William C Sorensen
Full Text Available Background: Soil transmitted helminths (STH remain a global public health concern in spite of occasional dosing campaigns. Aims: To determine baseline prevalence and intensity of STH infection in east Guatemalan school children, and describe the associated epidemiology of anemia, stunting, and wasting in this population. Setting and design: Ten schools in Izabal province (eastern Guatemala were identified, and 1,001 school children were selected for this study. Half of the schools were used as clinical testing sites (blood and stool. Materials and Methods: Anthropometric measures were collected from all children. Over 300 children were tested for anemia and 229 for helminth infection. Ova and parasite specimens were examined via Direct, Kato Katz, and McMaster techniques. Hemoglobin was measured from venipuncture following the hemacue system. Statistical analysis: Correlation between infection intensities and growth indicators were examined. Chi Square or t tests were used for bivariate analysis. Multiple logistic regression was performed on significant variables from bivariate techniques. Results: Over two-thirds of school children were positive for infection by any STH. Prevalence of Hookworm was 30%; Ascaris, 52%; and Trichuris, 39%, most as low-intensity infection. Over half of the children were co-infected. In bivariate analysis, anemia was significantly associated with polyparasitism. Conclusions: For a Guatemalan child who experiences a unit decrease in hemoglobin, one expects to see a 24% increase in the odds of being infected with STH, controlling for age, sex, lake proximity, and growth characteristics. Infection with more than one STH, despite low intensity, led to a significant decrease in hemoglobin.
Iwanejko, Małgorzata; Turno-Krecicka, Anna; Barć, Anna
The aim of the paper was to analyse frequency, causes and type of uveitis at children hospitalized in Ophthalmology Clinic of Medical Academy in Wroclaw in years 2001-2006. Material from 64 (88 pairs) children's eyes was analyzed. There were 35 (54.7%) girls and 29 (45.3%) boys admitted to the Clinic with suspicion of uveitis. There were 17 (26.6%) children with uveitis anterior, 15 (23.4%) with pars planitis and 32 (50.0%) with uveitis posterior. The uveitis occurred in both eyes in 33.9%. Aetiology of uveitis was recognized at 30 (46.9%) patients, at 12 (16.6%) cases uveitis was related to systemic disease. At 22 (34.4%) ill children recognition of aetiology was not possible. The most often cause of uveitis anterior was juvenile chronic arthrosis inflammation and it occurred at 8 (47.1%) children--5 girls, and 3 boys. For the most patients 12 (80.0%), in case of pars planitis recognition of aetiology was impossible. Toxoplasmosis was the most often cause for uveitis posterior and it occurred at 14 (43.8%) children. Parasitic background is still considerable cause of uveitis among children. Juvenile chronic arthritis is the most often cause for uveitis anterior. In considerable amount of children cases, recognition of aetiology of uveitis was not possible.
Tierney, Nancy Leigh
The situation for "street children" has degenerated over the past two decades following the economic and political transitions in much of Latin America. Drawing on scholarly materials, interviews with child rights advocates, and the words of the children themselves, this book explores the abuse, limited choices, despair, loyalty, and…
Tumilowicz, Alison; Habicht, Jean-Pierre; Pelto, Gretel; Pelletier, David L
Nearly one-half of Guatemalan children experience growth faltering, more so in indigenous than in nonindigenous children. On the basis of ethnographic interviews in Totonicapán, Guatemala, which revealed differences in maternal perceptions about food needs in infant girls and boys, we predicted a cumulative sex difference in favor of girls that occurred at ∼6 mo of age and diminished markedly thereafter. We examined whether the predicted differences in age-sex patterns were observed in the village, replicated the examination nationally for indigenous children, and examined whether the pattern in nonindigenous children was different. Ethnographic interviews (n = 24) in an indigenous village were conducted. Anthropometric measurements of the village children aged 0-35 mo (n = 119) were obtained. National-level growth patterns were analyzed for indigenous (n = 969) and nonindigenous (n = 1374) children aged 0-35 mo with the use of Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data. Mothers reported that, compared with female infants, male infants were hungrier, were not as satisfied with breastfeeding alone, and required earlier complementary feeding. An anthropometric analysis confirmed the prediction of healthier growth in indigenous girls than in indigenous boys throughout the first year of life, which resulted in a 2.98-cm height-for-age difference (HAD) between sexes in the village and a 1.61-cm HAD (P differences diminished in the second year of life (P differences in the HAD that first favor girls and then favor boys in the indigenous growth patterns are due to feeding patterns on the basis of gendered cultural perceptions. Circumstances that result in differential sex growth patterns need to be elucidated, in particular the favorable growth in girls in the first year of life. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.
Asturias, Edwin J; Contreras-Roldan, Ingrid L; Ram, Malathi; Garcia-Melgar, Ana J; Morales-Oquendo, Vilma; Hartman, Katharina; Rauscher, Martina; Moulton, Lawrence H; Halsey, Neal A
Combination vaccines have improved the efficiency of delivery of new vaccines in low and middle-income countries. Post-authorization monitoring of adverse events (AEs) after vaccination with a liquid pentavalent DTwP-HepB-Hib combination vaccine was conducted in Guatemalan infants. A prospective observational safety study of the incidence of medical attended events (MAEs) and serious adverse events (SAEs) in children who received pentavalent and oral polio vaccines at 2, 4 and 6 months of age was conducted in two clinics at the Institute of Guatemala. Parents were contacted by telephone after each dose. All outpatient, emergency department visits, and hospitalizations were monitored. A self-controlled analysis was conducted to determine if there was evidence of increased risk of MAEs or SAEs following vaccines as compared to control time windows. Of 3000 recruited infants, 2812 (93.7%) completed the third dose and 2805 (93.5%) completed follow-up. Ten AEs in eight infants, of which four SAEs in four infants, were classified as related to the vaccine. Thirteen deaths were reported due to common illnesses of infancy, and none were judged to be related to the vaccine. The mortality rate (4.4 per 1000) was lower than expected for the population. The incidence-rate-ratio for healthcare visits was lower in post-vaccination time windows than for control windows; after the first vaccine dose, the rate ratios for the risk periods of 0-1, 2-6, and 7-30 days post-vaccination were 0.3, 0.5, and 0.7, respectively (all statistically significantly different from the reference value of 1.0 for the 31-60 day control period). The liquid pentavalent vaccine was associated with lower rates of health care visits and not associated with increases in SAEs or hospitalizations. Systems can be set up in low to middle income countries to capture all health care visits to monitor the safety of new vaccines. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hofman, Roelande H.; de Boom, Jan; Hofman, W. H. Adriaan
This article presents findings of research into the quality control (QC) of schools from 2001-2006. In 2001 several targets for QC were set and the progress of 939 primary schools is presented. Furthermore, using cluster analysis, schools are classified into four QC-types that differ in their focus on school (self) evaluation and school…
Solomons, N.W.; Montenegro-Bethancourt, G.; Vasquez, C.; Vossenaar, M.; Doak, C.M.
Objective: To determine concordance with the New American Plate guideline that no more than one-third of one's plate be covered with foods of animal origin in Guatemalan schoolchildren. Methods: Dietary intake data collected with a 24-h pictorial diary in a convenience sample of 449 third- and
Columna, Luis; Fernández-Vivó, Margarita; Lieberman, Lauren; Arndt, Katrina
Nationwide research indicates that children with visual impairment have limited participation in recreational and sport activities than their peers. This is due in part to the lack of recreational opportunities and facilities, as well as a lack of awareness by parents of how and where their children can participate. The purpose of the current study was to explore the experiences of Latino families of children with visual impairments living in Guatemala regarding physical recreation. Participants were Latino parents (N = 13) who have children with visual impairments recruited from a sport camp. Qualitative data were gathered through one-on-one interviews that were transcribed and analyzed through a constant comparative analysis. Participating Latino families who resided in Guatemala City participated at least once a month in low budget recreational activities with their children with visual impairments. Activities were mostly done in local surroundings and led mainly by their mother. Benefits identified by the participants related to relaxation, socialization, and sense of independence, with minimal mention of health related benefits. There is a need to disseminate information to the Latino community with children with visual impairments regarding the multiple benefits that arise from being involved in recreational physical activities.
Mazariegos, M.; De Vettorazzi, C.; Solomons, N.W.; Caballero, B.
Traditional methods used to evaluate protein metabolism left unanswered some of the relevant questions in public health in developing countries, such as growth retardation in children. Particularly, in developing countries, infection (clinical and subclinical) and malnutrition are still relevant problems, and the most important scientific issues for the application of stable isotope tracer methods are related to the impact of infection, such as the oxidative disposal of essential amino acids in well-nourished and malnourished children. The objectives of the present proposal are: (1) To simplify, make less expensive, less time-consuming, and less invasive, methods in clinical research on amino acid metabolism using stable-isotope tracers in children; and (2) To assess the effects of infection (clinical or subclinical) on whole-body protein turnover in children with and without malnutrition. The objectives involve the engineering and assessment of a portable instrument to be used in evaluations of protein oxidation in the developing world. Methodological issues such as intra- and inter-subject variability, which are of great importance for the interpretation of amino acid metabolism and protein turnover, will also be considered. 18 refs, 2 figs
Mazariegos, M; De Vettorazzi, C; Solomons, N W [Hospital de Ojos y Oidos ` ` Dr. Rodolfo Robles V.` ` , Guatemala City (Guatemala). Centre for Studies of Sensory Impairment, Aging and Metabolism (CeSSIAM); Caballero, B [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Centre for Human Nutrition
Traditional methods used to evaluate protein metabolism left unanswered some of the relevant questions in public health in developing countries, such as growth retardation in children. Particularly, in developing countries, infection (clinical and subclinical) and malnutrition are still relevant problems, and the most important scientific issues for the application of stable isotope tracer methods are related to the impact of infection, such as the oxidative disposal of essential amino acids in well-nourished and malnourished children. The objectives of the present proposal are: (1) To simplify, make less expensive, less time-consuming, and less invasive, methods in clinical research on amino acid metabolism using stable-isotope tracers in children; and (2) To assess the effects of infection (clinical or subclinical) on whole-body protein turnover in children with and without malnutrition. The objectives involve the engineering and assessment of a portable instrument to be used in evaluations of protein oxidation in the developing world. Methodological issues such as intra- and inter-subject variability, which are of great importance for the interpretation of amino acid metabolism and protein turnover, will also be considered. 18 refs, 2 figs.
Mazariegos, M.; Solomons, N.W.; Vettorazzi, C.; Caballero, B.
As mentioned above, it was our intention to develop and test a simplified version of the protocol to assess amino acid metabolism in children. With the combined efforts of a team of experts in the field, a generic protocol was developed as a mandate of the first CRP held at Boston in the fall of 1993. During the beginning of 1994, the final version of such a protocol was released to all the participants of the CRP meeting and arrangements were made in order to apply it and assess its usefulness in the field setting. Therefore, we have shifted our activities to apply, assess and adapt the generic protocol. We are now testing the protocol in the field to establish the variability parameters in both between and within individuals. After testing and refining the protocol, with the help of other groups in developed countries, by validation and/or comparative studies, we would be in a better position to recommend it as a tool to study amino acid metabolism in children in developing countries, whether to describe some specific profiles or to evaluate nutrition interventions. 1 fig., 3 tabs
Linguistic Reporter, 1974
The general goals of the Guatemalan technical institution, the Proyecto Linguistico Francisco Marroquin, are to: create a national technical resource institution in linguistics and Mayan languages; enable Indians to influence programs for their communities; and stimulate the study of Mayan languages and their use as communication medium. (SW)
Pantip, Sirichote; Aroon, B.; Kanokwan, Tienmanee
This study was carried out to elucidate the epidemiological trends and antimicrobial susceptibilities against Salmonella serovars among Thai patients and asymptomatic carriers during 2001-2006 in central Thailand. A total of 1,401 human and 260 non-human isolates from various sources were include...
Letona, Paola; Ramirez-Zea, Manuel; Caballero, Benjamin; Gittelsohn, Joel
Noncommunicable diseases (NCD) are the most common causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, even in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Recent trends in health promotion emphasize community-based interventions as an important strategy for improving health outcomes. The aim of this study was to conduct formative research regarding the perceptions of NCD risk factors, their influencing factors, and community resources available to aid the development and implementation of a community-based intervention with school-age children. Focus group discussions (n = 18), home visits (n = 30), and individual semi-structured interviews (n = 26) were conducted in three urban communities in Guatemala with school-age children (10-12 years of age), teachers, parents, and local community members (i.e., school principals, school food kiosk vendors, religious leaders, authority representatives). All focus groups and interviews were transcribed verbatim for thematic analysis. Children, parents, and teachers have general knowledge about modifiable risk factors. Adults worried more about tobacco use, as compared to unhealthy diet and physical inactivity in children. Participants identified features at the intrapersonal (e.g., negative emotional state), interpersonal (e.g., peers as role models), and organizational and community levels (e.g., high levels of crime) that influence these risk factors in children. School committees, religious leaders, and government programs and activities were among the positive community resources identified. These findings should help researchers in Guatemala and similar LMIC to develop community-based interventions for NCD prevention in school-age children that are effective, feasible, and culturally acceptable.
Penna, Gerson; Pinto, Luiz Felipe; Soranz, Daniel; Glatt, Ruth
In Brazil, reportable diseases are the responsibility of the Secretariat of Health Surveillance of the Brazilian Federal Ministry of Health. During 2001-2006, to determine incidence and hospitalization rates, we analyzed 5 diseases (malaria, leishmaniasis [cutaneous and visceral], dengue fever, leprosy, and tuberculosis) that are endemic to the Amazon region of Brazil. Data were obtained from 773 municipalities in 3 regions. Although incidence rates of malaria, leishmaniasis, tuberculosis, and leprosy are decreasing, persons in lower socioeconomic classes with insufficient formal education are affected more by these diseases and other health inequalities than are other population groups in the region.
Álvaro Fernando Narváez Rubiano
Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se estudian los impactos de un cambio institucionalcomo la reforma laboral del 2002 sobre la demanda laboral colombiana, con base en datos panel suministrados por la Encuesta Anual Manufacturera desagregada a cuatro dígitos CIUU para el periodo 2001-2006 y de acuerdo a los planteamientos teóricos de Hamermesh (1993. Adicionalmente, se estiman elasticidades y los resultados del ejercicio econométrico arrojan una elasticidad empleo producto de 0,57 y 0,61 de corto y largo plazo respectivamente; una elasticidad empleo-salario en el corto plazo de -0,78 y en el largo plazo de -0,98. Esto corrobora un elemento común de los trabajos empíricos, según el cual las elasticidades precios de los factores son mayores en el largo plazo. Los valores anteriores muestran que en el corto plazo la reforma tiene efectos negativos sobre la creación de empleos, mientras que en el largo plazo la reforma no tiene efectos sobre la demanda laboral manufacturera.
Abe, K.; Kohyama, A.; Tanaka, S.; Muroga, T.; Namba, C.; Sze, D.K.
This report summarizes the scientific accomplishments achieved through the JUPITER-II Japan-US Collaboration Program. The JUPITER-II collaboration (Japan-USA Program of Irradiation/Integration Test for Fusion Research -II) has been carried out through six years (2001-2006) under Phase 4 of the collaboration implemented by Amendment 4 of Annex I to the MEXT (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology)-DOE (United States Department of Energy) Cooperation. This program followed the RTNS-II Program (Phase 1: 1982-1986), the FFTF/MOTA Program (Phase 2: 1987-1994) and the JUPITER Program (Phase 3: 1995-2000). The JUPITER-II collaboration was established to provide the scientific foundations for understanding the integrated behavior of blanket materials combinations operating under conditions characteristic of fusion reactors, including interactive neutron irradiation effects, high temperature coolant flow phenomena, heat and mass transport in blanket materials, and coolant chemistry and its interactions with surrounding materials. The scientific concept of this program is to study the key technology in macroscopic system integration for advanced blanket based on an understanding of the relevant mechanics at the microscopic level. The 44 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dengue fever (DF is an emerging infectious disease in the tropics and subtropics. Determinants of DF epidemiology and factors involved in severe cases-dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF and dengue shock syndrome (DSS-remain imperfectly characterized. Since 2000, serotype 1 (DENV-1 has predominated in the South Pacific. The aim of this study was (i to determine the origin and (ii to study the evolutionary relationships of DENV-1 viruses that have circulated in French Polynesia (FP from the severe 2001 outbreak to the recent 2006 epidemic, and (iii to analyse the viral intra-host genetic diversity according to clinical presentation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Sequences of 181 envelope gene and 12 complete polyproteins of DENV-1 viruses obtained from human sera in FP during the 2001-2006 period were generated. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all DENV-1 FP strains belonged to genotype IV-"South Pacific" and derived from a single introduction event from South-East Asia followed by a 6-year in situ evolution. Although the ratio of nonsynonymous/synonymous substitutions per site indicated strong negative selection, a mutation in the envelope glycoprotein (S222T appeared in 2002 and was subsequently fixed. It was noted that genetic diversification was very significant during the 2002-2005 period of endemic DENV-1 circulation. For nine DF sera and eight DHF/DSS sera, approximately 40 clones/serum of partial envelope gene were sequenced. Importantly, analysis revealed that the intra-host genetic diversity was significantly lower in severe cases than in classical DF. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: First, this study showed that DENV-1 epidemiology in FP was different from that described in other South-Pacific islands, characterized by a long sustained viral circulation and the absence of new viral introduction over a 6-year period. Second, a significant part of DENV-1 evolution was observed during the endemic period characterized by the rapid
Laura Itzel Ramírez-Ramos
Full Text Available Mexico's southern border is the entry point for different migratory flows, mainly from Central America, these flows have taken place under socioeconomic contexts and conditions which demand the constant livelihood strategies pursuit from people. This paper is focused on the agricultural laborers from Guatemalan origin, within coffee plantation farms at the Soconusco, Chiapas. The main objective is arguing how the lack of access -or restricted access- to education and the precarious inclusion to work and migration, have positioned youth population of migrant laborers, from Guatemalan origin, into social processes of social exclusion and vulnerability. It is concluded that conditions generated from these processes, preclude the generation of different work expectations, the access to a higher quality of life and the social mobility in a men and woman development crucial stage. The exposed information comes from quantitative and qualitative research methods. A nonrandom survey was applied to 129 families; 20 semi-structured interviews for children and adolescents within farms and 25 to actors involved in the recognition and performance of the human rights of migrant children in the southern Mexican border area.
Meningitis and pneumonia in Guatemalan children: the importance of Haemophilus influenzae type b and Streptococcus pneumoniae Meningitis y neumonía en niños guatemaltecos: importancia de Haemophilus influenzae tipo b y de Streptococcus pneumoniae
Edwin J. Asturias
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the epidemiology of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib and Streptococcus pneumoniae invasive infections in hospitalized Guatemalan children. This is an important issue since Hib vaccine has not been incorporated into the routine immunization program in Guatemala and information from hospital records in 1995 indicated a low incidence of Hib and S. pneumoniae as causes of meningitis and invasive infections. METHODS: Children who were hospitalized in Guatemala City with clinical signs compatible with bacterial infections were evaluated for evidence of Hib or S. pneumoniae infection. Normally sterile body fluids were cultured, and antigen detection was performed on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and pleural fluid. RESULTS: Of 1 203 children 1-59 months of age hospitalized over a 28-month period, 725 of them (60.3% had a primary diagnosis of pneumonia, 357 (29.7% of meningitis, 60 (5.0% of cellulitis, and 61 (5.1% of sepsis and other conditions. Hib was identified in 20.0% of children with meningitis and S. pneumoniae in 12.9%. The average annual incidence of Hib meningitis was 13.8 cases per 100 000 children under 5 years of age, and 32.4% of meningitides caused by Hib and 58.7% of S. pneumoniae meningitides occurred prior to 6 months of age. Case fatality rates were 14.1%, 37.0%, and 18.0%, respectively, for children with Hib, S. pneumoniae, and culture-negative and antigen-negative meningitis. Prior antibiotic therapy was common and was associated with significant reductions in CSF-culture-positive results for children with other evidence of Hib or S. pneumoniae meningitis. CONCLUSIONS: Improvements in case detection, culture methods, and latex agglutination for antigen detection in CSF resulted in identification of Hib and S. pneumoniae as important causes of severe disease in Guatemalan children. Using a cutoff of > 10 white blood cells per cubic millimeter in CSF would improve the sensitivity for detection of bacterial
Restrepo-Gutiérrez, Ana C.; Salcedo-Cifuentes, Mercedes; Bermúdez-Escobar, Amparo
Objetivo Caracterizar la violencia sexual denunciada por jóvenes entre 10 a 19 años en Cali durante los años 2001 a 2006.Material y Métodos Se definió como presunta víctima denunciante de delito sexual a los jóvenes entre 10 a 19 años usuarios del servicio de Clínica Forense remitidopor autoridad competente durante los años 2001-2006 y se compararon variables de tiempo, lugar y persona de los delitos sexuales cometidos por un familiar (intrafamiliar) y por conocido no familiar o desconocido (...
María J Soto-Méndez
Full Text Available A series of antioxidant enzymes and non-enzymatic compounds act to protect cells from uncontrolled propagation of free radicals. It is poorly understood, though, to what extent and how their interaction is harmonized.To explore associative interactions among a battery of urinary and blood biomarkers of oxidative stress and enzymatic and non-enzymatic markers of the antioxidant defense system in children from low income households.For this cross-sectional descriptive study, urine, red cells, and plasma were sampled in 82 preschool children attending three daycare centers in Quetzaltenango Guatemala. The urinary oxidative stress biomarkers studied were F2-isoprostanes and 8-hydroxy-deoxy-guanosine. Red cell enzyme activities measured were: catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase. Circulating non-enzymatic antioxidants selected were: retinol, tocopherols, β-carotene and coenzymes Q9 and Q10.In a Spearman rank-order correlation hemi-matrix, of 55 paired combinations of the 11 biomarkers, 28 (51% were significantly correlated among each other (p ≤ 0.05, with the strongest association being retinol and tocopherols (r = 0.697, p 0.5 to ≤ 0.10. F2-isoprostanes showed the greatest number of cross-associations, having significant interactions with 8 of the 10 remaining biomarkers. Goodness-of-fit modeling improved or maintained the r value for 24 of the significant interactions and for one of the 5 borderline associations. Multiple regression backward stepwise analysis indicated that plasma retinol, β-carotene and coenzyme Q10 were independent predictors of urinary F2-isoprostanes.Numerous significant associations resulted among biomarkers of oxidation and responders to oxidation. Interesting findings were the apparent patterns of harmonious interactions among the elements of the oxidation-antioxidation systems in this population.
Valarezo, Giselle; Hughes, Christine
This paper explores political engagement by Guatemalans who seasonally migrate to Canada as contracted agricultural workers. Since 2003, an ever-increasing number of Guatemalans have pursued economic opportunities in Canadian fields and greenhouses as participants in a labour migration scheme brokered by the International Organization for Migration (IOM) called the Temporary Agricultural Workers to Canada (TAWC) Project. While some describe this labour migration as a win-win situation for emp...
Chappell, Ava G; Chase, Elizabeth P; Chang, Beverly; Cunningham, Eric; Mihm, Fred; Calame, Antoanella; Fudem, Gary; Cunningham, Bari
Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a rare, autosomal recessive disease involving a defect in DNA repair leading to the premature development of numerous aggressive cutaneous malignancies. Although atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) is a neoplasm typically found in the setting of extensive sun exposure or therapeutic radiation, AFXs are rarely associated with children with XP. We report the case of a 13-year-old Guatemalan girl with the XP type C variant who developed one of the largest AFXs reported on a child's finger. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
San Martín H., Felipe; Pacheco M., Josmel
Las tesis de pregrado tienen gran importancia en la actividad de investigación de la Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos (FMV-UNMSM) por lo que se realizó el presente estudio, a fin de evaluar la actividad de investigación mediante un análisis bibliométrico de aquellas tesis que hayan sido sustentadas en el periodo 2001-2006. Se tomó en consideración las variables unidad académica, disciplina, especie animal, directores y jurado de tesis. Los datos ...
Santos López Leyva; Lidyeth Azucena Sandoval Barraza
El presente artículo parte de los enunciados de política de ciencia y tecnología en nuestro país establecidos en el Programa Especial de Ciencia y Tecnología PECyT (2001-2006). Pretende llevar a cabo un análisis del nivel de instrumentación de esos enunciados. Revisa, de manera central, tres dimensiones: el financiamiento a estas actividades donde resalta la inversión total en ciencia y tecnología; el porcentaje del PIB que el gobierno destina a estas actividades; y el porcentaje del mismo PI...
Guatemala has the highest rate of stunting in the Pan American region and the fourth wordwide. It also has the highest liver cancer rate in this region, which is the same among male and females. Guatemalans of low socioeconomic status consume about 400g of corn/day as tortillas. Subsistence farmers ...
Bermudez, Odilia I.
Abstract Background Consumption of healthy diets that contribute with adequate amounts of fat and fatty acids is needed for children. Among Guatemalan children, there is little information about fat intakes. Therefore, the present study sought to assess intakes of dietary fats and examine food sources of those fats in Guatemalan children. Methods The study subjects consisted of a convenience sample of 449 third- and fourth-grade schoolchildren (8-10 y), attending public or private schools in Quetzaltenango City, Guatemala. Dietary data was obtained by means of a single pictorial 24-h record. Results The percentages of total energy (%E) from total fat, saturated fat (SFA) and monounsaturated fat (MUFA) reached 29%E for total fat and 10%E for each SFA and MUFA, without gender differences. %E from fats in high vs. low-socio economic status (SES) children were significantly higher for boys, but not for girls, for total fat (p = 0.002) and SFA (p < 0.001). Large proportions of the children had low levels of intakes of some fatty acids (FA), particularly for n-3 FA, with >97% of all groups consuming less than 1%E from this fats. Fried eggs, sweet rolls, whole milk and cheese were main sources of total fat and, SFA. Whole milk and sweet bread were important sources of n-3 FA for high- and low-SES boys and girls, respectively. Fried plantain was the main source of n-3 FA for girls in the high-SES group. Fried fish, seafood soup, and shrimp, consumed only by boys in low amounts, were sources of eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids, which may explain the low intakes of these nutrients. Conclusions α-linolenic acid, EPA and DHA were the most limiting fatty acids in diets of Guatemalan schoolchildren, which could be partially explained by the low consumption of sources of these nutrients, particularly fish and seafood (for EPA and DHA). This population will benefit from a higher consumption of culturally acceptable foods that are rich in these limiting
Ek, Lucila D.
This article examines the transnationalism of a Pentecostal Guatemalan-American young woman who is a second-generation immigrant. Amalia traveled to Guatemala from when she was six months old until her sophomore year in college. These visits to Guatemala have helped her maintain her Guatemalan language, culture, and identity in the larger Southern…
Perfis de mortalidade neonatal precoce: um estudo para uma Maternidade Pública de Belo Horizonte (MG, 2001-2006 Profiles of early neonatal deaths: a study for a Public Maternity Hospital of Belo Horizonte (MG, 2001 - 2006
Heloísa Maria de Assis
Full Text Available Trata-se de estudo seccional, com base em dados secundários, com o objetivo de traçar o perfil dos óbitos neonatais precoces ocorridos em uma Maternidade Pública de referência no Estado de Minas Gerais (Maternidade Odete Valadares, Belo Horizonte, no período de 2001 a 2006. Foram utilizadas variáveis relacionadas ao recém-nascido (período de ocorrência do óbito, idade ao óbito, sexo, idade gestacional e peso ao nascer, à mãe (tipo de gravidez, tipo de parto, idade, parturição e número de nascidos mortos, bem como causas múltiplas de mortalidade categorizadas. Obtiveram-se três perfis de óbitos neonatais precoces por meio do método Grade of Membership, que possibilitou também encontrar a prevalência destes perfis. O Perfil 1 foi caracterizado por óbitos de difícil redução e teve prevalência de 41,4%; o Perfil 2, pelos óbitos passíveis de redução (prevalência de 28,3%; e o Perfil 3, pelos óbitos redutíveis (prevalência de 30,4%. Estes perfis possibilitaram a compreensão da mortalidade neonatal precoce na Maternidade Odete Valadares e a análise da sua relação com a história reprodutiva e obstétrica materna, bem como com as condições do recém-nascido. Chama a atenção a elevada prevalência de óbitos evitáveis, realidade que deve ser enfrentada pelos profissionais e pela rede pública de saúde.This is a cross-sectional study with the aim of describing the early neonatal deaths that took place at a Public Maternity Hospital, Maternidade Odete Valadares in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, from 2001 to 2006. It used variables related to the newborn (period the death took place, age at death, gender, gestational age, and birth weight, to the mother (type of pregnancy, type of delivery, age, parity, and number of stillborn children, and to the multiple causes of death. Three profiles of early neonatal death were obtained through the Grade of Membership method (GoM, which also made it possible to find
Schoenborn Charlotte A
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Body Mass Index (BMI based on self-reported height and weight ("self-reported BMI" in epidemiologic studies is subject to measurement error. However, because of the ease and efficiency in gathering height and weight information through interviews, it remains important to assess the extent of error present in self-reported BMI measures and to explore possible adjustment factors as well as valid uses of such self-reported measures. Methods Using the combined 2001-2006 data from the continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, discrepancies between BMI measures based on self-reported and physical height and weight measures are estimated and socio-demographic predictors of such discrepancies are identified. Employing adjustments derived from the socio-demographic predictors, the self-reported measures of height and weight in the 2001-2006 National Health Interview Survey are used for population estimates of overweight & obesity as well as the prediction of health risks associated with large BMI values. The analysis relies on two-way frequency tables as well as linear and logistic regression models. All point and variance estimates take into account the complex survey design of the studies involved. Results Self-reported BMI values tend to overestimate measured BMI values at the low end of the BMI scale ( 28. The discrepancies also vary systematically with age (younger and older respondents underestimate their BMI more than respondents aged 42-55, gender and the ethnic/racial background of the respondents. BMI scores, adjusted for socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents, tend to narrow, but do not eliminate misclassification of obese people as merely overweight, but health risk estimates associated with variations in BMI values are virtually the same, whether based on self-report or measured BMI values. Conclusion BMI values based on self-reported height and weight, if corrected for biases
Stommel, Manfred; Schoenborn, Charlotte A
The Body Mass Index (BMI) based on self-reported height and weight ("self-reported BMI") in epidemiologic studies is subject to measurement error. However, because of the ease and efficiency in gathering height and weight information through interviews, it remains important to assess the extent of error present in self-reported BMI measures and to explore possible adjustment factors as well as valid uses of such self-reported measures. Using the combined 2001-2006 data from the continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, discrepancies between BMI measures based on self-reported and physical height and weight measures are estimated and socio-demographic predictors of such discrepancies are identified. Employing adjustments derived from the socio-demographic predictors, the self-reported measures of height and weight in the 2001-2006 National Health Interview Survey are used for population estimates of overweight & obesity as well as the prediction of health risks associated with large BMI values. The analysis relies on two-way frequency tables as well as linear and logistic regression models. All point and variance estimates take into account the complex survey design of the studies involved. Self-reported BMI values tend to overestimate measured BMI values at the low end of the BMI scale ( 28. The discrepancies also vary systematically with age (younger and older respondents underestimate their BMI more than respondents aged 42-55), gender and the ethnic/racial background of the respondents. BMI scores, adjusted for socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents, tend to narrow, but do not eliminate misclassification of obese people as merely overweight, but health risk estimates associated with variations in BMI values are virtually the same, whether based on self-report or measured BMI values. BMI values based on self-reported height and weight, if corrected for biases associated with socio-demographic characteristics of the survey
Dresdenis muusikafestivalil "Global Ear" 23.3.03 esitusel Eesti heliloojate muusika: Helena Tulve "lumineux/opaque", Jaan Rääts "Meditation", Mirjam Tally "Aura", Mati Kuulberg "Sonate Nr.4", Mari Vihmand "Seitsmele"
Pehlke, Elisa L; Letona, Paola; Hurley, Kristen; Gittelsohn, Joel
Guatemala suffers the double burden of malnutrition with high rates of stunting alongside increasing childhood overweight/obesity. This study examines the school food environment (SFE) at low-income Guatemalan elementary schools and discusses its potential impact on undernutrition and overweight/obesity. From July through October 2013, direct observations, in-depth interviews with school principals (n = 4) and food kiosk vendors (n = 4, 2 interviews each) and also focus groups (FGs) with children (n = 48, 8 FGs) were conducted. The SFE comprises food from school food kiosks (casetas); food from home or purchased in the street; and food provided by the school (refacción). School casetas, street vendors and children's parents largely provide sandwiches, calorie-rich snacks and sugar-sweetened beverages. Refacción typically serves energy dense atol, a traditional beverage. The current school food program (refacción), the overall SFE and the roles/opinions of vendors and principals reveal persistent anxiety concerning undernutrition and insufficient concern for overweight/obesity. Predominant concern for elementary schoolchildren remains focused on undernutrition. However, by the time children reach elementary school (ages 6-12+), food environments should encourage dietary behaviors to prevent childhood overweight/obesity. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.
Robles, Jorge Rodolfo
The present status of Guatemalan satellite- and communications-related technology is discussed, including recent changes and plans for future work. The international telecommunications capacity and the operations of Guatel are emphasized. Plans for the digitalization of the land-based station Quetzal I and the addition of a second station are described. The equipment and configurations of the digital conversion are specified. The anticipated capacity of the Quetzal I station will be 300,000 telephone lines and the technology used will integrate international digital service for both transmission and exchange. The capacity of the second land station includes 1500 telephone channels, 30 IBS channels, and television transmission and reception. A plan for regional cooperation is proposed to improve the utilization of satellite technology in Central America.
Bedoya, Luis M; Alvarez, Amparo; Bermejo, Mercedes; González, Nuria; Beltrán, Manuela; Sánchez-Palomino, Sonsoles; Cruz, Sully M; Gaitán, Isabel; del Olmo, Esther; Escarcena, Ricardo; García, Pablo A; Cáceres, Armando; San Feliciano, Arturo; Alcamí, José
Prevention methods to avoid transmission of pathogens, including HIV, are crucial in the control of infectious diseases, not only to block epidemic spread but to avoid long-term treatments leading to emergence of resistances and drug associated side effects. Together with vaccine development, the discovery of new virucidal agents represents a research priority in this setting. In the screening of new compounds with antiviral activity, three Guatemalan plant extracts from Justicia reptans, Neurolaena lobata and Pouteria viridis were evaluated with a classic antiviral assay and were found to inhibit HIV replication. This activity was corroborated by an original recombinant virus assay, leading us to perform a deeper study of the virucidal activity. Active fractions were non-toxic in vitro and also inhibited other enveloped viruses. Moreover, these fractions were able to inhibit the transfer of HIV from dendritic cells (DCs) to lymphocytes, that represents the main way of HIV spread in vivo.
Adriana Carolina Silva Arias
Full Text Available Como una alternativa a la problemática que gira en torno a la dimensión real del desplazamiento forzado en Colombia, este artículo analiza el poder explicativo de la caracterización instrumental del desplazamiento forzado a partir de la Encuesta Continua de Hogares (ECH como un sistema alternativo de información. Este estudio gira en torno a la capacidad que tendría laECHde replicar, a nivel de microdatos, algunos patrones recurrentes detectados en múltiples estudios a comunidades desplazadas. Para esto, evaluamos algunos elementos particulares de la población desplazada, tales como su nivel educativo, patrones de género, tamaño y tasas de dependencia de las familias desplazadas, así como patrones de inserción laboral. En general, la caracterización del desplazamiento forzado a través de laECHpara el periodo 2001-2006, refleja patrones identificados en la literatura sobre el desplazamiento en Colombia; presenta perfiles empíricos similares a los encontrados en estudios muestrales y en sistemas de información sobre desplazamiento forzado. Adicionalmente, este sistema de información exhibe comportamientos diferenciales entre los migrantes económicos voluntarios e individuos desplazados (IDPs - Internally Displaced Individuals acorde con el análisis teórico de selección del migrante postulado por Borjas (1982. De esta manera, se evidenció entre los desplazados una alta proporción de menores de edad, así como una alta tasa de dependencia económica; además una dimensión de género ligada a la descomposición familiar, debido a que se encontró mayor proporción de hogares desplazados con jefatura femenina, así como mayor proporción de viudas, siendo las mujeres las que devengaron menores ingresos. El tratamiento empírico ofrece dos conclusiones destacables. La primera de ellas es reforzar la existencia de ciertos hechos estilizados en el perfil de los desplazados forzados en Colombia. La segunda es que la caracterizaci
Rogerio Pereira de Andrade
Full Text Available O objetivo deste texto é avaliar a performance do Banco do Brasil (BB no período 2001-2006, enfatizando os seguintes aspectos: O desempenho do BB correspondeu ao de um banco público tradicional que atua como um importante instrumento de governo para a promoção do desenvolvimento? Ou, ao invés disso, a trajetória recente do banco pode ser caracterizada pelo reforço de uma lógica privada de atuação? O texto procura levantar algumas questões relativas ao papel do Estado na atividade econômica, particularmente o papel que um grande banco estatal pode e deve ter para financiar o desenvolvimento em um país periférico (e desigual como o Brasil. A conclusão mais geral é que, desde meados dos anos 1980, o Banco do Brasil tem perdido crescentemente a função básica que costumava exercer como banco público.The purpose of this paper is to assess the performance of the Bank of Brazil (BB in the 2001-2006 period, with a focus on the following aspects: has the BB actually performed the role of a typical public bank, functioning as an important instrument to foster development in Brazil? Or, instead, has its recent path been characterised by the reinforcement of a private logic of behaviour? The paper aims at raising a few questions regarding the role of the state in the economic activity, particularly the role that a big state-owned bank can and must perform to finance development in a peripheral (and unequal country like Brazil. The general conclusion is that, since the mid-80s, the BB has increasingly lost the key function that it formerly exerted as a public bank. A distinct pattern of behaviour has emerged, characterised by the bank's transformation into a "more private, less public" institution.
REFERENCES Adams, Richard N. 1952. Un anälisis de las creencias y practicas medicas en un pueblo indigeno de Guatemala Publicaciones Especiales de...Sanford, and George Davey Smith (1995) "Diarrea infantil en la Nicaragua rural: creencia y practicas de salud tradicionales." Boletin de la Oficina
Silva, Adriana Carolina; Guataquí, Juan Carlos
Resumen Se analizan los determinantes socioeconómicos de la inserción laboral de migrantes recientes y de desplazados forzados en las diez principales ciudades de Colombia utilizando información de la Encuesta Continua de Hogares (2001-2006). Se adapta el marco teórico de selección del migrante internacional de Borjas (1982, 1985, 1987, 1990) a los casos de migración interna voluntaria o involuntaria. Además, mediante la estimación de un modelo Logit para conocer la propensión a ocuparse y de...
Ramirez-Zea, Manuel; Kroker-Lobos, Maria F; Close-Fernandez, Regina; Kanter, Rebecca
As the prevalence of obesity increases in developing countries, the double burden of malnutrition (DBM) has become a public health problem, particularly in countries such as Guatemala with a high concentration of indigenous communities where the prevalence of stunting remains high. The aim was to describe and analyze the prevalence of DBM over time (1998-2008) in indigenous and nonindigenous Guatemalan populations. We used 3 National Maternal and Child Health Surveys conducted in Guatemala between 1998 and 2008 that include anthropometric data from children aged 0-60 mo and women of reproductive age (15-49 y). We assessed the prevalence of childhood stunting and both child and adult female overweight and obesity between 1998 and 2008. For the year 2008, we assessed the prevalence of DBM at the household (a stunted child and an overweight mother) and individual (stunting/short stature and overweight or anemia and overweight in the same individual) levels and compared the expected and observed prevalence rates to test if the coexistence of the DBM conditions corresponded to expected values. Between 1998 and 2008, the prevalence of childhood stunting decreased in both indigenous and nonindigenous populations, whereas overweight and obesity in women increased faster in indigenous populations than in nonindigenous populations (0.91% compared with 0.38%/y; P-trend < 0.01). In 2008, the prevalence of stunted children was 28.8 percentage points higher and of overweight women 4.6 percentage points lower in indigenous compared with nonindigenous populations (63.7% compared with 34.9% and 46.7% compared with 51.3%, respectively). DBM at the household and individual levels was higher in indigenous populations and was higher in geographic areas in which most of the population was indigenous, where there was also a greater prevalence of stunting and DBM at the individual level, both in women and children. In Guatemala, DBM is more prevalent in indigenous than in nonindigenous
Luz, Geisa dos Santos; Carvalho, Maria Dalva de Barros; Pelloso, Sandra Marisa; Higarashi, Ieda Harumi
Irreversible sequels of some genetic diseases can be prevented by neonatal screening. The aim of this paper was to verify the prevalence of diseases diagnosed by the National Program of Neonatal Screening (PNTN) in Maringá, Paraná, Brazil, between 2001 and 2006. This cross-sectional descriptive study included 20,529 newborn infants screened by that program. Out of those, 859 were re-examined, and 21 had the disease confirmed. Considering all screened newborn infants and the number of diagnostics per disease, the following disease prevalence was determine: phenylketonuria--1:20,529; congenital hypothyrodism--1:2,281; hemoglobinopahies--1:3,421; cystic fibrosis--1:10,264; and biotinidase deficiency--1:6,843. Understanding disease status and prevalence of newborns in a population allows the establishment and the improvement of public policies aimed at the children.
Godin, Katelyn M; Chacón, Violeta; Barnoya, Joaquin; Leatherdale, Scott T
The current study sought to examine Guatemalan adolescents' consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), identify which individual-level characteristics are associated with SSB consumption and describe school characteristics that may influence students' SSB consumption. Within this observational pilot study, a questionnaire was used to assess students' consumption of three varieties of SSB (soft drinks, energy drinks, sweetened coffees/teas), as well as a variety of sociodemographic and behavioural characteristics. We collected built environment data to examine aspects of the school food environment. We developed Poisson regression models for each SSB variety and used descriptive analyses to characterize the sample. Guatemala City, Guatemala. Guatemalan adolescents (n 1042) from four (two public, two private) secondary schools. Built environment data revealed that students from the two public schools lacked access to water fountains/coolers. The SSB industry had a presence in the schools through advertisements, sponsored food kiosks and products available for sale. Common correlates of SSB consumption included school type, sedentary behaviour, frequency of purchasing lunch in the cafeteria, and frequency of purchasing snacks from vending machines in school and off school property. Guatemalan adolescents frequently consume SSB, which may be encouraged by aspects of the school environment. Schools represent a viable setting for equitable population health interventions designed to reduce SSB consumption, including increasing access to clean drinking-water, reducing access to SSB, restricting SSB marketing and greater enforcement of existing food policies.
Adriana Carolina Silva
Full Text Available Se analizan los determinantes socioeconómicos de la insetrión laboral de migrantes recientes y de desplazados fañados en las diez principales ciudades de Colombia utilizando información de la Encuesta Continua de Hogares (2001-2006. Se adapta el marco teórico de selección del migrante internacional de Borjas ( 1982, 1985, 1987, 1990 a los casos de migración interna voluntaria o involuntaria. Además, mediante la estimación de un modelo Logit para conocer la propensión a ocuparse y de ecuaciones mincerianas para determinar el nivel de ingreso laboral, ilustramos el proceso de selección positiva de los migrantes económicos recientes y sustentamos empíricamente los resultados teóricos esperados de selección negativa de la inserción laboral del desplazado forzado al mercado laboral urbano.
In August 1981, the proton beam from the rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS) was first delivered to the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS) neutron scattering target and now, in June 2006, it is with great joy that we celebrate the impending 25th anniversary of this event. This edition of the IPNS Progress Report will focus on the development and scientific accomplishments of the past 5 years, since our last Progress Report, but with some mention of the 25 years of IPNS experience. It is appropriate at this anniversary date to recall some of the more significant historic events that have led to the present IPNS and discuss some of the plans that will lead to even more successes. Below is a brief chronology that captures some of the developments of IPNS: 8/4/81 - First beam delivered to the neutron scattering target; 6/10/84 - IPNS produced its one billionth neutron pulse; 1/10/85 - Installed world's first solid methane moderator; 6/30/87 - 1000th experiment performed at IPNS; 9/19/87 - IPNS produced its two billionth neutron pulse; 11/20/91 - 2000th experiment performed at IPNS; 4/17/04 - IPNS produced its eight billionth neutron pulse; and 8/19/05 - 7000th experiment performed at IPNS. During the past 5 years, several significant source and instrument developments have taken place. Most of these are discussed in more detail elsewhere in the report, but three of the ones most visible to users are mentioned here.
Bardenheier, Barbara H; Bullard, Kai McKeever; Caspersen, Carl J; Cheng, Yiling J; Gregg, Edward W; Geiss, Linda S
To use structural modeling to test a hypothesized model of causal pathways related with prediabetes among older adults in the U.S. Cross-sectional study of 2,230 older adults (≥ 50 years) without diabetes included in the morning fasting sample of the 2001-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Demographic data included age, income, marital status, race/ethnicity, and education. Behavioral data included physical activity (metabolic equivalent hours per week for vigorous or moderate muscle strengthening, walking/biking, and house/yard work), and poor diet (refined grains, red meat, added sugars, solid fats, and high-fat dairy). Structural-equation modeling was performed to examine the interrelationships among these variables with family history of diabetes, high blood pressure, BMI, large waist (waist circumference: women, ≥ 35 inches; men, ≥ 40 inches), triglycerides ≥ 200 mg/dL, and total and HDL (≥ 60 mg/dL) cholesterol. After dropping BMI and total cholesterol, our best-fit model included three single factors: socioeconomic position (SEP), physical activity, and poor diet. Large waist had the strongest direct effect on prediabetes (0.279), followed by male sex (0.270), SEP (-0.157), high blood pressure (0.122), family history of diabetes (0.070), and age (0.033). Physical activity had direct effects on HDL (0.137), triglycerides (-0.136), high blood pressure (-0.132), and large waist (-0.067); poor diet had direct effects on large waist (0.146) and triglycerides (0.148). Our results confirmed that, while including factors known to be associated with high risk of developing prediabetes, large waist circumference had the strongest direct effect. The direct effect of SEP on prediabetes suggests mediation by some unmeasured factor(s).
Soto-Méndez, María José; Campos, Raquel; Hernández, Liza; Orozco, Mónica; Vossenaar, Marieke; Solomons, Noel W
To compare variety and diversity patterns and dietary characteristics in Guatemalan women. Two non-consecutive 24-h recalls were conducted in convenience samples of 20 rural Mayan women and 20 urban students. Diversity scores were computed using three food-group systems.Variety and diversity scores and dietary origin and characteristics were compared between settings using independent t-test or Mann-Whitney-U-test. Dietary variety and diversity were generally greater in the urban sample when compared to the rural sample, depending on the number of days and food-group system used for evaluation.The diet was predominantly plant-based and composed of non-fortified food items in both areas.The rural diet was predominantly composed of traditional,non-processed foods. The urban diet was mostly based on non-traditional and processed items. Considerations of intervention strategies for dietary improvement and health protection for the Guatemalan countryside should still rely on promotion and preservation of traditional food selection.
Childhood obesity is a major global public health concern. Rates of obese and overweight children have increased in low- and middle-income countries such as Guatemala. This research will study the influence of food packaging on Guatemalan preschool and school-aged children's energy-dense snack (EDS) food ...
Chary, Anita Nandkumar; Rohloff, Peter J
ABSTRACT Background: Like many other low- and middle-income countries, Guatemala has adopted visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) as a low-resource alternative to the Pap smear for cervical cancer screening. Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) introduced VIA to Guatemala in 2004, and a growing number of NGOs, working both independently and in collaboration with the Guatemalan Ministry of Health, employ VIA in cervical cancer prevention programs today. While much research describes VIA ef...
Szlachetko, Dariusz L; Kolanowska, Marta; Muller, Fred; Vannini, Jay; Rojek, Joanna; Górniak, Marcin
The first natural hybrid in the section Irapeana of the orchid genus Cypripedium is described and illustrated based on Guatemalan material. A molecular evaluation of the discovery is provided. Specimens with intermediate flowers between C. irapeanum and C. dickinsonianum within ITS and Xdh sequences have the signal sequence of both these species. The analysis of plastid sequences indicated that the maternal line is C. irapeanum . Information about the ecology, embryology and conservation status of the novelty is given, together with a distribution map of its parental species, C. irapeanum and C. dickinsonianum . A discussion of the hybridization between Cypripedium species is presented. The potential hybrid zones between the representatives of Cypripedium section Irapeana which were estimated based on the results of ecological niche modeling analysis are located in the Maya Highlands ( C. dickinsonianum and C. irapeanum ) and the eastern part of Southern Sierra Madre ( C. molle and C. irapeanum ). Moreover, all three Cypripedium species could inhabit Cordillera Neovolcánica according to the obtained models; however, it should be noticed that this region is well-distanced from the edges of the known geographical range of C. molle .
Fujimaki, Y; Kamachi, T; Yanagi, T; Cáceres, A; Maki, J; Aoki, Y
Twelve extracts of 11 Guatemalan medicinal plants were initially screened in vitro for potential macrofilaricidal activity against Brugia pahangi, a lymphatic dwelling filarial worm, using concentrations from 125 to 1000 microg ml(-1) of each extract that could be dissolved in the culture medium. Of 12 extracts used, the ethanol extract of leaves of Neurolaena lobata showed the strongest activity against the motility of adult worms. Subsequently, the extract of N. lobata was extensively examined in vitro for macro- and micro-filaricidal effects using a series of concentrations of 500, 250, 100, 50 and 10 microg ml(-1). The effects were assessed by worm motility, microfilarial release by female worms and a MTT assay. The effect on the motility of adult worms was observed in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The time required to stop motility of both sexes of adult worms was 6 h at 500 microg ml(-1), 24 h at 250 microg ml(-1), and 3 days for females and 4 days for males at 100 microg ml(-1). The movement of females ceased at 4 days at a concentration of 50 microg ml(-1) whereas the motility of males was only reduced. The loss of worm's viability was confirmed by the MTT assay and was similar to the motility results. These concentrations, including 10 microg ml(-1), prevented microfilarial release by females in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Concentrations higher than 100 microg ml(-1) even induced mortality of the microfilariae. The present study suggested that the ethanol extract of Neurolaena lobata has potential macro- and micro-filaricidal activities.
Karlsson, Miriam Frida; Birgersson, Göran; Witzgall, Peter; Lekfeldt, Jonas Duus Stevens; Nimal Punyasiri, P A; Bengtsson, Marie
Guatemalan potato moth, Tecia solanivora, lay eggs in the soil nearby potato Solanum spp. and larvae feed on the tubers. We investigated the oviposition behaviour of T. solanivora females and the survival of larval offspring on healthy vs. stressed, i.e. light exposed and/or damaged potato tubers. In choice tests, females laid significantly more eggs in response to potato odour of healthy tubers and female oviposition preference correlated with higher larval survival. Survival of larvae was negatively correlated with the tuber content of the steroid glycoalkaloids α-solanine and α-chaconine: healthy potatoes contained lower amounts than stressed tubers, ranging from 25 to 500 μg g⁻¹ and from 30 to 600 μg g⁻¹, respectively. Analysis of volatile compounds emitted by potato tubers revealed that stressed tubers could clearly be distinguished from healthy tubers by the composition of their volatile profiles. Compounds that contributed to this difference were e.g. decanal, nonanal, isopropyl myristate, phenylacetaldehyde, benzothiazole, heptadecane, octadecane, myristicin, E,E-α-farnesene and verbenone. Oviposition assays, when female moths were not in contact with the tubers, clearly demonstrated that volatiles guide the females to lay fewer eggs on stressed tubers that are of inferior quality for the larvae. We propose that volatiles, such as sesquiterpenes and aldehydes, mediate oviposition behaviour and are correlated with biosynthetically related, non-volatile compounds, such as steroidal glycoalkaloids, which influence larval survival. We conclude that the oviposition response and larval survival of T. solanivora on healthy vs. stressed tubers supports the preference performance hypothesis for insect herbivores. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rhodes, Scott D; Alonzo, Jorge; Mann, Lilli; Downs, Mario; Simán, Florence M; Andrade, Mario; Martinez, Omar; Abraham, Claire; Villatoro, Guillermo R; Bachmann, Laura H
The burden of HIV is disproportionate for Guatemalan sexual minorities (e.g., gay and bisexual men, men who have sex with men [MSM], and transgender persons). Our bi-national partnership used authentic approaches to community-based participatory research (CBPR) to identify characteristics of potentially successful programs to prevent HIV and promote sexual health among Guatemalan sexual minorities. Our partnership conducted Spanish-language focus groups with 87 participants who self-identified as male (n=64) or transgender (n=23) and individual in-depth interviews with ten formal and informal gay community leaders. Using constant comparison, an approach to grounded theory, we identified 20 characteristics of potentially successful programs to reduce HIV risk, including providing guidance on accessing limited resources; offering supportive dialogue around issues of masculinity, socio-cultural expectations, love, and intimacy; using Mayan values and images; harnessing technology; increasing leadership and advocacy skills; and mobilizing social networks. More research is clearly needed, but participants reported needing and wanting programming and had innovative ideas to prevent HIV exposure and transmission.
Full Text Available Objetivo. Analizar los cambios del estado de nutrición de niños guatemaltecos menores de seis años, refugiados en México entre 1982 y 1996, así como describir los diferentes programas de ayuda alimentaria que se pusieron en marcha. Material y métodos. Se realizó un análisis comparativo de cuatro estudios antropométricos transversales llevados a cabo en Chiapas (1982 y 1989, Quintana Roo (1989 y Campeche y Quintana Roo (1996. Se obtuvieron prevalencias de desnutrición según los indicadores peso/edad y talla/edad. Se calculó la razón de momios de la prevalencia y los intervalos de confianza al 95%. Se describen los programas dirigidos a mejorar la nutrición y salud de la población durante el periodo. Resultados. En 1982 privaban altas tasas de desnutrición y de mortalidad entre estos niños refugiados. En 1989, después de su reubicación en Campeche y en Quintana Roo, había mejorado considerablemente la situación tanto de los reubicados como de los que permanecieron en Chiapas. Esa situación prevaleció hasta 1996. Conclusiones. Los programas emprendidos fueron eficaces para controlar la emergencia y prevenir nuevas situaciones de crisis. Sin embargo, sólo lograron sostener a la población refugiada en condiciones similares a las prevalentes en la población indígena mexicana.Objective. To determine changes in the nutritional status of Guatemalan refugee children under six years of age, who lived in México between 1982 and 1996, under various nutrition-related programs implemented during that period. Material and methods. A comparative analysis of 4 cross-sectional anthropometric studies performed in Chiapas (1982, 1989, Quintana Roo (1989 and Campeche and Quintana Roo in 1996. Malnutrition prevalence by weight/age and height/age indicators was calculated. Odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals were estimated. The implemented programs to improve nutritional status and health conditions are described. Results. In 1982, high
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is derived from a Coral Reef Conservation Program-funded project to access effects of trap fishing on coral reefs and associated habitats in Puerto...
Full Text Available In this article conception of corruption in the case of Serbia is analyzed on the ground of findings of two larger surveys done within the five years span, after the Fifth October (in 2001 and 2006. Analysis of data reveals that conception is formed under the great influence of politization and given divisions in society; thus it depends on the ways how people perceive and estimate actual economic and political processes and their actors. Under these conditions subjectivity of conception is at stake. Depending from what social structure they originate, estimations and attitudes on corruption are reflecting a disappointment in new power as well as opposition pressure on rulling regime, or resistance to changes of economic and political system. Most important differences between conceptions of corruptions could be find among partisans whether of old or new regime, i.e. "losers" and "winners" of transition. These social categories are in high correlation with actual socioeconomic standing and life age. Although toleration toward corruption is descendant, it could be noticed that actual and potential transitional winners (more educated, more wealthy, younger people and supporters of the new regime estimate state of corruption more positively, thus showing the signs of accustoming on it and even including signs of moral cynism. As for the losers, they are showing more sensitivity, what could be seen as an effect of their unfavorable economic position and corresponding resistance to the changes along with sharper critical attitude toward the actual power.
... sufficient vitamin D, defined by the Institute of Medicine as a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) value of 50–125 nmol/L. About one-quarter ... the vitamin D status of the U.S. population based on the IOM thresholds for serum ... 25OHD values considered sufficient ( Figure 1 ). Roughly one quarter of ...
Full Text Available Objective. To examine the nature and energy contribution of complementary feeding in breastfed infants in their sixth month of life, and the prevalence of the use of bottles as a delivery method. Materials and methods. We recruited 156 breastfeeding infants at a health clinic in metropolitan Quetzaltenango, Guatemala. A previous-day recall was performed. Results. Sixty nine mothers (44% reported offering items other than breastmilk. The median contribution of energy from complementary foods among infants with mixed feeding (n=66 was 197 kcal/day (interquartile range [IQR] 49-353. The median energy contribution of formula or cow’s milk among consumers (n=39 was 212 kcal/day (IQR 84-394. Bottles were used on the previous day by 55 (80% of the 69 mothers not offering exclusive breastfeeding. Conclusions. Premature introduction of non-breastmilk items is commonly practiced in feeding Guatemalan infants. Adherence to the internationally recognized guidelines for early infant feeding should be an intervention priority for this population.
Dariusz L. Szlachetko
Full Text Available The first natural hybrid in the section Irapeana of the orchid genus Cypripedium is described and illustrated based on Guatemalan material. A molecular evaluation of the discovery is provided. Specimens with intermediate flowers between C. irapeanum and C. dickinsonianum within ITS and Xdh sequences have the signal sequence of both these species. The analysis of plastid sequences indicated that the maternal line is C. irapeanum. Information about the ecology, embryology and conservation status of the novelty is given, together with a distribution map of its parental species, C. irapeanum and C. dickinsonianum. A discussion of the hybridization between Cypripedium species is presented. The potential hybrid zones between the representatives of Cypripedium section Irapeana which were estimated based on the results of ecological niche modeling analysis are located in the Maya Highlands (C. dickinsonianum and C. irapeanum and the eastern part of Southern Sierra Madre (C. molle and C. irapeanum. Moreover, all three Cypripedium species could inhabit Cordillera Neovolcánica according to the obtained models; however, it should be noticed that this region is well-distanced from the edges of the known geographical range of C. molle.
Szlachetko, Dariusz L.; Kolanowska, Marta; Muller, Fred; Vannini, Jay; Rojek, Joanna
The first natural hybrid in the section Irapeana of the orchid genus Cypripedium is described and illustrated based on Guatemalan material. A molecular evaluation of the discovery is provided. Specimens with intermediate flowers between C. irapeanum and C. dickinsonianum within ITS and Xdh sequences have the signal sequence of both these species. The analysis of plastid sequences indicated that the maternal line is C. irapeanum. Information about the ecology, embryology and conservation status of the novelty is given, together with a distribution map of its parental species, C. irapeanum and C. dickinsonianum. A discussion of the hybridization between Cypripedium species is presented. The potential hybrid zones between the representatives of Cypripedium section Irapeana which were estimated based on the results of ecological niche modeling analysis are located in the Maya Highlands (C. dickinsonianum and C. irapeanum) and the eastern part of Southern Sierra Madre (C. molle and C. irapeanum). Moreover, all three Cypripedium species could inhabit Cordillera Neovolcánica according to the obtained models; however, it should be noticed that this region is well-distanced from the edges of the known geographical range of C. molle. PMID:29302391
Chary, Anita Nandkumar; Rohloff, Peter J
Like many other low- and middle-income countries, Guatemala has adopted visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) as a low-resource alternative to the Pap smear for cervical cancer screening. Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) introduced VIA to Guatemala in 2004, and a growing number of NGOs, working both independently and in collaboration with the Guatemalan Ministry of Health, employ VIA in cervical cancer prevention programs today. While much research describes VIA efficacy and feasibility in Latin America, little is known about NGO involvement with VIA programming or experiences with VIA outside the context of clinical trials and pilot projects in the region. To explore challenges faced by NGOs implementing VIA programs in Guatemala, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 36 NGO staff members involved with 20 VIA programs as direct service providers, program administrators, and training course instructors. Additionally, we collected data through observation at 30 NGO-sponsored cervical cancer screening campaigns, 8 cervical cancer prevention conferences, and 1 week-long NGO-sponsored VIA training course. Frequently highlighted challenges included staff turnover, concerns over training quality, a need for opportunities for continued supervision, and problems with cryotherapy referrals when immediate treatment for VIA-positive women was unavailable. Reducing staff turnover, budgeting to train replacement providers, standardizing training curricula, and offering continued supervision are key strategies to improve VIA service quality and program sustainability. Alternative training methods, such as on-the-job mentoring and course prerequisites of online learning, could help increase training time available for clinical supervision. Efforts should be made to ensure that VIA testing is coupled with immediate cryotherapy, that providers trained in VIA are also trained in cryotherapy, and that cryotherapy supplies and equipment are maintained. Where this is not
Redução da desigualdade da distribuição de renda entre 2001 e 2006 nas macrorregiões brasileiras: tendência ou fenômeno transitório? 2001-2006 income distribution decreasing in the Brazilian regions: tendency or transitory phenomena?
Maria Cristina Cacciamali
Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo é contribuir para o debate sobre a queda da desigualdade na distribuição domiciliar de renda no Brasil no início do século XXI. Assim, nessa diminuição, analisamos a participação relativa de três fontes de renda (trabalho, aposentadorias e pensões e transferências públicas nas cinco macrorregiões brasileiras - Norte (urbana, Nordeste, Centro-Oeste, Sudeste e Sul, entre os anos de 2001 e 2006. Para atingir os propósitos, estruturamos o texto em três seções. A primeira seção apresenta aspectos selecionados da literatura especializada brasileira sobre as causas da variação da desigualdade de renda. A segunda apresenta a técnica matemática de decomposição utilizada. Finalmente, na terceira seção, analisam-se os resultados empíricos para Brasil e cinco macrorregiões selecionadas. À guisa de conclusão, destacamos, dentre os resultados, a importância das transferências públicas de renda e, principalmente, as mudanças nos mercados de trabalho regionais para a diminuição do grau de desigualdade.The aim of this paper is to contribute to the debate on the decrease of the concentration degree of the family's income distribution in Brazil in the first five years of the XXI Century. On this purpose, we approach the phenomenon analyzing the importance of five types of income ( labor, property rents, donation, retirement and public cash transference in the five macro regions in Brazil - North, Northeast, Middle-West, Southeast, South, during the period 2001-2006.To reach the purposes, the text was structured in three parts. The first one highlights stylized facts on this decreasing from the Brazilian specialized literature. The second section presents the mathematical technique used to build the decomposition. Finally, in the third section we analyze the results obtained for the five macro regions. We detached, specially, the magnitude of the employment's creation and, secondarily, the public cash
Full Text Available Historically, Guatemalans have suffered high rates of poverty and malnutrition while nearly ten percent of their population resides abroad. Many Guatemalan parents use economic migration, mainly international migration to the United States, as a means to improve the human capital prospects of their children. However, as this investigation shows, the timing of migration events in relation to left-behind children's ages has important, often negative and likely permanent, repercussions on the physical development of their children. To illustrate these dynamics, this investigation uses an instrumental variables framework to disentangle the countervailing effects of Guatemalan fathers' absences due to migration from concomitant remittances on left-behind children's growth outcomes. Based on national-level data collected in 2000, the investigation reveals that the international migration of a father in the previous year is correlated with a 22.1% lower length/height-for-age z-score for the average left-behind child aged ≤ 3. In contrast, the receipt of remittance income has no influence on the physical stature of a child, which may indicate that migrant fathers with young children are not able to achieve economic success soon enough during their ventures abroad to fully ameliorate the harmful effects caused by their absences.
Davis, Jason; Brazil, Noli
Historically, Guatemalans have suffered high rates of poverty and malnutrition while nearly ten percent of their population resides abroad. Many Guatemalan parents use economic migration, mainly international migration to the United States, as a means to improve the human capital prospects of their children. However, as this investigation shows, the timing of migration events in relation to left-behind children's ages has important, often negative and likely permanent, repercussions on the physical development of their children. To illustrate these dynamics, this investigation uses an instrumental variables framework to disentangle the countervailing effects of Guatemalan fathers' absences due to migration from concomitant remittances on left-behind children's growth outcomes. Based on national-level data collected in 2000, the investigation reveals that the international migration of a father in the previous year is correlated with a 22.1% lower length/height-for-age z-score for the average left-behind child aged ≤ 3. In contrast, the receipt of remittance income has no influence on the physical stature of a child, which may indicate that migrant fathers with young children are not able to achieve economic success soon enough during their ventures abroad to fully ameliorate the harmful effects caused by their absences.
Ford, Nicole D; Martorell, Reynaldo; Mehta, Neil K; Ramirez-Zea, Manuel; Stein, Aryeh D
Latin America has experienced increases in obesity. Little is known about the role of early life factors on body mass index (BMI) gain over the life course. The objective of this research was to examine the role of early life factors [specifically, nutrition supplementation during the first 1000 d (from conception to 2 y of age) and childhood household socioeconomic status (SES)] on the pattern of BMI gain from birth or early childhood through midadulthood by using latent class growth analysis. Study participants (711 women, 742 men) who were born in 4 villages in Guatemala (1962-1977) were followed prospectively since participating in a randomized nutrition supplementation trial as children. Sex-specific BMI latent class trajectories were derived from 22 possible measures of height and weight from 1969 to 2004. To characterize early life determinants of BMI latent class membership, we used logistic regression modeling and estimated the difference-in-difference (DD) effect of nutrition supplementation during the first 1000 d. We identified 2 BMI latent classes in women [low (57%) and high (43%)] and 3 classes in men [low (38%), medium (47%), and high (15%)]. Nutrition supplementation during the first 1000 d after conception was not associated with BMI latent class membership (DD test: P > 0.15 for men and women), whereas higher SES was associated with increased odds of high BMI latent class membership in both men (OR: 1.98; 95% CI: 1.09, 3.61) and women (OR: 1.62; 95% CI: 1.07, 2.45) for the highest relative to the lowest tertile. In a cohort of Guatemalan men and women, nutrition supplementation provided during the first 1000 d was not significantly associated with higher BMI trajectory. Higher childhood household SES was associated with increased odds of high BMI latent class membership relative to the poorest households. The pathways through which this operates still need to be explored. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.
Full Text Available Tourism is often identified as a strategy to ameliorate the wellbeing of poor communities and their most vulnerable members – women and their children. Women’s ability to get involved in and benefit from tourism is, however, conditioned by traditional gender roles and consequent education handicaps. Development programs often target women to mitigate these disparities. Thispaper examines whether an intervention by the Peace Corps resulted in improved human agency and self-determination among indigenous Q’eqchi’ women in Alta Verapaz, Guatemala. The paper reports the accomplishments and shortcomings of the intervention and elaborates on the practical and theoretical implications of the findings.
Ballinas-Verdugo, Martha; Reyes, Pedro Antonio; Mejia-Dominguez, Ana; López, Ruth; Matta, Vivian; Monteón, Victor M
Thirteen Trypanosoma cruzi isolates from different geographic regions of Mexico and Guatemala belonging to discrete typing unit (DTU) I and a reference CL-Brener (DTU VI) strain were used to perform enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A panel of 57 Mexican serum samples of patients with chronic chagasic cardiopathy and asymptomatic infected subjects (blood bank donors) were used in this study. DNA from the above 14 T. cruzi strains were extracted and analyzed by PCR using different sets of primers designed from minicircle and satellite T. cruzi DNA. The chronic chagasic cardiopathy serum samples were easily recognized with ELISA regardless of the source of antigenic extract used, even with the CL-Brener TcVI, but positive serum samples from blood bank donors in some cases were not recognized by some Mexican antigenic extracts. On the other hand, PCR showed an excellent performance despite the set of primers used, since all Mexican and Guatemalan T. cruzi strains were correctly amplified. In general terms, Mexican, Guatemalan, and CL-Brener T. cruzi strains are equally good sources of antigen when using the ELISA test to detect Mexican serum samples. However, there are some strains with poor performance. The DTU I strains are easily detected using either kinetoplast or satellite DNA target designed from DTU VI strains.
Solien De Gonzalez, N L
This paper offers descriptive data in the fields of ethnomedicine and ethnonutrition from a community of Ladino (non-Indian) in Guatemala. The data were taken from questionnaires obtained from 102 mothers on 506 living persons. Though no health facilities exist within the village, 3 midwives are in the village who deliver most of the children. (They charge the equivalent of $3.50-$5.00.) Most women deliver in the village, which is usually quite safe unless the complication of delayed expulsion of the placenta is present. No special dietary precautions are taken by the mother during pregnancy in this culture. Midwives are engaged around the 4th or 5th month of pregnancy, and the midwife makes monthly visits after that to feel the fetus's position and prescribe various herbal and patent medicines as required. Delivery position is usually kneeling or squatting. Women bathe 8 days after delivery, and sexual intercourse is resumed 2-3 weeks later. Nearly all women breast-feed their babies (only 3 of 506 infants were not breast-fed according to the survey). If the woman cannot breast-feed her child, a bottle method is used rather than another women's breast. Mothers nurse up to 2.5 years without cultural interference. There is a taboo against nursing while in another pregnancy term. Weaning is generally accomplished, therefore, by refusing the child the breast. The child's diet is suited to the devleopment of his or her teeth, with milk-soaked bread and gruel constituting the diet for the first 2-3 years, after which the child eats the same diet as adults. Sickness and disease in children in San Antonio are most frequently attributed by the villagers to worms; hence, the baby is force-fed oil upon birth to cleanse the infant of worms. Edema is also a serious child health problem. Various native medicines are described which are used to treat childhood illness in San Antonio.
Davis, Jason; Brazil, Noli
Historically, Guatemalans have suffered high rates of poverty and malnutrition while nearly ten percent of their population resides abroad. Many Guatemalan parents use economic migration, mainly international migration to the United States, as a means to improve the human capital prospects of their children. However, as this investigation shows, the timing of migration events in relation to left-behind children’s ages has important, often negative and likely permanent, repercussions on the physical development of their children. To illustrate these dynamics, this investigation uses an instrumental variables framework to disentangle the countervailing effects of Guatemalan fathers’ absences due to migration from concomitant remittances on left-behind children’s growth outcomes. Based on national-level data collected in 2000, the investigation reveals that the international migration of a father in the previous year is correlated with a 22.1% lower length/height-for-age z-score for the average left-behind child aged ≤ 3. In contrast, the receipt of remittance income has no influence on the physical stature of a child, which may indicate that migrant fathers with young children are not able to achieve economic success soon enough during their ventures abroad to fully ameliorate the harmful effects caused by their absences. PMID:27002528
Karlsson, Miriam Frida; Birgersson, Göran; Witzgall, Peter
Guatemalan potato moth, Tecia solanivora, lay eggs in the soil nearby potato Solanum spp. and larvae feed on the tubers. We investigated the oviposition behaviour of T. solanivora females and the survival of larval offspring on healthy vs. stressed, i.e. light exposed and/or damaged potato tubers...... that volatiles guide the females to lay fewer eggs on stressed tubers that are of inferior quality for the larvae. We propose that volatiles, such as sesquiterpenes and aldehydes, mediate oviposition behaviour and are correlated with biosynthetically related, non-volatile compounds, such as steroidal....... In choice tests, females laid significantly more eggs in response to potato odour of healthy tubers and female oviposition preference correlated with higher larval survival. Survival of larvae was negatively correlated with the tuber content of the steroid glycoalkaloids α-solanine and α-chaconine: healthy...
Weinstein, John R; Asteria-Peñaloza, Renée; Diaz-Artiga, Anaité; Davila, Gilberto; Hammond, S Katharine; Ryde, Ian T; Meyer, Joel N; Benowitz, Neal; Thompson, Lisa M
Household air pollution is a major contributor to death and disability worldwide. Over 95% of rural Guatemalan households use woodstoves for cooking or heating. Woodsmoke contains carcinogenic or fetotoxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Increased PAHs and VOCs have been shown to increase levels of oxidative stress. We examined PAH and VOC exposures among recently pregnant rural Guatemalan women exposed to woodsmoke and compared exposures to levels seen occupationally or among smokers. Urine was collected from 23 women who were 3 months post-partum three times over 72h: morning (fasting), after lunch, and following dinner or use of wood-fired traditional sauna baths (samples=68). Creatinine-adjusted urinary concentrations of metabolites of four PAHs and eight VOCs were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Creatinine-adjusted urinary biomarkers of oxidative stress, 8-isoprostane and 8-OHdG, were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Long-term (pregnancy through 3 months prenatal) exposure to particulate matter and airborne PAHs were measured. Women using wood-fueled chimney stoves are exposed to high levels of particulate matter (median 48h PM 2.5 105.7μg/m 3 ; inter-quartile range (IQR): 77.6-130.4). Urinary PAH and VOC metabolites were significantly associated with woodsmoke exposures: 2-naphthol (median (IQR) in ng/mg creatinine: 295.9 (74.4-430.9) after sauna versus 23.9 (17.1-49.5) fasting; and acrolein: 571.7 (429.3-1040.7) after sauna versus 268.0 (178.3-398.6) fasting. Urinary PAH (total PAH: ρ=0.89, p0.85) or PAH and VOC biomarkers (ρ=-0.20 to 0.38, p>0.07). Urinary metabolite concentrations were significantly greater than those of heavy smokers (mean cigarettes/day=18) across all PAHs. In 15 (65%) women, maximum 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations exceeded the occupational exposure limit of coke-oven workers. The high concentrations of urinary PAH and VOC metabolites among
Cruz-Silva, E.; Correa-Metrio, A.; Bush, M. B.
Reconstructing vegetation patterns of past warm climatic stages is critical for understanding modern processes that affect diversity and climate. Tropical lowlands are of special interest because of the high biodiversity they foster and the risks they face under a scenario of rapid climate change. With a basal age of more that 191,000 years, core PI-1 from Lake Petén-Itzá, Guatemalan lowlands, offer an exceptional opportunity to investigate the dynamics of the vegetation of the area during climatic stages that might be analogous to today. Pollen analysis of the lower part of this sedimentary record shows a sequence of five different climatic stages of alternating warm and cold conditions. According to our interpretation, tropical forests extended in the area during MIS7 and MIS5, with the former characterized by drier conditions than the latter. Apparently forest dynamics closely followed global climatic changes that were recorded in the Antarctic and the Marine Stack records. Our results confirm that vegetation of the Peninsula, although highly resilient, has been very sensitive to global climatic changes.
Full Text Available The Guatemalan moth (GTPM, Tecia solanivora Povolny (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, was first registered in Guatemala and most recently invaded and became a key pest of the potato, Solanum tuberosum L., in Central and South America. Larvae feed exclusively on potato tubers, in the field and in store. Tuber quality is much reduced and heavily infested tubers can no longer be used for human or animal consumption. Stocks can be totally destroyed in less than 3 months. The potato tuber moth (PTM, Phthorimaea operculella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, is one of the most damaging pests of potatoes in field and storage and is generally of greatest importance in warmer climates. After pest detection, synthetic sex pheromones are principally used to monitor population levels and trigger applications of chemicals or other control methods. In this article we described our results for using pheromone traps Delta VI of the company of Trécé Inc. USA for monitoring of the both pests in a Carchi province in Zona 1 in Ecuador. We give conclusions and recommendation for using these pheromone traps for detection and monitoring of these very important pests on Solanaceae crops.
Luis Fidel Abregú Tueros
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to establish the time and period of development of Analogical Reasoning (AR and evaluate its independence and performance with respect to the age. We performed a longitudinal cohort study of two age groups and six annual follow-up phases from each one (2000-2005, 2001-2006 in six to eleven years-old children in the city of Huanuco (Peru with a sample of 167 children (first stage, and N=121 (sixth stage. The Raven’s progressive matrices test, coloured version, was applied individually without time limits. Results indicate that AR development occurs in a constant and late way from seven to eleven years-old children, and also that there is independence between the ability of AR and the children age. We discuss the importance of knowledge in the relationships between analogies topics, adjusted to the age, as a mediating factor in the development of AR.
Soyiri, Ireneous N.; Reidpath, Daniel D.; Sarran, Christophe
Asthma is a condition of significant public health concern associated with morbidity, mortality and healthcare utilisation. This study identifies key determinants of length of stay (LOS) associated with asthma-related hospital admissions in London, and further explores their effects on individuals. Subjects were primarily diagnosed and admitted for asthma in London between 1(st) January 2001 and 31(st) December 2006. All repeated admissions were treated uniquely as independent cases. Negative...
Ireneous N Soyiri
Full Text Available Asthma is a condition of significant public health concern associated with morbidity, mortality and healthcare utilisation. This study identifies key determinants of length of stay (LOS associated with asthma-related hospital admissions in London, and further explores their effects on individuals. Subjects were primarily diagnosed and admitted for asthma in London between 1(st January 2001 and 31(st December 2006. All repeated admissions were treated uniquely as independent cases. Negative binomial regression was used to model the effect(s of demographic, temporal and diagnostic factors on the LOS, taking into account the cluster effect of each patient's hospital attendance in London. The median and mean asthma LOS over the period of study were 2 and 3 days respectively. Admissions increased over the years from 8,308 (2001 to 10,554 (2006, but LOS consistently declined within the same period. Younger individuals were more likely to be admitted than the elderly, but the latter significantly had higher LOS (p<0.001. Respiratory related secondary diagnoses, age, and gender of the patient as well as day of the week and year of admission were important predictors of LOS. Asthma LOS can be predicted by socio-demographic factors, temporal and clinical factors using count models on hospital admission data. The procedure can be a useful tool for planning and resource allocation in health service provision.
Soyiri, Ireneous N; Reidpath, Daniel D; Sarran, Christophe
Asthma is a condition of significant public health concern associated with morbidity, mortality and healthcare utilisation. This study identifies key determinants of length of stay (LOS) associated with asthma-related hospital admissions in London, and further explores their effects on individuals. Subjects were primarily diagnosed and admitted for asthma in London between 1(st) January 2001 and 31(st) December 2006. All repeated admissions were treated uniquely as independent cases. Negative binomial regression was used to model the effect(s) of demographic, temporal and diagnostic factors on the LOS, taking into account the cluster effect of each patient's hospital attendance in London. The median and mean asthma LOS over the period of study were 2 and 3 days respectively. Admissions increased over the years from 8,308 (2001) to 10,554 (2006), but LOS consistently declined within the same period. Younger individuals were more likely to be admitted than the elderly, but the latter significantly had higher LOS (p<0.001). Respiratory related secondary diagnoses, age, and gender of the patient as well as day of the week and year of admission were important predictors of LOS. Asthma LOS can be predicted by socio-demographic factors, temporal and clinical factors using count models on hospital admission data. The procedure can be a useful tool for planning and resource allocation in health service provision.
Víctor Manuel Delgadillo-Polanco
que privilegia al sector privado por encima de la población residente y la ciudad, más allá de un discurso neutro que habla del interés público y del rescate del patrimonio de la humanidad. El artículo es resultado de una investigación doctoral y otra en curso, que evalúa los impactos de las políticas públicas en la llamada ciudad central.
Stimac, Danijela; Culig, Josip
A comprehensive insight into drug utilization as an economic and primarily a public health issue can only be acquired in the context of overall health state of the respective population. The objectives of the study were: 1) to determine the real outpatient utilization of psychopharmaceuticals in Zagreb, 2) to determine the psychopharmaceutical prescribing quality during the study period; and 3) to propose appropriate interventions in Zagreb on the basis of the results obtained. Data on drug utilization were obtained from all Zagreb pharmacies. The number of defined daily doses (DDD) and number of DDD per 1000 inhabitants per day (DDD/1000/day) were calculated from the number of particular drug packages. The Drug Utilization 90% (DU90%) method was used as a criterion of prescribing quality. Outpatient utilization of psychopharmaceuticals showed a declining pattern from 115.40 DDD/1000/day in 2001 to 93.15 DDD/1000/day in 2006. Anxiolytics accounted for the majority of this drug group utilization in the City of Zagreb, although the anxiolytic/antidepressant ratio decreased from 7.19 in 2001 to 3.86 in 2006. The utilization of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors showed a 2.5-fold increase and accounted for 90% of overall antidepressant utilization. A 2.5-fold decrease was recorded in the utilization of antipsychotics, while the atypical/typical antipsychotic ratio changed from 1:2 in 2001 to 1.1:1 in 2006. Despite some improvement observed in the prescribing quality, the predominance of benzodiazepines in the utilization of psychopharmaceuticals points to the need of additional rationalization in the field.
Kostova-Lefterova, D.; Ingilizova, K.
Each Member State of the European Union is currently committed to produce national legislation, demonstrating conformity with the European Directive on medical exposures. According to the Directive, each country shall estimate the medical exposure of its population. For this purpose it is necessary to calculate the individual effective dose from each type of diagnostic radiology examination and the frequency of the examinations. The collective effective dose (CED) is disputable indicator for the medical exposures but it is a criterion for the level of the country on the radiation protection of persons undergoing medical exposure. The individual effective doses from each type of diagnostic radiology examination will depend on the patient's age, sex, weight, the number and type of images, the screening time and also the equipment used. Some mean values can be obtained through surveys of patient dose and compared with the national or European reference doses for 'standard sized' patients. The aim of this investigation is to assess the exposure of Bulgarian population undergoing diagnostic radiology examinations. The diagnostic radiology procedures are in 30 positions, distributed in 3 age groups: 0 - 17 y., 17 - 45 y. and over 45 y. For the assessment of the CED the generally accepted formula has been applied. The individual effective doses have been established on the basis of standard tablegrams for the radiographic diagnostic examinations and the results from the national research project 'Phare' in 2002. Presented data are: average number of examinations 3848.92x10 3 , frequency in thousands 500, annual effective individual dose 0.89 mSv/y and average annual collective effective dose - 3314.59 man.Sv/y. The mean effective dose per caput of population for medical exposures can then be compared with that of other countries having similar levels of health care. Comparisons can also be made with exposure of the population from other sources of radiation. The dynamics and tendencies of examinations of the highest frequency and dose burden over the last 5 years are studied and discussed. (authors)
Hercberg, Serge; Chat-Yung, Stacie; Chaulia, Michel
Established in 2001-2005 then extended to 2010, the French National Nutrition and Health Program (PNNS) is a nutrition policy whose objective is to improve the health status of the population by acting on one of its major determinants, nutrition. Nine priority objectives focusing on diet, physical activity and nutritional status were determined. Program strategies are based on fundamental principles including food culture, pleasure, and gastronomy. This multidisciplinary program involves stakeholders from ministries, research and educational institutions, food industry, healthcare, and consumers. More than 75% of the public health actions planned were accomplished or in progress by the end of 2005, particularly those concerning nutrition communication, education, research and nutritional surveillance. Dietary guidelines were established and are now considered the official reference in France. Actions focusing on the healthcare system, economic actors and players and specific population groups need further development. The success of a public health program like the PNNS requires a combination of synergistic and complementary actions, measures, regulations and laws. A national study at the end of the PNNS will determine if objectives were achieved.
Anderson, Stacey J; Millett, Christopher; Polansky, Jonathan R; Glantz, Stanton A
To estimate youth exposure to smoking in movies in the UK and compare the likely effect with the USA. We collected tobacco occurrences data for 572 top-grossing films in the UK screened from 2001 to 2006 and estimated the number of on-screen tobacco impressions delivered to British youths in this time period. 91% of films in our sample that contained smoking were youth-rated films (British Board of Film Classification rating '15' and lower), delivering at least 1.10 billion tobacco impressions to British youths during theatrical release. British youths were exposed to 28% more smoking impressions in UK youth-rated movies than American youth-rated movies, because 79% of movies rated for adults in the USA ('R') are classified as suitable for youths in the UK ('15' or '12A'). Because there is a dose-response relation between the amount of on-screen exposure to smoking and the likelihood that adolescents will begin smoking, the fact that there is substantially higher exposure to smoking in youth-rated films in the UK than in the USA suggests that the fraction of all youth smoking because of films in the UK is probably larger than in the USA. Other countries with ratings systems that are less conservative (in terms of language and sexuality) than the USA will also be likely to deliver more on-screen tobacco impressions to youths. Assigning an '18' classification to movies that contain smoking would substantially reduce youth exposure to on-screen smoking and, hence, smoking initiation among British youths.
Lin, Tingjin; Zhang, Shujian; Shi, Shuai
Comparative analyses of basic education financing among districts and counties within Shanghai municipality show that basic education in the developed city is as fiscally unequal as it is in other provincial administrative areas. But the tendency to expand education disparities in Shanghai has been reversed since 2005 owing to the education…
Full Text Available This study examines the compliance of the web sites of Spanish universities with level A of the Web Content Access Guidelines (WCAG v. 1.0 in 2006, and compares the obtained results with those of 2001. On the positive side, in 2006 more use of alternatives to graphics was made, cascading style sheets and the use of Flash and PDF. In addition, more universities (10 in total complied 100 % with the WCAG at level A. On the negative side, the texts were of poorer quality than in 2001, and fewer complied with accessibility standards with respect to plans of study, which were usually automatically generated. An analysis was also made of the compliance of indicators with American standard 508 (which is not mandatory in Spain and five other usability indicators. No university complied 100 % with standard 508; compliance with the other indicators was 65 %. The results show that the level of accessibility remains low, similar in fact to the situation in 2001, but with large differences between universities. Indeed, the level of compliance is less than that which might be expected given the changes in Spanish law made to favour access to public web sites.
El estudio analiza el nivel de cumplimiento que el año 2006 hacían las sedes web de las universidades españolas de las Pautas de accesibilidad al contenido de la web (WCAG, versión 1.0, en su nivel A. Los resultados del análisis se comparan con los obtenidos el año 2001. Por el lado positivo se observa una mayor implantación de las alternativas a gráficos, hojas de estilo CSS y de las alternativas a Flash y PDF; y que un número mayor de universidades (10 en total logra en 2006 un cumplimiento al 100 % del nivel A de las WCAG. Por el lado negativo se observa una peor calidad de los textos y un menor cumplimiento de las normas de accesibilidad, respecto a los resultados del año 2001, en las páginas de los planes de estudio, usualmente generadas de forma automática. El estudio, de forma complementaria, también analiza el nivel de seguimiento de los indicadores de la norma 508 de Estados Unidos y de otros 5 indicadores adicionales de usabilidad. En cuanto al cumplimiento de la norma 508, no obligatoria en España, ninguna universidad logra el 100 % de cumplimiento. Respecto a los otros indicadores el cumplimiento es de un 65 %. Como resultado global se constata que el nivel de accesibilidad sigue en niveles bajos, similar al del año 2001, y con grandes diferencias entre centros; estos resultados indican un nivel de cumplimiento menor del que cabría esperar por los cambios aplicados en la legislación española a favor de la accesibilidad de los sitios web.
Toledo Beltrán, J. Daniel
La irrupción de Thaksin Shinawatra en el máximo escenario político nacional, al triunfar en las elecciones generales de enero de 2001, representó un verdadero hito en la historia política contemporánea de Tailandia, no sólo porque ejemplifica una combinación exitosa entre negocios y política, tan propia de Tailandia, sino sobre todo porque, por la vía de la institucionalidad y cronograma democrático, impulsó una "Agenda Nacional" que, por un lado, generó amplias expectativas y apoyo de parte ...
California Environmental Health Tracking Program — The EPHT air quality indicator files are from a SAS program which calculates the air indicators as developed by CDC's Environmental Public Health Tracking (EPHT) Air...
The IAEA strives to promote the development and utilization of nuclear technologies offering research opportunities for the growth of industrial applications in various domains. The Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Dense Magnetized Plasmas (DMPs) was intended to coordinate the development of compact and low cost sources for the generation of charged particle beams, neutrons, X rays and plasma streams. Intense short bursts of neutrons are required for testing and calibrating neutron based diagnostics. Intense particle beams and plasma streams from DMP sources find applications in various research fields and technology, for instance, high heat load testing of candidate materials for the first wall of future fusion reactors. On-site detection of illicit and explosive materials using high rep-rate neutron bursts from compact DMP devices is of great interest. Soft and hard X ray beams produced from such sources have potential applications in biology and enzymology. The overall objective of this CRP was to stimulate and promote investigation of DMPs through synergistic international cooperation. Specific objectives were: (i) to coordinate complementary research efforts related to DMPs by experts in developed and developing Members States, (ii) to speed up the progress in DMP applications by sharing knowledge, expertise and costs, (iii) to promote technology transfer among Member States, and (iv) to contribute to knowledge preservation by involving additional scientists from developing Member States who are not yet experts in DMPs. The three major components of DMP devices are the driver (power supply, electrode system and its associated switch), the target and the target chamber. Engineering fields related to DMP system design include vacuum technology, radiation resistant material development, ablation hydrodynamics and neutronics. In each case, the integration of the components must account for the unique interfaces and constraints of the particular application. Therefore, while much of the technological development could be conducted in parallel, close coordination was deemed necessary for effective system integration. This CRP has helped accomplish this by giving broader exposure to the design challenges. This publication covers the discussion of crucial issues relevant to the design and construction of DMP devices held by the participants from eight Member States. This is an ongoing activity coordinated by the IAEA and continues to be of interest to the Member States. The vital issues in design and fabrication of the DMP devices and the main findings summarized in this report are technically valuable for the non-experts planning to initiate research on the topic in their own country. This report on the technical know-how will provide assistance for further progress in the application of this technology in developing countries.
La variedad, diversidad y características de la dieta en muestras de conveniencia de mujeres guatemaltecas Food variety, dietary diversity, and food characteristics among convenience samples of Guatemalan women
María José Soto-Méndez
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar patrones y características de diversidad y variedad de la dieta de mujeres guatemaltecas. MATERIEL Y MÉTODOS: Se realizaron dos recordatorios de 24-horas en una muestra de conveniencia de 20 mujeres rurales y 20 estudiantes urbanas. Se calcularon puntajes de diversidad usando tres sistemas de grupos alimentarios. La variedad y diversidad, así como el origen y características de la dieta, se compararon entre ambos sitios. RESULTADOS: La variedad y diversidad en general fueron mayores en la muestra urbana en comparación con la muestra rural, dependiendo del número de días y del sistema de grupos de alimentos utilizados para la evaluación. La dieta rural fue predominantemente vegetal y compuesta de alimentos tradicionales no procesados. La dieta urbana estaba basada primordialmente en alimentos procesados. CONCLUSIÓN: Las consideraciones para crear estrategias de intervención para el mejoramiento de la dieta en el área rural dependen de la conservación de la selección de alimentos tradicionales.OBJECTIVE: To compare variety and diversity patterns and dietary characteristics in Guatemalan women. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two non-consecutive 24-h recalls were conducted in convenience samples of 20 rural Mayan women and 20 urban students. Diversity scores were computed using three food-group systems.Variety and diversity scores and dietary origin and characteristics were compared between settings using independent t-test or Mann-Whitney-U-test. RESULTS: Dietary variety and diversity were generally greater in the urban sample when compared to the rural sample, depending on the number of days and food-group system used for evaluation.The diet was predominantly plant-based and composed of non-fortified food items in both areas.The rural diet was predominantly composed of traditional,non-processed foods. The urban diet was mostly based on non-traditional and processed items. CONCLUSION: Considerations of intervention strategies
Lorenzo Mariano Juárez
Full Text Available Las múltiples retóricas que encierran los procesos de salud y enfermedad permiten construir los procesos patológicos de modos diversos. Los C'hortís del oriente de Guatemala mantienen una particular forma de construir la desnutrición infantil, en ocasiones muy diferente al modelo biomédico en aspectos como la etiología del trastorno o la responsabilidad del mismo. Desde una perspectiva netamente cualitativa, se realiza un repaso de las prácticas y representaciones sobre su prevención. La desnutrición infantil es, en este contexto, un trastorno social que se asocia de forma muy evidente a determinadas prácticas maternas y un modelo social y moral determinado, y se desliga de la carencia de alimentos, de forma que la prevención del trastorno pasa por modificar esos comportamientos maternos. Los intensos procesos de cambio social y la incipiente presencia del discurso alopático han introducido modificaciones en esa forma particular de concebir el padecimiento. No obstante, estos cambios han implantado nuevas prácticas sin apenas modificar las representaciones existentes, responsabilizando de nuevo a las madres, lo que pone de manifiesto las dificultades de un diálogo intercultural en salud entre cosmovisiones diferentes y las implicaciones de las intervenciones en salud en estos contextos, que deben prestar atención a los diferentes significados del padecimiento.The manifolds rhetoric’s that contain the health and disease process permit to construct the pathologies process of different ways. The C'hortís from eastern of Guatemalan have a particular manner of constructing the children’s desnutrition, sometimes very different from biomedical model, such as the aetiology or his responsibility. From a qualitative perspective, we have done a description of practices and representations about his prevention. The children’s desnutrition is, in this contexts, a social disorder associated with specified maternal practices and a moral
and hemorrhage. Hemorrhage is further divided into epidural hematoma , subdural hematoma , and intracerebral hematoma . Diffuse brain injuries...fiber Brain Injury Focal Injuries Contusion Laceration Hemorrhage Epidural Hematoma Subdural Hematoma Intracerebral Hematoma Diffuse
Ángel Mauricio Reyes
Full Text Available En el trabajo tratamos de caracterizar la movilidad espacial existente en el mercado laboral español, tomando como referencia lo sucedido en el periodo comprendido entre los años 2001 a 2006. Para ello utilizamos datos sobre contratación producidos por el Instituto Nacional de Empleo. El objetivo que inicialmente nos proponemos es caracterizar la estructura espacial que subyace en los datos relativos a migración contratada. El análisis lo ampliamos introduciendo cierto detalle sectorial y sociodemográfico, en busca de singularidades y aspectos de interés. Sin embargo, la estructura espacial que encontramos es débil por lo que, en la segunda parte del trabajo, avanzamos hacia un modelo panel de tipo dinámico. Esta solución nos permite combinar la dimensión espacial, que da soporte físico a los datos, con la secuencia temporal que subyace en los flujos.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — On May 9, 2006, NOAA's National Marine Fisheries Service (NOAA Fisheries Service) listed staghorn and elkhorn corals (Acropora cervicornis and A. palmata) as...
Horch, Elliott P.; Van Altena, William F.; Cyr, William M. Jr; Kinsman-Smith, Lori; Srivastava, Amit; Zhou Jing
A total of 1067 speckle observations of 345 binary stars are presented. Of these, 161 are double stars first resolved by Hipparcos, 17 are resolved for the first time in the observations presented here, and 21 are stars previously discovered by our program and reported in earlier papers in the series. In 947 cases, a magnitude difference is reported along with the relative astrometry. When comparing to systems with very well-known orbits, we find that the root mean square (rms) deviation in separation residuals is 2.81 ± 0.28 mas, and the rms deviation in position angle residuals is 0.88 ± 0.07 0 . The magnitude difference measures show no significant deviation from Hipparcos photometry, and have average standard deviation of approximately 0.10 mag as judged from repeat observations. Five important systems discovered by Hipparcos are discussed.
Jorge Mario Uribe Gil
Partiendo de la base teórica de que existe una relación positiva entre el desarrollo del mercado de capitales y el crecimiento económico, se construyen indicadores de tamaño, liquidez, riesgo, integración y eficiencia, para el mercado accionario colombiano. Para esto, se usan medidas tradicionales de profundidad del mercado, además de modelos GARCH, estimadores de razones de varianzas heteroscedásticamente robustos y asintóticamente consistentes e indicadores de integración internacional basa...
Wichmann, Janine; Voyi, Kuku
Little evidence is available on the strength of the association between ambient air pollution exposure and health effects in developing countries such as South Africa. The association between the 24-h average ambient PM10, SO2 and NO2 levels and daily respiratory (RD), cardiovascular (CVD) and cerebrovascular (CBD) mortality in Cape Town (2001–2006) was investigated with a case-crossover design. For models that included entire year data, an inter-quartile range (IQR) increase in PM1...
Yasir Bin Nisar
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of antenatal iron-folic acid (IFA supplementation on child stunting in Nepalese children age <2 years. A retrospective cohort study design was used, in which a pooled cohort of 5235 most recent live births 2 years prior to interview from three Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys (2001, 2006 and 2011 was analysed. The primary outcome was stunting in children age <2 years. The main exposure variable was antenatal IFA supplementation. Multivariate Poisson regression analysis was performed. In our sample, 31% and 10% of Nepalese children age <2 years were stunted and severely stunted, respectively. The adjusted relative risk of being stunted was 14% lower in children whose mothers used IFA supplements compared to those whose mothers did not use (aRR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.77–0.97. Additionally, the adjusted relative risk of being stunted was significantly reduced by 23% when antenatal IFA supplementation was started ≤6 months with ≥90 IFA supplements used during pregnancy (aRR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.64–0.92. Antenatal IFA supplementation significantly reduced the risk of stunting in Nepalese children age <2 years. The greatest impact on the risk reduction of child stunting was when IFA supplements were started ≤6 months with ≥90 supplements were used.
Perez-Sabino, J.F.; Oliva de Sandoval, B.E.; Orozco-Chilel, R.M.; Aguilar-Sandoval, E.
As part of the IAEA TC project GUA/2/005 'Radioactivity and Contamination of the Marine Environment in Guatemala', concentrations of artificial and natural radionuclides have been determined in marine water and sediments, giving important information to establish the base line of the natural radioactivity and the radioactive contamination in this area that not have been studying
Perez-Sabino, J F; Oliva de Sandoval, B E; Orozco-Chilel, R M; Aguilar-Sandoval, E [Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas y Farmacia, Unidad de Analisis Instrumental, Guatemala C.A. (Guatemala)
As part of the IAEA TC project GUA/2/005 `Radioactivity and Contamination of the Marine Environment in Guatemala`, concentrations of artificial and natural radionuclides have been determined in marine water and sediments, giving important information to establish the base line of the natural radioactivity and the radioactive contamination in this area that not have been studying 4 refs, 1 fig., 4 tabs
Stewart, B M
Founded in 1992, is an independent grassroots organization whose goal is to assist community development, health, education, clean water and income generation. The Q'eqchi' Maya Indians constitute the fourth largest indigenous group located on the banks of Rio Dulce, in the eastern rainforest of Guatemala. Project Ak'Tenamit helped the Q'eqchi' people revive their ancient art of paper making as a viable and self-sustainable source of income. As the material used by the ancient Maya--cork husk and banana stalks--are still abundant, it was decided that this art could be successfully re-introduced. With papermaking, the Q'eqchi women were able to earn money from their own production without even compromising their respective households. Ak'Tenamit was responsible for the distribution of paper making products in stores throughout Guatemala. Although there are still many obstacles confronting these women, the paper making cooperative provides employment opportunities and is indeed a great help to them. They produce a total of 15 different products including bowls, cards, and bookmarks.
Mansilla, C.; Moscoso, M.R.
The sectoral consumption pattern in Guatemala has shown that the residential sector is the major energy consumer. It accounts for 68.9 per cent of total consumption, followed by the transportation sector with 16.6 per cent, and the industrial sector with 9.3 per cent. Because of the importance of the household sector in the national energy balance, the Energy Planning Project carried out a nationwide household survey in 1985 to estimate energy-use patterns. This paper focusses on the findings from the analysis of the 2,500 forms completed during that survey. 4 figs, 1 tab
Squarza, Chiara; Picciolini, Odoardo; Gardon, Laura; Giannì, Maria L; Murru, Alessandra; Gangi, Silvana; Cortinovis, Ivan; Milani, Silvano; Mosca, Fabio
At school age extremely low birth weight (ELBW) and extremely low gestational age (ELGAN) children are more likely to show Learning Disabilities (LDs) and difficulties in emotional regulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of LDs at school age and to detect neurodevelopmental indicators of risk for LDs at preschool ages in a cohort of ELBW/ELGAN children with broadly average intelligence. All consecutively newborns 2001-2006 admitted to the same Institution entered the study. Inclusion criteria were BW disabilities, genetic abnormalities, and/or a Developmental Quotient below normal limits (learning disabilities at school age was investigated through a parent-report questionnaire at children's age range 9-10 years. Neurodevelopmental profiles were assessed through the Griffiths Mental Development Scales at 1 and 2 years of corrected age and at 3, 4, 5, and 6 years of chronological age and were analyzed comparing two groups of children: those with LDs and those without. At school age 24 on 102 (23.5%) of our ELBW/ELGAN children met criteria for LDs in one or more areas, with 70.8% comorbidity with emotional/attention difficulties. Children with LDs scored significantly lower in the Griffiths Locomotor and Language subscales at 2 years of corrected age and in the Personal-social, Performance and Practical Reasoning subscales at 5 years of chronological age. Our findings suggest that, among the early developmental indicators of adverse school outcome, there is a poor motor experimentation, language delay, and personal-social immaturity. Cognitive rigidity and poor ability to manage practical situations also affect academic attainment. Timely detection of these early indicators of risk is crucial to assist the transition to school.
Valve infection - children; Staphylococcus aureus - endocarditis - children; Enterococcus - endocarditis- children; Streptococcus viridians - endocarditis - children; Candida - endocarditis - children; Bacterial endocarditis - children; Infective ...
Mollborn, Stefanie; Blalock, Casey
Using the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (2001 - 2006; N ≈ 7900), we examined child care arrangements among teen parents from birth through prekindergarten. Four latent classes of child care arrangements at 9, 24, and 52 months emerged: “parental care,” “center care,” “paid home-based care,” and “free kin-based care.” Disadvantaged teen-parent families were overrepresented in the “parental care” class, which was negatively associated with children’s preschool reading, math, and behavior scores and mothers’ socioeconomic and fertility outcomes compared to some nonparental care classes. Nonparental care did not predict any negative maternal or child outcomes, and different care arrangements had different benefits for mothers and children. Time spent in nonparental care and improved maternal outcomes contributed to children’s increased scores across domains. Child care classes predicted maternal outcomes similarly in teen-parent and nonteen-parent families, but the “parental care” class predicted some disproportionately negative child outcomes for teen-parent families. PMID:23729861
Peter N Neitlich
Full Text Available Spatial patterns of Zn, Pb and Cd deposition in Cape Krusenstern National Monument (CAKR, Alaska, adjacent to the Red Dog Mine haul road, were characterized in 2001 and 2006 using Hylocomium moss tissue as a biomonitor. Elevated concentrations of Cd, Pb, and Zn in moss tissue decreased logarithmically away from the haul road and the marine port. The metals concentrations in the two years were compared using Bayesian posterior predictions on a new sampling grid to which both data sets were fit. Posterior predictions were simulated 200 times both on a coarse grid of 2,357 points and by distance-based strata including subsets of these points. Compared to 2001, Zn and Pb concentrations in 2006 were 31 to 54% lower in the 3 sampling strata closest to the haul road (0-100, 100-2000 and 2000-4000 m. Pb decreased by 40% in the stratum 4,000-5,000 m from the haul road. Cd decreased significantly by 38% immediately adjacent to the road (0-100m, had an 89% probability of a small decrease 100-2000 m from the road, and showed moderate probabilities (56-71% for increase at greater distances. There was no significant change over time (with probabilities all ≤ 85% for any of the 3 elements in more distant reference areas (40-60 km. As in 2001, elemental concentrations in 2006 were higher on the north side of the road. Reductions in deposition have followed a large investment in infrastructure to control fugitive dust escapement at the mine and port sites, operational controls, and road dust mitigation. Fugitive dust escapement, while much reduced, is still resulting in elevated concentrations of Zn, Pb and Cd out to 5,000 m from the haul road. Zn and Pb levels were slightly above arctic baseline values in southern CAKR reference areas.
Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) is now recognized as an important pathway between land and sea. As such, this flow may contribute to the biogeochemical and other marine budgets of nearshore waters. These discharges typically display significant spatial and temporal variability, making direct assessments difficult. Groundwater seepage is patchy, diffuse, temporally variable, and may involve multiple aquifers. Thus, the measurement of its magnitude and associated chemical fluxes is a challenging enterprise. An initiative on SGD characterization was developed by the IAEA and UNESCO in 2000 as a 5-year plan to assess methodologies and importance of SGD for coastal zone management. The IAEA component included a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Nuclear and Isotopic Techniques for the Characterization of Submarine Groundwater Discharge (SGD) in Coastal Zones, carried out jointly by the IAEA's Isotope Hydrology Section in Vienna and the Marine Environment Laboratory in Monaco, together with 9 laboratories from 8 countries. In addition to the IAEA, the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) and the International Hydrological Programme (IHP) have provided support. This overall effort originally grew from a project sponsored by the Scientific Committee on Ocean Research (SCOR) who established a Working Group (112) on SGD. The activities included joint meetings (Vienna 2000, 2002, and 2005; Syracuse, Italy, 2001; and Monaco 2004), sampling expeditions (Australia 2000; Sicily 2001 and 2002; New York 2002; Brazil 2003; and Mauritius 2005), joint analytical work, data evaluation, and preparation of joint publications. The objectives of the CRP included the improvement of capabilities for water resources and environmental management of coastal zones; application of recently developed nuclear and isotopic techniques suitable for quantitative estimation of various components of SGD; understanding of the influence of SGD on coastal processes and on groundwater regimes; a better management of groundwater resources in coastal areas; and development of numerical models of SGD. This report examines several methodologies of SGD assessment, which were carried out during a series of five intercomparison experiments in different hydrogeological environments (coastal plains, karst, glacial till, fractured crystalline rocks and volcanic terrains). This report reviews the scientific and management significance of SGD, measurement approaches, and the results of the intercomparison experiments. We conclude that while SGD is essentially ubiquitous in coastal areas, the assessment of its magnitude at any one location is subject to enough variability that measurements should be made by a variety of techniques and over large enough spatial and temporal scales to capture the majority of these variable conditions
Cardoso, Suely Campos; Gattás, Gilka Jorge Figaro
The scientific production of institutions of higher education, as well as the dissemination and use of this published work by peer institutions, can be assessed by means of quantitative and qualitative measurements. This type of analysis can also serve as the basis of further academic actions. Variables such as the type of evaluation, the number of faculty members and the decision to include or exclude researchers who are not professors are difficult to measure when comparing different schools and institutions. The purpose of this study was to assess the scientific production of tenured faculty from the Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina performed from 2001 to 2006. Medline/PubMed database was considered and the Impact factors (IFs--Journal Citation Report, 2006) and the number of generated citations (Web of Science/ISI Thomson) were also evaluated. The analysis of the scientific production of 66 full professors (level MS-6) revealed 1,960 scientific articles published in 630 scientific journals, of which 31.3% were Brazilian and 68.7% were from international sources. Among these, 47% of the articles were published in 62.9% of the journals with IFs above 10, although 16.4% of the journals did not have assigned IF values. We verified that 45% of the published articles received 9,335 citations (average of 11 + 17), with the majority of these (8,968 citations) appearing in international scientific journals. Our results indicate that it is possible to analyze the scientific production of a learning institution by the number of papers published by full professors, taking into account not only their academic position and influence, but also the fact that publication is an opportunity to stimulate joint projects with other members of the same institution.
Julián LÓPEZ COLÁS; Juan Antonio MÓDENES CABRERIZO; Brenda YÉPEZ MARTÍNEZ
En los últimos años California y España, dos contextos donde predomina la tenencia de la vivienda en propiedad, han recibido un gran volumen de inmigrantes y han experimentado una burbuja inmobiliaria que ha acabado por desinflarse. El objetivo de este artículo es analizar la propiedad de la vivienda de los extranjeros en ambos contextos entre 2001 y 2006, considerándola como un indicador de integración de los inmigrantes en las sociedades de acogida. Otros objetivos, derivados del anterior, ...
Suely Campos Cardoso
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The scientific production of institutions of higher education, as well as the dissemination and use of this published work by peer institutions, can be assessed by means of quantitative and qualitative measurements. This type of analysis can also serve as the basis of further academic actions. Variables such as the type of evaluation, the number of faculty members and the decision to include or exclude researchers who are not professors are difficult to measure when comparing different schools and institutions. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess the scientific production of tenured faculty from the Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina performed from 2001 to 2006. METHODS: Medline/PubMed database was considered and the Impact factors (IFs - Journal Citation Report, 2006 and the number of generated citations (Web of Science/ISI Thomson were also evaluated. RESULTS: The analysis of the scientific production of 66 full professors (level MS-6 revealed 1,960 scientific articles published in 630 scientific journals, of which 31.3% were Brazilian and 68.7% were from international sources. Among these, 47% of the articles were published in 62.9% of the journals with IFs above 10, although 16.4% of the journals did not have assigned IF values. We verified that 45% of the published articles received 9,335 citations (average of 11 + 17, with the majority of these (8,968 citations appearing in international scientific journals. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that it is possible to analyze the scientific production of a learning institution by the number of papers published by full professors, taking into account not only their academic position and influence, but also the fact that publication is an opportunity to stimulate joint projects with other members of the same institution.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature and salinity measurements in the Equatorial Indian from 2001 to 2006 from the TRITON (TRIANGLE TRANS-OCEAN BUOY NETWORK); JAPAN AGENCY FOR MARINE-EARTH...
Mollborn, Stefanie; Blalock, Casey
Using the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (2001-2006; N [image omitted]7,900), the authors examined child-care arrangements among teen parents from birth through prekindergarten. Four latent classes of child care arrangements at 9, 24, and 52 months emerged: (a) "parental care," (b) "center…
Metallinos-Katsaras, Elizabeth; Must, Aviva; Gorman, Kathleen
Obesity and its co-occurrence with household food insecurity among low-income families is a public health concern, particularly because both are associated with later adverse health consequences. Our aim was to examine the relationship between household food insecurity with and without hunger in infancy and later childhood with weight status at 2 to 5 years. This longitudinal study uses household food-security status, weight, and height data collected at the first infancy and last child (2 to 5 years) Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children visits. Household food security was based on parent/caretaker responses to a four-question subscale of the 18-item Core Food Security Module. Obesity was defined as sex-specific body mass index for age ≥ 95th percentile. A diverse (58.6% non-white) low-income sample of 28,353 children participating in the Massachusetts Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (2001-2006); 24.9% of infants and 23.1% of children lived in food-insecure households and 17.1% were obese at their last child visit. Multivariate logistic regression analyses assessed the association between household food-security status during the infant and child visits, and risk of preschool obesity, while controlling for child race/Hispanic ethnicity, sex, child and household size, maternal age, education, and prepregnancy weight. Interactions between these covariates and household food-security status were also examined. In cases of multiple comparisons, a Bonferroni correction was applied. Persistent household food insecurity without hunger was associated with 22% greater odds of child obesity (odds ratio=1.22; 95% CI 1.06 to 1.41) compared with those persistently food secure (Passociation with children of underweight (adjusted odds ratio=3.22; 95% CI 1.70 to 6.11; P=0.003) or overweight/obese (adjusted odds ratio=1.34; 95% CI 1.11 to 1.62; P=0.03) mothers experiencing greater odds of child obesity
Siegler, Robert S.
A new field of children's learning is emerging. This new field differs from the old in recognizing that children's learning includes active as well as passive mechanisms and qualitative as well as quantitative changes. Children's learning involves substantial variability of representations and strategies within individual children as well as…
Using a cross-cultural approach the book investigates children's places in different societies. "Children's Places" examines the ways in which children and adults, from their different vantage-points in society, negotiate proper places of children in both social and spatial terms. It looks at some...
Determinantes da estrutura de capital das companhias abertas no Brasil, México e Chile no período 2001-2006 Determinants of the capital structure of publicly-traded companies in Brazil, Mexico and Chile in the period 2001-2006
Douglas Dias Bastos
Full Text Available O presente estudo investiga os determinantes da estrutura de capital, utilizando a técnica de painel de dados estático, para uma amostra de 297 empresas, de diversos setores, pertencentes ao Brasil, México e Chile, no período entre 2001 e 2006, a fim de determinar a importância relativa dos fatores específicos da empresa. A partir de seis indicadores de nível de endividamento (contábil total e de curto e longo prazo, total a valor de mercado e financeiros onerosos de curto e longo prazo, foi evidenciado que os fatores específicos da firma: liquidez corrente, rentabilidade, market to book value e tamanho apresentaram os resultados mais significantes para a estrutura de capital das empresas dos três países. Dentre as quatro correntes teóricas analisadas (Trade off, Assimetria de informações, Pecking order e Agência, a teoria do Pecking order parece ser aquela que melhor explica os resultados obtidos para o Brasil e México. Para o Chile, além do Pecking order, a teoria do Trade off exerce forte influência sobre a estrutura de capital.The present study investigates the determinants of the capital structure, using the technique of static panel data, for a sample of 297 companies from several sectors in Brazil, Mexico and Chile, between 2001 and 2006, in order to determine the relative importance of the specific factors of the firm. Starting from six indicators of leverage ratio (total book-debt ratio, short-term and long-term book-debt ratio, total market-debt ratio and short-term and long-term financial-debt ratio, it was evidenced that the specific factors of the firm: current liquidity, profitability, market to book value and size presented the most significant results for the capital structure of the companies from the three countries. Among the four theoretical currents analyzed (Trade off, Asymmetry of information, Pecking order and Agency, the theory of Pecking order seems to be the one that best explains the results obtained for Brazil and Mexico. For Chile, besides the Pecking order, the theory of Trade off strongly influences the capital structure.
police attached to IATF Tecún Umán get incentive pay for being attached to that unit and get a total of 4,000 quetzales (about $500) a month...compared to the soldiers’ 1,500 quetzales (about $200) a month. In December 2013, there was potential for tensions between the military and police
Mendoza Montano, Carlos; Fort, Meredith; deRamirez, Miriam; Cruz, Judith; Ramirez-Zea, Manuel
Corazón Sano y Feliz is a hypertension management intervention developed to address deficiencies in the management of hypertensive patients in Guatemala. From 2007 to 2009, Corazón Sano y Feliz was pilot-tested in the community of Mixco. Corazón Sano y Feliz comprises a clinical risk assessment and treatment component implemented primarily by nurses, and a health education component implemented by community health workers. To accomplish our secondary objective of determining Corazon Sano y Feliz's potential for change at the patient level, we implemented a one-group pretest-posttest study design to examine changes in clinical measures, knowledge and practices between baseline and the end of the 6-month intervention. Two nurses and one physician set up a hypertension clinic to manage patients according to risk level. Twenty-nine community health workers were trained in CVD risk reduction and health promotion and in turn led six educational sessions for patients. Comparing baseline and 6-month measures, the intervention achieved significant improvements in mean knowledge and behaviour (increase from 54.6 to 59.1 out of a possible 70 points) and significant reductions of mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure (27.2 and 7.7 mmHg), body mass index (from 26.5 to 26.2 kg/m(2)) and waist circumference (89.6-88.9 cm). In this pilot study we obtained preliminary evidence that this community-oriented hypertension management and health promotion intervention model was feasible and achieved significant reduction in risk factors. If scaled up, this intervention has the potential to substantially reduce CVD burden. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Garcia, Kimberly; Dowling, Donna; Mettler, Gretchen
Guatemala's Maternal Mortality Rate is 65th highest in the world at 120 deaths per 100,000 births. Contributing to the problem is traditional birth attendants (TBAs) attend most births yet lack knowledge about obstetrical emergencies. Government trainings in existence since 1955 have not changed TBA knowledge. Government trainings are culturally insensitive because they are taught in Spanish with written material, even though most TBAs are illiterate and speak Mayan dialects. The purpose of the observational study was to evaluate the effect of an oral training, that was designed to be culturally sensitive in TBAs' native language, on TBAs' knowledge of obstetrical emergencies. one hundred ninety-one TBAs participated. The study employed a pretest-posttest design. A checklist was used to compare TBAs' knowledge of obstetrical emergencies before and after the training. the mean pretest score was 5.006±SD 0.291 compared to the mean posttest score of 8.549±SD 0.201. Change in knowledge was a P value of 0.00. results suggest an oral training that was designed to be culturally sensitive in the native language improved TBAs' knowledge of obstetrical emergencies. Future trainings should follow a similar format to meet the needs of illiterate audiences in remote settings. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kristi Anne Stølen
Full Text Available Based on anthropological fieldwork in the Petén, Guatemala, this article focuses on the (reconstruction of community and identity among returned refugees. With a past marked by armed conflict and violence, flight and life in exile, return and resettlement, the returnees are in the process of developing a new multi-ethnic community based on their common experiences as well as on new forms of cooperative organization that incorporate solidarity and equality to prevent the recurrence of the injustices of the past. The paper discusses how their encounters in exile with other people from a variety of ethnic groups and with the international aid and solidarity organizations influenced them in the development of a new community that is quite different from the ones the returnees had left behind in Guatemala. It also explores the processes whereby social identities are shaped and reformulated and how they are linked with struggles over power on the one hand and with livelihood practices on the other. Resumen: La reconstrucción de la comunidad y de la identidad entre retornados guatemaltecosCon base en investigación antropológica realizada en Petén, Guatemala, este artículo se centra en la (reconstrucción de las comunidades e identidades de refugiados que han regresado a su lugar de origen. Cargando un pasado de conflicto armado y violencia, lucha y vida en exilio, los retornados deben construir una nueva comunidad multiétnica, basada tanto en sus experiencias compartidas como en nuevas formas de organización cooperativa que incluyen solidaridad e igualdad para prevenir las injusticias del pasado. Este ensayo debate sobre los encuentros de los retornados durante el exilio con gente de otros grupos étnicos, con la ayuda internacional y organizaciones de solidaridad, y sobre cómo esto los ha influenciado para desarrollar así una nueva comunidad que es muy diferente a aquéllas que los retornados habían dejado antes en Guatemala. También se explora el proceso a través del cual las identidades sociales son definidas y reformuladas, y cómo éstas están vinculadas a luchas de poder, por un lado, y con las prácticas de subsistencia, por el otro.
1992. Cerdas Cruz, Rodolfo. El Precio de Una Herencia. Fuerza Armadas, Democracia y Derechos Humanos en Centroamérica. San José: Instituto...Interamericano de Derechos Humanos , 1996. Cullather, Nick. Secret History, The CIA’s Classified Account of Its Operations in Guatemala, 1952-1954. Stanford
Anderson, Sally Dean
Drawing on fieldwork in small-town schools with children of Muslim background whose families came to Denmark as United Nation refugees, the chapter explores how pedagogical ideologies of school-based peer sociability inflect children’s experiences of ‘being Muslim.’ Danish provincial schools, wit...... a child’s personal religiosity, whereas not participating conjures up images of really religious families....
Your child's health includes physical, mental and social well-being. Most parents know the basics of keeping children healthy, like offering ... for children to get regular checkups with their health care provider. These visits are a chance to ...
... the one before it. Some children have a strange sensation before a seizure. Sensations may be tingling, ... Prognosis) Most children with epilepsy live a normal life. Certain types of childhood epilepsy go away or ...
UTI - children; Cystitis - children; Bladder infection - children; Kidney infection - children; Pyelonephritis - children ... Craig JC. Long-term antibiotics for preventing recurrent urinary tract infection in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev . 2011;(3):CD001534. PMID: ...
Peptic esophagitis - children; Reflux esophagitis - children; GERD - children; Heartburn - chronic - children; Dyspepsia - GERD - children ... GERD. Certain factors can lead to GERD in children, including: Birth defects, such as hiatal hernia , a ...
OBJECTIVE: To describe the unique aspects of childhood grief. To provide a framework for family physicians to use in assisting children to grieve. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: A MEDLINE search from 1966 to 1999 using the key words children, childhood, grief, mourning, and bereavement revealed mainly expert opinion articles, some non-randomized observational studies, and retrospective case-control studies. MAIN MESSAGE: Although children are influenced by similar factors and need to work through the s...
... children; Neuroglioma - children; Oligodendroglioma - children; Meningioma - children; Cancer - brain tumor (children) ... The cause of primary brain tumors is unknown. Primary brain tumors may ... (spread to nearby areas) Cancerous (malignant) Brain tumors ...
... B children; HBV children; Pregnancy - hepatitis B children; Maternal transmission - hepatitis B children ... growth and development. Regular monitoring plays an important role in managing the disease in children. You should ...
Allen, Thomas Stanfield
Child poverty is one of the fundamental issues currently confronting Guatemalan society. This study examines the efforts of two international NGOs to address child poverty in this country. Compassion Guatemala is a faith-based evangelical NGO which enables foreign donors to sponsor individual Guatemalan children by funding the costs of support services in areas of the child’s educational, health and spiritual development, from pre-school years through to secondary school completion and beyond...
Full Text Available According to UNICEF, street child is any child under the age of 18 for whom the street has become home and/or source of income and which is not adequately protected or supervised by adult, responsible person. It has been estimated that there are between 100 and 150 million street children worldwide. Life and work on the street have long term and far-reaching consequences for development and health of these children. By living and working in the street, these children face the highest level of risk. Street children more often suffer from the acute illness, injuries, infection, especially gastrointestinal, acute respiratory infections and sexually transmitted diseases, inadequate nutrition, mental disorders, and drug abuse. They are more often victims of abuse, sexual exploitation, trafficking; they have higher rate of adolescent pregnancy than their peers from poor families. Street children and youth have higher rates of hospitalization and longer hospital stay due to seriousness of illness and delayed health care. Street children/youth are reluctant to seek health care, and when they try, they face many barriers. Street children are invisible to the state and their number in Serbia is unknown. Recently, some nongovernmental organizations from Belgrade, Novi Sad and Nis have recognized this problem and tried to offer some help to street children, by opening dropin centers, but this is not enough. To solve this problem, an engagement of the state and the whole community is necessary, and primary responsibility lies in health, social and educational sector. The best interests of the child must serve as a basic guideline in all activities aimed at improving health, quality of life and rights of children involved in the life and work in the street.
... of adoptions, and strengthen foster care. Watch the Centennial Video News Views and Experiences of Low-Income ... Welfare Capacity Building Collaborative CB Express Children's Bureau Centennial Home About What We Do Our Organization History ...
Bronchopneumonia - children; Community-acquired pneumonia - children; CAP - children ... Viruses are the most common cause of pneumonia in infants and children. Ways your child can get CAP include: Bacteria and viruses living in the nose, sinuses, or mouth may spread ...
In an attempt to bridge the management gap between nutritional rehabilitation for SAM and chronic malnutrition, this study investigated to what extent RUTF promotes weight gain in children with long-term nutritional deficit with superimposed SAM. The effectiveness of RUTF in producing weight gain is compared for.
Children may sometimes undergo healthcare procedures that are not intended to improve their health status. Such interventions might include the use of young children as bone marrow donors or their enrolment in non-therapeutic research. One of the justifications used to legitimise these interventions is the premise that children have obligations to others; to their family in the case of related bone marrow transplantation, and to wider society in the case of non-therapeutic research. However, this 'obligation model' (the notion that children possess positive obligations to advance the health status of others) fails as a justificatory paradigm because it is based upon a confusion, identified by Hart, between two notions; that of 'being under an obligation to do something' and that of 'being obliged to do something'. Instead the 'obligation model' is a device employed to put a justificatory gloss upon a consequentialist decision-making process; removing the legitimising gloss allows for a more transparent look at the conflict between parental rights and an individual child's right to bodily integrity.
Penny, Helen; Haddock, Geoffrey
The aim of the present study was to assess the content, favourability and generality of perceptions held about overweight children. The research also addressed whether anti-fat biases change with age and whether they result from a strong association between overweight and bad behaviour, a weak association between overweight and good behaviour or…
Carlos María San Felipe Donlo
The Palestinian suicidal terrorism was the greatest danger for Israel during the Intifada of Al Aqsa. The Israeli Intelligence Services, particularly the Shabak, worked with an enormous efficacy to defeat this suicidal terrorism. Since 2004, the Palestinian suicidal terrorism was defeated, but the Palestinian-Israeli conflict follows without a definitive solution.
Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 67 Revision 2 (FGE.67Rev2): Consideration of 28 furan-substituted compounds evaluated by JECFA at the 55th, 65th and 69th meetings (JECFA, 2001, 2006a, 2009b)
Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Nørby, Karin Kristiane
on metabolism and toxicity. The present consideration concerns a group of 28 furan-substituted compounds evaluated by the JECFA. This revision of FGE.67 is due to new data on toxicity for 3-(-methyl-2-furyl) butanal [FL-no: 13.058] providing an appropriate NOAEL for the evaluation of candidate substance [FL...
Full Text Available A partir de 2001 se inicia en México un proceso de diseño, legislación e implementación de la Reforma Mexicana de Salud. Un componente clave de ésta fue la creación del Seguro Popular, que pretende extender la cobertura de aseguramiento médico por siete años a la población que no cuenta con seguridad social, la cual constituía en ese momento casi la mitad de la población total. La reforma incluyó cinco acciones: modificar la ley para garantizar el derecho a la protección a la salud para las familias afiliadas, lo cual al ser implantado completamente incrementará el gasto público en salud entre 0.8 y 1.0% del PIB; la creación de un paquete de servicios de salud explícito; la asignación de recursos a secretarías estatales de salud descentralizadas, proporcional al número de familias incorporadas; la división de los recursos federales destinados a los estados en fondos independientes para servicios de salud personales y no personales; así como la creación de un fondo para garantizar recursos cuando se presentan eventos catastróficos en salud. Mediante el uso del marco conceptual de los sistemas de salud de la OMS, se han examinado diversos conjuntos de datos para evaluar el impacto de esta reforma en distintas dimensiones del sistema de salud. Entre los principales hallazgos clave se encuentran que: la afiliación alcanza de manera preferente a las comunidades pobres y marginadas; el gasto federal no correspondiente a la seguridad social aumentó 38% de 2000 a 2005 en términos reales; ha mejorado la equidad del gasto público entre los estados; los afiliados al Seguro Popular presentan una mayor utilización de servicios, tanto a nivel ambulatorio como para pacientes externos y pacientes hospitalarios en comparación con los no asegurados; la cobertura efectiva de 11 intervenciones en salud ha mejorado entre 2000 y 2005; han disminuido las desigualdades en cobertura efectiva durante este periodo en todos los estados y deciles de ingresos; los gastos catastróficos para los afiliados al Seguro Popular son más bajos que los de los no asegurados, a pesar de que se haya incrementado su utilización en México. Este trabajo presenta algunas lecciones para México con base en esta evaluación provisional, así como algunas implicaciones potenciales para otros países que consideran desarrollar reformas en materia de salud.Since 2001, Mexico has been designing, legislating, and implementing a major health-system reform. A key component was the creation of Seguro Popular, which is intended to expand insurance coverage over seven years to uninsured people, nearly half the total population at the start of 2001. The reform included five actions: legislation of entitlement per family affiliated which, with full implementation, will increase public spending on health by 0.8-1.0% of gross domestic product; creation of explicit benefits packages; allocation of monies to decentralised state ministries of health in proportion to number of families affiliated; division of federal resources flowing to states into separate funds for personal and non-personal health services; and creation of a fund to protect families against catastrophic health expenditures. Using the WHO health-systems framework, a wide range of datasets to assess the effect of this reform on different dimensions of the health system was used. Key findings include: affiliation is preferentially reaching the poor and the marginalised communities; federal non-social security expenditure in real per-head terms increased by 38% from 2000 to 2005; equity of public-health expenditure across states improved; Seguro Popular affiliates used more inpatient and outpatient services than uninsured people; effective coverage of 11 interventions has improved between 2000 and 2005-06; inequalities in effective coverage across states and wealth deciles has decreased over this period; catastrophic expenditures for Seguro Popular affiliates are lower than for uninsured people even though use of services has increased. We present some lessons for Mexico based on this interim evaluation and explore implications for other countries considering health reforms.
Brenda YÉPEZ MARTÍNEZ
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the evolution of foreign homeownership in Spain between 2001 and 2006, seen as an indicator of integration of migrants in host countries. Other goals, derived from the former, are to determine the influence of nationality in the homeownership and to quantify the likelihood of foreigners to live under this form of tenure. Having modelled the socio-demographic variables between the years 2001 and 2006, the results show a lower propensity of foreign born people to live through ownership than nationals and, what is most important, that the Spanish residential system demands more efforts for foreigners so as to live in property than the Californian system.En los últimos años California y España, dos contextos donde predomina la tenencia de la vivienda en propiedad, han recibido un gran volumen de inmigrantes y han experimentado una burbuja inmobiliaria que ha acabado por desinflarse. El objetivo de este artículo es analizar la propiedad de la vivienda de los extranjeros en ambos contextos entre 2001 y 2006, considerándola como un indicador de integración de los inmigrantes en las sociedades de acogida. Otros objetivos, derivados del anterior, son determinar la influencia de la nacionalidad en la propiedad de la vivienda y analizar cómo influyen los factores sociodemográficos para que nacionales y extranjeros vivan en propiedad. La modelización de las variables sociodemográficas muestra que entre 2001 y 2006 la propensión a vivir en propiedad de los extranjeros es inferior a la de los nacionales y, lo que es más importante, que el sistema residencial español les exige más esfuerzo que el californiano para vivir en propiedad.
Caraballo, Ralph S; Holiday, David B; Stellman, Steven D; Mowery, Paul D; Giovino, Gary A; Muscat, Joshua E; Eriksen, Michael P; Bernert, John T; Richter, Patricia A; Kozlowski, Lynn T
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is examining options for regulating menthol content in cigarettes. There are many pharmacologic properties of menthol that may facilitate exposure to tobacco smoke, and it has been suggested that the preference for menthol cigarettes in black smokers accounts for their higher cotinine levels. To assess cigarettes smoked per day-adjusted cotinine levels in relation to smoking a menthol or nonmenthol cigarette brand among non-Hispanic black and white U.S. adult smokers under natural smoking conditions. Serum cotinine concentrations were measured in 1,943 smokers participating in the 2001 to 2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES). The effect of smoking a menthol brand on cigarettes smoked per day-adjusted serum cotinine levels in these two populations was modeled by adjusting for sex, age, number of smokers living in the home, body weight, time since last smoked, and FTC (Federal Trade Commission)-measured nicotine levels. The 8- or 12-digit Universal Product Code (UPC) on the cigarette label was used to determine the cigarette brand and whether it was menthol. Smoking a menthol cigarette brand versus smoking a nonmenthol cigarette brand was not associated (P ≥ 0.05) with mean serum cotinine concentration in either black or white smokers. The higher levels of cotinine observed in black smokers compared with white smokers are not explained by their higher preference for menthol cigarette brands. Further studies like ours are needed to improve our ability to understand health consequences of future changes in tobacco product design. ©2011 AACR
. Especially on children and their development in social relations to children at the same age, on how the mothers experience their child and on the parent’s resources concerning health, education and job situation. The paper presents results from the first two data collections (1996 and 1999) in a prospective...... in contact with their peers, more attention-related problems and less emotional or psychological resources. Furthermore the mothers experience more trouble in child rearing than what is found in an average family. The results are important in the way that they attract attention to the child’s own situation...... the family in a poor position regarding the children’s well-being, health and development, but not so severe that the child is to be placed out of home. The paper concentrates attention on differences between families with and without contact to the social service department for reasons related to the child...
Knudsen, Karin Esmann
This special issue on children's literature and fairy tales has it focus on Hans Christian andersen: his unique way of telling and his influence on modern Danish children's literature, as well as the way his fairy tales are used pedagogically by teachers and by the children themselves in their play...... culture. thus the articles will show a range of different perspectives on andersen's fairy tales. the contemporary challenge of research in children's literature is to combine a literary perspective with other angles: children's literature as medie, as edagogical artefact, and as raw material for children...
Full Text Available Introduction. Chronic rhinitis in children may have different causes, both local – with changes being present only in the nasalcavity – or systemic, with nasal congestion as one of the symptoms of a bigger clinical picture.Aim. the aim of this study was to draw attention to a very rare congenital cause of chronic rhinitis in children – which is hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia.Material and methods. A 6-month-old boy was admitted to the department of pediatric otolaryngology of Warsaw medicalUniversity due to chronic nasal obstruction present from birth. Clinical investigation included anterior and posterior rhinoscopy and fiberoscopy of nasopharynx. the mri was also performed before admission. Complete blood count, serum iron level,serum thyroid hormones and level of igG, igA, igm were examined to exclude anaemia, ozaena and hypothyroidism. Antinuclear antibodies (AnA and antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (AnCA tests were also ordered to exclude granulomatosiswith polyangiitis. next, a mucosal biopsy of the nasal cavity was performed to exclude primary ciliary dyskinesia. Allergic pricktests were also performed.Results. After genetic tests, hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia was diagnosed.Conclusions. 1. every case of chronic nasal congestion in children requires not only adequate treatment, but also thoroughclinical investigation. 2. nasal obstruction may be due to local causes, systemic diseases and genetic disorders. 3. hypohidroticectodermal dysplasia is a very rare genetic disorder that causes severe, even life threatening symptoms, one of which is chronicrhinitis.
Cook, Alicia S.; McBride, Jean
Examines children's reactions to the divorce process and explores ways in which adults can promote growth and adjustment in children of divorce. Suggests ways in which parents, teachers, and counselors can help children. (RC)
Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses ... limitations of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of ...
Full Text Available ... Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts ... Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...
Milk and children; Cow's milk allergy - children; Lactose intolerance - children ... You may have heard that cow's milk should not be given to babies younger than 1 year old. This is because cow's milk doesn't provide enough ...
... Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts ... Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...
Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging ... the limitations of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch ...
Blepharoptosis - children; Congenital ptosis; Eyelid drooping - children; Eyelid drooping - amblyopia; Eyelid drooping - astigmatism ... Ptosis in infants and children is often due to a problem with the muscle that raises the eyelid. A nerve problem in the eyelid can ...
... E-News Sign-Up Home Patient Information Children/Pediatric Chronic Pancreatitis in Children Chronic Pancreatitis in Children What symptoms would my child have? Frequent or chronic abdominal pain is the most common symptom of pancreatitis. The ...
Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small ... of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical ...
... Families - Vietnamese Spanish Facts for Families Guide TV Violence and Children No. 13; Updated December 2014 American ... Hundreds of studies of the effects of TV violence on children and teenagers have found that children ...
Miloseva, Lence; Vukosavljevic-Gvozden, Tanja; Milosev, Vladimir
Managing hospitalized children's pain is challenging for health care professionals. The ethical principles of the duty to benefit another and the duty to do no harm oblige health care professionals to provide pain management to all patients, including children, who are vulnerable because of their constant developmental changes, being ill, and being hospitalized. During the last 20 years, researchers started to show an interest in misconceptions about children`s pain. Literature review showed...
Geraldine Jody Macdonald
Full Text Available This article addresses the complex contexts within which Canadian health professionals engage in immunizing children and focuses on the Canadian practice guidelines and current scientific evidence that direct Canadian health professional competencies. The article begins by presenting two current global vaccine initiatives and links these to immunization in Canada. A selected literature review identifies current best immunization practices. With the purpose of promoting quality improvement, three key Canadian immunization competencies for health professional are highlighted: communication with parents, including those who are experiencing vaccine hesitancy; administration of immunizing agents; and documentation of immunizations. Health professionals are encouraged to reflect on immunization competencies and ensure evidence-based practices underpin vaccine delivery in their primary care settings.
Netten, A.R.; Voeten, M.J.M.; Droop, W.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.
This study examined sociocultural and educational-factors in explaining the reading literacy achievement of fourth-grade children (about 10 years of age) in the Netherlands during the past decade. Using 2001, 2006 and 2011 PIRLS data, a multilevel modeling analysis was conducted to examine levels
Ducey, Richard V.
This report examines a growing submarket, the children's video marketplace, which comprises broadcast, cable, and video programming for children 2 to 11 years old. A description of the tremendous growth in the availability and distribution of children's programming is presented, the economics of the children's video marketplace are briefly…
Telep, Valya Goodwin, 1955-
This series of lessons was prepared for parents like you - parents who want to do a better job of disciplining their children. The lessons were especially written for parents of preschool children, ages two to six, but some of the discipline methods are appropriate for older children, too. This lesson focuses on why children misbehavior.
This is a review article that studies the problem of torture in children. Torture in children is a significant worldwide problem, but there are no official or reliable independent statistics to measure the magnitude of the problem. The definition of torture in the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment applies to adults and children. The Convention on the Rights of the Child defines children as "every human being below the age of eighteen years". Torture in children happens during peace times and during political violence and war conflicts. The majority of torture victims happen during peace times. The high-risk groups are impoverished children living in the street, children deprived of parental care, children in conflict with the law, and children in detention. During political violence and war the high risk children are the children detained during political violence, child soldiers, children internally displaced in refugee camps, detained children during the war against terrorism and children tortured by peacekeeping forces. The perpetrators of torture in children are the members of the same forces that torture adults, generally the police, civil police, security guards trained by police, prison guards, and military forces. The paper identifies some preventive measure and develops recommendations for action at the local, national and international level.
Larusdottir, Aldis Run; Dederichs, Anne
higher walking speeds in spiral stairs when the children are familiar with the evacuation path. Higher per-son densities and faster flow through doors were obtained among the children than found in literature on adults. Children in the younger age group are generally slower than the older children....... The children walk slower in horizontal plan than adults, however they are keen to run during evacuations, in the latter case their travel speed increases and exceeds the adults’. Since the evacuation characte-ristics of children differ in many ways from those of adults, nowadays models badly comprehend...
Full Text Available ... used in children with cancer, epilepsy and back pain. top of page What does the equipment look ... being recorded. Though nuclear imaging itself causes no pain, children may experience some discomfort from having to ...
... TV, in movies and videos, and/or playing violent video games. Parents should help protect their children from the ... watch TV, movies, and videos with children; restrict violent video games; limit TV; and disapprove of the violent episodes ...
... Digital Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips ADHD in Young Children Use recommended treatment first Language: ... The recommended first treatment for young children with ADHD is underused. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends ...
Elkind, David; Rinaldi, Carla; Flemmert Jensen, Anne
Proceedings from the conference "Children, Time, and Play". Danish University of Education, January 30th 2003.......Proceedings from the conference "Children, Time, and Play". Danish University of Education, January 30th 2003....
Potter, Rosemary Lee
Susan Futterman, a former teacher and early childhood specialist for Action for Children's Television, comments on changing formats for children's programs, as well as on the role of educators in using television as a learning vehicle. (Editor/KC)
Full Text Available ... interventions. Children's (pediatric) nuclear medicine refers to imaging examinations done in babies, young children and teenagers. Nuclear ... nuclear medicine procedure work? With ordinary x-ray examinations, an image is made by passing x-rays ...
... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000355.htm Screen time and children To use the sharing features on ... videos is considered unhealthy screen time. Current Screen Time Guidelines Children under age 2 should have no ...
... a feeding tube or an IV to prevent malnutrition and improve healing. Does my child have to ... Acute Pancreatitis in Children Chronic Pancreatitis in Children Childhood Inherited Disorders Pancreatic Cancer Pancreatic Cancer Risks and ...
Children and tonsillectomies ... many parents wonder if it is wise for children to have the tonsils taken out. Tonsillectomy may be recommended if your child has any of the following: Difficulty swallowing Obstructed ...
More often than not, cancer immunotherapies that work in adults are used in modified ways in children. Seldom are new therapies developed just for children, primarily because of the small number of pediatric patients relative to the adult cancer patient
... Clinical Digest for health professionals Children and Dietary Supplements Share: September 2012 © Matthew Lester Research has shown that many children use herbs and other dietary supplements. However, there are little data available on their ...
Full Text Available ... the body. jaundice in newborns and older children. epilepsy . location, anatomy and function of the thyroid gland. ... are most often used in children with cancer, epilepsy and back pain. top of page What does ...
Ainsworth, Alan Patrick; Axelsen, Anne Reiss; Rasmussen, Lars
It is recommended that children with typical clinical signs of biliary colic should be offered surgery if gallstones are present. The aim of this study was to describe a population of children having undergone cholecystectomy.......It is recommended that children with typical clinical signs of biliary colic should be offered surgery if gallstones are present. The aim of this study was to describe a population of children having undergone cholecystectomy....
Gurland, Suzanne T.; Glowacky, Victoria C.
To investigate children's theories of motivation, we asked 166 children (8-12 years of age) to rate the effect of various motivational strategies on task interest, over the short and long terms, in activities described as appealing or unappealing. Children viewed the rewards strategy as resulting in greatest interest except when implemented over…
In this book, the author reveals the creative force of children's narrative imagination and shows how this develops through childhood. He provides a new and powerful understanding of the significance of narrative for children's intellectual growth and for learning and teaching. The book explores a series of real stories written by children between…
Harrelson, Peggy O'Neill, 1947-
Communicating positively with young children helps them develop confidence, feelings of self-worth, and good relationships with others. Adults sometimes have difficulty communicating positively with children when feelings are involved-either their own or the child's. This publication explores ways for parents to improve their communication with children.
Byrnes, Deborah A.
Reviews studies on prejudice and children focusing on how children learn prejudice and what can be done to prevent it. Offers three activity and discussion ideas which can be used to develop children's awareness of inappropriate prejudgments. Identifies a selection of related instructional resources and includes a 34-item bibliography. (JDH)
Buck, Beverly; Baker, Robin
The "Colorado Children's Budget" presents and analyzes investments and spending trends during the past five state fiscal years on services that benefit children. The "Children's Budget" focuses mainly on state investment and spending, with some analysis of federal investments and spending to provide broader context of state…
This paper discusses the nature and function of children's literature and theater. Artistic creative work for children is constituted not only by literature but also by the theater, film, radio and television. Children's literature used to be an art of narration, a verbal text coupled with gesture. Modern, highly technical communication media have…
Since children as young as seven years old can suffer from hypertension, all children should have blood pressure checked during physical examinations. Guidelines for testing children's blood pressure are presented along with suggestions about what schools and parents can do to help deal with the problem. (PP)
... lie about what is going on. Children are smart. They pick up on dishonesty and will wonder why you are lying. NOT force children who are afraid to go to funerals. Find other ways for your children to remember and honor the deceased. For example, you can light a candle, pray, float a balloon to the ...
Waldman, H B
Limited attention has been directed in the dental literature to the emotional, economic and associated consequences of divorces on children. A general introduction is provided on 1) the numbers of children involved in divorces in different single-parent population groups, with 2) emphasis on the emotional impact of divorce on children and 3) the potential significance for pediatric dental practices.
... diet of children is the proper amount of fat. Children under two years of age should not be on a fat-restricted diet, because cholesterol and fat are thought to be important nutrients for brain development. Children over two can have lower fat foods added ...
Johansson, Barbro; Mäkelä, Johanna; Roos, Gun
A study of the different food messages that children encounter and their own reflections of these messages was carried out among fifty-nine children from Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden.The children took photos of their "foodscapes," including school, home, shops, streets, cafés and restauran...
... AND BE SURE EVERYONE WEARS A HELMET WHEN BIKING. IN THE CAR, CHILDREN SHOULD SIT IN THE BACK SEAT AND ALWAYS FASTEN THEIR SEAT BELTS! 14 AND CHILDREN SHOULD BE TAUGHT TO SWIM FROM THE TIME THEY’RE SMALL. IT’S GOOD FOR THEIR HEALTH AND THEIR SAFETY. PROTECTING CHILDREN FROM DANGERS IN ...
West, Suzanne E.
Some basic principles are discussed that can help divorcing parents understand the feelings and behaviors of their children, and guidelines are suggested for parents wanting to help their children adjust to the divorce-induced changes in their lives. The process of divorce is discussed in terms of children's experience, cause and effect, and time.…
Krois, Deborah Helen
Although alcoholism has long been considered a serious problem, the impact of parental alcoholism on children has only recently begun to receive attention from researchers and clinicians. A review of the empirical literature on children of alcoholics was conducted and it was concluded that children raised in an alcoholic family are at increased…
Gombert, Jean Emile; Fayol, Michel
Dictated words and pictures by 48 young French children, aged 3 to 6 years, demonstrated that young children have the capacity to produce graphics that exhibit some of the characteristics of writing. Developmental stages in children's recognition that their own efforts were not true writing were identified. (SLD)
Keller, Suzanne M.
The four reports contained in this document examine the effects of the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES), which entered the lives of many children in the United States in 1986. The first report discusses a study of children's interaction with the game hardware. The study of fourth- and fifth-grade students indicated that children's interaction…
This paper examines the different contexts for leadership in children's services with a particular focus on integrated working. It reviews contemporary theories that appear to offer relevant frameworks for thinking about children's service leadership. It is argued that children's services require leadership at all levels to enable a dynamic,…
Previous research on children's drawing and writing focused on children's drawing and symbolization with syllabic languages, providing little information regarding young children's symbolization in drawing with a logo language. This study investigated children's emergent writing by examining qualitatively how children's writing takes place as…
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical characteristics and the results of bronchoscopic treatment of children due to foreign body aspiration in a university hospital. METHOD: Time series of children who underwent bronchoscopies for foreign bodies aspirated into the airway between March 1993 and July 2002. Each patient was analyzed for age, sex, initial clinical diagnosis, nature and location of the foreign body, duration of symptoms between aspiration and bronchoscopy, radiological findings, results of bronchoscopic removal, complications of bronchoscopy and presence of foreign bodies in the airways. RESULTS: Thirty-four children, 20 (59% boys, ages ranging from nine months to nine years (median = 23 months. In 32 (94% children the foreign body was removed by rigid bronchoscope, and two resulted in thoracotomy. Foreign bodies were more frequent in children under three years of age (66%. A clinical history of foreign body inhalation was obtained in 27 (80% cases. Most of the foreign bodies removed were organic (65% and more frequently found in the right bronchial tree (59%. Foreign bodies were removed within 24 hours in 18 (53% cases. The most frequent radiographic findings were: unilateral air trapping, atelectasis and radiopac foreign body. Major bronchoscopy complications occurred in seven children (22%, and there were no deaths. CONCLUSIONS: More attention is necessary to the respiratory symptoms of aspirations, mainly in boys at early ages, with clinical history and compatible radiological findings. Most foreign bodies removed were of organic nature. In this case series, therapeutic rigid bronchoscopy was effective with few complications.
Rocha-Jiménez, Teresita; Brouwer, Kimberly C.; Silverman, Jay G.; Morales-Miranda, Sonia; Goldenberg, Shira M.
Despite reports of high levels of violence among women migrants in Central America, limited evidence exists regarding the health and safety of migrant sex workers in Central America. This study is based on 16 months of field research (November 2012–February 2015), including ethnographic fieldwork, in-depth interviews, and focus groups conducted with 52 internal and international migrant female sex workers in Tecún Úman and Quetzaltenango, Guatemala, key transit and destination communities for...
Rocha-Jiménez, Teresita; Brouwer, Kimberly C; Silverman, Jay G; Morales-Miranda, Sonia; Goldenberg, Shira M
Despite reports of high levels of violence among women migrants in Central America, limited evidence exists regarding the health and safety of migrant sex workers in Central America. This study is based on 16 months of field research (November 2012-February 2014), including ethnographic fieldwork, in-depth interviews, and focus groups conducted with 52 internal and international migrant female sex workers in Tecún Umán and Quetzaltenango, Guatemala, key transit and destination communities for both international and internal migrants. The analysis explored migration-related determinants of susceptibility to violence experienced by migrant sex workers across different phases of migration. Violence in home communities and economic considerations were key drivers of migration. Unsafe transit experiences (eg undocumented border crossings) and negative interactions with authorities in destination settings (eg extortion) contributed to migrant sex workers' susceptibility to violence, while enhanced access to information on immigration policies and greater migration and sex work experience were found to enhance agency and resilience. Findings suggest the urgent need for actions that promote migrant sex workers' safety in communities of origin, transit, and destination, and programmes aimed at preventing and addressing human rights violations within the context of migration and sex work.
Full Text Available El turismo es a menudo identificado como una estrategia para mejorar el bienestar de las comunidades y sus miembros más vulnerables - las mujeres y sus hijos. La capacidad de las mujeres para participar y beneficiarse del turismo está condicionada por los tradicionales roles de género y consiguientes desventajas educacionales. Los programas de desarrollo a menudo intentan mitigar estas disparidades. Este artículo examina la intervención de los Cuerpos de Paz como resultado de la mejora en el desarrollo humano y la autodeterminación de las mujeres indígenas Q¿eqchi, en Alta Verapaz, Guatemala. El artículo trata los logros y deficiencias de esta intervención así como sus implicaciones prácticas y teóricas.
Full Text Available En este artículo se analiza la mexicanización, una estrategia de sobrevivencia adoptada por mayas guatemaltecos durante el proceso migratorio y de establecimiento en Estados Unidos. El término describe las relaciones ambiguas de tales migrantes con los mexicanos. El papel simbólico de México está presente desde la fase preparatoria del proceso migratorio, en Guatemala o en los campamentos de refugiados en México, hasta el peligroso viaje hacia el norte, durante el cual los guatemaltecos intentan mezclarse con la sociedad mexicana para evitar ser deportados o extorsionados por las autoridades. Alentrar a Estados Unidos los guatemaltecos siguen utilizando la identidad mexicana, para asegurar así, si son detenidos, que los oficiales del INS los envíen solamente a la zona fronteriza del norte de México. Cuando los guatemaltecos se establecen en Estados Unidos, con frecuencia viven en comunidades dominadas por negocios, productos, alimentos, cultura y redes sociales mexicanas. La experiencia de la mexicanización varía según el género y la historia personal.
Caxaj, Claudia Susana; Parroquia de San Miguel Ixtahuacan, Kolol Qnan Tx'otx'
The presence of large-scale mining operations poses many threats to communities. In a rural community in Guatemala, community leaders were motivated to address divisiveness and local conflict that have been exacerbated since the arrival of a mining company in the region. Prior research by our team identified spiritual and cultural strengths as important sources of strength and resilience in the community. We piloted a community-based intervention centred on spiritual and cultural practices in the region, to address divisiveness and build community harmony. One hundred and seventeen participants from over 18 villages in the municipality participated in the workshops and follow-up focus groups. Community leaders facilitated the intervention and partnered with the academic researcher throughout the research process. Overall, community members and facilitators expressed satisfaction with the workshop. Further, our analysis revealed three important processes important to the development of community harmony in the region: (a) mutual recognition and collectivisation; (b) affirmation of ancestral roots and connections to Mother Earth and (c) inspiring action and momentum towards solutions. These mechanisms, and the socio-political contexts that undermine them, have important implications for how global health programmes are developed and how collective processes for well-being are understood within an inequitable, conflict-laden world.
Serrano, José; Goñi, Isabel
Guatemala provides an example of epidemiological superposition, in which health problems typical of developed countries and developing countries are both observed. Nutritional deficiencies in some micronutrients like vitamin A and iron coexist alongside chronic diseases such as diabetes type II and cardiovascular diseases. The importance of black beans in the normal Guatemala diet is well known:70g per capita of black beans are consumed daily. Black beans are an important sources of protein and energy in the diet. They contain "lente" digestion carbohydrates and a high proportion of non-digested carbohydrates that may be fermented in the large intestine. Theses types of carbohydrates are associated with a low glycemic response, low serum cholesterol levels, and a decrease of colon cancer risk factors. These physiological effects may be related to colonic fermentation end products (propionic and butyric acids). Black beans also contain several antinutritional compounds (enzymatic inhibitors, haemaglutenins, saponins and phytic acid, etc.), some of them thermolabiles that are partially eliminated during culinary processes and may modify the nutritional quality of beans. Black beans play a crucial role in the etiology of several diseases in Guatemala.
This paper examines the social effects of fair trade transactions emerging from policies to expand the market around the globe. Focusing on the case of coffee farmers in Guatemala, it examines tensions that are created in local organisational networks linked to production, processing and
Berganza, Carlos E.; And Others
Conducted 2 studies to explore prevalence of adolescence pregnancy in Guatemala and identify level of contraception. In first study found 89 percent of male and 38 percent of female adolescents (N=850) had experienced coitus. In the second study found pregnancy rate of minors (N=551) in a gynecology clinic was highest for adolescents aged 13-14.…
Lidia Patricia Chan
Full Text Available A 35 años de su llegada a México, familias guatemaltecas de origen maya han creado un nicho económico de tipo comercial que conecta la producción agrícola con prácticas mercantiles en ciudades como Chetumal y Cancún. Mediante un trabajo etnográfico detallado, en este artículo se documenta la evolución en las últimas tres décadas de poblaciones de refugiados guatemaltecos a comunidades de comerciantes mexicanos que desarrollan una práctica económica innovadora. Tal transformación se produce en el contexto de pérdidas culturales, –por ejemplo en el terreno lingüístico– a falta de políticas públicas posteriores a la integración en México.
Maren Christensen Bjune
Full Text Available Siendo el país con el mayor porcentaje de evangélicos en la región latinoamericana, Guatemala ha tenido ya varias experiencias con el desempeño político de evangélicos, la mayoría de los cuales han salido de sus cargos dejando dudosos legados. Sin embargo, durante los últimos años, representantes de la Iglesia Evangélica participan con mayor frecuencia directamente en la vida política, o como resultado de sus propias estrategias o por invitación por parte de la sociedad política. A pesar de la heterogeneidad de los evangélicos en Guatemala, el presente artículo sugiere que en la política nacional lo evangélico se puede definir como una sola categoría analítica, porque así lo definen tanto los mismos oficiales de la Iglesia Evangélica, como los políticos y otros miembros de la sociedad política. El artículo también investiga el perfil y el carácter de las alianzas y la cooperación iniciadas por los evangélicos, arguyendo que aquellas indican una sanción del status quo socio-político en Guatemala. English: As the country with the largest percentage of Evangelical Christians in the Latin American region, Guatemala has had several experiences with 'evangélicos 'in politics, most of whom have left office and positions with highly dubious legacies. Nevertheless, the last years have seen an increase in direct political participation by representatives of the Evangelical communities, both by internal strategies and by invitation. In this article it will be suggested that in spite of the heterogeneous character of Guatemala’s Evangelicals, in national politics ‘the Evangelical’ can be considered as 'one 'analytical category, defined as such both by official Evangelical representatives, as well as by other members of the political society. The article further examines the type and nature of the political cooperation and alliances entered as well as initiated by Evangelical representatives, arguing that these indicate an endorsement of Guatemala’s socio-political status quo.
Enneman, A.; Campos, R.; Hernandez, L.; Palma, A.V.; Vossenaar, M.; Solomons, N.W.
Background: Estimates of adequate intake (AI) for water only became available in 2005. The daily water AI for 6-12-month-old infants of both sexes is 800 mL. The present study aimed to estimate the water intake of urban infants receiving both breast milk and complementary feeding (CF) and to compare
Alvaro M. Fortin Morales
Full Text Available Examinamos indicadores de Funcionamiento Diferencial de Ítemes (FDI asociados a cuatro variables que han demostrado de manera repetida ser factores de riesgo para el logro escolar. Estos factores son el sobre-edad para el grado de matriculación, área de residencia urbana/rural, etnia y género. Para este estudio utilizamos los datos de las evaluaciones nacionales del tercer grado. Dado que en la literatura se reporta con frecuencia que los indicadores de FDI son inestables, utilizamos tres diferentes métodos para estimarlo (chi-cuadrado, Rasch, regresión logística y evaluamos su consistencia en datos de tres diferentes años de evaluaciones. Encontramos evidencia de FDI. Sin embargo, la eliminación de ítemes con FDI no cambió las diferencias entre grupos que se encontraron en las puntuaciones de las evaluaciones. Los hallazgos sugieren que los factores de riesgo educativo actúan de manera conjunta en esta población guatemalteca y que hay alguna interacción entre estos factores de riesgo para generar sesgo. Concluimos que será de beneficio tomar en cuenta múltiples variables de contexto asociadas al riesgo educativo de forma simultanea al analizar FDI y al desarrollar evaluaciones.
Prescott, Alexandra S.; Luippold-Roge, Genevieve P.; Gurman, Tilly A.
Objective: Maya women in Guatemala are disproportionately affected by poverty and negative reproductive health outcomes. Although social networks are valued in many Indigenous cultures, few studies have explored whether health education programmes can leverage these networks to improve reproductive health and economic wellbeing. Design: This…
Pestonjee, Daanish D.; Spillan, John E.; Song, Hongwei; Virzi, Nicholas D.
Business education is important for economic development. A skilled workforce allows for greater advancements in productivity, the creation of new business opportunities, increased employment, and enhances the quality of life of the citizenry. With the changing international business environment it is important for academics and practitioners…
Szlachetko, D. L.; Kolanowska, Marta; Müller, F.; Vannini, J.; Rojek, J.; Gorniak, M.
Roč. 5, č. 12 (2017), č. článku e4162. ISSN 2167-8359 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : in-vitro * reproductive isolation * seed-germination * hybrid orchid * sample-size * dna * performance * nuclear * models * distributions * Cypripedium * Cypripediaceae * Hybridization * ENM analysis * Nuclear markers * Taxonomy * Irapeana Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 2.177, year: 2016
Jocelyn SKOLNIK; Sandra LAZO DE LA VEGA; Timothy STEIGENGA
Entrevistas cualitativas realizadas en Jacaltenango (comunidad maya guatemalteca de emigrantes) y Júpiter (localidad de Florida que recibe inmigrantes jacaltecos) ilus tran el rol del chisme transnacional y sus efectos, condicionados por el género. Las esposas de los migrantes están sujetas a un riguroso escrutinio por parte de su familia y vecinos, quienes las acusan de ser infieles, criar mal a los niños y malgastar el dinero. Para evitar el chisme y sus posibles consecuencias, muchas mu...
Martínez-Herrera, Erick; Schlager-Ospino, Herbert; Torres-Guerrero, Edoardo; Porras-López, Carlos; Betancourt, Laura Ramos; Camarena, Stefanie Arroyo; Arenas, Roberto
Abstract Introduction: Onychomycosis are fungal nail infections that can be caused by dermatophytes, non-dermatophytic molds and yeasts, which are capable of breaking down keratin. Mixed onychomycosis are a controversial subject and they are the outcome of the combination of two dermatophytes, dermatophytes/nondermatophytic molds or dermatophytes/yeast. Objetives: To determine the frequency of total dystrophic onychomycosis caused by more than one etiological agent (mixed onychomycosis) in ...
Erick Martinez Herrera
Full Text Available Introduction: Onychomycosis are fungal nail infections that can be caused by dermatophytes, non-dermatophytic molds and yeasts, which are capable of breaking down keratin. Mixed onychomycosis are a controversial subject and they are the outcome of the combination of two dermatophytes, dermatophytes/nondermatophytic molds or dermatophytes/yeast. Objetives: To determine the frequency of total dystrophic onychomycosis caused by more than one etiological agent (mixed onychomycosis in outpatients from a Dermatologic Center in Guatemala and to establish the characteristics associated with this fungal infection. Methods: Prospective observational study from August to December of 2012. Nail samples were obtained from patients with total dystrophic onychomycosis to identify the causal agents by culture in Sabouraud dextrose and Mycosel® agar. Results: 32 of 130 patients had mixed onychomycosis. 68.5% were associated to tinea pedis. The most common association was between T. rubrum + Candida, T. rubrum + M. canis and T. rubrum + opportunist fungi. Conclusions: Mixed onychomycosis represent 25% of the total dystrophic onychomycosis in Guatemala. We observed an important relationship between diabetes and the main association was T. rubrum with Candida spp.
Miller, Andrew B; Cates, Rex G; Lawrence, Michael; Soria, J Alfonso Fuentes; Espinoza, Luis V; Martinez, Jose Vicente; Arbizú, Dany A
Essential oils are prevalent in many medicinal plants used for oral hygiene and treatment of diseases. Medicinal plant species were extracted to determine the essential oil content. Those producing sufficient oil were screened for activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Candida albicans. Plant samples were collected, frozen, and essential oils were extracted by steam distillation. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined using a tube dilution assay for those species yielding sufficient oil. Fifty-nine of the 141 plant species produced sufficient oil for collection and 12 species not previously reported to produce essential oils were identified. Essential oil extracts from 32 species exhibited activity against one or more microbes. Oils from eight species were highly inhibitory to S. mutans, four species were highly inhibitory to C. albicans, and 19 species yielded MIC values less than the reference drugs. RESULTS suggest that 11 species were highly inhibitory to the microbes tested and merit further investigation. Oils from Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (Lauraceae), Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm.) Swingle (Rutaceae), Lippia graveolens Kunth (Verbenaceae), and Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae) yielded highly significant or moderate activity against all microbes and have potential as antimicrobial agents. Teas prepared by decoction or infusion are known methods for extracting essential oils. Oils from 11 species were highly active against the microbes tested and merit investigation as to their potential for addressing health-related issues and in oral hygiene.
Tantoco, F G
Almost 2 million of Manila's 2.5 million children younger than 15 years old live on or below the poverty line. 75,000 of these children live on the streets after having run away from home or being abandoned. They beg, steal, scavenge for food, and sell newspapers, cigarettes, and leis. About 20,000 of the street children prostitute themselves. It is these latter children and adolescents who are at particular risk of HIV infection. Studies in the Philippines indicate that 91% of reported HIV infections are among individuals aged 15-44, the male/female infection ratio is one to one, the transmission rate is 45%, and the most common mode of transmission is through heterosexual intercourse. The high incidence of child sexual abuse and child prostitution in the Philippines would suggest that there are a significant number of children and adolescents under age 15 who are infected with HIV. Caritas Manila has developed an information, education, and communication program for HIV/AIDS prevention focusing upon individuals who have direct influence upon and are in direct contact with people: clergy, religious and civic associations, educators, and social and health workers. Caritas has also to a limited extent reached out directly to populations at risk, while collaborating with human rights advocacy groups and networking with other children-oriented agencies in the interest of providing resources to street children. Efforts must be made to protect the rights of children and provide them with an environment conducive to their growth and development. The author notes how off-duty policemen in Manila help real estate developers forcibly eject the poor from their shelters to clear the way for the construction of new infrastructure without concern for the legal processes and requirements in the humane and peaceful relocation of the homeless poor. Many women and children are hurt and killed in the process. It has also been reported that off-duty policemen in Rio de Janeiro
Full Text Available The author briefly interprets the research – results, referring to the phenomenon of children of alcoholics, especially the psychological and psychopathological characteristics of children of alcoholics in adolescence and young adulthood. The author presents a screening study of adolescents. The sample contains 200 high school students at age 18. The aim of the survey was to discover the relationship between alcohol consumption of parents, PTSD - related psychopathological symptoms and reported life quality of their children. The study confirmed the hypothesis about a substantial correlation between high alcohol consumption of parents, higher psychopathological symptom - expression and lower reported life quality score of their children. Higher PTSD-related symptomatology in children of alcoholics is probably resulted by home violence, which is very often present in family of alcoholics. The article also evaluated the results regarding suicide ideation of children of alcoholics, which is definitely more frequent and more intense than in their peers living in non alcohol – dependent families.
Gulløv, Eva; Bundgaard, Helle
In this article we discuss the production of social distinctions within an institutional setting. Based on ethnographic fieldwork in a multi-ethnic pre-school in Denmark we focus on the interpersonal encounters between immigrant children, their parents and the staff. More specifically we explore...... an apparent paradox in daily practice where on the one hand staff attempt to mute differences between children on the assumption that all children are equal and should be treated as such, while on the other hand distinctions are in practice established when children behave in ways considered inappropriate...... in relation to their own long term interest. Our material indicates that this logic systematically marks Middle Eastern children as ?other?. This legitimises an educational effort to compensate practices of upbringing in the families by teaching these children how to behave in ways considered 'proper...
Carlsson-Paige, Nancy; Levin, Diane E.
In a recent survey of parents and early childhood professionals the prevalence of war play among children and an increase in the amount of violence in children's play was noted. Outlines how the deregulation of children's television during the Reagan administration has affected children's exposure to violence in children's television programming.…
MORANTE BONET, MIRIAM; Costa Ferrer, María; Rodríguez Calatayud, María Nuria
Are children under 2 years old exposed to apps? Which ones? How often? What kind of apps would be best suited for small children based on their physical and cognitive development, the evolution of their play patterns and their ability to interact with mobile devices? How to design apps as appropriate as possible for children under 2 years old? These are some of the main questions that are answered through the research presented in this publication. An investigation that demonstra...
Lask, B; Britten, C; Kroll, L; Magagna, J; Tranter, M
Four children are described with a potentially life threatening condition manifested by profound and pervasive refusal to eat, drink, walk, talk, or care for themselves in any way over a period of several months. The multiplicity and severity of the symptoms in these children do not fit comfortably into any existing diagnostic category. Long term and highly skilled nursing and psychiatric care is required to help these children to recover. The possible causes of this syndrome are discussed.
Mihić Biljana D.
In this paper the author is analysing definitions and basic notions related to domestic violence against children, as one of the most serious forms of violence. The special chapter deals with effects of violence against children and causes of domestic violence against them. Also, the author is analysing different forms of social reaction and considering the problem of legal regulation of mandatory reporting domestic violence against children.
Mims, James W; Veling, Maria C
Children with chronic or recurrent upper respiratory inflammatory disease (rhinitis) should be considered for inhalant allergies. Risk factors for inhalant allergies in children include a first-degree relative with allergies, food allergy in infancy, and atopic dermatitis. Although inhalant allergies are rare in infancy, inhalant allergies are common in older children and impair quality of life and productivity. Differentiating between viral and allergic rhinitis can be challenging in children, but the child's age, history, and risk factors can provide helpful information. Allergic rhinitis is a risk factor for asthma, and if one is present, medical consideration of the other is warranted. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jat, Kana Ram
Respiratory disorders are responsible for considerable morbidity and mortality in children. Spirometry is a useful investigation for diagnosing and monitoring a variety of paediatric respiratory diseases, but it is underused by primary care physicians and paediatricians treating children with respiratory disease. We now have a better understanding of respiratory physiology in children, and newer computerised spirometry equipment is available with updated regional reference values for the paediatric age group. This review evaluates the current literature for indications, test procedures, quality assessment, and interpretation of spirometry results in children. Spirometry may be useful for asthma, cystic fibrosis, congenital or acquired airway malformations and many other respiratory diseases in children. The technique for performing spirometry in children is crucial and is discussed in detail. Most children, including preschool children, can perform acceptable spirometry. Steps for interpreting spirometry results include identification of common errors during the test by applying acceptability and repeatability criteria and then comparing test parameters with reference standards. Spirometry results depict only the pattern of ventilation, which may be normal, obstructive, restrictive, or mixed. The diagnosis should be based on both clinical features and spirometry results. There is a need to encourage primary care physicians and paediatricians treating respiratory diseases in children to use spirometry after adequate training.
Senanayake, M P; Arachchi, J K; Wickremasinghe, V P
To describe the problems faced by children during separation from their imprisoned mothers, and evaluate the health of children who accompanied their mothers into prison. A prospective observational study. Welikada Prison, Colombo, Sri Lanka. 200 randomly selected mothers who had left their children at home were interviewed using a questionnaire. During a period of 8 months 30 children living with their mothers in prison underwent physical and developmental examination and tuberculin testing. The living conditions within the prison were evaluated. During 18 months from January 1999, 4089 women were imprisoned. 88% were remanded, 20% awaited trial for more than one year in prison. 2416 were mothers. 1411 had at least one child under 12 years of age. The 200 mothers interviewed had 262 children under 12 years at home. Their care arrangements were: a relative (69%), father (16%), older sibling (4%), religious organisation (2.7%), neighbour (1.3%). None had received social services support. 70 children accompanied mothers into prison. In the 30 children followed up regularly 23% had scabies, 10% pediculosis, and 7% impetigo. No severe malnutrition was found and screening for tuberculosis was negative. 70% were breastfed. The child-friendly dormitory was inadequate to accommodate all children. Care arrangements and schooling were affected and no counselling services were provided during the imprisoned mothers' absence. The children within the prison enjoyed close bonds with the mothers and their physical needs were met. The child's best interest had not always been considered by court when deciding on custody during the mothers' imprisonment.
Abstract This paper is about children and stress. Stress among children is a serious problem and to be aware of that as a preschool teacher is very important. I’ve focused on the youngest children in preschool. I’ve searched for information in litterateur and articles. To fins literature is not a problem because it is a lot written about this subject. I did two interviews with three preschool teachers. All my sources agree that stress among children is a problem that we must try to work again...
Renshaw, Domeena C
In this "information era" it can no longer be said that children are being raised in Eden or in a gentle environment of kindness and love. However rural their home, children will undoubtedly see depictions of violence on television, in the movies, or in newspapers, or hear about it on the radio or while at school or on classroom computers. All children require safety education in order to learn how to protect themselves from harm at home, at school, or in the neighborhood. This article outlines how violence may impact today's children who seek medical care.
Full Text Available The texts of children's literature, proposing a modeling of realia, are excellent occasions to speak openly, about difficult subjects, seeking solutions to them. As always, difficult issues were somehow treated in children's literature, despite reservations society may or may not have in relation to its approach next to the young. Thus, our study focuses on three works of children's literature that discuss the war situation and allow to think and to question the place of the child in this context. The first work, in the format of a school notebook, is a tribute to children killed by the bombing of Gaza, carried out by Israeli forces in the summer of 2014. The second work speaks of a wall, a metaphor that separates people and worlds, and whose destruction is essential to ensure the achievement of a collective happiness. The third work sets up a witness: in the face of the misfortune of war and human misery, it´s important never give up and find strength to be reborn forever.Although the three works, united by a fictionality protocol, do not refer to the same historical and factual events, they can be read together, enhancing interpretations susceptible of helping children to think about the place that each one has and can play in a globalized society where the ideals of Peace, Brotherhood of Love and Respect for the Next still have to be heavily cultivated daily.
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Full Text Available ... Z Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography) Pediatric computed tomography (CT) is a fast, painless exam that uses special ... the limitations of Children's CT? What is Children's CT? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT ...
Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography) Pediatric computed tomography (CT) ... are the limitations of Children's CT? What is Children's CT? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a ...
Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of poliomyelitis in children. The history of this disease and the current state of morbidity in Ukraine are considered. The features of the clinical pattern in children are described. Diagnostic criteria and treatment methods are presented.
Dudley, John; Karnes, Frances A.
Divorce is often a contentious process with multiple issues to decide, especially in cases in which there are children involved. Divorce raises several legal issues when considering the well-being of children, including those who are gifted. In this article, the authors discuss these issues which include school choice, child support, and custody…
Almarsdóttir, Anna B.; Zimmer, Catherine
of the path analytic model analyzed. Children, aged 7 and 10 years, and their primary caregivers were interviewed during 1992 and 1993. Recruiting was done at summer camps in Chapel Hill, North Carolina and environs, resulting in a convenience sample of 101 children, all white and middle class. Ordinary least...
THE QUALITIES WHICH MAKE STORYBOOKS AND PICTURE BOOKS APPEALING TO PRESCHOOL CHILDREN AND THOSE WHICH HELP THEM UNDERSTAND AND MASTER THE USES OF LANGUAGE ARE DISCUSSED BRIEFLY. DIFFERENT TYPES OF BOOKS THAT APPEAL TO PRESCHOOL CHILDREN ARE PRESENTED--BOOKS THAT ENCOURAGE THE HEALTHY EXPRESSION OF EMOTIONS, BOOKS THAT ENABLE THEM TO PARTICIPATE,…
Practical Pointers, 1977
Focusing on the development of fundamental rhythm skills involved in music and movement activities, this teaching guide emphasizes activities that will help children express their feelings and communicate with others, develop perceptual and motor skills, and enhance sensory awareness. Suggestions for involving handicapped children and examples of…
Honig, Alice Sterling
Describes normal aspects of sexuality during the early years, including masturbation and children's fanciful sexual ideas. Presents inappropriately mature sexual knowledge as a danger sign of abuse. Discusses whether and what teachers/caregivers should tell children about sexuality, and notes the importance of teaching staff about sexual identity…
This article aims to explore the issues that face primary school teachers when responding to children's drawings. Assessment in art and design is an ongoing concern for teachers with limited experience and confidence in the area and, although children's drawings continue to be a focus of much research, the question of what it is that teachers say…
Siegal, Michael; Butterworth, George; Newcombe, Peter A.
In this investigation, we examined children's knowledge of cosmology in relation to the shape of the earth and the day-night cycle. Using explicit questioning involving a choice of alternative answers and 3D models, we carried out a comparison of children aged 4-9 years living in Australia and England. Though Australia and England have a close…
Colorado Children's Campaign, 2010
The "Children's Budget 2010" is intended to be a resource guide for policymakers and advocates who are interested in better understanding how Colorado funds children's programs and services. It attempts to clarify often confusing budget information and describe where the state's investment trends are and where those trends will lead the…
Eigenmann, P A; Atanaskovic-Markovic, M; O'B Hourihane, J
Allergic diseases are common in childhood and can cause a significant morbidity and impaired quality-of-life of the children and their families. Adequate allergy testing is the prerequisite for optimal care, including allergen avoidance, pharmacotherapy and immunotherapy. Children with persisting...
... With small amounts of bleeding over months, some children can develop iron-deficiency anemia and have symptoms of this. Bleeding may not happen with every bowel movement, and tends to recur over weeks to months. It is rare for children to have other symptoms, but when they do ...
Sathiyasekaran, Malathi; Biradar, Vishnu; Ramaswamy, Ganesh; Srinivas, S; Ashish, B; Sumathi, B; Nirmala, D; Geetha, M
Pancreatic disease in children has a wide clinical spectrum and may present as Acute pancreatitis (AP), Acute recurrent pancreatitis (ARP), Chronic pancreatitis (CP) and Pancreatic disease without pancreatitis. This article highlights the etiopathogenesis and management of pancreatitis in children along with clinical data from five tertiary care hospitals in south India [Chennai (3), Cochin and Pune].
Andersen, Lars Bo; Lauritsen, Peter; Danholt, Peter
Teledialogue is a combined research and design project aimed at improving communications between social workers and children under their custody living in foster care or youth institutions. While social workers are responsible for the welfare of placed children they are under heavy workload...
This paper provides a brief overview of recent developmental research on themes related to children's social identities. Initially, consideration is given to the capacity for social categorization, following which attention is given to children's developing conceptions of social identities, their identification with social groups, and the…
Like professional photographers, early childhood teachers can reframe their perspectives to create innovative and inspiring spaces for young children by concentrating on reframing two design elements: color and texture. When thinking about designing spaces for young children, one of the first considerations is the equipment and its arrangement.…
Although bipolar disorder historically was thought to only occur rarely in children and adolescents, there has been a significant increase in children and adolescents who are receiving this diagnosis more recently (Carlson, 2005). Nonetheless, the applicability of the current bipolar disorder diagnostic criteria for children, particularly preschool children, remains unclear, even though much work has been focused on this area. As a result, more work needs to be done to further the understanding of bipolar symptoms in children. It is hoped that this paper can assist psychologists and other health service providers in gleaning a snapshot of the literature in this area so that they can gain an understanding of the diagnostic criteria and other behaviors that may be relevant and be informed about potential approaches for assessment and treatment with children who meet bipolar disorder criteria. First, the history of bipolar symptoms and current diagnostic criteria will be discussed. Next, assessment strategies that may prove helpful for identifying bipolar disorder will be discussed. Then, treatments that may have relevance to children and their families will be discussed. Finally, conclusions regarding work with children who may have a bipolar disorder diagnosis will be offered. PMID:24800202
In 1999, a coalition of child advocacy groups, the Canadian Foundation for Children, Youth, and the Law, challenged Section 43 of Canada's criminal code, which permits "reasonable force" in disciplining children. The heavily debated issue turns on judges' varied interpretations. A court decision is expected by year's end. (MLH)
Kyle, Sarah, Ed.
The federal government makes more than 200 distinct investments in children. These include traditional children's initiatives like education and child abuse and neglect prevention. They also include other investments that improve the lives of kids, like Medicaid and the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (formerly Food Stamps). Following a…
van den Bogaerde, B.; Baker, A.E.; Gertz, G.; Boudreault, P.
The hearing children of Deaf parents grow up in two cultures with two languages. They are similar to other bilingual, bicultural children in many ways but are special also. They can be in conflict between two worlds and often carry an extra burden of responsibility in functioning as a bridge between
Graham, Louise B.; Lindsey, Allison
A review of Animal-Assisted Therapy and related terms such as "Animal-Assisted Activities" is presented as an introduction to the exploration of additional equine applications with children. Animal-Assisted Therapy has been studied, but Animal-Assisted Activities with children facing normal developmental struggles has not received much…
Hammond, Janice M.
An increasing number of children live in single-parent homes due to the rise in the divorce rate. Teachers must become aware of teaching and counseling approaches which will offset the negative effects of divorce on children and minimize the period of adjustment. (JN)
Kittleson, Mark J.
The traumatic effect of divorce on young children is discussed, noting the typical changes in behavior evidenced by children in such a situation. Suggestions are made on ways parents can cope with the child's emotional reactions and alleviate the stress that is natural when a marriage dissolves. (JD)
Simmons, Charlene Wear
This report summarizes what is known about the children of incarcerated parents in California. The report estimates the number of children in California who have parents in the state's criminal justice system (jail, prison, parole, and probation) and summarizes key findings from the research literature on the impact of parental arrest and…
The relationships between children and television are a source of heated debate. Several studies, mainly conducted in North America, have found a correlation between television violence viewing and aggressive behavior, preadolescents appearing as the most vulnerable. However, in France opinions are more nuanced and one generally considers that television-induced violence in children mainly depends upon individual and educative socio-familial factors.
Chiam, Heng Keng, Ed.
This book reports some of the results of an extensive study of the physical, cognitive, language, social, and emotional development of Malaysian children. Chapter 1 of the book describes the demographics of the sample. Subjects were 3,099 preschool children in the state of Selangor and the federal district of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Data is…
Hale, Janice E.
Maintains that educators need to dignify the language and cognitive experiences of African-American children. Asserts that African-American culture emphasizes charismatic and stylistic uses of language. Teachers must understand African-American cultural styles if they are to create cultural continuity for African-American children who attend…
Broström professor m.so., Stig
In (post) modern society children are seen as active subjects and participants who have a legitimate basis in the United Nations Convention of the Rights of the Child. As a consequence of this, children are able to play an active role in the 10 planning of/and participation in both education...
Duarte Torres, Sergio; Hiemstra, Djoerd; Weber, Ingmar; Serdyukov, Pavel
One of the biggest problems that children experience while searching the web occurs during the query formulation process. Children have been found to struggle formulating queries based on keywords given their limited vocabulary and their difficulty to choose the right keywords. In this work we
Full Text Available ... in the body. jaundice in newborns and older children. epilepsy . location, anatomy and function of the thyroid gland. ... and PET/MR) are most often used in children with cancer, epilepsy and back pain. top of page What does ...
Rosenberg, Shelley K.; Stillman-Powell, Patricia
The author examines issues related to adult assertiveness in controlling and setting limits for handicapped children. Reasons for adults not wishing to be in charge include feelings of guilt, lack of consistency in enforcing rules, and a sense of sympathy for special children. Assertiveness is distinguished from aggressiveness, and suggestions for…
Verhagen, L.M.; Groot, R. de
Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease of expanding geographical range and increasing incidence. The vast majority of dengue cases are children less than 15 years of age. Dengue causes a spectrum of illness from mild fever to severe disease with plasma leakage and shock. Infants and children with
I.M. van der Sluis (Inge)
textabstractThe thesis can be divided in two main parts. In the first part (Chapter 2 to 5) bone mineral density, bone metabolism and body composition in healthy children and young adults have been evaluated, while in the second part (Chapter 6 to 10) these issues were studied in children
Garry, Vincent F.
Prevention and control of damage to health, crops, and property by insects, fungi, and noxious weeds are the major goals of pesticide applications. As with use of any biologically active agent, pesticides have unwanted side-effects. In this review, we will examine the thesis that adverse pesticide effects are more likely to occur in children who are at special developmental and behavioral risk. Children's exposures to pesticides in the rural and urban settings and differences in their exposure patterns are discussed. The relative frequency of pesticide poisoning in children is examined. In this connection, most reported acute pesticide poisonings occur in children younger than age 5. The possible epidemiological relationships between parental pesticide use or exposure and the risk of adverse reproductive outcomes and childhood cancer are discussed. The level of consensus among these studies is examined. Current concerns regarding neurobehavioral toxicity and endocrine disruption in juxtaposition to the relative paucity of toxicant mechanism-based studies of children are explored
Gurland, Suzanne T; Glowacky, Victoria C
To investigate children's theories of motivation, we asked 166 children (8-12 years of age) to rate the effect of various motivational strategies on task interest, over the short and long terms, in activities described as appealing or unappealing. Children viewed the rewards strategy as resulting in greatest interest except when implemented over the long term for appealing activities. Individual difference analyses revealed that some children held operant theories of motivation, in which rewards were central, and others held hybrid theories, in which rewards were key, but some allowance was made for interest to be self-sustaining in the absence of inducements. Children's theories predicted their academic self-regulation. Their theories are discussed relative to an expert theory of motivation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Stokes, Victoria J; Nielsen, Morten F; Hannan, Fadil M
Hypercalcemia is defined as a serum calcium concentration that is greater than 2 standard deviations above the normal mean, which in children may vary with age and sex, reflecting changes in the normal physiology at each developmental stage. Hypercalcemic disorders in children may present...... with hypotonia, poor feeding, vomiting, constipation, abdominal pain, lethargy, polyuria, dehydration, failure to thrive and seizures. In severe cases renal failure, pancreatitis and reduced consciousness may also occur and older children and adolescents may present with psychiatric symptoms. The causes...... of hypercalcemia in children can be classified as parathyroid hormone (PTH)-dependent or PTH-independent, and may be congenital or acquired. PTH-independent hypercalcemia, i.e. hypercalcemia associated with a suppressed PTH, is commoner in children than PTH-dependent hypercalcemia. Acquired causes of PTH...
Dammeyer, Jesper Herup
Background: Mental and behavioral disorders among adults with Usher syndrome have been discussed and reported in some case studies but no research has been reported on children with Usher syndrome. Methods: This article investigates the prevalence and characteristics of mental and behavioral...... disorders among 26 children, 3-17 years of age, with Usher syndrome. Results: Six of the 26 children were diagnosed with a mental or behavioral disorder (1 with schizophrenia and mild mental retardation, 1 with atypical autism and severe mental retardation, 1 with atypical autism and mild mental retardation......, 1 with mild mental retardation, and 2 with conduct disorder). Another 3 children had had a mental or behavioral disorder previously in their childhood. Conclusion: Even though vision impairment first manifests in late childhood, some children with Usher syndrome seem to develop mental and behavioral...
Sood, Sunil K
The diagnosis and management of Lyme disease in children is similar to that in adults with a few clinically relevant exceptions. The use of doxycycline as an initial empiric choice is to be avoided for children 8 years old and younger. Children may present with insidious onset of elevated intracranial pressure during acute disseminated Lyme disease; prompt diagnosis and treatment of this condition is important to prevent loss of vision. Children who acquire Lyme disease have an excellent prognosis even when they present with the late disseminated manifestation of Lyme arthritis. Guidance on the judicious use of serologic tests is provided. Pediatricians and family practitioners should be familiar with the prevention and management of tick bites, which are common in children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Esteve, R; Marquina-Aponte, V
Previous studies on children's pain perspectives remain limited to English-speaking populations. An exploratory cross-sectional descriptive design was used to investigate the developmental progression of children's pain perspectives, including their pain experience, its definition and attributes, causality and coping. The Children's Pain Perspectives Inventory was applied to 180 healthy Spanish children. A coding system was developed following the content analysis method. Three age groups were compared: 4-6 years, corresponding to the Piagetian pre-operational stage of cognitive development; 7-11 years, corresponding to stage of concrete operations; and 12-14 years, corresponding to the period of early formal operations. In children between 4 and 6, the predominant narratives related to physical injuries, the notion of causality and the definition of pain. In children between 7 and 11, the predominant narratives were those in which pain was described as a sensation in one part of the body. The view of pain as having an emotional basis significantly increased with age and was more frequent in adolescents. In contrast, children between 4-6 and 7-11 indicated that pain occurs spontaneously. The denial of any positive aspects of pain significantly decreased with age; some children between 7 and 11 referred to the 'possibility of relief', while the view that pain is a 'learning experience' was significantly more frequent among adolescents aged between 12 and 14 years. The use of cognitive strategies to control pain significantly increased with age. Between 12 and 14 years of age, adolescents communicate pain by non-verbal behaviour and reported that they do not express demands for relief. There was a progression from concrete to more complex notions of pain as age increased. These results may be of use to health professionals and parents to understand how children at various developmental stages express and cope with pain and to develop tools that effectively assess and
Full Text Available This study aims to estimate the prevalence of behavioral problems among left-behind children, migrant children and local children in China, and to compare the risks of behavioral problems among the three types of children. Data on 4479 children aged 6–16 used in this study were from a survey conducted in China in 2017. The school-age version of the Children Behavior Checklist was used to measure children’s behavioral problems. Descriptive analysis, correlation analysis, and logistic regressions were conducted. The prevalence of behavioral problems was 18.80% and 13.59% for left-behind children and migrant children, respectively, both of which were higher than that of local children. Logistic regression analysis showed that after adjustments for individual and environmental variables, the likelihood of total, internalizing and externalizing behavior problems for left-behind children and migrant children were higher than those for local children; left-behind children had a higher likelihood of internalizing problems than externalizing problems, while migrant children had a higher prevalence of externalizing problems. Left-behind children had a higher prevalence of each specific syndrome than migrant and local children. Both individual and environmental factors were associated with child behavioral problems, and family migration may contribute to the increased risks. Left-behind and migrant children were more vulnerable than local children to behavioral problems.
Fenton, L.Z.; Buonomo, C.
Background. In pediatrics, pneumatosis intestinalis (PI) is usually due to necrotizing enterocolitis in premature newborns. Beyond infancy, PI is uncommon. ''Benign pneumatosis'' is PI in patients with few or no symptoms that resolves with conservative management. Objective. Our goal was to better characterize benign PI in children. Our investigation focused on identifying underlying risk factors, symptoms at time of diagnosis, management and outcome. Materials and methods. Available medical records and radiographs of children with pneumatosis intestinalis from 1990 to 1998 were reviewed for underlying conditions, symptoms at time of radiographs, management and outcome. Results. Thirty-seven children (mean age 4 years) were included. Thirty-two children had identifiable risk factors. Twenty -five children were immunocompromised by their underlying conditions or therapeutic regimen. Thirty-five children were managed conservatively with resolution of PI. Two patients, however, required surgery and one patient died. Conclusion. Benign pneumatosis does occur in children. The majority have underlying risk factors, most commonly related to immunosuppression. Clinical deterioration is the most useful indicator for surgical intervention. In most patients PI resolves with conservative management. (orig.)
Tri Mega Asri
Full Text Available The ignorance of reading activity is a result of condition in which people are not accustomed to read because they are not familiar with the culture of writing. It is fueled by the entry of telecommunications technologies and broadcasting, especially children digital native generation. The ability to speak and communicate in children is very influential in the development of social interaction. Besides the language and communication skills are directly related to the process of thinking and developments in the search for solutions to problems in children. Informational books is one medium that can help the development of language and communication skills in children. Informational books can convey knowledge of all the things they want to know the child, about science, about everything that exists and happens around the child to see the writing in a language that has a characteristic and image. The method used is literature study and data collection techniques to conduct a study review of the relevant literature. Informational books children as a means of communication, various forms of media including books have a major influence in shaping attitudes and behavior of children. A wide variety of informational books that has developed its own current trend where its use on children in need of assistance
Tri Mega Asri
Full Text Available The ignorance of reading activity is a result of condition in which people are not accustomed to read because they are not familiar with the culture of writing. It is fueled by the entry of telecommunications technologies and broadcasting, especially children digital native generation. The ability to speak and communicate in children is very influential in the development of social interaction. Besides the language and communication skills are directly related to the process of thinking and developments in the search for solutions to problems in children. Informational books is one medium that can help the development of language and communication skills in children. Informational books can convey knowledge of all the things they want to know the child, about science, about everything that exists and happens around the child to see the writing in a language that has a characteristic and image. The method used is literature study and data collection techniques to conduct a study review of the relevant literature. Informational books children as a means of communication, various forms of media including books have a major influence in shaping attitudes and behavior of children. A wide variety of informational books that has developed its own current trend where its use on children in need of assistance.
Jameela A Kari
Full Text Available Aim: This study aimed to identify the differences between primary and secondary vesicoureteric reflux (VUR and the effect of associated bladder abnormalities on kidney function. Patients and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of children with VUR who were followed up at King Abdulaziz University Hospital from January 2005 to December 2010. The review included results of radiological investigations and kidney function tests. We used Chi-square test for statistical analysis and paired t-test to compare group means for initial and last creatinine levels. Results: Ninety-nine children were included in this study. Twenty (20.2% had primary VUR, 11 had high-grade VUR, while 9 had low-grade reflux. All children with low-grade VUR had normal dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA. Renal scars were present in 72% of the children with high-grade VUR. The mean creatinine levels (initial and last for both groups were normal. Seventy-nine (79.8% children had secondary VUR, which was due to posterior urethral valves (PUV (46.8%, neurogenic bladder caused by meningomyelocele (25.3%, non-neurogenic neurogenic bladder (NNB (21.5%, or neurogenic bladder associated with prune belly syndrome (6.3%. Children with NNB, meningomyelocele and PUV had high creatinine at presentation with no considerable worsening of their kidney functions during the last visit. Renal scars were present in 49.4% of the children with secondary VUR. Conclusion: Children with primary VUR and normal bladder had good-functioning kidneys, while those with secondary VUR associated with abnormal bladder caused by NNB, spina bifida or PUV had abnormal kidney functions. DMSA scans were useful in predicting higher grades of VUR in children with primary reflux.
Full Text Available In order to develop oral communication, hearing impaired infants and young children must be able to hear speech comfortably and consistently. To day children with all degrees of hearing loss may be condidates for some kinds of amlification. As children differ from adults, many Factors should be consider in hearing aid selection, evaluation and fitting. For example the child age when he or she is candidate for custom instruments? Do we consider programmable Hearing aid? Are multi memory instruments appropriate for them? What about directional microphones? What style of hearing aid do we select? In this paper such questions are Answered.
S. L. Piskunova
Full Text Available The article presents the results of examination of 1849 children, entering children's infectioushospitalofVladivostokwith the clinical picture of croup of viral etiology. The clinical features of primary and recurrent croup are described. Frequency of recurrent croup inVladivostokis 8%. Children with a recurrent croup had the burdened premorbid background, and also persistent herpetic infections (cytomegalic infection in 42,9% cases, cytomegalic infection in combination with the herpes simplex virus -1. Frequency of croups substantially rose in the period of epidemic of influenza.
Full Text Available Headaches are common in children. The presentation of headache in children is varied and hence the characterization of headache is more challenging. This situation is worsened further by inadequacies in the history and the effect of maturational factors. Relevant epidemiological and limitations in the applicability of International Headache Society criteria in childhood headache and the rationale for newer criteria are discussed. Migraine and tension-type headache are the common primary headache seen in children. Although there is a paucity of clinical trials the management of childhood migraine, the important role of correct pharmacological approach has been delineated. The pivotal role of non-pharmacological treatment is emphasized.
Children bear disproportionate consequences of armed conflict. The 21st century continues to see patterns of children enmeshed in international violence between opposing combatant forces, as victims of terrorist warfare, and, perhaps most tragically of all, as victims of civil wars. Innocent children so often are the victims of high-energy wounding from military ordinance. They sustain high-energy tissue damage and massive burns - injuries that are not commonly seen in civilian populations. Children have also been deliberately targeted victims in genocidal civil wars in Africa in the past decade, and hundreds of thousands have been killed and maimed in the context of close-quarter, hand-to-hand assaults of great ferocity. Paediatricians serve as uniformed military surgeons and as civilian doctors in both international and civil wars, and have a significant strategic role to play as advocates for the rights and welfare of children in the context of the evolving 'Laws of War'. One chronic legacy of contemporary warfare is blast injury to children from landmines. Such blasts leave children without feet or lower limbs, with genital injuries, blindness and deafness. This pattern of injury has become one of the post-civil war syndromes encountered by all intensivists and surgeons serving in four of the world's continents. The continued advocacy for the international ban on the manufacture, commerce and military use of antipersonnel landmines is a part of all paediatricians' obligation to promote the ethos of the Laws of War. Post-traumatic stress disorder remains an undertreated legacy of children who have been trapped in the shot and shell of battle as well as those displaced as refugees. An urgent, unfocused and unmet challenge has been the increase in, and plight of, child soldiers themselves. A new class of combatant comprises these children, who also become enmeshed in the triad of anarchic civil war, light-weight weaponry and drug or alcohol addiction. The
COLOUR LEARNING IN RETARDED CHILDREN* !\\'fRS E. K~SEBOOM, Principal, ADS. LEVIN, M.B., M.R.C.P., D.C.H., Hon. Medical Officer, Hamlet B School for. Retarded Children, Johannesburg. '... silly children, with no understanding .. -'. Jeremiah 4:22. Tt has been observed' that mentally retarded children have.
Children's relationship with food in early childhood programs is often a complex topic. Families have concerns about "picky eaters" and teachers feel pressure to make sure that children eat enough while in their care. Children bring snacks that teachers describe as junk food and believe this negatively impacts children's behavior. Foods marketed…
Nurses are expected to treat children, young people and their parents as individuals and respect their dignity. Some information about asthma symptoms and about what is most important to children can only be obtained by communicating directly with children themselves rather than relying on parents. Consultations about children's asthma usually have three participants--nurse, parent and child. Children often take a passive role or are marginalised, sometimes by parents' interventions. Nurses need to take account of children's views and preferences, and build alliances with parents and children. Nursing needs to develop its own evidence base for practice, to underpin training and education.
The objective of the study was to examine the aetiology of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in a paediatric population presenting to the National Centre of Medical Genetics. A retrospective chart review from 1998 to 2006. One hundred and twenty nine children were investigated for SNHL. The average age of diagnosis of hearing loss was 36 months. The degree of hearing loss was mild in 8 children, moderate in 33 children, severe in 31 children and profound in 57 children. Eighty-five children (66%) were diagnosed with a hereditary hearing loss, 11 (8%) children had an acquired hearing loss and no cause found in 33 (26%) children. This is the first report of the causes of hearing loss in Irish children. The mean age of diagnosis in our cohort is high and emphasises the need for a neonatal screening programme. There remains a number of children for whom the cause of hearing loss remains unknown.
Full Text Available ... What are some common uses of the procedure? Children's (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging is performed to help diagnose childhood disorders that are congenital (present at birth) or that develop during childhood. Physicians use nuclear medicine imaging to ...
radiocontrast dyes and dialysis membranes).4 ... proteins, affects as many as 6% of young children and 3% to 4% of adults and ... angioedema) caused by eating certain plant-derived foods. This is ... plasma histamine levels and non-allergic.
Full Text Available ... may be placed into the bladder, which may cause temporary discomfort. It is important that your child ... images are being recorded. Though nuclear imaging itself causes no pain, children may experience some discomfort from ...
... because they disproportionately affect impoverished people. More on: Neglected Tropical Diseases Prevention One of the most important ways to help prevent these parasitic diseases is to teach children the importance of washing hands correctly with soap ...
... with their own relationships and experience problems with self-esteem. Children will do best if they know that ... can refer the parents to a child and adolescent psychiatrist for evaluation and treatment. In addition, the ...
Full Text Available ... newborns and older children. epilepsy . location, anatomy and function of the thyroid gland. top of page How ... pictures offering details on both the structure and function of organs and tissues in your body. Hybrid ...
Full Text Available ... beforehand, especially if sedation is to be used. Most nuclear medicine exams will involve an injection in ... PET/CT, SPECT/CT and PET/MR) are most often used in children with cancer, epilepsy and ...
... can serve as a source of purpose and motivation. Teach your children how to contribute by: Communicating ... system, hormones, and the body’s cells and organs. Emotions play an important role in how we experience ...
... 2 Family Donate Volunteer Justin's Hope Fund Children’s Brain Tumor Foundation, A non-profit organization, was founded ... and the long term outlook for children with brain and spinal cord tumors through research, support, education, ...
Rheinländer, Thilde; Samuelsen, Helle; Dalsgaard, Anders
infrastructures were important barriers for the implementation of safe home child hygiene. Furthermore, the everyday life of highland villages, with parents working away from the households resulted in little daily adult supervision of safe child hygiene practices. While kindergartens were identified......Objectives. Ethnic minority children in Vietnam experience high levels of hygiene- and sanitation-related diseases. Improving hygiene for minority children is therefore vital for improving child health. The study objective was to investigate how kindergarten and home environments influence...... children were further disadvantaged as teaching was only provided in non-minority language. Conclusions. Kindergartens can be important institutions for the promotion of safe hygiene practices among children, but they must invest in the maintenance of hygiene and sanitation infrastructures and adopt...
... Club Program Perio Store Education & Careers Careers in Periodontics Perio Exam for Dental Licensure Recommended Competencies Periodontal ... With Find a Periodontist Gum Disease In Children Chronic gingivitis. aggressive periodontitis and generalized aggressive periodontitis are ...
Mönkemüller, K E; Wilcox, C M
Gastrointestinal infections in children are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Children living in developing countries are particularly susceptible to infectious diarrhea because of poor standards of hygiene and sanitation. Although the magnitude of diarrheal illnesses in developed countries is less, costly hospital admissions are still frequent. The causal agent of infectious diarrhea is most frequently related to age, geographical location, lifestyle habits, use of antibiotics, associated medical conditions, social circumstances, and degree of immune competence. In this article we present some of the most important articles published in the field during the last year. The role of Helicobacter pylori in the pathogenesis of gastritis and peptic ulcer disease has been shown in adults and children. Information about the natural history of H. pylori, symptomatology, and diagnostic therapeutic approaches for children are being generated constantly; we discuss some of the most relevant information in this review.
Romano T. DeMarco
Full Text Available The surgical management of pediatric stone disease has evolved significantly over the last three decades. Prior to the introduction of shockwave lithotripsy (SWL in the 1980s, open lithotomy was the lone therapy for children with upper tract calculi. Since then, SWL has been the procedure of choice in most pediatric centers for children with large renal calculi. While other therapies such as percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL were also being advanced around the same time, PNL was generally seen as a suitable therapy in adults because of the concerns for damage in the developing kidney. However, recent advances in endoscopic instrumentation and renal access techniques have led to an increase in its use in the pediatric population, particularly in those children with large upper tract stones. This paper is a review of the literature focusing on the indications, techniques, results, and complications of PNL in children with renal calculi.
Full Text Available ... need sedation for the imaging. During this procedure, parents are usually allowed and often encouraged to stay ... discomfort from having to remain still during imaging. Parents are encouraged to stay with their children to ...
Reflects upon two attributes common to children from many countries who have known nothing but war--the absence of revenge and the belief in God. Considers how they differ from the older generation in these respects. (CMG)
... families share common experiences may help ease your stress. American Childhood Cancer Organization - www.acco.org Leukemia and ... Cancer - Hodgkin lymphoma - children; Childhood Hodgkin lymphoma ... Cancer Institute website. Childhood Hodgkin lymphoma treatment (PDQ) - health professional ...
... Definition & Facts Symptoms & Causes Diagnosis Treatment Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Acid Reflux (GER & GERD) in Children & Teens Definition & Facts Symptoms & Causes Diagnosis Treatment Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Acid Reflux (GER & GERD) in Infants Definition & ...
... Definition & Facts Symptoms & Causes Diagnosis Treatment Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Acid Reflux (GER & GERD) in Children & Teens Definition & Facts Symptoms & Causes Diagnosis Treatment Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Acid Reflux (GER & GERD) in Infants Definition & ...
Full Text Available ... MRI. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Children's (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging ... at birth) or that develop during childhood. Physicians use nuclear medicine imaging to evaluate organ systems, including ...
... her own style and needs, initially because of birth order and inborn traits, and later because of experiences. ... appropriately for their child's developmental age and needs. Birth order and family size also influence your children's development. ...
Ferullo, Robert J.
Excessive television viewing in the formative years can complicate, if not paralyze, children's psychological development and educational achievement. It distorts their perceptions of reality and it causes them to be overactive, overanxious, and inattentive. (Author/SJL)
Full Text Available ... child is taking as well as vitamins and herbal supplements and if he or she has any ... What are the limitations of Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine procedures can be time consuming. It ...
Larusdottir, Aldis Run
is to provide new data and information on children’s evacuation, which is a step towards including children in evacuation models and calculations. Little is known about children’s evacuation characteristics in fire compared to other parts of the population. In recent years there has been more focus on children’s...... evacuation which is reflected in a rising number of publications on the topic. This thesis comprises evacuation experiments in daycares for children 0-6 years old and elementary schools for children aged 6-15 years. Full scale evacuations were filmed allowing detailed data analysis. Findings and results...... to isolate single factors and findings. Although an engineering approach fits best to the measurable parameters, the other areas are at least equally important when investigating or predicting children’s evacuation. The key findings of the thesis are: Children are very dependent on adults for initiating...
Full Text Available ... Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? What are some common uses of the procedure? How does the nuclear medicine procedure work? What does the equipment look like? How is ...
Full Text Available ... to Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please ... is further reviewed by committees from the American College of Radiology (ACR) and the Radiological Society of ...
the majority of children have a functional, rather than organic, aetiology. ... present, followed by regular maintenance therapy to encourage evacuation of a daily soft stool for at least ... Table II: Surgical versus idiopathic causes of constipation.
Full Text Available ... MRI. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Children's (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging ... community, you can search the ACR-accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The ...
Full Text Available ... exams at the same time. An emerging imaging technology, but not readily available at this time is PET/MRI. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Children's (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging ...
Kløvgaard, Marius; Nielsen, Nina Odgaard; Sørensen, Thomas Lund
in Nuuk or Ilulissat (n=332). Data on diseases and health care system contacts were extracted. Diagnoses were validated retrospectively. Primary health care contacts were reviewed for a random sample of 1:6. RESULTS: In 311 children with valid social security number, the total number of health care system......, 39.5 versus 34.6 during the study period, p=0.02. The highest annual contact rates for diseases were: hospitalisations/acute respiratory diseases 13.9:1,000; outpatient contacts/otitis media 5.1:1,000; primary care/conjunctivitis or nasopharyngitis 410:1,000 children. Outpatient screening......BACKGROUND: Previous studies of Greenlandic children's disease pattern and contacts to the health care system are sparse and have focused on the primary health care sector. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify the disease pattern and use of health care facilities of children aged 0-10 in two Greenlandic...
... that you are going to shoot someone. Help children understand the difference between real guns and weapons they see on TV, movies, or video games. A gunshot can permanently injure or kill someone. ...
Full Text Available ... also very helpful. Often, a monitor with children's programming and/or children’s DVDs are available in the ... techniques for a variety of indications, and the functional information gained from nuclear medicine exams is often ...
... drugs may need to be tried before the right one is found. Some children must take medication every ... is done with several catheters in the heart. One is positioned right over the area that's causing the tachycardia. Then ...
... regular menstrual periods. Obese children often have low self-esteem. They are more likely to be teased or ... the first to achieve this important distinction for online health information and services. Learn more about A. ...
Full Text Available The research goal of the review is to present data on etiology, prevalence, classification of different types TEN/ in children. Mechanisms of pathological foot type, indications for conservative and surgical methods of treatment have been analyzed.
... Family Dynamics > Adoption & Foster Care > Adopted Children & Discipline Family Life ... are the reasons for these patterns of parental inaction? Some adoptive parents are afraid their youngster might stop loving ...
Segers, P.C.J.; Segers, E.; Broek, P. van den
The present chapter gives an overview of the literature on hypertext comprehension, children's hypertext comprehension and individual variation therein, ending with a perspective for future research. Hypertext comprehension requires the reader to make bridging inferences between the different parts
... Madelen, after chemotherapy. Her parents, father José and mother Julia, say, "Nobody wants to be in this ... friends easily, even with the shyest kids. They love to play together at The Children's Inn at ...
... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000772.htm Ibuprofen dosing for children To use the sharing features ... much of this medicine can be harmful. How Ibuprofen can Help Your Child Ibuprofen is a type ...
Bonke, Jens; Esping-Andersen, Gösta
This study examines parental time investment in their children, distinguishing between developmental and non-developmental care. Our analyses centre on three influential determinants: educational background, marital homogamy, and spouses’ relative bargaining power. We find that the emphasis...
J Gordon Millichap
Differences in behavioral, social, and school functioning of 58 preschool-age (3 -5 years) children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and 36 normal controls were examined at Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA.
Wojaczyńska-Stanek, Katarzyna; Koprowski, Robert; Wróbel, Zygmunt; Gola, Małgorzata
Headache is a common health problem in childhood. Children's drawings are helpful in the diagnosis of headache type. Children, especially younger ones, communicate better through pictures than verbally. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the usefulness of drawings of the child's headache in the diagnostic process carried out by a pediatrician and a pediatric neurologist. At the beginning of a visit in a neurological clinic, or on the first day of hospitalization, the child was asked, "Please draw your headache," or "How do you feel your headache?" without any additional explanations or suggestions. Clinical diagnosis of headache type was made on the basis of the standard diagnostic evaluation. For the purpose of this study, children's headaches were categorized as migraine, tension-type headache, or "the others." One hundred twenty-four drawings of children with headaches were analyzed by 8 pediatricians and 8 pediatric neurologists. The analysts were unaware of the clinical history, age, sex, and diagnosis of the patients. The clinical diagnosis was considered the "gold standard" to which the headache drawing diagnosis was compared. There were 68 girls 5-18 years of age and 56 boys 7-18 years of age. Of the 124 children, 40 were clinically diagnosed with migraine (32.2%), 47 with tension-type headache (37.9%), and 37 (29.8%) as the others. Children with migraine most frequently draw sharp elements. Children with tension-type headache mainly drew compression elements and pressing elements. In the group of "the other" headaches, 21 children were diagnosed with somatoform disorders. The most frequent element in this group's drawings was a whirl in the head. Colors used most frequently were black and red, which signify severe pain. There was no difference in sensitivity of diagnoses between neurologists and pediatricians. Because the evaluation of drawings by children with headaches done both by pediatricians and pediatric neurologists was correct for
This article investigates children's beliefs about parental divorce and attitudes toward environment and people. Children's believes about parental divorce is evaluated in a sample 8 through 10-year children whose parents had been separated for about 3 years. Attitudes toward environment and people between children of separated as well as intact families are compared. We also examined the relation of children's beliefs about parental divorce and attitudes toward environment and people. The me...
Montgomery, Paul; Dunne, Danielle
Sleep disorders may affect 20-30% of young children, and include excessive daytime sleepiness, problems getting to sleep (dysomnias), or undesirable phenomena during sleep (parasomnias), such as sleep terrors, and sleepwalking. Children with physical or learning disabilities are at increased risk of sleep disorders. Other risk factors include the child being the first born, having a difficult temperament or having had colic, and increased maternal responsiveness.
Bruni, Oliveiero; Novelli, Luana
Sleep disorders may affect between 20% and 30% of young children, and include problems getting to sleep (dyssomnias) or undesirable phenomena during sleep (parasomnias), such as sleep terrors and sleepwalking. Children with physical or learning disabilities are at increased risk of sleep disorders. Other risk factors include the child being the first born, having a difficult temperament or having had colic, and increased maternal responsiveness.
Guyot, M.; Baulieu, J.L.
Brain SPECT in child involves specific trends regarding the patient cooperation, irradiation, resolution and especially interpretation because of the rapid scintigraphic modifications related to the brain maturation. In a general nuclear medicine department, child brain SPECT represents about 2 % of the activity. The choice indications are the perfusion children: thallium and MIBI in brain tumours, pharmacological and neuropsychological interventions. In the future, brain dedicated detectors and new radiopharmaceuticals will promote the development of brain SPECT in children. (author)
The purpose of this paper is to highlight the reasons that lead marketers to give greater importance to children, how to explain this increased potential that children have on the existing market and strategies that marketers and companies use in order to reach this market. To this end we analyzed a series of articles, studies and research conducted on the subject, with implications in psychology, sociology, but especially in marketing. The results obtained show very interesting issues regard...
Browning, Martin; Ejrnæs, Mette
supply. We develop two tests of the extreme hypothesis that only changes in family structure matter. We estimate effects of the numbers and ages of children on consumption. These estimates allow us to rationalize all of the increase in consumption without recourse to any of the causal mechanisms. Our...... estimates can be interpreted either as giving upper bounds on the effects of children or as evidence that the other causes are not important....
Kumar, K T
People debating population growth in India and why adults in India choose to bear so many children seem to either not understand or overlook that people in India like children; the more the better. Indeed, children interest every Indian, with new mothers receiving advice on baby care from all quarters. The child is king in India, spoiled, but generally well-behaved. It could be that children receive so much attention from many loving relatives that they do not need to act out in order to get attention. Having a child is the focus and meaning of married life. Without a child, life loses its color and joy. Moreover, childless couples face the insecurity of not having children to care for them once they grow old. The author notes her failure to observe children who were poorly adjusted and sad because they habitually shared a bed with their parents. As concerned individuals ponder the perils of global population growth, they might consider the merit of the Indian view on the subject.
There is an ongoing debate about the possibility of adverse health effects related to radiofrequency (RF) radiation exposure from mobile phones and their associated base stations. Of particular public concern in this context are children. In its report the Independent Expert Group on Mobile Phones (IEGMP) recommended that the widespread use of mobile phones by children should be discouraged citing that children may be more vulnerable because of their developing nervous system, their greater absorption of energy in the tissue of the head and a longer lifetime of exposure. However, more recently the Health Council of the Netherlands disagreed with the IEGMP and concluded that there is no convincing scientific data to restrict children from using mobile phones. The World Health Organization states that none of there centre views have found that exposure to the RF fields form mobile phones or their base stations causes any adverse health consequence. However there has been limited scientific research specifically focussed on children. Future research will be required to address the issue of mobile telephony and children. Copyright (2004) Australasian Radiation Protection Society Inc
Oh, D; Arjandas, M; Lim, K B L; Lee, E H
Heelys, a type of shoes with stealth wheels, are extremely popular among children in Singapore. The widespread availability of cheap imitations has led to a proliferation of young users. Coupled with a total lack of safety equipment and instructions, these shoes can lead to significant injuries. The purpose of this study was to examine the incidence and type of injuries sustained by children using Heelys. During a seven-month period from February to August 2004, all children treated at the Paediatric Orthopaedic Department of the KK Women's and Children's Hospital, were asked if the injury was sustained while "heeling". All the patients were reviewed by the authors. A total of 37 patients with significant injuries sustained while "heeling" were identified. Their radiographs and clinical charts were reviewed. The patients and/or their parents were also interviewed to obtain additional information. Upper limb injuries were by far the most common. Distal radius fractures and elbow injuries predominated. None of the children used safety gear. "Heeling" can lead to serious injuries despite the relatively low velocity involved. Children and their parents need to be educated on the use of safety gear.
Harmony and tonality are two of the most difficult elements for young children to perceive and manipulate and are seldom taught in the schools until the end of early childhood. Children's gradual harmonic and tonal development has been attributed to their cumulative exposure to Western tonal music and their increasing experiential knowledge of its rules and principles. Two questions that are relevant to this problem are: (1) Can focused and systematic teaching accelerate the learning of the harmonic/tonal principles that seem to occur in an implicit way throughout childhood? (2) Are there cognitive constraints that make it difficult for young children to perceive and/or manipulate certain harmonic and tonal principles? A series of studies specifically addressed the first question and suggested some possible answers to the second one. Results showed that harmonic instruction has limited effects on children's perception of harmony and indicated that the drastic improvement in the perception of implied harmony noted approximately at age 9 is due to development rather than instruction. I propose that young children's difficulty in perceiving implied harmony stems from their attention behaviors. Older children have less memory constraints and more strategies to direct their attention to the relevant cues of the stimulus. Younger children focus their attention on the melody, if present in the stimulus, and specifically on its concrete elements such as rhythm, pitch, and contour rather than its abstract elements such as harmony and key. The inference of the abstract harmonic organization of a melody required in the perception of implied harmony is thus an elusive task for the young child.
Sekar, H R
In India, 69% of the children of the working class die, most of whom are child laborers. Economic pressure forces parents to make their children work. Employers want child workers because they can manipulate them and pay them low wages, thereby ensuring their viability. The caste system induces social inequality, inheritance invokes cultural inequality, and patriarchal socialization is responsible for gender inequality, all of which perpetuates exploitation of children by employers. In Sivakasi, an estimated 125,000 children make up the child labor force, comprising 30% of the entire labor force. 75% are from the lowest castes. 90% of child workers are girls because they are more obedient and accept even lower wages than boys, and girls need to save for their dowry. Girls often suffer verbal and physical abuse. Like their parents who were also child workers, child workers are illiterate and work long hours. A small rich elite in Sivakasi controls most of the trading and industrial capital, educational institutions, and voluntary organizations. Employers' agents give parents a loan and use their children's labor as security. Each day, they bring child workers to Sivakasi in factory buses from villages to work at least 12 hour days. They work under hazardous conditions, e.g., working with toxic chemicals. Coughing, sore throat, dizziness, methemoglobinemia, and anemia are common effects of ingestion or inhalation of chlorate dust. Inhalation of sulphur dust causes respiratory infections, eye infections, and chronic lung diseases (e.g., asthma). Fires and explosions are common risks for working children. Factory management seldom undertake fire prevention measures. An extensive survey of the problem of child labor is needed in Sivakasi before systematic planning to protect children could be done. Overall development, especially agricultural development, is needed. Parents, employers, enforcement authorities, trade unions, and social groups need to be sensitized to the
Full Text Available Chiapas as the border departments of Guatemala is characterized as an area of socio-economic backwardness. Since the twentieth century a significant flow of undocumented Guatemalan migrant families are temporarily employed in Mexican coffee plantations in the Soconusco region, mostly from the poorest and most marginalized rural sectors from the border Guatemalan departments. This paper estimates the marital Total Fertility Rate and explores the reproductive characteristics of Guatemalan agricultural laborers families. The Global marital fertility rate is high (5.65 children per woman on average at the end of their reproductive life with an increasing trend. It is argued that a high number of children in these families are functional for them, since they require the family labor for their survival. In this cross-border area are articulated by child labor, high fertility of Guatemalan rural migrants, due to the political and socioeconomic conditions of Guatemala, and the development needs of the agricultural export capital coffee in Mexico, permanently driven by the Mexican government.
Lythgoe, Amelia; Roberts, Caireen; Madden, Angela M; Rennie, Kirsten L
The predominance of marketing of products high in fat, sugar and/or salt to children has been well documented and implicated in the incidence of obesity. The present study aimed to determine whether foods marketed to children in UK supermarkets are nutritionally similar to the non-children's equivalent, focusing on food categories that may be viewed as healthier options. Nutritional data were collected on yoghurts (n 147), cereal bars (n 145) and ready meals (n 144) from seven major UK supermarkets and categorised as children's or non-children's products based on the characteristics, promotional nature or information on the product packaging. Fat, sugar and salt content was compared per 100 g and per recommended portion size. UK. Per 100 g, children's yoghurts and cereal bars were higher in total sugars, fat and saturated fat than the non-children's; this was significant for all except sugar and total fat in cereal bars. Per portion these differences remained, except for sugars in yoghurts. Conversely children's ready meals were significantly lower in these nutrients per portion than non-children's, but not when expressed per 100 g. Children's yoghurts and ready meals had significantly lower sodium content than non-children's both per portion and per 100 g. Significant differences between the nutritional composition of children's and non-children's products were observed but varied depending on the unit reference. A significant number of products marketed towards children were higher in fat, sugar and salt than those marketed to the general population.
Charles, Julian; Fazeli, Mandana
Major depressive disorder (MDD) in children (5-12 years of age) is a confronting and serious psychiatric illness. MDD has significant ramifications for the psychosocial development of the child, yet it remains under-recognised and undertreated. General practice is where these children and their parents will first present. The aim of this article is to provide general practitioners (GPs) with a framework for considering MDD in a child and recommendations for treatment. Children with MDD have the same core features as adolescents and adults, taking into account the child's capacities for cognition and language, and developmental stage. Earlier onset of illness is associated with poorer outcomes and greater psychiatric morbidity persisting into adulthood. MDD is more common than anticipated, and should be considered for any child presenting with depressive symptoms and/or impaired psychosocial functioning. Despite limited evidence, numerous interventions exist that will, ideally, significantly affect the child's developmental trajectory. GPs are in an important position to initiate these interventions.
Universal Children's Day is organized each year by the United Nations Children's Fund to draw attention to the desperate plight of millions of babies and young people throughout the world. The date this year in most countries is 2 October. Despite all the efforts of UNICEF and other agencies including the IAEA, it is estimated that there are still 300 000 000 children who either cannot find enough food to stave off hunger, or who cannot obtain the protein which will keep them healthy and alert. Many advances have been made in helping to make crops more abundant, in developing protein content of foods and in dealing with the diseases arising from malnutrition. Our photograph was taken in Jamaica, where investigations into malnutrition and its effects are being made by the UK Medical Research Council under an IAEA research contract
Universal Children's Day is organized each year by the United Nations Children's Fund to draw attention to the desperate plight of millions of babies and young people throughout the world. The date this year in most countries is 2 October. Despite all the efforts of UNICEF and other agencies including the IAEA, it is estimated that there are still 300 000 000 children who either cannot find enough food to stave off hunger, or who cannot obtain the protein which will keep them healthy and alert. Many advances have been made in helping to make crops more abundant, in developing protein content of foods and in dealing with the diseases arising from malnutrition. Our photograph was taken in Jamaica, where investigations into malnutrition and its effects are being made by the UK Medical Research Council under an IAEA research contract
Roche, C.; Carty, H.
Evaluation of the child with suspected spinal injury can be a difficult task for the radiologist. Added to the problems posed by lack of familiarity with the normal appearances of the paediatric spine is anxiety about missing a potentially significant injury resulting in neurological damage. Due to differences in anatomy and function, the pattern of injury in the paediatric spine is different from that in the adolescent or adult. Lack of appreciation of these differences may lead to over investigation and inappropriate treatment. This review attempts to clarify some of the problems frequently encountered. It is based on a review of the literature as well as personal experience. The normal appearances and variants of the spine in children, the mechanisms and patterns of injury are reviewed highlighting the differences between children and adults. Specific fractures, a practical scheme for the assessment of spinal radiographs in children, and the role of cross sectional imaging are discussed. (orig.)
Koch, Anette Boye; Laursen, Hanne; Jørgensen, Hanne Hede
such as play and artwork when they asked to describe the best child environmental practice. Children’s perspectives on their environment still are to be investigated. The study offers knowledge regarding children as active participants in a Nordic ECE culture with educated staff and a long tradition......Danish Legislation prescribes that children’s environment in Early Childhood Education (ECE) is evaluated and enhanced as an integrated part of curriculum work. Children’s perspectives must be included in the efforts. During the last 10 years, pedagogues have endeavoured to include children...... in evaluations of physical, psychological and aesthetic environmental dimensions of education. The present study aims to elucidate how professionals and children co-operate in order to develop children’s environments and study the impact of children’s perspectives on pedagogy and children’s processes of ‘bildung...
McDermott, C; Quinlan, J F; Kelly, I P
We reviewed the records of children referred to our hospital between April and September 2005 who had been injured whilst trampolining. Of 88 such children there were 33 boys and 55 girls with a mean age of 8 years 6 months (2 years 4 months to 15 years 9 months). Most of the injuries (53; 60%) occurred when bouncing and 34 (39%) were secondary to falls from the trampoline. The cause of injury was unknown in one child. The injured child was supervised in only 35 cases (40%). In 31 (35%) cases, the injury was related to the presence of others on the trampoline. A total of 36 (40%) children required surgery. Fractures of the upper limbs occurred in 62 cases (70%). Injuries related to the recreational use of trampolines are a significant cause of childhood injury. Our results suggest strongly that there is a need for clear guidelines on safe and responsible use of domestic trampolines.
... and Research Centers Contact Us Share Protecting Children's Environmental Health Children are often more vulnerable to pollutants ... during development. Learn more about children's health, the environment, and what you can do. Basic Information Children ...
Meyer, Anell; Catto-Smith, Anthony; Crameri, Joe; Simpson, Di; Alex, George; Hardikar, Winita; Cameron, Donald; Oliver, Mark
Oesophageal achalasia is well-recognized but relatively rare in children, occasionally appearing as the "triple A" syndrome (with adrenal insufficiency and alacrima). Treatment modalities, as in adult practice, are not curative, often needing further interventions and spurring the search for better management. The outcome for syndromic variants is unknown. We sought to define the efficacy of treatments for children with achalasia with and without triple A syndrome. We conducted a retrospective analysis of presentation and outcomes for 42 children with achalasia presenting over three decades to a major pediatric referral center. Long term impact of the diagnosis was assessed by questionnaire. We identified 42 children including six with triple A syndrome. The median overall age at diagnosis was 10.8 years and median follow-up 1593 days. Initial Heller myotomy in 17 required further interventions in 11 (65%), while initial treatment with botulinum toxin (n = 20) was ultimately followed by myotomy in 17 (85%). Ten out of 35 patients who underwent myotomy required a repeat myotomy (29%). Patients with triple A syndrome developed symptoms earlier, but had delayed diagnosis, were more underweight at diagnosis and at last follow up. Questionnaire results suggested a significant long term deleterious impact on the quality of life of children and their families. Many children with achalasia relapse after initial treatment, undergoing multiple, different procedures, despite which symptoms persist and impact on quality of life. Symptoms develop earlier in patients with triple A syndrome, but the diagnosis is delayed and this has substantial nutritional impact. © 2016 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Riedl, Katrin; Jensen, Keith; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael
An important, and perhaps uniquely human, mechanism for maintaining cooperation against free riders is third-party punishment. Our closest living relatives, chimpanzees, will not punish third parties even though they will do so when personally affected. Until recently, little attention has been paid to how punishment and a sense of justice develop in children. Children respond to norm violations. They are more likely to share with a puppet that helped another individual as opposed to one who behaved harmfully, and they show a preference for seeing a harmful doll rather than a victim punished. By 6 years of age, children will pay a cost to punish fictional and real peers, and the threat of punishment will lead preschoolers to behave more generously. However, little is known about what motivates a sense of justice in children. We gave 3- and 5-year-old children--the youngest ages yet tested--the opportunity to remove items and prevent a puppet from gaining a reward for second- and third-party violations (experiment 1), and we gave 3-year-olds the opportunity to restore items (experiment 2). Children were as likely to engage in third-party interventions as they were when personally affected, yet they did not discriminate among the different sources of harm for the victim. When given a range of options, 3-year-olds chose restoration over removal. It appears that a sense of justice centered on harm caused to victims emerges early in childhood and highlights the value of third-party interventions for human cooperation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zayas, Luis H.
Aggressive immigration enforcement hurts the very youngest children. Refugee and U.S.-born children of undocumented immigrants experience many childhood adversities, compromising their development and health. Refugee children flee traumatizing violence in their home countries, face grueling migrations, and are harmed further by being held in…
St. Amour, Melissa J.
Discusses a method for increasing elementary school children's multicultural awareness by sharing their own written stories in the context of multicultural children's literature. Describes how classroom activities can promote multicultural awareness through by allowing children to practice democracy, analyze the circumstances of one's life;…
Background: Existing school health programmes in Uganda target children above five years for de-worming, oral hygiene and frequent vaccination of girls of reproductive age. Objective:To assess primary school children\\'s perspectives on common diseases they experience and medicines used in order to suggest reforms ...
Calvert, Sandra; Kotler, Jennifer; Kuhl, Alison; Riboli, Michael
The impact of the Children's Television Act, which requires broadcasters to provide educational and informational programs for children, was examined by having 141 second through sixth graders watch 16 popular and unpopular television programs and then assess the motivational appeal of, and children's learning from, these programs. Popular and…
Gastrointestinal motility disorders in the pediatric population are common and can range from benign processes to more serious disorders. Performing and interpreting motility evaluations in children present unique challenges. There are primary motility disorders but abnormal motility may be secondary due to other disease processes. Diagnostic studies include radiographic scintigraphic and manometry studies. Although recent advances in the genetics, biology, and technical aspects are having an important impact and have allowed for a better understanding of the pathophysiology and therapy for gastrointestinal motility disorders in children, further research is needed to be done to have better understanding of the pathophysiology and for better therapies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Costa, Manuel F M; De Campos, J Ayres; Lira, Madalena; Franco, Sandra; Vazquez-Dorrio, Jose B
Light and Optics are subjects that 'naturally' attracts the interest and sympathy of children even from very early ages. In this communication, we present a series of experiments and support material designed in this hands-on perspective, to be used to introduce the study of light and optics to kindergarten and early basic school students. Our hands-on investigative approach leads the students, aged 4 to 10 years, to observe the experiment and discover themselves, in a critical and active way, different aspects of light and optics. Preparing funny eye catching situations and experiments predispose the children to work, effectively, enjoying themselves while building up their self-confidence.
Nordström, Leif Jonas
, the opportunity cost of two children is estimated to 28-29 per cent of full income, which in monetary units is close to estimated income difference between women employed in the public and private sector. The opportunity cost of fatherhood is generally positive, but only significantly positive for men born......In this paper we estimate the opportunity cost of children. The underlying theoretical model is represented by a household production model. In the empirical analysis, we consider three different cohorts for men and women born between 1955 and 1970. For the women in the two oldest cohorts...
Full Text Available Recurrent parotitis is an uncommon condition in children. Its etiological factors have not been proved till date although causes due to genetic inheritance, local autoimmune manifestation, allergy, viral infection and immunodeficiency have been suggested. The exact management of this disorder is not yet standardized, but a conservative approach is preferred and all affected children should be screened for Sjogren′s syndrome and immune deficiency including human immunodeficiency virus. We report a 12 years female child who presented with 12 episodes of non-painful recurrent swellings of the bilateral parotid gland in the past 3 years.
Full Text Available This paper reports trichotillomania in eight Iranian children (7 girls and 1 boy .It is rarely seen in children and adolescents. Although some subjects are psychiatrically normal, but some suffer from depressive disorder, neurosis, or personality problems. Separation from key figure, denial of femininity/and inadequate mother-child relationship play important roles either in the etiology of trichotillomania or psychiatric disorders. Finally therapeutic interventi.ons according to the cultural factors were mentioned. Associate Professor, Dept. of Psychiatry, Tehran Univer sity. Formerly, chief, Child Psychiatric Dept. Roozbeh Hospital Teheran University, Medical School.
Traulsen, J B
The incidence of anogenital warts among children seems to be increasing, and the question of route of contagion is often controversial. It has earlier been emphasized that a frequent route of infection of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) is through sexual abuse of the child. However, reports published in recent years have made it more likely that one is often dealing with a non-sexually transmitted HPV infection localized to the anogenital skin and mucous membranes. This paper reviews possible routes of infection of HPV in children as well as suggestions for the investigation and treatment of the warts.
Rud, B; Halken, S; Damholt, V
approach. At follow-up after 5 (1-12) years, 3 neonates had developed severe growth disturbances despite optimal initial treatment. Acceptable results were obtained with antibiotic therapy for 6 weeks or more. We recommend ampicillin and a penicillinase-resistant penicillin, unless bacterial resistance......In a 10-year period, 31 children, including 9 infants, were treated for hematogenous osteomyelitis. Fifteen children were treated closed and 16 open. Thirteen of 14 positive cultures were Staphylococcus aureus. Three recurrences could possibly have been prevented by a more aggressive primary...
Sinikumpu, Juha-Jaakko; Antila, Eeva; Korhonen, Jussi; Rättyä, Johanna; Serlo, Willy
Trampolines for home use have become common in Finland during the past ten years, being especially favored by children. Trampoline jumping is beneficial and constructive physical exercise, but poses a significant risk for injuries. The most common injuries include sprains and strains. During summertime, trampoline injuries account for as many as 13% of children's accidents requiring hospital care. Fractures are by far the most common trampoline injuries requiring hospital care. Injuries can be prevented by using safety nets. Only one child at a time is allowed to jump on the trampoline.
Acute myeloid leukemia is a cancer of the blood and bone marrow. Bone marrow is the soft tissue inside ... develops quickly. Both adults and children can get acute myeloid leukemia ( AML ). This article is about AML in children.
Full Text Available ... Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. Children's (pediatric) ... uterus Abdominal ultrasound images can be used to help diagnose appendicitis in children. Except for traumatic injury, ...
Siegal, Michael; Nobes, Gavin; Panagiotaki, Georgia
Children everywhere are fascinated by the sky, stars and Sun. Emerging evidence from cultures throughout the world suggests that even young children can acquire knowledge of the Earth and its place in the Universe.
CONCLUSIONS Urban Children and Adolescents. Increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity and measures of regional (central) adiposity. High prevalence of markers of dysmetabolic state in urban adolescents. ~10% prevalence of dysglycemia in overweight / obese school children.
Full Text Available ... vessels. CT scans may be performed on newborns, infants and older children. top of page What are ... heart and blood vessels in children, even newborn infants. Except for the chest x-ray, CT is ...
... content Experts Careers Contracting Contact Search form Search American Institutes for Research About Us Our Topics Client Services News & Events You are here Home 22 Apr 2013 Report Understanding Traumatic Stress in Children Supporting Children and Families After Traumatic ...
Full Text Available ... in the abdomen, arms, legs, neck and/or brain (in infants and children) or within various body organs ... in children. Except for traumatic injury, appendicitis is the most common reason for emergency ...
... for PTSD » Public » PTSD in Children and Teens PTSD: National Center for PTSD Menu Menu PTSD PTSD Home For the Public ... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here PTSD in Children and Teens Public This section is ...
Full Text Available ... in the abdomen, arms, legs, neck and/or brain (in infants and children) or within various body ... children. It is also valuable for evaluating the brain, spinal cord and hip joints in newborns and ...
This paper describes the key findings of a two year project focused on children's experiences of domestic violence. It draws on 107 interviews with children in Greece, Italy, Spain and the UK. The paper explores children's capacity to articulate their experiences, and highlights that they are not 'witnesses' to intimate partner violence, but experience it directly and make meaning of it, as members of a family affected by violence. I argue that children need to be recognised as direct victims...
Siegler, Robert S.
Maintains that recent theoretical and methodological advances have sparked renewed interest in studying children's learning. Describes consistent and interesting findings regarding how children learn and intriguing proposals regarding mechanisms underlying learning. Argues that increasing the focus on children's learning promises practical…
Gessner, Bradford D.
The incidence of tuberculosis among Alaskan children under 15 was more than twice the national rate, with Alaska Native children showing a much higher incidence. Children with household exposure to adults with active tuberculosis had a high risk of infection. About 22 percent of pediatric tuberculosis cases were identified through school…
Demb, Janet M.
Foster children (age 0-14, n=190) referred for mental health evaluations were compared to a subsample of 10 children identified as hyperphagic. These children displayed hyperactivity and poor impulse control, interpersonal skills, and communication skills. Mothers exhibited a high incidence of drug/alcohol abuse. Hyperphagia should alert…
Discovery Communications, Inc., Bethesda, MD.
This lesson plan presents activities in which students read, analyze, and discuss excerpts from children's war diaries; and create a storyboard for a public service announcement on children's rights in wartime. It includes objectives, materials, procedures, extension activities, excerpts of children's war diaries, suggested readings, and web…
The issue of children's conceptions of technology and technology education is seen as important by technology educators. While there is a solid body of literature that documents groups of children's understandings of technology and technology education, this is primarily focused on snapshot studies of children aged 11 and above. There is little…
Full Text Available The protection and well-being of children in Sudan are at a crucial juncture. While children in the South are enjoying improved security and access to services, those in Darfur continue to face appalling levels of violence and denial of basic services. Protection of children must be at the forefront of efforts to bring peace and stability to Sudan.
instition as stressed andnoisy, and thus it is the children they try to change (re-socialize) to solve the problems. The paper concludes that the discoruses tend to individualize structural problems with the result that a large group of children are identified as problem children rather than given better...
Viezel, Kathleen D.; Freer, Benjamin D.; Lowell, Ari; Castillo, Jenean A.
School psychologists should be aware of developmental risk factors for children who have been abused or neglected. The present study used the "Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fourth Edition" to examine the cognitive abilities of 120 children in foster care subsequent to maltreatment. Results indicated that, compared to a…
Fawcett, Christine A.; Markson, Lori
Two-year-old children's reasoning about the relation between their own and others' preferences was investigated across two studies. In Experiment 1, children first observed 2 actors display their individual preferences for various toys. Children were then asked to make inferences about new, visually inaccessible toys and books that were described…
Brock, Herman B.; Kowitz, Gerald T.
The research literature on learned helplessness in exceptional children is reviewed and the authors' efforts to identify and retrain learning disabled (LD) children who have characteristics typical of learned helplessness are reported. Twenty-eight elementary aged LD children viewed as "learned helpless" were randomly assigned to one of four…
Deaton, Ann Virginia
Discussed is the language impairment of children with infantile autism. The speech patterns of autistic children, including echolalia, pronomial reversal, silent language, and voice imitation, are described. The clinical picture of the autistic child is compared to that of children with such other disorders as deafness, retardation, and…
Alleman, Janet; Brophy, Jere
Researchers have been studying children's knowledge, thinking, and attitudes about government for several decades. However, the studies focusing on elementary students, and especially primary students, have little or nothing to say about children's ideas about democracy or democratic government. That is because children at these ages have not yet…
Rieffe, C.J.; Meerum Terwogt, M.
In this study, we investigated how deaf children express their anger towards peers and with what intentions. Eleven-year-old deaf children (n = 21) and a hearing control group (n = 36) were offered four vignettes describing anger-evoking conflict situations with peers. Children were asked how they
Baker, A.E.; van den Bogaerde, B.; Gertz, G.; Boudreault, P.
Deaf children with Deaf parents usually grow up in the Deaf community, that is if their parents offer them a sign language and are active members of the community. These Deaf children are similar to other children of linguistic and cultural minorities in many ways. They are also different in that
Full Text Available ... Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography) Pediatric computed tomography (CT) is a fast, painless exam that uses ... of Children's CT? What is Children's CT? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT ...
Strife, Susan Jean
While numerous quantitative studies across disciplines have investigated children's knowledge and attitudes about environmental problems, few studies examine children's feelings about environmental problems--and even fewer have focused on the child's point of view. Through 50 in-depth interviews with urban children (ages 10-12) this research aimed…
Parents who love their children sometimes harm them. They harm them by physically or sexually abusing them and by failing to provide the nurturance that children have the right to expect. They neglect and abuse their children because they lack the necessary combination of knowledge, patience, empathy, and problem-solving capabilities. Intervening…
Spratling, Regena; Coke, Sallie; Minick, Ptlene
Qualitative researchers have clear methods to guide them in data collection with adult participants, but little is known about effective interview techniques with children. The findings from this methodological study on qualitative interviews with children indicate that children are able to articulate their experiences in interviews. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
McCormick, Penelope G.; Olson, David R.
Three different theory of mind tasks were conducted with 4- to 8-year-old Quechua peasant children in the Peruvian Andes. The study investigated the ways in which children in preliterate cultures think and the possibility that they think differently than children in literate cultures. The tasks included: (1) a false-belief task, which tested the…
Corsaro, William A.
The author looks at children's play from the perspective of interpretive reproduction, emphasizing the way children create their own unique peer cultures, which he defines as a set of routines, artifacts, values, and concerns that children engage in with their playmates. The article focuses on two types of routines in the peer culture of preschool…
Austin, Keith; Theakston, Anna; Lieven, Elena; Tomasello, Michael
Although a fair amount is known about young children's production of negation, little is known about their comprehension. Here, we focus on arguably the most complex basic form, denial, and how young children understand denial, when it is expressed in response to a question with gesture, single word, or sentence. One hundred twenty-six children in…
Lekies, Kristi S.; Sheavly, Marcia Eames
Despite the rapidly growing interest in children's gardens and attention to the positive benefits of gardening for children, little is known about the ways in which young people actually form interests in gardening. Using a sample of 9- and 10-year-old children at a school garden site in New York State, this study examined the ways in which…
... intravenously (through a vein), steroids are effective for short-term control of flare-ups but are not recommended to maintain remission in children due to undesirable long-term side effects, including stunted growth. For that reason, corticosteroids are ...
Soee, Ann Britt L; Skov, Liselotte; Skovgaard, Lene Theil
. Results: Fifty per cent of the children had an improvement in headache frequency above 50% at six months. By the use of repeated measurement analysis, we found a significant decrease in headache frequency in all of the six headache groups, whereas the increase in quality of life (PedsQL™ 4.0...
Burton, John K.; Wildman, Terry M.
The purpose of this study was to test the applicability of the dual coding hypothesis to children's recall performance. The hypothesis predicts that visual interference will have a small effect on the recall of visually presented words or pictures, but that acoustic interference will cause a decline in recall of visually presented words and…
Polivanova, K. N.; Lebedev, M. V.; Sivak, E. V.
Why do children learn in different ways: some are good students who show interest and zeal, while others are lazy and have to be taught against their will? Why do schools have over- and underachievers? Of course, there are a multitude of reasons. But almost 50 years ago it was shown using large data sets that families with high socioeconomic…
Considers four areas requiring attention in any attempt to evaluate the needs of children in families involved in divorce actions: economic problems and child support; custody issues and court involvement; emotional problems and therapeutic intervention; and kinship patterns in "step" relationships and the reconstituted family. (BR)
Heda Melinda Nataprawira
supported the diagnosis. There was no positive results of acid fast bacilli and culture done for Mycobacterium tuberculosis in gastric aspirate as well as ascitic fuid. Peritonitis tuberculosis was most commonly diagnosed (80.0%, followed by mesenterial/nodal tuberculosis (20.0%. All of the children followed (60.0% responded well to the drugs therapy.
Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine ...
Burrell, Andrew; Beard, Roger
This paper explores primary school children's ability to engage with "the power of the text" by tackling persuasive writing in the form of an advertisement. It is eclectically framed within genre theory and rhetorical studies and makes use of linguistic tools and concepts. The paper argues that writing research has not built upon earlier…
Ravnbøl, Camilla Ida
This paper adds a perspective to existing research on child protection by engaging in a debate on intersectional discrimination and its relationship to child protection. The paper has a twofold objective, (1) to further establish intersectionality as a concept to address discrimination against...... children, and (2) to illustrate the importance of addressing intersectionality within rights-based programmes of child protection....
Demant Klinker, Charlotte; Schipperijn, Jasper; Toftager, Mette
This study presents a novel method to assess context-specific physical activity patterns using accelerometer and GPS. The method efficiency is investigated by providing descriptive results on the use of domains and subdomains, and assessing how much of children's and adolescents' daily activity t...
Piepsz, A.; Georges, B.; Rodesch, P.; Cadranel, S.
Four patients' positions were tested in search of increased sensitivity of gastroesophageal scintiscanning for the detection of reflux in children: supine, prone, left lateral, and 30 degrees right posterior oblique. The sensitivity was highest when the child was placed in supine position. A 60-min recording period increased the sensitivity of the technique, and is thus preferred to a shorter recording time
A British 12-year-old boy died while imitating the heroic leaps of the cartoon character Batman. Tragic incidents stemming from cartoon imitation such as this one occur with alarming frequency. Still, many people choose to ignore violence in children's cartoons. Even some experts don't recognize that cartoons may be harmful. Researcher Wilbur…
Nickols-Richardson, Sharon Michelle, 1965-; Parra, Danielle Elizabeth; Serrano, Elena Lidia
Books with food and nutrition topics, cultural food patterns, and physical activity themes help to improve the quality of life of children by exposing them to a variety of foods and activities through creative stories. This guide helps parents and caregivers select books that achieve this goal.
Full Text Available ... may be placed into the bladder, which may cause temporary discomfort. It is important that your child remain very still while the images are being recorded. Though nuclear imaging itself causes no pain, children may experience some discomfort from ...
Argues that outlawing corporal punishment of children by parents in the U.K. would be in line with developments in European jurisprudence. Maintains that the United Kingdom is in breach of several international law norms. Claims that prohibiting corporal punishment would lead to less abuse and thus less interference with parental autonomy.…
Gillard, Sarah A.; Gillard, Sharlett
This article explores some of the deficits in our educational system in regard to non-hearing students. It has become agonizingly clear that non-hearing students are being left out of the gallant sweep to enrich our children's educations. The big five areas of literacy, at best, present unique challenges for non-hearing students and, in some…
Damoiseaux, Roger A J M; Rovers, Maroeska M
In the UK, about 30% of children under 3 years of age visit their GP each year with acute otitis media (AOM), and 97% of these receive antibiotics. In the US, AOM is the most common reason for outpatient antibiotic treatment. Without antibiotics, AOM resolves within 24 hours in about 60% of children, and within 3 days in about 80% of children. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments for AOM in children; and what are the effects of interventions to prevent recurrence? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to September 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 29 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: analgesics, antibiotics, delayed antibiotics, immediate antibiotics, long-term antibiotic prophylaxis, longer courses of antibiotics, myringotomy, pneumococcal vaccination, tympanostomy with ventilation tubes, xylitol syrup or gum, and influenza vaccination.
Damoiseaux, R.A.; Rovers, M.M.
INTRODUCTION: In the UK, about 30% of children under 3 years of age visit their GP each year with acute otitis media (AOM), and 97% of these receive antibiotics. In the US, AOM is the most common reason for outpatient antibiotic treatment. Without antibiotics, AOM resolves within 24 hours in about
Ochocki, Thomas E.; And Others
Examined the learning performance of 192 fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade children on either a two or four choice simultaneous color discrimination task. Compared the use of verbal reinforcement and/or punishment, under conditions of either complete or incomplete instructions. (Author/SDH)
Full Text Available ... exams at the same time. An emerging imaging technology, but not readily available at this time is PET/MRI. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Children's (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging is performed to help ...
... Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Mental health in childhood means reaching developmental and emotional milestones, ... is doing to improve access to care. Children’s Mental Health: What's New Article: U.S. Children with Diagnosed Anxiety ...
Aylward, Karen; Freathy, Rob
This paper presents findings from a recent study investigating young children's (aged 10-11) conceptions of Jesus in England. The overall picture revealed by the study is that whilst there was a general assent amongst pupils in our sample towards an ethical and humanistic conception of the historical Jesus, there was less of a consensus about…
Full Text Available ... both imaging exams at the same time. An emerging imaging technology, but not readily available at this time is PET/MRI. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Children's (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging is performed to help diagnose childhood disorders ...
... and added sugar Use skim milk or low-fat milk and milk products Avoid sugary drinks such as soda and flavored fruit drinks Eat lean meat and avoid red meat Eat more fish Encourage your child to be physically active . Children ages 5 years ...
... nutrients — such as vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, protein and fat. Children, however, need different amounts of specific nutrients at ... white bread, pasta and rice. Dairy. Encourage your child to eat and drink fat-free or low-fat dairy products, such as ...
Hurst, Chris; Hurrell, Derek
Multiplicative thinking is a "big idea" of mathematics that underpins much of the mathematics learned beyond the early primary school years. This paper reports on a current study that utilises an interview tool and a written quiz to gather data about children's multiplicative thinking. The development of the tools and some of the…
Full Text Available ... potential to identify disease in its earliest stages as well as a patient’s immediate response to therapeutic interventions. Children's ( ... either injected into the body, swallowed or inhaled as a gas and eventually accumulates in the organ ...
Full Text Available ... an injection in a vein in your child’s arm or hand. Your child should wear loose, comfortable clothing and ... an injection into a vein in your child's arm or hand. Children should wear comfortable, loose-fitting clothing to ...
though it meant sacrifices on their part. Szasz (1959) pointed out the potentially deleterious effect of this very situation and emphasized the child’s...emotional outbursts to control their children. Szasz (1959) indicated that this type of parental behavior was stimulus par excillence in developing the
... child is often worried or anxious about many things and finds it hard to control this anxiety. Causes The cause of GAD is unknown. Genes may play a role. Children with family members who have ... factor in developing GAD. Things in a child's life that can cause stress ...
Sigmundsson, H; Haga, M
Recently, the topic of motor competence has figured prominently in the media. The claims made are many, but the research that support the statements is seldom cited. The aim of this review article is to address that deficiency by documenting what is really known about the motor competence of children. Motor competence not only allows children to carry out everyday practical tasks, but it is also an important determinant of their level of self-esteem and of their popularity and status in their peer group. While many studies have shown a significant correlation between motor problems and other problems in the social sphere, it has been difficult to establish causal relationships with any degree of confidence, as there appear to be several interactions which need to be taken into account. Research has shown that 6-10% of Norwegian children in the 7 to 10 year age group have a motor competence well below the norm. It is unusual for motor problems to simply disappear over time. In the absence of intervention the syndrome is likely to continue to manifest itself. More recent research points to some of the circularity in this causal network, children with motor problems having been shown to be less physically active than their peers. In a larger health perspective this in itself can have very serious consequences for the child.
Anthonsen, Kristian; Høstmark, Karianne; Hansen, Søren
Conservative treatment of acute otitis media may lead to more complications. This study evaluates changes in incidence, the clinical and microbiological findings, the complications and the outcome of acute mastoiditis in children in a country employing conservative guidelines in treating acute...
Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte; Hestbæk, Lise
of problems were identified: the lack of research in general and the lack of research using the appropriate study designs and methodology in particular. Therefore, we discuss the meager research noted in the areas of chiropractic care in children and the clinical consequences this should have...
Hydatid Cysts in Children. Ismail M. Tantawy. Pediatric Surgery Unit, Department of Surgery, Zagazig University Hospital, Zgazig, Egypt. Background/Purpose: Hydatid disease is a parasitic infection caused by a parasite, echinococcus granulosus, characterized by cystic lesion in the liver, lungs and rarely in other parts of ...
In emphasizing the importance of play and toys in a child's development, this article describes the kinds of toys suitable for preschool children of all ages. Floor toys, building and hammering toys, transport, and imaginative and creative play are some of the topics covered. (JK)
Annette Roest; Anne Marike Lokhorst; Cok Vrooman
Original title: Sociale uitsluiting bij kinderen. Combating social exclusion of children is a subject that has received growing attention in Dutch government policy in recent years. To date, however, no analysis has been performed to ascertain the extent and origins of this phenomenon. This
Despite common unfavorable mechanisms, fingertip replantation is a rewarding procedure in children. Cosmetic final results are usually better than those obtained by local or pedicled flaps. The success rate and the sensory reinnervation are also better than what can be expected in adult patients.
Jordan, Amy B.
Amy Jordan addresses the need to balance the media industry's potentially important contributions to the healthy development of America's children against the consequences of excessive and age-inappropriate media exposure. Much of the philosophical tension regarding how much say the government should have about media content and delivery stems…
Peller, Lili E.
Lili Peller's "The Children's House" essay begins where Maria Montessori left off in her description of space articulations. Peller does not name Montessori specifically as she always had a desire to become independent in her own right as a neo-Freudian child analyst. But the Haus Der Kinder founded in summer of 1922 suggests a total…
OBJECTIVE: Power lawnmowers can pose significant danger of injury to both the operator and the bystander, from direct contact with the rotary blades or missile injury. Our objective was to review our experience with paediatric lawnmower-associated trauma, and the safety recommendations available to operators of power lawnmowers. METHODS: The patient cohort comprised paediatric (<16 years of age) patients treated for lawnmower-associated trauma, by the plastic surgery service, between 1996 and 2003. These patients were identified retrospectively. Age at the time of injury, location and extent of bony and soft tissue injuries sustained, treatment instituted and clinical outcome were recorded. Brochures and instruction manuals of six lawnmower manufacturers were reviewed, and safety recommendations noted. RESULTS: Fifteen patients were identified. The majority of injuries occurred from direct contact with the rotary blades (93%); the remaining child sustained a burn injury. Fourteen children (93%) required operative intervention. Seven patients (46%) sustained injuries resulting in amputation, two of whom had major limb amputations. All children, except the burns patient, underwent wound debridement and received antibiotic therapy. Reconstructive methods ranged from primary closure to free tissue transfer. Many patients required multiple procedures. In all instruction manuals, instructions to keep children and pets indoors or out of the yard when mowing were found. CONCLUSIONS: Lawnmower injuries can be devastating, particularly in children. Many victims have lasting deformities as a result of their injuries. Awareness of and stringent adherence to safety precautions during use of power lawnmowers can prevent many of these accidents.
... Use a moisturizer, topical steroid cream, or other medicine the child's provider prescribes. Keep your child's fingernails cut short. ... night is a problem. Give antihistamines or other medicines by mouth as prescribed by your child's provider. As much as possible, teach older children ...
Kemperman, A.D.A.M.; Timmermans, H.J.P.
This study explored children's participation in recreational (physical) activities and the extent to which this participation was influenced by individual and household socio-demographics and characteristics of the social and physical environment. Travel and activity diaries were used to collect
Full Text Available ... backflow of urine from the bladder into the kidney (reflux). bone cancer, infections and trauma. gastrointestinal bleeding and motility. tumors and the spread of cancerous cells in the body. jaundice in newborns and older children. epilepsy . location, anatomy and function of the thyroid gland. top of ...
States with family cap public assistance policies deny or reduce additional welfare benefits to mothers who conceive and give birth to additional children while they are receiving aid. By 1999, 22 states had family cap policies in place. This paper reports estimates of the number and cost implications of infants conceived by mothers receiving…
This issue of the 'Sustainable Transportation Monitor', published by the Centre for Sustainable Transportation located in Mississauga, Ontario, reports on key findings from a project involving children and transportation in the Halton and Peel regions of Ontario, recently completed by the Centre. Excerpts from the report summarized in this issue include data on children's travel in Halton and Peel, and a discussion on possible contribution of transport practices to the growing incidence of obesity among Canadian children. Results of the study indicate that until about age 18, travel by children on schooldays is dominated by the journey to and from school. School bus is the choice of 28 per cent, and passenger car by 23 per cent among 11-to-14- year-olds; the share of travel by car is larger for older young people and also likely larger among 6-to-10-year-olds. Physical inactivity has been highlighted as the contributing factor to excess body weight and obesity in this, and other studies. Data collected for this study corroborates the findings of other studies by showing a positive correlation between obesity and transport energy use in 18 affluent countries, suggesting that a high level of use of motorized transport contributes to inactivity and body weight gain. Several alternate means of transportation, with the potential to combat obesity, are proposed. 46 refs.
Poppe, Ronald Walter; van Delden, Robertus Wilhelmus; Moreno Celleri, Alejandro Manuel; Reidsma, Dennis; Nijholt, A.; Nijholt, Antinus
Play is an important factor in the life of children. It plays a role in their cognitive, social, and physical development, and provides entertaining and fulfilling activities in itself. As with any field of human endeavor, interactive technology has a huge potential for transforming and enhancing
Selected for this listing of children's books are fiction and non-fiction books which add to an understanding of ecology, broadly considered here as the study of the interrelationships of organisms to each other and their environment. General ecology, natural resources, man and his environment, evolution and adaptation, appreciation, survival,…
Attempts to trace historical changes in the relationship between adults and children from pre-industrial times in Europe to the European present are made in this essay. Topics discussed include: (1) brief childhood in pre-industrial society; (2) the discovery of childhood by the bourgeoisie; (3) the reproduction of the proletariat; (4) the…
There are occasions in life when the competitive process is appropriate. But when people consider the relationships in their lives--with friends, family members, coworkers, and the larger community--they realize the value of cooperation. When adults give children the chance to cooperate, to work together toward a solution or a common goal like…
Avakyan, Tamara V.
Full Text Available Results of research on social anxiety in orphaned children are presented in this article. The goal of this study was to identify the relationship between depressive states, anxiety states, characteristics of the situation at school, and fear of social evaluation in orphaned children. The differences in these parameters between orphaned children and children living with their families were also studied. The sample consisted of 123 teenagers. The main group comprised 57 orphans from an orphanage near the Moscow region, aged 10 to 16 years old. The control group comprised 66 students from a general school, aged 10 to 15 years old, and all living with their families. Differences were found in the parameters studied. The orphans were characterized by higher levels of social and general anxiety. On the one hand, they strove for the attention and approval of adults, but, on the other hand, they were more worried than their peers who lived with their families about the impression they made on others. They were afraid of receiving a negative evaluation.
National Institutes of Health (DHEW), Bethesda, MD.
The discussion of genetic and environmental factors in the growth of children from infancy to adolescence focuses on intrauterine life, the effects of nutrition, hormones, illness, and emotion in the childhood years, and obesity and puberty in adolescents. Described are processes, such as amniocentesis, for monitoring the physiology chemistry of…
Shakeel, Muhammad; Trinidade, Aaron; Al-Adhami, Ahmed; Supriya, Mrinal; Kubba, Haytham
To determine re-admission rate for post-tonsillectomy pain; the primary and secondary post-tonsillectomy bleeding rate; the percentage requiring control of post-tonsillectomy bleeding in children undergoing coblation tonsillectomy. A descriptive study. Royal Hospital for Sick Children (Yorkhill Hospital) between 2004 and 2006. All patients who underwent tonsillectomy with or without adenoidectomy by coblation technique. Patients were identified from operation theatre log book and electronic data base of theatre activity. The hospital case notes were reviewed retrospectively to collect data, regarding demographics, indication and type of surgery, grade of operating surgeon, duration of hospital stay, re-attendance and re-admission, and management of complications. A total of 106 children; males (n = 53, 50%), females (n = 53, 50%) with a mean age 6.3 years underwent surgery using coblation technique. Thirty-one percent had a tonsillectomy while 69% underwent an adenotonsillectomy. Of these, 48% had history of recurrent tonsillitis, 43% had obstructive sleep apnoea and 9% suffered predominantly from obstructive symptoms. Eighty-two percent of patients were discharged on the first postoperative day. Only one patient had primary bleeding requiring re-operation. After discharge, 7 patients (6.7%) were re-admitted with secondary bleeding, 3 (2.8%) of whom were taken back to theatre to control the bleeding under general anaesthesia. Coblation tonsillectomy is a useful technique in having a low primary and secondary bleeding rates in children undergoing tonsillectomy and adenotonsillectomy.
... over and over again Know the Signs of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Half of the children who survive traumatic events ... team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Child Mental Health Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...
Bybee, Jane, Ed.
This book comprises articles exploring the origins and development of guilt and its relationship to adaptive behavior and mental illness in children. The articles are grouped in four sections, covering the nature of guilt; how guilt develops; inducing, instilling, and alleviating guilt; and guilt and adjustment. The articles are: (1) "How Does…
Full Text Available ... in a vein in your child’s arm or hand. Your child should wear loose, comfortable clothing and may be asked to wear a gown. ... into a vein in your child's arm or hand. Children should wear comfortable, loose-fitting clothing to the exam, but they may be given ...
Schmidt, Marco F H; Gonzalez-Cabrera, Ivan; Tomasello, Michael
Human adults incline toward moral objectivism but may approach things more relativistically if different cultures are involved. In this study, 4-, 6-, and 9-year-old children (N=136) witnessed two parties who disagreed about moral matters: a normative judge (e.g., judging that it is wrong to do X) and an antinormative judge (e.g., judging that it is okay to do X). We assessed children's metaethical judgment, that is, whether they judged that only one party (objectivism) or both parties (relativism) could be right. We found that 9-year-olds, but not younger children, were more likely to judge that both parties could be right when a normative ingroup judge disagreed with an antinormative extraterrestrial judge (with different preferences and background) than when the antinormative judge was another ingroup individual. This effect was not found in a comparison case where parties disagreed about the possibility of different physical laws. These findings suggest that although young children often exhibit moral objectivism, by early school age they begin to temper their objectivism with culturally relative metaethical judgments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Atta, I.; Laghari, T. M.; Khan, N. Y.; Lone, W. S.; Ibrahim, M.; Raza, J.
Objective: To determine the etiology of precocious puberty in children and to compare the clinical and laboratory parameters of central and peripheral precocious puberty. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Endocrine Clinic at National Institute of Child Health, Karachi, from January 2009 to December 2011. Methodology: Children presenting with precocious puberty were included. The age of onset of puberty was documented. Clinical evaluation, Tanner staging, height, height SDS, weight, weight SDS, body mass index, bone age, pelvic USG, plasma estradiol level and GnRH stimulation were done. Ultrasound of adrenal glands, serum level of 17 hydroxyprogesterone, ACTH, Renin, aldosterone and testosterone were performed in children with peripheral precocious puberty. MRI of adrenal glands and gonads was done in patients with suspected tumor of that organ and MRI of brain was done in patients with central precocious puberty. Skeletal survey was done in patients with Mc Cune-Albright syndrome. Results: CAH (81.8%) indentified as a main cause in peripheral percocious puberty and idiopathic (67.74%) in central precocious puberty. Eighty five patients were registered during this period. The conditions causing precocious puberty were central precocious puberty (36.47%), peripheral precocious puberty (38.82%), premature pubarche (10.58%) and premature thelarche (14.11%). There was a difference in the age of onset of puberty in case of central precocious puberty (mean=3, 2-6 years) versus peripheral precocious puberty (mean=5.25; 3.62 - 7.0 years). Children with central precocious puberty showed higher height SDS, weight SDS, FSH, LH than those with peripheral precocious puberty. Conclusion: Etiology in majority of cases with peripheral precocious puberty was congenital adrenal hyperplasia and idiopathic in central precocious puberty. Central precocious puberty children showed higher height SDS, weight SDS, FSH, LH than peripheral precocious puberty
Kurihara, Mana; Yamashita, Sumimasa; Miyake, Shota; Yamada, Michiko; Iwamoto, Hiroko
The aim of this study was to analyze the changes seen on cranial computed tomography (CT) of epileptic children, especially in the area of the temporal horn. The subjects were 242 epileptic children excluding those with encephalitis, brain tumor, neurocutaneous syndromes, degenerative disease, hydrocephalus etc. The control subjects were 195 children without any neurological disease and symptoms. CT scan were taken with a TCT-60A whole body scanner, and 14 check points were evaluated excluding the temporal horn. 195 epileptic children (N-group) and all control children were normal at 14 check points. Next, the areas of the temporal horns and adjoining hemispheres of the epileptic children (N-group) and control children were examined with Muto-Tablet-Desitizer. The temporal horn ratio ((area of temporal horn/area of ipsilateral hemisphere) x 100) was greater in younger children of the control group, and it was higher in epileptic than in control children. Enlargement of the temporal horn was seen in 1 % of the controls and in 35 % of the 125 epileptic children with normal measurements at 14 points on CT scans (p < 0.01). The frequency of enlargement of temporal horns was not variable among different epileptic types. In the epileptic children with normal CT scans except for enlargement of temporal horns behavioral disturbances were 6 boys and 5 had enlarged temporal horns (bilateral 1 case, left side 1 case, right side 3 cases). (author)
Crossen, Eric J; Lewis, Brenna; Hoffman, Benjamin D
Firearms are involved in the injury and death of a large number of children each year from both intentional and unintentional causes. Gun ownership in homes with children is common, and pediatricians should incorporate evidence-based means to discuss firearms and protect children from gun-related injuries and violence. Safe storage of guns, including unloaded guns locked and stored separately from ammunition, can decrease risks to children, and effective tools are available that pediatricians can use in clinical settings to help decrease children's access to firearms. Furthermore, several community-based interventions led by pediatricians have effectively reduced firearm-related injury risks to children. Educational programs that focus on children's behavior around guns have not proven effective. © American Academy of Pediatrics, 2015. All rights reserved.
Thyroid cancer is rare in children, with only 3-6% of thyroid malignancies occurring in children, and constitutes but 6% of head and neck tumors. Over 95% thyroid cancer are differentiated, and 10% of these occur in children of adolescents. Any of the histologic types that occur in adults may be in children, but they are most often differentiated thyroid carcinomas. The etiologies of thyroid carcinoma are unknown, but factors considered in pathogenesis include irradiation, sex and age. The incandesce of thyroid carcinoma in a solitary coddle in a child has been described as high as 70%. History and /or physical examination alone are unlikely to advance the diagnosis, and with exception of plasma CT in medullary thyroid carcinoma, blood studies are unhelpful in the diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma. Radiographs and ultrasound imaging are helpful in planning treatment and follow-up, but are unlikely to be needed for initial diagnosis. One of the main indication of thyroid scan in the pediatric group is thyroid nodule. FNAB is established as the most effective method of diagnosis in adults, although in children it may be less reliable. While radionuclide scintigraphy may be considered for initial screening, FNAB is well established and its specificity allows it to negate the need for a substantial number of operation. Treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in children is more controversial. Some authors maintain that modified or subtotal thyroidectomy is appropriation this disease, others maintain that total thyroidectomy is required Nevertheless, radioiodine therapy is considered to be standard in the treatment of iodine-avid thyroid carcinomas for ablation of the thyroid remnant following surgery and for treatment of iodine-avid distant diseases. The front-line treatment of medullary thyroid carcinoma is aggressive surgery. Total thyroidectomy is indicated, In general treatment with chemotherapy, extemal radiation and I-131 are not helpful, however radioactive
Jordan, Amy B
Amy Jordan addresses the need to balance the media industry's potentially important contributions to the healthy development of America's children against the consequences of excessive and age-inappropriate media exposure. Much of the philosophical tension regarding how much say the government should have about media content and delivery stems from the U.S. Constitution's First Amendment protection against government interference in free speech, including commercial speech. Courts, Jordan says, have repeatedly had to weigh the rights of commercial entities to say what they please against the need to protect vulnerable citizens such as children. This balancing act is complicated even further, she says, because many government regulations apply only to broadcast television and not to non-broadcast media such as the Internet or cable television, though Congress has addressed the need to protect children's privacy online. The need to protect both free speech and children has given rise to a fluid media policy mix of federal mandates and industry self-regulation. Jordan describes the role of the three branches of the federal government in formulating and implementing media policy. She also notes the jockeying for influence in policymaking by industry lobbies, child advocacy groups, and academic researchers. The media industry itself, says Jordan, is spurred to self-regulation when public disapproval grows severe enough to raise the possibility of new government action. Jordan surveys a range of government and industry actions, from legislatively required parental monitoring tools, such as the V-Chip blocking device on television sets, to the voluntary industry ratings systems governing television, movies, and video games, to voluntary social website disclosures to outright government bans, such as indecency and child privacy information collection. She considers the success of these efforts in limiting children's exposure to damaging content and in improving parents
Doyal, Len; McLean, Sheila
In this discussion, we argue that the concept of intergenerational justice, usually used in environmental matters, is applicable to reproductive decisions also. Additionally, we propose that this permits certain reproductive choices to be made prior to conception or during the pregnancy, and that these choices should not be confined to clinical concerns. In particular, we argue that consideration of the interests of future children should be viewed from the perspective of objective well-being. That being the case, decisions about the sex of future offspring can, in terms of intergenerational justice, be legitimate. We do not argue that every reproductive choice is legitimate; for example it would not be legitimate deliberately to choose characteristics that prevent future children from potentially successful participation in social life.
Carstensen, Trine Agervig; Nielsen, Thomas Sick; Olafsson, Anton Stahl
. How cycling is learned and constituted, and how cycling skills are consolidated, extended and turned into a stabilized practice remains unstudied. Drawing on in-depth interview data from the region of Copenhagen, Denmark, among families with children (N=20) the paper provides new insights into how......Sustainable mobilities play a dominate role in low carbon futures and cycling is an integral element. Children are heirs of transport cultures and crucial for future sustainable mobility. Moreover cycling is important for children’s independent mobility and geographical experience. Dominating...... approaches in transport research, including cycling, understand travel behaviour individualistic and lack to grasp the relational complexities, which are inevitable when considering children’s mobilities. Furthermore has children’s cycling largely been studied as independent mobility and active school travel...
Full Text Available Partial results of an investigation are presented whose primary objective is to adapt and to standardize the neurocognitive assessment battery C.A.S. of Das and Naglieri (1997 in a child sample. The test is an operationalization of a non traditional intelligence model (PASS that considers the intelligent behaviors as a group of four cognitive basic processes (planning, attention, simultaneous and successive processing. The objectives of this work are to obtain the psychometric properties of the instrument and also, to analyze if differences exist according to sex and age. The study type is crosswise - transactional. It was administered the CAS to 150 children residents in Buenos Aires among the ages of 6 to 12 years (population general non consultant and the WISC-III to a sample of 50 children.
Costa, Manuel F M; De Campos, J Ayres; Lira, Madalena; Franco, Sandra [Centro de Fisica da Universidade do Minho (Portugal); Vazquez-Dorrio, Jose B, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Universidad de Vigo, EIM, Departamento de Fisica (Spain)
Light and Optics are subjects that 'naturally' attracts the interest and sympathy of children even from very early ages. In this communication, we present a series of experiments and support material designed in this hands-on perspective, to be used to introduce the study of light and optics to kindergarten and early basic school students. Our hands-on investigative approach leads the students, aged 4 to 10 years, to observe the experiment and discover themselves, in a critical and active way, different aspects of light and optics. Preparing funny eye catching situations and experiments predispose the children to work, effectively, enjoying themselves while building up their self-confidence.
Ajay Kumar Pan
Full Text Available Headache is a widespread clinical problem; the prevalence is high in all age groups, from which children and teenagers are not spared. It has been reported that, as many as 75% of school-age children may experience headache infrequently, among them 10% have recurrent headaches. , The vast majority of headaches are primary and classified as migraine, tension-type headache (TTH, cluster headache, and other trigeminal autonomic cephalgias. The type of primary headaches could usually be diagnosed by a thorough and careful history taking, and physical examination. Once the diagnosis of migraine is established and appropriate reassurance provided, a balanced and individually tailored treatment plan can be instituted. The goal of treatment includes abortive or acute pain treatment, preventive long-term treatment, and biobehavioral therapy. Knowledge of precise impact of primary headaches on child′s quality of life helps to design a proper comprehensive treatment plan.
Salih, Mustafa A.; Al-Jarallah, Ahmed A.; Kentab, Anal Y.; Al-Nasser, Mohammad N.; Bahakim, Hassan M.; Kurban, Khadija M.; Zahraa, Jihad N.; Nasir, Ali A.; Abdel-Gader, Abdel-Galil M.; Alorainy, Ibrahim A.; Hassan, Hamdy H.; Kabiraj, Mohammad M.; Khoja, Waleed A.
To describe the epidemiology and clinical features of stroke in a prospective and retrospective cohort of Saudi children and ascertain the causes, pathogenesis, and risk factors. The Retrospective Study Group (RSG) included children with stroke who were evaluated at the Division of Pediatric Neurology, or admitted to King Khalid University Hospital, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the period July 1992 to February 2001. The Prospective Study Group (PSG) included those seen between February 2001 and March 2003. During the combined study periods of 10 years and 7 months, 117 children (61 males and 56 females, aged one month-12 years) were evaluated; the majority (89%) of these were Saudis. The calculated annual hospital frequency rate of stroke was 27.1/100,000 of the pediatric (1month-12 years) population The mean age at onset of the initial stroke in the 104 Saudi children was 27.1 months (SD=39.3 months) median and median was 6 months. Ischemic strokes accounted for the majority of cases (76%). Large-vessel infarcts (LVI, 51.9%) were more common than small-vessel lacunar lesions (SVLL, 19.2%). Five patients (4.8%) had combined LVI and SVLL. Intracranial hemorrhage was less common (18.2%), whereas sinovenous thrombosis was diagnosed in 6 (5.8%) patients. A major risk factor was identified in 94 of 104 (89.4%) Saudi children. Significantly more hematologic disorders and coagulopathies were identified in the PSG compared to the RSG (p=0.001), reflecting a better yield following introduction of more comprehensive hematologic and cogulation laboratory tests during the prospective study period. Hematologic disorders were the most common risk factor (46.2%); presumed perinatal ischemic cerebral injury was risk factor in 23 children (22.1) and infectious and inflammatory disorders of the circulatory system in 18 (17.3%). Congenital and genetic cerebrovascular anomalies were the underlying cause in 7 patients (6.7%) and
To demonstrate the epidemiology, clinical manifestations and bacteriological profile of bacterial meningitis in children beyond the neonatal period in our hospital. This was a retrospective descriptive study conducted at Prince Rashid Hospital in Irbid, Jordan. The medical records of 50 children with the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis during 4 years period, were reviewed. The main cause of infection was streptococcus pneumoniae, followed by Haemophilus influenza and Niesseria meningitides. Mortality was higher in infants and meningococcal infection, while complications were more encountered in cases of streptococcus pneumoniae. Cerebrospinal fluid culture was positive in 11 cases and Latex agglutination test in 39. There is a significant reduction of the numbers of bacterial meningitis caused by Haemophilus influenza type B species. (author)
Borgwardt, Line Gutte; Feldt-Rasmussen, U; Rasmussen, Aase Krogh
retrospective cohort study of 10 children (9-16 years at baseline), who underwent regular systematic investigations for 1-8 years after initiation of ERT with agalsidase-beta (Fabryzyme®, Genzyme). Ophthalmological, echocardiographic abnormalities and hypohidrosis were found at baseline and during the follow......Fabry disease is a rare, multiorgan disease. The most serious complications involve the kidney, brain and heart. This study aims to assess the effect of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) using agalsidase-beta in children with Fabry disease. We carried out a nationwide, descriptive and observational......-up period. Serious kidney, heart or brain involvement had not developed at the last follow-up examination. For the majority of the patients improvements were found concerning headache, acroparaesthesias and gastrointestinal pain during the follow-up period. The level of energy and physical activity also...
Chutko, L S; Surushkina, S Iu; Nikishena, I S; Iakovenko, E A; Anisimova, T I; Kuzovenkova, M P
The present study comprised two parts. In the first part, authors attempted to work out the systematics of asthenic disorders based on our own observations of 189 children aged 7-14 years. The following clinical variants of asthenic states in children were singled out: cerebrogenic asthenia (14.3%), somatogenic (13.8%), residual (16.4%), dysontogenetic (20.1%) and neurasthenia (35.4%). In the second part, we summarized the results of treatment of neurasthenia with adaptol (32 patients) compared to pantoham (30 patients). The efficacy of adaptol was higher: the improvement was seen in 71.9% of cases compared to pantoham (56.7%). The good tolerability of adaptol which clinical efficacy is confirmed by neurophysiological and psychological studies is discussed.
Warady, Bradley A; Fischbach, Michel; Geary, Denis; Goldstein, Stuart L
Frequent hemodialysis is currently conducted in a limited number of pediatric dialysis centers. However, the preliminary experience with children who have undergone procedures such as "daily" intensive hemodiafiltration and nocturnal hemodialysis has been positive, with the allowance for unrestricted diets and fluid intake, the lack of need for phosphate binders, excellent metabolic and blood pressure control, and, in the case of hemodiafiltration, excellent growth. The provision of frequent daily hemodialysis with the NxStage System has also recently been introduced to pediatrics. An overview about what is currently understood regarding the technical and clinical application of these approaches to therapy for children with end-stage renal disease form the basis for this article and highlight the impact of the procedures to date and the need for additional experience and collaborative data collection.
Mieli-Vergani, Giorgina; Vergani, Diego
AIH, ASC, and de novo AIH after liver transplantation are childhood liver diseases of an autoimmune nature. The mode of presentation of AIH in childhood is variable, and the disease should be suspected and excluded in all children presenting with symptoms and signs of prolonged or severe acute liver disease. Although corticosteroids are effective in all types of childhood AIH, patients with LKM1 have a higher frequency of acute hepatic failure and relapse after corticosteroid withdrawal than do patients with ANA/SMA. ASC occurs commonly in the absence of inflammatory bowel disease, requires cholangiography for diagnosis, and improves during corticosteroid therapy. The development of AIH de novo in children who undergo liver transplantation for nonautoimmune liver disease may reflect interference with the maturation of T cells by immunosuppressive drugs.
Nelson, E Anthony S; Sack, David; Wolfson, Lara; Walker, Damian G; Seng, Lim Fong; Steele, Duncan
A 2006 Commonwealth Association of Paediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition workshop on financing children's vaccines highlighted the potential for vaccines to control diarrhoea and other diseases as well as spur economic development through better health. Clear communication of vaccination value to decision-makers is required, together with sustainable funding mechanisms. GAVI and partners have made great progress providing funding for vaccines for children in the poorest countries but other solutions may be required to achieve the same gains in middle- and high-income countries. World Health Organization has a wealth of freely available country-level data on immunisation that academics and advocates can use to communicate the economic and health benefits of vaccines to decision-makers.
Liu Ming; Zhang Yuzhen; Li Yuhua; Wang Qiuyan; Xie Hua
Objective: To discuss the clinical manifestations and CT findings of eosinophilic cystitis in children. Methods: Nine cases including Six boys and 3 girls, three to 13 years old, mean age of 8.3- year, have symptoms of hematuria, irritative voiding, dysuria and abdominal pain. The eosinophilic cystitis was pathologically proved in 7 patients and eosinophilic granulomatous cystitis in 2 patients, which based on cystoscopic tissue biopsy or surgery retrospectively. Results: Local thickened bladder walls or nodular and sessile masses along the bladder dome showed in four cases with eosinophilic granulomatous cystitis, and the diffusely irregularly thickened bladder wails showed on CT scans in the rest 5 cases with eosinophilic cystitis. Conclusion: CT findings are helpful to reveal the site, size and other features of eosinophilic cystitis in children. But biopsy of the lesion is necessary to rule out other bladder tumor and selecting the proper management. (authors)
Schmidt, H.; Lengerke, H.J. v.
Roentgenographic findings of bilateral interstitial pneumonia without segmental consolidation and with regional lymphadenitis, which occurs after infancy, are always suggestive of pneumonia from Mycoplasma pneumoniae, as this is one of the most frequent types of pneumonia in children. M. pneumonia can be presumed by the discrepancy between the extensive roentgenographic findings and the generally good condition of the patient. Before therapy is decided upon it is important to know what the etiology is.
Bajaj, Y; Ifeacho, S; Tweedie, D; Jephson, C G; Albert, D M; Cochrane, L A; Wyatt, M E; Jonas, N; Hartley, B E J
Branchial cleft anomalies are the second most common head and neck congenital lesions seen in children. Amongst the branchial cleft malformations, second cleft lesions account for 95% of the branchial anomalies. This article analyzes all the cases of branchial cleft anomalies operated on at Great Ormond Street Hospital over the past 10 years. All children who underwent surgery for branchial cleft sinus or fistula from January 2000 to December 2010 were included in this study. In this series, we had 80 patients (38 female and 42 male). The age at the time of operation varied from 1 year to 14 years. Amongst this group, 15 patients had first branchial cleft anomaly, 62 had second branchial cleft anomaly and 3 had fourth branchial pouch anomaly. All the first cleft cases were operated on by a superficial parotidectomy approach with facial nerve identification. Complete excision was achieved in all these first cleft cases. In this series of first cleft anomalies, we had one complication (temporary marginal mandibular nerve weakness. In the 62 children with second branchial cleft anomalies, 50 were unilateral and 12 were bilateral. In the vast majority, the tract extended through the carotid bifurcation and extended up to pharyngeal constrictor muscles. Majority of these cases were operated on through an elliptical incision around the external opening. Complete excision was achieved in all second cleft cases except one who required a repeat excision. In this subgroup, we had two complications one patient developed a seroma and one had incomplete excision. The three patients with fourth pouch anomaly were treated with endoscopic assisted monopolar diathermy to the sinus opening with good outcome. Branchial anomalies are relatively common in children. There are three distinct types, first cleft, second cleft and fourth pouch anomaly. Correct diagnosis is essential to avoid inadequate surgery and multiple procedures. The surgical approach needs to be tailored to the type
Full Text Available Inflammatory disease of the throat — is a widespread pathology in childhood. The complex treatment of pharyngitis often includes solutions for gargling, sprays, tablets for sucking, hard candy or lozenges containing a variety of anti-inflammatory components. Their use reduces the severity of pain and the time treatment, but does not preclude the use of anti-inflammatory drugs for systemic effects. Key words: pharyhgitis, sore throat, treatment, children (Pediatric Pharmacology. — 2011; 8 (5: 106–108.
The introduction of long-term care benefits within the CERN Health Insurance Scheme requires the coordination of the benefits foreseen for handicapped children. Measures were adopted by the Management following the recommendation made by the Standing Concertation Committee on 26 March 2003. A document clarifying these measures is available on the Web at the following address: http://humanresources.web.cern.ch/humanresources/external/soc/Social_affairs/social_affairs.asp Social Affairs Service 74201
Godbole, P P; Pinfield, A; Stringer, M D
There is scant information about the management of idiopathic megarectum in childhood. Children with idiopathic megarectum referred to a single institution between 1994 and 1998 were identified prospectively. Those with Hirschsprung's disease or an anorectal malformation were excluded. The remaining patient group, 22 boys and 7 girls, had a median age of 8.0 years (range 3.5-14.0 y). Median duration of symptoms prior to referral was 2.0 years (range 0.4-11 y). Chronic soiling was the dominant complaint in 28/29 (97%) cases. 23 children had received regular stimulant laxatives for periods ranging from 1 month to 11 years, and 9 children had been treated with regular enemas. The degree of megarectum assessed by both abdominal palpation and plain radiography was: grade 1 (below umbilical level) n=6; grade 2 (at umbilical level) n=15; and grade 3 (above umbilical level) n=8. Hirschsprung's disease was specifically excluded by rectal biopsy in all cases and no patient had evidence of spinal dysraphism. Three boys with massive megarectums and intractable symptoms were treated by a staged Duhamel sigmoid pull-through with excellent functional results. Fifteen patients (52%) were treated by a single manual evacuation under general anaesthesia followed by a daily Bisacodyl 5-10 mg suppository. After a median follow-up of 16 months, 13 continue to respond well with a daily bowel action and no soiling (4 of the 13 have discontinued treatment and remain well). The remaining 11 patients (38%) have continued conventional treatment with oral laxatives but with limited success. Idiopathic megarectum is poorly described in children. It is more common in boys and is often resistant to laxative therapy alone. After appropriate preparation, treatment with stimulant suppositories can be effective. Surgery has a valuable role in selected patients with a massive megarectum.
Night terrors are a bizarre sleep disorder that affects young children. The child partially awakes during the night agitated, afraid and terrified, and cannot be consoled. These events, which may be related to emotional turmoil, are self-limiting. Psychiatric evaluation is indicated in certain cases, and drug therapy is almost never necessary. Parents should be reassured that night terrors are not dangerous and do not reflect any serious pathology.
Jain, Vandana; Ravindranath, Aathira
Diabetes insipidus (DI) is one of the common disorders affecting sodium and water homeostasis, and results when ADH is either inadequately produced, or unable to negotiate its actions on the renal collecting tubules through aquaporins. The diagnostic algorithm starts with exclusion of other causes of polyuria and establishing low urine osmolality in the presence of high serum osmolality. In this paper, we have reviewed the diagnosis, etiology and management of DI in children, with special emphasis on recent advances in the field.
The benefit for the child from the judicious use of diagnostic dental radiography is improved dental health. The risk to the child from dental diagnostic radiation exposure appears to be extremely low. Despite the low risk, the dentist must minimize the child's exposure to ionizing radiation by using sound clinical judgment to determine what radiographs are necessary and to provide children with optimal protection from ionizing radiation
Full Text Available Asthma is one of the chronic diseases which have are widely seen among the children. The disease has recently been in the increase all over the world and affects many children. In a study conducted with International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC method, it was found out that prevalence of childhood asthma was 17.1%. Participation in sportive activities by the children with asthma, which is today considered as a part of asthma treatment program, makes contributions to their physical, mental and psychological development and increases their quality of life. The most recommended sports for the children with asthma are swimming and water sports. Sports like tennis and volleyball are too advised. Choice of sports depends on severity of asthma, child and #8217;s choice and whether or not asthma is kept under control. Nursing approaches for the children with asthma include correction of symptoms, training of children and their families, assistance with disease adaptation, continuing asthma care at home and interventions to make children lead healthy activities of daily life of children. With protective measures to be taken by families and children; children should be encourage for sportive activities. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(3.000: 241-244
Full text: Bone scintigraphy is an integral part of the evaluation of bone disease in children. Common indications are suspected infection or inflammation, bone tumours and metastases, trauma and avascular necrosis. In all these disorders the sensitivity of scintigraphy is high. Gallium scintigraphy is often useful in children with clinical signs of infection not responding to treatment but the radiation dose is high. High quality images are essential. They depend on the full participation and co-operation of the child, parents and radiographers, the administration of appropriate analgesics, gentle but firm handling of the child, the injection of the appropriate amount of radiopharmaceutical, good positioning and immobilization, optimised equipment, and the acquisition of a suitable number of counts in an appropriate matrix size. Unless there are specific reasons for not doing so, we routinely perform two phase bone scintigraphy. This usually involves whole body blood pool and delayed images followed by static images of selected areas and, less often, pinhole images or SPECT. The interpretation of bone scan images in children requires knowledge of the age dependent differences in bone metabolism in the developing skeleton and the effect on the appearance of the maturing skeleton. (author)
Markov, M; Grigoriev, Y
The twenty-first century is marked with aggressive development of the wireless communications (satellite, mobile phones, Internet, Wi-Fi). In addition to thousand of satellites that deliver radio and TV signals, large satellite and base station networks secure intensive instant delivery of audio and video information. It is fair to say that that the entire civilization, both biosphere and mankind are exposed to continuous exposure of multitude of radiofrequency (RF) signals. It should be taken into account that the entire world population is exposed to exponentially increasing RF radiation from base stations and satellite antennas. While several years ago the potential hazard was connected with placement of mobile phones close to human head, today "smart phones" represent small, but powerful computers continuously receiving audio and video data. The largest group of users is the children and teenagers who "need" to communicate nearly 24 h a day. This is even more important because cell phones and tablets may be seen in the hands of children as little as two years in age. There is no way to assess and predict the potential damages of children brain, vision and hearing under exposure to RF radiation. The WHO precautionary principle and IARC classification must be applied in discussing the potential hazard of the use of today's and tomorrow's communication devices.
Fehr, Ernst; Bernhard, Helen; Rockenbach, Bettina
Human social interaction is strongly shaped by other-regarding preferences, that is, a concern for the welfare of others. These preferences are important for a unique aspect of human sociality-large scale cooperation with genetic strangers-but little is known about their developmental roots. Here we show that young children's other-regarding preferences assume a particular form, inequality aversion that develops strongly between the ages of 3 and 8. At age 3-4, the overwhelming majority of children behave selfishly, whereas most children at age 7-8 prefer resource allocations that remove advantageous or disadvantageous inequality. Moreover, inequality aversion is strongly shaped by parochialism, a preference for favouring the members of one's own social group. These results indicate that human egalitarianism and parochialism have deep developmental roots, and the simultaneous emergence of altruistic sharing and parochialism during childhood is intriguing in view of recent evolutionary theories which predict that the same evolutionary process jointly drives both human altruism and parochialism.
Full Text Available Background: Electrophysiological assessment of vision in children helps to recognise abnormal development of the visual system when it is still susceptible to medication and eventual correction. Visual electrophysiology provides information about the function of the retina (retinal pigment epithelium, cone and rod receptors, bipolar, amacrine, and ganglion cells, optic nerve, chiasmal and postchiasmal visual pathway, and visual cortex.Methods: Electroretinograms (ERG and visual evoked potentials (VEP are recorded non-invasively; in infants are recorded simultaneously ERG with skin electrodes, while in older children separately ERG with HK loop electrode in accordance with ISCEV (International Society for Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision recommendations.Results: Clinical and electrophysiological changes in children with nystagmus, Leber’s congenital amaurosis, achromatopsia, congenital stationary night blindness, progressive retinal dystrophies, optic nerve hypoplasia, albinism, achiasmia, optic neuritis and visual pathway tumours are presented.Conclusions: Electrophysiological tests can help to indicate the nature and the location of dysfunction in unclear ophthalmological and/or neurological cases.
Verhagen, Lilly M; de Groot, Ronald
Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease of expanding geographical range and increasing incidence. The vast majority of dengue cases are children less than 15 years of age. Dengue causes a spectrum of illness from mild fever to severe disease with plasma leakage and shock. Infants and children with secondary heterologous dengue infections are most at risk for severe dengue disease. Laboratory diagnosis of dengue can be established within five days of disease onset by direct detection of viral components in serum. After day five, serologic diagnosis provides indirect evidence of dengue. Currently, no effective antiviral agents are available to treat dengue infection. Therefore, treatment remains supportive, with emphasis on close hematological monitoring, recognition of warning signs of severe disease and fluid-replacement therapy and/or blood transfusions when required. Development of a dengue vaccine is considered a high public health priority. A safe and efficacious dengue vaccine would also be important for travelers. This review highlights the current understanding of dengue in children, including its clinical manifestations, pathogenesis, diagnostic tests, management and prevention. Copyright © 2014 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bryner, C L
The rapidly changing nature and demographics of divorce in United States within the past 30 years has spawned an epidemic that affects more than one half of the families in the United States. I performed a MEDLINE-assisted review of the medical literature searching with the key words "divorce" and "children." In addition, a Web search was conducted using Webferret with the same key words. The past view of divorce as a short-term family crisis must mature into a longitudinal view of the effects of divorce. Divorce affects children according to their coping mechanisms in their own stages of development. Many problems and concerns previously attributed to divorce have their roots in the period of family interaction before the divorce and in the ongoing conflicts in many families after the divorce itself. Because family physicians are objective observers with whom the family comes into regular contact, they must be able to assist families through the transitions of divorce and to intervene on behalf of the children to help them through this stressful life event with the fewest detrimental effects possible. Counseling, group therapy, and divorce mediation have been assessed as effective tools for intervention.
Full text: Milk scans are by far the commonest GI study we perform. All babies regurgitate to a greater or lesser extent and there is no clear distinction between normal and abnormal. In addition gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) is not the only cause of regurgitation; regurgitation may be due to abnormal oesophageal transit, GOR or slow gastric emptying. The milk scan can detect and quantify these abnormalities. It may also detect pulmonary aspiration if this occurs during the study period. Short bowel syndrome, soiling and a constipation are the commonest indications for small and large bowel transit studies. Children with feeding difficulties and short bowel syndrome often have a segment at which hold up occurs while most children with soiling have normal or even rapid transit through small and large bowel. Ingestion of caustic substances by young children is a frequent cause of presentation at paediatric emergency centers and about 20% of these patients have significant oesophageal injury requiring ongoing therapy to prevent stricture formation. A 99m Tc sucralfate swallow is an accurate method for assessing the oesophageal injury and may be used to document healing. The methods for labeling sucralfate and performing the scan are simple. Meckel's scans are useful but require careful preparation of the patient and attention to detail. GI bleeding studies with colloid or labeled red blood cells are often requested but I find accurate localization of the bleeding site extremely difficult. (author)
Full Text Available Thyroid hormones are crucial for normal development of a child from early foetal life. They have an impact on the development of the central nervous system, both prenatally and up to the age of 3 years, and regulate growth and most metabolic processes. Their importance has led to the introduction of screening for congenital hypothyroidism, which has been conducted in Poland for over 40 years. The diagnosis of congenital hypothyroidism necessitates immediate levothyroxine implementation and strict treatment monitoring. Thanks to iodine prophylaxis, children in Poland do not require additional iodine administration. An isolated increase in thyroid-stimulating hormone concentration without clinical signs of hypothyroidism and with negative antithyroid antibodies does not require treatment, but only monitoring of thyroidstimulating hormone levels. Children with positive antithyroid antibodies, genetic syndromes that predispose to hypothyroidism and history of thyroid irradiation require more frequent controls. The recommendations for suspected hypothyroidism presented in this article are based on the European Thyroid Association guidelines from 2014 on the management of subclinical hypothyroidism in children and pregnant women.
Full Text Available Acute diarrhea (AD is the most frequent gastroenterological disorder, and the main cause of dehydration in childhood. It is manifested by a sudden occurrence of three or more watery or loose stools per day lasting for seven to 10 days, 14 days at most. It mainly occurs in children until five years of age and particularly in neonates in the second half-year and children until the age of three years. Its primary causes are gastrointestinal infections, viral and bacterial, and more rarely alimentary intoxications and other factors. As dehydration and negative nutritive balance are the main complications of AD, it is clear that the compensation of lost body fluids and adequate diet form the basis of the child’s treatment. Other therapeutic measures, except antipyretics in high febrility, antiparasitic drugs for intestinal lambliasis, anti-amebiasis and probiotics are rarely necessary. This primarily regards uncritical use of antibiotics and intestinal antiseptics in the therapy of bacterial diarrhea. The use of antiemetics, antidiarrhetics and spasmolytics is unnecessary and potentially risky, so that it is not recommended for children with AD.
Lamas, Adelaida; Ruiz de Valbuena, Marta; Máiz, Luis
Cough during childhood is very common, and is one of the most frequent reasons for consultation in daily pediatric practice. The causes differ from those in adults, and specific pediatric guidelines should be followed for correct diagnosis and treatment. The most common cause of cough in children is viral infection producing "normal cough", but all children with persistent cough, i.e. a cough lasting more than 4-8weeks or "chronic cough", must be carefully evaluated in other to rule out specific causes that may include the entire pediatric pulmonology spectrum. The treatment of cough should be based on the etiology. Around 80% of cases can be diagnosed using an optimal approach, and treatment will be effective in 90% of them. In some cases of "nonspecific chronic cough", in which no underlying condition can be found, empirical treatment based on the cough characteristics may be useful. There is no scientific evidence to justify the use of over-the-counter cough remedies (anti-tussives, mucolytics and/or antihistamines), as they could have potentially serious side effects, and thus should not be prescribed in children. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Aleshina, E I; Gubonina, I V; Novikova, V P; Vigurskaia, M Iu
To examine the state of the biliary system, a study of properties of bile "case-control") 100 children and adolescents aged 8 to 18 years, held checkup in consultative and diagnostic center for chronic gastroduodenitis. BMI children were divided into 2 groups: group 1-60 children with obesity (BMI of 30 to 40) and group 2-40 children with normal anthropometric indices. Survey methods included clinical examination pediatrician, endocrinologist, biochemical parameters (ALT, AST, alkaline phosphatase level, total protein, bilirubin, lipidogram, glucose, insulin, HOMA-index), ultrasound of the abdomen and retroperitoneum, EGD with aspiration of gallbladder bile. Crystallography bile produced by crystallization of biological substrates micromethods modification Prima AV, 1992. Obese children with chronic gastroduodenita more likely than children of normal weight, had complaints and objective laboratory and instrumental evidence of insulin resistance and motor disorders of the upper gastrointestinal and biliary tract, liver enlargement and biliary "sludge". Biochemical parameters of obese children indicate initial metabolic changes in carbohydrate and fat metabolism and cholestasis, as compared to control children. Colloidal properties of bile in obese children with chronic gastroduodenita reduced, as indicated by the nature of the crystallographic pattern. Conclusions: Obese children with chronic gastroduodenitis often identified enlarged liver, cholestasis and biliary dysfunction, including with the presence of sludge in the gallbladder; most often--hypertonic bile dysfunction. Biochemical features of carbohydrate and fat metabolism reflect the features of the metabolic profile of obese children. Crystallography bile in obese children reveals the instability of the colloidal structure of bile, predisposing children to biliary sludge, which is a risk factor for gallstones.
Ozkubat, Ufuk; Ozdemir, Selda
The purpose of this study was to compare the social skills of five groups of children: children with visual impairments attending inclusive education schools, children with visual impairments attending schools for the blind, children with intellectual impairments attending inclusive education schools, children with intellectual impairments…
... Advocacy Donate A to Z Health Guide Questions Children Ask: Helping Children Adjust When a Parent Has Kidney Failure Print ... future plans. If a parent develops kidney failure, children have questions too. Some children are outspoken and ...
Husted, Mia; Lind, Unni
and restrictions, Call for aesthetics an sensuality, Longings for home and parents, Longings for better social relations Making children's voice visible allows preschool teachers to reflect children's knowledge and life word in pedagogical practice. Keywords: empowerment and participation, action research...... children to raise and render visible their own critique and wishes related to their everyday life in daycare. Research on how and why to engage children as participants in research and in institutional developments addresses overall interests in democratization and humanization that can be traced back...... to strategies for Nordic welfare developments and the Conventions on Children's Rights. The theoretical and methodological framework follow the lines of how to form and learn democracy of Lewin (1948) and Dewey (1916). The study is carried out as action research involving 50 children at age three to five...
Kristensen, Helle Nygård; Lundbye-Christensen, Søren; Haslund-Thomsen, Helle
INTRODUCTION: Hospitalized children often describe needle-related procedures as the worst pain possible and such procedures may be emotionally traumatic. The use of hospital clowns related to painful medical procedures in children may offer pain relief, but this has not been systematically...... evaluated. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of a therapeutic clown in comparison to standard care on the experience of pain for children receiving venipuncture. METHODS: A sample of 116 children aged 4-15 years consecutively admitted to the hospital was allocated to either......: Without the clown present, the mean pain score (2.7±2.8) was not significantly different between the two age groups. Children aged 7-15 years had lower pain scores when the clown was present compared to the control group (P=0.025). Children aged 4-6 years had higher pain scores with the clown present...
Lansford, Jennifer E
This article reviews the research literature on links between parental divorce and children's short-term and long-term adjustment. First, I consider evidence regarding how divorce relates to children's externalizing behaviors, internalizing problems, academic achievement, and social relationships. Second, I examine timing of the divorce, demographic characteristics, children's adjustment prior to the divorce, and stigmatization as moderators of the links between divorce and children's adjustment. Third, I examine income, interparental conflict, parenting, and parents well-being as mediators of relations between divorce and children's adjustment. Fourth, I note the caveats and limitations of the research literature. Finally, I consider notable policies related to grounds for divorce, child support, and child custody in light of how they might affect children s adjustment to their parents divorce. © 2009 Association for Psychological Science.
Paul, Siba Prosad; Blaikley, Sarah; Peevers, Camilla; Fitz-John, Lin
This article describes the management in emergency departments of supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) in children. Of all forms of symptomatic arrhythmia in infants, children and adolescents, SVT is the most common. Its clinical presentation varies with the child's age, and it can be difficult to diagnose in infants and young children. It is important that the nurses in the emergency department consider a diagnosis of SVT in young children with histories of poor feeding, lethargy, irritability, excessive sweating or pallor (Zeigler 1994) and in older children with histories of palpitations, dizziness, chest pain, syncope or shortness of breath (Uzun 2010). If SVT is suspected, a 12-lead electrocardiogram should be recorded. Vagal manoeuvre may be successful but in some cases intravenous adenosine is necessary. Children with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome are at risk of sudden cardiac death associated with SVT, and should not be treated with calcium channel blockers or digoxin.
Su, Wei; Aurelia, Di Santo
The aim of the study was to determine if preschool children perceive overweight children to have more negative characteristics than non-overweight children. Children from 32 to 70 months old (N = 42) listened to four stories about an interaction between two children, in which one child demonstrated socially unacceptable behaviour and one child…
Tian, Jing; Siegler, Robert S.
Learning fractions is difficult for children in general and especially difficult for children with mathematics difficulties (MD). Recent research on developmental and individual differences in fraction knowledge of children with MD and typically achieving (TA) children has demonstrated that U.S. children with MD start middle school behind their TA…
Yang, Raymond K.; Fetsch, Robert J.
The self-esteem of children in small towns was assessed. Comparing these children's self-rated competencies to extant norms suggests that rural children's self-perceptions are not distinctly different from suburban and urban children. Rural children's feelings of self-worth and self-assessments of scholastic competence are comparable to or higher…
Johnstone, B R; Bennett, C S
Lawn mowers cause severe injuries, particularly to the lower limbs in children. The study of 52 inpatient cases treated over 12 years shows that ride-on lawn mowers cause the most severe trauma, resulting in longer hospitalization. These children more often require further admissions for reconstructive surgery including free tissue transfer. These accidents can be avoided if young children are prevented from playing near or using power lawn mowers.
Even if nutrition is a common need of all children, there are some specifics related to this area for children with Down syndrome. Breastfeeding is an ideal natural way of feeding the baby, and it fulfills all of the baby’s requirements needed for growth and development (Vistoropski, 2013). It includes several advantages, both for the baby and for the mother (Skale, 2010). Children with Down syndrome are born with many health specialties, which can present a barrier to breastfeeding. Nonet...
Sheehan, Karen; Kim, Lynn E; Galvin, John P
To determine how preadolescent urban children conceptualize and experience violence in their lives. This qualitative study reports the results of focus groups designed to examine perceptions of violence among preadolescent urban children. Program directors were trained to conduct the sessions using a semistructured script. All groups were audiotaped or videotaped. The summaries were analyzed for recurring themes. A community-based visual arts program for children designed to be a secondary violence-prevention program. There were 12 focus groups of volunteer participants. Each consisted of 3 to 6 children aged 8 to 12 years, separated by sex and age. Fifty children participated: 27 boys and 23 girls. These children defined violence in a broader way than most adults would. Not only did the children identify shootings and stabbings as examples of violence, but they also considered violence to be any act that might hurt someone's feelings (such as cheating and lying) or any act accompanying violence (such as cursing and yelling). The boys and girls were very similar in their views except regarding the issue of intimate-partner violence. The girls were almost universally concerned about this issue, but the boys seemed noticeably unaware that intimate-partner violence was considered a form of violence. Most children felt safe at home, and almost no child felt safe at school. They looked to trusted adults to keep them safe. Future investigators measuring the effect of violence-prevention activities on preteen children should be aware that their definition of violence may differ from that of young children and should be cognizant of potential sex differences, especially around the topic of intimate-partner violence. Those designing violence-prevention programs for children should consider engaging adult family members as well because children usually turn to them for safety.
Karina Słonka; Manuela Dyas; Tadeusz Słonka; Tomasz Szurmik
Introduction: Pre‑school age is a period of intensive development when children shape their posture, habits and motor memory. Movement is child's physiological need. Motive activity supports not only physical development, but also psychical, intellectual and social. Aim: The aim of the study is to assess motor ability in preschool children from the city of Opole and District Dobrzeń Wielki. Materials and methods: The research involved 228 children, aged 5 and 6. The method used in...
Mohan Das, Usha; JP, Beena
Oral lichen planus which is one of the most common oral mucosal diseases in adults, it has been rarely described in children. There are very reports in the literature regarding oral lichen planus in children, here we report a case of intraoral lesions of lichen planus. Lichen planus should be considered in the differential diagnosis of hyperkeratotic or erosive lesions of the oral mucosa in children.
A.S. Teletov; T.Ye. Ivanova
The aim of article. The article shows that today more and more citizens supply from advertising. Children's perception of the world is radically different from the adults’ perception. Modern advertising industry affects children's audience more and more. The aim of the article is to analyze the impact of advertising on children's audience with further proposals. The results of the analysis. Some social critics believe that advertising provides new information that helps to be more adaptive...
John k. McNamara
This paper presents a prevention model for supporting children with learning disabilities. The model holds that children can be identified as at-risk for learning disabilities by identifying and supporting potential academic failure early in their elementary years. A prevention model includes two elements, identification and instruction. Identification entails recognizing those children at-risk for poor achievement in the early primary grades. The second component of the model is to...