controversial issues. This study explores social acceptability judgments about one such issue: reduction of wildland fuel hazards on federal lands in the western United States. Citizens were surveyed in four locations where fire has been a significant ecological disturbance agent and public land agencies propose to reduce wildland fuel levels and wildfire hazards via prescribed burning, thinning, brush removal, and/or livestock grazing. Respondents in different locations differed in their knowledge about fire and fuel issues as well in their acceptability judgments. Differences are associated with location-specific social and environmental factors as well as individual beliefs. Results argue against using a??one-size-fits-alla?? policies or information strategies about fuels management.

  1. Multimodal guided self-help exercise program to prevent speech, swallowing, and shoulder problems among head and neck cancer patients: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cnossen, Ingrid C; van Uden-Kraan, Cornelia F; Rinkel, Rico N P M; Aalders, Ijke J; de Goede, Cees J T; de Bree, Remco; Doornaert, Patricia; Rietveld, Derek H F; Langendijk, Johannes A; Witte, Birgit I; Leemans, C Rene; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M

    2014-03-06

    During a 6-week course of (chemo)radiation many head and neck cancer patients have to endure radiotherapy-induced toxicity, negatively affecting patients' quality of life. Pretreatment counseling combined with self-help exercises could be provided to inform patients and possibly prevent them from having speech, swallowing, and shoulder problems during and after treatment. Our goal was to investigate the feasibility of a multimodal guided self-help exercise program entitled Head Matters during (chemo)radiation in head and neck cancer patients. Head and neck cancer patients treated with primary (chemo)radiation or after surgery were asked to perform Head Matters at home. This prophylactic exercise program, offered in three different formats, aims to reduce the risk of developing speech, swallowing, shoulder problems, and a stiff neck. Weekly coaching was provided by a speech and swallowing therapist. Patients filled out a diary to keep track of their exercise activity. To gain insight into possible barriers and facilitators to exercise adherence, reports of weekly coaching sessions were analyzed by 2 coders independently. Of 41 eligible patients, 34 patients were willing to participate (83% uptake). Of participating patients, 21 patients completed the program (64% adherence rate). The majority of participants (58%) had a moderate to high level of exercise performance. Exercise performance level was not significantly associated with age (P=.50), gender (P=.42), tumor subsite (P=1.00) or tumor stage (P=.20), treatment modality (P=.72), or Head Matters format (Web-based or paper) (P=1.00). Based on patients' diaries and weekly coaching sessions, patients' perceived barriers to exercise were a decreased physical condition, treatment-related barriers, emotional problems, lack of motivation, social barriers, and technical problems. Patients' perceived facilitators included an increased physical condition, feeling motivated, and social and technical facilitators. Head

  2. Integrating Fire, Climate, and Societal Factors into Decision Support for Strategic Planning in Wildland Fire Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara J. Morehouse; Gregg Garfin; Timothy Brown; Thomas W. Swetnam

    2006-01-01

    An El Niño winter in 1998-99, followed by a strong La Niña winter in 1999- 2000, set the stage for potentially large wildfires in the southwestern, southeastern, and northwestern forests of the United States. Researchers at the University of Arizona organized a three-day workshop to discuss the relationship between synoptic scale climate conditions and wildland fire...

  3. A Nation in Need: The Air Reserve Component and Wildland Firefighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-17

    responsiveness i In addition to the examples to follow in this article , USNORTHCOM Wildland...argument is often made by OSD when advocating a Title 10 mandate. It is the opinion of this author that this is a gratuitous attempt to make unity...Command for No-Notice Events: Integrating the Military Response to Domestic Disasters,” Homeland Security Affairs, Vol 7, Article 4 (February 2011). 16

  4. Fire in the wildland-urban interface: Selecting and maintaining firewise plants for landscaping

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Douglas Doran; Cotton K. Randall; Alan J. Long

    2004-01-01

    One of the major issues in the southern wildland-urban interface is the loss of homes to wildfire. For homeowners who live in an area with a medium to high risk of wildfire, this document provides useful information for protecting your property (see University of Florida/IFAS publication FOR 71 "Landscaping in Florida with Fire in Mind” to determine your wildfire...

  5. DOD Civil Support During the 2007 and 2008 California Wildland Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-13

    California Wildland Fires" dated Juiy 1.2009 (Projcct No. N200s·DOOOCG·0246.000 ENCL: (I) USMC memo 7510 RFR ·80dtd 27 Jul 09 I. We have reviewed the dnlfl...3000 MARtHE CORPS PENTAGON WASHINGTON, DC 2()35G.3000 IN AEPl.YIW’UI TO­ 7510 RFR -80 27 Jul 09 MEMORANDUM FOR ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF THE NAVY

  6. Living with fire: How social scientists are helping wildland-urban interface communities reduce wildfire risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Cooke; Daniel Williams; Travis Paveglio; Matthew Carroll

    2016-01-01

    Reducing wildfire risk to lives and property is a critical issue for policy makers, land managers, and citizens who reside in high-risk fire areas of the United States - this is especially the case in the Rocky Mountain region and other western states. In order for a wildfire risk reduction effort to be effective in a U.S. wildland-urban interface (WUI)...

  7. Comparing urban and wildland bear densities with a DNA-based capture-mark-recapture approach

    OpenAIRE

    Fusaro, Jonathan L.; Conner, Mary M.; Conover, Michael R.; Taylor, Timothy J.; Kenyon, Marc W., Jr.; Sherman, Jamie R.; Ernest, Holly B.

    2017-01-01

    California’s black bear (Ursus americanus) population has tripled over the last 3 decades, causing an increased incidence of human–bear conflicts, many of which now occur in urban areas. Consequently, it is imperative that bear managers have the ability to monitor population parameters in both wildland and urban environments to help manage bears. Capture-mark-recapture (CMR) methods using uniquely typed genetic samples (DNA) collected via hair-snares have been widely used to monitor bears in ...

  8. Chemical composition of wildland and agricultural biomass burning particles measured downwind during the BBOP study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onasch, T. B.; Shilling, J. E.; Wormhoudt, J.; Sedlacek, A. J., III; Fortner, E.; Pekour, M. S.; Chand, D.; Zhou, S.; Collier, S.; Zhang, Q.; Kleinman, L. I.; Lewis, E. R.; Yokelson, R. J.; Adachi, K.; Buseck, P. R.; Freedman, A.; Williams, L. R.

    2017-12-01

    The Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP), a Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored study, measured emissions from wildland fires in the Pacific Northwest and agricultural burns in the Central Southeastern US from the DOE Gulfstream-1 airborne platform over a four month period in 2013. Rapid physical, chemical and optical changes in biomass burning particles were measured downwind (tar balls and SP-AMS OA quantification while operating with both laser and tungsten vaporizers.

  9. Linking primary production, climate and land use along an urban-wildland transect: a satellite view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Yonghong; Jia Gensuo; Guo Huadong

    2009-01-01

    Variation of green vegetation cover influences local climate dynamics, exchange of water-heat between land and atmosphere, and hydrological processes. However, the mechanism of interaction between vegetation and local climate change in subtropical areas under climate warming and anthropogenic disturbances is poorly understood. We analyzed spatial-temporal trends of vegetation with moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) vegetation index datasets over three sections, namely urban, urban-rural fringe and wildland along an urban-wildland transect in a southern mega-city area in China from 2000-2008. The results show increased photosynthetic activity occurred in the wildland and the stable urban landscape in correspondence to the rising temperature, and a considerable decrease of vegetation activity in the urban-rural fringe area, apparently due to urban expansion. On analyzing the controlling factors of climate change and human drivers of vegetation cover change, we found that temperature contributed to vegetation growth more than precipitation and that rising temperature accelerated plant physiological activity. Meanwhile, human-induced dramatic modification of land cover, e.g. conversion of natural forest and cropland to built-up areas in the urban-rural fringe, has caused significant changes of green vegetation fraction and overall primary production, which may further influence local climate.

  10. Linking primary production, climate and land use along an urban-wildland transect: a satellite view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yonghong; Jia, Gensuo; Guo, Huadong

    2009-10-01

    Variation of green vegetation cover influences local climate dynamics, exchange of water-heat between land and atmosphere, and hydrological processes. However, the mechanism of interaction between vegetation and local climate change in subtropical areas under climate warming and anthropogenic disturbances is poorly understood. We analyzed spatial-temporal trends of vegetation with moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) vegetation index datasets over three sections, namely urban, urban-rural fringe and wildland along an urban-wildland transect in a southern mega-city area in China from 2000-2008. The results show increased photosynthetic activity occurred in the wildland and the stable urban landscape in correspondence to the rising temperature, and a considerable decrease of vegetation activity in the urban-rural fringe area, apparently due to urban expansion. On analyzing the controlling factors of climate change and human drivers of vegetation cover change, we found that temperature contributed to vegetation growth more than precipitation and that rising temperature accelerated plant physiological activity. Meanwhile, human-induced dramatic modification of land cover, e.g. conversion of natural forest and cropland to built-up areas in the urban-rural fringe, has caused significant changes of green vegetation fraction and overall primary production, which may further influence local climate.

  11. Modeling fire susceptibility to delineate wildland-urban interface for municipal-scale fire risk management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Ellen; Rapaport, Eric; Sherren, Kate

    2013-12-01

    The wildland-urban interface (WUI) is the region where development meets and intermingles with wildlands. The WUI has an elevated fire risk due to the proximity of development and residents to wildlands with natural wildfire regimes. Existing methods of delineating WUI are typically applied over a large region, use proxies for risk, and do not consider site-specific fire hazard drivers. While these models are appropriate for federal and provincial risk management, municipal managers require models intended for smaller regions. The model developed here uses the Burn-P3 fire behavior model to model WUI from local fire susceptibility (FS) in two study communities. Forest fuel code (FFC) maps for the study communities were modified using remote sensing data to produce detailed forest edges, including ladder fuels, update data currency, and add buildings and roads. The modified FFC maps used in Burn-P3 produced bimodal FS distributions for each community. The WUI in these communities was delineated as areas within community bounds where FS was greater than or equal to -1 SD from the mean FS value ([Formula: see text]), which fell in the trough of the bimodal distribution. The WUI so delineated conformed to the definition of WUI. This model extends WUI modeling for broader risk management initiatives for municipal management of risk, as it (a) considers site-specific drivers of fire behavior; (b) models risk, represented by WUI, specific to a community; and, (c) does not use proxies for risk.

  12. Prevention of Bone Loss after Acute SCI by Zoledronic Acid: Durability, Effect on Bone Strength, and Use of Biomarkers to Guide Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Bone Loss after Acute SCI by Zoledronic Acid: Durability, Effect on Bone Strength, and Use of Biomarkers to Guide Therapy 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14...duration of its effects and the value of using biomarkers to guide therapy. Data collection ( bone imaging and biomarkers) occurs at baseline and after 3...the durability of response to zoledronic acid and the utility of serum bone markers to guide therapeutic decision making. DXA imaging, CT imaging

  13. Latex Allergy: A Prevention Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and equipment contaminated with latex-containing dust. Take advantage of all latex allergy education and training provided ... Education and Information Division Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding ...

  14. Counterfeit Parts Prevention Strategies Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-24

    Ford, Flextronics Dale Gordon, Aerojet Rocketdyne Larry Harzstark, The Aerospace Corporation Brian Hughitt, NASA Yehwan Kim, Moog Mark King ...mechanical inputs with electrical outputs, or combinations of each. Examples of electro-mechanical parts are motors , synchros, servos, and some...Hong Kong and sold them to the U.S. Navy, defense contractors and others, marketing some of these products as “military-grade.” In its press release

  15. How risk management can prevent future wildfire disasters in the wildland-urban interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Calkin; Jack D. Cohen; Mark A. Finney; Matthew P. Thompson

    2014-01-01

    Recent fire seasons in the western United States are some of the most damaging and costly on record. Wildfires in the wildlandurban interface on the Colorado Front Range, resulting in thousands of homes burned and civilian fatalities, although devastating, are not without historical reference. These fires are consistent with the characteristics of large, damaging,...

  16. Environmental Assessment for Wildland Fire Prevention Activities at Joint-Base Elmendorf-Richardson (JBER), Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    at JBER. Priority species are broken into four groups, and include the following; Keystone or Key Species (K) play a disproportionately large role in...Endangered Species Act (ESA) Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA) National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) Marine...checklist. - Coordination to consider wildlife, endangered species , cultural resources, and noxious weed effects. - Alternative plan to cover plan of

  17. Bridging the divide between fire safety research and fighting fire safely: How do we convey research innovation to contribute more effectively to wildland firefighter safety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore Ted Adams; Bret W. Butler; Sara Brown; Vita Wright; Anne Black

    2017-01-01

    Creating a safe workplace for wildland firefighters has long been at the centre of discussion for researchers and practitioners. The goal of wildland fire safety research has been to protect operational firefighters, yet its contributions often fall short of potential because much is getting lost in the translation of peer-reviewed results to potential and intended...

  18. A numerical study of atmospheric perturbations induced by heat from a wildland fire: sensitivity to vertical canopy structure and heat source strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael T. Kiefer; Shiyuan Zhong; Warren E. Heilman; Joseph J. Charney; Xindi. Bian

    2018-01-01

    An improved understanding of atmospheric perturbations within and above a forest during a wildland fire has relevance to many aspects of wildland fires including fire spread, smoke transport and dispersion, and tree mortality. In this study, the ARPS-CANOPY model, a version of the Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) model with a canopy parameterization, is...

  19. Fuel treatment prescriptions alter spatial patterns of fire severity around the wildland-urban interface during the Wallow Fire, Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maureen C. Kennedy; Morris C. Johnson

    2014-01-01

    Fuel reduction treatments are implemented in the forest surrounding the wildland–urban interface (WUI) to provide defensible space and safe opportunity for the protection of homes during a wildfire. The 2011 Wallow Fire in Arizona USA burned through recently implemented fuel treatments in the wildland surrounding residential communities in the WUI, and those fuel...

  20. The health impacts and economic value of wildland fire episodes in the U.S.: 2008-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fann, Neal; Alman, Breanna; Broome, Richard A; Morgan, Geoffrey G; Johnston, Fay H; Pouliot, George; Rappold, Ana G

    2018-01-01

    Wildland fires degrade air quality and adversely affect human health. A growing body of epidemiology literature reports increased rates of emergency departments, hospital admissions and premature deaths from wildfire smoke exposure. Our research aimed to characterize excess mortality and morbidity events, and the economic value of these impacts, from wildland fire smoke exposure in the U.S. over a multi-year period; to date no other burden assessment has done this. We first completed a systematic review of the epidemiologic literature and then performed photochemical air quality modeling for the years 2008 to 2012 in the continental U.S. Finally, we estimated the morbidity, mortality, and economic burden of wildland fires. Our models suggest that areas including northern California, Oregon and Idaho in the West, and Florida, Louisiana and Georgia in the East were most affected by wildland fire events in the form of additional premature deaths and respiratory hospital admissions. We estimated the economic value of these cases due to short term exposures as being between $11 and $20B (2010$) per year, with a net present value of $63B (95% confidence intervals $6-$170); we estimate the value of long-term exposures as being between $76 and $130B (2010$) per year, with a net present value of $450B (95% confidence intervals $42-$1200). The public health burden of wildland fires-in terms of the number and economic value of deaths and illnesses-is considerable. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Examination of Wildland Fire Spread at Small Scales Using Direct Numerical Simulations and High-Speed Laser Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimer, N. T.; Mackoweicki, A. S.; Poludnenko, A. Y.; Hoffman, C.; Daily, J. W.; Rieker, G. B.; Hamlington, P.

    2017-12-01

    Results are presented from a joint computational and experimental research effort focused on understanding and characterizing wildland fire spread at small scales (roughly 1m-1mm) using direct numerical simulations (DNS) with chemical kinetics mechanisms that have been calibrated using data from high-speed laser diagnostics. The simulations are intended to directly resolve, with high physical accuracy, all small-scale fluid dynamic and chemical processes relevant to wildland fire spread. The high fidelity of the simulations is enabled by the calibration and validation of DNS sub-models using data from high-speed laser diagnostics. These diagnostics have the capability to measure temperature and chemical species concentrations, and are used here to characterize evaporation and pyrolysis processes in wildland fuels subjected to an external radiation source. The chemical kinetics code CHEMKIN-PRO is used to study and reduce complex reaction mechanisms for water removal, pyrolysis, and gas phase combustion during solid biomass burning. Simulations are then presented for a gaseous pool fire coupled with the resulting multi-step chemical reaction mechanisms, and the results are connected to the fundamental structure and spread of wildland fires. It is anticipated that the combined computational and experimental approach of this research effort will provide unprecedented access to information about chemical species, temperature, and turbulence during the entire pyrolysis, evaporation, ignition, and combustion process, thereby permitting more complete understanding of the physics that must be represented by coarse-scale numerical models of wildland fire spread.

  2. Experience and lessons from health impact assessment guiding prevention and control of HIV/AIDS in a copper mine project, northwestern Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoblauch, Astrid M; Divall, Mark J; Owuor, Milka; Nduna, Kennedy; Ng'uni, Harrison; Musunka, Gertrude; Pascall, Anna; Utzinger, Jürg; Winkler, Mirko S

    2017-07-04

    surveillance data to track HIV transmission in this specific context. Guided by the health impact assessment, the HIV prevention and control programme was readily adapted to the current setting through the identification of socioeconomic and environmental determinants of health.

  3. Preventing Work-Related Musculoskeletal Illnesses Through Ergonomics: The Air Force PREMIER Program. Volume 3B: Research Report for Level I Ergonomics Methodology Guide for Administrative Work Areas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marcotte, Andrew

    1997-01-01

    This report describes file results of a pilot test to assess the reliability, sensitivity, validity, and practicality of the Level I Ergonomics Assessment Methodology Guide for Administrative Work Areas...

  4. Wildland Fire Induced Heating of Dome 375 Perma-Con®

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, Eugene Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-09

    AET-1 was tasked by ADEM with determining the temperature rise in the drum contents of drums stored in the Dome 375 Perma-Con® at TA-54 given a wildland fire. The wildland fire causes radiative and convective heating on the Perma-Con® exterior. The wildland fire time histories for the radiative and convective heating environment were provided to AET-1 by EES-16. If the calculated temperature rise results in a drum content temperature over 40 °C, then ADEM desires a design solution to ensure the peak temperature remains below 40 °C. An axi-symmetric FE simulation was completed to determine the peak temperature of the contents of a drum stored in the Dome 375 Perma-Con® during a wildland fire event. Three wildland fire time histories for the radiative and convective heat transfer were provided by EES-16 and were inputs for the FE simulation. The maximum drum content temperature reached was found to be 110 °C while using inputs from the SiteG_2ms_4ign_wind_from_west.xlsx time history input and not including the SWB in the model. Including the SWB in the results in a peak drum content temperature of 61 °C for the SiteG_2ms_4ign_wind_from_west.xlsx inputs. EES-16 decided that by using fuel mitigation efforts, such as mowing the grass and shrubs near the Perma-Con® they could reduce the shrub/grass fuel loading near the Perma-Con® from 1.46 kg/m2 to 0.146 kg/m2 and by using a less conservative fuel loading for the debris field inside the Dome 375 perimeter, reducing it from 0.58 kg/m2 to 0.058 kg/m2 in their model. They also greatly increased the resolution of their radiation model and increased the accuracy of their model’s required convergence value. Using this refined input the maximum drum content temperature was found to be 28 °C with no SWB present in the model. Additionally, this refined input model was modified to include worst case emissivity values for the concrete, drum and Perma-Con® interior, along with adding a

  5. Spatial Planning Experiences for Vulnerability Reduction in the Wildland-Urban Interface in Mediterranean European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galiana-Martín Luis

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Expansion of the wildland-urban interface in countries in the European Mediterranean basin is increasing vulnerability to forest fires. Despite more effective extinction systems, this is still a growing problem. This article defends the importance of spatial planning (land-use and urban planning and the need for systematic intervention to mitigate this wildfire risk. A critical review of the current situation, noting intervention focused on buildings and plots and insufficient action on intermediate spatial scales, is followed by the presentation of significant and relevant experiences in the European context.

  6. Modelling and mitigating dose to firefighters from inhalation of radionuclides in wildland fire smoke.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viner, Brian J. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC

    2015-06-12

    Firefighters responding to wildland fires where surface litter and vegetation contain radiological contamination will receive a radiological dose by inhaling resuspended radioactive material in the smoke. This may increase their lifetime risk of contracting certain types of cancer. Using published data, we modelled hypothetical radionuclide emissions, dispersion and dose for 70th and 97th percentile environmental conditions and for average and high fuel loads at the Savannah River Site. We predicted downwind concentration and potential dose to firefighters for radionuclides of interest (137Cs, 238Pu, 90Sr and 210Po). Predicted concentrations exceeded dose guidelines in the base case scenario emissions of 1.0 x 107Bq ha-1 for 238Pu at 70th percentile environmental conditions and average fuel load levels for both 4- and 14-h shifts. Under 97th percentile environmental conditions and high fuel loads, dose guidelines were exceeded for several reported cases for 90Sr, 238Pu and 210Po. The potential for exceeding dose guidelines was mitigated by including plume rise (>2ms-1) or moving a small distance from the fire owing to large concentration gradients near the edge of the fire. This approach can quickly estimate potential dose from airborne radionuclides in wildland fire and assist decision-making to reduce firefighter exposure.

  7. Wildfire risk assessment in a typical Mediterranean wildland-urban interface of Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsopoulos, Ioannis; Mallinis, Giorgos; Arianoutsou, Margarita

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess spatial wildfire risk in a typical Mediterranean wildland-urban interface (WUI) in Greece and the potential effect of three different burning condition scenarios on the following four major wildfire risk components: burn probability, conditional flame length, fire size, and source-sink ratio. We applied the Minimum Travel Time fire simulation algorithm using the FlamMap and ArcFuels tools to characterize the potential response of the wildfire risk to a range of different burning scenarios. We created site-specific fuel models of the study area by measuring the field fuel parameters in representative natural fuel complexes, and we determined the spatial extent of the different fuel types and residential structures in the study area using photointerpretation procedures of large scale natural color orthophotographs. The results included simulated spatially explicit fire risk components along with wildfire risk exposure analysis and the expected net value change. Statistical significance differences in simulation outputs between the scenarios were obtained using Tukey's significance test. The results of this study provide valuable information for decision support systems for short-term predictions of wildfire risk potential and inform wildland fire management of typical WUI areas in Greece.

  8. Forecasting wildland fire behavior using high-resolution large-eddy simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz-Esparza, D.; Kosovic, B.; Jimenez, P. A.; Anderson, A.; DeCastro, A.; Brown, B.

    2017-12-01

    Wildland fires are responsible for large socio-economic impacts. Fires affect the environment, damage structures, threaten lives, cause health issues, and involve large suppression costs. These impacts can be mitigated via accurate fire spread forecast to inform the incident management team. To this end, the state of Colorado is funding the development of the Colorado Fire Prediction System (CO-FPS). The system is based on the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model enhanced with a fire behavior module (WRF-Fire). Realistic representation of wildland fire behavior requires explicit representation of small scale weather phenomena to properly account for coupled atmosphere-wildfire interactions. Moreover, transport and dispersion of biomass burning emissions from wildfires is controlled by turbulent processes in the atmospheric boundary layer, which are difficult to parameterize and typically lead to large errors when simplified source estimation and injection height methods are used. Therefore, we utilize turbulence-resolving large-eddy simulations at a resolution of 111 m to forecast fire spread and smoke distribution using a coupled atmosphere-wildfire model. This presentation will describe our improvements to the level-set based fire-spread algorithm in WRF-Fire and an evaluation of the operational system using 12 wildfire events that occurred in Colorado in 2016, as well as other historical fires. In addition, the benefits of explicit representation of turbulence for smoke transport and dispersion will be demonstrated.

  9. Mapping wildland fuels and forest structure for land management: a comparison of nearest neighbor imputation and other methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth B. Pierce; Janet L. Ohmann; Michael C. Wimberly; Matthew J. Gregory; Jeremy S. Fried

    2009-01-01

    Land managers need consistent information about the geographic distribution of wildland fuels and forest structure over large areas to evaluate fire risk and plan fuel treatments. We compared spatial predictions for 12 fuel and forest structure variables across three regions in the western United States using gradient nearest neighbor (GNN) imputation, linear models (...

  10. Modeling potential structure ignitions from flame radiation exposure with implications for wildland/urban interface fire management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack D. Cohen; Bret W. Butler

    1998-01-01

    Residential losses associated with wildland fires have become a serious international fire protection problem. The radiant heat flux from burning vegetation adjacent to a structure is a principal ignition factor. A thermal radiation and ignition model estimated structure ignition potential using designated flame characteristics (inferred from various types and...

  11. Estimating contribution of wildland fires to ambient ozone levels in National Parks in the Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiganoush K. Preisler; Shiyuan (Sharon) Zhong; Annie Esperanza; Timothy J. Brown; Andrzej Bytnerowicz; Leland Tarnay

    2010-01-01

    Data from four continuous ozone and weather monitoring sites operated by the National Park Service in Sierra Nevada, California, are used to develop an ozone forecasting model and to estimate the contribution of wildland fires on ambient ozone levels. The analyses of weather and ozone data pointed to the transport of ozone precursors from the Central Valley as an...

  12. Safety climate in the US federal wildland fire management community: influences of organizational, environmental, group, and individual characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne E. Black; Brooke Baldauf. McBride

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of organisational, environmental, group and individual characteristics on five components of safety climate (High Reliability Organising Practices, Leadership, Group Culture, Learning Orientation and Mission Clarity) in the US federal wildland fire management community. Of particular interest were differences between perceptions based on...

  13. From leaves to landscape: A multiscale approach to assess fire hazard in wildland-urban interface areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghermandi, Luciana; Beletzky, Natacha A; de Torres Curth, Mónica I; Oddi, Facundo J

    2016-12-01

    The overlapping zone between urbanization and wildland vegetation, known as the wildland urban interface (WUI), is often at high risk of wildfire. Human activities increase the likelihood of wildfires, which can have disastrous consequences for property and land use, and can pose a serious threat to lives. Fire hazard assessments depend strongly on the spatial scale of analysis. We assessed the fire hazard in a WUI area of a Patagonian city by working at three scales: landscape, community and species. Fire is a complex phenomenon, so we used a large number of variables that correlate a priori with the fire hazard. Consequently, we analyzed environmental variables together with fuel load and leaf flammability variables and integrated all the information in a fire hazard map with four fire hazard categories. The Nothofagus dombeyi forest had the highest fire hazard while grasslands had the lowest. Our work highlights the vulnerability of the wildland-urban interface to fire in this region and our suggested methodology could be applied in other wildland-urban interface areas. Particularly in high hazard areas, our work could help in spatial delimitation policies, urban planning and development of plans for the protection of human lives and assets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Social science at the wildland-urban interface: a compendium of research results to create fire-adapted communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric Toman; Melanie Stidham; Sarah McCaffrey; Bruce. Shindler

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade, a growing body of research has been conducted on the human dimensions of wildland fire. As this research has matured, there has been a recognition of the need to examine the full body of resulting literature to synthesize disparate findings and identify lessons learned across studies. These lessons can then be applied to fostering fire-adapted...

  15. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; environmental consequences fact sheet 03: structure fires in the wildland-urban interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve Sutherland

    2004-01-01

    National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) data indicate that wildfires destroyed approximately 9,000 homes between 1985 and 1994 in the United States. The loss of homes to wildfire has had a significant impact on Federal fire policy. This fact sheet discusses the causes of home ignitions in the wildland-urban interface, home ignition zones, how to reduce home...

  16. Wildland fire science and management in the U.S.: Spanning the boundaries through the regional knowledge exchange network (Abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susie Kocher; Eric Toman; Sarah Trainor; Vita Wright

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, the federal Joint Fire Science Program (JFSP) initiated a national network of regional fire science consortia to accelerate awareness, understanding and use of wildland fire science. This presentation synthesizes findings from initial needs assessments conducted by consortia in eight regions of the United States. The assessments evaluated how fire science is...

  17. Safe separation distance score: A new metric for evaluating wildland firefighter safety zones using lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael J. Campbell; Philip E. Dennison; Bret W. Butler

    2016-01-01

    Safety zones are areas where firefighters can retreat to in order to avoid bodily harm when threatened by burnover or entrapment from wildland fire. At present, safety zones are primarily designated by firefighting personnel as part of daily fire management activities. Though critical to safety zone assessment, the effectiveness of this approach is inherently limited...

  18. Outreach and Prevention Staff Focus Guide. Building Bridges: Supporting the Psychological Health and Traumatic Brain Injury Needs of Military and Veteran Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    through these times and offers some ideas to help keep families connected. The television special, When Parents Are Deployed, captures the...Focus Guide Weight Management Online Resources:  Healthy Weight  Calculate your BMI  Guidelines for Losing Weight  Watch Your Weight...charges no dues or fees; it is self-supporting through member contributions. OA is not just about weight loss, gain or maintenance; or obesity or diets

  19. Citizen's Guide to Pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Pesticide Programs.

    This guide provides suggestions on pest control and safety rules for pesticide use at home. Pest prevention may be possible by modification of pest habitat: removal of food and water sources, removal or destruction of pest shelter and breeding sites, and good horticultural practices that reduce plant stress. Nonchemical alternatives to pesticides…

  20. HIV among immigrants living in high-income countries: a realist review of evidence to guide targeted approaches to behavioural HIV prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Immigrants from developing and middle-income countries are an emerging priority in HIV prevention in high-income countries. This may be explained in part by accelerating international migration and population mobility. However, it may also be due to the vulnerabilities of immigrants including social exclusion along with socioeconomic, cultural and language barriers to HIV prevention. Contemporary thinking on effective HIV prevention stresses the need for targeted approaches that adapt HIV prevention interventions according to the cultural context and population being addressed. This review of evidence sought to generate insights into targeted approaches in this emerging area of HIV prevention. Methods We undertook a realist review to answer the research question: ‘How are HIV prevention interventions in high-income countries adapted to suit immigrants’ needs?’ A key goal was to uncover underlying theories or mechanisms operating in behavioural HIV prevention interventions with immigrants, to uncover explanations as how and why they work (or not) for particular groups in particular contexts, and thus to refine the underlying theories. The realist review mapped seven initial mechanisms underlying culturally appropriate HIV prevention with immigrants. Evidence from intervention studies and qualitative studies found in systematic searches was then used to test and refine these seven mechanisms. Results Thirty-four intervention studies and 40 qualitative studies contributed to the analysis and synthesis of evidence. The strongest evidence supported the role of ‘consonance’ mechanisms, indicating the pivotal need to incorporate cultural values into the intervention content. Moderate evidence was found to support the role of three other mechanisms – ‘understanding’, ‘specificity’ and ‘embeddedness’ – which indicated that using the language of immigrants, usually the ‘mother tongue’, targeting (in terms of ethnicity) and the use of

  1. Neutron guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Geoffrey L.

    1999-01-01

    A neutron guide in which lengths of cylindrical glass tubing have rectangular glass plates properly dimensioned to allow insertion into the cylindrical glass tubing so that a sealed geometrically precise polygonal cross-section is formed in the cylindrical glass tubing. The neutron guide provides easier alignment between adjacent sections than do the neutron guides of the prior art.

  2. Forest Monitoring and Wildland Early Fire Detection by a Hierarchical Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Molina-Pico

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A wildland fire is an uncontrolled fire that occurs mainly in forest areas, although it can also invade urban or agricultural areas. Among the main causes of wildfires, human factors, either intentional or accidental, are the most usual ones. The number and impact of forest fires are expected to grow as a consequence of the global warming. In order to fight against these disasters, it is necessary to adopt a comprehensive, multifaceted approach that enables a continuous situational awareness and instant responsiveness. This paper describes a hierarchical wireless sensor network aimed at early fire detection in risky areas, integrated with the fire fighting command centres, geographical information systems, and fire simulators. This configuration has been successfully tested in two fire simulations involving all the key players in fire fighting operations: fire brigades, communication systems, and aerial, coordination, and land means.

  3. Wildland fire ash: Production, composition and eco-hydro-geomorphic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodi, Merche B.; Martin, Deborah; Balfour, Victoria N.; Santin, Cristina; Doerr, Stefan H.; Pereira, Paulo; Cerda, Artemi; Mataix-Solera, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Fire transforms fuels (i.e. biomass, necromass, soil organic matter) into materials with different chemical and physical properties. One of these materials is ash, which is the particulate residue remaining or deposited on the ground that consists of mineral materials and charred organic components. The quantity and characteristics of ash produced during a wildland fire depend mainly on (1) the total burned fuel (i.e. fuel load), (2) fuel type and (3) its combustion completeness. For a given fuel load and type, a higher combustion completeness will reduce the ash organic carbon content, increasing the relative mineral content, and hence reducing total mass of ash produced. The homogeneity and thickness of the ash layer can vary substantially in space and time and reported average thicknesses range from close to 0 to 50 mm. Ash is a highly mobile material that, after its deposition, may be incorporated into the soil profile, redistributed or removed from a burned site within days or weeks by wind and water erosion to surface depressions, footslopes, streams, lakes, reservoirs and, potentially, into marine deposits.Research on the composition, properties and effects of ash on the burned ecosystem has been conducted on material collected in the field after wildland and prescribed fires as well as on material produced in the laboratory. At low combustion completeness (typically T  450 °C), most organic carbon is volatized and the remaining mineral ash has elevated pH when in solution. It is composed mainly of calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, silicon and phosphorous in the form of inorganic carbonates, whereas at T > 580 °C the most common forms are oxides. Ash produced under lower combustion completeness is usually darker, coarser, and less dense and has a higher saturated hydraulic conductivity than ash with higher combustion completeness, although physical reactions with CO2 and when moistened produce further changes in ash characteristics.As a new

  4. A cross-taxa survey of organochlorine pesticide contamination in a Costa Rican wildland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klemens, J.A.; Wieland, M.L.; Flanagin, V.J.; Frick, J.A.; Harper, R.G.

    2003-01-01

    Amphibians, turtles, mice and birds from a protected Costa Rican wildland were contaminated with organochlorine pesticides and metabolites. - Amphibians, turtles, birds (mostly passerines) and mice collected from a conservation area in northwestern Costa Rica were analyzed for organochlorine (OC) pesticide contamination. Six of 39 amphibians (three of eight species), three of six turtles (two species), one of eight mice (one species) and 19 of 55 birds (five of seven species) contained OCs at levels up to 580 ng/g. The most frequently detected compound in 23 of 108 organisms was p,p'DDE. Dieldrin, delta-BHC, heptachlor, p,p'DDD, and endosulfan II were each found in at least four organisms, while eight other OCs were found in at least one organism. The presence of OCs in taxa from the conservation area indicates the likelihood of long-distance transport of such compounds through the atmosphere

  5. Wildfire Prevention Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Wildlife Coordinating Group, Boise, ID.

    This document provides information and guidance on wildfire prevention strategies. Chapters include: (1) "Introduction"; (2) "How to Use this Guide"; (3) "Fire Cause Classification"; (4) "Relative Effectiveness"; (5) "Degree of Difficulty"; (6) "Intervention Techniques"; (7)…

  6. Hunger mediates apex predator's risk avoidance response in wildland-urban interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blecha, Kevin A; Boone, Randall B; Alldredge, Mathew W

    2018-05-01

    Conflicts between large mammalian predators and humans present a challenge to conservation efforts, as these events drive human attitudes and policies concerning predator species. Unfortunately, generalities portrayed in many empirical carnivore landscape selection studies do not provide an explanation for a predator's occasional use of residential development preceding a carnivore-human conflict event. In some cases, predators may perceive residential development as a risk-reward trade-off. We examine whether state-dependent mortality risk-sensitive foraging can explain an apex carnivore's (Puma concolor) occasional utilization of residential areas. We assess whether puma balance the risk and rewards in a system characterized by a gradient of housing densities ranging from wildland to suburban. Puma GPS location data, characterized as hunting and feeding locations, were used to assess landscape variables governing hunting success and hunting site selection. Hunting site selection behaviour was then analysed conditional on indicators of hunger state. Residential development provided a high energetic reward to puma based on increases in prey availability and hunting success rates associated with increased housing density. Despite a higher energetic reward, hunting site selection analysis indicated that pumas generally avoided residential development, a landscape type attributed with higher puma mortality risk. However, when a puma experienced periods of extended hunger, risk avoidance behaviour towards housing waned. This study demonstrates that an apex carnivore faces a trade-off between acquiring energetic rewards and avoiding risks associated with human housing. Periods of hunger can help explain an apex predator's occasional use of developed landscapes and thus the rare conflicts in the wildland-urban interface. Apex carnivore movement behaviours in relation to human conflicts are best understood as a three-player community-level interaction incorporating wild

  7. The use of distributed temperature sensing technology for monitoring wildland fire intensity and distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, C. G.; Cram, D.; Hatch, C. E.; Tyler, S. W.

    2014-12-01

    Distributed temperature sensing (DTS) technology offers a viable alternative for accurately measuring wildland fire intensity and distribution in real time applications. We conducted an experiment to test the use of DTS as an alternative technology to monitor prescribed fire temperatures in real time and across a broad spatial scale. The custom fiber-optic cable consisted of three fiber optic lines buffered by polyamide, copper, and polyvinyl chloride, respectively, each armored in a stainless steel tube backfilled with Nitrogen gas. The 150 m long cable was deployed in three different 20 by 26 m experimental plots of short-grass rangeland in central New Mexico. Cable was arranged to maximize coverage of the experimental plots and allow cross-comparison between two main parallel straight-line sections approximately 8 m apart. A DTS system recorded fire temperatures every three seconds and integrated every one meter. A series of five thermocouples attached to a datalogger were placed at selected locations along the cable and also recorded temperature data every three seconds on each fiber. Results indicate that in general there is good agreement between thermocouple-measured and DTS-measured temperatures. A close match in temperature between DTS and thermocouples was particularly observed during the rising limb but not so much during the decline. The metal armoring of the fiber-optic cable remained hot longer than the thermocouples after the flames had passed. The relatively short-duration, high-intensity, prescribed burn fire in each plot resulted in temperatures reaching up to 450 degrees Celsius. In addition, DTS data allow for illustration of the irregular nature of flame speed and travel path across the rangeland grasses, a phenomenon that was impossible to quantify without the use of this tool. This study adds to the understanding of using DTS as a new alternative tool for better characterizing wildland fire intensity, distribution and travel patterns, and

  8. Multimodal Guided Self-Help Exercise Program to Prevent Speech, Swallowing, and Shoulder Problems Among Head and Neck Cancer Patients : A Feasibility Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cnossen, Ingrid C.; van Uden-Kraan, Cornelia F.; Rinkel, Rico N. P. M.; Aalders, IJke J.; de Goede, Cees J. T.; de Bree, Remco; Doornaert, Patricia; Rietveld, Derek H. F.; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Witte, Birgit I.; Leemans, C. Rene; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M.

    Background: During a 6-week course of (chemo) radiation many head and neck cancer patients have to endure radiotherapy-induced toxicity, negatively affecting patients' quality of life. Pretreatment counseling combined with self-help exercises could be provided to inform patients and possibly prevent

  9. Using the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills Model to Guide the Development of an HIV Prevention Smartphone Application for High-Risk MSM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliabadi, Negar; Carballo-Dieguez, Alex; Bakken, Suzanne; Rojas, Marlene; Brown, William; Carry, Monique; Mosley, Jocelyn Patterson; Gelaude, Deborah; Schnall, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    HIV remains a significant public health problem among men who have sex with men (MSM). MSM comprise 2% of the U.S. population, but constitute 56% of persons living with HIV. Mobile health technology is a promising tool for HIV prevention. The purpose of this study was to identify the desired content, features and functions of a mobile application (app) for HIV prevention in high-risk MSM. We conducted five focus group sessions with 33 MSM. Focus group recordings were transcribed and coded using themes informed by the information-motivation-behavioral (IMB) skills model. Participants identified information needs related to HIV prevention: HIV testing and prophylaxis distribution centers, support groups/peers, and HIV/STI disease/treatment information. Areas of motivation to target for the app included: attitudes and intentions. Participants identified behavioral skills to address with an app: using condoms correctly, negotiating safer sex, recognizing signs of HIV/STI. Findings from this work provide insight into the desired content of a mobile app for HIV prevention in high-risk MSM. PMID:26595265

  10. Valuing Wildlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.A. Efroymson; H.I. Jager; W.W. Hargrove

    2010-01-01

    One of the central problems of land and water management is "the way in which scarce resources are allocated among alternative uses and users. The question is, of course, fundamental to economic models and modes of thought in ecology"(Rapport and Turner 1977). Many questions that are at the heart of environmental scape ecology and EcoRAs (the primary topics...

  11. Wildland fire as a self-regulating mechanism: the role of previous burns and weather in limiting fire progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Sean A; Holsinger, Lisa M; Miller, Carol; Nelson, Cara R

    2015-09-01

    Theory suggests that natural fire regimes can result in landscapes that are both self-regulating and resilient to fire. For example, because fires consume fuel, they may create barriers to the spread of future fires, thereby regulating fire size. Top-down controls such as weather, however, can weaken this effect. While empirical examples demonstrating this pattern-process feedback between vegetation and fire exist, they have been geographically limited or did not consider the influence of time between fires and weather. The availability of remotely sensed data identifying fire activity over the last four decades provides an opportunity to explicitly quantify-the ability of wildland fire to limit the progression of subsequent fire. Furthermore, advances in fire progression mapping now allow an evaluation of how daily weather as a top-down control modifies this effect. In this study, we evaluated the ability of wildland fire to create barriers that limit the spread of subsequent fire along a gradient representing time between fires in four large study areas in the western United States. Using fire progression maps in conjunction with weather station data, we also evaluated the influence of daily weather. Results indicate that wildland fire does limit subsequent fire spread in all four study areas, but this effect decays over time; wildland fire no longer limits subsequent fire spread 6-18 years after fire, depending on the study area. We also found that the ability of fire to regulate, subsequent fire progression was substantially reduced under extreme conditions compared to moderate weather conditions in all four study areas. This study increases understanding of the spatial feedbacks that can lead to self-regulating landscapes as well as the effects of top-down controls, such as weather, on these feedbacks. Our results will be useful to managers who seek to restore natural fire regimes or to exploit recent burns when managing fire.

  12. Does Place Attachment Predict Wildfire Mitigation and Preparedness? A Comparison of Wildland-Urban Interface and Rural Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Charis E; Lawrence, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Wildfires are a common occurrence in many countries and are predicted to increase as we experience the effects of climate change. As more people are expected to be affected by fires, it is important to increase people's wildfire mitigation and preparation. Place attachment has been theorized to be related to mitigation and preparation. The present study examined place attachment and wildfire mitigation and preparation in two Australian samples, one rural and one on the wildland-urban interface. The study consisted of 300 participants who responded to questionnaires about their place attachment to their homes and local areas, as well as describing their socio-demographic characteristics and wildfire mitigation and preparedness. Hierarchical regression showed that place attachment to homes predicted wildfire mitigation and preparedness in the rural sample but not in the wildland-urban interface sample. The results suggest that place attachment is a motivator for mitigation and preparation only for people living rurally. Reminding rural residents of their attachment to home at the beginning of wildfire season may result in greater mitigation and preparedness. Further research focusing on why attachment does not predict mitigation and preparedness in the wildland-urban interface is needed.

  13. Using therapeutic jurisprudence and preventive law to examine disputants' best interests in mediating cases about physicians' practices: a guide for medical regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Lorraine E

    2004-01-01

    Therapeutic jurisprudence (TJ) and preventive law (PL) are used as two theoretical perspectives from which to examine the best interests of parties in mediation because of a dispute about a physician's practice. The focus is mediation provided by and/or for the medical regulator. The paper reviews the literature on TJ and PL, and their relationship to mediation, and demonstrates how medical regulators could benefit by working within a framework reflecting both these perspectives providing it does not involve an egregious matter. A TJ and PL framework would be of particular value in identifying cases for mediation and in evaluating resolutions to mediated disputes.

  14. Guided labworks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lærke Bang

    For the last 40 years physics education research has shown poor learning outcomes of guided labs. Still this is found to be a very used teaching method in the upper secodary schools. This study explains the teacher's choice of guided labs throught the concept of redesign as obstacle dislodgement...

  15. Using National Ambient Air Quality Standards for fine particulate matter to assess regional wildland fire smoke and air quality management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Don; Cisneros, Ricardo; Traina, Samuel; Ghezzehei, Teamrat A; Shaw, Glenn

    2017-10-01

    Wildland fire is an important ecological process in the California Sierra Nevada. Personal accounts from pre-20th century describe a much smokier environment than present day. The policy of suppression beginning in the early 20th century and climate change are contributing to increased megafires. We use a single particulate monitoring site at the wildland urban interface to explore impacts from prescribed, managed, and full suppression wildland fires from 2006 to 2015 producing a contextual assessment of smoke impacts over time at the landscape level. Prescribed fire had little effect on local fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) air quality with readings typical of similar non-fire times; hourly and daily good to moderate Air Quality Index (AQI) for PM 2.5 , maximum hourly concentrations 21-103 μg m -3 , and mean concentrations between 7.7 and 13.2 μg m -3 . Hourly and daily AQI was typically good or moderate during managed fires with 3 h and one day reaching unhealthy while the site remained below National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), with maximum hourly concentrations 27-244 μg m -3 , and mean concentrations 6.7-11.7 μg m -3 . The large high intensity fire in this area created the highest short term impacts (AQI unhealthy for 4 h and very unhealthy for 1 h), 11 unhealthy for sensitive days, and produced the only annual value (43.9 μg m -3 ) over the NAAQS 98th percentile for PM 2.5 (35 μg m -3 ). Pinehurst remained below the federal standards for PM 2.5 when wildland fire in the local area was managed to 7800 ha (8-22% of the historic burn area). Considering air quality impacts from smoke using the NAAQS at a landscape level over time can give land and air managers a metric for broader evaluation of smoke impacts particularly when assessing ecologically beneficial fire. Allowing managers to control the amount and timing of individual wildland fire emissions can help lessen large smoke impacts to public health from a megafire

  16. The identification, management, and prevention of conflict with faculty and fellows: A practical ethical guide for department chairs and division chiefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervenak, Frank A; McCullough, Laurence B

    2007-12-01

    The relationship between chairs and divisions chiefs with faculty colleagues in departments of obstetrics and gynecology has important but heretofore unexplored ethical dimensions. Based on the ethical concept of fiduciary responsibility and contractual obligations, this paper provides ethically justified practical guidance for academic physician leaders in the identification, management, and prevention of conflicts in their relationships with faculty colleagues. The framework is developed in contrast with the fiduciary-contractual dimensions of the physician-patient relationship and is articulated in terms of the ethical principles of beneficence, respect for autonomy, and justice. The distinctive nature of the academic physician leader-colleague relationship is that beneficence-based obligations and justice-based obligations to colleagues can often justifiably override autonomy-based obligations to colleagues, about which it is crucial for academic leaders to be transparent in making and implementing leadership decisions.

  17. A low-cost particulate matter (PM2.5) monitor for wildland fire smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelleher, Scott; Quinn, Casey; Miller-Lionberg, Daniel; Volckens, John

    2018-02-01

    Wildfires and prescribed fires produce emissions that degrade visibility and are harmful to human health. Smoke emissions and exposure monitoring is critical for public and environmental health protection; however, ground-level measurements of smoke from wildfires and prescribed fires has proven difficult, as existing (validated) monitoring technologies are expensive, cumbersome, and generally require line power. Few ground-based measurements are made during fire events, which limits our ability to assess the environmental and human health impacts of wildland fire smoke. The objective of this work was to develop and validate an Outdoor Aerosol Sampler (OAS) - a filter-based air sampler that has been miniaturized, solar powered, and weatherproofed. This sampler was designed to overcome several of the technical challenges of wildland fire monitoring by being relatively inexpensive and solar powered. The sampler design objectives were achieved by leveraging low-cost electronic components, open-source programming platforms, and in-house fabrication methods. A direct-reading PM2.5 sensor was selected and integrated with the OAS to provide time-resolved concentration data. Cellular communications established via short message service (SMS) technology were utilized in transmitting online sensor readings and controlling the sampling device remotely. A Monte Carlo simulation aided in the selection of battery and solar power necessary to independently power the OAS, while keeping cost and size to a minimum. Thirteen OAS were deployed to monitor smoke concentrations downwind from a large prescribed fire. Aerosol mass concentrations were interpolated across the monitoring network to depict smoke concentration gradients in the vicinity of the fire. Strong concentration gradients were observed (spatially and temporally) and likely present due to a combination of changing fire location and intensity, topographical features (e.g., mountain ridges), and diurnal weather patterns

  18. HBR guides

    CERN Document Server

    Duarte, Nancy; Dillon, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Master your most pressing professional challenges with this seven-volume set that collects the smartest best practices from leading experts all in one place. "HBR Guide to Better Business Writing" and "HBR Guide to Persuasive Presentations" help you perfect your communication skills; "HBR Guide to Managing Up and Across" and "HBR Guide to Office Politics" show you how to build the best professional relationships; "HBR Guide to Finance Basics for Managers" is the one book you'll ever need to teach you about the numbers; "HBR Guide to Project Management" addresses tough questions such as how to manage stakeholder expectations and how to manage uncertainty in a complex project; and "HBR Guide to Getting the Right Work Done" goes beyond basic productivity tips to teach you how to prioritize and focus on your work. This specially priced set of the most popular books in the series makes a perfect gift for aspiring leaders looking for trusted advice. Arm yourself with the advice you need to succeed on the job, from ...

  19. Psychological distress, health protection, and sexual practices among young men who have sex with men: Using social action theory to guide HIV prevention efforts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian W Holloway

    Full Text Available The present study addresses gaps in the literature related to theory development for young men who have sex with men (YMSM sexual practices through the application and modification of Social Action Theory. Data come from the Healthy Young Men study (N = 526, which longitudinally tracked a diverse cohort of YMSM ages 18-24 to characterize risk and protective factors associated with drug use and sexual practices. Structural equation modeling examined the applicability of, and any necessary modifications to a YMSM-focused version of Social Action Theory. The final model displayed excellent fit (CFI = 0.955, TLI = 0.947, RMSEA = 0.037 and suggested concordance between social support and personal capacity for sexual health promotion. For YMSM, practicing health promotion and avoiding practices that may put them at risk for HIV was associated with both social isolation and psychological distress (β = -0.372, t = -4.601, p<0.001; psychological distress is an internalized response to environmental and cognitive factors and sexual practices are an externalized response. Results point to the utility of Social Action Theory as a useful model for understanding sexual practices among YMSM, the application of which shows health protective sexual practices are a function of sociocognitive factors that are influenced by environmental contexts. Social Action Theory can help prevention scientists better address the needs of this vulnerable population.

  20. Psychological distress, health protection, and sexual practices among young men who have sex with men: Using social action theory to guide HIV prevention efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Ian W.; Traube, Dorian E.; Schrager, Sheree M.; Tan, Diane; Dunlap, Shannon; Kipke, Michele D.

    2017-01-01

    The present study addresses gaps in the literature related to theory development for young men who have sex with men (YMSM) sexual practices through the application and modification of Social Action Theory. Data come from the Healthy Young Men study (N = 526), which longitudinally tracked a diverse cohort of YMSM ages 18–24 to characterize risk and protective factors associated with drug use and sexual practices. Structural equation modeling examined the applicability of, and any necessary modifications to a YMSM-focused version of Social Action Theory. The final model displayed excellent fit (CFI = 0.955, TLI = 0.947, RMSEA = 0.037) and suggested concordance between social support and personal capacity for sexual health promotion. For YMSM, practicing health promotion and avoiding practices that may put them at risk for HIV was associated with both social isolation and psychological distress (β = -0.372, t = -4.601, pcognitive factors and sexual practices are an externalized response. Results point to the utility of Social Action Theory as a useful model for understanding sexual practices among YMSM, the application of which shows health protective sexual practices are a function of sociocognitive factors that are influenced by environmental contexts. Social Action Theory can help prevention scientists better address the needs of this vulnerable population. PMID:28886128

  1. Comparison of different platelet count thresholds to guide administration of prophylactic platelet transfusion for preventing bleeding in people with haematological disorders after myelosuppressive chemotherapy or stem cell transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estcourt, Lise J; Stanworth, Simon J; Doree, Carolyn; Hopewell, Sally; Trivella, Marialena; Murphy, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    Background Platelet transfusions are used in modern clinical practice to prevent and treat bleeding in people who are thrombocytopenic due to bone marrow failure. Although considerable advances have been made in platelet transfusion therapy in the last 40 years, some areas continue to provoke debate, especially concerning the use of prophylactic platelet transfusions for the prevention of thrombocytopenic bleeding. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2004, and previously updated in 2012 that addressed four separate questions: prophylactic versus therapeutic-only platelet transfusion policy; prophylactic platelet transfusion threshold; prophylactic platelet transfusion dose; and platelet transfusions compared to alternative treatments. This review has now been split into four smaller reviews looking at these questions individually; this review compares prophylactic platelet transfusion thresholds. Objectives To determine whether different platelet transfusion thresholds for administration of prophylactic platelet transfusions (platelet transfusions given to prevent bleeding) affect the efficacy and safety of prophylactic platelet transfusions in preventing bleeding in people with haematological disorders undergoing myelosuppressive chemotherapy or haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Search methods We searched for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 6, 23 July 2015), MEDLINE (from 1946), Embase (from 1974), CINAHL (from 1937), the Transfusion Evidence Library (from 1950), and ongoing trial databases to 23 July 2015. Selection criteria We included RCTs involving transfusions of platelet concentrates, prepared either from individual units of whole blood or by apheresis, and given to prevent bleeding in people with haematological disorders (receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy or undergoing HSCT) that compared different thresholds for

  2. Prevention of cardiovascular disease guided by total risk estimations - challenges and opportunities for practical implementation: highlights of a CardioVascular Clinical Trialists (CVCT) Workshop of the ESC Working Group on CardioVascular Pharmacology and Drug Therapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Zannad, Faiez

    2011-11-03

    This paper presents a summary of the potential practical and economic barriers to implementation of primary prevention of cardiovascular disease guided by total cardiovascular risk estimations in the general population. It also reviews various possible solutions to overcome these barriers. The report is based on discussion among experts in the area at a special CardioVascular Clinical Trialists workshop organized by the European Society of Cardiology Working Group on Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Drug Therapy that took place in September 2009. It includes a review of the evidence in favour of the \\'treat-to-target\\' paradigm, as well as potential difficulties with this approach, including the multiple pathological processes present in high-risk patients that may not be adequately addressed by this strategy. The risk-guided therapy approach requires careful definitions of cardiovascular risk and consideration of clinical endpoints as well as the differences between trial and \\'real-world\\' populations. Cost-effectiveness presents another issue in scenarios of finite healthcare resources, as does the difficulty of documenting guideline uptake and effectiveness in the primary care setting, where early modification of risk factors may be more beneficial than later attempts to manage established disease. The key to guideline implementation is to improve the quality of risk assessment and demonstrate the association between risk factors, intervention, and reduced event rates. In the future, this may be made possible by means of automated data entry and various other measures. In conclusion, opportunities exist to increase guideline implementation in the primary care setting, with potential benefits for both the general population and healthcare resources.

  3. Developing Custom Fire Behavior Fuel Models for Mediterranean Wildland-Urban Interfaces in Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elia, Mario; Lafortezza, Raffaele; Lovreglio, Raffaella; Sanesi, Giovanni

    2015-09-01

    The dramatic increase of fire hazard in wildland-urban interfaces (WUIs) has required more detailed fuel management programs to preserve ecosystem functions and human settlements. Designing effective fuel treatment strategies allows to achieve goals such as resilient landscapes, fire-adapted communities, and ecosystem response. Therefore, obtaining background information on forest fuel parameters and fuel accumulation patterns has become an important first step in planning fuel management interventions. Site-specific fuel inventory data enhance the accuracy of fuel management planning and help forest managers in fuel management decision-making. We have customized four fuel models for WUIs in southern Italy, starting from forest classes of land-cover use and adopting a hierarchical clustering approach. Furthermore, we provide a prediction of the potential fire behavior of our customized fuel models using FlamMap 5 under different weather conditions. The results suggest that fuel model IIIP (Mediterranean maquis) has the most severe fire potential for the 95th percentile weather conditions and the least severe potential fire behavior for the 85th percentile weather conditions. This study shows that it is possible to create customized fuel models directly from fuel inventory data. This achievement has broad implications for land managers, particularly forest managers of the Mediterranean landscape, an ecosystem that is susceptible not only to wildfires but also to the increasing human population and man-made infrastructures.

  4. Fire characteristics associated with firefighter injury on large federal wildland fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Carla; Lynch, Charles F; Torner, James; Peek-Asa, Corinne

    2013-02-01

    Wildland fires present many injury hazards to firefighters. We estimate injury rates and identify fire-related factors associated with injury. Data from the National Interagency Fire Center from 2003 to 2007 provided the number of injuries in which the firefighter could not return to his or her job assignment, person-days worked, and fire characteristics (year, region, season, cause, fuel type, resistance to control, and structures destroyed). We assessed fire-level risk factors of having at least one reported injury using logistic regression. Negative binomial regression was used to examine incidence rate ratios associated with fire-level risk factors. Of 867 fires, 9.5% required the most complex management and 24.7% required the next-highest level of management. Fires most often occurred in the western United States (82.8%), during the summer (69.6%), caused by lightening (54.9%). Timber was the most frequent fuel source (40.2%). Peak incident management level, person-days of exposure, and the fire's resistance to control were significantly related to the odds of a fire having at least one reported injury. However, the most complex fires had a lower injury incidence rate than less complex fires. Although fire complexity and the number of firefighters were associated with the risk for at least one reported injury, the more experienced and specialized firefighting teams had lower injury incidence. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Coupled atmosphere-wildland fire modeling with WRF 3.3 and SFIRE 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mandel

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We describe the physical model, numerical algorithms, and software structure of a model consisting of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model, coupled with the fire-spread model (SFIRE module. In every time step, the fire model inputs the surface wind, which drives the fire, and outputs the heat flux from the fire into the atmosphere, which in turn influences the atmosphere. SFIRE is implemented by the level set method, which allows a submesh representation of the burning region and a flexible implementation of various kinds of ignition. The coupled model is capable of running on a cluster faster than real time even with fine resolution in dekameters. It is available as a part of the Open Wildland Fire Modeling (OpenWFM environment at http://openwfm.org, which contains also utilities for visualization, diagnostics, and data processing, including an extended version of the WRF Preprocessing System (WPS. The SFIRE code with a subset of the features is distributed with WRF 3.3 as WRF-Fire.

  6. A life cycle hazard assessment (LCHA) framework to address fire hazards at the wildland-urban interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, Eric; Pierce, Jen; Wuerzer, Thomas; Glenn, Nancy; Dialani, Jijay; Gibble, Katie; Frazier, Tim; Strand, Eva

    2015-04-01

    The stages of planning for and responding to natural hazards, such as wildfires and related events, are often conducted as discrete (and often not connected) efforts. Disaster response often takes precedence, exhausting agency and stakeholder resources, and the planning stages are conducted by different agencies or entities with different and often competing agendas and jurisdictions. The result is that evaluation after a disaster can be minimal or even non-existent as resources are expended and interest moves on to the next event. Natural disasters and hazards, however, have a tendency to cascade and multiply: wildfires impact the vulnerability of hillslopes, for example, which may result in landslides, flooding and debris flows long after the initial event has occurred. Connecting decisions across multiple events and time scales is ignored, yet these connections could lead to better policy making at all stages of disaster risk reduction. Considering this situation, we present an adapted life cycle analysis (LCA) approach to examine fire-related hazards at the Wildland-Urban Interface in the American West. The LCHA focuses on the temporal integration of : 1) the 'pre-fire' set of physical conditions (e.g. fuel loads) and human conditions (e.g. hazard awareness), 2) the 'fire event', focusing on computational analysis of the communication patterns and responsibility for response to the event, and 3) the 'post-event' analysis of the landscape susceptibility to fire-related debris flows. The approach of the LCHA follows other models used by governmental agencies to prepare for disasters through 1) preparation and prevention, 2) response and 3) recovery. As an overlay are the diverse agencies and policies associated with these stages and their respective resource and management decisions over time. LCAs have evolved from a business-centric consideration of the environmental impact of a specific product over the products life. This approach takes several phases to end

  7. Policy change and governance at the wildland-urban interface: the case of post-wildfire impacts in Boise, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, Eric

    2013-04-01

    In the summer of 2012 over 1.7 million acres (approximately 6900 sq kilometers) were burned from wildfires in the state of Idaho in the Western United States. While most of the these fires were in rural and wilderness areas, several significant fires occurred at the wildland-urban interface (WUI), threatening houses, communities and the built environment as never before. As the population of the Mountain West in the United States grows, the WUI (the area where homes are being built adjacent to traditionally wild or rural areas and the built environment encroaches on wildlands) is rapidly becoming an at risk area for human habitation. Efforts to make these areas more resilient and sustainable in the face of increasing fire risk, due to increasing drought and climate change, are resulting in efforts to change or adapt disaster response and planning policy. An increase in stakeholders, however, with diverse objectives and resources presents an opportunity to assess the current governance situation for policy change in response to wildland fires in the dynamic and complex context of the WUI. The research presented here will focus on the case of Treasure Valley region of southwest Idaho and Boise, the capitol city of Idaho. This region is illustrative of the growing urban western United States and the pressures from a growing population pushing into the WUI. This research frames fire policy and decision making at the wildland-urban interface within public policy process theory using the example of the summer of 2012 forest fires in Idaho (USA) and focuses on subsequents impact these fires are having on fire planning and policy in the Boise metropolitan region. The focus is on the diverse stakeholders (federal, state and regional agencies, tourism, agriculture and private sector interests, homeowner organizations, and fire response and recovery agencies) and their roles and responsibilities, their interactions, decision and policy processes, the use of science in

  8. LA-UR-14-27684, Analysis of Wildland Fire Hazard to the TWF at Los Alamos National Labs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbertson, Sarah [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-10-02

    Wildfires represent an Anticipated Natural Phenomena Hazard for LANL and the surrounding area. The TWF facility is located in a cleared area and is surrounded on three sides by roadway pavement. Therefore, direct propagation of flames to the facility is not considered the most credible means of ignition. Rather, fires started by airborne transport of burning brands constitute the most significant wildland fire threat to the TWF. The purpose of this document is to update LA-UR-13-24529, Airborne Projection of Burning Embers – Planning and Controls for Los Alamos National Laboratory Facilities, to be specific to the TWF site and operations.

  9. Wide Dynamic Range Multiband Infrared Radiometer for In-Fire Measurements of Wildland Fire Radiant Flux Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremens, R.; Dickinson, M. B.; Hardy, C.; Skowronski, N.; Ellicott, E. A.; Schroeder, W.

    2016-12-01

    We have developed a wide dynamic range (24-bit) data acquisition system for collection of radiant flux density (FRFD) data from wildland fires. The data collection subsystem was designed as an Arduino `shield' and incorporates a 24-bit analog-to-digital converter, precision voltage reference, real time clock, microSD card interface, audible annuciator and interface for various digital communication interfaces (RS232, I2C, SPI, etc.). The complete radiometer system consists of our custom-designed `shield', a commercially available Arduino MEGA computer circuit board and a thermopile sensor -amplifier daughter board. Software design and development is greatly assisted by the availability of a library of public-domain, user-implemented software. The daughter board houses a 5-band radiometer using thermopiles designed for this experiment (Dexter Research Corp., Dexter, MI) to allow determination of the total FRFD from the fire (using a wide band thermopile with a KRS-5 window, 0.1 - 30 um), the FRFD as would be received by an orbital asset like MODIS (3.95 um center wavelength (CWL) and 10.95 CWL, corresponding to MODIS bands 21/22 and 31, respectively) and wider bandpass (0.1-5.5 um and 8-14 um) corresponding to the FRFD recorded by `MWIR' and `LWIR' imaging systems. We required a very wide dynamic range system in order to be able to record the flux density from `cold' ground before the fire, through the `hot' flaming combustion stage, to the `cool' phase after passage of the fire front. The recording dynamic range required (with reasonable resolution at the lowest temperatures) is on the order of 106, which is not currently available in commercial instrumentation at a price point, size or feature set that is suitable for wildland fire investigations. The entire unit, along with rechargeable battery power supply is housed in a fireproof aluminum chassis box, which is then mounted on a mast at a height of 5 - 7 m above the fireground floor. We will report initial

  10. Guide device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brammer, C.M. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Disclosed is a fuel handling guide tube centering device for use in nuclear reactors during fuel assembly handling operations. The device comprises an outer ring secured to the flange of a nuclear reactor pressure vessel, a rotatable table rotatably coupled to the outer ring, and a plurality of openings through the table. Truncated locating cones are positioned in each of the openings in the table, and the locating cones center the guide tube during fuel handling operations. The openings in the table are located such that each fuel assembly in the nuclear core may be aligned with one of the openings by a suitable rotation of the table. The locating cones thereby provide alignment between the fuel handling mechanism located in the guide tube and the individual fuel assemblies of the cone. The need for a device to provide alignment is especially critical for floating nuclear power plants, where wave motion may exist during fuel handling operations. 5 claims, 4 figures

  11. Mieux comprendre le transfert de connaissances en SST : propositions pour une typologie des guides de prévention Better Understanding Knowledge Transfer in Occupational Health and Safety: Proposals for a Prevention Guide Typology Comprender mejor la transferencia de conocimientos en salud y seguridad en el trabajo. Proposiciones para una tipología de las guías de prevención

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Faurie

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available L’article est une contribution originale à la réflexion sur le rôle des relais et des relayeurs en santé, sécurité et conditions de travail (SSCT. À partir de sept indicateurs principaux, une typologie des guides en SSCT a pu être établie. Quatre catégories de guides ont été identifiées : des guides d’action, de médiation, de sensibilisation, d’information. À partir de cette typologie, l’analyse a montré que les guides de prévention peuvent être reconnus soit comme outils de pratiques (fonction opératoire, outils de gestion (fonction managériale, outils de communication (fonction innovation ou outils techniques (fonction de réglementation. La discussion précise l’intérêt de cette catégorisation pour la définition d’outils de prévention plus adaptés.The present study contributes to thinking on prevention guides, which are the main tools for knowledge translation in occupational health and safety. Based on an analysis of guides edited by ARACT Languedoc-Roussillon, the article presents a typology for prevention guides in OHS. Four categories of guides were identified: action, mediation, awareness, and information. The analysis shows that each type of guide fulfils a specific function in dynamic prevention. The interest that this categorization holds for the definition of better adapted prevention tools is discussed.El presente estudio contribuye al análisis de guías de prevención, las cuales constituyen un punto fundamental dentro del proceso de Transferencia de Conocimientos (TC en el campo de la Salud y Seguridad en el Trabajo (SST. A partir de un análisis del contenido de las guías publicadas por la ARACT Languedoc-Roussillon, el artículo presenta una tipología de guías en materia de SST. Cuatro categorías de guías de prevención fueron identificadas: guías de acción, mediación, promoción, información. El análisis muestra que cada tipo de guía cumple una función específica dentro de la

  12. Timing Constraints on Remote Sensing of Wildland Fire Burned Area in the Southeastern US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Robertson

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM satellite imagery is increasingly used for mapping wildland fire burned area and burn severity, owing to its frequency of collection, relatively high resolution, and availability free of charge. However, rapid response of vegetation following fire and frequent cloud cover pose challenges to this approach in the southeastern US. We assessed these timing constraints by using a series of Landsat TM images to determine how rapidly the remotely sensed burn scar signature fades following prescribed burns in wet flatwoods and depression swamp community types in the Apalachicola National Forest, Florida, USA during 2006. We used both the Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR of reflectance bands sensitive to vegetation and exposed soil cover, as well as the change in NBR from before to after fire (dNBR, to estimate burned area. We also determined the average and maximum amount of time following fire required to obtain a cloud-free image for burns in each month of the year, as well as the predicted effect of this time lag on percent accuracy of burn scar estimates. Using both NBR and dNBR, the detectable area decreased linearly 9% per month on average over the first four months following fire. Our findings suggest that the NBR and dNBR methods for monitoring burned area in common southeastern US vegetation community types are limited to an average of 78–90% accuracy among months of the year, with individual burns having values as low as 38%, if restricted to use of Landsat 5 TM imagery. However, the majority of burns can still be mapped at accuracies similar to those in other regions of the US, and access to additional sources of satellite imagery would improve overall accuracy.

  13. Timing constraints on remote sensing of wildland fire burned area in the southeastern US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picotte, Joshua J.; Robertson, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Remote sensing using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite imagery is increasingly used for mapping wildland fire burned area and burn severity, owing to its frequency of collection, relatively high resolution, and availability free of charge. However, rapid response of vegetation following fire and frequent cloud cover pose challenges to this approach in the southeastern US. We assessed these timing constraints by using a series of Landsat TM images to determine how rapidly the remotely sensed burn scar signature fades following prescribed burns in wet flatwoods and depression swamp community types in the Apalachicola National Forest, Florida, USA during 2006. We used both the Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) of reflectance bands sensitive to vegetation and exposed soil cover, as well as the change in NBR from before to after fire (dNBR), to estimate burned area. We also determined the average and maximum amount of time following fire required to obtain a cloud-free image for burns in each month of the year, as well as the predicted effect of this time lag on percent accuracy of burn scar estimates. Using both NBR and dNBR, the detectable area decreased linearly 9% per month on average over the first four months following fire. Our findings suggest that the NBR and dNBR methods for monitoring burned area in common southeastern US vegetation community types are limited to an average of 78–90% accuracy among months of the year, with individual burns having values as low as 38%, if restricted to use of Landsat 5 TM imagery. However, the majority of burns can still be mapped at accuracies similar to those in other regions of the US, and access to additional sources of satellite imagery would improve overall accuracy.

  14. Interactions among wildland fires in a long-established Sierra Nevada natural fire area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, B.M.; Miller, J.D.; Thode, A.E.; Kelly, M.; van Wagtendonk, J.W.; Stephens, S.L.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate interactions between successive naturally occurring fires, and assess to what extent the environments in which fires burn influence these interactions. Using mapped fire perimeters and satellite-based estimates of post-fire effects (referred to hereafter as fire severity) for 19 fires burning relatively freely over a 31-year period, we demonstrate that fire as a landscape process can exhibit self-limiting characteristics in an upper elevation Sierra Nevada mixed conifer forest. We use the term 'self-limiting' to refer to recurring fire as a process over time (that is, fire regime) consuming fuel and ultimately constraining the spatial extent and lessening fire-induced effects of subsequent fires. When the amount of time between successive adjacent fires is under 9 years, and when fire weather is not extreme (burning index fire burning into the previous fire area is extremely low. Analysis of fire severity data by 10-year periods revealed a fair degree of stability in the proportion of area burned among fire severity classes (unchanged, low, moderate, high). This is in contrast to a recent study demonstrating increasing high-severity burning throughout the Sierra Nevada from 1984 to 2006, which suggests freely burning fires over time in upper elevation Sierra Nevada mixed conifer forests can regulate fire-induced effects across the landscape. This information can help managers better anticipate short- and long-term effects of allowing naturally ignited fires to burn, and ultimately, improve their ability to implement Wildland Fire Use programs in similar forest types. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  15. High resolution mapping of development in the wildland-urban interface using object based image extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Caggiano

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The wildland-urban interface (WUI, the area where human development encroaches on undeveloped land, is expanding throughout the western United States resulting in increased wildfire risk to homes and communities. Although census based mapping efforts have provided insights into the pattern of development and expansion of the WUI at regional and national scales, these approaches do not provide sufficient detail for fine-scale fire and emergency management planning, which requires maps of individual building locations. Although fine-scale maps of the WUI have been developed, they are often limited in their spatial extent, have unknown accuracies and biases, and are costly to update over time. In this paper we assess a semi-automated Object Based Image Analysis (OBIA approach that utilizes 4-band multispectral National Aerial Image Program (NAIP imagery for the detection of individual buildings within the WUI. We evaluate this approach by comparing the accuracy and overall quality of extracted buildings to a building footprint control dataset. In addition, we assessed the effects of buffer distance, topographic conditions, and building characteristics on the accuracy and quality of building extraction. The overall accuracy and quality of our approach was positively related to buffer distance, with accuracies ranging from 50 to 95% for buffer distances from 0 to 100 m. Our results also indicate that building detection was sensitive to building size, with smaller outbuildings (footprints less than 75 m2 having detection rates below 80% and larger residential buildings having detection rates above 90%. These findings demonstrate that this approach can successfully identify buildings in the WUI in diverse landscapes while achieving high accuracies at buffer distances appropriate for most fire management applications while overcoming cost and time constraints associated with traditional approaches. This study is unique in that it evaluates the ability

  16. Security guide for subcontractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, R.C.

    1993-06-01

    This guide is provided to aid in the achievement of security objectives in the Department of Energy (DOE) contractor/subcontractor program. The objectives of security are to protect information that, if released, would endanger the common defense and security of the nation and to safeguard plants and installations of the DOE and its contractors to prevent the interruption of research and production programs. The security objective and means of achieving the objective are described. Specific security measures discussed in this guide include physical barriers, personnel identification systems, personnel and vehicular access control, classified document control, protection of classified matter in use, storing classified matter, and repository combinations. Means of dealing with security violations and security infractions are described. Maintenance of a security education program is discussed. Also discussed are methods of handling clearance terminations, visitor control, travel to sensitive countries, and shipment security. The Technical Surveillance Countermeasures Program (TSCM), the Computer Security Program, and the Operations Security Plan (OPSEC) are examined.

  17. Applying the Wildland Fire Decision Support System (WFDSS) to support risk-informed decision making: The Gold Pan Fire, Bitterroot National Forest, Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erin K. Noonan-Wright; Tonja S. Opperman

    2015-01-01

    In response to federal wildfire policy changes, risk-informed decision-making by way of improved decision support, is increasingly becoming a component of managing wildfires. As fire incidents escalate in size and complexity, the Wildland Fire Decision Support System (WFDSS) provides support with different analytical tools as fire conditions change. We demonstrate the...

  18. A collaborative fire hazard reduction/ecosystem restoration stewardship project in a Montana mixed ponderosa pine/Douglas-fir/western larch wildland urban interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve Slaughter; Laura Ward; Michael Hillis; Jim Chew; Rebecca McFarlan

    2004-01-01

    Forest Service managers and researchers designed and evaluated alternative disturbance-based fire hazard reduction/ecosystem restoration treatments in a greatly altered low-elevation ponderosa pine/Douglas-fir/western larch wildland urban interface. Collaboratively planned improvement cutting and prescribed fire treatment alternatives were evaluated in simulations of...

  19. A comparison of landscape fuel treatment strategies to mitigate wildland fire risk in the urban interface and preserve old forest structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan Ager; Nicole Vaillant

    2010-01-01

    We simulated fuel reduction treatments on a 16,000-ha study area in Oregon, US, to examine tradeoffs between placing fuel treatments near residential structures within an urban interface, versus treating stands in the adjacent wildlands to meet forest health and ecological restoration goals. The treatment strategies were evaluated by simulating 10,000 wildfires with...

  20. The effect of mechanical fuel reduction treatments in the wildland-urban interface on the amount and distribution of bark beetle-caused tree mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher J. Fettig; Joel D. McMillin; John A. Anhold; Shakeeb M. Hamud; Robert R. Borys; Steven J. Seybold

    2007-01-01

    Selective logging, fire suppression, forest succession, and climatic changes have resulted in high fire hazards over large areas of the western USA. Federal and state hazardous fuel reduction programs have increased accordingly to reduce the risk, extent and severity of these events, particularly in the wildland urban interface. In this study, we examined the effect of...

  1. Pleasing some of the people some of the time: How authors, subjects, and readers assess "Audience" in wildland fire incident reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer A. Ziegler; Anne E. Black

    2012-01-01

    When unexpected outcomes occur in wildland fire, reports from incident reviews carry a symbolic value beyond the factual information they contain. Popular perception of incident reviews is that the organization has identified the root cause with an eye toward system change, and that the final report chronicles "the" final, definitive, and authoritative...

  2. Pleasing some of the people some of the time: How authors, subjects, and readers assess the complex landscape of "audience" in wildland fire incident reviews (Abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer Ziegler; Anne E. Black

    2012-01-01

    When unexpected outcomes occur in wildland fire, reports from incident reviews carry a symbolic value beyond the factual information they contain. Popular perception of incident reviews is that the organization has identified the root cause with an eye toward system change, and that the final report chronicles "the" final, definitive, and authoritative...

  3. Climate change effects on wildland fire risk in the Northeastern and Great Lakes states predicted by a downscaled multi-model ensemble

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerr, Gaige Hunter; DeGaetano, Arthur T.; Stoof, Cathelijne R.; Ward, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    This study is among the first to investigate wildland fire risk in the Northeastern and the Great Lakes states under a changing climate. We use a multi-model ensemble (MME) of regional climate models from the Coordinated Regional Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX) together with the Canadian Forest

  4. The sociology of landowner interest in restoring fire-adapted, biodiverse habitats in the wildland-urban interface of Oregon's Willamette Valley ecoregion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Max Nielsen-Pincus; Robert G. Ribe; Bart R. Johnson

    2011-01-01

    In many parts of the world, the combined effects of wildfire, climate change, and population growth in the wildland-urban interface pose increasing risks to both people and biodiversity. These risks are exemplified in western Oregon's Willamette Valley Ecoregion, where population is projected to double by 2050 and climate change is expected to increase wildfire...

  5. Perceptions of Wildfire Threat and Mitigation Measures by Residents of Fire-Prone Communities in the Northeast: Survey Results and Wildland Fire Management Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Ryan; Mark B. Wamsley

    2006-01-01

    We surveyed residents of fire-prone areas of the Central Pine Barrens of Long Island, New York, and the Plymouth Pine Barrens in Massachusetts to learn how they perceived wildland fire risk and management techniques for reducing fire hazard. We found that residents considered the fire threat to their own property to be relatively low in spite of first-hand experience...

  6. Effects of wildland fire smoke on a tree-roosting bat: integrating a plume model, field measurements, and mammalian dose-response relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.B. Dickinson; J.C. Norris; A.S. Bova; R.L. Kremens; V. Young; M.J. Lacki

    2010-01-01

    Faunal injury and mortality in wildland fires is a concern for wildlife and fire management although little work has been done on the mechanisms by which exposures cause their effects. In this paper, we use an integral plume model, field measurements, and models of carbon monoxide and heat effects to explore risk to tree-roosting bats during prescribed fires in mixed-...

  7. A comparison of three approaches for simulating fine-scale surface winds in support of wildland fire management: Part I. Model formulation and comparison against measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason M. Forthofer; Bret W. Butler; Natalie S. Wagenbrenner

    2014-01-01

    For this study three types of wind models have been defined for simulating surface wind flow in support of wildland fire management: (1) a uniform wind field (typically acquired from coarse-resolution (,4 km) weather service forecast models); (2) a newly developed mass-conserving model and (3) a newly developed mass and momentumconserving model (referred to as the...

  8. Adult Catheter Care and Infection Prevention Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and go to an emergency room or clinic. Bring your repair kit because, unfortunately, many emergency rooms do not have them. • Ask your clinician about a sutureless securement device to reduce the risk of infection and accidental ...

  9. Parent's Guide to Preventing Inhalant Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Certification Import Surveillance International Recall Guidance Civil and Criminal Penalties Federal Court Orders & Decisions Research & Statistics Research & Statistics Technical Reports Injury Statistics NEISS ...

  10. Westinghouse radiological containment guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aitken, S.B.; Brown, R.L.; Cantrell, J.R.; Wilcox, D.P.

    1994-03-01

    This document provides uniform guidance for Westinghouse contractors on the implementation of radiological containments. This document reflects standard industry practices and is provided as a guide. The guidance presented herein is consistent with the requirements of the DOE Radiological Control Manual (DOE N 5480.6). This guidance should further serve to enable and encourage the use of containments for contamination control and to accomplish the following: Minimize personnel contamination; Prevent the spread of contamination; Minimize the required use of protective clothing and personal protective equipment; Minimize the generation of waste

  11. Practical guide of chemical risk; Guide pratique du risque chimique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouysset, P. [Cabinet d' Expertise Technologia, 75 - Paris (France)

    2003-07-01

    This practical guide deals with the chemical risk from physical and chemical, toxicological and eco-toxicological data. The different subjects are illustrated by concrete examples (asbestos, glycol ethers, acrylates....). Prevention measures are given for each subject and example. The first part deals particularly with the study of the different chemical risks and with their consequences on the human health and on the material. Often present, some other risks as the electricity, the biological risk... are described too. The second part is devoted to the prevention in its three aspects: regulation, technical and organisational. A part is devoted to accidents and occupational diseases. The approach, both scientific, didactic and practical of this guide intends it to prevention engineers and technicians, factory doctors, public health specialists, 'CHSCT' (Commite d'Hygiene, Securite et Conditions de Travail) members but to the general public too. (O.M.)

  12. Turbulence and fire-spotting effects into wild-land fire simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Inderpreet; Mentrelli, Andrea; Bosseur, Frédéric; Filippi, Jean-Baptiste; Pagnini, Gianni

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents a mathematical approach to model the effects and the role of phenomena with random nature such as turbulence and fire-spotting into the existing wildfire simulators. The formulation proposes that the propagation of the fire-front is the sum of a drifting component (obtained from an existing wildfire simulator without turbulence and fire-spotting) and a random fluctuating component. The modelling of the random effects is embodied in a probability density function accounting for the fluctuations around the fire perimeter which is given by the drifting component. In past, this formulation has been applied to include these random effects into a wildfire simulator based on an Eulerian moving interface method, namely the Level Set Method (LSM), but in this paper the same formulation is adapted for a wildfire simulator based on a Lagrangian front tracking technique, namely the Discrete Event System Specification (DEVS). The main highlight of the present study is the comparison of the performance of a Lagrangian and an Eulerian moving interface method when applied to wild-land fire propagation. Simple idealised numerical experiments are used to investigate the potential applicability of the proposed formulation to DEVS and to compare its behaviour with respect to the LSM. The results show that DEVS based wildfire propagation model qualitatively improves its performance (e.g., reproducing flank and back fire, increase in fire spread due to pre-heating of the fuel by hot air and firebrands, fire propagation across no fuel zones, secondary fire generation, ...) when random effects are included according to the present formulation. The performance of DEVS and LSM based wildfire models is comparable and the only differences which arise among the two are due to the differences in the geometrical construction of the direction of propagation. Though the results presented here are devoid of any validation exercise and provide only a proof of concept, they show a

  13. Pressurized water reactor vessel internals guide tube guide card wear aging management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    In order for the pressurized water reactors to qualify for life extension, they have to meet the requirements of MRP-277 (Reference 1). MRP-227 lists the various reactor internals components that need to be inspected in order for a plant to qualify for life extension; the upper internals guide tube guide cards are one such component. Aggressive guide card wear in a plant can lead to violation of plant technical specifications, safety issues in the event of insertion, failure of one or more rod cluster control assemblies, or even result in plant shutdown or outage extensions. Owing to the criticality of the guide card wear, as discussed above, the Pressurized Water Reactor Owners Group (PWROG) initiated a guide card wear measurement project, led by Westinghouse. Under this program, wear of the guide cards at three identified lead plants was observed and measured, and, an engineering review of the wear data was completed, and plant specific recommendations based on the engineering reviews was provided. To support this program, Westinghouse also developed criteria to prevent or mitigate guide card wear, which governs the guide card wear measurement. In addition, preliminary root cause analysis was performed for one of the aggressively wearing plants, where some wear aggravating causes and mitigating techniques were determined. Therefore, this paper will discuss Westinghouse's guide card wear criteria and measurement technique, guide card wear trends obtained from measurements conducted in the guide card wear program, possible guide card wear aggravating causes and guide card wear mitigating techniques. (author)

  14. Estimating contribution of wildland fires to ambient ozone levels in National Parks in the Sierra Nevada, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preisler, Haiganoush K; Zhong, Shiyuan Sharon; Esperanza, Annie; Brown, Timothy J; Bytnerowicz, Andrzej; Tarnay, Leland

    2010-03-01

    Data from four continuous ozone and weather monitoring sites operated by the National Park Service in Sierra Nevada, California, are used to develop an ozone forecasting model and to estimate the contribution of wildland fires on ambient ozone levels. The analyses of weather and ozone data pointed to the transport of ozone precursors from the Central Valley as an important source of pollution in these National Parks. Comparisons of forecasted and observed values demonstrated that accurate forecasts of next-day hourly ozone levels may be achieved by using a time series model with historic averages, expected local weather and modeled PM values as explanatory variables. Results on fire smoke influence indicated occurrence of significant increases in average ozone levels with increasing fire activity. The overall effect on diurnal ozone values, however, was small when compared with the amount of variability attributed to sources other than fire.

  15. Preventing Work-Related Musculoskeletal Illnesses Through Ergonomics: The Air Force PREMIER Program, Volume 4B: Research Report For Level I Ergonomics Methodology Guide For Maintenance/Inspection Work Areas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barker, Richard

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the results of a pilot test to assess the reliability, sensitivity, validity, and practicality of the Level I Ergonomics Assessment Methodology Guide for Maintenance/Inspection Work Areas...

  16. Choking Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy Living Healthy Living Healthy Living Nutrition Fitness Sports Oral Health Emotional Wellness Growing Healthy Sleep Safety & Prevention Safety & Prevention Safety and Prevention Immunizations At Home ...

  17. Initial impressions from the Northern California 2008 lightning siege: A report by a Wildland Fire Lessons Learned Center Information Collection Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonetta T. Holt; David Christenson; Anne Black; Brett Fay; Kim Round

    2009-01-01

    This event in NorCal is another of the major events we have experienced in fire management. In line with our desire to learn, we ought to line up a team to help us capture lessons learned from this event." This statement, and a regional delegation, was the impetus for an information collection team from the Wildland Fire Lessons Learned Center to visit with...

  18. COATING ALTERNATIVES GUIDE (CAGE) USER'S GUIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The guide provides instructions for using the Coating Alternatives GuidE (CAGE) software program, version 1.0. It assumes that the user is familiar with the fundamentals of operating an IBM-compatible personal computer (PC) under the Microsoft disk operating system (MS-DOS). CAGE...

  19. Modeling acute respiratory illness during the 2007 San Diego wildland fires using a coupled emissions-transport system and generalized additive modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelen, Brian; French, Nancy H F; Koziol, Benjamin W; Billmire, Michael; Owen, Robert Chris; Johnson, Jeffrey; Ginsberg, Michele; Loboda, Tatiana; Wu, Shiliang

    2013-11-05

    A study of the impacts on respiratory health of the 2007 wildland fires in and around San Diego County, California is presented. This study helps to address the impact of fire emissions on human health by modeling the exposure potential of proximate populations to atmospheric particulate matter (PM) from vegetation fires. Currently, there is no standard methodology to model and forecast the potential respiratory health effects of PM plumes from wildland fires, and in part this is due to a lack of methodology for rigorously relating the two. The contribution in this research specifically targets that absence by modeling explicitly the emission, transmission, and distribution of PM following a wildland fire in both space and time. Coupled empirical and deterministic models describing particulate matter (PM) emissions and atmospheric dispersion were linked to spatially explicit syndromic surveillance health data records collected through the San Diego Aberration Detection and Incident Characterization (SDADIC) system using a Generalized Additive Modeling (GAM) statistical approach. Two levels of geographic aggregation were modeled, a county-wide regional level and division of the county into six sub regions. Selected health syndromes within SDADIC from 16 emergency departments within San Diego County relevant for respiratory health were identified for inclusion in the model. The model captured the variability in emergency department visits due to several factors by including nine ancillary variables in addition to wildfire PM concentration. The model coefficients and nonlinear function plots indicate that at peak fire PM concentrations the odds of a person seeking emergency care is increased by approximately 50% compared to non-fire conditions (40% for the regional case, 70% for a geographically specific case). The sub-regional analyses show that demographic variables also influence respiratory health outcomes from smoke. The model developed in this study allows a

  20. New Campus Crime Prevention Resources Available

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campus Law Enforcement Journal, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Campus Crime Prevention Committee has compiled a list of university and college crime prevention agencies and resources, which includes contact information, links to agency crime prevention web pages, and a list of resources they offer (i.e., brochures, guides, PowerPoint programs, videos, etc.) as well as a spreadsheet showing organizations…

  1. Relationship between Climate Variability, Wildfire Risk, and Wildfire Occurrence in Wildland-Urban Interface of the Southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafatos, M.; Kim, S. H.; Jia, S.; Nghiem, S. V.

    2017-12-01

    As housing units in or near wildlands have grown, the wildland-urban interface (WUI) contain at present approximately one-third of all housing in the contiguous US. Wildfires are a part of the natural cycle in the Southwestern United States (SWUS) but the increasing trend of WUI has made wildfires a serious high-risk hazard. The expansion of WUI has elevated wildfire risks by increasing the chance of human caused ignitions and past fire suppression in the area. Previous studies on climate variability have shown that the SWUS region is prone to frequent droughts and has suffered from severe wildfires in the recent decade. Therefore, assessing the increased vulnerability to the wildfire in WUI is crucial for proactive adaptation under climate change. Our previous study has shown that a strong correlation between North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and temperature was found during March-June in the SWUS. The abnormally warm and dry spring conditions, combined with suppression of winter precipitation, can cause an early start of a fire season and high fire risk throughout the summer and fall. Therefore, it is crucial to investigate the connections between climate variability and wildfire danger characteristics. This study aims to identify climate variability using multiple climate indices such as NAO, El Niño-Southern Oscillation and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation closely related with droughts in the SWUS region. Correlation between the variability and fire frequency and severity in WUI were examined. Also, we investigated climate variability and its relationship on local wildfire potential using both Keetch-Byram Drought Index (KBDI) and Fire Weather Index (FWI) which have been used to assessing wildfire potential in the U.S.A and Canada, respectively. We examined the long-term variability of the fire potential indices and relationships between the indices and historical occurrence in WUI using multi-decadal reanalysis data sets. Following our analysis, we investigated

  2. Criticality safety basics, a study guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putman, V.L.

    1999-01-01

    This document is a self-study and classroom guide, for criticality safety of activities with fissile materials outside nuclear reactors. This guide provides a basic overview of criticality safety and criticality accident prevention methods divided into three parts: theory, application, and history. Except for topic emphasis, theory and history information is general, while application information is specific to the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Information presented here should be useful to personnel who must know criticality safety basics to perform their assignments safely or to design critically safe equipment or operations. However, the guide's primary target audience is fissile material handler candidates

  3. Criticality safety basics, a study guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V. L. Putman

    1999-09-01

    This document is a self-study and classroom guide, for criticality safety of activities with fissile materials outside nuclear reactors. This guide provides a basic overview of criticality safety and criticality accident prevention methods divided into three parts: theory, application, and history. Except for topic emphasis, theory and history information is general, while application information is specific to the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Information presented here should be useful to personnel who must know criticality safety basics to perform their assignments safely or to design critically safe equipment or operations. However, the guide's primary target audience is fissile material handler candidates.

  4. Section 8(d) Health Safety Data Reporting User Guide – Primary Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document presents the user guide for the Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics (OPPT) Section 8(d) Health & Safety Data Reporting application. This document is the user guide for the Primary Support user.

  5. Rape prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Date rape - prevention; Sexual assault - prevention ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Sexual assault and abuse and STDs. In: 2015 sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines 2015. www.cdc.gov/std/tg2015/sexual- ...

  6. Dengue Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir This photograph ... medications to treat a dengue infection. This makes prevention the most important step, and prevention means avoiding ...

  7. Integrating social science into forestry in the wildland/urban interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey J. Brooks; Hannah Brenkert; Judy E. Serby; Joseph G. Champ; Tony Simons; Daniel R. Williams

    2006-01-01

    A different kind of storm--neither fire nor wind--brought 60 forestry practitioners who work in wildfire risk prevention and several social science researchers together near Lyons, CO. Brainstorm. This unique retreat--a meeting of the minds--commingled these two groups to share and tackle ideas concerning social issues that shape decisions and behaviors regarding...

  8. Plague Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthcare Professionals Clinicians Public Health Officials Veterinarians Prevention History of Plague Resources FAQ Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Reduce rodent habitat around your ...

  9. A Roadmap for Reducing Cardiac Device Infections: a Review of Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, and Actionable Risk Factors to Guide the Development of an Infection Prevention Program for the Electrophysiology Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch-Elliman, Westyn

    2017-08-16

    Cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) infections are highly morbid, common, and costly, and rates are increasing (Sohail et al. Arch Intern Med 171(20):1821-8 2011; Voigt et al. J Am Coll Cardiol 48(3):590-1 2006). Factors that contribute to the development of CIED infections include patient factors (comorbid conditions, self-care, microbiome), procedural details (repeat procedure, contamination during procedure, appropriate pre-procedural prep, and antimicrobial use), environmental and organizational factors (patient safety culture, facility barriers, such as lack of space to store essential supplies, quality of environmental cleaning), and microbial factors (type of organism, virulence of organism). Each of these can be specifically targeted with infection prevention interventions. Basic prevention practices, such as administration of systemic antimicrobials prior to incision and delaying the procedure in the setting of fever or elevated INR, are helpful for day-to-day prevention of cardiac device infections. Small single-center studies provide proof-of-concept that bundled prevention interventions can reduce infections, particularly in outbreak settings. However, data regarding which prevention strategies are the most important is limited as are data regarding the optimal prevention program for day-to-day prevention (Borer et al. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 25(6):492-7 2004; Ahsan et al. Europace 16(10):1482-9 2014). Evolution of infection prevention programs to include ambulatory and procedural areas is crucial as healthcare delivery is increasingly provided outside of hospitals and operating rooms. The focus on traditional operating rooms and inpatient care leaves the vast majority of healthcare delivery-including cardiac device implantations in the electrophysiology laboratory-uncovered.

  10. GIS, Pollution Prevention and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using examples of preventing pollution and reducing risk of exposure to communities, this guide answers basic interest and start-up questions, addresses benefits and limitations and illustrates the value of GIS for local health departments.

  11. Narrative Means to Preventative Ends: A Narrative Engagement Framework for Designing Prevention Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Day, Michelle; Hecht, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a Narrative Engagement Framework (NEF) for guiding communication-based prevention efforts. This framework suggests that personal narratives have distinctive capabilities in prevention. The paper discusses the concept of narrative, links narrative to prevention, and discusses the central role of youth in developing narrative interventions. As illustration, the authors describe how the NEF is applied in the keepin’ it REAL adolescent drug prevention curriculum, pose theoretical directions, and offer suggestions for future work in prevention communication. PMID:23980613

  12. COLLABORATIVE GUIDE: A REEF MANAGER'S GUIDE TO ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innovative strategies to conserve the world's coral reefs are included in a new guide released today by NOAA, and the Australian Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, with author contributions from a variety of international partners from government agencies, non-governmental organizations, and academic institutions. Referred to as A Reef Manager's Guide to Coral Bleaching, the guide will provide coral reef managers with the latest scientific information on the causes of coral bleaching and new management strategies for responding to this significant threat to coral reef ecosystems. Innovative strategies to conserve the world's coral reefs are included in a new guide released today by NOAA, and the Australian Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, with author contributions from a variety of international partners from government agencies, non-governmental organizations, and academic institutions. Dr. Jordan West, of the National Center for Environmental Assessment, was a major contributor to the guide. Referred to as

  13. Manual on brachytherapy. Incorporating: Applications guide, procedures guide, basics guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    In addition to a basic guide to the principles of the production of ionizing radiation and to methods of radiation protection and dosimetry, this booklet includes information about radiation protection procedures for brachytherapy

  14. Electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Songling; Li, Weibin; Wang, Qing

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces the fundamental theory of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves, together with its applications. It includes the dispersion characteristics and matching theory of guided waves; the mechanism of production and theoretical model of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves; the effect mechanism between guided waves and defects; the simulation method for the entire process of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave propagation; electromagnetic ultrasonic thickness measurement; pipeline axial guided wave defect detection; and electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave detection of gas pipeline cracks. This theory and findings on applications draw on the author’s intensive research over the past eight years. The book can be used for nondestructive testing technology and as an engineering reference work. The specific implementation of the electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave system presented here will also be of value for other nondestructive test developers.

  15. Visualizing guided tours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Signe Herbers; Fjord-Larsen, Mads; Hansen, Frank Allan

    This paper identifies several problems with navigating and visualizing guided tours in traditional hypermedia systems. We discuss solutions to these problems, including the representation of guided tours as 3D metro maps with content preview. Issues regarding navigation and disorientation...

  16. A practical guide to microscope care and maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrak, Lara J; Waters, Jennifer C

    2014-01-01

    Optimal microscope performance requires regular maintenance and quality control testing. This chapter is a practical guide to microscope care with an emphasis on preventing, identifying and troubleshooting common issues. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Agile practice guide (English)

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This practice guide provides guidance on when, where, and how to apply agile approaches and provides practical tools for practitioners and organizations wanting to increase agility. This practice guide is aligned with other PMI standards, including A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK® Guide) - Sixth Edition, and was developed as the result of collaboration between the Project Management Institute and the Agile Alliance.

  18. Augmenting Guided-Inquiry Learning with a Blended Classroom Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Edward J.

    2013-01-01

    Teaching strategies such as guided inquiry have long been reported to produce superior learning outcomes in postsecondary science education. Yet many teachers cite obstacles that prevent them from implementing the method. Students also often report negative attitudes toward guided inquiry, leading to a lack of student engagement and other…

  19. “Is Your Man Stepping Out?” An online pilot study to evaluate acceptability of a guide-enhanced HIV prevention soap opera video series and feasibility of recruitment by Facebook© advertising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rachel; Lacroix, Lorraine J.; Nolte, Kerry

    2015-01-01

    Love, Sex, and Choices (LSC) is a 12-episode soap opera video series developed to reduce HIV risk among at-risk Black urban women. We added a video guide commentator to offer insights at critical dramatic moments. An online pilot study evaluated acceptability of the Guide Enhanced LSC (GELSC) and feasibility of Facebook© advertising, streaming to smartphones, and retention. Facebook© ads targeted high HIV-prevalence areas. In 30 days, Facebook© ads generated 230 screening interviews; 84 were high risk, 40 watched GELSC, and 39 followed up at 30 days. Recruitment of high-risk participants was 10 per week compared to 7 per week in previous field recruitment. Half the sample was Black; 12% were Latina. Findings suggest GELSC influenced sex scripts and behaviors. It was feasible to recruit young urban women from a large geographic area via Facebook© and to retain the sample. We extended the reach to at-risk women by streaming to mobile devices. PMID:26066692

  20. "Is Your Man Stepping Out?" An Online Pilot Study to Evaluate Acceptability of a Guide-Enhanced HIV Prevention Soap Opera Video Series and Feasibility of Recruitment by Facebook Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rachel; Lacroix, Lorraine J; Nolte, Kerry

    2015-01-01

    Love, Sex, and Choices (LSC) is a 12-episode soap opera video series developed to reduce HIV risk among at-risk Black urban women. We added a video guide commentator to offer insights at critical dramatic moments. An online pilot study evaluated acceptability of the Guide-Enhanced LSC (GELSC) and feasibility of Facebook advertising, streaming to smartphones, and retention. Facebook ads targeted high-HIV-prevalence areas. In 30 days, Facebook ads generated 230 screening interviews: 84 were high risk, 40 watched GELSC, and 39 followed up at 30 days. Recruitment of high-risk participants was 10 per week, compared to seven per week in previous field recruitment. Half the sample was Black; 12% were Latina. Findings suggest GELSC influenced sex scripts and behaviors. It was feasible to recruit young urban women from a large geographic area via Facebook and to retain the sample. We extended the reach to at-risk women by streaming to mobile devices. Copyright © 2015 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Educator's Guide to AIDS and Other STD's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroka, Stephen R.

    This guide is a comprehensive resource to teach about acquired immune deficiency syndrome and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) from kindergarten to college. It uses an activity-oriented behavioral approach to teaching prevention strategies within a communicable disease conceptual framework which is easily implemented into all schools.…

  2. Managerial Accounting. Study Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plachta, Leonard E.

    This self-instructional study guide is part of the materials for a college-level programmed course in managerial accounting. The study guide is intended for use by students in conjuction with a separate textbook, Horngren's "Accounting for Management Control: An Introduction," and a workbook, Curry's "Student Guide to Accounting for Management…

  3. A Resource Guide for Signs of Sexual Assault. A Supplement to: Preventing Sexual Abuse of Persons with Disabilities: A Curriculum for Hearing Impaired, Physically Disabled, Blind and Mentally Retarded Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Day, Bonnie

    Part of a curriculum unit on preventing sexual abuse of persons with disabilities, the manual is intended to help instructors present the material to hearing impaired students. Illustrations of sign language are presented for such terms as sexual contact, sexual assault, incest, same sex assault (man/woman), rape (acquaintance/marital), exposer,…

  4. Collection and analysis of wind data for the evaluation of Wildland-Urban Interface Fire Dynamics Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espina, Chad Edward Obedoza

    The Wildland Urban-Interface Fire Dynamics Simulator (WFDS) is a computer code that is currently being developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). WFDS has the capability of simulating wildland fire behavior with prescribed elements such vegetative and structural fuel, topography, and weather conditions. In this initial stage of the research, support for the development of WFDS focuses on the evaluation of a wind flow simulation on a very complex, outdoor terrain. This effort is preceded by the fabrication, installation and testing of wind-sensing equipment. Foremost, wind data gathered from different sites using various instruments are compared and evaluated. The data gathered in the Trails community of Rancho Bernardo is then presented and compared to select WFDS simulations. Systems consisting of a wind vane and anemometer are currently installed in the Trails community of Rancho Bernardo. They were installed by Professor Fletcher J. Miller and me using a lift that is attached to a telescoping crane. These instruments will gather the wind data needed to show the behavioral patterns of winds influenced by the topography and obstructions such as trees and houses. They are currently installed on top of light posts. These light posts were picked based on the path of the fire influenced by the Santa Ana winds that ravaged the community in 2007. The data from these instruments were graphically represented using a Matlab code that was developed specifically for the data sets. The Matlab graphing utility plots wind speed and wind direction along with matching polar plots. Other main features also include the ability to set a time range and compare two sites in one plot. There are other wind instruments currently being tested and being analyzed to ensure correct data is being recorded. These instruments will also expand to a wider range the wind data-gathering capabilities vertically. A Sound Detecting and Ranging (SoDAR) unit gathers wind

  5. Simulating effects of land use policies on extent of the wildland urban interface and wildfire risk in Flathead County, Montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paveglio, Travis B; Prato, Tony; Hardy, Michael

    2013-11-30

    This study used a wildfire loss simulation model to evaluate how different land use policies are likely to influence wildfire risk in the wildland urban interface (WUI) for Flathead County, Montana. The model accounts for the complex socio-ecological interactions among climate change, economic growth, land use change and policy, homeowner mitigations, and forest treatments in Flathead County's WUI over the five 10-year subperiods comprising the future evaluation period (i.e., 2010-2059). Wildfire risk, defined as expected residential losses from wildfire [E(RLW)], depends on the number of residential properties on parcels, the probability that parcels burn, the probability of wildfire losses to residential structures on properties given the parcels on which those properties are located burn, the average percentage of wildfire-related losses in aesthetic values of residential properties, and the total value (structures plus land) of residential properties. E(RLW) for the five subperiods is simulated for 2010 (referred to as the current), moderately restrictive, and highly restrictive land use policy scenarios, a moderate economic growth scenario and the A2 greenhouse gas emissions scenario. Results demonstrate that increasingly restrictive land use policy for Flathead County significantly reduces the amount and footprint of future residential development in the WUI. In addition, shifting from the current to a moderately restrictive land use policy for Flathead County significantly reduces wildfire risk for the WUI, but shifting from the current to a highly restrictive land use policy does not significantly reduce wildfire risk in the WUI. Both the methods and results of the study can help land and wildfire managers to better manage future wildfire risk and identify residential areas having potentially high wildfire risk. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Joining inventory by parataxonomists with DNA barcoding of a large complex tropical conserved wildland in northwestern Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzen, Daniel H; Hallwachs, Winnie

    2011-01-01

    The many components of conservation through biodiversity development of a large complex tropical wildland, Area de Conservacion Guanacaste (ACG), thrive on knowing what is its biodiversity and natural history. For 32 years a growing team of Costa Rican parataxonomists has conducted biodiversity inventory of ACG caterpillars, their food plants, and their parasitoids. In 2003, DNA barcoding was added to the inventory process. We describe some of the salient consequences for the parataxonomists of barcoding becoming part of a field biodiversity inventory process that has centuries of tradition. From the barcoding results, the parataxonomists, as well as other downstream users, gain a more fine-scale and greater understanding of the specimens they find, rear, photograph, database and deliver. The parataxonomists also need to adjust to collecting more specimens of what appear to be the "same species"--cryptic species that cannot be distinguished by eye or even food plant alone--while having to work with the name changes and taxonomic uncertainty that comes with discovering that what looked like one species may be many. These career parataxonomists, despite their lack of formal higher education, have proven very capable of absorbing and working around the additional complexity and requirements for accuracy and detail that are generated by adding barcoding to the field base of the ACG inventory. In the process, they have also gained a greater understanding of the fine details of phylogeny, relatedness, evolution, and species-packing in their own tropical complex ecosytems. There is no reason to view DNA barcoding as incompatible in any way with tropical biodiversity inventory as conducted by parataxonomists. Their year-round on-site inventory effort lends itself well to the sampling patterns and sample sizes needed to build a thorough barcode library. Furthermore, the biological understanding that comes with barcoding increases the scientific penetrance of biodiversity

  7. Mutagenicity and Lung Toxicity of Smoldering vs. Flaming Emissions from Various Biomass Fuels: Implications for Health Effects from Wildland Fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong Ho; Warren, Sarah H; Krantz, Q Todd; King, Charly; Jaskot, Richard; Preston, William T; George, Barbara J; Hays, Michael D; Landis, Matthew S; Higuchi, Mark; DeMarini, David M; Gilmour, M Ian

    2018-01-24

    The increasing size and frequency of wildland fires are leading to greater potential for cardiopulmonary disease and cancer in exposed populations; however, little is known about how the types of fuel and combustion phases affect these adverse outcomes. We evaluated the mutagenicity and lung toxicity of particulate matter (PM) from flaming vs. smoldering phases of five biomass fuels, and compared results by equal mass or emission factors (EFs) derived from amount of fuel consumed. A quartz-tube furnace coupled to a multistage cryotrap was employed to collect smoke condensate from flaming and smoldering combustion of red oak, peat, pine needles, pine, and eucalyptus. Samples were analyzed chemically and assessed for acute lung toxicity in mice and mutagenicity in Salmonella . The average combustion efficiency was 73 and 98% for the smoldering and flaming phases, respectively. On an equal mass basis, PM from eucalyptus and peat burned under flaming conditions induced significant lung toxicity potencies (neutrophil/mass of PM) compared to smoldering PM, whereas high levels of mutagenicity potencies were observed for flaming pine and peat PM compared to smoldering PM. When effects were adjusted for EF, the smoldering eucalyptus PM had the highest lung toxicity EF (neutrophil/mass of fuel burned), whereas smoldering pine and pine needles had the highest mutagenicity EF. These latter values were approximately 5, 10, and 30 times greater than those reported for open burning of agricultural plastic, woodburning cookstoves, and some municipal waste combustors, respectively. PM from different fuels and combustion phases have appreciable differences in lung toxic and mutagenic potency, and on a mass basis, flaming samples are more active, whereas smoldering samples have greater effect when EFs are taken into account. Knowledge of the differential toxicity of biomass emissions will contribute to more accurate hazard assessment of biomass smoke exposures. https://doi.org/10

  8. Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy An ultrasound-guided breast biopsy uses ... of Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy? What is Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy? Lumps or abnormalities in the breast ...

  9. Agile practice guide

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    Agile Practice Guide – First Edition has been developed as a resource to understand, evaluate, and use agile and hybrid agile approaches. This practice guide provides guidance on when, where, and how to apply agile approaches and provides practical tools for practitioners and organizations wanting to increase agility. This practice guide is aligned with other PMI standards, including A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK® Guide) – Sixth Edition, and was developed as the result of collaboration between the Project Management Institute and the Agile Alliance.

  10. SIMPPLLE, version 2.5 user's guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimmie D. Chew; Kirk Moeller; Christine Stalling

    2012-01-01

    SIMPPLLE is a spatially-interactive, dynamic landscape modeling system for projecting temporal changes in the spatial distribution of vegetation in response to insects, disease, wildland fire, and other natural and management-caused disturbances. SIMPPLLE is designed to provide a balance between incorporating enough complexity and interactions in modeling ecosystem...

  11. Preventing Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Susan Fordney

    The purpose of this paper is to provide the beginning counselor with an overview of prevention concepts. Prevention is a relatively new emphasis in community efforts to stem the rising costs of substance abuse and other high-risk behaviors. The paper discusses agent, host, and environmental prevention models and how they relate to causal theories…

  12. Acquaintance Rape of College Students. Problem-Oriented Guides for Police Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Rana

    Guides in this series summarize knowledge about how police can reduce the harm caused by specific crime and disorder problems. They are guides to prevention, not to investigating offenses of handling incidents. This guide focuses on rape of college students by acquaintances. It is estimated that almost 25% of college women have been victims of…

  13. Guide to the collision avoidance rules

    CERN Document Server

    Cockcroft, A N

    2004-01-01

    A Guide to the Collision Avoidance Rules is the essential reference to the safe operation of all vessels at sea. Published continuously since 1965, this respected and expert guide is the classic text for all who need to, practically and legally, understand and comply with the Rules. This sixth edition incorporates all of the amendments to the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea which came into force in November 2003.The books sets out all of the Rules with clear explanation of their meaning, and gives detailed examples of how the rules have been used in practice

  14. CISSP study guide

    CERN Document Server

    Conrad, Eric; Feldman, Joshua; Riggins, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    "The Eleventh Hour CISSP Study Guide" is keyed to the latest CISSP exam. This book is streamlined to include only core certification information and is presented for ease of last-minute studying. Main objectives of the exam are covered concisely with key concepts highlighted. This is the only guide you need for last-minute studying. This title answers the toughest questions and highlights core topics. This title can be paired with any other study guide so you are completely prepared.

  15. Maven The Definitive Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Company, Sonatype

    2009-01-01

    Written by Maven creator Jason Van Zyl and his team at Sonatype, Maven: The Definitive Guide clearly explains how this popular tool can bring order to your software development projects. The first part of the book demonstrates Maven's capabilities through the development of several sample applications from ideation to deployment, and the second part offers a complete reference guide. Concise and to the point, this is the only guide you need to manage your project.

  16. Sensor Characteristics Reference Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of the guide is to inform building owners and operators of the current status, capabilities, and limitations of sensor technologies. It is hoped that this guide will aid in the design and procurement process and result in successful implementation of building sensor and control systems. DOE will also use this guide to identify research priorities, develop future specifications for potential market adoption, and provide market clarity through unbiased information.

  17. Joomla! 3 beginner's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Tiggeler, Eric

    2014-01-01

    An easy to use, step-by-step guide to creating professional, mobile-friendly websites with the free Joomla CMS. The Joomla! 3 Beginner's Guide Second Edition is the ultimate guide for web developers who wish to build upon their skills and knowledge on creating websites. Even if you're new to this subject, you won't have any difficulty understanding the clear and friendly instructions and explanations. No prior knowledge of HTML and CSS is required.

  18. The guiding center Lagrangian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, J.

    1986-01-01

    Recursion relations determining the guiding center Langrangian Λ and the associated guiding center variables to all orders are derived. We consider some particularly simple forms of Λ obtainable by specific choices of certain arbitrary functions appearing as free parameters in the theory. It is, for example, possible to locally define the guiding center variables so that the expression for the corresponding Langrangian is unchanged by all higher order terms. (orig.)

  19. Wildland forest fire smoke: health effects and intervention evaluation,Hoopa, California, 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mott, Joshua A; Meyer, Pamela; Mannino, David; Redd, Stephen C; Smith, Eva M; Gotway-Crawford, Carol; Chase, Emmett

    2002-01-01

    Objectives To assess the health effects of exposure to smoke fromthe fifth largest US wildfire of 1999 and to evaluate whether participation ininterventions to reduce smoke exposure prevented adverse lower respiratorytract health effects among residents of the Hoopa Valley National IndianReservation in northwestern California. Design Observational study:epidemiologists from the Centers for Disease Control and Preventionretrospectively reviewed medical records at the local medical center andconducted survey interviews of reservation residents. Setting HumboldtCounty, California. Participants Interviews were completed with 289 of385 residents, representing 26% of the households on the reservation. Of the289 participants, 92 (31.8%) had preexisting cardiopulmonary conditions.Results During the weeks of the forest fire, medical visits forrespiratory illnesses increased by 217 visits (from 417 to 634 visits, or by52%) over the previous year. Survey results indicated that although 181(62.6%) of 289 participants reported worsening lower respiratory tractsymptoms, those with preexisting cardiopulmonary conditions reported moresymptoms before, during, and after the smoke episode. An increased duration ofthe use of high-efficiency particulate air cleaners and the recollection ofpublic service announcements were associated with a reduced odds of reportingadverse health effects of the lower respiratory tract. No protective effectswere observed for duration of mask use or evacuation. ConclusionsTimely actions undertaken by the clinical staff of the local medical centerappeared beneficial to the respiratory health of the community. Futureprograms that reduce economic barriers to evacuation during smoke episodes mayalso improve intervention participation rates and decrease smoke exposures.Although promising, the effectiveness of these and other interventions need tobe confirmed in a prospective community intervention trial. PMID:12016236

  20. Preventive Radiation Protection Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roewer, H.

    1988-01-01

    The commentary is intended to contribute to protection of the population by a practice-oriented discussion and explanation of questions arising in connection with the Preventive Radiation Protection Act. Leaving aside discussions about abandonment of nuclear power, or criticism from any legal point of view, the commentary adopts the practical approach that accepts, and tries to help implementing, the act as it is. It is a guide for readers who are not experts in the law and gives a line of orientation by means of explanations and sometimes by citations from other acts (in footnotes). The commentary also presents the EURATOM Directive No. 3954/87 dated 22 December 1987, the EC Directive No. 3955/87 dated 22 December 1987, and the EC Directive No. 1983/88 dated 5 July 1988. A tabular survey shows the system of duties and competences defined by the Preventive Radiation Protection Act. (RST) [de

  1. Maintainability design guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pack, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    The Human Factors Design Guide for Maintainability provides guidance for systematically incorporating good human factors techniques into the design of power plants. The guide describes a means of developing a comprehensive program plan to ensure compliance with the human factors approaches specified by the utility. The guide also provides specific recommendations for design practices, with examples, bases, and references. The recommendations are formatted for easy use by nuclear power plant design teams and by utility personnel involved in specification and design review. The guide was developed under EPRI research project RP2166-4 and is currently being published

  2. Secondary School Students: Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drugs Resource Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Substance Abuse Prevention.

    This resource guide contains a list of materials on drug and alcohol prevention for secondary school students. The information is divided into three sections: (1) prevention materials, including information on inhalants, AIDS, sports and drugs, and sex and alcohol; (2) studies, articles, and reports on secondary school students, including…

  3. Heads Up: Concussion in High School Sports. Guide for Coaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This guide provides general information to high school sports coaches about concussions. It focuses on the fact that coaches can play a key role in preventing concussions and managing them properly when they occur. The following sections are included: (1) The Facts; (2) Signs and Symptoms; (3) Prevention and Preparation; (4) When a Concussion…

  4. Life in the Fast Lane: Road Crossing Behavior of Mule Deer in a Wildland-Urban Interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Leslie A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Biggs, James [Northern New Mexico College; Bennett, Kathryn D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bare, Carey [Bare and Associates, LLC; Sherwood, Sherri R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-04-04

    In 2009, approximately 260,000 animal-vehicle collisions were reported in the United States, resulting in 12,000 human injuries and 173 human fatalities. Research has focused on identifying factors associated with high densities of animal-vehicle collisions, including variables such as traffic speed and volume, road design, topographic features, vegetative cover, and local deer or elk (Cervus elaphus) abundance. The purposes of this study were to document how often and where mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) crossed roads in a western United States wildland-urban interface area, and to relate deer road-crossing behavior to deer-vehicle collision locations. Seven adult mule deer (four males [M] and three females [F]) were captured and collared with GPS-enabled collars during December 2001 and January 2002. Five of the seven deployed collars were recovered. None of the roads in the study area appeared to act as a substantial barrier to deer passage. Deer home ranges straddled highways and primary, secondary, and tertiary arterial roads. Deer crossed all types of roads. The average number of times deer crossed road during 24 hours of monitoring ranged from 2.1 to 7.0. Deer in the Los Alamos townsite avoided crossing roads during day and before sunset. Deer-vehicle accidents occurred at 350 percent of the level expected after sunset. All other time periods had fewer accidents than expected. The distribution of accidents across time periods was not similar to the distribution of road crossings across time periods for any deer. Within Los Alamos County there was a clear trend for deer-vehicle collisions to occur on roads with speed limits > 35 mph. Deer in the townsite frequently crossed roads with lower speed limits; therefore, the reason for the paucity of accidents along these roads was evidently the ability of drivers to detect deer (or the ability of deer to detect vehicles) and respond before an accident occurred. There was a significant but not strong correlation

  5. Effects of weathering on performance of intumescent coatings for structure fire protection in the wildland-urban interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrani, Babak

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of weathering on the performance of intumescent fire-retardant coatings on wooden products. The weathering effects included primary (solar irradiation, moisture, and temperature) and secondary (environmental contaminants) parameters at various time intervals. Wildland urban interface (WUI) fires have been an increasing threat to lives and properties. Existing solutions to mitigate the damages caused by WUI fires include protecting the structures from ignition and minimizing the fire spread from one structure to another. These solutions can be divided into two general categories: active fire protection systems and passive fire protection systems. Passive systems are either using pre-applied wetting agents (water, gel, or foam) or adding an extra layer (composite wraps or coatings). Fire-retardant coating treatment methods can be divided into impregnated (penetrant) and intumescent categories. Intumescent coatings are easy to apply, economical, and have a better appearance in comparison to other passive fire protection methods, and are the main focus of this study. There have been limited studies conducted on the application of intumescent coatings on wooden structures and their performance after long-term weathering exposure. The main concerns of weathering effects are: 1) the reduction of ignition resistance of the coating layer after weathering; and 2) the fire properties of coatings after weathering since coatings might contribute as a combustible fuel and assist the fire growth after ignition. Three intumescent coatings were selected and exposed to natural weathering conditions in three different time intervals. Two types of tests were performed on the specimens: a combustibility test consisted of a bench-scale performance evaluation using a Cone Calorimeter, and a thermal decomposition test using Simultaneous Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) method (also known

  6. Joining inventory by parataxonomists with DNA barcoding of a large complex tropical conserved wildland in northwestern Costa Rica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel H Janzen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The many components of conservation through biodiversity development of a large complex tropical wildland, Area de Conservacion Guanacaste (ACG, thrive on knowing what is its biodiversity and natural history. For 32 years a growing team of Costa Rican parataxonomists has conducted biodiversity inventory of ACG caterpillars, their food plants, and their parasitoids. In 2003, DNA barcoding was added to the inventory process. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We describe some of the salient consequences for the parataxonomists of barcoding becoming part of a field biodiversity inventory process that has centuries of tradition. From the barcoding results, the parataxonomists, as well as other downstream users, gain a more fine-scale and greater understanding of the specimens they find, rear, photograph, database and deliver. The parataxonomists also need to adjust to collecting more specimens of what appear to be the "same species"--cryptic species that cannot be distinguished by eye or even food plant alone--while having to work with the name changes and taxonomic uncertainty that comes with discovering that what looked like one species may be many. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These career parataxonomists, despite their lack of formal higher education, have proven very capable of absorbing and working around the additional complexity and requirements for accuracy and detail that are generated by adding barcoding to the field base of the ACG inventory. In the process, they have also gained a greater understanding of the fine details of phylogeny, relatedness, evolution, and species-packing in their own tropical complex ecosytems. There is no reason to view DNA barcoding as incompatible in any way with tropical biodiversity inventory as conducted by parataxonomists. Their year-round on-site inventory effort lends itself well to the sampling patterns and sample sizes needed to build a thorough barcode library. Furthermore, the biological

  7. A new osteotomy for the prevention of prominent lateral condyle after cubitus varus correctional surgery-made possible by a 3D printed patient specific osteotomy guide: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Can Gemalmaz

    Full Text Available Introduction: Skeletal deformity correction is a procedure of high aesthetic and functional demand. Therefore, meticulous surgical planning has always been mandatory. However, it is known that during the surgery things may often get slippery, leaving the surgeon no chance but improvisation. Because of this shortcoming it is not a rare occasion to find unhappy patients that have undergone deformity correction surgery. Presentation of case: Our patient was an eighteen-year-old male who had 40° cubitus varus deformity (with 20° flexion and extension deficits due to a right humerus supracondylar fracture, obtained eight years ago. He had two prior surgeries at the year of injury. Considering the severity of the deformity we decided to plan the surgery with 3D software, obtain 3D printed models (to further help with surgical fixation options and finally, use a custom 3D printed resection guide to apply the plan during the surgery. Discussion: Traditional methods of skeletal deformity correction lack the preoperative precision and tools to perform the plan during the surgery. Deformity correction with 3D images and 3D printed patient specific instruments do help the surgeon to accomplish correct deformities with results identical to surgical plan. Conclusion: Superior precision of the 3D planning and very easy utilization of the patient specific 3D printed instruments during the skeletal deformity surgery provides unparalleled and foreseeable results. This methodology is prone to be gold standard for deformity surgery in the near future. Keywords: Skeletal deformity, Malunion, Patient specific planning, Patient specific surgery, 3D print, 3D plan

  8. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Steroid Injections Lumbar Zygapophysical (Facet) Joint Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle Choices 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen ...

  9. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle Choices 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic Exercise ...

  10. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Watchful Waiting and Education Injection Treatments for Spinal Pain Epidural Steroid Injections Lumbar Zygapophysical (Facet) Joint Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle Choices 10 ...

  11. Abbreviated guide pneumatic conveying design guide

    CERN Document Server

    Mills, David

    1990-01-01

    Abbreviated Guide: Pneumatic Conveying Design Guide describes the selection, design, and specification of conventional pneumatic conveying systems. The design procedure uses previous test data on the materials to be conveyed. The book also discusses system economics, operating costs, the choice of appropriate components or systems, system control, and system flexibility. The design system involves the type of conveying system for installation, the pipeline parameters, and also the plant components. System selection covers the properties of the material to be conveyed, plant layout, material pr

  12. Orientation to pollution prevention for facility design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raney, E.A.; Whitehead, J.K.; Encke, D.B. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Dorsey, J.A. [Kaiser Engineers Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This material was developed to assist engineers in incorporating pollution prevention into the design of new or modified facilities within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The material demonstrates how the design of a facility can affect the generation of waste throughout a facility`s entire life and it offers guidance on how to prevent the generation of waste during design. Contents include: Orientation to pollution prevention for facility design training course booklet; Pollution prevention design guideline; Orientation to pollution prevention for facility design lesson plan; Training participant survey and pretest; and Training facilitator`s guide and schedule.

  13. Wear plates control rod guide tubes top internal reactor vessel C. N. VANDELLOS II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The guide tubes for control rods forming part of the upper internals of the reactor vessel, its function is to guide the control rod to permit its insertion in the reactor core. These guide tubes are suspended from the upper support plate which are fixed by bolts and extending to the upper core plate which is fastened by clamping bolts (split pin) to prevent lateral displacement of the guide tubes, while allowing axial expansion.

  14. Risks prevention and fight against the pollutions. Publication of the practical guideline of the CO{sub 2} emissions quotas market; Prevention des risques et lutte contre les pollutions. Guide pratique du marche des quotas d'emissions de CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Since January 2005 the directive on the emissions quotas exchange is applied in the 25 countries of the European Union. This text allocates emissions quotas to enterprises which generates many greenhouse gases. Hopeful these quotas, the European Union should decrease the emissions of 8% in 2010. This guide is devoted to the 1126 french sites concerned by the directive. It constitutes a reference for the quotas management and will help the enterprises to combine the fight against the climatic change with the economic competition. (A.L.B.)

  15. Manual on brachytherapy. Incorporating: Applications guide, procedures guide, basics guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This publication is part of practical radiation safety manual series for different fields of application aimed primarily at persons handling radiation sources on a daily routine basis, which could at same time be used by the competent authorities, supporting their efforts in the radiation protection training of workers or medical assistance personnel or helping on-site management to set up local radiation protection rules. It is dedicated to brachytherapy: its application and procedures guides

  16. JBoss ESB Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    DiMaggio, Len; Magesh, Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Part of Packt's Beginner's Guide series, each chapter contains practical examples with step-by-step instructions and plenty of screenshots to guide you through the implementation of JBoss ESB. This book is intended for Java programmers although you don't need previous experience with middleware such as application servers or ESBs.

  17. Hospitality Services. Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This guide, which was developed as part of Texas' home economics education program, is intended to assist teachers of a hospitality services course focusing on the food and lodging segments of the hospitality and tourism industry. The first 40% of the approximately 600-page guide consists of strategies for teaching each of 29 essential…

  18. Irrigation Systems. Student's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarillo Coll., TX.

    This guide is intended for use by individuals preparing for a career in commercial and residential irrigation. The materials included are geared toward students who have had some experience in the irrigation business; they are intended to be presented in 10 six-hour sessions. The first two sections deal with using this guide and preparing for the…

  19. Irrigation Systems. Instructor's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarillo Coll., TX.

    This guide is intended for use by licensed irrigators who wish to teach others how to design and install residential and commercial irrigation systems. The materials included in the guide have been developed under the assumption that the instructors who use it have little or no formal training as teachers. The first section presents detailed…

  20. Instructional Guide for Cosmetology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg. Dept. of Education.

    Intended as a tool for cosmetology teachers in Virginia public and private schools, the document is an instructional guide which offers 12 units of study, arranged in a three year course. Materials covered help prepare students for licensure in the State of Virginia and the guide is designed to cover the 1,500 hours required to be spent in the…

  1. concrete5 Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Laubacher, Remo

    2011-01-01

    This book is part of Packt's Beginner's Guide series. You will be guided through the set up of a Concrete5 site with step-by-step practical examples. This book is ideal for developers who would like to build their first site with Concrete5. Some k

  2. Marketing Education Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This curriculum guide is intended to provide a common core of competencies from which to design an effective secondary marketing education program. Introductory materials include a definition of marketing education, objectives, outline of instructional content, and questions and answers regarding the curriculum guide. These practical materials are…

  3. Library Automation Style Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaylord Bros., Liverpool, NY.

    This library automation style guide lists specific terms and names often used in the library automation industry. The terms and/or acronyms are listed alphabetically and each is followed by a brief definition. The guide refers to the "Chicago Manual of Style" for general rules, and a notes section is included for the convenience of individual…

  4. Nutrition Guide for Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Nutrition Guide for Toddlers KidsHealth / For Parents / Nutrition Guide ... español Guía de nutrición para sus hijos pequeños Nutrition Through Variety Growth slows somewhat during the toddler ...

  5. Moving Field Guides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassie Meador; Mark Twery; Meagan. Leatherbury

    2011-01-01

    The Moving Field Guides (MFG) project is a creative take on site interpretation. Moving Field Guides provide an example of how scientific and artistic endeavors work in parallel. Both begin with keen observations that produce information that must be analyzed, understood, and interpreted. That interpretation then needs to be communicated to others to complete the...

  6. The Higgs hunter's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Gunion, John F; Haber, Howard E; Kane, Gordon L

    1989-01-01

    The Higgs Hunter's Guide is a definitive and comprehensive guide to the physics of Higgs bosons. In particular, it discusses the extended Higgs sectors required by those recent theoretical approaches that go beyond the Standard Model, including supersymmetry and superstring-inspired models.

  7. HSM training guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    "This guide focuses on identifying HSM training currently available to state and local agencies who are considering implementation of the HSM. The objectives of the training guide are to: : Identify key focus groups that can be used as a basis fo...

  8. Kid's Guide to Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Educators Search English Español A Kid's Guide to Fever KidsHealth / For Kids / A Kid's Guide to Fever ... change into some lighter-weight pajamas. Fighting a Fever For almost all kids, fevers aren't a ...

  9. Guided Reading and Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauptman, Allyson L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between Guided Reading and student motivation to read across fourth, fifth, and sixth grades. The study defined literacy motivation as: (a) task value; (b) self-perceived competence; (c) students' perceptions of the Guided Reading format. Factor analysis and repeated measures ANOVAs were…

  10. Career Education Instructional Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    State Univ. of New York, Oswego. Coll. at Oswego. Dept. of Industrial Arts and Technology.

    The guide is designed primarily for industrial arts teachers at the middle school level who wish to integrate career education into their curricula. The lessons and activities attempt to establish a balance among career information, technical information, and hands-on experience. The guide contains six lesson plans which cover the topics: the…

  11. Poison Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Poison Prevention Page Content Article Body Post the Poison Help number 1-800-222-1222 on the ... or empty container of a toxic substance, call Poison Help immediately. More than a million American children ...

  12. Human factors guides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penington, J.

    1995-10-01

    This document presents human factors guides, which have been developed in order to provide licensees of the AECB with advice as to how to address human factors issues within the design and assessment process. This documents presents the results of a three part study undertaken to develop three guides which are enclosed in this document as Parts B, C and D. As part of the study human factors standards, guidelines, handbooks and other texts were researched, to define those which would be most useful to the users of the guides and for the production of the guides themselves. Detailed specifications were then produced to outline the proposed contents and format of the three guides. (author). 100 refs., 3 tabs., 11 figs

  13. Cervical cancer in Iquitos, Peru: local realities to guide prevention planning Câncer cérvico-uterino em Iquitos, Peru: realidade local como guia para planejamento da prevenção

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Hunter

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is a major public health problem in Latin America, and in much of the underdeveloped world. This issue has not historically been addressed as a health priority, but in recent years is receiving increased attention and funding. This ethnographic study on the experience of cervical cancer was conducted in Iquitos, Peru, between August 1998 and May 1999. Research methodologies included: (1 observation and household interviews to obtain background knowledge about the region, medical systems, and local cultural understanding of illness; (2 cancer experience interviews; and (3 case studies of women in various stages of cervical cancer or diagnosis. Findings are presented related to local knowledge and experience of Pap smears and cervical cancer and the ineffectiveness of a recently initiated cervical cancer screening program. The findings guide recommendations for interventions in the region in relation to: (1 needed changes in health education, (2 screening frequency and age, (3 sites for screening and treatment, (4 type and availability of treatment, (5 payment issues, (6 documentation of care, and (7 the potential of herbal remedies.O câncer cérvico-uterino representa um desafio para a saúde pública na América Latina e em grande parte do mundo subdesenvolvido como um todo. Historicamente, a questão não tem sido tratada como prioridade de saúde; entretanto, nos últimos anos houve um aumento de interesse e de financiamento para enfrentar o problema. Este estudo etnográfico sobre a experiência com o câncer cérvico-uterino foi realizado em Iquitos, Peru, entre agosto de 1998 e maio de 1999. As metodologias de pesquisa incluíram: (1 observação e entrevistas domiciliares para levantar dados sobre a ocorrência na região, sobre os sistemas de saúde e a cultura local em relação ao processo da doença; (2 entrevistas sobre experiências pessoais e familiares com o câncer; e (3 estudos de caso de mulheres em diversas

  14. A Partner's Guide to Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation ▼ ACOG Pregnancy Book A Partner's Guide to Pregnancy Patient Education FAQs A Partner's Guide to Pregnancy Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish A Partner's Guide to Pregnancy FAQ032, ...

  15. Pocket Guide to Transportation 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The BTS Pocket Guide to Transportation is a quick reference guide to significant transportation statistics. All the previous seven sections plus a new Major Trends section are included. This year marks the 20th anniversary of the Pocket Guide, which ...

  16. Preventive analgesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Jørgen B; Kehlet, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    This paper will discuss the concepts of pre-emptive and preventive analgesia in acute and persistent postsurgical pain, based on the most recent experimental and clinical literature, with a special focus on injury-induced central sensitization and the development from acute to chronic pain. Recent...... of preventive analgesia for persistent postoperative pain are promising. However, clinicians must be aware of the demands for improved design of their clinical studies in order to get more conclusive answers regarding the different avenues for intervention. Summary: The concept of preventive analgesia is still...

  17. XML Schema Guide for Primary CDR Submissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document presents the extensible markup language (XML) schema guide for the Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics’ (OPPT) e-CDRweb tool. E-CDRweb is the electronic, web-based tool provided by Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for the submission of Chemical Data Reporting (CDR) information. This document provides the user with tips and guidance on correctly using the version 1.7 XML schema. Please note that the order of the elements must match the schema.

  18. Practical guide on contract of technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Chiho

    1991-12-01

    This book gives descriptions of practical guide on contract of technology, which deals with basic of contract like meaning, function term, singing and sealing, contract and stamp tax, common things on contract of research like keeping secret and prevention and treat of dispute, compensation for damages, notice, expiration date of contract and measurement at end of contract, contract of joint research such as meaning and necessity, note at contract, check list at contract, and return of the research product.

  19. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Exercise Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy and Back Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back ... in very slightly. Hold a ball directly in front of you. Keep your abdominal muscles tight and ...

  20. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic ... Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy and Back Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain ...

  1. Prevent Shingles

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Prevent Shingles Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... that can result in vision loss. Older Adults & Shingles As you get older, you are more likely ...

  2. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Epidural Steroid Injections Lumbar Zygapophysical (Facet) Joint Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle Choices 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! ...

  3. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Education Injection Treatments for Spinal Pain Epidural Steroid Injections Lumbar Zygapophysical (Facet) Joint Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle ... Z Spine Specialists Videos 9 for Spine Epidural Steroid Injections Exercise: The Backbone of Spine Treatment Spondylolisthesis ...

  4. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A SPECIALIST Prevention Strengthening Exercise Committee Exercise Committee Core Strengthening Many popular forms of exercise focus on ... acute pain, you should stop doing it. Transverse Core Strengthening This strengthens the muscles that cross from ...

  5. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Lumbar Zygapophysical (Facet) Joint Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle Choices 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient ... the floor; rotate from side to side. Repeat 10 times. Check with your physician; if you are ...

  6. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pregnancy and Back Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain Basics Book RESOURCES Patient ... popular forms of exercise focus on core strengthening, or building the muscles that provide support for your body. Pilates, yoga and martial arts ...

  7. CRACUK user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egan, M.J.; Nixon, W.; Brearley, I.R.

    1986-08-01

    The CRACUK computer code is a revised version of the US consequence modelling code CRAC2, adapted to suit UK applications. Modifications to various models within the code have led to certain changes in the input data requirements for CRACUK in comparison with CRAC2. This guide, written in the form of an Appendix to the CRAC2 User Guide, includes descriptions of the input data layout as it has been altered for use in CRACUK. Used in conjunction with the CRAC2 User Guide, this publication should allow easy use of the CRACUK code. (author)

  8. CCNA Wireless Study Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Lammle, Todd

    2010-01-01

    A complete guide to the CCNA Wireless exam by leading networking authority Todd Lammle. The CCNA Wireless certification is the most respected entry-level certification in this rapidly growing field. Todd Lammle is the undisputed authority on networking, and this book focuses exclusively on the skills covered in this Cisco certification exam. The CCNA Wireless Study Guide joins the popular Sybex study guide family and helps network administrators advance their careers with a highly desirable certification.: The CCNA Wireless certification is the most respected entry-level wireless certification

  9. 2014 Australasian sky guide

    CERN Document Server

    Lomb, Nick

    2013-01-01

    Compact, easy to use and reliable, this popular guide contains everything you need to know about the southern night sky with monthly astronomy maps, viewing tips and highlights, and details of all the year's exciting celestial events. Wherever you are in Australia or New Zealand, easy calculations allow you to estimate local rise and set times for the Sun, Moon and planets. The 2014 Australasian Sky Guide also provides information on the solar system, updated with the latest findings from space probes. Published annually since 1991, the Sky Guide continues to be a favourite with photographers,

  10. 2015 Australasian sky guide

    CERN Document Server

    Lomb, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Compact, easy to use and reliable, this popular guide has been providing star gazers with everything they need to know about the southern night sky for the past 25 years. The 2015 guide will celebrate this landmark with highlights from the past as well as monthly astronomy maps, viewing tips and highlights, and details of the year's exciting celestial events.Wherever you are in Australia or New Zealand, easy calculations allow you to estimate local rise and set times for the Sun, Moon and planets. The 2015 Australasian Sky Guide also provides information on the solar system, updated with the l

  11. Manufacturing Planning Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waid, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Manufacturing process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users of the manufacturing facilities. The Manufacturing Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non-NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware/software developers. It is intended to assist their project engineering personnel in manufacturing planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the manufacturing process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, products, and inputs necessary to define test scope, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.

  12. HIV Prevention

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-01

    Dr. Kevin Fenton, Director of CDC’s National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, talks about steps people can take to protect their health from HIV.  Created: 2/1/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 2/1/2012.

  13. Guide to Insulating Sheathing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2007-10-11

    This guide examines new methods of enclosure designs that provide high thermal performance and long-term durability but also take opportunities to reduce material use, simplify or integrate systems and details, and potentially reduce overall initial costs of construction.

  14. EERE Peer Review Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-01-18

    The primary purpose of this guide is to provide managers and staff guidance in establishing formal in-progress peer review that provides intellectually fair expert evaluation of EERE RD3 and supporting business administration programs, both retrospective and prospective.

  15. Guide to ship sanitation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2011-01-01

    "The third edition of the Guide to Ship Sanitation presents the public health significance of ships in terms of disease and highlights the importance of applying appropriate control measures"--Back cover...

  16. Guide to Behavior Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... We Can! ) Health Professional Resources Guide to Behavior Change Your Weight Is Important Over the past few ... focus on are the dietary and physical activity changes that will lead to long-term weight change. ...

  17. Lean Government Methods Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Guide focuses primarily on Lean production, which is an organizational improvement philosophy and set of methods that originated in manufacturing but has been expanded to government and service sectors.

  18. Ultrasound guided supraclavicular block.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hanumanthaiah, Deepak

    2013-09-01

    Ultrasound guided regional anaesthesia is becoming increasingly popular. The supraclavicular block has been transformed by ultrasound guidance into a potentially safe superficial block. We reviewed the techniques of performing supraclavicular block with special focus on ultrasound guidance.

  19. VOLTTRON: User Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutes, Robert G.; Katipamula, Srinivas; Akyol, Bora A.; Tenney, Nathan D.; Haack, Jereme N.; Monson, Kyle E.; Carpenter, Brandon J.

    2014-04-24

    This document is a user guide for the deployment of the Transactional Network platform and agent/application development within the VOLTTRON. The intent of this user guide is to provide a description of the functionality of the Transactional Network Platform. This document describes how to deploy the platform, including installation, use, guidance, and limitations. It also describes how additional features can be added to enhance its current functionality.

  20. Security guide for subcontractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    This security guide of the Department of Energy covers contractor and subcontractor access to DOE and Mound facilities. The topics of the security guide include responsibilities, physical barriers, personnel identification system, personnel and vehicular access controls, classified document control, protecting classified matter in use, storing classified matter repository combinations, violations, security education clearance terminations, security infractions, classified information nondisclosure agreement, personnel security clearances, visitor control, travel to communist-controlled or sensitive countries, shipment security, and surreptitious listening devices.

  1. CT guided thoracocentesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinohara, Yoshitomo; Kobayashi, Kunihiko; Baba, Makoto; Watabe, Hideyuki; Sato, Masashi; Kajiki, Yoshie; Hikita, Fuminori; Yamagishi, Yoshihiko

    1986-01-01

    Our diagnostic method of CT guided thoracocentesis is introduced. This method is especially useful to obtain pleural fluid in patient with small amount of pleural effusion. The essential points of this method are as follows; The course and site to reach the pleural cavity are determined by CT scan. And the angulated 22 G needle is inserted from the back (below) of the supine patient. CT guided thoracocentesis is a simple, safe and sure procedure to obtain pleural fluid. (author)

  2. Railo 3 Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Drew, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Part of Packt's Beginner's Guide series, this book uses practical examples and screenshots to steadily guide the reader through setting up and using Railo. If you want to develop your own dynamic web applications using CFML, then this book is for you. No prior experience with Railo or CFML is required, although you will be expected to have some web application development experience and knowledge of HTML.

  3. Liferay Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Robert; Bhatt, Samir

    2011-01-01

    Part of Packt's Beginner's Guide series, each chapter follows the creation of a fictional neighbourhood site to demonstrate an aspect of Liferay portal with practical examples, screenshots, and step-by-step instructions. All you need in order to benefit from the Liferay Beginner's Guide is programming experience. No prior knowledge of Liferay is required, although experienced Liferay portal programmers who need to get up to speed with its latest features will also find this book useful.

  4. Visual explorer facilitator's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Palus, Charles J

    2010-01-01

    Grounded in research and practice, the Visual Explorer™ Facilitator's Guide provides a method for supporting collaborative, creative conversations about complex issues through the power of images. The guide is available as a component in the Visual Explorer Facilitator's Letter-sized Set, Visual Explorer Facilitator's Post card-sized Set, Visual Explorer Playing Card-sized Set, and is also available as a stand-alone title for purchase to assist multiple tool users in an organization.

  5. Incorporating economic valuation into fire prevention planning and management in Southern European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Varela

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: This article describes and analyzes the links between the fire-based scientific knowledge, the social perception of fire prevention and forest fires and the economic valuation requirements to assess social preferences for fire prevention measures. Area of study: Southern European countries. Material and Methods: For that purpose, we develop a critical revision of the existing literature on economic valuation of social preferences for fire risk reduction and fire prevention in terms of its links with fire science and social perceptions and the applicability of these results in fire management policies. Research highlights: The assessment of social preferences for fire related issues is challenging due to the difficulty of setting sound valuation scenarios that can simultaneously be relevant for the respondents and derive conclusions useful for fire management. Most of the revised studies set up valuation scenarios focused on the final management outcome e.g. number of burnt hectares, what is easier for the respondents to evaluate but weakens the scientific relationship with fire management, making difficult reaching conclusions for sound management advice. A more recent set of valuation studies has been developed where risk perception of homeowners is further assessed as a key variable determining their preferences in valuation scenarios. These studies are relevant for mangers setting fire prevention programs in wildland urban interface areas as understanding the factors that may promote or hinder the enrolment of these homeowners in fire prevention activities may have direct implication in addressing communication programs to promote fire prevention management.

  6. Radiological design guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this design guide is to provide radiological safety requirements, standards, and information necessary for designing facilities that will operate without unacceptable risk to personnel, the public, or the environment as required by the US Department of Energy (DOE). This design guide, together with WHC-CM-4-29, Nuclear Criticality Safety, WHC-CM-4-46, Nonreactor Facility Safety Analysis, and WHC-CM-7-5, Environmental Compliance, covers the radiation safety design requirements at Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). This design guide applies to the design of all new facilities. The WHC organization with line responsibility for design shall determine to what extent this design guide shall apply to the modifications to existing facilities. In making this determination, consideration shall include a cost versus benefit study. Specifically, facilities that store, handle, or process radioactive materials will be covered. This design guide replaces WHC-CM-4-9 and is designated a living document. This design guide is intended for design purposes only. Design criteria are different from operational criteria and often more stringent. Criteria that might be acceptable for operations might not be adequate for design

  7. Control system design guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sellers, David; Friedman, Hannah; Haasl, Tudi; Bourassa, Norman; Piette, Mary Ann

    2003-05-01

    The ''Control System Design Guide'' (Design Guide) provides methods and recommendations for the control system design process and control point selection and installation. Control systems are often the most problematic system in a building. A good design process that takes into account maintenance, operation, and commissioning can lead to a smoothly operating and efficient building. To this end, the Design Guide provides a toolbox of templates for improving control system design and specification. HVAC designers are the primary audience for the Design Guide. The control design process it presents will help produce well-designed control systems that achieve efficient and robust operation. The spreadsheet examples for control valve schedules, damper schedules, and points lists can streamline the use of the control system design concepts set forth in the Design Guide by providing convenient starting points from which designers can build. Although each reader brings their own unique questions to the text, the Design Guide contains information that designers, commissioning providers, operators, and owners will find useful.

  8. Radiological design guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, R.A.

    1994-08-16

    The purpose of this design guide is to provide radiological safety requirements, standards, and information necessary for designing facilities that will operate without unacceptable risk to personnel, the public, or the environment as required by the US Department of Energy (DOE). This design guide, together with WHC-CM-4-29, Nuclear Criticality Safety, WHC-CM-4-46, Nonreactor Facility Safety Analysis, and WHC-CM-7-5, Environmental Compliance, covers the radiation safety design requirements at Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). This design guide applies to the design of all new facilities. The WHC organization with line responsibility for design shall determine to what extent this design guide shall apply to the modifications to existing facilities. In making this determination, consideration shall include a cost versus benefit study. Specifically, facilities that store, handle, or process radioactive materials will be covered. This design guide replaces WHC-CM-4-9 and is designated a living document. This design guide is intended for design purposes only. Design criteria are different from operational criteria and often more stringent. Criteria that might be acceptable for operations might not be adequate for design.

  9. User's guide for Reactor Incident Root Cause Coding Tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, D.A.; Paradies, M.W.

    1986-01-01

    The Reactor Incident (RI) Cause Coding Tree is designed to allow identification of root causes of RI's, thereby leading to trending of useful information and developing of corrective actions to prevent recurrence. This guide explains the terminology of the RI Cause Coding Tree and how to use the tree. Using this guide for cause coding is stressed to allow consistency of coding among all RI investigators. 8 figs

  10. Wildland Urban Interface

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The USFS, Silvis Lab developed a statewide WUI layer (see metadata for more information). New Mexico State Forestry provided Community Wildfire Protection Plans,...

  11. Interagency Wildland Fire Cooperation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    Wildlife Fire Assistance includes training personnel, forms partnerships for prescribed burns, state and regional data for fire management plans, develops agreements for DoD civilians to be reimbursed...

  12. Ideas and Inspirations: Good News about Diabetes Prevention and Management in Indian Country

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Program for Indians Division of Diabetes Treatment and Prevention Special Diabetes Program for Indians (SDPI) About SDPI ... diabetes education. Find Guides for Diabetes Programs, Diabetes Prevention Program Toolkit, Program Spotlights, and more! Announcing Online ...

  13. Ideas and Inspirations: Good News about Diabetes Prevention and Management in Indian Country

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Division of Diabetes Treatment and Prevention Special Diabetes Program for Indians (SDPI) About SDPI Community-Directed SDPI ... who provide diabetes education. Find Guides for Diabetes Programs, Diabetes Prevention Program Toolkit, Program Spotlights, and more! ...

  14. Book Review The origins, prevention and treatment of infant crying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Book Review The origins, prevention and treatment of infant crying and sleeping problems: An evidence based guide for healthcare professionals and the families they support By Ian St James-Roberts (2012)

  15. Bullying Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Patrice

    2016-01-01

    The focus of the milestone project is to focus on bridging the gap of bullying and classroom instruction methods. There has to be a defined expectations and level of accountability that has to be defined when supporting and implementing a plan linked to bullying prevention. All individuals involved in the student's learning have to be aware of…

  16. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic Exercise Cervical Exercise Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy and Back Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain Basics Book RESOURCES ... The Backbone of Spine Treatment Spondylolisthesis BLOG FIND ...

  17. Prevent Pneumonia

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-08-06

    CDC’s Matthew Westercamp explains what pneumonia is, its symptoms, and how to prevent it.  Created: 8/6/2015 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Bacterial Diseases (DBD), Respiratory Diseases Branch (RDB).   Date Released: 8/6/2015.

  18. HIV Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abroad Treatment Basic Statistics Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Collapse All Is abstinence the only 100% effective HIV prevention option? Yes. Abstinence means not having oral, ...

  19. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Information Feature Articles Patient Q&A Success Stories Definitions Anatomy of the Spine Definitions A-Z Spine Specialists Videos 9 for Spine Epidural Steroid Injections Exercise: The Backbone of Spine Treatment Spondylolisthesis BLOG FIND A SPECIALIST Prevention ...

  20. Promotion Guide – A guide for career reviews

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    On 8 February, the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) approved the Promotion Guide, subtitled “A guide for career reviews”. The English version is already published on the HR website. This Promotion Guide is not very different from the Career Path Guide which it replaces following the implementation of the new career structure with benchmark jobs and grades. Structure The guide is composed of three parts: Section I – Introduction revisits the reference documents: the Staff Rules and Regulations (S&R) and the Administrative Circular No. 26 (AC 26). In the Staff Rules and Regulations, the term promotion is defined as a change of grade1 and in Administrative Circular No. 26, the Promotion Guide is referenced under paragraph 452. The objective of the Promotion Guide is laid out in Section I: “The Promotion Guide defines the criteria to be used as a reference for career reviews with a view to a potential promotion”. However, this guide do...

  1. Google Pocket Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Calishain, Tara; Adams, DJ

    2003-01-01

    Beneath its deceptively simple search form, Google is a remarkably powerful and flexible search engine that indexes billions of web pages, handling more than 150 million searches a day. You know that what you're looking for must be in there somewhere, but how do you make Google work for you? Crafted from our best-selling Google Hacks title, the Google Pocket Guide provides exactly the information you need to make your searches faster and more effective, right from the start. The Google Pocket Guide unleashes the power behind that blinking cursor by delivering: A thorough but concise tour o

  2. Synthetic guide star generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Stephen A [Castro Valley, CA; Page, Ralph H [Castro Valley, CA; Ebbers, Christopher A [Livermore, CA; Beach, Raymond J [Livermore, CA

    2008-06-10

    A system for assisting in observing a celestial object and providing synthetic guide star generation. A lasing system provides radiation at a frequency at or near 938 nm and radiation at a frequency at or near 1583 nm. The lasing system includes a fiber laser operating between 880 nm and 960 nm and a fiber laser operating between 1524 nm and 1650 nm. A frequency-conversion system mixes the radiation and generates light at a frequency at or near 589 nm. A system directs the light at a frequency at or near 589 nm toward the celestial object and provides synthetic guide star generation.

  3. Pneumatic conveying design guide

    CERN Document Server

    Mills, David

    1990-01-01

    Pneumatic Conveying Design Guide is a guide for the design of pneumatic conveying systems and includes detailed data and information on the conveying characteristics of a number of materials with a wide range of properties. This book includes logic diagrams for design procedures and scaling parameters for the conveying line configuration. It also explains how to improve the performance of pneumatic conveyors by optimizing, uprating, and extending the system or adapting it for a change of material. This book consists of 15 chapters divided into three sections and opens with an overview of the s

  4. Jenkins The Definitive Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Smart, John

    2011-01-01

    Streamline software development with Jenkins, the popular Java-based open source tool that has revolutionized the way teams think about Continuous Integration (CI). This complete guide shows you how to automate your build, integration, release, and deployment processes with Jenkins-and demonstrates how CI can save you time, money, and many headaches. Ideal for developers, software architects, and project managers, Jenkins: The Definitive Guide is both a CI tutorial and a comprehensive Jenkins reference. Through its wealth of best practices and real-world tips, you'll discover how easy it is

  5. Adobe Edge Quickstart Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Labrecque, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Adobe Edge Quickstart Guide is a practical guide on creating engaging content for the Web with Adobe's newest HTML5 tool. By taking a chapter-by-chapter look at each major aspect of Adobe Edge, the book lets you digest the available features in small, easily understandable chunks, allowing you to start using Adobe Edge for your web design needs immediately. If you are interested in creating engaging motion and interactive compositions using web standards with professional tooling, then this book is for you. Those with a background in Flash Professional wanting to get started quickly with Adobe

  6. CFEngine 3 Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Rajneesh

    2011-01-01

    Part of Packt's Beginner's Guide series, this book guides you through setting up Cfengine to maximizing its potential. This book focuses on getting you through all the major learning points in a smooth, logical order. You'll also learn how to avoid some common pitfalls. If you are a System Administrator or Configuration manager with a growing infrastructure and if you are looking for a dependable tool to manage your infrastructure, then this book is for you. If your infrastructure is already big with hundreds and thousands of nodes and you are looking for a secure, versatile and stable configu

  7. Cassandra the definitive guide

    CERN Document Server

    Hewitt, Eben

    2011-01-01

    What could you do with data if scalability wasn't a problem? With this hands-on guide, you'll learn how Apache Cassandra handles hundreds of terabytes of data while remaining highly available across multiple data centers -- capabilities that have attracted Facebook, Twitter, and other data-intensive companies. Cassandra: The Definitive Guide provides the technical details and practical examples you need to assess this database management system and put it to work in a production environment. Author Eben Hewitt demonstrates the advantages of Cassandra's nonrelational design, and pays special

  8. Raspberry Pi user guide

    CERN Document Server

    Upton, Eben

    2013-01-01

    The essential guide to getting started with the Raspberry Pi ® The Raspberry Pi has been a success beyond the dream of its creators. Their goal, to encourage a new generation of computer programmers who understand how computers work, is well under way. Raspberry Pi User Guide 2e is the newest edition of the runaway bestseller written by the Pi's co-creator, Eben Upton, and tech writer Gareth Halfacree. It contains everything you need to know to get the Pi up and running, including how to: Connect a keyboard, mouse, monitor and other peripheralsInstall software and configure your Raspberry

  9. Raspberry Pi user guide

    CERN Document Server

    Halfacree, Gareth

    2012-01-01

    Make the most out of the world’s first truly compact computer It's the size of a credit card, it can be charged like a smartphone, it runs on open-source Linux, and it holds the promise of bringing programming and playing to millions at low cost. And now you can learn how to use this amazing computer from its co-creator, Eben Upton, in Raspberry Pi User Guide. Cowritten with Gareth Halfacree, this guide gets you up and running on Raspberry Pi, whether you're an educator, hacker, hobbyist, or kid. Learn how to connect your Pi to other hardware, install software, write basic programs, an

  10. Manifold tool guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, A.

    1982-07-08

    A tool guide that makes possible the insertion of cleaning and/or inspection tools into a manifold pipe that will dislocate and extract the accumulated sediment in such manifold pipes. The tool guide basically comprises a right angled tube (or other angled tube as required) which can be inserted in a large tube and locked into a radially extending cross pipe by adjustable spacer rods and a spring-loaded cone, whereby appropriate cleaning tools can be inserted into to cross pipe for cleaning, inspection, etc.

  11. The OSIRIS user guide

    CERN Document Server

    Telling, M T F

    2003-01-01

    This user guide contains all the information necessary to perform a successful neutron scattering experiment on the OSIRIS spectrometer at ISIS, RAL, UK. Since OSIRIS is a continually evolving and improving instrument some information contained within this manual may become redundant. However, the basic instrument operating procedures should remain essentially unchanged. While updated manuals will be produced when appropriate, the most comprehensive source of information concerning OSIRIS is the Instrument Scientist/Local Contact. It would be appreciated, however, if this user guide were the first point of call should problems arise

  12. Joomla! 25 Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Tiggeler, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Written with a fast-paced but friendly and engaging approach, this Packt Beginner's guide is designed to be placed alongside the computer as your guide and mentor. Step-by-step tutorials are bolstered by explanations of the reasoning behind what you are doing. You will quickly pick up the necessary skills, tips, and tricks for building a successful Joomla! website. This book is written for beginners to website design. By the end of the book you will have built a complete custom content managed website, and be ready to build any kind of website.

  13. Seismic Safety Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eagling, D.G. (ed.)

    1983-09-01

    This guide provides managers with practical guidelines for administering a comprehensive earthquake safety program. The Guide is comprehensive with respect to earthquakes in that it covers the most important aspects of natural hazards, site planning, evaluation and rehabilitation of existing buildings, design of new facilities, operational safety, emergency planning, special considerations related to shielding blocks, non-structural elements, lifelines, fire protection and emergency facilities. Management of risk and liabilities is also covered. Nuclear facilities per se are not dealt with specifically. The principles covered also apply generally to nuclear facilities but the design and construction of such structures are subject to special regulations and legal controls.

  14. Guide to software export

    CERN Document Server

    Philips, Roger A

    2014-01-01

    An ideal reference source for CEOs, marketing and sales managers, sales consultants, and students of international marketing, Guide to Software Export provides a step-by-step approach to initiating or expanding international software sales. It teaches you how to examine critically your candidate product for exportability; how to find distributors, agents, and resellers abroad; how to identify the best distribution structure for export; and much, much more!Not content with providing just the guidelines for setting up, expanding, and managing your international sales channels, Guide to Software

  15. Outdoor lighting guide

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    As concern grows over environmental issues and light pollution, this book satisfies a need for a straightforward and accessible guide to the use, design and installation of outdoor lighting.This all-inclusive guide to exterior lighting from the Institution of Lighting Engineers, recognized as the pre-eminent professional source in the UK for authoritative guidance on exterior lighting, provides a comprehensive source of information and advice on all forms of exterior lighting, from floodlighting, buildings and road lighting to elaborate Christmas decorations. Useful to practitioners

  16. 2013 Australasian sky guide

    CERN Document Server

    Lomb, Nick

    2012-01-01

    Compact, easy to use and reliable, this popular guide contains everything you need to know about the southern night sky with monthly star maps, diagrams and details of all the year's exciting celestial events. Wherever you are in Australia or New Zealand, easy calculations allow you to determine when the Sun, Moon and planets will rise and set throughout the year. Also included is information on the latest astronomical findings from space probes and telescopes around the world. The Sky guide has been published annually by the Powerhouse Museum, Sydney, since 1991. It is recommended for photogr

  17. Seismic Safety Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eagling, D.G.

    1983-09-01

    This guide provides managers with practical guidelines for administering a comprehensive earthquake safety program. The Guide is comprehensive with respect to earthquakes in that it covers the most important aspects of natural hazards, site planning, evaluation and rehabilitation of existing buildings, design of new facilities, operational safety, emergency planning, special considerations related to shielding blocks, non-structural elements, lifelines, fire protection and emergency facilities. Management of risk and liabilities is also covered. Nuclear facilities per se are not dealt with specifically. The principles covered also apply generally to nuclear facilities but the design and construction of such structures are subject to special regulations and legal controls

  18. Return on investment (ROI) proposal preparation guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOOM, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    Section I: Background Return on Investment (ROI) Proposal Preparation Guide-- Over $1.9M is available to fund fiscal year (FY) 2000 waste minimization projects on the Hanford Site. This money was allocated by the US. Department of Energy Headquarters (DOE-HQ). The U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations (RL) and the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection (ORP) are currently seeking pollution prevention proposals from across the Hanford Site that provide a high return-on-investment (ROI) by reducing waste and associated management costs. Purpose of ROI Training The ROI Proposal Preparation Guide is a tool to assist Hanford waste generators in preparing ROI proposal forms for submittal to RL for funding. The guide describes the requirements for submitting an ROI proposal and provides examples of completed ROI forms. The intent is to assist waste generators in identifying projects that meet the criteria, provide information necessary to complete the ROI forms, and submit a proposal that is eligible to receive funding. This guide accompanies the one-hour training workshop on how to prepare and submit an ROI proposal

  19. An image-guided tool to prevent hospital acquired infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Melinda; Szilágyi, László; Lehotsky, Ákos; Haidegger, Tamás; Benyó, Balázs

    2011-03-01

    Hospital Acquired Infections (HAI) represent the fourth leading cause of death in the United States, and claims hundreds of thousands of lives annually in the rest of the world. This paper presents a novel low-cost mobile device|called Stery-Hand|that helps to avoid HAI by improving hand hygiene control through providing an objective evaluation of the quality of hand washing. The use of the system is intuitive: having performed hand washing with a soap mixed with UV re ective powder, the skin appears brighter in UV illumination on the disinfected surfaces. Washed hands are inserted into the Stery-Hand box, where a digital image is taken under UV lighting. Automated image processing algorithms are employed in three steps to evaluate the quality of hand washing. First, the contour of the hand is extracted in order to distinguish the hand from the background. Next, a semi-supervised clustering algorithm classies the pixels of the hand into three groups, corresponding to clean, partially clean and dirty areas. The clustering algorithm is derived from the histogram-based quick fuzzy c-means approach, using a priori information extracted from reference images, evaluated by experts. Finally, the identied areas are adjusted to suppress shading eects, and quantied in order to give a verdict on hand disinfection quality. The proposed methodology was validated through tests using hundreds of images recorded in our laboratory. The proposed system was found robust and accurate, producing correct estimation for over 98% of the test cases. Stery-Hand may be employed in general practice, and it may also serve educational purposes.

  20. GUIDES TO POLLUTION PREVENTION: THE AUTO REPAIR INDUSTRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Automotive maintenance and repair shops generate a variety of waste streams during activities such as replacing fluids (e.g., motor oil, radiator coolant, transmission fluid, brake fluid), replacing non-repairable parts (e.g., brake shoes/pads, shocks, batteries, belts, mufflers,...