WorldWideScience

Sample records for gteborg sweden 24th-29th

  1. Sweden - Physics in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    In its continual monitoring of physics in its Member States, the European Committee for Future Accelerators (ECFA) recently visited Sweden, where it met at the University of Lund in September. Physics in Sweden is flourishing, with both a long CERN tradition and excellent prospects for future collaboration. On the experimental side, about 80 researchers, including about 30 graduate students, out of a total of 110 (including 50 graduate students), concentrate on CERN for their work. The main centres of experimental activity are: Chalmers- Goteborg; Lund (particle physics and relativistic heavy ion groups), the Royal Institute of Technology - KTH - Stockholm, the University of Stockholm, and Uppsala. Engineering support staff in particle and highenergy nuclear physics number about 25. There is a strong Swedish participation (34 researchers from Lund, Stockholm, and Uppsala) in the Delphi experiment at LEP with a full commitment to higher energy running at LEP2, in the CP-LEAR experiment, JETSET studies at the LEAR low energy antiproton ring and in a LEAR hyperon experiment. Sweden is also well represented in CERN's extensive programme of nuclear and heavy ion physics, with 12 researchers active in the heavy ion programme, and a contingent in the SMC muon beam experiment. The strong Swedish interest in CERN's heavy ion programme was underlined by a special national contribution of 1.5M Swiss francs to the new lead ion injector. At lower energies, there is also good Swedish participation (mainly from the Chalmers Institute) in the Isolde online isotope separator. The national physics community has always appreciated CERN's diversified programmes and has greatly benefited as a result. For the future, there is an important involvement (some 40 physicists) in the ATLAS experiment at CERN's LHC collider. Swedish groups have been active in 11 research and development project for LHC physics. Sweden's heavy ion activity will continue at the RHIC

  2. Lone mothers in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burström, B; Diderichsen, Finn; Shouls, S

    1999-01-01

    To study trends in the health and socioeconomic circumstances of lone mothers in Sweden over the years 1979-1995, and to make comparisons with couple mothers over the same period.......To study trends in the health and socioeconomic circumstances of lone mothers in Sweden over the years 1979-1995, and to make comparisons with couple mothers over the same period....

  3. Linnaeus in Uppsala, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Paul; Cohen, Brenda

    1997-01-01

    Presents a brief life history of Carl Linnaeus, a professor of medicine and botany in Uppsala, Sweden. Highlights his work in developing a classification system for plants and animals, and his botanical lectures and demonstrations. (JRH)

  4. Historical Archaeology in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Wienberg, Jes

    2014-01-01

    The article outlines the early origin and later transformations of Medieval Archaeology to Historical Archaeology, both as an antiquarian practice and as an academic subject, focusing on the development in Sweden since the 17th C.

  5. Kabbalah in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Karlsson

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the history of Kabbalah in Sweden. The reader is presented with an overall view to Kabbalah in Sweden: first, the Johannes Bureus and the Nordic Kabbalah, Kabbalah after Bureus, Kabbalistic literature, and last, Kabbalah in Sweden today. When the Kabbalah reached Sweden it was mainly the non-Jewish Kabbalah that gained influence, even if its Jewish roots were acknowledged. Johannes Bureus unites, in a similar fashion as do the Christian Kabbalists in continental Europe, Christian motifs with the symbolic world of the Kabbalah. Bureus, however, adds runes, ancient Norse gods and Gothic ideas in his own unique manner. The Kabbalah invites speculation and the search for correspondences which has caused the Kabbalah in Sweden to be united with a number of other traditions. Bureus combined the Kabbalah with runes and Gothicism; in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries we can find the Kabbalah in Freemasonry and Esoteric societies, while the Kabbalah in the twentieth century and onwards has been associated with New Age, Parapsychology and Indian Mysticism. Apart from Bureus, most Kabbalists in Sweden have followed the trends that flourished in the rest of the world. Bureus was the first to create a specifically Swedish interpretation of the Kabbalah.

  6. Energy in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-11-01

    Energy in Sweden is published annually by the Swedish Energy Agency. Energy in Sweden 2004, together with its statistics supplement, Energy in Sweden: Facts and Figures 2004, is intended to provide decision-makers, journalists and the public with a single source of easily available information on conditions and developments in the energy sector. In recent years, Swedish energy and environmental policy has been increasingly concentrated on establishing or improving the long-term conditions for efficient energy markets and efficient use of energy. Restructuring of the Swedish electricity market, greater internationalisation and the effects of the energy system on the wider environment and on climate are important factors that influence the direction of energy policy and so also development of the energy markets. The line that was started by the 2002 Energy Policy Agreement, under the name of Working Together for a Reliable, Efficient and Environmentally Aware Energy Supply (Bill no. 2001/02:143), continues. The shift in taxation policy to encourage the move towards a sustainable energy system and reduced environmental impact continues, as exemplified by the introduction of the electricity certificate system on 1st May 2003. The negotiations that were started in 2003 with a view to progressive shut-down of nuclear power generation were broken off in October 2004 without having reached agreement with the nuclear power companies. As soon as the breakdown of the negotiations was announced, the Government, together with the Left Party and the Centre Party, stated that Barsebaeck 2 will be closed in 2005. Sweden's climate policy is based on the Climate Strategy Act (Bill no. 2001/02:55), which was adopted by Parliament in March 2002. It is expected that trading in emission rights, in accordance with the EU Emissions Trading Directive, will start in January 2005, with publication of national emission rights allocations on 30th September 2004. One of the more important

  7. Denmark and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailand, Mikkel; Hansen, Nana Wesley

    2016-01-01

    Denmark and Sweden have some of the largest public sectors in Europe. They are also characterized by predominantly voluntaristic labor market models where collective bargaining and employee involvement play a relatively strong role in public sector employment relations (ER). In this chapter, we...... analyze similarities and differences between the two countries regarding their public sectors and their public sector ER. The analysis focuses on three themes: main public services reforms and New Public Management (NPM), changes in the ER and job levels and the relationship between parliamentary politics...

  8. Energy in Sweden 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-11-01

    Energy in Sweden is published annually by the Swedish Energy Agency. Energy in Sweden 2004, together with its statistics supplement, Energy in Sweden: Facts and Figures 2004, is intended to provide decision-makers, journalists and the public with a single source of easily available information on conditions and developments in the energy sector. In recent years, Swedish energy and environmental policy has been increasingly concentrated on establishing or improving the long-term conditions for efficient energy markets and efficient use of energy. Restructuring of the Swedish electricity market, greater internationalisation and the effects of the energy system on the wider environment and on climate are important factors that influence the direction of energy policy and so also development of the energy markets. The line that was started by the 2002 Energy Policy Agreement, under the name of Working Together for a Reliable, Efficient and Environmentally Aware Energy Supply (Bill no. 2001/02:143), continues. The shift in taxation policy to encourage the move towards a sustainable energy system and reduced environmental impact continues, as exemplified by the introduction of the electricity certificate system on 1st May 2003. The negotiations that were started in 2003 with a view to progressive shut-down of nuclear power generation were broken off in October 2004 without having reached agreement with the nuclear power companies. As soon as the breakdown of the negotiations was announced, the Government, together with the Left Party and the Centre Party, stated that Barsebaeck 2 will be closed in 2005. Sweden's climate policy is based on the Climate Strategy Act (Bill no. 2001/02:55), which was adopted by Parliament in March 2002. It is expected that trading in emission rights, in accordance with the EU Emissions Trading Directive, will start in January 2005, with publication of national emission rights allocations on 30th September 2004. One of the more important tasks

  9. Feminist Language Planning in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milles, Karin

    2011-01-01

    The international literature has often described linguistic authorities as being opposed to the idea of changing language in the name of feminism. However, in Sweden, many linguistic authorities have been active agents in adopting feminist language reforms. This is probably due to Sweden's long tradition of political feminist efforts and to the…

  10. Acidification research in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staaf, H.; Bertills, U.

    1992-01-01

    A number of acid rain research programmes have been conducted in Sweden since 1978. The total cost for these programmes has amounted to about 250 million SEK, and during this period an additional 950 million SEK has been used to finance practical countermeasures, mainly lake liming. Acid deposition has caused damage to soil, lakes, groundwater, flora and fauna, buildings and materials. The role of acid rain in causing forest damage is not yet fully elucidated. However, there is strong evidence suggesting that ongoing soil acidification and nutrient imbalances associated with it pose the major threat to Swedish forests. Current ozone levels are damaging trees on the physiological level, but the effects of ozone on forest production in unknown. Liming is an efficient means of counteracting the negative effects of acidic deposition on forest soil, lakes and watercourses. 8 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  11. Policing football in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stott, Clifford; Havelund, Jonas; Lundberg, Filip

    2016-01-01

    as exploring current strengths and opportunities for further development. One of the central issues that the report identifies are problems in terms of proactive verbal and friendly engagement from police ‘front line’ staff. The report goes on to provide a series of recommendations for the future development......”. But Professor Stott and his team go on to highlight an important breakdown in the nationally coordinated policing reforms that took place following the riots in Gothenburg in 2001, referred to as the Special Police Tactic. They assert that “the police can benefit from nationally unified clear and coherent...... concepts, competency profiles and training framework” and this one of the central areas where the report recommends that police in Sweden should focus development moving forward....

  12. Neutron Powder Diffraction in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tellgren, R.

    1986-01-01

    Neutron powder diffraction in Sweden has developed around the research reactor R2 in Studsvik. The article describes this facility and presents a historical review of research results obtained. It also gives some ideas of plans for future development

  13. Dieselization in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kågeson, Per

    2013-01-01

    In Sweden the market share of diesel cars grew from below 10 per cent in 2005 to 62 per cent in 2011 despite a closing gap between pump prices on diesel oil and gasoline, and diesel cars being less favored than ethanol and biogas cars in terms of tax cuts and other subsidies offered to “environment cars”. The most important factor behind the dieselization was probably the market entrance of a number of low-consuming models. Towards the end of the period a growing number of diesel models were able to meet the 120 g CO 2 threshold applicable to “environment cars” that cannot use ethanol or biogas. This helped such models increase their share of the diesel car market from zero to 41 per cent. Dieselization appears to have had only a minor effect on annual distances driven. The higher average annual mileage of diesel cars is probably to a large extent a result of a self-selection bias. However, the Swedish diesel car fleet is young, and the direct rebound effect stemming from a lower variable driving cost may show up more clearly as the fleet gets older based on the assumption that second owners are more fuel price sensitive than first owners. - Highlights: ► This paper tries to explain the fast dieselization of the new Swedish car fleet. ► It identifies changes in supply and the impact of tax benefits. ► Finally it studies the impact on the annual average mileage

  14. Nuclear power in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wikdahl, C.E.

    1999-01-01

    Sweden uses 16,000 kWh of electricity per person, by far the highest consumption in EU. The reason is a well-developed electricity intensive industry and a cold climate with high share of electric heating. The annual power consumption has for several years been about 140 TWh and a normal year almost 50 per cent is produced by hydro and 50 percent by nuclear. A new legislation, giving the Government the right to ordering the closure nuclear power plants of political reasons without any reference to safety, has been accepted by the Parliament. The new act, in force since January 1, 1998, is a specially tailored expropriation act. Certain rules for the economical compensation to the owner of a plant to be closed are defined in the new act. The common view in the Swedish industry is that the energy conservation methods proposed by the Government are unrealistic. During the first period of about five years the import from coal fired plants in Denmark and Germany is the only realistic alternative. Later natural gas combi units and new bioenergy plants for co-production of heat and power (CHP) might be available. (orig.) [de

  15. Alport syndrome in southern Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, U; Hertz, Jens Michael; Wieslander, J

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation is to study the epidemiology of Alport syndrome in southern Sweden, to search for mutations in the COL4A5 gene and to estimate the mutation frequency.......The aim of the present investigation is to study the epidemiology of Alport syndrome in southern Sweden, to search for mutations in the COL4A5 gene and to estimate the mutation frequency....

  16. Nuclear power in Sweden today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarasov, V.M.

    1989-01-01

    Realization of the Sweden program concerning the elimination by 2010 of the nuclear power (NP) is discussed. NP rejection causes a 50% increase in cost of electric power for the population and a 100% one - for industrial enterpoises. The power industry structure is going to change. Minor fossil fuel TPPs and wind plants will be mainly developed. The state economy will also be changed as the NP rejection results in NPP decommissioning in industrial regions of Sweden

  17. Policies promoting Biofuels in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmgren, Kristina [IVL Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Goeteborg (Sweden); Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Div. of Heat and Power Technology., Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2012-07-01

    This report was written as part of a course in Environmental Economics and Policy Instruments at the University of Gothenburg. It aims at summarizing the policy instruments introduced to directly affect the production and use of biofuels in Sweden. Since Sweden is part of the EU also EU policies were included. There are additional policy instruments which affect the production and utilization of biofuels in a more indirect way that are not presented here. The economic analysis in this paper is limited and could be developed from the information presented in order to draw further conclusions on necessary changes in order to reach set targets.

  18. Family Planning in Sweden. Fact Sheets on Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swedish Inst., Stockholm.

    This fact sheet explores attitudes in Sweden toward sexuality and childbirth from a historical perspective. After describing the strict social control over abortion and contraception in place 100 years ago, and the gradual easing of those controls in response to the low birth rate, the paper goes on to discuss the 1974 Abortion Act, which…

  19. The energy transition in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruciani, Michel

    2016-06-01

    Sweden has the distinction of having started several major changes to its energy supply at an early stage. The country has no fossil reserves, and so was importing increasing volumes of oil products in the years following World War II. Yet it rapidly perceived the geopolitical risks generated by such oil dependency, and so developed its nuclear capacity, enabling it to reduce quickly the role of oil in its economy after the shocks of the 1970's. Sweden has also managed to exploit its natural resources. Until the 2000's, hydropower was able to enter the market without public assistance. By contrast, wood could not have gained its current market share without a policy combining public aid for investment and penalties for competing energies. The severe economic crisis which hit the country between 1991 and 1993 led such penalties being converted into taxes, notably a tax on CO 2 emissions that came into force in 1991. This helped Sweden reconstruct its tax system, to finance its social model. The challenge highlighted the country's ability to generate consensus policy guidelines. One of these guidelines was to react immediately after initial warnings about climate change. Sweden first strengthened its energy efficiency policy, structuring field actions through a national agency backed up by partner organizations in local communities to help consumers - individuals or industries - technically and economically. Sweden then adopted an unusual instrument to promote renewable electricity, namely its system of green certificates. Implemented in 2003, this system has spurred the development of the cheapest sources of renewable energy, two-thirds coming from onshore wind and one third from biomass. The cost of this support still remains remarkably moderate today. At the end of 2014, Sweden thus only used fossil fuels to provide 30% of its primary energy supplies, while renewables accounted for 52% of final energy consumption. Energy consumption per capita

  20. Energy Foresight - Sweden in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The IVA-project 'Energy Foresight - Sweden in Europe' deals with possibilities and problems associated with our energy future. We take it for granted that various forms of energy will always be available for a multitude of purposes and at acceptable prices. Sweden also places high demands on health and environmental protection issues when it comes to the production of power and heat. During the last few years the climate issue has been highlighted, which in turn will change the conditions for the use of alternative sources of energy. Carbon dioxide is the most important of the greenhouse gases, and it is closely associated with the burning of coal, oil, and natural gas. These fossil fuels play dominant roles in the world 's energy supply. Far-reaching measures to decrease carbon dioxide emissions will thus greatly affect the ways in which we use fossil fuels and non-carbon dioxide generating sources of energy. We have chosen a global starting point for our energy study. From there we will zoom in on the energy systems of Europe and Sweden. The climate issue demands global approach. Deregulation of electricity and gas markets, and the development of integrated European systems related to these energy sources, requires an international perspective on he Swedish energy system. Our project differs from earlier governmental energy studies in the sense that we are not trying to present the most likely, nor the most desirable energy future. Instead we have opted to draw up some illustrations of Sweden's future energy system, with Europe as a backdrop. The climate issue differentiates the scenarios. Our time perspective is 20 years, with glimpses 50 years ahead. On the 18th of February 2003, the Steering Group of Energy Foresight - Sweden in Europe, presented it's final report. The bulk of the work has been done in four panels. Their reflections and conclusions are presented in separate panel reports. The 12 factual reports present different

  1. Energy Foresight - Sweden in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The IVA-project 'Energy Foresight - Sweden in Europe' deals with possibilities and problems associated with our energy future. We take it for granted that various forms of energy will always be available for a multitude of purposes and at acceptable prices. Sweden also places high demands on health and environmental protection issues when it comes to the production of power and heat. During the last few years the climate issue has been highlighted, which in turn will change the conditions for the use of alternative sources of energy. Carbon dioxide is the most important of the greenhouse gases, and it is closely associated with the burning of coal, oil, and natural gas. These fossil fuels play dominant roles in the world 's energy supply. Far-reaching measures to decrease carbon dioxide emissions will thus greatly affect the ways in which we use fossil fuels and non-carbon dioxide generating sources of energy. We have chosen a global starting point for our energy study. From there we will zoom in on the energy systems of Europe and Sweden. The climate issue demands global approach. Deregulation of electricity and gas markets, and the development of integrated European systems related to these energy sources, requires an international perspective on he Swedish energy system. Our project differs from earlier governmental energy studies in the sense that we are not trying to present the most likely, nor the most desirable energy future. Instead we have opted to draw up some illustrations of Sweden's future energy system, with Europe as a backdrop. The climate issue differentiates the scenarios. Our time perspective is 20 years, with glimpses 50 years ahead. On the 18th of February 2003, the Steering Group of Energy Foresight - Sweden in Europe, presented it's final report. The bulk of the work has been done in four panels. Their reflections and conclusions are presented in separate panel reports. The 12 factual reports present different sources of energy, how hey are

  2. The History of Tuberculosis Management in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Wallstedt

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We review the history of TB in Sweden beginning in 1800, when 25% of mortality in Sweden was associated with TB. The Royal Family was involved in establishing dedicated sanatoria in Sweden to offer better diagnostics and clinical care. TB has declined in Sweden steadily, with some recent increases due to local spread of TB and challenging international and national socio-economical structures. Improved research and clinical knowledge is needed to diagnose and manage drug-susceptible as well as drug-resistant TB.

  3. The history of tuberculosis management in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallstedt, Helen; Maeurer, Markus

    2015-03-01

    We review the history of TB in Sweden beginning in 1800, when 25% of mortality in Sweden was associated with TB. The Royal Family was involved in establishing dedicated sanatoria in Sweden to offer better diagnostics and clinical care. TB has declined in Sweden steadily, with some recent increases due to local spread of TB and challenging international and national socio-economical structures. Improved research and clinical knowledge is needed to diagnose and manage drug-susceptible as well as drug-resistant TB. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Cadmium in Sweden - environmental risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkman, H.; Iverfeldt, Aa. [Swedish Environmental Research Inst. (Sweden); Borg, H.; Lithner, G. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Inst. for Applied Environmental Research

    1998-03-01

    This report aims at assessing possible effects of cadmium in the Swedish environment. Swedish soils and soft freshwater systems are, due to a generally poor buffering capacity, severely affected by acidification. In addition, the low salinity in the Baltic Sea imply a naturally poor organism structure, with some important organisms living close to their limit of physiological tolerance. Cadmium in soils is mobilized at low pH, and the availability and toxicity of cadmium in marine systems are enhanced at low salinity. The Swedish environment is therefore extra vulnerable to cadmium pollution. The average concentrations of cadmium in the forest mor layers, agricultural soils, and fresh-waters in Sweden are enhanced compared to `back-ground concentrations`, with a general increasing trend from the north to the south-west, indicating strong impact of atmospheric deposition of cadmium originating from the central parts of Europe. In Swedish sea water, total cadmium concentrations, and the fraction of bio-available `free` cadmium, generally increases with decreasing salinity. Decreased emissions of cadmium to the environment have led to decreasing atmospheric deposition during the last decade. The net accumulation of cadmium in the forest mor layer has stopped, and even started to decrease. In northern Sweden, this is due to the decreased deposition, but in southern Sweden the main reason is increased leakage of cadmium from the topsoil as a consequence of acidification. As a result, cadmium in the Swedish environments is undergoing an extended redistribution between different soil compartments, and from the soils to the aquatic systems. 90 refs, 23 figs, 2 tabs. With 3 page summary in Swedish

  5. Aespoe hard rock laboratory Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The aim of the new Aespoe hard rock laboratory is to demonstrate state of the art of technology and evaluation methods before the start of actual construction work on the planned deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. The nine country OECD/NEA project in the Stripa mine in Sweden has been an excellent example of high quality international research co-operation. In Sweden the new Aespoe hard rock laboratory will gradually take over and finalize this work. SKB very much appreciates the continued international participation in Aespoe which is of great value for the quality efficiency, and confidence in this kind of work. We have invited a number of leading experts to this first international seminar to summarize the current state of a number of key questions. The contributions show the great progress that has taken place during the years. The results show that there is a solid scientific basis for using this knowledge on site specific preparation and work on actual repositories. (au)

  6. Chernobyl - its impact on Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-08-01

    In case of radiological emergency in Sweden, the Swedish National Institute of Radiation Protection (SSI) has the responsability of organizing a special task force with experts both from SSI and from other authorities. Reports of increased radiation levels reached SSI around 10 am on April 28, 1986, and the task force convened at 1030 am. A large number of measurements were made all over the country, and temporary grazing restrictions were imposed so as to aviod excessive doses from the food chain grass-cow-milk. Attention is now concentrated on regions with high cesium activity and on foodstuffs in general. A very tentative estimate of the collective dose commiment is 10 000 man.Sv. It turned out that the general public was not always satisfied with the information provided by the authorities, in spite of complete openness (Author)

  7. Radon in dwellings in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swedjemark, G.A.

    1980-01-01

    Studies on specific activities in building materials, gamma-radiation levels in dwellings, the concentrations of radon and daughters in the air indoors and the concentration of radon in tap water are in progress in Sweden. On the basis of these investigations and of the investigation of Hultqvist from the beginning of the 1950's, an attempt has been made to show how the radiation doses in dwellings have changed or may be changed by human activities and what these changes imply in terms of collective dose. The annual collective absorbed dose in the basal cells of the critical bronchial region have increased from 11 x 10 3 man-Gy for the occupants of dwellings existing in 1950 to 25 x 10 3 man-Gy for dwellings existing in 1975

  8. Energy in Sweden. Facts and figures 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-12-01

    Energy in Sweden. Facts and Figures 2005 contains the tabular data for most of the diagrams in the main publication. These data consist primarily of the results of the Agency's processing of basic data from Statistics Sweden. Facts and Figures is available at www.stem.se in pdf- and excel file formats. With effect from the 2001 edition, statistics are of preliminary character for the two preceding years (2003 and 2004). Breakdowns into certain types of fuels vary somewhat depending on whether preliminary or final data has been used. Further information about the statistics can be found in Energy in Sweden, chapter 8 Energy Facts

  9. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-09-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. Sweden surpassed its 2020 nationally binding renewable energy in 2013. Main support measures to promote renewable energy in Sweden consists of a quota system, various tax regulation mechanisms and subsidy schemes. Sweden has a joint support scheme with Norway, thus being the first EU Member State to implement a cooperation mechanism, as defined under the 2009 EU Renewable Energy Directive. The Swedish coalition government has agreed on a target of 100% renewable electricity production by 2040

  10. Babesia species in questing Ixodes ricinus, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Maria E; Andersson, Martin O

    2016-02-01

    Babesiosis is an emerging tick-transmitted zoonosis in large parts of the world. In Sweden, the occurrence and diversity of Babesia species is largely unknown. In order to estimate the exposure to Babesia from infected ticks, we collected questing Ixodes ricinus from several sites across southern Sweden during two consecutive field seasons and investigated the occurrence of Babesia species. We report for the first time the occurrence of the zoonotic species Babesia venatorum in Swedish ticks, with a prevalence of 1%. We also detected B. microti (prevalence 3.2%) and B. divergens (prevalence 0.2%). The incidence of Babesia in questing ticks is substantially lower than that of several other tick-borne diseases in Sweden. Nevertheless, babesiosis should not be neglected as a possible diagnosis following tick bites in humans and animals in Sweden. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Radon in dwellings in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swedjemark, G.A.

    1978-04-01

    Studies on the specific activities in building materials, the γ-radiation levels in dwellings, the concentrations of radon and daughters in the air indoors and the concentration of radon in tap water are in progress in Sweden. On basis of these investigations and of the investigation of Hultqvist from the beginning of the 1950s, an attempt has been made to show how the radiation doses in dwellings have changed or may be changed by human activities and what these changes imply in terms of collective dose. The annual collective absorbed dose in the basal cells of the critical bronchial region have increased from 11 . 10 3 manGy for the occupants of dwellings existing in 1950 to 25 . 10 3 manGy for dwellings existing in 1975. If the building of houses continues as at present it can be estimated that the annual collective dose will be between 25 and 31 . 10 3 manGy for the dwellings of 1985. (author)

  12. Electricity supply in Sweden 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The year 1983 was characterized by a continued decrease in oil consumption and an increase in electricity consumption. Totally the supply of fuels decreased from 278TWh to 264 TWh in 1983. The electricity supply increased from 99.9 TWh in 1982 to 110.8 TWh in 1983. The consumers total energy use decreased from 358 TWh in 1982 to 355 TWh in 1983. Electricity consumption excluding transmission losses increased from 91,4 TWh in 1982 to 101.1TWh in 1983. The increase was due to electric space heating disconnectable electric boilers and to industry. At the end of 1983 the electric heating subscriptions are estimated to corresponds to 45 percent of all one-family houses. Hydropower accounted for 54 percent and nucler power accounted for 34 percent of the total supply of electricity in 1983. The highest hourly load during 1983 amounted to 20862 MW. The lowest load during 1983 amounted to 5185 MW. Ten nuclear power units were in commercial operation during the year. The energy availability figures were as follows: Barsebaeck 1 85 percent, Barsebaeck 2 82 percent, Forsmark 1 84 percent, Forsmark 2 88 percent, Oskarshamn 1 87 percent, Oskarshamn 2 83 percent, Ringhals 1 59 percent and Ringhals 2 68 percent. The production of electricity from conventional thermal power stations was only 4.0 TWh. Back pressure power in industry contributed 2.5 TWh of this figure and combined power and district heating stations 1.3 TWh. Two coal fired combined power and district heating plants were added and sevearl combined power and district heating plants have been rebuilt to be coal fired. The high voltage power grid system permits joint operation by all the power companies in the country, and the major power companies utilize the network for exchanging surplus power with other power companies. An account of the public debate on energy in Sweden during 1983 is also given.(L.E.)

  13. CO2 storage in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekstroem, Clas; Andersson, Annika; Kling, Aasa; Bernstone, Christian; Carlsson, Anders; Liljemark, Stefan; Wall, Caroline; Erstedt, Thomas; Lindroth, Maria; Tengborg, Per; Edstroem, Mikael

    2004-07-01

    This study considers options, that could be feasible for Sweden, to transport and geologically store CO 2 , providing that technology for electricity production with CO 2 capture will be available in the future and also acceptable from cost- and reliability point of view. As a starting point, it is assumed that a new 600-1000 MW power plant, fired with coal or natural gas, will be constructed with CO 2 capture and localised to the Stockholm, Malmoe or Goeteborg areas. Of vital importance for storage of carbon dioxide in a reservoir is the possibility to monitor its distribution, i.e. its migration within the reservoir. It has been shown in the SACS-project that the distribution of carbon dioxide within the reservoir can be monitored successfully, mainly by seismic methods. Suitable geologic conditions and a large storage potential seems to exist mainly in South West Scania, where additional knowledge on geology/hydrogeology has been obtained since the year 2000 in connection to geothermal energy projects, and in the Eastern part of Denmark, bordering on South West Scania. Storage of carbon dioxide from the Stockholm area should not be excluded, but more studies are needed to clarify the storage options within this area. The possibilities to use CO 2 for enhanced oil recovery, EOR, in i.a. the North Sea should be investigated, in order to receive incomes from the CO 2 and shared costs for infrastructure, and by this also make the CO 2 regarded as a trading commodity, and thereby achieving a more favourable position concerning acceptance, legal issues and regulations. The dimensions of CO 2 -pipelines should be similar to those for natural natural gas, although regarding some aspects they have different design and construction prerequisites. To obtain cost efficiency, the transport distances should be kept short, and possibilities for co-ordinated networks with short distribution pipelines connected to common main pipelines, should be searched for. Also, synergies

  14. Aging in Sweden: local variation, local control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Adam; Malmberg, Bo; Sundström, Gerdt

    2014-08-01

    Aging in Sweden has been uniquely shaped by its history-most notably the long tradition of locally controlled services for older adults. We considered how local variations and local control shape the experience of aging in Sweden and organized the paper into 3 sections. First, we examine aging in Sweden along demography, economy, and housing. Next, we trace the origins and development of the Swedish welfare state to consider formal supports (service provision) and informal supports (caregiving and receipt of care). Finally, we direct researchers to additional data resources for understanding aging in Sweden in greater depth. Sweden was one of the first countries to experience rapid population aging. Quality of life for a majority of older Swedes is high. Local control permits a flexible and adaptive set of services and programs, where emphasis is placed on improving the quality and targeting of services that have already reached a plateau as a function of population and expenditures. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Epidemiology of lysosomal storage diseases in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hult, Malin; Darin, Niklas; von Döbeln, Ulrika; Månsson, Jan-Eric

    2014-12-01

    There are more than 50 inherited lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs), and this study examined the incidence of clinically diagnosed LSDs in Sweden. The number of patients diagnosed during 1980-2009 was compiled from the registries of the two Swedish diagnostic laboratories that cover the whole country. We identified 433 patients during the 30-year period, with a total incidence of one in every 6100 births and identified fairly constant annual diagnoses during the last 20 years. Krabbe disease was the most common (one in 39 000) followed by Gaucher disease (one in 47 000), metachromatic leukodystrophy and Salla disease. Gaucher disease was more frequent in Sweden than other European countries, due to a founder effect of the mutation (p.L444P) in northern Sweden. Metachromatic leukodystrophy was one of the most common LSDs, in common with other countries. Salla disease, which is very rare elsewhere, was the fourth most common, stemming from a founder mutation in the Salla region of northern Finland brought to Sweden by immigration. The collective incidence of LSDs in Sweden was essentially equal to other European countries, but with a somewhat different disease pattern. Our findings have implications for diagnostic algorithms and treatment strategies. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Energy in Sweden. Facts and figures 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-12-01

    Energy in Sweden 2004: Facts and Figures contains the tabular data for most of the diagrams in the main publication. These data consist primarily of the results of the Agency's processing of basic data from Statistics Sweden. Facts and Figures is available at www.stem.se in pdf- and excel file formats. Since the year 2001 statistics for the period 1983-1998 are revised compared to data for previous editions. With effect from the 2001 edition, statistics are of preliminary character for the two preceding years. Breakdowns into certain types of fuels vary somewhat depending on whether preliminary or final data has been used. Further information about the statistics can be found in Energy in Sweden, chapter 8 Energy Facts.

  17. Health and social inequities in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diderichsen, Finn

    1990-01-01

    Sweden is one of Europe's most egalitarian countries. The social inequities in living conditions have been gradually reduced to a level that is more equal than in most countries in Europe. Even if general health development has been positive during recent years, data reviewed here indicate...... that there may be adverse effects for some groups which may increase inequities. This article presents results on inequities in health from the Public Health Report of Sweden 1987 and discusses causal mechanisms and implications for health policy....

  18. Public Procurement of Innovation in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolfstam, Max; Ågren, Robert

    2014-01-01

    of public procurement Sweden dropped many policy initiatives within this field. This was in part due to neo-liberal movements during the 1980s which in interaction with a distributed institutional setup led to the removal of incentives for a procuring authority to engage in public procurement of innovation....... Another contributing cause was poor policy guidance from the academia upon Sweden’s accession into the EU, which spread apprehension among procuring authorities. It is not until the last few years that Sweden has started to reengage in public procurement for innovation policy, by using predominantly...

  19. Accuracy combining different brands of implants and abutments

    OpenAIRE

    Sol?-Ru?z, Mar?a F.; Selva-Otaolaurruchi, Eduardo; Senent-Vicente, Gisela; Gonz?lez-de-Cossio, In?s; Amig?-Borr?s, Vicente

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the vertical misfit between different brands of dental implants and prosthetic abutments, with or without mechanical torque, and to study their possible combination. Study design: Five different brands of implant were used in the study: Biofit (Castemaggiore, Italy), Bioner S.A. (Barcelona, Spain), 3i Biomet (Palm Beach, U.S.A.), BTI (Alava, Spain) and Nobel Biocare (G?teborg, Sweden), with standard 4.1 mm heads and external hexagons, and their respective machined prost...

  20. Consequences in Sweden of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snihs, J.O.

    1986-01-01

    It summarizes the consequences in Sweden of the Chernobyl accident, describes the emergency response, the basis for decisions and countermeasures, the measurement strategies, the activity levels and doses and countermeasures and action levels used. Past and remaining problems are discussed and the major investigations and improvements are given. (author)

  1. Reconsidering School Politics: Educational Controversies in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredholm, Axel

    2017-01-01

    School politics in Sweden has recently moved in a conservative direction, emphasising the importance of conventional school subjects, stronger teacher authority and more discipline in the classroom. At the same time, consensus on the utility of such measures is lacking in the school debate. The conservative approach is often criticised as…

  2. The history of nuclear power in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, K.E.

    1987-01-01

    The nuclear power developments in Sweden are reviewed, from the first initiatives to start research in the area in 1945 to the parliament decision in 1979 to phase out nuclear power by 2010. The article is primarily concerned with the political and R and D management aspects in the field. (L.E.)

  3. INOPS Survey data report for Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholst, Andrej Christian; Severin, Majbritt Christine

    This data report provides statistics on the organization, management and performance of different ways of providing maintenance services within the municipal park and road sector(s) in Sweden. The statistics rely on data collected in the period from May 2015 to June 2015 through an online survey...

  4. Aeolian dunes of south-central Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardson, Martin; Alexanderson, Helena

    2017-04-01

    South-central Sweden is home to a number of small, inactive inland dune fields formed on former glaciofluvial deltas. A characteristic of these dune fields is the generally transverse shape of the dunes, in stark contrast to the rest of Sweden where parabolic dunes are the most common type. One of these dune fields is Bonäsheden in the county of Dalarna. It is the largest continuous dune field in Sweden and covers an area of approximately 15.5 km2. The dune field has the last few years been the target of thorough investigations utilising LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) based remote sensing, ground-penetrating radar, luminescence dating and sedimentological field investigations. The results show that the dunes of Bonäsheden and the adjacent dune field of Skattungheden formed mainly by north-westerly winds shortly after the deglaciation of this part of Sweden (10.5 ka), and subsequent events of dune formation were uncommon. Some later episodes of sand drift did occur, but only as minor coversand deposition. The dune field has had a more complex formation than previously thought; a shift in the wind pattern around 10 ka seems to have caused subsequent dunes to have formed by more westerly winds. The reason for this is still not determined, but the increased distance to the Scandinavian Ice Sheet would lessen the capacity of katabatic winds to influence the dune field.

  5. Mathematics Lessons from Finland and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaberg, Rebecca L.

    2015-01-01

    In many ways, mathematics classrooms in Finland and Sweden are very similar to what would be considered traditional classrooms in the United States. Classes begin with checking homework and questions, followed by the teacher giving instruction in the new material, and end with students working on their new assignment. There are also interesting…

  6. Status and use of PSA in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knochenhauer, M.

    1996-05-01

    The performance and use of PSA:s in Sweden goes back about two decades. During all of this time, the field of PSA has been developing intensively, both internationally and within Sweden. The latest years have been characterised by an increased use of PSA models and results, and by major extensions of existing PSA models. The aim of this document is to describe PSA in Sweden with respect to development, scope and maturity, as well as to the contents of the analyses and the use of results. PSA activities will be described from the point of view of both the authorities and the utilities. The report gives an overview of the development within the area of PSA in Sweden both its history and current trends. The aim has been to include a reasonable amount of detail, both on the methods and results in PSA:s performed and on the numerous supporting research programs dealing with various aspects of PSA. 39 refs 39 refs.

  7. Introducing Micro-finance in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barinaga, Ester

    2013-01-01

    The case describes the first year of efforts to introduce microfinance as a tool to work with vulnerable groups in Sweden, more particularly ex-convicts, former drug-addicts and longterm unemployed women of immigrant background. The teaching objective is to discuss whether micro-finance can be seen...

  8. Yoshio Nakajima. A Japanese Artist from Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørum, Tania

    2015-01-01

    Yoshio Nakajima is an interesting example of the globalisation of art. His education and early work as an artist took place in his native Japan, but continued in Europe where he has spent more than 30 years, mainly in provincial Sweden....

  9. Mobility of Knowledge as a Recognition Challenge: Experiences from Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Per; Fejes, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on the tensions between mobility, knowledge and recognition, and what the impact of migration could be on lifelong education and society. This is discussed with the case of Sweden as the starting point. The main issue in Sweden concerning migration is the admission of refugees. Sweden has had a relatively open policy…

  10. Environmental legislation and the regulation of waste management in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    This study examines the regulatory aspects of waste management in Sweden, with a particular emphasis on regulating organic compounds produced by waste-to-energy facilities. Since the early 1960s, waste-to-energy has played a significant role in managing waste in Sweden. In 1993, more than 50% of the municipal solid waste available for treatment or disposal following source separation efforts was processed in one of the 21 waste-to-energy facilities operating in Sweden. This report examines Sweden`s regulatory environment, its history of setting emission limits on waste management facilities, and the current status of regulations.

  11. Geomorphology of intraplate postglacial faults in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ask, M. V. S.; Abdujabbar, M.; Lund, B.; Smith, C.; Mikko, H.; Munier, R.

    2015-12-01

    Melting of the Weichselian ice sheet at ≈10 000 BP is inferred to have induced large to great intraplate earthquakes in northern Fennoscandia. Over a dozen large so-called postglacial faults (PGF) have been found, mainly using aerial photogrammetry, trenching, and recognition of numerous paleolandslides in the vicinity of the faults (e.g. Lagerbäck & Sundh 2008). Recent LiDAR-based mapping led to the extension of known PGFs, the discovery of new segments of existing PGFs, and a number of new suspected PGFs (Smith et al. 2014; Mikko et al. 2015). The PGFs in Fennoscandia occur within 14-25°E and 61-69°N; the majority are within Swedish territory. PGFs generally are prominent features, up to 155 km in length and 30 m maximum surface offset. The most intense microseismic activity in Sweden occurs near PGFs. The seismogenic zone of the longest known PGF (Pärvie fault zone, PFZ) extends to ≈40 km depth. From fault geometry and earthquake scaling relations, the paleomagnitude of PFZ is estimated to 8.0±0.3 (Lindblom et al. 2015). The new high-resolution LiDAR-derived elevation model of Sweden offers an unprecedented opportunity to constrain the surface geometry of the PGFs. The objective is to reach more detailed knowledge of the surface offset across their scarps. This distribution provides a one-dimensional view of the slip distribution during the inferred paleorupture. The second objective is to analyze the pattern of vertical displacement of the hanging wall, to obtain a two-dimensional view of the displaced area that is linked to the fault geometry at depth. The anticipated results will further constrain the paleomagnitude of PGFs and will be incorporated into future modeling efforts to investigate the nature of PGFs. ReferencesLagerbäck & Sundh 2008. Early Holocene faulting and paleoseismicity in northern Sweden. http://resource.sgu.se/produkter/c/c836-rapport.pdf Smith et al. 2014. Surficial geology indicates early Holocene faulting and seismicity

  12. Chlamydia psittaci in birds of prey, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomqvist, Maria; Christerson, Linus; Waldenström, Jonas; Lindberg, Peter; Helander, Björn; Gunnarsson, Gunnar; Herrmann, Björn; Olsen, Björn

    2012-01-01

    Chlamydia psittaci is an intracellular bacterium primarily causing respiratory diseases in birds but may also be transmitted to other animals, including humans. The prevalence of the pathogen in wild birds in Sweden is largely unknown. DNA was extracted from cloacae swabs and screened for C. psittaci by using a 23S rRNA gene PCR assay. Partial 16S rRNA and ompA gene fragments were sequence determined and phylogenies were analysed by the neighbour-joining method. The C. psittaci prevalence was 1.3% in 319 Peregrine Falcons and White-tailed Sea Eagles, vulnerable top-predators in Sweden. 16S rRNA and ompA gene analysis showed that novel Chlamydia species, as well as novel C. psittaci strains, are to be found among wild birds.

  13. Chlamydia psittaci in birds of prey, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Blomqvist

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chlamydia psittaci is an intracellular bacterium primarily causing respiratory diseases in birds but may also be transmitted to other animals, including humans. The prevalence of the pathogen in wild birds in Sweden is largely unknown. Methods: DNA was extracted from cloacae swabs and screened for C. psittaci by using a 23S rRNA gene PCR assay. Partial 16S rRNA and ompA gene fragments were sequence determined and phylogenies were analysed by the neighbour-joining method. Results and conclusion: The C. psittaci prevalence was 1.3% in 319 Peregrine Falcons and White-tailed Sea Eagles, vulnerable top-predators in Sweden. 16S rRNA and ompA gene analysis showed that novel Chlamydia species, as well as novel C. psittaci strains, are to be found among wild birds.

  14. Nord Stream, Sweden and Baltic Sea Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, Robert L.

    2007-03-01

    In June 2006, FOI published the report: Sweden and the NEGP: a Pilot Study of the North European Gas Pipeline and Sweden's Dependence on Russian Energy, a base data report on a topic that FOI considered to be of rising importance. Much has happened since then and the NEGP has changed its name to Nord Stream and submitted an official notification on the intention of realising the project of constructing a gas pipeline from Russia to Germany via the Baltic Sea. The primary aim of this report is to discuss and analyse some of the core aspects of Nord Stream and the pipeline project with regard to the security situation for the Baltic Sea region. The report constitutes an updated version of the previous report. Most of the old report still stands valid, especially concerning the historical survey of Russia's energy policy, but the new report has additional chapters and is broader in scope concerning the consequences of the project

  15. Relative Deprivation and Sickness Absence in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Helgertz, Jonas; Hess, Wolfgang; Scott, Kirk

    2013-01-01

    Background: A high prevalence of sickness absence in many countries, at a substantial societal cost, underlines the importance to understand its determining mechanisms. This study focuses on the link between relative deprivation and the probability of sickness absence. Methods: 184,000 men and women in Sweden were followed between 1982 and 2001. The sample consists of working individuals between the ages of 19 and 65. The outcome is defined as experiencing more than 14 days of sickness absenc...

  16. Transportation of radioactive materials in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericsson, A.M.

    1979-06-01

    This report is designed to calculate the total risk due to shipping radioactive materials in Sweden. The base case developed is the shipment model that is used now or the best estimate for expected shipments. The model for the calculations and the computer program used has been developed at the Sandia Laboratories, Albuquerque, N.M., USA and is the same that was used for the NUREG-0170 study. The results from the calculations show an annual expected population dose of 30 person-rem due to normal transport conditions. The annual expected dose from accidents were calculated to be between 2.3-20.8 person rem. The higher figure represents the case where plutonium is shipped back to Sweden from reprocessing plants abroad in the form of PuO2 and the lower figure represent the case when plutonium is shipped back in the form of mixed oxide fuel. The total additional population dose in Sweden due to both normal and accident conditions in the transportation of radioactive materials will be 30 - 50 person rem/year. Compared to the natural background radiation that is 8x10 5 person rem per year in Sweden, this figure is very low. If converted to latent cancer fatalities this population dose will add approximately 3.5x10 3 cancers each year. The consequences due to accidents have been calculated and are discussed separately from their probabilities. The most severe accident that was found was an accident involving PuO 2 . This accident would give 82 400 rem as a maximum individual dose and 8.1x10 5 person rem as a population dose. (Auth.)

  17. Uranium recovery in Sweden. History and perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hultgren, Aa.; Olsson, G.

    1993-08-01

    In 1945 the potential of nuclear energy for military and peaceful purpose had initiated a strong interest in Sweden to establish a national programme in the field. The Atomic Energy Committee was formed at the end of 1945 and charged the Research Institute of National Defence in January 1946 with the test to investigate possibilities of uranium recovery in Sweden. AB Atomenergi, a semi-state owned body, was formed in November 1947 to take charge of nuclear energy related research and development. The search for and the recovery of uranium from indigenous resources became a dominant objective over the first years of the company. The report gives a broad overview of the efforts to establish a national uranium fuel supply programme in Sweden from the early days of the postwar years of the 1940s. Process and plant development, plant operations at Kvarntorp and Ranstad, and the development of the uranium supply policy are presented against a background of the nuclear power development in the country. The nuclear weapons debate and the decision to sign the non proliferation treaty in 1968 are briefly reported. Special attention has been given an account of the technical development and the various projects related to the Ranstad plant and its final restoration in the 1980s

  18. Leaving Sweden behind: Gains in life expectancy in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Nathalie; Le Serbon, Emilie; Rostila, Mikael

    2015-06-01

    Sweden and Canada are known for quality of living and exceedingly high life expectancy, but recent data on how these countries compare are lacking. We measured life expectancy in Canada and Sweden during the past decade, and identified factors responsible for changes over time. We calculated life expectancy at birth for Canada and Sweden annually from 2000 to 2010, and determined the ages and causes of death responsible for the gap between the two countries using Arriaga's method. We determined how population growth, ageing, and mortality influenced the number of deaths over time. During 2000-2010, life expectancy in Canada caught up with Sweden for men, and surpassed Sweden by 0.4 years for women. Sweden lost ground owing to a slower reduction in circulatory and tumour mortality after age 65 years compared with Canada. Nonetheless, population ageing increased the number of deaths in Canada, especially for mental and nervous system disorders. In Sweden, the number of deaths decreased. In only one decade, life expectancy in Canada caught up and surpassed Sweden due to rapid improvements in circulatory and tumour mortality. Population ageing increased the number of deaths in Canada, potentially stressing the health care system more than in Sweden. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  19. Introducing Micro-finance in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barinaga, Ester

    2013-01-01

    the difficulties of building collaborations between actors with different logics. The analysis is threefold: 1. The mobilization and generation of social capital; 2. The conflict of logics/frames; 3. The frame alignment process set in motion by micro-finance The case is based on extended field research......The case describes the first year of efforts to introduce microfinance as a tool to work with vulnerable groups in Sweden, more particularly ex-convicts, former drug-addicts and longterm unemployed women of immigrant background. The teaching objective is to discuss whether micro-finance can be seen...

  20. Buildings with enhanced radioactivity in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swedjemark, G.A.

    1980-12-01

    Enhanced radon/radon daughter concentrations indoors have been found in some houses in Sweden, especially in combination with low air exchange rates. The radon sources have been found to be some types of building materials, some types of filling materials, some types of ground and any combination of these sources. The radon source may also be radon-rich tap water. The same types of building materials also give an enhanced gamma radiation level. In all houses, both lower and higher concentrations of radon than the average levels given here have been found in individual rooms and with single measurements. (author)

  1. Country policy profile - Sweden. October 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-10-01

    The main support mechanism for electricity from RES is a quota system that is based on a certificate trading system. Furthermore, tax incentives are in place and PV installations are subsidised with grants. Promotion of heating from RES is mainly promoted through tax exemptions. Households may deduct investments of renewable energy heating installations replacing heating systems based on fossil fuels from tax. Heating from RES further benefits from an exemption of various taxes, as carbon dioxide taxes on supply, import and production of fossil fuels for heating purposes, which apply for fossil fuels (Source, RES LEGAL Europe, www.res-legal.eu/search-by-country/sweden/)

  2. This is how we manage Sweden`s radioactive waste. Activities 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    SKB operates systems and facilities for the management and final disposal of spent nuclear fuel and other radioactive waste in Sweden. SKB has conducted extensive R, D and D work with regard to constructing a spent fuel encapsulation plant and a deep repository in crystalline bedrock. This annual report treats all the different activities without going into technical details.

  3. Domestic gender equality and childbearing in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances Goldscheider

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sweden, which is among the most gender-equal societies in the world, combines 'modern' family patterns such as unmarried cohabitation, delayed parenthood, high maternal labor force participation, and high break-up rates - all usually linked with low birth rates - with relatively high fertility. Sweden also has a high level of shared parental responsibility for home and children. Objective: After decades of late 20th century research showing that increasing gender equality in the workplace was linked with lower fertility, might gender equality in the home increase fertility? Methods: Using data from the Swedish Young Adult Panel Study (YAPS, we use Cox regression to examine the effects on first, second, and third births of 1 holding attitudes about sharing equally in the care of the home and children, and 2 actual sharing in these domestic tasks. Results: Our analysis shows that, measuring attitudes before the transition to parenthood and actual practice four years later, it is inconsistency between sharing attitudes and the actual division of housework that reduces the likelihood of continued childbearing, especially on second births among women. Conclusions: As women are most likely to confront an inconsistent situation, with egalitarian ideals in a household without equal sharing, it is clear that having a partner who does not share housework is depressing Swedish fertility.

  4. SYSTEM OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT IN SWEDEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOINA POPESCU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Sweden is a unitary state with a history of strong local government involvement in public affairs. Local government has played an important role in the welfare state system with many responsibilities for the delivery of public services to citizens. Because of this important position in the welfare system, it has attracted local politicians of a high calibre. Swedish citizens have on the whole a positive view of Swedish local government and, partly because of the important policy and administrative responsibilities of the local authorities, there has been a high turnout in local elections, although this has been in some decline in recent years. The positive Swedish attitude to local government is also shared by the central government and parliament and Sweden signed and ratified the European Charter of Local Self-Government as early as 1989, just four years after its promulgation. The Instrument of Government (the Swedish Constitution, which came into force in January 1974, gives explicit recognition to the principle of local self-government and this has been further expanded in the Local Government Act (1991 which came into force in January 1992.

  5. Sweden: Combining childbearing and gender equality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Bernhardt

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Sweden is the forerunner of the Second Demographic Transition. Fertility trends have fluctuated greatly since the 1960s, and the 1990s showed both European-highest and lowest-ever-in-Sweden levels, while the cohort pattern has been relatively stable. Period fluctuations have been accompanied by a postponement of entering committed partnerships and parenthood as well as an increasing instability of family relationships. The awareness and the availability of effective contraceptives have been extensive since the mid-1970s, the year the liberal abortion law was introduced. Post-modern values are dominant in this highly secularized society, but ideal family size is among the highest in the European Union, and childlessness has remained at a relatively low level. Ethnic diversification has increased over time, with about one-fifth of the population having a 'foreign background' in the early 2000s. The level of female labor-force participation is the highest in Europe (although mothers of pre-schoolers often work part-time, and young women are just as highly educated as men. Family policies, based on the principle of equality across social groups and gender, seem to play an important role in keeping fertility relatively high. In combination with other factors, family policies also play a role in the fluctuations of fertility rates, as eligibility to parental-leave and benefits as well as the availability of public childcare are linked to parents' labor-force attachment.

  6. Sweden to host a new neutron source

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    The first European neutron source, currently under development, should commence operations by the end of this decade. Its aim: to produce beams of neutrons that can penetrate into the heart of matter without damaging it and reveal its secrets.   An artist's impression of what the ESS should look like in 2019. At the southern end of Sweden, a town called Lund is preparing for the arrival of the world's most powerful neutron source: the European Spallation Source (ESS). Construction is scheduled to start at the beginning of next year, and the facility is expected to become operational by 2019, when it will produce its first neutron beams. “The ESS is the result of an idea that began 20 years ago!” underlines Mats Lindroos, in charge of the ESS Accelerator Division. “Today, 17 European countries support the project, including Sweden, Denmark and Norway, who together account for 50% of the construction funding.” The ESS, whose design is al...

  7. Malthus and neo-Malthusianism in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalvemark, A S

    1980-01-01

    Focus in this discussion is on Malthus and neo-Malthusianism in Sweden. Neo-Malthusianism arrived in Sweden at the beginning of the 1880s when Knut Wicksell gave a public lecture at a youth meeting of a temperance society in Uppsala. The lecture resulted in public scandal and made neo-Malthusian ideas known overnight in Sweden. Wicksell maintained that poverty was the primary cause of most evils in society, and it was caused by the pressure from population increase on the means of subsistence. In his lecture he referred to Malthus explicitly and gave a summary of the Malthusian principle of population on which he based his reasoning. At the time he only knew of Malthus' ideas indirectly by reading George Drysdale's book, "The Elements of Social Science." The questions that arise are whether Malthus' ideas were only indirectly studied and whether neo-Malthusiansim was just seen as an equivalent of birth control and contraceptives, the very means of preventive checks for population growth that Malthus condemned for moral reasons. Wicksell focused on the causes and consequences of emigration in a lecture in 1881. He again saw rapid population growth as the cause of poverty, which in turn caused emigration. The rapid rise in Swedish emigration in the 1880s created considerable interest. Generally, the common view at the time was that Sweden suffered from a certain population pressure and corresponding underemployment. Johan Leffler, a young economist, had a different opinion. He saw the problem in an outspoken Malthusian way, suggesting that under the prevailing overpopulation in Sweden emigration could not be harmful. At the turn of the centruy Gustav Sundbarg was among those describing emigration as a deadly threat to Swedish society. Sundbarg not only turned against Malthus, but he also condemned neo-Malthusianism for moral reasons. Sundbarg maintained that demographic and economic development over the 19th century did not verify Malthus' assumption that population

  8. Occupational doses and ALARA - recent developments in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godas, T.; Viktorsson, C. [Swedish Radiation Protection Institute, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1995-03-01

    Sweden has traditionally experienced very slow doses to workers in the nuclear industry. However, this trend has since last year been broken mainly due to significant maintenance and repair work. This paper will describe occupational dose trends in Sweden and discuss actions that are being implemented to control this new situation.

  9. New Investment Models for Broadband in Denmark and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten; Henten, Anders; Tadayoni, Reza

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse whether the developmental policy model applied for fibre roll-out in Sweden can be used as inspiration for the Danish telecom policy. This is done through a comparison of the two very different policy approaches applied in Denmark and Sweden. A case study on pu...

  10. New Forms of Youth Participation and Work in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Jurgen

    1985-01-01

    Surveys past and current youth employment and social participation programs in Sweden. Maintains that while these were effective in giving Sweden one of the lowest youth unemployment rates among market-economy nations, more must be done to ensure meaningful social participation of youth in the community. (JDH)

  11. Home-School Collaboration in Sweden and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristoffersson, Margaretha; Gu, Limin; Zhang, Yan

    2013-01-01

    This article is a working paper presenting a network building cooperative project between Umea University in Sweden and Zhejiang University in China. The project focuses on parents' involvement and home-school collaboration in Sweden and China and has an ambition to entail a set of empirical objectives: (1) to map and compare the systems,…

  12. General equilibrium effects of increasing carbon taxes in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, G.W. [South Carolina Univ., Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Economics, College of Business Administration; Kristroem, B. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Economics

    1997-09-01

    Sweden was one of the first countries to introduce carbon taxes, and is currently evaluating further carbon taxes. The authors were asked to advise a government commission charged with undertaking the official Swedish evaluation. We did so by constructing and simulating a computable general equilibrium model of Sweden. In this report, the carbon tax debate in Sweden is first reviewed, then our model is described and the main results presented. The conclusion from the cost-benefit analysis is clear, the benefits of increasing the carbon tax in Sweden are a tiny fraction of the costs that consumers must pay in the form of higher prices and reduced incomes. Although we do not put much credence in the gross benefit numbers, they do serve to highlight the basis of our conclusion that carbon tax increases are not currently justifiable in Sweden. 35 refs., 13 tabs.

  13. Delayed HIV diagnosis common in Sweden, 2003-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widgren, Katarina; Skar, Helena; Berglund, Torsten; Kling, Anna-Maria; Tegnell, Anders; Albert, Jan

    2014-12-01

    Early diagnosis of HIV is important for the prognosis of individual patients, because antiretroviral treatment can be started at the appropriate time, and for public health, because transmission can be prevented. Data were collected from 767 HIV patients who were diagnosed in Sweden during 2003-2010 and were infected in Sweden or born in Sweden and infected abroad. A recent infection testing algorithm (RITA) was applied to BED-EIA test results (OD-n Sweden or abroad). Early diagnosis was observed in 271 patients (35%). There was no statistically significant time trend in the yearly percentage of patients with early diagnosis in the entire study group (p = 0.836) or in subgroups. Early diagnosis was significantly more common in men who have sex men (MSM) (45%) than in heterosexuals (21%) and injecting drug users (27%) (p Sweden, which does not appear to diminish.

  14. General equilibrium effects of increasing carbon taxes in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, G.W.; Kristroem, B.

    1997-01-01

    Sweden was one of the first countries to introduce carbon taxes, and is currently evaluating further carbon taxes. The authors were asked to advise a government commission charged with undertaking the official Swedish evaluation. We did so by constructing and simulating a computable general equilibrium model of Sweden. In this report, the carbon tax debate in Sweden is first reviewed, then our model is described and the main results presented. The conclusion from the cost-benefit analysis is clear, the benefits of increasing the carbon tax in Sweden are a tiny fraction of the costs that consumers must pay in the form of higher prices and reduced incomes. Although we do not put much credence in the gross benefit numbers, they do serve to highlight the basis of our conclusion that carbon tax increases are not currently justifiable in Sweden. 35 refs., 13 tabs

  15. Climate impact from peat utilisation in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uppenberg, S.; Zetterberg, L.; Aahman, M.

    2001-08-01

    The climate impact from the use of peat for energy production in Sweden has been evaluated in terms of contribution to atmospheric radiative forcing. This was done by attempting to answer the question 'What will be the climate impact if one would use 1 m 2 of mire for peat extraction during 20 years?'. Two different methods of after-treatment were studied: afforestation and restoration of wetland. The climate impact from a peatland - wetland energy scenario and a peatland - forestry energy scenario was compared to the climate impact from coal, natural gas and forest residues. Sensitivity analyses were performed to evaluate which parameters that are important to take into consideration in order to minimize the climate impact from peat utilisation

  16. Documents and legal texts: Australia, Germany, Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2012-01-01

    Australia: National Radioactive Waste Management Act 2012 No. 29, 2012 (An Act to make provision in relation to the selection of a site for, and the establishment and operation of, a radioactive waste management facility, and for related purposes). Germany: Act on the Peaceful Utilisation of Atomic Energy and the Protection against its Hazards (Atomic Energy Act) of 23 December 1959, as amended and promulgated on 15 July 1985, last amendment by the Act of 8 November 2011. Sweden: The Swedish Radiation Safety Authority's regulations concerning clearance of materials, rooms, buildings and land in practices involving ionising radiation (Swedish Radiation Safety Authority Regulatory Code issued on 20 October 2011, Published on 2 November 2011); The Swedish Radiation Safety Authority's general advice on the application of the regulations concerning clearance of materials, rooms, buildings and land in practices involving ionising radiation (issued on 20 October 2011)

  17. Media use in distance education in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman F. Davies

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article gives an overview of distance language teaching which developed rapidly in Sweden after the Second World War. It argues that so far little use has been made of technical aids and that the computer as such is still a stranger both to the language teacher and the student. The writer concludes that perhaps the time has come for a technical revolution amongst Arts students. Met hierdie artikel word 'n oorsig gegee oor afstandsonderrig-spesifiek wat tale betref-soos dit in Swede ontwikkel het na die Tweede Wereldoorlog. Daar word op gewys dat tot dusver min gebruik gemaak is van tegniese hulpmiddels en dat vera! die rekenaar onderbenut is. Die skrywer sluit met die gedagte dat die tyd moontlik ryp is vir 'n tegnologiese rewolusie"in die geledere van die Lettere en Wysbegeerte.

  18. Physical protection philosophy and techniques in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufva, B.

    1988-01-01

    The circumstances for the protection of nuclear power plants are special in Sweden. A very important factor is that armed guards at the facilities are alien to the Swedish society. They do not use them. The Swedish concept of physical protection accepts that the aggressor will get into the facility. With this in mind, the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) has established the policy that administrative, technical, and organizational measures will be directed toward preventing an aggressor from damaging the reactor, even if he has occupied the facility. In addition, the best conditions possible shall be established for the operator and the police to reoccupy the plant. The author believes this policy is different from that of many other countries. Therefore, he focusses on the Swedish philosophy and techniques for the physical protection of nuclear power plants

  19. Climate impact from peat utilisation in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uppenberg, S.; Zetterberg, L.; Aahman, M.

    2001-08-01

    The climate impact from the use of peat for energy production in Sweden has been evaluated in terms of contribution to atmospheric radiative forcing. This was done by attempting to answer the question 'What will be the climate impact if one would use 1 m{sup 2} of mire for peat extraction during 20 years?'. Two different methods of after-treatment were studied: afforestation and restoration of wetland. The climate impact from a peatland - wetland energy scenario and a peatland - forestry energy scenario was compared to the climate impact from coal, natural gas and forest residues. Sensitivity analyses were performed to evaluate which parameters that are important to take into consideration in order to minimize the climate impact from peat utilisation.

  20. Osmium in environmental samples from Northeast Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodushkin, Ilia; Engstroem, Emma; Soerlin, Dieke; Ponter, Christer; Baxter, Douglas C.

    2007-01-01

    Osmium (Os) concentrations and 187 Os/ 188 Os isotope abundance ratios are presented for sedimentary materials, soils, humus, plants, mushrooms, mosses and lichens collected in the vicinity of the town of Lulea, Northeast Sweden, the data for biological specimens being the first reported. Contributions from sampling and varying exposure time to the observed environmental variability were evaluated. Sedimentary materials (from both fresh and brackish water) are most elevated in radiogenic 187 Os, followed by inorganic soil horizons, mushrooms and humus. The Os isotopic compositions of plants, mosses and lichens are much less radiogenic, with mean 187 Os/ 188 Os lying within a relatively narrow 0.3-0.6 range. Significant temporal variations in Os concentrations and isotopic compositions of plant samples are attributed to integrative uptake of airborne Os with non-radiogenic composition. Measured Os concentrations in biological matrices increase in the order: small shrub leaves (blueberry and lingonberry) ≤ spruce needles ≤ mushrooms ≤ tree leaves ≤ pine needles 4 ) in the environment. Though the Os content of samples from Northeast Sweden does not differ significantly from matrix-matched international reference materials (not certified for Os) of abiotic origin, the estimates of gaseous OsO 4 concentrations are roughly an order of magnitude higher than have been reported for particle-bound Os in other studies. The pronounced spatial variations between relatively closely situated sites in mean 187 Os/ 188 Os ratios for samples of the same species (presumably with the same dominating uptake mechanism) point to the presence of different local Os sources. This study therefore demonstrates that emissions of Os from automobile catalytic converters are not the only source of contemporary environmental contamination

  1. Sparse district-heating in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Stefan Forsaeus [SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Building Technology and Mechanics, P.O. Box 24036, SE-400 22 Goeteborg (Sweden); Reidhav, Charlotte [Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Lygnerud, Kristina [Goeteborg University, School of Business, Economics and Law, Department of Business Administration, P.O. Box 610, SE-405 30 Goeteborg (Sweden); Werner, Sven [Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Energy and Environment, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2008-07-15

    This paper presents a review of the sparse district-heating research programme undertaken in Sweden between 2002 and 2006. The goal of the programme was to increase the future competitiveness for district heat in low heat density areas, e.g., suburban single-family houses and small villages. Such areas are unfavourable, since revenues from heat sold are low compared with the investment cost for the local distribution network. In Sweden, district heat has a dominant position in the heat market for residential and service-sector buildings. In order for the business to grow, it is necessary to increase the rate of expansion in the detached-house segment. This is why the programme was initiated. The extent of the programme was set at EUR 3.6 million with equal financing from the Swedish District-Heating Association and the Swedish Energy-Agency. The research was carried out in three phases: a state of the art survey; a development phase focused on productivity gains where new research on both technology and customer interaction was performed; and finally a demonstration phase where new methods were tested in full-scale field operation. The programme has shown that the Swedish district-heating industry needs to adjust in order to reach a higher profitability for sparse district-heating investments. Tradition from large-scale high-density district heating is hard to scale to fit sparse district-heating systems. For example, the construction becomes very labour intensive and the industry is weak when it comes to market-oriented business logic, sales and private customer interaction. Innovation seems to be a way forward and active management of innovations is a way to create increased value of the investments. Other keys to improving the profitability of sparse district-heating investments are more efficient working routines (resulting in higher productivity) and revised ways of customer communications. These seem more important than increasing efficiency in district

  2. Osmium in environmental samples from Northeast Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodushkin, Ilia [Division of Applied Geology, Lulea University of Technology, S-971 87 Lulea (Sweden); ALS Laboratory Group, ALS Analytica AB, Aurorum 10, S-977 75 Lulea (Sweden)], E-mail: ilia.rodushkin@alsglobal.com; Engstroem, Emma [Division of Applied Geology, Lulea University of Technology, S-971 87 Lulea (Sweden); Soerlin, Dieke; Ponter, Christer; Baxter, Douglas C. [ALS Laboratory Group, ALS Analytica AB, Aurorum 10, S-977 75 Lulea (Sweden)

    2007-11-01

    Osmium (Os) concentrations and {sup 187}Os/{sup 188}Os isotope abundance ratios are presented for sedimentary materials, soils, humus, plants, mushrooms, mosses and lichens collected in the vicinity of the town of Lulea, Northeast Sweden, the data for biological specimens being the first reported. Contributions from sampling and varying exposure time to the observed environmental variability were evaluated. Sedimentary materials (from both fresh and brackish water) are most elevated in radiogenic {sup 187}Os, followed by inorganic soil horizons, mushrooms and humus. The Os isotopic compositions of plants, mosses and lichens are much less radiogenic, with mean {sup 187}Os/{sup 188}Os lying within a relatively narrow 0.3-0.6 range. Significant temporal variations in Os concentrations and isotopic compositions of plant samples are attributed to integrative uptake of airborne Os with non-radiogenic composition. Measured Os concentrations in biological matrices increase in the order: small shrub leaves (blueberry and lingonberry) {<=} spruce needles {<=} mushrooms {<=} tree leaves {<=} pine needles < mosses << lichens. The concentrations found in three different species of plant were used to provide the first estimates of gaseous osmium tetroxide (OsO{sub 4}) in the environment. Though the Os content of samples from Northeast Sweden does not differ significantly from matrix-matched international reference materials (not certified for Os) of abiotic origin, the estimates of gaseous OsO{sub 4} concentrations are roughly an order of magnitude higher than have been reported for particle-bound Os in other studies. The pronounced spatial variations between relatively closely situated sites in mean {sup 187}Os/{sup 188}Os ratios for samples of the same species (presumably with the same dominating uptake mechanism) point to the presence of different local Os sources. This study therefore demonstrates that emissions of Os from automobile catalytic converters are not the only

  3. The Autumn Ghost : the history of polioepidemics in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Axelsson, Per

    2004-01-01

    Polio epidemics appeared in Sweden in 1881 and at the turn of the 20th century the disease became an annual feature in the epidemiological pattern. Due to vaccination starting in 1957 epidemics ceased to exist in Sweden around 1965. This thesis deals with the history polio epidemics in Sweden, 1880-1965 and studies the demographical influence of polio, how the medical authorities investigated and tried to combat it, and the care of those who contracted the disease. A study of polio mortality ...

  4. Annual Report 1999. Electric power in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-07-01

    Power Association is of the opinion that the increase in production taxes on nuclear power is completely misdirected. Sweden is the only EU country to have production taxes on electricity. Uncertainty and the lack of stability in the present taxation system will entail considerable difficulties both for electricity-intensive industry and for the power companies vis-a-vis long-term investment in Sweden. In 1999, overall consumption in the country fell by 0.3 TWh to 142.9 TWh, compared with last year. The decrease is explained by the fact that the autumn was very warm. Inflow into the major rivers was somewhat higher than normal enabling 70.4 TWh to be generated by the hydropower plants. This is 6 TWh more than during a normal year. Nuclear power accounted for 70.2 TWh, equal to the previous year. Additionally, combined heat and power and condensing plants accounted for 9.5 TWh, almost half of which using biofuels. Wind power continues to increase. At year-end, there were about 480 wind power plants, and the annual production was 0.4 TWh. Overall electricity production in the country was 150.5 TWh, a decrease of 3.4 TWh, or just under three percent. Exports amounted to 16.1 TWh and imports to 8.5 TWh. The average price for the year on the Nordic power exchange's spot market (Sector Sweden) was SEK 0.119 per kWh. The low price is explained by the mild weather and a plentiful supply of water in the Nordic reservoirs. On 1 November, the electricity market was changed in such a way that small consumers, with a fuse rating of up to 200 amps, were also able to take part. Parliament's decision to remove the requirement for continually registering hourly meters was of crucial importance. With this measure, the electricity market was also opened up to household customers. Hourly metering was replaced by profile settlement. Customers were offered fixed prices that could be considerably lower than previously. Flexible prices were on offer, e.g. linked to the power exchange's spot

  5. Nuclear Liability and Insurance for Nuclear Damage in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thofelt, H.

    1998-01-01

    This paper contains some facts about the Swedish nuclear energy production system and about the nuclear operators liability with the important issues. The nuclear insurance of Sweden is also explained in short terms. (author)

  6. The U.S. Financial Crisis: Lessons From Sweden

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jackson, James K

    2008-01-01

    In the early 1990s, Sweden faced a banking and exchange rate crisis that led it to rescue banks that had experienced large losses on their balance sheets and that threatened a collapse of the banking system...

  7. Sweden's Experiment in Human Sexuality and Sex Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyman, Howard S.; Hoyman, Annelis S.

    1971-01-01

    As a prerequisite to understanding Swedish views about sex education, some background knowledge and insight into Sweden's development as a country in rapid transition is reported. Impressions of Swedish sex education, methods and aids, are related. (BY)

  8. Projects on filter testing in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normann, B.; Wiktorsson, C.

    1985-01-01

    The Swedish nuclear power program comprises twelve light water reactors. Nine are boiling water reactors of ASEA-ATOM design and three are pressurized water reactors of Westinghouse design. Of these, ten are in operation and two are under construction and planned to go into operation during late 1984 and early 1985, respectively. Frequent tests on the penetration of particles through HEPA filters, regular tests on the adsorption of methyl iodide in the stand-by carbon filter units by laboratory testing are discussed. The proposed new regulations are based on many years of experience of filter system operation and of tests in-situ and in the laboratory. Moisture and water are factors that affect the functioning of filters. In addition, high loading of dust can give rise to increased penetration through HEPA filters, however pinholes could have less influence on the total penetration. Laboratory tests show that DOP particles retain 30-40% in 90 mm carbon filters (8-12 mesh). However no effect on the ability of carbon to adsorb methyl iodide after DOP contamination in combined carbon/HEPA filters has been observed. Leakage from ventilation ducts can cause radioactive contamination problems during filter testing with radioiodine. In-situ testing of control-room filters has been performed using inactive methyl iodide. A type of carbon bed not previously used in Sweden has been introduced. Testing of this filter type is discussed

  9. Relative Deprivation and Sickness Absence in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Helgertz

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: A high prevalence of sickness absence in many countries, at a substantial societal cost, underlines the importance to understand its determining mechanisms. This study focuses on the link between relative deprivation and the probability of sickness absence. Methods: 184,000 men and women in Sweden were followed between 1982 and 2001. The sample consists of working individuals between the ages of 19 and 65. The outcome is defined as experiencing more than 14 days of sickness absence during a year. Based on the complete Swedish population, an individual’s degree of relative deprivation is measured through income compared to individuals of the same age, sex, educational level and type. In accounting for the possibility that sickness absence and socioeconomic status are determined by common factors, discrete-time duration models were estimated, accounting for unobserved heterogeneity through random effects. Results: The results confirm that the failure to account for the dynamics of the individual’s career biases the influence from socioeconomic characteristics. Results consistently suggest a major influence from relative deprivation, with a consistently lower risk of sickness absence among the highly educated. Conclusions: Altering individual’s health behavior through education appears more efficient in reducing the reliance on sickness absence, rather than redistributive policies.

  10. Relative deprivation and sickness absence in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgertz, Jonas; Hess, Wolfgang; Scott, Kirk

    2013-08-29

    A high prevalence of sickness absence in many countries, at a substantial societal cost, underlines the importance to understand its determining mechanisms. This study focuses on the link between relative deprivation and the probability of sickness absence. 184,000 men and women in Sweden were followed between 1982 and 2001. The sample consists of working individuals between the ages of 19 and 65. The outcome is defined as experiencing more than 14 days of sickness absence during a year. Based on the complete Swedish population, an individual's degree of relative deprivation is measured through income compared to individuals of the same age, sex, educational level and type. In accounting for the possibility that sickness absence and socioeconomic status are determined by common factors, discrete-time duration models were estimated, accounting for unobserved heterogeneity through random effects. The results confirm that the failure to account for the dynamics of the individual's career biases the influence from socioeconomic characteristics. Results consistently suggest a major influence from relative deprivation, with a consistently lower risk of sickness absence among the highly educated. Altering individual's health behavior through education appears more efficient in reducing the reliance on sickness absence, rather than redistributive policies.

  11. Northern fowl mite (Ornithonyssus sylviarum) in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, D S; Otman, F; Lundqvist, L; Höglund, J; Engström, A; Chirico, J

    2014-12-01

    Haematophagous mites were collected from the vent region and plumage of chickens in six hobby flocks of ornamental breeds in Sweden, one of which included turkeys. Soiled vent skin and feathers, dermatitis, hyperkeratosis, skin necroses and ulcers were observed in 12 necropsied birds from two of the flocks. The mites were identified as the northern fowl mite Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Mesostigmata: Macronyssidae). This was supported by sequence analysis of a 642-bp region in the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene (COI) in mites collected from five flocks, which showed 97-99% sequence similarity to O. sylviarum by blast analysis. Pairwise sequence comparisons revealed nucleotide variations in the range of 0-2.8%, whereas amino acid sequences were highly conserved. This paper represents one of very few records of O. sylviarum in European poultry, and is the first to report COI sequence data for O. sylviarum from poultry in Europe. © 2014 The Royal Entomological Society.

  12. Public spending on rural tourism in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åsa Almstedt

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is an important part of rural policies in European countries. An increased demand for rural amenities is seen as creating a more diversified labour market and contributing to the restructuring of the economy, from primary sectors and manufacturing to a more service-oriented economy, which has been termed a “new rural economy”. As a result, and as often presented in many policy documents, tourism is now seen as a universal tool for rural development. The purpose of this study is to investigate the distribution of public spending on tourism in rural areas in Sweden. It focuses on public spending on the main programme for rural development, the Swedish rural development programme, but also on the regional structural funds programmes, from 2000 to 2013. Another subject of interest is how policy makers understand rural tourism as presented in policy documents since these documents, to a great extent, direct programme spending in terms of projects and their content. This study is based on register data on programme spending, policy documents and programme evaluation reports. Results show that a relatively small amount of total public spending targets tourism – mainly going to accommodation, activities and marketing efforts – indicating that tourism is still not a prioritised area despite policy makers’ understanding of rural tourism as expressed in policy documents. Thus, although public efforts target adequate parts of the tourism industry, they cannot be expected to contribute significantly to the restructuring of the rural economy.

  13. Reindeer pastoralism in Sweden 1550-1950

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lennart Lundmark

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available In the middle of the 16th century we get the first opportunity to a more detailed knowledge of reindeerpastoralism in Sweden. At that time the Sami lived in a hunter-gatherer economy. A family had in average about 10-20 domesticated reindeer, mainly used for transport. They could also be milked and used as decoys when hunting wild reindeer. During late 16th century the Swedish state and merchants bought large amounts of fur from the Sami. The common payment was butter and flour. This created a new prosperity, which lead to a considerable increase in population in Swedish Lapland. The population became too large for a hunter-gatherer economy. A crisis in early 17th century was the starting point for the transition to a large-scale nomadic reindeer pastoralism. Up to the middle of the 18th century intensive reindeer pastoralism was successful. But the pastoralism became gradually too intensive and diseases started to spread when the herds were kept too densely crowded for milking in summertime. During the first decades of the 19th century reindeer pastoralism in Sweden went through a major crisis. The number of reindeer herding mountain-Sami decreased considerably, mainly because they went to live permanently along the Norwegian coastline. Intensive reindeer pastoralism started to give way for extensive herding towards the end of the 19th century. In the north of Sweden influences from the Kautokeino Sami were an important factor, in the south extensive reindeer herding started to expand when the market for meat came closer to the Sami. During the 1920s the milking of reindeer ceased in Sweden, except in a few families. At that time Sami families from the north had been removed southwards. They further demonstrated the superiority of extensive herding to the Sami in mid- and southern Lapland. Reindeer pastoralism is basically a system of interaction between man and animal, but it has been heavily influenced by market forces and state intervention

  14. Occupational balance in health professionals in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagman, Petra; Lindmark, Ulrika; Rolander, Bo; Wåhlin, Charlotte; Håkansson, Carita

    2017-01-01

    Health care employees are often women, a group that has high degrees of sick leave and perhaps problems attaining occupational balance. However, people think differently about their everyday activities and it is therefore important to take their perceptions into account but occupational balance has not yet been measured in health professionals. The aim was to describe occupational balance in three different samples of health professionals in Sweden. A further aim was to investigate whether occupational therapists (OTs) rate their occupational balance differently from other health professionals. Four hundred and eighty-two health professionals, employees in public dentistry, mental health care and OTs, aged 21-70 years participated. The participants' occupational balance was measured using the occupational balance questionnaire (OBQ). The ratings of occupational balance were similar to earlier studies and did not differ significantly between the samples. The OTs' occupational balance was also similar to that of the other health professionals. The similarities in occupational balance indicate the same difficulties in attaining it. The result highlights the possibility that working people face similar difficulties in achieving occupational balance. Further research is warranted about how to attain it.

  15. Nesting and migration in the introduced Canada goose in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Sjöberg, Göran

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the thesis was to document patterns in breeding and migration in Swedish Canada geese Branta canadensis, to explain these against the genetic and historical background of the population, and to test predictions of hypotheses pertaining to parental investment. The Canada goose population in Sweden was founded by the introduction of a few individuals in the 1930's. DNA fingerprint similarity between geese breeding in Sweden was on average at the same level as between inbred close rel...

  16. Energy policies of IEA countries: Sweden - 2008 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-05-15

    Sweden is one of the leading IEA countries in the use of renewable energy and has a long tradition of ambitious and successful policies to improve energy efficiency. Compared to the other IEA countries, Sweden's CO2 emissions per capita and per unit of GDP are low, partly owing to efficient and low-carbon space heating, and virtually carbon-free electricity generation. The country also remains a forerunner in electricity market liberalisation. Still, even if Sweden has continued to make progress in most areas of its energy policy since the IEA last conducted an in-depth review in 2004, there is room for improvement. As Sweden plans to further increase the use of renewable energy, it is crucial that these supplies are produced and used in the most sustainable manner for the environment and the economy as a whole. With regard to CO2 emissions, more can be done in all sectors, but as transport is the largest polluter and its emissions are increasing, it is the logical focus for Sweden's efforts to reduce emissions further. This is a significant challenge. Nuclear provides almost half of the electricity in Sweden, at a low cost and without CO2 emissions. But the future of nuclear power in the national power mix is still uncertain. To provide clear guidance to the electricity sector, Sweden will need to resolve the ambiguity about the future of nuclear power in the country. This review analyses the energy challenges facing Sweden and provides critiques and recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to provide input to Swedish energy policy makers to help them identify a path towards a more sustainable energy future.

  17. Public Employment, Taxes and the Welfare State in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Sherwin Rosen

    1995-01-01

    All employment growth in Sweden since the early 1960's is attributable to labor market entry of women, working in local public sector jobs that implement the Welfare State. Sweden has 'monetized' or 'nationalized' the family. Women are paid at public expense to provide household services for other families. Subsidizing purchased household services encourages labor force participation of women through substitution of market- for self-provided services. It also reduces the marginal cost prices ...

  18. Sweden in the Delaware Valley: Everyday Life and Material Culture in New Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naum, Magdalena; Ekengren, Fredrik; Zagal Mach Wolfe, Ulla Isabel

    2013-01-01

    In 1637 the Swedish Crown, encouraged by Dutch merchants, developed a plan to establish a colonial outpost in America to tap into profitable tobacco and beaver pelt trade. The same year the first cargo ships left Sweden and sailed westwards to claim their piece of America along the Delaware River......, their perception and interactions with the neighbouring Native American groups. It discusses the ways material culture was used, exchanged and appropriated by the colonists and the local Lenape and Susquehannock in the processes of meeting, negotiations and daily coexistence....

  19. Annual Report 1999. Electric power in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-15

    . The Swedish Power Association is of the opinion that the increase in production taxes on nuclear power is completely misdirected. Sweden is the only EU country to have production taxes on electricity. Uncertainty and the lack of stability in the present taxation system will entail considerable difficulties both for electricity-intensive industry and for the power companies vis-a-vis long-term investment in Sweden. In 1999, overall consumption in the country fell by 0.3 TWh to 142.9 TWh, compared with last year. The decrease is explained by the fact that the autumn was very warm. Inflow into the major rivers was somewhat higher than normal enabling 70.4 TWh to be generated by the hydropower plants. This is 6 TWh more than during a normal year. Nuclear power accounted for 70.2 TWh, equal to the previous year. Additionally, combined heat and power and condensing plants accounted for 9.5 TWh, almost half of which using biofuels. Wind power continues to increase. At year-end, there were about 480 wind power plants, and the annual production was 0.4 TWh. Overall electricity production in the country was 150.5 TWh, a decrease of 3.4 TWh, or just under three percent. Exports amounted to 16.1 TWh and imports to 8.5 TWh. The average price for the year on the Nordic power exchange's spot market (Sector Sweden) was SEK 0.119 per kWh. The low price is explained by the mild weather and a plentiful supply of water in the Nordic reservoirs. On 1 November, the electricity market was changed in such a way that small consumers, with a fuse rating of up to 200 amps, were also able to take part. Parliament's decision to remove the requirement for continually registering hourly meters was of crucial importance. With this measure, the electricity market was also opened up to household customers. Hourly metering was replaced by profile settlement. Customers were offered fixed prices that could be considerably lower than previously. Flexible prices were on offer, e.g. linked to the

  20. Tardigrades of Sweden; an updated check-list.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidetti, Roberto; Jönsson, K Ingemar; Kristensen, Reinhardt Møbjerg

    2015-07-07

    Tardigrades occur worldwide and in a variety of ecosystems and habitats representing an important component of the micrometazoan biodiversity. Several studies documenting the occurrence of tardigrades in Sweden have been published since the first reports in early 1900, but no comprehensive summary of these studies have been published. We compiled the available information on recorded tardigrades from Sweden, using material from published studies and museum and university collections. In total, our review document 101 species of tardigrades that have been recorded from Sweden (an updated checklist of tardigrades from Sweden will be available online), of which 14 species are new records for the country. The highest number of species was recorded in the northernmost province of Lappland and the more southern provinces of Uppland and Skåne, while much lower species numbers are reported from the middle part of Sweden. This pattern probably represents biased sampling activities of biologists rather than real differences in biodiversity of tardigrades. In view of the few studies that have been made on tardigrade biodiversity in Sweden, the relatively high number of tardigrade species recorded, representing almost a tenth of the species recorded worldwide, indicates that many more species remain to be found. In this respect, more studies of the marine ecosystems along the Swedish west coast and the long Baltic Sea coastline would be of particular interest.

  1. Income distribution and mortality in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Lindholm

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: The hypothesis that a high income inequality on a societal level is associated with poor health outcomes has been both rejected and accepted in empirical studies. Whether the influence of economic circumstances on health operates at the individual level or societal level has important implications on policy and intervention alternatives. The objective of this study was to analyse the relationship between income inequality and mortality in Swedish municipalities and if the relationship varies depending on the mean income or on the time-lag between income inequality and mortality.

    Methods: The study was based on register data on mean income and income inequality (Gini coefficients from Statistics Sweden 1982 and 1998, aggregated on the municipality level. Data on age-standardised death rates per 100,000 persons were obtained for 1983, 1988, 1993, 1998 and 2002. The analysis on 1998 was a test of the robustness of the results.

    Results: The relationship between high income inequality in 1982 and mortality in 1983 was negative with a similar relationship in 1998. Using latency periods, the results show a decreasing trend of mortality in relation to higher Gini coefficients. A positive relationship between Gini and mean income implies that municipalities with larger income distribution also had a higher mean income and vice versa.

    Conclusions: High income inequality does not have a negative effect on mortality in Swedish municipalities. The municipalities with high income inequality have also high mean income as opposed to many other countries. The income level seems to be more substantial for mortality than the income inequality.

  2. A review of the seismotectonics of Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muir Wood, R.

    1993-04-01

    A study has been undertaken of data relating to the seismotectonic state of Sweden, both under current conditions and also through the glaciation/deglaciation cycle. The focus of the study has been to explore primary data on all the separate sources of information bearing on seismotectonics including: a. regional tectonics, b. neotectonic surface faulting, c. geodetic and tide-gauge observations of land-level changes, d. the horizontal strain field, e. Holocene land-level changes, f. historical and instrumental seismicity, g. palaeosesmicity, h. stress determinations, and i. geothermal observations. These data have then been combined into a regional seismotectonic model, relating the distribution, style and rates of seismicity to the seismogenic properties of the crust and the continuing crustal deformation. From the evidence of the modelled and observed horizontal strain field and the diversity of focal mechanisms, all the current seismicity of the region appear to be a response to postglacial rebound. Through and understanding of the interaction between the pre-existing tectonic strain field, and the strain field resulting from glacial loading and unloading it is possible to make testable predictions about the localisation of deformation and seismicity in Fennoscandia at different stages of the glacial cycle. Immediately following glacial unloading intense deformation was concentrated on the northwestern flank of the down warped crustal bowl. Currently low-level deformation and associated seismicity is most pronounced around the western margins of the dome of postglacial rebound. While the rebound dome is primarily extensional relieving the high levels of compression that accompanied crustal down warping, there are also areas of compression and extension associated with flexures in the rebound surface that appear to affect the distribution and style of seismicity. The study shows how the significance and localisation of deformation and seismicity may be predicted

  3. Thermomechanical studies in granite at Stripa, Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, N.G.W.; Myer, L.R.

    1981-01-01

    Media other than rock salt are being considered for the deep, geologic disposal of nuclear wastes. The disposal of high-level nuclear waste in a deep, underground repository will subject the rock to a thermal pulse that will induce displacements, strains, and stresses in the rock. Thermomechanical experiments, with electrical heaters simulating the thermal output of waste canisters, were carried out in granite at a depth of 340 m below surface adjacent to a defunct iron ore mine at Stripa, Sweden. Changes in temperature, displacement, and stress in the rock around these heaters were measured, and the measurements were compared with predictions calculated from the theory of linear thermoelasticity. Measured temperature changes agreed well with predictions, but measured displacements and stresses were consistently less than those predicted with constant values for the coefficient of thermal expansion and elastic properties of the rock. A laboratory test program to measure these coefficients over ranges of stress and temperature representing those in the field experiment has been initiated. Test specimens were taken from cores recovered from the instrumentation holes in the Stripa experiments. Preliminary results from laboratory tests on specimens free of joints indicate that the values of Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio increase from about 60 to 80 MPa and from 0.15 to 0.22, respectively, as the confining stress is increased from 2 to 55 MPa; these values decrease with increasing temperature, more so at 2 MPa than at 55 MPa. The linear coefficient of thermal expansion at a confining stress of 30 MPa increases from about 10 x 10 - 6 / 0 C at 40 0 C to about 14 x 10 - 6 / 0 C. The magnitudes of these changes are not sufficient to resolve the disparity between measured and predicted results. Perhaps the properties of test specimens containing joints will show greater variations in the values of the thermomechanical coefficients with temperature and pressure

  4. Neotectonics in northern Sweden - geological investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagerbaeck, R.; Witschard, F.

    1983-05-01

    Fairly large areas around the formerly known quaternary faults have been air photo interpreted. The fault known as the Parvie fault has been found to extend somewhat further towards the south, thereby crossing the valley of the Stora Lule river. Furthermore, another fault has been discovered in the Lansjaerv region, and thus the faults in this area form a better fit to the regional pattern, with a SSW - NNE trend and a relative uplift of the eastern part. The fault scarps have been leveled photogrammatrically, and reproduced on maps on the scales of 1:50000 and 1:100000, and on overview maps on the scale of 1:250000. The highest leveld scarps somewhat exceed 30 m. The total length of the faults is roughly 300 km. During the air photo interpretation, several landslides have been detected, and it seems evident from their location that there is a causal connection between faults and landslides. It seems evident that the different faults are not simultaneously formed, but created at separate events. Representative samples have been collected, and thin sections of these investigated under the microscope. Often, the bedrock shows signs of older tectonic influence, and it seems that the faults largerly have been released along existing zones of weakness in the bedrock. However, striking exceptions, with fracturing through unaltered rock, have been found in several places. The faults illustrated in the maps below undoubtedly represent the most important signs of late quaternary fault activity in Norrbotten east of the Caledonian mountains. The geographic, and very probably also causal connection between faults and landslides seems obvious in both Finland and Sweden. We need a satisfactory tectonic explanation for the faults. Undoubtedly, the glacial - isostatic forces have a central role. The strike of the faults is approximately perpendicular to the direction of plate motion, and compressive forces have acted at the formation of the faults. (author)

  5. Annual Report 1999. Electric power in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    . The Swedish Power Association is of the opinion that the increase in production taxes on nuclear power is completely misdirected. Sweden is the only EU country to have production taxes on electricity. Uncertainty and the lack of stability in the present taxation system will entail considerable difficulties both for electricity-intensive industry and for the power companies vis-a-vis long-term investment in Sweden. In 1999, overall consumption in the country fell by 0.3 TWh to 142.9 TWh, compared with last year. The decrease is explained by the fact that the autumn was very warm. Inflow into the major rivers was somewhat higher than normal enabling 70.4 TWh to be generated by the hydropower plants. This is 6 TWh more than during a normal year. Nuclear power accounted for 70.2 TWh, equal to the previous year. Additionally, combined heat and power and condensing plants accounted for 9.5 TWh, almost half of which using biofuels. Wind power continues to increase. At year-end, there were about 480 wind power plants, and the annual production was 0.4 TWh. Overall electricity production in the country was 150.5 TWh, a decrease of 3.4 TWh, or just under three percent. Exports amounted to 16.1 TWh and imports to 8.5 TWh. The average price for the year on the Nordic power exchange's spot market (Sector Sweden) was SEK 0.119 per kWh. The low price is explained by the mild weather and a plentiful supply of water in the Nordic reservoirs. On 1 November, the electricity market was changed in such a way that small consumers, with a fuse rating of up to 200 amps, were also able to take part. Parliament's decision to remove the requirement for continually registering hourly meters was of crucial importance. With this measure, the electricity market was also opened up to household customers. Hourly metering was replaced by profile settlement. Customers were offered fixed prices that could be considerably lower than previously. Flexible prices were on offer, e.g. linked to the

  6. Gambling in Sweden: the cultural and socio-political context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binde, Per

    2014-02-01

    To provide an overview, with respect to Sweden, of the cultural history of gambling, the commercialization of gambling, problem gambling research, the prevalence of problem gambling and its prevention and treatment. A review of the literature and official documents relating to gambling in Sweden; involvement in gambling research and regulation. Gambling has long been part of Swedish culture. Since about 1980 the gambling market, although still largely monopolistic, has been commercialized. At the same time, problem gambling has emerged as a concept in the public health paradigm. Debate regarding whether or not Sweden's national restrictions on the gambling market are compliant with European Community legislation has helped to put problem gambling on the political agenda. Despite expanded gambling services, the extent of problem gambling on the population level has not changed significantly over the past decade. The stability of problem gambling in Sweden at the population level suggests a homeostatic system involving the gambling market, regulation, prevention and treatment and adaption to risk and harm by gamblers. We have relatively good knowledge of the extent and characteristics of problem gambling in Sweden and of how to treat it, but little is known of how to prevent it effectively. Knowledge is needed of the effectiveness of regulatory actions and approaches, and of responsible gambling measures implemented by gambling companies. © 2013 The Author, Addiction © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  7. Energy in Sweden. Leading the way to a sustainable future?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalenback, J.-O.

    2002-01-01

    This article traces the history of Sweden's energy policy from its reliance on fossil fuel imports in 1970 to the shift towards sustainable energy systems. The levying of a general energy tax and carbon dioxide taxation, and Sweden's large reduction in emissions are reported. Energy conservation, energy efficiency standards, the revision of building codes for energy efficiency, and innovative energy efficiency programmes are discussed. Renewable energy technologies are examined covering hydropower and wind power plants in Sweden, the use of biofuels, the development of new heat pumps, and solar heaters. The suggested long-term goal of 50% reduction in carbon dioxide emissions from 1990 to 2050 is considered. Swedish taxes on fuel for heat generation (1999) are listed

  8. Quality of renewable energy utilization in transport in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampinen, Ari

    2015-04-01

    Renewable energy utilization in transportation (RES-T) is a long way behind its utilization in power (RES-E) and heat (RES-H) sectors. International and national environmental policies have recently given a lot of emphasis on this problem. For that reason information is sought on how to implement solutions both politically and technologically. As Sweden is a global leader in this area, it can provide valuable examples. In 2012 Sweden became the first country to reach the binding requirement of the European Union for at least 10 % share for renewable energy in transport energy consumption. But qualitative development has been even stronger than quantitative. Among the success stories behind qualitative progress, most noteworthy are those created by innovative municipal policies. By 2030 Sweden aims to achieve fossil fuel independent road transport system and by 2050 completely carbon neutral transport system in all modes of transport.

  9. Vocational Education and Industrial Relations: Sweden 1910–1975

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Karlsson

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article we discuss vocational education in Sweden against the backdrop of the changing nature of industrial relations in the period from ca 1910 to 1975. Drawing upon evidence from official inquiries and case studies of two industries (forest industry and shipbuilding, we show that Sweden in the 1940s and 1950s can be described as a collective skill formation system in the making, where firms, intermediary associations, and the state cooperated around vocational education and training. However, Sweden developed in a very different direction than similar countries. We argue that this remarkable change of trajectory cannot be understood without considering the simultaneous disintegration of the model of industrial relations, along with general changes in the system of education.

  10. Sweden's Leadership in a Climate Constrained World. An analysis for Sweden of the Greenhouse Development Rights framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kartha, Sivan; Baer, Paul; Athanasiou, Tom; Kemp-Benedict, Eric

    2008-10-15

    This report presents an analysis of the Greenhouse Development Rights framework applied to the case of Sweden. Its objective is to provide useful quantitative guidance on Sweden's role as a leader in our climate constrained world. It presents guidance that is rigorous from the standpoint of climate science and framed in the context of a right to development for the world's poor. This analysis fully accounts for Sweden's true responsibility, by looking beyond territorial emissions alone, and reckoning emissions in terms of Sweden's net 'carbon footprint.' Accounting for carbon embedded in imports, exports and international transport reveals that Sweden's responsibility is 17% larger than would be inferred by considering Sweden's territorial emissions alone. Sweden will naturally have significant obligations under any burden-sharing regime that is based on capacity and responsibility, and only more so under a regime that honors a right to development. Under the GDR framework, our indicative quantification suggests that Sweden's share of responsibility and capacity, and hence its obligation under a politically viable climate regime, will be approximately 0.51% of the global total in 2010. This can be compared to the US's 33%, the EU's 26%, Japan's 7.8%, China's 5.5%, and India's 0.5%. Sweden's 0.51% share of the global total is thus not large in absolute terms, though it is rather large relative to Sweden's small size (0.14% of the global population). These national shares shift over time, as countries' relative proportion of income and emissions change. In light of the emergence of rapidly growing developing country economies, Sweden's share of the global total obligation is projected to decline to 0.43% by 2020, and to 0.35% by 2030. This quantification of Sweden's obligation is useful in two complementary ways. First, if the total global costs of an emergency climate

  11. Sustainable Development in Sweden - a success story. Discourse analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlberg, Malin

    2009-01-01

    In Sweden the term 'Sustainable Development' is very well known and is often used as leitmotivs in many parts of the society. Since the UN Conference on Environment and Development took place in Rio de Janeiro 1992 SD has become more and more indispensable in political debates and it has even become a crucial argument in management decisions in the business sector. Due to the tradition of consensus policy and the strong involvement of different interest group in policy decision-making processes, the idea of SD as a holistic policy concept fell in Sweden on a fruitful ground

  12. The bedrock and the soil types in the Finnsjoearea, Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almen, K.-E.; Ekman, L.; Olkiewicz, A.

    1978-11-01

    This report is a part of a long-term project, started at the request of the Nuclear Fuel Safety Project, Sweden. The aim of the project is to claryfy the geohydrological situation of a drainage area close to Finnsjoen in northern Uppland, Sweden. The work comprised bedrock- and soil mapping as well as an investigation of existing literature about the geology of northern Uppland. The area is about 25 km 2 and is limited by its water-shed. The area is relatively flat, rich in outcrops - expecially in the western parts - and often swampy. Big areas of forests and agriculture have been drained by ditches. (author)

  13. 78 FR 61981 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Anders Zorn: Sweden's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Anders Zorn: Sweden's Master Painter... determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Anders Zorn: Sweden's Master Painter...

  14. Education and Youth Employment in Sweden and Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehn, Gosta; Petersen, K. Helveg

    Part one of this book on education and youth employment gives extensive data and information on the behavior and attitudes of youth in Sweden, explanations for rising unemployment in that country, the government's policies to combat youth unemployment, and a description of the Swedish educational system. The emergence of the permissive society in…

  15. Life Satisfaction among Outbound Students in Northern Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Per A.

    2015-01-01

    The transition from one's home country to a university abroad can be demanding. This study is a follow-up study exploring life satisfaction among outbound students. Outbound students at Umeå University, Sweden, were surveyed before and after experiencing studying abroad. Thus, the students' life satisfaction could be compared after an…

  16. The Ultimate in Flexitime: From Sweden, by Way of Volvo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Paul

    1988-01-01

    In the Volvo component plant on Koping, Sweden, an innovative system of multiple shifts and flexible working hours is offered to employees. The system meets the needs of those who are available for work at certain times and helps curtail turnover and absenteeism. (JOW)

  17. The Progressive Development of Environmental Education in Sweden and Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breiting, Soren; Wickenberg, Per

    2010-01-01

    Our paper traces the history and progressive development of environmental education and education for sustainable development (ESD) in Sweden and Denmark. Our main focus is on work in primary and lower secondary schools as part of a search for trends of international interest related to the conceptualisation and practice of environmental education…

  18. The Role of the School Library: Reflections from Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Libraries are critical learning spaces and may play a significant role in intercultural education initiatives, particularly in Sweden where the national curriculum ascribes central functions to libraries for learning activities. Unfortunately, the ways in which teachers and librarians may collaborate to leverage mutual resources is not fully…

  19. The management of intermediate level wastes in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hultgren, Aa.; Thegerstroem, C.

    1980-01-01

    A brief overview of current practices and research in Sweden on the management of intermediate level wastes is given. Intermediate level wastes include spent resins, filters and core components from the six power reactors in operation; radioactive wastes from nuclear fuel development at Studsvik and from non-nuclear applications are a minor contribution. (Auth.)

  20. This is how we manage Sweden's radioactive waste. Activities 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    SKB operates systems and facilities for the management and final disposal of spent nuclear fuel and other radioactive waste in Sweden. SKB has conducted extensive R, D and D work with regard to constructing a spent fuel encapsulation plant and a deep repository in crystalline bedrock. This annual report treats all the different activities without going into technical details

  1. Comparison of the energy structures in Denmark, France and Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nifenecker, H.

    2003-12-01

    Denmark is an example of country which involves massively in the renewable energies development and in the energy efficiency, since 1980. Facing this policy, France and Sweden produce their energy without fossil energies, mainly from nuclear and hydroelectric power. These countries energy policies, providing not much of carbon dioxide emission, are compared by the author. (A.L.B.)

  2. Energy policies of IEA countries. Sweden 1996 review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This IEA report provides a comprehensive, in-depth assessment of the energy policies of Sweden, including recommendations on future policy developments. Electricity is a focal point of Sweden's energy policy. After a shift in the energy mix to favour electricity in the early 1970's, nuclear and hydro power each make up about half of the electricity supply. Two key events have occurred since then: the 1980 referendum, which calls for the phase-out of all nuclear plants by 2010; the recent restructuring and liberalization of the electricity sector with the creation of a Nordic electricity market. In this context, the report argues the case for making a decision now on the nuclear issue to clarify Sweden's electricity future. Other key issues highlighted in the report include Sweden's use of economic policy instruments such as a carbon tax to achieve energy and environment goals, and the adequacy and effectiveness of government efforts to promote biofuels and energy efficiency. This report forms part of a series of periodic in-depth reviews conducted and discussed by the IEA Member countries on a four-year cycle. Short reviews of energy policy developments in all twenty-three Member countries are published annually in Energy Policies of IEA Countries. (author). 13 figs., 9 tabs., 4 appends

  3. Struggles for Legitimacy in Mother Tongue Instruction in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganuza, Natalia; Hedman, Christina

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the pedagogical beliefs, practices and ideological assumptions of 15 teachers who work with mother tongue instruction in Sweden. Despite support through provisions in Swedish laws, mother tongue instruction is clearly a marginalized subject, not least due to its non-mandatory status, the limited time allocated for it and…

  4. Forest regeneration at high latitudes: experience from northern Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo Murray

    1981-01-01

    The problem of obtaining adequate and economical forest regeneration is of major concern among the managers of high-latitude forest lands. In 1979 forest researchers and managers from Scandinavia and North America held the first of three workshops to address this topic by sharing experiences and research from each county. The first workshop was held in Umei, Sweden in...

  5. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident for reindeer husbandry in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustaf Åhman

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available Large parts of the reindeer hearding area in Sweden were contaminated with radioactive caesium from the Chernobyl fallout. During the first year after the accident no food with activity concentrations exceeding 300 Bq/kg was allowed to be sold in Sweden. This meant that about 75% of all reindeer meat produced in Sweden during the autumn and winter 1986/87 were rejected because of too high caesium activités. In May 1987 the maximum level for Cs-137 in reindeer, game and fresh-water fish was raised to 1500 Bq/kg. During the last two year, 1987/88 and 1988/89, about 25% of the slaughtered reindeer has had activities exceeding this limit. The effective long-time halflife or radiocaesium in reindeer after the nuclear weapon tests in the sixties was about 7 years. If this halflife is correct also for the Chernobyl fallout it will take about 35 years before most of the reinder in Sweden are below the current limit 1500 Bq/kg in the winter. However, by feeding the animals uncontaminated food for about two months, many reindeer can be saved for human consumption.

  6. Biology and outbreaks of Microdiprion pallipes (Hymenoptera; Diprionidae) in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olofsson, E. (Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Entomology)

    1994-01-01

    During outbreaks, Microdiprion pallipes (Fall.) is the most destructive of the pine sawflies in Sweden. Its distribution includes most provinces, but damaging outbreaks have until recently occurred only in two inland areas in northern Sweden. These areas are characterised by high elevation, a harsh climate, and slow tree growth. The four recorded outbreak periods showed a 10 year periodicity. Outside these areas, a lesser outbreak occurred in 1988 to 1990, on the east coast (province of Uppland). Outbreak patterns, life history variation, and mortality factors were studied. Factors that may explain the distribution of outbreaks and the population patterns were identified.Experimental and observational evidence on the potential of various factors to influence fecundity, dispersal, and survival was evaluated. In the outbreak areas, there were few major population factors. Parasitism by Rhorus substitutor (Thunb.) was the largest cause of larval mortality and the only important density-dependent mortality factor. The different diapause strategies of M. pallipes and R. substitutor may contribute to stabilize this system. Different flight periods of the host and the parasitoid may explain a possible correlation between weather and outbreaks. Elsewhere in Sweden, where low population densities prevail, there may be similarities in population processes between M. pallipes and the other widely distributed diprionids with solitary larvae, which never have attained outbreak densities in Sweden. Interactions with other diprionids through shared natural enemies may be an important population process and may influence the distribution of outbreaks. 37 refs, 4 figs, 11 tabs

  7. Wood production potential in poplar plantations in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christersson, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Shortage of oil, large variations in exports from Russia of wood to Europe, plenty of abandoned agriculture land, new ideas about a more intensive silviculture; these circumstances are driving forces in Sweden for planting fast-growing poplar and hybrid aspen clones on suitable land. The advantage of such trees is that the wood can be used for both energy (heat, biofuels, electricity), paper and for construction. Poplar clones bred in the USA and Belgium, and older hybrid aspen clones from Sweden, together with new poplar clones collected and selected for Swedish conditions from British Columbia, Canada, were planted during the 1990s in south and central Sweden. The stem diameters and heights of the trees have been measured during the last 10 years and the woody biomass production above ground has been calculated. MAI for all the plantations is 10-31 m 3 or 3-10 ton DM per hectare with the highest annual woody production of 45 m 3 or 15 ton DM per hectare in some years in a very dense plantation in the most southern part of Sweden. All the plantations have been fenced for at least the first ten years. The damage has been caused by stem canker, insects, leaf rust and by moose after removal of the fences. The possibilities for the use of poplar plantations as energy forest and vegetation filters are discussed. (author)

  8. Privatizing Education: Free School Policy in Sweden and England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiborg, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate why Sweden, the epitome of social democracy, has implemented education reforms leading to an extraordinary growth in Free Schools in contrast to liberal England, where Free School policy has been met with enormous resistance. Conventional wisdom would predict the contrary, but as a matter of fact Sweden…

  9. Students' Perspectives on Raising Achievement through Inclusion in Essunga, Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Julie; Persson, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    A Swedish municipality that has transformed its position at the bottom of the national school league tables to top within three years--through inclusive education--has attracted much attention both in Sweden and internationally. This article offers the students' perspectives on the transformation and how they have experienced success. A social…

  10. Are Teacher Assessments Biased?--Evidence from Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Erica

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates if the probability of being graded up in the school leaving certificates increases if the teacher is of the same gender as the student or if the teacher and the student both have a foreign background. The analysis is based on data on grade 9 students in Mathematics from Sweden. I find that female students and non-native…

  11. Decomposing the Differences in Cancer Mortality between Denmark and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergeron Boucher, Marie-Pier; Wensink, Maarten Jan; Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune

    Cancer survival tends to be lower in Denmark than in comparable countries like Sweden. It has been suggested that this difference can be partly explained by higher tobacco use by Danes than Swedes and a more adverse stage at diagnosis distribution. In this paper, we aim to decompose the differenc...

  12. Individualized Mathematics Teaching. Results from the IMU Project in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Inger

    The Individual Mathematics Teaching Project (IMU) has been under development in the upper level (grades 7-9) of the comprehensive school in Sweden since 1964. Its goals are (1) to construct and test self-instruction study material in mathematics, (2) to find suitable teaching methods and work forms for the use of this material, (3) to try out…

  13. Coordination between primary and secondary healthcare in Denmark and Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Wadmann

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Insights into effective policy strategies for improved coordination of care is needed. In this study we describe and compare the policy strategies chosen in Denmark and Sweden, and discuss them in relation to interorganisational network theory. Policy practice: The policy initiatives to improve collaboration between primary and secondary healthcare in Denmark and Sweden include legislation and agreements aiming at clarifying areas of responsibility and defining requirements, creation of links across organisational boarders. In Denmark many initiatives have been centrally induced, while development of local solutions is more prominent in Sweden. Many Danish initiatives target the administrative level, while in Sweden initiatives are also directed at the operational level. In both countries economic incentives for collaboration are weak or lacking, and use of sanctions as a regulatory mean is limited. Discussion and conclusion: Despite a variety of policy initiatives, lacking or poorly developed structures to support implementation function as barriers for coordination. The two cases illustrate that even in two relatively coherent health systems, with regional management of both the hospital and general practice sector, there are issues to resolve in regard to administrative and operational coordination. The interorganisational network literature can provide useful tools and concepts for interpreting such issues.

  14. Ad Hoc Conference on the Education of Migrants. Country Report (Sweden).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standing Conference of European Ministers of Education, Strasbourg (France).

    Sweden, like most European countries, never set out to be an immigration country. Since its Government and Parliament have subscribed to the principle of maximum mobility across national frontiers, more than 400,000 foreign citizens and 200,000 former aliens reside in Sweden today. Immigration to Sweden is not completely free, though. A policy of…

  15. 76 FR 23321 - New Sweden Irrigation District, ID; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission New Sweden Irrigation District, ID; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2011, New Sweden Irrigation District filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act (FPA), proposing to study the feasibility of the New Sweden...

  16. Social Pedagogy in Finland and Sweden: a comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha Hämäläinen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Discussing how the concept of social pedagogy has been used in Finland and Sweden, this paper provides a historical and systemic comparison of policies and practices of social pedagogy in these two countries. The main aim is to identify and explain the main similarities and differences between the Finnish and Swedish national trajectories of social pedagogical thinking and action. In the first phase of the analysis, country-specific features of social pedagogy were described paying attention to historical and structural aspects. In the second phase, these descriptions were compared in a dialogue between the au- thors, one from Finland and the other from Sweden. The dialogue-based comparison was targeted to ex- plain the identified similar and different features of social pedagogical policies and practices. The explanation was based on historical and systemic considerations, especially those of historical development, research activities, theory buildings, methodologies and techniques, professionalization and the practice fields, and the future prospects of social pedagogy.The analysis showed that the historical roots and theoretical foundations of social pedagogical think- ing and action are very similar in Finland and Sweden but the position of social pedagogy  as an academic discipline  as well as a field of practice is partly different. Since social pedagogy has not been acknowl- edged as an academic discipline in Sweden, its outlook as a field of practice is on shaky ground, while in Finland the future of social pedagogy as an academic discipline  is uncertain because the social-peda- gogical know-how based on academic education is not well known and has not found general acceptance in the field’s practice.The analysis showed that the historical roots and theoretical foundations of social pedagogical thinking and action are very similar in Finland and Sweden but the position of social pedagogy as an academic discipline as well as a

  17. The MTO concept and organisational learning at Forsmark NPP, Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Olle; Rollenhagen, Carl

    2002-01-01

    The term 'MTO' (Man-Technology-Organisation) has been widely used by Swedish utilities and regulators to describe knowledge and analytical techniques that focus on human and organisational factors and their relationship with nuclear safety. MTO was introduced in Sweden after the TMI accident as a concept similar to the 'Human Factors' (HF) concept developed in the USA. It was the intent that the explicit mention of the three interrelated elements in the concept - Man, Technology and Organisation - would stimulate a comprehensive 'system view' on nuclear safety. This view should go beyond a strict technological perspective to recognise and highlight human and organisational factors as important moderators of risk. In retrospect, the MTO concept has been successful in stimulating a socio-technological view of nuclear safety in Sweden - a general trend supported by international developments. A further step along this path has been taken with the LearnSafe project. (author)

  18. Reception and dissemination of American amateur telescope making in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnfelt, Johan

    2017-04-01

    This paper discusses the appropriation of the American Amateur Telescope Making (ATM) movement in Sweden in the 1940s and 1950s. A key player was the Swedish Astronomical Society, which in 1943, and inspired by the American example, launched a campaign to raise interest in ATM and disseminate the necessary knowledge amongst potential amateur astronomers. The campaign was successful and in just a few years it quadrupled the number of amateurs with access to telescopes. Swedish amateurs kept on building telescopes through the 1950s, but the activities then stalled with the introduction of cheap mass-market telescopes. The appropriation of ATM in Sweden is an important example of how technical innovations have shaped the course of amateur astronomy.

  19. A. Butovsky about the system of physical education in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bubka S.N.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an analysis of A. Butovsky's views on the physical education in Sweden, and, first of all, on the system of Swedish gymnastics. Alexey Butovsky got acquainted with it in 1892 while visiting that country on a mission trip, and later he generalized that system in some of his works. Positive and negative points of Swedish physical education, the role of the Royal Gymnastics Central Institute in Stockholm are examined, and some prominent figures of Sweden, who governed it at different periods, are characterized. Aspects of various exercises from this system are accentuated. It is marked that the Swedish gymnastics on the orientation, on principle differed composition of exercises and method of their application from other gymnastic systems in XIX century. It is underlined that exercises of the Swedish gymnastics differ naturalness of poses and motions, absence in them of maximal efforts, hard and rough motions.

  20. 137Cs in the population of northern Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ågren, G.; Björeland, A.; Johansson, L.

    1996-01-01

    Whole-body content of 137 Cs has been measured in both 1991 and 1992 in the population of northern Sweden, with a special interest taken in the Saami population. Measurements were performed in three areas with different deposition levels, using a whole-body counter installed in a mobile container. In this way the expected high refusal frequency caused by the large distances in this part of Sweden could be reduced. Two groups of individuals were randomly chosen, one group representing the total population of the area, and the other the members of the Saami communities. In order to investigate whether 15 year old students could be regarded as a representative sample of the total population, measurements of whole-body content and urine samples were performed on school classes in two of the areas

  1. Public perceptions and acceptance of intensive forestry in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemström, Kerstin; Mahapatra, Krushna; Gustavsson, Leif

    2014-03-01

    The use of intensive forestry on part of the forested area in Sweden increases the production of forest biomass and enables an increased use of such biomass to mitigate climate change. However, with increasing conflicting interests in forests and forestry, the success of such a strategy depends on the public acceptance. In this paper, the results of a mail survey show that although a majority of the general public in Sweden supports measures to increase forest growth, they oppose the use of intensive forestry practices such as the cultivation of exotic tree species, clones, and forest fertilization. The acceptance of such practices is mainly influenced by the perceptions of their environmental consequences. Public acceptance was highest for forest fertilization, whereas clone cultivation was the least accepted practice.

  2. The Road to Parenthood: Income and First Births in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva, Ernesto Germán

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the effect of income on the risk of having the first births in Sweden from 1968 to 2009. Variations by gender are given particular atention. The study follows men and women from the moment they turn 18 until they enter parenthood and it is based on register-based data covering the entire population of Sweden. Complementary log-log models show that there is a positive association between income and the risk of childbearing. The association gets stronger over time and the differences between men and women diminish. Gender differences appear when the income effect is related to the demand for work in the economy. An income above the median does not increase the risk of childbearing for women when the demand for work is relatively high.

  3. Incidence of legal abortion in Sweden after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odlind, V.; Ericson, A.

    1991-01-01

    The number of legal abortions in Sweden increased around the time of the Chernobyl accident, particularly in the summer and autumn of 1986. Although there was no recording of reasons for legal abortions, one might have suspected this increase to be a result of fear and anxiety after the accident. However, seen over a longer time perspective, the increase in the number of abortions started before and continued far beyond the time of the accident. There was also a simultaneous and pronounced increase in the number of births during the years subsequent to the accident. Therefore, it seems unlikely that fear of the consequences of radioactive fall-out after the Chernobyl accident resulted in any substantial increase of the number of legal abortions in Sweden

  4. Geological maps and cross-sections of southern Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornfaelt, K.A.

    1987-12-01

    The report is meant to give complementary information to the maps of precambrian and sedimentary rocks, which have been compiled by the Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU), by order of the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. (SKB) and South Sweden Power Supply (SK). The local branch of the Geological Survey in Goeteborg has compiled the maps of the bedrock Goeteborg and Boras. The purpose of the work was to compile maps of the bedrock to the scale of 1:250000 as well as to the scale of 1:1000000, covering an area corresponding to the mapsheets to the scale of 1:250000: Goeteborg, Boraas, Joenkoeping, Oskarshamn, Malmoe, Karlskrona and Kalmar. Also lineament maps to the scale of 1:250000, covering the same area, have been compiled. (orig./DG)

  5. Epidemiology and Ecology of Tularemia in Sweden, 1984–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desvars, Amélie; Furberg, Maria; Hjertqvist, Marika; Vidman, Linda; Sjöstedt, Anders; Rydén, Patrik

    2015-01-01

    The zoonotic disease tularemia is endemic in large areas of the Northern Hemisphere, but research is lacking on patterns of spatial distribution and connections with ecologic factors. To describe the spatial epidemiology of and identify ecologic risk factors for tularemia incidence in Sweden, we analyzed surveillance data collected over 29 years (1984–2012). A total of 4,830 cases were notified, of which 3,524 met all study inclusion criteria. From the first to the second half of the study period, mean incidence increased 10-fold, from 0.26/100,000 persons during 1984–1998 to 2.47/100,000 persons during 1999–2012 (pSweden and illustrate that incidence is higher in locations near lakes and rivers. PMID:25529978

  6. Giuseppe Garibaldi and Sweden: Between Solidarity and Scandinavism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Quirico

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The book entitled Scandinavia: Her Fears and Her Hopes, written in French, was published on February 29, 1856, in Paris, where representatives of the European Powers were discussing peace negotiations with Russia ensuing the end of the Crimean War. The author, Gustaf Lallerstedt, a moderate liberal, a diplomat, and majority shareholder of the liberal newspaper "Aftonbladet", was first in outlining a parallelism between the proactive role played by Piedmont in Italy's unification and the similar one that Sweden, in his opinion, ought to take upon herself vis-à-vis Scandinavian unity. Lallerstedt's aim was also to warn the European nations against the Russian threat; in this perspective, strengthening the United Kingdom of Sweden and Norway (established in 1814 could provide an effective remedy.

  7. Radioactive waste management in Sweden experiences and plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wikstroem, M.

    1999-01-01

    Since some years, the necessary facilities are in operation in Sweden for the safe transport and storage of radioactive waste and spent fuel from nuclear power production. These include a final repository, SFR, for short-lived low and intermediate level waste, a central interim storage facility, CLAB, for spent fuel and a sea-based transport system. The experiences from the operation of these facilities have generally been very good. The next step is the development of an encapsulation facility and a deep repository for the spent nuclear fuel. R and D-work on direct disposal have been conducted in Sweden for more than 20 years. In the preferred method the spent fuel will be encapsulated in a copper canister with a steel internal structure, and the canister will then be disposed of at about 500 metres depth in the Swedish bedrock. The siting and design of the encapsulation facility and the deep repository is now in progress. (author)

  8. Preliminary study of the heating market in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The successive deregulation of the market for electric power, in Sweden as well as abroad, results in an increased competition in generation and trade of electricity. This market that previously was known for its oligopoly in the production sector and its monopoly in the distribution sector has now been opened for competition. This study is focused on the district heating sector, because it is still comparatively unregulated, and because it partly comprises what is called natural monopolies

  9. The Rise of the Nuclear System of Innovation in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonter, Thomas; Fjaestad, Maja

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this article is twofold. Firstly, the ambition is to analyze the role of the government in relation to private industry in the development of the nuclear power infrastructure in Sweden in the period of 1945-1970. Secondly, the purpose is to account for what was actually made in terms of education, research and financial funding in 'the Swedish line' and to assess its importance for the swift take over by the light water reactor system

  10. First report on human-biting Culex pipiens in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesson, Jenny C; Schäfer, Martina; Lundström, Jan O

    2016-12-07

    Culex mosquitoes are vectors of several bird-hosted arboviruses that cause outbreaks in Europe, such as Sindbis virus and West Nile virus. Recently, the human-biting form of Culex pipiens, Cx. pipiens biotype molestus, was found causing big nuisance in a housing cooperative in Gothenburg in southern Sweden, confirmed by molecular identification. This is the first report of human-biting Culex in Scandinavia, signalling increased risk of arbovirus infection in northern Europe.

  11. The current state of the challenges for VET in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Persson Thunqvist, Daniel; Hallqvist, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The present report is based on a review of previous research and it expands an earlier report2(Olofsson & Persson Thunqvist, 2014). By highlighting the various forms of initial VET that havebeen established in Sweden during the last decades (1991 and onwards), the present report willilluminate how different challenges have been tackled in various ways. What are the experiencesof different VET-tracks in providing access to higher education as well as work-based learningand skilled employme...

  12. Education for Growth in Sweden and the World.

    OpenAIRE

    Alan B. Krueger; Mikael Lindahl

    1998-01-01

    This paper tries to reconcile evidence on the effect of schooling on income and on GDP growth from the microeconometric and empirical macro growth literatures. Much microeconometric evidence suggests that education is an important causal determinant of income for individuals within countries as diverse as Sweden and the United States. At a national level, however, recent studies have found that increases in educational attainment are unrelated to economic growth. This finding is shown to be a...

  13. Squamation in Andreolepis from the late Silurian of Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Donglei

    2010-01-01

    The origin of osteichthyans (bony fishes and tetrapods) dates back to the Late Silurian, but theearly evolution of osteichthyans is poorly understood. Andreolepis is one of the oldest knownosteichthyans, but exclusively documented by detached and fragmented dermal microremains.Nevertheless, Andreolepis has unequivocally been attributed to the osteichthyan stem group.A variety of isolated scales of Andreolepis from Gotland, Sweden provides a large dataset,which would potentially improve our un...

  14. The sensitivity of snowfall to weather states over Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norin, Lars; Devasthale, Abhay; L'Ecuyer, Tristan S.

    2017-09-01

    For a high-latitude country like Sweden snowfall is an important contributor to the regional water cycle. Furthermore, snowfall impacts surface properties, affects atmospheric thermodynamics, has implications for traffic and logistics management, disaster preparedness, and also impacts climate through changes in surface albedo and turbulent heat fluxes. For Sweden it has been shown that large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns, or weather states, are important for precipitation variability. Although the link between atmospheric circulation patterns and precipitation has been investigated for rainfall there are no studies focused on the sensitivity of snowfall to weather states over Sweden.In this work we investigate the response of snowfall to eight selected weather states. These weather states consist of four dominant wind directions together with cyclonic and anticyclonic circulation patterns and enhanced positive and negative phases of the North Atlantic Oscillation. The presented analysis is based on multiple data sources, such as ground-based radar measurements, satellite observations, spatially interpolated in situ observations, and reanalysis data. The data from these sources converge to underline the sensitivity of falling snow over Sweden to the different weather states.In this paper we examine both average snowfall intensities and snowfall accumulations associated with the different weather states. It is shown that, even though the heaviest snowfall intensities occur during conditions with winds from the south-west, the largest contribution to snowfall accumulation arrives with winds from the south-east. Large differences in snowfall due to variations in the North Atlantic Oscillation are shown as well as a strong effect of cyclonic and anticyclonic circulation patterns. Satellite observations are used to reveal the vertical structures of snowfall during the different weather states.

  15. Business as Usual: Nobility and Landed Estates in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Kathryn Gary; Mats Olsson

    2017-01-01

    The majority of European countries which have had an important tradition of manorialism have undergone profound land reforms, redistributing land from large landowners and giving small-scale farmers and the landless legal rights to land ownership, with the exceptions of Sweden and England. This article will outline the particular Swedish case, where large estates have been able to persist largely intact from the Middle Ages through to the current day, and explore possible reasons for Sweden’s...

  16. Training and accreditation for radon professionals in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mjoenes, L.; Soederman, A.-L.

    2004-01-01

    Radon training courses and seminars on radon have been arranged in Sweden since the early 1980s. A commercial educational company initiated the first regular training courses in 1987. Up to 1990 about 400 persons had attended courses in radon measurement and radon mitigation methods. In 1991 the training programme was taken over by the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, SSI. Today SSI's Radon Training Programme comprises three different two-day courses, a Basic Radon Course and two continuation courses: Radon Measurements and Radon in Water. Until 2003 SSI also arranged courses about Radon Remedial Measures and Radon Investigation and Risk Map Production. The courses are arranged twice a year. Altogether, about 750 municipal environmental health officers and technicians from private companies have been educated in the SSI training programme between 1991 and 2003. The continuation courses are completed with an examination, consisting of a theoretical test. The names of the persons who pass are being published in a list that is found on the SSI web site. Since no certification system is currently in place for radon professionals in Sweden, this list helps people who need to get in contact with radon counsellors to find one in their area and is used by authorities as well as private house-owners. Since 1991 it has been possible to obtain accreditation for measurements of indoor radon in Sweden and since 1997, also for measurements of radon in water. Although accreditation is voluntary in Sweden, accredited laboratories perform most measurements, both for indoor air and water. Passing the examination in the SSI training courses is a condition for accreditation. The Swedish Board for Accreditation and Conformity Assessment, SWEDAC, is in charge of the accreditation. So far, three major companies have obtained accreditation for measurement of indoor radon and four have been accredited for measurements of radon in water

  17. Majority versus Minority: ‘Governmentality’ and Muslims in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Sofie Roald

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the Muslim community in Sweden in view of the majority–minority dynamics with focus on how values, attitudes, behaviors, and practices of the Swedish majority influence Muslim minority communities and how majority society’s approach to Muslims and Islam influences both the relationship Muslims have with non-Muslims and the understandings that Muslims have of Islam.

  18. Effects of climate change on tularemia disease activity in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Rydén, Patrik; Sjostedt, Anders; Johansson, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Tularaemia is a vector-borne infectious disease. A large majority of cases transmitted to humans by bloodfeeding arthropods occur during the summer season and is linked to increased temperatures. Therefore, the effect of climate change is likely to have an effect on tularaemia transmission patterns in highly endemic areas of Sweden. In this report, we use simulated climate change scenario data and empirical data of temperatures critical to tularaemia transmission to forecast tularaemia outbre...

  19. Effects of climate change on tularaemia disease activity in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydén, Patrik; Sjöstedt, Anders; Johansson, Anders

    2009-11-11

    Tularaemia is a vector-borne infectious disease. A large majority of cases transmitted to humans by blood-feeding arthropods occur during the summer season and is linked to increased temperatures. Therefore, the effect of climate change is likely to have an effect on tularaemia transmission patterns in highly endemic areas of Sweden. In this report, we use simulated climate change scenario data and empirical data of temperatures critical to tularaemia transmission to forecast tularaemia outbreak activity. The five high-endemic counties: Dalarna, Gävleborg, Norrbotten, Värmland and Orebro represent only 14.6% of the total population of Sweden, but have recorded 40.1-81.1% of the number of annual human tularaemia in Sweden from 1997 until 2008. We project here earlier starts and a later termination of future tularaemia outbreaks for the time period 2010-2100. For five localised outbreak areas; Gagnef (Dalarna), Ljusdal (Gävleborg), Harads (Norrbotten), Karlstad (Värmland) and Orebro municipality (Orebro), the climate scenario suggests an approximately 2 degrees C increase in monthly average summer temperatures leading to increases in outbreak durations ranging from 3.5 weeks (Harads) to 6.6 weeks (Karlstad) between 2010 and 2100. In contrast, an analysis of precipitation scenarios indicates fairly stable projected levels of precipitation during the summer months. Thus, there should not be an increased abundance of late summer mosquitoes that are believed to be main vectors for transmission to humans in these areas. In conclusion, the results indicate that the future climate changes will lead to an increased burden of tularaemia in high-endemic areas of Sweden during the coming decades.

  20. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-11-01

    Sweden, covers an area of approx. 450 000 square kilometers. It has a population of 8 millions. With few exceptions in the northern part the access can be regarded as good. A dense network of motorroads and railroad exists. The results obtained by the exploration works combined with other available geo-information permit a separation of two principal uranium provinces in Sweden. The first one is confined to sediments of Upper Cambrian and Lower Ordovician which appears in Southern Sweden and along the border of the Caledonian mountain range in Central Sweden. The uranium occurrence are stratiform, of blackshale type which occurs in the Peltura zone of Upper Cambrian or they are associated to a phosphatite-bearing unit of Lower Ordovician overlying the Cambrian shale formation. The distribution of uranium in Upper Cambrian rocks is in general dependant on their lithology which itself is related to the paleography. This conditions explain relatively higher uranium content of the shale from Billigen.The potential resources of the province are estimated at about 1 million tonnes uranium. The second uranium province, called Arjeplog-Arvidsjaur, situated immediately south of the Arctic circle, comprises one deposit - Pleutajokk - and a group of more than twenty occurrences of similar characteristics and age (1 700 - 1 800 my.). The results of the past exploration have shown that uranium is present in different types of rocks. Because of the presence of uranium in many of the pegmatites the possibility of the formation of large low grade deposits should be tested. Favourable areas are those regions where the geological conditions are similar to the geology of the Grenville province in Canada or the Damara belt of SW-Africa. Special studies are recommended on this subject

  1. A demand model for domestic air travel in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Kopsch, Fredrik

    2011-01-01

     The aim of this study is to estimate the price elasticity of demand for domestic air travel in Sweden. Using national aggregated data on passenger quantities and fares, price elasticities of demand are estimated with an unbalanced, in terms of stationarity, yet well performing model. The analysis also includes estimates of cross-price elasticities for the main transport substitutes to air travel, rail and road. The robustness of the results is enforced by a primitive division of business and...

  2. Long term health effects in Sweden from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falk, R.; Mellander, H.; Moberg, L.; Edvardson, K.; Nyblom, L.

    1997-01-01

    The morning of 28 April 1986 was the beginning of an intensive period of radiation protection work in Sweden. During that morning the Chernobyl accident became known in the western world through the detection of radioactive contamination in Sweden and at the Forsmark nuclear power plant in particular. The environmental consequences of the fallout have been studied in various research projects. The effects on agriculture in Sweden was mainly limited to the first year after the accident. The long term effects are instead seen in products from the semi-natural ecosystems: in moose, roedeer, reindeer, mushrooms and fish from lakes in areas with a high deposition of radioactive caesium. High concentrations of 137 Cs in reindeer meat in combination with an estimated effective ecological half-life of about 4 years, will cause problems for reindeer husbandry in the most contaminated parts for many years to come. In moose, roedeer and mushrooms, the ecological half-lives are very long and in some compartments seem to approach the physical half-life of 137 Cs. 22 refs, 3 figs

  3. The seismicity of southern Sweden 1979-1984, Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slunga, R.

    1985-04-01

    This report is the final one in a research project at the National Defence Research Institute (FOA) in Sweden on the seismicity of the Baltic Shield. The project was financed by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate and the National Board for Spent Nuclear Fuel. A digital dense seismic network has been established and operated for 4.5 years and detailed source information of about 200 Swedish earthquakes has been achieved. These results have been earlier reported and published. In this final report some new results of general interest are given. These results concern the focal depths of the Swedish seismic activity and their relation to the present knowledge about stick-slip motion of granites for varying pressures and temperatures. The agreement is very good with most seismic activity in the range 7-18 km. One earthquake has been found to have a most likely focal depth just below the Moho discontinuity while no earthquake has been observed in the lowest 10 km of crust. The apparent crustal thickness of southern Sweden has been studied by use of the regional network recordings. The resutls are given as an apparent crustal thickness map covering couthern Sweden. The crustal thickness seems to vary between 32 and 48 km and indicates a possible block structure with block sizes of the order of 50-150 km. Finally recommendations for further activities aiming to better seismic risk estimates are given. (author)

  4. Specialist paediatric dentistry in Sweden 2008 - a 25-year perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingberg, Gunilla; Andersson-Wenckert, Ingrid; Grindefjord, Margaret; Lundin, Sven-Ake; Ridell, Karin; Tsilingaridis, Georgios; Ullbro, Christer

    2010-09-01

    International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry 2010; 20: 313-321 Background. Paediatric dentistry in Sweden has been surveyed four times over the past 25 years. During this period postgraduate training, dental health, and the organization of child dental care have changed considerably. Aim. To investigate services provided by specialists in paediatric dentistry in Sweden in 2008, and to compare with data from previous surveys. Design. The same questionnaire was sent to all 30 specialist paediatric dental clinics in Sweden that had been used in previous surveys. Comparisons were made with data from 1983, 1989, 1996 and 2003. Results. Despite an unchanged number of specialists (N = 81 in 2008), the number of referrals had increased by 16% since 2003 and by almost 50% since 1983. There was greater variation in reasons for referrals. The main reason was still dental anxiety/behaviour management problems in combination with dental treatment needs (27%), followed by medical conditions/disability (18%), and high caries activity (15%). The use of different techniques for conscious sedation as well as general anaesthesia had also increased. Conclusions. The referrals to paediatric dentistry continue to increase, leading to a heavy work load for the same number of specialists. Thus, the need for more paediatric dentists remains.

  5. Assessment of soil acidification effects on forest growth in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sverdrup, H.; Warfvinge, P.; Nihlgaard, B.

    1994-01-01

    The results of mapping critical loads, areas where they have been exceeded and steady state (Ca+Mg+K)/Al ratios of soils in Sweden, has been used to assess the order of magnitude of the ecological and economic risks involved with acid deposition for Swedish forests. The results of the calculations indicate that 81% of the Swedish forested area received acid deposition in excess of the critical load at present. Under continued deposition at 1990 level, forest die-back is predicted to occur on approximately 1% of the forested area, and significant growth rate reductions are predicted for 80% of the Swedish forested area. For Sweden, growth losses in the order of 17.5 million m -3 yr -1 are predicted, equivalent to approximately 19% of current growth. Comparable losses can be predicted for other Nordic countries. The soil acidification situation is predicted to deteriorate significantly during the next 5-15 years, unless rapid emission reductions can be achieved. A minimum deposition reduction over Sweden of 95% on sulphur deposition and 30% on the N deposition in relation to 1990 level is required in order to protect 95% of the Swedish forest ecosystems from adverse effects of acidification. A minimum reduction of 60% on sulphur deposition and 30% on the N deposition is required to keep forest harvest at planned levels. 148 refs., 9 figs., 9 tabs

  6. The sacred foodscapes of Thai Buddhist temples in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Plank

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thai Buddhist communities are by far the fastest-growing Buddhist establishments in Sweden, and – contrary to other Buddhist congregations that are mainly clustered in the cities – Thai Buddhist temples can be found in sparsely-populated areas and rural parts of Sweden. This article aims to document and analyse the ‘foodscape’ of diasporic Thai Buddhism in Sweden. In particular the article identifies and discusses five different strategies used by local communities- in order to support their temples in urban as well as rural areas: 1 local support, 2 pre-cooking and freezing, 3 pre-organised almsgiving in nearby cities, 4 change of food gifts, 5 change of the nikaya. A temple’s location in a rural area can drive forward a reinterpretation and adaptation of the monk’s rules, and contribute to a changing composition of food gifts. Food performs several functions. In addition to the religious functions that are associated with almsgiving, food can also serve as a means of generating bonding and bridging civic social capital, and providing economic income to temples.

  7. Policy instruments for development of wind power in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aastrand, Kerstin; Neij, Lena

    2003-01-01

    It is often believed that energy policy and policy instruments can play a significant role in the transition towards sustainable energy by stimulating and accelerating the development and deployment of new energy technologies. However, despite the known need for, and benefits of, new energy technologies their market introduction and expansion is often slow. Wind power has been on the political agenda since the 1970s in several European countries as well as in other countries throughout the world. However, the technology and market development of wind power has been very different in these countries. Despite three decades of policy intervention the installed capacity in Sweden was only 265 MW in 2000, compared with 6,107 MW in Germany, 2,836 MW in Spain and 2,341 MW in Denmark. This report analyses the effects of policy instruments on wind power development in Sweden and identifies possible reasons why wind power has not been installed to a greater extent. The analysis is based on an empirical example of a socio technological system-based approach to evaluation of technology and market development for new energy technologies; i.e. an approach focused on the technological system including the actors, institutions and organizations that build, drive and utilise it and the economic and legal framework that regulates it. The aim is to assess the impact on technology and market development and to discuss the relatively late and slow wind power development in Sweden. The report also examines the achievement of governmental energy policy goals. Using the socio-technological systems approach we analyse Swedish policy programmes and wind power development between 1975 and 2000. The political and economic framework is identified. The discussion of the political and economic frameworks is limited to public policy goals and policy instruments. The policy focus is set to policy instruments aimed for technology and market development of wind power, such as research and

  8. Sweden's third national communication on climate change. Under the United Nations framework convention on climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Sweden's national communication to the UN Convention on Climate Change describes everything about the emission and absorption of greenhouse gases, the motives and forces behind emissions, and official Swedish climate policies. Every five years, Sweden submits a communication on practical climate efforts in Sweden to the UN Convention on Climate Change. The Swedish Environmental Protection Board has coordinated the work of producing the basic documentation for the communication, which also describes the measures already taken and those planned for the future. In addition, scenarios have been adopted for developments in Swedish greenhouse gas emissions, Sweden's vulnerability and Swedish research into the climate and climate change

  9. Gout in immigrant groups: a cohort study in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wändell, Per; Carlsson, Axel C; Li, Xinjun; Gasevic, Danijela; Ärnlöv, Johan; Holzmann, Martin J; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2017-05-01

    Our aim was to study the association between country of birth and incidence of gout in different immigrant groups in Sweden. The study population included the whole population of Sweden. Gout was defined as having at least one registered diagnosis in the National Patient Register. The association between incidence of gout and country of birth was assessed by Cox regression, with hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI), using Swedish-born individuals as referents. All models were conducted in both men and women, and the full model was adjusted for age, place of residence in Sweden, educational level, marital status, neighbourhood socio-economic status and co-morbidities. The risk of gout varied by country of origin, with highest estimates, compared to Swedish born, in fully adjusted models among men from Iraq (HR 1.82, 95% CI 1.54-2.16), and Russia (HR 1.69, 95% CI 1.26-2.27), and also high among men from Austria, Poland, Africa and Asian countries outside the Middle East; and among women from Africa (HR 2.23, 95% CI 1.50-3.31), Hungary (HR 1.98, 95% CI 1.45-2.71), Iraq (HR 1.76, 95% CI 1.13-2.74) and Austria (HR 1.70, 95% CI 1.07-2.70), and also high among women from Poland. The risk of gout was lower among men from Greece, Spain, Nordic countries (except Finland) and Latin America and among women from Southern Europe, compared to their Swedish counterparts. The increased risk of gout among several immigrant groups is likely explained by a high cardio-metabolic risk factor pattern needing attention.

  10. NSFR Seminar 2014 – National Report for Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleist David

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to give an overview of the rules concerning taxation of companies in Sweden and of trends in the taxation of companies that have been evident in the last few years. It focuses in particular on issues that are connected with the so-called BEPS discussion, for instance interest deduction limitations, CFC rules, general anti-avoidance rules and other rules intended to protect the national tax base. It also sets out to describe other important features of the Swedish tax legislation in regard to companies, such as the rules on taxation of inbound and outbound dividends, interest and royalty.

  11. Fuel options for public bus fleets in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Xylia, Maria; Silveira, Semida

    2015-01-01

    The Swedish public transport sector has defined two major targets, i.e., to run 90% of the total vehicle kilometers of the fleet on non-fossil fuels and double the volume of travel via public transport by 2020, increasing the share of public transport in relation to the total personal transport in the country . The f3 report Fuel options for public bus fleets in Sweden highlights the challenges and solutions encountered, particularly when it comes to the adoption of renewable fuels in the reg...

  12. The Use of Personal Identity Numbers in Sweden and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyltén-Cavallius, Katarina

    2015-01-01

    and private services on equal terms with resident nationals. It appears that although a personal identity number is of significant practical importance for residing in and taking part of society in Sweden and Denmark, the fact that the possession of a personal identity number is widely required by both public...... and private organisations, leads to indirect discrimination on grounds of nationality, which is incompatible with the key principle of non-discrimination underlying the free movement of persons, and thus a restriction on the exercise of freedom of movement....

  13. Radiocesium in lingonberry, bilberry, cloudberry and cranberry in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johanson, K.J.; Kardell, L.

    1996-01-01

    The TF g for radiocesium of forest berries collected in various parts of Sweden were studied. In 1988, berries grown on bogs, cloudberry and cranberry, showed a mean TF g of 0.14 and 0.15, respectively. Lingonberry and bilberry sampled on mineral soils showed TF g values of 0.032 and 0.029, respectively. No decrease of the various TF g could be observed from 1988 to 1991. Based on production and consumption figures for berries, a potential annual intake of 137 Cs corresponding to a annual collective dose of 36 manSv to the Swedish population was estimated. (Author) 4 tabs., 1 fig., 26 refs

  14. Nuclear safety culture in Finland and Sweden - Developments and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiman, T.; Pietikaeinen, E.; Kahlbom, U.; Rollenhagen, C.

    2011-02-01

    The project aimed at studying the concept of nuclear safety culture and the Nordic nuclear branch safety culture. The project also aimed at looking how the power companies and the regulators view the current responsibilities and role of subcontractors in the Nordic nuclear safety culture as well as to inspect the special demands for safety culture in subcontracting chains. Interview data was collected in Sweden (n = 14) and Finland (n = 16) during 2009. Interviewees represented the major actors in the nuclear field (regulators, power companies, expert organizations, waste management organizations). Results gave insight into the nature and evaluation of safety culture in the nuclear industry. Results illustrated that there is a wide variety of views on matters that are considered important for nuclear safety within the Nordic nuclear community. However, the interviewees considered quite uniformly such psychological states as motivation, mindfulness, sense of control, understanding of hazards and sense of responsibility as important for nuclear safety. Results also gave insight into the characteristics of Nordic nuclear culture. Various differences in safety cultures in Finland and Sweden were uncovered. In addition to the differences, historical reasons for the development of the nuclear safety cultures in Finland and Sweden were pointed out. Finally, results gave implications that on the one hand subcontractors can bring new ideas and improvements to the plants' practices, but on the other hand the assurance of necessary safety attitudes and competence of the subcontracting companies and their employees is considered as a challenge. The report concludes that a good safety culture requires a deep and wide understanding of nuclear safety including the various accident mechanisms of the power plants as well as a willingness to continuously develop one's competence and understanding. An effective and resilient nuclear safety culture has to foster a constant sense of

  15. A review of biomass gasification technologies in Denmark and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridjan, Iva; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, David

    This report provides an overview of existing technologies and projects in Denmark and Sweden with a focus on the Öresund region. Furthermore it presents the research and development of biomass gasification in the region and these two countries. The list of existing gasification plants from...... laboratory scale projects to big scale plants is given. The report ends with an overview of future gasification projects as well as potential experience exchanges that could occur between the countries. We regard biomass gasification as one of the key technologies in future renewable energy systems....

  16. Qualification paths of adult educators in Sweden and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Per; Köpsén, Susanne; Larson, Anne

    2013-01-01

    fields of education and training. In this study, we analyse the qualification paths, or learning trajectories, of prospective adult educators in Sweden and Denmark. The analysis is based on narrative interviews with 29 students in training to become adult educators. The career paths of adult educators...... are often long and winding roads. Becoming an adult educator could be their primary desire, but it could also be their ‘Plan B’, a second choice. Individual motives and external demands interact in the professionalisation process. A shift in focus from teaching subject and methods to teaching context...

  17. Apartment price determinants : A comparison between Sweden and Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Anop, Sviatlana

    2015-01-01

    Similar development of economic fundamentals in Germany over the last two decades did not lead to the same dramatic house price increases as it is in Sweden. What can explain this house price stability over a long period? This thesis attempts to find the answer this question. The first paper in this thesis contains an extended literature review on the studies focused on the factors affecting house prices in the short and in the long run. Existing literature adopts a broad variation of approac...

  18. Uranium in the Upper Cambrian black shale of Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvey, Vincent Ellis

    1955-01-01

    The Peltura zone of the Upper Cambrian black shales of Sweden contains about 0.02 percent uranium. Maximum amounts are present in rocks deposited in an embayment in the sea and in rocks in or closely adjacent to that part of the vertical sequence that contains maximum amounts of distillable oil, total organic matter, pyrite, and a black highly uraniferous kerogen called "kolm". Available data suggest that the precipitation of uranium is favored by a low redox potential and that the uranium in the shale matrix may be in fine-grained kolm.

  19. Biting Midges (Ceratopogonidae: Culicoides Latreille) Recorded from Farms in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S. A.; Nielsen, B.O.; Chirico, J.

    2009-01-01

    In light of the emergence of bluetongue in Northern Europe, populations of Culicoides species were monitored in and around several Swedish livestock farms (surveillance in 2007 and 2008). The position of the sampling sites ranged from about latitude 55° N to about 68° N. Thirty-three Culicoides...... species were recorded, of which 30 were new to Sweden. The species recorded, and their relative abundance and spatial distribution on sites are detailed. Species incriminated as vectors of bluetongue virus were predominant. (Texte intégral)...

  20. The concept of visitors' centres: a mobile alternative from Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ungermark, S.

    1993-01-01

    The information activities at the permanent exhibitions at the four nuclear facility sites in Sweden have been enhanced during the last four years by travelling exhibitions touring the whole country. In this way it has been possible to communicate the most important facts about radioactive waste management to more than 100 000 Swedes annually, i.e. more people than visit all the permanent visitors'centres each year. Also these efforts have opened a dialogue between the general public and the very technicians and scientists who work daily with handling the radioactive waste and planning its future management

  1. Gas turbine installations in nuclear power plants in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevestedt, Lars

    1986-01-01

    At each of the four nuclear power stations in Sweden (Ringhals, Forsmark, Oskarshamn, Barsebaeck) gas turbine generating sets have been installed. These units are normally used for peak load operation dictated of grid and System requirements but they are also connected to supply the electrical auxiliary load of the nuclear plant as reserve power sources. The gas turbines have automatic start capability under certain abnormal conditions (such as reactor trips, low frequency grid etc) but they can also be started manually from several different locations. Starting time is approximately 2- 3 minutes from start up to full load. (author)

  2. Sweden's Cooperation with Eastern Europe in Radiation Safety 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dassen, Lars; Andersson, Sarmite; Bejarano, Gabriela

    2011-09-01

    The Swedish Radiation Safety Authority implemented in 2010 cooperation projects in Russia, Ukraine, Georgia, Armenia, Lithuania and Moldova based on instructions from the Swedish Government and agreements with the European Union and the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency, SIDA. The projects aim at achieving a net contribution to radiation safety (including nuclear safety, nuclear security and non-proliferation as well as radiation protection and emergency preparedness) for the benefit of the host country as well as Sweden. This report gives an overview of all the projects implemented in 2010

  3. Nuclear safety culture in Finland and Sweden - Developments and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiman, T.; Pietikaeinen, E. (Technical Research Centre of Finland, VTT (Finland)); Kahlbom, U. (RiskPilot AB (Sweden)); Rollenhagen, C. (Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) (Sweden))

    2011-02-15

    The project aimed at studying the concept of nuclear safety culture and the Nordic nuclear branch safety culture. The project also aimed at looking how the power companies and the regulators view the current responsibilities and role of subcontractors in the Nordic nuclear safety culture as well as to inspect the special demands for safety culture in subcontracting chains. Interview data was collected in Sweden (n = 14) and Finland (n = 16) during 2009. Interviewees represented the major actors in the nuclear field (regulators, power companies, expert organizations, waste management organizations). Results gave insight into the nature and evaluation of safety culture in the nuclear industry. Results illustrated that there is a wide variety of views on matters that are considered important for nuclear safety within the Nordic nuclear community. However, the interviewees considered quite uniformly such psychological states as motivation, mindfulness, sense of control, understanding of hazards and sense of responsibility as important for nuclear safety. Results also gave insight into the characteristics of Nordic nuclear culture. Various differences in safety cultures in Finland and Sweden were uncovered. In addition to the differences, historical reasons for the development of the nuclear safety cultures in Finland and Sweden were pointed out. Finally, results gave implications that on the one hand subcontractors can bring new ideas and improvements to the plants' practices, but on the other hand the assurance of necessary safety attitudes and competence of the subcontracting companies and their employees is considered as a challenge. The report concludes that a good safety culture requires a deep and wide understanding of nuclear safety including the various accident mechanisms of the power plants as well as a willingness to continuously develop one's competence and understanding. An effective and resilient nuclear safety culture has to foster a constant

  4. Some remarks about remedial actions and research program in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericson, S.O.

    1980-01-01

    In the fall of 1978 six houses in Sweden were found to have unacceptably high radon concentrations. These houses were built on land where shale ash had been used as landfill. Radon levels were reduced significantly by increasing ventilation rates or by removing the shale ash. In five houses built of aerated concrete based on alum shale attempts are being made to reduce the radon concentration by papering the walls with aluminum foil. Further work is being done on the relation between elevated activity in rock and soil and indoor concentrations of radon, and on the exhalation of radon from building materials

  5. Optimal localisation of next generation Biofuel production in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetterlund, Elisabeth [Linkoeping Univ., Linkoeping (Sweden); Pettersson, Karin [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Mossberg, Johanna [SP Technical Research Inst. of Sweden, Boraas (Sweden)] [and others

    2013-09-01

    With a high availability of lignocellulosic biomass and various types of cellulosic by-products, as well as a large number of industries, Sweden is a country of great interest for future large scale production of sustainable, next generation biofuels. This is most likely also a necessity as Sweden has the ambition to be independent of fossil fuels in the transport sector by the year 2030 and completely fossil free by 2050. In order to reach competitive biofuel production costs, plants with large production capacities are likely to be required. Feedstock intake capacities in the range of about 1-2 million tonnes per year, corresponding to a biomass feed of 300-600 MW, can be expected, which may lead to major logistical challenges. To enable expansion of biofuel production in such large plants, as well as provide for associated distribution requirements, it is clear that substantial infrastructure planning will be needed. The geographical location of the production plant facilities is therefore of crucial importance and must be strategic to minimise the transports of raw material as well as of final product. Competition for the available feedstock, from for example forest industries and CHP plants (combined heat and power) further complicates the localisation problem. Since the potential for an increased biomass utilisation is limited, high overall resource efficiency is of great importance. Integration of biofuel production processes in existing industries or in district heating systems may be beneficial from several aspects, such as opportunities for efficient heat integration, feedstock and equipment integration, as well as access to existing experience and know-how. This report describes the development of Be Where Sweden, a geographically explicit optimisation model for localisation of next generation biofuel production plants in Sweden. The main objective of developing such a model is to be able to assess production plant locations that are robust to varying

  6. Forecast of icing events at a wind farm in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Neil; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Clausen, Niels-Erik

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a method for identifying icing events using a physical icing model, driven by atmospheric data from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, and applies it to a wind park in Sweden. Observed wind park icing events were identified by deviation from an idealized power...... curve and observed temperature. The events were modeled using a physical icing model with equations for both accretion and ablation mechanisms (iceBlade). The accretion model is based on the Makkonen model but was modified to make it applicable to the blades of a wind turbine rather than a static...

  7. Incidence of multiple myeloma in Great Britain, Sweden, and Malmö, Sweden: the impact of differences in case ascertainment on observed incidence trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez, Ramón; Turesson, Ingemar; Landgren, Ola; Kristinsson, Sigurdur Y; Cuzick, Jack

    2016-01-21

    The increased incidence of multiple myeloma (MM) across China and East Asia stimulated us to examine the current rates in Great Britain, where rates increased dramatically in the second half of the 20th century. However, rates have been stable and high during this period in Malmö, Sweden, where there is a keen interest in MM. We thus assessed recent changes in MM incidence in Great Britain, Sweden overall, and Malmö, Sweden, and examined how these changes might explain recent reports of increased MM incidence across Asia. Estimation of MM incidence for Great Britain, Sweden overall, and Malmö, Sweden. MM incidence data for Great Britain (1975-2009) were obtained from Cancer Research UK and for Sweden (1970-2009) from the Swedish Cancer Registry. MM incidence data from Malmö, Sweden, were available from 1950 to 2012. Age-specific incidence of MM in Great Britain, Sweden overall, and Malmö, Sweden. MM incidence in Great Britain, Sweden overall, and Malmö increased progressively with age, even among the oldest group. The MM age-adjusted incidence (European standard population) increased by 69% from 1975-1979 to 2005-2009 in Great Britain, from 3.2/100,000 to 5.4/100,000. The largest increases occurred among those 70-79 years of age, for whom rates increased from 17.9/100,000 to 33.6/100,000; reflecting an increase of 69%. During this same period, the age-adjusted incidence (European stand population) in Sweden overall remained stable, at approximately 4.7/100,000. MM age-specific incidence is now similar in Great Britain, Sweden overall, and Malmö. We believe this is a result of improvements in case ascertainment in Great Britain, particularly among the elderly. Similar changes can be predicted to occur across Asia as improved access to healthcare contributes to better diagnosis of MM. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. Sweden and the NEGP: A Pilot Study of the North European Gas Pipeline and Sweden's Dependence on Russian Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, Robert L.

    2006-06-01

    Developments between 2004 and 2006 indicate that a North European Gas Pipeline (NEGP) through the Baltic Sea, from Russia to Germany, may be realised in the coming decade. This would provide Europe with yet another opportunity to diversify its import channels of gas. It is however reasonable to assume that the NEGP also could change the strategic pattern and be a source of friction. The NEGP may rock the regional stability and reduce the potential of the new EU members to become security providers in Europe's northern dimension. It also gives increased leverage and influence to Russia, a state that has moved in an authoritarian direction under President Putin. The aim of this pilot study is to elucidate on the NEGP pipeline and Sweden's increasing dependence on Russian energy. A subsidiary aim is to outline a set of concerns that have bearing on the situation for the EU and Baltic Sea Region and that need to be further addressed. In conclusion, the NEGP will enhance Russia's direct leverage on Poland, Ukraine, and Belarus, as it will allow Russia to turn off gas supplies without affecting exports to other parts of Europe. Russia will also increase its leverage over the states that will or may be connected to the NEGP (Germany, and possibly Belgium, Denmark, the Netherlands and the UK). Even if Sweden is not embracing the NEGP, it is today highly sensitive as it imports most of its energy. It is increasingly dependent on Russian oil and is partly dependent on imports of electricity from Russia. Should the NEGP materialise and Sweden becomes connected in the future, it would likely be dependent also on natural gas. It is of paramount importance for the energy security of the connected states how the pipeline is constructed and operated. If there will be technical possibilities for Russia to tamper with the flow of gas to individual states without affecting supply to others, there are tangible threats to the importing states

  9. Characteristics of cloud-to-ground lightning flashes over Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnadara, Upul; Cooray, Vernon; Goetschl, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    A detailed study of the characteristics of cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning flashes over Sweden was carried out for the period 1987-2000 using data obtained from the Swedish lightning-locating network. Results are presented by analysing over half a million lightning ground flashes. The average variation of the annual mean of the total number of flashes was found to be 37%. About 12% of the CG flashes were positive flashes and their average variation about the annual mean was 26%. The average peak currents were fairly constant over the years with variations as little as 4% for negative flashes and 5% for positive flashes. The average peak current values for negative and positive flashes were -29.90 and +63.97 kA respectively. A correlation between the mean monthly flash count and percentage of positive flashes was seen. A similar relationship is seen with the mean monthly flash count and the peak currents for both polarities. In general, high flash density and high peak currents were observed in the southern part of Sweden where most of the major cities are located. Flash densities exceeding 0.4 flashes km -2 were observed for several large cities. The maximum flash rate of 32 flashes h -1 within a 10 km radius was seen in Joenkoeping (14.18 0 E, 57.78 0 N) in the province of Smaaland

  10. The Metal Hoard from Pile in Scania, Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandkilde, Helle

    The metal hoard from Pile has branded the onset of the rich Nordic Bronze Age since its discovery in 1864 at the coast of Scania in southwestern Sweden. Yet, this book provides the first detailed documentation, scientific examination and historical interpretation. Indeed, Pile emerges as the earl......The metal hoard from Pile has branded the onset of the rich Nordic Bronze Age since its discovery in 1864 at the coast of Scania in southwestern Sweden. Yet, this book provides the first detailed documentation, scientific examination and historical interpretation. Indeed, Pile emerges...... as the earliest, finest and among the largest of the Nordic sacrificial deposits of metalwork in watery settings. In this book, Pile figures as a place at the brim of the sea as much as an ensemble of exquisite things and coppers that arrived to Scandinavia from various parts of Europe around 2000 BCE. Pile...... was a maritime node and a landing place for exogenous metals and exotic daggers and rings, but also a site where the smith produced coveted axes for wider distribution locally and regionally. Such robust axes of ‘Pile-type’ boosted the political economy of Southern Scandinavia 2100-1700 BCE while adding to a hot...

  11. 137Cs in the population of northern Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aagren, G.; Bjoereland, A.; Johansson, Lennart.

    1996-12-01

    The activity of Cs 137 has been studied in several different population groups in northern Sweden after the Chernobyl accident. Special attention has been given to the Saami (Lapp) population from which we have measured a group of volunteers regularly between 1986 and 1990. In 1991 we started a study on randomly chosen groups from the general population and members of the Saami communities from three regions in northern Sweden with different deposition levels. The results from these measurements have shown an effective half-time of Cs whole-body content in the Saami groups of about five years. The measurements in 1996 show decreasing levels of activities in the different population groups with half-times between 4 and 12 years. Another exposed group is breast-fed babies. We have measured the transfer of Cs from mother to baby via the breast milk in 12 cases. The activity in breast milk was measured to be 14% of the activity in the mother (calculated using specific activity - Bq/kg). The corresponding activity in the baby was 90% of the activity in the mother. 13 refs

  12. SWEDEN--RECENT CHANGES IN WELFARE STATE ARRANGEMENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burström, Bo

    2015-01-01

    The Swedish welfare state, once developed to create a new society based on social equality and universal rights, has taken on a partly new direction. Extensive choice reforms have been implemented in social services and an increasing proportion of tax-funded social services, including child day care, primary and secondary schools, health care, and care of the elderly, is provided by private entrepreneurs, although funded by taxes. Private equity firms have gained considerable profits from the welfare services. The changes have taken place over a 20-year period, but at an accelerated pace in the last decade. Sweden previously had very generous sickness and unemployment insurance, in terms of both duration and benefit levels, but is falling behind in terms of generosity, as indicated by increasing levels of relative poverty among those who depend on benefits and transfers. Increasing income inequality over the past 20 years further adds to increasing the gaps between population groups. In some respects, Sweden is becoming similar to other Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries. The article describes some of the changes that have occurred. However, there is still widespread popular support for the publicly provided welfare state services.

  13. Bridging the Divide: Examining Professional Unity and the Extended Teacher Union Role in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Alison

    2018-01-01

    Sweden has experienced increasing educational inequity levels within its highly decentralized school system. With a reduced capacity to bargain collectively, the two Swedish teacher trade unions, the Swedish Teachers' Union (Lärarförbundet) and the National Union of Teachers in Sweden (Lärarnas Riksförbund), have sought to extend their role in…

  14. Food Marketing to Children in Sweden and Denmark: a Missed Opportunity for Nordic Leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ó Cathaoir, Katharina Eva

    2017-01-01

    of commercial television in the 1990s. Sweden also unsuccessfully campaigned for an EU-wide ban on television advertising to children. Danish leadership on the issue is less likely; the country is known for more liberal health policies and laws than Sweden, emphasising individual choice rather than regulating...... the determinants of health....

  15. Trends in occupational mortality among middle-aged men in Sweden 1961-1990

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diderichsen, Finn; Hallqvist, J

    1997-01-01

    Many European countries have in recent decades reported growing socioeconomic differentials in mortality. While these trends have usually paralleled high unemployment and increasing income disparities, Sweden had low unemployment and narrowing income differences. This study describes trends, 1961......-1990, in total and cardiovascular mortality among men, 45-69 years of age, in major occupational classes in Sweden....

  16. Bilateral Vision: Gender and Education in the United Kingdom and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Gaby

    2005-01-01

    This paper is the sum of the author's experience when she moved from England to Sweden four years ago. Sweden's international reputation for gender equality is unparalleled and therefore she expected to be part of a different gender order than that in the United Kingdom. However, she finds that at the level of everyday experience, gender relations…

  17. Social anxiety in 17-year-olds in Stockholm, Sweden - a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Social anxiety among adolescents in Sweden has not been studied. This pilot study assessed the occurrence of social anxiety in 17-year-olds in Stockholm, Sweden. Method: Two hundred and thirty seven students attending the first year of Swedish upper secondary school responded to a questionnaire designed ...

  18. Children's Rights and Children's Voices in Contested Custody and Visitation Cases in Sweden and the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pranzo, Diane

    2013-01-01

    These research notes look at the differing ways in which the basis for including a criterion regarding children's opinions in disputed custody and visitation processes, in the US as compared with Sweden, impacts on the role and place that children's opinions and wishes will have on the process. Sweden's rationale for including children's…

  19. Discourses about School-Based Mathematics Teacher Education in Finland and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryve, Andreas; Hemmi, Kirsti; Borjesson, Mats

    2013-01-01

    In this cross-case study we focus on school-based teacher education in Sweden and Finland. Through the use of focus-group interviews with mathematics teacher educators in Finland and Sweden, the study shows that there are substantial differences in how school-based teacher education is introduced and portrayed in the discourse about teacher…

  20. Second Chance Education Matters! Income Trajectories of Poorly Educated Non-Nordics in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordlund, Madelene; Bonfanti, Sara; Strandh, Mattias

    2015-01-01

    In this study we examine the long-term impact of second chance education (SCE) on incomes of poorly educated individuals who live in Sweden but were not born in a Nordic country, using data on income changes from 1992 to 2003 compiled by Statistics Sweden. Ordinary Least Squares regression analyses show that participation in SCE increased the work…

  1. Creating Policy from Discursive Exchanges on Compulsory Education and Schooling in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalba, Cynthia M.

    2003-01-01

    The paper first introduces the national and local framework for compulsory-level "undervisning pa annat satt" [teaching/education otherwise than in school] education in Sweden. According to national statistics in Sweden, every year an average of 100 children are registered as receiving their education at home, arranged in some cases by…

  2. Overview of the Scientific Balloon Activity in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamsson, Mattias; Kemi, Stig; Lockowandt, Christian; Andersson, Kent

    SSC, formerly known as Swedish Space Corporation, is a Swedish state-owned company working in several different space related fields, including scientific stratospheric balloon launches. Esrange Space Centre (Esrange in short) located in the north of Sweden is the launch facility of SSC, where both sounding rocket launches and stratospheric balloon launches are conducted. At Esrange there are also facilities for satellite communication, including one of the largest civilian satellite data reception stations in the world. Stratospheric balloons have been launched from Esrange since 1974, when the first flights were performed together with the French space agency CNES. These balloon flights have normally flown eastward either only over Sweden or into Finland. Some flights have also had permission to fly into Russia, as far as the Ural Mountains. Normal flight times are from 4 to 12 hours. These eastward flights are conducted during the winter months (September to May). Long duration flights have been flown from ESC since 2005, when NASA flew the BLAST payload from Sweden to north Canada. The prevailing westerly wind pattern is very advantageous for trans-Atlantic flights during summer (late May to late July). The long flight times are very beneficial for astronomical payloads, such as telescopes that need long observation times. In 2013 two such payloads were flown, the first called SUNRISE was a German/US solar telescope, and the other called PoGOLite with a Swedish gamma-ray telescope. In 14 days PoGOLite, which had permission to fly over Russia, made an almost complete circumpolar flight. Typical scientific balloon payload fields include atmospheric research, including research on ozone depletion, astronomical and cosmological research, and research in technical fields such as aerodynamics. University students from all over Europe are involved in flights from Esrange under a Swedish/German programme called BEXUS. Two stratospheric balloons are flown with student

  3. Training and Accreditation for Radon Professionals in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soderman, A. L.

    2003-01-01

    Radon training courses and seminars of different kinds have been arranged in Sweden since the early 1980s. A commercial educational company initiated the first regular training courses in 1987. Up to 1990 about 400 persons had attended courses in radon measurement and radon mitigation methods. In 1991 the first in a series of courses focussed on radon from the ground and production of radon risk maps organised. From 1991 it has been possible to obtain accreditation for measurements of indoor radon in Sweden and from 1997 also for measurements of radon in water. Even if accreditation s is voluntary, in Sweden accredited laboratories perform most measurements, both for indoor air and water. A condition for accreditation in to have passed the examination following the training courses at SSI, SO far, three major companies have obtained accreditation for measurement of indoor radon and four have been accredited for measurements of radon in water. Education on radon is also given at universities and institutes of technology. A two-day course is included in the education for environmental health officers. A number of training courses aimed at real state agents have been organised by SSI through the years. During the autumn of 2001 altogether 400 authorised real estate agents attended a series of regional half-day courses. In 1995 SSI arranged an international training course, Radon Indoor Risk and Remedial Actions, in Stockholm for the European commission. About 40 scientists from all over Europe attended the course, which much appreciated by the participants. Today SSI's Radon Training Programme comprises five different courses, a Basic radon Course and four continuation courses: Radon measurements, Radon remedial measures, Radon in water and Radon investigation and risk map production. The courses are arranged twice a year, in spring and autumn, except the Radon risk map production course, which is arranged about every second year. Altogether, between 1991 and 2003

  4. The Dala (Älvdalen) Porphyries from Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikström, Anders; Pereira, Lola; Lundqvist, Thomas; Cooper, Barry

    2014-05-01

    The Dala (Älvdalen) Porphyries from Sweden Anders Wikström (retired from Geological Survey of Sweden) Lola Pereira (University of Salamanca, Spain) Thomas Lundqvist (retired from Geological Survey of Sweden) Barry Cooper (University of South Australia) The commercial stone industry in Älvdalen, about 350 km northwest of Stockholm, commenced in the second half of the 18th century, as a consequence of social need. The region had been plagued by severe famine and there was an urgent need for additional wealth-generating industry. At that time it was already known that the porphyry in the area was similar to the "porfido rosso antico" from Egypt which had played an important role in the Roman culture. Many ups and downs followed. During one period in the 19th century, the Swedish Royal family owned the industry. At the same time, several "porphyry" objects were presented to different courts around Europe (e.g. a 4 metre tall vase to the Russian czar, although of a more granitic variety). Otherwise most products have been smaller objects like urns, vases, candelabras, etc. The very hard stone (with variable red or black colours) can be highly polished. Many of the porphyry varieties were sourced from glacial boulders. These had been "mechanically tested" by nature and were free from joints which otherwise was a problem in the associated quarries. Comagmatic granites also occur. The porphyries and granites have an age around 1700 Ma, and the former are amazingly well preserved with magnificent volcanic textures. The porphyries and granites occupy a vast area and are in part covered with red, continental sandstones (which are quarried to-day). In the middle of the 20th century, the ignimbritic character of the porphyry was discovered. Previously, the flattened "fiamme" (collapsed pumice) had been interpreted as some kind of flow structure in a lava. The porphyry manufacturing plants in Älvdalen are a part of the Swedish industrial history. Over a significant

  5. Migrations of the Creative Class: Evidence from Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Høgni Kalsø; Niedomysl, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    competitive. This article focuses on the migration of the creative class in Sweden. Three questions, central to recent theoretical claims but until now overlooked, are addressed: (i) Do members of the creative class move more often compared to other migrant groups? (ii) Are they more selective...... in their destination choices, favouring regions with a favourable ‘people climate’? (iii) Do their reasons for migration differ from those of other migrant groups? Employing unique Swedish survey and register data, the results show that the migration rates of the creative class are only marginally higher than...... for other groups. The results, moreover, show that most migration activities for the creative class take place just after finishing university and that the creative class people move for jobs rather than place. The presented empirical findings of the article do not support central theoretical arguments...

  6. Scientific dishonesty--questionnaire to doctoral students in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilstun, Tore; Löfmark, Rurik; Lundqvist, Anita

    2010-05-01

    'Scientific dishonesty' implies the fabrication, falsification or plagiarism in proposing, performing or reviewing research or in reporting research results. A questionnaire was given to postgraduate students at the medical faculties in Sweden who attended a course in research ethics during the academic year 2008/2009 and 58% answered (range 29%-100%). Less than one-third of the respondents wrote that they had heard about scientific dishonesty in the previous 12 months. Pressure, concerning in what order the author should be mentioned, was reported by about 1 in 10 students. We suggest that all departments conducting research should have a written policy about acceptable research behaviour and that all doctoral students should be informed of the content of this policy. Participants in the research groups concerned should also be required to analyse published articles about scientific dishonesty and critically discuss what could be done about unethical conduct.

  7. Socioeconomic differences in the burden of disease in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljung, Rickard; Peterson, Stefan; Hallqvist, Johan

    2005-01-01

    of this unequally distributed burden falls on unskilled manual workers. The largest contributors to inequalities in health for women are ischaemic heart disease, depression and neurosis, and stroke. For men, the largest contributors are ischaemic heart disease, alcohol addiction and self-inflicted injuries......OBJECTIVE: We sought to analyse how much of the total burden of disease in Sweden, measured in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), is a result of inequalities in health between socioeconomic groups. We also sought to determine how this unequal burden is distributed across different disease...... groups and socioeconomic groups. METHODS: Our analysis used data from the Swedish Burden of Disease Study. We studied all Swedish men and women in three age groups (15-44, 45-64, 65-84) and five major socioeconomic groups. The 18 disease and injury groups that contributed to 65% of the total burden...

  8. Fracture and hydrology data from field studies at Stripa, Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gale, J.E.

    1981-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to present the basic fracture and hydrology data collected as part of the joint LBL-KBS fracture hydrology program at Stripa, Sweden. A detailed description of the fracture-core logging and hydrology borehole testing procedures is included as well as a description of how the fracture and hydrology data were coded and organized. Based on this coding a series of computer data files for the fracture and hydrology borehole data have been constructed and these are described in detail. The fracture data file for one borehole is presented as an example in an appendix along with all of the raw and some partially processed and analyzed fracture hydrology data files. A detailed description of how this data will be analyzed to develop a thorough understanding of the fracture system and hydrogeologic characteristics of the Stripa site is presented

  9. Use of creative activities in occupational therapy practice in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müllersdorf, Maria; Ivarsson, Ann Britt

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of creative activities in occupational therapy in Sweden and how often Swedish occupational therapists use creative activities as a means of intervention. A web-mail survey was sent to 2975 Swedish occupational therapists working in health care at regional, county council or primary health care level, and those working in vocational rehabilitation. A total of 1867 (63%) answered the questionnaire and showed that 44% did use creative activities as a means of intervention and most often by practitioners working in psychiatric health care. The most commonly used form of creative activity was arts and crafts followed by gardening. This web-mail survey was based on a limited amount of items regarding creative activities. Further research should focus on in-depth inquiries about how occupational therapists and their patients perceive the use of creative activities as a means of treatment in occupational therapy. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. BMPs in urban stormwater management in Denmark and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Viklander, M.; Linde, Jens Jørgen

    2002-01-01

    Best Management Practices (BMPs) for control of stormwater runoff include structural elemts (structural BMPs) that can be applied on the local scale (e.g. infiltration), the drainage catchment scale (e.g. ponds and treatment, or wetlands) and the receiving water scale (e.g. retrofitting of river...... reaches), and non-structural BMPs, such as controls of chemicals or building materials, and street sweeping. The available knowledge of stormwater BMPs performance in pollution control is inconsistent and the effect of various BMPs on receiving water quality is either poorly understood, or not known....... A review of recent experiences with selected stormwater BMPs in Denmark and Sweden is presented and discussed with respect to the current issues related to legislation and the forces driving future development in stormwater management....

  11. National Survey on Justification of CT-examinations in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almen, Anja; Leitz, Wolfram; Richter, Sven

    2009-02-01

    All examinations in diagnostic radiology shall be justified to avoid unnecessary irradiation of the patients. The objective of the study was to investigate the degree of justification for CT-examinations in Sweden. Referrals for all examinations performed during one day were retrospectively evaluated by a group of physicians. The study was designed and conducted by a project group lead by prof. Haakan Jorulf. The authors of this report have derived the results and conclusions on the basis of the data and are responsible for the content of this report. The principle result was that approximately 20 % of all examinations were not justified. The degree of justification varied strongly with organ examined, moderately with prescriber affiliation and weakly with geographical region. If unjustified examinations could be avoided a large dose reduction for the population would be achieved. This study shows that there is a need for improvements and the authority will continue to work with this issue

  12. Safety considerations concerning light water reactors in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, T.

    1977-01-01

    In 1975 the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate was commissioned by the Government to perform a Reactor Safety Study concerning commercial light water reactors. The study will contain an account of: - rules and regulations for reactor designs; - operation experience of the Swedish nuclear power plants with international comparisons; - the development of reactor designs during the last 10 years; - demands and conditions for inspection and inspection methods; - nuclear power plant operation organization; - training of operators; and - the results of research into nuclear safety. The study is scheduled for completion by July 1st, 1977, however, this paper gives a summary of the results of the Reactor Safety Study already available. The paper contains detailed statistics concerning safety related occurrences and reactor scrams in Sweden from July 1st, 1974 until the beginning of 1977

  13. Diet and Predatory Behavior of Lynx in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moshøj, Charlotte Margaret

    2002-01-01

    4. Diet and Predatory Behavior of Lynx in Sweden CHARLOTTE MOSHØJ1,2 1University of Copenhagen Department of Population Ecology, Zoological Institute Universitetsparken 15 DK-2100 Copenhagen Denmark cmmoshoj@zi.ku.dk 2Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences Department of Conservation Biology...... (reindeer and roe deer) comprised the greatest part of the diet, while a regional division indicated that while lynxes from northern regions had a narrower diet niche, they were in better condition than lynxes from south of the reindeer husbandry districts. Lynx gender and status also influenced diet......, predation and condition, while temporal variations in prey density and availability affected seasonal predation rates, as well as between year variations and diet composition. Variable prey species and environmental factors, such as snow and the availability of cover, furthermore affected lynx predatory...

  14. Experimental evidence from active placement efforts among unemployed in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hägglund, Pathric

    2014-06-01

    This article uses data from a field experiment in Sweden to analyze the effects of active placement efforts. In particular, the relative efficiency between combining job-search monitoring and job-search assistance, and monitoring alone, is analyzed. Although the impact estimates are generally imprecisely estimated, a general conclusion is that placement programs are effective policies in increasing the job exit rate for various groups of unemployed. I find that monitoring of job search is an efficient method to increase off-unemployment exit rate both alone and combined with job-search assistance services. The results, however, indicate that the combined services generate more permanent job exits. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Comparing Homicide-Suicides in the United States and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regoeczi, Wendy C; Granath, Sven; Issa, Rania; Gilson, Thomas; Sturup, Joakim

    2016-11-01

    Research on homicides followed by suicides has largely relied on very localized samples and relatively short time spans of data. As a result, little is known about the extent to which patterns within cases of homicide-suicides are geographically specific. The current study seeks to help fill this gap by comparing twenty years of homicide-suicide data for Sweden and a large U.S. county. Although some of the underlying patterns in the two countries are similar (e.g., decreasing rates), a number of important differences emerge, particularly with respect to incidence, weapons used, perpetrator age, and relationship of the perpetrator to the victim. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  16. Mechanical properties of granitic rocks from Gideaa, Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ljunggren, C.; Stephansson, O.; Alm, O.; Hakami, H.; Mattila, U.

    1985-10-01

    The elastic and mechanical properties were determined for two rock types from the Gideaa study area. Gideaa is located approximately 30 km north-east of Oernskoeldsvik, Northern Sweden. The rock types that were tested were migmatitic gneiss and migmatitic granite. The following tests were conducted: - sound velocity measurements; - uniaxial compression tests with acoustic emission recording; - brazilian disc tests; - triaxial tests; - three point bending tests. All together, 12 rock samples were tested with each test method. Six samples of these were migmatic gneiss and six samples were migmatitic granite. The result shows that the migmatitic gneiss has varying strength properties with low compressive strength in comparison with its high tensile strength. The migmatitic granite, on the other hand, is found to have parameter values similar to other granitic rocks. With 15 refs. (Author)

  17. Zooplankton from Lake Magelungen, Central Sweden 1960-1963

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almquist, Elisabeth

    1970-11-01

    The investigation of the zooplankton of Lake Magelungen, Central Sweden, was carried out over a period of three years. The aim of the investigation was to illustrate the qualitative and quantitative composition of the zooplankton before the release of waste water from the Aagesta Heat and Power Station began. Vertical sampling series were collected once a month at three different stations in the lake. The highest volumes of zooplankton were obtained in the summer. The ciliates predominated when the conditions were unfavourable for other zooplankton, as in winter just below the ice. The rotifers dominated during and immediately after the spring circulation. With one exception the crustaceans reached their peak volume values in August or September. The composition of the zooplankton indicates that Lake Magelungen is highly eutrophic

  18. National Survey on Justification of CT-examinations in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almen, Anja; Leitz, Wolfram; Richter, Sven

    2009-02-15

    All examinations in diagnostic radiology shall be justified to avoid unnecessary irradiation of the patients. The objective of the study was to investigate the degree of justification for CT-examinations in Sweden. Referrals for all examinations performed during one day were retrospectively evaluated by a group of physicians. The study was designed and conducted by a project group lead by prof. Haakan Jorulf. The authors of this report have derived the results and conclusions on the basis of the data and are responsible for the content of this report. The principle result was that approximately 20 % of all examinations were not justified. The degree of justification varied strongly with organ examined, moderately with prescriber affiliation and weakly with geographical region. If unjustified examinations could be avoided a large dose reduction for the population would be achieved. This study shows that there is a need for improvements and the authority will continue to work with this issue

  19. Formando Trabajadores Sociales en Suecia Forming social workers in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Montesino

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo discute cierta contradicción existente entre el contenido de la Educación en Trabajo Social de Suecia y las realidades cambiantes del sistema de bienestar sueco. La integración social de todos los ciudadanos ya no forma parte de las políticas que rigen las actividades de bienestar sueco, sin embargo, este enfoque sigue siendo una premisa en muchos de los contenidos de la educación institucionalizada de los trabajadores sociales en Suecia.This article discusses a certain contradiction that exists between the contents of the Swedish social work education and the changing realities of the Swedish welfare system. The social integration of all citizens is no longer part of the policies that direct the Swedish welfare activities, however, this approach continues to be taken for granted as a premise in several of the contents of the social workers' institutionalized education in Sweden.

  20. Social Enterprise, Social Innovation and Social Entrepreneurship in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, H. Thomas R.; Hafen, Niklas

    2014-01-01

    . Whilst the unemployment rate was 7.4 %, or 388 500 people in August 2014 and has stayed on a level above 6 % over the last 12 years, and labour market policies cutting the benefits for the long-term unemployed as well as income taxes for the employed were introduced as a work incentive, a two tier system...... of insiders and outsiders has been cemented. Over the last decade, the long term unemployed and far removed from the labour market have increased, now making up approximately 70 % of the total number of unemployed people in Sweden. Those are alarming numbers for more than one reason. No doubt......, this is a position that most people would dread finding themselves in, but also, from an economics point of view, it is ever harder to argue that these individuals are part of a national labour force reserve, i.e. the longer time spent being unemployed, independent of reason, the less attractive the individual...

  1. A novel stroke locus identified in a northern Sweden pedigree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janunger, T.; Nilsson-Ardnor, S.; Wiklund, P.-G.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The population of northern Sweden is characterized by reduced genetic diversity and a high incidence of stroke. We sought to reduce genetic variation further, using genealogic analysis in a set of nuclear families affected by stroke, and we subsequently performed a genome-wide scan...... to identify novel stroke susceptibility loci. METHODS: Through genealogy, 7 nuclear families with a common ancestor, connected over 8 generations, were identified. A genome-wide scan using 449 microsatellite markers was performed with subsequent haplotype analyses. RESULTS: A maximum allele-sharing lod score...... of 4.81 on chromosome 9q31-q33 was detected. Haplotype analysis identified a common 2.2-megabase interval in the chromosomal region in 4 of the nuclear families, where an overrepresentation of intracerebral hemorrhage was observed. CONCLUSIONS: We have identified a novel susceptibility locus for stroke...

  2. The impact of party on nuclar power attitudes in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmberg, S.

    1991-04-01

    Mass attitudes to nuclear power in general and to the more specific problems having to do with the management of nuclear waste are related to each other. People with anti-nuclear attitudes tend to view many of the nuclear waste problems differently than persons who are positive to the use of nuclear power. Hence, the study of mass attitudes to nuclear power is of relevance for the study of attitudes to nuclear waste. The present study analyse attitudes to nuclear power as well as attitudes to nuclear waste. The emphasis, however, is on the development of mass attitudes to nuclear power. The setting is Sweden and the time-frame the last 20 years. (author)

  3. The Rise of the Professional Field of Medicine in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Carlhed

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is an analysis of conditions enabling the rise of the professional field of medicine in Sweden. The analysis is based mainly on second- ary data, while the use of primary data is restricted to official statistics. Primarily, it aims to study the conditions promoting professionalization in medicine. Important exogenous conditions were derived from early emerging nation state administration structures concerning policy and governance of public health, as well as a delegated supervision of professional health activities to the medical profession and the organization of a public national health care system. Professionalization strategies such as social organization of the medical profession and their use of a variety of legitimizing resources as tools for jurisdictional claims are considered as endogenous conditions. Broadly, the analysis shows a close relationship between the growth of professionalization in the field of medicine and the development of state prosperity in the Swedish welfare state. 

  4. Knee injuries in skiing. A prospective study from northern Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlund, G; Gedda, S; Hemborg, A

    1980-01-01

    This paper evaluates 420 ski injuries occurring in Northern Sweden in 1977. Our main aim was to correlate knee injuries with types of skiing and to note a change in incidence with evolution of equipment. Fifty-eight lesions (13.8%) affected the knee joint which is about the same frequency as 10 years earlier nor has introduction of high stiff boots in downhill skiing increased incidence of knee injuries. Cross-country and long-distance skiing produced more knee injuries (24.7%) than downhill skiing (11.4%). Cross-country skiers were older and more women in this group sustained knee injuries. The use of non-release type bindings is probably the main reason for this higher incidence but age and different skiing techniques seem to contribute.

  5. Nursing students' views on promoting successful breastfeeding in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajalic, Zada

    2014-05-09

    Promoting breastfeeding is important work for health-care personnel in the Swedish context. This promotion is multifaceted and demands the ongoing development of knowledge and competence among both health-care personnel and patients. The aim of the present study was to describe the nursing students' perspectives on breastfeeding in Sweden. Data were obtained in the form of written reflections from nursing students (n=65) and examined using manifest content analysis. The results show that the factors of importance in promoting successful breastfeeding are information about breastfeeding's benefits, traditions and cultural acceptance of the practice, and by government prohibition of infant formula. We conclude that knowledge about the benefits of breastfeeding needs to be prioritized continuously during education.

  6. Nutrient trends through time in Sweden's Baltic Drainage Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, I.; Destouni, G.; Prieto, C.

    2015-12-01

    Changes in climate and land-use have and will continue to modify regional hydrology, in turn impacting environmental health, agricultural productivity and water resource quality and availability. The Baltic region is an area of interest as the coast spans nine countries- serving over 100 million people. The Baltic Sea contains one of the largest human caused hypoxic dead zones due to eutrophication driven by anthropogenic excess loading of nutrients. Policies to reduce these loads include also international directives and agreements, such as the EU Water Framework Directive, adopted in 2000 to protect and improve water quality throughout the European Union, and the Baltic Sea Action Plan under the Helsinki Commission aimed specifically at reducing the nutrient loading to and mitigating the eutrophication of the Baltic Sea. In light of these policies and amidst the number of studies on the Baltic Sea we ask, using the accessible nutrient and discharge data what does nutrient loading look like today? Are the most excessive loads going down? Observed nutrient and flow time series across Sweden allow for answering these questions, by spatial and temporal trend analysis of loads from various parts of Sweden to the Baltic Sea. Analyzing these observed time series in conjunction with the ecological health status classifications of the EU Water Framework Directive, allows in particular for answering the question if the loads into the water bodies with the poorest water quality, and from those to the Baltic Sea, are improving, being maintained or deteriorating. Such insight is required to contribute to relevant and efficient water and nutrient load management. Furthermore, empirically calculating nutrient loads, rather than only modeling, reveals that the water body health classification may not reflect what water bodies actually contribute the heaviest loads to the Baltic Sea. This work also underscores the importance of comprehensive analysis of all available data from

  7. The Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anckarsäter, Henrik; Lundström, Sebastian; Kollberg, Linnea; Kerekes, Nora; Palm, Camilla; Carlström, Eva; Långström, Niklas; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Halldner, Linda; Bölte, Sven; Gillberg, Christopher; Gumpert, Clara; Råstam, Maria; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2011-12-01

    The Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS) is an ongoing longitudinal twin study targeting all twins born in Sweden since July 1, 1992. Since 2004, parents of twins are interviewed regarding the children's somatic and mental health and social environment in connection with their 9th or 12th birthdays (CATSS-9/12). By January 2010, 8,610 parental interviews concerning 17,220 twins had been completed, with an overall response rate of 80%. At age 15 (CATSS-15) and 18 (CATSS-18), twins and parents complete questionnaires that, in addition to assessments of somatic and mental health, include measures of personality development and psychosocial adaptation. Twin pairs in CATSS-9/12 with one or both twins screening positive for autism spectrum disorders, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, tic disorders, developmental coordination disorder, learning disorders, oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and/or eating problems have been followed with in-depth questionnaires on family, social environment and personality, and subsequently by clinical assessments at age 15 together with randomly selected population controls, including 195 clinically assessed twin pairs from the first 2 year cohorts (CATSS-15/DOGSS). This article describes the cohorts and study groups, data collection, and measures used. Prevalences, distributions, heritability estimates, ages at onset, and sex differences of mental health problems in the CATSS-9/12, that were analyzed and found to be overall comparable to those of other clinical and epidemiological studies. The CATSS study has the potential of answering important questions on the etiology of childhood mental health problems and their role in the development of later adjustment problems.

  8. Regional environmental documentation of natural radiation in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, C.

    1982-01-01

    In 1979, when the problem of high radon daughter levels in Swedish houses became widely published, the need for information on variations in the natural radiation environment became very apparent. The radon problem was at first attributed to radon emanation from alum shale based aerated concrete, but it was soon obvious that ground with an abnormally high uranium content constitutes an even greater risk for high radon daughter levels in houses. The geological Survey of Sweden was commissioned to produce a documentation in map form for all areas and rock types with gamma ray levels exceeding 30 μR/h, with the intention of delimiting risk areas for high soil gas radon contents. The maps, known as GEO-radiation maps, are produced at scale of 1:50 000. They are based primarily upon radiometric surveys, ground measurements of gammaradiation and geological mapping. To date some 450 map sheets have been published covering approximately 55% of the country. The maps provide primary information to local planning, health and building authorities as to variations in the natural radiation environment. Within the so-called risk areas marked on the maps, local authorities are recommended to investigate the soil gas radon content prior to any new development. Geological environments known, in Sweden, to be associated with radon daughter problems in dwellings are alum shale, a Cambrian, uranium-rich black shale, uranium-rich granites and uranium-rich pegmatites. Both alum shale and uranium-rich granites constitute extensive areas of bedrock. More recently it has been established that high soil-gas radon concentrations are also associated with glacial eskers. (Author)

  9. Societal costs of fetal alcohol syndrome in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericson, Lisa; Magnusson, Lennart; Hovstadius, Bo

    2017-06-01

    To estimate the annual societal cost of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) in Sweden, focusing on the secondary disabilities thought feasible to limit via early interventions. Prevalence-based cost-of-illness analysis of FAS in Sweden for 2014. Direct costs (societal support, special education, psychiatric disorders and alcohol/drug abuse) and indirect costs (reduced working capacity and informal caring), were included. The calculations were based on published Swedish studies, including a register-based follow-up study of adults with FAS, reports and databases, and experts. The annual total societal cost of FAS was estimated at €76,000 per child (0-17 years) and €110,000 per adult (18-74 years), corresponding to €1.6 billion per year in the Swedish population using a prevalence of FAS of 0.2 %. The annual additional cost of FAS (difference between the FAS group and a comparison group) was estimated at €1.4 billion using a prevalence of 0.2 %. The major cost driver was the cost of societal support. The cost burden of FAS on the society is extensive, but likely to be underestimated. A reduction in the societal costs of FAS, both preventive and targeted interventions to children with FAS, should be prioritized. That is, the cost of early interventions such as placement in family homes or other forms of housing, and special education, represent unavoidable costs. However, these types of interventions are highly relevant to improve the individual's quality of life and future prospects, and also, within a long-term perspective, to limit the societal costs and personal suffering.

  10. Natural stones of historic and future importance in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouenborg, Björn; Andersson, Jenny; Göransson, Mattias

    2013-04-01

    Several activities and responsibilities of the Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU) are related to the work of the newly formed international Heritage Stone Task Group (HSTG) for designating historically important stones. SGU is among other things a referral organization, frequently dealing with the preparation of statements in connection with the quarrying permit applications of stone producers. When preparing these statements, SGU takes into account a number of parameters, e.g. the importance for local and regional business development, historic importance, area of occurrence, quality of the geological documentation of the stone type, peculiarities of the stone types and technical properties relevant for the intended use. Traditionally, SGU has not worked with bedrock mapping looking at the potential of natural stones production but more commonly looking at the potential production of aggregates, industrial minerals and metals. The competence is, therefore, presently being built up with new databases over important natural stone types and definition of criteria for their selection etc. In this respect the criteria defined by the HSTG provide important help. This work goes hand in hand with the task of proposing stone-deposits and quarries of "national interest". The criteria for selection of a stone type, quarry etc as one of national interest are currently being revised. SGU plays an important role in this work. However, the final decision and appointment lies in the hands of the Swedish Board of Housing, Building and Planning (Boverket), an authority dealing with sustainable land use and regional development, town and country planning. Boverket supervises how the planning legislation is handled by the municipal authorities and the county administrative boards. The two latter organizations are those in charge of giving extraction permits for stone quarrying. The "Hallandia gneiss", of SW Sweden, is described as a case story and presented in this paper. Keywords

  11. Drivers behind the development of forest energy in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoerheden, Rolf

    2006-01-01

    The use of forest fuels has more than doubled in Sweden over the last 25-30 years. Almost a fifth of the utilized energy is now based on forest biomass. Concurrently, real prices of bioenergy have decreased to less than a third of what they were 25 years ago. Some principal driving forces behind this development are identified and discussed in this paper. The origin of this development was equally the result of a foreseen shortage of fibre and a reaction to this vulnerable position, made obvious through the 'oil crises'. Although Sweden has a long tradition of large-scale use of forest energy, 35 years ago she was almost totally dependent on imported oil. Forest mechanisation provided rational solutions to handling small diameter wood and stumps in conventional industrial processes, but also enabled the economical use of such wood for energy. During 3 decades of development, drivers and obstacles have shifted. What started to reduce dependence on fossil fuels was later driven by increased general environmental awareness. An emerging 'green' lobby blocked the development of nuclear power and expanded harnessing of hydropower which were alternative means of self-sufficiency. In the last 10-15 years, focus has changed again. Global concern for climatic change due to emissions of greenhouse gases is a powerful driver, endorsing increased use of CO 2 -neutral energy sources. Sustainability, resource cycling and the welfare of future generations are seen as goals for continued development. Ideals and policies do not, however, automatically induce change in regular operations. A set of drivers is identified, that has played the decisive role in practice. These include the direct technical-operational drivers, as well as indirect drivers through market development, taxation and other legislation. (author)

  12. Depressed fertility among descendants of immigrants in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Andersson

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous research shows evidence of an interrelation between family formation and the migration of immigrants in Europe. Less research has been conducted on the fertility and family behavior of the descendants of immigrants. Objective: Our study provides analyses of the childbearing behavior of daughters of immigrants in Sweden. The context is that of a country with near-replacement-level fertility and social policies oriented towards social equality. Methods: The study is based on register data covering 1998-2012, which allows for highly detailed analyses of the childbearing behavior of 20 country origin groups of second-generation women. By means of event history techniques, we analyze the transition to any first, second, and third births. Results: Our analyses show that most groups of descendants of immigrants have lower fertility than those with a full Swedish background. The risk of having a first child is particularly depressed, and the risk of having a second child is also lower for daughters of immigrants than for women with two Swedish-born parents. In contrast, many groups of immigrant-descendant two-child mothers display elevated third-birth risks. Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate the necessity to account for parity-specific differences in fertility when studying the fertility of descendants of migrants. Contribution: Our study is based on data large enough to allow for a disaggregated analysis by birth order and parental country background. It shows that, on average, the fertility of women in the so-called second generation in Sweden is lower than that of women with a full Swedish background.

  13. Health care systems in Sweden and China: Legal and formal organisational aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hjelm Katarina

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sharing knowledge and experience internationally can provide valuable information, and comparative research can make an important contribution to knowledge about health care and cost-effective use of resources. Descriptions of the organisation of health care in different countries can be found, but no studies have specifically compared the legal and formal organisational systems in Sweden and China. Aim To describe and compare health care in Sweden and China with regard to legislation, organisation, and finance. Methods Literature reviews were carried out in Sweden and China to identify literature published from 1985 to 2008 using the same keywords. References in recent studies were scrutinized, national legislation and regulations and government reports were searched, and textbooks were searched manually. Results The health care systems in Sweden and China show dissimilarities in legislation, organisation, and finance. In Sweden there is one national law concerning health care while in China the law includes the "Hygienic Common Law" and the "Fundamental Health Law" which is under development. There is a tendency towards market-orientated solutions in both countries. Sweden has a well-developed primary health care system while the primary health care system in China is still under development and relies predominantly on hospital-based care concentrated in cities. Conclusion Despite dissimilarities in health care systems, Sweden and China have similar basic assumptions, i.e. to combine managerial-organisational efficiency with the humanitarian-egalitarian goals of health care, and both strive to provide better care for all.

  14. Why do young children die in the UK? A comparison with Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambe, Parag; Sammons, Helen M; Choonara, Imti

    2015-10-01

    The UK has a high child mortality rate, whereas Sweden's is lower (under-five mortality rates of five and three, respectively, in 2011).We therefore wished to compare causes of death in young children aged Sweden for the same period were obtained from the National Board of Health and Welfare. Causes of death were compared statistically using χ(2) test. There were a total of 14,104 and 1036 deaths aged Sweden, respectively, between 2006 and 2008. The total numbers of live births during the same period were 2,295,964 and 315,884, respectively. The overall mortality rate in the UK was 614 per 100,000 children which was significantly higher than that in Sweden (328; pSweden were 10.1, 88.6 and 34.8, respectively. They were all significantly more frequent in the UK than in Sweden (pSweden (p<0.001). In order to reduce the mortality rate in the UK, we need to try and reduce the causes of prematurity. Additionally, the care of children with treatable infections should be reviewed to understand ways in which to reduce the differences in mortality seen. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Residential mobility among foreign-born persons living in Sweden is associated with lower mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Albin

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Björn Albin1,2, Katarina Hjelm1,2, Jan Ekberg3, Sölve Elmståhl41School of Health and Caring Sciences, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden; 2Department of Health Sciences, Division of Geriatric Medicine, Lund University, Sweden; 3Centre of Labour Market Policy Research (CAFO, School of Management and Economics, Växjö University, Sweden; 4Department of Health Sciences, Division of Geriatric Medicine, Lund University, SwedenAbstract: There have been few longitudinal studies on the effect of within-country mobility on patterns of mortality in deceased foreign-born individuals. The results have varied; some studies have found that individuals who move around within the same country have better health status than those who do not change their place of residence. Other studies have shown that changing one’s place of residence leads to more self-reported health problems and diseases. Our aim was to analyze the pattern of mortality in deceased foreign-born persons living in Sweden during the years 1970–1999 in relation to distance mobility. Data from Statistics Sweden and the National Board of Health and Welfare was used, and the study population consisted of 281,412 ­foreign-born persons aged 16 years and over who were registered as living in Sweden in 1970. Distance mobility did not have a negative effect on health. Total mortality was lower (OR 0.71; 95% CI 0.69–0.73 in foreign-born persons in Sweden who had changed their county of residence during the period 1970–1990. Higher death rates were observed, after adjustment for age, in three ICD diagnosis groups “Injury and poisoning”, “External causes of injury and poisoning”, and “Diseases of the digestive system” among persons who had changed county of residence.Keywords: residential mobility, health, foreign-born, immigrant, Sweden, mortality

  16. Sweden, Finland and the German energy policy turnaround; Schweden, Finnland und die deutsche Energiewende

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fjaestad, Maja [Royal Institute for Technology (KTH), Stockholm (Sweden); Hakkarainen, Petri [Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies (IASS), Potsdam (Germany)

    2013-03-15

    After the nuclear catastrophe in Fukushima Finland and Sweden have chosen completely different paths compared to Germany: both countries plan to build new nuclear power plants. The contribution discusses the historical development of nuclear power in these countries. In Sweden a political polarization exists between those who want to use renewable energies and those who expect increasing greenhouse gas emissions in case of nuclear power phaseout. In Finland no important anti-nuclear movement has been formed. The authors do not expect a change of policy in Sweden and Finland.

  17. A Real Options Approach to Nuclear Waste Disposal in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soederkvist, Jonas; Joensson, Kristian

    2004-04-01

    This report is concerned with an investigation of how the real options approach can be useful for managerial decisions regarding the phase-out of nuclear power generation in Sweden. The problem of interest is the optimal time-schedule for phase-out activities, where the optimal time-schedule is defined in purely economical terms. The approach taken is actual construction and application of three real options models, which capture different aspects of managerial decisions. The first model concerns when investments in deep disposal facilities should optimally be made. Although the model is a rough simplification of reality, the result is clear. It is economically advantageous to postpone deep disposal forever. The second model focuses on how the uncertainty of future costs relates to managerial investment decisions. Construction of this model required some creativity, as the nuclear phase-out turns out to be quite a special project. The result from the second model is that there can be a value associated with deferral of investments due to the uncertainty of future costs, but the result is less clear-cut compared to the first model. In the third model, we extend an approach suggested by Louberge, Villeneuve and Chesney. The risk of a nuclear accident is introduced through this model and we develop its application to investigate the Swedish phase-out in particular, which implies that waste continuously disposed. In the third model, focus is shifted from investment timing to implementation timing. The results from the third model are merely qualitative, as it is considered beyond the scope of this work to quantitatively determine all relevant inputs. It is concluded that the phase-out of nuclear power generation in Sweden is not just another area of application for standard real options techniques. A main reason is that although there are a lot of uncertain issues regarding the phase-out, those uncertainties do not leave a lot of room for managerial flexibility if

  18. Educational research in Sweden: Reform strategies and research policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marklund, Inger

    1981-06-01

    Educational R & D in Sweden is to a large extent policy-oriented. It has been an integrated part of the Swedish educational reform system and has brought about a dialogue between politicians, administrators and researchers. Several circumstances have contributed to the `Swedish model'. One is the system with government-appointed committees in which researchers often play an active part. Another is that the Swedish educational system is highly centralized, with the National Board of Education (NBE) as the central authority, responsible for primary, secondary and adult education. A third — and a crucial one — is that, since 1962, the NBE has had increasing funds for educational R & D at its disposal. These funds account for the main part of the economic resources for R & D, along with resources allocated to research appointments at research departments of universities. Educational R & D, conducted primarily within the NBE funds, has recently been evaluated by a government-appointed committee. In its evaluations of the impact of educational R & D, the committee distinguished between the effects of R & D and the effect correlates. It concluded that the impact of R & D is more indirect than direct, more long-term than immediate. The effects are also more easily recognized at levels above the actual school situation. This finding could be interpreted as a consequence of the policy-orientation of educational R & D, which at the same time shows the difficulties in reaching the `school level' with research and development results. There are two general trends in Sweden, which will influence both research planning and research use. First, there is a trend towards the decentralization of decision-making and responsibility for the educational system. Secondly, there is a trend towards the `sectionalization' of the R & D system as a whole. This sectionalization will mean that research will to a great extent be planned to meet needs from different parts of society — labour

  19. Climate change effects on design floods for dams in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreasson, J.; Bergstroem, S. [Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Inst., Norrkoeping (Sweden)

    2008-07-01

    Since 1990 new guidelines for hydrological design of the Swedish hydropower system are being implemented. The technique is based on a critical combination of extreme precipitation, extreme snowmelt and an operation strategy for multi-reservoir systems. Hydrological modeling is a central component, as is a prescribed design precipitation sequence. At the time when the guidelines were developed it was not possible to account for possible consequences of a changing climate. Sensitivity analyses using four different regional climate change scenarios (2071-2100) has been carried out for four important Swedish dams and also for the largest lake in Sweden, Lake Vanern. The research project was financed by Elforsk and the Swedish Dam Safety Authority (Svenska Kraftnat) and it was reported in 2006/2007. Some summarizing conclusions are: Changes in the mean climate results in smaller design snow pack according to all scenarios. This component acts towards decreased design inflows and water levels at most locations. Extreme precipitation can be expected to increase at most places in Sweden according to the climate scenarios. This component acts towards increased design inflows and water levels at most locations. Depending on how changes in the mean climate and in the extremes interact, the change in design inflows and water levels can be either an increase or a decrease. The effect depends both on the location of the dam and on the choice of climate scenario. This calls for site-specific analysis for each dam. In 2007 the second edition of the guidelines for hydrological design was issued in which also the question of climate change have been addressed. The first sensitivity analyses are now being extended within a new 2-year research project also funded jointly by Elforsk and the Swedish Dam Safety Authority (Svenska Kraftnat). The aim is to increase the number of regional climate scenarios and the number of high hazard dams in the analysis, but also to move the scenarios

  20. Flawed assessment process leads to under-use of alternatives in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maite Zamacona

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sweden is often held up as following ‘best practice’ in legislation with regard to detention and alternatives to detention but research by the Swedish Red Cross highlights a number of flaws.

  1. Horizontal Equity and the Redistributive Impact of Housing Allowance Programs in Norway and Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Ankrom, Jeff

    1989-01-01

    The redistributive impact of housing allowance programs in Sweden and Norway is examined. Findings are that policies designed to reduce vertical inequalities often introduce horizontal inequalities that weaken the redistributive impact of government transfer programs.

  2. Mortality and life expectancy of people with alcohol use disorder in Denmark, Finland and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westman, J; Wahlbeck, K; Laursen, T M

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse mortality and life expectancy in people with alcohol use disorder in Denmark, Finland and Sweden. METHOD: A population-based register study including all patients admitted to hospital diagnosed with alcohol use disorder (1 158 486 person-years) from 1987 to 2006 in Denmark......, Finland and Sweden. RESULTS: Life expectancy was 24-28 years shorter in people with alcohol use disorder than in the general population. From 1987 to 2006, the difference in life expectancy between patients with alcohol use disorder and the general population increased in men (Denmark, 1.8 years; Finland......, 2.6 years; Sweden, 1.0 years); in women, the difference in life expectancy increased in Denmark (0.3 years) but decreased in Finland (-0.8 years) and Sweden (-1.8 years). People with alcohol use disorder had higher mortality from all causes of death (mortality rate ratio, 3.0-5.2), all diseases...

  3. Case-fatality rates for myocardial infarction declined in Denmark and Sweden during 1987-1999

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Søren; Abildstrom, Steen Z; Rosén, Måns

    2004-01-01

    and Sweden, and extended these measures with underlying deaths of ischemic heart disease and sudden deaths of unknown cause. RESULTS: Changed coding practice distorted trends of case fatality rates during the day of the event. In general, Denmark had higher case-fatality rates, but trends in hospital......OBJECTIVE: To evaluate trends in prognosis after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) between Denmark and Sweden using routinely collected data and different case-fatality measures. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We compared three case-fatality measures during 1987-1999 using national registries in Denmark.......55) and the odds ratios for case fatality during days 29-365 for 1999 vs. 1987 were 0.56 among men in Denmark (women 0.65) and 0.66 among men in Sweden (women 0.67). CONCLUSION: Short- and long-term prognosis improved considerably during 1987-1999 in Denmark and Sweden. Case fatality during the day of the event...

  4. The radiation environment in Sweden; Straalmiljoen i Sverige

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Paal; Carlsson, Monica; Falk, Rolf; Hubbard, Lynn; Leitz, Wolfram; Mjoenes, Lars; Moere, Hans; Nyblom, Leif; Soederman, Ann-Louise; Yuen Lasson, Katarina; Aakerblom, Gustav; Oehlen, Elisabeth

    2007-01-15

    The report describes, and reports data from, the monitoring of the radiation environment which has been conducted in Sweden since the 1950s. Average doses to the general public as well as to special groups of the public are also reported. Environmental monitoring concerning radiation has to a great extent focused on deposition and occurrence of radioactive elements originating from the atmospheric nuclear weapon tests and the Chernobyl accident. The average dose from {sup 137}Cs is very low, although it is somewhat higher in the group 'reindeer herders'. Surveys of naturally occurring radioactive elements in soil, drinking water and indoor air show that radiation from soil and building materials constitutes, besides medical use of radiation, the main part of the average total dose to the population. The dose from drinking water from drilled wells or from radon in indoor air may dominate the total dose in certain cases. Smoking increases the risk of radon considerably. UV-radiation has increased with 10 percent over the last 22 years at the location of the monitoring station. This is mainly explained by a decreased cloudiness. The exposure for UV is however more dependent on behaviour, and approximately 25 percent of the total exposure takes place abroad. Presently there are no time series concerning electromagnetic fields in the outdoor environment. However, measurements indicate levels well below the reference values.

  5. Environmental impact analysis (EIA) concerning lodgepole pine forestry in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Bengt; Rosvall, Ola; Engelmark, Ola; Sjoeberg, Kjell

    1999-01-01

    This report presents an analysis of the ecological consequences of forestry with Canadian lodgepole pine introduced into Sweden. The report includes a compilation of present knowledge in the area, research priorities, and proposed measures for dealing with the negative environmental consequences that could arise. The point of departure of the analysis is a description of the properties of lodgepole pine, including species-specific characteristics of the tree, and changes in stand environment and silvicultural management practices that can be expected. The report describes the dispersal capacity of lodgepole pine in its new Swedish environment and the effects of host-parasite interactions. Thereafter, ecological effects on the capacity of the soil for sustainable production and on biological diversity at various scales (tree, stand, landscape) are analysed. Lodgepole pine forestry is also considered in relation to current laws and regulations as well as national and international environmental goals. At the end of the report, a strategy is proposed for handling the inevitable uncertainties associated with the introduction of exotic species 111 refs, 14 figs

  6. Pollen Season Trends (1973-2013 in Stockholm Area, Sweden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Lind

    Full Text Available In the present study, the phenological and quantitative changes in the pollen seasons between 1973 and 2013 in the Stockholm region of Sweden were studied for nine types of pollen (hazel, alder, elm, birch, oak, grass, mugwort, willow and pine. Linear regression models were used to estimate the long term trends in duration, start- and end-dates, peak-values and the yearly accumulated pollen sums of the pollen seasons. The pollen seasons of several arboreal plant species (e.g. birch, oak and pine were found to start significantly earlier today compared to 41 years earlier, and have an earlier peak-date, while the season of other species seemed largely unaffected. However, the long term trends in the end-dates of pollen seasons differed between arboreal and herbaceous species. For herbaceous species (grass and mugwort, a significant change towards later end-dates was observed and the duration of season was found to have increased. A significant trend towards an earlier end-date was found in the majority of the arboreal plant species (i.e. elm, oak, pine and birch, but the length of the season seemed unaffected. A trend towards an increase in yearly concentrations of pollen was observed for several species; however the reasons for this phenomenon cannot be explained unambiguously by the present study design. The trend of increasing yearly mean air temperatures in the Stockholm area may be the reason to changed phenological patterns of pollen seasons.

  7. Environmental labelling of electricity delivery contracts in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaaberger, Tomas

    2003-01-01

    Competition in the electricity market allows customers to choose between suppliers. As a consequence, customers may demand electricity from specified sources of energy. In Sweden, the Swedish Society for Nature Conservation (SSNC), operates a system of environmental labelling of electricity delivery contracts since 1996. Labelling is available for suppliers offering electricity from renewable sources of energy with some additional criteria. Companies may acquire a licence to use the label by showing ability to deliver such electricity and by agreeing to be audited. The system is private independent. It is operating on the bases of credibility earned by the SSNC during 90 years as an environmental organisation and 10 years as operator of environmental labelling of consumer products. The system is market oriented, compatible with WTO and EU market principles, and independent of governmental environmental restrictions, subsidy or quota systems. It is relying on voluntary agreements. The results are desirable if only a few by electricity under labelled contracts as well as if every customer do so. The market is growing. A majority of the suppliers have a license and may offer labelled contracts. In the year 2000, 7% of all electricity sold to final consumers was sold under labelled contracts

  8. Remediation of the closed-down uranium mine in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linder, P.; Sundblad, B.

    1993-01-01

    During the 1960s uranium was extracted from alum shale deposits at Ranstad in the south of Sweden. This mine was part of the development of a Swedish nuclear power program based on the heavy-water/natural uranium concept. In this report the history of Swedish uranium production is briefly presented as well as the reason for the closing-down of the mine at Ranstad. In 1985 the planning of the restoration of the area started. The aim of the remediation work was to find a permanent solution that excluded the need for any maintenance in the future. The procedures and techniques for remedial action are described for the open pit mine and the mill tailing deposits. As the leachate from the mill tailings was collected and purified, there was no urgent need for action. Investigations could be made to find an effective way for reducing the weathering of the pyrite in the tailings and the authorities concerned could accept the remediation plan after a detailed review. The main part of the plan has now been implemented and many experiences from the performance technique and the significant quality assurance program have been obtained. The old open pit mine has already been transformed into a lake and the mill tailings are covered by a leaktight barrier and a protective layer. The natural environment in the whole area has been reestablished

  9. File 'Energy-climate actions in Sweden'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    In a first part, this publication briefly presents some basic data and information on Sweden (geography, population, economy, administrative organisation, powers of local authorities, local finances), the Swedish 'energy profile' (consumption, intensity, imports and exports), greenhouse gas emissions (total and per sector), and the energy-climate strategy (impacts of climate change, national climatic strategy, national measures, action framework for local authorities). The second part addresses one of these action frameworks, the Klimatkommunernas network. It describes this network, its objectives, and possibilities for communities to join it. It describes its activities: information, publication of a strategic document of climate-energy actions for municipalities, examples of projects. The third part presents experiments performed by different local communities (Kristianstad, Vaexjoe, Malmoe, and Lund). For each of them are presented: the energy strategy (objectives, strategy, adaptation, energy-climate follow-up, application and actual measures), and some specific measures. These specific examples can be integrated systems based on biogas and biomass, a zero fossil fuel objective with the use of renewable energies for heat and cold production, for electricity production and to improve energy efficiency, to promote green fuels in transports, to reduce the impact of transports on climate, a sustainable town planning, environmental management. Some features are then highlighted in the adopted approach for these examples: a systemic, collaborative, participative and communicative approach

  10. Geotomography applied at the Stripa Mine in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, J.T.; Laine, E.F.; Lytle, R.J.; Daily, W.D.

    1980-01-01

    LLNL made ultrahigh-frequency (450-MHz) electromagnetic borehole-to-borehole transmissions in the Stripa Mine near Guldsmedshyttan, Sweden, in April 1979. Transmission loss measurements were made between four sets of 76-mm boreholes 30 m long, located at the end of a drift. Distances between the boreholes varied from 2 to 22 m. More than 25,000 data points were taken. A geotomograph was constructed to show the variation of attenuation between boreholes. The observed spatial variation of electromagnetic attenuation may be related to the expected stress relief created by the mine. Transmission loss measurements were also made between two converging boreholes drilled from the surface to points near the mine. Data taken at 21 MHz show a nearly uniform attenuation within this sampled region. These experiments demonstrate that geotomographic data collection/interpretation provides high-resolution images of the underground environment and can provide useful input to those charged with providing the detailed site characterizations needed for both short- and long-term monitoring of underground nuclear waste repositories

  11. Yield models for commercial willow biomass plantations in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mola-Yudego, Blas [Faculty of Forestry, University of Joensuu, P.O. Box 111, FI-801 01 Joensuu (Finland); Aronsson, Paer [Department of Crop Production Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), P.O. Box 7016, S-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2008-09-15

    A yield model for willow plantations for bioenergy production in Sweden was developed based on recorded production of 2082 commercial plantations during the period 1989-2005. The model predicts yield for the first, second and third harvest using oats (avena) production as agro-climatic index. The mean annual yields were 2.6, 4.2 and 4.5 oven dry tonnes (odt) per hectare during the first, second and third cutting cycles, respectively. The yield correlated inversely with the length of the cutting cycle. The results of the study show significant differences between growers, which suggest the importance of proper management in the establishment and tending of the plantations. Model estimates for 25% of the best growers vary from 4.0 to 6.3 odt ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} in 5-year-rotation plantations during the first cutting cycle, and from 5.4 to 7.1 odt ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} in 4-year-rotations for the second cutting cycle. The proposed model can be applied in policy making and for management planning. (author)

  12. Sweden's Engagement with the Democratic People's Republic of Korea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Magnus; Bae, Jinsun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: -This article examines Sweden’s engagement with the DPRK as a unique case to understand motivations for engaging in a so-called fragile state. Design/methodology/approach: -The authors apply the constructivist international relations (IR) approach and opt for the case study method based ...... of constructivist IR approach in accounting for today’s engagement practices involving more stakeholders and less obvious costbenefit calculation.......Purpose: -This article examines Sweden’s engagement with the DPRK as a unique case to understand motivations for engaging in a so-called fragile state. Design/methodology/approach: -The authors apply the constructivist international relations (IR) approach and opt for the case study method based...... on semistructured interviews of individuals who have taken part in Swedish engagement programs. Findings: - Besides having its embassy in Pyongyang and serving as a protecting power for the U.S., Sweden has provided capacity building programs for North Korean government officials and scholars and has taken part...

  13. Equality of the sexes in Sweden under a new government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccrea, J M

    1979-07-01

    Although the Social Democratic Party lost its long control of Parliament, Sweden is a country with a strong egalitarian philosophy which transcends party politics, and it is felt that the loss of the election had virtually no affect on policy toward women or other aspects of social policy. A review of the Swedish political situation, including political parties; election issues; aftermath of the election; and labor force participation precedes consideration of developments in the economic status of women, 1976-1978. Factors considered include Labour Market Board equality measures; parenthood insurance; work hours; the Committee on Equality Between Men and Women; proposed legislation on equality; private agreements between employers and trade unions on family policy; and womens' participation. It is concluded that the new government has merely continued the equality programs of the previous government, with the only meaningful contribution of the new Equality Committee to draft legislation prohibiting discrimination. The law on equality is a vital issue for the Liberal Party and they will have to persuade the Social Democrats that its enactment will provide the basis of an egalitarian society.

  14. Mobile health apps in Sweden: what do physicians recommend?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiping; Koch, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Currently over 50,000 mobile health apps are available worldwide. In general, they are considered as innovations potentially delivering benefits to patients. Physicians are considered as potential channels to disseminate these innovations to patients. However, physicians' behavior in this regard has not been studied. To capture physicians' attitudes towards recommending health apps to patients and to describe factors influencing physicians' behavior, taking the specifics of an early adopter country, Sweden, into account. Diffusion of Innovation theory, the Health App Maturity Model and the Six Hurdles Model were used to construct a web-based survey that was answered by 44 Swedish physicians. Survey results were followed up with 2 individual interviews. Descriptive statistics were used for quantitative data analysis and recursive abstraction for qualitative data analysis. Only a small group of physicians currently recommend mobile health apps to their patients. However, most physicians have a positive attitude and perceive improvement of patients' self-management ability as main benefit of health apps. Main perceived weaknesses include the lack of evidence-based content and lack of multi-language support. Regulation of health apps under the Medical Device Directive is asked for to assure quality and patient safety. Innovators and early adopters play an important role in the diffusion of mobile health apps. Interpersonal communication is seen as the most effective way for physicians gaining information and also motivates them to recommend mobile health apps to their patients. Physicians' knowledge about certified websites to ensure quality is however low.

  15. Business as Usual: Nobility and Landed Estates in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Gary

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The majority of European countries which have had an important tradition of manorialism have undergone profound land reforms, redistributing land from large landowners and giving small-scale farmers and the landless legal rights to land ownership, with the exceptions of Sweden and England. This article will outline the particular Swedish case, where large estates have been able to persist largely intact from the Middle Ages through to the current day, and explore possible reasons for Sweden’s failure to develop a substantial land reform. We suggest that while there was not an absolute lack of opportunity for reform, a persistent lack of a critical mass of support has meant a failure of outright revolution, as in the French case, and split incentives from the eighteenth century have prevented successful reform through legislative processes. The barriers to reform have only become stronger with the development of perfect private property rights and of the complexities of European law, and recent Swedish parliamentary outcomes indicate that the case for land reform has expired.

  16. SWEDEN AND TURKEY: TWO MODELS OF WELFARE STATE IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea - Emanuela Dragoi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Our paper analyzes two models of economic development: Sweden and Turkey. The main objective of this analysis is to highlight in which way two countries with different development strategies, economic geography, mentality and culture have managed to maintain growth before and during the global economic crisis, becoming gradually genuine models of welfare state. The analysis undertaken in this paper is, consequently, divided into two parts. The first shows the Swedish model of welfare state, that was an inspirational one in the ’70 and ’80, and its specific strengths and vulnerabilities. The second part summarizes Turkey's economic development over the past decade,emphasizing comparative advantages that have made it the 16th largest economy of the world and its strategy in terms of managing the international economic crisis. The final part of our comparative approach aims to respond to the following question: may those two economic models be considered proper economic lessons for the other states that are confronted with economic vulnerabilities?

  17. After Chernobyl. Possibilities of phasing out nuclear power in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    According to the currently applicable Parliamentary decision, the phasing out of nuclear power in Sweden must be completed by the year 2010. The National Energy Administration has analyzed the following questions. If it were to become evident that operating several or all of the Swedish nuclear power plants entailed serious risks, what possibilities would there be of phasing them out in the short term or over a longer period. And what would the consequences be with regard to the national economy and the environment? First we report the consequences of a rapid phase-out. Here, it is assumed that several or all nuclear plants would be taken out of operation within a period of two years. Available compensatory resources would be limited to more intensive utilization of existing hydropower, back-pressure plants, combined power and heating plants and oil-fired plants. The second alternative is a phase-out in ten years. Moreover, a case is discussed in which phase-out is planned and implemented from 1987 to 2005. Such a plan would provide industry more time to adjust, while a number of alternative techniques and fuels could be used to replace nuclear power. The consequences of the different phase-out alternatives can be described only within a framework of certain assumptions regarding the worldwide development. Important factors here include fuel prices and economic trends. Environmental restrictions comprise another important prerequisite

  18. Cost Analysis of a Digital Health Care Model in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekman, Björn

    2017-09-22

    Digital technologies in health care are expected to increase in scope and to affect ever more parts of the health care system. It is important to enhance the knowledge of whether new digital methods and innovations provide value for money compared with traditional models of care. The objective of the study was to evaluate whether a digital health care model for primary care is a less costly alternative compared with traditional in-office primary care in Sweden. Cost data for the two care models were collected and analyzed to obtain a measure in local currency per care contact. The comparison showed that the total economic cost of a digital consultation is 1960 Swedish krona (SEK) (SEK100 = US$11.29; February 2017) compared with SEK3348 for a traditional consultation at a health care clinic. Cost differences arose on both the provider side and on the user side. The digital health care model may be a less costly alternative to the traditional health care model. Depending on the rate of digital substitution, gross economic cost savings of between SEK1 billion and SEK10 billion per year could be realized if more digital consultations were made. Further studies are needed to validate the findings, assess the types of care most suitable for digital care, and also to obtain various quality-adjusted outcome measures.

  19. Trends in Child Poverty in Sweden: Parental and Child Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mood, Carina; Jonsson, Jan O

    We use several family-based indicators of household poverty as well as child-reported economic resources and problems to unravel child poverty trends in Sweden. Our results show that absolute (bread-line) household income poverty, as well as economic deprivation, increased with the recession 1991-96, then reduced and has remained largely unchanged since 2006. Relative income poverty has however increased since the mid-1990s. When we measure child poverty by young people's own reports, we find few trends between 2000 and 2011. The material conditions appear to have improved and relative poverty has changed very little if at all, contrasting the development of household relative poverty. This contradictory pattern may be a consequence of poor parents distributing relatively more of the household income to their children in times of economic duress, but future studies should scrutinze potentially delayed negative consequences as poor children are lagging behind their non-poor peers. Our methodological conclusion is that although parental and child reports are partly substitutable, they are also complementary, and the simultaneous reporting of different measures is crucial to get a full understanding of trends in child poverty.

  20. Organisational factors and occupational balance in working parents in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgh, Madeleine; Eek, Frida; Wagman, Petra; Håkansson, Carita

    2017-07-01

    Parents with small children constitute a vulnerable group as they have an increased risk of sick leave due to stress-related disorders compared to adults without children. It has been shown that mothers and fathers to small children together spend more time in paid work than any other group, which could create negative stress and an experience of low occupational balance. The aim of this study was to examine associations between organisational factors and occupational balance among parents with small children in Sweden. Data were collected by a survey including questions about occupational balance, organisational factors and age, sex, employment rate, work position, monthly household income, number of children at home, separation/divorce last five years and overtime. The total number of parents included in this study was 718 (490 mothers and 228 fathers). Logistic regression models were applied to examine the odds ratios for occupational balance in relation to organisational factors. Parents who experienced positive attitudes towards parenthood and parental leave among colleagues and managers were more likely to experience high occupational balance than parents who experienced negative or neutral attitudes. Having a clear structure for handover when absent from work was also strongly associated with high occupational balance. The result of the present study indicates that some organisational factors could be important for the occupational balance of parents with small children.

  1. Gender Equality Policy in Sweden: 1970s–2010s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Nyberg

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to give an overview of gender equality policy in Sweden from the 1970s until today. A number of political measures and whether these measures individually, as well as combined, have promoted gender equality and the dual-earner/dual-carer model are described and analyzed. The conclusion is that the right to part-time work, publicly financed child care, parental leave, and tax deductions for domestic services make it easier for mothers to reconcile work and family, but do not challenge the distribution of family responsibilities between women and men. However, the individual right for fathers to 2 months of parental leave does challenge the gender order, to a certain extent, and fathers today participate more in care and domestic work than earlier. The dual-earner/dual-carer family is closer at hand when women have a higher education and earnings and thereby greater bargaining power. Employed work is more conditional among women with a lower education level, i.e., they may be employed but under the constraint that they are still responsible for care and domestic work in the family. Another constraint in this group where many work part-time is the lack of available full-time positions in the labor market.

  2. Development of a national environmental monitoring programme for radionuclides - Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallberg, P.J.; Hubbard, L.M.

    2003-01-01

    In parallel with the enforcement of the Environmental Code in 1999, the Swedish parliament adopted 15 national environmental quality objectives that aim towards a sustainable development for the country. The government's primary environmental objective is to hand over a society to the next generation in which the major environmental problems have been solved. One of the quality objectives is 'A Safe Radiation Environment' of which the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI) is the responsible authority. In order to follow the progress towards this objective SSI is currently developing a national environmental monitoring and assessment programme for radionuclides. Many countries have monitoring programmes in the vicinity of nuclear power plants and nuclear industries, as Sweden has also had for many years. The current Swedish effort is a development beyond the local monitoring programmes to incorporate radiation assessment at a national level. This includes long-term issues such as identification of ecological processes that can concentrate radionuclides, and assessment of activities other than nuclear industries that lead to radioactive releases. One of the expected results of this monitoring programme is an improved framework for assessing the dynamics and impact of radionuclide transfer and containment in different ecosystems. This paper will focus on the development and implementation of the framework for a national monitoring programme, include some examples of environments that have been identified as areas of particular concern, and describe an approach to protect species with different ecological prerequisites. (author)

  3. A Critical Study of Informal New Media Uses in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiannis Mylonas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study looks at a variety of "informal" uses of new media and ICTs. The term informal describes popular uses of digital technologies that often exist outside the norms, laws, and codes that dictate how digital technologies and networks are to be used. Such activities include what is commonly described as "piracy," but also embrace different peer-to-peer practices. Informal activities develop due to the affordances of digital technologies, which allow space for creativity and personalization of use, but are also due to broader sociocultural variables and contextual issues. In general terms, informal activities are those that concern the amateur activities of people using digital programs, tools, and networks. Media scholars see great potential in new media/ICT affordances, as related to the proliferation of grassroots participation, communication, and creativity. Nevertheless, a growing critical literature forces us to examine the actualization of such potential. This paper discusses the aforementioned issues by looking at new media/ICT uses in Sweden; it departs from critical perspectives that take into consideration the political economy of new media, and the cultural-political critiques of late-modern consumer societies.

  4. Results from some tracer experiments in crystalline rocks in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abelin, H.; Birgersson, L.; Gidlund, J.; Moreno, L.; Neretinieks, I.; Tunbrant, S.

    1987-01-01

    In a final repository for radioactive waste in crystalline rock, water flowing in the fractures may transport the radionuclides eventually leached from the waste. To be able to predict the migration of the radionuclides, the processes involved must be understood. To quantify the processes, data from flow and transport in real fractures under realistic conditions are needed. Models used for prediction must include descriptions of the important processes and mechanisms. Transport over short distances, i.e., in the vicinity of the canister, most probably occurs in individual fractures. On an intermediate scale where more than a few fractures conduct the flow, well-type tracer tests alone cannot give the detailed information needed to understand dispersion and sorption phenomena in fissured rock. More complex tracer tests are needed to obtain data on pathways and flow porosities. Tests with sorbing tracers are needed to compare predictions based on models and laboratory data, i.e., to validate the transport models. This paper presents the results of tracer experiments conducted in Sweden

  5. Postglacial faulting and paleoseismicity in the Landsjaerv area, northern Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagerbaeck, R.

    1988-10-01

    Post-glacial fault scarps, up to about 20 m in height and forming a 50 km long fault set with a SSW-NNE orientation, occur in the Lansjaerv area in northern Sweden. By trenching across the fault scarps it has been possible to date fault movement relative to the Quaternary stratigraphy. It is concluded that the fault scarps generally developed as single event movements shortly after the deglaciation about 9000 years ago. At one location there are indications that minor fault movements may have occurred earlier during a previous glaciation but this is uncertain. The fault scarps are, at least partially, developed in strongly fractured and chemically weathered zones of presumed pre-Quaternary age. To judge from the appearance of the bedrock fault scarps, and the deformation of the Quaternary deposits, the faults are reverse and have dips between some 40-50 0 and the vertical. The faulting was co-seismic and earthquakes in the order of M 6.5-7.0, or higher, are inferred from fault dimensions and the distribution of seismically triggered landslides in a wider region. Distortions in different types of sediment, interpreted as caused by the influence of seismic shock, occur frequently in the area. Examples of these are briefly described. (orig.)

  6. Youth Unemployment, Ageing and Regional Welfare: The Regional Labour Market Policy Response to Ageing in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Rauhut, Daniel; Kahila, Petri

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the regional labour market policy response to demographic ageing in Sweden and its consequences on the labour supply of young adults. Regions with ageing problems already experience significant problems at the labour market. The overall conclusion is that labour market policies in Sweden addressing the consequences of ageing fail to include young adults and the policies do not address regional heterogeneity regarding e.g. ageing and youth unemployment.

  7. Low incidence of toxoplasma infection during pregnancy and in newborns in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Evengard, B.; Petersson, K.; Engman, M. L.; Wiklund, S.; Ivarsson, S. A.; Tear-Fahnehjelm, K.; Forsgren, M.; Gilbert, R.; Malm, G.

    2001-01-01

    To estimate the burden of disease due to congenital toxoplasmosis in Sweden the incidence of primary infections during pregnancy and birth prevalence of congenital toxoplasmosis in 40978 children born in two regions in Sweden was determined. Women possibly infected during pregnancy were identified based on: 1, detection of specific IgG based on neonatal screening of the phenylketonuria (PKU) card blood spot followed by retrospective testing of stored prenatal samples to detect women who acqui...

  8. Out of home care in Norway and Sweden – similar and different

    OpenAIRE

    Backe-Hansen, Elisabeth; Højer, Ingrid; Sjöblom, Yvonne; Storø, Jan

    2013-01-01

    An overview of the current situation in the out-of-home care in Norway and Sweden is presented in this article; also the development in later years is described and discussed. Socially, politically and culturallythere are few differences between Norway and Sweden. Child protection and out-of-home placement of children and young people are integrated parts in the welfare state that are shared by the Nordic countries. It is a model that builds on principles of universalism and decommodification...

  9. Childbearing across Partnerships in Australia, the United States, Norway and Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Thomson, Elizabeth; Lappeg?rd, Trude; Carlson, Marcia; Evans, Ann; Gray, Edith

    2014-01-01

    This paper compares mothers? experience of having children with more than one partner in two liberal welfare regimes (the United States and Australia) and two social democratic regimes (Sweden and Norway). We use survey-based union and birth histories in Australia and the United States and data from national population registers in Norway and Sweden to estimate the likelihood of experiencing childbearing across partnerships at any point in the childbearing career. We find that births with new...

  10. Respiratory diphtheria in an asylum seeker from Afghanistan arriving to Finland via Sweden, December 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sane, Jussi; Sorvari, Tiina; Widerström, Micael; Kauma, Heikki; Kaukoniemi, Ulla; Tarkka, Eveliina; Puumalainen, Taneli; Kuusi, Markku; Salminen, Mika; Lyytikäinen, Outi

    2016-01-01

    In December 2015, an asylum seeker originating from Afghanistan was diagnosed with respiratory diphtheria in Finland. He arrived in Finland from Sweden where he had already been clinically suspected and tested for diphtheria. Corynebacterium diphtheriae was confirmed in Sweden and shown to be genotypically and phenotypically toxigenic. The event highlights the importance of early case detection, rapid communication within the country and internationally as well as preparedness plans of diphtheria antitoxin availability.

  11. Labor market participation of African immigrants in Sweden, 1995-2008

    OpenAIRE

    Manhica, Hélio

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the pattern of unemployment duration of African immigrants in Sweden as well as the effect of emigration origin, age, gender, level of education and family characteristics on the probability of getting a job upon arrival. The study is based on PLACE-database; the dataset is restricted to individuals born in Africa who immigrated to Sweden during the period of 1994-2008. Results from the Kaplan–Meier estimators and Proportional Hazard Models indicate that unemployment durat...

  12. Illuga saga Gríðarfóstra in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavender, Philip Thomas

    2014-01-01

    This article looks at the intellectual history behind and scholarly preparation towards the first edition of Illuga saga Gríðarfóstra in Sweden in 1695. One of the main questions which the article tries to answer is why an edition of a saga about Danish kings and heroes would end up being produced...... in the middle of the Sweden and Denmark's fiercely competitive nation-building furore....

  13. Electricity supply in Sweden 1982. [An annual report from KRAFTSAM - a joint organization of major power producers in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    Energy consumption decreased from 31.1 Mtoe in 1981 to 30.4 Mtoe in 1982 . Most of this decrease occured in industry. The supply of fuel to Sweden decreased supply of electricity for heating. Electricity supply of elctricity increased from 97.4 TWh in 1981 to 99.9 TWh in 1982. Electricity consumption increased during 1982 by 2.6 percent. This was mainly due to an increase in the use of electricity for heating. Electricity consumption in industry has remained unchanged since 1973. Hydro power accounted for 52.9 percent and nuclear power for 36.4 percent of the total supply of electricicity in 1982. The highest hourly load during 1982 and amounted to 19263 MW. The lowest load during 1982 and amounted to 5043 MW. Nine nuclear power units were in commercial operation during the year. A further unit, Ringhals 4, was in trial operation part of the time and supplied power to the grid system. The energy availability figures were as follows: Barsebaeck 1 83 percent, Barsebaeck 2 96 percent, Forsmark 1 76 percent, Forsmark 2 67 percent, Oskarshamn 1 78 percent, Oskarshamn 2 88 percent, Ringhals 1 78 percent and Ringhals 2 66 percent. The production of electricity from conventional thermal power stations was only 5.1 TWh. Back pressure power in industry contributed 2.5 TWh of this figure and combined power and district heating stations 2.3 TWh. 30 km of 400 kV line and 39 km of 220 kV line were added to the high voltage power network during 1982. The combined line length in the high voltage power network now amounts to 14342 km. The high voltage power grid system permits joint operation by all the power companies in the country and the major power companies can also utilize the network for exchanging surplus power with other power companies. An account of the public debate on energy in Sweden during 1982 is also given.

  14. [The history of polio in Sweden - from infantile paralysis to polio vaccine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, Per

    2004-01-01

    Although other epidemics declined due to improved hygiene and sanitation, legislation, and vaccination, polio epidemics appeared in Sweden in 1881 and at the turn of the 20th century the disease became and annual feature in the Swedish epidemiological pattern. Due to the vaccination starting in 1957 epidemics ceased to exist in Sweden around 1965. This article deals with the history polio epidemics in Sweden, 1880-1965 and gives a brief description of: the demographical influence of polio, how did the medical authorities investigate and try to combat it, and the different comprehensions of how polio affected its victims.A study of polio incidence in Sweden at the national level during 1905-1962 reveals that the disease caused major epidemics in 1911-1913 and 1953. At the beginning of the 20th century polio primarily attacked children up to 10 years of age, and at the end of the period victims were represented in all age groups, but mainly in the ages 20-39. Due to its enigmatic appearance, polio was not considered as an epidemic infectious disease during the 19th century. Sweden's early epidemics enabled Swedish medical science to act and together with American research institutes it acquired a leading role in international medical research on the disease. In the 1955 Jonas Salk produced the first successful vaccine against polio but also Sweden developed its own vaccine, different in choice of methods and materials from the widely used Salk-vaccine.

  15. Consumer choice between ethanol and gasoline: Lessons from Brazil and Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacini, Henrique; Silveira, Semida

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of flex-fuel vehicles since 2003 has made possible for Brazilian drivers to choose between high ethanol blends or gasoline depending on relative prices and fuel economies. In Sweden, flex-fuel fleets were introduced in 2005. Prices and demand data were examined for both Brazil and Sweden. Bioethanol has been generally the most cost-efficient fuel in Brazil, but not for all states. In any case, consumers in Brazil have opted for ethanol even when this was not the optimal economic choice. In Sweden, a different behavior was observed when falling gasoline prices made E85 uneconomical in late 2008. In a context of international biofuels expansion, the example of E85 in Sweden indicates that new markets could experience different consumer behavior than Brazil: demand falls rapidly with reduced price differences between ethanol and gasoline. At the same time, rising ethanol demand and lack of an international market with multiple biofuel producers could lead to higher domestic prices in Brazil. Once the limit curve is crossed, the consumer might react by shifting back to the usage of gasoline. - Research highlights: → Brazil and Sweden both have infrastructure for high fuel ethanol blends. → Flex-fuel vehicles enable competition between ethanol and gasoline in fuel markets. → Data suggests that consumers make their fuel choice based mainly on prices. → Consumers in Sweden appear to be more price-sensitive than their Brazilian counterparts. → In the absence of international markets, high ethanol prices may drive consumers back to gasoline.

  16. Growth & development of Indian children adopted in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proos, Lemm A

    2009-11-01

    More than 6800 children from India have been adopted in Sweden over the last four decades. At arrival many were undernourished and suffered from infectious diseases. Catch-up growth was common. Unexpectedly, cases of early pubertal development were subsequently reported. In order to investigate the growth and development of adopted children more in detail we studied 114 children adopted from India prospectively during two years. The majority were stunted at arrival and caught up in height and weight after two years. Psychomotor retardation and common infections diminished fairly soon. Those that were stunted did not attain the higher catch-up levels of those not stunted at arrival. Low birthweight also limited the degree of catch-up growth. 107 girls were analysed retrospectively in another study. The median menarcheal age was 11.6 yr (range 7.3-14.6 yr) which is significantly earlier than the mean in Swedish and privileged Indian girls (13.0 and 12.4-12.9 yr, respectively). The pubertal linear growth component was normal in duration and magnitude but likewise started 1.5 yr earlier. The final height/age was 154 cm (-1.4 SDS) and the weight/age 46.9 kg (-1.1 SDS) 8 per cent were 145 cm or shorter. Stunting limited catch-up growth and final height. Those that were most stunted at arrival, and had the fastest catch-up growth, had the earliest menarche. Good maternal and child nutrition is necessary for full expression of a child's growth potential. What is lost in growth early in life can only partially be recovered by catch-up growth. Such growth is associated with risk for early pubertal development which abbreviates the childhood growth period and limits final height. The mechanism underlying the early pubertal development, and the optimal management of nutrition rehabilitation after chronic malnutrition, need to be clarified by further studies.

  17. Organic matter loss from cultivated peat soils in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, Örjan; Berglund, Kerstin

    2015-04-01

    The degradation of drained peat soils in agricultural use is an underestimated source of loss of organic matter. Oxidation (biological degradation) of agricultural peat soils causes a loss of organic matter (OM) of 11 - 22 t ha-1 y-1 causing a CO2 emission of 20 - 40 t ha-1 y-1. Together with the associated N2O emissions from mineralized N this totals in the EU to about 98.5 Mton CO2 eq per year. Peat soils are very prone to climate change and it is expected that at the end of this century these values are doubled. The degradation products pollute surface waters. Wind erosion of peat soils in arable agriculture can cause losses of 3 - 30 t ha-1 y-1 peat also causing air pollution (fine organic particles). Subsidence rates are 1 - 2 cm per year which leads to deteriorating drainage effect and make peat soils below sea or inland water levels prone to flooding. Flooding agricultural peat soils is in many cases not possible without high costs, high GHG emissions and severe water pollution. Moreover sometimes cultural and historic landscapes are lost and meadow birds areas are lost. In areas where the possibility to regulate the water table is limited the mitigation options are either to increase biomass production that can be used as bioenergy to substitute some fossil fuel, try to slow down the break-down of the peat by different amendments that inhibit microbial activity, or permanent flooding. The negative effects of wind erosion can be mitigated by reducing wind speed or different ways to protect the soil by crops or fiber sheets. In a newly started project in Sweden a typical peat soil with and without amendment of foundry sand is cropped with reed canary grass, tall fescue and timothy to investigate the yield and greenhouse gas emissions from the different crops and how the sand effect the trafficability and GHG emissions.

  18. Evaluation of a tobacco prevention programme among teenagers in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedman, Linnéa; Andersson, Martin; Stridsman, Caroline; Rönmark, Eva

    2015-05-14

    To study the prevalence of tobacco use among teenagers, to evaluate a tobacco prevention programme and to study factors related to participation in the prevention programme. Population-based prospective cohort study. Within the Obstructive Lung disease in Northern Sweden (OLIN) studies, a cohort study about asthma in schoolchildren started in 2006. All children aged 7-8 years in three municipalities were invited to a questionnaire survey and 2585 (96%) participated. The cohort was followed up at age 11-12 years (n=2612, 95% of invited) and 14-15 years (n=2345, 88% of invited). In 2010, some of the children in the OLIN cohort (n=447) were invited to a local tobacco prevention programme and 224 (50%) chose to participate. At the age of 14-15 years, the prevalence of daily smoking was 3.5%. Factors related to smoking were female sex, having a smoking mother, participation in sports and lower parental socioeconomic status (SES). The prevalence of using snus was 3.3% and risk factors were male sex, having a smoking mother, having a snus-using father and non-participation in the prevention programme. In the prevention programme, the prevalence of tobacco use was significantly lower among the participants compared with the controls in the cohort. Factors related to non-participation were male sex, having a smoking mother, lower parental SES and participation in sports. The prevalence of tobacco use was lower among the participants in the tobacco prevention programme compared with the non-participants as well as with the controls in the cohort. However, the observed benefit of the intervention may be overestimated as participation was biased by selection. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Cardiovascular effects of environmental noise: Research in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gösta Bluhm

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In Sweden, as in many other European countries, traffic noise is an important environmental health issue. At present, almost two million people are exposed to average noise levels exceeding the outdoor national guideline value (55 dB(A. Despite efforts to reduce the noise burden, noise-related health effects, such as annoyance and sleep disturbances, are increasing. The scientific interest regarding more serious health effects related to the cardiovascular system is growing, and several experimental and epidemiological studies have been performed or are ongoing. Most of the studies on cardiovascular outcomes have been related to noise from road or aircraft traffic. Few studies have included railway noise. The outcomes under study include morning saliva cortisol, treatment for hypertension, self-reported hypertension, and myocardial infarction. The Swedish studies on road traffic noise support the hypothesis of an association between long-term noise exposure and cardiovascular disease. However, the magnitude of effect varies between the studies and has been shown to depend on factors such as sex, number of years at residence, and noise annoyance. Two national studies have been performed on the cardiovascular effects of aircraft noise exposure. The first one, a cross-sectional study assessing self-reported hypertension, has shown a 30% risk increase per 5 dB(A noise increase. The second one, which to our knowledge is the first longitudinal study assessing the cumulative incidence of hypertension, found a relative risk (RR of 1.10 (95% CI 1.01 - 1.19 per 5 dB(A noise increase. No associations have been found between railway noise and cardiovascular diseases. The findings regarding noise-related health effects and their economic consequences should be taken into account in future noise abatement policies and community planning.

  20. Lessons from the Forsmark 1 event in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorle, A.

    2007-01-01

    A short circuit at a switchyard broke some of the safety chains in the reactor safety system and created a difficult situation in the control room at the Forsmark 1 power plant in Sweden. After a scram two of four diesel generators failed to deliver power but the reactor could safely be controlled through remaining two systems and power could be distributed from external grid after 22 minutes. Surveillance systems in the control room also failed and the situation at the reactor was unclear. Analysis shows that there was never a risk to the public and no damage on the core. The incident exposed unknown weakness in the power supply systems of the reactor. Also it was found that maintenance had failed and some components were not properly installed. The regulator identified the problem as a serious failure but did not at once realize the public impact. The licensee was late in its decision making and did only publish local press releases that did not fully expose the nature of the incident. After some days an independent expert claimed that a core melt was a close possibility. He was widely quoted and created a media impact many European countries. In the light of the incident problems with safety culture was identified at the plant and additional findings showed problems in the management system of Forsmark. Growing media interest culminated in January when a critical internal report from staff members in Forsmark was made public. Some lessons learnt: - Media activity followed well-known patterns. - The regulator was an important source for media. - Regulator not fired upon until January, after a long autumn filled with negative reporting on Forsmark. - The plant was not proactive in its communication which created a problem for the regulator. (author)

  1. Phytoplankton from Lake Magelungen, Central Sweden 1960-1963

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willen, Torbjoern [Inst. of Limnology, Univ of Uppsala, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1966-03-15

    The investigation of the qualitative and quantitative composition of phytoplankton in Lake Magelungen, Central Sweden, was carried out over a period of three years to illustrate the conditions before the release of waste water from the Aagesta Heat and Power Station began. Vertical sampling series were taken about once a month and samples from three different stations (named MA, MOB and MH) in the lake were analysed and compared. Most importance was laid on the quantitative composition and the differences in total volumes between the different stations. Highest volume values were always recorded in late spring and in summer. Two algal groups predominated every year, viz. chlorophytes and cyanophytes. After a moderate spring outburst caused by diatoms (Stephanodiscus, Synedra and Asterionella) peak volume values of chlorophytes were recorded in June and July. Predominating genera were Scenedesmus, Coelastrum and Pediastrum. The chlorophyte maximum was always followed by an immense development of cyanophytes (Anabaena, Aphanizomenon and Microcystis). The diatoms were well developed only during short periods, the chrysophyceans were of little significance as were all other algal groups. A marked difference existed between the Station MOB compared with the two other stations. The water at Station MOB was more polluted and several algal genera indicating the pollution were recorded. Both chlorophytes and cyanophytes were often developed in very great quantities at this station. The total volumes of phytoplankton in Lake Magelungen already are very high and the lake is to be considered as highly eutrophic. It is very possible that changes as to further additions of nutritional elements or/and changes in the thermal balance will increase the algal populations and accelerate the normal development of the lake.

  2. Motives to adopt renewable electricity technologies: Evidence from Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergek, Anna; Mignon, Ingrid

    2017-01-01

    The diffusion of renewable electricity technologies (RETs) has to speed up for countries to reach their, often ambitious, targets for renewable energy generation. This requires a large number of actors – including individuals, companies and other organizations – to adopt RETs. Policies will most likely be needed to induce adoption, but there is limited knowledge about what motivates RET adoption. The purpose of this paper is to complement and expand the available empirical evidence regarding motives to adopt RETs through a survey to over 600 RET adopters in Sweden. The main finding of the study is that there are many different motives to adopt RETs and that RET adopters are a heterogeneous group with regard to motives. Although environmental concerns, interest in the technology, access to an RE resource and prospects to generate economic revenues are important motives in general, adopters differ with regard to how large importance they attach to the same motive and each adopter can also have several different motives to adopt. There are also differences in motives between adopter categories (especially independent power producers vs. individuals and diversified companies) and between RETs (especially wind power vs. solar power). This implies that a variety of policy instruments might be needed to induce further adoption of a variety of RETs by a variety of adopter categories. - Highlights: • There are many different motives to adopt renewable electricity technologies (RETs). • Adopters attach different levels of importance to the same motive. • Adopters can have several different motives to adopt a particular RET. • Motives to adopt RETs differ between wind power, solar PV and small-scale hydro. • Motives to adopt RETs differ between IPPs, individuals and diversified companies.

  3. Overprescribing iron tablets to elderly people in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reizenstein, P; Ljunggren, G; Smedby, B; Agenäs, I; Penchansky, M

    1979-10-20

    Iron should not be prescribed to middle-aged men or older women with anaemia unless the possibility that the iron deficiency is caused by a gastrointestinal tumour has been considered. Thus the prescribing of iron to elderly people was investigated by studying four different prescription statistics and by reviewing records. Over one in 10 women aged over 65 were prescribed iron tablets. Men and women in the oldest age groups were prescribed iron most frequently. The reasons for prescribing iron were examined at a rural health centre. Out of 327 records of patients who were prescribed iron during 1975, 157 were randomly selected and reviewed. Only 18 out of 48 (38%) patients aged 45-75 (men) and 55-75 (women) and 29 out of 109 (27%) aged over 75 years had probable or possible iron-deficiency anaemia as established from the records. Only nine (19%) of the younger patients had a plausible reason for the anaemia other than a bleeding tumour. Ten (9%) of the older patients were considered to be inoperable cases. Thus, according to the records, only 18 (17%) of the patients over 75 years and nine (19%) of those in the younger age group have been prescribed iron. About 70% of all the patients were considered not to have iron deficiency; 7% had had iron deficiency previously, and 20% probably had anaemia as a result of chronic disease; for 43% no real reason for the iron prescription could be found in the record. Thus it is concluded that iron is overprescribed in Sweden, particularly for elderly people. It should not be prescribed until the possibility of a bleeding gastrointestinal tumour has been excluded.

  4. Phytoplankton from Lake Magelungen, Central Sweden 1960-1963

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willen, Torbjoern

    1966-03-01

    The investigation of the qualitative and quantitative composition of phytoplankton in Lake Magelungen, Central Sweden, was carried out over a period of three years to illustrate the conditions before the release of waste water from the Aagesta Heat and Power Station began. Vertical sampling series were taken about once a month and samples from three different stations (named MA, MOB and MH) in the lake were analysed and compared. Most importance was laid on the quantitative composition and the differences in total volumes between the different stations. Highest volume values were always recorded in late spring and in summer. Two algal groups predominated every year, viz. chlorophytes and cyanophytes. After a moderate spring outburst caused by diatoms (Stephanodiscus, Synedra and Asterionella) peak volume values of chlorophytes were recorded in June and July. Predominating genera were Scenedesmus, Coelastrum and Pediastrum. The chlorophyte maximum was always followed by an immense development of cyanophytes (Anabaena, Aphanizomenon and Microcystis). The diatoms were well developed only during short periods, the chrysophyceans were of little significance as were all other algal groups. A marked difference existed between the Station MOB compared with the two other stations. The water at Station MOB was more polluted and several algal genera indicating the pollution were recorded. Both chlorophytes and cyanophytes were often developed in very great quantities at this station. The total volumes of phytoplankton in Lake Magelungen already are very high and the lake is to be considered as highly eutrophic. It is very possible that changes as to further additions of nutritional elements or/and changes in the thermal balance will increase the algal populations and accelerate the normal development of the lake

  5. Renewable electricity in Sweden: an analysis of policy and regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Yan [International Department, Chinese Business Law Firm, 20E, Building 2, International Friendship Garden, Zuojiazhuang A2, Chaoyang District 100028 (China)]. E-mail: yanjun9@yahoo.com.cn

    2006-07-15

    This study aims to analyse the developments in renewable energy policy making in Sweden. It assesses the energy policy context, changes in the choice of policy instruments, and provides explanations behind policy successes and failures. Swedish renewable energy policy has been developing in a context of uncertainty around nuclear issues. While there has been made a political decision to replace nuclear power with renewable s, there is a lack of consensus about the pace of phasing out nuclear power due to perceived negative impacts on industrial competitiveness. Such uncertainty had an effect in the formulation of renewable energy policy. Biomass and wind power are the main options for renewable electricity production. Throughout 1990s, the combined effect of different policy instruments has stimulated the growth of these two renewable sources. Yet, both biomass and wind power are still a minor contributor in the total electricity generation. Lack of strong government commitment due to uncertainty around nuclear issues is a crucial factor. Short-term subsidies have been preferred rather than open-ended subsidy mechanisms, causing intervals without subsidies and interruption to development. Other factors are such as lack of incentives from the major electricity companies and administrative obstacles. The taxation system has been successful in fostering an expansion of biomass for heating but hindered a similar development in the electricity sector. The quota system adopted in 2003 is expected to create high demand on biomass but does not favour wind power. The renewable energy aims are unlikely to be changed. Yet, the future development of renewable energy policies especially for high-cost technologies will again depend strongly on nuclear policies, which are still unstable and might affect the pace of renewable energy development.

  6. Renewable electricity in Sweden: an analysis of policy and regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yan [International Department, Chinese Business Law Firm, 20E, Building 2, International Friendship Garden, Zuojiazhuang A2, Chaoyang District 100028 (China)

    2006-07-15

    This study aims to analyse the developments in renewable energy policy making in Sweden. It assesses the energy policy context, changes in the choice of policy instruments, and provides explanations behind policy successes and failures. Swedish renewable energy policy has been developing in a context of uncertainty around nuclear issues. While there has been made a political decision to replace nuclear power with renewables, there is a lack of consensus about the pace of phasing out nuclear power due to perceived negative impacts on industrial competitiveness. Such uncertainty had an effect in the formulation of renewable energy policy. Biomass and wind power are the main options for renewable electricity production. Throughout 1990s, the combined effect of different policy instruments has stimulated the growth of these two renewable sources. Yet, both biomass and wind power are still a minor contributor in the total electricity generation. Lack of strong government commitment due to uncertainty around nuclear issues is a crucial factor. Short-term subsidies have been preferred rather than open-ended subsidy mechanisms, causing intervals without subsidies and interruption to development. Other factors are such as lack of incentives from the major electricity companies and administrative obstacles. The taxation system has been successful in fostering an expansion of biomass for heating but hindered a similar development in the electricity sector. The quota system adopted in 2003 is expected to create high demand on biomass but does not favour wind power. The renewable energy aims are unlikely to be changed. Yet, the future development of renewable energy policies especially for high-cost technologies will again depend strongly on nuclear policies, which are still unstable and might affect the pace of renewable energy development. (author)

  7. Traffic noise and cardiovascular health in Sweden: The roadside study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotta Eriksson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term exposure to traffic noise has been suggested to increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD. However, few studies have been performed in the general population and on railway noise. This study aimed to investigate the cardiovascular effects of living near noisy roads and railways. This cross-sectional study comprised 25,851 men and women, aged 18-80 years, who had resided in Sweden for at least 5 years. All subjects participated in a National Environmental Health Survey, performed in 2007, in which they reported on health, annoyance reactions and environmental factors. Questionnaire data on self-reported doctor′s diagnosis of hypertension and/or CVD were used as outcomes. Exposure was assessed as Traffic Load (millions of vehicle kilometres per year within 500 m around each participant′s residential address. For a sub-population (n = 2498, we also assessed road traffic and railway noise in L den at the dwelling façade. Multiple logistic regression models were used to assess Prevalence Odds Ratios (POR and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI. No statistically significant associations were found between Traffic Load and self-reported hypertension or CVD. In the sub-population, there was no association between road traffic noise and the outcomes; however, an increased risk of CVD was suggested among subjects exposed to railway noise ≥50 dB(A; POR 1.55 (95% CI 1.00-2.40. Neither Traffic Load nor road traffic noise was, in this study, associated with self-reported cardiovascular outcomes. However, there was a borderline-significant association between railway noise and CVD. The lack of association for road traffic may be due to methodological limitations.

  8. Renewable electricity in Sweden: an analysis of policy and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yan

    2006-01-01

    This study aims to analyse the developments in renewable energy policy making in Sweden. It assesses the energy policy context, changes in the choice of policy instruments, and provides explanations behind policy successes and failures. Swedish renewable energy policy has been developing in a context of uncertainty around nuclear issues. While there has been made a political decision to replace nuclear power with renewable s, there is a lack of consensus about the pace of phasing out nuclear power due to perceived negative impacts on industrial competitiveness. Such uncertainty had an effect in the formulation of renewable energy policy. Biomass and wind power are the main options for renewable electricity production. Throughout 1990s, the combined effect of different policy instruments has stimulated the growth of these two renewable sources. Yet, both biomass and wind power are still a minor contributor in the total electricity generation. Lack of strong government commitment due to uncertainty around nuclear issues is a crucial factor. Short-term subsidies have been preferred rather than open-ended subsidy mechanisms, causing intervals without subsidies and interruption to development. Other factors are such as lack of incentives from the major electricity companies and administrative obstacles. The taxation system has been successful in fostering an expansion of biomass for heating but hindered a similar development in the electricity sector. The quota system adopted in 2003 is expected to create high demand on biomass but does not favour wind power. The renewable energy aims are unlikely to be changed. Yet, the future development of renewable energy policies especially for high-cost technologies will again depend strongly on nuclear policies, which are still unstable and might affect the pace of renewable energy development

  9. Environmental issues in Sweden 1973 1989: Science and policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löwgren, Marianne; Segrell, Björn

    1991-09-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the environmental agenda in Sweden during the last two decades. A content analysis was made of all articles in a Swedish journal, Miljö-Aktuellt. Further, to elucidate the evolutionary process of problem formulation and reformulation, two cases were investigated, dealing with the impact of plant nutrients and mercury on surface water quality. The transport of heavy metals is an essential component of the ecological process and problem of acidification, and similarly, plant nutrients are part of the concept of eutrophication. Two concepts, the research cycle and the policy cycle, are tentatively applied to the conceptualizations of acidification and eutrophication. Additional data for the latter part of the study is supplied from parliamentary motions during 1973 1989. The substance/media focus of the 1970s was connected to a point-source abatement strategy, which mainly aimed at removing negative effects at a local level. The development of a national preventive strategy is traced in problem formulations related to “processes” going on in the technosphere: wastes, noise, energy production, traffic, and toxic substances. This period lasted from the mid-1970s to the mid-1980s, and the need for improved resource management as a means to control environmental problems has been a generally accepted idea. However, this does not mean that measures actually taken are sufficient in a material balance perspective. Further, in the 1980s there was a strong emphasis upon processes in the ecosphere. This focus also implies source-related policies. To a certain extent, the remedies are within the scope of national capabilities, but the international dimension is becoming increasingly important. Scientific proofs of resource and environment degradation are essential to induce political action and to stimulate international cooperation. From this study, however, it is not possible to assess the existence of any particular policy

  10. Source apportionment of carbonaceous aerosol in southern Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Genberg

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A one-year study was performed at the Vavihill background station in southern Sweden to estimate the anthropogenic contribution to the carbonaceous aerosol. Weekly samples of the particulate matter PM10 were collected on quartz filters, and the amounts of organic carbon, elemental carbon, radiocarbon (14C and levoglucosan were measured. This approach enabled source apportionment of the total carbon in the PM10 fraction using the concentration ratios of the sources. The sources considered in this study were emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels and biomass, as well as biogenic sources. During the summer, the carbonaceous aerosol mass was dominated by compounds of biogenic origin (80%, which are associated with biogenic primary and secondary organic aerosols. During the winter months, biomass combustion (32% and fossil fuel combustion (28% were the main contributors to the carbonaceous aerosol. Elemental carbon concentrations in winter were about twice as large as during summer, and can be attributed to biomass combustion, probably from domestic wood burning. The contribution of fossil fuels to elemental carbon was stable throughout the year, although the fossil contribution to organic carbon increased during the winter. Thus, the organic aerosol originated mainly from natural sources during the summer and from anthropogenic sources during the winter. The result of this source apportionment was compared with results from the EMEP MSC-W chemical transport model. The model and measurements were generally consistent for total atmospheric organic carbon, however, the contribution of the sources varied substantially. E.g. the biomass burning contributions of OC were underestimated by the model by a factor of 2.2 compared to the measurements.

  11. Does social capital protect mental health among migrants in Sweden?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecerof, Susanne Sundell; Stafström, Martin; Westerling, Ragnar; Östergren, Per-Olof

    2016-09-01

    Poor mental health is common among migrants. This has been explained by migration-related and socio-economic factors. Weak social capital has also been related to poor mental health. Few studies have explored factors that protect mental health of migrants in the post-migration phase. Such knowledge could be useful for health promotion purposes. Therefore, this study aimed to analyse associations between financial difficulties, housing problems and experience of discrimination and poor mental health; and to detect possible effect modification by social capital, among recently settled Iraqi migrants in Sweden. A postal questionnaire in Arabic was sent to recently settled Iraqi citizens. The response rate was 51% (n = 617). Mental health was measured by the GHQ-12 instrument and social capital was defined as social participation and trust in others. Data were analysed by means of logistic regression. Poor mental health was associated with experience of discrimination (OR 2.88, 95% CI 1.73-4.79), housing problems (OR 2.79, 95% CI 1.84-4.22), and financial difficulties (OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.44-3.19), after adjustments. Trust in others seemed to have a protective effect for mental health when exposed to these factors. Social participation had a protective effect when exposed to experience of discrimination. Social determinants and social capital in the host country play important roles in the mental health of migrants. Social capital modifies the effect of risk factors and might be a fruitful way to promote resilience to factors harmful to mental health among migrants, but must be combined with policy efforts to reduce social inequities. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Pornography and sexual experiences among high school students in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattebo, Magdalena; Tydén, Tanja; Häggström-Nordin, Elisabet; Nilsson, Kent W; Larsson, Margareta

    2014-04-01

    The study investigated the differences between high school boys and girls in: (1) the use of pornography, (2) sexual experiences, (3) experience of sexual abuse, and (4) perceptions of sexuality and pornography. It also examined the possible predictors of experiencing sexual activities, such as sex, sociodemographic factors (high school program, household, and ethnic background), pornography consumption, experience of sexual abuse, perception of sexuality, and perception of pornography. A population-based classroom survey of 16-year-old boys (n = 477) and girls (n = 400) from 53 randomly selected high school classes in 2 towns in mid-Sweden. Almost all boys (96%, n = 453) and 54% of the girls (n = 213) had watched pornography. Regardless of sex, pornography consumers had a positive perception of pornography. There were no differences between pornography-consuming boys and girls regarding fantasies, and they had attempted sexual acts inspired by pornography. A higher proportion of girls (15%) than boys (6%) had experienced sexual abuse. Predictors for being sexually experienced (oral sex, intercourse, and anal sex) included: being a girl, attending a vocational high school program, living with separated parents, having experience of sexual abuse, stating that boys and girls are equally interested in sex, and having a positive perception of pornography (Adj. R = 0.166). Boys had more experience of and a more positive perception of pornography, but there were only a few differences between boys and girls in the pornography-consumer group. Girls were more sexually experienced than boys. A positive perception of pornography predicted being sexually experienced.

  13. Death, Dying and Bereavement in Norway and Sweden in Recent Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Gustavsson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One of my research projects examines pictorial symbols and epitaphs on gravestones in Norway and Sweden. The focus has been on the 1990s and the 2000s. The choice of this period is motivated by the fact that new national burial laws were adopted in both countries in the early 1990s. These laws provided the next of kin with the possibility of choosing memorial symbols and inscriptions more freely than had previously been the case. To judge from the data under study, individual symbols have gained popularity, especially in Sweden, while Norway has been more faithful to earlier traditions of a collective character; moreover, secular motifs are more manifest on the gravestones in Sweden than in Norway. Another research project analyses memorial websites on the Internet related to persons who have died in recent years. The all-inclusive issue in these studies concerns mourners’ expressions of their emotions and beliefs regarding the deceased person’s afterlife, that is, beliefs in after-death existence. Belief in the deceased being somewhere in heaven is common. Belief in angels is also a popular concept in memorial websites. Moreover, in Sweden, this includes deceased pets as well. The previously strictly observed distinction between humans and pets has become indiscernible in Sweden. Norwegian practice, however, remains critical towards this type of “humanlike characterization”. In Norway, memorial websites for the deceased are generally associated with more traditional Christian concepts than are similar sites in Sweden. By contrast, in Sweden, one observes a kind of diffuse religiosity reminiscent of New Age ways of thinking, according to which the individual plays the central role, and glorification of afterlife existence prevails. Secularization, that is, a decline in the influence of traditional forms of religious experience, is conspicuously more prominent in Sweden. Within the project on memorial websites, I have performed a special

  14. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Strains Potentially Involved in the TB Epidemic in Sweden a Century Ago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenheit, Ramona; Ghebremichael, Solomon; Pennhag, Alexandra; Jonsson, Jerker; Hoffner, Sven; Couvin, David; Koivula, Tuija; Rastogi, Nalin; Källenius, Gunilla

    2012-01-01

    A hundred years ago the prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) in Sweden was one of the highest in the world. In this study we conducted a population-based search for distinct strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolated from patients born in Sweden before 1945. Many of these isolates represent the M. tuberculosis complex population that fueled the TB epidemic in Sweden during the first half of the 20th century. Methods Genetic relationships between strains that caused the epidemic and present day strains were studied by spoligotyping and restriction fragment length polymorphism. Results The majority of the isolates from the elderly population were evolutionary recent Principal Genetic Group (PGG)2/3 strains (363/409 or 88.8%), and only a low proportion were ancient PGG1 strains (24/409 or 5.9%). Twenty-two were undefined. The isolates demonstrated a population where the Euro-American superlineage dominated; in particular with Haarlem (41.1%) and T (37.7%) spoligotypes and only 21.2% belonged to other spoligotype families. Isolates from the elderly population clustered much less frequently than did isolates from a young control group population. Conclusions A closely knit pool of PGG2/3 strains restricted to Sweden and its immediate neighbours appears to have played a role in the epidemic, while PGG1 strains are usually linked to migrants in todaýs Sweden. Further studies of these outbreak strains may give indications of why the epidemic waned. PMID:23056484

  15. Exchange of dose data within nuclear activities in Finland and Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilkamo, O.; Malmqvist, L.

    1988-01-01

    In the Nordic countries, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden, only Sweden and Finland have introduced nuclear power into energy production. The first still operating nuclear power plant was commissioned in Sweden in 1972 and in Finland in 1977. It was soon noticed that there was a growing tendency that small groups of workers used to move at short notice between Finland and Sweden to work in the nuclear power plants in both countries during maintenance periods. In 1983, the regulatory authorities for radiation protection, National Institute of Radiation Protection in Sweden and Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety in Finland, surveyed the radiation exposure to those workers. The authorities have brought about an arrangement by means of which the central dose data bases in the other country since 1984 have been able to record without delay the radiation doses received by her own citizens in the nuclear power plants of the neighbouring country. In addition, the authorities have confirmed the procedures of controlling dose data on workers from the neighbouring country, before those workers start working in a nuclear power plant regulated by the national authorities in question. The paper describes the starting point of the activity, the established practice and the experience achieved. Until now, the practical experiences are positive. The total radiation exposure to the workers in the Swedish and Finnish nuclear power plants has been relatively low at each plant site. Thus, the main objective in the exchange of dose data, is to achieve a good radiation protection control

  16. Expansion of spatial and host range of Puumala virus in Sweden: an increasing threat for humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, O; Wille, M; Kjellander, P; Bergvall, U A; Lindgren, P-E; Chirico, J; Lundkvist, Å

    2017-06-01

    Hantaviruses are globally distributed and cause severe human disease. Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) is the most common species in Northern Europe, and the only hantavirus confirmed to circulate in Sweden, restricted to the northern regions of the country. In this study, we aimed to further add to the natural ecology of PUUV in Sweden by investigating prevalence, and spatial and host species infection patterns. Specifically, we wanted to ascertain whether PUUV was present in the natural reservoir, the bank vole (Myodes glareolus) further south than Dalälven river, in south-central Sweden, and whether PUUV can be detected in other rodent species in addition to the natural reservoir. In total, 559 animals were collected at Grimsö (59°43'N; 15°28'E), Sala (59°55'N; 16°36'E) and Bogesund (59°24'N; 18°14'E) in south-central Sweden between May 2013 and November 2014. PUUV ELISA-reactive antibodies were found both in 2013 (22/295) and in 2014 (18/264), and nine samples were confirmed as PUUV-specific by focus reduction neutralization test. Most of the PUUV-specific samples were from the natural host, the bank vole, but also from other rodent hosts, indicating viral spill-over. Finally, we showed that PUUV is present in more highly populated central Sweden.

  17. Recommodification, Unemployment, and Health Inequalities: Trends in England and Sweden 1991-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrants, Kristin; Bambra, Clare; Nylen, Lotta; Kasim, Adetayo; Burstrom, Bo; Hunter, David

    2016-01-01

    Recommodification, the withdrawal of social welfare, has been going on for some decades in both Sweden and England. Recommodification disproportionately affects the unemployed because of their weak market position. We investigated the impact recommodification has had on health inequalities between the employed and unemployed in Sweden and England. Using national surveys, odds ratios for the likelihood of reporting less than good health between the employed and unemployed were computed annually between 1991 and 2011. The correlation between these odds ratios and net replacement rates was then examined. Health inequalities between the employed and unemployed were greater in 2011 than in 1991 in both countries. Sweden began with smaller health inequalities, but by 2011, they were in line with those in England. Sweden experienced more recommodification than England during this period, although it started from a much less commodified position. Correspondingly, correlation between unemployment benefit generosity and health inequalities was stronger in Sweden than in England. Recommodification is linked to ill health among the unemployed and to the health gap between the employed and unemployed. We propose that further recommodification will be associated with increased health inequalities between the employed and unemployed. © IMechE 2016.

  18. Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains potentially involved in the TB epidemic in Sweden a century ago.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Groenheit

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: A hundred years ago the prevalence of tuberculosis (TB in Sweden was one of the highest in the world. In this study we conducted a population-based search for distinct strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolated from patients born in Sweden before 1945. Many of these isolates represent the M. tuberculosis complex population that fueled the TB epidemic in Sweden during the first half of the 20(th century. METHODS: Genetic relationships between strains that caused the epidemic and present day strains were studied by spoligotyping and restriction fragment length polymorphism. RESULTS: The majority of the isolates from the elderly population were evolutionary recent Principal Genetic Group (PGG2/3 strains (363/409 or 88.8%, and only a low proportion were ancient PGG1 strains (24/409 or 5.9%. Twenty-two were undefined. The isolates demonstrated a population where the Euro-American superlineage dominated; in particular with Haarlem (41.1% and T (37.7% spoligotypes and only 21.2% belonged to other spoligotype families. Isolates from the elderly population clustered much less frequently than did isolates from a young control group population. CONCLUSIONS: A closely knit pool of PGG2/3 strains restricted to Sweden and its immediate neighbours appears to have played a role in the epidemic, while PGG1 strains are usually linked to migrants in todaýs Sweden. Further studies of these outbreak strains may give indications of why the epidemic waned.

  19. Hydrocarbon potential of Ordovician and Silurian rocks. Siljan Region (Sweden)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berner, U. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Hannover (Germany); Lehnert, O. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany); Meinhold, G. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany)

    2013-08-01

    Hydrocarbon exploration in the vicinity of Europe's largest impact structure (Siljan, Central Sweden) focused for years on abiogenic concepts and largely neglected state of the art knowledge on hydrocarbon generation via thermal decomposition of organic matter. In our study we use sedimentary rocks obtained from three drill sites (Mora001, Stumsnaes 1 and Solberga 1) within the ring structure around the central uplift to investigate the hydrocarbon potential of Ordovician and Silurian strata of the region and also for comparison with the shale oil and gas potential of age equivalent rocks of the Baltic Sea. Elemental analyses provided information on concentrations of carbonate and organic carbon, total sulfur as well as on the composition of major and minor elements of the sediments. The data has been used to evaluate the depositional environment and possible diagenetic alterations of the organic matter. RockEval pyrolysis and solvent hydrocarbon extraction gave insight into the hydrocarbon generation potential and the type and thermal maturity of the sediments. From the geochemistry data of the studied wells it is obvious that changes of depositional environments (lacustrine - marine) have occurred during Ordovician and Silurian times. Although, the quality of the organic matter has been influenced in marine and brackish environments through sulfate reduction, we observe for a number of marine and lacustrine sediments a good to excellent preservation of the biological precursors which qualify the sediments as hydrocarbon source rocks (Type II kerogens). Lacustrine source rocks show a higher remaining hydrocarbon potential (up to {proportional_to}550 mg HC per g C{sub org}) than those of marine or brackish environments. Our investigations indicate that the thermal maturity of organic matter of the drill sites has reached the initial stage of oil generation. However, at Mora001 some of the sediments were stained with oil indicating that hydrocarbons have

  20. {sup 137}Cs in a raised bog in central Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, K. [Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SLU, Ulls vag 17, Box 7014, SE-75007, Uppsala (Sweden)], E-mail: klas.rosen@mv.slu.se; Vinichuk, M. [Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SLU, Ulls vag 17, Box 7014, SE-75007, Uppsala (Sweden); Department of Ecology, Zhytomyr State Technological University, 103 Cherniakhovsky Str., 10005 Zhytomyr (Ukraine); Johanson, K.J. [Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SLU, Ulls vag 17, Box 7014, SE-75007, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2009-07-15

    The vertical distribution of {sup 137}Cs activity in peat soil profiles and {sup 137}Cs activity concentration in plants of various species was studied in samples collected at two sites on a raised bog in central Sweden. One site (open bog) was in an area with no trees and only a few sparsely growing plant species, while the other (low pine) was less than 100 m from the open bog site and had slowly growing Scots pine, a field layer dominated by some ericaceous plants and ground well-covered by plants. The plant samples were collected in 2004-2007 and were compared with samples collected in 1989 from the same open bog and low pine sites. Ground deposition of {sup 137}Cs in 2005 was similar at both sites, 23 000 Bq m{sup -2}. In the open bog peat profile it seems to be an upward transport of caesium since a clear peak of {sup 137}Cs activity was found in the uppermost 1-4 cm of Sphagnum layers, whereas at the low pine site {sup 137}Cs was mainly found in deeper (10-12 cm) layers. The migration rate was 0.57 cm yr{sup -1} at the open bog site and the migration centre of {sup 137}Cs was at a depth of 10.7, while the rate at the low pine site was 0.78 cm yr{sup -1} and the migration centre was at 14.9 cm. Heather (Calluna vulgaris) was the plant species with the highest {sup 137}Cs activity concentrations at both sites, 43.5 k Bq{sup -1} DM in 1989 decreasing to 20.4 in 2004-2007 on open bog and 22.3 k Bq kg{sup -1} DM in 1989 decreasing to 11.2 k Bq{sup -1} DM by the period 2004-2007 on the low pine site. {sup 137}Cs transfer factors in plants varied between 0.88 and 1.35 on the open bog and between 0.48 and 0.69 m{sup 2} kg{sup -1} DM at the low pine site.

  1. 137Cs in a raised bog in central Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, K.; Vinichuk, M.; Johanson, K.J.

    2009-01-01

    The vertical distribution of 137 Cs activity in peat soil profiles and 137 Cs activity concentration in plants of various species was studied in samples collected at two sites on a raised bog in central Sweden. One site (open bog) was in an area with no trees and only a few sparsely growing plant species, while the other (low pine) was less than 100 m from the open bog site and had slowly growing Scots pine, a field layer dominated by some ericaceous plants and ground well-covered by plants. The plant samples were collected in 2004-2007 and were compared with samples collected in 1989 from the same open bog and low pine sites. Ground deposition of 137 Cs in 2005 was similar at both sites, 23 000 Bq m -2 . In the open bog peat profile it seems to be an upward transport of caesium since a clear peak of 137 Cs activity was found in the uppermost 1-4 cm of Sphagnum layers, whereas at the low pine site 137 Cs was mainly found in deeper (10-12 cm) layers. The migration rate was 0.57 cm yr -1 at the open bog site and the migration centre of 137 Cs was at a depth of 10.7, while the rate at the low pine site was 0.78 cm yr -1 and the migration centre was at 14.9 cm. Heather (Calluna vulgaris) was the plant species with the highest 137 Cs activity concentrations at both sites, 43.5 k Bq -1 DM in 1989 decreasing to 20.4 in 2004-2007 on open bog and 22.3 k Bq kg -1 DM in 1989 decreasing to 11.2 k Bq -1 DM by the period 2004-2007 on the low pine site. 137 Cs transfer factors in plants varied between 0.88 and 1.35 on the open bog and between 0.48 and 0.69 m 2 kg -1 DM at the low pine site.

  2. Immigrant fertility in Sweden, 2000-2011: A descriptive note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotta Persson

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Modern Scandinavian population registers provide excellent data sources that allow a user to quickly gain an impression of the level of fertility and its structure across subpopulations. This may also allow the analyst to check a feature of the much-cited disruption hypothesis, at least in part. Objective: The purpose of this note is to exploit this potential to give an overview of the structure of recent total fertility after immigration to Sweden from various groups of sending countries, separately for males and females. In the process we demonstrate to what extent the post-migration fertility compensation which is part of the fertility disruption hypothesis is fulfilled in our study population. Due to the nature of our data we have refrained from studying fertility before migration. Methods: Based on data from a combination of two Swedish administrative registers (the Historic Population Register and the Multi-Generation Register that cover both men and women in the entire population for the years 2000-2011, we compute and plot TFR-like age-cumulated fertility levels, specific for years since immigration, for six groups of sending countries, separately for men and women. Results: We find that the post-migration fertility compensation specified as part of the fertility disruption hypothesis is visibly confirmed in our Swedish study population for female European immigrants from non-EU countries and for female immigrants from non-European countries with a low or medium UN Human Development Index, but not so for other female immigrants, i.e. not for those who come from a Nordic country or from a non-Nordic EU country, and not for female immigrants from a non-European country with a high Human Development Index, including the United States. We find mild but less conclusive evidence for the same feature for males. Conclusions: This shows that at least as far as post-migration fertility compensation is concerned, the disruption

  3. Everyday classroom assessment practices in science classrooms in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, María del Carmen; Jakobsson, Anders

    2014-12-01

    The focus of this study is to examine to what extent and in what ways science teachers practice assessment during classroom interactions in everyday activities in an upper-secondary school in Sweden. We are science teachers working now with a larger research project on assessment in science education that seeks to examine teachers' assessment practices in the upper-secondary school. Framing questions include: are teachers performing an integrated assessment of students' skills as the national curriculum mandates? If so, what do the instructional discourses look like in those situations and what are students' experiences regarding their agency on learning and assessment? We emphasize the social, cultural and historic character of assessment and sustain a situated character of learning instead of the notion that learning is "stored inside the head". Teacher led lessons in three science classrooms were video-recorded and analyzed by combining ethnographic and discourse methods of analysis. Both methods are appropriate to the theoretical foundation of our approach on learning and can give some answers to questions about how individuals interact socially, how their experience is passed on to next generations through language and how language use may reveal cultural changes in the studied context. Making the study of action in a classroom the focal point of sociocultural analysis supports the examination of assessment processes and identification of the social roles in which teachers and students are immersed. Such an approach requires observations of how teachers act in authentic teaching situations when they interact with their students in classroom making possible to observe negotiation processes, agencies when both teachers and students are involved in every-day activities. Our study showed that teachers mostly ignored students' questions and that students solved their own problems by helping each other. Teachers did not provide opportunities for students to discuss

  4. Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis in Ticks from Migrating Birds in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbé Sandelin, Lisa; Tolf, Conny; Larsson, Sara; Wilhelmsson, Peter; Salaneck, Erik; Jaenson, Thomas G T; Lindgren, Per-Eric; Olsen, Björn; Waldenström, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis (CNM; family Anaplasmataceae) was recently recognized as a potential tick-borne human pathogen. The presence of CNM in mammals, in host-seeking Ixodes ticks and in ticks attached to mammals and birds has been reported recently. We investigated the presence of CNM in ornithophagous ticks from migrating birds. A total of 1,150 ticks (582 nymphs, 548 larvae, 18 undetermined ticks and two adult females) collected from 5,365 birds captured in south-eastern Sweden was screened for CNM by molecular methods. The birds represented 65 different species, of which 35 species were infested with one or more ticks. Based on a combination of morphological and molecular species identification, the majority of the ticks were identified as Ixodes ricinus. Samples were initially screened by real-time PCR targeting the CNM 16S rRNA gene, and confirmed by a second real-time PCR targeting the groEL gene. For positive samples, a 1260 base pair fragment of the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced. Based upon bacterial gene sequence identification, 2.1% (24/1150) of the analysed samples were CNM-positive. Twenty-two out of 24 CNM-positive ticks were molecularly identified as I. ricinus nymphs, and the remaining two were identified as I. ricinus based on morphology. The overall CNM prevalence in I. ricinus nymphs was 4.2%. None of the 548 tested larvae was positive. CNM-positive ticks were collected from 10 different bird species. The highest CNM-prevalences were recorded in nymphs collected from common redpoll (Carduelis flammea, 3/7), thrush nightingale (Luscinia luscinia, 2/29) and dunnock (Prunella modularis, 1/17). The 16S rRNA sequences obtained in this study were all identical to each other and to three previously reported European strains, two of which were obtained from humans. It is concluded that ornithophagous ticks may be infected with CNM and that birds most likely can disperse CNM-infected ticks over large geographical areas.

  5. Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis in Ticks from Migrating Birds in Sweden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Labbé Sandelin

    Full Text Available Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis (CNM; family Anaplasmataceae was recently recognized as a potential tick-borne human pathogen. The presence of CNM in mammals, in host-seeking Ixodes ticks and in ticks attached to mammals and birds has been reported recently. We investigated the presence of CNM in ornithophagous ticks from migrating birds. A total of 1,150 ticks (582 nymphs, 548 larvae, 18 undetermined ticks and two adult females collected from 5,365 birds captured in south-eastern Sweden was screened for CNM by molecular methods. The birds represented 65 different species, of which 35 species were infested with one or more ticks. Based on a combination of morphological and molecular species identification, the majority of the ticks were identified as Ixodes ricinus. Samples were initially screened by real-time PCR targeting the CNM 16S rRNA gene, and confirmed by a second real-time PCR targeting the groEL gene. For positive samples, a 1260 base pair fragment of the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced. Based upon bacterial gene sequence identification, 2.1% (24/1150 of the analysed samples were CNM-positive. Twenty-two out of 24 CNM-positive ticks were molecularly identified as I. ricinus nymphs, and the remaining two were identified as I. ricinus based on morphology. The overall CNM prevalence in I. ricinus nymphs was 4.2%. None of the 548 tested larvae was positive. CNM-positive ticks were collected from 10 different bird species. The highest CNM-prevalences were recorded in nymphs collected from common redpoll (Carduelis flammea, 3/7, thrush nightingale (Luscinia luscinia, 2/29 and dunnock (Prunella modularis, 1/17. The 16S rRNA sequences obtained in this study were all identical to each other and to three previously reported European strains, two of which were obtained from humans. It is concluded that ornithophagous ticks may be infected with CNM and that birds most likely can disperse CNM-infected ticks over large geographical areas.

  6. LNG As an Alternative Energy Supply in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansson, Jens (Lund Univ., Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Lund (Sweden))

    2008-11-15

    As well as summarising the possible alternatives, environmental aspects and uses of LNG, this study aims to investigate the cost involved in the import of LNG to Sweden, from well to user. In Sweden, Natural Gas is used to cover 2 % of the total energy input. The pipeline network stretches from Malmoe to Stenungsund and Gnosjoe, which means some of the most densely populated areas are covered, but there is still 1200 km of the country left, including larger cities such as Stockholm, Uppsala and Linkoeping as well as areas that host some of the most energy demanding industries, e.g. Sundsvall, Umeaa, Luleaa and Kiruna. The absence of Natural Gas typically causes these regions to rely on fuel oil, coke or coal. If these sources of energy could be replaced by Natural Gas, great environmental benefits could be achieved. Research shows that the use of Natural Gas adds 20 % less CO{sub 2} to the atmosphere than oil and also mean lower emissions of NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2} and particles, making it the better alternative from both local and global perspectives. LNG is potentially a fire and an explosion hazard, but in the last 45 years of usage, no major accidents have occurred. Major exporters of LNG are Indonesia, Quatar, Australia and Algeria. Some of the largest importers are Japan, USA, France and Spain. Japan imports nearly 100 % of their Natural Gas as LNG. The available LNG liquefaction capacity increased by 60 % between 2002 and 2007. The total import cost for LNG includes the purchase cost from the producer, the transport cost, be it sea, railroad or road transport, and the cost for the terminal which receives and stores LNG. The study of different routes, volumes and means of transport creates a picture of how the total cost varies in proportion to these parameters. In the calculation of these costs, sources from the industry or estimations of purchase prices, transport costs and terminal costs are used. The uncertainties in this study are especially high when it

  7. Salmonella Isolated from Animals and Feed Production in Sweden Between 1993 and 1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tysen E

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents Salmonella data from animals, feedstuffs and feed mills in Sweden between 1993 and 1997. During that period, 555 isolates were recorded from animals, representing 87 serotypes. Of those, 30 serotypes were found in animals in Sweden for the first time. The majority of all isolates from animals were S. Typhimurium (n = 91, followed by S. Dublin (n = 82. There were 115 isolates from cattle, 21 from broilers, 56 from layers and 18 from swine. The majority of these isolates were from outbreaks, although some were isolated at the surveillance at slaughterhouses. The number of isolates from the feed industry was similar to that of the previous 5-year period. Most of those findings were from dust and scrapings from feed mills, in accordance with the HACCP programme in the feed control programme. It can be concluded that the occurrence of Salmonella in animals and in the feed production in Sweden remained favourable during 1993–97.

  8. Sustained yield forestry in Sweden and Russia: how does it correspond to sustainable forest management policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbakidze, Marine; Andersson, Kjell; Angelstam, Per; Armstrong, Glen W; Axelsson, Robert; Doyon, Frederik; Hermansson, Martin; Jacobsson, Jonas; Pautov, Yurij

    2013-03-01

    This paper analyzes how sustained yield (SY) forestry is defined and implemented in Sweden and Russia, two countries with different forest-industrial regimes. We first compare definitions of SY forestry in national legislation and policies. Then we study forest management planning in two large forest management units with respect to: delivered forest products and values, how the harvest level of timber is defined, where the harvest takes place, and what treatments are used to sustain desired forest products and values. In Sweden SY forestry is maximum yield based on high-input forest management, and in Russia it is forestry based on natural regeneration with minimum investments in silviculture. We conclude that how SY forestry contributes to SFM depends on the context. Finally, we discuss the consequences of SY forestry as performed in Sweden and Russia related to its ability to support diverse forest functions, as envisioned in sustainable forest management policy.

  9. Massive genomic variation and strong selection in Arabidopsis thaliana lines from Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platzer, Alexander; Zhang, Qingrun; Vilhjálmsson, Bjarni J; Korte, Arthur; Nizhynska, Viktoria; Voronin, Viktor; Korte, Pamela; Sedman, Laura; Mandáková, Terezie; Lysak, Martin A; Seren, Ümit; Hellmann, Ines; Nordborg, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    Despite advances in sequencing, the goal of obtaining a comprehensive view of genetic variation in populations is still far from reached. We sequenced 180 lines of A. thaliana from Sweden to obtain as complete a picture as possible of variation in a single region. Whereas simple polymorphisms in the unique portion of the genome are readily identified, other polymorphisms are not. The massive variation in genome size identified by flow cytometry seems largely to be due to 45S rDNA copy number variation, with lines from northern Sweden having particularly large numbers of copies. Strong selection is evident in the form of long-range linkage disequilibrium (LD), as well as in LD between nearby compensatory mutations. Many footprints of selective sweeps were found in lines from northern Sweden, and a massive global sweep was shown to have involved a 700-kb transposition. PMID:23793030

  10. The economic and environmental impacts of biofuel taxes on heating plants in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braennlund, R.; Kristroem, B.; Sisask, A.

    1998-12-31

    Sweden`s energy policy is currently based on a large-scale introduction of biofuels. Following a 1980 nuclear power referendum, the current plan is to phase out nuclear power, replacing nuclear energy with renewable energy sources. This policy is supported by various tax breaks for biofuels. There is an ongoing discussion about a restructuring of the energy tax system, which will have far-reaching impact on the markets for biofuels. This paper evaluates the impact of changes in current energy taxation by analyzing a panel of approximately 150 district heating plants in Sweden. We estimate plant-specific production functions and derive the economic repercussions of the tax. We also estimate the resulting changes of emissions of sulfur, NOX and particulates and assess the externality costs Arbetsrapport 258. 6 refs, 4 figs, 11 tabs

  11. Recent hip fracture trends in Sweden and Denmark with age-period-cohort effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosengren, B E; Björk, J; Cooper, C

    2017-01-01

    born thereafter however seem to have a higher hip fracture risk, and we expect a reversal of the present decline in rates, with increasing hip fracture rates in both Denmark and Sweden during the upcoming decade. CONCLUSIONS: Time trends, cohort, and period effects were different in SE and DK. This may......This study used nationwide hip fracture data from Denmark and Sweden during 1987-2010 to examine effects of (birth) cohort and period. We found that time trends, cohort, and period effects were different in the two countries. Results also indicated that hip fracture rates may increase in the not so...... far future. INTRODUCTION: The reasons for the downturn in hip fracture rates remain largely unclear but circumstances earlier in life seem important. METHODS: We ascertained hip fractures in the populations ≥50 years in Denmark and Sweden in national discharge registers. Country- and sex-specific age...

  12. Cancer mortality by country of birth, sex, and socioeconomic position in Sweden, 1961-2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Abdoli

    Full Text Available In 2010, cancer deaths accounted for more than 15% of all deaths worldwide, and this fraction is estimated to rise in the coming years. Increased cancer mortality has been observed in immigrant populations, but a comprehensive analysis by country of birth has not been conducted. We followed all individuals living in Sweden between 1961 and 2009 (7,109,327 men and 6,958,714 women, and calculated crude cancer mortality rates and age-standardized rates (ASRs using the world population for standardization. We observed a downward trend in all-site ASRs over the past two decades in men regardless of country of birth but no such trend was found in women. All-site cancer mortality increased with decreasing levels of education regardless of sex and country of birth (p for trend <0.001. We also compared cancer mortality rates among foreign-born (13.9% and Sweden-born (86.1% individuals and determined the effect of education level and sex estimated by mortality rate ratios (MRRs using multivariable Poisson regression. All-site cancer mortality was slightly higher among foreign-born than Sweden-born men (MRR = 1.05, 95% confidence interval 1.04-1.07, but similar mortality risks was found among foreign-born and Sweden-born women. Men born in Angola, Laos, and Cambodia had the highest cancer mortality risk. Women born in all countries except Iceland, Denmark, and Mexico had a similar or smaller risk than women born in Sweden. Cancer-specific mortality analysis showed an increased risk for cervical and lung cancer in both sexes but a decreased risk for colon, breast, and prostate cancer mortality among foreign-born compared with Sweden-born individuals. Further studies are required to fully understand the causes of the observed inequalities in mortality across levels of education and countries of birth.

  13. Social stratification in the dissemination of statins after stroke in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjölander, Maria; Eriksson, Marie; Glader, Eva-Lotta

    2013-05-01

    Since 2005, statins have been recommended to patients with ischaemic stroke. The objective of this study was to analyse how statin treatment has been disseminated in different patient groups (age, sex, socioeconomic status and country of birth) in Sweden between 2004 and 2009. The Swedish Stroke Register (Riks-Stroke) has been linked to the Longitudinal Integration Database for Health Insurance and Labour Market Studies. Approximately 85 % of stroke patients in Sweden are included in Riks-Stroke. Odds ratios for statin prescribing were calculated using a multivariable logistic regression model including age, sex, socioeconomic status and risk factors. During the study period, 108,950 ischaemic stroke patients were discharged alive from hospital. The proportion with statins at discharge increased from 32.9 % in 2004 to 60.1 % in 2009. Patients with secondary school or university education had slightly higher odds [odds ratio (OR) 1.07, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.11 and OR 1.05, 95 % CI 1.01-1.10 respectively] than patients with primary school education. Patients on a high income were prescribed more statins than those on a low income (OR 1.24, 95 % CI 1.19-1.28). Compared with patients born in Sweden, patients born in other countries were prescribed more statins (Nordic countries excepting Sweden: OR 1.07, 95 % CI 1.01-1.14; Europe: OR 1.31, 95 % CI 1.22-1.40; Outside Europe: OR 1.20, 95 % CI 1.08-1.34). Statin prescribing after ischaemic stroke has increased from 2004 to 2009. Our results also show a social stratification in the dissemination of statins, with patients having a higher income and patients with higher education receiving statins more often than those with a lower income and education, and patients born in Sweden receiving statins less often than those born outside of Sweden.

  14. Cancer mortality by country of birth, sex, and socioeconomic position in Sweden, 1961-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdoli, Gholamreza; Bottai, Matteo; Moradi, Tahereh

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, cancer deaths accounted for more than 15% of all deaths worldwide, and this fraction is estimated to rise in the coming years. Increased cancer mortality has been observed in immigrant populations, but a comprehensive analysis by country of birth has not been conducted. We followed all individuals living in Sweden between 1961 and 2009 (7,109,327 men and 6,958,714 women), and calculated crude cancer mortality rates and age-standardized rates (ASRs) using the world population for standardization. We observed a downward trend in all-site ASRs over the past two decades in men regardless of country of birth but no such trend was found in women. All-site cancer mortality increased with decreasing levels of education regardless of sex and country of birth (p for trend Sweden-born (86.1%) individuals and determined the effect of education level and sex estimated by mortality rate ratios (MRRs) using multivariable Poisson regression. All-site cancer mortality was slightly higher among foreign-born than Sweden-born men (MRR = 1.05, 95% confidence interval 1.04-1.07), but similar mortality risks was found among foreign-born and Sweden-born women. Men born in Angola, Laos, and Cambodia had the highest cancer mortality risk. Women born in all countries except Iceland, Denmark, and Mexico had a similar or smaller risk than women born in Sweden. Cancer-specific mortality analysis showed an increased risk for cervical and lung cancer in both sexes but a decreased risk for colon, breast, and prostate cancer mortality among foreign-born compared with Sweden-born individuals. Further studies are required to fully understand the causes of the observed inequalities in mortality across levels of education and countries of birth.

  15. Cancer Mortality by Country of Birth, Sex, and Socioeconomic Position in Sweden, 1961–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdoli, Gholamreza; Bottai, Matteo; Moradi, Tahereh

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, cancer deaths accounted for more than 15% of all deaths worldwide, and this fraction is estimated to rise in the coming years. Increased cancer mortality has been observed in immigrant populations, but a comprehensive analysis by country of birth has not been conducted. We followed all individuals living in Sweden between 1961 and 2009 (7,109,327 men and 6,958,714 women), and calculated crude cancer mortality rates and age-standardized rates (ASRs) using the world population for standardization. We observed a downward trend in all-site ASRs over the past two decades in men regardless of country of birth but no such trend was found in women. All-site cancer mortality increased with decreasing levels of education regardless of sex and country of birth (p for trend Sweden-born (86.1%) individuals and determined the effect of education level and sex estimated by mortality rate ratios (MRRs) using multivariable Poisson regression. All-site cancer mortality was slightly higher among foreign-born than Sweden-born men (MRR = 1.05, 95% confidence interval 1.04–1.07), but similar mortality risks was found among foreign-born and Sweden-born women. Men born in Angola, Laos, and Cambodia had the highest cancer mortality risk. Women born in all countries except Iceland, Denmark, and Mexico had a similar or smaller risk than women born in Sweden. Cancer-specific mortality analysis showed an increased risk for cervical and lung cancer in both sexes but a decreased risk for colon, breast, and prostate cancer mortality among foreign-born compared with Sweden-born individuals. Further studies are required to fully understand the causes of the observed inequalities in mortality across levels of education and countries of birth. PMID:24682217

  16. Mapping key economic indicators of onshore wind energy in Sweden by using a geospatial methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siyal, Shahid Hussain; Mentis, Dimitris; Howells, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We spatially quantified and visualized the economic indicators of onshore wind energy in Sweden. • Possible land use constraints to wind energy were taken into account. • Economic indicators were estimated on the basis of two wind turbines. • We used a GIS-based methodology for this analysis and found it very useful. • Results suggest that Sweden holds economic feasible wind energy resource, specially in the southern and central regions. - Abstract: Due to modern advancements in renewable energy systems and increasing prices of fossil fuels wind energy is getting a lot of attention all over the world. In this regard, Sweden also fixed motivated targets to get energy supply from local renewable energy resources. So, local wind power could help the country in achieving the targets. In this study, economic indicators of wind energy were spatially estimated for Sweden by using ArcGIS tool. In order to do this, as input data one-year high resolution modeled annual average wind data was processed by means of Rayleigh distribution, wind turbine power curve, land use constraints, technical constraints and economic parameters. Based on the input data, it was concluded that Sweden possesses economically feasible wind energy resource. The results of the study indicate that southern and central regions could produce economically viable wind electricity in all aspects as compared to the northern region of the country. Lastly, it was recommended to speed up wind energy penetration in Sweden, communal awareness and acceptance regarding the resource should be increased to avoid possible misunderstanding. Additionally, the capability of the national electric grid should be enhanced to take up the large scale unpredictable wind energy resource.

  17. Biozonation of the furongian (upper Cambrian) alum shale formation at Hunneberg, Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Bo Wilhelm; Rasmussen, Jan Audun Liljeroth; Nielsen, Arne Thorshøj

    2016-01-01

    The Furongian Alum Shale at Nygård, Hunneberg, Sweden, has been sampled for trilobites. The section is ≥12.20 m thick and comprises a relatively thick Olenus superzone, overlain by more condensed Parabolina, Leptoplastus, Protopeltura and Peltura superzones. The section is truncated low in the Pe......The Furongian Alum Shale at Nygård, Hunneberg, Sweden, has been sampled for trilobites. The section is ≥12.20 m thick and comprises a relatively thick Olenus superzone, overlain by more condensed Parabolina, Leptoplastus, Protopeltura and Peltura superzones. The section is truncated low...

  18. A decade of successful domestic sea transports of radioactive waste in Sweden 1982-1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dybeck, P.; Gustafsson, B.

    1993-01-01

    Today the transports of radioactive waste in Sweden are done on routine basis without any negative publicity. An important contribution to this fact is probably the very good performance of the transport system and the receiving facilities. Since the start of operation of the transport system no accidents have occurred. Almost 1600 tonnes of spent fuel and 10,000 m 3 of radioactive waste have been transported. The capacity and availability of the ship and of the transport system as a whole is large enough to cover all needs for transports of radioactive material in Sweden, at least up to the turn of this century. (J.P.N.)

  19. Labour Force Activity after 65: What Explain Recent Trends in Denmark, Germany and Sweden?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mona; Pedersen, Peder J.

    2017-01-01

    In most OECD member countries labour force attachment has increased in recent years in the age groups 60-64 years in particular, but also among people 65 years and older. Focus in this paper is on the trend in older workers’ labour force participation in Denmark, Germany and Sweden since 2004. Main...... group and cohort relevant changes in education and health is examined and discussed. Further, country differences in the impact from education and health is examined. Results show that the largest increase in labour force participation has taken place in Sweden following by Germany, while the increase...

  20. 75 FR 61700 - Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland, the Netherlands, and Sweden: Final Results of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ...On June 2, 2010, the Department of Commerce (the Department) initiated first sunset reviews of the antidumping duty orders on purified carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) from, inter alia, Finland, the Netherlands, and Sweden, pursuant to section 751(c) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (the Act). The Department has conducted expedited (120-day) sunset reviews of the Finland, the Netherlands, and Sweden antidumping duty orders pursuant to 19 CFR 351.218(e)(1)(ii)(C)(2).\\1\\ As a result of these sunset reviews, the Department finds that revocation of the antidumping duty orders would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of dumping. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

  1. Work-Life Balance in Sweden: Working in a flexible and autonomous manner (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    TAKAHASHI Mieko

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to study to what extent a work-life balance (WLB) policy has been implemented in Sweden and to analyze the strategy that the country has put into practice, as the country—from a comparative perspective—is considered to be one of the leaders in this context. A review of the process for implementing such policy in Sweden shows that a WLB policy has been promoted from an egalitarian gender ideology for almost four decades. Comparing a quantitative data set collected...

  2. The Pursuit of Metals and the Ideology of Improvement in Early Modern Sápmi, Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naum, Magdalena Ewa

    2017-01-01

    The article examines the ideology of improvement in the context of seventeenth- and eighteenth-century mining in northern Sweden in the province of Sápmi. It discusses how the rhetoric of improvement and “civilizing” projects were intertwined with the mining enterprises; how they informed...... of Sweden, the article suggests that mines and processing works were singled out as suitable places for such transformation due to their spatial and organizational characteristics. The study is informed by contemporary political thinking as well as by Foucauldian perspectives on governmentality and its...

  3. Early chilhood education in Sweden : the market curriculum 200-2013?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina O’Dowd

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Early childhood education in Sweden has long had an international reputation for being a systemic and integrated approach to children’s needs, a family model of preschool centers and an interest in the holistic development and well-being of children. However, traces of this reputable past are hard to discern today as the neo-liberal agenda for education that is infl uencing education around the world has impacted Sweden. The changes in Sweden, however, have successively occurred since the 1980s, due to the failure of the Swedish economy to provide the necessary surplus to support the extensive social and welfare reforms that previously gave Sweden its international reputation. The effects of the neo-liberal agenda along with the reforms implemented by the Social Democratic government and the Conservative government have had and continue to have an impact on early childhood education in Sweden. As more and more governments are faced with economic problems, the case of Sweden and the measures taken by both the Social Democrats and the Conservative parties over the last few decades make a study of the Swedish reforms of early childhood education relevant and interesting for other countries. In this article early childhood education in Sweden will be presented and discussed from a historical and a conceptual perspective, focusing on its objectives and features and explaining the shifts make by political parties vis-à-vis early childhood education in Sweden.La Educación Infantil en Suecia ha tenido una gran reputación internacional, por tratarse de una aproximación sistémica e integrada a las necesidades de los niños, un modelo familiar de centros prescolares y por su interés en el desarrollo holístico e integral de los niños. Los cambios recientes acaecidos en la educación en Europa y en otros lugares, junto con las reformas emprendidas por el gobierno conservador que ha estado en el poder desde 2006 en Suecia han tenido y contin

  4. Different patient-reported outcomes in immigrants and patients born in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupic, Ferid; Garellick, Göran; Gordon, Max; Kärrholm, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose Some patients have persistent symptoms after total hip arthroplsty (THA). We investigated whether the proportions of inferior clinical results after total hip arthroplasty—according to the 5 dimensions in the EQ-5D form, and pain and satisfaction according to a visual analog scale (VAS)—are the same in immigrants to Sweden as observed in those born in Sweden. Methods Records of total hip arthroplasties performed between 1992 and 2007 were retrieved from the Swedish Hip Arthroplasty Register (SHAR) and cross-matched with data from the National Board of Health and Welfare and also Statistics, Sweden. 18,791 operations (1,451 in immigrants, 7.7%) were eligible for analysis. Logistic and linear regression models including age, sex, diagnosis, type of fixation, comorbidity, surgical approach, marital status, and education level were analyzed. Outcomes were the 5 dimensions in EQ-5D, EQ-VAS, VAS pain, and VAS satisfaction. Preoperative data and data from 1 year postoperatively were studied. Results Preoperatively (and after inclusion of covariates in the regression models), all immigrant groups had more negative interference concerning self-care. Immigrants from the Nordic countries outside Sweden and Europe tended to have more problems with their usual activities and patients from Europe and outside Europe more often reported problems with anxiety/depression. Patients born abroad showed an overall tendency to report more pain on the VAS than patients born in Sweden. After the operation, the immigrant groups reported more problems in all the EQ-5D dimensions. After adjustment for covariates including the preoperative baseline value, most of these differences remained except for pain/discomfort and—concerning immigrants from the Nordic countries—also anxiety/depression. After the operation, pain according to VAS had decreased substantially in all groups. The immigrant groups indicated more pain than those born in Sweden, both before and

  5. The Fate of Hydrocarbon Pollution in Kebnekaise, Arctic Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosqvist, G. N.; Jarjso, J.; Clason, C.; Jansson, P.; Karlin, T.

    2013-12-01

    A C-130J-30 Super Hercules plane crashed into the west-facing wall of the Kebnekaise mountain (2103 m), Arctic Sweden, on March 15th 2012. When starting from Evenes, Narvik, Norway, the aircraft had 14100 l fuel, 50 l hydraulic oil and 170 l motor oil onboard. Best estimates are that at least 12 000 l of fuel was sprayed over the mountain most of which was buried together with the wreck in a huge snow avalanche that was triggered by the impact in a NW facing cirque on Rabots glacier between ca 1600 and 2000 m. Fuel decontamination was not possible because of the extreme impact site conditions. The Hercules airplane was fueled with JET A-1 which is a hydrocarbon product in the Kerosene/Jet Fuel category consisting of sweetened kerosene and hydrotreated light distillates. The major components of all 'kerosene's' are branched- and straight-chain paraffins and naphthenes (cycloparaffins or cycloalkanes), which normally account for 70% by volume. Aromatic hydrocarbons, such as alkyl benzenes (single ring) and alkylnaphthalenes (double ring) do not exceed 25 % by volume of kerosene. The fuel also contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), but in very small volumes compared to the major components. The physical and chemical properties of each component (or block) of the hydrocarbon mixture influence its migration rate and fate. Some components of the fuel will volatilize, some are soluble in water but the vast majority are non-soluble. Although the solubility of these so called Light Nonaqueous Phase Liquids (LNAPL) in water is small they are highly toxic. We need to consider transport of the soluble components of the LNAPL in the melt-water, and transport of the non-soluble components with the melt-water system. Transport and storage can occur through and in snow (or firn), crevasses, and cavities on, in or under the glacier. Storage in, and contamination of, basal sediments, located below the glacier, or pro-glacial sediments, in front of the glacier are also

  6. Constructing or Rejecting the Notion of the Other in University Management: The Cases of Ireland and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Pat; Goransson, Anita

    2015-01-01

    We focus on gender stereotypes in West European university management by comparing two countries: Sweden and Ireland. In secular Sweden there are strong policies that are implemented at all political levels supported by the public discourse; while in Ireland such measures are few and the equality infrastructures and discourse have been weakened by…

  7. How the Girl Choosing Technology Became the Symbol of the Non-Traditional Pupil's Choice in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedlin, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to elucidate how the girl who chooses technology came to be the symbol of the non-traditional pupil's choice in Sweden. In the early 1960s it was hoped that girls would enter workshop training and then commit themselves to engineering mechanics jobs at a time when Sweden was characterised by economic growth which was…

  8. Standardisation and "Quick Languages": The Shape-Shifting of Standardised Measurement of Pupil Achievement in Sweden and Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundahl, Christian; Waldow, Florian

    2009-01-01

    The article discusses the entry of standardised measurement into the educational systems of Sweden and Germany and the processes of shape-shifting associated with this process. In the first part of the article, we investigate how standardised measurement challenged existing ways of conceiving education in Sweden and Germany during the first half…

  9. Changing public attitudes towards corporal punishment: the effects of statutory reform in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, J V

    2000-08-01

    One justification for a statutory ban on physical punishment is that passage of such legislation changes public attitudes towards the use of this form of parental discipline. The experience in Sweden is often cited as an example of legislation which changed public opinion. The aim of this brief article is to review the public opinion findings in Sweden in order to evaluate in greater detail the impact of changing the law. A search was conducted to generate all published and publicly-available quantitative surveys of the public in Sweden and elsewhere. The results of time-series analysis of the data are clear. The 1979 legal reform in Sweden did not reduce the level of public support for parental use of corporal punishment as a means of disciplining children. Support for physical punishment began declining years before the reform was passed and the decline was in no way accelerated by the law reform. Changes in public opinion may have generated the legal reform, but the reverse is not true. Data from other jurisdictions also support the view that there is no relationship between the status of the law and the nature of public views with regard to corporal punishment. This result is consistent with analyses of the effects of legal reforms in other areas. The Swedish ban on corporal punishment did not affect public attitudes. Changing public views requires other initiatives.

  10. First report of spinose ear tick, Otobius megnini (Acari, Argasidae), in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Anders; Lindström, Johanna

    2017-06-01

    A dog that had travelled to Sweden was inspected by a veterinarian. In one ear canal a tick was found. It was later identified as a spinose ear tick, Otobius megnini. In this case report we also review the previously known reports of O. megnini in Europe and the recent introduction and spread in Turkey.

  11. Learnings from wind energy policy in EU, with focus on Denmark, Sweden and Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I

    The paper describes the learnings from different policies for promotion of wind power and compares the Danish development to that in Sweden and Spain. It is concluded that liberalization has created a number of problems for the promotion of wind power and for the establishment of a sustainable...

  12. Studies on obesity in Chinese children in Beijing and Chinese adults in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Greiner, Ted

    2015-01-01

    Greiner T. Studies on obesity in Chinese children in Beijing and Chinese adults in Sweden. Presentation to international seminar on “Functional evaluation of food and food ingredients.” Chonbok National University Hospital and Clinical Trial Center for Functional Foods. Korea University, Seoul, February 27, 2009.

  13. Development of Gender-Specific Technologies. Evidence from China, Poland and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Göransson, Bo; Rolfstam, Max

    2013-01-01

    is the innovation system capable of utilizing experiences from women as well? The article examines two sets of technologies—agricultural equipment for rural application and teleservices—in two transition economies, Poland and China, with Sweden as a point of reference. The empirical data presented here on women...

  14. Views on nuclear power plant control and instrumentation activities in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomberg, P.E.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to provide a summary of the activities concerning human errors in test and maintenance in nuclear power plants, implementation of the advanced information technology and expanded use of on-site conceptual plant simulators in Sweden

  15. Improvements in logistics could increase survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strömsöe, A; Afzelius, S; Axelsson, C; Södersved Källestedt, M L; Enlund, M; Svensson, L; Herlitz, J

    2013-06-01

    In a review based on estimations and assumptions, to report the estimated number of survivors after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in whom cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was started and to speculate about possible future improvements in Sweden. An observational study. All ambulance organisations in Sweden. Patients included in the Swedish Cardiac Arrest Registry who suffered an OHCA between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2010. Approximately 80% of OHCA cases in Sweden in which CPR was started are included. None In 11 005 patients, the 1-month survival rate was 9.4%. There are approximately 5000 OHCA cases annually in which CPR is started and 30-day survival is achieved in up to 500 patients yearly (6 per 100 000 inhabitants). Based on findings on survival in relation to the time to calling for the Emergency Medical Service (EMS) and the start of CPR and defibrillation, it was estimated that, if the delay from collapse to (i) calling EMS, (ii) the start of CPR, and (iii) the time to defibrillation were reduced to <2 min, <2 min, and <8 min, respectively, 300-400 additional lives could be saved. Based on findings relating to the delay to calling for the EMS and the start of CPR and defibrillation, we speculate that 300-400 additional OHCA patients yearly (4 per 100 000 inhabitants) could be saved in Sweden. © 2013 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  16. Neighborhood Social Influence and Welfare Receipt in Sweden: A Panel Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mood, Carina

    2010-01-01

    This article places the choice to claim welfare benefits in a social context by studying how neighborhood welfare receipt affects welfare receipt among couples in Stockholm, Sweden. It is expected that the propensity to claim welfare should increase with welfare use in the neighborhood, primarily through stigma reduction and increasing…

  17. Music Education--A Personal Matter? Examining the Current Discourses of Music Education in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgii-Hemming, Eva; Westvall, Maria

    2010-01-01

    The embedding of informal practices in music education in school relates to significant issues concerning students' engagement, participation, inclusion and the role of the teacher. This article addresses these issues by presenting and discussing current music education in compulsory comprehensive schooling in Sweden. It does so by drawing upon…

  18. E-Books in Academic Libraries: Results of a Survey Carried out in Sweden and Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maceviciute, Elena; Wilson, T. D.; Gudinavicius, Arunas; Šuminas, Andrius

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: This paper reports on a study of e-books issues in academic libraries in two European countries representative of small language markets--Sweden and Lithuania. Method: Questionnaire surveys, using the same instrument, were carried out in Swedish and Lithuanian academic libraries. Analysis: Quantitative analysis was performed using…

  19. Industrial DSM in a deregulated European electricity market - a case study of 11 plants in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trygg, Louise; Karlsson, B.G.

    2005-01-01

    In 2004 Sweden will become part of a common European electricity market. This implies that the price of electricity in Swedish will adapt to a higher European electricity price due to the increase in cross-border trading. Swedish plant is characterized as more electricity-intensive than plant on the European continent, and this, in combination with a higher European electricity price will lead to a precarious scenario. This paper studies the energy use of 11 plants in the municipality of Oskarshamn in Sweden. The aim is to show how these plants can reduce their electricity use to adapt to a European level. We have found that the plants could reduce their use of electricity by 48% and their use of energy by 40%. In a European perspective, where coal-condensing power is assumed to be the marginal production that alters as the electricity demand changes, the decrease in the use of electricity in this study leads to a reduction in global emissions of carbon dioxide of 69,000 tonne a year. Electricity generated in Sweden emits very low emissions of carbon dioxide and have thus consequently very low external cost. The freed capacity in Sweden could therefore replace electricity generated with higher external cost and as a result lower the total external cost in Europe. The emissions from the saved electricity could also be valuable within the EU emissions trading scheme, if the emissions calculation is done assuming the marginal electricity is fossil fuel based

  20. Bridging Marketing Theory and Practice for Consumer Behaviour Master's Students: A Case Study from Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundstrom, Malin; Hagberg, Johan

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the planning, implementation and outcome of a graduate-level consumer behaviour course taught in autumn 2008 at the University of Boras in Sweden. The course was jointly developed by marketing academics and business representatives in order to combine research-oriented studies with practical experience in a retail context. The…

  1. Increasing feldspar tunneling by fungi across a north Sweden podzol chronosequence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffland, E.; Giesler, R.; Jongmans, A.; Breemen, van N.

    2002-01-01

    Tunnels in feldspar grains, assumed to be created by fungal hyphae, were first discovered in a boreal podzol. In this paper, we further describe the phenomenon of mineral tunneling by determining the rate of feldspar tunneling across a north Sweden podzol chronosequence. The chronosequence is a

  2. Campylobacter coli in Organic and Conventional Pig Production in France and Sweden: Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Kempf

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to evaluate and compare the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter coli in conventional and organic pigs from France and Sweden. Fecal or colon samples were collected at farms or at slaughterhouses and cultured for Campylobacter. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, streptomycin, tetracycline, erythromycin, and gentamicin were determined by microdilution for a total of 263 French strains from 114 pigs from 50 different farms and 82 Swedish strains from 144 pigs from 54 different farms. Erythromycin resistant isolates were examined for presence of the emerging rRNA methylase erm(B gene. The study showed that within the colon samples obtained in each country there was no significant difference in prevalence of Campylobacter between pigs in organic and conventional productions [France: conventional: 43/58 (74%; organic: 43/56 (77% and Sweden: conventional: 24/36 (67%; organic: 20/36 (56%]. In France, but not in Sweden, significant differences of percentages of resistant isolates were associated with production type (tetracycline, erythromycin and the number of resistances was significantly higher for isolates from conventional pigs. In Sweden, the number of resistances of fecal isolates was significantly higher compared to colon isolates. The erm(B gene was not detected in the 87 erythromycin resistant strains tested.

  3. Competition for forest resources between the biofuels and the forest industry in Sweden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkman, Teunis

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this project was to determine the consequences of the large-scale introduction of wood-based biofuels in the road transport sector. Therefore a model has been developed to project the de-mand for wood in Sweden in the period from 2007 to 2050.

  4. Fertility and early-life mortality: Evidence from smallpox vaccination in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ager, Philipp; Hansen, Casper Worm; Jensen, Peter Sandholt

    2018-01-01

    The smallpox vaccination method was the paramount medical innovation of the late 18th and early 19th centuries. We exploit the introduction of the smallpox vaccine in Sweden to identify the causal effect of early-life mortality on fertility. Our analysis shows that parishes in counties with higher...

  5. 76 FR 3159 - Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised schedule for the subject reviews. DATES: Effective Date: January 7, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  6. 76 FR 27663 - Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland, Mexico, Netherlands and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Investigation Nos. 731-TA-1084-1087 (Review) Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland, Mexico, Netherlands and Sweden Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five-year reviews, the United States International...

  7. Democratic Purpose and Educational Leadership Policies in Sweden and in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Elizabeth; Törnsén, Monika

    2015-01-01

    In this study we analyze the extent to which policy documents that include standards and expectations for the preparation of school principals (i.e., head teachers) influence democratic practices. This comparative research examines educational policies that influence the work of principals both in Sweden and in the U.S., the state of Texas asking:…

  8. Social Capital and the Educational Achievement of Young People in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behtoui, Alireza; Neergaard, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Based on Bourdieu's conceptualization of social capital (the social stratification perspective), this study examines the impact of social capital on the educational outcomes of young people in Sweden, with a focus on the extra-familial aspect of social capital -- that is, social capital generated by parental networks and active membership in…

  9. Understanding Challenges of Using ICT in Secondary Schools in Sweden from Teachers' Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekberg, Siri; Gao, Shang

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the challenges of using ICT in secondary schools in Sweden from teachers' perspectives. Design/methodology/approach: The research followed a qualitative research approach. First, a conceptual framework was developed based on previous research. Then, four teachers, teaching in six different…

  10. Report on Third International Intensive Aftercare Conference in Norrköping, Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Christina; Bäckman, Carl; Egerod, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    The third international conference on intensive care unit (ICU) diaries and intensive aftercare took place in Norrköping, Sweden, on 28 November 2013. The conference was organized by Carl Bäckman and colleagues, Vrinnevi Hospital and NOFI, and represented by Sissell Storli. More than 100 clinicians...

  11. Radiation doses in Sweden as a result of the Chernobyl fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-04-01

    The dose to people living in Sweden originates mainly from external radiation from the ground and from internal radiation from radioactive materials accumulated in the body via foodstuff. In addition there are an inhalation dose and a dose from the radioactive cloud. The collective dose in nSv for the 1st year and for 50 years is evaluated. (orig./HP)

  12. The Preparation of School Psychologists and Specialists in Educational Psychology in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schad, Elinor

    2014-01-01

    School psychologists have a new and stronger position in Sweden's educational system than earlier. For example, as of July 2011, all Swedish students ages 6 through 18 have guaranteed access to school psychology services. The school psychologists' roles are to be active participants and coworkers in the student health service team, working to…

  13. Does neighborhood income mix affect earnings of adults? New evidence from Sweden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galster, G.; Andersson, R.; Musterd, S.; Kauppinen, T.M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper contributes to the literature on obtaining unbiased estimates of neighborhood effects, explored in the context of a centralized social welfare state. We employ a longitudinal database comprised of all working age adults in metropolitan Sweden 1991-1999 to investigate the degree to which

  14. A Quest for Legitimacy: On the Professionalization Policies of Sweden's Teachers' Unions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilja, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to contribute to the ongoing discussion on teacher professionalism by analyzing the professional strategies of Sweden's two teachers' unions from an organizational perspective. Drawing on institutional theory, the article argues that the teachers' unions' focus on strategies of professionalization has as much to do with…

  15. New Mothers' Employment and Public Policy in the UK, Germany, The Netherlands, Sweden, and Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kenjoh, E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the link between family-friendly policies and women's employment after birth of the first child in the UK, Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden, and Japan in the 1980s and the 1990s. Our econometric analyses use household panel data from each of the five countries: BHPS, GSOEP,

  16. Clinical Physiology: A Successful Academic and Clinical Discipline is Threatened in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arheden, Hakan

    2009-01-01

    Clinical physiologists in Sweden are physicians (the majority with a PhD degree) with thorough training in system physiology and pathophysiology. They investigate patients in a functional approach and are engaged in basic and applied physiology teaching and research. In 1954, clinical physiology was founded as an independent academic and clinical…

  17. Causes of Educational Segregation in Sweden--School Choice or Residential Segregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang Hansen, Kajsa; Gustafsson, Jan-Eric

    2016-01-01

    The aims of the study were to examine changes in school segregation across different types of municipalities between 1998 and 2011 in Sweden, and to explore the extent to which these changes are the consequences of school choice. Multilevel models were applied to register data using a counterfactual approach. The results showed that school…

  18. ICT and Intellectual Disability: A Survey of Organizational Support at the Municipal Level in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsten, Camilla; Marmstål Hammar, Lena; Martin, Lene; Göransson, Kerstin

    2017-01-01

    Background: Young adults today have grown up in a society where information and communication technology (ICT) support empowerment and social participation. Young adults with mild-to-moderate intellectual disability are at risk for marginalization by the digital divide. The aim was to map and describe how municipal organizations in Sweden organize…

  19. Gender Inequalities and Higher Music Education: Comparing the UK and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boise, Sam

    2018-01-01

    Whilst the impact of gender inequalities has been studied in relation to music education, especially in the UK, relatively little has been written about their impact on higher music education (HME). This article compares data on HME programs and courses, in the UK and Sweden, from 2010 to 2014. It looks at similarities and differences in the…

  20. Ethnic Environment during Childhood and the Educational Attainment of Immigrant Children in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bygren, Magnus; Szulkin, Ryszard

    2010-01-01

    We ask whether ethnic residential segregation influences the future educational careers of children of immigrants in Sweden. We use a dataset comprising a cohort of children who finished compulsory school in 1995 (n = 6,560). We follow these children retrospectively to 1990 to measure neighborhood characteristics during late childhood, and…

  1. Music Teacher Educators' Visions of Music Teacher Preparation in Finland, Norway and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorgersen, Cecilia Ferm; Johansen, Geir; Juntunen, Marja-Leena

    2016-01-01

    In this study we investigated the visions of 12 music teacher educators who teach pedagogical courses called instrumental pedagogy and classroom music pedagogy in three music academies in Finland, Norway and Sweden. The data were collected through individual, semi-structured qualitative interviews. Drawing on Hammerness' concept of "teachers'…

  2. Aleutian Mink Disease Virus in Free-Ranging Mink from Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Sara; Jensen, Trine Hammer; Blomstrom, Anne-Lie

    2015-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease (AMD) is a chronic viral disease in farmed mink and the virus (AMDV) has been found in many free-ranging mink (Neovison vison) populations in Europe and North America. In this study, AMDV DNA and AMDV antibodies were analysed in 144 free-ranging mink hunted in Sweden. Associ...

  3. Women’s work interruptions and career prospects in Germany and Sweden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evertsson, M.; Grunow, D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to focus on two welfare state regimes with differing degrees of de-familialisation strategies, Germany and Sweden, to study whether and how women's career interruptions influence their labour market prospects. By comparing women with continuous careers to those

  4. "Gender Utopias?": U.S. Student Reflections on Studying Abroad in Norway and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordmeyer, Kristjane; Teig, Trisha; Bedera, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    This article describes a study abroad experience in Norway and Sweden that was designed to explore gender equality in two of the world's most gender-progressive countries. Course readings explored the work of feminist sociologists and asked students to think critically about gender equality from a cross-cultural perspective. Students met with…

  5. Mother Tongue Tuition in Sweden--Curriculum Analysis and Classroom Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reath Warren, Anne

    2013-01-01

    The model of Mother Tongue Tuition (MTT) which has developed in Sweden since the 1970's offers speakers of languages other than Swedish the opportunity to request tuition in their mother tongue, from kindergarten through to year 12. It is unique among the major immigrant-receiving countries of the world yet little is known about MTT and its…

  6. Beyond Self-Rated Health: The Adolescent Girl's Lived Experience of Health in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Margaretha; Sundler, Annelie Johansson; Ekebergh, Margaretha

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this phenomenological study was to describe the phenomenon of health as experienced by adolescent girls in Sweden. Fifteen adolescent girls were interviewed with a focus on what made them feel well in their everyday life. This study reveals that the adolescent girl's health is a complex phenomenon interwoven with their lives. Health…

  7. Report on the individual review of the annual submission of Sweden submitted in 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goodwin, Mr. Justin; Gytarsky, Mr. Michael; Merkeliene, Ms. Jolanta

    This report covers the review of the 2014 annual submission of Sweden, coordinated by the UNFCCC secretariat, in accordance with the “Guidelines for review under Article 8 of the Kyoto Protocol” (decision 22/CMP.1) (hereinafter referred to as the Article 8 review guidelines). The review took plac...

  8. Resources for Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Students in Mainstream Schools in Sweden. A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmström, Ingela; Schönström, Krister

    2017-01-01

    Although once placed solely in deaf schools, a growing number of deaf students in Sweden are now enrolling in mainstream schools. In order to maintain a functional educational environment for these students, municipalities are required to provide a variety of supporting resources, e.g. technological equipment and specialized personnel. However,…

  9. Integrating climate change adaptation into civil protection: comparative lessons from Norway, Sweden and the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groven, K.; Aall, C.; van den Berg, Maya Marieke; Carlsson-Kanyama, A.; Coenen, Franciscus H.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Integrating policy on climate change adaptation into civil protection is explored through studies of extreme weather management at the national level in Norway, Sweden and the Netherlands, and through local case studies of the three coastal cities of Bergen, Malmö and Rotterdam. The research issues

  10. Teacher Change and Development during Training in Social and Emotional Learning Programs in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimber, Birgitta; Skoog, Therése; Sandell, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the results from a thematic analysis of the process diaries of teachers involved in teacher training in social and emotional learning (SEL) in Sweden. Twenty-nine out of the 122 diaries available were analyzed until saturation was reached. The following themes and sub-themes were extracted: development (professional and…

  11. First report of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' associated with psyllid-affected carrots in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrot (Daucus carota) plants with symptoms resembling those of the carrot psyllid Trioza apicalis and “Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum” damage were observed in 70% of commercial fields in southern Sweden in August 2011; all cultivars grown were affected, at about 1 to 45% symptomatic plants pe...

  12. Electroconvulsive Therapy in Sweden 2013: Data From the National Quality Register for ECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordanskog, Pia; Hultén, Martin; Landén, Mikael; Lundberg, Johan; von Knorring, Lars; Nordenskjöld, Axel

    2015-12-01

    The use of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) varies across countries. The aim of this study was to describe and explore the use of ECT in Sweden in 2013. The Swedish mandatory patient register of the National Board of Health and Welfare includes information on diagnoses and treatments, including ECT. All 56 hospitals that provide ECT in Sweden also report to the nonmandatory national quality register for ECT, which contains information on patient and treatment characteristics. In this study, we combined data from both registers. In addition, all hospitals responded to a survey concerning equipment and organization of ECT. We identified 3972 unique patients who received ECT in Sweden in 2013. This translates into 41 ECT-treated individuals per 100,000 inhabitants. Of these patients, 85% opted to participate in the quality register. The median age was 55 years (range, 15-94 years), and 63% were women. The indication was depression in 78% of the treatment series. Of 4 711 hospitalized patients with severe depression, 38% received ECT. The median number of treatments per index series was 7. Unilateral treatment was used in 86% of the series. In Sweden, ECT is used at a relatively high rate as compared with other western countries, and the rate was unchanged from the last survey in 1975. However, there is room for improvement in the specificity of use and availability of ECT for disorders where ECT is considered a first-line treatment.

  13. Perioperative and Anesthesia Guidelines for Children with Autism: A Nationwide Survey from Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimbler Berglund, Ingalill; Huus, Karina; Enskär, Karin; Faresjö, Maria; Björkman, Berit

    2016-01-01

    The overall aim of this study was to describe the current set of guidelines for the preparation and care for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the perioperative setting across Sweden and explore the content of these guidelines in detail. An online questionnaire was distributed to the chairpersons of all anesthesia departments (n = 68) and pediatric departments (n = 38) throughout Sweden. Follow-up phone calls were made to those departments that did not return the questionnaire. The presence of guidelines was analyzed through descriptive statistics. These guidelines and comments on routines used in these departments were analyzed inspired by conventional content analysis. Seven of the 68 anesthesia departments and none of the 38 pediatric departments across Sweden have guidelines for preparing and/or administering care to children with ASD within the perioperative setting. From the guidelines and routines used, 3 categories emerge: "lacking the necessary conditions," "no extra considerations needed," and "care with specific consideration for children with ASD." These 3 categories span a continuum in the care. In the first category, the anesthesia induction could result in the child with ASD being physically restrained. In the last category, the entire encounter with the health care service would be adapted to the specific needs of the child. There is a lack of evidence-based guidelines specifically designed to meet the needs of children with ASD in the preoperative period in Sweden. Further research is needed to understand if children with ASD would benefit from evidence-based guidelines.

  14. Vocational Didactics: Core Assumptions and Approaches from Denmark, Germany, Norway, Spain and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessler, Michael; Moreno Herrera, Lázaro

    2015-01-01

    The design of vocational didactics has to meet special requirements. Six core assumptions are identified: outcome orientation, cultural-historical embedding, horizontal structure, vertical structure, temporal structure, and the changing nature of work. Different approaches and discussions from school-based systems (Spain and Sweden) and dual…

  15. Diabetes Prevalence in Sweden at Present and Projections for Year 2050.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Tomas; Ahlbom, Anders; Carlsson, Sofia

    2015-01-01

    Data on the future diabetes burden in Scandinavia is limited. Our aim was to project the future burden of diabetes in Sweden by modelling data on incidence, prevalence, mortality, and demographic factors. To project the future burden of diabetes we used information on the prevalence of diabetes from the national drug prescription registry (adults ≥ 20 years), previously published data on relative mortality in people with diabetes, and population demographics and projections from Statistics Sweden. Alternative scenarios were created based on different assumptions regarding the future incidence of diabetes. Between 2007 and 2013 the prevalence of diabetes rose from 5.8 to 6.8% in Sweden but incidence remained constant at 4.4 per 1000 (2013). With constant incidence and continued improvement in relative survival, prevalence will increase to 10.4% by year 2050 and the number of afflicted individuals will increase to 940 000. Of this rise, 30% is accounted for by changes in the age structure of the population and 14% by improved relative survival in people with diabetes. A hypothesized 1% annual rise in incidence will result in a prevalence of 12.6% and 1 136 000 cases. Even with decreasing incidence at 1% per year, prevalence of diabetes will continue to increase. We can expect diabetes prevalence to rise substantially in Sweden over the next 35 years as a result of demographic changes and improved survival among people with diabetes. A dramatic reduction in incidence is required to prevent this development.

  16. First report of dollar spot disease, caused by Sclerotinia homoeocarpa, of Agrostis stolonifera in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollar spot is a destructive and widespread disease affecting most grass species grown as turf, but until recently it has been absent from the Scandinavian countries of northern Europe. In the fall of 2014, disease symptoms consistent with dollar spot were observed on a golf course fairway in Sweden...

  17. "We Are Like Orphans": Exploring Narratives of Lao Doctoral Alumni Educated in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silfver, Ann-Louise; Berge, Britt-Marie

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we explore the narratives of 10 doctoral alumni from Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR) who underwent graduate training in Sweden. The narratives identify challenges encountered by the alumni but more importantly reveal the agency by which these challenges were overcome. The most important strategy was that of collaborative…

  18. Uptake of Active Surveillance for Very-Low-Risk Prostate Cancer in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Stacy; Folkvaljon, Yasin; Curnyn, Caitlin; Robinson, David; Bratt, Ola; Stattin, Pär

    2017-10-01

    Active surveillance is an important option to reduce prostate cancer overtreatment, but it remains underutilized in many countries. Models from the United States show that greater use of active surveillance is important for prostate cancer screening to be cost-effective. To perform an up-to-date, nationwide, population-based study on use of active surveillance for localized prostate cancer in Sweden. Cross-sectional study in the National Prostate Cancer Register (NPCR) of Sweden from 2009 through 2014. The NPCR has data on 98% of prostate cancers diagnosed in Sweden and has comprehensive linkages to other nationwide databases. Overall, 32 518 men with a median age of 67 years were diagnosed with favorable-risk prostate cancer, including 4693, 15 403, and 17 115 men with very-low-risk (subset of the low-risk group) (clinical stage, T1c; Gleason score, ≤6; prostate-specific antigen [PSA], Sweden, with the highest rates yet reported and almost complete uptake for very-low-risk cancer. These data should serve as a benchmark to compare the use of active surveillance for favorable-risk disease around the world.

  19. Development of Plurilingual Competencies through Vocationally Oriented Language Learning in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movchan, Larysa

    2014-01-01

    The article tackles the problem of developing plurilingual competencies through vocationally oriented foreign language in Sweden. The author analyses the pedagogical conditions of realization of plurilingual education at upper-secondary schools, vocational and higher education establishments and the aspects of teacher education for this purpose.…

  20. Infections with Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis and Cytokine Responses in 2 Persons Bitten by Ticks, Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grankvist, Anna; Sandelin, Lisa Labbé; Andersson, Jennie; Fryland, Linda; Wilhelmsson, Peter; Lindgren, Per-Eric; Forsberg, Pia

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis infection was determined in 102 persons bitten by ticks in Sweden. Two infected women had erythematous rashes; 1 was co-infected with a Borrelia sp., and the other showed seroconversion for Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Both patients had increased levels of Neoehrlichia DNA and serum cytokines for several months. PMID:26197035

  1. Investment in Second-Chance Education for Adults and Income Development in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordlund, Madelene; Stehlik, Tom; Strandh, Mattias

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the relation between the second chance of increase in formal education amongst low-educated adults in Sweden and long-term wage development. Despite the awareness of the role of education for employability and individuals' overall life chances, surprisingly few studies have investigated the wage effects of Second-Chance…

  2. KAMEDO Report No. 76: Floods in Poland in 1997 and in Sweden in 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahren, Håkans; Ridez, Louis; Riddez, Louis; Dellgar, Uno

    2005-01-01

    Extensive flooding occurred in Poland in 1997 and in Sweden in 2000. These events and their management are reviewed in this Report. The floods in Poland were more extensive than in Sweden as they covered some 10% of Poland's landmass. An estimated 55 persons died as a direct result of the floods in Poland and none were reported due to the flood in Sweden. No epidemics were encountered in either country, presumably related to the extensive use of bottled water and radio instructions to boil all water before its use. The water supply was interrupted and untreated water was taken into the water distribution systems. Chlorination of the water supplies was added in Sweden. Sewage and refuse management was problematic. The heathcare system was impacted profoundly in Poland both by direct damage to hospitals and/or loss of essential services such as electricity and water supplies. Government responses are described with the needs in Poland being extensive including the need for outside assistance. Some pathways used for obtaining aid were outside of government coordination. Comprehensive conclusions and recommendations derived from the observations are provided.

  3. Pricing and reimbursement of pharmaceuticals in the Czech Republic and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidova, Jana; Praznovcova, Lenka; Lundborg, Cecilia Stålsby

    2008-01-01

    To describe and compare price regulation and reimbursement in the Czech Republic and Sweden. Legal documents, government reports, statutory information, annual reports and scientific articles were searched using the keywords: pharmaceutical market regulation, drug policy, drug pricing, drug reimbursement and patients' participation in costs concerning both countries. Approaches to regulation and regulatory steps concerning prices were compared between the countries. (i) Institutional responsibilities in pricing and reimbursement of pharmaceuticals; (ii) principles of patients' participation in costs on pharmaceuticals. Substantial differences were found in terms of pricing. In the Czech Republic, the Ministry of Finance sets maximal prices for pharmaceuticals whereas in Sweden there is a process of price regulation combined with reimbursement decisions taken by the Pharmaceutical Benefits Board. Together with a system of state-owned pharmacies, this ensures that drug prices in Sweden are fixed at the same level throughout the country. In the Czech Republic, prices may differ, since only maximal price levels are set. In both countries, decisions about reimbursement are taken at the national or state level whereas insurance funds or county councils are responsible for covering costs. The private share of pharmaceutical expenditures is substantially lower in the Czech Republic, even though there is no maximal level for patient's co-payment, as there is in Sweden. Differences in price setting and some other regulations of the pharmaceutical market were found. Both systems are designed to promote rational use of pharmaceuticals; and are based on social solidarity.

  4. Mathematics in VET Programmes: The Tensions Associated with Reforms in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Lisbeth; Grevholm, Barbro

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, a new curriculum and set of school organisational structures were introduced in Sweden. One consequence is a much stronger separation of the theoretical and vocational programmes in the upper secondary school. The paper explores the nature of the changes that have occurred particularly in relation to mathematics studies, the background…

  5. Learning from Wind Energy Policy in the EU: Lessons from Denmark, Sweden and Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I

    2007-01-01

    In order to deduce the most efficient policies for promoting wind power, this paper compares the different national energy policies adopted by Denmark, Sweden and Spain, and relates them to wind energy outcomes. The analysis demonstrates the importance of long-range national energy policies...

  6. Young Children as Language Policy-Makers: Studies of Interaction in Preschools in Finland and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Sally; Huss, Leena

    2017-01-01

    This special issue has as its focus the agency of young children in relation to language policy and practice in bi- and multilingual preschools in Finland and Sweden. Studies of language policy in practice in early childhood education and care (ECEC) in these two countries can be particularly relevant even to those in other contexts, because they…

  7. Alcohol Consumption and Harm among Adolescents in Sweden: Is Smuggled Alcohol More Harmful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Johan

    2012-01-01

    As a consequence of Sweden joining the European Union, privately imported alcohol is increasingly sold within illegal contexts (i.e., smuggled alcohol). One implication of the smuggled alcohol is that alcohol becomes more available to underage drinkers. In the Swedish debate, smuggled alcohol has been formulated as a youth problem. The aim of this…

  8. An Inevitable Progress? Educational Restructuring in Finland, Iceland, and Sweden at the Turn of the Millennium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannesson, Ingolfur Asgeir; Lindblad, Sverker; Simola, Hannu

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how current changes in the system of reasoning about education in Finland, Iceland, and Sweden are characterized by culturally woven patterns in high marketization strategies are introduced as technically effective devices both for educating the best and to increase inclusion. The system of reason presupposes that the neo-liberalist…

  9. Climate Benefits of Material Recycling: Inventory of Average Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Denmark, Norway and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillman, Karl; Damgaard, Anders; Eriksson, Ola

    . The results can be used by companies and industry associations in Denmark, Norway and Sweden to communicate the current climate benefits of material recycling in general. They may also contribute to discussions on a societal level, as long as their average and historic nature is recognised....

  10. Understanding parental gender preferences in advanced societies: Lessons from Sweden and Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Vikat

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Extending recent research on parental gender preferences in the Nordic countries, this study uses unique register data from Finland and Sweden (1971-1999 that provide us with the opportunity to compare childbearing dynamics and possible underlying sex preferences among natives and national minorities, namely Finnish-born immigrants in Sweden and members of the Swedish-speaking minority in Finland. Moreover, our Swedish data allow us to investigate regional and educational differences in child-sex specific fertility behavior of two-child mothers in 1981-1999. For Finland, we observe a continuous boy preference among the national majority and the Swedish-speaking minority as reflected in higher third-birth rates of mothers of two girls than of mothers of two boys. Evidence of similar preferences is found for Finnish-born migrants in Sweden, where the native-born population appears to have developed a girl preference, though. In all cases, we also observe clear indications of a preference for having at least one child of each sex. Generally speaking, our findings support an interpretation of parental gender preferences as a longstanding cultural phenomenon, related to country of childhood socialization rather than language group. Our analysis of regional and educational differentials in Sweden reveals no evidence which supports diffusion theories of persistence and change in parents' sex preferences for children.

  11. Experience with short notice (SNRI) and unannounced (UI) inspections in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andre, E.; Dahlin, G.

    2013-01-01

    Integrated Safeguards (IS) has been implemented in Sweden since 15 January, 2009. This presentation will describe some of the preparations that were done to facilitate the change to new safeguards. For Sweden, the IAEA drew the necessary conclusions late 2008 to start IS-implementation. There is a mixture of short notice random inspections and unannounced inspections. During 2008 discussions with the IAEA, the Commission, the State authority and operators were performed to pave the road towards IS. The most difficult task was the LEU (Low Enrichment Uranium Fuel) fuel fabrication plant but also for the state authority to arrange so that its inspectors can, with very short notice, get to the facilities. This presentation will describe how we in Sweden have come to organise the implementation of IS on all levels including the communication ways with the IAEA and the European Commission. The experience gained from the SNRIs (Short Notice Reported Inspections) and UIs (Unannounced inspections) that have been conducted in Sweden will be presented. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation. (authors)

  12. Cost-effectiveness Analysis of Rivaroxaban in the Secondary Prevention of Acute Coronary Syndromes in Sweden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Begum, N.; Stephens, S.; Schoeman, O.; Fraschke, A.; Kirsch, B.; Briere, J.B.; Verheugt, F.W.A.; Hout, B.A. van

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Worldwide, coronary heart disease accounts for 7 million deaths each year. In Sweden, acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a leading cause of hospitalization and is responsible for 1 in 4 deaths. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this analysis was to assess the cost-effectiveness of rivaroxaban 2.5 mg

  13. Struggling for Integration: Universalist and Separatist Discourses within El Sistema Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Åsa; Lindgren, Monica; Saether, Eva

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the El Sistema programme, which started up in Sweden in 2010 with the objective to deal with segregation problems typical for Swedish urban areas. The purpose of the article is to examine how promoting integration through music and music education is constructed within El Sistema as a way to help children growing up in…

  14. Love, marriage, then the baby carriage? Marriage timing and childbearing in Sweden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holland, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Some scholars claim that marriage is an outmoded institution, decoupled from the childbearing process in Sweden. However, it is likely that the presence of children is still linked to marriage, since most children born to cohabiting couples experience the marriage of their parents. The

  15. Effect of smokeless tobacco (snus) on smoking and public health in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulds, J; Ramstrom, L; Burke, M; Fagerström, K

    2003-12-01

    To review the evidence on the effects of moist smokeless tobacco (snus) on smoking and ill health in Sweden. Narrative review of published papers and other data sources (for example, conference abstracts and internet based information) on snus use, use of other tobacco products, and changes in health status in Sweden. Snus is manufactured and stored in a manner that causes it to deliver lower concentrations of some harmful chemicals than other tobacco products, although it can deliver high doses of nicotine. It is dependence forming, but does not appear to cause cancer or respiratory diseases. It may cause a slight increase in cardiovascular risks and is likely to be harmful to the unborn fetus, although these risks are lower than those caused by smoking. There has been a larger drop in male daily smoking (from 40% in 1976 to 15% in 2002) than female daily smoking (34% in 1976 to 20% in 2002) in Sweden, with a substantial proportion (around 30%) of male ex-smokers using snus when quitting smoking. Over the same time period, rates of lung cancer and myocardial infarction have dropped significantly faster among Swedish men than women and remain at low levels as compared with other developed countries with a long history of tobacco use. Snus availability in Sweden appears to have contributed to the unusually low rates of smoking among Swedish men by helping them transfer to a notably less harmful form of nicotine dependence.

  16. Late-Holocene human impact and climate change near Umea, Sweden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, M.; Barke, J.; van Geel, B.

    2005-01-01

    In 2003, peat cores were sampled from sites positioned on a north-south transect through Sweden and northern Germany. Only bogs with a similar species composition were selected. The aim of our research is to compare the changes in regional and local species composition with carbon accumulation over

  17. General practitioners' experiences with sickness certification: a comparison of survey data from Sweden and Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In most countries with sickness insurance systems, general practitioners (GPs) play a key role in the sickness-absence process. Previous studies have indicated that GPs experience several tasks and situations related to sickness certification consultations as problematic. The fact that the organization of primary health care and social insurance systems differ between countries may influence both GPs' experiences and certification. The aim of the present study was to gain more knowledge of GPs' experiences of sickness certification, by comparing data from Sweden and Norway, regarding frequencies and aspects of sickness certification found to be problematic. Methods Statistical analyses of cross-sectional survey data of sickness certification by GPs in Sweden and Norway. In Sweden, all GPs were included, with 3949 (60.6%) responding. In Norway, a representative sample of GPs was included, with 221 (66.5%) responding. Results Most GPs reported having consultations involving sickness certification at least once a week; 95% of the GPs in Sweden and 99% of the GPs in Norway. A majority found such tasks problematic; 60% of the GPs in Sweden and 53% in Norway. In a logistic regression, having a higher frequency of sickness certification consultations was associated with a higher risk of experiencing them as problematic, in both countries. A higher rate of GPs in Sweden than in Norway reported meeting patients wanting a sickness certification without a medical reason. GPs in Sweden found it more problematic to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of sick leave with patients and to issue a prolongation of a sick-leave period initiated by another physician. GPs in Norway more often worried that patients would go to another physician if they did not issue a certificate, and a higher proportion of Norwegian GPs found it problematic to handle situations where they and their patient disagreed on the need for sick leave. Conclusions The study confirms that many GPs

  18. Cost-effectiveness of licensed treatment options for restless legs syndrome in the UK and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, M; Roberts, G; Tabberer, M; DasGupta, R; Finnern, H W

    2008-10-01

    To estimate the cost-effectiveness of pramipexole versus no treatment and ropinirole in moderate to very severe idiopathic restless legs syndrome (RLS) in the UK and Sweden. A Markov model was developed using clinical trial data for pramipexole and ropinirole. Model health states were based on the International RLS Study Group Rating Scale (IRLS) scores. Health states were: no (IRLS 0), mild (IRLS 1-14), moderate (IRLS 15-24), severe (IRLS 25-34), very severe RLS (IRLS 35-40) and death. Patients entered the model with an IRLS score > 15 matching the trial inclusion criteria of the pramipexole trials. Resource use and utilities were based on trial data, literature, a patient survey and a panel of physicians from the UK and Sweden in the absence of published information. A healthcare sector perspective was taken for the UK and a societal perspective for Sweden using 2004-2005 unit costs. The base case analysis took a 1-year timeframe. In the UK the incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) for pramipexole was 3349 pounds sterling versus no treatment and a cost-saving of 92 pounds sterling against ropinirole. In Sweden, pramipexole produced cost-savings of Swedish Krona (SEK) 2381 (176 pounds sterling) versus no treatment and SEK 3564 (264 pounds sterling) against ropinirole. QALY gains in both countries were 0.095 versus no treatment and 0.007 versus ropinirole. Results compare well with UK cost-effectiveness thresholds of 20,000 pounds sterling/30,000 pounds sterling per QALY and are cost-saving for Sweden. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses showed results to be robust. Pramipexole is cost-effective compared to no treatment and ropinirole for patients with moderate to very severe RLS.

  19. First identification of Echinococcus multilocularis in rodent intermediate hosts in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea L. Miller

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Echinococcus multilocularis is a zoonotic tapeworm with a sylvatic lifecycle and an expanding range in Europe. Monitoring efforts following its first identification in 2011 in Sweden have focused on the parasite's definitive host, the red fox (Vulpes vulpes. However, identifying rodent intermediate hosts is important to recognize opportunities for parasite transmission. During 2013–2015, livers from a total of 1566 rodents from four regions in Sweden were examined for E. multilocularis metacestode lesions. Species identity of suspect parasite lesions was confirmed by PCR and sequencing. E. multilocularis positive lesions >6 mm in diameter were also examined histologically. One Microtus agrestis out of 187 (0.5%, 95%CI: 0–2.9%, 8/439 (1.8%, 95%CI: 0.8–3.6% Arvicola amphibius, 0/655 (0%, 95%CI: 0–0.6% Myodes glareolus, and 0/285 (0%, 95%CI: 0–1.3% Apodemus spp. contained E. multilocularis metacestode lesions. Presence of protoscoleces was confirmed in the infected M. agrestis and in three of eight infected A. amphibius. Six of the nine positive rodents were captured from the same field. This is the first report of E. multilocularis in intermediate hosts in Sweden. The cluster of positive rodents in one field shows that local parasite prevalence can be high in Sweden despite overall low national prevalence in foxes (<0.1%. The presence of protoscoleces in infected M. agrestis and A. amphibius indicate these species can serve as competent intermediate hosts in Sweden. However, their relative importance for E. multilocularis transmission in the Swedish environment is not yet possible to assess. In contrast, the negative findings in all M. glareolus and Apodemus spp. suggest that these species are of no importance.

  20. Estimating the budget impact of orphan drugs in Sweden and France 2013-2020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchings, Adam; Schey, Carina; Dutton, Richard; Achana, Felix; Antonov, Karolina

    2014-02-13

    The growth in expenditure on orphan medicinal products (OMP) across Europe has been identified as a concern. Estimates of future expenditure in Europe have suggested that OMPs could account for a significant proportion of total pharmaceutical expenditure in some countries, but few of these forecasts have been well validated. This analysis aims to establish a robust forecast of the future budget impact of OMPs on the healthcare systems in Sweden and France. A dynamic forecasting model was created to estimate the budget impact of OMPs in Sweden and France between 2013 and 2020. The model used historical data on OMP designation and approval rates to predict the number of new OMPs coming to the market. Average OMP sales were estimated for each year post-launch by regression analysis of historical sales data. Total forecast sales were compared with expected sales of all pharmaceuticals in each country to quantify the relative budget impact. The model predicts that by 2020, 152 OMPs will have marketing authorization in Europe. The base case OMP budget impacts are forecast to grow from 2.7% in Sweden and 3.2% in France of total drug expenditure in 2013 to 4.1% in Sweden and 4.9% in France by 2020. The principal driver of expenditure growth is the number of new OMPs obtaining OMP designation. This is tempered by the slowing success rate for new approvals and the loss of intellectual property protection on existing orphan medicines. Given the forward-looking nature of the analysis, uncertainty exists around model parameters and sensitivity analysis found peak year budget impact varying between 2% and 11%. The budget impact of OMPs in Sweden and France is likely to remain sustainable over time and a relatively small proportion of total pharmaceutical expenditure. This forecast could be affected by changes in the success rate for OMP approvals, average cost of OMPs, and the type of companies developing OMPs.

  1. Estimating the budget impact of orphan drugs in Sweden and France 2013–2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The growth in expenditure on orphan medicinal products (OMP) across Europe has been identified as a concern. Estimates of future expenditure in Europe have suggested that OMPs could account for a significant proportion of total pharmaceutical expenditure in some countries, but few of these forecasts have been well validated. This analysis aims to establish a robust forecast of the future budget impact of OMPs on the healthcare systems in Sweden and France. Methods A dynamic forecasting model was created to estimate the budget impact of OMPs in Sweden and France between 2013 and 2020. The model used historical data on OMP designation and approval rates to predict the number of new OMPs coming to the market. Average OMP sales were estimated for each year post-launch by regression analysis of historical sales data. Total forecast sales were compared with expected sales of all pharmaceuticals in each country to quantify the relative budget impact. Results The model predicts that by 2020, 152 OMPs will have marketing authorization in Europe. The base case OMP budget impacts are forecast to grow from 2.7% in Sweden and 3.2% in France of total drug expenditure in 2013 to 4.1% in Sweden and 4.9% in France by 2020. The principal driver of expenditure growth is the number of new OMPs obtaining OMP designation. This is tempered by the slowing success rate for new approvals and the loss of intellectual property protection on existing orphan medicines. Given the forward-looking nature of the analysis, uncertainty exists around model parameters and sensitivity analysis found peak year budget impact varying between 2% and 11%. Conclusion The budget impact of OMPs in Sweden and France is likely to remain sustainable over time and a relatively small proportion of total pharmaceutical expenditure. This forecast could be affected by changes in the success rate for OMP approvals, average cost of OMPs, and the type of companies developing OMPs. PMID:24524281

  2. Finland, Sweden and Austria doubled the share of hydroelectric power in EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kangas, H.

    1996-01-01

    New EU countries Finland, Sweden and Austria increased the amount of hydroelectric power produced in EU in 1995 by more than 50 % compared to the year 1994. Especially Sweden and Austria are very dependent on hydroelectric power; the share of hydroelectric power is in Austria more than 70 % and even in Sweden it was nearly 50 %. The share of hydroelectric power in 1995 the EU region was 14 % of the total power demand. Due to the new EU countries the share of hydroelectric power of the total electric power demand, which would have decreased, increased by over 3 %. The increase of the electric power demand in Finland was lowest in the EU region, about 1.0 %, while it was in Greece 5.0 % and in Spain about 4.6 %. The share of nuclear power in the EU region was about 35 % in 1995. The most nuclear power dependent country in the EU was France there the share of nuclear power of the total electric power demand was 89 %. Both Finland and Sweden increased the production of back-pressure power generation in 1995. The share of back-pressure power generation in EU in 1995 was about 50 TWh which corresponds to some 1.5 % of the total electric power demand. About 50 % of the total electric power generation in EU was produced by condensing power generation. This production increased by 10 % compared to 1994. The netimport of electric power of EU increased by 80 % in Finland and Sweden, which are large importers of electric power outside the EU region

  3. The impact of daylight saving time on electricity consumption: Evidence from southern Norway and Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirza, Faisal Mehmood; Bergland, Olvar

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of daylight saving time (DST) on electricity consumption in southern Norway and Sweden. As DST was implemented in both the countries in 1980, we do not have a clear counterfactual in the form of a control period to identify the impact of DST directly with before and after or with and without analysis. This problem in the study is resolved by using 'equivalent day normalization technique' to identify the impact of DST. The difference-in-difference (DID) average treatment effects model suggests an annual reduction of at least 1.0 percent in electricity consumption for both Norway and Sweden due to DST. The average annual electricity consumption reduction corresponding to DST effects equals 519 and 882 GWh for southern Norway and Sweden, resulting in an annual financial saving of 16.1 million Euros and 30.1 million Euros, respectively. The distribution of treatment effects across different hours of the day indicates a small but significant reduction in electricity consumption during the morning and a steep decline during the evening hours in both countries. - Highlights: → We assess the impact of DST on electricity consumption in southern Norway and Sweden. → DST reduces electricity consumption by 1.3 percent in both countries. → The impact is smaller during the morning hours but larger during evening hours. → Respective annual financial savings equal Euro 16.1 and 30.1 million for Norway and Sweden. → Average annual electricity savings equal 519 and 882 GWh for two countries, respectively.

  4. Use of a generic protocol in documentation of prescription errors in Estonia, Norway and Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haavik S

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacists have an important role in detecting, preventing, and solving prescription problems, which if left unresolved, may pose a risk of harming the patient.Objective: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the feasibility of a generic study instrument for documentation of prescription problems requiring contact with prescriber before dispensing. The study was organized: 1 by countries: Estonia, Norway and Sweden; 2 by type of prescriptions: handwritten prescriptions, printouts of prescriptions in the electronic medical record and electronically transmitted prescriptions to pharmacies; and 3 by recording method - self-completion by pharmacists and independent observers.Methods: Observational study with independent observers at community pharmacies in Estonia (n=4 and Sweden (n=7 and self-completed protocols in Norway (n=9.Results: Pharmacists’ in Estonia contacted the prescriber for 1.47% of the prescriptions, about 3 times as often as in Norway (0.45% and Sweden (0.38%. Handwritten prescriptions dominated among the problem prescriptions in Estonia (73.2%, printouts of prescriptions in the electronic medical record (89.1% in Norway and electronically transmitted prescriptions to pharmacies (55.9% in Sweden.More administrative errors were identified on handwritten prescriptions and printouts of prescriptions in the electronic medical record in Estonia and in Norway compared with electronically transmitted prescriptions to pharmacies in Sweden (p<0.05 for prescription types and p<0.01 for countries. However, clinically important errors and delivery problems appeared equally often on the different types of prescriptions. In all three countries, only few cases of drug interactions and adverse drug reactions were identified.Conclusion: Despite the different patterns of prescription problems in three countries, the instrument was feasible and can be regarded appropriate to document and classify prescription problems necessitating contact

  5. Experiences of teenagers and young adults treated for cancer in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Maria; Jarfelt, Marianne; Pergert, Pernilla; Enskär, Karin

    2015-10-01

    Approximately 600 teenagers and young adults, TYAs (ages 15-29), are newly diagnosed with cancer in Sweden every year and treated in many different units. The knowledge about TYAs is limited and there might be a need for a new approach in the care for this particular age group. The purpose of this study was to identify requirements TYAs in Sweden acknowledge as important to them. 44 participants aged 15-29 who were treated at either pediatric or adult cancer units in Sweden, participated in focus group interviews. They were interviewed in groups based on whether they were treated in pediatric (14-18 years old) or adult units (18-29). The focus group interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results of the study can be summarized into four categories: personal professional interaction, knowledge and participation, age-appropriate environment, and support. Important TYA care needs vary over time due to individual situations. The time line of the cancer experience can be described as a continuum; at diagnosis, during treatment, and in life-after cancer treatment. TYAs treated in Sweden have special needs that are not being satisfied, whether at pediatric or adult units. Areas that need closer attention are: close relatives' participation in the care, information on sex and fertility, age-appropriate social physical environments during treatment, and psychosocial support after treatment. In Sweden, there is a demand for increased knowledge on the special needs for TYAs in clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Mosquito-borne Inkoo virus in northern Sweden - isolation and whole genome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lwande, Olivia Wesula; Bucht, Göran; Ahlm, Clas; Ahlm, Kristoffer; Näslund, Jonas; Evander, Magnus

    2017-03-23

    Inkoo virus (INKV) is a less known mosquito-borne virus belonging to Bunyaviridae, genus Orthobunyavirus, California serogroup. Studies indicate that INKV infection is mainly asymptomatic, but can cause mild encephalitis in humans. In northern Europe, the sero-prevalence against INKV is high, 41% in Sweden and 51% in Finland. Previously, INKV RNA has been detected in adult Aedes (Ae.) communis, Ae. hexodontus and Ae. punctor mosquitoes and Ae. communis larvae, but there are still gaps of knowledge regarding mosquito vectors and genetic diversity. Therefore, we aimed to determine the occurrence of INKV in its mosquito vector and characterize the isolates. About 125,000 mosquitoes were collected during a mosquito-borne virus surveillance in northern Sweden during the summer period of 2015. Of these, 10,000 mosquitoes were processed for virus isolation and detection using cell culture and RT-PCR. Virus isolates were further characterized by whole genome sequencing. Genetic typing of mosquito species was conducted by cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene amplification and sequencing (genetic barcoding). Several Ae. communis mosquitoes were found positive for INKV RNA and two isolates were obtained. The first complete sequences of the small (S), medium (M), and large (L) segments of INKV in Sweden were obtained. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the INKV genome was most closely related to other INKV isolates from Sweden and Finland. Of the three INKV genome segments, the INKV M segment had the highest frequency of non-synonymous mutations. The overall G/C-content of INKV genes was low for the N/NSs genes (43.8-45.5%), polyprotein (Gn/Gc/NSm) gene (35.6%) and the RNA polymerase gene (33.8%) This may be due to the fact that INKV in most instances utilized A or T in the third codon position. INKV is frequently circulating in northern Sweden and Ae. communis is the key vector. The high mutation rate of the INKV M segment may have consequences on virulence.

  7. Can Sweden be forced to manage nuclear waste from other countries?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergstroem, Ulf; Lindgren, Jonas; Nordfors, Lennart; Hallerby, Christer

    2005-06-01

    This report tries to answer two questions: Can Sweden, through supranational decisions, be forced to dispose of other nations nuclear waste within its own borders? and How can a Swedish stakeholder follow and influence EU-agendas, in particular concerning nuclear waste? Sometimes it has been argued that, through the EU-membership, Sweden could be forced to accept foreign radioactive waste for disposal in Sweden. However, the Swedish Nuclear Technology Act clearly states that license for final disposal spent nuclear fuels can not be given for fuel from another country than Sweden. At the Swedish EU entry it was found that the national legislation were compatible with the EU regulations, and as a consequence waste from foreign nuclear plants can not be disposed of in Sweden, even if the plant is owned by a Swedish company. Other conclusions in the report are: The system for decision making in EU is complex and slow and must be supported by supranational and international organs. The process is complex, but offers many opportunities for following-up and influencing. The risk for anything happening 'over-night' in the radioactive waste question is minimal. The issue of regulating radioactive waste management in a supranational way, i.e. by forcing a country to accept wastes from another country is not on the agenda. The Euratom treaty is interpreted in the way that such decision can not be made. The international discussions about regional repositories build upon voluntary agreements. Scenarios leading to coersive legislation are judged to be politically unrealistic - and needing important changes to be realised

  8. The application of state-level integration of safeguards in Sweden. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlin, G.; Haeggblom, E.; Larsson, Mats; Rehn, I.

    2000-12-01

    The role of Sweden in disarmament and non-proliferation efforts extends from the late 1940's to the present. It covers active support to place nuclear weapons under international control and participation in practically all control regimes aimed at non-proliferation and elimination of any mass destruction capability. Sweden has also made available highly competent and high-ranking officers to serve many of the institutions and organisations supporting the political work and operative functions in this field. Until 1968, Sweden had a double-track policy where both the nuclear weapons option and non-proliferation as a possibility were pursued and investigated. After 1968, non-proliferation became the established policy, and the nuclear programme, materials and activities have since served exclusively peaceful purposes. It appears possible that the IAEA could, after a short period of initial implementation, be in a position to draw conclusions on the absence of undeclared nuclear materials and activities in Sweden. Sweden has undertaken to ensure the transparency of its nuclear programme by providing all relevant information and by facilitating physical access, as necessary, and by addressing any questions and issues of concern in a direct and open-minded manner. The implementation of traditional safeguards should continue effectively, to enable the Agency to draw its conclusions on the absence of diversion of declared nuclear material in Sweden in the future. Using its reporting mechanisms, the Agency should share these conclusions with Member States so as to ensure that the objectives of the strengthened safeguards are met. Under these conditions, IAEA could and would decide to proceed with the implementation of integrated safeguard measures at the declared facilities and locations in Sweden. It is proposed that IAEA would participate in annual PIV's, but would, however, detach from routine verification work to the extent possible and make full use of the results of

  9. The risk of type 1 diabetes among offspring of immigrant mothers in relation to the duration of residency in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussen, Hozan Ismael; Moradi, Tahereh; Persson, Martina

    2015-05-01

    The risk for type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is increased in the second compared with the first generation of immigrants in Sweden. We investigated the effect of the mother's duration of stay in Sweden on the risk of T1DM in the offspring. Using data from national registries, we identified all subjects with T1DM among 984,798 children born in Sweden (aged 0-18 years) between 1992 and 2009. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) with 95% CI were estimated using Poisson regression. Offspring of mothers living in Sweden for up to 5 years had a 22% lower risk of T1DM (adjusted IRR 0.78, 95% CI 0.63-0.96) compared with offspring of mothers living in Sweden for 11 years or more. The risk increased with the mother's duration of stay in Sweden. Our findings support the hypothesis that immigration to Sweden is associated with exposure to new environmental factors that contribute to the development of T1DM in genetically susceptible individuals. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  10. Surface expression of intraplate postglacial faults in Sweden: from LiDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abduljabbar, Mawaheb; Ask, Maria; Bauer, Tobias; Lund, Björn; Smith, Colby; Mikko, Henrik; Munier, Raymond

    2016-04-01

    Large intraplate earthquakes, up to magnitude 8.0±0.3 (Lindblom et al. 2015) are inferred to have occurred in northern Fennoscandia at the end of, or just after the Weichselian deglaciation. More than a dozen large so-called postglacial faults (PGF) have been found in the region. The present-day microseismic activity is rather high in north Sweden, and there is a correlation between microseismicity and mapped PGF scarps: 71% of the observed earthquakes north of 66°N locate within 30 km to the southeast and 10 km to the northwest of PGFs (Lindblom et al., 2015). Surface expressions of PGFs in Sweden have mainly been mapped using aerial photogrammetry and trenching (e.g. Lagerbäck & Sundh 2008). Their detailed surface geometry may be investigated using the new high-resolution elevation model of Sweden (NNH) that has a vertical- and lateral resolution of 2 m and 0.25 m, respectively. With NNH data, known PGFs have been modified, and a number of new potential PGFs have been identified (Smith et al. 2014; Mikko et al. 2015). However, the detailed variation of their surface expression remains to be determined. Our main objective is to constrain the strike and surface offset (i.e., apparent vertical throw because of soil cover overlays the bedrock) across the PGF scarps. We anticipate using the results to constrain direction of fault motion and paleomagnitudes of PGFs, and in numerical analyzes to investigate the nature of PGFs. We have developed a methodology for analyzing PGF-geomorphology from LiDAR data using two main software platforms (Ask et al. 2015): (1) Move2015 by Midland Valley has been used for constructing 3D models of the surface traces of the PGFs to determine apparent vertical throw. The apparent hanging- and footwall cut off lines are digitized, and subsequent computation of coordinates is rather time efficient and provide continuous data of fault and soil geomorphology that can be statistically analyzed; and (2) ArcGIS 10.3 by Esri has mostly been

  11. The future of bioenergy in Sweden. Background and summary of outstanding issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berndes, G.

    2006-01-01

    This report is intended to give a background to discussions about the future of bioenergy in Sweden, to be used by the Swedish Energy Agency in the planning of future efforts in the biofuel supply chain. An overview of the present supply and use of biomass in Sweden is given, and trends and prospects for increased use of bioenergy in Sweden are assessed. Both sources of increased bioenergy demand and possibilities for increased domestic supply are treated. Biomass contributes about 110 TWh, or one fifth of the Swedish energy supply. Biomass is mainly used for energy within the forest industry, in district heating plants, in the residential sector and for electricity production. More than 50% of the heat comes from biomass today. Based on a number of studies it is concluded that there is a potential for a substantial increase in the Swedish biofuel use, by introduction of new forest management practices and a re-orientation of agriculture. Calculations indicate that there is scope for a substantial increase in bioenergy use in Sweden and that the Swedish bioenergy potential is large enough to accommodate such an increase. However, related to the aspirations in the EC biofuel directive and the hopes that Sweden by taking early steps could become a major supplier of liquid biofuels in EU, it is also shown that Sweden to a significant extent would need to rely on imported bioenergy (biomass feedstock at the magnitude 100 TWh) in order to supply a biofuels industry capable of providing for the domestic market and also exporting substantial volumes of liquid biofuels to Europe. The prospects for a large-scale import of biofuels are discussed based on an analysis of the potential global biomass production and use in forestry and agriculture. A number of issues of great importance for increased biomass use are discussed - competitive land uses, availability of water, international trade rules, and international politics. The report also discusses additional and new uses of

  12. The future of bioenergy in Sweden. Background and summary of outstanding issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berndes, G. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Energy and Environment; Magnusson, Leif [EnerGia Konsulterande Ingenjoerer AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-12-30

    This report is intended to give a background to discussions about the future of bioenergy in Sweden, to be used by the Swedish Energy Agency in the planning of future efforts in the biofuel supply chain. An overview of the present supply and use of biomass in Sweden is given, and trends and prospects for increased use of bioenergy in Sweden are assessed. Both sources of increased bioenergy demand and possibilities for increased domestic supply are treated. Biomass contributes about 110 TWh, or one fifth of the Swedish energy supply. Biomass is mainly used for energy within the forest industry, in district heating plants, in the residential sector and for electricity production. More than 50% of the heat comes from biomass today. Based on a number of studies it is concluded that there is a potential for a substantial increase in the Swedish biofuel use, by introduction of new forest management practices and a re-orientation of agriculture. Calculations indicate that there is scope for a substantial increase in bioenergy use in Sweden and that the Swedish bioenergy potential is large enough to accommodate such an increase. However, related to the aspirations in the EC biofuel directive and the hopes that Sweden by taking early steps could become a major supplier of liquid biofuels in EU, it is also shown that Sweden to a significant extent would need to rely on imported bioenergy (biomass feedstock at the magnitude 100 TWh) in order to supply a biofuels industry capable of providing for the domestic market and also exporting substantial volumes of liquid biofuels to Europe. The prospects for a large-scale import of biofuels are discussed based on an analysis of the potential global biomass production and use in forestry and agriculture. A number of issues of great importance for increased biomass use are discussed - competitive land uses, availability of water, international trade rules, and international politics. The report also discusses additional and new uses of

  13. An instructive comparison of Denmark and Sweden CO{sub 2} emissions; Les emissions de CO{sub 2} du Danemark et de la Suede - une comparaison instructive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffer, E.; Nifenecker, H

    2007-02-15

    Denmark and Sweden are close neighbors, they have pretty much the same Climate, so that it is interesting to try to understand what makes them so different in their per capita GHG (Green House Gas) emissions from fuel combustion. Indeed, the CO{sub 2} emissions of Denmark and Sweden are practically equal while the population of Sweden is much larger. Thus, the per capita CO{sub 2} emissions of Denmark are 63 % larger than those of Sweden. Denmark resorts heavily to fossil fuels for its production of both its electric power and its industrial heat whereas Sweden resorts to other primary energy sources which are either renewable or do not emit CO{sub 2}. True, Sweden is in a privileged situation for its access to hydro power and to biomass but Denmark could considerably reduce its CO{sub 2} emissions if it were to call on nuclear power as Sweden has been doing. (A.L.B.)

  14. The application of state-level integration of safeguards in Sweden. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlin, G.; Haeggblom, E.; Larsson, Mats; Rehn, I

    2000-12-01

    The role of Sweden in disarmament and non-proliferation efforts extends from the late 1940's to the present. It covers active support to place nuclear weapons under international control and participation in practically all control regimes aimed at non-proliferation and elimination of any mass destruction capability. Sweden has also made available highly competent and high-ranking officers to serve many of the institutions and organisations supporting the political work and operative functions in this field. Until 1968, Sweden had a double-track policy where both the nuclear weapons option and non-proliferation as a possibility were pursued and investigated. After 1968, non-proliferation became the established policy, and the nuclear programme, materials and activities have since served exclusively peaceful purposes. It appears possible that the IAEA could, after a short period of initial implementation, be in a position to draw conclusions on the absence of undeclared nuclear materials and activities in Sweden. Sweden has undertaken to ensure the transparency of its nuclear programme by providing all relevant information and by facilitating physical access, as necessary, and by addressing any questions and issues of concern in a direct and open-minded manner. The implementation of traditional safeguards should continue effectively, to enable the Agency to draw its conclusions on the absence of diversion of declared nuclear material in Sweden in the future. Using its reporting mechanisms, the Agency should share these conclusions with Member States so as to ensure that the objectives of the strengthened safeguards are met. Under these conditions, IAEA could and would decide to proceed with the implementation of integrated safeguard measures at the declared facilities and locations in Sweden. It is proposed that IAEA would participate in annual PIV's, but would, however, detach from routine verification work to the extent possible and make full use of the

  15. How can family policies reconcile fertility and women's employment? Comparisons between South Korea and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soomi; Duvander, Ann-Zofie; Zarit, Steven H

    2016-01-01

    South Korea has extremely low rates of fertility and labor force participation by women during their childbearing years, whereas Sweden has high rates for both. Variations in family policy models may explain differences in fertility and women's employment between the two countries. Drawing upon literature that examines the effects of family policies on fertility and women's employment, this paper compares childcare support for very young children and parental leave policies in South Korea and Sweden. Thereafter, we discuss the importance of providing stronger support for dual-earner rather than single-earner families to reconcile the two objectives of increasing fertility and women's workforce participation. Specifically, it is critical to: (a) enhance the quantity and quality of childcare services for very young children, (b) achieve gender equality in parental leave policies, and (c) reduce gaps in the accessibility and utilization of family benefits by working parents from different social classes.

  16. Nordic Cuisine, but National Identities: Nordic Cuisines and the Gastronationalist Projects of Denmark and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neuman, Nicklas; Leer, Jonatan

    2017-01-01

    This article is a cross-national comparison of how food is promoted on tourism websites offering information about Denmark and Sweden – two countries with big national projects targeting the promotion of culinary excellence, following the initiation of “New Nordic Cuisine” (NNC) in 2004. The aim...... is to study similarities and differences in the projects of these two countries, both quantitatively and qualitatively. 19 out of 32 (approx. 59%) Danish texts referred to a shared Nordic culinary identity, whereas this was only the case in five out 51 (approx. 10%) of the Swedish texts. Moreover......, the qualitative analysis also revealed that “Nordic” cuisine was almost interchangeably connected to Danish cuisine, while in Sweden NNC was more peripheral and culinary excellence was construed as specifically Swedish. We thus criticise the generally accepted idea that NNC is a post-national food movement...

  17. Depression and anxiety in the reindeer-herding Sami population of Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Niclas; Sjölander, Per; Liljegren, Annette Edin; Jacobsson, Lars; Renberg, Ellinor Salander

    2010-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate symptoms and predicting factors of depression and anxiety among reindeer-herding Sami in Sweden. A total of 319 reindeer-herding Sami (168 men, 151 women) were compared with urban and rural reference populations comprising 1,393 persons (662 men, 731 women). A cross-sectional questionnaire study on mental health, which included the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Data were analysed with regard to population, gender, age group, education and work-related stress. The Sami population disclosed higher mean values for both depression and anxiety than the reference groups, with Sami men reporting the highest rates. Work-related stress was associated with anxiety and depression in the Sami group. By comparing Sami men and women with reference groups of men and women living in urban and rural areas in northern Sweden, this study identified that reindeer-herding Sami men require special attention with regard to mental health problems.

  18. A suitable country: the relationship between Sweden's interwar population policy and family planning in postindependence India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Annika

    2010-09-01

    This article delineates a strong continuity, particularly in terms of personnel, between interwar domestic population policies and Sweden's postwar participation in international and transnational population-control programs. It argues that Swedish engagement in population control and family planning in the emerging Third World, and particularly in South Asia, was motivated by the conviction that poverty and underdevelopment must be attacked on several fronts simultaneously, with population control being one of the most important. In its first bilateral aid programs Sweden would prioritize the promotion of birth control primarily because it was still too controversial to be promoted multilaterally, not least for religious reasons; and because Swedish experts were regarded as especially liberal, rational, and secularized. Sterilization expertise played no decisive part in this continuity. When first establishing themselves in South Asia, Swedish experts would recommend the rhythm method and other contraceptive methods that depended on self-control.

  19. Technologies for production of Electricity and Heat in Sweden. Wind energy in perspective of international development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Niels-Erik; Lawaetz, Henrik; Lemming, Jørgen Kjærgaard

    with availability on mature markets somewhere around 99%. An important contributor to the growth of the European market for wind energy technology has been EU framework legislation combined with legislation at the national level. The binding target for renewable energy in Sweden is proposed to be 49% of the final...... energy consumption in 2020 compared to 39.8% in 2005. To stimulate the development of wind energy and to promote a specific national goals Sweden is mainly using an electricity certificate system. The target is to increase the production of electricity from renewable sources by 17 TWh in 2016, relative...... to corresponding production in 2002. There is not at specific target for the use of wind energy. A future energy system that includes a high proportion of wind energy will be expected to meet the same requirements for security of supply and economic efficiency as the energy systems of today. The variability...

  20. Radiation doses to the unborn child at diagnostic examinations in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmrot, E. [County Hospital Ryhov, Radiology Department, Joenkoeping (Sweden); Pettersson, H.; Sandborg, M.; Olsson, S.; Nilsson, J. [Linkoeping University, Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Radiation Physics (Sweden); Cederlund, T. [Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-06-01

    The use of ionising radiation in a medical examination of a woman caring a child is not always possible to avoid. The following situations can occur: (1) The pregnancy of the patient is known and the examination has to be performed due to medical reason, (2) The pregnancy of the patient is unknown at the time of examination. Methods to identify pregnant women at radiological departments in Sweden are already in use, but national rules and methods to calculate the individual dose to the unborn child for different examinations are less evaluated. There is a need of standards for the calculations, estimations and documentation of the radiation dose to the unborn child. According to directives from the European Commission, every X-ray examination has to be justified and optimised. The aim of this study is to determine the absorbed dose to the unborn child for common radiation diagnostic examinations used in Sweden and to find a standardised method for dose calculations. (orig.)

  1. Differences in sickness absence in Sweden and Denmark: the cross national HAKNAK study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Thomas; Christensen, Karl Bang; Vaez, Marjan

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate potential differences in sickness absence among public sector employees in Sweden and Denmark, and to what extent a difference was associated with age, gender, physical and psychosocial work environment exposures, lifestyle factors, self-rated health or work ability. METHODS......, lifestyle, psychosocial or physical work environment, musculoskeletal symptoms or self-rated health, whereas work ability score decreased the difference in sickness absence level. CONCLUSION: The results could indicate an increased retention of employees with health problems in the Swedish labour market......: In 2000, two cross-sectional samples of 8562 public sector employees in Sweden and Denmark were surveyed. The study outcome, self-reported number of sick-leave days the year preceding interview, was dichotomized into 7 days or less, and more than 7 days. Chi square test was used to analyse distribution...

  2. Evaluation of Strategies to Control a Potential Outbreak of Foot-and-Mouth Disease in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dórea, Fernanda C.; Nöremark, Maria; Widgren, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    strategies. The model was informed by the Swedish livestock structure using herd information from cattle, pig, and small ruminant holdings in the country. The contact structure was based on animal movement data and studies investigating the movements between farms of veterinarians, service trucks, and other...... of enforcement of interventions, was assessed. With the estimated currently available resources, an FMD outbreak in Sweden is expected to be controlled (i.e., last infected herd detected) within 3 weeks of detection in any evaluated scenario. The density of farms in the area where the epidemic started would have...... efficacy of the basic control measures evaluated, under the conditions of the Swedish livestock industry, and considering the assumed control resources available. The results indicate that the duration and extent of FMD outbreaks could be kept limited in Sweden using the EU standard control strategy...

  3. An approach to quality classification of deep groundwaters in Sweden and Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laaksoharju, M.; Smellie, J.; Ruotsalainen, P.; Snellman, M.

    1993-11-01

    In Sweden and Finland high quality groundwater samples are required in the site characterization programmes relating to safe disposal of spent nuclear fuel. SKB (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co.) and TVO (Teollisuuden Voima Oy, Finland) initiated a cooperative task to critically evaluate the quality of the earlier sampling programmes and to further develop the understanding of quality or representativeness of the groundwater samples. The major aim in this report has been, therefore, to make an attempt to classify groundwaters from site investigations in Sweden and Finland based on quality. Different classification systems have been tested and developed. These can be divided in two main groups; manual methods and computer-based mathematical methods. Manual, statistical, mixing ratio and scoring systems have all been used to illustrate the difficulty in judging groundwater quality. (28 refs., 19 figs., 11 tabs.)

  4. Regulation of distribution grid prices at the beginning of market liberalisation - Experience in Norway and Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippini, M.; Wind, J.; Luchsinger, C.

    2001-01-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reviews the experience gained in the deregulation of electricity distribution grids in Norway and Sweden and compares it with the possible options for Switzerland. The report looks at the requirements placed on the future Swiss regulation of electricity distribution grids and the various regulation models such as Rate-of-Return, Price-Cap, Revenue-Cap and Benchmarking that could be used in the short and long term. The choice of Sweden and Norway from the list of countries with liberalised electricity markets is discussed. The results of the study of the two countries are discussed individually, including the structure of the sector, the various stages of deregulation, the main characteristics encountered at the start of deregulation, regulation of grid prices at the beginning of liberalisation and experience gained in each case. The report is supplemented by a comprehensive list of the sources used

  5. Cultivable mycobacteria in sphagnum vegetation of moors in South Sweden and coastal Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazda, J; Müller, K; Irgens, L M

    1979-04-01

    Intact sphagnum vegetation from moors in south Sweden and coastal areas of west Norway contained cultivable mycobacteria in 32% and 30% of the specimens, respectively. This frequency of specimens is lower than the 50% previously found in the partly altered moors of northwestern Germany, but the Scandinavian moors contained a larger variety of species. On both intact and altered moors M. chelonei and M. sphagni sp. nov. were found, the latter a homologous group of 151 strains. In south Sweden the highest frequency was found in S. balticum, S. recurvum. S. tenellum and S. compactum & molle. (40-65%). In coastal Norway the highest frequency was found in S. rubellum (48%) which offers favourable conditions for the accumulation of solar energy due to the red brown colour in the upper parts. Combined with a high humidity in coastal Norway in summer, this may contribute to the growth of mesophilic mycobacteria. A significant affinity of M. chelonei to S. tenellum was stated.

  6. Radiation doses to the unborn child at diagnostic examinations in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helmrot, E.; Pettersson, H.; Sandborg, M.; Olsson, S.; Nilsson, J.; Cederlund, T.

    2003-01-01

    The use of ionising radiation in a medical examination of a woman caring a child is not always possible to avoid. The following situations can occur: (1) The pregnancy of the patient is known and the examination has to be performed due to medical reason, (2) The pregnancy of the patient is unknown at the time of examination. Methods to identify pregnant women at radiological departments in Sweden are already in use, but national rules and methods to calculate the individual dose to the unborn child for different examinations are less evaluated. There is a need of standards for the calculations, estimations and documentation of the radiation dose to the unborn child. According to directives from the European Commission, every X-ray examination has to be justified and optimised. The aim of this study is to determine the absorbed dose to the unborn child for common radiation diagnostic examinations used in Sweden and to find a standardised method for dose calculations. (orig.)

  7. The Professionalization of the Field of Education in Sweden: A Historical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareta Nilsson-Lindström

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the professionalization of the education field in Sweden from a historical perspective by tracing efforts towards professionalization of teaching from a clerically consecrated to a scientifically grounded praxis. Some of these efforts seem to be fairly typical for welfare states like Sweden. However, others are more unique, such as the state ambition to create a unified teacher profession based on a scientific knowledge base across elementary and grammar school teacher categories. This ambition failed. Some reasons are speculatively discussed primarily from a Bourdieuan perspective in terms of different teacher habitus, education capital and professionalization strategies among teachers in different positions in the field of education. Primary and secondary data sources are used but National Policy Documents have formed the main data source.

  8. Cross-prediction of the groundwater chemistry at the SKB sites in Sweden. Pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skaarman, C.; Laaksoharju, M.

    1997-08-01

    The possibility to perform a large scale prediction throughout Sweden was tested. The aim of the work was: to collect data and create a groundwater database for current and future use; to see if there is any correlation between data at different sites; to perform a modelling where the groundwater composition at different regions in Sweden is predicted. The outcome of the predictions were compared with the measured data at different sites. The results show that it is possible but more work needs to be done to improve the prediction models. More measurements at depth are needed to enable the use of 3D models. It is also important to include hydrogeological parameters in the groundwater chemical prediction models that are used

  9. Family trauma through generations: incest and domestic violence in rural Sweden in the nineteenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drugge, Ulf

    2008-10-01

    Two generations of a family who lived in mid-nineteenth rural Sweden are described. Domestic violence was a common feature in the first generation family. The salient feature there was undoubtedly the incestuous father-daughter relationships. The way incest appeared in Sweden about 150 years ago, the role of local authorities, and the serious consequences to those victimized is analyzed with reference to both the cultural context of that time and to modern theories of incest. Seemingly puzzling violence committed by a second generation family member is related to the domestic violence in the previous generation. Due to the extraordinary character of the incest cases and the specific church council sessions in which the incest case was treated, aspects of family life normally hidden behind curtains of conventions were made public. Reaction patterns drawn from this case indicate a patriarchal system of oppression and badly-directed considerations.

  10. Establishing marine protected areas in Sweden: Internal resistance versus global influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grip, Kjell; Blomqvist, Sven

    2018-02-01

    In the past decade, marine protected areas (MPAs) have become an increasingly used tool for science-based conservation and adaptive management of marine biodiversity and related natural resources. In this review paper, we report on rather complete time-course series (55 years uninterrupted) focusing on comparison of the strong difference, in number and area, in establishing marine (56 MNRs) and terrestrial (4284 TNRs) nature reserves in Sweden versus marine (7001 MPAs) and terrestrial (132742 TPAs) protected areas globally. Sweden appears to follow the overall global time trends. The large backlog of MPAs in relation to TPAs is due to several possible reasons, such as (i) unclear marine jurisdiction, (ii) marine conservation policies and programs developed later than terrestrial, (iii) higher costs for marine conservation management, (iv) conflicts in marine conservation, especially the fishery, and (v) the general public's historically weak awareness of the status of the marine environment.

  11. Uranium in soil, forest litter and living plant material above three uranium mineralizations in Northern Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ek, John

    1982-01-01

    In order to investigate the feasibility of biogeochemical sampling media in uranium exploration, samples from the most common trees and low bushes together with forest litter were collected over the areas of three uranium mineralizations in Northern Sweden and analyzed for uranium. The results were compared with uranium content of the till and its radioactivity. The average uranium content was low for all sample types and considerably lower in the ash of the organic sample types compared to that of the till. No sample type showed any tendency of having higher uranium concentration above mineralizations compared to background areas. These results suggest that, under conditions prevailing in Sweden, the investigated sample types are not suitable for uranium exploration

  12. Non proliferation and disarmament: nuclear disarmament and security policies in Sweden (1946-1975) - Historical note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hautecouverture, Benjamin

    2007-06-01

    The author first outlines that Sweden appeared during the Cold War as committed against nuclear weapons, but in fact concentrated this commitment on the objective of nuclear disarmament of nuclear countries without having a very clear position on the objective of non proliferation as it was defined at the end of the 1950's, and also maintained a (secret for while) military nuclear programme which has been progressively given up from the middle of the 1960's. Then, the author discusses why Sweden adopted this double posture, its effects on the international scene, and achievements and setbacks of the Swedish diplomacy with respect to disarmament until the first NPT review conference of 1975

  13. A review of contamination of surface-, ground-, and drinking water in Sweden by perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banzhaf, Stefan; Filipovic, Marko; Lewis, Jeffrey; Sparrenbom, Charlotte J; Barthel, Roland

    2017-04-01

    Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are found in aquatic systems, flora, and fauna worldwide. These potentially harmful compounds are also frequently detected in Sweden and have already resulted in severe problems for public drinking water supply, i.e., some wells had to be closed due to high PFAS concentrations both in raw water and produced drinking water. Knowledge on PFAS occurrence in Sweden is still quite low, although monitoring is currently ongoing. This work describes potential sources for PFASs to enter the drinking water supply in Sweden and compares different occurrences of PFASs in raw and drinking water in the country. Moreover, the monitoring history, the legal situation, and remediation actions taken are presented. Finally, future challenges and the way forward in Sweden are discussed.

  14. The role of income differences in explaining social inequalities in self rated health in Sweden and Britain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yngwe, M A; Diderichsen, F; Whitehead, M

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To analyse to what extent differences in income, using two distinct measures-as distribution across quintiles and poverty-explain social inequalities in self rated health, for men and women, in Sweden and Britain. DESIGN: Series of cross sectional surveys, the Swedish Survey...... 15 766 people in the Swedish dataset and 49 604 people in the British dataset. MAIN RESULTS: The magnitude of social inequalities in less than good self rated health was similar in Sweden and in Britain, but adjusting for income differences explained a greater part of these in Britain than in Sweden....... In Britain the distribution across income quintiles explained 47% of the social inequalities in self rated health among women and 31% among men, while in Sweden it explained, for women 13% and for men 20%. Poverty explained 22% for British women and 8% for British men of the social inequalities in self rated...

  15. The role of income differences in explaining social inequalities in self rated health in Sweden and Britain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yngwe, M A; Diderichsen, F; Whitehead, M

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To analyse to what extent differences in income, using two distinct measures-as distribution across quintiles and poverty-explain social inequalities in self rated health, for men and women, in Sweden and Britain. DESIGN: Series of cross sectional surveys, the Swedish Survey....... In Britain the distribution across income quintiles explained 47% of the social inequalities in self rated health among women and 31% among men, while in Sweden it explained, for women 13% and for men 20%. Poverty explained 22% for British women and 8% for British men of the social inequalities in self rated...... health, while in Sweden poverty explained much less (men 2.5% and women 0%). CONCLUSIONS: The magnitude of social inequalities in self rated health was similar in Sweden and in Britain. However, the distribution of income across occupational social classes explains a larger part of these inequalities...

  16. Eurosites insights; image, implementation, interpretation and integration of Natura 2000 in European perspective; United Kingdom, Sweden, Spain, France and Hungary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neven, M.G.G.; Kistenkas, F.H.; Apeldoorn, van R.C.

    2005-01-01

    This comparative study analyses Natura 2000 nature conservation (EU Birds- and Habitats Directives) alongside the key issues of image, implementation, interpretation and integration. Having quickscanned the EU25, five member states have been selected for further investigation: UK, Sweden, Spain,

  17. Chernobyl effects on domestic and inbound tourism in Sweden. A time series analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hultkrantz, L. [Department of Economics, University of Uppsala, Uppsala (Sweden); Olsson, C. [Department of Economics, Umeaa University, Umeaa (Sweden)

    1997-03-01

    This paper estimates the impact of the Chernobyl nuclear accident on domestic and international tourism in Sweden. From ARIMA time series forecasts, outlier search, and intervention analysis based on regional monthly accommodation data from 1978-1989, no effect on domestic tourism is found. However, there is an enduring deterrence effect on incoming tourism. The loss of gross revenue from incoming tourism because of the Chernobyl accident, is estimated to 2.5 billion SEK. 5 figs., 7 tabs., 1 appendix, 27 refs.

  18. Chernobyl effects on domestic and inbound tourism in Sweden. A time series analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hultkrantz, L.; Olsson, C.

    1997-01-01

    This paper estimates the impact of the Chernobyl nuclear accident on domestic and international tourism in Sweden. From ARIMA time series forecasts, outlier search, and intervention analysis based on regional monthly accommodation data from 1978-1989, no effect on domestic tourism is found. However, there is an enduring deterrence effect on incoming tourism. The loss of gross revenue from incoming tourism because of the Chernobyl accident, is estimated to 2.5 billion SEK. 5 figs., 7 tabs., 1 appendix, 27 refs

  19. Trends in consumption of ultra-processed foods and obesity in Sweden between 1960 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juul, Filippa; Hemmingsson, Erik

    2015-12-01

    To investigate how consumption of ultra-processed foods has changed in Sweden in relation to obesity. Nationwide ecological analysis of changes in processed foods along with corresponding changes in obesity. Trends in per capita food consumption during 1960-2010 were investigated using data from the Swedish Board of Agriculture. Food items were classified as group 1 (unprocessed/minimally processed), group 2 (processed culinary ingredients) or group 3 (3·1, processed food products; and 3·2, ultra-processed products). Obesity prevalence data were pooled from the peer-reviewed literature, Statistics Sweden and the WHO Global Health Observatory. Nationwide analysis in Sweden, 1960-2010. Swedish nationals aged 18 years and older. During the study period consumption of group 1 foods (minimal processing) decreased by 2 %, while consumption of group 2 foods (processed ingredients) decreased by 34 %. Consumption of group 3·1 foods (processed food products) increased by 116 % and group 3·2 foods (ultra-processed products) increased by 142 %. Among ultra-processed products, there were particularly large increases in soda (315 %; 22 v. 92 litres/capita per annum) and snack foods such as crisps and candies (367 %; 7 v. 34 kg/capita per annum). In parallel to these changes in ultra-processed products, rates of adult obesity increased from 5 % in 1980 to over 11 % in 2010. The consumption of ultra-processed products (i.e. foods with low nutritional value but high energy density) has increased dramatically in Sweden since 1960, which mirrors the increased prevalence of obesity. Future research should clarify the potential causal role of ultra-processed products in weight gain and obesity.

  20. The reproductive pattern and potential of free ranging female wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmsten, Anna; Jansson, Gunnar; Lundeheim, Nils; Dalin, Anne-Marie

    2017-08-01

    The number and spatial distribution of wild boars (Sus scrofa) has increased remarkably in Sweden as well as in other European countries. To understand the population dynamics of the wild boar, knowledge of its reproductive period, oestrus cycle and reproductive success is essential. The aim of this study was therefore to describe the seasonal reproductive pattern and reproductive potential of a wild boar population in Sweden. The study was based on findings from macroscopic examinations of the reproductive organs from 575 hunter-harvested female wild boars (>30 kg body weight). Samples were collected between December 2011 and December 2015 in the southern and middle parts of Sweden. The age of the sampled animals was determined and dressed weight was noted. The stage of the reproductive cycle was defined according to ovarian structures and in relation to the appearance of/and findings in the uterus. The crown-rump length (CRL) of the embryos/foetuses was used to calculate the oestrus/mating month and month for the expected farrowing. The macroscopic examination revealed a seasonal variation of reproductive stages, although cyclic and pregnant females were found in all seasons. Moreover, the estimated oestrus/mating and farrowing months based on the CRL showed that mating and farrowing may occur 'off-season'. The average litter size (no. of embryos or foetuses) per pregnant female was 5.4. Sow weight and age had significant effect on both the reproductive potential (ovulation rate and litter size) and pregnancy rate, respectively. The reproductive potential in the studied wild boar population was high compared to studies from other countries and farrowing may occur 'off-season'. This suggests that the environmental conditions in Sweden, including supplemental feeding, are favourable for wild boar reproduction.

  1. A comparative analysis of occupational health and safety risk prevention practices in Sweden and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morillas, Rosa María; Rubio-Romero, Juan Carlos; Fuertes, Alba

    2013-12-01

    Scandinavian countries such as Sweden implemented the occupational health and safety (OHS) measures in the European Directive 89/391/EEC earlier than other European counties, including Spain. In fact, statistics on workplace accident rates reveal that between 2004 and 2009, there were considerably fewer accidents in Sweden than in Spain. The objective of the research described in this paper was to reduce workplace accidents and to improve OHS management in Spain by exploring the OHS practices in Sweden. For this purpose, an exploratory comparative study was conducted, which focused on the effectiveness of the EU directive in both countries. The study included a cross-sectional analysis of workplace accident rates and other contextual indicators in both national contexts. A case study of 14 Swedish and Spanish companies identified 14 differences in the preventive practices implemented. These differences were then assessed with a Delphi study to evaluate their contribution to the reduction of workplace accidents and their potential for improving health and safety management in Spain. The results showed that there was agreement concerning 12 of the 14 practices. Finally, we discuss opportunities of improvement in Spanish companies so that they can make their risk management practices more effective. The findings of this comparative study on the implementation of the European Directive 89/391/EEC in both Sweden and Spain have revealed health and safety managerial practices which, if properly implemented, could contribute to improved work conditions and accident statistics of Spanish companies. In particular, the results suggest that Spanish employers, safety managers, external prevention services, safety deputies and Labour Inspectorates should consider implementing streamlined internal preventive management, promoting the integration of prevention responsibilities to the chain of command, and preventing health and safety management from becoming a mere exchange of

  2. A new species of Conchicolites (Cornulitida, Tentaculita from the Wenlock of Gotland, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olev Vinn

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A new cornulitid species, Conchicolites crispisulcans sp. nov., is described from the Wenlock of Gotland, Sweden. The undulating edge of C. crispisulcans sp. nov. peristomes is unique among the species of Conchicolites. This undulating peristome edge may reflect the position of setae at the tube aperture. The presence of the undulating peristome edge supports the hypothesis that cornulitids had setae and were probably related to brachiopods.

  3. Adolescent Perceptions of Parenting Styles in Sweden, Italy and Greece: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Giulia Olivari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Comparative research on parenting styles among Nordic and Mediterranean countries is still missing, despite the increasing number of studies on parenting styles in adolescence. This study explores similarities and differences in adolescents’ retrospective perceptions of parenting styles, for both parents, in Sweden, Italy and Greece, using the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire. In particular, it examines the relation between parental role, adolescent gender, country of origin, SES and these perceptions. Swedish, Italian and Greek adolescents (N = 702; 30.9% Swedish, 39.6% Italian and 29.5% Greek participated in the study. To test the principal effects three mixed 2(parent; mother and father*2(gender; girl and boy*3(countries; Sweden, Italy and Greece*3(SES; low, medium and high ANOVAs were conducted separately for each parenting style. To verify the interaction effects, a mixed 2(parent; mother and father*3(countries; Sweden, Italy and Greece*3(SES; low, medium and high ANOVA was tested on authoritative style. Regarding authoritarian and permissive two mixed 2(parent; mother and father*2(gender; girl and boy*3(countries; Sweden, Italy and Greece ANOVAs were tested. Mothers, as compared to fathers, were perceived as more authoritative, authoritarian and permissive. Moreover, boys perceived their parents as more authoritarian and more permissive than girls. Swedish parents were perceived as significantly less authoritarian than Italian and Greek parents and more permissive than Italian parents; Greek parents were perceived as less authoritarian and more permissive than Italian parents. The study provides an interesting contribution to parenting styles literature, showing how country legislation concerning family matters and SES are related the perception of parenting behaviours.

  4. Adolescent Perceptions of Parenting Styles in Sweden, Italy and Greece: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivari, Maria Giulia; Hertfelt Wahn, Elisabeth; Maridaki-Kassotaki, Katerina; Antonopoulou, Katerina; Confalonieri, Emanuela

    2015-05-01

    Comparative research on parenting styles among Nordic and Mediterranean countries is still missing, despite the increasing number of studies on parenting styles in adolescence. This study explores similarities and differences in adolescents' retrospective perceptions of parenting styles, for both parents, in Sweden, Italy and Greece, using the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire. In particular, it examines the relation between parental role, adolescent gender, country of origin, SES and these perceptions. Swedish, Italian and Greek adolescents (N = 702; 30.9% Swedish, 39.6% Italian and 29.5% Greek) participated in the study. To test the principal effects three mixed 2(parent; mother and father)*2(gender; girl and boy)*3(countries; Sweden, Italy and Greece)*3(SES; low, medium and high) ANOVAs were conducted separately for each parenting style. To verify the interaction effects, a mixed 2(parent; mother and father)*3(countries; Sweden, Italy and Greece)*3(SES; low, medium and high) ANOVA was tested on authoritative style. Regarding authoritarian and permissive two mixed 2(parent; mother and father)*2(gender; girl and boy)*3(countries; Sweden, Italy and Greece) ANOVAs were tested. Mothers, as compared to fathers, were perceived as more authoritative, authoritarian and permissive. Moreover, boys perceived their parents as more authoritarian and more permissive than girls. Swedish parents were perceived as significantly less authoritarian than Italian and Greek parents and more permissive than Italian parents; Greek parents were perceived as less authoritarian and more permissive than Italian parents. The study provides an interesting contribution to parenting styles literature, showing how country legislation concerning family matters and SES are related the perception of parenting behaviours.

  5. Adolescent Perceptions of Parenting Styles in Sweden, Italy and Greece: An Exploratory Study

    OpenAIRE

    Olivari, Maria Giulia; Hertfelt Wahn, Elisabeth; Maridaki-Kassotaki, Katerina; Antonopoulou, Katerina; Confalonieri, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    Comparative research on parenting styles among Nordic and Mediterranean countries is still missing, despite the increasing number of studies on parenting styles in adolescence. This study explores similarities and differences in adolescents’ retrospective perceptions of parenting styles, for both parents, in Sweden, Italy and Greece, using the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire. In particular, it examines the relation between parental role, adolescent gender, country of origin, SES...

  6. Physiotherapy-supervised mobilization and exercise following cardiac surgery: a national questionnaire survey in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerdahl, Elisabeth; Möller, Margareta

    2010-08-25

    Limited published data are available on how patients are mobilized and exercised during the postoperative hospital stay following cardiac surgery. The aim of this survey was to determine current practice of physiotherapy-supervised mobilization and exercise following cardiac surgery in Sweden. A prospective survey was carried out among physiotherapists treating adult cardiac surgery patients. A total population sample was identified and postal questionnaires were sent to the 33 physiotherapists currently working at the departments of thoracic surgery in Sweden. In total, 29 physiotherapists (response rate 88%) from eight hospitals completed the survey. The majority (90%) of the physiotherapists offered preoperative information. The main rationale of physiotherapy treatment after cardiac surgery was to prevent and treat postoperative complications, improve pulmonary function and promote physical activity. In general, one to three treatment sessions were given by a physiotherapist on postoperative day 1 and one to two treatment sessions were given during postoperative days 2 and 3. During weekends, physiotherapy was given to a lesser degree (59% on Saturdays and 31% on Sundays to patients on postoperative day 1). No physiotherapy treatment was given in the evenings. The routine use of early mobilization and shoulder range of motion exercises was common during the first postoperative days, but the choice of exercises and duration of treatment varied. Patients were reminded to adhere to sternal precautions. There were great variations of instructions to the patients concerning weight bearing and exercises involving the sternotomy. All respondents considered physiotherapy necessary after cardiac surgery, but only half of them considered the physiotherapy treatment offered as optimal. The results of this survey show that there are small variations in physiotherapy-supervised mobilization and exercise following cardiac surgery in Sweden. However, the frequency and

  7. Preschool teacher's view on learning in preschool in Sweden and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broström professor m.so., Stig; Frøkjær, Thorleif; Johansson, Inge

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how preschool teachers in Sweden and Denmark perceive children’s learning in preschool. The study aimed to answer the following questions: What is ‘learning’? How do children learn? What are the best conditions for children’s learning? What is the role...... similarities between how Danish and Swedish preschool teachers think of learning and participation. This supports earlier assumption about the coherence of Nordic preschool beliefs which unites education and care....

  8. Welfare State Regimes & Youth Incarceration : A Comparison of Germany, Sweden, and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Reimbold , Haley

    2015-01-01

    Despite international consensus among researchers that incarcerating youth is an ineffective and inefficient response to crime, this practice persists—to widely varying degrees—in every country. What are the differences in youth incarceration in disparate welfare state regimes? To answer this question, this paper develops a youth incarceration typology by comparing three cases: that of Sweden, Germany, and the United States. The first multi-¬‐dimensional typology specific to youth incarcerati...

  9. Psychiatric disorders and violent reoffending: a national cohort study of convicted prisoners in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Zheng; Larsson, Henrik; Lichtenstein, Paul; Fazel, Seena

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Reoffending and presence of psychiatric disorders are common in prisoners worldwide. However, whether psychiatric disorders are risk factors for reoffending is still unknown. We aimed to examine the association between psychiatric disorders, including substance use disorder, and violent reoffending. Methods We did a longitudinal cohort study of 47 326 prisoners who were imprisoned since Jan 1, 2000, and released before Dec 31, 2009, in Sweden. We obtained data for diagnosed...

  10. The application of smart cities concept for citizens of Lithuania and Sweden: comperative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gitana Dudzevičiūtė

    2017-12-01

    This research attempts to assess and compare largest different cities of Lithuania and Sweden in the context of smart cities’ concept. Due to the shortage and mismatching statistical information, the paper is limited with only four following indicators: smart economy, smart mobility, smart environment, and smart governance. The analysis of indicators shows that Lithuanian major cities in all groups of criterion are below average while values of indicators in the case of Swedish major cities are much higher than average.

  11. Prospects for Finland and Sweden to Pursue Closer Defense Cooperation With NATO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Partnership for Peace] and NATO enlargement , the states in this region would have been vulnerable to Russian pressures, and they would have probably...renationalized their defense policies and engaged in local rivalries and power competitions.”11 The enlargement of NATO has been a source of security...Sweden. 13 “Study on NATO Enlargement ,” NATO , September 3, 1995, par 43, www.nato.int/cps/en/natolive

  12. Declining Employment Assimilation of Immigrants in Sweden: Observed or Unobserved Characteristics?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bevelander, Pieter; Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    1999-01-01

    Focusing on Nordic and Yugoslavian immigrant males, we study the determinants of employment success of natives and immigrants in Sweden. Furthermore, we investigate the reasons behind the arising gap in employment success between Swedes and immigrants from 1970 to 1990. In a decomposition analysis......, we find that the main part of the decline in the employment probability of immigrants relative to Swedes over time is explained by a change in coefficients (unobserved characteristics) rather than a change in determinants (observed characteristics)....

  13. Declining Employment Assimilation of Immigrant Males in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bevelander, Pieter; Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    2001-01-01

    Focusing on Nordic and Yugoslavian immigrant males, we study the determinants of employment success of natives and immigrants in Sweden. Furthermore, we investigate the reasons behind the arising gap in employment success between Swedes and immigrants from 1970 to 1990. In a decomposition analysis......, we find that the main part of the decline in the employment probability of immigrants relative to Swedes over time is explained by a change in coefficients (unobserved characteristics) rather than a change in determinants (observed characteristics)....

  14. The Impact of Audit Education on the Audit Expectation Gap : Evidence from Civilekonom Students in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Fotoh, Lazarus Elad

    2017-01-01

    There is considerable evidence of the existence of audit expectation gap between auditors and the public in Sweden. However, conflicting views exist regarding the role of audit education in narrowing this gap. This thesis, therefore, aims to investigate if the teaching of audit courses for civilekonom students contributes in narrowing the expectation gap resulting from the misunderstanding of audit regulations as contained in ISA and ABL.A survey questionnaire containing seventeen semantic di...

  15. Fluidized bed combustion research and development in Sweden: A historical survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leckner Bo.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey is made on research and development related to fluidized bed boilers in Sweden during the past two decades, where several Swedish enterprises took part: Generator, Götaverken, Stal Laval (ABB Carbon and Studsvik. Chalmers University of Technology contributed in the field of research related to emissions, heat transfer and fluid dynamics, and some results from this activity are briefly summarized.

  16. Does Marriage Matter for Children? Assessing the Impact of Legal Marriage in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Björklund, Anders; Ginther, Donna K.; Sundström, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines whether parental marriage confers educational advantages to children relative to cohabitation. We exploit a dramatic marriage boom in Sweden in late 1989 created by a reform of the Widow’s Pension System that raised the attractiveness of marriage compared to cohabitation to identify the effect of marriage and the effect of selection bias on marriage estimates. Sweden’s rich administrative data sources enable us to identify the children who were affected by parental marriag...

  17. Does neighborhood income mix affect earnings of adults? New evidence from Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Galster, G.; Andersson, R.; Musterd, S.; Kauppinen, T.M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper contributes to the literature on obtaining unbiased estimates of neighborhood effects, explored in the context of a centralized social welfare state. We employ a longitudinal database comprised of all working age adults in metropolitan Sweden 1991-1999 to investigate the degree to which neighborhood income mix relates to subsequent labor incomes of adults and how this relationship varies by gender and employment status. We control for unobserved, time-invariant individual character...

  18. Adolescent Perceptions of Parenting Styles in Sweden, Italy and Greece: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivari, Maria Giulia; Hertfelt Wahn, Elisabeth; Maridaki-Kassotaki, Katerina; Antonopoulou, Katerina; Confalonieri, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    Comparative research on parenting styles among Nordic and Mediterranean countries is still missing, despite the increasing number of studies on parenting styles in adolescence. This study explores similarities and differences in adolescents’ retrospective perceptions of parenting styles, for both parents, in Sweden, Italy and Greece, using the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire. In particular, it examines the relation between parental role, adolescent gender, country of origin, SES and these perceptions. Swedish, Italian and Greek adolescents (N = 702; 30.9% Swedish, 39.6% Italian and 29.5% Greek) participated in the study. To test the principal effects three mixed 2(parent; mother and father)*2(gender; girl and boy)*3(countries; Sweden, Italy and Greece)*3(SES; low, medium and high) ANOVAs were conducted separately for each parenting style. To verify the interaction effects, a mixed 2(parent; mother and father)*3(countries; Sweden, Italy and Greece)*3(SES; low, medium and high) ANOVA was tested on authoritative style. Regarding authoritarian and permissive two mixed 2(parent; mother and father)*2(gender; girl and boy)*3(countries; Sweden, Italy and Greece) ANOVAs were tested. Mothers, as compared to fathers, were perceived as more authoritative, authoritarian and permissive. Moreover, boys perceived their parents as more authoritarian and more permissive than girls. Swedish parents were perceived as significantly less authoritarian than Italian and Greek parents and more permissive than Italian parents; Greek parents were perceived as less authoritarian and more permissive than Italian parents. The study provides an interesting contribution to parenting styles literature, showing how country legislation concerning family matters and SES are related the perception of parenting behaviours. PMID:27247655

  19. Heavy metal susceptibility of Escherichia coli isolated from urine samples from Sweden, Germany, and Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Suetterlin, S; Tellez-Castillo, CJ; Anselem, L; Yin, H; Bray, JE; Maiden, MCJ

    2018-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a major health care problem, with the intensive use of heavy metals and biocides recently being identified as potential contributing factors to the aggravation of this situation. This study investigated heavy metal susceptibility and genetic resistance determinants in Escherichia coli isolated from clinical urine samples from Sweden, Germany and Spain. A total of 186 isolates were tested for minimal inhibition concentration to sodium arsenite, silver nitrate and co...

  20. High incidence of Plasmodium vivax malaria in newly arrived Eritrean refugees in Sweden since May 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonden, K; Castro, E; Törnnberg, L; Stenstrom, C; Tegnell, A; Farnert, A

    2014-09-04

    Since May 2014, an increase in Plasmodium vivax malaria has been observed in Sweden. As of 31 August 2014, 105 malaria cases have been reported in newly arrived Eritrean refugees, 84 of them P. vivax. The patients were mainly young men and reported migration through Ethiopia and/or Sudan. Severe anaemia and long symptom duration reflect inadequate healthcare during migration. Countries currently hosting Eritrean refugees need to consider P. vivax malaria in this group of migrants.

  1. Astronomical journey to the Skåne district in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Tsuko

    2006-09-01

    In September of 2005, we had a chance to travel to the Skåe district of Sweden. This short paper briefly reports what we saw there, along with historical episodes relating to Lund Observatory, the medieval astronomical clock preserved at the Lund Cathedral, and the Hven island where Tycho Brahe constructed in the late 16th century the first modern astronomical observatory called Uraniborg.

  2. Testing longwave radiation parameterizations under clear and overcast skies at Storglaciären, Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Sedlar, J.; Hock, R.

    2009-01-01

    Energy balance based glacier melt models require accurate estimates of incoming longwave radiation but direct measurements are often not available. Multi-year near-surface meteorological data from Storglaciären, Northern Sweden, were used to evaluate commonly used longwave radiation parameterizations in a glacier environment under clear-sky and all-sky conditions. Parameterizations depending solely on air temperature performed worse than those which include water vapor pressure. All models te...

  3. Institutional prerequisites for affordable housing development : A comparative study of Germany and Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Granath Hansson, Anna

    2017-01-01

    This thesis was written against the background of intense public debate on increasing housing shortages and housing policy reform in Germany and Sweden. Potential reforms to increase housing development volumes, especially in the affordable segment, are analysed using theories of institutional change with focus on urban planning, building law and housing policy. The instruments analysed are divided into measures intended to increase housing supply elasticity and targeted affordable housing me...

  4. Dietary differences between elderly Iranians living in Sweden and Iran a cross-sectional comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johansson Sven-Erik

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the last decades, global migration has increased and many immigrant groups have a higher prevalence than the native born population of several cardiovascular disease risk factors, including poor dietary habits. However, it is uncertain if dietary habits in immigrant populations reflect dietary habits in their country of origin or if the current diet is a consequence of the migration and possible change of dietary habits. The aim of this study was to examine possible dietary differences between elderly Iranians living in Stockholm, Sweden with elderly Iranians living in Tehran, Iran, taking into account sex, age, marital status, and education. Methods Dietary intakes were assessed by semi - quantitative food frequency questionnaire in a cross-sectional study of 121 Iranians living in Stockholm and 52 Iranians living in Tehran, aged 60-80. Differences in dietary habits between the two groups was analysed by bootstrapped regression analyses with 1000 replications. Results Iranians living in Sweden had significantly higher intake of protein, total fat, fiber than Iranians living in Iran, but lower consumption of carbohydrates. The observed differences in intake of macronutrients were reflected in consumed amount of all food items, which were higher among Iranians living in Iran with the exception of bread and grain consumption which was lower. Conclusions There are general differences in dietary habits between Iranians living in Iran and Iranians living in Sweden. Parts of observed differences in dietary habits may reflect a favourable adoption process to the Swedish dietary habits after migration. Meanwhile other differences are point of concern in light of the high prevalence of overweight, among Iranians living in Sweden and can have unfavourable impact in particular in the context of cardiovascular health.

  5. Does the Breast Cancer Age at Diagnosis Differ by Ethnicity? A Study on Immigrants to Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemminki, Kari; Sundquist, Jan; Brandt, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Background. Age-specific incidence rates for breast cancer in low-risk and high-risk ethnic populations differ by age at which the incidence maximum is reached: around 50 years in low-risk populations and over 60 years in high-risk populations. The interpretation of these differences remains unsettled, one line primarily referring to biological differences, the second one to cohort effects of rapidly increasing rates in young populations, and the third one to incomplete registration of cancer in the elderly. Methods. The nationwide Family-Cancer Database was used to analyze standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and age at diagnosis of breast cancer in female immigrants to Sweden by their region of origin compared with women native to Sweden matched on birth year and other relevant factors. Results. We showed first that the SIRs for breast cancer were lower in many immigrant groups compared with natives of Sweden; women from Turkey had the lowest SIR of 0.45, followed by those from Chile (0.54) and Southeast Asia (0.57). Women from nine regions showed an earlier mean age at diagnosis than their matched Swedish controls, the largest differences being 5.5 years for women from Turkey, 5.1 years for those from Asian Arab and “Other African” countries, 4.3 years for those from Iran, and 4.0 years for those from Iraq. Conclusions. The results show that in many immigrant groups, the diagnostic age is earlier (Sweden (>50 years), suggesting that true biological factors underlie the differences. These factors may explain much of the international variation in breast cancer incidence. Identifying these factors should advance understanding of breast cancer etiology and prevention. PMID:21266400

  6. The Paediatric Cataract Register (PECARE): an overview of operated childhood cataract in Sweden and Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Gunilla; Haargaard, Birgitte; Basit, Saima; Lundvall, Anna; Nyström, Alf; Rosensvärd, Annika; Tornqvist, Kristina

    2018-02-01

    To report basic epidemiological data concerning surgically treated childhood cataract in Sweden and Denmark. Data were derived from the Paediatric Cataract Register (PECARE), a binational, web-based surgical register representing Sweden and Denmark. All children operated before 8 years of age between 1 January 2007 and 31 December 2013 were included. Age-specific prevalence per 100 000 population was calculated. A total 574 operations in 213 boys (51.7%) and 199 girls (48.3%), altogether 412 children, were registered, the vast majority (n = 395/412; 95.9%) being individuals with congenital/infantile cataract. Of these 412, a total of 294 (147 boys and 147 girls) were Swedish and 118 (66 boys and 52 girls) were Danish. The age-specific prevalence of operated cataract in Sweden was 31/100 000 and in Denmark 28/100 000. In 454 of 574 eyes (79.1%), the cataract was dense. Altogether, 266 of 574 (46.3%) were operated during the first year of life, 193 during the first 12 weeks representing 33.6% of all operations. A primary intraocular lens (IOL) implantation was done in altogether 411 of 574 eyes (71,6%). In total, 210 unilateral cataract operations (210/574; 36.6%) were performed. Persistent fetal vasculature (PFV) was present in 64 of 193 (33.1%) of those with a congenital unilateral cataract. In 84 individuals (84/395; 21.3%) with congenital or infantile cataract, a coexisting disorder was found. The age-specific binational prevalence of operated congenital/infantile cataract in Sweden and Denmark is 30/100 000. About half of the operations are performed within the first year of life, one-third within the first 3 months. In our study population, a primary IOL was implanted in the majority of cases. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Use of radiography in public dental care for children and adolescents in northern Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk Kieri, Catarina; Twetman, Svante; Stecksén-Blicks, Christina

    2009-01-01

    . For this retrospective study, 544 adolescents regularly attending three Public Dental Health clinics in the county of Västerbotten, northern Sweden were selected. The number of radiographs exposed each year from 3 to 19 years of age was registered. Information on reason for the radiographic examination was extracted......-oral radiographs with a mean number of 19+/-4 exposures. There was a statistically significant difference (p

  8. Balloon observations of auroral X-rays at Esrange, Sweden and related phenomena

    OpenAIRE

    Hirasima,Yo; Murakami,Hiroyuki; Okudaira,Kiyoaki; Fujii,Masami; Nishimura,Jun; Yamagami,Takamasa; Ejiri,Masaki; Miyaoka,Hiroshi; Ono,Takayuki; Kodama,Masahiro

    1984-01-01

    Balloon observations of auroral X-rays using different detector systems were carried out twice over Esrange, Sweden, in November and December 1982,in order to examine spatial and temporal characteristics of the energetic component of auroral electrons. One detector is a telescope system consisting of four scintillation counters whose fields of view are different with each other as well as with the viewing directions. It is shown from the first flight carrying the telescope system that a limit...

  9. The Potential for Electrofuels Production in Sweden Utilizing Fossil and Biogenic CO2 Point Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansson, Julia; Hackl, Roman; Taljegard, Maria; Brynolf, Selma; Grahn, Maria

    2017-01-01

    This paper maps, categorizes, and quantifies all major point sources of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions from industrial and combustion processes in Sweden. The paper also estimates the Swedish technical potential for electrofuels (power-to-gas/fuels) based on carbon capture and utilization. With our bottom-up approach using European databases, we find that Sweden emits approximately 50 million metric tons of CO 2 per year from different types of point sources, with 65% (or about 32 million tons) from biogenic sources. The major sources are the pulp and paper industry (46%), heat and power production (23%), and waste treatment and incineration (8%). Most of the CO 2 is emitted at low concentrations (<15%) from sources in the southern part of Sweden where power demand generally exceeds in-region supply. The potentially recoverable emissions from all the included point sources amount to 45 million tons. If all the recoverable CO 2 were used to produce electrofuels, the yield would correspond to 2–3 times the current Swedish demand for transportation fuels. The electricity required would correspond to about 3 times the current Swedish electricity supply. The current relatively few emission sources with high concentrations of CO 2 (>90%, biofuel operations) would yield electrofuels corresponding to approximately 2% of the current demand for transportation fuels (corresponding to 1.5–2 TWh/year). In a 2030 scenario with large-scale biofuels operations based on lignocellulosic feedstocks, the potential for electrofuels production from high-concentration sources increases to 8–11 TWh/year. Finally, renewable electricity and production costs, rather than CO 2 supply, limit the potential for production of electrofuels in Sweden.

  10. The Role of Radiological Protection in Sweden's National Environmental quality Objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, L.; Mjones, L.; Holm, E.

    2004-01-01

    In 1999, the Swedish Parliament adopted fifteen environmental quality objectives, defining the quality of Sweden's environment and of its natural and cultural resources that will insure sustainable growth. In 2001, the government proposed interim targets for each objective, specifying the direction and time scale of the proposed actions. These objectives give Sweden a unique opportunity to define, quantify and achieve an ecologically sustainable environment. One of the national objectives, A Safe Radiation Environment, targets both ionising and non-ionising radiation and states, human health and biological diversity must be protected against the harmful effects of radiation in the environment. The Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI) has the responsibility for formulating and achieving the interim targets for this objective. The targets presently focus on controlling radioactive emissions, limiting exposures to ultraviolet radiation and defining the risks from exposure to electromagnetic fields. Part of SSI's responsibility for the environmental quality objective is to develop a system for monitoring and quantifying progress towards each interim target. Sweden's National Board of Housing, Building and Planning (NBHBP) is responsible for another of the national objectives, A Good Built- Environment. As part of this objective, a special interim target for the indoor environment was approved by Parliament in 2002, which includes a specification for human exposure to radon in indoor air. It states: radon concentrations should be lower than 200 Bq/m3 in schools and pre-schools by the year 2010, and below 200 Bq/m3 in homes by 2020. This substantially raises the level of ambition regarding reducing exposure to indoor radon. The aim of this paper is to briefly summarize the role of radiological protection in Sweden's environmental quality objectives. (Author) 3 refs

  11. Workplaces with elevated levels of exposure to natural radiation: The situation in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mjoenes, L.; Aakerblom, G.

    2002-01-01

    Because of the geological conditions with an abundance of granites and pegmatites rich in uranium and thorium together with large areas of uranium-rich alum shale, exposure from natural radiation is not unusual in certain types of industries and other work activities in Sweden. Although no representative survey of radon at regular workplaces has been performed in Sweden, smaller surveys and the high radon concentrations in dwellings indicate that workplaces with elevated radon levels are frequent in Sweden. Very high levels of indoor radon have been found in waterworks. Radon in mines has been regulated in Sweden since 1972 and radon in other workplaces since 1990. The situation in schools and day-care centres was thoroughly investigated in 2000. The estimated number of school and child care buildings with radon concentrations exceeding the action level 400 Bq/m 3 , is 800, about 200 of these have been identified and in about 100 buildings remedial measures have been taken. Regulations for natural radioactivity in building materials (for new buildings) have been in force since 1980. Lightweight concrete produced from uranium-rich alum shale was in use between 1929 and 1975. Almost 400,000 dwellings, 10 percent of the building stock, contain this material. The situation at NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material) industries is currently being investigated. Since the beginning of the 1950s it is known that residues from several industrial activities contain enhanced levels of natural radioactivity. Some examples are burnt alum shale from lime burning, radium-rich slag from metal production and waste gypsum from sulphuric acid production. The impact of the exposure from these residues is now being reinvestigated. So far no systematic search for up to now unknown work activities where substantial exposures from natural radiation could occur, has been initiated. For the protection of aircrew from cosmic radiation the responsible Swedish authorities have

  12. Modelling drug-related morbidity in Sweden using an expert panel of physicians

    OpenAIRE

    Hakkarainen, Katja M; Alström, Daniel; Hägg, Staffan; Carlsten, Anders; Gyllensten, Hanna

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: In modelling studies using pharmacists' opinions, drug-related morbidity (DRM) and preventable DRM have been more common than in observational studies, and the resulting costs are extensive. Modelling studies' estimates may vary depending on informants' profession. The purpose of this modelling study was to estimate the proportion of patients with DRM and preventable DRM and the cost of illness (COI) of DRM in Sweden based on physicians' expert opinions. METHOD: A conceptual model of...

  13. Small-scale food production and location of gourmet restaurants in rural Sweden.

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Sara; Pettersson, Lars

    2014-01-01

    This study explore the location pattern of gourmet restaurants in Sweden by using information about restaurant quality from the White Guide. The purpose of the paper is to analyze which factors that influence the location pattern of gourmet restaurants, with particular focus on the influence of small-scale food producers. This variable can be expected to be of substantial importance in creating comparative advantages related to geographical location. Econometric estimates of a zero-inflated P...

  14. Health literacy among refugees in Sweden : a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Wångdahl, Josefin; Lytsy, Per; Mårtensson, Lena; Westerling, Ragnar

    2014-01-01

    Background Refugees have poorer health compared to indigenous populations, which may be explained by lower health literacy, i.e. not being able to access, understand, appraise or apply health information. This study aims to determine levels of functional and comprehensive health literacy, and factors associated with inadequate health literacy, in refugees coming to Sweden. Method A cross-sectional study was performed among 455 adult refugees speaking Arabic, Dari, Somali or English. Participa...

  15. The Politics of Legal Challenges to Pornography: Canada, Sweden, and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Waltman, Max

    2014-01-01

    The dissertation analyzes obstacles and potential in democracies, specifically Canada, Sweden, and United States, to effectively address empirically documented harms of pornography. Legislative and judicial challenges under different democratic and legal frameworks are compared. Adopting a problem-driven theoretical approach, the reality of pornography’s harms is analyzed. Evidence shows its production exploits existing inequalities among persons typically drawn from other forms of prostituti...

  16. Ways to Attract Russian Business Customers from Saint Petersburg and Moscow Regions to Sweden on the Basis of Restricted Budget

    OpenAIRE

    Kuznetsova, Ekaterina

    2011-01-01

    Russian tourists have become one of the major targeting segments in Sweden. They generate an enormous amount of profit to Swedish businesses. Due to that fact the interest of Swedish SME’s in Russian leisure and business tourists has grown. The study is oriented on the business travellers from Russia and contemplates the variety of marketing options on the restricted budget for the Swedish partner NW Production. Firstly, the Russian outbound travel patterns to Sweden were examined on ...

  17. Labor-market status, migrant status and first childbearing in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin E. Lundström

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Labor market uncertainties and employment insecurity have emerged as increasingly important factors in research on family formation and fertility. OBJECTIVE In the present study, we provide evidence from Sweden on how non-employment, unemployment, and temporary employment relate to young people's first birth risks. METHODS We use a combination of Labor Force Survey data on employment characteristics and register data on demographic outcomes to investigate how the labor market status and stability of employment are associated with the first birth behavior of women and men, and of Swedish- and foreign-born people in Sweden. RESULTS Consistent with previous research, we find that people who are not in the labor force are less likely than those who are employed to enter parenthood. In most cases, we also find that young people who are in temporary employment are less likely than those who are permanently employed to start a family. CONCLUSIONS Our study demonstrates that foreign-born people living in Sweden tend to adapt to the behavior of native-born Swedes, and that patterns for women and men are largely similar. We relate these findings to the equalizing impact of the country's universal welfare regime.

  18. Family Background Buys an Education in Minnesota but Not in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wendy; Deary, Ian J.; Silventoinen, Karri; Tynelius, Per; Rasmussen, Finn

    2010-01-01

    Educational attainment, the highest degree or level of schooling obtained, is associated with important life outcomes, at both the individual level and the group level. Because of this, and because education is expensive, the allocation of education across society is an important social issue. A dynamic quantitative environmental-genetic model can help document the effects of social allocation patterns. We used this model to compare the moderating effect of general intelligence on the environmental and genetic factors that influence educational attainment in Sweden and the U.S. state of Minnesota. Patterns of genetic influence on educational outcomes were similar in these two regions, but patterns of shared environmental influence differed markedly. In Sweden, shared environmental influence on educational attainment was particularly important for people of high intelligence, whereas in Minnesota, shared environmental influences on educational attainment were particularly important for people of low intelligence. This difference may be the result of differing access to education: state-supported access (on the basis of ability) to a uniform higher-education system in Sweden, versus family-supported access to a more diverse higher-education system in the United States. PMID:20679521

  19. Implementing joint tuberculosis projects in Somaliland and Sweden for mutual strengthening of programs and research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdi Yassin

    2015-01-01

    Discussion and conclusions: Herein this study presents a planned TB project aiming at cooperation between healthcare staff from a low- and a high-endemic country. For such a project, several baseline data are required, e.g., the pattern of resistance of MTB and the treatment outcome in Somaliland, as well as among immigrants in Sweden. The social circumstances for any patient with TB, whether in Somaliland or Sweden, during disease and when recovered is a main issue for health from a holistic perspective. Further, the nutritional status is not satisfactory for TB patients in either country, and a dietary intervention may be of importance in both countries. Baseline data according to the above are necessary for assessment of the interventions and are part of ongoing pre-studies. For the Swedish party the exchange of clinical knowledge is beneficial since TB is rare in Sweden and access to TB research and clinical implantation of new methods will be facilitated and possible through the joint project. Ultimately, an expanded project could curb TB at the source and decrease TB in both countries.

  20. Radiocaesium transfer to man from moose and roe deer in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johanson, Karl J.; Bergstroem, R.

    1994-01-01

    Studies of radiocaesium in the forest ecosystems in Sweden resulted in aggregated transfer factors quantified for the transfer of 137 Cs from soil to moose and roe deer. These aggregated transfer factors were 0.02 m 2 kg -1 for moose and 0.05 m 2 kg -1 for roe deer. There seems to be no decrease in the 137 Cs activity concentrations in moose harvested in our research area and therefore we suggest the use of the physical half-life of 137 Cs (30 years) as the effective ecological half-life. The time-integrated transfer of 137 Cs from the Chernobyl fall-out to man by moose in Sweden was calculated and found to be 115 GBq, corresponding to 1500 man Sv for moose. The time-integrated transfer by roe deer to man was estimated to be between 25-48 GBq, corresponding to 327-620 man Sv for roe deer. The annual transfer of 137 Cs to man by moose has varied between 2.0-2.7 GBq, corresponding to 27-34 man Sv. Depending on the group studied, the mean annual transfer of 137 Cs can be calculated to be from about 250 to 43'000 Bq. For example, the mean annual transfer of 137 Cs by moose to hunters and their families in Gaevle commune, the most affected commune in Sweden, was estimated to be about 26'000 Bq, corresponding to 0.34 mSv

  1. Haematological and biochemical reference intervals for free-ranging brown bears (Ursus arctos) in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Establishment of haematological and biochemical reference intervals is important to assess health of animals on individual and population level. Reference intervals for 13 haematological and 34 biochemical variables were established based on 88 apparently healthy free-ranging brown bears (39 males and 49 females) in Sweden. The animals were chemically immobilised by darting from a helicopter with a combination of medetomidine, tiletamine and zolazepam in April and May 2006–2012 in the county of Dalarna, Sweden. Venous blood samples were collected during anaesthesia for radio collaring and marking for ecological studies. For each of the variables, the reference interval was described based on the 95% confidence interval, and differences due to host characteristics sex and age were included if detected. To our knowledge, this is the first report of reference intervals for free-ranging brown bears in Sweden. Results The following variables were not affected by host characteristics: red blood cell, white blood cell, monocyte and platelet count, alanine transaminase, amylase, bilirubin, free fatty acids, glucose, calcium, chloride, potassium, and cortisol. Age differences were seen for the majority of the haematological variables, whereas sex influenced only mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, aspartate aminotransferase, lipase, lactate dehydrogenase, β-globulin, bile acids, triglycerides and sodium. Conclusions The biochemical and haematological reference intervals provided and the differences due to host factors age and gender can be useful for evaluation of health status in free-ranging European brown bears. PMID:25139149

  2. Violence and reproductive health preceding flight from war: accounts from Somali born women in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrskog, Ulrika; Olsson, Pia; Essén, Birgitta; Allvin, Marie Klingberg

    2014-08-30

    Political violence and war are push factors for migration and social determinants of health among migrants. Somali migration to Sweden has increased threefold since 2004, and now comprises refugees with more than 20 years of war experiences. Health is influenced by earlier life experiences with adverse sexual and reproductive health, violence, and mental distress being linked. Adverse pregnancy outcomes are reported among Somali born refugees in high-income countries. The aim of this study was to explore experiences and perceptions on war, violence, and reproductive health before migration among Somali born women in Sweden. Qualitative semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with 17 Somali born refugee women of fertile age living in Sweden. Thematic analysis was applied. Before migration, widespread war-related violence in the community had created fear, separation, and interruption in daily life in Somalia, and power based restrictions limited access to reproductive health services. The lack of justice and support for women exposed to non-partner sexual violence or intimate partner violence reinforced the risk of shame, stigmatization, and silence. Social networks, stoicism, and faith constituted survival strategies in the context of war. Several factors reinforced non-disclosure of violence exposure among the Somali born women before migration. Therefore, violence-related illness might be overlooked in the health care system. Survival strategies shaped by war contain resources for resilience and enhancement of well-being and sexual and reproductive health and rights in receiving countries after migration.

  3. An overview of international siting programmes for radioactive waste disposal facilities: Possible lessons for Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, P.J.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this short report is to examine methodologies used in countries other than Sweden which are following a process of site selection for nuclear waste management and disposal facilities. It is planned here to identify possible countries and methodologies which may offer the authorities in Sweden suggestions for the future, and it is hoped that further work, possibly involving in-country visits and detailed reviews will follow. The end result of this exercise is to learn from the efforts (successes and/or mistakes) of other countries, thereby enabling Sweden to pursue a siting policy which involves as many stakeholders as possible, resulting in a programme which Swedish citizens can feel they truly own. First, the classification of siting methodologies is reviewed, both those of the past and those currently in use. Examples from programmes around the world are given. The distinction between Public Involvement and Public Participation in the siting process is discussed, in light of the programmes reviewed. Methodologies worthy of further study for adaptation to the Swedish situation are then highlighted in the context of a general discussion of the issues raised. Finally, a series of recommendations as to further investigations are given, which could be carried out as a part of this project. Particular methodologies in particular countries and their relevance to the Swedish situation are discussed. 66 refs

  4. ACCIDENT PHENOMENA OF RISK IMPORTANCE PROJECT - Continued RESEARCH CONCERNING SEVERE ACCIDENT PHENOMENA AND MANAGEMENT IN Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolandson, S.; Mueller, F.; Loevenhielm, G.

    1997-01-01

    Since 1988 all reactors in Sweden have mitigating measures, such as filtered vents, implemented. In parallel with the work of implementing these measures, a cooperation effort (RAMA projects) between the Swedish utilities and the Nuclear Power Inspectorate was performed to acquire sufficient knowledge about severe accident research work. The on-going project has the name Accident Phenomena of Risk Importance 3. In this paper, we will give background information about severe accident management in Sweden. In the Accident Phenomena of Risk Importance 3 project we will focus on the work concerning coolability of melted core in lower plenum which is the main focus of the In-vessel Coolability Task Group within the Accident Phenomena of Risk Importance 3 project. The Accident Phenomena of Risk Importance 3 project has joined on international consortium and the in-vessel cooling experiments are performed by Fauske and Associates, Inc. in Burr Ridge, Illinois, United States America, Sweden also intends to do one separate experiment with one instrument penetration we have in Swedish/Finnish BWR's. Other parts of the Accident Phenomena of Risk Importance 3 project, such as support to level 2 studies, the research at Royal Institute of Technology and participation in international programs, such as Cooperative Severe Accident Research Program, Advanced Containment Experiments and PHEBUS will be briefly described in the paper

  5. GPs opinions and perceptions of chiropractic in Sweden and Norway: a descriptive survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In Sweden, chiropractic is not included in mainstream health care. In Norway chiropractic is a recognized health care profession. The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions of chiropractic among Swedish and Norwegian General Practitioners (GPs). Methods Eight hundred surveys in each country were distributed randomly by post to Swedish and Norwegian GPs offices. The survey contained two main sections: Experiences and opinions about chiropractic and referral patterns. The data were then described and compared between the countries. Results In Sweden the response rate was 44.8% and in Norway 45.3%. More than half of the Swedish GPs participating in this study stated that they had poor knowledge about chiropractic, while just a tenth of Norwegian GPs stated the same. Nearly all Norwegian GPs had some experience of chiropractic treatment whilst a fairly large number of the Swedish GPs said that they had no experience at all of chiropractic. It was twice as common for GPs in Norway to refer patients to a chiropractor as compared to Sweden. However, Swedish and Norwegian GPs agreed that chiropractors were competent to treat musculo-skeletal conditions with an adequate education to be part of mainstream medicine. Conclusions Swedish and Norwegian GPs agree that chiropractors are competent to treat musculoskeletal conditions. However, there are many differences in GPs perceptions of chiropractic between the two countries and the overall picture indicates that chiropractic is more accepted and recognised as a health care profession in Norway. PMID:24128386

  6. Burn injury during long-term oxygen therapy in Denmark and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanash, Hanan A; Ringbaek, Thomas; Huss, Fredrik

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT) increases life expectancy in patients with COPD and severe hypoxemia. Smoking is the main cause of burn injury during LTOT. Policy regarding smoking while on LTOT varies between countries. In this study, we compare the incidence of burn injury...... end point was burn injury during LTOT. RESULTS: A total of 23,741 patients received LTOT in Denmark and 7,754 patients in Sweden. Most patients started LTOT due to COPD, both in Sweden (74%) and in Denmark (62%). The rate of burn injury while on LTOT was higher in Denmark than in Sweden; 170 (95......% confidence interval [CI], 126-225) vs 85 (95% CI, 44-148) per 100,000 person-years; rate ratio 2.0 (95% CI, 1.0-4.1). The risk remained higher after adjustment for gender, age, and diagnosis in multivariate Cox regression, hazard ratio 1.8 (95% CI, 1.0-3.5). Thirty-day mortality after burn injury was 8...

  7. Out of home care in Norway and Sweden - similar and different

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Backe-Hansen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An overview of the current situation in the out-of-home care in Norway and Sweden is presented in this article; also the development in later years is described and discussed. Socially, politically and culturallythere are few differences between Norway and Sweden. Child protection and out-of-home placement of children and young people are integrated parts in the welfare state that are shared by the Nordic countries. It is a model that builds on principles of universalism and decommodification of social rights. The welfare model presupposes high public legitimacy for a high level of social expenditure. However the idea of marketization and privatization has also affected the welfare model in Sweden and Norway. Although there are more similarities than differences between the two countries' child protection systems, the article discusses some differences, for example the after care services, new groups of children and young people in the out-of-home care, like young unaccompanied asylum seekers. There are also some differences when it comes to privatization, the introduction of evidence-based methods in the child protection system and the tension between general and residual services for children and young people in the child protection system.

  8. Experiences of including costs of added life years in health economic evaluations in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Pirhonen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available It is of importance to include the appropriate costs and outcomes when evaluating a health intervention. Sweden is the only country where the national guidelines of decisions on reimbursement explicitly state that costs of added life years should be accounted for when presenting health economic evaluations. The aim of this article is to, from a theoretical and empirical point of view, critically analyze the Swedish recommendations used by the Dental and Pharmaceutical Benefits Agency (TLV, when it comes to the use of costs of added life years in economic evaluations of health care. The aim is furthermore to analyze the numbers used in Sweden and discuss their impact on the incremental cost‑effectiveness ratios of assessed technologies. If following a societal perspective, based on welfare economics, there is strong support for the inclusion of costs of added life years in health economic evaluations. These costs have a large impact on the results. However this fact may be in conflict with ethical concerns of allocation of health care resources, such as favoring the younger part of the population over the older. It is important that the estimates of production and consumption reflect the true societal values, which is not the case with the values used in Sweden.http://dx.doi.org/10.7175/fe.v15i2.925

  9. Calculation of geomagnetically induced currents in the 400 kV power grid in southern Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wik, M.; Viljanen, A.; Pirjola, R.; Pulkkinen, A.; Wintoft, P.; Lundstedt, H.

    2008-07-01

    Sweden has experienced many geomagnetically induced current (GIC) events in the past, which is obviously due to the high-latitude location of the country. The largest GIC, almost 300 A, was measured in southern Sweden in the earthing lead of a 400 kV transformer neutral during the magnetic storm on 6 April 2000. On 30 October 2003, the city of Malmö at the southern coast suffered from a power blackout caused by GIC, leaving 50,000 customers without electricity for about 20-50 min. We have developed a model that enables calculation of GIC in the southern Swedish 400 kV power grid. This work constitutes the first modeling effort of GIC in Sweden. The model is divided into two parts. The electric field is first derived using a ground conductivity model and geomagnetic recordings from nearby stations. The conductivity model is determined from a least squares fit between measured and calculated GIC. GIC are calculated using a power grid model consisting of the topology of the system and of the transformer, transmission line, and station earthing resistances as well as of the coordinates of the stations. To validate the model, we have compared measured and calculated GIC from one site. In total, 24 events in 1998 to 2000 were used. In general the agreement is satisfactory as the correct GIC order of magnitude is obtained by the model, which is usually enough for engineering applications.

  10. Accelerator-driven nuclear synergetic systems-an overview of the research activities in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conde, H.; Baecklin, A.; Carius, S. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    The rapid development of the accelerator technology which enables the construction of reliable and very intense neutron sources has initiated a growing interest for accelerator driven transmutation systems in Sweden. After the Specialist Meeting on Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technology for Radwaste and other Applications on 24-28 June 1991 at Saltsjoebaden, Sweden, the research activities oriented towards accelerator-driven systems have been started at several research centers in Sweden. Also the governmental agencies responsible for the spent fuel policy showed a positive attitude to these activities through a limited financial support, particularly for studies of the safety aspects of these systems. Also the nuclear power industry and utilities show a positive interest in the research on these concepts. The present paper presents an overview of the Swedish research activities on accelerator-driven systems and the proposed future coordination, organizations and prospects for this research in the context of the national nuclear energy and spent fuel policy. The Swedish perspective for international cooperation is also described.

  11. Ancillary benefits of climate policy in a small open economy: The case of Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krook Riekkola, Anna; Ahlgren, Erik O.; Soederholm, Patrik

    2011-01-01

    It is increasingly recognised that GHG reduction policies can have important ancillary benefits in the form of positive local and regional environmental impacts. The purpose of this paper is to estimate the domestic ancillary pollution benefits of climate policy in Sweden, and investigate how these are affected by different climate policy designs. The latter differ primarily in terms of how the country chooses to meet a specific target and where the necessary emission reductions take place. The analysis relies on simulations within the energy system optimisation model TIMES-Sweden, and focuses on four non-GHG pollutants: Nitrogen Oxides (NO X ), Non Methane Volatile Organic Compounds (NMVOC), inhalable particles (PM 2.5 ), and Sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ). The simulations permit detailed assessments of the respective technology and fuel choices that underlie any net changes in the estimated ancillary effects. The results indicate that the ancillary benefits constitute a far from insignificant share of total system costs, and this share appears to be highest in the scenarios that entail the largest emission reductions domestically. This result reflects the fact that carbon dioxide emission reductions abroad also implies a lost opportunity of achieving substantial domestic welfare gain from the reductions of regional and local environmental pollutants. - Highlights: → We estimate the domestic ancillary pollution benefits of climate policy in Sweden. → These constitute a sizeable share of total system costs. → The ancillary benefits are highest in the policy scenarios that entail the largest emission reductions domestically.

  12. A comparative analysis of coverage decisions for outpatient pharmaceuticals: evidence from Denmark, Norway and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grepstad, Mari; Kanavos, Panos

    2015-02-01

    This study analyses the reasons for differences and similarities in coverage recommendations for outpatient pharmaceuticals in Denmark, Norway and Sweden, following HTA appraisals. A comparative analysis of all outpatient drug appraisals carried out between January 2009 and December 2012, including an analysis of divergent coverage recommendations made by all three countries was performed. Agreement levels between HTA agencies were measured using kappa scores. Consultations with stakeholders in the three countries were carried out to complement the discussion on HTA processes and reimbursement outcomes. Nineteen outpatient drug-indication pairs appraised in each of the three countries were identified, of which 6 pairs (32%) had divergent coverage recommendations. An uneven distribution of coverage recommendations was observed, with the highest overlap in appraisals between Norway and Sweden (free-marginal kappa 0.89). Similarities were found in priority setting principles, mode of appraisal and reasoning for coverage recommendations. The study shows that health economic evaluation is less prominent or explicit in outpatient drug appraisals in Denmark than in Norway and Sweden, that all three countries could benefit from improved communication between appraisers and manufacturers, and that final coverage recommendations rely on factors other than safety, comparative efficacy or cost-effectiveness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Spatial analysis of Neospora caninum distribution in dairy cattle from Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Frössling

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The national herd prevalence and spatial distribution of Neospora caninum infected dairy herds in Sweden were investigated. The study was based on a bulk milk survey comprising samples from 2,978 herds. Test-positive herds were found in all parts of Sweden and the overall prevalence of test-positive herds was 8.3% (95% confidence interval = 7.3-9.3%. The presence of spatial autocorrelation was tested using the Moran’s I test. Possible clusters of test-positive herds were identified by applying the local indicator of spatial association (LISA test statistic and the spatial scan statistic. Analysis based on data aggregated by postal code areas as well as analysis based on exact coordinates identified significant clusters of high prevalence in the middle parts of Sweden and low prevalence in the south. This was not expected considering the results from other European studies of N. caninum in cattle. However, the findings are supported by the distribution of previously known case herds.

  14. Stream plant chemistry as indicator of acid sulphate soils in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. LAX

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Results from the biogeochemical mapping (roots of aquatic plants and Fontinalis antipyretica conducted by the Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU reflects the metal load of surface waters draining acid sulphate (AS soils in Sweden. In this study, results from the biogeochemical, soil geochemical and Quaternary mapping programmes at SGU were used to investigate the impact of fine-grained deposits hosting AS soils on stream water trace element chemistry in two separate areas. In the area around Lake Mälaren, postglacial sediments contain the highest levels of most trace elements studied. Owing to the low pH of AS soils and subsequent leaching, levels of nickel (Ni, cobalt (Co, copper (Cu, sulphur (S, yttrium (Y, uranium (U, tungsten (W, and molybdenum (Mo were significantly elevated in aquatic roots. Levels were lower in the Skellefteå area, which may be explained by lower concentrations in source deposits. Concentrations of arsenic (As and lead (Pb were normal or impoverished in biogeochemical samples from postglacial, finegrained sediment areas. Maps based on ratios (Ni:Pb or Y:Pb in biogeochemical samples can, together with results from Quaternary mapping, be used to predict areas with AS soils in Sweden.;

  15. Smoking rate and periodontal disease prevalence: 40-year trends in Sweden 1970-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergstrom, Jan

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the relationship between smoking rate and periodontal disease prevalence in Sweden. National smoking rates were found from Swedish National Statistics on smoking habits. Based on smoking rates for the years 1970-2010, periodontal disease prevalence estimates were calculated for the age bracket 40-70 years and smoking-associated relative risks between 2.0 and 20.0. The impact of smoking on the population was estimated according to the concept of population attributable fraction. The age-standardized smoking rate in Sweden declined from 44% in 1970 to 15% in 2010. In parallel with the smoking decline the calculated prevalence estimate of periodontal disease dropped from 26% to 12% assuming a 10-fold smoking-associated relative risk. Even at more moderate magnitudes of the relative risk, e.g. 2-fold or 5-fold, the prevalence decrease was quite tangible, suggesting that the current prevalence in Sweden is about 20-50% of the level 40 years ago. The population attributable fraction, estimating the portion of the disease that would have been avoided in the absence of smoking, was 80% in 1970 and 58% in 2010 at a ten-fold relative risk. Calculated estimates of periodontal disease prevalence are closely related to real changes in smoking rate. As smoking rate drops periodontal disease prevalence will drop. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Cases of human brucellosis in Sweden linked to Middle East and Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofolo, Giuliano; Fasanella, Antonio; Di Giannatale, Elisabetta; Platone, Ilenia; Sacchini, Lorena; Persiani, Tiziana; Boskani, Talar; Rizzardi, Kristina; Wahab, Tara

    2016-05-17

    Human brucellosis cases are still reported each year in Sweden despite eradication of the disease in animals. Epidemiological investigation has never been conducted to trace back the source of human infection in the country. The purpose of the study was to identify the source of infection for 16 human brucellosis cases that occurred in Sweden, during the period 2008-2012. The isolates were identified as Brucella melitensis and MLVA-16 genotyping revealed 14 different genotypes of East Mediterranean and Africa lineages. We also reported one case of laboratory-acquired brucellosis (LAB) that was shown to be epidemiological linked to one of the cases in the current study. Brucella melitensis was the only species diagnosed, confirming its highest zoonotic potential in the genus Brucella, and MLVA-16 results demonstrated that the cases of brucellosis in Sweden herein investigated, are imported and linked to travel in the Middle East and Africa. Due to its zoonotic concerns, any acute febrile illness linked to recent travel within those regions should be investigated for brucellosis and samples should be processed according to biosafety level 3 regulations.

  17. High use of sedatives and hypnotics in ethnic minorities in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjern, A

    2001-02-01

    To study use of analgesics, and psychotropic drugs in relation to health indicators in four ethnic minorities in Sweden in comparison with Swedish-born. Cross-sectional study based on data from the Survey of Living Conditions and Immigrant Survey of Living Conditions in Sweden in 1996. Random samples of 1890 Swedish residents, in the age range 27-60 years, born in Chile, Poland, Turkey and Iran and 2452 age-matched Swedish-born residents. A two fold higher use of prescribed analgesics and antidepressants and a five to sixfold higher use of hypnotic and sedative drugs was demonstrated in members of ethnic minorities in Sweden in comparison with Swedish-born. In a multivariate analysis the higher use of prescribed analgesics and antidepressants was explained almost entirely by a higher morbidity in the minority study groups. A twofold higher use of sedatives and hypnotics was demonstrated in the minority study populations compared to the Swedish-born sample even after adjustment for extensive indicators of psychiatric and physical health in the multivariate analysis. The higher use of sedatives and hypnotics in relation to health in the minority samples in the present study indicates a differential treatment of minor psychiatric disorders of members of ethnic minorities in Swedish health services. Further studies that yield more qualitative data regarding the interaction of Swedish physicians with migrant patients are needed to explain these differences and to create a basis for intervention.

  18. Alcohol Consumption in Southern Sweden after Major Decreases in Danish Spirits Taxes and Increases in Swedish Travellers’ Quotas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Nina-Katri J.

    2010-01-01

    Background In 2003, Denmark lowered its tax on spirits, and in 2004, Sweden increased its traveller import quotas. Aim: The aim of the study was to determine whether these two changes increased self-reported alcohol consumption in southern Sweden, which is located near Denmark. Method Data were collected through telephone interviews with the general population between 2003 and 2006. Individuals aged 16–80 years were interviewed. Some lived in southern Sweden, others in the northern region, which was assumed to be unaffected by the policy changes and was thus used as a control site. Analyses were performed for the total population as well as by sex, age, socio-economic group and consumption pattern. Results The expected results were not found: alcohol consumption in southern Sweden had not changed. The few statistically significant changes found in southern Sweden indicated decreases. In the north, however, consumption seemed to have increased. Conclusion In addition to the two policy changes mentioned above, other changes seem to have affected alcohol consumption in Sweden. It is possible, however, that the policy changes have affected population groups not reached by the survey, and thus other types of data need to be analysed before drawing any far-reaching conclusions. PMID:20453510

  19. Changes in the geographical distribution and abundance of the tick Ixodes ricinus during the past 30 years in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaenson Thomas GT

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ixodes ricinus is the main vector in Europe of human-pathogenic Lyme borreliosis (LB spirochaetes, the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV and other pathogens of humans and domesticated mammals. The results of a previous 1994 questionnaire, directed at people living in Central and North Sweden (Svealand and Norrland and aiming to gather information about tick exposure for humans and domestic animals, suggested that Ixodes ricinus ticks had become more widespread in Central Sweden and the southern part of North Sweden from the early 1980s to the early 1990s. To investigate whether the expansion of the tick's northern geographical range and the increasing abundance of ticks in Sweden were still occurring, in 2009 we performed a follow-up survey 16 years after the initial study. Methods A questionnaire similar to the one used in the 1994 study was published in Swedish magazines aimed at dog owners, home owners, and hunters. The questionnaire was published together with a popular science article about the tick's biology and role as a pathogen vector in Sweden. The magazines were selected to get information from people familiar with ticks and who spend time in areas where ticks might be present. Results Analyses of data from both surveys revealed that during the near 30-year period from the early 1980s to 2008, I. ricinus has expanded its distribution range northwards. In the early 1990s ticks were found in new areas along the northern coastline of the Baltic Sea, while in the 2009 study, ticks were reported for the first time from many locations in North Sweden. This included locations as far north as 66°N and places in the interior part of North Sweden. During this 16-year period the tick's range in Sweden was estimated to have increased by 9.9%. Most of the range expansion occurred in North Sweden (north of 60°N where the tick's coverage area doubled from 12.5% in the early 1990s to 26.8% in 2008. Moreover, according to the

  20. Changes in the geographical distribution and abundance of the tick Ixodes ricinus during the past 30 years in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaenson, Thomas G T; Jaenson, David G E; Eisen, Lars; Petersson, Erik; Lindgren, Elisabet

    2012-01-10

    Ixodes ricinus is the main vector in Europe of human-pathogenic Lyme borreliosis (LB) spirochaetes, the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and other pathogens of humans and domesticated mammals. The results of a previous 1994 questionnaire, directed at people living in Central and North Sweden (Svealand and Norrland) and aiming to gather information about tick exposure for humans and domestic animals, suggested that Ixodes ricinus ticks had become more widespread in Central Sweden and the southern part of North Sweden from the early 1980s to the early 1990s. To investigate whether the expansion of the tick's northern geographical range and the increasing abundance of ticks in Sweden were still occurring, in 2009 we performed a follow-up survey 16 years after the initial study. A questionnaire similar to the one used in the 1994 study was published in Swedish magazines aimed at dog owners, home owners, and hunters. The questionnaire was published together with a popular science article about the tick's biology and role as a pathogen vector in Sweden. The magazines were selected to get information from people familiar with ticks and who spend time in areas where ticks might be present. Analyses of data from both surveys revealed that during the near 30-year period from the early 1980s to 2008, I. ricinus has expanded its distribution range northwards. In the early 1990s ticks were found in new areas along the northern coastline of the Baltic Sea, while in the 2009 study, ticks were reported for the first time from many locations in North Sweden. This included locations as far north as 66°N and places in the interior part of North Sweden. During this 16-year period the tick's range in Sweden was estimated to have increased by 9.9%. Most of the range expansion occurred in North Sweden (north of 60°N) where the tick's coverage area doubled from 12.5% in the early 1990s to 26.8% in 2008. Moreover, according to the respondents, the abundance of ticks had increased