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Sample records for gt1-7 gnrh cells

  1. Effects of Huang Bai (Phellodendri Cortex and Three Other Herbs on GnRH and GH Levels in GT17 and GH3 Cells

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    Sun Haeng Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was to evaluate the effects of Huang Bai, Zhi Mu, Mai Ya, and Xia Ku Cao on hormone using the GT17 and GH3 cells. The GT17 and GH3 cell lines were incubated with DW; DMSO; and 30, 100, or 300 μg/mL of one of the four extract solutions in serum-free media for 24 hours. The MTT assay was performed to determine the cytotoxicity of the four herbs. The GT17 and GH3 cells were incubated in DW, estradiol (GT17 only, or noncytotoxic herb solutions in serum-free medium for 24 hours. A quantitative RT-PCR and western blot were performed to measure the GnRH expression in GT17 cells and GH expression in GH3 cells. Huang Bai, Zhi Mu, Xia Ku Cao, and Mai Ya inhibited the GnRH mRNA expression in GT17 cells, whereas Huang Bai enhanced GH mRNA expression in GH3 cells. Additionally, Xia Ku Cao inhibited GnRH protein expression in GT17 cells and Huang Bai promoted GH protein expression in GH3 cells. The findings suggest that Huang Bai can delay puberty by inhibiting GnRH synthesis in the hypothalamus while also accelerating growth by promoting GH synthesis and secretion in the pituitary.

  2. Expression of feeding-related peptide receptors mRNA in GT1-7 cell line and roles of leptin and orexins in control of GnRH secretion.

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    Yang, Ying; Zhou, Li-bin; Liu, Shang-quan; Tang, Jing-feng; Li, Feng-yin; Li, Rong-ying; Song, Huai-dong; Chen, Ming-dao

    2005-08-01

    To investigate the expression of feeding-related peptide receptors mRNA in GT1-7 cell line and roles of leptin and orexins in the control of GnRH secretion. Receptors of bombesin3, cholecystokinin (CCK)-A, CCK-B, glucagon-like peptide (GLP)1, melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH)1, orexin1, orexin2, neuromedin-B, neuropeptide Y (NPY)1 and NPY5, neurotensin (NT)1, NT2, NT3, and leptin receptor long form mRNA in GT1-7 cells were detected by reversed transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. GT1-7 cells were treated with leptin, orexin A and orexin B at a cohort of concentrations for different lengths of time, and GnRH in medium was determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Receptors of bombesin 3, CCK-B, GLP1, MCH1, orexin1, neuromedin-B, NPY1, NPY5, NT1, NT3, and leptin receptor long form mRNA were expressed in GT1-7 cells, of which, receptors of GLP1, neuromedin-B, NPY1, and NT3 were highly expressed. No amplified fragments of orexin2, NT2, and CCK-A receptor cDNA were generated with GT1-7 RNA, indicating that the GT1-7 cells did not express mRNA of them. Leptin induced a significant stimulation of GnRH release, the results being most significant at 0.1 nmol/L for 15 min. In contrast to other studies in hypothalamic explants, neither orexin A nor orexin B affected basal GnRH secretion over a wide range of concentrations ranging from 1 nmol/L to 500 nmol/Lat 15, 30, and 60 min. Feeding and reproductive function are closely linked. Many orexigenic and anorexigenic signals may control feeding behavior as well as alter GnRH secretion through their receptors on GnRH neurons.

  3. In vitro evidence of glucose-induced toxicity in GnRH secreting neurons: high glucose concentrations influence GnRH secretion, impair cell viability, and induce apoptosis in the GT1-1 neuronal cell line.

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    Pal, Lubna; Chu, Hsiao-Pai; Shu, Jun; Topalli, Ilir; Santoro, Nanette; Karkanias, George

    2007-10-01

    To evaluate for direct toxic effects of high glucose concentrations on cellular physiology in GnRH secreting immortalized GT1-1 neurons. Prospective experimental design. In vitro experimental model using a cell culture system. GT1-1 cells were cultured in replicates in media with two different glucose concentrations (450 mg/dL and 100 mg/dL, respectively) for varying time intervals (24, 48, and 72 hours). Effects of glucose concentrations on GnRH secretion by the GT1-1 neurons were evaluated using a static culture model. Cell viability, cellular apoptosis, and cell cycle events in GT1-1 neurons maintained in two different glucose concentrations were assessed by flow cytometry (fluorescence-activated cell sorter) using Annexin V-PI staining. Adverse influences of high glucose concentrations on GnRH secretion and cell viability were noted in cultures maintained in high glucose concentration (450 mg/dL) culture medium for varying time intervals. A significantly higher percentage of cells maintained in high glucose concentration medium demonstrated evidence of apoptosis by a fluorescence-activated cell sorter. We provide in vitro evidence of glucose-induced cellular toxicity in GnRH secreting GT1-1 neurons. Significant alterations in GnRH secretion, reduced cell viability, and a higher percentage of apoptotic cells were observed in GT1-1 cells maintained in high (450 mg/dL) compared with low (100 mg/dL) glucose concentration culture medium.

  4. Estrogen modulates potassium currents and expression of the Kv4.2 subunit in GT1-7 cells.

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    Farkas, Imre; Varju, Patricia; Liposits, Zsolt

    2007-03-01

    The proper maintenance of reproduction requires the pulsatile secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), which is ensured by synchronized periodic firing of multiple GnRH neurons. Both hormone secretion and electrophysiological properties of GnRH cells are influenced by estrogen. The impact of 17beta-estradiol treatment on the function of voltage gated A- and K-type potassium channels, known modulators of firing rate, was therefore examined in our experiments using immortalized GnRH-producing GT1-7 neurons. Whole cell patch clamp recordings showed the absence of the A-type current in GT1-7 cells cultured in estrogen-free medium and after 8h 17beta-estradiol treatment. Exposure of the cells to 17beta-estradiol for 24 and 48 h, respectively, resulted in the appearance of the A-type current. The induction of the A-type current by 17beta-estradiol was dose-related (50 pM to 15 nM range). In contrast, the K-type potassium current was apparent in the estrogen-free environment and 17beta-estradiol administration significantly decreased its amplitude. Co-administration of 17beta-estradiol and estrogen receptor blocker, Faslodex (ICI 182,780; 1 microM) abolished the occurrence of the A-type current. Real-time PCR data demonstrated that expression of the Kv4.2 subunit of the A-type channel was low at 0, 0.5, 2 and 8h, peaked at 24h and diminished at 48 h 17beta-estradiol treatment (15 nM). These data indicate that potassium channels of GT1-7 neurons are regulated by estrogen a mechanism that might contribute to modulation of firing rate and hormone secretion in GnRH neurons.

  5. Differential protein expression profile in the hypothalamic GT1-7 cell line after exposure to anabolic androgenic steroids.

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    Freddyson J Martínez-Rivera

    Full Text Available The abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS has been considered a major public health problem during decades. Supraphysiological doses of AAS may lead to a variety of neuroendocrine problems. Precisely, the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis is one of the body systems that is mainly influenced by steroidal hormones. Fluctuations of the hormonal milieu result in alterations of reproductive function, which are made through changes in hypothalamic neurons expressing gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH. In fact, previous studies have shown that AAS modulate the activity of these neurons through steroid-sensitive afferents. To increase knowledge about the cellular mechanisms induced by AAS in GnRH neurons, we performed proteomic analyses of the murine hypothalamic GT1-7 cell line after exposure to 17α-methyltestosterone (17α-meT; 1 μM. These cells represent a good model for studying regulatory processes because they exhibit the typical characteristics of GnRH neurons, and respond to compounds that modulate GnRH in vivo. Two-dimensional difference in gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE and mass spectrometry analyses identified a total of 17 different proteins that were significantly affected by supraphysiological levels of AAS. Furthermore, pathway analyses showed that modulated proteins were mainly associated to glucose metabolism, drug detoxification, stress response and cell cycle. Validation of many of these proteins, such as GSTM1, ERH, GAPDH, PEBP1 and PDIA6, were confirmed by western blotting. We further demonstrated that AAS exposure decreased expression of estrogen receptors and GnRH, while two important signaling pathway proteins p-ERK, and p-p38, were modulated. Our results suggest that steroids have the capacity to directly affect the neuroendocrine system by modulating key cellular processes for the control of reproductive function.

  6. Selective propagation of mouse-passaged scrapie prions with long incubation period from a mixed prion population using GT1-7 cells.

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    Kohtaro Miyazawa

    Full Text Available In our previous study, we demonstrated the propagation of mouse-passaged scrapie isolates with long incubation periods (L-type derived from natural Japanese sheep scrapie cases in murine hypothalamic GT1-7 cells, along with disease-associated prion protein (PrPSc accumulation. We here analyzed the susceptibility of GT1-7 cells to scrapie prions by exposure to infected mouse brains at different passages, following interspecies transmission. Wild-type mice challenged with a natural sheep scrapie case (Kanagawa exhibited heterogeneity of transmitted scrapie prions in early passages, and this mixed population converged upon one with a short incubation period (S-type following subsequent passages. However, when GT1-7 cells were challenged with these heterologous samples, L-type prions became dominant. This study demonstrated that the susceptibility of GT1-7 cells to L-type prions was at least 105 times higher than that to S-type prions and that L-type prion-specific biological characteristics remained unchanged after serial passages in GT1-7 cells. This suggests that a GT1-7 cell culture model would be more useful for the economical and stable amplification of L-type prions at the laboratory level. Furthermore, this cell culture model might be used to selectively propagate L-type scrapie prions from a mixed prion population.

  7. A small population of hypothalamic neurons govern fertility: the critical role of VAX1 in GnRH neuron development and fertility maintenance.

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    Hoffmann, Hanne M; Mellon, Pamela L

    2016-01-01

    GT1-7, we show that VAX1 is a direct regulator of Gnrh1 transcription by binding key ATTA sites within the Gnrh1 promoter. This study identifies VAX1 as a key transcription factor regulating GnRH expression and establishes VAX1 as a novel candidate gene implicated in heritable infertility.

  8. In silico and in situ characterization of the zebrafish (Danio rerio gnrh3 (sGnRH gene

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    Husebye Harald

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH is responsible for stimulation of gonadotropic hormone (GtH in the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPG. The regulatory mechanisms responsible for brain specificity make the promoter attractive for in silico analysis and reporter gene studies in zebrafish (Danio rerio. Results We have characterized a zebrafish [Trp7, Leu8] or salmon (s GnRH variant, gnrh3. The gene includes a 1.6 Kb upstream regulatory region and displays the conserved structure of 4 exons and 3 introns, as seen in other species. An in silico defined enhancer at -976 in the zebrafish promoter, containing adjacent binding sites for Oct-1, CREB and Sp1, was predicted in 2 mammalian and 5 teleost GnRH promoters. Reporter gene studies confirmed the importance of this enhancer for cell specific expression in zebrafish. Interestingly the promoter of human GnRH-I, known as mammalian GnRH (mGnRH, was shown capable of driving cell specific reporter gene expression in transgenic zebrafish. Conclusions The characterized zebrafish Gnrh3 decapeptide exhibits complete homology to the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar GnRH-III variant. In silico analysis of mammalian and teleost GnRH promoters revealed a conserved enhancer possessing binding sites for Oct-1, CREB and Sp1. Transgenic and transient reporter gene expression in zebrafish larvae, confirmed the importance of the in silico defined zebrafish enhancer at -976. The capability of the human GnRH-I promoter of directing cell specific reporter gene expression in zebrafish supports orthology between GnRH-I and GnRH-III.

  9. Do GnRH analogues directly affect human endometrial epithelial cell gene expression?

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    Zhang, Xiaomei

    2010-03-04

    We examined whether Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogues [leuprolide acetate (LA) and ganirelix acetate (GA)] modulate gene expression in Ishikawa cells used as surrogate for human endometrial epithelial cells in vitro. The specific aims were: (i) to study the modulatory effect of GnRH analogues by RT-PCR [in the absence and presence of E2 and P4, and cyclic adenosine monophos-phate (cAMP)] on mRNA expression of genes modulated during the window of implantation in GnRH analogues/rFSH-treated assisted reproductive technology cycles including OPTINEURIN (OPTN), CHROMATIN MODIFYING PROTEIN (CHMP1A), PROSAPOSIN (PSAP), IGFBP-5 and SORTING NEXIN 7 (SNX7), and (ii) to analyze the 5\\'-flanking regions of such genes for the presence of putative steroid-response elements [estrogen-response elements (EREs) and P4-response element (PREs)]. Ishikawa cells were cytokeratin+/vimentin2 and expressed ERa,ERb, PR and GnRH-R proteins. At 6 and 24 h, neither LA nor GA alone had an effect on gene expression. GnRH analogues alone or following E2 and/or P4 co-incubation for 24 h also had no effect on gene expression, but P4 significantly increased expression of CHMP1A.E2 + P4 treatment for 4 days, alone or followed by GA, had no effect, but E2 + P4 treatment followed by LA significantly decreased IGFBP-5 expression. The addition of 8-Br cAMP did not modify gene expression, with the exception of IGFBP-5 that was significantly increased. The GnRH analogues did not modify intracellular cAMP levels. We identified conserved EREs for OPN, CHMP1A, SNX7 and PSAP and PREs for SNX7. We conclude that GnRH analogues appear not to have major direct effects on gene expression of human endo-metrial epithelial cells in vitro. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oxfordjournals.org.

  10. An In Vitro System Comprising Immortalized Hypothalamic Neuronal Cells (GT1?7 Cells) for Evaluation of the Neuroendocrine Effects of Essential Oils

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    Mizuno, Dai; Konoha-Mizuno, Keiko; Mori, Miwako; Yamazaki, Kentaro; Haneda, Toshihiro; Koyama, Hironari; Kawahara, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    Aromatherapy and plant-based essential oils are widely used as complementary and alternative therapies for symptoms including anxiety. Furthermore, it was reportedly effective for the care of several diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease and depressive illness. To investigate the pharmacological effects of essential oils, we developed an in vitro assay system using immortalized hypothalamic neuronal cells (GT17 cells). In this study, we evaluated the effects of essential oils on neuronal deat...

  11. Brain pericyte-derived soluble factors enhance insulin sensitivity in GT1-7 hypothalamic neurons.

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    Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Takata, Fuyuko; Matsumoto, Junichi; Machida, Takashi; Yamauchi, Atsushi; Dohgu, Shinya; Kataoka, Yasufumi

    2015-02-20

    Insulin signaling in the hypothalamus plays an important role in food intake and glucose homeostasis. Hypothalamic neuronal functions are modulated by glial cells; these form an extensive network connecting the neurons and cerebral vasculature, known as the neurovascular unit (NVU). Brain pericytes are periendothelial accessory structures of the blood-brain barrier and integral members of the NVU. However, the interaction between pericytes and neurons is largely unexplored. Here, we investigate whether brain pericytes could affect hypothalamic neuronal insulin signaling. Our immunohistochemical observations demonstrated the existence of pericytes in the mouse hypothalamus, exhibiting immunoreactivity of platelet-derived growth factor receptor β (a pericyte marker), and laminin, a basal lamina marker. We then exposed a murine hypothalamic neuronal cell line, GT1-7, to conditioned medium obtained from primary cultures of rat brain pericytes. Pericyte-conditioned medium (PCM), but not astrocyte- or aortic smooth muscle cell-conditioned medium, increased the insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt in GT1-7 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. PCM also enhanced insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor β without changing its expression or localization in cytosolic or plasma membrane fractions. These results suggest that pericytes, rather than astrocytes, increase insulin sensitivity in hypothalamic neurons by releasing soluble factors under physiological conditions in the NVU. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. GnRH signalling pathways and GnRH-induced homologous desensitization in a gonadotrope cell line (alphaT3-1).

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    Poulin, B; Rich, N; Mas, J L; Kordon, C; Enjalbert, A; Drouva, S V

    1998-07-25

    Exposure of the gonadotrope cells to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) reduces their responsiveness to a new GnRH stimulation (homologous desensitization). The time frame as well as the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are yet unclear. We studied in a gonadotrope cell line (alphaT3-1) the effects of short as well as long term GnRH pretreatments on the GnRH-induced phospholipases-C (PLC), -A2 (PLA2) and -D (PLD) activities, by measuring the production of IP3, total inositol phosphates (IPs), arachidonic acid (AA) and phosphatidylethanol (PEt) respectively. We demonstrated that although rapid desensitization of GnRH-induced IP3 formation did not occur in these cells, persistent stimulation of cells with GnRH or its analogue resulted in a time-dependent attenuation of GnRH-elicited IPs formation. GnRH-induced IPs desensitization was potentiated after direct activation of PKC by the phorbol ester TPA, suggesting the involvement of distinct mechanisms in the uncoupling exerted by either GnRH or TPA on GnRH-stimulated PI hydrolysis. The levels of individual phosphoinositides remained unchanged under any desensitization condition applied. Interestingly, while the GnRH-induced PLA2 activity was rapidly desensitized (2.5 min) after GnRH pretreatments, the neuropeptide-evoked PLD activation was affected at later times, indicating an important time-dependent contribution of these enzymatic activities in the sequential events underlying the GnRH-induced homologous desensitization processes in the gonadotropes. Under GnRH desensitization conditions, TPA was still able to induce PLD activation and to further potentiate the GnRH-evoked PLD activity. AlphaT3-1 cells possess several PKC isoforms which, except PKCzeta, were differentially down-regulated by TPA (PKCalpha, betaII, delta, epsilon, eta) or GnRH (PKCbetaII, delta, epsilon, eta). In spite of the presence of PKC inhibitors or down-regulation of PKC isoforms by TPA, the desensitizing effect of the neuropeptide on

  13. Ghrelin decreases firing activity of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH neurons in an estrous cycle and endocannabinoid signaling dependent manner.

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    Imre Farkas

    Full Text Available The orexigenic peptide, ghrelin is known to influence function of GnRH neurons, however, the direct effects of the hormone upon these neurons have not been explored, yet. The present study was undertaken to reveal expression of growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R in GnRH neurons and elucidate the mechanisms of ghrelin actions upon them. Ca(2+-imaging revealed a ghrelin-triggered increase of the Ca(2+-content in GT1-7 neurons kept in a steroid-free medium, which was abolished by GHS-R-antagonist JMV2959 (10 µM suggesting direct action of ghrelin. Estradiol (1nM eliminated the ghrelin-evoked rise of Ca(2+-content, indicating the estradiol dependency of the process. Expression of GHS-R mRNA was then confirmed in GnRH-GFP neurons of transgenic mice by single cell RT-PCR. Firing rate and burst frequency of GnRH-GFP neurons were lower in metestrous than proestrous mice. Ghrelin (40 nM-4 μM administration resulted in a decreased firing rate and burst frequency of GnRH neurons in metestrous, but not in proestrous mice. Ghrelin also decreased the firing rate of GnRH neurons in males. The ghrelin-evoked alterations of the firing parameters were prevented by JMV2959, supporting the receptor-specific actions of ghrelin on GnRH neurons. In metestrous mice, ghrelin decreased the frequency of GABAergic mPSCs in GnRH neurons. Effects of ghrelin were abolished by the cannabinoid receptor type-1 (CB1 antagonist AM251 (1µM and the intracellularly applied DAG-lipase inhibitor THL (10 µM, indicating the involvement of retrograde endocannabinoid signaling. These findings demonstrate that ghrelin exerts direct regulatory effects on GnRH neurons via GHS-R, and modulates the firing of GnRH neurons in an ovarian-cycle and endocannabinoid dependent manner.

  14. Melatonin Inhibits GnRH-1, GnRH-3 and GnRH Receptor Expression in the Brain of the European Sea Bass, Dicentrarchus labrax

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    José Antonio Muñoz-Cueto

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Several evidences supported the existence of melatonin effects on reproductive system in fish. In order to investigate whether melatonin is involved in the modulation of GnRH systems in the European sea bass, we have injected melatonin (0.5 µg/g body mass in male specimens. The brain mRNA transcript levels of the three GnRH forms and the five GnRH receptors present in this species were determined by real time quantitative PCR. Our findings revealed day–night variations in the brain expression of GnRH-1, GnRH-3 and several GnRH receptors (dlGnRHR-II-1c, -2a, which exhibited higher transcript levels at mid-light compared to mid-dark phase of the photocycle. Moreover, an inhibitory effect of melatonin on the nocturnal expression of GnRH-1, GnRH-3, and GnRH receptors subtypes 1c, 2a and 2b was also demonstrated. Interestingly, the inhibitory effect of melatonin affected the expression of hypophysiotrophic GnRH forms and GnRH receptors that exhibit day–night fluctuations, suggesting that exogenous melatonin reinforce physiological mechanisms already established. These interactions between melatoninergic and GnRH systems could be mediating photoperiod effects on reproductive and other rhythmic physiological events in the European sea bass.

  15. Temporal profile of estrogen-dependent gene expression in LHRH-producing GT1-7 cells.

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    Varju, Patricia; Chang, Ken C; Hrabovszky, Erik; Merchenthaler, István; Liposits, Zsolt

    2009-02-01

    The long-term cellular effects of estrogens are mediated by nuclear estrogen receptors which act as transcription factors to regulate gene expression. Hypothalamic targets of estrogen action include luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone-secreting neurons controlling reproduction in vertebrates. Microarray analysis and qRT-PCR studies were performed on GT1-7, immortalized LHRH neurons after 17beta-estradiol treatment to reveal the nature of estrogen-regulated genes and the time course of changes in their expression profile. More than 1000 transcripts showed robust responses to estrogen treatment and the majority of responding genes were up-regulated. Early-responding genes showed altered expression 0.5-2h after estrogen exposure, whereas late-responding genes changed after 24-48h treatment. Up-regulated genes encoded transcription factors, molecules involved in cellular movement, cell death, immune response, neurotransmitter and neuropeptide receptors, ion channels and transporters. The 17beta-estradiol modulation of 12 genes - representing characteristic gene clusters - has been confirmed by qRT-PCR. Our studies highlighted diverse gene networks, cell regulatory mechanisms and metabolic pathways through which estrogen may alter gene expression in immortalized LHRH neurons. The findings also support the notion that genomic effects of estrogen targeting in vivo directly the LHRH neuronal network of mammals play an important role in the central feedback regulation of the reproductive axis by estrogen.

  16. Hedgehog-PKA signaling and gnrh3 regulate the development of zebrafish gnrh3 neurons.

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    Ming-Wei Kuo

    Full Text Available GnRH neurons secrete GnRH that controls the development of the reproduction system. Despite many studies, the signals controlling the development of GnRH neurons from its progenitors have not been fully established. To understand the development of GnRH neurons, we examined the development of gnrh3-expressing cells using a transgenic zebrafish line that expresses green fluorescent protein (GFP and LacZ driven by the gnrh3 promoter. GFP and LacZ expression recapitulated that of gnrh3 in the olfactory region, olfactory bulb and telencephalon. Depletion of gnrh3 by morpholinos led to a reduction of GFP- and gnrh3-expressing cells, while over-expression of gnrh3 mRNA increased the number of these cells. This result indicates a positive feed-forward regulation of gnrh3 cells by gnrh3. The gnrh3 cells were absent in embryos that lack Hedgehog signaling, but their numbers were increased in embryos overexpressing shhb. We manipulated the amounts of kinase that antagonizes the Hedgehog signaling pathway, protein kinase A (PKA, by treating embryos with PKA activator forskolin or by injecting mRNAs encoding its constitutively active catalytic subunit (PKA* and dominant negative regulatory subunit (PKI into zebrafish embryos. PKA* misexpression or forskolin treatment decreased GFP cell numbers, while PKI misexpression led to ectopic production of GFP cells. Our data indicate that the Hedgehog-PKA pathway participates in the development of gnrh3-expressing neurons during embryogenesis.

  17. Main: GT1CONSENSUS [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available m of GT-1 may be achieved through direct interaction between TFIIA and GT-1; Binding of GT-1-like factors to the PR-1a promoter influ...ences the level of SA-inducible gene expression; GT-1; light; TATA; TFIIA; TBP; HR;

  18. GnRH receptor activation competes at a low level with growth signaling in stably transfected human breast cell lines

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    Morgan, Kevin; Meyer, Colette; Miller, Nicola; Sims, Andrew H; Cagnan, Ilgin; Faratian, Dana; Harrison, David J; Millar, Robert P; Langdon, Simon P

    2011-01-01

    Gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) analogs lower estrogen levels in pre-menopausal breast cancer patients. GnRH receptor (GnRH-R) activation also directly inhibits the growth of certain cells. The applicability of GnRH anti-proliferation to breast cancer was therefore analyzed. GnRH-R expression in 298 primary breast cancer samples was measured by quantitative immunofluorescence. Levels of functional GnRH-R in breast-derived cell lines were assessed using 125 I-ligand binding and stimulation of 3 H-inositol phosphate production. Elevated levels of GnRH-R were stably expressed in cells by transfection. Effects of receptor activation on in vitro cell growth were investigated in comparison with IGF-I and EGF receptor inhibition, and correlated with intracellular signaling using western blotting. GnRH-R immunoscoring was highest in hormone receptor (triple) negative and grade 3 breast tumors. However prior to transfection, functional endogenous GnRH-R were undetectable in four commonly studied breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, ZR-75-1, T47D and MDA-MB-231). After transfection with GnRH-R, high levels of cell surface GnRH-R were detected in SVCT and MDA-MB-231 clones while low-moderate levels of GnRH-R occurred in MCF-7 clones and ZR-75-1 clones. MCF-7 sub-clones with high levels of GnRH-R were isolated following hygromycin phosphotransferase transfection. High level cell surface GnRH-R enabled induction of high levels of 3 H-inositol phosphate and modest growth-inhibition in SVCT cells. In contrast, growth of MCF-7, ZR-75-1 or MDA-MB-231 clones was unaffected by GnRH-R activation. Cell growth was inhibited by IGF-I or EGF receptor inhibitors. IGF-I receptor inhibitor lowered levels of p-ERK1/2 in MCF-7 clones. Washout of IGF-I receptor inhibitor resulted in transient hyper-elevation of p-ERK1/2, but co-addition of GnRH-R agonist did not alter the dynamics of ERK1/2 re-phosphorylation. Breast cancers exhibit a range of GnRH-R immunostaining, with higher levels of

  19. Chronic exposure to KATP channel openers results in attenuated glucose sensing in hypothalamic GT1-7 neurons.

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    Haythorne, Elizabeth; Hamilton, D Lee; Findlay, John A; Beall, Craig; McCrimmon, Rory J; Ashford, Michael L J

    2016-12-01

    Individuals with Type 1 diabetes (T1D) are often exposed to recurrent episodes of hypoglycaemia. This reduces hormonal and behavioural responses that normally counteract low glucose in order to maintain glucose homeostasis, with altered responsiveness of glucose sensing hypothalamic neurons implicated. Although the molecular mechanisms are unknown, pharmacological studies implicate hypothalamic ATP-sensitive potassium channel (K ATP ) activity, with K ATP openers (KCOs) amplifying, through cell hyperpolarization, the response to hypoglycaemia. Although initial findings, using acute hypothalamic KCO delivery, in rats were promising, chronic exposure to the KCO NN414 worsened the responses to subsequent hypoglycaemic challenge. To investigate this further we used GT1-7 cells to explore how NN414 affected glucose-sensing behaviour, the metabolic response of cells to hypoglycaemia and K ATP activity. GT1-7 cells exposed to 3 or 24 h NN414 exhibited an attenuated hyperpolarization to subsequent hypoglycaemic challenge or NN414, which correlated with diminished K ATP activity. The reduced sensitivity to hypoglycaemia was apparent 24 h after NN414 removal, even though intrinsic K ATP activity recovered. The NN414-modified glucose responsiveness was not associated with adaptations in glucose uptake, metabolism or oxidation. K ATP inactivation by NN414 was prevented by the concurrent presence of tolbutamide, which maintains K ATP closure. Single channel recordings indicate that NN414 alters K ATP intrinsic gating inducing a stable closed or inactivated state. These data indicate that exposure of hypothalamic glucose sensing cells to chronic NN414 drives a sustained conformational change to K ATP , probably by binding to SUR1, that results in loss of channel sensitivity to intrinsic metabolic factors such as MgADP and small molecule agonists. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. The synaptic cell adhesion molecule, SynCAM1, mediates astrocyte-to-astrocyte and astrocyte-to-GnRH neuron adhesiveness in the mouse hypothalamus.

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    Sandau, Ursula S; Mungenast, Alison E; McCarthy, Jack; Biederer, Thomas; Corfas, Gabriel; Ojeda, Sergio R

    2011-06-01

    We previously identified synaptic cell adhesion molecule 1 (SynCAM1) as a component of a genetic network involved in the hypothalamic control of female puberty. Although it is well established that SynCAM1 is a synaptic adhesion molecule, its contribution to hypothalamic function is unknown. Here we show that, in addition to the expected neuronal localization illustrated by its presence in GnRH neurons, SynCAM1 is expressed in hypothalamic astrocytes. Cell adhesion assays indicated that SynCAM is recognized by both GnRH neurons and astrocytes as an adhesive partner and promotes cell-cell adhesiveness via homophilic, extracellular domain-mediated interactions. Alternative splicing of the SynCAM1 primary mRNA transcript yields four mRNAs encoding membrane-spanning SynCAM1 isoforms. Variants 1 and 4 are predicted to be both N and O glycosylated. Hypothalamic astrocytes and GnRH-producing GT1-7 cells express mainly isoform 4 mRNA, and sequential N- and O-deglycosylation of proteins extracted from these cells yields progressively smaller SynCAM1 species, indicating that isoform 4 is the predominant SynCAM1 variant expressed in astrocytes and GT1-7 cells. Neither cell type expresses the products of two other SynCAM genes (SynCAM2 and SynCAM3), suggesting that SynCAM-mediated astrocyte-astrocyte and astrocyte-GnRH neuron adhesiveness is mostly mediated by SynCAM1 homophilic interactions. When erbB4 receptor function is disrupted in astrocytes, via transgenic expression of a dominant-negative erbB4 receptor form, SynCAM1-mediated adhesiveness is severely compromised. Conversely, SynCAM1 adhesive behavior is rapidly, but transiently, enhanced in astrocytes by ligand-dependent activation of erbB4 receptors, suggesting that erbB4-mediated events affecting SynCAM1 function contribute to regulate astrocyte adhesive communication.

  1. Comparison of long GnRH agonist versus GnRH antagonist protocol in poor responders

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    Sadık Şahin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare long GnRH agonist with GnRH antagonist protocol in poor responders. Materials and Methods: Medical charts of 531 poor responder women undergoing in-vitro fertilization (IVF cycle at Zeynep Kamil Maternity and Children’s Hospital, IVF Center were retrospectively analysed. Those who received at least 300 IU/daily gonadotropin and had ≤3 oocytes retrieved were enrolled in the study. Poor responders were categorized into two groups as those who received long GnRH agonist or GnRH antagonist regimen. Results: Treatment duration and total gonadotropin dosage were significantly higher in women undergoing the long GnRH agonist regimen compared with the GnRH antagonist regimen (p<0.001 for both. Although the number of total and mature oocytes retrieved was similar between the groups, good quality embryos were found to be higher in the GnRH antagonist regimen. The day of embryo transfer and number of transferred embryos were similar in the groups. No statistically significant differences were detected in pregnancy (10.5% vs 14.1%, clinical pregnancy (7.7% vs 10.6% and early pregnancy loss rates (27.2% vs 35% between the groups. Conclusion: GnRH antagonist regimen may be preferable to long GnRH regimen as it could decrease the cost and treatment duration in poor responders.

  2. An In Vitro System Comprising Immortalized Hypothalamic Neuronal Cells (GT1-7 Cells) for Evaluation of the Neuroendocrine Effects of Essential Oils.

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    Mizuno, Dai; Konoha-Mizuno, Keiko; Mori, Miwako; Yamazaki, Kentaro; Haneda, Toshihiro; Koyama, Hironari; Kawahara, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    Aromatherapy and plant-based essential oils are widely used as complementary and alternative therapies for symptoms including anxiety. Furthermore, it was reportedly effective for the care of several diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and depressive illness. To investigate the pharmacological effects of essential oils, we developed an in vitro assay system using immortalized hypothalamic neuronal cells (GT1-7 cells). In this study, we evaluated the effects of essential oils on neuronal death induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), aluminum, zinc, or the antagonist of estrogen receptor (tamoxifen). Among tests of various essential oils, we found that H2O2-induced neuronal death was attenuated by the essential oils of damask rose, eucalyptus, fennel, geranium, ginger, kabosu, mandarin, myrrh, and neroli. Damask rose oil had protective effects against aluminum-induced neurotoxicity, while geranium and rosemary oil showed protective activity against zinc-induced neurotoxicity. In contrast, geranium oil and ginger oil enhanced the neurotoxicity of tamoxifen. Our in vitro assay system could be useful for the neuropharmacological and endocrine pharmacological studies of essential oils.

  3. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 are not required for GnRH neuron development and normal female reproductive axis function in mice.

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    Wierman, Margaret E; Xu, Mei; Pierce, A; Bliesner, B; Bliss, S P; Roberson, M S

    2012-01-01

    Selective deletion of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1 and ERK2 in the pituitary gonadotrope and ovarian granulosa cells disrupts female reproductive axis function. Thus, we asked if ERK1 and ERK2 are critical for GnRH neuron ontogeny or the central control of female reproductive function. GnRH-Cre-recombinase (Cre+) expressing mice were crossed with mice with a global deletion of ERK1 and a floxed ERK2 allele (Erk1-/Erk2fl/fl) to selectively delete ERK2 in GnRH neurons. Cre-recombinase mRNA was selectively expressed in the brain of Cre+ mice. GnRH neuron number and location were determined during embryogenesis and in the adult. GnRH neuron counts at E15 did not differ between experimental and control groups (1,198 ± 65 and 1,160 ± 80 respectively, p = NS). In adults, numbers of GnRH neurons in the GnRHCre+Erk1-/Erk2- mice (741 ± 157) were similar to those in controls (756 ± 7), without alteration in their distribution across the forebrain. ERK1 and 2 deficiency did not alter the timing of vaginal opening, age at first estrus, or estrous cyclicity. Although ERK1 and 2 are components of a dominant signaling pathway in GnRH neuronal cells that modulates survival and control of GnRH gene expression, other signaling pathways compensate for their deletion in vivo to allow GnRH neuron survival and targeting and normal onset of female sexual maturation and reproductive function. In contrast to effects at the pituitary and the ovary, ERK1 and ERK2 are dispensable at the level of the GnRH neuron. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. An In Vitro System Comprising Immortalized Hypothalamic Neuronal Cells (GT17 Cells for Evaluation of the Neuroendocrine Effects of Essential Oils

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    Dai Mizuno

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aromatherapy and plant-based essential oils are widely used as complementary and alternative therapies for symptoms including anxiety. Furthermore, it was reportedly effective for the care of several diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease and depressive illness. To investigate the pharmacological effects of essential oils, we developed an in vitro assay system using immortalized hypothalamic neuronal cells (GT17 cells. In this study, we evaluated the effects of essential oils on neuronal death induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, aluminum, zinc, or the antagonist of estrogen receptor (tamoxifen. Among tests of various essential oils, we found that H2O2-induced neuronal death was attenuated by the essential oils of damask rose, eucalyptus, fennel, geranium, ginger, kabosu, mandarin, myrrh, and neroli. Damask rose oil had protective effects against aluminum-induced neurotoxicity, while geranium and rosemary oil showed protective activity against zinc-induced neurotoxicity. In contrast, geranium oil and ginger oil enhanced the neurotoxicity of tamoxifen. Our in vitro assay system could be useful for the neuropharmacological and endocrine pharmacological studies of essential oils.

  5. Cumulus cells gene expression profiling in terms of oocyte maturity in controlled ovarian hyperstimulation using GnRH agonist or GnRH antagonist.

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    Devjak, Rok; Fon Tacer, Klementina; Juvan, Peter; Virant Klun, Irma; Rozman, Damjana; Vrtačnik Bokal, Eda

    2012-01-01

    In in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) is established by gonadotropins in combination with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists or antagonists, to prevent premature luteinizing hormone (LH) surge. The aim of our study was to improve the understanding of gene expression profile of cumulus cells (CC) in terms of ovarian stimulation protocol and oocyte maturity. We applied Affymetrix gene expression profiling in CC of oocytes at different maturation stages using either GnRH agonists or GnRH antagonists. Two analyses were performed: the first involved CC of immature metaphase I (MI) and mature metaphase II (MII) oocytes where 359 genes were differentially expressed, and the second involved the two GnRH analogues where no differentially expressed genes were observed at the entire transcriptome level. A further analysis of 359 differentially genes was performed, focusing on anti-Müllerian hormone receptor 2 (AMHR2), follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR), vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGFC) and serine protease inhibitor E2 (SERPINE2). Among other differentially expressed genes we observed a marked number of new genes connected to cell adhesion and neurotransmitters such as dopamine, glycine and γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA). No differential expression in CC between the two GnRH analogues supports the findings of clinical studies where no significant difference in live birth rates between both GnRH analogues has been proven.

  6. Biphasic action of cyclic adenosine 3',5'- monophosphate in gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analog-stimulated hormone release from GH3 cells stably transfected with GnRH receptor complementary deoxyribonucleic acid.

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    Stanislaus, D; Arora, V; Awara, W M; Conn, P M

    1996-03-01

    GH3 cells are a PRL-secreting adenoma cell line derived from pituitary lactotropes. These cells have been stably transfected with rat GnRH receptor complementary DNA to produce four cell lines: GGH(3)1', GGH(3)2', GGH(3)6', and GGH(3)12'. In response to either GnRH or Buserelin (a metabolically stable GnRH agonist), these cell lines synthesize PRL in a cAMP-dependent manner. Only GGH(3)6' cells desensitize in response to persistent treatment with 10(-7) g/ml Buserelin. GGH(3)1', GGH(3)2', and GGH(3)12' cells, however, can be made refractory to Buserelin stimulation by raising cAMP levels either by the addition of (Bu)2cAMP to the medium or by treatment with cholera toxin. In GGH(3) cells, low levels of cAMP fulfill the requirements for a second messenger, whereas higher levels appear to mediate the development of desensitization. The observation that in GGH(3)6' cells, cAMP production persists after the onset of desensitization is consistent with the view that the mechanism responsible for desensitization is distal to the production of cAMP. Moreover, the absence of any significant difference in the amount of cAMP produced per cell in GGH(3)2', GGH(3)6', or GGH(3)12' cells suggests that elevated cAMP production per cell does not explain the development of desensitization in GGH(3)6' cells. We suggest that Buserelin-stimulated PRL synthesis in GGH(3)6' cells is mediated by a different cAMP-dependent protein kinase pool(s) than that in nondesensitizing GGH(3) cells. Such a protein kinase A pool(s) may be more susceptible to degradation via cAMP-mediated mechanisms than the protein kinase pools mediating the Buserelin response in nondesensitizing GGH(3) cells. A similar mechanism has been reported in other systems.

  7. Differential roles of PKC isoforms (PKCs) in GnRH stimulation of MAPK phosphorylation in gonadotrope derived cells.

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    Mugami, Shany; Dobkin-Bekman, Masha; Rahamim-Ben Navi, Liat; Naor, Zvi

    2018-03-05

    The role of protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms (PKCs) in GnRH-stimulated MAPK [ERK1/2, JNK1/2 and p38) phosphorylation was examined in gonadotrope derived cells. GnRH induced a protracted activation of ERK1/2 and a slower and more transient activation of JNK1/2 and p38MAPK. Gonadotropes express conventional PKCα and PKCβII, novel PKCδ, PKCε and PKCθ, and atypical PKC-ι/λ. The use of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-PKCs constructs revealed that GnRH induced rapid translocation of PKCα and PKCβII to the plasma membrane, followed by their redistribution to the cytosol. PKCδ and PKCε localized to the cytoplasm and Golgi, followed by the rapid redistribution by GnRH of PKCδ to the perinuclear zone and of PKCε to the plasma membrane. The use of dominant negatives for PKCs and peptide inhibitors for the receptors for activated C kinase (RACKs) has revealed differential role for PKCα, PKCβII, PKCδ and PKCε in ERK1/2, JNK1/2 and p38MAPK phosphorylation in a ligand-and cell context-dependent manner. The paradoxical findings that PKCs activated by GnRH and PMA play a differential role in MAPKs phosphorylation may be explained by persistent vs. transient redistribution of selected PKCs or redistribution of a given PKC to the perinuclear zone vs. the plasma membrane. Thus, we have identified the PKCs involved in GnRH stimulated MAPKs phosphorylation in gonadotrope derived cells. Once activated, the MAPKs will mediate the transcription of the gonadotropin subunits and GnRH receptor genes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Social Crowding during Development Causes Changes in GnRH1 DNA Methylation.

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    Alvarado, Sebastian G; Lenkov, Kapa; Williams, Blake; Fernald, Russell D

    2015-01-01

    Gestational and developmental cues have important consequences for long-term health, behavior and adaptation to the environment. In addition, social stressors cause plastic molecular changes in the brain that underlie unique behavioral phenotypes that also modulate fitness. In the adult African cichlid, Astatotilapia burtoni, growth and social status of males are both directly regulated by social interactions in a dynamic social environment, which causes a suite of plastic changes in circuits, cells and gene transcription in the brain. We hypothesized that a possible mechanism underlying some molecular changes might be DNA methylation, a reversible modification made to cytosine nucleotides that is known to regulate gene function. Here we asked whether changes in DNA methylation of the GnRH1 gene, the central regulator of the reproductive axis, were altered during development of A. burtoni. We measured changes in methylation state of the GnRH1 gene during normal development and following the gestational and developmental stress of social crowding. We found differential DNA methylation within developing juveniles between 14-, 28- and 42-day-old. Following gestational crowding of mouth brooding mothers, we saw differential methylation and transcription of GnRH1 in their offspring. Taken together, our data provides evidence for social control of GnRH1 developmental responses to gestational cues through DNA methylation.

  9. Aberrant ERK 1/2 complex activation and localization in scrapie-infected GT1-1 cells

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    Didonna Alessandro

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fatal neurodegenerative disorders such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob and Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker diseases in humans, scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy in animals, are characterized by the accumulation in the brain of a pathological form of the prion protein (PrP denominated PrPSc. The latter derives from the host cellular form, PrPC, through a process whereby portions of its α-helical and coil structures are refolded into β-sheet structures. Results In this work, the widely known in vitro model of prion replication, hypothalamic GT1-1 cell line, was used to investigate cellular and molecular responses to prion infection. The MAP kinase cascade was dissected to assess the phosphorylation levels of src, MEK 1/2 and ERK 1/2 signaling molecules, both before and after prion infection. Our findings suggest that prion replication leads to a hyper-activation of this pathway. Biochemical analysis was complemented with immunofluorescence studies to map the localization of the ERK complex within the different cellular compartments. We showed how the ERK complex relocates in the cytosol upon prion infection. We correlated these findings with an impairment of cell growth in prion-infected GT1-1 cells as probed by MTT assay. Furthermore, given the persistent urgency in finding compounds able to cure prion infected cells, we tested the effects on the ERK cascade of two molecules known to block prion replication in vitro, quinacrine and Fab D18. We were able to show that while these two compounds possess similar effects in curing prion infection, they affect the MAP kinase cascade differently. Conclusions Taken together, our results help shed light on the molecular events involved in neurodegeneration and neuronal loss in prion infection and replication. In particular, the combination of chronic activation and aberrant localization of the ERK complex may lead to a lack of essential neuroprotective and survival factors

  10. The GnRH receptor and the response of gonadotrope cells to GnRH pulse frequency code. A story of an atypical adaptation of cell function relying on a lack of receptor homologous desensitization.

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    Christian Bleux

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain control of the reproductive system is mediated through hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH which activates specific receptors (GnRHR present at the surface of the pituitary gonadotropes to trigger secretion of the two gonadotropins LH and FSH. A unique feature of this system is the high dependence on the secretion mode of GnRH, which is basically pulsatile but undergoes considerable fluctuations in pulse frequency pattern in response to endogenous or external factors. How the physiological fluctuations of GnRH secretion that orchestrate normal reproduction are decoded by the gonadotrope cell machinery to ultimately control gonadotropin release and/or subunit gene transcription has been the subject of intensive studies during the past decades. Surprisingly, the mammalian GnRHR is unique among G protein-coupled receptor family as it lacks the carboxy-terminal tail usually involved in classical endocytotic process. Accordingly, it does not desensitize properly and internalizes very poorly. Both this atypical intrinsic property and post-receptor events may thus contribute to decode the GnRH signal. This includes the participation of a network of signaling pathways that differently respond to GnRH together with a growing amount of genes differentially sensitive to pulse frequency. Among these are two pairs of genes, the transcription factors EGR-1 and NAB, and the regulatory factors activin and follistatin, that function as intracellular autoregulatory feedback loops controlling respectively LHbeta and FSHbeta gene expression and hence, LH and FSH synthesis. Pituitary gonadotropes thus represent a unique model of cells functionally adapted to respond to a considerably fluctuating neuroendocrine stimulation, from short individual pulses to sustained GnRH as observed at the proestrus of ovarian cycle. Altogether, the data emphasize the adaptative reciprocal complementarity of hypothalamic GnRH neurones and pituitary gonadotropes to

  11. Ontogenic and sexual differences in pituitary GnRH receptors and intracellular Ca2+ mobilization induced by GnRH.

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    Lacau-Mengido, I M; González Iglesias, A; Lux-Lantos, V; Libertun, C; Becú-Villalobos, D

    1998-04-01

    The present experiments were designed in order to elucidate the participation of the developing hypophysis in determining the changing sensitivity of gonadotrophins to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) during ontogeny in the rat. To that end, we chose two well defined developmental ages that differ markedly in sexual and ontogenic characteristics of hypophyseal sensitivity to GnRH, 15 and 30 d. In order to study sex differences and the role of early sexual organization of the hypothalamus, experiments were carried out in males, females, and neonatally androgenized females (TP females). We evaluated (1) the characteristics of pituitary GnRH receptors, and (2) associated changes in GnRH-induced mobilization of intracellular Ca2+ (a second messenger involved in gonadotropins exocytosis). We measured binding characteristics of the GnRH analog D-Ser(TBu)6-des-Gly10-GnRH ethylamide in pituitary homogenates. We found that Kds did not vary among the different sex groups. Total number and concentration of receptors decreased in the female rat from 15-30 d of age, whereas in the male and TP female, receptors/pituitary increased, and the concentration/mg tissue did not change. Also, at 30 days of age, males presented higher content and concentration of receptors than females, and higher content than TP females. In order to evaluate if developmental and sexual differences in pituitary sensitivity to GnRH might be expressed through variations in the intracellular Ca2+ signal, we studied the mobilization of intracellular Ca2+ induced by GnRH (1 x 10(-8) to 1 x 10(-11) M) in a suspension of dispersed pituitary cells in the six groups. In cells from 15-d-old females, Ca2+ response was greater than in 30-d-old females at the doses of 10(-8) to 10(-10) M, indicating that in the infantile female rat activation of highly concentrated GnRH receptors is reflected in an increase in signal transduction mediated by Ca2+. In males and in female rats androgenized at birth, there was also

  12. Origins of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in vertebrates: identification of a novel GnRH in a basal vertebrate, the sea lamprey.

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    Kavanaugh, Scott I; Nozaki, Masumi; Sower, Stacia A

    2008-08-01

    We cloned a cDNA encoding a novel (GnRH), named lamprey GnRH-II, from the sea lamprey, a basal vertebrate. The deduced amino acid sequence of the newly identified lamprey GnRH-II is QHWSHGWFPG. The architecture of the precursor is similar to that reported for other GnRH precursors consisting of a signal peptide, decapeptide, a downstream processing site, and a GnRH-associated peptide; however, the gene for lamprey GnRH-II does not have introns in comparison with the gene organization for all other vertebrate GnRHs. Lamprey GnRH-II precursor transcript was widely expressed in a variety of tissues. In situ hybridization of the brain showed expression and localization of the transcript in the hypothalamus, medulla, and olfactory regions, whereas immunohistochemistry using a specific antiserum showed only GnRH-II cell bodies and processes in the preoptic nucleus/hypothalamus areas. Lamprey GnRH-II was shown to stimulate the hypothalamic-pituitary axis using in vivo and in vitro studies. Lamprey GnRH-II was also shown to activate the inositol phosphate signaling system in COS-7 cells transiently transfected with the lamprey GnRH receptor. These studies provide evidence for a novel lamprey GnRH that has a role as a third hypothalamic GnRH. In summary, the newly discovered lamprey GnRH-II offers a new paradigm of the origin of the vertebrate GnRH family. We hypothesize that due to a genome/gene duplication event, an ancestral gene gave rise to two lineages of GnRHs: the gnathostome GnRH and lamprey GnRH-II.

  13. Transcriptome analysis of endometrial tissues following GnRH agonist treatment in a mouse adenomyosis model

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    Guo S

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Song Guo,1,* Xiaowei Lu,1,* Ruihuan Gu,2 Di Zhang,3 Yijuan Sun,2 Yun Feng1 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Reproductive Medicine Center, Ruijin Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 2Gynecology, Shanghai Ji Ai Genetics & In Vitro Fertilization Institute, Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Jinan Military General Hospital, Jinan, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: Adenomyosis is a common, benign gynecological condition of the female reproductive tract characterized by heavy menstrual bleeding and dysmenorrhea. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH agonists are one of the medications used in adenomyosis treatment; however, their underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Moreover, it is difficult to obtain endometrial samples from women undergoing such treatment. To overcome this, we generated an adenomyosis mouse model, which we treated with an GnRH agonist to determine its effect on pregnancy outcomes. We also analyzed endometrial gene expression following GnRH agonist treatment to determine the mechanisms that may affect pregnancy outcome in individuals with adenomyosis.Methods: Neonatal female mice were divided into a control group, an untreated adenomyosis group, and an adenomyosis group treated with a GnRH agonist (n=6 each. The pregnancy outcome was observed and compared among the groups. Then, three randomly chosen transcriptomes from endometrial tissues from day 4 of pregnancy were analyzed between the adenomyosis group and the GnRH agonist treatment group by RNA sequencing and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR.Results: The litter size was significantly smaller in the adenomyosis group than in the control group (7±0.28 vs 11±0.26; P<0.05. However, the average live litter

  14. Differentially expressed miRNAs after GnRH treatment and their potential roles in FSH regulation in porcine anterior pituitary cell.

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    Rui-Song Ye

    Full Text Available Hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH is a major regulator of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH secretion in gonadotrope cell in the anterior pituitary gland. microRNAs (miRNAs are small RNA molecules that control gene expression by imperfect binding to the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR of mRNA at the post-transcriptional level. It has been proven that miRNAs play an important role in hormone response and/or regulation. However, little is known about miRNAs in the regulation of FSH secretion. In this study, primary anterior pituitary cells were treated with 100 nM GnRH. The supernatant of pituitary cell was collected for FSH determination by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA at 3 hours and 6 hours post GnRH treatment respectively. Results revealed that GnRH significantly promoted FSH secretion at 3 h and 6 h post-treatment by 1.40-fold and 1.80-fold, respectively. FSHβ mRNA at 6 h post GnRH treatment significantly increased by 1.60-fold. At 6 hours, cells were collected for miRNA expression profile analysis using MiRCURY LNA Array and quantitative PCR (qPCR. Consequently, 21 up-regulated and 10 down-regulated miRNAs were identified, and qPCR verification of 10 randomly selected miRNAs showed a strong correlation with microarray results. Chromosome location analysis indicated that 8 miRNAs were mapped to chromosome 12 and 4 miRNAs to chromosome X. Target and pathway analysis showed that some miRNAs may be associated with GnRH regulation pathways. In addition, In-depth analysis indicated that 10 up-regulated and 3 down-regulated miRNAs probably target FSHβ mRNA 3'-UTR directly, including miR-361-3p, a highly conserved X-linked miRNA. Most importantly, functional experimental results showed that miR-361-3p was involved in FSH secretion regulation, and up-regulated miR-361-3p expression inhibited FSH secretion, while down-regulated miR-361-3p expression promoted FSH secretion in pig pituitary cell model. These differentially

  15. Regulation versus modulation in GnRH receptor function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolman, J.C.; Theodoropoulos, T.J.

    1985-01-01

    Serum luteinizing hormone (LH) concentration after exposure to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) indicates that an instantaneous increase occurs in the rate of release of LH directly from the anterior pituitary, as measured dynamically during superfusion in vitro. On the other hand, estradiol-17 beta (E2) alone shows no such instantaneous effect on LH release rate (at least for the first four hours), in either physiologic or pharmacologic concentrations. At the same time, brief (ten to 30 minute) exposure of isolated anterior pituitary plasma membranes to physiologic concentrations of E2 significantly alters the binding of a fully biologically active 125 I-GnRH to its plasma membrane receptor protein. In order to characterize the effect of E2 on GnRH binding further, dispersed bovine anterior pituitary cells were preincubated for six hours in the presence or absence of physiologic concentrations of E2 (10(-10)M). Following preincubation in the presence of E2, the cell suspension was incubated for 30 minutes with physiologic concentrations (5 x 10(-11) - 5 x 10(-10)M) of a fully biologically active 125 I-GnRH. The treatment, at least, doubled the number of biologically important high affinity GnRH binding sites (Kd's . 7.5 x -10(-11) - 4.5 x 10(-10)M), and changed the binding capacity of some of the binding sites up to three fold, which altered the cooperativity of GnRH-receptor interaction. Thus, the interaction of E2 with GnRH at the level of GnRH receptor is mandatory for the short-term pituitary effect of E2 on LH release in vitro and in vivo

  16. Genetics of Isolated Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism: Role of GnRH Receptor and Other Genes

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    Karges Beate

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypothalamic gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH is a key player in normal puberty and sexual development and function. Genetic causes of isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH have been identified during the recent years affecting the synthesis, secretion, or action of GnRH. Developmental defects of GnRH neurons and the olfactory bulb are associated with hyposmia, rarely associated with the clinical phenotypes of synkinesia, cleft palate, ear anomalies, or choanal atresia, and may be due to mutations of KAL1, FGFR1/FGF8, PROKR2/PROK2, or CHD7. Impaired GnRH secretion in normosmic patients with IHH may be caused by deficient hypothalamic GPR54/KISS1, TACR3/TAC3, and leptinR/leptin signalling or mutations within the GNRH1 gene itself. Normosmic IHH is predominantly caused by inactivating mutations in the pituitary GnRH receptor inducing GnRH resistance, while mutations of the β-subunits of LH or FSH are very rare. Inheritance of GnRH deficiency may be oligogenic, explaining variable phenotypes. Future research should identify additional genes involved in the complex network of normal and disturbed puberty and reproduction.

  17. A comparison of the Actigraph GT1M and GT3X accelerometers under standardized and free-living conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminsky, Leonard A; Ozemek, Cemal

    2012-01-01

    Prior to 2008, data collection from Actigraph accelerometers was only possible in the uniaxial mode. In 2009, Actigraph released the GT3X, which allows triaxial data collection. The purpose of this study was to determine if data collected by the GT3X in the uniaxial mode are comparable to its predecessor, the GT1M, under both standardized and free-living conditions. Thirty-four subjects (17 women and 17 men) provided complete data for this study. Subjects wore the accelerometers (one GT1M and one GT3X) on their waistband in line with the right and left anterior axillary lines. Each subject walked on a treadmill at speeds of 2.4, 3.2, 4.0, 4.8, 5.6 and 6.4 km h −1 for 5 min each, and then continued to wear both accelerometers for all waking hours for three consecutive days. Mean steady-state activity counts min –1 for both accelerometers were not statistically different for the standardized treadmill walking speeds and for mean minutes/day and activity counts/day for intensity classifications under the free-living condition. Based on comparisons made from both standardized walking speeds and free-living conditions, it is reasonable to compare data derived from either the GT1M or GT3X when collected in the uniaxial mode. (paper)

  18. Zebrafish adult-derived hypothalamic neurospheres generate gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH neurons

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    Christian Cortés-Campos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH is a hypothalamic decapeptide essential for fertility in vertebrates. Human male patients lacking GnRH and treated with hormone therapy can remain fertile after cessation of treatment suggesting that new GnRH neurons can be generated during adult life. We used zebrafish to investigate the neurogenic potential of the adult hypothalamus. Previously we have characterized the development of GnRH cells in the zebrafish linking genetic pathways to the differentiation of neuromodulatory and endocrine GnRH cells in specific regions of the brain. Here, we developed a new method to obtain neural progenitors from the adult hypothalamus in vitro. Using this system, we show that neurospheres derived from the adult hypothalamus can be maintained in culture and subsequently differentiate glia and neurons. Importantly, the adult derived progenitors differentiate into neurons containing GnRH and the number of cells is increased through exposure to either testosterone or GnRH, hormones used in therapeutic treatment in humans. Finally, we show in vivo that a neurogenic niche in the hypothalamus contains GnRH positive neurons. Thus, we demonstrated for the first time that neurospheres can be derived from the hypothalamus of the adult zebrafish and that these neural progenitors are capable of producing GnRH containing neurons.

  19. Knockout of the Gnrh genes in zebrafish: effects on reproduction and potential compensation by reproductive and feeding-related neuropeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvel, Miranda; Spicer, Olivia Smith; Wong, Ten-Tsao; Zmora, Nilli; Zohar, Yonathan

    2018-04-04

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is known as a pivotal upstream regulator of reproduction in vertebrates. However, reproduction is not compromised in the hypophysiotropic Gnrh3 knockout line in zebrafish (gnrh3-/-). In order to determine if Gnrh2, the only other Gnrh isoform in zebrafish brains, is compensating for the loss of Gnrh3, we generated a double Gnrh knockout zebrafish line. Surprisingly, the loss of both Gnrh isoforms resulted in no major impact on reproduction, indicating that a compensatory response, outside of the Gnrh system, was evoked. A plethora of factors acting along the reproductive hypothalamus-pituitary axis were evaluated as possible compensators based on neuroanatomical and differential gene expression studies. In addition, we also examined the involvement of feeding factors in the brain as potential compensators for Gnrh2, which has known anorexigenic effects. We found that the double knockout fish exhibited upregulation of several genes in the brain, specifically gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (gnih), secretogranin 2 (scg2), tachykinin 3a (tac3a), and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide 1 (pacap1), and downregulation of agouti-related peptide 1 (agrp1), indicating the compensation occurs outside of Gnrh cells and therefore is a non-cell autonomous response to the loss of Gnrh. While the differential expression of gnih and agrp1 in the double knockout line was confined to the periventricular nucleus and hypothalamus, respectively, the upregulation of scg2 corresponded with a broader neuronal redistribution in the lateral hypothalamus and hindbrain. In conclusion, our results demonstrate the existence of a redundant reproductive regulatory system that comes into play when Gnrh2 and Gnrh3 are lost.

  20. Photoaffinity labeling of pituitary GnRH receptors: significance of the position of photolabel on the ligand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolics, K.; Szonyi, E.; Ramachandran, J.

    1988-01-01

    Photoreactive derivatives of GnRH and its analogues were prepared by incorporation of the 2-nitro-4(5)-azidophenylsulfenyl [2,4(5)-NAPS] group into amino acid residues at position 1, 3, 6, or 8 of the decapeptide sequence. The modification of Trp 3 by the 2,4-NAPS group led to a complete loss of the luteinizing hormone (LH) releasing as well as LH-release-inhibiting activity of the peptide. The [D-Lys(2,4-NAPS)] 6 analog was a very potent agonist that, after covalent attachment by photoaffinity labeling, caused prolonged LH secretion at a submaximal rate. [Orn(2,4-NAPS)] 8 -GnRH, a full agonist with a relative potency of 7% of GnRH, after photoaffinity labeling caused prolonged maximal LH release from cultured pituitary cells. In contrast, [Orn(2,5-NAPS)] 8 -GnRH, although being equipotent with the 2,4-NAPS isomer in terms of LH releasing ability, was unable to cause prolonged LH release after photoaffinity labeling. Thus, [Orn(2,4-NAPS)] 8 GnRH is very effective photolabeling ligand of the functionally significant pituitary GnRH receptor. Based on this compound, a pituitary peptidase resistant derivative, D-Phe 6 , [Orn(2,4-NAPS)] 8 -GnRH-(1-9)-ethylamide, was synthesized. This derivative showed high-affinity binding to pituitary membranes with a K/sub d/ comparable to those of other GnRH analogues. A radioiodinated form of this peptide was used for pituitary GnRH-receptor labeling. This derivative labeled 59- and 57-kDa proteins in rat and 58- and 56-kDa proteins in bovine pituitary membrane preparations, respectively. This peptide also labeled pituitary GnRH receptors in the solubilized state and therefore appears to be a suitable ligand for the isolation and further characterization of the receptor

  1. Fanconi anemia A is a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling molecule required for gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) transduction of the GnRH receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larder, Rachel; Karali, Dimitra; Nelson, Nancy; Brown, Pamela

    2006-12-01

    GnRH binds its cognate G protein-coupled GnRH receptor (GnRHR) located on pituitary gonadotropes and drives expression of gonadotropin hormones. There are two gonadotropin hormones, comprised of a common alpha- and hormone-specific beta-subunit, which are required for gonadal function. Recently we identified that Fanconi anemia a (Fanca), a DNA damage repair gene, is differentially expressed within the LbetaT2 gonadotrope cell line in response to stimulation with GnRH. FANCA is mutated in more than 60% of cases of Fanconi anemia (FA), a rare genetically heterogeneous autosomal recessive disorder characterized by bone marrow failure, endocrine tissue cancer susceptibility, and infertility. Here we show that induction of FANCA protein is mediated by the GnRHR and that the protein constitutively adopts a nucleocytoplasmic intracellular distribution pattern. Using inhibitors to block nuclear import and export and a GnRHR antagonist, we demonstrated that GnRH induces nuclear accumulation of FANCA and green fluorescent protein (GFP)-FANCA before exporting back to the cytoplasm using the nuclear export receptor CRM1. Using FANCA point mutations that locate GFP-FANCA to the cytoplasm (H1110P) or functionally uncouple GFP-FANCA (Q1128E) from the wild-type nucleocytoplasmic distribution pattern, we demonstrated that wild-type FANCA was required for GnRH-induced activation of gonadotrope cell markers. Cotransfection of H1110P and Q1128E blocked GnRH activation of the alphaGsu and GnRHR but not the beta-subunit gene promoters. We conclude that nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of FANCA is required for GnRH transduction of the alphaGSU and GnRHR gene promoters and propose that FANCA functions as a GnRH-induced signal transducer.

  2. Reproductive physiology of a humanized GnRH receptor mouse model: application in evaluation of human-specific analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tello, Javier A; Kohout, Trudy; Pineda, Rafael; Maki, Richard A; Scott Struthers, R; Millar, Robert P

    2013-07-01

    The human GnRH receptor (GNRHR1) has a specific set of properties with physiological and pharmacological influences not appropriately modeled in laboratory animals or cell-based systems. To address this deficiency, we have generated human GNRHR1 knock-in mice and described their reproductive phenotype. Measurement of pituitary GNRHR1 transcripts from homozygous human GNRHR1 knock-in (ki/ki) mice revealed a severe reduction (7- to 8-fold) compared with the mouse Gnrhr1 in wild-type mice. ¹²⁵I-GnRH binding assays on pituitary membrane fractions corroborated reduced human GNRHR1 protein expression in ki/ki mice, as occurs with transfection of human GNRHR1 in cell lines. Female homozygous knock-in mice displayed normal pubertal onset, indicating that a large reduction in GNRHR1 expression is sufficient for this process. However, ki/ki females exhibited periods of prolonged estrous and/or metestrous and reduced fertility. No impairment was found in reproductive maturity or adult fertility in male ki/ki mice. Interestingly, the serum LH response to GnRH challenge was reduced in both knock-in males and females, indicating a reduced GNRHR1 signaling capacity. Small molecules targeting human GPCRs usually have poor activities at homologous rodent receptors, thus limiting their use in preclinical development. Therefore, we tested a human-specific GnRH1 antagonist, NBI-42902, in our mouse model and demonstrated abrogation of a GnRH1-induced serum LH rise in ki/ki mice and an absence of effect in littermates expressing the wild-type murine receptor. This novel model provides the opportunity to study the human receptor in vivo and for screening the activity of human-specific GnRH analogs.

  3. Anti-inflammatory and heme oxygenase-1 inducing activities of lanostane triterpenes isolated from mushroom Ganoderma lucidum in RAW264.7 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Solip [Department of Biochemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Gangwon-Do 200-701 (Korea, Republic of); Nguyen, Van Thu [College of Pharmacy, Catholic University of Daegu, Gyeongsan 712-702 (Korea, Republic of); Tae, Nara; Lee, Suhyun [Department of Biochemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Gangwon-Do 200-701 (Korea, Republic of); Ryoo, Sungwoo [Department of Biological Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Gangwon-Do 200-701 (Korea, Republic of); Min, Byung-Sun [College of Pharmacy, Catholic University of Daegu, Gyeongsan 712-702 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong-Hyung, E-mail: jhlee36@kangwon.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Gangwon-Do 200-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is a popular medicinal mushroom used in traditional medicine for preventing or treating a variety of diseases. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory and heme oxygenase (HO)-1 inducing effects of 12 lanostane triterpenes from G. lucidum in RAW264.7 cells. Of these, seven triterpenes, butyl lucidenateE{sub 2}, butyl lucidenateD{sub 2} (GT-2), butyl lucidenate P, butyl lucidenateQ, Ganoderiol F, methyl ganodenate J and butyl lucidenate N induced HO-1 expression and suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production. Inhibiting HO-1 activity abrogated the inhibitory effects of these triterpenes on the production of NO in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells, suggesting the involvement of HO-1 in the anti-inflammatory effects of these triterpenes. We further studied the anti-inflammatory and HO-1 inducing effects of GT-2. Mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitors or N-acetylcysteine, an antioxidant, did not suppress GT-2-mediated HO-1 induction; however, LY294002, a phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, blocked GT-2-induced HO-1 mRNA and protein expression. GT-2 increased nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and knockdown of Nrf2 by small interfering RNA blocked GT-2-mediated HO-1 induction, suggesting that GT-2 induced HO-1 expression via the PI3K/AKT-Nrf2 pathway. Consistent with the notion that HO-1 has anti-inflammatory properties, GT-2 inhibited the production of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6, as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 expression. These findings suggest that HO-1 inducing activities of these lanostane triterpenes may be important in the understanding of a novel mechanism for the anti-inflammatory activity of G. lucidum. - Highlights: • The anti-inflammatory effects of selected triterpenes from Ganoderma lucidum are demonstrated. • Heme oxygenase-1 induction is attributable to the anti-inflammatory properties of these

  4. Anti-inflammatory and heme oxygenase-1 inducing activities of lanostane triterpenes isolated from mushroom Ganoderma lucidum in RAW264.7 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Solip; Nguyen, Van Thu; Tae, Nara; Lee, Suhyun; Ryoo, Sungwoo; Min, Byung-Sun; Lee, Jeong-Hyung

    2014-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is a popular medicinal mushroom used in traditional medicine for preventing or treating a variety of diseases. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory and heme oxygenase (HO)-1 inducing effects of 12 lanostane triterpenes from G. lucidum in RAW264.7 cells. Of these, seven triterpenes, butyl lucidenateE 2 , butyl lucidenateD 2 (GT-2), butyl lucidenate P, butyl lucidenateQ, Ganoderiol F, methyl ganodenate J and butyl lucidenate N induced HO-1 expression and suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production. Inhibiting HO-1 activity abrogated the inhibitory effects of these triterpenes on the production of NO in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells, suggesting the involvement of HO-1 in the anti-inflammatory effects of these triterpenes. We further studied the anti-inflammatory and HO-1 inducing effects of GT-2. Mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitors or N-acetylcysteine, an antioxidant, did not suppress GT-2-mediated HO-1 induction; however, LY294002, a phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, blocked GT-2-induced HO-1 mRNA and protein expression. GT-2 increased nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and knockdown of Nrf2 by small interfering RNA blocked GT-2-mediated HO-1 induction, suggesting that GT-2 induced HO-1 expression via the PI3K/AKT-Nrf2 pathway. Consistent with the notion that HO-1 has anti-inflammatory properties, GT-2 inhibited the production of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6, as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 expression. These findings suggest that HO-1 inducing activities of these lanostane triterpenes may be important in the understanding of a novel mechanism for the anti-inflammatory activity of G. lucidum. - Highlights: • The anti-inflammatory effects of selected triterpenes from Ganoderma lucidum are demonstrated. • Heme oxygenase-1 induction is attributable to the anti-inflammatory properties of these triterpenes

  5. Fanconi Anemia a Is a Nucleocytoplasmic Shuttling Molecule Required for Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH) Transduction of the GnRH Receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Larder, Rachel; Karali, Dimitra; Nelson, Nancy; Brown, Pamela

    2006-01-01

    GnRH binds its cognate G protein-coupled GnRH receptor (GnRHR) located on pituitary gonadotropes and drives expression of gonadotropin hormones. There are two gonadotropin hormones, comprised of a common α- and hormone-specific β-subunit, which are required for gonadal function. Recently we identified that Fanconi anemia a (Fanca), a DNA damage repair gene, is differentially expressed within the LβT2 gonadotrope cell line in response to stimulation with GnRH. FANCA is mutated in more than 60%...

  6. A conserved non-reproductive GnRH system in chordates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takehiro G Kusakabe

    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH is a neuroendocrine peptide that plays a central role in the vertebrate hypothalamo-pituitary axis. The roles of GnRH in the control of vertebrate reproductive functions have been established, while its non-reproductive function has been suggested but less well understood. Here we show that the tunicate Ciona intestinalis has in its non-reproductive larval stage a prominent GnRH system spanning the entire length of the nervous system. Tunicate GnRH receptors are phylogenetically closest to vertebrate GnRH receptors, yet functional analysis of the receptors revealed that these simple chordates have evolved a unique GnRH system with multiple ligands and receptor heterodimerization enabling complex regulation. One of the gnrh genes is conspicuously expressed in the motor ganglion and nerve cord, which are homologous structures to the hindbrain and spinal cord of vertebrates. Correspondingly, GnRH receptor genes were found to be expressed in the tail muscle and notochord of embryos, both of which are phylotypic axial structures along the nerve cord. Our findings suggest a novel non-reproductive role of GnRH in tunicates. Furthermore, we present evidence that GnRH-producing cells are present in the hindbrain and spinal cord of the medaka, Oryzias latipes, thereby suggesting the deep evolutionary origin of a non-reproductive GnRH system in chordates.

  7. A Flexible Multidose GnRH Antagonist versus a Microdose Flare-Up GnRH Agonist Combined with a Flexible Multidose GnRH Antagonist Protocol in Poor Responders to IVF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayem İnayet Turgay Çelik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare the effectiveness of a flexible multidose gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH antagonist against the effectiveness of a microdose flare-up GnRH agonist combined with a flexible multidose GnRH antagonist protocol in poor responders to in vitro fertilization (IVF. Study Design. A retrospective study in Akdeniz University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, IVF Center, for 131 poor responders in the intracytoplasmic sperm injection-embryo transfer (ICSI-ET program between January 2006 and November 2012. The groups were compared to the patients’ characteristics, controlled ovarian stimulation (COH results, and laboratory results. Results. Combination protocol was applied to 46 patients (group 1, and a single protocol was applied to 85 patients (group 2. In group 1, the duration of the treatment was longer and the dose of FSH was higher. The cycle cancellation rate was significantly higher in group 2 (26.1% versus 38.8%. A significant difference was not observed with respect to the number and quality of oocytes and embryos or to the number of embryos transferred. There were no statistically significant differences in the hCG positivity (9.5% versus 9.4% or the clinical pregnancy rates (7.1% versus 10.6%. Conclusion. The combination protocol does not provide additional efficacy.

  8. A Flexible Multidose GnRH Antagonist versus a Microdose Flare-Up GnRH Agonist Combined with a Flexible Multidose GnRH Antagonist Protocol in Poor Responders to IVF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, Gayem İnayet Turgay; Sütçü, Havva Kömür; Akpak, Yaşam Kemal; Akar, Münire Erman

    2015-01-01

    To compare the effectiveness of a flexible multidose gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist against the effectiveness of a microdose flare-up GnRH agonist combined with a flexible multidose GnRH antagonist protocol in poor responders to in vitro fertilization (IVF). A retrospective study in Akdeniz University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, IVF Center, for 131 poor responders in the intracytoplasmic sperm injection-embryo transfer (ICSI-ET) program between January 2006 and November 2012. The groups were compared to the patients' characteristics, controlled ovarian stimulation (COH) results, and laboratory results. Combination protocol was applied to 46 patients (group 1), and a single protocol was applied to 85 patients (group 2). In group 1, the duration of the treatment was longer and the dose of FSH was higher. The cycle cancellation rate was significantly higher in group 2 (26.1% versus 38.8%). A significant difference was not observed with respect to the number and quality of oocytes and embryos or to the number of embryos transferred. There were no statistically significant differences in the hCG positivity (9.5% versus 9.4%) or the clinical pregnancy rates (7.1% versus 10.6%). The combination protocol does not provide additional efficacy.

  9. Kisspeptin Activates Ankrd 26 Gene Expression in Migrating Embryonic GnRH Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko eSoga

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Kisspeptin, a newly discovered neuropeptide regulates gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH. Kisspeptins are a large RF-amide family of peptides. The kisspeptin coded by kiss1 gene is a 145-amino acid- protein that is cleaved to C-terminal peptide kisspeptin-10. G-protein coupled receptor 54 (GPR54 has been identified as a kisspeptin receptor, and it is expressed in GnRH neurons and in a variety of cancer cells. In this study, enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP labelled GnRH cells with migratory properties, which express GPR54, served as a model to study the effects of kisspeptin on cell migration. We monitored EGFP–GnRH neuronal migration in brain slide culture of embryonic day 14 transgenic rat by live cell imaging system and studied the effects of kisspeptin-10 (1nM treatment for 36h on GnRH migration. Furthermore to determine kisspeptin-induced molecular pathways related with apoptosis, and cytoskeletal changes during neuronal migration, we studied the expression levels of candidate genes in laser captured EGFP–GnRH neurons by real time PCR. We found that there was no change in the expression level of genes related to cell proliferation and apoptosis. The expression of ankyrin repeat domain-containing protein (ankrd 26 in EGFP–GnRH neurons was up-regulated by the exposure to kisspeptin. These studies suggest that ankrd26 gene plays an unidentified role in regulating neuronal movement mediated by kisspeptin-GPR54 signaling, which could be a potential pathway to suppress cell migration.

  10. Identification of the GnRH-(1-5) Receptor and Signaling Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    expression in immortalized GnRH neurons and to facilitate lordosis behavior in female rats. Interestingly, EP24.15 colocalizes with vii...expression in immortalized GnRH neurons (73) and facilitates lordosis behavior in female rats (72). Interestingly, EP24.15 is expressed along the...biologically active by facilitating lordosis behavior in ovariectomized estrogen-primed rats (72); and can increase the mRNA expression of GnRH in immortalized

  11. In vitro regulation of LH biosynthesis and release by GnRH and estradiol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramey, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    Anterior pituitaries were taken from female rats at random stages of the estrous cycle, enzymatically dispersed, and cultured for 48h in steroid-free α-modified Eagles medium followed by 24h in fresh medium +/- estradiol (E 2 ). The pituitary cells were then incubated in fresh medium containing radiolabeled precursors +/- gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH). Radioactive precursor incorporation into LH was determined by immuno-precipitation. The dose-dependent effects of E 2 (10 -11 to 10 -8 M) on 3 H-glucosamine ( 3 H-Gln) and 35 S-methionine ( 35 S-Met) incorporation into LH +/- 1 nM GnRH (4h) were investigated. GnRH (10 -9 M) and E 2 (all doses) significantly increased total 3 H-Gln LH. Moreover, E 2 at 10 -9 M and 10 -8 M significantly enhanced GnRH stimulated LH glycosylation. In contrast, addition of GnRH and/or E 2 did not significantly increase 35 S-Met incorporation into LH over a 4h period. The effects of various GnRH concentrations (10 -11 to 10 -9 M; 8h) +/- E 2 (0.05 nM) on 3 H-Gln LH and 35 S-Met LH production were also investigated. In the absence of E 2 , only 10 -9 M GnRH was effective in increasing total 3 H-Gln LH and 35 S-Met LH synthesis. However, in the presence of E 2 , all concentrations of GnRH stimulated LH synthesis with 3 H-Gln LH production responding in a dose related manner whereas 35 S-Met LH production was maximally stimulated at all doses of GnRH. In the final series of experiments, pituitary cells previously exposed to estradiol were incubated for 4 h in normal calcium or low calcium medium containing 3 H-Gln or 35 S-Met +/- GnRH. Removal of extracellular calcium completely inhibited GnRH stimulated 3 H-Gln LH and 35 S-Met LH production

  12. Necdin, a Prader-Willi syndrome candidate gene, regulates gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Nichol L G; Wevrick, Rachel; Mellon, Pamela L

    2009-01-15

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a complex genetic disorder characterized by hyperphagia, obesity and hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism, all highly suggestive of hypothalamic dysfunction. The NDN gene, encoding the MAGE family protein, necdin, maps to the PWS chromosome region and is highly expressed in mature hypothalamic neurons. Adult mice lacking necdin have reduced numbers of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons, but the mechanism for this reduction is unknown. Herein, we show that, although necdin is not expressed in an immature, migratory GnRH neuronal cell line (GN11), high levels are present in a mature GnRH neuronal cell line (GT1-7). Furthermore, overexpression of necdin activates GnRH transcription through cis elements bound by the homeodomain repressor Msx that are located in the enhancer and promoter of the GnRH gene, and knock-down of necdin expression reduces GnRH gene expression. In fact, overexpression of Necdin relieves Msx repression of GnRH transcription through these elements and necdin co-immunoprecipitates with Msx from GnRH neuronal cells, indicating that necdin may activate GnRH gene expression by preventing repression of GnRH gene expression by Msx. Finally, necdin is necessary for generation of the full complement of GnRH neurons during mouse development and extension of GnRH axons to the median eminence. Together, these results indicate that lack of necdin during development likely contributes to the hypogonadotrophic hypogonadal phenotype in individuals with PWS.

  13. Necdin, a Prader–Willi syndrome candidate gene, regulates gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons during development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Nichol L.G.; Wevrick, Rachel; Mellon, Pamela L.

    2009-01-01

    Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS) is a complex genetic disorder characterized by hyperphagia, obesity and hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism, all highly suggestive of hypothalamic dysfunction. The NDN gene, encoding the MAGE family protein, necdin, maps to the PWS chromosome region and is highly expressed in mature hypothalamic neurons. Adult mice lacking necdin have reduced numbers of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons, but the mechanism for this reduction is unknown. Herein, we show that, although necdin is not expressed in an immature, migratory GnRH neuronal cell line (GN11), high levels are present in a mature GnRH neuronal cell line (GT1-7). Furthermore, overexpression of necdin activates GnRH transcription through cis elements bound by the homeodomain repressor Msx that are located in the enhancer and promoter of the GnRH gene, and knock-down of necdin expression reduces GnRH gene expression. In fact, overexpression of Necdin relieves Msx repression of GnRH transcription through these elements and necdin co-immunoprecipitates with Msx from GnRH neuronal cells, indicating that necdin may activate GnRH gene expression by preventing repression of GnRH gene expression by Msx. Finally, necdin is necessary for generation of the full complement of GnRH neurons during mouse development and extension of GnRH axons to the median eminence. Together, these results indicate that lack of necdin during development likely contributes to the hypogonadotrophic hypogonadal phenotype in individuals with PWS. PMID:18930956

  14. Mental distress and personality in women undergoing GnRH agonist versus GnRH antagonist protocols for assisted reproductive technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenbæk, D. S.; Toftager, M.; Hjordt, L. V.

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Do mental distress and mood fluctuations in women undergoing GnRH agonist and GnRH antagonist protocols for assisted reproductive technology (ART) differ depending on protocol and the personality trait, neuroticism? SUMMARY ANSWER: ART treatment did not induce elevated levels...... of mental distress in either GnRH antagonist or agonist protocols but neuroticism was positively associated with increased mental distress, independent of protocols. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: ART treatment may increase mental distress by mechanisms linked to sex hormone fluctuations. General psychological...... characteristics, such as personality traits indexing negative emotionality, e.g. neuroticism, are likely to affect mental distress during ART treatment. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: A total of 83 women undergoing their first ART cycle were consecutively randomized 1:1 to GnRH antagonist (n = 42) or GnRH agonist...

  15. Cloning and functional analysis of promoters of three GnRH genes in a cichlid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitahashi, Takashi; Sato, Hideki; Sakuma, Yasuo; Parhar, Ishwar S.

    2005-01-01

    Mechanisms regulating gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) types, a key molecule for reproductive physiology, remain unclear. In the present study, we cloned the promoters of GnRH1, GnRH2, and GnRH3 genes in the tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus; and found putative binding sites for glucocorticoid receptors, Sp1, C/EBP, GATA, and Oct-1, but not for androgen receptors in all three GnRH promoters using computer analysis. The presence of binding sites for progesterone receptors in GnRH1, estrogen receptors in GnRH1 and GnRH2, and thyroid hormone receptors in GnRH1 and GnRH3 suggests direct action of steroid hormones on GnRH types. Our observation of SOX and LINE-like sequences exclusively in GnRH1, COUP in GnRH2, and retinoid X receptors in GnRH3 suggests their role in sexual differentiation, midbrain segmentation, and visual cue integration, respectively. Thus, the characteristic binding sites for nuclear receptors and transcription factors support the notion that each GnRH type is regulated differently and has distinct physiological roles

  16. Estrogen enhances expression of the complement C5a receptor and the C5a-agonist evoked calcium influx in hormone secreting neurons of the hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Imre; Varju, Patricia; Szabo, Emese; Hrabovszky, Erik; Okada, Noriko; Okada, Hidechika; Liposits, Zsolt

    2008-01-01

    In the present study we examined presence of the complement C5a receptor (C5aR) in hypothalamic neurosecretory neurons of the rodent brain and effect of estrogen on C5aR expression. Whole cell patch clamp measurements revealed that magnocellular neurons in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of hypothalamic slices of the rats responded to the C5aR-agonist PL37-MAP peptide with calcium ion current pulses. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) producing neurons in slices of the preoptic area of the mice also reacted to the peptide treatment with inward calcium current. PL37-MAP was able to evoke the inward ion current of GnRH neurons in slices from ovariectomized animals. The amplitude of the inward pulses became higher in slices obtained from 17beta-estradiol (E2) substituted mice. Calcium imaging experiments demonstrated that PL37-MAP increased the intracellular calcium content in the culture of the GnRH-producing GT1-7 cell line in a concentration-dependent manner. Calcium imaging also showed that E2 pretreatment elevated the PL37-MAP evoked increase of the intracellular calcium content in the GT1-7 cells. The estrogen receptor blocker Faslodex in the medium prevented the E2-evoked increase of the PL37-MAP-triggered elevation of the intracellular calcium content in the GT1-7 cells demonstrating that the effect of E2 might be related to the presence of estrogen receptor. Real-time PCR experiments revealed that E2 increased the expression of C5aR mRNA in GT1-7 neurons, suggesting that an increased C5aR synthesis could be involved in the estrogenic modulation of calcium response. These data indicate that hypothalamic neuroendocrine neurons can integrate immune and neuroendocrine functions. Our results may serve a better understanding of the inflammatory and neurodegeneratory diseases of the hypothalamus and the related neuroendocrine and autonomic compensatory responses.

  17. Colletotrichine A, a new sesquiterpenoid from Colletotrichum gloeosporioides GT-7, a fungal endophyte of Uncaria rhynchophylla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Wei; Yang, Zhong-Duo; Sun, Jian-Hui; Song, Tong-Tong; Zhu, Bao-Ying; Zhao, Jun-Wen

    2018-04-01

    One new compound, Colletotrichine A (1), was produced by the fungal Colletotrichum gloeosporioides GT-7. The structure was established by 1D and 2D NMR spectra. Monoamine oxidase (MAO) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity of 1 was also evaluated. Compound 1 showed AChE-inhibiting activity with IC 50 value of 28 μg/mL.

  18. Selective tumor cell death induced by irradiated riboflavin through recognizing DNA G-T mismatch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yi; Zhao, Yongyun; Chen, Lianqi; Wu, Jiasi; Chen, Gangyi; Li, Sheng; Zou, Jiawei; Chen, Rong; Wang, Jian; Jiang, Fan; Tang, Zhuo

    2017-09-06

    Riboflavin (vitamin B2) has been thought to be a promising antitumoral agent in photodynamic therapy, though the further application of the method was limited by the unclear molecular mechanism. Our work reveals that riboflavin was able to recognize G-T mismatch specifically and induce single-strand breaks in duplex DNA targets efficiently under irradiation. In the presence of riboflavin, the photo-irradiation could induce the death of tumor cells that are defective in mismatch repair system selectively, highlighting the G-T mismatch as potential drug target for tumor cells. Moreover, riboflavin is a promising leading compound for further drug design due to its inherent specific recognition of the G-T mismatch. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  19. Microdose flare-up vs. flexible-multidose GnRH antagonist protocols for poor responder patients who underwent ICSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esinler, I

    2014-01-01

    To compare the performance of microdose flare-up (MF) and flexible-multidose gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocols in poor responder patients who underwent intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). One hundred and 12 consecutive patients (217 cycles) suspected to have poor ovarian response were enrolled. Group 1 (MF GnRH agonist group) constituted 64 patients (135 cycles) who underwent MF GnRH agonist protocol. Group 2 (flexible-multidose GnRH antagonist group) constituted 48 patients (82 cycles) who underwent flexible-multidose GnRH antagonist protocol. The duration of stimulation (d) (11.5 +/- 2.1 vs. 10.4 +/- 2.7, p or = seven blastomeres and < 10% fragmentation at day 3 (35.9% vs. 65.1%, p < 0.05) were significantly lower in Group 1 when compared to Group 2. The number of embryos transferred (2.2 +/- 1.3 vs. 2.4 +/- 0.9), the clinical pregnancy per embryo transfer (16.3% vs. 25.8%), and the implantation rate (8.6% vs. 12.2%) were comparable between groups. Although the flexible-multidose GnRH antagonist protocol produced better oocyte and embryo parameters, the clinical pregnancy rate and the implantation rates were comparable between the flexible-multidose GnRH antagonist and MF protocols in poor responder patients.

  20. Hypersensitivity reaction with intravenous GnRH after pulsatile subcutaneous GnRH treatment in male hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism.

    OpenAIRE

    Popović, V.; Milosević, Z.; Djukanović, R.; Micić, D.; Nesović, M.; Manojlović, D.; Djordjević, P.; Mićić, J.

    1988-01-01

    Chronic pulsatile subcutaneous administration of low doses of gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) is an effective therapy for men with hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism. Hypersensitivity reactions to GnRH are rare. We wish to report hypersensitivity reactions with intravenous GnRH after low dose subcutaneous pulsatile GnRH treatment in two men with hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism due to suprasellar disease.

  1. Effects of GnRH, a progesterone-releasing device, and energy balance on an oestrus synchronisation program in anoestrous dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, S K; Cockrem, J F; Parkinson, T J; Laven, R A

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this research was to study the roles of the day 0 energy balance and gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and progesterone levels on dominant follicle (DF) and corpus luteum (CL) development during the first 7 days of a gonadotrophin-prostaglandin-gonadotrophin (GPG) + progesterone (P4) program in anoestrous dairy cows. Cows (n = 81) were allocated to one of the three treatments: (1) GPG + P4 (days 0 and 9, 100 µg GnRH; day 0-7, intravaginal P4 device; day 7, 500 µg PGF 2α ); (2) GPG (as for treatment 1 but excluding the P4 device) and (3) prostaglandin + GnRH + P4 (as for treatment 1, but excluding day 0 GnRH). DF and CL size, plasma concentrations of insulin, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) were measured on days 0 and 7. The proportion of cows with a CL on day 7 was significantly different between groups (GPG: 78%, GPG+P4: 69%, PGF 2α + GnRH + P4: 42%, P = 0.02). The CL volume on day 7 was significantly associated with treatment, treatment by time postpartum and plasma concentrations of insulin, IGF-I and NEFA. In cows without a CL present on day 0 of an oestrus synchronisation program, removal of the day 0 GnRH treatment led to reduced CL development; however, no effect of adding progesterone was found. In contrast, in cows with a CL present on day 0 inclusion of a progesterone device led to a higher CL volume, but removal of the first GnRH injection had no effect. Response to the treatment was affected by plasma concentrations of insulin, IGF-I and NEFA. © 2017 Australian Veterinary Association.

  2. Pregnancy outcome of “delayed start” GnRH antagonist protocol versus GnRH antagonist protocol in poor responders: A clinical trial study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Aflatoonian

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Management of poor-responding patients is still major challenge in assisted reproductive techniques (ART. Delayed-start GnRH antagonist protocol is recommended to these patients, but little is known in this regards. Objective: The goal of this study was assessment of delayed-start GnRH antagonist protocol in poor responders, and in vitro fertilization (IVF outcomes. Materials and Methods: This randomized clinical trial included sixty infertile women with Bologna criteria for ovarian poor responders who were candidate for IVF. In case group (n=30, delayed-start GnRH antagonist protocol administered estrogen priming followed by early follicular-phase GnRH antagonist treatment for 7 days before ovarian stimulation with gonadotropin. Control group (n=30 treated with estrogen priming antagonist protocol. Finally, endometrial thickness, the rates of oocytes maturation, , embryo formation, and pregnancy were compared between two groups. Results: Rates of implantation, chemical, clinical, and ongoing pregnancy in delayed-start cycles were higher although was not statistically significant. Endometrial thickness was significantly higher in case group. There were no statistically significant differences in the rates of oocyte maturation, embryo formation, and IVF outcomes between two groups. Conclusion: There is no significant difference between delayed-start GnRH antagonist protocol versus GnRH antagonist protocol.

  3. Identification and characterization of a reptilian GnRH receptor from the leopard gecko.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikemoto, T; Enomoto, M; Park, M K

    2004-02-12

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) plays a pivotal role in the regulation of reproductive functions through interactions with its specific receptor. We describe the first molecular cloning and characterization of a full-length GnRH receptor (GnRHR) from the leopard gecko Eublepharis macularius. It has a distinct genomic structure consisting of five exons and four introns, compared with all the other reported GnRHR genes. A native GnRH form, cGnRH-II, stimulated inositol phosphate (IP) production in COS-7 cells transiently transfected with the GnRHR, in a dose dependent manner. The mRNA was expressed in all the tissues and organs examined. Molecular phylogenetic analysis revealed that the cloned GnRHR belongs to the type 2/nonmammalian I GnRHR. Low-expression levels were observed from the pituitary glands of reproductively active leopard geckos, indicating the possibility that there is at least one more type of GnRHR highly expressed in the pituitary gland for the gonadotropin secretion in this reptile.

  4. GnRH agonist versus GnRH antagonist in in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF/ET

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    Depalo Raffaella

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Several protocols are actually available for in Vitro Fertilization and Embryo Transfer. The review summarizes the main differences and the clinic characteristics of the protocols in use with GnRH agonists and GnRH antagonists by emphasizing the major outcomes and hormonal changes associated with each protocol. The majority of randomized clinical trials clearly shows that in “in Vitro” Fertilization and Embryo Transfer, the combination of exogenous Gonadotropin plus a Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH agonist, which is able to suppress pituitary FSH and LH secretion, is associated with increased pregnancy rate as compared with the use of gonadotropins without a GnRH agonist. Protocols with GnRH antagonists are effective in preventing a premature rise of LH and induce a shorter and more cost-effective ovarian stimulation compared to the long agonist protocol. However, a different synchronization of follicular recruitment and growth occurs with GnRH agonists than with GnRH antagonists. Future developments have to be focused on timing of the administration of GnRH antagonists, by giving a great attention to new strategies of stimulation in patients in which radio-chemotherapy cycles are needed.

  5. Do GnRH analogues directly affect human endometrial epithelial cell gene expression?

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xiaomei; Bocca, Silvina Maria; Franchi, Anahí ; Anderson, Sandra; Kaur, Mandeep; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Oehninger, Sergio Carlos

    2010-01-01

    were: (i) to study the modulatory effect of GnRH analogues by RT-PCR [in the absence and presence of E2 and P4, and cyclic adenosine monophos-phate (cAMP)] on mRNA expression of genes modulated during the window of implantation in GnRH analogues

  6. Genetic polymorphisms of the GNRH1 and GNRHR genes and risk of breast cancer in the National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lund Eiliv

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GNRH1 triggers the release of follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone from the pituitary. Genetic variants in the gene encoding GNRH1 or its receptor may influence breast cancer risk by modulating production of ovarian steroid hormones. We studied the association between breast cancer risk and polymorphisms in genes that code for GNRH1 and its receptor (GNRHR in the large National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (NCI-BPC3. Methods We sequenced exons of GNRH1 and GNRHR in 95 invasive breast cancer cases. Resulting single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were genotyped and used to identify haplotype-tagging SNPs (htSNPS in a panel of 349 healthy women. The htSNPs were genotyped in 5,603 invasive breast cancer cases and 7,480 controls from the Cancer Prevention Study-II (CPS-II, European Prospective Investigation on Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC, Multiethnic Cohort (MEC, Nurses' Health Study (NHS, and Women's Health Study (WHS. Circulating levels of sex steroids (androstenedione, estradiol, estrone and testosterone were also measured in 4713 study subjects. Results Breast cancer risk was not associated with any polymorphism or haplotype in the GNRH1 and GNRHR genes, nor were there any statistically significant interactions with known breast cancer risk factors. Polymorphisms in these two genes were not strongly associated with circulating hormone levels. Conclusion Common variants of the GNRH1 and GNRHR genes are not associated with risk of invasive breast cancer in Caucasians.

  7. Genetic polymorphisms of the GNRH1 and GNRHR genes and risk of breast cancer in the National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canzian, Federico; Calle, Eugenia E; Chanock, Stephen; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Dossus, Laure; Feigelson, Heather Spencer; Haiman, Christopher A; Hankinson, Susan E; Hoover, Robert; Hunter, David J; Isaacs, Claudine; Kaaks, Rudolf; Lenner, Per; Lund, Eiliv; Overvad, Kim; Palli, Domenico; Pearce, Celeste Leigh; Quiros, Jose R; Riboli, Elio; Stram, Daniel O; Thomas, Gilles; Thun, Michael J; Cox, David G; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Gils, Carla H van; Ziegler, Regina G; Henderson, Katherine D; Henderson, Brian E; Berg, Christine; Bingham, Sheila; Boeing, Heiner; Buring, Julie

    2009-01-01

    Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GNRH1) triggers the release of follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone from the pituitary. Genetic variants in the gene encoding GNRH1 or its receptor may influence breast cancer risk by modulating production of ovarian steroid hormones. We studied the association between breast cancer risk and polymorphisms in genes that code for GNRH1 and its receptor (GNRHR) in the large National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (NCI-BPC3). We sequenced exons of GNRH1 and GNRHR in 95 invasive breast cancer cases. Resulting single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped and used to identify haplotype-tagging SNPs (htSNPS) in a panel of 349 healthy women. The htSNPs were genotyped in 5,603 invasive breast cancer cases and 7,480 controls from the Cancer Prevention Study-II (CPS-II), European Prospective Investigation on Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), Multiethnic Cohort (MEC), Nurses' Health Study (NHS), and Women's Health Study (WHS). Circulating levels of sex steroids (androstenedione, estradiol, estrone and testosterone) were also measured in 4713 study subjects. Breast cancer risk was not associated with any polymorphism or haplotype in the GNRH1 and GNRHR genes, nor were there any statistically significant interactions with known breast cancer risk factors. Polymorphisms in these two genes were not strongly associated with circulating hormone levels. Common variants of the GNRH1 and GNRHR genes are not associated with risk of invasive breast cancer in Caucasians

  8. Risk of severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome in GnRH antagonist versus GnRH agonist protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftager, M.; Bogstad, J; Bryndorf, T

    2016-01-01

    interval (CI): 0.33-0.57) compared with the traditional GnRH agonist protocol. Previous trials comparing the two protocols mainly included selected patient populations, a limited number of patients and the applied OHSS criteria differed, making direct comparisons difficult. In two recent large meta...... IV, dual-centre, open-label, RCT including 1050 women allocated to either short GnRH antagonist or long GnRH agonist protocol in a 1:1 ratio and enrolled over a 5-year period using a web-based concealed randomization code. This is a superiority study designed to detect a difference in severe OHSS...... between the two arms. None of the women had undergone previous ART treatment. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: All infertile women referred for their first IVF/ICSI at two public fertility clinics, less than 40 years of age and with no uterine malformations were asked to participate. A total...

  9. [Effectiveness and safety of pulsatile GnRH pump therapy on female patients with IHH].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhaoxiang; Mao, Jiangfeng; Wu, Xueyan; Nie, Min; Huang, Bingkun; Xu, Hongli; Wang, Xi; Zheng, Junjie

    2015-11-10

    To investigate the therapeutic effect of pulsatile GnRH (gonadorelin) pump on female patients with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH). In this retrospective study, five female IHH patients were recruited. Patients were treated with pulsatile gonadorelin (10 µg per 90 min) via a pump for at least 12 weeks. Serum gonadotropins and sex steroid levels were measured, and menses were recorded. After one-week treatment, luteinizing hormone (LH) level increased from (2.2 ± 2.0) U/L to (5.4 ± 2.5) U/L (P=0.028), follicle-stimulating hormone(FSH) level increased from (3.7 ± 2.7) U/L to(6.3 ± 1.0) U/L (P=0.162), and estradiol (E2) level increased from (58 ± 13) pmol/L to (260 ± 97) pmol/L (P=0.011). Menstrual bleeding was observed in 4 patients after starting treatment for 35-55 days and two natural pregnancies were reported. No menstrual bleeding was reported in another patient. The frequency of pulsatile GnRH had to be adjusted according to endogenous GnRH secretion during the follicular phase of normal women and regular menses were induced. Pulsatile GnRH is effective in treating female IHH. A constant frequency of pulsatile GnRH is suitable for most of IHH patients. However, for those who failed to produce regular menses, adjusting pulsatile frequency to imitate the physiological rhythm of GnRH may be an alternative option.

  10. GT-MHR project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiryushin, A.; Kodochigov, N.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents new generation reactor - modular helium reactor with gas turbine (GT-MHR), which satisfies the requirements of the developing nuclear power. The paper describes the reactor plant and peculiarities of GT-MHR technical concept, such as high efficiency (about 48%) of electric power generation, increased safety of the plant, etc. The technologies, which are the innovative essence of GT-MHR project, are: (1) fuel in the form of fuel particles with multi-layer ceramic coatings which confine fission products at high temperatures (of about 1600 deg.); (2) large gas turbines; (3) single-shaft vertical turbomachine design; (4) electromagnetic bearings; (5) high-effective compact heat exchangers. Main technical and economical indices of GT-MHR project are presented. (author)

  11. High-frequency stimulation-induced peptide release synchronizes arcuate kisspeptin neurons and excites GnRH neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jian; Nestor, Casey C; Zhang, Chunguang; Padilla, Stephanie L; Palmiter, Richard D

    2016-01-01

    Kisspeptin (Kiss1) and neurokinin B (NKB) neurocircuits are essential for pubertal development and fertility. Kisspeptin neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (Kiss1ARH) co-express Kiss1, NKB, dynorphin and glutamate and are postulated to provide an episodic, excitatory drive to gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1 (GnRH) neurons, the synaptic mechanisms of which are unknown. We characterized the cellular basis for synchronized Kiss1ARH neuronal activity using optogenetics, whole-cell electrophysiology, molecular pharmacology and single cell RT-PCR in mice. High-frequency photostimulation of Kiss1ARH neurons evoked local release of excitatory (NKB) and inhibitory (dynorphin) neuropeptides, which were found to synchronize the Kiss1ARH neuronal firing. The light-evoked synchronous activity caused robust excitation of GnRH neurons by a synaptic mechanism that also involved glutamatergic input to preoptic Kiss1 neurons from Kiss1ARH neurons. We propose that Kiss1ARH neurons play a dual role of driving episodic secretion of GnRH through the differential release of peptide and amino acid neurotransmitters to coordinate reproductive function. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16246.001 PMID:27549338

  12. Morphological Characterization of the Action Potential Initiation Segment in GnRH Neuron Dendrites and Axons of Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herde, Michel K; Herbison, Allan E

    2015-11-01

    GnRH neurons are the final output neurons of the hypothalamic network controlling fertility in mammals. In the present study, we used ankyrin G immunohistochemistry and neurobiotin filling of live GnRH neurons in brain slices from GnRH-green fluorescent protein transgenic male mice to examine in detail the location of action potential initiation in GnRH neurons with somata residing at different locations in the basal forebrain. We found that the vast majority of GnRH neurons are bipolar in morphology, elaborating a thick (primary) and thinner (secondary) dendrite from opposite poles of the soma. In addition, an axon-like process arising predominantly from a proximal dendrite was observed in a subpopulation of GnRH neurons. Ankyrin G immunohistochemistry revealed the presence of a single action potential initiation zone ∼27 μm in length primarily in the secondary dendrite of GnRH neurons and located 30 to 140 μm distant from the cell soma, depending on the type of process and location of the cell body. In addition to dendrites, the GnRH neurons with cell bodies located close to hypothalamic circumventricular organs often elaborated ankyrin G-positive axon-like structures. Almost all GnRH neurons (>90%) had their action potential initiation site in a process that initially, or ultimately after a hairpin loop, was coursing in the direction of the median eminence. These studies indicate that action potentials are initiated in different dendritic and axonal compartments of the GnRH neuron in a manner that is dependent partly on the neuroanatomical location of the cell body.

  13. Socially regulated reproductive development: analysis of GnRH-1 and kisspeptin neuronal systems in cooperatively breeding naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shuzhi; Holmes, Melissa M; Forger, Nancy G; Goldman, Bruce D; Lovern, Matthew B; Caraty, Alain; Kalló, Imre; Faulkes, Christopher G; Coen, Clive W

    2013-09-01

    In naked mole-rat (NMR) colonies, breeding is monopolized by the queen and her consorts. Subordinates experience gonadal development if separated from the queen. To elucidate the neuroendocrine factors underlying reproductive suppression/development in NMRs, we quantified plasma gonadal steroids and GnRH-1- and kisspeptin-immunoreactive (ir) neurons in subordinate adults and in those allowed to develop into breeders, with or without subsequent gonadectomy. In males and females, respectively, plasma testosterone and progesterone are higher in breeders than in subordinates. No such distinction occurs for plasma estradiol; its presence after gonadectomy and its positive correlation with adrenal estradiol suggest an adrenal source. Numbers of GnRH-1-ir cell bodies do not differ between gonad-intact breeders and subordinates within or between the sexes. As in phylogenetically related guinea pigs, kisspeptin-ir processes pervade the internal and external zones of the median eminence. Their distribution is consistent with actions on GnRH-1 neurons at perikaryal and/or terminal levels. In previously investigated species, numbers of kisspeptin-ir cell bodies vary from substantial to negligible according to sex and/or reproductive state. NMRs are exceptional: irrespective of sex, reproductive state, or presence of gonads, substantial numbers of kisspeptin-ir cell bodies are detected in the rostral periventricular region of the third ventricle (RP3V) and in the anterior periventricular (PVa), arcuate, and dorsomedial hypothalamic nuclei. Nevertheless, the greater number in the RP3V/PVa of female breeders compared with female subordinates or male breeders suggests that emergence from a hypogonadotrophic state in females may involve kisspeptin-related mechanisms similar to those underlying puberty or seasonal breeding in other species. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Colletotrichine B, a new sesquiterpenoid from Colletotrichum gloeosporioides GT-7, a fungal endophyte of Uncaria rhynchophylla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Wei; Yang, Zhong-Duo; Li, Xiao-Fei; Sun, Jian-Hui; Yang, Li-Jun; Zhang, Xin-Guo

    2018-02-08

    One new compound, colletotrichine B (1), was produced by the fungal Colletotrichum gloeosporioides GT-7. The structure of 1 was elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and X-ray crystallographic analysis. Monoamine oxidase (MAO), acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3Kα) inhibitory activity of 1 was also evaluated. Compound 1 showed only AChE inhibiting activity with IC 50 value of 38.0 ± 2.67 μg/mL.

  15. Glucosensing by GnRH Neurons: Inhibition by Androgens and Involvement of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, Alison V.

    2011-01-01

    GnRH neurons integrate steroidal and metabolic cues to regulate fertility centrally. Central glucoprivation reduces LH secretion, which is governed by GnRH release, suggesting GnRH neuron activity is modulated by glucose availability. Here we tested whether GnRH neurons can sense changes in extracellular glucose, and whether glucosensing is altered by the steroids dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and/or estradiol (E). Extracellular recordings were made from GnRH neurons in brain slices from ovariectomized (OVX) mice ± DHT and/or E implants. Firing rate was reduced by a switch from 4.5 to 0.2 mm glucose in cells from OVX, OVX+E, and OVX+DHT+E mice, but not OVX+DHT mice. This suggests that androgens reduce the sensitivity of GnRH neurons to changes in extracellular glucose, but E mitigates this effect. Next we investigated potential mechanisms. In the presence of the ATP-sensitive potassium channel antagonist tolbutamide, glucosensing persisted. In contrast, glucosensing was attenuated in the presence of compound C, an antagonist of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), suggesting a role for AMPK in glucosensing. The AMPK activator N1-(b-d-ribofuranosyl)-5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide (AICAR) mimicked the effect of low glucose and was less effective in cells from DHT-treated mice. The effect of DHT to diminish responses to low glucose and AICAR was abolished by blockade of fast synaptic transmission. Both AICAR and low glucose activated a current with a reversal potential near −50 mV, suggesting a nonspecific cation current. These studies indicate that glucosensing is one mechanism by which GnRH neurons sense fuel availability and point to a novel role for AMPK in the central regulation of fertility. PMID:21393446

  16. Microdose Flare-up Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone (GnRH) Agonist Versus GnRH Antagonist Protocols in Poor Ovarian Responders Undergoing Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boza, Aysen; Cakar, Erbil; Boza, Barıs; Api, Murat; Kayatas, Semra; Sofuoglu, Kenan

    2016-01-01

    Microdose flare-up GnRH agonist and GnRH antagonist have become more popular in the management of poor ovarian responders (POR) in recent years; however, the optimal protocol for POR patients undergoing in vitro fertilization has still been a challenge. In this observational study design, two hundred forty four poor ovarian responders were retrospectively evaluated for their response to GnRH agonist protocol (group-1, n=135) or GnRH antagonist protocol (group-2, n=109). Clinical pregnancy rate was the primary end point and was compared between the groups. Student t-test, Mann Whitney U test and χ (2)-test were used to compare the groups. The pmicrodose flare-up protocol has favorable outcomes with respect to the number of oocytes retrieved and implantation rate; nevertheless, the clinical pregnancy rate was found to be similar in comparison to GnRH antagonist protocol in poor ovarian responders. GnRH antagonist protocol appears to be promising with significantly lower gonadotropin requirement and lower treatment cost in poor ovarian responders.

  17. Microdose GnRH Agonist Flare-Up versus Ultrashort GnRH Agonist Combined with Fixed GnRH Antagonist in Poor Responders of Assisted Reproductive Techniques Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Khani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study compares the microdose flare-up protocol to the ultrashort gonadotropinreleasinghormone (GnRH agonist flare combined with the fixed multidose GnRH antagonistprotocol in poor responders undergoing ovarian stimulation.Materials and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 120 women who were candidates forassisted reproductive techniques (ART and had histories of one or more failed in vitro fertilization(IVF cycles with three or fewer retrieved oocytes were prospectively randomized into two groups.Group I (60 patients received the microdose flare-up regimen and group II (60 patients receivedthe ultrashort GnRH agonist combined with fixed GnRH antagonist.Results: There were no significant differences between the groups in the number of used gonadotropinampoules (p=0.591, duration of stimulation (p=0.610, number of retrieved oocytes (p=0.802,fertilization rate (p=0.456, and the number of transferred embryos (p=0.954. The clinical pregnancyrates were statistically similar in group I (10% compared with group II (13.3%, p=0.389.Conclusion: According to our results, there is no significant difference between these protocolsfor improving the ART outcome in poor responders. Additional prospective, randomizedstudies with more patients is necessary to determine the best protocol (Registration Number:IRCT201105096420N1.

  18. Microdose GnRH Agonist Flare-Up versus Ultrashort GnRH Agonist Combined with Fixed GnRH Antagonist in Poor Responders of Assisted Reproductive Techniques Cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekhar, Maryam; Mohammadian, Farnaz; Yousefnejad, Fariba; Khani, Parisa

    2013-01-01

    This study compares the microdose flare-up protocol to the ultrashort gonadotropinreleasing hormone (GnRH) agonist flare combined with the fixed multidose GnRH antagonist protocol in poor responders undergoing ovarian stimulation. In this randomized clinical trial, 120 women who were candidates for assisted reproductive techniques (ART) and had histories of one or more failed in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles with three or fewer retrieved oocytes were prospectively randomized into two groups. Group I (60 patients) received the microdose flare-up regimen and group II (60 patients) received the ultrashort GnRH agonist combined with fixed GnRH antagonist. There were no significant differences between the groups in the number of used gonadotropin ampoules (p=0.591), duration of stimulation (p=0.610), number of retrieved oocytes (p=0.802), fertilization rate (p=0.456), and the number of transferred embryos (p=0.954). The clinical pregnancy rates were statistically similar in group I (10%) compared with group II (13.3%, p=0.389). According to our results, there is no significant difference between these protocols for improving the ART outcome in poor responders. Additional prospective, randomized studies with more patients is necessary to determine the best protocol (Registration Number: IRCT201105096420N1).

  19. Effects of GnRH administration on ovulation and fertility in ewes subjected to estrous synchronization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda dos Santos Cavalcanti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to verify the effects of GnRH on ovulation and pregnancy of ewes subjected to a short-term synchronization of estrus. Santa Inês and crossbred Santa Inês/Dorper ewes received 60 mg MAP sponges during 6 days plus 300 IU eCG and 30 µg d-cloprostenol 24 h prior to sponge withdrawal (SW. Ewes were assigned to receive 0.9% NaCl solution (Tcontrol; n = 32 or 25 µg GnRH (licerelin, T GnRH; n = 34 24 hours after SW. Each group was assigned to intrauterine insemination by laparoscopy (n = 25 or to natural mating (n = 41. Artificial insemination was performed with a single dose of fresh semen. For controlled mating, females were exposed to males 12, 24, 36 and 48 hours after SW. Ten females per treatment were subjected to transrectal ultrasound examination at 12-hour intervals (SW to 60 hours after. Estrous response (100.0% vs 95.2%, interval from SW to estrus (32.9±7.4 vs 29.8±6.9 hours, estrous length (37.4±9.0 vs 31.5±10.4 hours, pregnancy rates (57.0% vs 41.0%, ovulation rate (100.0% vs 90.0%, number of ovulations/ewe (1.1±0.3 vs 1.2±0.4, maximum follicular diameter (6.4±0.7 vs 6.1±0.6 mm, interval from SW to ovulation (59.1±3.5 vs 58.4±3.5 hours did not differ between Tcontrol and T GnRH, respectively. Administration of GnRH 24 hours after SW does not improve ovulation or pregnancy rate in estrous synchronization in ewes.

  20. Targeted Mutagenesis of the Hypophysiotropic Gnrh3 in Zebrafish (Danio rerio Reveals No Effects on Reproductive Performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Smith Spicer

    Full Text Available Gnrh is the major neuropeptide regulator of vertebrate reproduction, triggering a cascade of events in the pituitary-gonadal axis that result in reproductive competence. Previous research in mice and humans has demonstrated that Gnrh/GNRH null mutations result in hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and infertility. The goal of this study was to eliminate gnrh3 (the hypophysiotropic Gnrh form function in zebrafish (Danio rerio to determine how ontogeny and reproductive performance are affected, as well as factors downstream of Gnrh3 along the reproductive axis. Using the TALEN technology, we developed a gnrh3-/- zebrafish line that harbors a 62 bp deletion in the gnrh3 gene. Our gnrh3-/- zebrafish line represents the first targeted and heritable mutation of a Gnrh isoform in any organism. Using immunohistochemistry, we verified that gnrh3-/- fish do not possess Gnrh3 peptide in any regions of the brain. However, other than changes in mRNA levels of pituitary gonadotropin genes (fshb, lhb, and cga during early development, which are corrected by adulthood, there were no changes in ontogeny and reproduction in gnrh3-/- fish. The gnrh3-/- zebrafish are fertile, displaying normal gametogenesis and reproductive performance in males and females. Together with our previous results that Gnrh3 cell ablation causes infertility, these results indicate that a compensatory mechanism is being activated, which is probably primed early on upon Gnrh3 neuron differentiation and possibly confined to Gnrh3 neurons. Potential compensation factors and sensitive windows of time for compensation during development and puberty should be explored.

  1. Differential co-localization with choline acetyltransferase in nervus terminalis suggests functional differences for GnRH isoforms in bonnethead sharks (Sphyrna tiburo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, John F; Meredith, Michael

    2010-12-17

    The nervus terminalis (NT) is a vertebrate cranial nerve whose function in adults is unknown. In bonnethead sharks, the nerve is anatomically independent of the olfactory system, with two major cell populations within one or more ganglia along its exposed length. Most cells are immunoreactive for either gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) or RF-amide-like peptides. To define further the cell populations and connectivity, we used double-label immunocytochemistry with antisera to different isoforms of GnRH and to choline acetyltransferase (ChAT). The labeling patterns of two GnRH antisera revealed different populations of GnRH-immunoreactive (ir) cell profiles in the NT ganglion. One antiserum labeled a large group of cells and fibers, which likely contain mammalian GnRH (GnRH-I) as described in previous studies and which were ChAT immunoreactive. The other antiserum labeled large club-like structures, which were anuclear, and a sparse number of fibers, but with no clear labeling of cell bodies in the ganglion. These club structures were choline acetyltrasferase (ChAT)-negative, and preabsorption control tests suggest they may contain chicken-GnRH-II (GnRH-II) or dogfish GnRH. The second major NT ganglion cell-type was immunoreactive for RF-amides, which regulate GnRH release in other vertebrates, and may provide an intraganglionic influence on GnRH release. The immunocytochemical and anatomical differences between the two GnRH-immunoreactive profile types indicate possible functional differences for these isoforms in the NT. The club-like structures may be sites of GnRH release into the general circulation since these structures were observed near blood vessels and resembled structures seen in the median eminence of rats. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Neuroregulatory and neuroendocrine GnRH pathways in the hypothalamus and forebrain of the baboon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, P E; Goldsmith, P C

    1980-07-14

    The distribution of neurons containing gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in the baboon hypothalamus and forebrain was studied immunocytochemically by light and electron microscopy. GnRH was present in the perikarya, axonal and dendritic processes of immunoreactive neurons. Three populations of GnRH neurons could be distinguished. Most of the GnRH neurons which are assumed to directly influence the anterior pituitary were in the medial basal hypothalamus. Other cells that projected to the median eminence were found scattered throughout the hypothalamus. A second, larger population of neurons apparently was not involved with control of the anterior pituitary. These neurons were generally found within afferent and efferent pathways of the hypothalamus and forebrain, and may receive external information affecting reproduction. A few neurons projecting to the median eminence were also observed sending collaterals to other brain areas. Thus, in addition to their neuroendocrine role, these cells possibly have neuroregulatory functions. The inference is made that these bifunctional neurons, together with the widely observed GnRH-GnRH cellular interactions may help to synchronize ovulation and sexual behavior.

  3. Angiotensina-(1-7 durante o processo inicial na cascata da ovulação em bovinos Angiotensin-(1-7 during the initial process of ovulatory cascade in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joabel Tonellotto dos Santos

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito da Ang-(1-7 e de seu receptor (MAS na regulação da ovulação. No experimento I, utilizando um modelo in vitro de cultivo de células foliculares, foi avaliado o efeito do tratamento com Ang-(1-7 ou do bloqueio do receptor MAS através do inibidor d-Ala7-Ang-(1-7 (A-779 na expressão de RNAm para epirregulina (Ereg; um marcador inicial do processo de ovulação em células da granulosa. No experimento II, foi utilizado um modelo in vivo de injeção intrafolicular no qual vinte vacas tiveram o ciclo estral sincronizado e, quando os folículos atingiram um diâmetro mínimo de 12mm, foi realizada a injeção intrafolicular de A-779 ou solução salina 0,9%. No momento da injeção intrafolicular, foi realizada uma aplicação IM de análogo de GnRH. A suplementação com Ang-(1-7 ou o bloqueio de seu receptor MAS em sistema de cultivo de células da granulosa não alteraram o padrão de expressão de RNAm para Ereg. A aplicação intrafolicular de A-779 (10-5M não bloqueou a ovulação quando realizada antes do início do pico esperado de LH (100% das vacas ovularam nos grupos A-779 e controle, sugerindo que a Ang-(1-7 não possui papel relevante no início da cascata ovulatória em bovinos.This study aimed to evaluate the effect of Ang-(1-7 and its receptor (MAS in the regulation of the ovulatory cascade. In the experiment I, the effect of Ang-(1-7 or d-Ala7-Ang-(1-7 (A-779; Ang-(1-7 antagonist on the epirregulin (Ereg; initial marker of ovulation process mRNA expression in granulosa cells was assessed using an in vitro model of follicular cell culture. In experiment II, it was used an in vivo intrafollicular injection model, in which twenty cows had their follicular waves synchronized and the ovarian follicular size was daily monitored by ultrasound. Follicles that reached a minimum diameter of 12mm were injected with A-779 or saline 0.9%. At the time of the intrafollicular injection

  4. Progesterone treatment inhibits and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) treatment potentiates voltage-gated calcium currents in gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianli; Moenter, Suzanne M

    2010-11-01

    GnRH neurons are central regulators of fertility, and their activity is modulated by steroid feedback. In normal females, GnRH secretion is regulated by estradiol and progesterone (P). Excess androgens present in hyperandrogenemic fertility disorders may disrupt communication of negative feedback signals from P and/or independently stimulate GnRH release. Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) are important in regulating excitability and hormone release. Estradiol alters VGCCs in a time-of-day-dependent manner. To further elucidate ovarian steroid modulation of GnRH neuron VGCCs, we studied the effects of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and P. Adult mice were ovariectomized (OVX) or OVX and treated with implants containing DHT (OVXD), estradiol (OVXE), estradiol and DHT (OVXED), estradiol and P (OVXEP), or estradiol, DHT, and P (OVXEDP). Macroscopic calcium current (I(Ca)) was recorded in the morning or afternoon 8-12 d after surgery using whole-cell voltage-clamp. I(Ca) was increased in afternoon vs. morning in GnRH neurons from OVXE mice but this increase was abolished in cells from OVXEP mice. I(Ca) in cells from OVXD mice was increased regardless of time of day; there was no additional effect in OVXED mice. P reduced N-type and DHT potentiated N- and R-type VGCCs; P blocked the DHT potentiation of N-type-mediated current. These data suggest P and DHT have opposing actions on VGCCs in GnRH neurons, but in the presence of both steroids, P dominates. VGCCs are targets of ovarian steroid feedback modulation of GnRH neuron activity and, more specifically, a potential mechanism whereby androgens could activate GnRH neuronal function.

  5. Comparison of microdose GnRH agonist protocol with GnRH antagonist / letrazole protocol in patients with poor ovarian response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiğit Çakıroğlu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare microdose GnRH agonist (MDL protocol with GnRH antagonist/letrazole (AL protocol in patients with poor ovarian response. Design: Randomised clinical trial. Setting: Kocaeli University Assisted Reproductive Centre Interventions: POR was diagnosed according to ESHRE Bologna criteria in case of presence of 2 out of 3 criteria. In the MDL group (n=27, 40µg/0.2 cc subcutaneous leuprolid acetate was given two times a day starting on the first day of menstrual cycle. On the second day of the cycle, gonadotrophin stimulation was started at 450-600 IU and/or 150 IU human menopausal gonadotrophin (hMG along with leuprolid. In the AL group (n=28, 5 mg letrazole was given for 5 days starting on the second day of the spontaneous cycle and after the 5th day of the cycle, 450-600 IU and/or 150 IU hMG was given. Main Outcome Measures: To compare the outcomes of MDL protocol with AL protocol in patients with poor ovarian response. Results: Stimulation days, total gonadotrophin dose (IU, peak E2 (pg/ml levels, and endometrial thickness were found to be statistically significantly lower in the AL group. While no cases of cycle cancellation was detected in the MDL group, statistically significantly higher rates of cycle cancellation (%35.7, p<0.001 was detected in the AL group. No statistically significant differences were detected in total oocyte numbers (3.7±2.9 vs 2.7±2.2, number of transferred embryos (1.4±0.5 vs 1.4±1.9, pregnancy rates (3/27 (%11.1 vs 2/28 (%7.1 and implantation rates (3/36 (%8.3 vs 2/22 (%9.1 in between the groups. Comment: Although AL protocol is not superior to MDL protocol in poor ovarian response patients, it may be used as an alternative protocol.

  6. Association of the TCF7L2 rs12255372 (G/T variant with type 2 diabetes mellitus in an Iranian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faranak Mahmoudi Alami

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In various populations worldwide, common variants of the TCF7L2 (Transcription factor 7-like 2 gene are associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. The aim was to investigate the association between rs12255372 (G/T polymorphism in the TCF7L2 gene and T2DM in an Iranian population. 236 unrelated patients with T2DM, and 255 normoglycemic controls without diabetes were studied. The PCR-RFLP method was used for genotyping rs12255372 (G/T polymorphism, and the SPSS version 18.0 for Windows for statistical analysis. The minor T allele of TCF7L2 rs12255372 was found to significantly increase the risk of T2DM, with an allelic odds ratio (OR of 1.458 (95% CI 1.108-1.918, p = 0.007. A significant difference in TT genotype was observed between T2DM patients and normoglycemic controls (OR 2.038, 95% CI 1.147-3.623; p = 0.014. On assuming dominant and recessive models, ORs of 1.52 [95% CI (1.05-2.21 p = 0.026] and 1.74 [95% CI (1.01-3.00 p = 0.043] were obtained, respectively, thereby implying that the co-dominant model would best fit the susceptible gene effect. This study further confirms the TCF7L2 gene as enhancing susceptibility to the development of T2DM.

  7. GnRH Analogues in the Prevention of Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alama, Pilar; Bellver, Jose; Vidal, Carmen; Giles, Juan

    2013-01-01

    The GnRH analogue (agonist and antagonist GnRH) changed ovarian stimulation. On the one hand, it improved chances of pregnancy to obtain more oocytes and better embryos. This leads to an ovarian hyper-response, which can be complicated by the ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). On the other hand, the GnRH analogue can prevent the incidence of OHSS: GnRH antagonist protocols, GnRH agonist for triggering final oocyte maturation, either together or separately, coasting, and the GnRH analogue may prove useful for avoiding OHSS in high-risk patients. We review these topics in this article. PMID:23825982

  8. Colletotrilactam A-D, novel lactams from Colletotrichum gloeosporioides GT-7, a fungal endophyte of Uncaria rhynchophylla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Bo; Yang, Zhong-Duo; Chen, Xiao-Wei; Zhou, Shuang-Yan; Yu, Hai-Tao; Sun, Jing-Yun; Yao, Xiao-Jun; Wang, Yong-Gang; Xue, Hong-Yan

    2016-09-01

    Four novel lactams, colletotrilactam A-D (1-4), along with six known compounds (5-10) were isolated from the culture broth of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides GT-7, a fungal endophyte of Uncaria rhynchophylla. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by comprehensive NMR spectroscopy. Isolates were tested for monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitory activity and compound 9 showed potent MAO inhibitory activity with IC50 value of 8.93±0.34μg/mL, when the IC50 value of iproniazid as a standard was 1.80±0.5μg/mL. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparative analysis of the pituitary and ovarian GnRH systems in the leopard gecko: signaling crosstalk between multiple receptor subtypes in ovarian follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikemoto, Tadahiro; Park, Min Kyun

    2007-02-01

    GnRH regulates reproductive functions through interaction with its pituitary receptor in vertebrates. The present study demonstrated that the leopard gecko possessed two and three genes for GnRH ligands and receptors, respectively, though one of the three receptor subtypes had long been thought not to exist in reptiles. Each receptor subtype showed a distinct pharmacology. All types of ligands and receptors showed different expression patterns, and were widely expressed both inside and outside the brain. This report also shows a comparison of the pituitary and ovarian GnRH systems in the leopard gecko during and after the egg-laying season. All three receptor subtypes were expressed in both the whole pituitary and ovary; however, only one receptor subtype could be detected in the anterior pituitary gland. In situ hybridization showed spatial expression patterns of ovarian receptors, and suggested co-expression of multiple receptor subtypes in granulosa cells of larger follicles. Co-transfection of receptor subtypes showed a distinct pharmacology in COS-7 cells compared with those of single transfections. These results suggest that distinct signaling mechanisms are involved in the pituitary and ovarian GnRH systems. Seasonal and developmental variations in receptor expression in the anterior pituitary gland and ovarian follicles may contribute to the seasonal breeding of this animal.

  10. Life cycle assessment of an SOFC/GT process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olausson, Pernilla

    1999-06-01

    For the last few years much effort has been put into the research on different kinds of fuel cells, since these are considered to be both an efficient and environment friendly way to convert energy. The fuel cell studied here is the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) that works at a high temperature (800-1000 C) and today achieves a stand-alone electric efficiency of approximately 50%. When integrating the SOFC in a gas turbine process (SOFC/GT process) an efficiency of 70-75% can be reached. The SOFC and the SOFC/GT process are considered to be environment friendly regarding the discharges during operation. Especially formation of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) is low since the SOFC temperatures are low compared to NO{sub x} formation temperatures. To study the whole environmental impact of the SOFC/GT process a life cycle assessment (LCA) is carried out to find the `hot spots` in the process` life cycle. Since the SOFC/GT process is under development today the collected data are mainly from literature and articles based on laboratory results. When performing the LCA only the SOFC-module and the gas turbine are included. A collection of data of all processes included, extraction of minerals, processing of raw material, production of the components, operation of the SOFC/GT process and transports between all these processes. These data are then added up and weighted in impact categories to evaluate the total environmental impact of the SOFC/GT process. All these steps are performed according to the ISO 14040-series. The stand-alone most contributing phase during the life cycle of the SOFC/GT process was found to be the production of the SOFC. All processes during the production of the SOFC are carried out under laboratory circumstances, which require more energy and materials than if the processes were commercialised and optimised. For the SOFC/GT process to be competitive with other energy converting processes regarding the discharges of emissions to the air, the use of

  11. Expression of the GnRH and GnRH receptor (GnRH-R) genes in the hypothalamus and of the GnRH-R gene in the anterior pituitary gland of anestrous and luteal phase ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciechanowska, Magdalena; Lapot, Magdalena; Malewski, Tadeusz; Mateusiak, Krystyna; Misztal, Tomasz; Przekop, Franciszek

    2008-11-01

    Data exists showing that seasonal changes in the innervations of GnRH cells in the hypothalamus and functions of some neural systems affecting GnRH neurons are associated with GnRH release in ewes. Consequently, we put the question as to how the expression of GnRH gene and GnRH-R gene in the hypothalamus and GnRH-R gene in the anterior pituitary gland is reflected with LH secretion in anestrous and luteal phase ewes. Analysis of GnRH gene expression by RT-PCR in anestrous ewes indicated comparable levels of GnRH mRNA in the preoptic area, anterior and ventromedial hypothalamus. GnRH-R mRNA at different concentrations was found throughout the preoptic area, anterior and ventromedial hypothalamus, stalk/median eminence and in the anterior pituitary gland. The highest GnRH-R mRNA levels were detected in the stalk/median eminence and in the anterior pituitary gland. During the luteal phase of the estrous cycle in ewes, the levels of GnRH mRNA and GnRH-R mRNA in all structures were significantly higher than in anestrous ewes. Also LH concentrations in blood plasma of luteal phase ewes were significantly higher than those of anestrous ewes. In conclusion, results from this study suggest that low expression of the GnRH and GnRH-R genes in the hypothalamus and of the GnRH-R gene in the anterior pituitary gland, amongst others, may be responsible for a decrease in LH secretion and the anovulatory state in ewes during the long photoperiod.

  12. Striking a Balance between Program Requirements and GT Principles: Writing a compromised GT proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherry L. Xie, Ph.D. Candidate

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Glaser’s term “compromised GT proposal” (2001, p.114 refers to the type of Grounded Theory (GT proposal that is written in order to conform to the requirements of a standardized qualitative research proposal. A GT proposal needs only to supply information on the area of interest, the data source and a statement of method to the effect that the researcher begin to collect, code and analyse the data and let the theory emerge. Thus, the proposal may only occupy “a page or two” (Glaser, 2001, p. 111. Whilst being consistent with the methodology, a GT proposal sometimes has to give way to the format specified by a PhD program or committee even though the format was not defined for a GT proposal and in some areas, conflicts with GT principles; for example, the format may require a literature review. This short paper reports on my experience of writing a compromised GT proposal as a first-time GT researcher. It describes how both Glaser’s advice on writing compromised GT research proposals and the characteristics of the substantive area of the proposed research were used to satisfy program requirements while still maintaining GT fundamentals.

  13. [Effects of nitriles and amides on the growth and the nitrile hydratase activity of the Rhodococcus sp. strain gt1].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimov, A Iu; Kuznetsova, M V; Ovechkina, G V; Kozlov, S V; Maksimova, Iu G; Demakov, V A

    2003-01-01

    Effects of some nitriles and amides, as well as glucose and ammonium, on the growth and the nitrile hydratase (EC 4.2.1.84) activity of the Rhodococcus sp. strain gt1 isolated from soil were studied. The activity of nitrile hydratase mainly depended on carbon and nitrogen supply to cells. The activity of nitrile hydratase was high in the presence of glucose and ammonium at medium concentrations and decreased at concentrations of glucose more than 0.3%. Saturated unsubstituted aliphatic nitriles and amides were found to be a good source of nitrogen and carbon. However, the presence of nitriles and amides in the medium was not absolutely necessary for the expression of the activity of nitrile hydratase isolated from the Rhodococcus sp. strain gt1.

  14. GnRH mRNA levels in male three-spined sticklebacks, Gasterosteus aculeatus, under different reproductive conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yi Ta; Tseng, Yung Che; Chang, Chia-Hao; Yan, Hong Young; Hwang, Pung Pung; Borg, Bertil

    2015-02-01

    In vertebrates, reproduction is regulated by the brain-pituitary-gonad (BPG) axis, where the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is one of the key components. However, very little is known about the possible role of GnRH in the environmental and feedback control of fish reproduction. To investigate this, full-length gnrh2 (chicken GnRH II) and gnrh3 (salmon GnRH) sequences of male three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus), which are clustered with the taxa of the same GnRH type as other Euteleostei, were cloned and annotated. gnrh1 is absent in this species. The mRNA levels of gnrh2 and gnrh3 in the sticklebacks' brain were measured under breeding and post-breeding conditions as well as in castrated and sham-operated breeding fish and castrated/sham-operated fish kept under long-day (LD 16:8) and short-day (LD 8:16) conditions. Fully breeding males had considerably higher mRNA levels of gnrh2 and gnrh3 in the thalamus (Th) and in the telencephalon and preoptic area (T+POA), respectively, than post-breeding males. Sham-operated breeding males have higher gnrh3 mRNA levels than the corresponding castrated males. Moreover, higher gnrh2 mRNA levels in the Th and higher gnrh3 mRNA levels in the T+POA and hypothalamus (HypTh) were also found in long-day sham-operated males than in sham-operated fish kept under an inhibitory short day photoperiod. Nevertheless, gnrh2 and gnrh3 mRNA levels were not up-regulated in castrated males kept under long-day photoperiod, which suggests that positive feedbacks on the brain-pituitary-gonad axis are necessary for this response. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Responsiveness to a Physiological Regimen of GnRH Therapy and Relation to Genotype in Women With Isolated Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Brent S.; Shaw, Natalie D.; Brown, Jenifer M.; Adams, Judith M.; Alati, Teresa; Martin, Kathryn A.; Pitteloud, Nelly; Seminara, Stephanie B.; Plummer, Lacey; Pignatelli, Duarte; Crowley, William F.; Welt, Corrine K.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) is caused by defective GnRH secretion or action resulting in absent or incomplete pubertal development and infertility. Most women with IHH ovulate with physiological GnRH replacement, implicating GnRH deficiency as the etiology. However, a subset does not respond normally, suggesting the presence of defects at the pituitary or ovary. Objectives: The objective of the study was to unmask pituitary or ovarian defects in IHH women using a physiological regimen of GnRH replacement, relating these responses to genes known to cause IHH. Design, Setting, and Subjects: This study is a retrospective analysis of 37 IHH women treated with iv pulsatile GnRH (75 ng/kg per bolus). Main Outcome Measures: Serum gonadotropin and sex steroid levels were measured, and 14 genes implicated in IHH were sequenced. Results: During their first cycle of GnRH replacement, normal cycles were recreated in 60% (22 of 37) of IHH women. Thirty percent of women (12 of 37) demonstrated an attenuated gonadotropin response, indicating pituitary resistance, and 10% (3 of 37) exhibited an exaggerated FSH response, consistent with ovarian resistance. Mutations in CHD7, FGFR1, KAL1, TAC3, and TACR3 were documented in IHH women with normal cycles, whereas mutations were identified in GNRHR, PROKR2, and FGFR1 in those with pituitary resistance. Women with ovarian resistance were mutation negative. Conclusions: Although physiological replacement with GnRH recreates normal menstrual cycle dynamics in most IHH women, hypogonadotropic responses in the first week of treatment identify a subset of women with pituitary dysfunction, only some of whom have mutations in GNRHR. IHH women with hypergonadotropic responses to GnRH replacement, consistent with an additional ovarian defect, did not have mutations in genes known to cause IHH, similar to our findings in a subset of IHH men with evidence of an additional testicular defect. PMID:23341491

  16. Afferent neuronal control of type-I gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH neurons in the human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik eHrabovszky

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the regulation of the human menstrual cycle represents an important ultimate challenge of reproductive neuroendocrine research. However, direct translation of information from laboratory animal experiments to the human is often complicated by strikingly different and unique reproductive strategies and central regulatory mechanisms that can be present in even closely related animal species. In all mammals studied so far, type-I gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH synthesizing neurons form the final common output way from the hypothalamus in the neuroendocrine control of the adenohypophysis. Under various physiological and pathological conditions, hormonal and metabolic signals either regulate GnRH neurons directly or act on upstream neuronal circuitries to influence the pattern of pulsatile GnRH secretion into the hypophysial portal circulation. Neuronal afferents to GnRH cells convey important metabolic-, stress-, sex steroid-, lactational- and circadian signals to the reproductive axis, among other effects. This article gives an overview of the available neuroanatomical literature that described the afferent regulation of human GnRH neurons by peptidergic, monoaminergic and amino acidergic neuronal systems. Recent studies of human genetics provided evidence that central peptidergic signaling by kisspeptins and neurokinin B play particularly important roles in puberty onset and later, in the sex steroid-dependent feedback regulation of GnRH neurons. This review article places special emphasis on the topographic distribution, sexual dimorphism, aging-dependent neuroanatomical changes and plastic connectivity to GnRH neurons of the critically important human hypothalamic kisspeptin and neurokinin B systems.

  17. Inhibition of RM-1 prostate carcinoma and eliciting robust immune responses in the mouse model by using VEGF-M2-GnRH3-hinge-MVP vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiqin; Alahdal, Murad; Ye, Jia; Jing, Liangliang; Liu, Xiaoxin; Chen, Huan; Jin, Liang; Cao, Rongyue

    2018-01-23

    GnRH and VEGF have been investigated as prostate carcinoma enhancers that support tumor spread and progression. Although both have documented roles in prostate carcinoma and many cancer types, the weak immunogenicity of these peptides has remained a major challenge for use in immunotherapy. Here, we describe a novel strategy to inhibit GnRH and VEGF production and assess the effect on the immune responses against these hormones using the RM-1 prostate cancer model. We designed a novel recombinant fusion protein which combined GnRH and VEGF as a vaccine against this tumor. The newly constructed fusion protein hVEGF121-M2-GnRH3-hinge-MVP contains the human vascular endothelial growth factor (hVEGF121) and three copies of GnRH in sequential linear alignment and T helper epitope MVP as an immunogenic vaccine. The effectiveness of the vaccine in eliciting an immune response and attenuating the prostate tumor growth was evaluated. Results showed that administration of a new vaccine effectively elicited humoral and cellular immune responses. We found that, a novel fusion protein, hVEGF121-M2-GnRH3-hinge-MVP, effectively inhibited growth of RM-1 prostate model and effectively promoted immune response. In conclusion, hVEGF121-M2-GnRH3-hinge-MVP is an effective dual mechanism tumor vaccine that limits RM-1 prostate growth. This vaccine may be a promising strategy for the treatment of hormone refractory prostate malignancies.

  18. Selective enhancement of main olfactory input to the medial amygdala by GnRH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Camille Bond; Meredith, Michael

    2010-03-04

    In male hamsters mating behavior is dependent on chemosensory input from the main olfactory and vomeronasal systems, whose central pathways contain cell bodies and fibers of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons. In sexually naive males, vomeronasal organ removal (VNX), but not main olfactory lesions, impairs mating behavior. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.)-GnRH restores mating in sexually naive VNX males and enhances medial amygdala (Me) immediate-early gene activation by chemosensory stimulation. In sexually experienced males, VNX does not impair mating and i.c.v.-GnRH suppresses Me activation. Thus, the main olfactory system is sufficient for mating in experienced-VNX males, but not in naive-VNX males. We investigated the possibility that GnRH enhances main olfactory input to the amygdala in naive-VNX males using i.c.v.-GnRH and pharmacological stimulation (bicuculline/D,L-homocysteic acid mixture) of the main olfactory bulb (MOB). In sexually naive intact males there was a robust increase of Fos protein expression in the anteroventral medial amygdala (MeAv) with MOB stimulation, but no effect of GnRH. There was no effect of stimulation or GnRH in posterodorsal medial amygdala (MePd). In naive-VNX animals, GnRH increased Fos in MeAv and MePv. Only combined MOB stimulation and i.c.v.-GnRH produced a significant increase in Fos in the dorsal (reproduction-related) portion of MeP (MePd). When the animals were sexually experienced before VNX, a condition in which GnRH does not enhance mating, i.c.v.-GnRH combined with MOB stimulation suppressed Fos expression in MePd. This suggests a more selective effect of GnRH on olfactory input in MePd than elsewhere in medial amygdala of VNX males. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The comparision of effect of microdose GnRH-a flare-up, GnRH antagonist/aromatase inhibitor letrozole and GnRH antagonist/clomiphene citrate protocols on IVF outcomes in poor responder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan Cenksoy, Pinar; Ficicioglu, Cem; Kizilkale, Ozge; Suhha Bostanci, Mehmet; Bakacak, Murat; Yesiladali, Mert; Kaspar, Cigdem

    2014-07-01

    To compare the effects of microdose GnRH-a flare-up, GnRH antagonist/aromatase inhibitor letrozole and GnRH antagonist/clomiphene citrate protocols on IVF outcomes in poor responder patients. Of 225 patients, 83 patients were in microdose flare-up group (Group 1), 70 patients were in GnRH antagonist/letrozole group (Group 2) and 72 patients were in GnRH antagonist/clomiphene citrate group (Group 3). Demographic and endocrine characteristics, the total number of oocytes retrieved, cancellation rate and clinical pregnancy rate were collected Results: Total dosage of gonadotropins (p=0.002) and serum E2 levels on the day of hCG administration (p=0.010) were significantly higher and duration of stimulations (p=0.03) was significantly longer in group 1. The number of oocytes retrieved was significantly greater in group 1 and 2 when compare to those of group 3 (p=0,000). There was a trend towards increasing cycle cancellation rates with GnRH antagonist/clomiphene citrate and GnRH antagonist/letrozole. Our finding suggest that the results of microdose flare-up protocol are better than other two used treatment protocols, in terms of maximum estradiol levels, number of mature oocytes retrieved, and cancellation rate and it still seems to be superior the ovarian stimulation regime for the poor responder patients.

  20. Basal testosterone concentrations after the application of a slow-release GnRH agonist implant are associated with a loss of response to buserelin, a short-term GnRH agonist, in the tom cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goericke-Pesch, Sandra; Georgiev, Plamen; Fasulkov, Ivan; Vodenicharov, Angel; Wehrend, Axel

    2013-07-01

    Slow-release GnRH agonist implants are considered an effective, reversible alternative to surgical castration in male tom cats. Individual differences exist regarding the onset of efficacy and might be delayed in some animals. Single measurements of testosterone (T) might result in basal concentrations also in intact male cats. Consequently, GnRH stimulation tests are performed to measure T increase in intact animals and to differentiate castrated from intact male cats. In this study, five tom cats were treated with a 4.7-mg deslorelin implant and GnRH stimulation tests using buserelin were performed before treatment and at 4-week intervals afterward until Week 20. After the last test in Week 20 all animals were castrated. Four of five animals had basal T after 4 weeks and-in contrast to pretreatment-application of buserelin did not result in any further T increase. In one animal, T was low after implant insertion, but not basal; however, a GnRH stimulation test induced a slight increase of T in Week 8 and 16 only and no response in Weeks 4, 12, and 20. Testicular volume was significantly decreased and penile spines disappeared in all cats. Testicular histology showed mixed atrophy, but also fully elongated spermatids in three of five male cats making infertility questionable. Because of the loss of the stimulatory effect of short-term GnRH application (buserelin), it can be assumed that long-term GnRH agonists also act by some mechanisms of downregulation of pituitary GnRH receptors in the tom cat. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Dynamic GnRH and hCG testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, A. Kirstine; Nordkap, Loa; Almstrup, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) stimulation tests may be used to evaluate the pituitary and testicular capacity. Our aim was to evaluate changes in follicular-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone after Gn...... influence of the tests was illustrated by results from 45 patients suspected of disordered hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. METHODS: Baseline, stimulated, relative and absolute changes in serum FSH and LH were determined by ultrasensitive TRIFMA, and testosterone was determined by LC-MS/MS. RESULTS......: For the reference group, LH and FSH increased almost 400% and 40% during GnRH testing, stimulated levels varied from 4.4 to 58.8 U/L and 0.2 to 11.8 U/L and FSH decreased in nine men. Testosterone increased approximately 110% (range: 18.7-67.6 nmol/L) during hCG testing. None of the polymorphisms had any major...

  2. Identification of Genes Enriched in GnRH Neurons by Translating Ribosome Affinity Purification and RNAseq in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Laura L; Vanacker, Charlotte; Phumsatitpong, Chayarndorn; Wagenmaker, Elizabeth R; Wang, Luhong; Olson, David P; Moenter, Suzanne M

    2018-04-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons are a nexus of fertility regulation. We used translating ribosome affinity purification coupled with RNA sequencing to examine messenger RNAs of GnRH neurons in adult intact and gonadectomized (GDX) male and female mice. GnRH neuron ribosomes were tagged with green fluorescent protein (GFP) and GFP-labeled polysomes isolated by immunoprecipitation, producing one RNA fraction enhanced for GnRH neuron transcripts and one RNA fraction depleted. Complementary DNA libraries were created from each fraction and 50-base, paired-end sequencing done and differential expression (enhanced fraction/depleted fraction) determined with a threshold of >1.5- or <0.66-fold (false discovery rate P ≤ 0.05). A core of ∼840 genes was differentially expressed in GnRH neurons in all treatments, including enrichment for Gnrh1 (∼40-fold), and genes critical for GnRH neuron and/or gonadotrope development. In contrast, non-neuronal transcripts were not enriched or were de-enriched. Several epithelial markers were also enriched, consistent with the olfactory epithelial origins of GnRH neurons. Interestingly, many synaptic transmission pathways were de-enriched, in accordance with relatively low innervation of GnRH neurons. The most striking difference between intact and GDX mice of both sexes was a marked downregulation of genes associated with oxidative phosphorylation and upregulation of glucose transporters in GnRH neurons from GDX mice. This may suggest that GnRH neurons switch to an alternate fuel to increase adenosine triphosphate production in the absence of negative feedback when GnRH release is elevated. Knowledge of the GnRH neuron translatome and its regulation can guide functional studies and can be extended to disease states, such as polycystic ovary syndrome.

  3. Effects of GnRH immunization in sexually mature pony stallions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turkstra, J.A.; Meer, F.J.U.M.; Knaap, J.; Rottier, P.J.M.; Teerds, K.J.; Colenbrander, B.; Meloen, R.H.

    2005-01-01

    Immunization against gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) was studied as an alternative for the commonly used surgical castration in stallions. Two GnRH vaccines comprising non-mineral oil adjuvants were evaluated for their potential to induce high antibody titers directed against GnRH and

  4. GnRH Neurons on LSD: A Year of Rejecting Hypotheses That May Have Made Karl Popper Proud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moenter, Suzanne M

    2018-01-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons are critical to many aspects of fertility regulation, from producing episodic release critical to both sexes, to providing a central signal to induce the ovulatory cascade in females. This year saw progress through the rejection, and occasional support, of hypotheses in understanding how GnRH neurons contribute to these processes. This brief review provides one laboratory's view of new insights into possible roles for these cells in development, adult reproductive function, and what may go wrong with GnRH neurons in some cases of infertility. Copyright © 2018 Endocrine Society.

  5. The role of GABA in the regulation of GnRH neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miho eWatanabe

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH neurons form the final common pathway for the central regulation of reproduction. Gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA has long been implicated as one of the major players in the regulation of GnRH neurons. Although GABA is typically an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mature adult central nervous system, most mature GnRH neurons show the unusual characteristic of being excited by GABA. While many reports have provided much insight into the contribution of GABA to the activity of GnRH neurons, the precise physiological role of the excitatory action of GABA on GnRH neurons remains elusive. This brief review presents the current knowledge of the role of GABA signaling in GnRH neuronal activity. We also discuss the modulation of GABA signaling by neurotransmitters and neuromodulators and the functional consequence of GABAergic inputs to GnRH neurons in both the physiology and pathology of reproduction.

  6. Synchronisation of the follicular wave with GnRH and PGF2α analogue for a timed breeding programme in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjunatha, B M; Al-Bulushi, Samir; Pratap, N

    2015-09-01

    This study was conducted to develop a hormone protocol that precisely synchronises follicular development for a timed breeding (TB) programme in dromedary camels. To examine the effect of GnRH treatment at four known stages of follicular development, animals were treated with GnRH when the largest follicle of the wave was 4-7, 8-11, 12-17 and 18-27 mm in diameter. Transrectal ultrasonography was carried out daily up to 20 days after treatment. A hormone protocol (FWsynch) for the synchronisation of follicular wave and TB consisting of GnRH-1 (GnRH) on Day 0, PG-1 (PGF2α) on Day 7, GnRH-2 on Day 10 and PG-2 on Day 17 was initiated at four known stages of follicular development. Ovarian structures were monitored by ultrasonography. The FWsynch protocol was initiated at random stages of follicle development and animals were bred by natural mating at a fixed time at the research facility and in field. The pregnancy was diagnosed by ultrasonography. GnRH treatment in animals with a dominant follicle (DF) of ≥ 11 mm in diameter resulted in synchronous new follicular wave emergence, whereas in animals with a DF ≤ 10 mm, the treatment did not alter the development of the existing follicular wave. The FWsynch protocol was effective in synchronising the follicular wave for TB irrespective of the stage of follicular development at the beginning of the protocol. TB using FWsynch protocol resulted in a pregnancy rate of 60.2% in a research facility and 53.6% and 45.6% in normal and infertile camels respectively under field conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The terminal nerve plays a prominent role in GnRH-1 neuronal migration independent from proper olfactory and vomeronasal connections to the olfactory bulbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ed Zandro M. Taroc

    2017-10-01

    Yoshihara et al., 2005. Our data prove that correct development of the OBs and axonal connection of the olfactory/vomeronasal sensory neurons to the forebrain are not required for GnRH-1 ns migration, and suggest that the terminal nerve, which forms the GnRH-1 migratory scaffold, follows different guidance cues and differs in gene expression from olfactory/vomeronasal sensory neurons.

  8. Eel Kisspeptins: Identification, Functional Activity, and Inhibition on both Pituitary LH and GnRH Receptor Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérémy Pasquier

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The European eel (Anguilla anguilla presents a blockade of sexual maturation at a prepubertal stage due to a deficient production of gonadotropins. We previously initiated, in the eel, the investigation of the kisspeptin system, one of the major gatekeepers of puberty in mammals, and we predicted the sequence of two Kiss genes. In the present study, we cloned and sequenced Kiss1 and Kiss2 cDNAs from the eel brain. The tissue distributions of Kiss1 and Kiss2 transcripts, as investigated by quantitative real-time PCR, showed that both genes are primarily expressed in the eel brain and pituitary. The two 10-residue long sequences characteristic of kisspeptin, eel Kp1(10 and Kp2(10, as well as two longer sequences, predicted as mature peptides, eel Kp1(15 and Kp2(12, were synthesized and functionally analyzed. Using rat Kiss1 receptor-transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells, we found that the four synthesized eel peptides were able to induce [Ca2+]i responses, indicating their ability to bind mammalian KissR-1 and to activate second messenger pathways. In primary culture of eel pituitary cells, all four peptides were able to specifically and dose-dependently inhibit lhβ expression, without any effect on fshβ, confirming our previous data with heterologous kisspeptins. Furthermore, in this eel in vitro system, all four peptides inhibited the expression of the type 2 GnRH receptor (gnrh-r2. Our data revealed a dual inhibitory effect of homologous kisspeptins on both pituitary lhβ and gnrh-r2 expression in the European eel.

  9. Conformational analysis of GT1B ganglioside and its interaction with botulinum neurotoxin type B: a study by molecular modeling and molecular dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateshwari, Sureshkumar; Veluraja, Kasinadar

    2012-01-01

    The conformational property of oligosaccharide GT1B in aqueous environment was studied by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation using all-atom model. Based on the trajectory analysis, three prominent conformational models were proposed for GT1B. Direct and water-mediated hydrogen bonding interactions stabilize these structures. The molecular modeling and 15 ns MD simulation of the Botulinum Neuro Toxin/B (BoNT/B) - GT1B complex revealed that BoNT/B can accommodate the GT1B in the single binding mode. Least mobility was seen for oligo-GT1B in the binding pocket. The bound conformation of GT1B obtained from the MD simulation of the BoNT/B-GT1B complex bear a close conformational similarity with the crystal structure of BoNT/A-GT1B complex. The mobility noticed for Arg 1268 in the dynamics was accounted for its favorable interaction with terminal NeuNAc. The internal NeuNAc1 tends to form 10 hydrogen bonds with BoNT/B, hence specifying this particular site as a crucial space for the therapeutic design that can restrict the pathogenic activity of BoNT/B.

  10. Biosynthesis of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and GnRH receptor (GnRHR) in hypothalamic-pituitary unit of anoestrous and cyclic ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciechanowska, M O; Łapot, M; Mateusiak, K; Paruszewska, E; Malewski, T; Przekop, F

    2017-02-01

    This study was performed to explain how the molecular processes governing the biosynthesis of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and GnRH receptor (GnRHR) in the hypothalamic-pituitary unit are reflected by luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion in sheep during anoestrous period and during luteal and follicular phases of the oestrous cycle. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), we analyzed the levels of GnRH and GnRHR in preoptic area (POA), anterior (AH) and ventromedial hypothalamus (VM), stalk-median eminence (SME), and GnRHR in the anterior pituitary gland (AP). Radioimmunoassay has also been used to define changes in plasma LH concentrations. The study provides evidence that the levels of GnRH in the whole hypothalamus of anoestrous ewes were lower than that in sheep during the follicular phase of the oestrous cycle (POA: p pituitary unit, as well as LH level, in the blood in anoestrous ewes were significantly lower than those detected in animals of both cyclic groups. Our data suggest that decrease in LH secretion during the long photoperiod in sheep may be due to low translational activity of genes encoding both GnRH and GnRHR.

  11. Summarized report of geothermal well Gross Buchholz Gt1; Kurzprofil der Geothermiebohrung Gross Buchholz Gt1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, Frauke; Hesshaus, Annalena; Jatho, Reiner; Luppold, Friedrich-Wilhelm; Pletsch, Thomas; Tischner, Torsten [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Hannover (Germany); Hunze, Sabine; Orilski, Judith; Wonik, Thomas [Leibniz-Institut fuer Angewandte Geophysik (LIAG), Hannover (Germany); Roehling, Heinz-Gerd [Landesamt fuer Bergbau, Energie und Geologie (LBEG), Hannover (Germany)

    2012-01-15

    The well Gross Buchholz Gt1 is a deep geothermal well intended to demonstrate the feasibility of deep geothermal energy mining from tight sedimentary rocks. It is the core part of the GeneSys (Generated Geothermal Energy Systems) project, aiming at developing single well concepts for direct use of geothermal energy. During the course of the project, three different single well concepts have been developed and tested at the research well Horstberg Z1 which is geologically comparable to the Gross Buchholzwell. The latter is intended to supply the heating energy for the premises of Geozentrum Hannover, an office and lab complex of some 35.000 m{sup 2} housing about 1000 employees. The geothermal target are the sandstones of the Lower Triassic Middle Buntsandstein Formation, which have a temperature of about 165 C at 3700 depth. The well has reached a final depth of 3901 m below ground level, penetrating a nearly complete succession from the Lower Cretaceous (Albian) to the Lower Triassic (Lower Buntsandstein), while Tertiary and Upper Cretaceous sediments are missing. This article summarizes technical and geographic data, stratigraphic classification, geophysical logging, cores, and sidewall cores of the well. (orig.)

  12. Circadian Control of the Estrogenic Circuits Regulating GnRH Secretion and the Preovulatory Luteinizing Hormone Surge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lance J Kriegsfeld

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Female reproduction requires the precise temporal organization of interacting, estradiol-sensitive neural circuits that converge to optimally drive hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis functioning. In mammals, the master circadian pacemaker in the suprachaismatic nucleus (SCN of the anterior hypothalamus coordinates reproductively-relevant neuroendocrine events necessary to maximize reproductive success. Likewise, in species where periods of fertility are brief, circadian oversight of reproductive function ensures that estradiol-dependent increases in sexual motivation coincide with ovulation. Across species, including humans, disruptions to circadian timing (e.g., through rotating shift work, night shift work, poor sleep hygiene lead to pronounced deficits in ovulation and fecundity. Despite the well-established roles for the circadian system in female reproductive functioning, the specific neural circuits and neurochemical mediators underlying these interactions are not fully understood. Most work to date has focused on the direct and indirect communication from the SCN to the GnRH system in control of the preovulatory LH surge. However, the same clock genes underlying circadian rhythms at the cellular level in SCN cells are also common to target cell populations of the SCN, including the GnRH neuronal network. Exploring the means by which the master clock synergizes with subordinate clocks in GnRH cells and its upstream modulatory systems represents an exciting opportunity to further understand the role of endogenous timing systems in female reproduction. Herein we provide an overview of the state of knowledge regarding interactions between the circadian timing system and estradiol-sensitive neural circuits driving GnRH secretion and the preovulatory LH surge.

  13. Female-Specific Glucose Sensitivity of GnRH1 Neurons Leads to Sexually Dimorphic Inhibition of Reproduction in Medaka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasebe, Masaharu; Kanda, Shinji; Oka, Yoshitaka

    2016-11-01

    Close interaction exists between energy-consuming reproduction and nutritional status. However, there are differences in costs and priority for reproduction among species and even between sexes, which leads to diversification of interactions between reproduction and nutritional status. Despite such diversified interactions among species and sexes, most of the analysis of the nutritional status-dependent regulation of reproduction has been limited to an endothermic vertebrate, mammalian species of either sex. Therefore, the mechanisms underlying the diversified interactions remain elusive. In the present study, we demonstrated the effects of malnutritional status on reproduction at both organismal and cellular levels in an ectothermic vertebrate, a teleost medaka of both sexes. First, we analyzed the effects of malnutrition by fasting on gonadosomatic index, number of spawned/fertilized eggs, and courtship behavior. Fasting strongly suppressed reproduction in females but, surprisingly, not in males. Next, we analyzed the effects of fasting on firing activity of hypothalamic GnRH1 neurons, which form the final common pathway for the control of reproduction. An electrophysiological analysis showed that low glucose, which is induced by fasting, directly suppresses the firing activity of GnRH1 neurons specifically in females through intracellular ATP-sensitive potassium channels and AMP-activated protein kinase pathways. Based on the fact that such suppressions occurred only in females, we conclude that nutritional status-dependent, glucose-sensing in GnRH1 neurons may contribute to the most fitted reproductive regulation for each sex.

  14. Rotary nickel-titanium GT and ProTaper files for root canal shaping by novice operators: a radiographic and micro-computed tomography evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gekelman, Diana; Ramamurthy, Ramya; Mirfarsi, Sahar; Paqué, Frank; Peters, Ove A

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess canal preparation outcomes in vitro by novice clinicians after standardized teaching sessions. All students received a training session. In experiment 1, twenty canals of mandibular molars were prepared with GT and ProTaper rotaries by 10 students. Standardized radiographs were exposed before and after canal preparation, and canal curvature was measured; canals were assessed for patency and preparation time. In experiment 2, mandibular molars (20 canals) were submitted to microcomputed tomography before and after canal preparation with ProTaper and GT rotaries by 2 dental students. Canals were metrically assessed for changes (volume, surface, cross-sectional shape, transportation) during canal preparation by using software. In experiment 1, canal curvature decreased by 7.6 degrees and 7.8 degrees for GT and ProTaper preparations; there were no broken instruments, and 2 canals lost patency. The time for GT preparation was longer than for ProTaper (29.7 +/- 6.8 vs 19.4 +/- 8.1 minutes, P session.

  15. Prenatal androgen excess enhances stimulation of the GNRH pulse in pubertal female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaonan; Yuan, Chun; Zhao, Nannan; Cui, Yugui; Liu, Jiayin

    2014-07-01

    In adolescent girls with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), neuroendocrine derangements manifest after the onset of puberty, characterized by rapid LH pulse frequency. The early mechanism underlying the pubertal regulation of the GNRH/LH pulsatile release in adolescents with PCOS remains uncertain. To determine the effects of prenatal androgen exposure on the activation of GNRH neurons and generation of LH pulse at puberty, we administrated 5α-dihydrotestosterone to pregnant rats and observed serum LH levels and expression of hypothalamic genes in female offspring from postnatal 4 to 8 weeks. The 6-week-old prenatally androgenized (PNA) female rats exhibited an increase in LH pulse frequency. The hypothalamic expression of neurokinin B (Nkb (Tac2)) and Lepr mRNA levels in PNA rats increased remarkably before puberty and remained high during puberty, whereas elevated Kiss1 mRNA levels were detected only after the onset of puberty. Exogenous kisspeptin, NK3R agonist, and leptin triggered tonic stimulation of GNRH neurons and increased LH secretion in 6-week-old PNA rats. Leptin upregulated Kiss1 mRNA levels in the hypothalamus of pubertal PNA rats; however, pretreatment with a kisspeptin antagonist failed to suppress the elevated serum LH stimulated by leptin, indicating that the stimulatory effects of leptin may be conveyed indirectly to GNRH neurons via other neural components within the GNRH neuronal network, rather than through the kisspeptin-GPR54 pathway. These findings validate the hypotheses that NKB and leptin play an essential role in the activation of GNRH neurons and initiation of increased LH pulse frequency in PNA female rats at puberty and that kisspeptin may coordinate their stimulatory effects on LH release. © 2014 Society for Endocrinology.

  16. GnRH injection before artificial insemination (AI) alters follicle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-04

    Aug 4, 2009 ... releasing hormone (GnRH) injection on day 6 of the estrous cycle. The estrous cycles ... follicle at the time of GnRH injection (Silcox et al., 1993;. Twagiramungu .... Waves and their Effect on pregnancy rate in the Cow. Reprod.

  17. GT-repeat polymorphism in the heme oxygenase-1 gene promoter is associated with cardiovascular mortality risk in an arsenic-exposed population in northeastern Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Meei-Maan; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Chen, Chi-Ling; Wang, Yuan-Hung; Hsieh, Yi-Chen; Lien, Li-Ming; Lee, Te-Chang; Chen, Chien-Jen

    2010-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic has been associated with increased risk of atherosclerotic vascular disease and mortality in humans. A functional GT-repeat polymorphism in the heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) gene promoter is inversely correlated with the development of coronary artery disease and restenosis after clinical angioplasty. The relationship of HO-1 genotype with arsenic-associated cardiovascular disease has not been studied. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between the HO-1 GT-repeat polymorphism and cardiovascular mortality in an arsenic-exposed population. A total of 504 study participants were followed up for a median of 10.7 years for occurrence of cardiovascular deaths (coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and peripheral arterial disease). Cardiovascular risk factors and DNA samples for determination of HO-1 GT repeats were obtained at recruitment. GT repeats variants were grouped into the S (< 27 repeats) or L allele (≥ 27 repeats). Relative mortality risk was estimated using Cox regression analysis, adjusted for competing risk of cancer and other causes. For the L/L, L/S, and S/S genotype groups, the crude mortalities for cardiovascular disease were 8.42, 3.10, and 2.85 cases/1000 person-years, respectively. After adjusting for conventional cardiovascular risk factors and competing risk of cancer and other causes, carriers with class S allele (L/S or S/S genotypes) had a significantly reduced risk of cardiovascular mortality compared to non-carriers (L/L genotype) [OR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.16-0.90]. In contrast, no significant association was observed between HO-1 genotype and cancer mortality or mortality from other causes. Shorter (GT)n repeats in the HO-1 gene promoter may confer protective effects against cardiovascular mortality related to arsenic exposure.

  18. Multi-color lightcurve observation of the asteroid (163249) 2002 GT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, M.; Abe, S.

    2014-07-01

    NASA's Deep Impact/EPOXI spacecraft plans to encounter the asteroid (163249) 2002 GT, classified as a PHA (Potentially Hazardous Asteroid), on January 4, 2020. However, the taxonomic type and spin state of 2002 GT remain to be determined. We have carried out ground-based multi-color (B-V-R-I) lightcurve observations taking advantage of the 2002 GT Characterization Campaign by NASA. Multi-color lightcurve measurements allow us to estimate the rotation period and obtain strong constraints on the shape and pole orientation. Here we found that the rotation period of 2002 GT is estimated to be 3.7248 ± 0.1664 h. In mid-2013, 2002 GT passed at 0.015 au from the Earth, resulting an exceptional opportunity for ground-based characterization. Using the 0.81-m telescope of the Tenagra Observatory (110°52'44.8''W, +31°27'44.4''N, 1312 m) in Arizona, USA, and the Johnson-Cousins BVRI filters, we have found lightcurves of 2002 GT (Figure). The Tenagra II 0.81-m telescope is used for research of the Hayabusa2 target Asteroid (162173) 1999 JU_3. The lightcurves (relative magnitude) show that the rotation period of 2002 GT, the target of NASA's Deep Impact/EPOXI spacecraft, is estimated to be 3.7248 ± 0.1664 hr. On June 9, 2013, we had 7 hours of ground-based observations on 2002 GT from 4:00 to 11:00 UTC. The number of comparison stars for differential photometry was 34. Because of tracking the fast-moving asteroid, it was necessary to have the same comparison star among the fields of vision. We have also obtained absolute photometry of 2002 GT on June 13, 2013.

  19. Effects of GnRH vaccination in wild and captive African Elephant bulls (Loxodonta africana on reproductive organs and semen quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imke Lueders

    Full Text Available Although the African elephant (Loxodonta africana is classified as endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN, in some isolated habitats in southern Africa, contraception is of major interest due to local overpopulation. GnRH vaccination has been promoted as a non-invasive contraceptive measure for population management of overabundant wildlife. We tested the efficacy of this treatment for fertility control in elephant bulls.In total, 17 male African elephants that were treated with a GnRH vaccine were examined in two groups. In the prospective study group 1 (n = 11 bulls, ages: 8-36 years, semen quality, the testes, seminal vesicles, ampullae and prostate, which were all measured by means of transrectal ultrasound, and faecal androgen metabolite concentrations were monitored over a three-year period. Each bull in the prospective study received 5 ml of Improvac® (1000 μg GnRH conjugate intramuscularly after the first examination, followed by a booster six weeks later and thereafter every 5-7 months. In a retrospective study group (group 2, n = 6, ages: 19-33 years, one examination was performed on bulls which had been treated with GnRH vaccine for 5-11 years.In all bulls of group 1, testicular and accessory sex gland sizes decreased significantly after the third vaccination. In six males examined prior to vaccination and again after more than five vaccinations, the testis size was reduced by 57.5%. Mean testicular height and length decreased from 13.3 ± 2.6 cm x 15.2 ± 2.8 cm at the beginning to 7.6 ± 2.1 cm x 10.2 ± 1.8 cm at the end of the study. Post pubertal bulls (>9 years, n = 6 examined prior to vaccination produced ejaculates with viable spermatozoa (volume: 8-175 ml, sperm concentration: 410-4000x106/ml, total motility: 0-90%, while after 5-8 injections, only 50% of these bulls produced ejaculates with a small number of immotile spermatozoa. The ejaculates of group 2 bulls (vaccinated >8 times were

  20. Does polycystic ovarian morphology influence the response to treatment with pulsatile GnRH in functional hypothalamic amenorrhea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Agathe; Dewailly, Didier; Plouvier, Pauline; Catteau-Jonard, Sophie; Robin, Geoffroy

    2016-04-29

    Pulsatile GnRH therapy is the gold standard treatment for ovulation induction in women having functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA). The use of pulsatile GnRH therapy in FHA patients with polycystic ovarian morphology (PCOM), called "FHA-PCOM", has been little studied in the literature and results remain contradictory. The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of pulsatile GnRH therapy for ovulation induction between FHA and "FHA-PCOM" patients in order to search for an eventual impact of PCOM. Retrospective study from August 2002 to June 2015, including 27 patients with FHA and 40 "FHA-PCOM" patients (85 and 104 initiated cycles, respectively) treated by pulsatile GnRH therapy for induction ovulation. The two groups were similar except for markers of PCOM (follicle number per ovary, serum Anti-Müllerian Hormone level and ovarian area), which were significantly higher in patients with "FHA-PCOM". There was no significant difference between the groups concerning the ovarian response: with equivalent doses of GnRH, both groups had similar ovulation (80.8 vs 77.7 %, NS) and excessive response rates (12.5 vs 10.6 %, NS). There was no significant difference in on-going pregnancy rates (26.9 vs 20 % per initiated cycle, NS), as well as in miscarriage, multiple pregnancy or biochemical pregnancy rates. Pulsatile GnRH seems to be a successful and safe method for ovulation induction in "FHA-PCOM" patients. If results were confirmed by prospective studies, GnRH therapy could therefore become a first-line treatment for this specific population, just as it is for women with FHA without PCOM.

  1. EFFECT OF TIMING OF ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION ON THE FERTILITY AND SEX RATIO IN NELORE HEIFERS INFLUÊNCIA DO MOMENTO DA INSEMINAÇÃO ARTIFICIAL SOBRE A FERTILIDADE E O SEXO DA CRIA DE NOVILHAS DA RAÇA NELORE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Almeida de Andrade

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of timing of artificial insemination on the fertility and calf sex ratio in Nelore heifers (n = 200 submitted a protocol of timed artificial insemination (TAI.  The heifers, distributed into five groups (GC, GT6, GT12, GT18 and GT24, presented a mean of 2.5 years old and 342 Kg of body weight. The inseminations were performed in the moments 0 (GC, 6 (GT6, 12 (GT12, 18 (GT18 and 24 (GT24 hours after the injection of GnRH. The conception rates were 87.5% (GC, 82.5% (GT6, 77.5% (GT12, 85.0% (GT18 and 77.5% (GT24. There was no statistical difference (p>0.05 in the conception rates between the five treatments. The percentage of calved males was 38.2% (GC, 48.5% (GT6, 45.2% (GT12, 55.9% (GT18 and 58.6% (GT24. The male/female ratio was 0.62 (GC, 0.94 (GT6, 0.82 (GT12, 1.27 (GT18 and 1.42 (GT24. Statistical difference was found (p<0.05 in the male/female ratio between the five treatments. The timing of artificial insemination has influence on the sex ratio, showing an increase in the proportion of calved males when the insemination is progressively delayed. Within of the measured interval of time (0-24h after GnRH, the fertility of Nelore heifers is not influenced by the moment of the artificial insemination.

    KEY WORDS: Beef cattle, management, pregnancy test, ultrasound, sexing. Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito do momento da inseminação artificial (IA sobre a fertilidade e a proporção do sexo da cria de novilhas da raça Nelore (n = 200 submetidas a protocolo de IATF. As novilhas, distribuídas em cinco tratamentos (GC, GT6, GT12, GT18 e GT24, apresentavam idade média de 2,5 anos e peso médio de 342 kg. Realizaram-se as inseminações nos momentos 0 (GC, 6 (GT6, 12 (GT12, 18 (GT18 e 24 (GT24 horas após a aplicação do GnRH. As taxas de concepção foram de 87,5% (GC, 82,5% (GT6, 77,5% (GT12, 85,0% (GT18 e de 77,5% (GT24. Não houve diferença estatística (p>0,05 entre as taxas de

  2. Calcium-independent phosphatidylinositol response in gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-stimulated pituitary cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Naor, Z; Molcho, J; Zakut, H; Yavin, E

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes the effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH, gonadoliberin) on phospholipid metabolism in cultured rat pituitary cells. The cells were incubated with [32P]Pi to label endogenous phospholipids (10-60 min) and then stimulated with GnRH for up to 60 min. Cellular phospholipids were separated by two-dimensional t.l.c. and the radioactivity was determined. Phosphatidylinositol (PI), a minor constituent of cellular phospholipids (7.7%), was the major labelled phospholipi...

  3. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Regulates Expression of the DNA Damage Repair Gene, Fanconi anemia A, in Pituitary Gonadotroph Cells1

    OpenAIRE

    Larder, Rachel; Chang, Lynda; Clinton, Michael; Brown, Pamela

    2004-01-01

    Gonadal function is critically dependant on regulated secretion of the gonadotropin hormones from anterior pituitary gonadotroph cells. Gonadotropin biosynthesis and release is triggered by the binding of hypothalamic GnRH to GnRH receptor expressed on the gonadotroph cell surface. The repertoire of regulatory molecules involved in this process are still being defined. We used the mouse LβT2 gonadotroph cell line, which expresses both gonadotropin hormones, as a model to investigate GnRH regu...

  4. The utility of the gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) test in the diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Krzysztof C; Cajdler-Łuba, Agata; Salata, Ireneusz; Bieńkiewicz, Małgorzata; Lewiński, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterised by increased frequency of hypothalamic GnRH pulses leading to a relative increase in LH synthesis by the pituitary. As GnRH stimulation can reveal a relative LH excess, we have endeavoured to assess whether GnRH test might be useful in the diagnosis of PCOS. The study involved 185 subjects: a PCOS group, n = 151, all with oligo- or amenorrhoea, aged (mean ± SD) 24.8 ± ± 5.4 years, BMI 24.5 ± 6.0 kg/m²; and regularly menstruating controls, n = 34, aged 26.6 ± 5.0 years, BMI 24.6 ± 5.5 kg/m². In 121 subjects with PCOS and in 32 controls, serum LH and FSH were measured before (0 minutes) and 30 and 60 minutes after GnRH stimulation (100 μg i.v.). Insulin resistance was assessed by HOMA and Insulin Resistance Index derived from glucose and insulin concentrations during 75 gram oral glucose tolerance test. Women with PCOS had higher testosterone (p = 0.0002), androstendione (p = 0.0021), 17OH-progesterone (p PCOS. Baseline and stimulated LH concentrations were higher in PCOS (9.09 ± 5.56 vs 4.83 ± 1.71 IU/L, 35.48 ± 31.4 vs 16.30 ± 6.68 IU/L, 33.86 ± 31.8 vs 13.45 ± 5.2 IU/L, at 0, 30 and 60 mins post GnRH, respectively, p PCOS in comparison to controls (LH0 min/FSH(₀ min) 1.59 ± 0.95 vs 0.76 ± 0.2, LH(₃₀ min) /FSH(₃₀ min) 4.07 ± 3.0 vs 1.89 ± 0.79, LH(₆₀ min)/FSH(₆₀ min) 3.56 ± 2.58 vs 1.55 ± 0.63, p 2.11 or LH(₆₀ min)/FSH(₆₀ min) > 1.72 had 78.3% and 87.5% sensitivity and 81.7% and 81.3% specificity for the diagnosis of PCOS, respectively. Women with PCOS have higher baseline and GnRH-stimulated LH concentrations. GnRH stimulation results in an increase in LH/FSH ratio in women with PCOS. Therefore we postulate that this phenomenon might be potentially useful as an additional tool in the diagnosis of PCOS.

  5. Prenatal androgenization of female mice programs an increase in firing activity of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons that is reversed by metformin treatment in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, Alison V; Moenter, Suzanne M

    2011-02-01

    Prenatal androgenization (PNA) of female mice with dihydrotestosterone programs reproductive dysfunction in adulthood, characterized by elevated luteinizing hormone levels, irregular estrous cycles, and central abnormalities. Here, we evaluated activity of GnRH neurons from PNA mice and the effects of in vivo treatment with metformin, an activator of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) that is commonly used to treat the fertility disorder polycystic ovary syndrome. Estrous cycles were monitored in PNA and control mice before and after metformin administration. Before metformin, cycles were longer in PNA mice and percent time in estrus lower; metformin normalized cycles in PNA mice. Extracellular recordings were used to monitor GnRH neuron firing activity in brain slices from diestrous mice. Firing rate was higher and quiescence lower in GnRH neurons from PNA mice, demonstrating increased GnRH neuron activity. Metformin treatment of PNA mice restored firing activity and LH to control levels. To assess whether AMPK activation contributed to the metformin-induced reduction in GnRH neuron activity, the AMPK antagonist compound C was acutely applied to cells. Compound C stimulated cells from metformin-treated, but not untreated, mice, suggesting that AMPK was activated in GnRH neurons, or afferent neurons, in the former group. GnRH neurons from metformin-treated mice also showed a reduced inhibitory response to low glucose. These studies indicate that PNA causes enhanced firing activity of GnRH neurons and elevated LH that are reversible by metformin, raising the possibility that central AMPK activation by metformin may play a role in its restoration of reproductive cycles in polycystic ovary syndrome.

  6. Detection of non-ΔGT NCF-1 mutations in chronic granulomatous disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Marianne Antonius; Pedersen, Svend Stenvang; Barington, Torben

    2009-01-01

    to have mutations in NCF-1 encoding p47-phox, which is part of the cytosolic component of NADPH oxidase. More than 94% of these patients share the same mutation, a 2 bp GT deletion in the GTGT dinucleotide repeat in the start of exon 2. The presence of two pseudogenes more than 98% homologous...

  7. Pharmacological and toxicological assessment of a potential GnRH vaccine in young-adult male pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turkstra, J.A.; Staay, van der F.J.; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, N.; Woelders, H.; Meloen, R.H.; Schuurman, T.

    2011-01-01

    Active immunization against gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is successfully applied to prevent boar taint in pork. In men, GnRH immunization could be an alternative to hormone therapy in patients with prostate cancer. In this study, a new GnRH vaccine formulation (a modified GnRH peptide

  8. Effect of endotoxin on the expression of GnRH and GnRHR genes in the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary gland of anestrous ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Andrzej Przemysław; Tomaszewska-Zaremba, Dorota

    2010-07-01

    An immune/inflammatory challenge can affect reproduction at the level of the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, or gonads. Nonetheless, the major impact is thought to occur within the brain or the pituitary gland. The present study was designed to examine the effect of intravenous (i.v.) lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection on the expression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and the gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR) genes in the hypothalamic structures where GnRH neurons are located as well as in the anterior pituitary gland (AP) of anestrous ewes. We also determined the effect of LPS on luteinizing hormone (LH) release. It was found that i.v. LPS injection significantly decreased GnRH and GnRHR mRNAs levels in the preoptic area (40%, ppituitary cells to GnRH stimulation. The presence of GnRH mRNA in the median eminence, the hypothalamic structure where GnRH-ergic neurons' terminals are located, suggests that the axonal transport of GnRH mRNA may occur in these neurons. This phenomenon could play an important role in the physiology of GnRH neurons. Our data demonstrate that immune stress could be important inhibitor of this process. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Hormonal responses to GnRH injection given at different stages of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-04-05

    Apr 5, 2010 ... In conclusion, the results presented here indicate that. GnRH given at the beginning (days 5 to 7) or at the end. (days 15 to 17) of the estrous cycle did not alter the profile of progesterone and estradiol concentration in water buffaloes as previously described in cattle (Kohram et al., 1998a, b). REFERENCES.

  10. Kallmann syndrome: 14 novel mutations in KAL1 and FGFR1 (KAL2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuisson, Juliette; Pêcheux, Chistophe; Carel, Jean-Claude; Lacombe, Didier; Leheup, Bruno; Lapuzina, Pablo; Bouchard, Philippe; Legius, Eric; Matthijs, Gert; Wasniewska, Malgorzata; Delpech, Marc; Young, Jacques; Hardelin, Jean-Pierre; Dodé, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    Kallmann syndrome (KAL) combines hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and anosmia. Hypogonadism is due to Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH) deficiency and anosmia is related to hypoplasia of the olfactory bulbs. Occasional symptoms include renal agenesis, bimanual synkinesia, cleft lip palate, dental agenesis. KAL is genetically heterogeneous and two genes have so far been identified, namely KAL1 (Xp22.3) and FGFR1/KAL2 (8p12), which underlie the X chromosome-linked form and an autosomal dominant form of the disease, respectively. We studied a cohort of 98 unrelated Caucasian KAL patients. We identified KAL1 mutations in 14 patients, of which 7 (c.3G>A (p.M1?), g.IVS1+1G>T, c.570_571insA (p.R191fsX14), c.784G>C (p.R262P), c.958G>T (p.E320X), c.1651_1654delinsAGCT (p.P551_E552delinsSX), c.1711T>A (p.W571R)) have not been previously reported. In addition, we found FGFR1 mutations in 7 patients, namely c.303G>A (p.V102I), C.385A>C (p.D129A), c.810G>A (p.V273M), c.1093_1094delAG (p.R365fsX41), c.1561G>A (p.A520T), c.1836_1837insT (p.Y613fsX42), c.2190C>G (p.Y730X), all of which were novel mutations. In this study, unilateral renal agenesis and bimanual synkinesia were exclusively found associated with KAL1mutations, cleft palate and dental agenesia with FGFR1mutations. (c) 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Regulates Expression of the DNA Damage Repair Gene, Fanconi anemia A, in Pituitary Gonadotroph Cells1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larder, Rachel; Chang, Lynda; Clinton, Michael; Brown, Pamela

    2007-01-01

    Gonadal function is critically dependant on regulated secretion of the gonadotropin hormones from anterior pituitary gonadotroph cells. Gonadotropin biosynthesis and release is triggered by the binding of hypothalamic GnRH to GnRH receptor expressed on the gonadotroph cell surface. The repertoire of regulatory molecules involved in this process are still being defined. We used the mouse LβT2 gonadotroph cell line, which expresses both gonadotropin hormones, as a model to investigate GnRH regulation of gene expression and differential display reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to identify and isolate hormonally induced changes. This approach identified Fanconi anemia a (Fanca), a gene implicated in DNA damage repair, as a differentially expressed transcript. Mutations in Fanca account for the majority of cases of Fanconi anemia (FA), a recessively inherited disease identified by congenital defects, bone marrow failure, infertility, and cancer susceptibility. We confirmed expression and hormonal regulation of Fanca mRNA by quantitative RT-PCR, which showed that GnRH induced a rapid, transient increase in Fanca mRNA. Fanca protein was also acutely upregulated after GnRH treatment of LβT2 cells. In addition, Fanca gene expression was confined to mature pituitary gonadotrophs and adult mouse pituitary and was not expressed in the immature αT3-1 gonadotroph cell line. Thus, this study extends the expression profile of Fanca into a highly specialized endocrine cell and demonstrates hormonal regulation of expression of the Fanca locus. We suggest that this regulatory mechanism may have a crucial role in the GnRH-response mechanism of mature gonadotrophs and perhaps the etiology of FA. PMID:15128600

  12. The effect of intracerebroventricular injection of L-glutamate on the hypothalamic GnRH content in rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Qiang; He Haoming

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of intracerebroventricular injection of L-Glutamate (L-Glu) on hypothalamic gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) content in male rats. Methods: The GnRH content in the supernatant of hypothalamic homogenates was measured by RIA. Results: The mean values of hypothalamic GnRH content in rat were 1.59 +- 0.41, 0.88 +- 0.34, 0.70 +- 0.42 ng/10mg wet tissue 40 min after intracerebroventricular injection of 0.01176, 0.1176, 1.176 μg/20 μl L-Glu respectively, which were significantly lower than those in controls with saline injections (P 3 H-Glu in rat at 40 min the author found that the intake of 3 H-glu by MBH was 1069.82 +- 490.33 cpm/10 mg wet tissues, the highest value among those taken by cerebrum, cerebellum, pituitary, POA and MBH itself. Conclusion: L-Glu probably participates in the regulation of functional activity of GnRH neurons in the hypothalamus

  13. Iron overload induces hypogonadism in male mice via extrahypothalamic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchi, Chiara; Steffani, Liliana; Oleari, Roberto; Lettieri, Antonella; Valenti, Luca; Dongiovanni, Paola; Romero-Ruiz, Antonio; Tena-Sempere, Manuel; Cariboni, Anna; Magni, Paolo; Ruscica, Massimiliano

    2017-10-15

    Iron overload leads to multiple organ damage including endocrine organ dysfunctions. Hypogonadism is the most common non-diabetic endocrinopathy in primary and secondary iron overload syndromes. To explore the molecular determinants of iron overload-induced hypogonadism with specific focus on hypothalamic derangements. A dysmetabolic male murine model fed iron-enriched diet (IED) and cell-based models of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons were used. Mice fed IED showed severe hypogonadism with a significant reduction of serum levels of testosterone (-83%) and of luteinizing hormone (-86%), as well as reduced body weight gain, body fat and plasma leptin. IED mice had a significant increment in iron concentration in testes and in the pituitary. Even if iron challenge of in vitro neuronal models (GN-11 and GT1-7 GnRH cells) resulted in 10- and 5-fold iron content increments, respectively, no iron content changes were found in vivo in hypothalamus of IED mice. Conversely, mice placed on IED showed a significant increment in hypothalamic GnRH gene expression (+34%) and in the intensity of GnRH-neuron innervation of the median eminence (+1.5-fold); similar changes were found in the murine model HFE -/- , resembling human hemochromatosis. IED-fed adult male mice show severe impairment of hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis without a relevant contribution of the hypothalamic compartment, which thus appears sufficiently protected from systemic iron overload. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The reserpine effects on the gonadotrophic cells of the male common carp Cyprinus carpio (Osteichtyes: Cyprinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian González-Segura

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The secretion of gonadotropins (GtH in goldfish and carp, is stimulated by GtH-releasing hormone (GnRH and is inhibited by dopamine. Studies with antidopaminergics have demonstrated to be effective in order to stimulate the spermiation and the ovulation in different species of teleosts. The reserpine, a drug that deplets the dopamine, has shown to stimulate the spermiation in the common carp. We report here, the effects of reserpine on the number and volume of gonadotrophic cells of the common carp. Eight injections of reserpine alone, at doses of 0.5, 1.0 or 1.5 mg/ml/kg of body weight and at intervals of 48 hours, caused an increase in the number and volume of gonadotrophic cells. The dose 0.5 mg/ml/kg, presented an increase in the number and volume of gonadotrophic cells of 382% and 123%, respectively, above the control group. The dose 1.0 mg/ml/kg, showed an enhanced number and volume of gonadotrophic cells of 704% and 152%, respectively. With the dose 1.5 mg/ml/kg increase in number (171% and volume (106% of gonadotrophic cells was lower. The gonads of the experimental groups had an abundance of advanced states of spermatogenesis. Our results show that eight intraperitoneal injections of reserpine were responsible for an increase in gonadodrophic cell, number and volumeLa secreción de gonadotropinas (GtHs en pez dorado y carpas, es estimulada por la hormona liberadora de gonadotropinas (GnRH e inhibida por la dopamina. Trabajos previos con antidopaminérgicos demostraron ser efectivos para estimular la espermiación y ovulación, en varias especies de teleósteos. La reserpina, una sustancia que desaparece catecolaminas, se ha probado con éxito para estimular la espermiación en la carpa común. En este trabajo, reportamos los efectos de la reserpina en el número y volúmen de células gonadotropas en la carpa común. Se aplicaron ocho inyecciones de reserpina a dosis de 0.5, 1.0, y 1.5 mg/ml/kg de peso corporal, a intervalos de 48 horas

  15. Endocrine dynamics during pulsatile GnRH administration in patients with hypothalamic amenorrhea and polycystic ovarian disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossmanith, W G; Wirth, U; Benz, R; Wolf, A S

    1989-01-01

    with PCOD. In HA patients, T, androstenedione (AD) and estrone (E1) did not change during the GnRH treatment, but estradiol (E2) rose so that the ratios of aromatized estrogens to non-aromatized androgens (E1/AD, E2/T) increased. In contrast, T and AD increased significantly (p less than 0.05 or less) and E2 remained unchanged during stimulations in PCOD patients, which resulted in decreasing ratios of estrogens to androgens. These observations confirm that pulsatile GnRH administration can successfully induce ovulation in patients with HA by restoring the ovarian physiology. The data also demonstrate that pulsatile GnRH administration can influence the LH secretory patterns in PCOD patients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  16. The Effect of a GnRH Agonist Injection or Progesterone Implant at Diestrus in Cryopreserved Embryo Transferred Cows

    OpenAIRE

    KIRBAŞ, Mesut; BÜLBÜL, Bülent; KÖSE, Mehmet; DURSUN, Şükrü; ÇOLAK, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the effect of a single dose of GnRH on d 13 or progesterone implant for 7 days between d 13 and 20 on plasma progesterone levels and pregnancy rates on cryopreserved embryo transferred cows were investigated. Synchronized 48 Brown Swiss recipient cows were used as animal material. Seven days after estrus detection, cryopreserved cattle embryos were transferred into recipients and cows were assigned randomly into three groups. In GnRH group (n=16), cows were intramuscularly inje...

  17. Putative DNA-dependent RNA polymerase in Mitochondrial Plasmid of Paramecium caudatum Stock GT704

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trina Ekawati Tallei

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria of Paramecium caudatum stock GT704 has a set of four kinds of linear plasmids with sizes of 8.2, 4.1, 2.8 and 1.4 kb. The plasmids of 8.2 and 2.8 kb exist as dimers consisting of 4.1- and 1.4-kb monomers, respectively. The plasmid 2.8 kb, designated as pGT704-2.8, contains an open reading frame encodes for putative DNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RNAP. This study reveals that this RNAP belongs to superfamily of DNA/RNA polymerase and family of T7/T3 single chain RNA polymerase and those of mitochondrial plasmid of fungi belonging to Basidiomycota and Ascomycota. It is suggested that RNAP of pGT704-2.8 can perform transcription without transcription factor as promoter recognition. Given that only two motifs were found, it could not be ascertained whether this RNAP has a full function independently or integrated with mtDNA in carrying out its function.

  18. Comparison of Raw Acceleration from the GENEA and ActiGraph™ GT3X+ Activity Monitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh John

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare raw acceleration output of the ActiGraph™ GT3X+ and GENEA activity monitors. Methods: A GT3X+ and GENEA were oscillated in an orbital shaker at frequencies ranging from 0.7 to 4.0 Hz (ten 2-min trials/frequency on a fixed radius of 5.08 cm. Additionally, 10 participants (age = 23.8 ± 5.4 years wore the GT3X+ and GENEA on the dominant wrist and performed treadmill walking (2.0 and 3.5 mph and running (5.5 and 7.5 mph and simulated free-living activities (computer work, cleaning a room, vacuuming and throwing a ball for 2-min each. A linear mixed model was used to compare the mean triaxial vector magnitude (VM from the GT3X+ and GENEA at each oscillation frequency. For the human testing protocol, random forest machine-learning technique was used to develop two models using frequency domain (FD and time domain (TD features for each monitor. We compared activity type recognition accuracy between the GT3X+ and GENEA when the prediction model was fit using one monitor and then applied to the other. Z-statistics were used to compare the proportion of accurate predictions from the GT3X+ and GENEA for each model. Results: GENEA produced significantly higher (p < 0.05, 3.5 to 6.2% mean VM than GT3X+ at all frequencies during shaker testing. Training the model using TD input features on the GENEA and applied to GT3X+ data yielded significantly lower (p < 0.05 prediction accuracy. Prediction accuracy was not compromised when interchangeably using FD models between monitors. Conclusions: It may be inappropriate to apply a model developed on the GENEA to predict activity type using GT3X+ data when input features are TD attributes of raw acceleration.

  19. Pregnancy outcome in delayed start antagonist versus microdose flare GnRH agonist protocol in poor responders undergoing IVF/ICSI: An RCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robab Davar

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Over the years, many article on different aspects of pathogenesis and management of poor ovarian responders have been published but there is no clear guideline for treating themyet. Objective: This study was designated to compare the effectiveness of a delayed start protocol with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH antagonist and microdose flare-up GnRH agonist protocol in poor ovarian responders. Materials and Methods: This randomized clinical trial consisted of 100 poor ovarian responder women in assisted reproductive technologies cycles. They were divided randomly in delayed-start antagonist protocol (with estrogen priming followed by early follicular-phase GnRH antagonist treatment for 7 days before ovarian stimulation and microdose flare-up GnRH agonist protocol. The main outcome was clinical pregnancy rate and second outcome was the number of retrieved oocytes, mature oocytes, 2PN number, fertilization rate, and implantation rate. Results: Fertilization rate, clinical pregnancy rate, and ongoing pregnancy rates were not significantly different between the two studied protocols. Number of retrieved oocytes (5.10±3.41 vs. 3.08±2.51 with p=0.002, mature oocytes (4.32±2.69 vs. 2.34±1.80 with p=0.003, number of 2PN (3.94±1.80 vs. 2.20±1.01 with p=0.001 and implantation rate (19.40% vs. 10.30% with p=0.022 were significantly higher in delayed antagonist group. Conclusion: The delayed-start protocol can improve ovarian response in poor responders by stimulating and synchronizing follicle development

  20. Characterization of 12 GnRH peptide agonists - a kinetic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nederpelt, Indira; Georgi, Victoria; Schiele, Felix; Nowak-Reppel, Katrin; Fernández-Montalván, Amaury E; IJzerman, Adriaan P; Heitman, Laura H

    2016-01-01

    Drug-target residence time is an important, yet often overlooked, parameter in drug discovery. Multiple studies have proposed an increased residence time to be beneficial for improved drug efficacy and/or longer duration of action. Currently, there are many drugs on the market targeting the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor for the treatment of hormone-dependent diseases. Surprisingly, the kinetic receptor-binding parameters of these analogues have not yet been reported. Therefore, this project focused on determining the receptor-binding kinetics of 12 GnRH peptide agonists, including many marketed drugs. A novel radioligand-binding competition association assay was developed and optimized for the human GnRH receptor with the use of a radiolabelled peptide agonist, [(125) I]-triptorelin. In addition to radioligand-binding studies, a homogeneous time-resolved FRET Tag-lite™ method was developed as an alternative assay for the same purpose. Two novel competition association assays were successfully developed and applied to determine the kinetic receptor-binding characteristics of 12 high-affinity GnRH peptide agonists. Results obtained from both methods were highly correlated. Interestingly, the binding kinetics of the peptide agonists were more divergent than their affinities with residence times ranging from 5.6 min (goserelin) to 125 min (deslorelin). Our research provides new insights by incorporating kinetic, next to equilibrium, binding parameters in current research and development that can potentially improve future drug discovery targeting the GnRH receptor. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  1. Fertility of Angus cross beef heifers after GnRH treatment on day 23 and timing of insemination in 14-day CIDR protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimanickam, R K; Hall, J B; Whittier, W D

    2017-02-01

    This study compared artificial insemination pregnancy rate (AI-PR) between 14-day CIDR-GnRH-PGF2α-GnRH and CIDR-PGF2α-GnRH synchronization protocol with two fixed AI times (56 or 72 hr after PGF2α). On day 0, heifers (n = 1311) from nine locations assigned body condition score (BCS: 1, emaciated; 9, obese), reproductive tract score (RTS: 1, immature, acyclic; 5, mature, cyclic) and temperament score (0, calm; and 1, excited) and fitted with a controlled internal drug release (CIDR, 1.38 g of progesterone) insert for 14 days. Within herd, heifers were randomly assigned either to no-GnRH group (n = 635) or to GnRH group (n = 676), and heifers in GnRH group received 100 μg of GnRH (gonadorelin hydrochloride, IM) on day 23. All heifers received 25 mg of PGF2α (dinoprost, IM) on day 30 and oestrous detection aids at the same time. Heifers were observed for oestrus thrice daily until AI. Within GnRH groups, heifers were randomly assigned to either AI-56 or AI-72 groups. Heifers in AI-56 group (n = 667) were inseminated at 56 hr (day 32 PM), and heifers in AI-72 group (n = 644) were inseminated at 72 hr (day 33 AM) after PGF2α administration. All heifers were given 100 μg of GnRH concurrently at the time AI. Controlling for BCS (p < .05), RTS (p < .05), oestrous expression (p < .001), temperament (p < .001) and GnRH treatment by time of insemination (p < .001), the AI-PR differed between GnRH treatment [GnRH (Yes - 60.9% (412/676) vs. No - 55.1% (350/635); p < .05)] and insemination time [AI-56 - 54.6% (364/667) vs. AI-72 - 61.8% (398/644); (p < .01)] groups. The GnRH treatment by AI time interaction influenced AI-PR (GnRH56 - 61.0% (208/341); GnRH72 - 60.9% (204/335); No-GnRH56 - 47.9% (156/326); No-GnRH72 - 62.8% (194/309); p < .001). In conclusion, 14-day CIDR synchronization protocol for FTAI required inclusion of GnRH on day 23 if inseminations were to be performed at 56 hr after PGF2α in order to achieve greater AI-PR.

  2. Efficiency of fixed-time artificial insemination using a progesterone device combined with GnRH or estradiol benzoate in Nellore heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Antônio Pelissari Poncio

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available he use of estrogens in artificial insemination protocols for cattle is the least expensive and most efficient method currently available. However, the trend to prohibit the use of estrogens for this purpose has made it necessary to find alternatives that replace estrogens without compromising the reproductive performance of the animals. The objective of this study was to evaluate conception rates in Bos indicus beef heifers treated with a progesterone device (P4 combined with GnRH or an estradiol ester. On day 0, pubertal Nellore heifers (n = 100 received an intravaginal device containing 1 g P4 and were randomly divided into two groups. The GnRH group (n = 49 received an intramuscular injection of 100 µg GnRH, while the E2 group (n = 51 received 2 mg estradiol benzoate (EB. The P4 device was removed after 5 (GnRH group or 8 days (E2 group, followed by an injection of 125 µg of the PGF2α, analog cloprostenol. On that occasion, the E2 group received an additional injection of 300 IU eCG. Twenty-four hours later, the GnRH group received a second injection of 125 µg cloprostenol, while the E2 group received 1 mg EB. The heifers were inseminated 72 (GnRH group or 54 hours (E2 group after removal of the P4 device. At the time of insemination, the GnRH group received additionally an injection of 100 µg GnRH. Estrus was monitored during the period of cloprostenol injection until the time of artificial insemination and pregnancy was diagnosed 40 days after insemination by transrectal ultrasonography. The data were analyzed by Fisher’s exact test. The pregnancy rate was 38.8% and 31.4% in the GnRH and E2 groups, respectively (P>0.05. The ovarian condition of the heifers (estrus or anestrus tended to influence (P=0.07 pregnancy rates in the GnRH group, but not in the E2 group. At the time of artificial insemination, 33.3% of heifers in the GnRH group showed signs of estrus versus 88.2% in the E2 group (P<0.05. However, the time of estrus

  3. Development of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone-Secreting Neurons from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Lund

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH neurons regulate human puberty and reproduction. Modeling their development and function in vitro would be of interest for both basic research and clinical translation. Here, we report a three-step protocol to differentiate human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs into GnRH-secreting neurons. Firstly, hPSCs were differentiated to FOXG1, EMX2, and PAX6 expressing anterior neural progenitor cells (NPCs by dual SMAD inhibition. Secondly, NPCs were treated for 10 days with FGF8, which is a key ligand implicated in GnRH neuron ontogeny, and finally, the cells were matured with Notch inhibitor to bipolar TUJ1-positive neurons that robustly expressed GNRH1 and secreted GnRH decapeptide into the culture medium. The protocol was reproducible both in human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells, and thus provides a translational tool for investigating the mechanisms of human puberty and its disorders.

  4. Structural Characterization of the Foliated-Layered Gabbro Transition in Wadi Tayin of the Samail Ophiolite, Oman; Oman Drilling Project Holes GT1A and GT2A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deans, J. R.; Crispini, L.; Cheadle, M. J.; Harris, M.; Kelemen, P. B.; Teagle, D. A. H.; Matter, J. M.; Takazawa, E.; Coggon, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    Oman Drilling Project Holes GT1A and GT2A were drilled into the Wadi Tayin massif, Samail ophiolite and both recovered ca. 400 m of continuous core through a section of the layered gabbros and the foliated-layered gabbro transition. Hole GT1A is cut by a discrete fault system including localized thin ultracataclastic fault zones. Hole GT2A is cut by a wider zone of brittle deformation and incipient brecciation. Here we report the structural history of the gabbros reflecting formation at the ridge to later obduction. Magmatic and high temperature history- 1) Both cores exhibit a pervasive, commonly well-defined magmatic foliation delineated by plagioclase, olivine and in places clinopyroxene. Minor magmatic deformation is present. 2) The dip of the magmatic foliation varies cyclically, gradually changing dip by 30o from gentle to moderate over a 50 m wavelength. 3) Layering is present throughout both cores, is defined by changes in mode and grain size ranging in thickness from 2 cm to 3 m and is commonly sub-parallel to the foliation. 4) There are no high temperature crystal-plastic shear zones in the core. Key observations include: no simple, systematic shallowing of dip with depth across the foliated-layered gabbro transition and layering is continuous across this transition. Cyclic variation of magmatic foliation dip most likely reflects the process of plate separation at the ridge axis. Near-axis faulting- i) On or near-axis structures consist of epidote-amphibole bearing hydraulic breccias and some zones of intense cataclasis with intensely deformed epidote and seams of clay and chlorite accompanied by syntectonic alteration of the wall rock. Early veins are filled with amphibole, chlorite, epidote, and anhydrite. ii) The deformation ranges from brittle-ductile, causing local deflection of the magmatic foliation, to brittle offset of the foliation and core and mantle structures in anhydrite veins. iii) The prevalent sense of shear is normal and slickenfibers

  5. Low-dose add-back therapy during postoperative GnRH agonist treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Wen Tsai

    2016-02-01

    Conclusion: Low dose add-back therapy could effectively ameliorate hypoestrogenic side effects and simultaneously maintain the therapeutic response of GnRH agonist treatment. The treatment dropout was lower compared with a regular dose. Therefore, low dose add-back therapy can be considered a treatment choice during postoperative GnRH agonist treatment.

  6. Conditional Viral Tract Tracing Delineates the Projections of the Distinct Kisspeptin Neuron Populations to Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH) Neurons in the Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Siew Hoong; Boehm, Ulrich; Herbison, Allan E; Campbell, Rebecca E

    2015-07-01

    Kisspeptin neurons play an essential role in the regulation of fertility through direct regulation of the GnRH neurons. However, the relative contributions of the two functionally distinct kisspeptin neuron subpopulations to this critical regulation are not fully understood. Here we analyzed the specific projection patterns of kisspeptin neurons originating from either the rostral periventricular nucleus of the third ventricle (RP3V) or the arcuate nucleus (ARN) using a cell-specific, viral-mediated tract-tracing approach. We stereotaxically injected a Cre-dependent recombinant adenovirus encoding farnesylated enhanced green fluorescent protein into the ARN or RP3V of adult male and female mice expressing Cre recombinase in kisspeptin neurons. Fibers from ARN kisspeptin neurons projected widely; however, we did not find any evidence for direct contact with GnRH neuron somata or proximal dendrites in either sex. In contrast, we identified RP3V kisspeptin fibers in close contact with GnRH neuron somata and dendrites in both sexes. Fibers originating from both the RP3V and ARN were observed in close contact with distal GnRH neuron processes in the ARN and in the lateral and internal aspects of the median eminence. Furthermore, GnRH nerve terminals were found in close contact with the proximal dendrites of ARN kisspeptin neurons in the ARN, and ARN kisspeptin fibers were found contacting RP3V kisspeptin neurons in both sexes. Together these data delineate selective zones of kisspeptin neuron inputs to GnRH neurons and demonstrate complex interconnections between the distinct kisspeptin populations and GnRH neurons.

  7. GnRH Antagonist/Letrozole Versus Microdose GnRH Agonist Flare Protocol in Poor Responders Undergoing In Vitro Fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robab Davar

    2010-09-01

    Conclusion: The addition of letrozole to the GnRH antagonist for poor responders does not improve the outcome of assisted reproductive technology cycles. The MF protocol remains the most appropriate protocol in poor responders.

  8. Suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis by TAK-385 (relugolix), a novel, investigational, orally active, small molecule gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist: studies in human GnRH receptor knock-in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Daisuke; Masaki, Tsuneo; Tanaka, Akira; Yoshimatsu, Mie; Akinaga, Yumiko; Asada, Mari; Sasada, Reiko; Takeyama, Michiyasu; Miwa, Kazuhiro; Watanabe, Tatsuya; Kusaka, Masami

    2014-01-15

    TAK-385 (relugolix) is a novel, non-peptide, orally active gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist, which builds on previous work with non-peptide GnRH antagonist TAK-013. TAK-385 possesses higher affinity and more potent antagonistic activity for human and monkey GnRH receptors compared with TAK-013. Both TAK-385 and TAK-013 have low affinity for the rat GnRH receptor, making them difficult to evaluate in rodent models. Here we report the human GnRH receptor knock-in mouse as a humanized model to investigate pharmacological properties of these compounds on gonadal function. Twice-daily oral administration of TAK-013 (10mg/kg) for 4 weeks decreased the weights of testes and ventral prostate in male knock-in mice but not in male wild-type mice, demonstrating the validity of this model to evaluate antagonists for the human GnRH receptor. The same dose of TAK-385 also reduced the prostate weight to castrate levels in male knock-in mice. In female knock-in mice, twice-daily oral administration of TAK-385 (100mg/kg) induced constant diestrous phases within the first week, decreased the uterus weight to ovariectomized levels and downregulated GnRH receptor mRNA in the pituitary after 4 weeks. Gonadal function of TAK-385-treated knock-in mice began to recover after 5 days and almost completely recovered within 14 days after drug withdrawal in both sexes. Our findings demonstrate that TAK-385 acts as an antagonist for human GnRH receptor in vivo and daily oral administration potently, continuously and reversibly suppresses the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. TAK-385 may provide useful therapeutic interventions in hormone-dependent diseases including endometriosis, uterine fibroids and prostate cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Gestational diabetes mellitus is associated with TCF7L2 gene polymorphisms independent of HLA-DQB1*0602 genotypes and islet cell autoantibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, A.; Lynch, K. F.; Shaat, N.; Håkansson, R.; Ivarsson, S. A.; Berntorp, K.; Agardh, C. D.; Lernmark, Å

    2011-01-01

    Aims To test whether the TCF7L2 gene was associated with gestational diabetes, whether the association between TCF7L2 and gestational diabetes was independent of HLA-DQB1*0602 and islet cell autoantibodies, as well as maternal age, number of pregnancies, family history of diabetes and the HLA-DQB1 genotypes, and to test whether the distribution of HLA-DQB1 alleles was affected by country of birth. Methods We genotyped the rs7903146, rs12255372 and rs7901695 single nucleotide polymorphisms of the TCF7L2 gene in 826 mothers with gestational diabetes and in 1185 healthy control subjects in the Diabetes Prediction in Skåne Study. The mothers were also typed for HLA-DQB1 genotypes and tested for islet cell autoantibodies against GAD65, insulinoma-associated antigen-2 and insulin. Results The heterozygous genotypes CT, GT and TC of the rs7903146 (T is risk for Type 2 diabetes), rs12255372 (T is risk for Type 2 diabetes) and rs7901695 (C is risk for Type 2 diabetes), respectively, as well as the homozygous genotypes TT, TT and CC of the rs7903146, rs12255372 and rs7901695, respectively, were strongly associated with gestational diabetes (P gestational diabetes in mothers born in Sweden (P = 0.010). Conclusions The TCF7L2 was associated with susceptibility for gestational diabetes independently of the presence of HLA-DQB1*0602 and islet cell autoantibodies and other factors such as maternal age, number of pregnancies, family history of diabetes and other HLA-DQ genotypes. The HLA-DQB1*0602 was negatively associated with gestational diabetes in mothers born in Sweden. PMID:21672010

  10. A mathematical model for LH release in response to continuous and pulsatile exposure of gonadotrophs to GnRH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reed Michael C

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In a previous study, a model was developed to investigate the release of luteinizing hormone (LH from pituitary cells in response to a short pulse of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH. The model included: binding of GnRH to its receptor (R, dimerization and internalization of the hormone receptor complex, interaction with a G protein, production of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3, release of calcium from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER, entrance of calcium into the cytosol via voltage gated membrane channels, pumping of calcium out of the cytosol via membrane and ER pumps, and release of LH. The extended model, presented in this paper, also includes the following physiologically important phenomena: desensitization of calcium channels; internalization of the dimerized receptors and recycling of some of the internalized receptors; an increase in Gq concentration near the plasma membrane in response to receptor dimerization; and basal rates of synthesis and degradation of the receptors. With suitable choices of the parameters, good agreement with a variety of experimental data of the LH release pattern in response to pulses of various durations, repetition rates, and concentrations of GnRH were obtained. The mathematical model allows us to assess the effects of internalization and desensitization on the shapes and time courses of LH response curves.

  11. Respostas fisiológicas ao déficit hídrico em duas cultivares enxertadas de seringueira ("RRIM 600" e "GT 1" crescidas em campo Physiological responses to water deficit in two young field-grown scion rubber ('RRIM 600' and 'GT 1'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenice de Cássia Conforto

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Sob condições de campo, as plantas estão sujeitas a períodos de déficit hídrico no solo e na atmosfera, durante todo o seu ciclo de vida. Foi avaliado o desempenho de duas cultivares enxertadas de seringueira ("RRIM 600" e "GT 1", mantidas na UNESP-IBILCE, em São José do Rio Preto, SP, com e sem suplementação hídrica, a partir da idade de quatro meses. A resistência máxima ao período seco ininterrupto, considerada quando cessou a realização de fotossíntese com ganho líquido, foi de 17 e 20 dias, respectivamente. Trinta e três dias após a suspensão do estresse, a recuperação das trocas gasosas foi bastante similar para as duas cultivares, e apenas a concentração de dióxido de carbono intercelular retornou a valores equivalentes aos dos controles. Apenas o incremento relativo da área foliar, para "GT 1", e da altura, para "RRIM 600", não diferiram aos do grupo controle (P=0,05. As curvas de resposta à luz indicaram, para ambos os clones, decréscimos para a irradiância de compensação e a taxa fotossintética (P=0,05. Embora parcial, a melhor recuperação após o estresse foi verificada para "GT 1".During their life cycle, plants growing under field condition are subject to periods of air and soil water deficits. In this study was evaluated the performance of two scion cultivar of rubber tree ('RRIM 600' and 'GT 1' growing in São José do Rio Preto, SP, with and without water supplementation since the age of 4 months. The maximum resistance to the uninterrupted dry period, considered when net photosynthesis was ceased, was 17 and 20 days, respectively. Thirty-three days later the water stress was ceased, the gas exchange recovery for both cultivars were quite similar, but just the intercellular carbon dioxide concentration returned to similar values of the control group. Only the relative increment of leaf area to 'GT 1', and plant height of 'RRIM 600' was similar to the control group (P=0.05. The light curve

  12. Lower crustal section of the Oman Ophiolite drilled in Hole GT1A, ICDP Oman Drilling Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umino, S.; Kelemen, P. B.; Matter, J. M.; Coggon, J. A.; Takazawa, E.; Michibayashi, K.; Teagle, D. A. H.

    2017-12-01

    Hole GT1A (22° 53.535'N, 58° 30.904'E) was drilled by the Oman Drilling Project (OmDP) into GT1A of the Samail ophiolite, Oman. OmDP is an international collaboration supported by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program, the Deep Carbon Observatory, NSF, IODP, JAMSTEC, and the European, Japanese, German and Swiss Science Foundations, with in-kind support in Oman from the Ministry of Regional Municipalities and Water Resources, Public Authority of Mining, Sultan Qaboos University, and the German University of Technology. Hole GT1A was diamond cored in 22 Jan to 08 Feb 2017 to a total depth of 403.05 m. The outer surfaces of the cores were imaged and described on site before being curated, boxed and shipped to the IODP drill ship Chikyu, where they underwent comprehensive visual and instrumental analysis. Hole GT1A drilled the lower crustal section in the southern Oman Ophiolite and recovered 401.52 m of total cores (99.6% recovery). The main lithology is dominated by olivine gabbro (65.9%), followed in abundance by olivine-bearing gabbro (21.5%) and olivine melagabbro (3.9%). Minor rock types are orthopyroxene-bearing olivine gabbro (2.4%), oxide-bearing olivine gabbro (1.5%), gabbro (1.1%), anorthositic gabbro (1%), troctolitic gabbro (0.8%); orthopyroxene-bearing gabbro (0.5%), gabbronorite (0.3%); and dunite (0.3%). These rocks are divided into Lithologic Unit I to VII at 26.62 m, 88.16 m, 104.72 m, 154.04 m, 215.22 m, 306.94 m in Chikyu Curated Depth in descending order; Unit I and II consist of medium-grained olivine gabbro with lower olivine abundance in Unit II. Unit III is medium-grained olivine melagabbros, marked by an increase in olivine. Unit IV is relatively homogenous medium-grained olivine gabbros with granular textures. Unit V is identified by the appearance of fine-grained gabbros, but the major rocktypes are medium grained olivine gabbros. Unit VI is medium-grained olivine gabbro, marked by appearance of orthopyroxene. Unit VII

  13. The induction of ovulation by pulsatile administration of GnRH: an appropriate method in hypothalamic amenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christou, Fotini; Pitteloud, Nelly; Gomez, Fulgencio

    2017-08-01

    The induction of ovulation by the means of a pump which assures the pulsatile administration of GnRH is a well-known method that applies to women suffering from amenorrhea of hypothalamic origin. Although a simple and efficient method to establish fertility, it is underused. Twelve patients suffering from this condition, 1 Kallmann syndrome, 4 normosmic isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, and 7 functional hypothalamic amenorrhea desiring pregnancy were treated. They underwent one or more cycles of pulsatile GnRH, at a frequency of 90 minutes, either by the intravenous or the subcutaneous route. An initial dose of 5 μg per pulse in the intravenous route was administered and of 15 μg per pulse in the subcutaneous route. The treatment was monitored by regular dosing of gonadotropins, estradiol and progesterone, and the development of follicles and ovulation was monitored by intra-vaginal ultrasonography. All the patients had documented ovulation, after a mean of 17 days on pump stimulation. Single ovulation occurred in 30 of 33 treatment cycles, irrespective of the route of administration. Ovulation resulted in 10 pregnancies over 7 patients (2 pregnancies in 3 of them), distributed in the 3 diagnostic categories. For comparison, a patient with PCOS treated similarly, disclosed premature LH surge without ovulation.

  14. Analgesic effect of GT-0198, a structurally novel glycine transporter 2 inhibitor, in a mouse model of neuropathic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Omori

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to identify the characteristic pharmacological features of GT-0198 that is phenoxymethylbenzamide derivatives. GT-0198 inhibited the function of glycine transporter 2 (GlyT2 in human GlyT2-expressing HEK293 cells and did not bind various major transporters or receptors of neurotransmitters in a competitive manner. Thus, GT-0198 is considered to be a comparatively selective GlyT2 inhibitor. Intravenous, oral, and intrathecal injections of GT-0198 decreased the pain-related response in a model of neuropathic pain with partial sciatic nerve ligation. This result suggests that GT-0198 has an analgesic effect. The analgesic effect of GT-0198 was abolished by the intrathecal injection of strychnine, a glycine receptor antagonist. Therefore, GT-0198 is considered to exhibit its analgesic effect via the activation of a glycine receptor by glycine following presynaptic GlyT2 inhibition in the spinal cord. In summary, GT-0198 is a structurally novel GlyT2 inhibitor bearing a phenoxymethylbenzamide moiety with in vivo efficacy in behavioral models of neuropathic pain.

  15. Design, Operation and Control Modelling of SOFC/GT Hybrid Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Stiller, Christoph

    2006-01-01

    This thesis focuses on modelling-based design, operation and control of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and gas turbine (GT) hybrid systems. Fuel cells are a promising approach to high-efficiency power generation, as they directly convert chemical energy to electric work. High-temperature fuel cells such as the SOFC can be integrated in gas turbine processes, which further increases the electrical efficiency to values up to 70%. However, there are a number of obstacles for safe operation of such...

  16. Genomic structure and promoter functional analysis of GnRH3 gene in large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Zhang, Jianshe; Liao, Zhi; Lv, Zhenming; Wu, Huifei; Zhu, Aiyi; Wu, Changwen

    2016-01-15

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone III (GnRH3) is considered to be a key neurohormone in fish reproduction control. In the present study, the cDNA and genomic sequences of GnRH3 were cloned and characterized from large yellow croaker Larimichthys crocea. The cDNA encoded a protein of 99 amino acids with four functional motifs. The full-length genome sequence was composed of 3797 nucleotides, including four exons and three introns. Higher identities of amino acid sequences and conserved exon-intron organizations were found between LcGnRH3 and other GnRH3 genes. In addition, some special features of the sequences were detected in partial species. For example, two specific residues (V and A) were found in the family Sciaenidae, and the unique 75-72 bp type of the open reading frame 2 and 3 existed in the family Cyprinidae. Analysis of the 2576 bp promoter fragment of LcGnRH3 showed a number of transcription factor binding sites, such as AP1, CREB, GATA-1, HSF, FOXA2, and FOXL1. Promoter functional analysis using an EGFP reporter fusion in zebrafish larvae presented positive signals in the brain, including the olfactory region, the terminal nerve ganglion, the telencephalon, and the hypothalamus. The expression pattern was generally consistent with the endogenous GnRH3 GFP-expressing transgenic zebrafish lines, but the details were different. These results indicate that the structure and function of LcGnRH3 are generally similar to the other teleost GnRH3 genes, but there exist some distinctions among them. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of corticotropin-releasing hormone and its antagonist on the gene expression of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and GnRH receptor in the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary gland of follicular phase ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciechanowska, Magdalena; Łapot, Magdalena; Malewski, Tadeusz; Mateusiak, Krystyna; Misztal, Tomasz; Przekop, Franciszek

    2011-01-01

    There is no information in the literature regarding the effect of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) on genes encoding gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and the GnRH receptor (GnRHR) in the hypothalamus or on GnRHR gene expression in the pituitary gland in vivo. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate, in follicular phase ewes, the effects of prolonged, intermittent infusion of small doses of CRH or its antagonist (α-helical CRH 9-41; CRH-A) into the third cerebral ventricle on GnRH mRNA and GnRHR mRNA levels in the hypothalamo-pituitary unit and on LH secretion. Stimulation or inhibition of CRH receptors significantly decreased or increased GnRH gene expression in the hypothalamus, respectively, and led to different responses in GnRHR gene expression in discrete hypothalamic areas. For example, CRH increased GnRHR gene expression in the preoptic area, but decreased it in the hypothalamus/stalk median eminence and in the anterior pituitary gland. In addition, CRH decreased LH secretion. Blockade of CRH receptors had the opposite effect on GnRHR gene expression. The results suggest that activation of CRH receptors in the hypothalamus of follicular phase ewes can modulate the biosynthesis and release of GnRH through complex changes in the expression of GnRH and GnRHR genes in the hypothalamo-anterior pituitary unit. © CSIRO 2011 Open Access

  18. Comparison of GnRh Agonist Microdose Flare Up and GnRh Antagonist/Letrozole in Treatment of Poor Responder Patients in Intra Cytoplaspic Sperm Injection: Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabati, Azar; Peivandi, Sepideh; Khalilian, Alireza; Mirzaeirad, Sina; Hashemi, Seyyed Abbas

    2015-08-06

    the prevalence of infertility is up to 10 to 15 % which 9 to 24 % of them are Poor Ovarian Responders (POR). This study was designed to compare two methods of GnRH Agonist Microdose Flareup (MF) and GnRH Antagonist/Letrozole (AL) in treatment of these patients. this randomized clinical trial study consisted of 123 patients. In the first step of treatment in both methods FSH, LH, estradiol, anderostandion, testestron in third day of menstruation period and the thickness of endometrium by Transvaginal sonography were evaluated. At the time of HCG injection the thickness of endometrium and follicles which were more than 14mm ware established and hormones were evaluated. Two weeks later serum βhCG and after 6 to 8 weeks Transvaginal sonography were applied to prove the pregnancy. there were 61 patients with mean age of 38.7±4.58 in MF group and 62 patients with mean age of 38.5±4.6 in AL group (P=0.80). At the time of hCG injection there were significant increase in the level of LH,estradiol, thickness of endometrium and follicles more than 14mm in MF patients (P<0.0001). The mean time of ovary stimulation in MF group was 10.72±1.5 and in AL was 8.45±1.2 (P<0.0001). The mean level of gonadotropin which were used was 80.6±20.1 in MF patients and 64.7±16.4 in AL group (P<0.0001). 18 % of MF group and 38.7% in AL group had no normal cycle of ovulation (OR: 2.87, 95% CI: 1.25-6.57, P=0.011). The mean numbers of oocyte and normal fetus in MF was 5.83±3.5 and 3.7±2.5 and in AL was 3±1.69 and 1.4±1.33 (P<0.0001). The number of chemical pregnancy in MF group was 10 (16.4%) and in AL was 3 (4.8%) (OR:3.85, 95%CI:1.06-14.77, P=0.037). Clinical pregnancy in 10 patients (16.4%) of MF group and 3 (4.8%)in AL was reported. OR: 3.85, 95%CI: 1.06-14.77, P=0.037). this study showed that MF method of pregnancy leads to more positive results in pregnancy based on chemical and clinical evaluation in comparison with AL and is advised for poor responder patients.

  19. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of a putative glycosyltransferase of the GT-A fold found in mycobacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fulton, Zara; Crellin, Paul K.; Brammananth, Rajini; Zaker-Tabrizi, Leyla; Coppel, Ross L.; Rossjohna, Jamie; Beddoe, Travis (Monash)

    2008-05-28

    Glycosidic bond formation is a ubiquitous enzyme-catalysed reaction. This glycosyltransferase-mediated process is responsible for the biosynthesis of innumerable oligosaccharides and glycoconjugates and is often organism- or cell-specific. However, despite the abundance of genomic information on glycosyltransferases (GTs), there is a lack of structural data for this versatile class of enzymes. Here, the cloning, expression, purification and crystallization of an essential 329-amino-acid (34.8 kDa) putative GT of the classic GT-A fold implicated in mycobacterial cell-wall biosynthesis are reported. Crystals of MAP2569c from Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis were grown in 1.6 M monoammonium dihydrogen phosphate and 0.1 M sodium citrate pH 5.5. A complete data set was collected to 1.8 {angstrom} resolution using synchrotron radiation from a crystal belonging to space group P4{sub 1}2{sub 1}2.

  20. Karyometric changes of neurons of hypothalamus and ependyma nuclei of the third cerebral ventricle of sheep following administration of Gn-RH and subsequent irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanikova, A.; Arendarcik, J.; Tokos, M.; Balun, J.; Chlebovsky, O.

    1983-01-01

    A karyometric analysis was used for the study of changes in the cell nucleus volume of the neurons of nucleus paraventricularis, nucleus arcuatus, and the ependyma of the third cerebral ventricle of sheep after the administration of Gn-RH, followed by exposure to X rays. The test animals included 12 ewes in physiological anoestrus and two rams. The trials were conducted in spring. The first group of four ewes and two rams were left as controls; in the ewes of the second group the hypothalamo-hypophysial region was irradiated with 516.5 mC/kg (200 R);in the four ewes of the third group, ovaries were directly irradiated at laparotomy with 64.4 mC/kg (250 R). The ewes of the second and third groups were treated with i.m. administration of 400 μg Gn-RH per head before irradiation. The excisions were collected and processed the tenth day from irradiation. The karyometric analysis was performed at 3000-fold magnification, 200 cells being measured in each sample. Changes in neurosecretory cells were described in the regions of nucleus paraventricularis, nucleus arcuatus and in the ependyma of the third cerebral ventricle. The results of the karyometric analysis of nucleus paraventricularis and nucleus arcuatus suggest that the administration of Gn-RH and irradiation of the hypothalamo-hypophysial region, and direct irradiation of the ovaries stimulated the studied cerebral structures. The changes observed in the ependyma of the third cerebral ventricle after the administration of Gn-RH and subsequent irradiation of the hypothalamo-hypophysial region were insignificant; it was only after direct irradiation of the ovaries that these cells were inhibited indirectly through the feedback mechanism. (author)

  1. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of a putative glycosyltransferase of the GT-A fold found in mycobacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fulton, Zara [The Protein Crystallography Unit, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Biomedical Sciences, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence in Structural and Functional Microbial Genomics, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Crellin, Paul K.; Brammananth, Rajini [Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence in Structural and Functional Microbial Genomics, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Department of Microbiology, School of Biomedical Sciences, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Zaker-Tabrizi, Leyla [The Protein Crystallography Unit, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Biomedical Sciences, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence in Structural and Functional Microbial Genomics, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Coppel, Ross L. [Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence in Structural and Functional Microbial Genomics, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Department of Microbiology, School of Biomedical Sciences, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Rossjohn, Jamie, E-mail: jamie.rossjohn@med.monash.edu.au; Beddoe, Travis, E-mail: jamie.rossjohn@med.monash.edu.au [The Protein Crystallography Unit, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Biomedical Sciences, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence in Structural and Functional Microbial Genomics, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia)

    2008-05-01

    MAP2569c from M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis, a putative glycosyltransferase implicated in mycobacterial cell-wall biosynthesis, was cloned, expressed, purified and crystallized. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 1.8 Å resolution. Glycosidic bond formation is a ubiquitous enzyme-catalysed reaction. This glycosyltransferase-mediated process is responsible for the biosynthesis of innumerable oligosaccharides and glycoconjugates and is often organism- or cell-specific. However, despite the abundance of genomic information on glycosyltransferases (GTs), there is a lack of structural data for this versatile class of enzymes. Here, the cloning, expression, purification and crystallization of an essential 329-amino-acid (34.8 kDa) putative GT of the classic GT-A fold implicated in mycobacterial cell-wall biosynthesis are reported. Crystals of MAP2569c from Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis were grown in 1.6 M monoammonium dihydrogen phosphate and 0.1 M sodium citrate pH 5.5. A complete data set was collected to 1.8 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation from a crystal belonging to space group P4{sub 1}2{sub 1}2.

  2. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of a putative glycosyltransferase of the GT-A fold found in mycobacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulton, Zara; Crellin, Paul K.; Brammananth, Rajini; Zaker-Tabrizi, Leyla; Coppel, Ross L.; Rossjohn, Jamie; Beddoe, Travis

    2008-01-01

    MAP2569c from M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis, a putative glycosyltransferase implicated in mycobacterial cell-wall biosynthesis, was cloned, expressed, purified and crystallized. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 1.8 Å resolution. Glycosidic bond formation is a ubiquitous enzyme-catalysed reaction. This glycosyltransferase-mediated process is responsible for the biosynthesis of innumerable oligosaccharides and glycoconjugates and is often organism- or cell-specific. However, despite the abundance of genomic information on glycosyltransferases (GTs), there is a lack of structural data for this versatile class of enzymes. Here, the cloning, expression, purification and crystallization of an essential 329-amino-acid (34.8 kDa) putative GT of the classic GT-A fold implicated in mycobacterial cell-wall biosynthesis are reported. Crystals of MAP2569c from Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis were grown in 1.6 M monoammonium dihydrogen phosphate and 0.1 M sodium citrate pH 5.5. A complete data set was collected to 1.8 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation from a crystal belonging to space group P4 1 2 1 2

  3. Six-month gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH agonist depots provide efficacy, safety, convenience, and comfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillips JM

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available E David Crawford, Jason M PhillipsUniversity of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Aurora, CO, USAAbstract: Two different 6-month GnRH agonist depot formulations approved for palliative treatment of advanced and metastatic prostate cancer in the United States – leuprolide acetate 45 mg and triptorelinpalmoate 22.5 mg – provide patients with efficacy and safety comparable to those of existing 1-, 3-, and 4-month GnRH agonist depots. However, the 6-month formulations can increase patient convenience, comfort, and compliance by reducing the number of physician visits and injections required. At the conclusion of their pivotal trials, the 6-month formulations demonstrated efficacy rates in achieving chemical castration (serum testosterone #50 ng/dL that ranged between 93% and 99%. As with existing GnRH agonist depot formulations, hot flashes represented the most common adverse event reported in trials of 6-month leuprolide acetate or triptorelin. As such, these products may prove useful not only for their labeled indication, but also as adjuncts to other treatments such as radical prostatectomy, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. We recommend further research, including head-to-head trials between the 6-month GnRH depots, to refine our understanding of these products.Keywords: prostate cancer, leuprorelin, leuprolide, triptorelin, 6-month depot, testosterone

  4. Turbo-machine deployment of HTR-10 GT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Shutang; Wang Jie; Zhang Zhengming; Yu Suyuan

    2005-01-01

    As a testing project of gas turbine modular High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR), HTR-10GT has been studied and developed by Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology (INET) of Tsinghua University after the success of HTR-10 with steam turbine cycle. The main purposes of this project are to demonstrate the gas turbine modular HTGR, to optimize the deployment of Power Conversion Unit (PCU) and to verify the techniques of turbo-machine, operating modes and controlling measures. HTR-10GT is concentrated on the PCU design and the turbo-machine deployment. Possible turbo-machine deployments have been investigated and two of them are introduced in this paper. The preliminary design for the turbo-machine of HTR-10GT is single-shaft of vertical layout, arranged by the side of the reactor and the turbo-compressor rotary speed was selected to be 250 s -1 (15000 r/min) by considering the efficiency of turbo-compressor blade systems, the strength conditions and the mass and size characteristics of the turbo-compressor. The rotor system will be supported by electromagnetic bearings (EMBs) to curb the possible pollutions of the primary loop. Of all the components in this design, the high speed turbo-generator seems to be a world-wide technical nut. As an alternative design, a gearbox complex is used to reduce the rotary speed from the turbo-compressor 250 s -1 to 50 s -1 so that the ordinary generator can be used. (authors)

  5. Corifollitropin alfa compared to daily rFSH or HP-HMG in GnRH antagonist controlled ovarian stimulation protocol for patients undergoing assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Priscila Morais Galvão; Carvalho, Bruno Ramalho de; Nakagawa, Hitomi Miura; Rassi, Thalita Reis Esselin; Barbosa, Antônio César Paes; Silva, Adelino Amaral

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to compare the outcomes of controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) with corifollitropin alfa versus daily recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone (rRFSH) or highly purified human menopausal gonadotropin (HP-HMG) in patients undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles based on gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocols. The primary endpoints were total number of oocytes and mature oocytes. This retrospective study looked into 132 controlled ovarian stimulation cycles from IVF or oocyte cryopreservation performed in a private human reproduction center between January 1 and December 31, 2014. Enrollment criteria: women aged 0.05). There were no significant differences in fertilization (76.9% vs. 76.8%, p=1.0), biochemical pregnancy (66.7% vs. 47.2%, p=0.1561) or embryo implantation rates (68.7% vs. 50%, p=0.2588) between the groups using corifollitropin alfa and rFSH or HMG, respectively. Corifollitropin alfa seems to be as effective as rFSH or HP-HMG when used in the first seven days of ovulation induction for patients undergoing assisted reproduction in GnRH antagonist protocols.

  6. The Vitamin E Analog Gamma-Tocotrienol (GT3 and Statins Synergistically Up-Regulate Endothelial Thrombomodulin (TM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupak Pathak

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Statins; a class of routinely prescribed cholesterol-lowering drugs; inhibit 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzymeA reductase (HMGCR and strongly induce endothelial thrombomodulin (TM; which is known to have anti-inflammatory; anti-coagulation; anti-oxidant; and radioprotective properties. However; high-dose toxicity limits the clinical use of statins. The vitamin E family member gamma-tocotrienol (GT3 also suppresses HMGCR activity and induces TM expression without causing significant adverse side effects; even at high concentrations. To investigate the synergistic effect of statins and GT3 on TM; a low dose of atorvastatin and GT3 was used to treat human primary endothelial cells. Protein-level TM expression was measured by flow cytometry. TM functional activity was determined by activated protein C (APC generation assay. Expression of Kruppel-like factor 2 (KLF2, one of the key transcription factors of TM, was measured by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. TM expression increased in a dose-dependent manner after both atorvastatin and GT3 treatment. A combined treatment of a low-dose of atorvastatin and GT3 synergistically up-regulated TM expression and functional activity. Finally; atorvastatin and GT3 synergistically increased KLF2 expression. These findings suggest that combined treatment of statins with GT3 may provide significant health benefits in treating a number of pathophysiological conditions; including inflammatory and cardiovascular diseases.

  7. Tests of Hadronic Probes of GT Strength

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    There are many important problems where one wishes to know the distribution of Gamow-Teller (GT) strength in circumstances where it cannot be measured directly (for example, because of energy-release limitations). Then one must rely on hadronic probes to infer the GT strength. It is therefore essential to test these probes as extensively as possible. The isospin-analog transitions in $^{37}$Ca $\\beta^{+}$ -decay and $^{37}$Cl$(p, n)$ provide an excellent ground for such a test. Recent $^{37}$Cl$ (p, n) $ studies, while qualitatively in agreement with our previous ISOLDE work on $^{37}$Ca $\\beta^{+} $ -decay, show quantitative discrepancies that appear to grow as the excitation energy in the residual nuclei increases. Because of the bulk of the GT strengh appears at these high excitation energies, it is important to extend the $\\beta$-decay data to even higher excitation energies where, because of rapidly diminishing phase-space, strong GT transitions correspond to very weak $\\beta$ -branches. We propose to do...

  8. Observational Study to Assess the Therapeutic Value of Four Ovarian Hyperstimulation Protocols in IVF After Pituitary Suppression with GnRH Antagonists in Normally Responding Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ana, Monzó; Vicente, Montañana; María, Rubio José; Trinidad, García-Gimeno; Alberto, Romeu

    2011-02-22

    To compare the clinical results of four different protocols of COH for IVF-ICSI in normovulatory women, using in all cases pituitary suppression with GnRH antagonists. A single center, open label, parallel-controlled, prospective, post-authorization study under the approved conditions for use where 305 normal responders women who were candidates to COH were assigned to r-FSH +hp-hMG (n = 51, Group I), hp-hMG (n = 61, Group II), fixed-dose r-FSH (n = 118, Group III), and r-FSH with potential dose adjustment (n = 75, Group IV) to subsequently undergo IVF-ICSI. During stimulation, Group IV needed significantly more days of stimulation as compared to Group II [8.09 ± 1.25 vs. 7.62 ± 1.17; P women undergoing pituitary suppression with GnRH antagonists.

  9. Rescue of corpus luteum function with peri-ovulatory HCG supplementation in IVF/ICSI GnRH antagonist cycles in which ovulation was triggered with a GnRH agonist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al Humaidan, Peter Samir Heskjær; Bungum, L; Bungum, M

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies found a poor clinical outcome when a GnRH agonist (GnRHa) was used to trigger ovulation in GnRH antagonist IVF/ICSI cycles. This study aimed to determine the clinical and endocrine effects as well the optimal timing of HCG supplementation. Forty-five normogonadotrophic IVF/ICSI p......RHa supplemented with 1500 IU HCG 35 h later (group 3) seems to secure a normal luteal phase and a normal clinical pregnancy outcome....

  10. GnRH Neuron Activity and Pituitary Response in Estradiol-Induced vs Proestrous Luteinizing Hormone Surges in Female Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Marina A; Burger, Laura L; DeFazio, R Anthony; Wagenmaker, Elizabeth R; Moenter, Suzanne M

    2017-02-01

    During the female reproductive cycle, estradiol exerts negative and positive feedback at both the central level to alter gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) release and at the pituitary to affect response to GnRH. Many studies of the neurobiologic mechanisms underlying estradiol feedback have been done on ovariectomized, estradiol-replaced (OVX+E) mice. In this model, GnRH neuron activity depends on estradiol and time of day, increasing in estradiol-treated mice in the late afternoon, coincident with a daily luteinizing hormone (LH) surge. Amplitude of this surge appears lower than in proestrous mice, perhaps because other ovarian factors are not replaced. We hypothesized GnRH neuron activity is greater during the proestrous-preovulatory surge than the estradiol-induced surge. GnRH neuron activity was monitored by extracellular recordings from fluorescently tagged GnRH neurons in brain slices in the late afternoon from diestrous, proestrous, and OVX+E mice. Mean GnRH neuron firing rate was low on diestrus; firing rate was similarly increased in proestrous and OVX+E mice. Bursts of action potentials have been associated with hormone release in neuroendocrine systems. Examination of the patterning of action potentials revealed a shift toward longer burst duration in proestrous mice, whereas intervals between spikes were shorter in OVX+E mice. LH response to an early afternoon injection of GnRH was greater in proestrous than diestrous or OVX+E mice. These observations suggest the lower LH surge amplitude observed in the OVX+E model is likely not attributable to altered mean GnRH neuron activity, but because of reduced pituitary sensitivity, subtle shifts in action potential pattern, and/or excitation-secretion coupling in GnRH neurons. Copyright © 2017 by the Endocrine Society.

  11. GT-MHR design, performance, and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neylan, A.J.; Shenoy, A.; Silady, F.A.; Dunn, T.D.

    1994-11-01

    The Gas Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR) is the result of coupling the evolution of a low power density passively safe modular reactor with key technology developments in the U.S. during the last decade: large industrial gas turbines; large active magnetic bearings; and compact, highly effective plate-fin heat exchangers. This is accomplished through the unique use of the Brayton cycle to produce electricity with the helium as primary coolant from the reactor directly driving the gas turbine electrical generator. This cycle can achieve a high net efficiency in the range of 45% to 48%. In the design of the GT-MHR the desirable inherent characteristics of the inert helium coolant, graphite core, and the coated fuel particles are supplemented with specific design features such as passive heat removal to achieve the safety objective of not disturbing the normal day-to-day activities of the public even for beyond design basis rare accidents. Each GT-MHR plant consists of four modules. The GT-MHR module components are contained within steel pressure vessels: a reactor vessel, a power conversion vessel, and a connecting cross vessel. All vessels are sited underground in a concrete silo, which serves as an independent vented low pressure containment structure. By capitalizing on industrial and aerospace gas turbine development, highly effective heat exchanger designs, and inherent gas cooled reactor temperature characteristics, the passively safe GT-MHR provides a sound technical, monetary, and environmental basis for new nuclear power generating capacity. This paper provides an update on the status of the design, which has been under development on the US-DOE program since February 1993. An assessment of plant performance and safety is also included

  12. GnRH antagonist, cetrorelix, for pituitary suppression in modern, patient-friendly assisted reproductive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tur-Kaspa, Ilan; Ezcurra, Diego

    2009-10-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogues are used routinely to prevent a premature luteinizing hormone (LH) surge in women undergoing assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatments. In contrast to GnRH agonists, antagonists produce rapid and reversible suppression of LH with no initial flare effect. To review the role of cetrorelix, the first GnRH antagonist approved for the prevention of premature LH surges during controlled ovarian stimulation in modern ART. A review of published literature on cetrorelix. Both multiple- and single-dose cetrorelix protocols were shown to be at least as effective as long GnRH agonist regimens for pituitary suppression in Phase II/III clinical trials. Furthermore, cetrorelix co-treatment resulted in similar live birth rates but a shorter duration of gonadotropin stimulation, a lower total gonadotropin dose requirement and lower incidence of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome compared with long agonist regimens. A single-dose cetrorelix protocol further decreased the number of injections required. Preliminary studies have also produced promising data on the use of cetrorelix in modified ART protocols, such as frozen embryo transfer and donor oocyte recipient cycles. Cetrorelix offers a potential therapeutic alternative to GnRH agonists during controlled ovarian stimulation and has become an integral part of modern, patient-friendly reproductive medicine.

  13. Chitosan-based DNA delivery vector targeted to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonthum, Chatwalee; Namdee, Katawut; Boonrungsiman, Suwimon; Chatdarong, Kaywalee; Saengkrit, Nattika; Sajomsang, Warayuth; Ponglowhapan, Suppawiwat; Yata, Teerapong

    2017-02-10

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the application of modified chitosan as a potential vector for gene delivery to gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR)-expressing cells. Such design of gene carrier could be useful in particular for gene therapy for cancers related to the reproductive system, gene disorders of sexual development, and contraception and fertility control. In this study, a decapeptide GnRH was successfully conjugated to chitosan (CS) as confirmed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H NMR) and Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). The synthesized GnRH-conjugated chitosan (GnRH-CS) was able to condense DNA to form positively charged nanoparticles and specifically deliver plasmid DNA to targeted cells in both two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures systems. Importantly, GnRH-CS exhibited higher transfection activity compared to unmodified CS. In conclusion, GnRH-conjugated chitosan can be a promising carrier for targeted DNA delivery to GnRHR-expressing cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Msx1 Homeodomain Protein Represses the αGSU and GnRH Receptor Genes During Gonadotrope Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Huimin; Cherrington, Brian D.; Meadows, Jason D.; Witham, Emily A.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple homeodomain transcription factors are crucial for pituitary organogenesis and cellular differentiation. A homeodomain repressor, Msx1, is expressed from the ventral aspect of the developing anterior pituitary and implicated in gonadotrope differentiation. Here, we find that Msx1 represses transcription of lineage-specific pituitary genes such as the common α-glycoprotein subunit (αGSU) and GnRH receptor (GnRHR) promoters in the mouse gonadotrope-derived cell lines, αT3-1 and LβT2. Repression of the mouse GnRHR promoter by Msx1 is mediated through a consensus-binding motif in the downstream activin regulatory element (DARE). Truncation and mutation analyses of the human αGSU promoter map Msx1 repression to a site at −114, located at the junctional regulatory element (JRE). Dlx activators are closely related to the Msx repressors, acting through the same elements, and Dlx3 and Dlx2 act as transcriptional activators for GnRHR and αGSU, respectively. Small interfering RNA knockdown of Msx1 in αT3-1 cells increases endogenous αGSU and GnRHR mRNA expression. Msx1 gene expression reaches its maximal expression at the rostral edge at e13.5. The subsequent decline in Msx1 expression specifically coincides with the onset of expression of both αGSU and GnRHR. The expression levels of both αGSU and GnRHR in Msx1-null mice at e18.5 are higher compared with wild type, further confirming a role for Msx1 in the repression of αGSU and GnRHR. In summary, Msx1 functions as a negative regulator early in pituitary development by repressing the gonadotrope-specific αGSU and GnRHR genes, but a temporal decline in Msx1 expression alleviates this repression allowing induction of GnRHR and αGSU, thus serving to time the onset of gonadotrope-specific gene program. PMID:23371388

  15. Msx1 homeodomain protein represses the αGSU and GnRH receptor genes during gonadotrope development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Huimin; Cherrington, Brian D; Meadows, Jason D; Witham, Emily A; Mellon, Pamela L

    2013-03-01

    Multiple homeodomain transcription factors are crucial for pituitary organogenesis and cellular differentiation. A homeodomain repressor, Msx1, is expressed from the ventral aspect of the developing anterior pituitary and implicated in gonadotrope differentiation. Here, we find that Msx1 represses transcription of lineage-specific pituitary genes such as the common α-glycoprotein subunit (αGSU) and GnRH receptor (GnRHR) promoters in the mouse gonadotrope-derived cell lines, αT3-1 and LβT2. Repression of the mouse GnRHR promoter by Msx1 is mediated through a consensus-binding motif in the downstream activin regulatory element (DARE). Truncation and mutation analyses of the human αGSU promoter map Msx1 repression to a site at -114, located at the junctional regulatory element (JRE). Dlx activators are closely related to the Msx repressors, acting through the same elements, and Dlx3 and Dlx2 act as transcriptional activators for GnRHR and αGSU, respectively. Small interfering RNA knockdown of Msx1 in αT3-1 cells increases endogenous αGSU and GnRHR mRNA expression. Msx1 gene expression reaches its maximal expression at the rostral edge at e13.5. The subsequent decline in Msx1 expression specifically coincides with the onset of expression of both αGSU and GnRHR. The expression levels of both αGSU and GnRHR in Msx1-null mice at e18.5 are higher compared with wild type, further confirming a role for Msx1 in the repression of αGSU and GnRHR. In summary, Msx1 functions as a negative regulator early in pituitary development by repressing the gonadotrope-specific αGSU and GnRHR genes, but a temporal decline in Msx1 expression alleviates this repression allowing induction of GnRHR and αGSU, thus serving to time the onset of gonadotrope-specific gene program.

  16. Effect of heat treatment on impact resistance of AU5GT and AS7G06 aluminum alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muzamil, Muhammad; Akhtar, Maaz; Samiuddin, Muhammad; Mehdi, Murtuza [NED University of Engineering and Technology, Karachi (Pakistan)

    2016-10-15

    Impact strength is one of the major mechanical properties that a material should possess in order to absorb sudden changes in the load intensity. The objective of current study is to compare the impact strength of two material (AU5GT and AS7G06), which are used in different structural applications. Almost no work is available which compares the impact strength of selected grade alloys along with different heat treatment cycles. Specimens are heat treated first as per designed cycles, later impact testing is performed. Charpy impact test is conducted in accordance with ASTM E23-12 standard method on three samples with and without heat treatment for each cycle. Solutionizing on samples is done at constant time and temperature to achieve homogenization. Later, aging is conducted at different temperatures ranging from 100-200°C (different intervals) at constant time to find the effect of precipitation hardness that actually increases the strength. Sample hardness is determined using Vickers micro hardness testing machine for each heat treatment cycle. Charpy test results provided the impact energy that is used to determine the strength before fracture. Heat treated samples have showed increase in impact strength for AS7G06 aluminum alloy while AU5GT shows very little change. This is because of growing the precipitation with respect to temperature, which resulted in more hard regions across grains. Hardness also shows an increasing relationship, as expected. Fracture surfaces are analyzed on stereo microscopy and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to find the final mode of fracture, that is brittle, ductile or transitional (combination of both brittle and ductile)

  17. Association of heme oxygenase-1 GT-repeat polymorphism with blood pressure phenotypes and its relevance to future cardiovascular mortality risk: an observation based on arsenic-exposed individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meei-Maan; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Chen, Chi-Ling; Hsu, Ling-I; Lien, Li-Ming; Wang, Chih-Hao; Hsieh, Yi-Chen; Wang, Yuan-Hung; Hsueh, Yu-Mei; Lee, Te-Chang; Cheng, Wen-Fang; Chen, Chien-Jen

    2011-12-01

    Heme oxygenase (HO)-1 is up-regulated as a cellular defense responding to stressful stimuli in experimental studies. A GT-repeat length polymorphism in the HO-1 gene promoter was inversely correlated to HO-1 induction. Here, we reported the association of GT-repeat polymorphism with blood pressure (BP) phenotypes, and their interaction on cardiovascular (CV) mortality risk in arsenic-exposed cohorts. Associations of GT-repeat polymorphism with BP phenotypes were investigated at baseline in a cross-sectional design. Effect of GT-repeat polymorphism on CV mortality was investigated in a longitudinal design stratified by hypertension. GT-repeat variants were grouped by S (accounting for CV covariates. Totally, 894 participants were recruited and analyzed. At baseline, carriers with HO-1 S alleles had lower diastolic BP (L/S genotypes, P = 0.014) and a lower possibility of being hypertensive (L/S genotypes, P = 0.048). After follow-up, HO-1 S allele was significantly associated with a reduced CV risk in hypertensive participants [relative mortality ratio (RMR) 0.27 (CI 0.11, 0.69), P = 0.007] but not in normotensive. Hypertensive participants without carrying the S allele had a 5.23-fold increased risk [RMR 5.23 (CI 1.99, 13.69), P = 0.0008] of CV mortality compared with normotensive carrying the S alleles. HO-1 short GT-repeat polymorphism may play a protective role in BP regulation and CV mortality risk in hypertensive individuals against environmental stressors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of GnRH analogue testing in diagnosis and management of children with pubertal disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemchand K Prasad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH stimulation test is pivotal in the assessment of children with pubertal disorders. However, lack of availability and high cost often result in the test falling into disfavor. We routinely use the GnRH analogue stimulation test as an alternative at our center. Aim: To present the data on children with endocrine disorders who underwent GnRH agonist stimulation test in pediatric endocrine clinic of a tertiary care referral hospital. Setting and Design: Pediatric endocrine clinic of a tertiary care referral hospital. Retrospective analysis of case records. Materials and Methods: The details pertaining to clinical and radiological parameters and hormonal tests were retrieved from case records of 15 children who underwent GnRH agonist stimulation test from May 2010 to April 2011. Results: Indications for testing with GnRH analogue were evaluation of delayed puberty, diagnosis of precocious puberty, assessment of hormonal suppression in treatment of precocious puberty and micropenis in two, nine, three and one cases, respectively. The results of the test and clinical and radiological parameters were in concordance. The test was also crucial in diagnosing the onset of central precocious puberty in two children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Conclusion: GnRH agonist test is a convenient, safe test that can be performed on an out-patient basis and can help the clinicians in the correct diagnosis and appropriate treatment of various puberty-related disorders.

  19. Loss of lysosomal membrane protein NCU-G1 in mice results in spontaneous liver fibrosis with accumulation of lipofuscin and iron in Kupffer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Y. Kong

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Human kidney predominant protein, NCU-G1, is a highly conserved protein with an unknown biological function. Initially described as a nuclear protein, it was later shown to be a bona fide lysosomal integral membrane protein. To gain insight into the physiological function of NCU-G1, mice with no detectable expression of this gene were created using a gene-trap strategy, and Ncu-g1gt/gt mice were successfully characterized. Lysosomal disorders are mainly caused by lack of or malfunctioning of proteins in the endosomal-lysosomal pathway. The clinical symptoms vary, but often include liver dysfunction. Persistent liver damage activates fibrogenesis and, if unremedied, eventually leads to liver fibrosis/cirrhosis and death. We demonstrate that the disruption of Ncu-g1 results in spontaneous liver fibrosis in mice as the predominant phenotype. Evidence for an increased rate of hepatic cell death, oxidative stress and active fibrogenesis were detected in Ncu-g1gt/gt liver. In addition to collagen deposition, microscopic examination of liver sections revealed accumulation of autofluorescent lipofuscin and iron in Ncu-g1gt/gt Kupffer cells. Because only a few transgenic mouse models have been identified with chronic liver injury and spontaneous liver fibrosis development, we propose that the Ncu-g1gt/gt mouse could be a valuable new tool in the development of novel treatments for the attenuation of fibrosis due to chronic liver damage.

  20. Morphological and Physiological Interactions Between GnRH3 and Hypocretin/Orexin Neuronal Systems in Zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yali; Singh, Chanpreet; Prober, David A; Wayne, Nancy L

    2016-10-01

    GnRH neurons integrate internal and external cues to control sexual maturation and fertility. Homeostasis of energy balance and food intake correlates strongly with the status of reproduction. Neuropeptides secreted by the hypothalamus involved in modulating energy balance and feeding may play additional roles in the regulation of reproduction. Hypocretin (Hcrt) (also known as orexin) is one such peptide, primarily controlling sleep/wakefulness, food intake, and reward processing. There is a growing body of evidence indicating that Hcrt/orexin (Hcrt) modulates reproduction through interacting with the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis in mammals. To explore potential morphological and functional interactions between the GnRH and Hcrt neuronal systems, we employed a variety of experimental approaches including confocal imaging, immunohistochemistry, and electrophysiology in transgenic zebrafish, in which fluorescent proteins are genetically expressed in GnRH3 and Hcrt neurons. Our imaging data revealed close apposition and direct connection between GnRH3 and Hcrt neuronal systems in the hypothalamus during larval development through adulthood. Furthermore, the Hcrt receptor (HcrtR) is expressed in GnRH3 neurons. Electrophysiological data revealed a reversible inhibitory effect of Hcrt on GnRH3 neuron electrical activity, which was blocked by the HcrtR antagonist almorexant. In addition, Hcrt had no effect on the electrical activity of GnRH3 neurons in the HcrtR null mutant zebrafish (HcrtR -/- ). Our findings demonstrate a close anatomical and functional relationship between Hcrt and GnRH neuronal systems in zebrafish. It is the first demonstration of a link between neuronal circuits controlling sleeping/arousal/feeding and reproduction in zebrafish, an important animal model for investigating the molecular genetics of development.

  1. Downregulation of β1,4-galactosyltransferase 1 inhibits CDK11p58-mediated apoptosis induced by cycloheximide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zejuan; Wang Hanzhou; Zong Hongliang; Sun Qing; Kong Xiangfei; Jiang Jianhai; Gu Jianxin

    2005-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 11 (CDK11; also named PITSLRE) is part of the large family of p34 cdc2 -related kinases whose functions appear to be linked with cell cycle progression, tumorigenesis, and apoptotic signaling. The mechanism that CDK11 p58 induces apoptosis is not clear. Some evidences suggested β1,4-galactosyltransferase 11,4-GT 1) might participate in apoptosis induced by CDK11 p58 . In this study, we demonstrated that ectopically expressed β1,4-GT 1 increased CDK11 p58 -mediated apoptosis induced by cycloheximide (CHX). In contrast, RNAi-mediated knockdown of β1,4-GT 1 effectively inhibited apoptosis induced by CHX in CDK11 p58 -overexpressing cells. For example, the cell morphological and nuclear changes were reduced; the loss of cell viability was prevented and the number of cells in sub-G1 phase was decreased. Knock down of β1,4-GT 1 also inhibited the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria and caspase-3 processing. Therefore, the cleavage of CDK11 p58 by caspase-3 was reduced. We proposed that β1,4-GT 1 might contribute to the pro-apoptotic effect of CDK11 p58 . This may represent a new mechanism of β1,4-GT 1 in CHX-induced apoptosis of CDK11 p58 -overexpressing cells

  2. GnRH dysregulation in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a manifestation of an altered neurotransmitter profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Nirja; Dawalbhakta, Mitali; Nampoothiri, Laxmipriya

    2018-04-11

    GnRH is the master molecule of reproduction that is influenced by several intrinsic and extrinsic factors such as neurotransmitters and neuropeptides. Any alteration in these regulatory loops may result in reproductive-endocrine dysfunction such as the polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Although low dopaminergic tone has been associated with PCOS, the role of neurotransmitters in PCOS remains unknown. The present study was therefore aimed at understanding the status of GnRH regulatory neurotransmitters to decipher the neuroendocrine pathology in PCOS. PCOS was induced in rats by oral administration of letrozole (aromatase inhibitor). Following PCOS validation, animals were assessed for gonadotropin levels and their mRNA expression. Neurotrasnmitter status was evaluated by estimating their levels, their metabolism and their receptor expression in hypothalamus, pituitary, hippocampus and frontal cortex of PCOS rat model. We demonstrate that GnRH and LH inhibitory neurotransmitters - serotonin, dopamine, GABA and acetylcholine - are reduced while glutamate, a major stimulator of GnRH and LH release, is increased in the PCOS condition. Concomitant changes were observed for neurotransmitter metabolising enzymes and their receptors as well. Our results reveal that increased GnRH and LH pulsatility in PCOS condition likely result from the cumulative effect of altered GnRH stimulatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters in hypothalamic-pituitary centre. This, we hypothesise, is responsible for the depression and anxiety-like mood disorders commonly seen in PCOS women.

  3. Random-start GnRH antagonist for emergency fertility preservation: a self-controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Checa MA

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Miguel A Checa,1,2 Mario Brassesco,2 Margalida Sastre,1 Manuel Gómez,2 Julio Herrero,3 Laura Marque,3 Arturo Brassesco,2 Juan José Espinós3 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Parc de Salut Mar, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 2Centro de Infertilidad y Reproducción Humana (CIRH, 3Centro de Reproducción Asistida Sagrada Familia, Clínica Sagrada Familia, Barcelona, Spain Abstract: The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility and safety of random-start controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH for emergency fertility preservation, regardless of the phase of the menstrual cycle. A self-controlled pilot clinical trial (NCT01385332 was performed in an acute-care teaching hospital and in two private reproductive centers in Barcelona, Spain. Eleven egg donors participated in the study. Two random-start gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH antagonist protocols were assessed in which ganirelix was initiated on either day 10 (protocol B or on day 20 (protocol C of the menstrual cycle and was continued until estradiol levels were below 60 pg/dL. These protocols were compared with a standard protocol (protocol A. The main outcome of interest was the number of metaphase 2 oocytes retrieved. Results from this study show that the number of mature oocytes retrieved was comparable across the different protocols (14.3±4.6 in the standard protocol versus 13.0±9.1 and 13.2±5.2 in protocols B and C, respectively; values expressed as mean ± standard deviation. The mean number of days needed for a GnRH antagonist to lower estradiol levels, as well as the ongoing pregnancy rates, were also similar when protocols B (stimulation in follicular phase and C (stimulation on luteal phase were compared with protocol A (standard stimulation. GnRH antagonists can be effectively used for random-start controlled ovarian hyperstimulation with an ovarian response similar to that of standard protocols, and the antagonists appear suitable for emergency

  4. Induction of spermatogenesis and fertility in hypogonadotropic azoospermic men by intravenous pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenfeld, Z; Makler, A; Frisch, L; Brandes, J M

    1988-06-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) has only recently become a helpful tool in the medication of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH). Two azoospermic patients with HH who had previously been treated with hCG/hMG because of delayed puberty and each of whom had fathered a child after previous gonadotropin therapy were referred due to secondary failure of hCG/hMG treatment to induce spermatogenesis and fertility. A pulse study where blood was drawn every 15 minutes for LH, FSH and PRL RIAs was performed in each patient, and afterwards a bolus of i.v. GnRH was injected to assess gonadotropin responsiveness. A portable GnRH pump was connected to each patient so that it administered 5-20 micrograms of GnRH i.v. every 89 minutes. Spermatogenesis was first detected after 42 and 78 days respectively in the 2 treated HH men and 4 1/2 months from the start of treatment their wives became pregnant. No thrombophlebitis or other complications of the i.v. therapy occurred. In the case of the first patient, the semen was washed and concentrated and intra-uterine inseminations were carried out in an attempt to shorten the time needed to achieve fertility. The first pregnancy was successfully terminated at 38 weeks with the delivery of 2 heterozygotic normal male babies. The second pregnancy ended in spontaneous delivery of a healthy female. We conclude that i.v. pulsatile, intermittent GnRH administration is a safe, efficient and highly successful means of treating azoospermic men with HH.

  5. LU60645GT and MA132843GT Catalogues of Lunar and Martian Impact Craters Developed Using a Crater Shape-based Interpolation Crater Detection Algorithm for Topography Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamuniccar, Goran; Loncaric, Sven; Mazarico, Erwan Matias

    2012-01-01

    For Mars, 57,633 craters from the manually assembled catalogues and 72,668 additional craters identified using several crater detection algorithms (CDAs) have been merged into the MA130301GT catalogue. By contrast, for the Moon the most complete previous catalogue contains only 14,923 craters. Two recent missions provided higher-quality digital elevation maps (DEMs): SELENE (in 1/16° resolution) and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (we used up to 1/512°). This was the main motivation for work on the new Crater Shape-based interpolation module, which improves previous CDA as follows: (1) it decreases the number of false-detections for the required number of true detections; (2) it improves detection capabilities for very small craters; and (3) it provides more accurate automated measurements of craters' properties. The results are: (1) LU60645GT, which is currently the most complete (up to D>=8 km) catalogue of Lunar craters; and (2) MA132843GT catalogue of Martian craters complete up to D>=2 km, which is the extension of the previous MA130301GT catalogue. As previously achieved for Mars, LU60645GT provides all properties that were provided by the previous Lunar catalogues, plus: (1) correlation between morphological descriptors from used catalogues; (2) correlation between manually assigned attributes and automated measurements; (3) average errors and their standard deviations for manually and automatically assigned attributes such as position coordinates, diameter, depth/diameter ratio, etc; and (4) a review of positional accuracy of used datasets. Additionally, surface dating could potentially be improved with the exhaustiveness of this new catalogue. The accompanying results are: (1) the possibility of comparing a large number of Lunar and Martian craters, of e.g. depth/diameter ratio and 2D profiles; (2) utilisation of a method for re-projection of datasets and catalogues, which is very useful for craters that are very close to poles; and (3) the extension of the

  6. Impact of GnRH analogues on oocyte/embryo quality and embryo development in in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rigó János

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the clinical outcomes of ovarian stimulation with either GnRH-agonist or GnRH-antagonist analogues for in vitro fertilization (IVF being well analysed, the effect of analogues on oocyte/embryo quality and embryo development is still not known in detail. The aim of this case-control study was to compare the efficacy of a multiple-dose GnRH antagonist protocol with that of the GnRH agonist long protocol with a view to oocyte and embryo quality, embryo development and IVF treatment outcome. Methods Between October 2001 and December 2008, 100 patients were stimulated with human menopausal gonadotrophin (HMG and GnRH antagonist in their first treatment cycle for IVF or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI. One hundred combined GnRH agonist + HMG (long protocol cycles were matched to the GnRH antagonist + HMG cycles by age, BMI, baseline FSH levels and by cause of infertility. We determined the number and quality of retrieved oocytes, the rate of early-cleavage embryos, the morphology and development of embryos, as well as clinical pregnancy rates. Statistical analysis was performed using Wilcoxon's matched pairs rank sum test and McNemar's chi-square test. P Results The rate of cytoplasmic abnormalities in retrieved oocytes was significantly higher with the use of GnRH antagonist than in GnRH agonist cycles (62.1% vs. 49.9%; P Conclusion Antagonist seemed to influence favourably some parameters of early embryo development dynamics, while other morphological parameters seemed not to be altered according to GnRH analogue used for ovarian stimulation in IVF cycles.

  7. Evaluation of the pituitary-gonadal response to GnRH, and adrenal status, in the leopard (Panthera pardus japonensis) and tiger (Panthera tigris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J L; Goodrowe, K L; Simmons, L G; Armstrong, D L; Wildt, D E

    1988-01-01

    Frequent blood samples were collected to study hormonal responses to GnRH in male and female leopards and tigers. Animals were anaesthetized with ketamine-HCl and blood samples were collected every 5 min for 15 min before and 160 min after i.v. administration of GnRH (1 micrograms/kg body weight) or saline. No differences in serum cortisol concentrations were observed between sexes within species, but mean cortisol was 2-fold greater in leopards than tigers. GnRH induced a rapid rise in LH in all animals (18.3 +/- 0.9 min to peak). Net LH peak height above pretreatment levels was 3-fold greater in males than conspecific females and was also greater in tigers than leopards. Serum FSH increased after GnRH, although the magnitude of response was less than that observed for LH. Basal LH and FSH and GnRH-stimulated FSH concentrations were not influenced by sex or species. Serum testosterone increased within 30-40 min after GnRH in 3/3 leopard and 1/3 tiger males. Basal testosterone was 3-fold greater in tiger than leopard males. LH pulses (1-2 pulses/3 h) were detected in 60% of saline-treated animals, suggesting pulsatile gonadotrophin secretion; however, in males concomitant testosterone pulses were not observed. These results indicate that there are marked sex and species differences in basal and GnRH-stimulated hormonal responses between felids of the genus Panthera which may be related to differences in adrenal activity.

  8. Predicting the effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogue treatment on uterine leiomyomas based on MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuno, Y.; Yamashita, Y.; Takahashi, M. [Dept. of Radiology, Kumamoto Univ. School of Medicine, Kumamoto (Japan); Katabuchi, H.; Okamura, H. [Dept. of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Kumamoto Univ. School of Medicine, Kumamoto (Japan); Kitano, Y.; Shimamura, T. [Dept. of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Amakusa Chuou General Hospital, Hondo (Japan)

    1999-11-01

    Purpose: To test the hypothesis that the simple assessment of signal intensity on T2-weighted MR images is predictive of the effect of hormonal treatment with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogue. Material and methods: The correlation between T2-weighted MR imaging of uterine leiomyomas and histologic findings was evaluated using 85 leiomyomas from 62 females who underwent myomectomy or hysterectomy. We also correlated the pretreatment MR images features obtained in 110 women with 143 leiomyomas with the effect of GnRH analogue treatment. The size (length x width x depth) of the leiomyoma was evaluated before and at 6 months after treatment by ultrasound. Results: The proportion of leiomyoma cell fascicles and that of extracellular matrix affected signal intensities of uterine leiomyomas on T2-weighted MR images. The amount of extracellular matrix was predominant in hypointense leiomyomas on T2-weighted images, while diffuse intermediate signal leiomyomas were predominantly composed of leiomyoma cell fascicles. Marked degenerative changes were noted in leiomyomas with heterogenous hyperintensity. The homogeneously intermediate signal intensity leiomyomas showed significant size reduction after treatment (size ratio; posttreatment volume/pretreatment volume 0.29{+-}0.11). The size ratio for the hypointense tumors was 0.82{+-}0.14, and 0.82{+-}0.18 for the heterogeneously hyperintense tumors. There was a significant difference in the response to treatment between the homogeneously intermediate signal intensity leiomyomas and the hypointense or heterogeneously hyperintense leiomyomas (both p<0.01). Conclusion: Signal intensity on T2-weighted MR images depends on the amount of leiomyoma cell fascicles and extracellular matrix. Simple assessment of the MR signal intensity is useful in predicting the effect of GnRH analogue on uterine leiomyomas. (orig.)

  9. Predicting the effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogue treatment on uterine leiomyomas based on MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuno, Y.; Yamashita, Y.; Takahashi, M.; Katabuchi, H.; Okamura, H.; Kitano, Y.; Shimamura, T.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To test the hypothesis that the simple assessment of signal intensity on T2-weighted MR images is predictive of the effect of hormonal treatment with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogue. Material and methods: The correlation between T2-weighted MR imaging of uterine leiomyomas and histologic findings was evaluated using 85 leiomyomas from 62 females who underwent myomectomy or hysterectomy. We also correlated the pretreatment MR images features obtained in 110 women with 143 leiomyomas with the effect of GnRH analogue treatment. The size (length x width x depth) of the leiomyoma was evaluated before and at 6 months after treatment by ultrasound. Results: The proportion of leiomyoma cell fascicles and that of extracellular matrix affected signal intensities of uterine leiomyomas on T2-weighted MR images. The amount of extracellular matrix was predominant in hypointense leiomyomas on T2-weighted images, while diffuse intermediate signal leiomyomas were predominantly composed of leiomyoma cell fascicles. Marked degenerative changes were noted in leiomyomas with heterogenous hyperintensity. The homogeneously intermediate signal intensity leiomyomas showed significant size reduction after treatment (size ratio; posttreatment volume/pretreatment volume 0.29±0.11). The size ratio for the hypointense tumors was 0.82±0.14, and 0.82±0.18 for the heterogeneously hyperintense tumors. There was a significant difference in the response to treatment between the homogeneously intermediate signal intensity leiomyomas and the hypointense or heterogeneously hyperintense leiomyomas (both p<0.01). Conclusion: Signal intensity on T2-weighted MR images depends on the amount of leiomyoma cell fascicles and extracellular matrix. Simple assessment of the MR signal intensity is useful in predicting the effect of GnRH analogue on uterine leiomyomas. (orig.)

  10. The PD-1/B7-H1 pathway modulates the natural killer cells versus mouse glioma stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bo Yuan; Zhan, Yi Ping; Zong, Wen Jing; Yu, Chun Jiang; Li, Jun Fa; Qu, Yan Ming; Han, Song

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most malignant primary type of brain tumor in adults. There has been increased focus on the immunotherapies to treat GBM patients, the therapeutic value of natural killer (NK) cells is still unknown. Programmed death-1 (PD-1) is a major immunological checkpoint that can negatively regulate the T-cell-mediated immune response. We tested the combination of the inhibiting the PD-1/B7H1 pathway with a NK-cell mediated immune response in an orthotopic mouse model of GBM. Mouse glioma stem cells (GL261GSCs) and mouse NK cells were isolated and identified. A lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay was perfomed to detect the cytotoxicity of NK cells against GL261GSCs. GL261GSCs were intracranially implanted into mice, and the mice were stratified into 3 treatment groups: 1) control, 2) NK cells treatment, and 3) PD-1 inhibited NK cells treatment group. Overall survival was quantified, and animal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed to determine tumor growth. The brains were harvested after the mice were euthanized, and immunohistochemistry against CD45 and PCNA was performed. The mouse NK cells were identified as 90% CD3- NK1.1+CD335+ by flow cytometric analysis. In the LDH assay, the ratios of the damaged GL261GSCs, with the E:T ratios of 2.5:1, 5:1, and 10:1, were as follows: 1) non-inhibited group: 7.42%, 11.31%, and 15.1%, 2) B7H1 inhibited group: 14.75%, 18.25% and 29.1%, 3) PD-1 inhibited group: 15.53%, 19.21% and 29.93%, 4) double inhibited group: 33.24%, 42.86% and 54.91%. In the in vivo experiments, the mice in the PD-1 inhibited NK cells treatment group and IL-2-stimulated-NK cells treatment group displayed a slowest tumor growth (F = 308.5, Pmouse NK cells to kill the GL261GSCs, and the PD-1-inhibited NK cells could be a feasible immune therapeutic approach against GBM.

  11. The role of brain peptides in the reproduction of blue gourami males (Trichogaster trichopterus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Gal; Degani, Gad

    2013-10-01

    In all vertebrates, reproduction and growth are closely linked and both are controlled by complex hormonal interactions at the brain-pituitary level. In this study, we focused on the reciprocal interactions between brain peptides that regulate growth and reproductive functions in a teleostei fish (blue gourami Trichogaster trichopterus). An increase in gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1 (GnRH1) gene expression was detected during ontogeny, and this peptide increased growth hormone (GH) and β follicle-stimulating hormone (βFSH) gene expression in pituitary cell culture. However, although no change in gonadotropin-releasing hormone 2 (GnRH2) gene expression during the reproductive cycle or sexual behavior was detected, a stimulatory effect of this peptide on β gonadotropins (βGtH) gene expression was observed. In addition, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide 38 (PACAP-38) inhibited GnRH-analog-induced βFSH gene expression, and co-treatment of cells with GnRH-analog and PACAP-38 inhibited GnRH-analog-stimulatory and PACAP-38-inhibitory effects on GH gene expression. These findings together with previous studies were used to create a model summarizing the mechanism of brain peptides (GnRH, PACAP and its related peptide) and the relationship to reproduction and growth through pituitary hormone gene expression during ontogenesis and reproductive stages in blue gourami. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. The effect of S-substitution at the O6-guanine site on the structure and dynamics of a DNA oligomer containing a G:T mismatch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Ann Moore

    Full Text Available The effect of S-substitution on the O6 guanine site of a 13-mer DNA duplex containing a G:T mismatch is studied using molecular dynamics. The structure, dynamic evolution and hydration of the S-substituted duplex are compared with those of a normal duplex, a duplex with S-substitution on guanine, but no mismatch and a duplex with just a G:T mismatch. The S-substituted mismatch leads to cell death rather than repair. One suggestion is that the G:T mismatch recognition protein recognises the S-substituted mismatch (GS:T as G:T. This leads to a cycle of futile repair ending in DNA breakage and cell death. We find that some structural features of the helix are similar for the duplex with the G:T mismatch and that with the S-substituted mismatch, but differ from the normal duplex, notably the helical twist. These differences arise from the change in the hydrogen-bonding pattern of the base pair. However a marked feature of the S-substituted G:T mismatch duplex is a very large opening. This showed considerable variability. It is suggested that this enlarged opening would lend support to an alternative model of cell death in which the mismatch protein attaches to thioguanine and activates downstream damage-response pathways. Attack on the sulphur by reactive oxygen species, also leading to cell death, would also be aided by the large, variable opening.

  13. HTR-10GT AMBs displacement sensor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Zhengang; Zha Meisheng; Zhao Lei; Sun Zhuo

    2005-01-01

    The 10 MW high temperature gas-cooled test module reactor (HTR-10GT) with the core made of spherical fuel elements was designed and constructed by the Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology of Tsinghua University in China. In the HTR-10GT, turbo-compressor and generator rotors are connected by a flexible coupling. The rotors, restricted by actual instruments and working environment, must be supported without any contact and lubrication. Active magnetic bearing (AMB), known as its advantages over the conventional bearings., such as contact-free, no-lubricating and active damping vibration, is the best way to suspend and stabilize the position of rotors of HTR-10GT. Each rotor is suspended by two radial and one axial AMBs. The radial AMB's radial gap is 0.15 mm considering the gap of 0.4 mm between the compressor stator and blades in order to protect the compressor. The control system controls the rotor position to meet the required gaps between rotor and stator through windings current. All the position information concerning radial and axial AMB is generated by sensors for measuring the displacement of the levitated body. Some typical sensors, i.e. eddy current displacement sensor, capacitive displacement sensor, can provide position information, but, quite often, unsatisfactory anti-jamming, which is a key issue for AMB systems near generator and other electric devices in HTR-10GT. Therefore, a kind of new type sensor is designed to measure the radial and axial displacements and the vibration of the rotors. This paper focuses on the design characteristics of the HTR-10GT AMBs displacement sensors and introduction of the related experiments to demonstrate its performance. (authors)

  14. The PD-1/B7-H1 pathway modulates the natural killer cells versus mouse glioma stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Yuan Huang

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is the most malignant primary type of brain tumor in adults. There has been increased focus on the immunotherapies to treat GBM patients, the therapeutic value of natural killer (NK cells is still unknown. Programmed death-1 (PD-1 is a major immunological checkpoint that can negatively regulate the T-cell-mediated immune response. We tested the combination of the inhibiting the PD-1/B7H1 pathway with a NK-cell mediated immune response in an orthotopic mouse model of GBM.Mouse glioma stem cells (GL261GSCs and mouse NK cells were isolated and identified. A lactate dehydrogenase (LDH assay was perfomed to detect the cytotoxicity of NK cells against GL261GSCs. GL261GSCs were intracranially implanted into mice, and the mice were stratified into 3 treatment groups: 1 control, 2 NK cells treatment, and 3 PD-1 inhibited NK cells treatment group. Overall survival was quantified, and animal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was performed to determine tumor growth. The brains were harvested after the mice were euthanized, and immunohistochemistry against CD45 and PCNA was performed.The mouse NK cells were identified as 90% CD3- NK1.1+CD335+ by flow cytometric analysis. In the LDH assay, the ratios of the damaged GL261GSCs, with the E:T ratios of 2.5:1, 5:1, and 10:1, were as follows: 1 non-inhibited group: 7.42%, 11.31%, and 15.1%, 2 B7H1 inhibited group: 14.75%, 18.25% and 29.1%, 3 PD-1 inhibited group: 15.53%, 19.21% and 29.93%, 4 double inhibited group: 33.24%, 42.86% and 54.91%. In the in vivo experiments, the mice in the PD-1 inhibited NK cells treatment group and IL-2-stimulated-NK cells treatment group displayed a slowest tumor growth (F = 308.5, P<0.01 and a slower tumor growth compared with control group (F = 118.9, P<0.01, respectively. The median survival of the mice in the three groups were as follows: 1 conrol group: 29 days, 2 NK cells treatment group: 35 days (P = 0.0012, 3 PD-1 inhibited NK cells treatment group

  15. Effects of triclosan on hormones and reproductive axis in female Yellow River carp (Cyprinus carpio): Potential mechanisms underlying estrogen effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fan; Guo, Xiangmeng; Chen, Wanguang; Sun, Yaowen; Fan, Chaojie

    2017-12-01

    Triclosan (TCS), a member of the class of compounds called pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs), is a broad antibacterial and antifungal agent found in a lot of consumer products. However, TCS hormone effect mechanism in teleost female fish is not clear. Female Yellow River carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed to 1/20, 1/10 and 1/5 LC 50 TCS (96h LC 50 of TCS to carp) under semi-static conditions for 42days. Vitellogenin (Vtg), 17β-estradiol (E 2 ), testosterone(T), estrogen receptor (Er), gonadotropin (GtH), and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Meanwhile, we also examined the mRNA expressions of aromatase, GtHs-β, GnRH, and Er by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The results indicated that 1/5 LC 50 TCS induced Vtg in hepatopancreas of female carps by interference with the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis at multiple potential loci through three mechanisms: (a) TCS exposure enhanced the mRNA expression of hypothalamus and gonadal aromatase which converts androgens into estrogens, subsequently increasing serum concentrations of E 2 to induce Vtg in hepatopancreas; (b) TCS treatment increased GnRH and GtH-β mRNA expression and secretion, causing the disturbance of reproductive endocrine and the increase of E 2 to induce Vtg in hepatopancreas; (c) TCS exposure enhanced synthesis and secretion of Er, then it bound to Er to active Vtg synthesis. These mechanisms showed that TCS may induce Vtg production in female Yellow River carp by Er-mediated and non-Er-mediated pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Preliminary safety evaluation of the Gas Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, T.D.; Lommers, L.J.; Tangirala, V.E.

    1994-04-01

    A qualitative comparison between the safety characteristics of the Gas Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR) and those of the steam cycle shows that the two designs achieve equivalent levels of overall safety performance. This comparison is obtained by applying the scaling laws to detailed steam-cycle computations as well as the conclusions obtained from preliminary GT-MHR model simulations. The gas turbine design is predicted to be superior for some event categories, while the steam cycle design is better for others. From a safety perspective, the GT-MHR has a modest advantage for pressurized conduction cooldown events. Recent computational simulations of 102 column, 550 MW(t) GT-MHR during a depressurized conduction cooldown show that peak fuel temperatures are within the limits. The GT-MHR has a significantly lower risk due to water ingress events under operating conditions. Two additional scenarios, namely loss of load event and turbine deblading event that are specific to the GT-MHR design are discussed. Preliminary evaluation of the GT-MHR's safety characteristics indicate that the GT-MHR can be expected to satisfy or exceed its safety requirements

  17. GnRH neurons of young and aged female rhesus monkeys co-express GPER but are unaffected by long-term hormone replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naugle, Michelle M; Gore, Andrea C

    2014-01-01

    Menopause is caused by changes in the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis that controls reproduction. Hypophysiotropic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons in the hypothalamus orchestrate the activity of this axis and are regulated by hormonal feedback loops. The mechanisms by which GnRH responds to the primary regulatory sex steroid hormone, estradiol (E2), are still poorly understood in the context of menopause. Our goal was to determine whether the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) is co-expressed in adult primate GnRH neurons and whether this changes with aging and/or E2 treatment. We used immunofluorescence double-labeling to characterize the co-expression of GPER in GnRH perikarya and terminals in the hypothalamus. Young and aged rhesus macaques were ovariectomized and given long-term (~2-year) hormone treatments (E2, E2 + progesterone, or vehicle) selected to mimic currently prescribed hormone replacement therapies used for the alleviation of menopausal symptoms in women. We found that about half of GnRH perikarya co-expressed GPER, while only about 12% of GnRH processes and terminals in the median eminence (ME) were double-labeled. Additionally, many GPER-labeled processes were in direct contact with GnRH neurons, often wrapped around the perikarya and processes and in close proximity in the ME. These results extend prior work by showing robust co-localization of GPER in GnRH in a clinically relevant model, and they support the possibility that GPER-mediated E2 regulation of GnRH occurs both in the soma and terminals in nonhuman primates.

  18. GnRH and prostaglandin-based synchronization protocols as alternatives to progestogen-based treatments in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekik, M; Haile, A; Abebe, A; Muluneh, D; Goshme, S; Ben Salem, I; Hilali, M El-Dine; Lassoued, N; Chanyalew, Y; Rischkowsky, B

    2016-12-01

    The study investigated, for cycling sheep, synchronizing protocols simultaneously to the standard "P" protocol using progestogens priming with intravaginal devices and gonadotropin. In November 2014, 90 adult Menz ewes were assigned to either the "P" protocol, "PGF" treatment where oestrus and ovulation were synchronized using two injections of prostaglandin 11 days apart or a "GnRH" treatment where the ewes had their oestrus and ovulation synchronized with GnRH (day 0)-prostaglandin (day 6)-GnRH (day 9) sequence. The ewes were naturally mated at the induced oestrus and the following 36 days. Plasma progesterone revealed that 92% of the ewes were ovulating before synchronization and all, except one, ovulated in response to the applied treatments. All "P" ewes exhibited oestrus during the 96-hr period after the end of the treatments in comparison with only 79.3% and 73.3% for "PGF" and "GnRH" ewes, respectively (p sheep after the rainy season when most animals are spontaneously cycling. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Polycystic ovarian disease unmasked by pulsatile GnRH therapy in a subgroup of women with hypothalamic amenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattle, Verena; Bilgyicildirim, Aysen; Hadziomerovic, Dijana; Ott, Helmut W; Zervomanolakis, Ioannis; Leyendecker, Gerhard; Wildt, Ludwig

    2008-02-01

    To present the observation in six out of 120 women treated with pulsatile GnRH for ovulation induction, who developed hyperandrogenemia and polycystic ovaries during treatment. Clinical observation. Department of Gynecologic Endocrinology and Reproductive Medicine, Medical University of Innsbruck, Austria. A total of 120 women initially diagnosed as suffering from primary or secondary hypothalamic amenorrhea were treated for ovulation induction with pulsatile administration of GnRH for up to 140 days. There was no indication of the presence of polycystic ovaries or hyperandrogenemia before therapy. Pulsatile GnRH therapy using the Zyklomat pump. Ovulatory menstrual cycles. Initially, all patients responded to pulsatile GnRH administration with ovulation and corpus luteum formation. During continuation of treatment, 6 patients developed an increase in LH and LH/FSH ratio as well as a progressive rise in serum T levels resulting in hyperandrogenemia. This was accompanied by the development of polycystic ovaries and cessation of follicular maturation. We conclude from these observations that restoration of normal GnRH stimulation of the pituitary gland can result in the development of hyperandrogenemia and polycystic ovaries, suggesting a pituitary or ovarian defect underlying the pathogenesis of this disorder.

  20. Comparison between pulsatile GnRH therapy and gonadotropins for ovulation induction in women with both functional hypothalamic amenorrhea and polycystic ovarian morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Agathe; Dewailly, Didier; Plouvier, Pauline; Catteau-Jonard, Sophie; Robin, Geoffroy

    2016-12-01

    Ovulation induction in patients having both functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA) and polycystic ovarian morphology (PCOM) has been less studied in the literature. As results remain contradictory, no recommendations have yet been established. To compare pulsatile GnRH therapy versus gonadotropins for ovulation induction in "FHA-PCOM" patients and to determine if one treatment strikes as superior to the other. A 12-year retrospective study, comparing 55 "FHA-PCOM" patients, treated either with GnRH therapy (38 patients, 93 cycles) or with gonadotropins (17 patients, 53 cycles). Both groups were similar, defined by low serum LH and E2 levels, low BMI, excessive follicle number per ovary and/or high serum AMH level. Ovulation rates were significantly lower with gonadotropins (56.6% versus 78.6%, p = 0.005), with more cancellation and ovarian hyper-responses (14% versus 34% per initiated cycle, p < 0.005). Pregnancy rates were significantly higher with GnRH therapy, whether per initiated cycle (26.9% versus 7.6%, p = 0.005) or per patient (65.8% versus 23.5%, p = 0.007). In our study, GnRH therapy was more successful and safer than gonadotropins, for ovulation induction in "FHA-PCOM" patients. If results were confirmed by prospective studies, it could become a first-line treatment for this population, just as it is for FHA women without PCOM.

  1. Population pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) modelling of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis following treatment with GnRH analogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tornøe, Christoffer Wenzel; Agersø, Henrik; Senderovitz, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    and the GnRH receptor blocker degarelix. Methods Fifty-eight healthy subjects received single subcutaneous or intramuscular injections of 3.75 mg of triptorelin and 170 prostate cancer patients received multiple subcutaneous doses of degarelix of between 120 and 320 mg. All subjects were pooled...... for the different dynamic responses observed after administration of both GnRH agonists and GnRH receptor blockers, suggesting that the model adequately characterizes the underlying physiology of the endocrine system....

  2. Melanin-concentrating hormone directly inhibits GnRH neurons and blocks kisspeptin activation, linking energy balance to reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Min; Dumalska, Iryna; Morozova, Elena; van den Pol, Anthony; Alreja, Meenakshi

    2009-10-06

    A link between energy balance and reproduction is critical for the survival of all species. Energy-consuming reproductive processes need to be aborted in the face of a negative energy balance, yet knowledge of the pathways mediating this link remains limited. Fasting and food restriction that inhibit fertility also upregulate the hypothalamic melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) system that promotes feeding and decreases energy expenditure; MCH knockout mice are lean and have a higher metabolism but remain fertile. MCH also modulates sleep, drug abuse behavior, and mood, and MCH receptor antagonists are currently being developed as antiobesity and antidepressant drugs. Despite the clinical implications of MCH, the direct postsynaptic effects of MCH have never been reported in CNS neurons. Using patch-clamp recordings in brain slices from multiple lines of transgenic GFP mice, we demonstrate a strong inhibitory effect of MCH on an exclusive population of septal vGluT2-GnRH neurons that is activated by the puberty-triggering and preovulatory luteinizing hormone surge-mediating peptide, kisspeptin. MCH has no effect on kisspeptin-insensitive GnRH, vGluT2, cholinergic, or GABAergic neurons located within the same nucleus. The inhibitory effects of MCH are reproducible and nondesensitizing and are mediated via a direct postsynaptic Ba(2+)-sensitive K(+) channel mechanism involving the MCHR1 receptor. MCH immunoreactive fibers are in close proximity to vGluT2-GFP and GnRH-GFP neurons. Importantly, MCH blocks the excitatory effect of kisspeptin on vGluT2-GnRH neurons. Considering the role of MCH in regulating energy balance and of GnRH and kisspeptin in triggering puberty and maintaining fertility, MCH may provide a critical link between energy balance and reproduction directly at the level of the kisspeptin-activated vGluT2-GnRH neuron.

  3. IL-7 and CD4 T Follicular Helper Cells in HIV-1 Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Chiodi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available IL-7 was previously shown to upregulate the expression of molecules important for interaction of CD4+ T cells with B cells. It is poorly studied whether IL-7 has a role in the biology of T follicular helper (Tfh cells and whether IL-7 dysregulates the expression of B-cell costimulatory molecules on Tfh cells. We review the literature and provide arguments in favor of IL-7 being involved in the biology of human Tfh cells. The CD127 IL-7 receptor is expressed on circulating Tfh and non-Tfh cells, and we show that IL-7, but not IL-6 or IL-21, upregulates the expression of CD70 and PD-1 on these cells. We conclude that IL-7, a cytokine whose level is elevated during HIV-1 infection, may have a role in increased expression of B cell costimulatory molecules on Tfh cells and lead to abnormal B cell differentiation.

  4. Circulating Estradiol Regulates Brain-Derived Estradiol via Actions at GnRH Receptors to Impact Memory in Ovariectomized Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Britta S; Black, Katelyn L; Daniel, Jill M

    2016-01-01

    Systemic estradiol treatment enhances hippocampus-dependent memory in ovariectomized rats. Although these enhancements are traditionally thought to be due to circulating estradiol, recent data suggest these changes are brought on by hippocampus-derived estradiol, the synthesis of which depends on gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) activity. The goal of the current work is to test the hypothesis that peripheral estradiol affects hippocampus-dependent memory through brain-derived estradiol regulated via hippocampal GnRH receptor activity. In the first experiment, intracerebroventricular infusion of letrozole, which prevents the synthesis of estradiol, blocked the ability of peripheral estradiol administration in ovariectomized rats to enhance hippocampus-dependent memory in a radial-maze task. In the second experiment, hippocampal infusion of antide, a long-lasting GnRH receptor antagonist, blocked the ability of peripheral estradiol administration in ovariectomized rats to enhance hippocampus-dependent memory. In the third experiment, hippocampal infusion of GnRH enhanced hippocampus-dependent memory, the effects of which were blocked by letrozole infusion. Results indicate that peripheral estradiol-induced enhancement of cognition is mediated by brain-derived estradiol via hippocampal GnRH receptor activity.

  5. GT-MHR COMMERCIALIZATION STUDY TECHNICAL PROGRESS AND COST MANAGEMENT REPORT FOR THE PERIOD AUGUST 1 THROUGH AUGUST 31, 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shenoy, A.S.

    2003-01-01

    OAK A271 GT-MHR COMERCIALiZATION STUDY TECHNICAL PROGRESS AND COST MANAGEMENT REPORT FOR THE PERIOD AUGUST 1 THROUGH AUGUST 31, 2003. In the process of fabricating the MHR-1 irradiation test capsule, Petten has advised that three thermocouples (out of 24) and the Self Powered Neutron detector were damaged during high temperature brazing with the upper capsule lid. Procurement of new TCs and SPN is in process but there will be a delay in the irradiation test of about nine weeks. Startup of the irradiation is now projected to be July or August 2004. In preparation for performing the nuclear design analysis activities required by the advanced fuel studies task, a complete 3-D nuclear design analysis is first being performed of the GT-MHR reference design. This will serve as the baseline for studies of the advanced fuel nuclear design performance

  6. GnRHR-II knockdown swine have constitutively lower serum testosterone concentrations, impaired senstitivity to GnRH analogues and reduced semen quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    The second mammalian GnRH isoform (GnRH-II) and its specific receptor (GnRHR-II) are abundantly produced within swine testes. GnRHR-II localizes to porcine Leydig cells and exogenous GnRH-II treatment robustly stimulates testosterone production in vivo, despite minimal secretion of luteinizing hormo...

  7. Use of a GnRH antagonist in controlled ovarian hyperstimulation for assisted conception in women with polycystic ovary disease: a randomized, prospective, pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahçeci, Mustafa; Ulug, Ulun; Ben-Shlomo, Izhar; Erden, Halit Firat; Akman, Mehmet Ali

    2005-02-01

    To compare the outcome of using gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonists versus agonists in women with polycystic ovary disease (PCOD) who underwent controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) for assisted reproductive techniques (ART). A total of 129 patients with PCOD were randomly allocated to undergo COH with a GnRH antagonist (59 patients) and GnRH agonist (leuprolide acetate) (70 patients) to prevent a premature luteinizing hormone (LH) surge. Assisted fertilization following oocyte retrieval and embryo transfer was performed. None of the cycles were cancelled due to a premature LH surge. There was no significant difference between the antagonist and agonist arms in the number of gonadotropin ampules consumed per cycle. However, in the antagonist arm a shorter duration of ovarian stimulation was recorded as compared to the agonist arm. Although similar numbers of oocytes was retrieved from both groups of patients, the quality of the oocytes, as measured by metaphase 2/total oocyte ratio, was lower in the antagonist arm as compared to the agonist arm. Pregnancy rates were 57.6% and 58.5% in the antagonist and agonist arms, respectively (p > 0.05). Implantation rates were not different (34.0% and 34.6%, respectively). The frequency of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome also did not differ between the treatment groups (5% and 7.1%, respectively). The size of our study, on a specific subgroup of patients, does not allow a reliable conclusion regarding ART outcomefollowing the use of a GnRH antagonist versus agonist. Nevertheless, the protocol with the antagonist gave results that were as good as those of the protocol with the agonist in this PCOD patient population.

  8. Antibodies against gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in patients with diabetes mellitus is associated with lower body weight and autonomic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berntorp, Kerstin; Frid, Anders; Alm, Ragnar; Fredrikson, Gunilla Nordin; Sjöberg, Klas; Ohlsson, Bodil

    2013-08-17

    Esophageal dysmotility and gastroparesis are common secondary complications in patients with diabetes mellitus. Patients with dysmotility express antibodies against gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in serum. The aim of the present study was to scrutinize patients with diabetes mellitus with regard to the presence of GnRH antibodies, and to examine associations between antibodies and clinical findings. Thirty-nine consecutive patients with diabetes mellitus were included in the study after clinical examination and examination by esophageal manometry and gastric emptying scintigraphy. Serum was analyzed for the presence of antibodies against GnRH using an ELISA, and values are expressed as relative units (RU). Two age- and gender-matched healthy subjects per each patient served as controls. The prevalence of IgM GnRH antibodies in patients was 33% compared to 14% in controls (p = 0.027), with a higher antibody titer; 1.2 (0.6-5.0) and 0.2 (0.1-0.3) RU, respectively (p = 0.000). The expression of IgG antibodies was 15% in patients and none in controls (p = 0.000). Lower body mass index was associated with the presence of IgM antibodies (OR = 0.835, 95% CI = 0.699-0.998), and autonomic neuropathy with the presence IgG antibodies (OR = 9.000, 95% CI = 1.327-61.025). Esophageal dysmotility (69%) or gastroparesis (18%) were not associated with the presence of IgM antibodies (OR = 0.589, 95% CI = 0.143-2.424 and OR = 3.407, 95% CI = 0.633-18.350, respectively). Neither was esophageal dysmotility associated with IgG antibodies (OR = 2.500, 95% CI = 0.259-24.096). Antibodies against GnRH are more common in patients with diabetes mellitus compared with healthy controls. IgM antibodies are associated with lower body mass index and IgG antibodies are associated with autonomic neuropathy.

  9. The effects of a slow release GnRH agonist implant on male rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goericke-Pesch, Sandra Kathrin; Groeger, Gesa; Wehrend, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Surgical castration is done in male pet rabbits for reproduction control, to reduce inter-male aggression and to control hyper-sexuality, territory marking and aggression against humans. Alternatives to surgical castration are requested because of a relatively great anaesthetic risk in rabbits....... Long-term application of a GnRH agonist implant results in a fully reversible "hormonal" castration in male dogs, cats, boars and many other species. Therefore, the present study using New Zealand White hybrid and German Giant rabbits aimed to investigate the effects of a 4.7mg deslorelin implant...

  10. RUNX1 suppression induces megakaryocytic differentiation of UT-7/GM cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Ryohei; Matsuura, Eri; Hoshika, Yusuke; Nakata, Emi; Nagura, Hironori; Watanabe, Ayako; Komatsu, Norio; Okada, Yoshiaki; Doi, Takefumi

    2006-01-01

    The transcription factor RUNX1 plays a crucial role in hematopoiesis. RUNX1 regulates both differentiation and proliferation of hematopoietic cells. Several reports have shown that RUNX1 participates in megakaryopoiesis, which is a process that leads to formation of platelets. However, to date, the mechanisms by which this occurs have not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we investigated whether siRNA-mediated depletion of RUNX1 affected megakaryopoiesis of UT-7/GM cells. The depletion of RUNX1 in UT-7/GM cells resulted in up-regulation of the expression of megakaryocytic markers and polyploidization, while cell proliferation was down-regulated. Furthermore, the overexpression of RUNX1 decreased the activity of megakaryocytic gene promoters. These results suggest that RUNX1 down-regulates terminal differentiation of megakaryocytes and promotes proliferation of megakaryocytic progenitors

  11. HTGR-GT and electrical load integrated control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, T.; Openshaw, F.; Pfremmer, D.

    1980-05-01

    A discussion of the control and operation of the HTGR-GT power plant is presented in terms of its closely coupled electrical load and core cooling functions. The system and its controls are briefly described and comparisons are made with more conventional plants. The results of analyses of selected transients are presented to illustrate the operation and control of the HTGR-GT. The events presented were specifically chosen to show the controllability of the plant and to highlight some of the unique characteristics inherent in this multiloop closed-cycle plant

  12. International project GT-MHR - New generation of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasyaev, A.; Kodochigov, N.; Kuzavkov, N.; Kuznetsov, L.

    2001-01-01

    Gas turbine-modular helium reactor (GT-MHR) is the reactor of new generation, which satisfies the requirements of the progressing large-scale nuclear power engineering. The activities in GT-MHR Project started in 1995. In 1997 the Conceptual Design was developed under four-side Agreement (MINATOM, General Atomics, FRAMATOME, Fuji Electric); it has passed through the internal and international reviews, has been approved and recommended for further development as one of new trends in creation of new generation plants. Starting from 1999, the activities in the development of the Preliminary Design of the plant were deployed under the Agreement between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of the Russian Federation on Scientific and Technical Cooperation in the Management of Plutonium That Has Been Withdrawn From Nuclear Military Programs dated July 24, 1998. The activities are established under the Contract between MINATOM and OKBM Russia, and under the General Agreement between Department of Energy (DOE), USA and OKBM. The GT-MHR Project is included into 'Development Strategy of Russian Nuclear Power in the first Half of the XXI-st Century' providing for 'the participation in an international project on the development and construction of GT-MHR nuclear power plant till year 2010 and 'operation of GT-MHR prototype unit and creation of fuel fabrication facility (within framework of International Project) till year 2030'. (author)

  13. The type of GnRH analogue used during controlled ovarian stimulation influences early embryo developmental kinetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz, Manuel; Cruz, María; Humaidan, Peter

    2013-01-01

    in the Instituto Valenciano de Infertilidad (IVI) Alicante and the Instituto Universitario-IVI Valencia, Spain, 2817 embryos deriving from 400 couples undergoing oocyte donation were analysed. After controlled ovarian stimulation and IVF/intracytoplamic sperm injection, the timing of embryonic cleavages......OBJECTIVE: To explore if the GnRH analogue used for controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) and the ovulation triggering factor (GnRH agonist+hCG triggering versus GnRH antagonist+GnRH agonist triggering) affect embryo development and kinetics. STUDY DESIGN: In a retrospective cohort study...... was assessed by a video time-lapse system. The results were analysed using Student's t test for comparison of timings (hours) and Chi-squared test for comparison of proportions. A p-value...

  14. DJ-1/Park7 Sensitive Na+ /H+ Exchanger 1 (NHE1) in CD4+ T Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuetao; Shi, Xiaolong; Chen, Hong; Zhang, Shaqiu; Salker, Madhuri S; Mack, Andreas F; Föller, Michael; Mak, Tak W; Singh, Yogesh; Lang, Florian

    2017-11-01

    DJ-1/Park7 is a redox-sensitive chaperone protein counteracting oxidation and presumably contributing to the control of oxidative stress responses and thus inflammation. DJ-1 gene deletion exacerbates the progression of Parkinson's disease presumably by augmenting oxidative stress. Formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is paralleled by activation of the Na + /H + exchanger 1 (NHE1). ROS formation in CD4 + T cells plays a decisive role in regulating inflammatory responses. In the present study, we explored whether DJ-1 is expressed in CD4 + T cells, and affects ROS production as well as NHE1 in those cells. To this end, DJ-1 and NHE1 transcript, and protein levels were quantified by qRT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively, intracellular pH (pH i ) utilizing bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5-(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF) fluorescence, NHE activity from realkalinization after an ammonium pulse, and ROS production utilizing 2',7' -dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFDA) fluorescence. As a result DJ-1 was expressed in CD4 + T cells. ROS formation, NHE1 transcript levels, NHE1 protein, and NHE activity were higher in CD4 + T cells from DJ-1 deficient mice than in CD4 + T cells from wild type mice. Antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) and protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) inhibitor staurosporine decreased the NHE activity in DJ-1 deficient CD4 + T cells, and blunted the difference between DJ-1 -/- and DJ-1 +/+ CD4 + T cells, an observation pointing to a role of ROS in the up-regulation of NHE1 in DJ-1 -/- CD4 + T cells. In conclusion, DJ-1 is a powerful regulator of ROS production as well as NHE1 expression and activity in CD4 + T cells. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 3050-3059, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Etude du rôle de l’expression du récepteur Neuropiline-1 et de l’exocytose Calcium-dépendante dans le neurone à GnRH sur le développement et la maturation du système à GnRH et la physiologie de la reproduction

    OpenAIRE

    Vanacker , Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Fertility in mammals is the result of a long development and maturation process of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. The reproductive function is orchestrated by a small population of neurons, located in preoptic area of hypothalamus in rodents, and releasing in a pulsatile manner Gonadotropin-releasing hormon (GnRH) in the portal blood vessels, where it is transported to the anterior pituitary gland. GnRH neuropeptide triggers synthesis and release of the gonadotropins LH and FSH, whi...

  16. Women with oligo-/amenorrhoea and polycystic ovaries have identical responses to GnRH stimulation regardless of their androgen status: comparison of the Rotterdam and Androgen Excess Society diagnostic criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Krzysztof C; Cajdler-Luba, Agata; Bieńkiewicz, Małgorzata; Lewiński, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    As increased frequency of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) pulses is characteristic for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), we assessed gonadotrophin response to GnRH in women with PCOS with normal and raised androgens and in regularly menstruating controls. The study involved 155 subjects: PCOS, n=121, age (mean±SD) 24.8±5.4 yrs, BMI 24.5±6.0 kg/m2, all with oligo-/amenorrhoea and PCO morphology, and 34 controls. Gonadotrophins were measured in early follicular phase after GnRH stimulation (0, 30 and 60 minutes). Fifty four (41.9%) women with PCOS had androgens (testosterone, androstendione, dihydroepiandrosterone sulphate) within the reference range, and would fulfil the "Rotterdam", but not the Androgen Excess Society PCOS criteria. Baseline and stimulated LH concentrations were higher in PCOS (9.09±5.56 vs 4.83±1.71 IU/l, 35.48±31.4 vs 16.30±6.68 IU/l, 33.86±31.8 vs 13.45±5.2 IU/l, at 0, 30 and 60 min post GnRH, respectively, pPCOS increased further after GnRH stimulation. ROC analysis revealed that LH30min/FSH30min >2.11 or LH60min/FSH60min >1.72 had 78.3% and 87.5% sensitivity and 81.7% and 81.3% specificity for diagnosis of PCOS. Both baseline and GnRH-stimulated LH and FSH concentrations were similar in women with PCOS and raised androgens and with androgens within the reference range (p=0.71 and p=0.20 for LH and FSH, respectively). Regardless of their androgen status, women with PCO morphology and oligo-/amenorrhoea have higher baseline and GnRH-stimulated LH concentrations and higher GnRH-stimulated LH/FSH ratio than controls, suggestive of similar underlying mechanism accounting for menstrual irregularities. These observations support validity of PCOS diagnostic criteria based on the Rotterdam consensus.

  17. Development of a Ga-68 labeled triptorelin analog for GnRH receptor imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoghi, Masoumeh; Niazi, Ali [Islamic Azad Univ., Arak (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Chemistry; Jalilian, Amir R.; Johari-daha, Fariba; Alirezapour, Behrouz [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI) (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Radiation Application Research School; Ramezanpour, Sorour [K.N. Toosi Univ. of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Peptide Chemistry Research Center

    2016-08-01

    Optimized total synthesis, radiolabeling and quality control of [{sup 68}Ga]-DOTA-Hyd-TRP as an efficient and possible PET radiotracer for GnRH receptor imaging in various tumors is of great interest. DOTA-Hyd-TRP was synthesized using solid phase peptide synthesis followed by conjugation to DOTA using pSCN-Bn-DOTA. [{sup 68}Ga]-DOTA-Hyd-TRP was prepared using generator-based [{sup 68}Ga]GaCl{sub 3} and DOTA-Hyd-TRP under optimized conditions for time, temperature, ligand amount, gallium content and column cartridge purification followed by proper formulation. The biodistribution of the tracer in rats was studied using tissue counting up to 120 min. [{sup 68}Ga]-DOTA-Hyd-TRP was prepared at optimized conditions in 5-7 min at 95 C followed by separation using C{sub 18} cartridge (radiochemical purity ∼99 ± 0.88% ITLC, > 99% HPLC, specific activity: 300 ± 15 MBq/nM). The biodistribution of the tracer demonstrated high kidney uptake of the tracer in 10-20 min as well as significant testicular uptake consistent with reported GnRH receptor mappings. Block test studies by triptorelin pretreatment of the animals prior to tracer administration demonstrated significant specific uptake in receptor rich organs including testes and stomach.

  18. Kv7.1 surface expression is regulated by epithelial cell polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Martin N; Olesen, Søren-Peter; Rasmussen, Hanne Borger

    2011-01-01

    The potassium channel K(V)7.1 is expressed in the heart where it contributes to the repolarization of the cardiac action potential. In addition, K(V)7.1 is expressed in epithelial tissues where it plays a role in salt and water transport. Mutations in the kcnq1 gene can lead to long QT syndrome...... and deafness, and several mutations have been described as trafficking mutations. To learn more about the basic mechanisms that regulate K(V)7.1 surface expression, we have investigated the trafficking of K(V)7.1 during the polarization process of the epithelial cell line Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) using...... is regulated by signaling mechanisms involved in epithelial cell polarization in particular signaling cascades involving protein kinase C and PI3K....

  19. EFFECT OF POST-MATING GNRH TREATMET ON SERUM PROGESTERONE, LUTEINIZING HORMONE LEVELS, DURATION OF ESTROUS CYCLE AND PREGNANCY RATES IN COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. YILDIZ, E. KAYGUSUZOĞLU, M. KAYA1 AND M. ÇENESIZ1

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy rate, estrous cycle lenght, serum progesterone and luteinizing hormone (LH concentrations were determined in gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH; 10.5 μg synthetic gonadotrophin releasing hormone agonist, receptal administered cows on day 12 post-mating (n=9 compared to control cows (n=8. Their oestrous cycles were synchronised by intramuscular administration of prostaglandin F2 alpha (its analog, cloprostenol twice at 11 days interval. Estrous exhibited cows were mated naturally. Blood samples were collected every two days from all animals. Serum progesterone and LH concentrations were measured by ELISA method. GnRH administration significantly increased serum LH concentration which reached peak levels 2-3 h after treatment. However, serum progesterone concentration was not affected. There were no differences in mean progesterone concentrations on days 12 to 24 post-mating between GnRH administrated and control pregnant cows. However, in non pregnant animals, progesterone concentrations on days 16 in the treated group were lower than control group (P<0.01. Pregnancy diagnosis in animals made by B-mode ultrasonography between the 30th and 35th day showed that 77.7% of treated cows were pregnant compared to 50% in control group. Duration of the estrous cycle in the non-pregnant animals was not affected by the treatment (control, 21.3 ± 0.8 days; treated, 22.5 ± 0.5 days. In conclusion, this study supports the use of GnRH on day 12 post-mating as a method for enhancing pregnancy rates in lactating dairy cattle.

  20. Developmental expression of the G protein-coupled receptor 54 and three GnRH mRNAs in the teleost fish cobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, J Shaik; Benninghoff, Abby D; Holt, G Joan; Khan, Izhar A

    2007-02-01

    The cDNAs of the G protein-coupled receptor 54 (GPR54) and three prepro-gonadotropin-releasing hormones, GnRH-I (seabream GnRH), GnRH-II (chicken GnRH-II), and GnRH-III (salmon GnRH) were isolated and cloned from the brain of the teleost fish cobia, Rachycentron canadum. The cobia GPR54 cDNA was 95 and 51-56% identical to those of tilapia and mammalian models respectively. The GnRH cDNA sequences of cobia showed strong identities to those of tilapia, Atlantic croaker, red drum, and the seabass and seabream species. The real-time quantitative RT-PCR methods allowed detection of all three GnRH mRNAs on the first day after hatching (DAH). The GnRH-I mRNA levels, which were the lowest among the three GnRHs, increased gradually with two distinct peaks in larvae at 3 and 4 DAH. On the other hand, GnRH-II and GnRH-III mRNAs were significantly higher in larvae at 2 and 6 DAH compared with those on the preceding days. In addition, significant peaks of all the three GnRH mRNAs were observed in the brains of 26-day-old fish. The finding of higher GnRH-I and GnRH-II mRNAs in males than females at 153 DAH may be related to early puberty observed during the first year in laboratory-reared male cobia. Moreover, this study demonstrates for the first time the expression of GPR54 mRNA during larval development in a vertebrate species. The concomitant expression patterns of GPR54 and GnRH mRNAs during different stages of larval and juvenile developments, and during early puberty in male cobia suggest a potential relationship between GPR54 and multiple GnRHs during these stages of development consistent with the role of GPR54 in controlling GnRH release in mammals. The increase in GPR54 and GnRH mRNAs observed during early puberty in cobia is consistent with a similar change reported in pubertal rats. This finding together with the localization of GPR54 mRNAs on GnRH neurons in fish and mammals suggests that the GPR54-GnRH interactions may be conserved in different vertebrate groups.

  1. Genetic variation in total number and locations of GnRH neurons identified using in situ hybridization in a wild-source population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaugars, Katherine E; Rivers, Charlotte I; Saha, Margaret S; Heideman, Paul D

    2016-02-01

    The evolution of brain function in the regulation of physiology may depend in part upon the numbers and locations of neurons. Wild populations of rodents contain natural genetic variation in the inhibition of reproduction by winter-like short photoperiod, and it has been hypothesized that this functional variation might be due in part to heritable variation in the numbers or location of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons. A naturally variable wild-source population of white-footed mice was used to develop lines artificially selected for or against mature gonads in short, winter-like photoperiods. We compared a selection line that is reproductively inhibited in short photoperiod (Responsive) to a line that is weakly inhibited by short photoperiod (Nonresponsive) for differences in counts of neurons identified using in situ hybridization for GnRH mRNA. There was no effect of photoperiod, but there were 60% more GnRH neurons in total in the Nonresponsive selection line than the Responsive selection line. The lines differed specifically in numbers of GnRH neurons in more anterior regions, whereas numbers of GnRH neurons in posterior areas were not statistically different between lines. We compare these results to those of an earlier study that used immunohistochemical labeling for GnRH neurons. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that the selection lines and natural source population contain significant genetic variation in the number and location of GnRH neurons. The variation in GnRH neurons may contribute to functional variation in fertility that occurs in short photoperiods in the laboratory and in the wild source population in winter. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Long-term effects of GnRH agonists on fertility and behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goericke-Pesch, Sandra Kathrin

    2017-01-01

    ; a significant positive effect in reducing sexual behaviour and libido, hypersexuality, intermale dominance and excessive territorial urine marking has been described. Rates of improvement of the respective behaviour are comparable to those after surgical castration, making GnRH A-SRI a valuable option...... and behaviour have by now been shown to be fully reversible. Knowledge in females is more limited, and particularly, the initial induction of a possibly fertile oestrus and individual variation in duration of efficacy remain problems in bitches and queens treated for suppression of fertility. However, long......-term suppression of oestrous cycle and fertility seems to be possible with induced effects shown to be reversible including restoration of normal fertility after the end of efficacy/GNRH A-SRI removal....

  3. [Ovulation induction by pulsatile GnRH therapy in 2014: literature review and synthesis of current practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronier, H; Peigné, M; Catteau-Jonard, S; Dewailly, D; Robin, G

    2014-10-01

    The hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is an easily treatable form of female infertility. The most common cause of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is functional hypothalamic amenorrhea. The GnRH pump is a simple and effective treatment to restore fertility of patients with hypothalamic amenorrhea: cumulative pregnancy rate is estimated between 70 and 100% after 6 cycles, compared to a low rate of complications and multiple pregnancies. While only 2.8 cycles are on average required to achieve a pregnancy with a pump, this induction of ovulation stays underused in France. The objective of this paper is to propose a practical manual of pulsatile GnRH, in order to improve the accessibility of pulsatile GnRH for patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Growth suppression of MCF-7 cancer cell-derived xenografts in nude mice by caveolin-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Ping; Wang Xiaohui; Li Fei; Qi Baoju; Zhu Hua; Liu Shuang; Cui Yeqing; Chen Jianwen

    2008-01-01

    Caveolin-1 is an essential structural constituent of caveolae membrane domains that has been implicated in mitogenic signaling and oncogenesis. However, the exact functional role of caveolin-1 still remains controversial. In this report, utilizing MCF-7 human breast adenocarcinoma cells stably transfected with caveolin-1 (MCF-7/cav-1 cells), we demonstrate that caveolin-1 expression dramatically inhibits invasion and migration of these cells. Importantly, in vivo experiments employing xenograft tumor models demonstrated that expression of caveolin-1 results in significant growth inhibition of breast tumors. Moreover, a dramatic delay in tumor progression was observed in MCF-7/cav-1 cells as compared with MCF-7 cells. Histological analysis of tumor sections demonstrated a marked decrease in the percentage of proliferating tumor cells (Ki-67 assay) along with an increase in apoptotic tumor cells (TUNEL assay) in MCF-7/cav-1-treated animals. Our current findings provide for the first time in vivo evidence that caveolin-1 can indeed function as a tumor suppressor in human breast adenocarcinoma derived from MCF-7 cells rather than as a tumor promoter

  5. Overview of Hole GT3A: The sheeted dike/gabbro transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, N.; Harris, M.; Michibayashi, K.; de Obeso, J. C.; Kelemen, P. B.; Takazawa, E.; Teagle, D. A. H.; Coggon, J. A.; Matter, J. M.; Phase I Science Party, T. O. D. P.

    2017-12-01

    Hole GT3A (23.11409 N, 58.21172 E) was drilled by the Oman Drilling Project (OmDP) into Wadi Abdah of the Samail ophiolite, Oman. OmDP is an international collaboration supported by the International Continental Scientifi1c Drilling Program, the Deep Carbon Observatory, NSF, IODP, JAMSTEC, and the European, Japanese, German and Swiss Science Foundations, with in-kind support in Oman from the Ministry of Regional Municipalities and Water Resources, Public Authority of Mining, Sultan Qaboos University, and the German University of Technology. Hole GT3A was diamond cored in February to March 2017 to a total depth of 400 m. The outer surfaces of the cores were imaged and described on site before being curated, boxed and shipped to the IODP drill ship Chikyu, where they underwent comprehensive visual and instrumental analysis. Hole GT3A recovered predominantly sheeted dikes and gabbros and has been sub-divided into 4 igneous groups based on the abundance of gabbro downhole. Group 1 (Upper Sheeted Dike Sequence) occurs from 0 to 111.02 m, group II (Upper Gabbro Sequence) is from 111.02 to 127.89 m, group III (Lower Sheeted Dike Sequence) is between 127.89 to 233.84 m and group IV (Lower Gabbro Sequence) is from 233.84 to 400 m. Group II and IV are both associated with almost equal proportions of dikes to gabbroic lithologies, whereas group I & III have >95% dikes. The sheeted dikes were logged as either basalt (46.9 %) or diabase (26.2 %) depending on the predominant grain size of the dike. Gabbroic lithologies include (most to least abundant) gabbro, oxide gabbro and olivine gabbro. Other lithologies present include diorite (7.5%) and tonalite and trondhjemite (1%). Tonalite and trondhjemite are present as cm-sized dikelets and are found within group II and IV. Gabbroic lithologies generally display a varitextured appearance and are characterised by the co-existence of poikilitic and granular domains. Detailed observations of chilled margins and igneous contacts reveal

  6. An essential GT motif in the lamin A promoter mediates activation by CREB-binding protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janaki Ramaiah, M.; Parnaik, Veena K.

    2006-01-01

    Lamin A is an important component of nuclear architecture in mammalian cells. Mutations in the human lamin A gene lead to highly degenerative disorders that affect specific tissues. In studies directed towards understanding the mode of regulation of the lamin A promoter, we have identified an essential GT motif at -55 position by reporter gene assays and mutational analysis. Binding of this sequence to Sp transcription factors has been observed in electrophoretic mobility shift assays and by chromatin immunoprecipitation studies. Further functional analysis by co-expression of recombinant proteins and ChIP assays has shown an important regulatory role for CREB-binding protein in promoter activation, which is mediated by the GT motif

  7. MTP -493G/T gene polymorphism is associated with steatosis in hepatitis C-infected patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueira, E.R.F. [Departamento de Gastroenterologia, LIM-07, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Departamento de Bioquímica, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Departamento de Gastroenterologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Oliveira, C.P.M.S. [Departamento de Gastroenterologia, LIM-07, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Correa-Giannella, M.L. [Laboratório de Endocrinologia Celular e Molecular, LIM-25, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Stefano, J.T. [Departamento de Gastroenterologia, LIM-07, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Cavaleiro, A.M.; Fortes, M.A.H.Z. [Laboratório de Endocrinologia Celular e Molecular, LIM-25, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Muniz, M.T.C.; Silva, F.S. [Departamento de Bioquímica, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Pereira, L.M.M.B. [Departamento de Gastroenterologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Instituto do Fígado de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Carrilho, F.J. [Departamento de Gastroenterologia, LIM-07, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-12-09

    The reduction of hepatic microsomal transfer protein (MTP) activity results in fatty liver, worsening hepatic steatosis and fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C (CHC). The G allele of the MTP gene promoter, -493G/T, has been associated with lower transcriptional activity than the T allele. We investigated this association with metabolic and histological variables in patients with CHC. A total of 174 untreated patients with CHC were genotyped for MTP -493G/T by direct sequencing using PCR. All patients were negative for markers of Wilson's disease, hemochromatosis and autoimmune diseases and had current and past daily alcohol intake lower than 100 g/week. The sample distribution was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Among subjects with genotype 1, 56.8% of the patients with fibrosis grade 3+4 presented at least one G allele versus 34.3% of the patients with fibrosis grade 1+2 (OR = 1.8; 95%CI = 1.3-2.3). Logistic regression analysis with steatosis as the dependent variable identified genotypes GG+GT as independent protective factors against steatosis (OR = 0.4, 95%CI = 0.2-0.8; P = 0.01). The results suggest that the presence of the G allele of MTP -493G/T associated with lower hepatic MTP expression protects against steatosis in our CHC patients.

  8. MTP -493G/T gene polymorphism is associated with steatosis in hepatitis C-infected patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siqueira, E.R.F.; Oliveira, C.P.M.S.; Correa-Giannella, M.L.; Stefano, J.T.; Cavaleiro, A.M.; Fortes, M.A.H.Z.; Muniz, M.T.C.; Silva, F.S.; Pereira, L.M.M.B.; Carrilho, F.J.

    2011-01-01

    The reduction of hepatic microsomal transfer protein (MTP) activity results in fatty liver, worsening hepatic steatosis and fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C (CHC). The G allele of the MTP gene promoter, -493G/T, has been associated with lower transcriptional activity than the T allele. We investigated this association with metabolic and histological variables in patients with CHC. A total of 174 untreated patients with CHC were genotyped for MTP -493G/T by direct sequencing using PCR. All patients were negative for markers of Wilson's disease, hemochromatosis and autoimmune diseases and had current and past daily alcohol intake lower than 100 g/week. The sample distribution was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Among subjects with genotype 1, 56.8% of the patients with fibrosis grade 3+4 presented at least one G allele versus 34.3% of the patients with fibrosis grade 1+2 (OR = 1.8; 95%CI = 1.3-2.3). Logistic regression analysis with steatosis as the dependent variable identified genotypes GG+GT as independent protective factors against steatosis (OR = 0.4, 95%CI = 0.2-0.8; P = 0.01). The results suggest that the presence of the G allele of MTP -493G/T associated with lower hepatic MTP expression protects against steatosis in our CHC patients

  9. Functional Expression of Programmed Death-Ligand 1 (B7-H1 by Immune Cells and Tumor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel M. Gibbons Johnson

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The programmed death-1 (PD-1 and its ligand PD-L1 (B7-H1 signaling pathway has been the focus of much enthusiasm in the fields of tumor immunology and oncology with recent FDA approval of the anti-PD-1 antibodies pembrolizumab and nivolumab and the anti-PD-L1 antibodies durvalumab, atezolimuab, and avelumab. These therapies, referred to here as PD-L1/PD-1 checkpoint blockade therapies, are designed to block the interaction between PD-L1, expressed by tumor cells, and PD-1, expressed by tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T cells, leading to enhanced antitumor CD8+ T cell responses and tumor regression. The influence of PD-L1 expressed by tumor cells on antitumor CD8+ T cell responses is well characterized, but the impact of PD-L1 expressed by immune cells has not been well defined for antitumor CD8+ T cell responses. Although PD-L1 expression by tumor cells has been used as a biomarker in selection of patients for PD-L1/PD-1 checkpoint blockade therapies, patients whose tumor cells lack PD-L1 expression often respond positively to PD-L1/PD-1 checkpoint blockade therapies. This suggests that PD-L1 expressed by non-malignant cells may also contribute to antitumor immunity. Here, we review the functions of PD-L1 expressed by immune cells in the context of CD8+ T cell priming, contraction, and differentiation into memory populations, as well as the role of PD-L1 expressed by tumor cells in regulating antitumor CD8+ T cell responses.

  10. Glossogyne Tenuifolia Enhances Posttranslational S-Nitrosylation of Proteins in Vascular Endothelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Ping Wang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Glossogyne tenuifolia (GT is a traditional Chinese herb that possesses strong antioxidant activity and protects against endothelial cell (EC injury by inhibition of free reactive oxygen species (ROS. The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanisms by which GT prevents endothelial injury using a proteomics approach. We used a sensitive method to analyze the S- nitrosoproteins utilizing a modified biotin-switch method in order to detect the possible effects of GT on protein posttranslational modification. After treatment of vascular ECs with GT, two proteins HspA9 (IS1, beta-actin (IS2 were observed to have increased posttranslational S-nitrosylation, whereas seven proteins, vimentin (DS2, DS3 and DS5, tropomyosin 3, 4 (DS6 and DS7 and oxidative phosphorylation protein such as ATP synthase, F1 complex (DS1 and 80K-H protein (DS4, were found to have decreased posttranslational S-nitrosylation. Due to S-nitrosylation of HspA9 causing the reduction of intracellular ROS and S-nitrosylation of ATP synthase interfering with ATP production and ROS formation, our study may indicate a novel mechanism in which GT protects EC injury by the inhibition of oxidative reaction.

  11. Split-time artificial insemination in beef cattle: I-Using estrous response to determine the optimal time(s) at which to administer GnRH in beef heifers and postpartum cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, B E; Thomas, J M; Abel, J M; Poock, S E; Ellersieck, M R; Smith, M F; Patterson, D J

    2016-09-01

    Two experiments evaluated timing of GnRH administration in beef heifers and cows on the basis of estrous status during split-time artificial insemination (AI) after controlled internal drug release (CIDR) based protocols. In experiment 1, estrus was synchronized for 816 pubertal and prepubertal or peripubertal heifers using the 14-day CIDR-PGF2α (PG) protocol, and in experiment 2, estrus was synchronized for 622 lactating cows using the 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR protocol. For both experiments, estrus detection aids (Estrotect) were applied at PG, with estrus recorded at 66 and 90 hours after PG. Treatments were balanced across locations for heifers using reproductive tract score and weight; whereas for cows, treatments were assigned and balanced to treatment according to age, body condition score, and days postpartum. Timing of AI for heifers and cows was on the basis of estrus expression 66 hours after PG. Females in each treatment that exhibited estrus before 66 hours were inseminated at 66 hours, whereas AI was delayed 24 hours until 90 hours after PG for females failing to exhibit estrus before 66 hours. Females in treatment one received GnRH 66 hours after PG irrespective of estrus expression; however, in treatment 2, GnRH was administered coincident with delayed AI only to females not detected in estrus at 66 hours after PG. Among heifers, there was no effect of treatment on overall estrous response (P = 0.49) or AI pregnancy rate (P = 0.54). Pregnancy rate for heifers inseminated at 66 hours was not influenced by GnRH (P = 0.65), and there were no differences between treatments in estrous response during the 24 hours delay period (P = 0.22). Cows in treatment 2 had a greater (P = 0.04) estrous response during the 24-hour delay period resulting in a greater overall estrous response (P = 0.04), but this did not affect AI pregnancy rate at 90 hours (P = 0.51) or total AI pregnancy rate (P = 0.89). Pregnancy rate resulting from AI for

  12. Effect of reproductive methods and GnRH administration on long-term protocol in Santa Ines ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biehl, Marcos V; Ferraz Junior, Marcos V C; Ferreira, Evandro M; Polizel, Daniel M; Miszura, Alexandre A; Barroso, José P R; Oliveira, Gabriela B; Bertoloni, Analisa V; Pires, Alexandre V

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to determine whether reproductive performance of ewes submitted to laparoscopic timed artificial insemination (TAI) would be similar to ante meridiem (AM)/post meridiem (PM) rule and assisted natural mating (NM), and whether GnRH may enhance the pregnancy rate in TAI. In experiment I, 191 non-lactating ewes were synchronized, then TAI was performed either 48 h after progesterone (P4) removal (TAI-48 h) or 12 h after estrus detection (AM/PM); moreover, some ewes were submitted to NM (NM) as control treatment. In experiment II, 247 non-lactating ewes were allocated in five treatments, a control (no-GnRH on protocol) and four treatments arranged in a factorial design 2 × 2. The factors were time and dose of GnRH: ewes that received either 10 μg (TAI-10 μg-36 h) or 25 μg of GnRH (TAI-25 μg-36 h) 36 h after P4 removal and ewes that received either 10 μg (TAI-10 μg-48 h) or 25 μg of GnRH (TAI-25 μg-48 h) at time of insemination, 48 h after P4 removal. In experiment I, pregnancy rate in TAI-48 h was lower (P = 0.03) than AM/PM and NM. Moreover, the probability of pregnancy in TAI-48 h was higher (P = 0.06) in ewes detected in estrus early. In experiment II, the use of GnRH in TAI protocols increased (P < 0.01) pregnancy rate at synchronization, and TAI-25 μ-48 h and TAI-10 μg-36 h treatments increased (P = 0.02) pregnancy rate compered to TAI-10 μg-48 h. We conclude that TAI decreased pregnancy rate compered to NM and AM/PM, which may be improved by GnRH use in TAI to synchronize ovulation.

  13. Regulatory Architecture of the LβT2 Gonadotrope Cell Underlying the Response to Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederique Ruf-Zamojski

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The LβT2 mouse pituitary cell line has many characteristics of a mature gonadotrope and is a widely used model system for studying the developmental processes and the response to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH. The global epigenetic landscape, which contributes to cell-specific gene regulatory mechanisms, and the single-cell transcriptome response variation of LβT2 cells have not been previously investigated. Here, we integrate the transcriptome and genome-wide chromatin accessibility state of LβT2 cells during GnRH stimulation. In addition, we examine cell-to-cell variability in the transcriptional response to GnRH using Gel bead-in-Emulsion Drop-seq technology. Analysis of a bulk RNA-seq data set obtained 45 min after exposure to either GnRH or vehicle identified 112 transcripts that were regulated >4-fold by GnRH (FDR < 0.05. The top regulated transcripts constitute, as determined by Bayesian massive public data integration analysis, a human pituitary-relevant coordinated gene program. Chromatin accessibility [assay for transposase-accessible chromatin with high-throughput sequencing (ATAC-seq] data sets generated from GnRH-treated LβT2 cells identified more than 58,000 open chromatin regions, some containing notches consistent with bound transcription factor footprints. The study of the most prominent open regions showed that 75% were in transcriptionally active promoters or introns, supporting their involvement in active transcription. Lhb, Cga, and Egr1 showed significantly open chromatin over their promoters. While Fshb was closed over its promoter, several discrete significantly open regions were found at −40 to −90 kb, which may represent novel upstream enhancers. Chromatin accessibility determined by ATAC-seq was associated with high levels of gene expression determined by RNA-seq. We obtained high-quality single-cell Gel bead-in-Emulsion Drop-seq transcriptome data, with an average of >4,000 expressed genes/cell

  14. TGF-β1-elevated TRPM7 channel regulates collagen expression in hepatic stellate cells via TGF-β1/Smad pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Ling; Huang, Cheng; Meng, Xiaoming; Wu, Baoming; Ma, Taotao; Liu, Xuejiao; Zhu, Qian; Zhan, Shuxiang; Li, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Transdifferentiation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) into myofibroblasts plays a critical role in the development of liver fibrosis, since myofibroblasts are the key cells responsible for excessive deposition of ECM proteins. Transient receptor potential melastatin 7 (TRPM7), a non-selective cation channel with protein serine/threonine kinase activity, has been demonstrated to function in the proliferation of activated HSCs. Here, we investigated the functional role of TRPM7 in collagen deposition in activated HSC-T6 cells (a rat hepatic stellate cell line). TRPM7 mRNA and protein were measured by Real-time PCR and Western blot in TGF-β1-activated HSC-T6 cells in vitro. Results demonstrated that TRPM7 protein was dramatically increased in fibrotic human livers. Stimulation of HSC-T6 cells with TGF-β1 increased TRPM7 mRNA and protein level in a time-dependent manner. Nevertheless, TGF-β1-elicited upregulation of TRPM7 in HSC-T6 cells was abrogated by SB431542 (TGF-β1 receptor blocker) or SIS3 (inhibitor of Smad3 phosphorylation). Additionally, blockade of TRPM7 channels with non-specific TRPM7 blocker 2-APB or synthetic siRNA targeting TRPM7 attenuated TGF-β1-induced expression of myofibroblast markers, as measured by the induction of α-SMA and Col1α1. Silencing TRPM7 also increased the ratio of MMPs/TIMPs by increasing MMP-13 expression and decreasing TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 levels. Strikingly, phosphorylation of p-Smad2 and p-Smad3, associated with collagen production, was decreased in TRPM7 deficient HSC-T6 cells. These observations suggested that TGF-β1 elevates TRPM7 expression in HSCs via Smad3-dependant mechanisms, which in turn contributes Smad protein phosphorylation, and subsequently increases fibrous collagen expression. Therefore, TRPM7 may constitute a useful target for the treatment of liver fibrosis. - Highlights: • Upregulation of TRPM7 protein in human fibrotic livers • Upregulation of TRPM7 by TGF-β1 elicited Smad signaling in HSC-T6 cells

  15. TGF-β1-elevated TRPM7 channel regulates collagen expression in hepatic stellate cells via TGF-β1/Smad pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Ling, E-mail: fangling_1984@126.com [School of Pharmacy, Anhui Medical University, Mei Shan Road, Hefei, Anhui Province 230032 (China); Institute for Liver Diseases of Anhui Medical University, Mei Shan Road, Hefei, Anhui Province 230032 (China); Key Laboratory of Anti-inflammatory and Immune Medicine, Anhui Medical University, Ministry of Education, Mei Shan Road, Hefei, Anhui Province 230032 (China); The First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Mei Shan Road, Hefei, Anhui Province 230032 (China); Huang, Cheng; Meng, Xiaoming; Wu, Baoming; Ma, Taotao; Liu, Xuejiao; Zhu, Qian [School of Pharmacy, Anhui Medical University, Mei Shan Road, Hefei, Anhui Province 230032 (China); Institute for Liver Diseases of Anhui Medical University, Mei Shan Road, Hefei, Anhui Province 230032 (China); Key Laboratory of Anti-inflammatory and Immune Medicine, Anhui Medical University, Ministry of Education, Mei Shan Road, Hefei, Anhui Province 230032 (China); Zhan, Shuxiang [School of Pharmacy, Anhui Medical University, Mei Shan Road, Hefei, Anhui Province 230032 (China); Institute for Liver Diseases of Anhui Medical University, Mei Shan Road, Hefei, Anhui Province 230032 (China); Key Laboratory of Anti-inflammatory and Immune Medicine, Anhui Medical University, Ministry of Education, Mei Shan Road, Hefei, Anhui Province 230032 (China); The First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Mei Shan Road, Hefei, Anhui Province 230032 (China); Li, Jun, E-mail: lj@ahmu.edu.cn [School of Pharmacy, Anhui Medical University, Mei Shan Road, Hefei, Anhui Province 230032 (China); Institute for Liver Diseases of Anhui Medical University, Mei Shan Road, Hefei, Anhui Province 230032 (China); Key Laboratory of Anti-inflammatory and Immune Medicine, Anhui Medical University, Ministry of Education, Mei Shan Road, Hefei, Anhui Province 230032 (China)

    2014-10-15

    Transdifferentiation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) into myofibroblasts plays a critical role in the development of liver fibrosis, since myofibroblasts are the key cells responsible for excessive deposition of ECM proteins. Transient receptor potential melastatin 7 (TRPM7), a non-selective cation channel with protein serine/threonine kinase activity, has been demonstrated to function in the proliferation of activated HSCs. Here, we investigated the functional role of TRPM7 in collagen deposition in activated HSC-T6 cells (a rat hepatic stellate cell line). TRPM7 mRNA and protein were measured by Real-time PCR and Western blot in TGF-β1-activated HSC-T6 cells in vitro. Results demonstrated that TRPM7 protein was dramatically increased in fibrotic human livers. Stimulation of HSC-T6 cells with TGF-β1 increased TRPM7 mRNA and protein level in a time-dependent manner. Nevertheless, TGF-β1-elicited upregulation of TRPM7 in HSC-T6 cells was abrogated by SB431542 (TGF-β1 receptor blocker) or SIS3 (inhibitor of Smad3 phosphorylation). Additionally, blockade of TRPM7 channels with non-specific TRPM7 blocker 2-APB or synthetic siRNA targeting TRPM7 attenuated TGF-β1-induced expression of myofibroblast markers, as measured by the induction of α-SMA and Col1α1. Silencing TRPM7 also increased the ratio of MMPs/TIMPs by increasing MMP-13 expression and decreasing TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 levels. Strikingly, phosphorylation of p-Smad2 and p-Smad3, associated with collagen production, was decreased in TRPM7 deficient HSC-T6 cells. These observations suggested that TGF-β1 elevates TRPM7 expression in HSCs via Smad3-dependant mechanisms, which in turn contributes Smad protein phosphorylation, and subsequently increases fibrous collagen expression. Therefore, TRPM7 may constitute a useful target for the treatment of liver fibrosis. - Highlights: • Upregulation of TRPM7 protein in human fibrotic livers • Upregulation of TRPM7 by TGF-β1 elicited Smad signaling in HSC-T6 cells

  16. Expression of a Dianthus flavonoid glucosyltransferase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for whole-cell biocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Sean R; Morgan, John A

    2009-07-15

    Glycosyltransferases are promising biocatalysts for the synthesis of small molecule glycosides. In this study, Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing a flavonoid glucosyltransferase (GT) from Dianthus caryophyllus (carnation) was investigated as a whole-cell biocatalyst. Two yeast expression systems were compared using the flavonoid naringenin as a model substrate. Under in vitro conditions, naringenin-7-O-glucoside was formed and a higher specific glucosyl transfer activity was found using a galactose inducible expression system compared to a constitutive expression system. However, S. cerevisiae expressing the GT constitutively was significantly more productive than the galactose inducible system under in vivo conditions. Interestingly, the glycosides were recovered directly from the culture broth and did not accumulate intracellularly. A previously uncharacterized naringenin glycoside formed using the D. caryophyllus GT was identified as naringenin-4'-O-glucoside. It was found that S. cerevisiae cells hydrolyze naringenin-7-O-glucoside during whole-cell biocatalysis, resulting in a low final glycoside titer. When phloretin was added as a substrate to the yeast strain expressing the GT constitutively, the natural product phlorizin was formed. This study demonstrates S. cerevisiae is a promising whole-cell biocatalyst host for the production of valuable glycosides.

  17. Prostate specific antigen in boys with precocious puberty before and during gonadal suppression by GnRH agonist treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Müller, J; Skakkebaek, N E

    1997-01-01

    antigen (PSA) is a marker of the androgen-dependent prostatic epithelial cell activity and it is used in the diagnosis and surveillance of adult patients with prostatic cancer. We have measured PSA concentrations in serum from boys with precocious puberty before and during gonadal suppression with Gn......RH agonists to evaluate the effect of normal and precocious puberty on PSA levels and to study the correlation between testosterone and PSA in boys....

  18. Presentation summary: Gas Turbine - Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    below 1600 C during the limiting accident condition of lost coolant circulation, pressure, and all AC power. Like other reactor types, the GT-MHR has a negative temperature coefficient. The GT-MHR licensing builds on the mid-80s submittal to NRC for the steam cycle MHTGR. Because of the unique design approach, especially with regards to safety, employed, the a licensing approach returns to the basics goals and rebuilds a licensing frame work that includes conventional deterministic analyses and safety classification. The GT-MHR is now being developed in Russia under a joint U.S./Russian Federation agreement aimed at the destruction of surplus weapons plutonium. In addition to the U.S. and Russia, the program is sponsored by Japan and France. Conceptual design is completed and preliminary design is on schedule for completion in early 2002. Startup of the first module is currently scheduled for 2009 with a 4 module plant scheduled for completion in 2015. The path to commercialization involves the importation of the Russia design with a U.S. designed LEU core replacing the Plutonium core. A licensing submittal would be prepared in the U.S. and submitted to NRC. The first U.S. module could be online approximately 1 year after the first Russian module

  19. Magic clusters and (2x1) local structure formed in a half-unit cell of the Si(1 1 1)-(7x7) surface by Tl adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocan, P.; Visikovskiy, A.V.; Ohira, Y.; Yoshimura, M.; Ueda, K.; Tochihara, H.

    2008-01-01

    Formation of a (2x1) local structure is found at submonolayer growth of Tl on the Si(1 1 1)-(7x7) surface by means of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). At low coverages, the (7x7) grid remains and the (2x1) structure is formed inside of the half-unit cells of the (7x7). The (2x1) coexists with other structures, such as of 'magic' clusters observed in the case of all other group III metals. Based on our STM observations we propose an atomic arrangement of the (2x1) structure

  20. GnRH antagonist versus long agonist protocols in IVF: a systematic review and meta-analysis accounting for patient type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambalk, C B; Banga, F R; Huirne, J A; Toftager, M; Pinborg, A; Homburg, R; van der Veen, F; van Wely, M

    2017-09-01

    Most reviews of IVF ovarian stimulation protocols have insufficiently accounted for various patient populations, such as ovulatory women, women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) or women with poor ovarian response, and have included studies in which the agonist or antagonist was not the only variable between the compared study arms. The aim of the current study was to compare GnRH antagonist protocols versus standard long agonist protocols in couples undergoing IVF or ICSI, while accounting for various patient populations and treatment schedules. The Cochrane Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Review Group specialized register of controlled trials and Pubmed and Embase databases were searched from inception until June 2016. Eligible trials were those that compared GnRH antagonist protocols and standard long GnRH agonist protocols in couples undergoing IVF or ICSI. The primary outcome was ongoing pregnancy rate. Secondary outcomes were: live birth rate, clinical pregnancy rate, number of oocytes retrieved and safety with regard to ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). Separate comparisons were performed for the general IVF population, women with PCOS and women with poor ovarian response. Pre-planned subgroup analyses were performed for various antagonist treatment schedules. We included 50 studies. Of these, 34 studies reported on general IVF patients, 10 studies reported on PCOS patients and 6 studies reported on poor responders. In general IVF patients, ongoing pregnancy rate was significantly lower in the antagonist group compared with the agonist group (RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.82-0.96). In women with PCOS and in women with poor ovarian response, there was no evidence of a difference in ongoing pregnancy between the antagonist and agonist groups (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.84-1.11 and RR 0.87, 95% CI 0.65-1.17, respectively). Subgroup analyses for various antagonist treatment schedules compared to the long protocol GnRH agonist showed a significantly lower ongoing

  1. Adult height after spontaneous pubertal growth or GnRH analog treatment in girls with early puberty: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelloni, Silvano; Massart, Francesco; Miccoli, Mario; Baroncelli, Giampiero I

    2017-06-01

    Early puberty (EP) has been defined as the onset of puberty in the low-normal range; it may be a cause for concern regarding a possible impairment of adult height (AH). This paper meta-analysed data on AH after spontaneous growth or after gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analog treatment in girls with EP. A computerized literature search was conducted from 1980 to June 30, 2016. Only published studies in English were considered. Eight papers were selected (483 cases). In untreated girls (n = 300), predicted adult height (PAH) at start of follow-up (-0.559 SDS (95%CI -1.110 to 0.001); P = 0.050) was close to mid-parental height (MPH) (-0.557 SDS (95%CI -0.736 to -0.419); P adult height. What is New: • Untreated and GnRH analog treated girls with early puberty reached similar adult height. • Adult height was consistent with mid-parental height in both untreated and GnRH analog treated girls with early puberty.

  2. The GnRH analogue triptorelin confers ovarian radio-protection to adult female rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camats, N.; Garcia, F.; Parrilla, J.J.; Calaf, J.; Martin-Mateo, M.; Caldes, M. Garcia

    2009-01-01

    There is a controversy regarding the effects of the analogues of the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in radiotherapy. This has led us to study the possible radio-protection of the ovarian function of a GnRH agonist analogue (GnRHa), triptorelin, in adult, female rats (Rattus norvegicus sp.). The effects of the X-irradiation on the oocytes of ovarian primordial follicles, with and without GnRHa treatment, were compared, directly in the female rats (F 0 ) with reproductive parameters, and in the somatic cells of the resulting foetuses (F 1 ) with cytogenetical parameters. In order to do this, the ovaries and uteri from 82 females were extracted for the reproductive analysis and 236 foetuses were obtained for cytogenetical analysis. The cytogenetical study was based on the data from 22,151 metaphases analysed. The cytogenetical parameters analysed to assess the existence of chromosomal instability were the number of aberrant metaphases (2234) and the number (2854) and type of structural chromosomal aberrations, including gaps and breaks. Concerning the reproductive analysis of the ovaries and the uteri, the parameters analysed were the number of corpora lutea, implantations, implantation losses and foetuses. Triptorelin confers radio-protection of the ovaries in front of chromosomal instability, which is different, with respect to the single and fractioned dose. The cytogenetical analysis shows a general decrease in most of the parameters of the triptorelin-treated groups, with respect to their controls, and some of these differences were considered to be statistically significant. The reproductive analysis indicates that there is also radio-protection by the agonist, although minor to the cytogenetical one. Only some of the analysed parameters show a statistically significant decrease in the triptorelin-treated groups.

  3. The GnRH analogue triptorelin confers ovarian radio-protection to adult female rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camats, N. [Institut de Biotecnologia i de Biomedicina (I.B.B.), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Departament de Biologia Cel.lular, Fisiologia i Immunologia, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Garcia, F. [Institut de Biotecnologia i de Biomedicina (I.B.B.), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Parrilla, J.J. [Servicio de Ginecologia y Obstetricia, Hospital Universitario Virgen de la Arrixaca, 30120 El Palmar, Murcia (Spain); Calaf, J. [Servei de Ginecologia i Obstetricia, Hospital Universitari de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, 08025 Barcelona (Spain); Martin-Mateo, M. [Departament de Pediatria, d' Obstetricia i Ginecologia i de Medicina Preventiva, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Caldes, M. Garcia, E-mail: Montserrat.Garcia.Caldes@uab.es [Institut de Biotecnologia i de Biomedicina (I.B.B.), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Departament de Biologia Cel.lular, Fisiologia i Immunologia, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain)

    2009-10-02

    There is a controversy regarding the effects of the analogues of the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in radiotherapy. This has led us to study the possible radio-protection of the ovarian function of a GnRH agonist analogue (GnRHa), triptorelin, in adult, female rats (Rattus norvegicus sp.). The effects of the X-irradiation on the oocytes of ovarian primordial follicles, with and without GnRHa treatment, were compared, directly in the female rats (F{sub 0}) with reproductive parameters, and in the somatic cells of the resulting foetuses (F{sub 1}) with cytogenetical parameters. In order to do this, the ovaries and uteri from 82 females were extracted for the reproductive analysis and 236 foetuses were obtained for cytogenetical analysis. The cytogenetical study was based on the data from 22,151 metaphases analysed. The cytogenetical parameters analysed to assess the existence of chromosomal instability were the number of aberrant metaphases (2234) and the number (2854) and type of structural chromosomal aberrations, including gaps and breaks. Concerning the reproductive analysis of the ovaries and the uteri, the parameters analysed were the number of corpora lutea, implantations, implantation losses and foetuses. Triptorelin confers radio-protection of the ovaries in front of chromosomal instability, which is different, with respect to the single and fractioned dose. The cytogenetical analysis shows a general decrease in most of the parameters of the triptorelin-treated groups, with respect to their controls, and some of these differences were considered to be statistically significant. The reproductive analysis indicates that there is also radio-protection by the agonist, although minor to the cytogenetical one. Only some of the analysed parameters show a statistically significant decrease in the triptorelin-treated groups.

  4. Nuclear thioredoxin-1 is required to suppress cisplatin-mediated apoptosis of MCF-7 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xiao-Ping; Liu, Shou; Tang, Wen-Xin; Chen, Zheng-Wang

    2007-01-01

    Different cell line with increased thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1) showed a decreased or increased sensitivity to cell killing by cisplatin. Recently, several studies found that the subcellular localization of Trx-1 is closely associated with its functions. In this study, we explored the association of the nuclear Trx-1 with the cisplatin-mediated apoptosis of breast cancer cells MCF-7. Firstly, we found that higher total Trx-1 accompanied by no change of nuclear Trx-1 can not influence apoptosis induced by cisplatin in MCF-7 cells transferred with Trx-1 cDNA. Secondly, higher nuclear Trx-1 accompanied by no change of total Trx-1 can protect cells from apoptosis induced by cisplatin. Thirdly, high nuclear Trx-1 involves in the cisplatin-resistance in cisplatin-resistive cells. Meanwhile, we found that the mRNA level of p53 is closely correlated with the level of nuclear Trx-1. In summary, we concluded that the nuclear Trx-1 is required to resist apoptosis of MCF-7 cells induced by cisplatin, probably through up-regulating the anti-apoptotic gene, p53

  5. Nonsupplemented luteal phase characteristics after the administration of recombinant human chorionic gonadotropin, recombinant luteinizing hormone, or gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist to induce final oocyte maturation in in vitro fertilization patients after ovarian stimulation with recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone and GnRH antagonist cotreatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.S. Macklon (Nick); M.J.C. Eijkemans (René); M. Ludwig (Michael); R.E. Felberbaum; K. Diedrich; S. Bustion; E. Loumaye; B.C.J.M. Fauser (Bart); N.G.M. Beckers (Nicole)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractReplacing GnRH agonist cotreatment for the prevention of a premature rise in LH during ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization (IVF) by the late follicular phase administration of GnRH antagonist may render supplementation of the luteal phase redundant, because

  6. Immune reconstitution after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in children: a single institution study of 59 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun O Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available &lt;b&gt;Purpose:&lt;/b&gt; Lymphocyte subset recovery is an important factor that determines the success of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT. Temporal differences in the recovery of lymphocyte subsets and the factors influencing this recovery are important variables that affect a patient's posttransplant immune reconstitution, and therefore require investigation. &lt;b&gt;Methods:&lt;/b&gt; The time taken to achieve lymphocyte subset recovery and the factors influencing this recovery were investigated in 59 children who had undergone HSCT at the Department of Pediatrics, The Catholic University of Korea Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, and who had an uneventful follow-up period of at least 1 year. Analyses were carried out at 3 and 12 months post-transplant. An additional study was performed 1 month post-transplant to evaluate natural killer (NK cell recovery. The impact of preand post-transplant variables, including diagnosis of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV DNAemia posttransplant,on lymphocyte recovery was evaluated. &lt;b&gt;Results:&lt;/b&gt; The lymphocyte subsets recovered in the following order: NK cells, cytotoxic T cells, B cells,and helper T cells. At 1 month post-transplant, acute graft-versus-host disease was found to contribute significantly to the delay of CD16+/56+ cell recovery. Younger patients showed delayed recovery of both CD3+/CD8+ and CD19+ cells. EBV DNAemia had a deleterious impact on the recovery of both CD3+ and CD3+/CD4+ lymphocytes at 1 year post-transplant. &lt;b&gt;Conclusion:&lt;/b&gt; In our pediatric allogeneic HSCT cohort, helper T cells were the last subset to recover. Younger age and EBV DNAemia had a negative impact on the post-transplant recovery of T cells and B cells.

  7. Evaluation of cell cycle changes activated by the administration of "1"7"7Lu-DOTA-antiCD20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos B, J. C.

    2016-01-01

    In the present project, cytometric evaluation of cell cycle changes induced by the "1"7"7Lu-DOTA-antiCD20 thermostatic radiopharmaceutical was performed, in which a cell culture of Raji cells from Burkitts lymphoma were used, which are CD20+; for flow cytometry different parameters were measured in which the cells were synchronized in G0/G1 and G2/M, to calculate the dose to nucleus that were given to the cells the Monte Carlo method was used at a dose interval from 1 to 5 Gy. The purpose of this work is to be able to observe by flow cytometry the arrest in the cell cycle with a lower dose interval than the one applied in other papers. (Author)

  8. Development of GT-MGR plant power conversion unit design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostin, V.I.; Kodochigov, N.G.; Belov, S.E.; Vasyaev, A.V.; Golovko, V.F.; Shenoj, A.

    2007-01-01

    The General Atomic Company (USA) and the Pilot Design Bureau for Machine-Building (Russia) are involved in the efforts to design the GT-MGR modular helium cooled reactor and the energy conversion unit with the direct gas turbine cycle. The reactor capacity is equal to 600 MW, it is cooled by helium under 7 MPa pressure. The energy conversion unit consists of a gas turbine, a recuperator, preliminary and intermediate coolers, a generator. The turbine shaft rotation frequency is equal to 4400 rotation/minute. One analyzed the alternate designs of the energy conversion unit to choose its configuration [ru

  9. LncRNA Taurine-Upregulated Gene 1 Promotes Cell Proliferation by Inhibiting MicroRNA-9 in MCF-7 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiao-Bo; Ren, Guo-Sheng

    2016-12-01

    This study was designed to investigate the role of taurine-upregulated gene 1 ( TUG1 ) in MCF-7 breast cancer cells and the molecular mechanism involved in the regulation of microRNA-9 (miR-9). The expression of TUG1 in breast cancer tissues and cells was evaluated using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Cell viability was examined using a 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay; cell cycle progression and apoptosis were analyzed using flow cytometry. A dual luciferase reporter assay was used to detect the relationship between TUG1 and miR-9. The expression of methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase 2 (MTHFD2) was measured by western blot. Higher expression of TUG1 was observed in breast cancer tissues and cell lines than in the corresponding controls. TUG1 knockdown reduced proliferation, suppressed cell cycle progression, and promoted apoptosis of MCF-7 cells. The dual luciferase reporter assay showed that TUG1 could negatively regulate the expression of miR-9. MiR-9 inhibition abrogated the effect of TUG1 knockdown on the proliferation, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis of MCF-7 cells. TUG1 positively regulated the expression of MTHFD2 in breast cancer cells. TUG1 knockdown was significantly associated with decreased cell proliferation and it promoted apoptosis of breast cancer cells through the regulation of miR-9.

  10. Sexual dimorphism of gonadotropin-releasing hormone type-III (GnRH3) neurons and hormonal sex reversal of male reproductive behavior in Mozambique tilapia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuramochi, Asami; Tsutiya, Atsuhiro; Kaneko, Toyoji; Ohtani-Kaneko, Ritsuko

    2011-10-01

    In tilapia, hormone treatment during the period of sexual differentiation can alter the phenotype of the gonads, indicating that endocrine factors can cause gonadal sex reversal. However, the endocrine mechanism underlying sex reversal of reproductive behaviors remains unsolved. In the present study, we detected sexual dimorphism of gonadotropin-releasing hormone type III (GnRH3) neurons in Mozambique tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus. Our immunohistochemical observations showed sex differences in the number of GnRH3 immunoreactive neurons in mature tilapia; males had a greater number of GnRH3 neurons in the terminal ganglion than females. Treatment with androgen (11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) or methyltestosterone), but not that with 17β-estradiol, increased the number of GnRH3 neurons in females to a level similar to that in males. Furthermore, male-specific nest-building behavior was induced in 70% of females treated with 11-KT within two weeks after the onset of the treatment. These results indicate androgen-dependent regulation of GnRH3 neurons and nest-building behavior, suggesting that GnRH3 is importantly involved in sex reversal of male-specific reproductive behavior.

  11. Stimulation of Alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Attenuates Nicotine-Induced Upregulation of MMP, MCP-1, and RANTES through Modulating ERK1/2/AP-1 Signaling Pathway in RAW264.7 and MOVAS Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vagus nerve stimulation through alpha7 nicotine acetylcholine receptors (α7-nAChR signaling had been demonstrated attenuation of inflammation. This study aimed to determine whether PNU-282987, a selective α7-nAChR agonist, affected activities of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP and inflammatory cytokines in nicotine-treatment RAW264.7 and MOVAS cells and to assess the underlying molecular mechanisms. RAW264.7 and MOVAS cells were treated with nicotine at different concentrations (0, 1, 10, and 100 ng/ml for 0–120 min. Nicotine markedly stimulated the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2 and c-Jun in RAW264.7 cells. Pretreatment with U0126 significantly suppressed phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and further attenuated nicotine-induced activation of c-Jun and upregulation of MMP-2, MMP-9, monocyte chemotactic protein- (MCP- 1, and regulated upon activation normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES. Similarly, nicotine treatment also increased phosphorylation of c-Jun and expressions of MMP-2, MMP-9, MCP-1, and RANTES in MOVAS cells. When cells were pretreated with PNU-282987, nicotine-induced activations of ERK1/2 and c-Jun in RAW264.7 cells and c-Jun in MOVAS cells were effectively inhibited. Furthermore, nicotine-induced secretions of MMP-2, MMP-9, MCP-1, and RANTES were remarkably downregulated. Treatment with α7-nAChR agonist inhibits nicotine-induced upregulation of MMP and inflammatory cytokines through modulating ERK1/2/AP-1 signaling in RAW264.7 cells and AP-1 in MOVAS cells, providing a new therapeutic for abdominal aortic aneurysm.

  12. Tethyan Anhydrite Preserved in the Lower Ocean Crust of the Samail Ophiolite? Evidence from Oman Drilling Project Holes GT1A and 2A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teagle, D. A. H.; Harris, M.; Crispini, L.; Deans, J. R.; Cooper, M. J.; Kelemen, P. B.; Alt, J.; Banerjee, N.; Shanks, W. C., III

    2017-12-01

    Anhydrite is important in mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems because of the high concentrations of calcium and sulfate in modern seawater and anhydrite's retrograde solubility. Because anhydrite hosts many powerful tracers of fluid-rock interactions (87Sr/86Sr, δ18O, δ34S, trace elements, fluid inclusions) it is useful for tracing the chemical evolution of hydrothermal recharge fluids and estimating time-integrated fluid fluxes. Anhydrite can form from heated seawater (>100°C), through water-rock reaction, or by mixing of seawater and hydrothermal fluids. Although abundant in active hydrothermal mounds, and predicted to form from downwelling, warming fluids during convection, anhydrite is rare in drill core from seafloor lavas, sheeted dikes and upper gabbros, with only minor amounts in ODP Holes 504B and 1256D. Because anhydrite can dissolve during weathering, its occurrence in ophiolites is unexpected. Instead, gypsum is present in Macquarie Island lavas and Miocene gypsum fills cavities within the Cretaceous Troodos ore deposits. Thus, the occurrence of numerous anhydrite veins in cores from the gabbroic lower crust of the Samail ophiolite in Oman was unanticipated. To our knowledge, anhydrite in Oman gabbros has not been previously reported. Oman Drilling Project Holes GT1A and GT2A were drilled into the Wadi Gideah section of the Wadi Tayin massif. Both recovered 400 m of continuous core from sections of layered gabbros (GT1) and the foliated-layered gabbro transition (GT2). Anhydrite is present throughout both holes, some in vein networks but more commonly as isolated 1-110 mm veins (>60 mm ave). Anhydrite is mostly the sole vein filling but can occur with greenschist minerals such as epidote, quartz, chlorite and prehnite. Anhydrite commonly exhibits prismatic and bladed textures but can also be capriciously microcrystalline. Though definitive cross cutting relationships are elusive, anhydrite veins cut across some greenschist veins. Anhydrite is

  13. [EFECTOS NEUROENDOCRINOS DE INSULINA, IGF-I Y LEPTINA SOBRE LA SECRECIÓN DE HORMONA LIBERADORA DE GONADOTROPINAS (GnRH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Rosales-Torres

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available El balance energético del individuo determina en gran medida su eficiencia reproductiva. Bajo condiciones de balance negativo de energía, en la mayoría de los mamíferos, hay una reducción en la síntesis de hormona liberadora de gonadotropinas (GnRH, lo cual disminuye la actividad del eje hipotálamo-hipófisis-gónadas. Cuando el balance energético es revertido, el hipotálamo puede monitorear este cambio y restablecer la secreción de GnRH. La Insulina, el Factor de Crecimiento similar a la Insulina I (IGF-I y Leptina parecen ser los principales mensajeros que informan al hipotálamo sobre el estado energético del animal puesto que las concentraciones periféricas de estas hormonas en situaciones energéticas negativas o positivas, se han asociado con los cambios en la secreción de GnRH. En la presente revisión se muestra como IGF-I actúa directamente sobre neuronas secretoras de GnRH, afectando su síntesis, en tanto que insulina y leptina actúan sobre neuronas en el núcleo arcuato, las cuales hacen sinapsis con neuronas GnRH en el área preóptica medial. Sobre neuronas productoras de neuropéptido Y (NPY insulina y leptina reducen su expresión y por lo tanto el efecto negativo del NPY sobre neuronas GnRH. En cambio insulina y leptina estimulan la síntesis de péptido similar a la galanina (GLAP y propiomelanocortina (POMC. Tanto GALP como los metabolitos de POMC (hormona estimulante de melanocitos principalmente incrementan la síntesis de GnRH. Finalmente, la leptina, incrementa la expresión de kispeptina en neuronas del núcleo ARC. Kispeptina por su parte también tiene un efecto positivo sobre la síntesis y secreción de GnRH.

  14. Ligation of TLR7 on CD19(+) CD1d(hi) B cells suppresses allergic lung inflammation via regulatory T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Adnan R; Amu, Sylvie; Saunders, Sean P; Hams, Emily; Blackshields, Gordon; Leonard, Martin O; Weaver, Casey T; Sparwasser, Tim; Sheils, Orla; Fallon, Padraic G

    2015-06-01

    cells have been described as having the capacity to regulate cellular immune responses and suppress inflammatory processes. One such regulatory B-cell population is defined as IL-10-producing CD19(+) CD1d(hi) cells. Previous work has identified an expansion of these cells in mice infected with the helminth, Schistosoma mansoni. Here, microarray analysis of CD19(+) CD1d(hi) B cells from mice infected with S. mansoni demonstrated significantly increased Tlr7 expression, while CD19(+) CD1d(hi) B cells from uninfected mice also demonstrated elevated Tlr7 expression. Using IL-10 reporter, Il10(-/-) and Tlr7(-/-) mice, we formally demonstrate that TLR7 ligation of CD19(+) CD1d(hi) B cells increases their capacity to produce IL-10. In a mouse model of allergic lung inflammation, the adoptive transfer of TLR7-elicited CD19(+) CD1d(hi) B cells reduced airway inflammation and associated airway hyperresponsiveness. Using DEREG mice to deplete FoxP3(+) T regulatory cells in allergen-sensitized mice, we show that that TLR7-elicited CD19(+) CD1d(hi) B cells suppress airway hyperresponsiveness via a T regulatory cell dependent mechanism. These studies identify that TLR7 stimulation leads to the expansion of IL-10-producing CD19(+) CD1d(hi) B cells, which can suppress allergic lung inflammation via T regulatory cells. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Effects of single dose GnRH agonist as luteal support on pregnancy outcome in frozen-thawed embryo transfer cycles: an RCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robab Davar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is no doubt that luteal phase support is essential to enhance the reproductive outcome in IVF cycles. In addition to progesterone and human chorionic gonadotropin, several studies have described GnRH agonists as luteal phase support to improve implantation rate, pregnancy rate and live birth rate, whereas other studies showed dissimilar conclusions. All of these studies have been done in fresh IVF cycles. Objective: To determine whether an additional GnRH agonist administered at the time of implantation for luteal phase support in frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET improves the embryo developmental potential. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective controlled trial study in 200 FET cycles, patients were randomized on the day of embryo transfer into group 1 (n=100 to whom a single dose of GnRH agonist (0.1 mg triptorelin was administered three days after transfer and group 2 (n=100, who did not receive agonist. Both groups received daily vaginal progesterone suppositories plus estradiol valerate 6 mg daily. Primary outcome measure was clinical pregnancy rate. Secondary outcome measures were implantation rate, chemical, ongoing pregnancy rate and abortion rate. Results: A total of 200 FET cycles were analyzed. Demographic data and embryo quality were comparable between two groups. No statistically significant difference in clinical and ongoing pregnancy rates was observed between the two groups (26% versus 21%, p=0.40 and 21% versus 17%, p=0.37, respectively. Conclusion: Administration of a subcutaneous GnRH agonist at the time of implantation does not increase clinical or ongoing pregnancy.

  16. AMP-activated protein kinase downregulates Kv7.1 cell surface expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Martin N; Krzystanek, Katarzyna; Jespersen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    in response to polarization of the epithelial Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell line and that this was mediated by activation of protein kinase C (PKC). In this study, the pathway downstream of PKC, which leads to internalization of Kv7.1 upon cell polarization, is elucidated. We show by confocal...... microscopy that Kv7.1 is endocytosed upon initiation of the polarization process and sent for degradation by the lysosomal pathway. The internalization could be mimicked by pharmacological activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) using three different AMPK activators. We demonstrate...

  17. Characteristic analysis of rotor dynamics and experiments of active magnetic bearing for HTR-10GT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Guojun; Xu Yang; Shi Zhengang; Gu Huidong

    2005-01-01

    A 10 MW high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTR-10) was constructed by the Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology (INET) at Tsinghua University of China. The helium turbine and generator system of 10 MW high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTR-10GT) is the second phase for the HTR-10 project. It is to set up a direct helium cycle to replace the current steam cycle. The active magnetic bearing (AMB) instead of ordinary mechanical bearing was chosen to support the rotor in the HTR-10GT. This rotor is vertically mounted to hold the turbine machine, compressors and the power generator together. The rotor's length is 7 m, its weight is about 1500 kg and the rotating speed is 15000 r/min. The structure of the rotor is so complicated that dynamic analysis of the rotor becomes difficult. One of the challenging problems is to exceed natural frequencies with enough stability and safety during reactor start up, power change and shutdown. The dynamic analysis of the rotor is the base for the design of control system. It is important for the rotor to exceed critical speeds. Some kinds of software and methods, such as MSC.Marc, Ansys, and the Transfer Matrix Method, are compared to fully analyze rotor dynamics characteristic in this paper. The modal analysis has been done for the HTR-10GT rotor. MSC.Marc was finally selected to analyze the vibration mode and the natural frequency of the rotor. The effects of AMB stiffness on the critical speeds of the rotor were studied. The design characteristics of the AMB control system for the HTR-10GT were studied and the related experiment to exceed natural frequencies was introduced. The experimental results demonstrate the system functions and validate the control scheme, which will be used in the HTR-10GT project. (authors)

  18. The chicken type III GnRH receptor homologue is predominantly expressed in the pituitary, and exhibits similar ligand selectivity to the type I receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Nerine T; Morgan, Kevin; Sellar, Robin; McBride, Derek; Millar, Robert P; Dunn, Ian C

    2009-01-01

    Two GnRH isoforms (cGnRH-I and GnRH-II) and two GnRH receptor subtypes (cGnRH-R-I and cGnRH-R-III) occur in chickens. Differential roles for these molecules in regulating gonadotrophin secretion or other functions are unclear. To investigate this we cloned cGnRH-R-III from a broiler chicken and compared its structure, expression and pharmacological properties with cGnRH-R-I. The broiler cGnRH-R-III cDNA was 100% identical to the sequence reported in the red jungle fowl and white leghorn breed. Pituitary cGnRH-R-III mRNA was ∼1400-fold more abundant than cGnRH-R-I mRNA. Northern analysis indicated a single cGnRH-R-III transcript. A pronounced sex and age difference existed, with higher pituitary transcript levels in sexually mature females versus juvenile females. In contrast, higher expression levels occurred in juvenile males versus sexually mature males. Functional studies in COS-7 cells indicated that cGnRH-R-III has a higher binding affinity for GnRH-II than cGnRH-I (Kd: 0·57 vs 19·8 nM) with more potent stimulation of inositol phosphate production (ED50: 0·8 vs 4·38 nM). Similar results were found for cGnRH-R-I, (Kd: 0·51 vs 10·8 nM) and (ED50: 0·7 vs 2·8 nM). The initial rate of internalisation was faster for cGnRH-R-III than cGnRH-R-I (26 vs 15·8%/min). Effects of GnRH antagonists were compared at the two receptors. Antagonist #27 distinguished between cGnRH-R-I and cGnRH-R-III (IC50: 2·3 vs 351 nM). These results suggest that cGnRH-R-III is probably the major mediator of pituitary gonadotroph function, that antagonist #27 may allow delineation of receptor subtype function in vitro and in vivo and that tissue-specific recruitment of cGnRH-R isoforms has occurred during evolution. PMID:19380456

  19. Return to fertility after extended chemical castration with a GnRH antagonist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostanski, Janusz W; Jiang, Ge; Dani, Bhas A; Murty, Santos B; Qiu, Wei; Schrier, Bruce; Thanoo, B C; DeLuca, Patrick P

    2001-01-01

    Antagonistic analogues of GnRH for the treatment of prostate cancer may be used clinically in persons for whom return to fertility after such treatment is important or desirable. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to evaluate the effects of a long term treatment with orntide, a GnRH antagonist, on testosterone levels and fertility in male rats. Two groups of male rats received either 120-day orntide microspheres (8.8 mg orntide/kg/120 days) or vehicle alone (control group). Serum orntide and testosterone levels in both groups were monitored at certain intervals for 9 months from the initiation of treatment. After recovery of normal serum testosterone levels in the treated animals, each rat was housed with two proven breeder, but drug-naive, females. All mates of treated rats achieved pregnancy as rapidly as the mates of control rats although two of the control rats did not sire a litter with either female and one sired only one litter. The mean size of the litters of treated (12.3 offspring per litter) and control (10.6 offspring per litter) were similar. All offspring were grossly normal morphologically and behaviorally during the time to weaning. These results suggest that lack of fertility due to testosterone suppression is reversible after cessation of treatment with this GnRH antagonist

  20. Return to fertility after extended chemical castration with a GnRH antagonist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schrier Bruce

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antagonistic analogues of GnRH for the treatment of prostate cancer may be used clinically in persons for whom return to fertility after such treatment is important or desirable. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to evaluate the effects of a long term treatment with orntide, a GnRH antagonist, on testosterone levels and fertility in male rats. Methods Two groups of male rats received either 120-day orntide microspheres (8.8 mg orntide/kg/120 days or vehicle alone (control group. Serum orntide and testosterone levels in both groups were monitored at certain intervals for 9 months from the initiation of treatment. After recovery of normal serum testosterone levels in the treated animals, each rat was housed with two proven breeder, but drug-naive, females. Results All mates of treated rats achieved pregnancy as rapidly as the mates of control rats although two of the control rats did not sire a litter with either female and one sired only one litter. The mean size of the litters of treated (12.3 offspring per litter and control (10.6 offspring per litter were similar. All offspring were grossly normal morphologically and behaviorally during the time to weaning. Conclusions These results suggest that lack of fertility due to testosterone suppression is reversible after cessation of treatment with this GnRH antagonist.

  1. A comparative therapeutic management of anoestrus in buffaloes using insulin and GnRH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. Purkayastha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Anoestrus is one of the most common functional disorders of the reproductive cycle in buffaloes. In spite of technical advancement, there is no single cure for the management of anoestrus. Therefore, the aim of this study was to find out the efficacy of gonadotropic releasing hormone (GnRH and metabolic hormone for the management of true anoestrus in buffaloes. Materials and Methods: The experimental animals were selected on the basis of history, gyneco-clinical examinations and progesterone estimation. Deworming was done with Fenbendazole and thereafter mineral mixture was given @ 50 g per animal per day for 10 days in all the selected buffaloes before the start of treatment. The selected buffaloes were randomly divided into four groups (n=25. In Group I, buffaloes were administered 20 μg of buserelin intramuscularly. Buffaloes of Group II were administered long-acting insulin @ 0.25 IU/Kg body weight subcutaneously for 5 consecutive days. In Group III, buffaloes were treated with a combination of insulin and buserelin in the above-mentioned doses whereas buffaloes of Group IV were kept as untreated control. Results: The higher oestrus induction (64% vs. 28% was found in Group III and differed significantly (p<0.05 as compared to control group. The conception rate (69.23% vs. 66.66% was also found higher in Group III but did not differ significantly among the treated groups. The mean time taken for the onset of oestrus was recorded significantly shorter in insulin (8.80±0.69 and GnRH (7.60±0.92 days alone and as compared to other (Group III, 14.43±0.83 and Group IV, 20.57±1.69 days groups. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated better fertility response using Insulin plus Buserelin in true anoestrus buffaloes under field conditions.

  2. Studies on the relationship between thyroid hormones, ovarian hormones, GnRH and reproductive performance of egyptian buffaloes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farghaly, H.A.M.

    1992-01-01

    this study was carried out in the experimental farm of animal production department, faculty of agriculture, cairo university. hormonal analysis were performed in the laboratories of animal physiology unit, radiobiology department, nuclear research center, atomic energy authority (radiobiol. Dept., NRC, AEA). The aim of the study was to investigate the following : 1- post-partum reproductive activity of egyptian buffaloes and the factors affecting the resumption of ovarian activity after calving , with particular reference to the patterns of thyroid hormones (T 4 and T 3 ) and progesterone hormone.2- the effectiveness of using GnRH treatment on inducing ovarian activity after calving. 3- the effect of goitrogen administration (thiouracil) on ovarian activity during post-partum and on the response of buffaloes to GnRH treatment and their reproductive patterns

  3. Endocrine profiles after triggering of final oocyte maturation with GnRH agonist after cotreatment with the GnRH antagonist ganirelix during ovarian hyperstimulation for in vitro fertilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.C.J.M. Fauser (Bart); D. de Jong (Danielle); F. Olivennes; H. Wramsby; C. Tay; J. Itskovitz-Eldor; H.G. van Hooren

    2002-01-01

    textabstractIn a randomized multicenter study, the efficacies of two different GnRH agonists were compared with that of hCG for triggering final stages of oocyte maturation after ovarian hyperstimulation for in vitro fertilization. Ovarian stimulation was conducted by recombinant

  4. Galectin-7 promotes proliferation and Th1/2 cells polarization toward Th1 in activated CD4+ T cells by inhibiting The TGFβ/Smad3 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhenlong; Ji, Yudong; Tian, Dean; Zhang, Yong; Chang, Sheng; Yang, Chao; Zhou, Hongmin; Chen, Zhonghua Klaus

    2018-06-08

    Galectin-7 (Gal-7) has been associated with cell proliferation and apoptosis. It is known that Gal-7 antagonises TGFβ-mediated effects in hepatocytes by interacting with Smad3. Previously, we have demonstrated that Gal-7 is related to CD4+ T cells responses; nevertheless, its effect and functional mechanism on CD4+ T cells responses remain unclear. The murine CD4+ T cells were respectively cultured with Gal-7, anti-CD3/CD28 mAbs, or with anti-CD3/CD28 mAbs & Gal-7. The effects of Gal-7 on proliferation and the phenotypic changes in CD4+ T cells were assessed by flow cytometry. The cytokines from CD4+ T cells were analysed by quantitative real-time PCR. Subcellular localisation and expression of Smad3 were determined by immunofluorescence staining and Western blot, respectively. Gal-7 enhanced the proliferation of activated CD4+ T cells in a dose- and β-galactoside-dependent manner. Additionally, Gal-7 treatment did not change the ratio of Th2 cells in activated CD4+ T cells, while it increased the ratio of Th1 cells. Gal-7 also induced activated CD4+ T cells to produce a higher level of IFN-γ and TNF-α and a lower level of IL-10. Moreover, Gal-7 treatment significantly accelerated nuclear export of Smad3 in activated CD4+ T cells. These results revealed a novel role of Gal-7 in promoting proliferation and Th1/2 cells polarization toward Th1 in activated CD4+ T cells by inhibiting the TGFβ/Smad3 pathway. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. INTEGRAL/JEM-X detection of fading emission from GT Mus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiocchi, M.; Chenevez, J.; Sguera, V.

    2015-01-01

    On November 15th 2015 the MAXI/GSC detected a big flare from the RS CVn star GT Mus with a flux of ~100 mCrab in the 2-20 keV energy band. (ATel #8285). During recent INTEGRAL observations of the Musca region performed between 17 Nov 16:08 and 18 Nov 00:05 (UTC) the source GT Mus was within the f...

  6. HTGR-GT closed-cycle gas turbine: a plant concept with inherent cogeneration (power plus heat production) capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, C.F.

    1980-04-01

    The high-grade sensible heat rejection characteristic of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor-gas turbine (HTGR-GT) plant is ideally suited to cogeneration. Cogeneration in this nuclear closed-cycle plant could include (1) bottoming Rankine cycle, (2) hot water or process steam production, (3) desalination, and (4) urban and industrial district heating. This paper discusses the HTGR-GT plant thermodynamic cycles, design features, and potential applications for the cogeneration operation modes. This paper concludes that the HTGR-GT plant, which can potentially approach a 50% overall efficiency in a combined cycle mode, can significantly aid national energy goals, particularly resource conservation

  7. SIPA1 promotes invasion and migration in human oral squamous cell carcinoma by ITGB1 and MMP7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahara, Toshikazu; Kasamatsu, Atsushi; Yamatoji, Masanobu; Iyoda, Manabu; Kasama, Hiroki; Saito, Tomoaki; Takeuchi, Shin; Endo-Sakamoto, Yosuke; Shiiba, Masashi; Tanzawa, Hideki; Uzawa, Katsuhiro

    2017-01-01

    Signal-induced proliferation-associated protein 1 (SIPA1) is known to be a GTPase activating protein. Overexpressed SIPA1 is related to metastatic progression in breast and prostate cancers; however, the relevance of SIPA1 in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is still unknown. The aim of this study was to examine SIPA1 expression and its functional mechanisms in OSCC. SIPA1 mRNA and protein expressions were analyzed by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, Western blot analysis, and immunohistochemistry. The expressions of SIPA1 were up-regulated significantly in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, SIPA1 expression was correlated with regional lymph node metastasis. We next assessed the cellular functions associated with tumoral metastasis using SIPA1 knockdown (shSIPA1) cells and analyzed the downstream molecules of SIPA1, i.e., bromodomain containing protein 4(BRD4), integrin beta1 (ITGB1), and matrix metalloproteinase 7 (MMP7). The shSIPA1 cells showed decreased invasiveness and migratory activities, however cellular adhesion ability was maintained at a high level. In addition, ITGB1 expression was greater in shSIPA1 cells, whereas MMP7 expression was lower than in control cells. This research is the first to establish that SIPA1 promotes cancer metastasis by regulating the ITGB1 and MMP7. Therefore, SIPA1 might be a novel therapeutic target for patients with lymph node metastasis of OSCC. - Highlights: • SIPA1 expression was up-regulated in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). • SIPA1-positive OSCCs were correlated with regional lymph node metastasis. • SIPA1 controlled BRD4 and influenced transcription of ITGB1and MMP7. • SIPA1 induced cellular invasion and migration and decreased cellular adhesion. • SIPA1 might be a potential biomarker of cancer metastasis for OSCC.

  8. SIPA1 promotes invasion and migration in human oral squamous cell carcinoma by ITGB1 and MMP7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahara, Toshikazu [Department of Oral Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba (Japan); Kasamatsu, Atsushi, E-mail: kasamatsua@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Department of Dentistry and Oral-Maxillofacial Surgery, Chiba University Hospital, Chiba (Japan); Yamatoji, Masanobu [Department of Dentistry and Oral-Maxillofacial Surgery, Chiba University Hospital, Chiba (Japan); Iyoda, Manabu; Kasama, Hiroki; Saito, Tomoaki [Division of Oral Surgery, Chiba Rosai Hospital, Chiba (Japan); Takeuchi, Shin [Department of Oral Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba (Japan); Endo-Sakamoto, Yosuke [Department of Dentistry and Oral-Maxillofacial Surgery, Chiba University Hospital, Chiba (Japan); Shiiba, Masashi [Department of Medical Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba (Japan); Tanzawa, Hideki [Department of Oral Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba (Japan); Department of Dentistry and Oral-Maxillofacial Surgery, Chiba University Hospital, Chiba (Japan); Uzawa, Katsuhiro, E-mail: uzawak@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Department of Oral Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba (Japan); Department of Dentistry and Oral-Maxillofacial Surgery, Chiba University Hospital, Chiba (Japan)

    2017-03-15

    Signal-induced proliferation-associated protein 1 (SIPA1) is known to be a GTPase activating protein. Overexpressed SIPA1 is related to metastatic progression in breast and prostate cancers; however, the relevance of SIPA1 in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is still unknown. The aim of this study was to examine SIPA1 expression and its functional mechanisms in OSCC. SIPA1 mRNA and protein expressions were analyzed by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, Western blot analysis, and immunohistochemistry. The expressions of SIPA1 were up-regulated significantly in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, SIPA1 expression was correlated with regional lymph node metastasis. We next assessed the cellular functions associated with tumoral metastasis using SIPA1 knockdown (shSIPA1) cells and analyzed the downstream molecules of SIPA1, i.e., bromodomain containing protein 4(BRD4), integrin beta1 (ITGB1), and matrix metalloproteinase 7 (MMP7). The shSIPA1 cells showed decreased invasiveness and migratory activities, however cellular adhesion ability was maintained at a high level. In addition, ITGB1 expression was greater in shSIPA1 cells, whereas MMP7 expression was lower than in control cells. This research is the first to establish that SIPA1 promotes cancer metastasis by regulating the ITGB1 and MMP7. Therefore, SIPA1 might be a novel therapeutic target for patients with lymph node metastasis of OSCC. - Highlights: • SIPA1 expression was up-regulated in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). • SIPA1-positive OSCCs were correlated with regional lymph node metastasis. • SIPA1 controlled BRD4 and influenced transcription of ITGB1and MMP7. • SIPA1 induced cellular invasion and migration and decreased cellular adhesion. • SIPA1 might be a potential biomarker of cancer metastasis for OSCC.

  9. Ovulation induction with pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) or gonadotropins in a case of hypothalamic amenorrhea and diabetes insipidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgopoulos, N A; Markou, K B; Pappas, A P; Protonatariou, A; Vagenakis, G A; Sykiotis, G P; Dimopoulos, P A; Tzingounis, V A

    2001-12-01

    Hypothalamic amenorrhea is a treatable cause of infertility. Our patient was presented with secondary amenorrhea and diabetes insipidus. Cortisol and prolactin responded normally to a combined insulin tolerance test (ITT) and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) challenge, while thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) response to TRH was diminished, and no response of growth hormone to ITT was detected. Both luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels increased following gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) challenge. No response of LH to clomiphene citrate challenge was detected. Magnetic resonance imaging findings demonstrated a midline mass occupying the inferior hypothalamus, with posterior lobe not visible and thickened pituitary stalk. Ovulation induction was carried out first with combined human menopausal gonadotropins (hMG/LH/FSH) (150 IU/day) and afterwards with pulsatile GnRH (150 ng/kg/pulse). Ovulation was achieved with both pulsatile GnRH and combine gonadotropin therapy. Slightly better results were achieved with the pulsatile GnRH treatment.

  10. Histone demethylase JMJD1A promotes alternative splicing of AR variant 7 (AR-V7) in prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Lingling; Zhang, Fengbo; Xu, Songhui; Cui, Xiaolu; Hussain, Arif; Fazli, Ladan; Gleave, Martin; Dong, Xuesen; Qi, Jianfei

    2018-05-15

    Formation of the androgen receptor splicing variant 7 (AR-V7) is one of the major mechanisms by which resistance of prostate cancer to androgen deprivation therapy occurs. The histone demethylase JMJD1A (Jumonji domain containing 1A) functions as a key coactivator for AR by epigenetic regulation of H3K9 methylation marks. Here, we describe a role for JMJD1A in AR-V7 expression. While JMJD1A knockdown had no effect on full-length AR (AR-FL), it reduced AR-V7 levels in prostate cancer cells. Reexpression of AR-V7 in the JMJD1A-knockdown cells elevated expression of select AR targets and partially rescued prostate cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo. The AR-V7 protein level correlated positively with JMJD1A in a subset of human prostate cancer specimens. Mechanistically, we found that JMJD1A promoted alternative splicing of AR-V7 through heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein F (HNRNPF), a splicing factor known to regulate exon inclusion. Knockdown of JMJD1A or HNRNPF inhibited splicing of AR-V7, but not AR-FL, in a minigene reporter assay. JMJD1A was found to interact with and promote the recruitment of HNRNPF to a cryptic exon 3b on AR pre-mRNA for the generation of AR-V7. Taken together, the role of JMJD1A in AR-FL coactivation and AR-V7 alternative splicing highlights JMJD1A as a potentially promising target for prostate cancer therapy.

  11. Exogenous and Endogeneous Disialosyl Ganglioside GD1b Induces Apoptosis of MCF-7 Human Breast Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Hyung Ha

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Gangliosides have been known to play a role in the regulation of apoptosis in cancer cells. This study has employed disialyl-ganglioside GD1b to apoptosis in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells using exogenous treatment of the cells with GD1b and endogenous expression of GD1b in MCF-7 cells. First, apoptosis in MCF-7 cells was observed after treatment of GD1b. Treatment of MCF-7 cells with GD1b reduced cell growth rates in a dose and time dependent manner during GD1b treatment, as determined by XTT assay. Among the various gangliosides, GD1b specifically induced apoptosis of the MCF-7 cells. Flow cytometry and immunofluorescence assays showed that GD1b specifically induces apoptosis in the MCF-7 cells with Annexin V binding for apoptotic actions in early stage and propidium iodide (PI staining the nucleus of the MCF-7 cells. Treatment of MCF-7 cells with GD1b activated apoptotic molecules such as processed forms of caspase-8, -7 and PARP (Poly(ADP-ribose polymerase, without any change in the expression of mitochondria-mediated apoptosis molecules such as Bax and Bcl-2. Second, to investigate the effect of endogenously produced GD1b on the regulation of cell function, UDP-gal: β1,3-galactosyltransferase-2 (GD1b synthase, Gal-T2 gene has been transfected into the MCF-7 cells. Using the GD1b synthase-transfectants, apoptosis-related signal proteins linked to phenotype changes were examined. Similar to the exogenous GD1b treatment, the cell growth of the GD1b synthase gene-transfectants was significantly suppressed compared with the vector-transfectant cell lines and transfection activated the apoptotic molecules such as processed forms of caspase-8, -7 and PARP, but not the levels of expression of Bax and Bcl-2. GD1b-induced apoptosis was blocked by caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD. Therefore, taken together, it was concluded that GD1b could play an important role in the regulation of breast cancer apoptosis.

  12. CXCR7 is induced by hypoxia and mediates glioma cell migration towards SDF-1α

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esencay, Mine; Sarfraz, Yasmeen; Zagzag, David

    2013-01-01

    Glioblastomas, the most common and malignant brain tumors of the central nervous system, exhibit high invasive capacity, which hinders effective therapy. Therefore, intense efforts aimed at improved therapeutics are ongoing to delineate the molecular mechanisms governing glioma cell migration and invasion. In order to perform the studies, we employed optimal cell culture methods and hypoxic conditions, lentivirus-mediated knockdown of protein expression, Western Blot analysis, migration assays and immunoprecipitation. We determined statistical significance by unpaired t-test. In this report, we show that U87MG, LN229 and LN308 glioma cells express CXCR7 and that exposure to hypoxia upregulates CXCR7 protein expression in these cell lines. CXCR7-expressing U87MG, LN229 and LN308 glioma cells migrated towards stromal-derived factor (SDF)-1α/CXCL12 in hypoxic conditions in the Boyden chamber assays. While shRNA-mediated knockdown of CXCR7 expression did not affect the migration of any of the three cell lines in normoxic conditions, we observed a reduction in the migration of LN229 and LN308, but not U87MG, glioma cells towards SDF-1α in hypoxic conditions. In addition, knockdown of CXCR7 expression in LN229 and LN308 glioma cells decreased levels of SDF-1α-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and Akt. Inhibiting CXCR4 in LN229 and LN308 glioma cells that were knocked down for CXCR7 did not further reduce migration towards SDF-1α in hypoxic conditions and did not affect the levels of phosphorylated ERK1/2 and Akt. Analysis of immunoprecipitated CXCR4 from LN229 and LN308 glioma cells revealed co-precipitated CXCR7. Taken together, our findings indicate that both CXCR4 and CXCR7 mediate glioma cell migration towards SDF-1α in hypoxic conditions and support the development of therapeutic agents targeting these receptors

  13. Comparative analysis of B7-1 and B7-2 expression in Langerhans cells: differential regulation by T helper type 1 and T helper type 2 cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, T; Furue, M

    1995-07-01

    Epidermal Langerhans cells (LC) are Ia-bearing potent antigen-presenting cells (APC) of dendritic cell lineage that play a crucial role in primary and secondary T cell-dependent immune responses. LC express several costimulatory molecules such as B7, which has been implicated as one of the important determinants of professional APC. Recently, B7 antigens have been shown to include three distinct molecules termed B7-1, B7-2, and B7-3, and the expression of B7-1 and B7-2 in LC has been already confirmed. However, little is known of the regulation of B7-1 and B7-2 expression in LC. We demonstrated that LC do not express B7-1 and B7-2 in situ; however, the expression of both molecules is rapidly induced during the first 3 days of culture, and high levels of expression are maintained at least until day 6. We show that the expression of B7-2 in LC is much higher than that of B7-1 in each experiment, and that B7-1 and B7-2 expression is reproducibly augmented by interleukin (IL)-4 in a dose-dependent manner; however, IL-2 affected expression very little. Finally, B7-1 expression is significantly and dose-dependently down-regulated by interferon (IFN)-gamma or IL-10, and B7-2 expression is consistently inhibited by IL-10, but not by IFN-gamma. The effects of these cytokines are active only in the induction phase (during first 3 days of culture) of B7 expression: the modulatory effects of cytokines are hardly detected in the plateau phase (days 4 to 6 of culture) of B7 expression in LC. These findings suggest that B7-1 and B7-2 expression are indeed selectively and differentially regulated by these T cell-derived cytokines, and that the cytokines may modulate the synthesis of B7 molecules rather than the degradation of already-expressed B7 molecules.

  14. Incidence of premature estrus in lactating dairy cows and conception rates to standing estrus or fixed-time inseminations after synchronization using GnRH and PGF(2alpha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJarnette, J M; Salverson, R R; Marshall, C E

    2001-07-03

    Fixed-time AI (TAI) after GnRH-PGF(2alpha)-GnRH treatment is a method to achieve pregnancies in dairy herds without estrous detection. However, cows that fail to respond to the initial GnRH may have compromised TAI conception rates due to asynchronous ovarian response. This study documented the percentage of GnRH-treated Holstein cows (n=345) in two herds that displayed estrus at an inopportune time for optimum TAI conception rate (conception rates of two TAI protocols in cows that did not display PE. At biweekly herd health exams, cows diagnosed as not pregnant to a previous AI and cows >80 days postpartum with no AI were treated with 100 microg GnRH (day -7) and 25mg PGF(2alpha) (day 0). Cows detected in PE by twice-daily visual observation from day -7 to day 2 were bred by AI 8-12h later. Cows not detected in PE were randomly assigned by parity, body condition score, and postpartum interval to receive either: (1) 100microg GnRH at 48h after PGF(2alpha) and TAI 16 to 18h later (Ovsynch); or (2) TAI at 72h post-PGF(2alpha) and a concurrent 100 microg GnRH injection to those cows not detected in estrus between 48 and 72h post-PGF(2alpha) (modified Ovsynch (MOV)). All hormone injections were im. Twenty percent (68/345) of the cows were detected in estrus before 48 after PGF(2alpha), of which 5% (17/345) were detected in estrus before PGF(2alpha) (Conception rates were not affected by treatment (PE versus Ovsynch versus MOV; 32% (21/65) versus 30% (37/125) versus 32% (47/145); P>0.10). However, within MOV-treated cows, conception rates were greater (Prates are to be achieved. Although additional estrous detection is required compared to Ovsynch, reduced cow handling and hormone usage, efficient use of expensive semen through greater conception rates in cows detected in estrus, and comparable TAI conception rates, suggests the MOV protocol may be a cost effective alternative to Ovsynch in many dairy herd reproductive management programs.

  15. Anti-inflammatory effect of transduced PEP-1-heme oxygenase-1 in Raw 264.7 cells and a mouse edema model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Soon Won; Sohn, Eun Jeong; Kim, Dae Won; Jeong, Hoon Jae; Kim, Mi Jin; Ahn, Eun Hee; Kim, Young Nam; Dutta, Suman; Kim, Duk-Soo; Park, Jinseu; Eum, Won Sik; Hwang, Hyun Sook; Choi, Soo Young

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Recombinant PEP-1 heme oxygenase-1 expression vector was constructed and overexpressed. → We investigated transduction efficiency of PEP-1-HO-1 protein in Raw 264.7 cells. → PEP-1-HO-1 was efficiently transduced into Raw 264.7 cells in a dose and time dependent manner. → PEP-1-HO-1 exerted anti-inflammatory activity in Raw 264.7 cells and in a mice edema model. → PEP-1-HO-1 could be used as a therapeutic drug against inflammatory diseases. -- Abstract: Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), which catalyzes the degradation of free heme to biliverdin, carbon monoxide (CO), and free iron (Fe 2+ ), is up-regulated by several cellular stress and cell injuries, including inflammation, ischemia and hypoxia. In this study, we examined whether fusion of HO-1 with PEP-1, a protein transduction domain that is able to deliver exogenous molecules to living cells or tissues, would facilitate HO-1 delivery to target cells and tissues, and thereby effectively exert a therapeutically useful response against inflammation. Western blot analysis demonstrated that PEP-1-HO-1 fusion proteins were transduced into Raw 264.7 cells in time- and dose-dependent manners, and were stably maintained in the cells for about 60 h. In addition, fluorescence analysis revealed that only PEP-1-HO-1 fusion proteins were significantly transduced into the cytoplasm of cells, while HO-1 proteins failed to be transduced. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated Raw 264.7 cells and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced mouse edema model, transduced PEP-1-HO-1 fusion proteins effectively inhibited the overexpression of pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines. Also, histological analysis demonstrated that PEP-1-HO-1 remarkably suppressed ear edema. The results suggest that the PEP-1-HO-1 fusion protein can be used as a therapeutic molecule against reactive oxygen species-related inflammatory diseases.

  16. 1-Nitropyrene (1-NP) induces apoptosis and apparently a non-apoptotic programmed cell death (paraptosis) in Hepa1c1c7 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asare, Nana; Landvik, Nina E.; Lagadic-Gossmann, Dominique; Rissel, Mary; Tekpli, Xavier; Ask, Kjetil; Lag, Marit; Holme, Jorn A.

    2008-01-01

    Mechanistic studies of nitro-PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) of interest might help elucidate which chemical characteristics are most important in eliciting toxic effects. 1-Nitropyrene (1-NP) is the predominant nitrated PAH emitted in diesel exhaust. 1-NP-exposed Hepa1c1c7 cells exhibited marked changes in cellular morphology, decreased proliferation and different forms of cell death. A dramatic increase in cytoplasmic vacuolization was observed already after 6 h of exposure and the cells started to round up at 12 h. The rate of cell proliferation was markedly reduced at 24 h and apoptotic as well as propidium iodide (PI)-positive cells appeared. Electron microscopic examination revealed that the vacuolization was partly due to mitochondria swelling. The caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK inhibited only the apoptotic cell death and Nec-1 (an inhibitor of necroptosis) exhibited no inhibitory effects on either cell death or vacuolization. In contrast, cycloheximide markedly reduced both the number of apoptotic and PI-positive cells as well as the cytoplasmic vacuolization, suggesting that 1-NP induced paraptotic cell death. All the MAPKs; ERK1/2, p38 and JNK, appear to be involved in the death process since marked activation was observed upon 1-NP exposure, and their inhibitors partly reduced the induced cell death. The ERK1/2 inhibitor PD 98057 completely blocked the induced vacuolization, whereas the other MAPKs inhibitors only had minor effects on this process. These findings suggest that 1-NP may cause apoptosis and paraptosis. In contrast, the corresponding amine (1-aminopyrene) elicited only minor apoptotic and necrotic cell death, and cells with characteristics typical of paraptosis were absent

  17. Prenatal testosterone treatment alters LH and testosterone responsiveness to GnRH agonist in male sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SERGIO E RECABARREN

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Although evidence is accumulating that prenatal testosterone (T compromises reproductive function in the female, the effects of excess T in utero on the postnatal development of male reproductive function has not been studied. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of prenatal T excess on age-related changes in pituitary and gonadal responsiveness to GnRH in the male sheep. We used the GnRH agonist, leuprolide (10 µg/kg, as a pharmacologic challenge at 5, 10, 20 and 30 weeks of age. These time points correspond to early and late juvenile periods and the prepubertal and postpubertal periods of sexual development, respectively. LH and T were measured in blood samples collected before and after GnRH agonist administration. The area under the response curve (AUC of LH increased progressively in both controls and prenatal T-treated males from 5 to 20 weeks of age (P<0.01. The LH responses in prenatal T-treated males were lower at 20 and 30 weeks of age compared to controls (P<0.05. AUC-T increased progressively in control males from 5 through 30 weeks of age and prenatal T-treated males from 5 to 20 weeks of age. The T response in prenatal T-treated males was higher at 20 weeks compared to controls of same age but similar to controls and prenatal T-treated males at 30 weeks of age (P <0.05. Our findings suggest that prenatal T treatment advances the developmental trajectory of gonadal responsiveness to GnRH in male offspring

  18. Endocannabinoids and Endovanilloids: A Possible Balance in the Regulation of the Testicular GnRH Signalling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna Chianese

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive functions are regulated both at central (brain and gonadal levels. In this respect, the endocannabinoid system (eCS has a very influential role. Interestingly, the characterization of eCS has taken many advantages from the usage of animal models different from mammals. Therefore, this review is oriented to summarize the main pieces of evidence regarding eCS coming from the anuran amphibian Rana esculenta, with particular interest to the morphofunctional relationship between eCS and gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH. Furthermore, a novel role for endovanilloids in the regulation of a testicular GnRH system will be also discussed.

  19. HTGR-GT primary coolant transient resulting from postulated turbine deblading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwallader, G.J.; Deremer, R.K.

    1980-11-01

    The turbomachine is located within the primary coolant system of a nuclear closed cycle gas turbine plant (HTGR-GT). The deblading of the turbine can cause a rapid pressure equilibration transient that generates significant loads on other components in the system. Prediction of and design for this transient are important aspects of assuring the safety of the HTGR-GT. This paper describes the adaptation and use of the RATSAM program to analyze the rapid fluid transient throughout the primary coolant system during a spectrum of turbine deblading events. Included are discussions of (1) specific modifications and improvements to the basic RATSAM program, which is also briefly described; (2) typical results showing the expansion wave moving upstream from the debladed turbine through the primary coolant system; and (3) the effect on the transient results of different plenum volumes, flow resistances, times to deblade, and geometries that can choke the flow

  20. Apoptosis induction by 7-chloroquinoline-1,2,3-triazoyl carboxamides in triple negative breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begnini, Karine Rech; Duarte, Wladimir R; da Silva, Liziane Pereira; Buss, Julieti H; Goldani, Bruna S; Fronza, Mariana; Segatto, Natália Vieira; Alves, Diego; Savegnago, Lucielli; Seixas, Fabiana Kömmling; Collares, Tiago

    2017-07-01

    Breast cancer is a major public health burden in both developed and developing countries and there is still a need to screen new molecules with different modes of actions. The aims of this study were to evaluate the selectivity profile, apoptotic cell death and cell cycle arrest induced by 7-chloroquinoline-1,2,3-triazoyl carboxamides derivatives in hormonal-dependent and hormonal-independent breast cancer cells. Results showed significantly decreased MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells viability in vitro in a dose dependent manner after treatment with 7-chloroquinoline derivatives QTCA-1, QTCA-2 and QTCA-3. QTCA-1 displayed the highest cytotoxic activity from all the tested compounds in MDA-MB-231 with IC50 values of 20.60, 20.42 and 19.91μM in 24, 48 and 72h of treatment respectively. Apoptosis induction was also significantly higher in the hormonal-independent breast cancer cells, with 80.4% of dead cells in MDA-MB-231 and only 16.8% of dead in MCF-7 cells. As a result, G0/G1 cycle arrest was observed in MCF-7 cells and no cell cycle arrest at all was observed in MDA-MB-231 cells. Molecular docking showed a high affinity of QTCA-1 to PARP-1, Scr and PI3K/mTOR targets. These results suggest a strong activity of the 7-chloroquinoline derivative QTCA-1 in independent-hormonal cells and suggest selectivity for triple negative cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone regulates expression of the DNA damage repair gene, Fanconi anemia A, in pituitary gonadotroph cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larder, Rachel; Chang, Lynda; Clinton, Michael; Brown, Pamela

    2004-09-01

    Gonadal function is critically dependant on regulated secretion of the gonadotropin hormones from anterior pituitary gonadotroph cells. Gonadotropin biosynthesis and release is triggered by the binding of hypothalamic GnRH to GnRH receptor expressed on the gonadotroph cell surface. The repertoire of regulatory molecules involved in this process are still being defined. We used the mouse L beta T2 gonadotroph cell line, which expresses both gonadotropin hormones, as a model to investigate GnRH regulation of gene expression and differential display reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to identify and isolate hormonally induced changes. This approach identified Fanconi anemia a (Fanca), a gene implicated in DNA damage repair, as a differentially expressed transcript. Mutations in Fanca account for the majority of cases of Fanconi anemia (FA), a recessively inherited disease identified by congenital defects, bone marrow failure, infertility, and cancer susceptibility. We confirmed expression and hormonal regulation of Fanca mRNA by quantitative RT-PCR, which showed that GnRH induced a rapid, transient increase in Fanca mRNA. Fanca protein was also acutely upregulated after GnRH treatment of L beta T2 cells. In addition, Fanca gene expression was confined to mature pituitary gonadotrophs and adult mouse pituitary and was not expressed in the immature alpha T3-1 gonadotroph cell line. Thus, this study extends the expression profile of Fanca into a highly specialized endocrine cell and demonstrates hormonal regulation of expression of the Fanca locus. We suggest that this regulatory mechanism may have a crucial role in the GnRH-response mechanism of mature gonadotrophs and perhaps the etiology of FA.

  2. Parity Differences in Heat Expression of Dairy Cows Synchronized with GnRH, CIDR and PGF2α during Dry Season in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Mwaanga*, K. Choongo, H. Simukoko and C. Chama1

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to investigate parity differences in heat expression of dairy cows heat-synchronized during the dry season when feed scarcity is common. Cyclic cows (n=65 aged 2 to 10 years with parity range of 0 to 7 were selected from small-holder dairy farms around Lusaka. Cows were divided into 3 groups of nulliparous, primiparous and pluriparous. Heat-was synchronized using gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH and controlled intra-vaginal drug releasing device (CIDR. Heat detection was observed after CIDR withdraw. The study showed a significantly (P<0.05 lower number of primiparous cows (68% coming into heat compared to nulliparous (81.8% and pluriparous cows (83.3%. It was concluded that parity influences estrus expression rate in dairy cows following synchronization with GnRH, CIDR and PGF2α during the dry season in the sub-tropics.

  3. Lactobacillus rhamnosus accelerates zebrafish backbone calcification and gonadal differentiation through effects on the GnRH and IGF systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo A Avella

    Full Text Available Endogenous microbiota play essential roles in the host's immune system, physiology, reproduction and nutrient metabolism. We hypothesized that a continuous administration of an exogenous probiotic might also influence the host's development. Thus, we treated zebrafish from birth to sexual maturation (2-months treatment with Lactobacillus rhamnosus, a probiotic species intended for human use. We monitored for the presence of L. rhamnosus during the entire treatment. Zebrafish at 6 days post fertilization (dpf exhibited elevated gene expression levels for Insulin-like growth factors -I and -II, Peroxisome proliferator activated receptors -α and -β, VDR-α and RAR-γ when compared to untreated-10 days old zebrafish. Using a gonadotropin-releasing hormone 3 GFP transgenic zebrafish (GnRH3-GFP, higher GnRH3 expression was found at 6, 8 and 10 dpf upon L. rhamnosus treatment. The same larvae exhibited earlier backbone calcification and gonad maturation. Noteworthy in the gonad development was the presence of first testes differentiation at 3 weeks post fertilization in the treated zebrafish population -which normally occurs at 8 weeks- and a dramatic sex ratio modulation (93% females, 7% males in control vs. 55% females, 45% males in the treated group. We infer that administration of L. rhamnosus stimulated the IGF system, leading to a faster backbone calcification. Moreover we hypothesize a role for administration of L. rhamnosus on GnRH3 modulation during early larval development, which in turn affects gonadal development and sex differentiation. These findings suggest a significant role of the microbiota composition on the host organism development profile and open new perspectives in the study of probiotics usage and application.

  4. Triterpenoids and Polysaccharide Fractions of Ganoderma tsugae Exert Different Effects on Antiallergic Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miaw-Ling Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was to investigate antiallergic effects of triterpenoids (Gt-TRE and polysaccharide (Gt-PS extracts from Ganoderma tsugae, using mast cell line RBL-2H3, T cell line EL4, primary T cells, and transfected RAW264.7 macrophage cells. The results showed that histamine secreted from activated RBL-2H3 mast cells was significantly suppressed by Gt-TRE but not Gt-PS. Interleukin- (IL- 4 secreted from activated EL4 cells was significantly suppressed by Gt-TRE but not Gt-PS. Further primary CD4+ T cells cultures also confirmed that Gt-TRE (5~50 µg/mL significantly suppressed Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-5 secretions but had no effect on Th1 cytokines IL-2 and interferon (IFN-γ. Gt-PS did not affect IL-4 and IL-5 secretions until higher doses (400, 500 µg/mL and significantly suppressed IFNγ secretions but enhanced IL-2 at these high doses. The reporter gene assay indicated that Gt-TRE inhibited but Gt-PS enhanced the transcriptional activity of NF-κB in activated transfected RAW264.7 cells and transfected EL4 cells. IL-4 secreted by this transfected EL-4 cells was also significantly decreased by Gt-TRE but not by Gt-PS, suggesting that these two fractions may exert different effects on NF-κB related cytokines expression. These data suggested that triterpenoids fraction of Ganoderma tsugae might be the main constituents to alleviate allergic asthma.

  5. [The use of a robot-assisted Gait Trainer GT1 in patients in the acute period of cerebral stroke: a pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skvortsova, V I; Ivanova, G E; Kovrazhkina, E A; Rumiantseva, N A; Staritsyn, A N; Suvorov, A Iu; Sogomonian, E K

    2008-01-01

    An aim of the study was to evaluate efficacy of using Gait Trainer GT1, a robot-assisted gait trainer with a system of body-weight support, for the rehabilitation of gait in patients in the acute period of cerebral stroke. A main group included 30 patients in the acute period of ischemic and hemorrhage stroke and a control group--20 age- and sex matched patients. Patients of both groups had daily kinesitherapy sessions with a rehabilitator. Patients of the main group had additional sessions on the Gait Trainer GT1 from the moment of functional readiness to adequate orthostatic probe. Efficacy of rehabilitation was assessed in the four following phases: the first verticalization of patient in the standing position, adaptation of patient to the standing position, walking with assistance, independent walking. Muscular power (scores) in all muscles of low extremities, muscle tonus (the Ashfort scale), amplitude of tendinous reflexes on the reflexes scale, sensory disturbances and discoordination syndromes (specially elaborated scales), pathological positions in the axial muscular system and extremities, functional status (a steadiness scale, the Berg balance scale, the Barthel scale, 5 m test) were assessed in each phase. Stabilometry was conducted for objective evaluation of vertical balance function. The duration of sessions on GT1 and a number of exercises were depended on the patient's tolerability to physical activity. Percentage of relief was determined by the ability of a patient to balance in the standing position. Each patient had 8-10 sessions. A significant improvement of the functional status: ability to balance in standing position, walking, increase of self-care skills were observed in both groups. No significant differences in the level of functional improvements were found compared to the control group. However some peculiarities of the rehabilitation of primary neurologic deficit were observed during CT1-trainings: the normalization of muscle tonus

  6. Haploinsufficiency of Dmxl2, encoding a synaptic protein, causes infertility associated with a loss of GnRH neurons in mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooke Tata

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of the genetic defects causing gonadotropic deficiency has made a major contribution to elucidation of the fundamental role of Kisspeptins and Neurokinin B in puberty onset and reproduction. The absence of puberty may also reveal neurodevelopmental disorders caused by molecular defects in various cellular pathways. Investigations of these neurodevelopmental disorders may provide information about the neuronal processes controlling puberty onset and reproductive capacity. We describe here a new syndrome observed in three brothers, which involves gonadotropic axis deficiency, central hypothyroidism, peripheral demyelinating sensorimotor polyneuropathy, mental retardation, and profound hypoglycemia, progressing to nonautoimmune insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. High-throughput sequencing revealed a homozygous in-frame deletion of 15 nucleotides in DMXL2 in all three affected patients. This homozygous deletion was associated with lower DMXL2 mRNA levels in the blood lymphocytes of the patients. DMXL2 encodes the synaptic protein rabconnectin-3α, which has been identified as a putative scaffold protein for Rab3-GAP and Rab3-GEP, two regulators of the GTPase Rab3a. We found that rabconnectin-3α was expressed in exocytosis vesicles in gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH axonal extremities in the median eminence of the hypothalamus. It was also specifically expressed in cells expressing luteinizing hormone (LH and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH within the pituitary. The conditional heterozygous deletion of Dmxl2 from mouse neurons delayed puberty and resulted in very low fertility. This reproductive phenotype was associated with a lower number of GnRH neurons in the hypothalamus of adult mice. Finally, Dmxl2 knockdown in an insulin-secreting cell line showed that rabconnectin-3α controlled the constitutive and glucose-induced secretion of insulin. In conclusion, this study shows that low levels of DMXL2 expression cause a

  7. Behavior of feral horses in response to culling and GnRH immunocontraception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Jason I.; Powers, Jenny G.; Garbe, Heidi M.; Oehler, Michael W.; Nett, Terry M.; Baker, Dan L.

    2014-01-01

    .9 (95% CI = 4.7–5.1)) and treated females(4.8 (95% CI = 4.7–4.9)). Band fidelity among all females increased 25.7% in the year fol-lowing vaccination and culling, despite the social perturbation associated with removal of conspecifics. Herding behavior by stallions decreased 50.7% following treatment and culling (P < 0.001), while harem-tending behavior increased 195.0% (P < 0.001). The amount of available forage influenced harem-tending, reproductive, and agonistic behavior in the year following culling and treatment (P < 0.04). These changes reflected the expected nexus between a species with polygynous social structure and strong group fidelity and the large instantaneous change in population density and demography coincident with culling.Behavioral responses to such perturbation may be synergistic in reducing grazing pressure by decreasing energetically expensive competitive behaviors, but further investigation is needed to explicitly test this hypothesis.

  8. Identification of intracellular proteins and signaling pathways in human endothelial cells regulated by angiotensin-(1-7).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinert, Christian; Gembardt, Florian; Böhme, Ilka; Tetzner, Anja; Wieland, Thomas; Greenberg, Barry; Walther, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to identify proteins regulated by the cardiovascular protective peptide angiotensin-(1-7) and to determine potential intracellular signaling cascades. Human endothelial cells were stimulated with Ang-(1-7) for 1 h, 3 h, 6 h, and 9 h. Peptide effects on intracellular signaling were assessed via antibody microarray, containing antibodies against 725 proteins. Bioinformatics software was used to identify affected intracellular signaling pathways. Microarray data was verified exemplarily by Western blot, Real-Time RT-PCR, and immunohistochemical studies. The microarray identified 110 regulated proteins after 1 h, 119 after 3 h, 31 after 6 h, and 86 after 9 h Ang-(1-7) stimulation. Regulated proteins were associated with high significance to several metabolic pathways like “Molecular Mechanism of Cancer” and “p53 signaling” in a time dependent manner. Exemplarily, Western blots for the E3-type small ubiquitin-like modifier ligase PIAS2 confirmed the microarray data and displayed a decrease by more than 50% after Ang-(1-7) stimulation at 1 h and 3 h without affecting its mRNA. Immunohistochemical studies with PIAS2 in human endothelial cells showed a decrease in cytoplasmic PIAS2 after Ang-(1-7) treatment. The Ang-(1-7) mediated decrease of PIAS2 was reproduced in other endothelial cell types. The results suggest that angiotensin-(1-7) plays a role in metabolic pathways related to cell death and cell survival in human endothelial cells.

  9. Downregulation of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 7A1 expression is important in enhancing cell proliferation in adenocarcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Nawneet; Timilsina, Uddhav; Ghimire, Dibya; Dubey, Ravi C.; Gaur, Ritu

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondrial Dysfunction has been implicated in multiple human diseases, including cancer. Among all cancer, lung cancer is the most common type of cancer worldwide with low survival rates. Mammals possess multiple subunits of the mitochondrial enzyme Cytochrome C oxidase (COX). The COX subunits are expressed in a tissue specific manner and have been implicated in cancer cell metabolism although their molecular and regulatory mechanisms are not clearly understood. In this study, we aimed at identifying novel gene signatures in lung cancer. We performed extensive analysis of seven different Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) datasets pertaining to different stages of lung adenocarcinoma and identified that multiple subunits of COX genes are differentially expressed in these patients. Amongst all COX genes, the expression of COX7A1 gene was observed to be highly down regulated in these patients. In order to validate the GEO datasets, we looked at the expression of multiple COX genes using quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) using human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549. Our results confirmed that COX 7A1 gene expression was indeed highly reduced in these cells. Overexpression of COX7A1 in human lung cancer cells led to inhibition of cell proliferation and increase in cell death via apoptosis. These results indicated that low level of COX7A1 gene expression is essential to regulate cell viability and inhibit cell death in lung adenocarcinoma. Our study has identified COX7A1 as a novel gene that might play a crucial role in the etiology of lung adenocarcinoma and can serve as a biomarker for lung cancer disease progression.

  10. Improvement of cloning efficiency in minipigs using post-thawed donor cells treated with roscovitine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Seongsoo; Oh, Keon Bong; Kwon, Dae-Jin; Ock, Sun-A; Lee, Jeong-Woong; Im, Gi-Sun; Lee, Sung-Soo; Lee, Kichoon; Park, Jin-Ki

    2013-11-01

    Massachusetts General Hospital miniature pigs (MGH minipigs) have been established for organ transplantation studies across the homozygous major histocompatibility complex, but cloning efficiency of MGH minipigs is extremely low. This study was designed to increase the productivity of MGH minipigs by nuclear transfer of post-thaw donor cells after 1 h co-incubation with roscovitine. The MGH minipig cells were genetically modified with GT KO (alpha1,3-galactosyltransferase knock-out) and hCD46 KI (human CD46 knock-in) and used as donor cells. The GT KO/hCD46 KI donor cells were cultured for either 3 days (control group) or 1 h after thawing with 15 μM roscovitine (experimental group) prior to the nuclear transfer. The relative percentage of the transgenic donor cells that entered into G0/G1 was 93.7 % (±2.54). This was different from the donor cells cultured for 1 h with the roscovitine-treated group (84.6 % ±4.6) (P cloning efficiency ranged from 0.74 to 2.54 %. In conclusion, gene-modified donor cells can be used for cloning of MGH minipigs if the cells are post-thawed and treated with roscovitine for 1 h prior to nuclear transfer.

  11. Corifollitropin alfa followed by rFSH in a GnRH antagonist protocol for poor ovarian responder patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polyzos, Nikolaos P; Devos, Michel; Humaidan, Peter

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify whether women with poor ovarian response may benefit from treatment with corifollitropin alfa in a GnRH antagonist protocol. DESIGN: Retrospective pilot study. SETTING: University-based tertiary care center. PATIENT(S): Poor ovarian responders fulfilling the Bologna criteria...... developed by European Society for Human Reproduction and Embryology Consensus Group. INTERVENTION(S): Corifollitropin alfa (150 μg) followed by 300 IU rFSH in a GnRH antagonist protocol. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Endocrinologic profile and ongoing pregnancy rates. RESULT(S): Among 43 women treated...

  12. Bioactivation of the citrus flavonoid nobiletin by CYP1 enzymes in MCF7 breast adenocarcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surichan, Somchaiya; Androutsopoulos, Vasilis P; Sifakis, Stavros; Koutala, Eleni; Tsatsakis, Aristidis; Arroo, Randolph R J; Boarder, Michael R

    2012-09-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated cytochrome P450 CYP1-mediated metabolism and CYP1-enzyme induction by naturally occurring flavonoids in cancer cell line models. The arising metabolites often exhibit higher activity than the parent compound. In the present study we investigated the CYP1-mediated metabolism of the citrus polymethoxyflavone nobiletin by recombinant CYP1 enzymes and MCF7 breast adenocarcinoma cells. Incubation of nobiletin in MCF7 cells produced one main metabolite (NM1) resulting from O-demethylation in either A or B rings of the flavone moiety. Among the three CYP1 isoforms, CYP1A1 exhibited the highest rate of metabolism of nobiletin in recombinant CYP microsomal enzymes. The intracellular CYP1-mediated bioconversion of the flavone was reduced in the presence of the CYP1A1 and CYP1B1-selective inhibitors α-napthoflavone and acacetin. In addition nobiletin induced CYP1 enzyme activity, CYP1A1 protein and CYP1B1 mRNA levels in MCF7 cells at a concentration dependent manner. MTT assays in MCF7 cells further revealed that nobiletin exhibited significantly lower IC50 (44 μM) compared to cells treated with nobiletin and CYP1A1 inhibitor (69 μM). FACS analysis demonstrated cell a cycle block at G1 phase that was attenuated in the presence of CYP1A1 inhibitor. Taken together the data suggests that the dietary flavonoid nobiletin induces its own metabolism and in turn enhances its cytostatic effect in MCF7 breast adenocarcinoma cells, via CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 upregulation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Growth inhibition of tumor cells in vitro by using monoclonal antibodies against gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gregory; Ge, Bixia

    2010-07-01

    As the continuation of a previous study, synthetic peptides corresponding to the extracellular domains of human gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor were used to generate additional monoclonal antibodies which were further characterized biochemically and immunologically. Among those identified to recognize GnRH receptor, monoclonal antibodies designated as GHR-103, GHR-106 and GHR-114 were found to exhibit high affinity (Kd L37), when cancer cells were incubated with GnRH or GHR-106. The widespread expressions of GnRH receptor in almost all of the studied human cancer cell lines were also demonstrated by RT-PCR and Western blot assay, as well as indirect immunofluorescence assay with either of these monoclonal antibodies as the primary antibody. In view of the longer half life of antibodies as compared to that of GnRH or its analogs, anti-GnRH receptor monoclonal antibodies in humanized forms could function as GnRH analogs and serve as an ideal candidate of anti-cancer drugs for therapeutic treatments of various cancers in humans as well as for fertility regulations.

  14. Overview of Hole GT2A: Drilling middle gabbro in Wadi Tayin massif, Oman ophiolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takazawa, E.; Kelemen, P. B.; Teagle, D. A. H.; Coggon, J. A.; Harris, M.; Matter, J. M.; Michibayashi, K.

    2017-12-01

    Hole GT2A (UTM: 40Q 655960.7E / 2529193.5N) was drilled by the Oman Drilling Project (OmDP) into Wadi Gideah of Wadi Tayin massif in the Samail ophiolite, Oman. OmDP is an international collaboration supported by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program, the Deep Carbon Observatory, NSF, IODP, JAMSTEC, and the European, Japanese, German and Swiss Science Foundations, with in-kind support in Oman from the Ministry of Regional Municipalities and Water Resources, Public Authority of Mining, Sultan Qaboos University, and the German University of Technology. Hole GT2A was diamond cored in 25 Dec 2016 to 18 Jan 2017 to a total depth of 406.77 m. The outer surfaces of the cores were imaged and described on site before being curated, boxed and shipped to the IODP drill ship Chikyu, where they underwent comprehensive visual and instrumental analysis. 33 shipboard scientists were divided into six teams (Igneous, Alteration, Structural, Geochem, Physical Properties, Paleomag) to describe and analyze the cores. Hole GT2A drilled through the transition between foliated and layered gabbro. The transition zone occurs between 50 and 150 m curation corrected depth (CCD). The top 50 m of Hole GT2A is foliated gabbro whereas the bottom 250 m consists of layered gabbro. Brittle fracture is observed throughout the core. Intensity of alteration vein decreases from the top to the bottom of the hole. On the basis of changes in grain size and/or modal abundance and/or appearance/disappearance of igneous primary mineral(s) five lithological units are defined in Hole GT2A (Unit I to V). The uppermost part of Hole GT2A (Unit I) is dominated by fine-grained granular olivine gabbro intercalated with less dominant medium-grained granular olivine gabbro and rare coarse-grained varitextured gabbro. The lower part of the Hole (Units II, III and V) is dominated by medium-grained olivine gabbro, olivine melagabbro and olivine-bearing gabbro. Modally-graded rhythmic layering with

  15. Brain Endothelial Cells Control Fertility through Ovarian-Steroid–Dependent Release of Semaphorin 3A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Andrea; Casoni, Filippo; Vanacker, Charlotte; Langlet, Fanny; Hobo, Barbara; Cagnoni, Gabriella; Gallet, Sarah; Hanchate, Naresh Kumar; Mazur, Danièle; Taniguchi, Masahiko; Mazzone, Massimiliano; Verhaagen, Joost; Ciofi, Philippe; Bouret, Sébastien G.; Tamagnone, Luca; Prevot, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Neuropilin-1 (Nrp1) guides the development of the nervous and vascular systems, but its role in the mature brain remains to be explored. Here we report that the expression of the 65 kDa isoform of Sema3A, the ligand of Nrp1, by adult vascular endothelial cells, is regulated during the ovarian cycle and promotes axonal sprouting in hypothalamic neurons secreting gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), the neuropeptide controlling reproduction. Both the inhibition of Sema3A/Nrp1 signaling and the conditional deletion of Nrp1 in GnRH neurons counteract Sema3A-induced axonal sprouting. Furthermore, the localized intracerebral infusion of Nrp1- or Sema3A-neutralizing antibodies in vivo disrupts the ovarian cycle. Finally, the selective neutralization of endothelial-cell Sema3A signaling in adult Sema3a loxP/loxP mice by the intravenous injection of the recombinant TAT-Cre protein alters the amplitude of the preovulatory luteinizing hormone surge, likely by perturbing GnRH release into the hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system. Our results identify a previously unknown function for 65 kDa Sema3A-Nrp1 signaling in the induction of axonal growth, and raise the possibility that endothelial cells actively participate in synaptic plasticity in specific functional domains of the adult central nervous system, thus controlling key physiological functions such as reproduction. PMID:24618750

  16. Brain endothelial cells control fertility through ovarian-steroid-dependent release of semaphorin 3A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacobini, Paolo; Parkash, Jyoti; Campagne, Céline; Messina, Andrea; Casoni, Filippo; Vanacker, Charlotte; Langlet, Fanny; Hobo, Barbara; Cagnoni, Gabriella; Gallet, Sarah; Hanchate, Naresh Kumar; Mazur, Danièle; Taniguchi, Masahiko; Mazzone, Massimiliano; Verhaagen, Joost; Ciofi, Philippe; Bouret, Sébastien G; Tamagnone, Luca; Prevot, Vincent

    2014-03-01

    Neuropilin-1 (Nrp1) guides the development of the nervous and vascular systems, but its role in the mature brain remains to be explored. Here we report that the expression of the 65 kDa isoform of Sema3A, the ligand of Nrp1, by adult vascular endothelial cells, is regulated during the ovarian cycle and promotes axonal sprouting in hypothalamic neurons secreting gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), the neuropeptide controlling reproduction. Both the inhibition of Sema3A/Nrp1 signaling and the conditional deletion of Nrp1 in GnRH neurons counteract Sema3A-induced axonal sprouting. Furthermore, the localized intracerebral infusion of Nrp1- or Sema3A-neutralizing antibodies in vivo disrupts the ovarian cycle. Finally, the selective neutralization of endothelial-cell Sema3A signaling in adult Sema3aloxP/loxP mice by the intravenous injection of the recombinant TAT-Cre protein alters the amplitude of the preovulatory luteinizing hormone surge, likely by perturbing GnRH release into the hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system. Our results identify a previously unknown function for 65 kDa Sema3A-Nrp1 signaling in the induction of axonal growth, and raise the possibility that endothelial cells actively participate in synaptic plasticity in specific functional domains of the adult central nervous system, thus controlling key physiological functions such as reproduction.

  17. Brain endothelial cells control fertility through ovarian-steroid-dependent release of semaphorin 3A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Giacobini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Neuropilin-1 (Nrp1 guides the development of the nervous and vascular systems, but its role in the mature brain remains to be explored. Here we report that the expression of the 65 kDa isoform of Sema3A, the ligand of Nrp1, by adult vascular endothelial cells, is regulated during the ovarian cycle and promotes axonal sprouting in hypothalamic neurons secreting gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH, the neuropeptide controlling reproduction. Both the inhibition of Sema3A/Nrp1 signaling and the conditional deletion of Nrp1 in GnRH neurons counteract Sema3A-induced axonal sprouting. Furthermore, the localized intracerebral infusion of Nrp1- or Sema3A-neutralizing antibodies in vivo disrupts the ovarian cycle. Finally, the selective neutralization of endothelial-cell Sema3A signaling in adult Sema3aloxP/loxP mice by the intravenous injection of the recombinant TAT-Cre protein alters the amplitude of the preovulatory luteinizing hormone surge, likely by perturbing GnRH release into the hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system. Our results identify a previously unknown function for 65 kDa Sema3A-Nrp1 signaling in the induction of axonal growth, and raise the possibility that endothelial cells actively participate in synaptic plasticity in specific functional domains of the adult central nervous system, thus controlling key physiological functions such as reproduction.

  18. Cloning, expression, and chromosome mapping of human galectin-7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Peder; Rasmussen, H H; Flint, T

    1995-01-01

    The galectins are a family of beta-galactoside-binding proteins implicated in modulating cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. Here we report the cloning and expression of a novel member of this family (galectin-7) that correspond to IEF (isoelectric focusing) 17 (12,700 Da; pI, 7.6) in the human...... keratinocyte protein data base, and that is strikingly down-regulated in SV40 transformed keratinocytes (K14). The cDNA was cloned from a lambda gt11 cDNA expression library using degenerated oligodeoxyribonucleotides back-translated from an IEF 17 peptide sequence. The protein encoded by the galectin-7 clone......14 keratinocytes imply a role in cell-cell and/or cell-matrix interactions necessary for normal growth control. The galectin-7 gene was mapped to chromosome 19. Udgivelsesdato: 1995-Mar-17...

  19. PARÁMETROS BIOQUÍMICOS ENZIMÁTICOS (ALT, AST, ALP, Γ-GT, LDH EN NIÑOS CON LEUCEMIA LINFOBLÁSTICA AGUDA ANTES DEL TRATAMIENTO ANTINEOPLÁSICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeél Moya S

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the enzymatic biochemical parameters (glutamic pyruvic transaminase (ALT, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, gamma glutamyltransferase (γ-GT, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL before cancer treatment. Material and Methods: A prospective experimental, observational, cross-sectional study was conducted in 30 children between 2 and 15 years old, from several Neoplastic Centers in Lima. Blood collection was performed in BD red cap Vacutainer tubes, processed in the semi-automated analyzer BIOTEC® EMP-168, with Wiener Lab Group enzyme reagents under the modified method Szaaz and UV-Optimized by IFCC, SSCC and SFBC. Finally, coding and tabulation was performed. Results: 60% were boys and 46.7% are between the ages of 2-6 years. Serum levels of AST were increased by 33.3% in boys and 50% in girls. Serum ALT values were increased in 33.3% of boys and 41.7% of girls; only 25% of girls showed increased levels of γ-GT values; ALP was increased in 44.4% of boys and 66.7% of girls. Moreover LDH levels were increased in 55.6% of boys and 41.7% of girls. Conclusions: The enzymatic tests LDH, AST, ALT and ALP are increased in children with ALL compared to normal values due to tumor lysis syndrome characterized by electrolyte abnormalities, and as a result of the massive destruction of tumor cells and rapid release of large amounts of intracellular elements.

  20. Simultaneous measurement of hormone release and secretagogue binding by individual pituitary cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.F.; Neill, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    The quantitative relationship between receptor binding and hormone secretion at the single-cell level was investigated in the present study by combining a reverse hemolytic plaque assay for measurement of luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion from individual pituitary cells with an autoradiographic assay of 125 I-labeled gonadontropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist binding to the same cells. In the plaque assay, LH secretion induces complement-mediated lysis of the LH-antibody-coated erythrocytes around the gonadotropes, resulting in areas of lysis (plaques). LH release from individual gonadotropes was quantified by comparing radioimmunoassayable LH release to hemolytic area in similarly treated cohort groups of cells; plaque area was linearly related to the amount of LH secreted. Receptor autoradiography was performed using 125 I-labeled GnRH-A (a superagonist analog of GnRH) both as the ligand and as the stimulant for LH release in the plaque assay. The grains appeared to represent specific and high-affinity receptors for GnRH because (i) no pituitary cells other than gonadotropes bound the labeled ligand and (ii) grain development was progressively inhibited by coincubation with increasing doses of unlabeled GnRH-A. The authors conclude that GnRH receptor number for any individual gonadotrope is a weak determinant of the amount of LH it can secrete; nevertheless, full occupancy of all its GnRH receptors is required for any gonadotrope to reach its full LH-secretory capacity. Apparently the levels of other factors comprising the steps along the secretory pathway determine the secretory capacity of an individual cell

  1. GT Biplot Analysis for Silage Potential, Nutritive Value, Gas and Methane Production of Stay-Green Grain Sorghum Shoots

    OpenAIRE

    Kaplan, Mahmut; Arslan, Mustafa; Kale, Hasan; Kara, Kanber; Kokten, Kagan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This study was conducted to investigate the possible silage of stay-green sorghum genotypes using GT biplot analysis. Following the grain harvest, 41 sorghum genotypes were chopped to make silage. Biochemical analyses were performed after 60 d of silage. The results revealed that green herbage yields varied between 13.40-65.96 t ha−1, pH between 3.92-4.25, dry matter ratios between 24.26-35.83%, crude protein ratios between 3.44-7.03%, acid detergent fiber (ADF) ratios between 27.46-...

  2. Evaluation of cell death mechanisms activated by the administration of the theranostics radiopharmaceutical "1"7"7Lu-DOTA-anti-CD20 in a dose range of 1-5 Gy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez V, B. E.

    2016-01-01

    Radio-immunotherapy with anti-CD20 antibodies significantly increases the rate of remission in patients with CD20 over expressing B-cell lymphomas. Radio-labeled antibodies directed to surface antigens allow delivering scaled doses of radiation to specific targets thus limiting the dose to healthy tissue. Anti-CD20 causes cell death by two major pathways; activating the immune system to destroy malignant cells and inducing the activation of cell death pathways. The "1"7"7Lu is a beta particle emitter (max. 0.497 MeV) with a maximum soft tissue reach of 0.7 mm and a half-life of 6.7 days. Several clinical studies have established a maximum tolerated dose (45m Ci/m"2) for "1"7"7Lu-DOTA-rituximab, which shows a favorable clinical response without hematological toxicity. However, the molecular mechanisms of synergistic activation of anti-CD20 and radionuclide have not been studied. In this work we evaluated by flow cytometry, the activation kinetics of the cell death mechanisms induced by the treatment with "1"7"7Lu-DOTA-anti-CD20 from non-Hod king lymphoma cells (Raji). The absorbed radiation dose delivered to the cell nucleus was calculated by Monte Carlo simulation, considering the contribution of the beta emissions of the radiopharmaceutical present in the cell membrane and surrounding environment, as well as crossfire. This work shows that the application of radiation doses of 1 to 5 Gy of the radiopharmaceutical "1"7"7Lu-DOTA-anti-CD20 are sufficient to induce cell death by apoptosis and arrest of the cell cycle. The combination of these factors (continuous delivery of radiation activation of repair mechanisms and increased radio-sensitivity) causes acute activation of the apoptotic program resulting in significant cell death after 96 h of treatment. The temporal analysis of cell death suggests the early activation of apoptosis that is counteracted by the activation of repair processes caused by sustained irradiation, which leads to cell arrest and increases

  3. Leptin induces CYP1B1 expression in MCF-7 cells through ligand-independent activation of the ERα pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khanal, Tilak; Kim, Hyung Gyun; Do, Minh Truong; Choi, Jae Ho; Won, Seong Su [Department of Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Wonku [College of Pharmacy, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Young Chul [Department of Food Science and Culinary, International University of Korea, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Tae Cheon, E-mail: taecheon@ynu.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hye Gwang, E-mail: hgjeong@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Leptin, a hormone with multiple biological actions, is produced predominantly by adipose tissue. Among its functions, leptin can stimulate tumour cell growth. Oestrogen receptor α (ERα), which plays an essential role in breast cancer development, can be transcriptionally activated in a ligand-independent manner. In this study, we investigated the effect of leptin on CYP1B1 expression and its mechanism in breast cancer cells. Leptin induced CYP1B1 protein, messenger RNA expression and promoter activity in ERα-positive MCF-7 cells but not in ERα-negative MDA-MB-231 cells. Additionally, leptin increased 4-hydroxyoestradiol in MCF-7 cells. Also, ERα knockdown by siRNA significantly blocked the induction of CYP1B1 expression by leptin, indicating that leptin induced CYP1B1 expression via an ERα-dependent mechanism. Transient transfection with CYP1B1 deletion promoter constructs revealed that the oestrogen response element (ERE) plays important role in the up-regulation of CYP1B1 by leptin. Furthermore, leptin stimulated phosphorylation of ERα at serine residues 118 and 167 and increased ERE-luciferase activity, indicating that leptin induced CYP1B1 expression by ERα activation. Finally, we found that leptin activated ERK and Akt signalling pathways, which are upstream kinases related to ERα phosphorylation induced by leptin. Taken together, our results indicate that leptin-induced CYP1B1 expression is mediated by ligand-independent activation of the ERα pathway as a result of the activation of ERK and Akt in MCF-7 cells. - Highlights: • Leptin increased 4-hydroxyoestradiol in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. • Leptin activated ERK and Akt kinases related to ERα phosphorylation. • Leptin induces phosphorylation of ERα at serine residues 118 and 167. • Leptin induces ERE-luciferase activity.

  4. CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Genomic Deletion of the Beta-1, 4 N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 1 Gene in Murine P19 Embryonal Carcinoma Cells Results in Low Sensitivity to Botulinum Neurotoxin Type C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Tsukamoto

    Full Text Available Botulinum neurotoxins produced by Clostridium botulinum cause flaccid paralysis by inhibiting neurotransmitter release at peripheral nerve terminals. Previously, we found that neurons derived from the murine P19 embryonal carcinoma cell line exhibited high sensitivity to botulinum neurotoxin type C. In order to prove the utility of P19 cells for the study of the intracellular mechanism of botulinum neurotoxins, ganglioside-knockout neurons were generated by deletion of the gene encoding beta-1,4 N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 1 in P19 cells using the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats combined with Cas9 (CRISPR/Cas9 system. By using this system, knockout cells could be generated more easily than with previous methods. The sensitivity of the generated beta-1,4 N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 1-depleted P19 neurons to botulinum neurotoxin type C was decreased considerably, and the exogenous addition of the gangliosides GD1a, GD1b, and GT1b restored the susceptibility of P19 cells to botulinum neurotoxin type C. In particular, addition of a mixture of these three ganglioside more effectively recovered the sensitivity of knockout cells compared to independent addition of GD1a, GD1b, or GT1b. Consequently, the genome-edited P19 cells generated by the CRISPR/Cas9 system were useful for identifying and defining the intracellular molecules involved in the toxic action of botulinum neurotoxins.

  5. Rotor scale model tests for power conversion unit of GT-MHR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxi, C.B.; Daugherty, R.; Shenoy, A. [General Atomics, 3550 General Atomics Court, CA (United States); Kodochigov, N.G.; Belov, S.E. [Experimental Design Bureau of Machine Building, N. Novgorad, RF (United States)

    2007-07-01

    The gas-turbine modular helium reactor (GT-MHR) combines a modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor with a closed Brayton gas-turbine cycle power conversion unit (PCU) for thermal to electric energy conversion. The PCU has a vertical orientation and is supported on electromagnetic bearings (EMB). The Rotor Scale Model (RSM) Tests are intended to model directly the control of EMB and rotor-dynamic characteristics of the full-scale GT-MHR Turbo-machine. The objectives of the RSM tests are to: -1) confirm the EMB control system design for the GT-MHR turbo-machine over the full-range of operation, -2) confirm the redundancy and on-line maintainability features that have been specified for the EMBs, -3) provide a benchmark for validation of analytical tools that will be used for independent analyses of the EMB subsystem design, -4) provide experience with the installation, operation and maintenance of EMBs supporting multiple rotors with flexible couplings. As with the full-scale turbo-machine, the RSM will incorporate two rotors that are joined by a flexible coupling. Each of the rotors will be supported on one axial and two radial EMBs. Additional devices, similar in concept to radial EMBs, will be installed to simulate magnetic and/or mechanical forces representing those that would be seen by the exciter, generator, compressors and turbine. Overall, the length of the RSM rotor is about 1/3 that of the full-scale turbo-machine, while the diameter is approximately 1/5 scale. The design and sizing of the rotor is such that the number of critical speeds in the RSM are the same as in the full-scale turbo-machine. The EMBs will also be designed such that their response to rotor-dynamic forces is representative of the full-scale turbo-machine. (authors)

  6. Up-regulation of intestinal epithelial cell derived IL-7 expression by keratinocyte growth factor through STAT1/IRF-1, IRF-2 pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jiao Cai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epithelial cells(EC-derived interleukin-7 (IL-7 plays a crucial role in control of development and homeostasis of neighboring intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL, and keratinocyte growth factor (KGF exerts protective effects on intestinal epithelial cells and up-regulates EC-derived IL-7 expression through KGFR pathway. This study was to further investigate the molecular mechanism involved in the regulation of IL-7 expression by KGF in the intestine. METHODS: Intestinal epithelial cells (LoVo cells and adult C57BL/6J mice were treated with KGF. Epithelial cell proliferation was studied by flow cytometry for BrdU-incorporation and by immunohistochemistry for PCNA staining. Western blot was used to detect the changes of expression of P-Tyr-STAT1, STAT1, and IL-7 by inhibiting STAT1. Alterations of nuclear extracts and total proteins of IRF-1, IRF-2 and IL-7 following IRF-1 and IRF-2 RNA interference with KGF treatment were also measured with western blot. Moreover, IL-7 mRNA expressions were also detected by Real-time PCR and IL-7 protein level in culture supernatants was measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA. RESULTS: KGF administration significantly increased LoVo cell proliferation and also increased intestinal wet weight, villus height, crypt depth and crypt cell proliferation in mice. KGF treatment led to increased levels of P-Tyr-STAT1, RAPA and AG490 both blocked P-Tyr-STAT1 and IL-7 expression in LoVo cells. IRF-1 and IRF-2 expression in vivo and in vitro were also up-regulated by KGF, and IL-7 expression was decreased after IRF-1 and IRF-2 expression was silenced by interfering RNA, respectively. CONCLUSION: KGF could up-regulate IL-7 expression through the STAT1/IRF-1, IRF-2 signaling pathway, which is a new insight in potential effects of KGF on the intestinal mucosal immune system.

  7. Factors affecting synchronization and conception rate after the Ovsynch protocol in lactating Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvão, K N; Santos, J E P

    2010-06-01

    Objectives were to evaluate risk factors affecting ovulatory responses and conception rate to the Ovsynch protocol. Holstein cows, 466, were submitted to the Ovsynch protocol [day 0, GnRH-1; day 7, prostaglandin (PG) F(2alpha); day 9, GnRH-2] and 103 cows were inseminated 12 h after GnRH-2. Information on parity, days in milk at GnRH-1, body condition, milk yield, exposure to heat stress, pre-synchronization with PGF(2alpha) and the use of progesterone insert from GnRH-1 to PGF(2alpha) was collected. Ovaries were scanned to determine responses to treatments. Overall, 54.7%, 10.6%, 2.2%, 81.1%, 9.0%, 91.5% and 36.9% of the cows ovulated to GnRH-1, multiple ovulated to GnRH-1, ovulated before GnRH-2, ovulated to GnRH-2, multiple ovulated to GnRH-2, experienced corpus luteum (CL) regression and conceived, respectively. Ovulation to GnRH-1 was greater in cows without a CL at GnRH-1, cows with follicles >19 mm and cows not pre-synchronized with PGF(2alpha) 14 days before GnRH-1. Multiple ovulations to GnRH-1 increased in cows without CL at GnRH-1 and cows with follicles Conception rate at 42 days after AI increased in cows with body condition score > 2.75 and cows that ovulated to GnRH-2. Strategies that optimize ovulation to GnRH-2, such as increased ovulation to GnRH-1, should improve response to the Ovsynch protocol.

  8. GnRH在性成熟高白鲑神经系统及性腺中的分布定位%An Immunocytochemical Localization of GnRH in the Nerve System and Gonad of Mature Coregonus peled

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹玉洁; 贾斌; 柳建新; 李志远; 张莉

    2011-01-01

    摘要:应用免疫组织化学方法,系统观察性成熟期高白鲑(Coregonus peled)神经系统及性腺中的促性腺激素释放激素( GnRH)的分布情况。结果表明,GnRH在大脑、小脑、中脑、脊髓、延髓中免疫阳性反应明显,且主要分布在神经元内。GnRH免疫阳性细胞在卵巢和精巢中均有分布,而且其阳性部位在卵巢主要分布于小生长期卵母细胞;在精巢中主要分布于间质细胞和精原细胞中。本文讨论了GnRH直接或间接参与高白鲑性腺发育成熟调节的可能性。%Immunocytochemical staining technique was used to study the expression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in the nervous system and gonad of Coregonus peled. The results showed that there were GnRH immunoreactive endocrine cells in the cerebrum,cerebellum,diencephalon,medulla oblongata,and spinal cord. There were GnRH immunoreactive endocrine cells in the ovary and testis. The positive staining was observed mainly in the small growing oocyte, and in the interstitial cells and spermatogonia. The possible physiological function and morphological evidence of GnRH regulation on the development of gonad in C. Peled were discussed.

  9. An exergoeconomic investigation of waste heat recovery from the Gas Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR) employing an ammonia–water power/cooling cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zare, V.; Mahmoudi, S.M.S.; Yari, M.

    2013-01-01

    A detailed exergoeconomic analysis is performed for a combined cycle in which the waste heat from the Gas Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR) is recovered by an ammonia–water power/cooling cogeneration system. Parametric investigations are conducted to evaluate the effects of decision variables on the performances of the GT-MHR and combined cycles. The performances of these cycles are then optimized from the viewpoints of first law, second law and exergoeconomics. It is found that, combining the GT-MHR with ammonia–water cycle not only enhances the first and second law efficiencies of the GT-MHR, but also it improves the cycle performance from the exergoeconomic perspective. The results show that, when the optimization is based on the exergoeconomics, the unit cost of products is reduced by 5.4% in combining the two mentioned cycles. This is achieved with a just about 1% increase in total investment cost rate since the helium mass flow in the combined cycle is lower than that in the GT-MHR alone. - Highlights: • Application of exergetic cost theory to the combined GT-MHR/ammonia–water cycle. • Enhanced exergoeconomic performance for the combined cycle compared to the GT-MHR. • Comparable investment costs for the combined cycle and the GT-MHR alone

  10. Clinical Value of Basal Serum Progesterone Prior to Initiate Ovarian Hyper-Stimulation with GnRH Antagonists: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulisi, Sonia; Reschini, Marco; Borroni, Raffaella; Paffoni, Alessio; Busnelli, Andrea; Somigliana, Edgardo

    2017-01-01

    The routine assessment of day 3 serum progesterone prior to initiation of ovarian hyper-stimulation with the use of GnRH antagonists is under debate. In this study, we evaluated the clinical utility of this policy. Retrospective cohort study of women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) with the use of GnRH antagonists aimed at determining the frequency of cases with progesterone levels exceeding the recommended threshold of 1,660 pg/ml and at evaluating whether this assessment may be predictive of pregnancy. Serum progesterone exceeded the recommended threshold in one case (0.3%, 95% CI 0.01-1.5). The median (interquartile range) basal progesterone in women who did (n = 95) and did not (n = 217) become pregnant were 351 (234-476) and 380 (237-531) pg/ml, respectively (p = 0.28). The 90th percentile of the basal progesterone distribution in women who became pregnant was 660 pg/ml. Cases with serum progesterone exceeding this threshold in successful and unsuccessful cycles were 10 (10%) and 30 (14%), respectively (p = 0.47). The capacity of basal progesterone to predict pregnancy was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic curve (area under the curve = 0.54, 95% CI 0.47-0.61, p = 0.28). No graphically evident threshold emerged. Routine day 3 serum progesterone assessment in IVF cycles with the use of GnRH antagonists is not justified. Further evidence is warranted prior to claiming its systematic use. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Circadian control of kisspeptin and a gated GnRH response mediate the preovulatory luteinizing hormone surge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Wilbur P; Jarjisian, Stephan G; Mikkelsen, Jens D

    2011-01-01

    In spontaneously ovulating rodents, the preovulatory LH surge is initiated on the day of proestrus by a timed, stimulatory signal originating from the circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). The present studies explored whether kisspeptin is part of the essential neural circuit...... linking the SCN to the GnRH system to stimulate ovulation in Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Kisspeptin neurons exhibit an estrogen-dependent, daily pattern of cellular activity consistent with a role in the circadian control of the LH surge. The SCN targets kisspeptin neurons via vasopressinergic...... of ovulatory control with interactions among the circadian system, kisspeptin signaling, and a GnRH gating mechanism of control....

  12. [In vitro comparison of root canal preparation with step-back technique and GT rotary file--a nickel-titanium engine driven rotary instrument system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajczár, Károly; Tóth, Vilmos; Nyárády, Zoltán; Szabó, Gyula

    2005-06-01

    The aim of the authors' study was to compare the remaining root canal wall thickness and the preparation time of root canals, prepared either with step-back technique, or with GT Rotary File, an engine driven nickel-titanium rotary instrument system. Twenty extracted molars were decoronated. Teeth were divided in two groups. In Group 1 root canals were prepared with step-back technique. In Group 2 GT Rotary File System was utilized. Preoperative vestibulo-oral X-ray pictures were taken from all teeth with radiovisiograph (RVG). The final preparations at the mesiobuccal canals (MB) were performed with size #30 and palatinal/distal canals with size #40 instruments. Postoperative RVG pictures were taken ensuring the preoperative positioning. The working time was measured in seconds during each preparation. The authors also assessed the remaining root canal wall thickness at 3, 6 and 9 mm from the radiological apex, comparing the width of the canal walls of the vestibulo-oral projections on pre- and postoperative RVG pictures both mesially and buccally. The ratios of the residual and preoperative root canal wall thickness were calculated and compared. The largest difference was found at the MB canals of the coronal and middle third level of the root, measured on the distal canal wall. The ratio of the remaining dentin wall thickness at the coronal and the middle level in the case of step-back preparation was 0.605 and 0.754, and 0.824 and 0.895 in the cases of GT files respectively. The preparation time needed for GT Rotary File System was altogether 68.7% (MB) and 52.5% (D/P canals) of corresponding step-back preparation times. The use of GT Rotary File with comparison of standard step-back method resulted in a shortened preparation time and excessive damage of the coronal part of the root canal could be avoided.

  13. Samd7 is a cell type-specific PRC1 component essential for establishing retinal rod photoreceptor identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omori, Yoshihiro; Kubo, Shun; Kon, Tetsuo; Furuhashi, Mayu; Narita, Hirotaka; Kominami, Taro; Ueno, Akiko; Tsutsumi, Ryotaro; Chaya, Taro; Yamamoto, Haruka; Suetake, Isao; Ueno, Shinji; Koseki, Haruhiko; Nakagawa, Atsushi; Furukawa, Takahisa

    2017-09-26

    Precise transcriptional regulation controlled by a transcription factor network is known to be crucial for establishing correct neuronal cell identities and functions in the CNS. In the retina, the expression of various cone and rod photoreceptor cell genes is regulated by multiple transcription factors; however, the role of epigenetic regulation in photoreceptor cell gene expression has been poorly understood. Here, we found that Samd7, a rod-enriched sterile alpha domain (SAM) domain protein, is essential for silencing nonrod gene expression through H3K27me3 regulation in rod photoreceptor cells. Samd7- null mutant mice showed ectopic expression of nonrod genes including S-opsin in rod photoreceptor cells and rod photoreceptor cell dysfunction. Samd7 physically interacts with Polyhomeotic homologs (Phc proteins), components of the Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1), and colocalizes with Phc2 and Ring1B in Polycomb bodies. ChIP assays showed a significant decrease of H3K27me3 in the genes up-regulated in the Samd7 -deficient retina, showing that Samd7 deficiency causes the derepression of nonrod gene expression in rod photoreceptor cells. The current study suggests that Samd7 is a cell type-specific PRC1 component epigenetically defining rod photoreceptor cell identity.

  14. Utilization of waste heat from GT-MHR for power generation in organic Rankine cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yari, Mortaza; Mahmoudi, S.M.S.

    2010-01-01

    The gas turbine-modular helium reactor (GT-MHR) is currently being developed by an international consortium. In this power plant, circulating helium that has to be compressed in a single or two successive stages cools the reactor core. For thermodynamic reasons, these compression stages require pre-cooling of the helium to about 26 deg. C through the use of intercooler and pre-cooler in which water is used to cool the helium. Considerable thermal energy (∼300 MWth) is thus dissipated in these components. This thermal energy is then rejected to a heat sink. For different designs, the temperature ranges of the helium in the intercooler and pre-cooler could be about 100 and 150 deg. C, respectively. These are ideal energy sources to be used in an organic Rankine cycles for power generation. This study examines the performance of a gas-cooled nuclear power plant with closed Brayton cycle (CBC) combined with two organic Rankine cycles (ORC). More attention was paid to the irreversibilities generated in the combined cycle. Individual models are developed for each component through applications of the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The effects of the turbine inlet temperature, compressor pressure ratio, evaporator temperature and temperature difference in the evaporator on the first- and second-law efficiencies and on the exergy destruction rate of the combined cycle were studied. Finally the combined cycle was optimized thermodynamically using the EES (Engineering Equation Solver) software. Based on identical operating conditions, a comparison between the GT-MHR/ORC and a simple GT-MHR cycle is also made. It was found that both the first- and second-law efficiencies of GT-MHR/ORC cycle are about 3%-points higher than that of the simple GT-MHR cycle. Also, the exergy destruction rate for GT-MHR/ORC cycle is about 5% lower than that of the GT-MHR cycle.

  15. A short course of metformin does not reduce OHSS in a GnRH antagonist cycle for women with PCOS undergoing IVF: a randomised placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, S L; Brewer, C; Tang, T; Picton, H M; Barth, J H; Balen, A H

    2016-12-01

    Does 'metformin' reduce the incidence of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) for women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) undergoing a GnRH antagonist assisted conception treatment cycle? A short course of metformin does not reduce the incidence of OHSS for women with PCOS undergoing a GnRH antagonist treatment cycle. Metformin does reduce the incidence of OHSS in a GnRH-agonist treatment cycle. A randomised placebo-controlled trial (RCT) using metformin or placebo. Randomisation was blinded to both patient and investigator, using a random permuted blocks method with a 50:50 allocation ratio. The study was completed over 5 years (2009-2014) with 153 randomised patients. A sample size calculation based on the incidence of OHSS was completed prospectively suggesting a minimum of 146 recruits was required for the trial with a power of 80% and a type 1 error of 0.05. All patients met the Rotterdam criteria for PCOS and were treated with a standard GnRH antagonist IVF/ICSI treatment cycle in a tertiary infertility clinic. The study medication was started prior to stimulation and continued to oocyte retrieval. Of the 153 patients, 77 received metformin and 76 placebo. There was no reduction in the incidence of moderate-severe OHSS (Placebo (PLA) 12.2%, metformin (MET) = 16%, 95% CI -0.08-0.16, P = 0.66). There was no difference in total gonadotrophin dose (PLA = 1200, MET = 1200, 95% CI -118.67-118.67, P = 0.75), oocytes retrieved (PLA = 15, MET = 14, 95% CI -2.37-4.37, P = 0.66) or fertilisation rate (PLA = 60.7%, MET = 53.3%, 95% CI -0.96-14.94, P = 0.07). However, using metformin resulted in a reduced clinical pregnancy rate (CPR) per cycle started (PLA = 48.7%, MET = 28.6%, 95% CI 0.04-0.35, P = 0.02) and live birth rate (PLA = 51.6%, MET = 27.6%, 95% CI 0.05-0.40, P = 0.02). Furthermore, when ethnicity was taken into account there was a significant reduction in pregnancy outcome for the South Asian population irrespective of metformin or

  16. Highly immunogenic and fully synthetic peptide-carrier constructs targetting GnRH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beekman, N.J.C.M.; Schaaper, W.M.M.; Turkstra, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    To use peptides as synthetic vaccines, they have to be coupled to a carrier protein to make them more immunogenic. Coupling efficiency between a carrier protein and a peptide, however, is difficult to control with respect to loading density of the peptide, This makes these carrier proteins poorly...... for the induction of antibodies against GnRH and immunocastration of pigs....

  17. Models development for the fuel design of a reactor GT-MHR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telesforo R, D.; Francois L, J. L.

    2009-10-01

    The very high temperature reactor (VHTR) it as arisen as an option for the following reactors generation, due to their characteristics as they are inherent security, modularity and relative low cost. One of the VHTR variants, for its fuel based on prismatic blocks, is the modular reactor cooled by gas GT-MHR that uses a fuel particle of multiple layers called TRISO. These particles are small containers with fuel in their interior and they function as small pressure vessels that retain the fission products. They are absorbed inconstant ing in a cylindrical graphite matrix to form the fuel named Compact; the quantity of fuel inventory is proportional to the packaging fraction on the total volume of the Compact. The reactor consists of a matrix of 12 X 12 graphite hexagonal assemblies contained in a cylinder of 3.5 radio meters and 10.0 meters high. The nucleus has ten axial regions with 36 X 3 fuel assemblies distributed in three rings. For the neutronic modeling of the fuel and the nucleus it was employee the Monte Carlo method, using the code MCNPX (Monte Carlo N-Particle version X) that is a transport code of general purposes that uses this method with a great versatility in the representation of arbitrary three-dimensional configurations and materials configuration. The heterogeneous model of the reactor GT-MHR core was obtained, adjusting the relative parameters at core prototype GT-MHR presented by General Atomics. To prove the model it was employee the fuel formed by TRISO particles, with a nucleus of 150 μm and packaging fraction of 37.55%, with a Uranium-235 mixture, as fissile nuclide, and Thorium-232. To create a simplified model of the nucleus, or homogeneous model, without modeling any particle, it was employee the reactivity-equivalent physical transformation method that captures the effects of the heterogeneity double of the fuel region in two homogeneous equivalent cells, being obtained very good results. (Author)

  18. Antiviral Activity and Resistance Analysis of NS3/4A Protease Inhibitor Grazoprevir and NS5A Inhibitor Elbasvir in Hepatitis C Virus GT4 Replicons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asante-Appiah, Ernest; Curry, Stephanie; McMonagle, Patricia; Ingravallo, Paul; Chase, Robert; Nickle, David; Qiu, Ping; Howe, Anita; Lahser, Frederick C

    2017-07-01

    Although genotype 4 (GT4)-infected patients represent a minor overall percentage of the global hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected population, the high prevalence of the genotype in specific geographic regions coupled with substantial sequence diversity makes it an important genotype to study for antiviral drug discovery and development. We evaluated two direct-acting antiviral agents-grazoprevir, an HCV NS3/4A protease inhibitor, and elbasvir, an HCV NS5A inhibitor-in GT4 replicons prior to clinical studies in this genotype. Following a bioinformatics analysis of available GT4 sequences, a set of replicons bearing representative GT4 clinical isolates was generated. For grazoprevir, the 50% effective concentration (EC 50 ) against the replicon bearing the reference GT4a (ED43) NS3 protease and NS4A was 0.7 nM. The median EC 50 for grazoprevir against chimeric replicons encoding NS3/4A sequences from GT4 clinical isolates was 0.2 nM (range, 0.11 to 0.33 nM; n = 5). The difficulty in establishing replicons bearing NS3/4A resistance-associated substitutions was substantially overcome with the identification of a G162R adaptive substitution in NS3. Single NS3 substitutions D168A/V identified from de novo resistance selection studies reduced grazoprevir antiviral activity by 137- and 47-fold, respectively, in the background of the G162R replicon. For elbasvir, the EC 50 against the replicon bearing the reference full-length GT4a (ED43) NS5A gene was 0.0002 nM. The median EC 50 for elbasvir against chimeric replicons bearing clinical isolates from GT4 was 0.0007 nM (range, 0.0002 to 34 nM; n = 14). De novo resistance selection studies in GT4 demonstrated a high propensity to suppress the emergence of amino acid substitutions that confer high-potency reductions to elbasvir. Phenotypic characterization of the NS5A amino acid substitutions identified (L30F, L30S, M31V, and Y93H) indicated that they conferred 15-, 4-, 2.5-, and 7.5-fold potency losses, respectively, to elbasvir

  19. Role of calcium in gonadotropin releasing hormone-induced luteinizing hormone secretion from the bovine pituitary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kile, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    The hypothesis was tested that GnRH acts to release LH by increasing calcium uptake by gonadotroph which in turn stimulates calcium-calmodulin activity and results in LH release from bovine pituitary cells as it does in the rat. Pituitary glands of calves (4-10 months of age) were enzymatically dispersed (0.2% collagenase) and grown for 5 days to confluency in multiwell plates (3 x 10 5 /well). Cells treated with GnRH Ca ++ ionophore A23187, and ouabain all produced significant releases of LH release in a pronounced all or none fashion, while thorough washing of the cells with 0.5 mM EGTA in Ca ++ -free media prevented the action of GnRH. GnRH caused a rapid efflux of 45 Ca ++ . Both GnRH-stimulated 45 Ca efflux and LH release could be partially blocked by verapamil GnRH-induced LH release could also be blocked by nifedipine and tetrodotoxin, although these agents did not affect 45 Ca efflux. The calmodulin antagonists calmidazolium and W7 were found to block GnRH induced LH release, as well as LH release induced by theophylline, KC PGE 2 and estradiol. These data indicated that: (1) calcium is required for GnRH action, but extracellular Ca ++ does not regulate LH release; (2) GnRH elevates intracellular Ca ++ by opening both voltage sensitive and receptor mediated Ca ++ channels; (3) activation of calmodulin is one mechanism involved in GnRH-induced LH release

  20. Arabidopsis brassinosteroid biosynthetic mutant dwarf7-1 exhibits slower rates of cell division and shoot induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulz Burkhard

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant growth depends on both cell division and cell expansion. Plant hormones, including brassinosteroids (BRs, are central to the control of these two cellular processes. Despite clear evidence that BRs regulate cell elongation, their roles in cell division have remained elusive. Results Here, we report results emphasizing the importance of BRs in cell division. An Arabidopsis BR biosynthetic mutant, dwarf7-1, displayed various characteristics attributable to slower cell division rates. We found that the DWARF4 gene which encodes for an enzyme catalyzing a rate-determining step in the BR biosynthetic pathways, is highly expressed in the actively dividing callus, suggesting that BR biosynthesis is necessary for dividing cells. Furthermore, dwf7-1 showed noticeably slower rates of callus growth and shoot induction relative to wild-type control. Flow cytometric analyses of the nuclei derived from either calli or intact roots revealed that the cell division index, which was represented as the ratio of cells at the G2/M vs. G1 phases, was smaller in dwf7-1 plants. Finally, we found that the expression levels of the genes involved in cell division and shoot induction, such as PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN2 (PCNA2 and ENHANCER OF SHOOT REGENERATION2 (ESR2, were also lower in dwf7-1 as compared with wild type. Conclusions Taken together, results of callus induction, shoot regeneration, flow cytometry, and semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis suggest that BRs play important roles in both cell division and cell differentiation in Arabidopsis.

  1. Observational Study to Assess the Therapeutic Value of Four Ovarian Hyperstimulation Protocols in IVF after Pituitary Suppression with GnRH Antagonists in Normally Responding Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monzó Ana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To compare the clinical results of four different protocols of COH for IVF-ICSI in normovulatory women, using in all cases pituitary suppression with GnRH antagonists. Materials/methods A single center, open label, parallel-controlled, prospective, post-authorization study under the approved conditions for use where 305 normal responders women who were candidates to COH were assigned to r-FSH + hp-hMG (n = 51, Group I, hp-hMG (n = 61, Group II, fixed-dose r-FSH (n = 118, Group III, and r-FSH with potential dose adjustment (n = 75, Group IV to subsequently undergo IVF-ICSI. Results During stimulation, Group IV needed significantly more days of stimulation as compared to Group II [8.09 ± 1.25 vs. 7.62 ± 1.17; P < 0.05], but was the group in which more oocytes were recovered [Group I: 9.43 ± 4.99 vs. Group II: 8.96 ± 4.82 vs. Group III: 8.78 ± 3.72 vs. Group IV: 11.62 ± 5.80; P < 0.05]. No significant differences were seen between the groups in terms of clinical and ongoing pregnancy, but among patients in whom two embryos with similar quality parameters (ASEBIR were transferred, the group treated with hp-hMG alone achieved a significantly greater clinical pregnancy rate as compared to all other groups [Group I: 31.6%, Group II: 56.4%, Group III: 28.7%, Group IV: 32.7%; P < 0.05]. Conclusions Although randomized clinical trials should be conducted to achieve a more reliable conclusion, these observations support the concept that stimulation with hp-hMG could be beneficial in normal responders women undergoing pituitary suppression with GnRH antagonists.

  2. Kisspeptin Antagonists Reveal Kisspeptin 1 and Kisspeptin 2 Differential Regulation of Reproduction in the Teleost, Morone saxatilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmora, Nilli; Stubblefield, John David; Wong, Ten-Tsao; Levavi-Sivan, Berta; Millar, Robert Peter; Zohar, Yonathan

    2015-09-01

    The importance of kisspeptin in regulating vertebrate reproduction has been well established, but the exact mechanism continues to unfold. Unlike mammals, many lower vertebrates possess a dual kisspeptin system, Kiss1 and Kiss2. To decipher the roles of the kisspeptins in fish, we identified two potential kisspeptin antagonists, pep 234 and pep 359, by screening analogs for their ability to inactivate striped bass Kiss1 and Kiss2 receptors expressed in COS7 cells. Pep 234 (a mammalian KISS1 antagonist) antagonizes Kiss1r signaling activated by Kiss1 and Kiss2, and pep 359 (a novel analog) antagonizes Kiss2 activation of both receptors. In vitro studies using brain slices demonstrated that only Kiss2 can upregulate the expression of the hypophysiotropic gnrh1, which was subsequently diminished by pep 234 and pep 359. In primary pituitary cell cultures, the two antagonists revealed a complex network of putative endogenous and exogenous regulation by kisspeptin. While both kisspeptins stimulate Fsh expression and secretion, Kiss2 predominately induces Lh secretion. Pep 234 and 359 treatment of spawning males hindered sperm production. This effect was accompanied with decreased brain gnrh1 and gnrh2 mRNA levels and peptide content in the pituitary, and increased levels of pituitary Lh, probably due to attenuation of Lh release. Strikingly, the mRNA levels of arginine-vasotocin, the neurons of which in the preoptic area coexpress kiss2r, were dramatically reduced by the antagonists. Our results demonstrate differential actions of Kiss1 and Kiss2 systems along the hypothalamic-pituitary axis and interactions with other neuropeptides, and further reinforce the importance of kisspeptin in the execution of spawning. © 2015 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  3. Effect of alcohol dehydrogenase-1B and -7 polymorphisms on blood ethanol and acetaldehyde concentrations in healthy subjects with a history of moderate alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastorino, Roberta; Iuliano, Luigi; Vecchioni, Alessia; Arzani, Dario; Milic, Mirta; Annunziata, Francesca; Zerbinati, Chiara; Capoluongo, Ettore; Bonassi, Stefano; McKay, James D; Boccia, Stefania

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effect of ADH1B and ADH7 genotypes on blood acetaldehyde and ethanol levels after alcohol ingestion, and to measure the genotoxic effect of smoking and ethanol on the buccal cells, also controlling for ADH variants. We recruited healthy Italian subjects with at least a moderate history of alcohol consumption. All subjects were given an alcoholic drink of 0.4 g ethanol /kg of body weight. Blood venous samples were collected at baseline, and 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after ingestion. Buccal cells were collected before ethanol ingestion. Sixty subjects were enrolled in the study. Individuals with the ADH1B GG genotype had median ethanol levels of 5.0mM (IQR 3.4-7.2), and those with the ADH1B GT/TT genotype had 4.7mM (IQR 4.2-4.8). Corresponding acetaldehyde levels were 1.5μM (IQR 0.7-2.6) for ADH1B GG genotype and 1.6μM (IQR 1.5-1.7) for ADH1B CG/GG genotype. Individuals with the ADH7 CC genotype had median ethanol levels of 5.0mM (IQR 3.3-7.2), while 5.0mM (IQR 4.7-5.6) was in those with the ADH7 CG/GG genotype. Corresponding acetaldehyde levels were 1.5 μM (IQR 0.7-2.6) for ADH7 CC genotype and 1.5 μM (IQR 1.4-1.6) for ADH7 CG/GG genotypes. A non-significant increase in the frequency of karyolitic and pyknotic cells was found in the group of heavy drinkers and current smokers, when compared to the moderate drinkers and the non-smokers. Our study does not support the hypothesis that ADH1B and ADH7 genotypes affect blood ethanol and acetaldehyde concentration. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. The potential for castration of domestic animals by active immunization against GnRH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, A.; Allen, A.F.; Murphy, B.D.; Mapletoft, R.J.; Cohen, R.

    1990-01-01

    Trials have been carried out in sheep and beef cattle in attempts to induce immunity against gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), with the objective of using immunocastration as a replacement for surgical castration. Of the protein carriers used, ovalbumin and horse albumin yielded highest responses, with keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH) being a potent substitute for both. Different adjuvants were also used. In these trials, highest titre responses were obtained using Freund's complete (FCA) or Freund's incomplete (FIA) adjuvant in cattle and sheep. Although no adjuvant was found to yield as high a response as FCA and Alhydrogel, an aluminium hydroxide adjuvant generally yielded a high response in cattle and sheep. The results from the trials in beef calves indicate that active immunization against GnRH does not affect average daily gains, total body weight gain or carcass dressing percentage. The results suggest the potential of immunocastration as a substitute for surgical castration in cattle and sheep. (author). 30 refs, 8 figs, 2 tabs

  5. A thermodynamic study of waste heat recovery from GT-MHR using organic Rankine cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yari, Mortaza; Mahmoudi, S.M.S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation on the utilization of waste heat from a gas turbine-modular helium reactor (GT-MHR) using different arrangements of organic Rankine cycles (ORCs) for power production. The considered organic Rankine cycles were: simple organic Rankine cycle (SORC), ORC with internal heat exchanger (HORC) and regenerative organic Rankine cycle (RORC). The performances of the combined cycles were studied from the point of view of first and second-laws of thermodynamics. Individual models were developed for each component and the effects of some important parameters such as compressor pressure ratio, turbine inlet temperature, and evaporator and environment temperatures on the efficiencies and on the exergy destruction rate were studied. Finally the combined cycles were optimized thermodynamically using the EES (Engineering Equation Solver) software. Based on the identical operating conditions for the GT-MHR cycle, a comparison between the three combined cycles and a simple GT-MHR cycle is also were made. This comparison was also carried out from the point of view of economics. The GT-MHR/SORC combined cycle proved to be the best among all the cycles from the point of view of both thermodynamics and economics. The efficiency of this cycle was about 10% higher than that of GT-MHR alone. (orig.)

  6. Estrogen induced {beta}-1,4-galactosyltransferase 1 expression regulates proliferation of human breast cancer MCF-7 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hee-Jung [Department of Biological Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Division of Applied Medicine, School of Korean Medicine, Pusan National University, Yangsan-city, Gyeongsangnam-do (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Tae-Wook; Kim, Cheorl-Ho [Department of Molecular and Cellular Glycobiology, College of Natural Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Kyungki-do (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Han-Sol; Joo, Myungsoo [Division of Applied Medicine, School of Korean Medicine, Pusan National University, Yangsan-city, Gyeongsangnam-do (Korea, Republic of); Youn, BuHyun, E-mail: bhyoun72@pusan.ac.kr [Department of Biological Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Ki-Tae, E-mail: hagis@pusan.ac.kr [Division of Applied Medicine, School of Korean Medicine, Pusan National University, Yangsan-city, Gyeongsangnam-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examined the regulation and biological functions of B4GALT1 expression induced by estrogen. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Estrogen-induced B4GALT1 expression through the direct binding of ER-{alpha} to ERE in MCF-7 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer B4GALT1 expression activates the proliferation of MCF-7 cells via its receptor function. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thus, we suggest B4GALT1 as a molecular target for inhibiting breast cancer proliferation. -- Abstract: Beta 1,4-galactosyltransferase 1 (B4GALT1) synthesizes galactose {beta}-1,4-N-acetylglucosamine (Gal{beta}1-4GlcNAc) groups on N-linked sugar chains of glycoproteins, which play important roles in many biological events, including the proliferation and migration of cancer cells. A previous microarray study reported that this gene is expressed by estrogen treatment in breast cancer. In this study, we examined the regulatory mechanisms and biological functions of estrogen-induced B4GALT1 expression. Our data showed that estrogen-induced expression of B4GALT1 is localized in intracellular compartments and in the plasma membrane. In addition, B4GALT1 has an enzyme activity involved in the production of the Gal{beta}1-4GlcNAc structure. The result from a promoter assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed that 3 different estrogen response elements (EREs) in the B4GALT1 promoter are critical for responsiveness to estrogen. In addition, the estrogen antagonists ICI 182,780 and ER-{alpha}-ERE binding blocker TPBM inhibit the expression of estrogen-induced B4GALT1. However, the inhibition of signal molecules relating to the extra-nuclear pathway, including the G-protein coupled receptors, Ras, and mitogen-activated protein kinases, had no inhibitory effects on B4GALT1 expression. The knock-down of the B4GALT1 gene and the inhibition of membrane B4GALT1 function resulted in the significant inhibition of estrogen-induced proliferation of MCF-7 cells. Considering

  7. Estrogen induced β-1,4-galactosyltransferase 1 expression regulates proliferation of human breast cancer MCF-7 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hee-Jung; Chung, Tae-Wook; Kim, Cheorl-Ho; Jeong, Han-Sol; Joo, Myungsoo; Youn, BuHyun; Ha, Ki-Tae

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We examined the regulation and biological functions of B4GALT1 expression induced by estrogen. ► Estrogen-induced B4GALT1 expression through the direct binding of ER-α to ERE in MCF-7 cells. ► B4GALT1 expression activates the proliferation of MCF-7 cells via its receptor function. ► Thus, we suggest B4GALT1 as a molecular target for inhibiting breast cancer proliferation. -- Abstract: Beta 1,4-galactosyltransferase 1 (B4GALT1) synthesizes galactose β-1,4-N-acetylglucosamine (Galβ1-4GlcNAc) groups on N-linked sugar chains of glycoproteins, which play important roles in many biological events, including the proliferation and migration of cancer cells. A previous microarray study reported that this gene is expressed by estrogen treatment in breast cancer. In this study, we examined the regulatory mechanisms and biological functions of estrogen-induced B4GALT1 expression. Our data showed that estrogen-induced expression of B4GALT1 is localized in intracellular compartments and in the plasma membrane. In addition, B4GALT1 has an enzyme activity involved in the production of the Galβ1-4GlcNAc structure. The result from a promoter assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed that 3 different estrogen response elements (EREs) in the B4GALT1 promoter are critical for responsiveness to estrogen. In addition, the estrogen antagonists ICI 182,780 and ER-α-ERE binding blocker TPBM inhibit the expression of estrogen-induced B4GALT1. However, the inhibition of signal molecules relating to the extra-nuclear pathway, including the G-protein coupled receptors, Ras, and mitogen-activated protein kinases, had no inhibitory effects on B4GALT1 expression. The knock-down of the B4GALT1 gene and the inhibition of membrane B4GALT1 function resulted in the significant inhibition of estrogen-induced proliferation of MCF-7 cells. Considering these results, we propose that estrogen regulates the expression of B4GALT1 through the direct binding of ER-α to ERE and

  8. International co-operation in developing the GT-MHR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Bar, M.P.; Simon, W.A.

    1997-01-01

    In the Fall of 1995, driven by budget constraints and anti-nuclear sentiments, the US government decided to discontinue financial support of the Gas Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR). At that time, significant work was underway with participation of several vendors with specialized expertise in various aspects of the GT-MHR. Fortunately the US government provided for documenting the design and development status through an orderly close-out program. Concurrent elimination of government restrictions opened the door for broader international cooperation. Discussion between General Atomics and the Russian Ministry of Atomic Energy (MINATOM), in the summer of 1994, led to an agreement on a jointly funded design and development program for the GT-MHR. The program is initially focused on the burning of weapons plutonium that becomes available from dismantled nuclear weapons. The long term goal is to utilize the same design for commercial applications - using uranium fuel. This program took advantage of existing technologies and facilities in the US and Russia, but right from the beginning left the door open for broader international cooperation. Accordingly, in January 1996, FRAMATOME has joined the ongoing effort. Discussions are underway with other international entities to join this program. The program is proceeding well. Several Russian laboratories/design organizations are participating with GA and FRAMATOME. Significant improvements in the power conversion system design are a clear example of the benefit of the cooperative effort. Further work needs to be done to confirm fuel and components prior to full deployment, etc., providing ample opportunities for international cooperation in many areas

  9. Cancer cell-associated cytoplasmic B7–H4 is induced by hypoxia through hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and promotes cancer cell proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, You-Kyoung [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of); Advanced Research Center for Multiple Myeloma, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sae-Gwang; Choi, Il-Whan [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Soo-Woong [Advanced Research Center for Multiple Myeloma, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Min [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Hematology/Oncology, Busan Paik Hospital, Inje University, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Inhak, E-mail: miccih@inje.ac.kr [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of); Advanced Research Center for Multiple Myeloma, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-03

    Aberrant B7–H4 expression in cancer tissues serves as a novel prognostic biomarker for poor survival in patients with cancer. However, the factor(s) that induce cancer cell-associated B7–H4 remain to be fully elucidated. We herein demonstrate that hypoxia upregulates B7–H4 transcription in primary CD138{sup +} multiple myeloma cells and cancer cell lines. In support of this finding, analysis of the Multiple Myeloma Genomics Portal (MMGP) data set revealed a positive correlation between the mRNA expression levels of B7–H4 and the endogenous hypoxia marker carbonic anhydrogenase 9. Hypoxia-induced B7–H4 expression was detected in the cytoplasm, but not in cancer cell membranes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated binding of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) to proximal hypoxia-response element (HRE) sites within the B7–H4 promoter. Knockdown of HIF-1α and pharmacological inhibition of HIF-1α diminished B7–H4 expression. Furthermore, knockdown of cytoplasmic B7–H4 in MCF-7 decreased the S-phase cell population under hypoxia. Finally, MMGP analysis revealed a positive correlation between the transcript levels of B7–H4 and proliferation-related genes including MKI67, CCNA1, and Myc in several patients with multiple myeloma. Our results provide insight into the mechanisms underlying B7–H4 upregulation and its role in cancer cell proliferation in a hypoxic tumor microenvironment. - Highlights: • Hypoxia upregulates B7–H4 transcription and protein expression. • Hypoxia-induced B7–H4 is detected in the cytoplasm, but not on membrane. • ChIP assay reveals a binding of HIF-1α to B7–H4 promoter at HRE site. • Knockdown and pharmacological inhibition of HIF-1α reduce B7–H4 expression. • B7–H4 knockdown decrease the number of cells in S-phase of cell cycle.

  10. Dynein and EFF-1 control dendrite morphology by regulating the localization pattern of SAX-7 in epidermal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ting; Liang, Xing; Wang, Xiang-Ming; Shen, Kang

    2017-12-01

    Our previous work showed that the cell adhesion molecule SAX-7 forms an elaborate pattern in Caenorhabditis elegans epidermal cells, which instructs PVD dendrite branching. However, the molecular mechanism forming the SAX-7 pattern in the epidermis is not fully understood. Here, we report that the dynein light intermediate chain DLI-1 and the fusogen EFF-1 are required in epidermal cells to pattern SAX-7. While previous reports suggest that these two molecules act cell-autonomously in the PVD, our results show that the disorganized PVD dendritic arbors in these mutants are due to the abnormal SAX-7 localization patterns in epidermal cells. Three lines of evidence support this notion. First, the epidermal SAX-7 pattern was severely affected in dli-1 and eff-1 mutants. Second, the abnormal SAX-7 pattern was predictive of the ectopic PVD dendrites. Third, expression of DLI-1 or EFF-1 in the epidermis rescued both the SAX-7 pattern and the disorganized PVD dendrite phenotypes, whereas expression of these molecules in the PVD did not. We also show that DLI-1 functions cell-autonomously in the PVD to promote distal branch formation. These results demonstrate the unexpected roles of DLI-1 and EFF-1 in the epidermis in the control of PVD dendrite morphogenesis. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. Ephrinb1 and Ephrinb2 Are Associated with Interleukin-7 Receptor α and Retard Its Internalization from the Cell Surface*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hongyu; Wu, Zenghui; Qi, Shijie; Jin, Wei; Han, Bing; Wu, Jiangping

    2011-01-01

    IL-7 plays vital roles in thymocyte development, T cell homeostasis, and the survival of these cells. IL-7 receptor α (IL-7Rα) on thymocytes and T cells is rapidly internalized upon IL-7 ligation. Ephrins (Efns) are cell surface molecules and ligands of the largest receptor kinase family, Eph kinases. We discovered that T cell-specific double gene knock-out (dKO) of Efnb1 and Efnb2 in mice led to reduced IL-7Rα expression in thymocytes and T cells, and that IL-7Rα down-regulation was accelerated in dKO CD4 cells upon IL-7 treatment. On the other hand, Efnb1 and Efnb2 overexpression on T cell lymphoma EL4 cells retarded IL-7Rα down-regulation. dKO T cells manifested compromised STAT5 activation and homeostatic proliferation, an IL-7-dependent process. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer and immunoprecipitation demonstrated that Efnb1 and Efnb2 interacted physically with IL-7Rα. Such interaction likely retarded IL-7Rα internalization, as Efnb1 and Efnb2 were not internalized. Therefore, we revealed a novel function of Efnb1 and Efnb2 in stabilizing IL-7Rα expression at the post-translational level, and a previously unknown modus operandi of Efnbs in the regulation of expression of other vital cell surface receptors. PMID:22069310

  12. Chondrogenesis of Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Induced by TGFβ1 and BMP7 Through Increased TGFβ Receptor Expression and Endogenous TGFβ1 Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Patrick T; Li, Wan-Ju

    2017-01-01

    For decades stem cells have proven to be invaluable to the study of tissue development. More recently, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) (ESC-MSCs) have emerged as a cell source with great potential for the future of biomedical research due to their enhanced proliferative capability compared to adult tissue-derived MSCs and effectiveness of musculoskeletal lineage-specific cell differentiation compared to ESCs. We have previously compared the properties and differentiation potential of ESC-MSCs to bone marrow-derived MSCs. In this study, we evaluated the potential of TGFβ1 and BMP7 to induce chondrogenic differentiation of ESC-MSCs compared to that of TGFβ1 alone and further investigated the cellular phenotype and intracellular signaling in response to these induction conditions. Our results showed that the expression of cartilage-associated markers in ESC-MSCs induced by the TGFβ1 and BMP7 combination was increased compared to induction with TGFβ1 alone. The TGFβ1 and BMP7 combination upregulated the expression of TGFβ receptor and the production of endogenous TGFβs compared to TGFβ1 induction. The growth factor combination also increasingly activated both of the TGF and BMP signaling pathways, and inhibition of the signaling pathways led to reduced chondrogenesis of ESC-MSCs. Our findings suggest that by adding BMP7 to TGFβ1-supplemented induction medium, ESC-MSC chondrogenesis is upregulated through increased production of endogenous TGFβ and activities of TGFβ and BMP signaling. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 172-181, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. IGF-1/IGF-1R/hsa-let-7c axis regulates the committed differentiation of stem cells from apical papilla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shu; Liu, Genxia; Jin, Lin; Pang, Xiyao; Wang, Yanqiu; Wang, Zilu; Yu, Yan; Yu, Jinhua

    2016-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and its receptor IGF-1R play a paramount role in tooth/bone formation while hsa-let-7c actively participates in the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. However, the interaction between IGF-1/IGF-1R and hsa-let-7c on the committed differentiation of stem cells from apical papilla (SCAPs) remains unclear. In this study, human SCAPs were isolated and treated with IGF-1 and hsa-let-7c over/low-expression viruses. The odonto/osteogenic differentiation of these stem cells and the involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway were subsequently investigated. Alizarin red staining showed that hsa-let-7c low-expression can significantly promote the mineralization of IGF-1 treated SCAPs, while hsa-let-7c over-expression can decrease the calcium deposition of IGF-1 treated SCAPs. Western blot assay and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction further demonstrated that the expression of odonto/osteogenic markers (ALP, RUNX2/RUNX2, OSX/OSX, OCN/OCN, COL-I/COL-I, DSPP/DSP, and DMP-1/DMP-1) in IGF-1 treated SCAPs were significantly upregulated in Let-7c-low group. On the contrary, hsa-let-7c over-expression could downregulate the expression of these odonto/osteogenic markers. Moreover, western blot assay showed that the JNK and p38 MAPK signaling pathways were activated in Let-7c-low SCAPs but inhibited in Let-7c-over SCAPs. Together, the IGF-1/IGF-1R/hsa-let-7c axis can control the odonto/osteogenic differentiation of IGF-1-treated SCAPs via the regulation of JNK and p38 MAPK signaling pathways. PMID:27833148

  14. Dynamics and control modeling of the closed-cycle gas turbine (GT-HTGR) power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardia, A.

    1980-02-01

    The simulation if presented for the 800-MW(e) two-loop GT-HTGR plant design with the REALY2 transient analysis computer code, and the modeling of control strategies called for by the inherently unique operational requirements of a multiple loop GT-HTGR is described. Plant control of the GT-HTGR is constrained by the nature of its power conversion loops (PCLs) in which the core cooling flow and the turbine flow are directly related and thus changes in flow affect core cooling as well as turbine power. Additionally, the high thermal inertia of the reactor core precludes rapid changes in the temperature of the turbine inlet flow

  15. Evaluation of Cathode Air Flow Transients in a SOFC/GT Hybrid System Using Hardware in the Loop Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Nana; Yang, Chen; Tucker, David

    2015-02-01

    Thermal management in the fuel cell component of a direct fired solid oxide fuel cell gas turbine (SOFC/GT) hybrid power system can be improved by effective management and control of the cathode airflow. The disturbances of the cathode airflow were accomplished by diverting air around the fuel cell system through the manipulation of a hot-air bypass valve in open loop experiments, using a hardware-based simulation facility designed and built by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The dynamic responses of the fuel cell component and hardware component of the hybrid system were studied in this paper.

  16. Iron nanoparticles increase 7-ketocholesterol-induced cell death, inflammation, and oxidation on murine cardiac HL1-NB cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmond Kahn

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Edmond Kahn1, Mauhamad Baarine2, Sophie Pelloux3, Jean-Marc Riedinger4, Frédérique Frouin1, Yves Tourneur3, Gérard Lizard21INSE RM U678/UMR – S UPMC, IFR 14, CH U Pitié-Salpêtrière, 75634 Paris Cedex 13, France; 2Centre de Recherche INSE RM U866, Equipe Biochimie Métabolique et Nutritionnelle – Université de Bourgogne, Faculté des Sciences Gabriel, 6 Bd Gabriel, 21000 Dijon, France; 3Centre Commun de Quantimétrie, Université Lyon 1; Université de Lyon, Lyon, France; 4Département de Biologie et de Pathologie des Tumeurs, Centre Georges François-Leclerc, 21000 Dijon, FranceObjective: To evaluate the cytotoxicity of iron nanoparticles on cardiac cells and to determine whether they can modulate the biological activity of 7-ketocholesterol (7KC involved in the development of cardiovascular diseases. Nanoparticles of iron labeled with Texas Red are introduced in cultures of nonbeating mouse cardiac cells (HL1-NB with or without 7-ketocholesterol 7KC, and their ability to induce cell death, pro-inflammatory and oxidative effects are analyzed simultaneously.Study design: Flow cytometry (FCM, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM, and subsequent factor analysis image processing (FAMIS are used to characterize the action of iron nanoparticles and to define their cytotoxicity which is evaluated by enhanced permeability to SYTOX Green, and release of lactate deshydrogenase (LDH. Pro-inflammatory effects are estimated by ELISA in order to quantify IL-8 and MCP-1 secretions. Pro-oxidative effects are measured with hydroethydine (HE.Results: Iron Texas Red nanoparticles accumulate at the cytoplasmic membrane level. They induce a slight LDH release, and have no inflammatory or oxidative effects. However, they enhance the cytotoxic, pro-inflammatory and oxidative effects of 7KC. The accumulation dynamics of SYTOX Green in cells is measured by CLSM to characterize the toxicity of nanoparticles. The emission spectra of SYTOX Green and

  17. Metabolic Thresholds and Validated Accelerometer Cutoff Points for the Actigraph GT1M in Young Children Based on Measurements of Locomotion and Play Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimmy, Gerda; Dossegger, Alain; Seiler, Roland; Mader, Urs

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine metabolic thresholds and subsequent activity intensity cutoff points for the ActiGraph GT1M with various epochs spanning from 5 to 60 sec in young children. Twenty-two children, aged 4 to 9 years, performed 10 different activities including locomotion and play activities. Energy expenditure was…

  18. Stall/surge dynamics of a multi-stage air compressor in response to a load transient of a hybrid solid oxide fuel cell-gas turbine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Mohammad Ali; Brouwer, Jacob

    2017-10-01

    A better understanding of turbulent unsteady flows in gas turbine systems is necessary to design and control compressors for hybrid fuel cell-gas turbine systems. Compressor stall/surge analysis for a 4 MW hybrid solid oxide fuel cell-gas turbine system for locomotive applications is performed based upon a 1.7 MW multi-stage air compressor. Control strategies are applied to prevent operation of the hybrid SOFC-GT beyond the stall/surge lines of the compressor. Computational fluid dynamics tools are used to simulate the flow distribution and instabilities near the stall/surge line. The results show that a 1.7 MW system compressor like that of a Kawasaki gas turbine is an appropriate choice among the industrial compressors to be used in a 4 MW locomotive SOFC-GT with topping cycle design. The multi-stage radial design of the compressor enhances the ability of the compressor to maintain air flow rate during transient step-load changes. These transient step-load changes are exhibited in many potential applications for SOFC/GT systems. The compressor provides sustained air flow rate during the mild stall/surge event that occurs due to the transient step-load change that is applied, indicating that this type of compressor is well-suited for this hybrid application.

  19. Inhibition of central de novo ceramide synthesis restores insulin signaling in hypothalamus and enhances β-cell function of obese Zucker rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mélanie Campana

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Hypothalamic lipotoxicity has been shown to induce central insulin resistance and dysregulation of glucose homeostasis; nevertheless, elucidation of the regulatory mechanisms remains incomplete. Here, we aimed to determine the role of de novo ceramide synthesis in hypothalamus on the onset of central insulin resistance and the dysregulation of glucose homeostasis induced by obesity. Methods: Hypothalamic GT1-7 neuronal cells were treated with palmitate. De novo ceramide synthesis was inhibited either by pharmacological (myriocin or molecular (si-Serine Palmitoyl Transferase 2, siSPT2 approaches. Obese Zucker rats (OZR were intracerebroventricularly infused with myriocin to inhibit de novo ceramide synthesis. Insulin resistance was determined by quantification of Akt phosphorylation. Ceramide levels were quantified either by a radioactive kinase assay or by mass spectrometry analysis. Glucose homeostasis were evaluated in myriocin-treated OZR. Basal and glucose-stimulated parasympathetic tonus was recorded in OZR. Insulin secretion from islets and β-cell mass was also determined. Results: We show that palmitate impaired insulin signaling and increased ceramide levels in hypothalamic neuronal GT1-7 cells. In addition, the use of deuterated palmitic acid demonstrated that palmitate activated several enzymes of the de novo ceramide synthesis pathway in hypothalamic cells. Importantly, myriocin and siSPT2 treatment restored insulin signaling in palmitate-treated GT1-7 cells. Protein kinase C (PKC inhibitor or a dominant-negative PKCζ also counteracted palmitate-induced insulin resistance. Interestingly, attenuating the increase in levels of hypothalamic ceramides with intracerebroventricular infusion of myriocin in OZR improved their hypothalamic insulin-sensitivity. Importantly, central myriocin treatment partially restored glucose tolerance in OZR. This latter effect is related to the restoration of glucose-stimulated insulin

  20. P2X7 receptor drives Th1 cell differentiation and controls the follicular helper T cell population to protect against Plasmodium chabaudi malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érika Machado de Salles

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A complete understanding of the mechanisms underlying the acquisition of protective immunity is crucial to improve vaccine strategies to eradicate malaria. However, it is still unclear whether recognition of damage signals influences the immune response to Plasmodium infection. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP accumulates in infected erythrocytes and is released into the extracellular milieu through ion channels in the erythrocyte membrane or upon erythrocyte rupture. The P2X7 receptor senses extracellular ATP and induces CD4 T cell activation and death. Here we show that P2X7 receptor promotes T helper 1 (Th1 cell differentiation to the detriment of follicular T helper (Tfh cells during blood-stage Plasmodium chabaudi malaria. The P2X7 receptor was activated in CD4 T cells following the rupture of infected erythrocytes and these cells became highly responsive to ATP during acute infection. Moreover, mice lacking the P2X7 receptor had increased susceptibility to infection, which correlated with impaired Th1 cell differentiation. Accordingly, IL-2 and IFNγ secretion, as well as T-bet expression, critically depended on P2X7 signaling in CD4 T cells. Additionally, P2X7 receptor controlled the splenic Tfh cell population in infected mice by promoting apoptotic-like cell death. Finally, the P2X7 receptor was required to generate a balanced Th1/Tfh cell population with an improved ability to transfer parasite protection to CD4-deficient mice. This study provides a new insight into malaria immunology by showing the importance of P2X7 receptor in controlling the fine-tuning between Th1 and Tfh cell differentiation during P. chabaudi infection and thus in disease outcome.

  1. A consortium approach to commercialized Westinghouse solid oxide fuel cell technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, Allan

    Westinghouse is developing its tubular solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) for a variety of applications in stationary power generation markets. By pressurizing a SOFC and integrating it with a gas turbine (GT), power systems with efficiencies as high as 70-75% can be obtained. The first such system will be tested in 1998. Because of their extraordinarily high efficiency (60-70%) even in small sizes the first SOFC products to be offered are expected to be integrated SOFC/GT power systems in the 1-7 MW range, for use in the emerging distributed generation (DG) market segment. Expansion into larger sizes will follow later. Because of their modularity, environmental friendliness and expected cost effectiveness, and because of a worldwide thrust towards utility deregulation, a ready market is forecasted for baseload distributed generation. Assuming Westinghouse can complete its technology development and reach its cost targets, the integrated SOFC/GT power system is seen as a product with tremendous potential in the emerging distributed generation market. While Westinghouse has been a leader in the development of power generation technology for over a century, it does not plan to manufacture small gas turbines. However, GTs small enough to integrate with SOFCs and address the 1-7 MW market are generally available from various manufacturers. Westinghouse will need access to a new set of customers as it brings baseload plants to the present small market mix of emergency and peaking power applications. Small cogeneration applications, already strong in some parts of the world, are also gaining ground everywhere. Small GT manufacturers already serve this market, and alliances and partnerships can enhance SOFC commercialization. Utilities also serve the DG market, especially those that have set up energy service companies and seek to grow beyond the legal and geographical confines of their current regulated business. Because fuel cells in general are a new product, because small

  2. TSPAN7, effector of actin nucleation required for dendritic cell-mediated transfer of HIV-1 to T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménager, Mickaël M

    2017-06-15

    Dendritic cells (DCs) have essential roles in early detection of pathogens and activation of both innate and adaptive immune responses. Whereas human DCs are resistant to productive HIV-1 replication, they have a unique ability to take up virus and transmit it efficiently to T lymphocytes. By doing that, HIV-1 may evade, at least in part, the first line of defense of the immune system, exploiting DCs instead to facilitate rapid infection of a large pool of immune cells. While performing an shRNA screen in human primary monocyte-derived DCs, to gain insights into this cell biological process, we discovered the role played by tetraspanin-7 (TSPAN7). This member of the tetraspanin family appears to be a positive regulator of actin nucleation and stabilization, through the ARP2/3 complex. By doing so, TSPAN7 limits HIV-1 endocytosis and maintains viral particles on actin-rich dendrites for an efficient transfer toward T lymphocytes. While studying the function of TSPAN7 in the control of actin nucleation, we also discovered the existence in DCs of two opposing forces at the plasma membrane: actin nucleation, a protrusive force which seems to counterbalance actomyosin contraction. © 2017 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  3. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor activates GTPase RhoA and inhibits cell invasion in the breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar-Rojas, Arturo; Huerta-Reyes, Maira; Maya-Núñez, Guadalupe; Arechavaleta-Velásco, Fabián; Conn, P Michael; Ulloa-Aguirre, Alfredo; Valdés, Jesús

    2012-01-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and its receptor (GnRHR) are both expressed by a number of malignant tumors, including those of the breast. In the latter, both behave as potent inhibitors of invasion. Nevertheless, the signaling pathways whereby the activated GnRH/GnRHR system exerts this effect have not been clearly established. In this study, we provide experimental evidence that describes components of the mechanism(s) whereby GnRH inhibits breast cancer cell invasion. Actin polymerization and substrate adhesion was measured in the highly invasive cell line, MDA-MB-231 transiently expressing the wild-type or mutant DesK191 GnRHR by fluorometry, flow cytometric analysis, and confocal microscopy, in the absence or presence of GnRH agonist. The effect of RhoA-GTP on stress fiber formation and focal adhesion assembly was measured in MDA-MB-231 cells co-expressing the GnRHRs and the GAP domain of human p190Rho GAP-A or the dominant negative mutant GAP-Y1284D. Cell invasion was determined by the transwell migration assay. Agonist-stimulated activation of the wild-type GnRHR and the highly plasma membrane expressed mutant GnRHR-DesK191 transiently transfected to MDA-MB-231 cells, favored F-actin polymerization and substrate adhesion. Confocal imaging allowed detection of an association between F-actin levels and the increase in stress fibers promoted by exposure to GnRH. Pull-down assays showed that the effects observed on actin cytoskeleton resulted from GnRH-stimulated activation of RhoA GTPase. Activation of this small G protein favored the marked increase in both cell adhesion to Collagen-I and number of focal adhesion complexes leading to inhibition of the invasion capacity of MDA-MB-231 cells as disclosed by assays in Transwell Chambers. We here show that GnRH inhibits invasion of highly invasive breast cancer-derived MDA-MB-231 cells. This effect is mediated through an increase in substrate adhesion promoted by activation of RhoA GTPase and formation of

  4. FBXW7 and NOTCH1 mutations in childhood T cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and T cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Myoung-Ja; Taki, Tomohiko; Oda, Megumi; Watanabe, Tomoyuki; Yumura-Yagi, Keiko; Kobayashi, Ryoji; Suzuki, Nobuhiro; Hara, Junichi; Horibe, Keizo; Hayashi, Yasuhide

    2009-04-01

    Mutation analysis of FBXW7 and NOTCH1 genes was performed in 55 T cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL) and 14 T cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (T-NHL) patients who were treated on the Japan Association of Childhood Leukaemia Study (JACLS) protocols ALL-97 and NHL-98. FBXW7 and/or NOTCH1 mutations were found in 22 (40.0%) of 55 T-ALL and 7 (50.0%) of 14 T-NHL patients. FBXW7 mutations were found in 8 (14.6%) of 55 T-ALL and 3 (21.4%) of 14 T-NHL patients, and NOTCH1 mutations in 17 (30.9%) of 55 T-ALL and 6 (42.9%) of 14 T-NHL patients. Three (5.4%) T-ALL and two (1.4%) T-NHL patients had mutations in both FBXW7 and NOTCH1. FBXW7 mutations included one insertion, one deletion, one deletion/insertion and nine missense mutations. NOTCH1 mutations were detected in the heterodimerization domain (HD) in 15 cases, in the PEST domain in seven cases, and in both the HD and PEST domains in one case. Five-year event-free survival and overall survival for patients with FBXW7 and/or NOTCH1 mutations were 95.5% (95% CI, 71.9-99.4%) and 100% respectively, suggesting that T-ALL patients with FBXW7 and/or NOTCH1 mutation represent a good prognosis compared to those without FBXW7 and/or NOTCH1 mutations (63.6%, P = 0.007 and 78.8%, P = 0.023, respectively).

  5. A Novel Glucosylation Reaction on Anthocyanins Catalyzed by Acyl-Glucose–Dependent Glucosyltransferase in the Petals of Carnation and Delphinium[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuba, Yuki; Sasaki, Nobuhiro; Tera, Masayuki; Okamura, Masachika; Abe, Yutaka; Okamoto, Emi; Nakamura, Haruka; Funabashi, Hisakage; Takatsu, Makoto; Saito, Mikako; Matsuoka, Hideaki; Nagasawa, Kazuo; Ozeki, Yoshihiro

    2010-01-01

    Glucosylation of anthocyanin in carnations (Dianthus caryophyllus) and delphiniums (Delphinium grandiflorum) involves novel sugar donors, aromatic acyl-glucoses, in a reaction catalyzed by the enzymes acyl-glucose–dependent anthocyanin 5(7)-O-glucosyltransferase (AA5GT and AA7GT). The AA5GT enzyme was purified from carnation petals, and cDNAs encoding carnation Dc AA5GT and the delphinium homolog Dg AA7GT were isolated. Recombinant Dc AA5GT and Dg AA7GT proteins showed AA5GT and AA7GT activities in vitro. Although expression of Dc AA5GT in developing carnation petals was highest at early stages, AA5GT activity and anthocyanin accumulation continued to increase during later stages. Neither Dc AA5GT expression nor AA5GT activity was observed in the petals of mutant carnations; these petals accumulated anthocyanin lacking the glucosyl moiety at the 5 position. Transient expression of Dc AA5GT in petal cells of mutant carnations is expected to result in the transfer of a glucose moiety to the 5 position of anthocyanin. The amino acid sequences of Dc AA5GT and Dg AA7GT showed high similarity to glycoside hydrolase family 1 proteins, which typically act as β-glycosidases. A phylogenetic analysis of the amino acid sequences suggested that other plant species are likely to have similar acyl-glucose–dependent glucosyltransferases. PMID:20971893

  6. Ground reaction force estimates from ActiGraph GT3X+ hip accelerations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M Neugebauer

    Full Text Available Simple methods to quantify ground reaction forces (GRFs outside a laboratory setting are needed to understand daily loading sustained by the body. Here, we present methods to estimate peak vertical GRF (pGRFvert and peak braking GRF (pGRFbrake in adults using raw hip activity monitor (AM acceleration data. The purpose of this study was to develop a statistically based model to estimate pGRFvert and pGRFbrake during walking and running from ActiGraph GT3X+ AM acceleration data. 19 males and 20 females (age 21.2 ± 1.3 years, height 1.73 ± 0.12 m, mass 67.6 ± 11.5 kg wore an ActiGraph GT3X+ AM over their right hip. Six walking and six running trials (0.95-2.19 and 2.20-4.10 m/s, respectively were completed. Average of the peak vertical and anterior/posterior AM acceleration (ACCvert and ACCbrake, respectively and pGRFvert and pGRFbrake during the stance phase of gait were determined. Thirty randomly selected subjects served as the training dataset to develop generalized equations to predict pGRFvert and pGRFbrake. Using a holdout approach, the remaining 9 subjects were used to test the accuracy of the models. Generalized equations to predict pGRFvert and pGRFbrake included ACCvert and ACCbrake, respectively, mass, type of locomotion (walk or run, and type of locomotion acceleration interaction. The average absolute percent differences between actual and predicted pGRFvert and pGRFbrake were 8.3% and 17.8%, respectively, when the models were applied to the test dataset. Repeated measures generalized regression equations were developed to predict pGRFvert and pGRFbrake from ActiGraph GT3X+ AM acceleration for young adults walking and running. These equations provide a means to estimate GRFs without a force plate.

  7. Caracterização mecânica e térmica da borracha natural formulada e vulcanizada dos clones: GT 1, IAN 873, PB 235 e RRIM 600 Mechanical and thermal characterization of compounds of natural rubber of the clones: GT 1, IAN 873, PB 235 and RRIM 600

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C. Dall'Antonia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho estudou-se o desempenho mecânico e térmico de compostos de borracha natural (Hevea brasiliensis de 4 diferentes clones (GT 1, IAN 873, PB 235 e RRIM 600 cultivados no Estado de São Paulo, assim como de uma mistura destes clones e de uma borracha comercial, GEB-1. Estas borrachas foram formuladas e vulcanizadas com tempos de 5, 7 e 9 minutos. A caracterização foi realizada por calorimetria exploratória diferencial, termogravimetria, ensaios de resistência à tração, análise dinâmico-mecânica, medidas de dureza Shore A, microscopia eletrônica de varredura e espectroscopia na região do infravermelho. Os resultados permitiram concluir que o tempo de vulcanização e o tipo de clone não influenciaram na temperatura de transição vítrea (Tg dos compostos. Os valores de Tg obtidos por DMA foram de cerca de -62 °C, e os resultados ensaios de dureza apresentaram valores próximos de 60 para todos os compostos estudados. Os ensaios de resistência à tração mostraram que o melhor desempenho mecânico foi obtido pelo clone RRIM 600. De acordo com os resultados obtidos neste trabalho, todos os clones atingiram as propriedades reportadas na literatura, podendo ser utilizados, em princípio, nas indústrias de artefatos de borracha separadamente ou na forma de mistura.The objective of this work was to study the mechanical and thermal performance of natural rubber (Hevea brasiliensis compounds of different types of clones (GT 1, IAN 873, PB 235 and RRIM 600, as well as a mixture made from these clones and a commercial rubber GEB-1. These rubbers were formulated and prepared in a two-roll mill and vulcanized at different times (5, 7 and 9 minutes. The evaluation of the mechanical and thermal performance of different natural rubber compounds was carried out by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, thermogravimetry analysis (TGA, mechanical properties (tensile and hardness tests, dynamic mechanic thermal analysis (DMTA

  8. Antenatal betamethasone attenuates the angiotensin-(1-7)-Mas receptor-nitric oxide axis in isolated proximal tubule cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yixin; Bi, Jianli; Pulgar, Victor M; Chappell, Mark C; Rose, James C

    2017-06-01

    We previously reported a sex-specific effect of antenatal treatment with betamethasone (Beta) on sodium (Na + ) excretion in adult sheep whereby treated males but not females had an attenuated natriuretic response to angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)]. The present study determined the Na + uptake and nitric oxide (NO) response to low-dose Ang-(1-7) (1 pM) in renal proximal tubule cells (RPTC) from adult male and female sheep antenatally exposed to Beta or vehicle. Data were expressed as percentage of basal uptake or area under the curve for Na + or percentage of control for NO. Male Beta RPTC exhibited greater Na + uptake than male vehicle cells (433 ± 28 vs. 330 ± 26%; P 0.05). Ang-(1-7) significantly inhibited Na + uptake in RPTC from vehicle male (214 ± 11%) and from both vehicle (190 ± 14%) and Beta (209 ± 11%) females but failed to attenuate Na + uptake in Beta male cells. Beta exposure also abolished stimulation of NO by Ang-(1-7) in male but not female RPTC. Both the Na + and NO responses to Ang-(1-7) were blocked by Mas receptor antagonist d-Ala 7 -Ang-(1-7). We conclude that the tubular Ang-(1-7)-Mas-NO pathway is attenuated in males and not females by antenatal Beta exposure. Moreover, since primary cultures of RPTC retain both the sex and Beta-induced phenotype of the adult kidney in vivo they appear to be an appropriate cell model to examine the effects of fetal programming on Na + handling by the renal tubules. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Bilateral Salpingo-Oophorectomy Versus GnRH Analogue in the Adjuvant Treatment of Premenopausal Breast Cancer Patients: Cost-Effectiveness Evaluation of Breast Cancer Outcome, Ovarian Cancer Prevention and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrandina, Gabriella; Amadio, Giulia; Marcellusi, Andrea; Azzolini, Elena; Puggina, Anna; Pastorino, Roberta; Ricciardi, Walter; Scambia, Giovanni

    2017-11-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: There is no available evidence to recommend gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogue-based ovarian suppression versus bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO) in the adjuvant treatment of early breast cancer, since the two approaches are considered equivalent in terms of oncologic outcome. The role of surgical ovarian ablation has been revitalized based on the advances of minimally invasive surgery, and a better understanding of clinical and molecular basis of hereditary breast/ovarian cancer syndromes. The aim of this study is to analyze the cost-effectiveness of laparoscopic BSO and GnRH analogue administration in patients aged 40-49 years with hormone-sensitive breast cancer. A probabilistic decision tree model was developed to evaluate costs and outcomes of ovarian ablation through laparoscopic BSO, or ovarian suppression through monthly injections of GnRH analogue. Results were expressed as incremental costs per quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained. Laparoscopic BSO strategy was associated with a lower mean total cost per patient than GnRH treatment, and considering the difference in terms of QALYs, the incremental effectiveness did not demonstrate a notable difference between the two approaches. From the National Health Service perspective, and for a time horizon of 5 years, laparoscopic BSO was the dominant option compared to GnRH treatment; laparoscopic BSO was less expensive than GnRH, €2385 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 2044, 2753] vs €7093 (95% CI = 3409, 12,105), respectively, and more effective. Surgical ovarian ablation is more cost-effective than GnRH administration in the adjuvant treatment of hormone-sensitive breast cancer patients aged 40-49 years, and the advantage of preventing ovarian cancer through laparoscopic BSO should be considered.

  10. Infectious genotype 1a, 1b, 2a, 2b, 3a, 5a, 6a and 7a hepatitis C virus lacking the hypervariable region 1 (HVR1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    .sub.1389c,A1590G (6a/2a) constructs for the deletion of Hypervariable Region 1 (HVR1) to construct viable, JFH 1 (genotype 2a) based, genomes. The present inventors serially passaged the viruses in cell culture obtaining relatively high HCV RNA titers and infectivity titers. Sequence analysis...... of the viruses identified mutations adapting H77/JFH 1.sub.T27OOC,A4O8OT,.DELTA.HVR1 (1a/2a), J8/JFH .sub.1.DELTA.HVR1 (2b/2a), S52/JFH 1.sub.T2718G,T716OC,.DELTA.HVR1 (3a/2a) and J4/JFH 1.sub.T2996C,A4827T,.DELTA.HVR1 (1b/2a) to the HVR1 deletion....

  11. The effect of GnRH or oestradiol injected at pro-oestrus on luteal function and follicular dynamics of the subsequent oestrous cycle in non-lactating cycling Holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.V.E. Segwagwe

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Oestrous synchronization involves synchronization of ovarian follicular turnover, new wave emergence, and finally induction of ovulation. The final step can be synchronized by the parenteral administration of either GnRH or oestradiol benzoate. This study investigated corpus luteum and follicular emergence after ovulation had been induced by the administration of either GnRH or oestradiol benzoate. The injection of oestradiol benzoate may have delayed the emergence of the first follicular wave subsequent to the induced ovulation; administration of oestradiol benzoate or GnRH lowered the progesterone rise so that the maximum dioestrous concentration of progesterone on Day 9 was lower when cows were treated during pro-oestrus compared to the spontaneously ovulating controls. One implication of findings from the present study is that induction of ovulation with either oestradiol benzoate or GnRH, administered 24 or 36 h after withdrawal of the CIDR device, respectively, may lower fertility. Future studies must identify the timing of administration relative to the time of CIDR device withdrawal and the optimum concentration of oestradiol benzoate or GnRH that would not have untoward effects on the development of the corpus lutea, particularly within the first week of dioestrus.

  12. The expression of B7-H1 and B7-H4 molecules on immature myeloid and lymphoid dendritic cells in cord blood of healthy neonates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Radej

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to estimate both B7-H1 and B7-H4 molecules on immature myeloid and lymphoid dendritic cells in umbilical cord blood of healthy neonates in comparison with peripheral blood of healthy adults. Thirty nine healthy full-term neonates from physiological single pregnancies and 27 healthy adults were included in the study. The expression of B7-H1 and B7-H4 was revealed using the immunofluorescence method. Statistical analysis was performed using a non-parametric test (Mann-Whitney U-Test. The percentages of BDCA-1+ dendritic cells with B7-H1 and B7-H4 expressions were significantly higher in peripheral blood of healthy adults (p<0.00003. It was either observed that the percentage of BDCA-2+ dendritic cells with the expression of B7-H4 molecules was significantly higher in peripheral blood of healthy adults in comparison with umbilical cord blood (p<0.02. Decreased percentages of dendritic cells and co-stimulatory molecules indicate that neonates have immature immune system. Depletion of co-stimulatory B7-H1 and B7-H4 molecules enable appropriate development of immune response.

  13. Study of B7.1 costimulatory molecule neoexpression induced by γ irradiation of different dose in various human tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Jianghua; Su Liaoyuan; Tong Jian; Zhu Minqing; Xue Lian

    2001-01-01

    The relationship between irradiation and B7.1 co-stimulative molecule expression of human tumor cells was studied to explore the reason of enhanced tumor cells immunity. The effect of γ ray irradiation on B7.1 molecule expression in various human tumor cells which were irradiated with 30 Gy, 40 Gy, 50 Gy, 60 Gy γ ray was investigated. At 24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 96 h after irradiation the changes of B7.1 molecule was measured by flow cytometry (FCM) with immunofluorescence technique. The activation of lymphocyte toxin upon tumor target cell after exposure was determined by using radiation release method. The results showed that a few of tumor cells after γ-ray irradiation express B7.1 co-stimulative molecule. Furthermore, B7.1 molecule membrane expression after γ ray irradiation is shown to enhance the activation of lymphocyte toxin. The data could explain the enhanced immunogenicity of tumor cells after irradiation, and could lead to new immunotherapy protocols. The experiments suggested that γ ray irradiation could induce human tumor cells to express B7.1 co-stimulative molecules and enhance tumor cell immunity

  14. GT-MHR COMMERCIALZATION STUDY. TECHNICAL PROGRESS AND COST MANAGEMENT REPORT FOR THE PERIOD MAY 1 THROUGH MAY 31, 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SHENOY, A.S.

    2003-01-01

    A271 GT-MHR COMMERCIALZATION STUDY TECHNICAL PROGRESS AND COST MANAGEMENT REPORT FOR THE PERIOD MAY 1 THROUGH MAY 31, 2003. Petten advised GA the start of the HFR-EU2 irradiation is being delayed until late July 2004. HFR-EU1 (pebble fuel) is also delayed until February/March 2004. The reason for the delays was implementation of new financial regulations at Petten that delayed the contracts for capsule fabrication. Review of the MHR-2 Fuel Product Specification was completed. Revision of the specification to incorporate the review results is in progress. Detailed test matrices have been drafted for capsule irradiation tests and for post-irradiation heating tests proposed for development and qualification of advanced coated-particle fuels capable of meeting anticipated VHTR fuel performance requirements

  15. JNK1/2 Activation by an Extract from the Roots of Morus alba L. Reduces the Viability of Multidrug-Resistant MCF-7/Dox Cells by Inhibiting YB-1-Dependent MDR1 Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youn Kyung Choi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer cells acquire anticancer drug resistance during chemotherapy, which aggravates cancer disease. MDR1 encoded from multidrug resistance gene 1 mainly causes multidrug resistance phenotypes of different cancer cells. In this study, we demonstrate that JNK1/2 activation by an extract from the root of Morus alba L. (White mulberry reduces doxorubicin-resistant MCF-7/Dox cell viability by inhibiting YB-1 regulation of MDR1 gene expression. When MCF-7 or MCF-7/Dox cells, where MDR1 is highly expressed were treated with an extract from roots or leaves of Morus alba L., respectively, the root extract from the mulberry (REM but not the leaf extract (LEM reduced cell viabilities of both MCF-7 and MCF-7/Dox cells, which was enhanced by cotreatment with doxorubicin. REM but not LEM further inhibited YB-1 nuclear translocation and its regulation of MDR1 gene expression. Moreover, REM promoted phosphorylation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase 1/2 (JNK1/2 and JNK1/2 inhibitor, SP600125 and rescued REM inhibition of both MDR1 expression and viabilities in MCF-7/Dox cells. Consistently, overexpression of JNK1, c-Jun, or c-Fos inhibited YB-1-dependent MDR1 expression and reduced viabilities in MCF-7/Dox cells. In conclusion, our data indicate that REM-activated JNK-cJun/c-Fos pathway decreases the viability of MCF-7/Dox cells by inhibiting YB-1-dependent MDR1 gene expression. Thus, we suggest that REM may be useful for treating multidrug-resistant cancer cells.

  16. A conceptual design of catalytic gasification fuel cell hybrid power plant with oxygen transfer membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wangying; Han, Minfang

    2017-09-01

    A hybrid power generation system integrating catalytic gasification, solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), oxygen transfer membrane (OTM) and gas turbine (GT) is established and system energy analysis is performed. In this work, the catalytic gasifier uses steam, recycled anode off-gas and pure oxygen from OTM system to gasify coal, and heated by hot cathode off-gas at the same time. A zero-dimension SOFC model is applied and verified by fitting experimental data. Thermodynamic analysis is performed to investigate the integrated system performance, and system sensitivities on anode off-gas back flow ratio, SOFC fuel utilization, temperature and pressure are discussed. Main conclusions are as follows: (1) System overall electricity efficiency reaches 60.7%(HHV) while the gasifier operates at 700 °C and SOFC at 850 °C with system pressure at 3.04 bar; (2) oxygen enriched combustion simplify the carbon-dioxide capture process, which derives CO2 of 99.2% purity, but results in a penalty of 6.7% on system electricity efficiency; (3) with SOFC fuel utilization or temperature increasing, the power output of SOFC increases while GT power output decreases, and increasing system pressure can improve both the performance of SOFC and GT.

  17. WS-VLAM: A GT4 based workflow management system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wibisono, A.; Vasyunin, D.; Korkhov, V.; Zhao, Z.; Belloum, A.; de Laat, C.; Adriaans, P.; Hertzberger, B.

    2007-01-01

    Generic Grid middleware, e.g., Globus Toolkit 4 (GT4), provides basic services for scientific workflow management systems to discover, store and integrate workflow components. Using the state of the art Grid services can advance the functionality of workflow engine in orchestrating distributed Grid

  18. Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF -308G>A, Nitric Oxide Synthase 3 (NOS3 +894G>T Polymorphisms and Migraine Risk: A Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Chen

    Full Text Available Conflicting data have been reported on the association between tumor necrosis factor (TNF -308G>A and nitric oxide synthase 3 (NOS3 +894G>T polymorphisms and migraine. We performed a meta-analysis of case-control studies to evaluate whether the TNF -308G>A and NOS3 +894G>T polymorphisms confer genetic susceptibility to migraine.We performed an updated meta-analysis for TNF -308G>A and a meta-analysis for NOS3 +894G>T based on studies published up to July 2014. We calculated study specific odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI assuming allele contrast, dominant model, recessive model, and co-dominant model as pooled effect estimates.Eleven studies in 6682 migraineurs and 22591 controls for TNF -308G>A and six studies in 1055 migraineurs and 877 controls for NOS3 +894G>T were included in the analysis. Neither indicated overall associations between gene polymorphisms and migraine risk. Subgroup analyses suggested that the "A" allele of the TNF -308G>A variant increases the risk of migraine among non-Caucasians (dominant model: pooled OR = 1.82; 95% CI 1.15 - 2.87. The risk of migraine with aura (MA was increased among both Caucasians and non-Caucasians. Subgroup analyses suggested that the "T" allele of the NOS3 +894G>T variant increases the risk of migraine among non-Caucasians (co-dominant model: pooled OR = 2.10; 95% CI 1.14 - 3.88.Our findings appear to support the hypothesis that the TNF -308G>A polymorphism may act as a genetic susceptibility factor for migraine among non-Caucasians and that the NOS3 +894G>T polymorphism may modulate the risk of migraine among non-Caucasians.

  19. Prospective, randomized comparison between pulsatile GnRH therapy and combined gonadotropin (FSH+LH) treatment for ovulation induction in women with hypothalamic amenorrhea and underlying polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubourdieu, Sophie; Fréour, Thomas; Dessolle, Lionel; Barrière, Paul

    2013-05-01

    To compare the efficacy of pulsatile GnRH therapy versus combined gonadotropins for ovulation induction in women with both hypothalamic amenorrhoea and polycystic ovarian syndrome (HA/PCOS) according to their current hypothalamic status. This single-centre, prospective, randomized study was conducted in the Nantes University Hospital, France. Thirty consecutive patients were treated for ovulation induction with either pulsatile GnRH therapy or combined gonadotropins (rFSH+rLH). Frequency of adequate ovarian response (mono- or bi-follicular) and clinical pregnancy rate were then compared between both groups. Ovarian response was similar in both groups with comparable frequency of adequate ovarian response (73% vs 60%), but the clinical pregnancy rate was significantly higher in the pulsatile GnRH therapy group than in the combined gonadotropin group (46% vs 0%). HA/PCOS is a specific subgroup of infertile women. Pulsatile GnRH therapy is an effective and safe method of ovulation induction that can be used successfully in these patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Feasibility study for SOFC-GT hybrid locomotive power: Part I. Development of a dynamic 3.5 MW SOFC-GT FORTRAN model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Andrew S.; Brouwer, Jacob; Samuelsen, G. Scott

    2012-09-01

    This work presents the development of a dynamic SOFC-GT hybrid system model applied to a long-haul freight locomotive in operation. Given the expectations of the rail industry, the model is used to develop a preliminary analysis of the proposed system's operational capability on conventional diesel fuel as well as natural gas and hydrogen as potential fuels in the future. It is found that operation of the system on all three of these fuels is feasible with favorable efficiencies and reasonable dynamic response. The use of diesel fuel reformate in the SOFC presents a challenge to the electrochemistry, especially as it relates to control and optimization of the fuel utilization in the anode compartment. This is found to arise from the large amount of carbon monoxide in diesel reformate that is fed to the fuel cell, limiting the maximum fuel utilization possible. This presents an opportunity for further investigations into carbon monoxide electrochemical oxidation and/or system integration studies where the efficiency of the fuel reformer can be balanced against the needs of the SOFC.

  1. Degarelix: A Novel Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH) Receptor Blocker-Results from a 1-yr, Multicentre, Randomised, Phase 2 Dosage-Finding Study in the Treatment of Prostate Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Poppel, Hendrik; Tombal, Bertrand; de la Rosette, Jean J.; Persson, Bo-Eric; Jensen, Jens-Kristian; Kold Olesen, Tine

    2008-01-01

    Background: Degarelix is a gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist (GnRH receptor blocker) with immediate onset of action, suppressing gonadotropins, testosterone, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in prostate cancer. Objective: To determine the efficacy and safety of initial doses of 200 mg or

  2. Consistent high clinical pregnancy rates and low ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome rates in high-risk patients after GnRH agonist triggering and modified luteal support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iliodromiti, Stamatina; Blockeel, Christophe; Tremellen, Kelton P

    2013-01-01

    Are clinical pregnancy rates satisfactory and the incidence of OHSS low after GnRH agonist trigger and modified intensive luteal support in patients with a high risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS)?......Are clinical pregnancy rates satisfactory and the incidence of OHSS low after GnRH agonist trigger and modified intensive luteal support in patients with a high risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS)?...

  3. PRMT7 Preserves Satellite Cell Regenerative Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roméo Sébastien Blanc

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Regeneration of skeletal muscle requires the continued presence of quiescent muscle stem cells (satellite cells, which become activated in response to injury. Here, we report that whole-body protein arginine methyltransferase PRMT7−/− adult mice and mice conditionally lacking PRMT7 in satellite cells using Pax7-CreERT2 both display a significant reduction in satellite cell function, leading to defects in regenerative capacity upon muscle injury. We show that PRMT7 is preferentially expressed in activated satellite cells and, interestingly, PRMT7-deficient satellite cells undergo cell-cycle arrest and premature cellular senescence. These defects underlie poor satellite cell stem cell capacity to regenerate muscle and self-renew after injury. PRMT7-deficient satellite cells express elevated levels of the CDK inhibitor p21CIP1 and low levels of its repressor, DNMT3b. Restoration of DNMT3b in PRMT7-deficient cells rescues PRMT7-mediated senescence. Our findings define PRMT7 as a regulator of the DNMT3b/p21 axis required to maintain muscle stem cell regenerative capacity.

  4. Uso de antagonista de GnRH (cetrorelix em dose única para evitar ovulações prematuras em ciclos de fertilização assistida Single dose of GnRH antagonist (cetrorelix to avoid premature ovulation in assisted fertilization cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Luís Rosan

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar a eficácia de uma dose única subcutânea de acetato de cetrorelix em evitar a ovulação prematura em ciclos de fertilização assistida. MÉTODOS: estudo prospectivo, randomizado e controlado, pelo qual foram avaliados 20 ciclos de estimulação ovariana em mulheres submetidas a fertilização assistida, 10 das quais utilizaram o esquema tradicional de bloqueio hipofisário com análogos de GnRH em doses diárias (grupo controle e 10 utilizaram antagonista de GnRH em dose única de 3 mg no 7º dia de estimulação ovariana (grupo cetrorelix. Foram dosados FSH, LH, estradiol e progesterona no soro no primeiro e sétimo dia da estimulação, no dia da injeção de HCG e no dia da captação de oócitos. Os grupos foram comparados entre si quanto a eficácia do bloqueio hipofisário (nível de progesterona no dia da aplicação do HCG e desempenho nos ciclos de fertilização assistida (ampolas de gonadotrofinas utilizadas, folículos maiores que 18 mm, oócitos captados, taxas de fertilização, implantação e gravidez utilizando os testes de Mann-Whitney e exato de Fisher. RESULTADOS: não houve diferença significativa entre os grupos controle e cetrorelix, respectivamente, para a mediana da idade (31,5 e 34 anos, índice de massa corpórea (24 e 22, ampolas de gonadotrofinas utilizadas (34 e 32, folículos recrutados (3,5 e 3,0, oócitos captados (11 e 5, embriões obtidos (4 e 3, taxas de fertilização (93,7 e 60%, p = 0,07 e gravidez (50 e 60%, p = 0,7. Em ambos os grupos observou-se bloqueio hipofisário eficaz durante o período de estimulação ovariana. CONCLUSÕES: estes resultados confirmam a eficácia da dose única de 3 mg de acetato de cetrorelix em prevenir ovulações prematuras em pacientes submetidas a fertilização assistida, mostrando tendência a obtenção de menor número de embriões e menores taxas de fertilização no grupo cetrorelix em relação ao grupo controle. As taxas de implantação e

  5. Intermonitor reliability of the GT3X+ accelerometer at hip, wrist and ankle sites during activities of daily living

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozemek, Cemal; Wilkerson, Brittany S; Kaminsky, Leonard A; Kirschner, Monica M; Byun, Wonwoo

    2014-01-01

    The triaxial GT3X+ accelerometer can measure activity counts in the vertical, horizontal right to left, horizontal front to back planes, and can generate a summative score of the three axes represented by vector magnitude (VM). Information on the reliability of the GT3X+ at the hip, wrist and ankle sites, over all axes and VM during activities of daily living (ADL) is lacking in the literature. Forty healthy adults (14 men and 26 women) were randomly assigned to perform 10 of 20 ADL (consisting of sedentary, housework, yard work, locomotive and recreational activities) while wearing two monitors on the hip, wrist and ankle. Subjects performed each ADL over 7 min and the mean activity counts during the last 4 min were used for analyses. Average intraclass correlations between monitors were high for the three sites for each axis and VM (hip: 0.943, 0.857, 0.864 and 0.966, respectively; wrist: 0.994, 0.963, 0.961 and 0.989, respectively; ankle: 0.977, 0.979, 0.927 and 0.986, respectively). These data suggest that GT3X+ accelerometers measurements made from the hip, wrist and ankle sites are reliable during ADL across all axes and VM. (paper)

  6. Exergy Analysis of an Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell-Gas Turbine Hybrid System Fed with Ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotini Tzorbatzoglou

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, an ethanol fed Solid Oxide Fuel Cell-Gas Turbine (SOFC-GT system has been parametrically analyzed in terms of exergy and compared with a single SOFC system. The solid oxide fuel cell was fed with hydrogen produced from ethanol steam reforming. The hydrogen utilization factor values were kept between 0.7 and 1. The SOFC’s Current-Volt performance was considered in the range of 0.1–3 A/cm2 at 0.9–0.3 V, respectively, and at the intermediate operating temperatures of 550 and 600 °C, respectively. The curves used represent experimental results obtained from the available bibliography. Results indicated that for low current density values the single SOFC system prevails over the SOFC-GT hybrid system in terms of exergy efficiency, while at higher current density values the latter is more efficient. It was found that as the value of the utilization factor increases the SOFC system becomes more efficient than the SOFC-GT system over a wider range of current density values. It was also revealed that at high current density values the increase of SOFC operation temperature leads in both cases to higher system efficiency values.

  7. Vesicle-associated membrane protein 7 (VAMP-7) is essential for target cell killing in a natural killer cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcet-Palacios, Marcelo; Odemuyiwa, Solomon O.; Coughlin, Jason J.; Garofoli, Daniella; Ewen, Catherine; Davidson, Courtney E.; Ghaffari, Mazyar; Kane, Kevin P.; Lacy, Paige; Logan, Michael R.; Befus, A. Dean; Bleackley, R. Chris; Moqbel, Redwan

    2008-01-01

    Natural killer cells recognize and induce apoptosis in foreign, transformed or virus-infected cells through the release of perforin and granzymes from secretory lysosomes. Clinically, NK-cell mediated killing is a major limitation to successful allo- and xenotransplantation. The molecular mechanisms that regulate the fusion of granzyme B-containing secretory lysosomes to the plasma membrane in activated NK cells, prior to target cell killing, are not fully understood. Using the NK cell line YT-Indy as a model, we have investigated the expression of SNAP REceptors (SNAREs), both target (t-) and vesicular (v-) SNAREs, and their function in granzyme B-mediated target cell killing. Our data showed that YT-Indy cells express VAMP-7 and SNAP-23, but not VAMP-2. VAMP-7 was associated with granzyme B-containing lysosomal granules. Using VAMP-7 small interfering RNA (siRNA), we successfully knocked down the expression of VAMP-7 protein in YT-Indy to less than 10% of untreated cells in 24 h. VAMP7-deficient YT-Indy cells activated via co-culture with Jurkat cells released <1 ng/mL of granzyme B, compared to 1.5-2.5 μg/mL from controls. Using Jurkat cells as targets, we showed a 7-fold reduction in NK cell-mediated killing by VAMP-7 deficient YT-Indy cells. Our results show that VAMP-7 is a crucial component of granzyme B release and target cell killing in the NK cell line YT-Indy. Thus, targeting VAMP-7 expression specifically with siRNA, following transplantation, may be a viable strategy for preventing NK cell-mediated transplant rejection, in vivo

  8. The Activity of Sirtuin 1 in MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cell Line: The Effects of Visfatin

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    kiarash behrouzfar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Breast cancer is the most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer deaths among women. Obesity, hormones, and growth factors are the risk factors for this kind of cancer. One of the changes observed in patients suffering from breast cancer is the elevated Visfatin or nicotinamide phosphoribosyl transferase (NAMPT in their tumor tissues and blood. The increased activity of Visfatin and SIRT1 (Sirtuin 1 in breast cancer and many other cancers has been determined, and its value is correlated with cancer prognosis. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of Visfatin on SIRT1 activity in MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. Materials & Methods: In this study, in order to investigate the effects of Visfatin on SIRT1 activity in MCF-7 cells, cells were treated after cell culture by Visfatin for 12, 24, and 48 hours. Subsequently, the cells were lysed by nuclear extraction kit, and their total protein concentrations were measured by Bradford assay. Finally, we estimated the general activity of SIRT1 by measuring the SIRT1 activity with the assay kit via spectrofluorometric device. Results: The findings of this research show that SIRT1 activity is not significantly changed following Visfatin treatments for 12 and 24 hours. However, after 48 hour, Visfatin increases SIRT1 activity about 2 times more than control group. Conclusion: The antiapoptotic effects of Visfatin are exerted by increasing SIRT1 activity in MCF-7 cells, and these effects happen after 24 hours. 

  9. Asymmetric GT of social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szu, Harold

    2010-04-01

    Web citation indexes are computed according to a data vector X collected from the frequency of user accesses, citations weighted by other sites' popularities, and modified by the financial sponsorship in a proprietary manner. The indexing determining the information to be retrieved by the public should be made responsible transparently in at least two ways. One shall balance the inbound linkages pointed at the specific i-th site called the popularity (see paper for equation) with the outbound linkages (see paper for equation) called the risk factor before the release of new information as environmental impact analysis. The relationship between these two factors cannot be assumed equivalent (undirected) as in the case of many mainstream Graph Theory (GT) models.

  10. Developmental exposure to ethinylestradiol affects reproductive physiology, the GnRH neuroendocrine network and behaviors in female mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyes eDerouiche

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available During development, environmental estrogens are able to induce an estrogen mimetic action that may interfere with endocrine and neuroendocrine systems. The present study investigated the effects on the reproductive function in female mice following developmental exposure to pharmaceutical ethinylestradiol (EE2, the most widespread and potent synthetic steroid present in aquatic environments. EE2 was administrated in drinking water at environmentally relevant (ENVIR or pharmacological (PHARMACO doses (0.1 and 1 µg/kg (body weight/day respectively, from embryonic day 10 until postnatal day 40. Our results show that both groups of EE2-exposed females had advanced vaginal opening and shorter estrus cycles, but a normal fertility rate compared to CONTROL females. The hypothalamic population of GnRH neurons was affected by EE2 exposure with a significant increase in the number of perikarya in the preoptic area of the PHARMACO group and a modification in their distribution in the ENVIR group, both associated with a marked decrease in GnRH fibers immunoreactivity in the median eminence. In EE2-exposed females, behavioral tests highlighted a disturbed maternal behavior, a higher lordosis response, a lack of discrimination between gonad-intact and castrated males in sexually experienced females, and an increased anxiety-related behavior. Altogether, these results put emphasis on the high sensitivity of sexually dimorphic behaviors and neuroendocrine circuits to disruptive effects of EDCs.

  11. Anti-Mullerian hormone levels do not predict response to pulsatile GnRH in women with hypothalamic amenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billington, Emma O; Corenblum, Bernard

    2016-09-01

    Pulsatile GnRH is used to induce ovulation in women with hypothalamic amenorrhea (HA), but tools to predict response are lacking. We assessed whether baseline AMH levels are associated with response to pulsatile GnRH in 16 women with HA. AMH levels were compared between non-responders and women who achieved follicular development or pregnancy. Median AMH for the cohort was 2.2 ng/mL. AMH levels were undetectable or low in four women, normal in nine and high in three. Follicular development was observed in 13 (81%) women (82% of cycles) and pregnancy achieved in 10 (63%) women (29% of cycles). All four women with low or undetectable AMH had follicular response and three achieved pregnancy. Of the 12 women with normal or high AMH, 10 had a follicular response and seven achieved pregnancy. Median AMH levels were comparable in those who achieved follicular development and those who did not (2.2 ng/mL versus 1.3 ng/mL, p = 0.78) and in those who became pregnant and those who did not (2.2 ng/mL versus 1.9 ng/mL, p = 0.52). In summary, low AMH does not preclude response to ovulation induction in women with HA, suggesting that ovarian potential may not be the primary determinant of AMH concentrations in this population.

  12. Characterization and differential expression of three GnRH forms during reproductive development in cultured turbot Schophthalmus maximus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chunyan; Xu, Shihong; Feng, Chengcheng; Liu, Yifan; Yang, Yang; Wang, Yanfeng; Xiao, Yongshuang; Song, Zongcheng; Liu, Qinghua; Li, Jun

    2017-10-01

    Turbots (Schophthalmus maximus), one of the most important economic marine flatfish species, fail to undergo final spawning and spermiation naturally under artificial farming conditions. In vertebrates, reproduction is regulated by the brain-pituitary-gonadal axis (BPG-axis), and gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) is one of its key components. Therefore, to better understand the physiology of reproduction in the turbot, three of the genes encoding GnRH subtypes—sbGnRH, cGnRH-II and sGnRH—were cloned and sequenced by isolating the cDNA sequences. The localizations and patterns of expression of their mRNAs were also evaluated during seasonal gonadal development. All three mRNAs were expressed abundantly in the brain; sbGnRH and sGnRH mRNAs were also detected in the gonads and pituitary gland, and sbGnRH expression was much higher than that of sGnRH, indicating the critical role of sbGnRH in regulating the BPG-axis. Moreover, the brain expression patterns of sbGnRH and sGnRH mRNAs showed an increased trend during gonadal development, peaking in mature stages. This indicated the direct regulation of gonadal development by the GnRH system. In addition, cGnRH-II mRNA expression showed no significant variations, suggesting that cGnRH-II is not critically involved in the control of reproduction. Further, the mRNA abundances of the three GnRH forms in the breeding season were significantly higher than those in immature and post-breeding stages in all analyzed brain areas. Therefore, we propose that sbGnRH is the most important hormone for the regulation of reproduction in turbot via the BPG-axis. These results will help in better understanding the reproductive endocrine mechanisms of turbots and lay the groundwork for additional studies aimed at comparing the reproductive physiology of wild individuals with those raised under artificial conditions.

  13. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin modulates estradiol-induced aldehydic DNA lesions in human breast cancer cells through alteration of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shou-Tung; Chen, Dar-Ren; Fang, Ju-Pin; Lin, Po-Hsiung

    2015-05-01

    Many genes responsible for the bioactivation of endogenous estrogen to reactive quinonoid metabolites, including cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1, 1A2, and 1B1, are well-known target genes of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonist 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). The purpose of this research was to investigate the roles of TCDD-mediated altered gene expression in the induction of aldehydic DNA lesions (ADLs) by 17β-estradiol (E2) in human MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells. We demonstrated that increases in the number of oxidant-mediated ADLs, including abasic sites and aldehydic base/sugar lesions, were detected in MDA-MB-231 cells exposed to E2. The DNA-damaging effects of E2 in MDA-MB-231 cells were prevented by pretreatment of cells with TCDD. In contrast, we did not observe statistically significant increases in the number of ADLs in MCF-7 cells exposed to E2. However, with TCDD pretreatment, an approximately twofold increase in the number of ADLs was detected in MCF-7 cells exposed to E2. TCDD pretreatment induces disparity in the disposition of E2 to reactive quinonoid metabolites and the subsequent formation of oxidative DNA lesions through alteration of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression in human breast cancer cells.

  14. Microsatellite D21D210 (GT-12) allele frequencies in sporadic Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lannfelt, L.; Lilius, L.; Viitanen, M.; Winblad, B.; Basun, H.; Houlden, H.; Rossor, M.; Hardy, J.

    1995-01-01

    Four disease-causing mutations have so far been described in the amyloid precursor protein gene on chromosome 21 in familial early-onset Alzheimer's disease. Linkage analysis with a fourteen-allele microsatellite at D21S210 named GT-12 has proven useful in the elucidation of amyloid presursor protein gene involvement in Alzheimer's disease families, as it is closely linked to the gene. Most cases of Alzheimer's disease are thought to be sporadic and not familial. However, evidence from earlier studies suggests an important genetic contribution also in sporadic cases, where gene-environment interaction may contribute to the disease. We have determined frequencies of the GT-12 alleles in 78 Swedish and 49 British sporadic Alzheimer's disease cases and 104 healthy elderly control subjects, to investigate if the disease associates with a particular genotype in GT-12. However, no differences in allele frequencies were observed between any of the groups. (au) (26 refs.)

  15. LSD1 demethylase and the methyl-binding protein PHF20L1 prevent SET7 methyltransferase-dependent proteolysis of the stem-cell protein SOX2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunxiao; Hoang, Nam; Leng, Feng; Saxena, Lovely; Lee, Logan; Alejo, Salvador; Qi, Dandan; Khal, Anthony; Sun, Hong; Lu, Fei; Zhang, Hui

    2018-03-09

    The pluripotency-controlling stem-cell protein SRY-box 2 (SOX2) plays a pivotal role in maintaining the self-renewal and pluripotency of embryonic stem cells and also of teratocarcinoma or embryonic carcinoma cells. SOX2 is monomethylated at lysine 119 (Lys-119) in mouse embryonic stem cells by the SET7 methyltransferase, and this methylation triggers ubiquitin-dependent SOX2 proteolysis. However, the molecular regulators and mechanisms controlling SET7-induced SOX2 proteolysis are unknown. Here, we report that in human ovarian teratocarcinoma PA-1 cells, methylation-dependent SOX2 proteolysis is dynamically regulated by the LSD1 lysine demethylase and a methyl-binding protein, PHD finger protein 20-like 1 (PHF20L1). We found that LSD1 not only removes the methyl group from monomethylated Lys-117 (equivalent to Lys-119 in mouse SOX2), but it also demethylates monomethylated Lys-42 in SOX2, a reaction that SET7 also regulated and that also triggered SOX2 proteolysis. Our studies further revealed that PHF20L1 binds both monomethylated Lys-42 and Lys-117 in SOX2 and thereby prevents SOX2 proteolysis. Down-regulation of either LSD1 or PHF20L1 promoted SOX2 proteolysis, which was prevented by SET7 inactivation in both PA-1 and mouse embryonic stem cells. Our studies also disclosed that LSD1 and PHF20L1 normally regulate the growth of pluripotent mouse embryonic stem cells and PA-1 cells by preventing methylation-dependent SOX2 proteolysis. In conclusion, our findings reveal an important mechanism by which the stability of the pluripotency-controlling stem-cell protein SOX2 is dynamically regulated by the activities of SET7, LSD1, and PHF20L1 in pluripotent stem cells. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Non-invasive assessment of the reproductive cycle in free-ranging female African elephants (Loxodonta africana treated with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH vaccine for inducing anoestrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benavides Valades Gabriela

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In southern Africa, various options to manage elephant populations are being considered. Immunocontraception is considered to be the most ethically acceptable and logistically feasible method for control of smaller and confined populations. In this regard, the use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH vaccine has not been investigated in female elephants, although it has been reported to be safe and effective in several domestic and wildlife species. The aims of this study were to monitor the oestrous cycles of free-ranging African elephant cows using faecal progestagen metabolites and to evaluate the efficacy of a GnRH vaccine to induce anoestrus in treated cows. Methods Between May 2009 - June 2010, luteal activity of 12 elephant cows was monitored non-invasively using an enzyme immunoassay detecting faecal 5alpha-reduced pregnanes (faecal progestagen metabolites, FPM on a private game reserve in South Africa. No bulls of breeding age were present on the reserve prior to and for the duration of the study. After a 3-month control period, 8 randomly-selected females were treated twice with 600 micrograms of GnRH vaccine (Improvac®, Pfizer Animal Health, Sandton, South Africa 5-7 weeks apart. Four of these females had been treated previously with the porcine zona pellucida (pZP vaccine for four years (2004-2007. Results All 12 monitored females (8 treated and 4 controls showed signs of luteal activity as evidenced by FPM concentrations exceeding individual baseline values more than once. A total of 16 oestrous cycles could be identified in 8 cows with four of these within the 13 to 17 weeks range previously reported for captive African elephants. According to the FPM concentrations the GnRH vaccine was unable to induce anoestrus in the treated cows. Overall FPM levels in samples collected during the wet season (mean 4.03 micrograms/gram dry faeces were significantly higher (P Conclusions The GnRH vaccination protocol failed

  17. Adiponectin Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (+276G/T) and Its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was investigating the association between the single nucleotide polymorphism +276 G/T of the adiponectin gene with serum adiponectin level in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). In this study 100 healthy controls and 100 Egyptian patients with coronary artery disease of both genders ...

  18. Immunization with mutant HPV16 E7 protein inhibits the growth of TC-1 cells in tumor-bearing mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Li; Ma, Zhong-Liang; Zhao, Yue; Zhang, Jing

    2015-04-01

    Two human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 oncogenic proteins, E6 and E7, are co-expressed in the majority of HPV16-induced cervical cancer cells. Thus, the E6 and E7 proteins are good targets for developing therapeutic vaccines for cervical cancer. In the present study, immunization with the mutant non-transforming HPV16 E7 (mE7) protein was demonstrated to inhibit the growth of TC-1 cells in the TC-1 mouse model. The HPV16 mE7 gene was amplified by splicing overlap extension polymerase chain reaction using pET-28a(+)-E7 as a template, and the gene was cloned into pET-28a(+) to form pET-28a(+)-mE7. Compared with the E7 protein, mE7 lacks amino acid residues 94-98, and at residue 24, there is a Cys to Gly substitution. pET-28a(+)-mE7 was then introduced into Escherichia coli Rosetta. The expression of mE7 was induced by isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside. The mE7 protein was purified using Ni-NTA agarose and detected by SDS-PAGE and western blot analysis. In the tumor prevention model, no tumor was detected in the mice vaccinated with the mE7 protein. After 40 days, the tumor-free mice and control mice were challenged with 2×10 5 TC-1 cells. All control mice developed tumors six days later, but mE7 immunized mice were tumor free until 90 days. In the tumor therapy model, the TC-1 cells were initially injected subcutaneously, and the mice were subsequently vaccinated. Vaccination against the mE7 protein may significantly inhibit TC-1 cell growth compared to the control. These results demonstrated that immunization with the HPV16 mE7 protein elicited a long-term protective immunity against TC-1 tumor growth and generated a significant inhibition of TC-1 growth in a TC-1 mouse model.

  19. Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) –308G>A, Nitric Oxide Synthase 3 (NOS3) +894G>T Polymorphisms and Migraine Risk: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min; Tang, Wenjing; Hou, Lei; Liu, Ruozhuo; Dong, Zhao; Han, Xun; Zhang, Xiaofei; Wan, Dongjun; Yu, Shengyuan

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective Conflicting data have been reported on the association between tumor necrosis factor (TNF) –308G>A and nitric oxide synthase 3 (NOS3) +894G>T polymorphisms and migraine. We performed a meta-analysis of case-control studies to evaluate whether the TNF –308G>A and NOS3 +894G>T polymorphisms confer genetic susceptibility to migraine. Method We performed an updated meta-analysis for TNF –308G>A and a meta-analysis for NOS3 +894G>T based on studies published up to July 2014. We calculated study specific odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) assuming allele contrast, dominant model, recessive model, and co-dominant model as pooled effect estimates. Results Eleven studies in 6682 migraineurs and 22591 controls for TNF –308G>A and six studies in 1055 migraineurs and 877 controls for NOS3 +894G>T were included in the analysis. Neither indicated overall associations between gene polymorphisms and migraine risk. Subgroup analyses suggested that the “A” allele of the TNF –308G>A variant increases the risk of migraine among non-Caucasians (dominant model: pooled OR = 1.82; 95% CI 1.15 – 2.87). The risk of migraine with aura (MA) was increased among both Caucasians and non-Caucasians. Subgroup analyses suggested that the “T” allele of the NOS3 +894G>T variant increases the risk of migraine among non-Caucasians (co-dominant model: pooled OR = 2.10; 95% CI 1.14 – 3.88). Conclusions Our findings appear to support the hypothesis that the TNF –308G>A polymorphism may act as a genetic susceptibility factor for migraine among non-Caucasians and that the NOS3 +894G>T polymorphism may modulate the risk of migraine among non-Caucasians. PMID:26098763

  20. The histone demethylase LSD1 is required for estrogen-dependent S100A7 gene expression in human breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Seung Eun; Jang, Yeun Kyu

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► S100A7 gene is up-regulated in response to estrogen in breast cancer cells. ► Histone demethylase LSD1 can associate physically with S100A7 gene promoters. ► E2-induced S100A7 expression requires the enzymatic activity of LSD1. ► S100A7 inhibits cell proliferation, implying its tumor suppressor-like function. -- Abstract: S100A7, a member of S100 calcium binding protein family, is highly associated with breast cancer. However, the molecular mechanism of S100A7 regulation remains unclear. Here we show that long-term treatment with estradiol stimulated S100A7 expression in MCF7 breast cancer cells at both the transcriptional and translational levels. Both treatment with a histone demethylase LSD1 inhibitor and shRNA-based knockdown of LSD1 expression significantly decreased 17β-estradiol (E2)-induced S100A7 expression. These reduced E2-mediated S100A7 expression are rescued by the overexpressed wild-type LSD1 but not by its catalytically inactive mutant. Our data showed in vivo association of LSD1 with S100A7 promoters, confirming the potential role of LSD1 in regulating S100A7 expression. S100A7 knockdown increased both normal cell growth and estrogen-induced cell proliferation, suggesting a negative influence by S100A7 on the growth of cancer cells. Together, our data suggest that estrogen-induced S100A7 expression mediated by the histone demethylase LSD1 may downregulate breast cancer cell proliferation, implying a potential tumor suppressor-like function for S100A7.

  1. Design of a SOFC/GT/SCs hybrid power system to supply a rural isolated microgrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camblong, Haritza; Baudoin, Sylvain; Vechiu, Ionel; Etxeberria, Aitor

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel SOFC/GT/SCs HPS is connected to a rural microgrid through a 3LNPC inverter. • An operating strategy that maintains the SOFC power at its rated value is defined. • A robust digital controller that damps current oscillations is designed. • The efficiency, power quality, lifetime, and robustness of the HPS are considered. • An experimental test on an original HPS emulator validates the proposed solutions. - Abstract: The aim of this research study has been to design a Hybrid Power System (HPS) which works with biogas and whose main components are a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC), a Gas microTurbine (GT), and a module of SuperCapacities (SCs). The HPS is the only power source of a rural isolated microgrid. Its structure, operating strategy, and controller have been designed considering the following criteria: efficiency, power quality, SOFC lifetime and robustness in stability and performance. The HPS structure includes a unique power converter, a 3-Level Neutral Point Clamped (3LNPC) inverter that connects the HPS to the AC microgrid. Regarding the selected operating strategy, it consists in regulating the SOFC power output to its rated value. Thus, the SCs and the GT must respond to the power demand variations. On the other hand, a study of the HPS shows that its dynamic behavior is not linear. Therefore, a special attention is put on designing a robust HPS controller. The control model is identified and the robust digital controller is designed using the “Tracking and Regulation with Independent Objectives” method. Simulation and experimental results show how the proposed structure, operating strategy, and controller allow ensuring a good behavior of the HPS from the point of view of the abovementioned four criteria.

  2. GT-MHR COMMERCIALZATION STUDY. TECHNICAL PROGRESS AND COST MANAGEMENT REPORT FOR THE PERIOD JUNE 1 THROUGH JUNE 30, 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SHENOY, A.S.

    2003-01-01

    A271 GT-MHR COMMERCIALZATION STUDY TECHNICAL PROGRESS AND COST MANAGEMENT REPORT FOR THE PERIOD JUNE 1 THROUGH JUNE 30, 2003. Petten was provided with irradiation dimensional change data for both fuel compacts and H-451 graphite for design of the graphite sleeves that hold the fuel compacts to be irradiated in HFR-EU2. The Fuel Sample Product Specification for the Fuel Performance Irradiation Test Capsule MHR-2 was completed and approved. A Work Breakdown Structure was prepared for the development and qualification of advanced coated-particle fuels capable of meeting anticipated fuel performance requirements and work was initiated on preparation of schedules and a cost estimates for the test matrices

  3. Hydrogen Fueled Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell-Gas Turbine (SOFC-GT) System for Long-Haul Rail Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Justin Jeff

    Freight movement of goods is the artery for America's economic health. Long-haul rail is the premier mode of transport on a ton-mile basis. Concerns regarding greenhouse gas and criteria pollutant emissions, however, have motivated the creation of annually increasing locomotive emissions standards. Health issues from diesel particulate matter, especially near rail yards, have also been on the rise. These factors and the potential to raise conventional diesel-electric locomotive performance warrants the investigation of using future fuels in a more efficient system for locomotive application. This research evaluates the dynamic performance of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell-Gas Turbine (SOFC-GT) Hybrid system operating on hydrogen fuel to power a locomotive over a rail path starting from the Port of Los Angeles and ending in the City of Barstow. Physical constraints, representative locomotive operation logic, and basic design are used from a previous feasibility study and simulations are performed in the MATLAB Simulink environment. In-house controls are adapted to and expanded upon. Results indicate high fuel-to-electricity efficiencies of at least 54% compared to a conventional diesel-electric locomotive efficiency of 35%. Incorporation of properly calibrated feedback and feed-forward controls enables substantial load following of difficult transients that result from train kinematics while maintaining turbomachinery operating requirements and suppressing thermal stresses in the fuel cell stack. The power split between the SOFC and gas turbine is deduced to be a deterministic factor in the balance between capital and operational costs. Using hydrogen results in no emissions if renewable and offers a potential of 24.2% fuel energy savings for the rail industry.

  4. TGF-β of lung cancer microenvironment upregulates B7H1 and GITRL expression in dendritic cells and is associated with regulatory T cell generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Xiao Yan; Sui, Hua Xiu; Liu, Yao; Ke, Shi Zhong; Wang, Yi Nan; Gao, Feng Guang

    2012-08-01

    The effects of TGF-β on dendritic cells (DCs) on the tumor microenvironment are not well understood. We report, here, the establishment of an in vitro lung cancer microenvironment by co-incubation of seminaphtharhodafluor (SNARF) labeled Lewis lung cancer (LLC) cells, carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE) labeled fibroblasts and 4-chloromethyl-7-hydroxycoumarin (CMHC) labeled DCs. Raw 264.7, EL4 and NCI-H446 cells were able to synthesize TGF-β which was determined by flow cyto-metry and western blotting, respectively. Furthermore, TGF-β efficiently increased regulatory T-cell (Treg) expansion and upregulated DC B7H1 and GITRL expression. TGF-β and the co-incubation of LLC cells, fibroblasts with DCs could augment the expression of B7H1 and GITRL molecules of DCs. The data presented here indicate that the B7H1 and GITRL molecules may play an important role in TGF-β-induced Treg expansion of lung cancer microenvironment.

  5. α4β7+ CD4+ Effector/Effector Memory T Cells Differentiate into Productively and Latently Infected Central Memory T Cells by Transforming Growth Factor β1 during HIV-1 Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Ka-Wai; Wu, Tongjin; Ho, Sai Fan; Wong, Yik Chun; Liu, Li; Wang, Hui; Chen, Zhiwei

    2018-04-15

    HIV-1 transmission occurs mainly through mucosal tissues. During mucosal transmission, HIV-1 preferentially infects α 4 β 7 + gut-homing CCR7 - CD4 + effector/effector memory T cells (T EM ) and results in massive depletion of these cells and other subsets of T EM in gut-associated lymphoid tissues. However, besides being eliminated by HIV-1, the role of T EM during the early stage of infection remains inconclusive. Here, using in vitro -induced α 4 β 7 + gut-homing T EM (α 4 β 7 + T EM ), we found that α 4 β 7 + T EM differentiated into CCR7 + CD4 + central memory T cells (T CM ). This differentiation was HIV-1 independent but was inhibited by SB431542, a specific transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) receptor I kinase inhibitor. Consistently, T EM -to-T CM differentiation was observed in α 4 β 7 + T EM stimulated with TGF-β1 (TGF-β). The T CM properties of the TGF-β-induced T EM -derived T CM (α 4 β 7 + T CM ) were confirmed by their enhanced CCL19 chemotaxis and the downregulation of surface CCR7 upon T cell activation in vitro Importantly, the effect of TGF-β on T CM differentiation also held in T EM directly isolated from peripheral blood. To investigate the significance of the TGF-β-dependent T EM -to-T CM differentiation in HIV/AIDS pathogenesis, we observed that both productively and latently infected α 4 β 7 + T CM could differentiate from α 4 β 7 + T EM in the presence of TGF-β during HIV-1 infection. Collectively, this study not only provides a new insight for the plasticity of T EM but also suggests that the TGF-β-dependent T EM -to-T CM differentiation is a previously unrecognized mechanism for the formation of latently infected T CM after HIV-1 infection. IMPORTANCE HIV-1 is the causative agent of HIV/AIDS, which has led to millions of deaths in the past 30 years. Although the implementation of highly active antiretroviral therapy has remarkably reduced the HIV-1-related morbidity and mortality, HIV-1 is not eradicated in

  6. Synaptotagmin-7 phosphorylation mediates GLP-1-dependent potentiation of insulin secretion from β-cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Bingbing; Wei, Shunhui; Petersen, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    Glucose stimulates insulin secretion from β-cells by increasing intracellular Ca(2+). Ca(2+) then binds to synaptotagmin-7 as a major Ca(2+) sensor for exocytosis, triggering secretory granule fusion and insulin secretion. In type-2 diabetes, insulin secretion is impaired; this impairment...... is ameliorated by glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) or by GLP-1 receptor agonists, which improve glucose homeostasis. However, the mechanism by which GLP-1 receptor agonists boost insulin secretion remains unclear. Here, we report that GLP-1 stimulates protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent phosphorylation...... of synaptotagmin-7 at serine-103, which enhances glucose- and Ca(2+)-stimulated insulin secretion and accounts for the improvement of glucose homeostasis by GLP-1. A phospho-mimetic synaptotagmin-7 mutant enhances Ca(2+)-triggered exocytosis, whereas a phospho-inactive synaptotagmin-7 mutant disrupts GLP-1...

  7. The expression of B7-H1 and B7-H4 molecules on immature myeloid and lymphoid dendritic cells in cord blood of healthy neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kludka-Sternik M

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to estimate both B7-H1 and B7-H4 molecules on immature myeloid and lymphoid dendriticcells in umbilical cord blood of healthy neonates in comparison with peripheral blood of healthy adults. Thirty ninehealthy full-term neonates from physiological single pregnancies and 27 healthy adults were included in the study. Theexpression of B7-H1 and B7-H4 was revealed using the immunofluorescence method. Statistical analysis was performedusing a non-parametric test (Mann-Whitney U-Test. The percentages of BDCA-1+ dendritic cells with B7-H1 and B7-H4expressions were significantly higher in peripheral blood of healthy adults (p<0.00003. It was either observed that the percentageof BDCA-2+ dendritic cells with the expression of B7-H4 molecules was significantly higher in peripheral blood ofhealthy adults in comparison with umbilical cord blood (p<0.02. Decreased percentages of dendritic cells and co-stimulatorymolecules indicate that neonates have immature immune system. Depletion of co-stimulatory B7-H1 and B7-H4 moleculesenable appropriate development of immune response.

  8. Steroid metabolism in the hormone dependent MCF-7 human breast carcinoma cell line and its two hormone resistant subpopulations MCF-7/LCC1 and MCF-7/LCC2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, L; Brünner, N; Spang-Thomsen, M

    1998-01-01

    and 17beta-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase were investigated isolating the following steroids: estriol (E3), estradiol (E2), estrone (E1), 3alpha/beta-androstanediol (A-diol), testosterone (T), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), androsterone (AND), androstenedion (4-AD) and androstanedione (A-dion). For all......, and preincubation with cortisol had no effect on the enzyme activity. With [14C]T as the substrate, the metabolized level of DHT was very similar in the three cell lines, though MCF-7/LCC1 and MCF-7/LCC2 utilized the substrate to a much lesser extent. The amount of DHT and 4-AD produced were comparable in the two...... to the parent MCF-7. However, since treatment with DHT and T inhibited cell growth equally well in all three tumor cell lines, it is unlikely that the found differences in steroid metabolism was involved in the acquisition of the endocrine resistance of the two MCF-7 sublines....

  9. 7-ketocholesterol induces apoptosis of MC3T3-E1 cells associated with reactive oxygen species generation, endoplasmic reticulum stress and caspase-3/7 dependent pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuta Sato

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is associated with an increased risk of bone fractures without reduction of bone mineral density. The cholesterol oxide 7-ketocholesterol (7KCHO has been implicated in numerous diseases such as atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, cancer, age-related macular degeneration and T2DM. In the present study, 7KCHO decreased the viability of MC3T3-E1 cells, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS production and apoptotic rate, and upregulated the caspase-3/7 pathway. Furthermore, these effects of 7KCHO were abolished by pre-incubation of the cells with N-acetylcysteine (NAC, an ROS inhibitor. Also, 7KCHO enhanced the mRNA expression of two endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress markers; CHOP and GRP78, in MC3T3-E1 cells. Pre-incubation of the cells with NAC suppressed the 7KCHO-induced upregulation of CHOP, but not GRP78. In conclusion, we demonstrated that 7KCHO induced apoptosis of MC3T3-E1 cells associated with ROS generation, ER stress, and caspase-3/7 activity, and the effects of 7KCHO were abolished by the ROS inhibitor NAC. These findings may provide new insight into the relationship between oxysterol and pathophysiology of osteoporosis seen in T2DM.

  10. TPH2 -703G/T SNP may have important effect on susceptibility to suicidal behavior in major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Ho-Kyoung; Kim, Yong-Ku

    2009-04-30

    Serotonergic system-related genes can be good candidate genes for both major depressive disorder (MDD) and suicidal behavior. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association of serotonin 2A receptor gene -1438A/G SNP (HTR2A -1438A/G), tryptophan hydroxylase 2 gene -703G/T SNP (TPH2 -703G/T) and serotonin 1A receptor C-1019G (HTR1A C-1019G) with suicidal behavior. One hundred and eighty one suicidal depressed patients and 143 non-suicidal depressed patients who met DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder were recruited from patients who were admitted to Korea University Ansan Hospital. One hundred seventy six normal controls were healthy volunteers who were recruited by local advertisement. Patients and normal controls were genotyped for HTR2A -1438A/G, TPH2 -703G/T and 5-HT1A C-1019G. The suicidal depressed patients were evaluated by the lethality of individual suicide attempts using Weisman and Worden's risk-rescue rating (RRR) and the Lethality Suicide Attempt Rating Scale-updated (LSARS-II). In order to assess the severity of depressive symptoms of patients, Hamilton's Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) was administered. Genotype and allele frequencies were compared between groups by chi(2) statistics. Association of genotype of the candidate genes with the lethality of suicidal behavior was examined with ANOVA by comparing the mean scores of LSARS and RRR according to the genotype. There were statistically significant differences in the genotype distributions and allele frequencies of TPH2 -703G/T between the suicidal depressive group and the normal control group. The homozygous allele G (G/G genotype) frequency was significantly higher in suicidal depressed patients than in controls. However, no differences in either genotype distribution or in allele frequencies of HTR2A -1438A/G and HTR1A C-1019G were observed between the suicidal depressed patients, the non-suicidal depressed patients, and the normal controls. There were no differences in the

  11. Rotor scale model tests for power conversion unit of GT-MHR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxi, C.B., E-mail: baxicb1130@hotmail.com [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Telengator, A.; Razvi, J. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    The gas turbine modular helium reactor (GT-MHR) combines a modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) nuclear heat source with a closed Brayton gas-turbine cycle power conversion unit (PCU) for thermal to electric energy conversion. The PCU has a vertical orientation and is supported on electromagnetic bearings (EMB). The rotor scale model (RSM) tests are intended to directly model the control of EMB and rotor dynamic characteristics of the full-scale GT-MHR turbo-machine (TM). The objectives of the RSM tests are to: Bullet Confirm the EMB control system design for the GT-MHR turbo machine over the full-range of operation. Bullet Confirm the redundancy and on-line maintainability features that have been specified for the EMBs. Bullet Provide a benchmark for validation of analytical tools that will be used for independent analyses of the EMB subsystem design. Bullet Provide experience with the installation, operation and maintenance of EMBs supporting multiple rotors with flexible couplings. As with the full-scale TM, the RSM incorporates two rotors that are joined by a flexible coupling. Each of the rotors is supported on one axial and two radial EMBs. Additional devices, similar in concept to radial EMBs, are installed to simulate magnetic and/or mechanical forces representing those that would be seen by the exciter, generator, compressors and turbine. Overall, the lengths of the RSM rotor is about 1/3rd that of the full-scale TM, while the diameters are approximately 1/5th scale. The design and sizing of the rotor is such that the number and values of critical speeds in the RSM are the same as in the full-scale TM. The EMBs are designed such that their response to rotor dynamic forces is representative of the full-scale TM. The fabrication and assembly of the RSM was completed at the end of 2008. All start up adjustments were finished in December 2009. To-date the generator rotor has been supported in the EMBs and rotated up to 1800 rpm. Final tests are

  12. The evaluation of MCI, MI, PMI and GT on both genders with different age and dental status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozdag, G; Sener, S

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the mandibular cortical index (MCI), mental index (MI), panoramic mandibular index (PMI) and cortical bone thickness in the zone of the gonial angle (GT) in panoramic radiographies from a large sample of males and females and to determine how they relate to patients' age, gender and dental status. 910 panoramic radiographs were obtained and grouped into age, dental status and gender. The MCI, MI, PMI and GT were analysed. Remarkable differences were observed for MCI and GT regarding gender, age groups and dental status on both sides (p PMI in females, dental status had an effect on the MI and PMI in males (p PMI (p PMI and MI measurements. The effects of age and tooth loss in the GT and MCI measurements are similar, and these indices can be accepted as more reliable in studies including both genders.

  13. Effect of microgravity environment on cell wall regeneration, cell divisions, growth, and differentiation of plants from protoplasts (7-IML-1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Ole

    1992-01-01

    The primary goal of this project is to investigate if microgravity has any influence on growth and differentiation of protoplasts. Formation of new cell walls on rapeseed protoplasts takes place within the first 24 hours after isolation. Cell division can be observed after 2-4 days and formation of cell aggregates after 5-7 days. Therefore, it is possible during the 7 day IML-1 Mission to investigate if cell wall formation, cell division, and cell differentiation are influenced by microgravity. Protoplasts of rapeseeds and carrot will be prepared shortly before launch and injected into 0.6 ml polyethylene bags. Eight bags are placed in an aluminum block inside the ESA Type 1 container. The containers are placed at 4 C in PTCU's and transferred to orbiter mid-deck. At 4 C all cell processes are slowed down, including cell wall formation. Latest access to the shuttle will be 12 hours before launch. In orbit the containers will be transferred from the PTC box to the 22 C Biorack incubator. The installation of a 1 g centrifuge in Biorack will make it possible to distinguish between effects of near weightlessness and effects caused by cosmic radiation and other space flight factors including vibrations. Parallel control experiments will be carried out on the ground. Other aspects of the experiment are discussed.

  14. Replication study of STAT4 rs7574865 G/T polymorphism and risk of rheumatoid arthritis in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Li; Liu, Ruiping; Zhang, Hui; Huang, Yong; Sun, Rongbin; Tang, Peifu

    2013-09-10

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS) are common systemic autoimmune diseases with genetic and environmental predisposing factors. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 4 (STAT4) transmits signals induced by interleukin-12, interleukin-23 and interferon-γ, which are key cytokines and play important roles in the development of autoimmune diseases. Previous studies confirmed the STAT4 rs7574865 G/T locus to be associated with RA. Thus we conducted a replication study to investigate STAT4 rs7574865 G/T polymorphism and RA/AS susceptibility in a Chinese population. We studied STAT4 rs7574865 G/T gene polymorphism in 520 patients with RA, 100 AS patients and 520 controls in a Chinese population. Genotyping was done using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). When the STAT4 rs7574865 GG homozygote genotype was used as the reference group, the GT or GT/TT genotypes were associated with the risk for RA. After stratification analyses, a significantly increased risk for RA associated with the STAT4 rs7574865 GT genotype was evident among the rheumatoid factor (RF)-positive patients, patients with higher erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) level and patients with higher RA disease activity score (DAS28) compared with the STAT4 rs7574865 GG genotype. A significantly increased risk for RA associated with the STAT4 rs7574865 TT genotype was evident among older patients and RF-negative patients compared with the STAT4 rs7574865 GG genotype. STAT4 rs7574865 G/T was not associated with susceptibility to AS. This replication study confirmed that STAT4 rs7574865 G/T polymorphism was associated with the risk of RA. STAT4 polymorphisms are associated with rheumatoid arthritis risk. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Power unit with GT-MHR reactor plant for electricity production and district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiryushin, A.L.; Kodochigov, N.G.; Kuzavkov, N.G.; Golovko, V.F.

    2000-01-01

    Modular helium reactor with the gas turbine (GT-MHR) is a perspective power reactor plant for the next century. The project reactor is based on experience of operation more than 50 gas-cooled reactors on carbon dioxide and helium, and also on subsequent achievements in the field of realization direct gas turbine Brayton cycle. To the beginning of 90 years, achievements in technology of gas turbines, highly effective recuperators and magnetic bearings made it possible to start development of the reactor plant project combining a safe modular gas cooled reactor and a power conversion system, realizing the highly effective Brayton cycle. The conceptual project of the commercial GT-MHR reactor plant fulfilled in 1997 by joint efforts of international firms, combines a safe modular reactor with an annular active core of prismatic fuel blocks and a power conversion system with direct gas turbine cycle. The efficiency of GT-MHR gas turbine cycle at level of about 48% makes it competitive in the electricity production market in comparison with any fossil or nuclear power stations

  16. The MLH1 c.-27C>A and c.85G>T variants are linked to dominantly inherited MLH1 epimutation and are borne on a European ancestral haplotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Chau-To; Vogelaar, Ingrid P; van Zelst-Stams, Wendy A; Mensenkamp, Arjen R; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn J; Rapkins, Robert W; Ward, Robyn L; Chun, Nicolette; Ford, James M; Ladabaum, Uri; McKinnon, Wendy C; Greenblatt, Marc S; Hitchins, Megan P

    2014-05-01

    Germline mutations of the DNA mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 or PMS2, and deletions affecting the EPCAM gene adjacent to MSH2, underlie Lynch syndrome by predisposing to early-onset colorectal, endometrial and other cancers. An alternative but rare cause of Lynch syndrome is constitutional epimutation of MLH1, whereby promoter methylation and transcriptional silencing of one allele occurs throughout normal tissues. A dominantly transmitted constitutional MLH1 epimutation has been linked to an MLH1 haplotype bearing two single-nucleotide variants, NM_000249.2: c.-27C>A and c.85G>T, in a Caucasian family with Lynch syndrome from Western Australia. Subsequently, a second seemingly unrelated Caucasian Australian case with the same MLH1 haplotype and concomitant epimutation was reported. We now describe three additional, ostensibly unrelated, cancer-affected families of European heritage with this MLH1 haplotype in association with constitutional epimutation, bringing the number of index cases reported to five. Array-based genotyping in four of these families revealed shared haplotypes between individual families that extended across ≤2.6-≤6.4 megabase regions of chromosome 3p, indicating common ancestry. A minimal ≤2.6 megabase founder haplotype common to all four families was identified, which encompassed MLH1 and additional flanking genes and segregated with the MLH1 epimutation in each family. Our findings indicate that the MLH1 c.-27C>A and c.85G>T variants are borne on a European ancestral haplotype and provide conclusive evidence for its pathogenicity via a mechanism of epigenetic silencing of MLH1 within normal tissues. Additional descendants bearing this founder haplotype may exist who are also at high risk of developing Lynch syndrome-related cancers.

  17. Arecoline inhibits the 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-induced cytochrome P450 1A1 activation in human hepatoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Eddy Essen; Miao Zhifeng; Lee, W.-J.; Chao, H.-R.; Li, Lih-Ann; Wang, Y.-F.; Ko, Y.-C.; Tsai, F.-Y.; Yeh, S.C.; Tsou, T.-C.

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effect of arecoline, a major areca nut alkaloid, on the 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-induced activation of cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) in a human hepatoma cell line Huh-7. We treated Huh-7 cells with 10 nM TCDD in the presence of different concentrations of arecoline (50-300 μM). Our results indicated that arecoline attenuated the TCDD-induced CYP1A1 enzyme activation with an inhibitory effect on cell proliferation. By using real-time RT-PCR, we demonstrated that arecoline inhibited the TCDD-induced activations of CYP1A1 and AhR repressor (AhRR) mRNA expression in a similar pattern. Our results revealed that arecoline inhibited AhR mRNA expression with no direct effect on CYP1A1 enzyme activity. Therefore, in our present study, the observed inhibitory effect of arecoline on CYP1A1 activation was not due to the up-regulation of AhRR or direct inhibitory effect on CYP1A1. Taken together, here we have demonstrated that arecoline attenuates the TCDD-induced CYP1A1 activation mainly via down-regulation of AhR expression in human hepatoma cells, suggesting the possible involvement of arecoline in the AhR-mediated metabolism of environmental toxicants in liver

  18. Osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells on gum tragacanth hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeri, Seyed Mohammad Jafar; Sadeghi, Yousef; Salehi, Mohammad; Farahani, Reza Masteri; Mohsen, Nourozian

    2016-05-01

    Currently, natural polymer based hydrogels has attracted great attention of orthopedic surgeons for application in bone tissue engineering. With this aim, osteoinductive capacity of Gum Tragacanth (GT) based hydrogel was compared to collagen hydrogel and tissue culture plate (TCPS). For this purpose, adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AT-MSCs) was cultured on the hydrogels and TCPS and after investigating the biocompatibility of hydrogels using MTT assay, osteoinductivity of hydrogels were evaluated using pan osteogenic markers such as Alizarin red staining, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, calcium content and osteo-related genes. Increasing proliferation trend of AT-MSCs on GT hydrogel demonstrated that TG has no-cytotoxicity and can even be better than the other groups i.e., highest proliferation at day 5. GT hydrogel displayed highest ALP activity and mineralization when compared to the collagen hydrogel and TCPS. Relative gene expression levels have demonstrated that highest expression of Runx2, osteonectin and osteocalcin in the cells cultured GT hydrogel but the expression of collagen type-1 remains constant in hydrogels. Above results demonstrate that GT hydrogel could be an appropriate scaffold for accelerating and supporting the adhesion, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of stem cells which further can be used for orthopedic applications. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Uligevægt mellem familie og arbejdsliv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boje, Thomas P.; Ejrnæs, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Kapitlet beskriver og diskuterer de strategier, som bliver anvendt i familiepolitikken i Danmark såvel som i udvalgte europæiske lande med det formål at sikre en bedre ligevægt mellem de krav, som stilles til forældrene i arbejdslivet og i familien i form af omsorg for børn. Kapitlet afsluttes me...... beskrivelse af en familiepolitisk typologi, og hvordan relationen mellem familie og arbejde kommer til udtryk i de forskellige europæiske velfærdsregimer....

  20. ATP7B detoxifies silver in ciliated airway epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibricevic, Aida; Brody, Steven L.; Youngs, Wiley J.; Cannon, Carolyn L.

    2010-01-01

    Silver is a centuries-old antibiotic agent currently used to treat infected burns. The sensitivity of a wide range of drug-resistant microorganisms to silver killing suggests that it may be useful for treating refractory lung infections. Toward this goal, we previously developed a methylated caffeine silver acetate compound, SCC1, that exhibits broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against clinical strains of bacteria in vitro and when nebulized to lungs in mouse infection models. Preclinical testing of high concentrations of SCC1 in primary culture mouse tracheal epithelial cells (mTEC) showed selective ciliated cell death. Ciliated cell death was induced by both silver- and copper-containing compounds but not by the methylated caffeine portion of SCC1. We hypothesized that copper transporting P-type ATPases, ATP7A and ATP7B, play a role in silver detoxification in the airway. In mTEC, ATP7A was expressed in non-ciliated cells, whereas ATP7B was expressed only in ciliated cells. The exposure of mTEC to SCC1 induced the trafficking of ATP7B, but not ATP7A, suggesting the presence of a cell-specific silver uptake and detoxification mechanisms. Indeed, the expression of the copper uptake protein CTR1 was also restricted to ciliated cells. A role of ATP7B in silver detoxification was further substantiated when treatment of SCC1 significantly increased cell death in ATP7B shRNA-treated HepG2 cells. In addition, mTEC from ATP7B -/- mice showed enhanced loss of ciliated cells compared to wild type. These studies are the first to demonstrate a cell type-specific expression of the Ag + /Cu + transporters ATP7A, ATP7B, and CTR1 in airway epithelial cells and a role for ATP7B in detoxification of these metals in the lung.

  1. THE USE OF GnRH ANTAGONISTS IN OVARIAN STIMULATION FOR INTRAUTERINE INSEMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mete Işıkoğlu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The first paper entitled intrauterine insemination (IUI was published in 1962. By time, several methods involving the technique and the ovulation induction schedules have evolved in order to improve the success rates. Although gonadotrophin releasing hormone antagonists (GnRHa is a crucial part of assisted reproductive treatments now, concerns also arouse regarding the need for the use of it in IUI cycles. These drugs may be considered in IUI programs basically in order to prevent premature LH surges and related cycle cancellations. Although administration of a GnRH antagonist almost completely abolishes premature luteinization, it does not substantially improve the pregnancy rate. The decision of using GnRH antagonists in IUI cycles should be based primarily on the local cost/benefit analysis of individual centers. It will be prudent to limit the involvement of the antagonists in ovulation induction protocols to: patients who frequently exhibit premature LH discharges and therefore either fail to complete treatment or result in unsuccessful outcome; initiated cycles intented for IUI but converted to ART; if it is not possible for logistic reasons (weekend to perform the insemination or for medical centers in which a gynecologist on call is not available and in order to decrease clinical task burden resulting from strict cycle monitoring such as serial transvaginal sonography and/or frequent urine tests.

  2. Foxo1 and Foxp1 play opposing roles in regulating the differentiation and antitumor activity of TH9 cells programmed by IL-7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Enguang; Ma, Xingzhe; Lu, Yong; Yang, Maojie; Wang, Qiang; Xue, Gang; Qian, Jianfei; Wang, Siqing; Yi, Qing

    2018-01-01

    Tumor-specific CD4+ T helper 9 (TH9) cells, so-called because of their production of the cytokine interleukin-9 (IL-9), are a powerful effector T cell subset for cancer immunotherapy. We found that pretreatment of naïve CD4+ T cells with IL-7 further enhanced their differentiation into TH9 cells and augmented their antitumor activity. IL-7 markedly increased the abundance of the histone acetyltransferase p300 by activating the STAT5 and PI3K-AKT-mTOR signaling pathways and promoting the acetylation of histones at the Il9 promoter. As a result, the transcriptional regulator Foxo1 was dephosphorylated and translocated to the nucleus, bound to the Il9 promoter, and induced the production of IL-9 protein. In contrast, Foxp1, which bound to the Il9 promoter in naïve CD4+ T cells and inhibited Il9 expression, was outcompeted for binding to the Il9 promoter by Foxo1 and translocated to the cytoplasm. Furthermore, forced expression of Foxo1 or a deficiency in Foxp1 in CD4+ T cells markedly increased the production of IL-9, whereas a deficiency in Foxo1 inhibited the ability of IL-7 to enhance the differentiation and antitumor activity of TH9 cells. Thus, we identified the roles of Foxo1 as a positive regulator and Foxp1 as a negative regulator of TH9 cell differentiation and antitumor activity, which may provide potential targets for cancer immunotherapy. PMID:29018172

  3. DNMT3B -579 G>T Promoter Polymorphism and the Risk of Gastric Cancer in the West of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Kulsom; Soleimani, Azam; Irani, Shiva; Kiani, Aliasghar; Ghanadi, Kourosh; Noormohamadi, Zahra; Sakinejad, Foroozan

    2018-06-01

    Many studies have suggested that modulation of DNMT3B function caused by single nucleotide polymorphisms of the DNMT3B promoter region may underlie the susceptibility to various cancers such as tumors of the digestive system. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of -579 G>T polymorphism in the promoter of the DNMT3B gene on risk of gastric cancer in a population from West Iran. We conducted a case-control study in 100 gastric cancer patients and 112 cancer-free controls to assess the correlation between DNMT3B -579 G>T (rs1569686) polymorphism and the risk of gastric cancer. Detection of genotypes of DNMT3B G39179T polymorphism was analyzed by PCR-RFLP. There was no significant difference in the distribution of DNMT3B -579 G>T genotypes between the cases and controls. However, in the stratified analysis by clinicopathological characteristic types, we found that statistically, the risk susceptibility to gastric cancer was significantly associated with tumor grade II and GT/TT genotype of patients, compared to patients having GG genotype, (OR = 5.4737, 95% CI = 1.4746. 20.3184, P = 0.01). Our study suggested that the -579 T allele may increase the relative risk for the progression of clinicopathological characteristic of tumor grade of gastric cancer patients.

  4. Selection of JAERI'S HTGR-GT concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muto, Y.; Ishiyama, S.; Shiozawa, S.

    2001-01-01

    In JAERI, a feasibility study of HTGR-GT has been conducted as an assigned work from STA in Japan since January 1996. So far, the conceptual or preliminary designs of 600, 400 and 300 MW(t) power plants have been completed. The block type core and pebble-bed core have been selected in 600 MW(t) and 400/300 MW(t), respectively. The gas-turbine system adopts a horizontal single shaft rotor and then the power conversion vessel is separated into a turbine vessel and a heat exchanger vessel. In this paper, the issues related to the selection of these concepts are technically discussed. (author)

  5. The role of SDF-1-CXCR4/CXCR7 axis in biological behaviors of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Qiang; Zhang, Aijun; Tao, Changbo; Li, Xueyang; Jin, Peisheng, E-mail: jinps2006@163.com

    2013-11-22

    Highlights: •SDF-1 pretreating increased the levels of CXCR4, CXCR7 in ADSCs. •SDF-1 improved cells paracrine migration and proliferation abilities. •CXCR4 and CXCR7 could function in ADSCs paracrine, migration and proliferation. -- Abstract: Numerous studies have reported that CXCR4 and CXCR7 play an essential, but differential role in stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1)-inducing cell chemotaxis, viability and paracrine actions of BMSCs. Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) have been suggested to be potential seed cells for clinical application instead of bone marrow derived stroma cell (BMSCs). However, the function of SDF-1/CXCR4 and SDF-1/CXCR7 in ADSCs is not well understood. This study was designed to analyze the effect of SDF-1/CXCR4 and SDF-1/CXCR7 axis on ADSCs biological behaviors in vitro. Using Flow cytometry and Western blot methods, we found for the first time that CXCR4/CXCR7 expression was increased after treatment with SDF-1 in ADSCs. SDF-1 promoted ADSCs paracrine, proliferation and migration abilities. CXCR4 or CXCR7 antibody suppressed ADSCs paracrine action induced by SDF-1. The migration of ADSCs can be abolished by CXCR4 antibody, while the proliferation of ADSCs was only downregulated by CXCR7 antibody. Our study indicated that the angiogenesis of ADSCs is, at least partly, mediated by SDF-1/CXCR4 and SDF-1/CXCR7 axis. However, only binding of SDF-1/CXCR7 was required for proliferation of ADSCs, and CXCR7 was required for migration of ADSCs induced by SDF-1. Our studies provide evidence that the activation of either axis may be helpful to improve the effectiveness of ADSCs-based stem cell therapy.

  6. Microsatellite D21D210 (GT-12) allele frequencies in sporadic Alzheimer`s disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lannfelt, L; Lilius, L; Viitanen, M; Winblad, B; Basun, H [Huddinge Hospital, Karolinska Institute, Dept. of Geriatric Medicine, (Sweden); Houlden, H; Rossor, M [St. Mary` s Hospital, Dept. of Neurology, Medical School, London (United Kingdom); Hardy, J [University of South Florida, Suncoast Alzheimer` s Disease Research Labs, Department of Psychiatry, Tampa (United States)

    1995-02-01

    Four disease-causing mutations have so far been described in the amyloid precursor protein gene on chromosome 21 in familial early-onset Alzheimer`s disease. Linkage analysis with a fourteen-allele microsatellite at D21S210 named GT-12 has proven useful in the elucidation of amyloid presursor protein gene involvement in Alzheimer`s disease families, as it is closely linked to the gene. Most cases of Alzheimer`s disease are thought to be sporadic and not familial. However, evidence from earlier studies suggests an important genetic contribution also in sporadic cases, where gene-environment interaction may contribute to the disease. We have determined frequencies of the GT-12 alleles in 78 Swedish and 49 British sporadic Alzheimer`s disease cases and 104 healthy elderly control subjects, to investigate if the disease associates with a particular genotype in GT-12. However, no differences in allele frequencies were observed between any of the groups. (au) (26 refs.).

  7. Impact of GnRH agonist triggering and intensive luteal steroid support on live-birth rates and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iliodromiti, Stamatina; Lan, Vuong Thi Ngoc; Tuong, Ho Manh

    2013-01-01

    Conventional luteal support packages are inadequate to facilitate a fresh transfer after GnRH agonist (GnRHa) trigger in patients at high risk of developing ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). By providing intensive luteal-phase support with oestradiol and progesterone satisfactory implanta......Conventional luteal support packages are inadequate to facilitate a fresh transfer after GnRH agonist (GnRHa) trigger in patients at high risk of developing ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). By providing intensive luteal-phase support with oestradiol and progesterone satisfactory...... implantation rates can be sustained. The objective of this study was to assess the live-birth rate and incidence of OHSS after GnRHa trigger and intensive luteal steroid support compared to traditional hCG trigger and conventional luteal support in OHSS high risk Asian patients....

  8. Association of ABCB1, β tubulin I, and III with multidrug resistance of MCF7/DOC subline from breast cancer cell line MCF7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wentao; Zhai, Baoping; Zhi, Hui; Li, Yuhong; Jia, Linjiao; Ding, Chao; Zhang, Bin; You, Wei

    2014-09-01

    Docetaxel is a first-line chemotherapeutic agent for treating advanced breast cancer. The development of chemoresistance or multidrug resistance (MDR), however, results in breast cancer chemotherapy failure. This study aims to explore the molecular mechanisms underlying docetaxel-resistance in treatment of breast cancer. The docetaxel-resistant subline MCF7/DOC, derived from the parental sensitive breast cancer cell line MCF7, was established by intermittent exposure to moderate concentrations of docetaxel, followed by examination of its phenotypes. The MCF7/DOC subline showed cross resistance against paclitaxel, doxorubicin, methotrexate, and 5-Fu. Compared to the parental MCF7, MCF7/DOC cells were enlarged with heterogeneous sizes and a cobblestone and polygonal appearance. They were arrested at G2/M phase and proliferated slowly. The colony formation potential of MCF7/DOC in soft agar was significantly increased. MCF7/DOC cells showed reduced intracellular accumulation and increased efflux of rhodamine 123. The mRNA expression level of adenosine triphosphate binding cassette (ABC) transporter family, i.e., ABCB1, ABCC1, ABCC2, ABCG2, and β tubulin isotypes were characterized by quantitative PCR. High-level expression of ABCB1, βI, and βIII tubulin mRNA in MCF7/DOC was detected. Downregulation of ABCB1, βI, and βIII tubulin mediated by three combined siRNAs resulted in stronger growth inhibition of MCF7/DOC than inhibition of the expression of individual genes. ABCB1, βI, and βIII tubulin might contribute to the MDR of MCF7/DOC and be potential therapeutic targets for overcoming MDR of breast cancer.

  9. Expression and Role of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone 2 and Its Receptor in Mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy T. Desaulniers

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1 (GnRH1 and its receptor (GnRHR1 drive mammalian reproduction via regulation of the gonadotropins. Yet, a second form of GnRH (GnRH2 and its receptor (GnRHR2 also exist in mammals. GnRH2 has been completely conserved throughout 500 million years of evolution, signifying high selection pressure and a critical biological role. However, the GnRH2 gene is absent (e.g., rat or inactivated (e.g., cow and sheep in some species but retained in others (e.g., human, horse, and pig. Likewise, many species (e.g., human, chimpanzee, cow, and sheep retain the GnRHR2 gene but lack the appropriate coding sequence to produce a full-length protein due to gene coding errors; although production of GnRHR2 in humans remains controversial. Certain mammals lack the GnRHR2 gene (e.g., mouse or most exons entirely (e.g., rat. In contrast, old world monkeys, musk shrews, and pigs maintain the coding sequence required to produce a functional GnRHR2. Like GnRHR1, GnRHR2 is a 7-transmembrane, G protein-coupled receptor that interacts with Gαq/11 to mediate cell signaling. However, GnRHR2 retains a cytoplasmic tail and is only 40% homologous to GnRHR1. A role for GnRH2 and its receptor in mammals has been elusive, likely because common laboratory models lack both the ligand and receptor. Uniquely, both GnRH2 and GnRHR2 are ubiquitously expressed; transcript levels are abundant in peripheral tissues and scarcely found in regions of the brain associated with gonadotropin secretion, suggesting a divergent role from GnRH1/GnRHR1. Indeed, GnRH2 and its receptor are not physiological modulators of gonadotropin secretion in mammals. Instead, GnRH2 and GnRHR2 coordinate the interaction between nutritional status and sexual behavior in the female brain. Within peripheral tissues, GnRH2 and its receptor are novel regulators of reproductive organs. GnRH2 and GnRHR2 directly stimulate steroidogenesis within the porcine testis. In the female, GnRH2 and

  10. SDCCAG8 Interacts with RAB Effector Proteins RABEP2 and ERC1 and Is Required for Hedgehog Signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Airik, Rannar; Schueler, Markus; Airik, Merlin

    2016-01-01

    Recessive mutations in the SDCCAG8 gene cause a nephronophthisis-related ciliopathy with Bardet-Biedl syndrome-like features in humans. Our previous characterization of the orthologous Sdccag8gt/gt mouse model recapitulated the retinal-renal disease phenotypes and identified impaired DNA damage...... response signaling as an underlying disease mechanism in the kidney. However, several other phenotypic and mechanistic features of Sdccag8gt/gt mice remained unexplored. Here we show that Sdccag8gt/gt mice exhibit developmental and structural abnormalities of the skeleton and limbs, suggesting impaired...... Hedgehog (Hh) signaling. Indeed, cell culture studies demonstrate the requirement of SDCCAG8 for ciliogenesis and Hh signaling. Using an affinity proteomics approach, we demonstrate that SDCCAG8 interacts with proteins of the centriolar satellites (OFD1, AZI1), of the endosomal sorting complex (RABEP2, ERC...

  11. Implication of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B in MCF-7 cell proliferation and resistance to 4-OH tamoxifen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanquart, Christophe; Karouri, Salah-Eddine; Issad, Tarik

    2009-01-01

    The protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) and the T-cell protein tyrosine phosphatase (TC-PTP) were initially thought to be mainly anti-oncogenic. However, overexpression of PTP1B and TC-PTP has been observed in human tumors, and recent studies have demonstrated that PTP1B contributes to the appearance of breast tumors by modulating ERK pathway. In the present work, we observed that decreasing the expression of TC-PTP or PTP1B in MCF-7 cells using siRNA reduced cell proliferation without affecting cell death. This reduction in proliferation was associated with decreased ERK phosphorylation. Moreover, selection of tamoxifen-resistant MCF-7 cells, by long-term culture in presence of 4-OH tamoxifen, resulted in cells that display overexpression of PTP1B and TC-PTP, and concomitant increase in ERK and STAT3 phosphorylation. siRNA experiments showed that PTP1B, but not TC-PTP, is necessary for resistance to 4-OH tamoxifen. Therefore, our work indicates that PTP1B could be a relevant therapeutic target for treatment of tamoxifen-resistant breast cancers.

  12. Serum inhibin A and inhibin B in central precocious puberty before and during treatment with GnRH agonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehested, A; Andersson, A M; Müller, J

    2000-01-01

    both gonadotropins and estradiol levels become suppressed. We therefore investigated serum levels of inhibin A and inhibin B in girls with CPP at diagnosis and during treatment in order to test the hypothesis that inhibin secretion would increase and decrease in parallel with the activation......Serum levels of the gonadal hormones inhibin A and inhibin B are undetectable or low in prepubertal girls, and rise during puberty. In girls with central precocious puberty (CPP) the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is prematurely activated, if the girl is thereafter treated with GnRH agonists...... and suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Serum levels of inhibin A and inhibin B were significantly (p 0.0005) elevated in 42 girls at diagnosis of CPP (inhibin A: 7 pg/ml (...

  13. Biphasic voltage-dependent inactivation of human NaV 1.3, 1.6 and 1.7 Na+ channels expressed in rodent insulin-secreting cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godazgar, Mahdieh; Zhang, Quan; Chibalina, Margarita V; Rorsman, Patrik

    2018-05-01

    Na + current inactivation is biphasic in insulin-secreting cells, proceeding with two voltage dependences that are half-maximal at ∼-100 mV and -60 mV. Inactivation of voltage-gated Na + (Na V ) channels occurs at ∼30 mV more negative voltages in insulin-secreting Ins1 and primary β-cells than in HEK, CHO or glucagon-secreting αTC1-6 cells. The difference in inactivation between Ins1 and non-β-cells persists in the inside-out patch configuration, discounting an involvement of a diffusible factor. In Ins1 cells and primary β-cells, but not in HEK cells, inactivation of a single Na V subtype is biphasic and follows two voltage dependences separated by 30-40 mV. We propose that Na V channels adopt different inactivation behaviours depending on the local membrane environment. Pancreatic β-cells are equipped with voltage-gated Na + channels that undergo biphasic voltage-dependent steady-state inactivation. A small Na + current component (10-15%) inactivates over physiological membrane potentials and contributes to action potential firing. However, the major Na + channel component is completely inactivated at -90 to -80 mV and is therefore inactive in the β-cell. It has been proposed that the biphasic inactivation reflects the contribution of different Na V α-subunits. We tested this possibility by expression of TTX-resistant variants of the Na V subunits found in β-cells (Na V 1.3, Na V 1.6 and Na V 1.7) in insulin-secreting Ins1 cells and in non-β-cells (including HEK and CHO cells). We found that all Na V subunits inactivated at 20-30 mV more negative membrane potentials in Ins1 cells than in HEK or CHO cells. The more negative inactivation