WorldWideScience

Sample records for growth water status

  1. Effect of Water Regime and Nitrogen Fertilisation on Growth Dynamics, Water Status and Yield of Burley Tobacco (Nicotianatabacum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruggiero C

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of a two-year research project into burley tobacco are reported and discussed. Three irrigation levels (40, 80 and 120% restitution of evapotranspiration (ET were factorially combined with four levels of nitrogen fertilisation (0, 80, 160 and 240 kg ha. Leaf area, leaf and stem dry matter and root development were measured. We monitored the water status of the 0-90 cm soil layer, the plants and stomatal resistance. Relations were also studied between leaf turgor pressure and plant growth, between the irrigation regime and plant water status, and between root and shoot development. Finally, water use efficiency (WUE and quality and quantity of cured leaves yields were evaluated. Nitrogen fertilisation did not affect plant water status, although it promoted plant growth, both in terms of leaf area and leaf and stem dry matter, and induced a yield increase in quantity and quality. Our trial showed little interaction between nitrogen fertilization level and water regime. Under such agronomic condition, the margins for increasing plant growth with nitrogen fertilization are limited, which is why application of nitrogen rates in excess of 160 kg haappear inadvisable. The difference in irrigation volumes led to a different soil water content which affected plant water status, stomatal functioning, plant growth, both in the roots and shoots, yield and quality of the cured leaves. The latter did not vary with the increase in water volume, while yield increased. Water use efficiency increased as the irrigation volume decreased and varied during the cropping cycle, increasing until early bloom, then decreasing. Relations between leaf turgor pressure and plant growth highlighted the different response of plants subjected to water stress compared with non-stressed plants.

  2. Interactive effects of water supply and defoliation on photosynthesis, plant water status and growth of Eucalyptus globulus Labill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quentin, A G; O'Grady, A P; Beadle, C L; Mohammed, C; Pinkard, E A

    2012-08-01

    Increased climatic variability, including extended periods of drought stress, may compromise on the health of forest ecosystems. The effects of defoliating pests on plantations may also impact on forest productivity. Interactions between climate signals and pest activity are poorly understood. In this study, we examined the combined effects of reduced water availability and defoliation on maximum photosynthetic rate (A(sat)), stomatal conductance (g(s)), plant water status and growth of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. Field-grown plants were subjected to two water-availability regimes, rain-fed (W-) and irrigated (W+). In the summer of the second year of growth, leaves from 75% of crown length removed from trees in both watering treatments and physiological responses within the canopies were examined. We hypothesized that defoliation would result in improved plant water status providing a mechanistic insight into leaf- and canopy-scale gas-exchange responses. Defoliated trees in the W+ treatment exhibited higher A(sat) and g(s) compared with non-defoliated trees, but these responses were not observed in the W- treatment. In contrast, at the whole-plant scale, maximum rates of transpiration (E(max)) and canopy conductance (G(Cmax)) and soil-to-leaf hydraulic conductance (K(P)) increased in both treatments following defoliation. As a result, plant water status was unaffected by defoliation and trees in the defoliated treatments exhibited homeostasis in this respect. Whole-plant soil-to-leaf hydraulic conductance was strongly correlated with leaf scale g(s) and A(sat) following the defoliation, providing a mechanistic insight into compensatory up-regulation of photosynthesis. Above-ground height and diameter growth were unaffected by defoliation in both water availability treatments, suggesting that plants use a range of responses to compensate for the impacts of defoliation.

  3. Wheat response to differences in water and nutritional status between zeoponic and hydroponic growth systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, S. L.; Ming, D. W.; Henderson, K. E.; Carrier, C.; Gruener, J. E.; Barta, D. J.; Henninger, D. L.

    2000-01-01

    Hydroponic culture has traditionally been used for controlled environment life support systems (CELSS) because the optimal environment for roots supports high growth rates. Recent developments in zeoponic substrate and microporous tube irrigation (ZPT) also offer high control of the root environment. This study compared the effect of differences in water and nutrient status of ZPT or hydroponic culture on growth and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. USU-Apogee). In a side-by-side test in a controlled environment, wheat was grown in ZPT and recirculating hydroponics to maturity. Water use by plants grown in both culture systems peaked at 15 to 20 L m-2 d-1 up to Day 40, after which it declined more rapidly for plants grown in ZPT culture due to earlier senescence of leaves. No consistent differences in water status were noted between plants grown in the two culture systems. Although yield was similar, harvest index was 28% lower for plants grown in ZPT than in hydroponic culture. Sterile green tillers made up 12 and 0% of the biomass of plants grown in ZPT and hydroponic culture, respectively. Differences in biomass partitioning were attributed primarily to NH4-N nutrition of plants grown in ZPT compared with NO3-N in hydroponic nutrient solution. It is probable that NH4-N-induced Ca deficiency produced excess tillering and lower harvest index for plants grown in ZPT culture. These results suggest that further refinements in zeoponic substrate would make ZPT culture a viable alternative for achieving high productivity in a CELSS.

  4. Stand density, tree social status and water stress influence allocation in height and diameter growth of Quercus petraea (Liebl.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trouvé, Raphaël; Bontemps, Jean-Daniel; Seynave, Ingrid; Collet, Catherine; Lebourgeois, François

    2015-10-01

    Even-aged forest stands are competitive communities where competition for light gives advantages to tall individuals, thereby inducing a race for height. These same individuals must however balance this competitive advantage with height-related mechanical and hydraulic risks. These phenomena may induce variations in height-diameter growth relationships, with primary dependences on stand density and tree social status as proxies for competition pressure and access to light, and on availability of local environmental resources, including water. We aimed to investigate the effects of stand density, tree social status and water stress on the individual height-circumference growth allocation (Δh-Δc), in even-aged stands of Quercus petraea Liebl. (sessile oak). Within-stand Δc was used as surrogate for tree social status. We used an original long-term experimental plot network, set up in the species production area in France, and designed to explore stand dynamics on a maximum density gradient. Growth allocation was modelled statistically by relating the shape of the Δh-Δc relationship to stand density, stand age and water deficit. The shape of the Δh-Δc relationship shifted from linear with a moderate slope in open-grown stands to concave saturating with an initial steep slope in closed stands. Maximum height growth was found to follow a typical mono-modal response to stand age. In open-grown stands, increasing summer soil water deficit was found to decrease height growth relative to radial growth, suggesting hydraulic constraints on height growth. A similar pattern was found in closed stands, the magnitude of the effect however lowering from suppressed to dominant trees. We highlight the high phenotypic plasticity of growth in sessile oak trees that further adapt their allocation scheme to their environment. Stand density and tree social status were major drivers of growth allocation variations, while water stress had a detrimental effect on height in the

  5. Variations in water status, gas exchange, and growth in Rosmarinus officinalis plants infected with Glomus deserticola under drought conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Blanco, Ma Jesús; Ferrández, Trinitario; Morales, Ma Angeles; Morte, Asunción; Alarcón, Juan José

    2004-06-01

    The influence of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus deserticola on the water relations, gas exchange parameters, and vegetative growth of Rosmarinus officinalis plants under water stress was studied. Plants were grown with and without the mycorrhizal fungus under glasshouse conditions and subjected to water stress by withholding irrigation water for 14 days. Along the experimental period, a significant effect of the fungus on the plant growth was observed, and under water stress, mycorrhizal plants showed an increase in aerial and root biomass compared to non-mycorrhizal plants. The decrease in the soil water potential generated a decrease in leaf water potential (psi(l)) and stem water potential (psi(x)) of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants, with this decrease being lower in mycorrhizal water-stressed plants. Mycorrhization also had positive effects on the root hydraulic conductivity (Lp) of water stressed plants. Furthermore, mycorrhizal-stressed plants showed a more important decrease in osmotic potential at full turgor (psi(os)) than did non-mycorrhizal-stressed plants, indicating the capacity of osmotic adjustment. Mycorrhizal infection also improved photosynthetic activity (Pn) and stomatal conductance (g(s)) in plants under water stress compared to the non-mycorrhizal-stressed plants. A similar behaviour was observed in the photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm) with this parameter being lower in non-mycorrhizal plants than in mycorrhizal plants under water stress conditions. In the same way, under water restriction, mycorrhizal plants showed higher values of chlorophyll content than did non-mycorrhizal plants. Thus, the results obtained indicated that the mycorrhizal symbiosis had a beneficial effect on the water status and growth of Rosmarinus officinalis plants under water-stress conditions.

  6. Morphological structure and water status in tulip bulbs from dormancy to active growth : visualization by NMR imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toorn, van der A.; Zemah, H.; As, van H.; Bendel, P.; Kamenetsky, R.

    2000-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to follow time-dependent morphological changes and changes in water status of tulip bulbs (Tulipa gesneriana L., cv. ‘Apeldoorn’) during bulb storage for 12 weeks at 20 °C (non-chilled) or 4 °C (chilled) and

  7. Temperature and soil water status effects on radiation use and growth of pearl millet in a semi-arid environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntyre, B.D.; Flower, D.J.; Riha, S.J.

    1993-01-01

    In semi-arid environments, crops are frequently subjected to a combination of high air temperatures, large atmospheric saturation vapor pressure deficits, high soil temperatures and reduced soil water status. To explore the performance of pearl millet (Pennisetum typhoides S. and H., cv. CIVT) from panicle initiation to flowering (GS 2) when grown in the field under combinations of these conditions, experiments were conducted in northern Nigeria in three seasons in which daily mean air temperatures during 18 days of this stage averaged 22, 27 and 33°C, and saturation vapor pressure deficits averaged 3.7, 4.0 and 5.2 kPa, respectively. In each experiment, half of the crop was irrigated, while the other half received no water after panicle initiation. For irrigated millet, radiation use efficiency (RUE) did not vary significantly (P = 0.05) for the three experiments (1.7 g MJ−1). RUE of non-irrigated millet was significantly reduced (0.8 g MJ−1) only during the season with the highest temperature. Radiation interception as a function of thermal time was similar in the irrigated and non-irrigated treatments except in the season with the highest temperatures, when radiation interception was reduced about 25% in the non-irrigated relative to the irrigated treatment. Stem extension of non-irrigated millet did not decline relative to irrigated millet, despite the almost complete extraction of plant available water in the upper 30 cm of the soil, except during the season with the highest temperatures, when stem extension rates began to decline as soon as water was withheld. Under high air temperatures and saturation vapor pressure deficits, dry matter accumulation in both irrigated and non-irrigated millet during GS 2 could be reasonably predicted from RUE and radiation interception. However, when high soil temperatures (daily mean at 5 cm of 34°C) occurred in the non-irrigated treatment, both RUE and radiation interception decreased relative to all other treatments

  8. Interactive effect of water and nitrogen regimes on plant growth, root traits and water status of old and modern durum wheat genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elazab, Abdelhalim; Serret, María Dolors; Araus, José Luis

    2016-07-01

    The selection of the ideal root drought adaptive traits should take into account the production and maintenance of root tissues alongside the capacity to capture soil resources. Ten old and modern Spanish durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum) genotypes were grown in lysimeters under two contrasting water and nitrogen regimes to study the effect of such growth conditions on: (1) the aerial biomass, (2) the growth and structure of the roots and (3) the relationships of the root structure with aerial biomass, photosynthetic and transpirative characteristics and water use efficiency. Both high water and nitrogen regimes significantly increased aerial biomass. Root dry biomass and root length increased and decreased in response to improved water supply and nitrogen regimes, respectively. No significant correlations were detected between aerial biomass and any root trait under well-watered conditions. Under water stress aerial biomass was negatively correlated with root dry biomass, root length and root weight density and positively correlated with the specific root length, particularly for the subset of old genotypes. The high nitrogen regime significantly enriched the carbon isotope composition of the flag leaf (δ (13)CFL) and hindered the effect of the high water regime on decreasing δ (13)CFL enrichment. Thus, positive correlations of aerial biomass with δ (13)CFL were detected regardless of the water regime. The study revealed: (1) the importance of root traits for higher aerial biomass under the low water regime; (2) that the interaction between nitrogen and the water regime may affect the predictive nature of the δ (13)C in drought breeding programs; and (3) the selection of the ideal root system structure should take into account the metabolic costs of the production and maintenance of root tissues alongside the capacity of capturing resources.

  9. Carbon isotope variation in shrub willow (Salix spp.) ring-wood as an indicator of long-term water status, growth and survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schifman, Laura A.; Stella, John C.; Volk, Timothy A.; Teece, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Quantifying interannual change in water status of woody plants using stable carbon isotopes provides insight on long-term plant ecophysiology and potential success in variable environments, including under-utilized agricultural land for biomass production and highly disturbed sites for phytoremediation applications. We analyzed δ 13 C values in annual ring-wood of four shrub willow varieties used for biomass production and phytoremediation at three sites in central New York State (U.S.A). We tested a cost-effective sampling method for estimating whole-shrub water status by comparing δ 13 C values of the plant’s largest stem against a composite sample of all stems. The largest stem showed 0.3‰ 13 C enrichment (range −0.7–1.1‰) compared to the whole-plant, making it a more sensitive indicator of water status than the composite sample. Growing season precipitation exerted a strong negative influence on wood tissue chemistry, with an average 0.26‰ 13 C depletion per 100 mm increase in precipitation. An average annual 0.28‰ 13 C enrichment was also observed with increased plant age; this pattern was consistent among all four willow varieties and across sites. Finally, increased 13 C enrichment in wood tissue was positively associated with plant size at the individual plant level, and associated negatively and more variably survival at the plot scale. These results have important implications for the design and management of biomass production and phytoremediation systems. Increased sensitivity of older plants suggests that longer rotations may experience growth limitations and/or lower survival in low-precipitation years, resulting in reduced yields of biomass crops and loss of effectiveness in phytoremediation applications. -- Highlights: ► A 0.26‰ 13 C depletion in wood tissue occurred per 100 mm increase in precipitation. ► There was an average 13 C enrichment with plant age and size for all varieties. ► Greater 13 C enrichment often lead to

  10. Regulatory Circuits Linking Energy Status to Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, W.M.

    2017-01-01

    Plant growth and development critically depend on carbon nutrient status. Over the past years several core regulatory systems that link plant carbon status to growth have emerged. The core regulatory systems studied include the trehalose 6-phosphate (T6P) signaling system and the Target of Rapamycin

  11. Effects of deficit irrigation and partial root-zone drying on soil and plant water status, stomatal conductance, plant growth and water use efficiency in tomato during early fruiting stage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Fulai; Shahnazari, Ali; Jacobsen, S.-E.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of 'partial root-zone drying' (PRD), compared with full irrigation (FI) and deficit irrigation (DI), on soil and plant water status, plant growth and water use efficiency (WUE) were investigated in potted tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum L., var. Cedrico) at the early fruiting stage....... In FI the whole root system was irrigated daily close to pot capacity; in DI-70 and DI-50 70% and 50%, respectively, of the irrigation water in FI was applied to the whole root system; in PRD-70 and PRD-50 70% and 50%, respectively, of the irrigation water in FI was applied to one half of the root...... system, and the irrigated side of the plants was reversed when volumetric soil water content ( ) of the dry side had decreased to 6%. of FI was about 14%. of DI decreased during the first 4-5 days after the onset of treatment (DAT) and was about 7% and 6% thereafter for DI-70 and DI-50, respectively...

  12. Growth, water status and photosynthesis in two maize (zea mays l.) cultivars as affected by supplied nitrogen form and drought stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lixin, Z.; Mei, G.; Zongsuo, L.; Shiqing, L.; Shiqing, L.; Zongsuo, L.

    2011-01-01

    Hydroponic experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of nitrogen form on plant growth, water status and photosynthetic characteristics under integrated root-zone drought stress (IR-DS) and non drought conditions (non-DS) with two hybrids of maize cultivars Zhengdan 958 (ZD958) and Jundan 20(JD20). On the 12 day of IR-DS, dry matter (DM) of total plant, shoot and root, relative water content (RWC), chlorophyll (Chl.) content, net photosynthetic rate (PN), stomatal conductance (gs), transpiration rate (E) of both cultivars in all N forms treatments as well as intercellular CO/sub 2/ concentration (Ci) except NH/sub 4/-treatment were significantly decreased. However, lower DM production, RWC and PN as well as drought index (DI) were observed for JD20 than ZD958, thereby the later could be considered as a drought tolerance cultivar comparatively. By comparison with sole ammonium (NH/sub 4/)(/sup +/), sole nitrate (NO/sub 3//sup -/) and the mixture of NH/sub 4/sup +/ and NO/sub 3/sup -/ both obviously increased DM of total plant, shoot and root, RWC, PN and Chl. content while decreased gs, E and Ci of both cultivars under drought. The effects of NO/sub 3/ supplied were superior than NH/sub 4/sup +/ NO/sub 3/ supplied in the above responses. These impacts were more predominant in ZD958 than JD20. Further analysis of variation indicated that the impact of N form treatment on most parameters measured except root DM were, in general, less than water regime while higher than cultivar. It is, therefore, concluded that an increase of ratio of NO/sub 3/sup -/ to NH/sub 4/sup +/ in nutrition solution could lead to an enhancement in leaf RWC and photosynthesis of both cultivars subjected to IR-DS, then result in biomass increase, thus alleviate of damage from drought due to their obvious drought-resistance function based on its nutritive role, especially for a drought tolerant cultivar. (author)

  13. Smart Growth and Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains resources that communities can use to integrate green infrastructure into streets and neighborhoods to reduce stormwater runoff, use water more efficiently, and protect water from pollution.

  14. Effects of water stress and inoculation with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR on antioxidant status and photosynthetic pigments in basil (Ocimum basilicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Heidari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of water stress and inoculation with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR on antioxidant activity and photosynthetic pigments were studied in basil plants. A field experiment was conducted at the University of Zabol in Iran during 2010 growing season. The experiment laid out as split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Three levels of water stress W1 = 80 (control, W2 = 60 and W3 = 40% of the field capacity (FC as main plots and four levels of bacterial species consisting of S1 = Pseudomonades sp., S2 = Bacillus lentus, S3 = Azospirillum brasilens, S4 = combination of three bacterial species and S5 = control (without use of bacterial as sub plots. The results revealed that water stress caused a significant change in the antioxidant activity. The highest concentration CAT and GPX activity were in W3 treatments. By increasing water stress from control to W3, chlorophyll content in leaves was increased but Fv/Fm and APX activity decreased. Application of rhizobacteria under water stress improved the antioxidant and photosynthetic pigments in basil plants. S1 = Pseudomonades sp. under water stress, significantly increased the CAT enzyme activity, but the highest GPX and APX activity and chlorophyll content in leaves under water stress were in S4 = combination of three bacterial species.

  15. Combined impact of water column oxygen and temperature on internal oxygen status and growth of Zostera marina seedlings and adult shoots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun, Ane-Marie Løvendahl; Borum, Jens

    2013-01-01

    at temperatures of ≥25°C. In the present study we experimentally examine the impact of combined water column oxygen and temperature on oxygen dynamics in leaf meristems of seedlings and adult shoots to better understand how stressful environmental conditions affect eelgrass oxygen dynamics and subsequent growth...... and mortality. There was a strong interaction between water column oxygen and temperature on meristem pO implying that eelgrass is rather resistant to unfavorable oxygen conditions in winter but becomes increasingly vulnerable in summer, especially at high temperatures. At 25°C meristems became anoxic...... were less prone to meristem anoxia than adult shoots suggesting that seedlings would better tolerate unfavorable combinations of water column oxygen conditions and temperature. The results suggest that eelgrass die-offs will occur more frequently in eutrophied coastal areas with the more frequent...

  16. NaCl salinity-induced changes in growth, photosynthetic properties, water status and enzymatic antioxidant system of nitraria roborowskii kom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Y.; Leu, J.

    2016-01-01

    In pot experiments, 1-year-old Nitraria roborowskii Kom plants were planted under control and four levels of NaCl. The plant growth, Na+ and K+ contents, maximal efficiency of photosystem II photochemistry (Fv/Fm), water potential, antioxidative enzyme activities and contents of photosynthetic pigments, relative water, soluble sugars, proline, hydrogen peroxide (H/sub 2/O/sub 2/), and malondialdehyde (MDA) in leaves were measured after 90 days of NaCl treatments. N. roborowskii showed tolerance to medium salinity (50 mM NaCl), whereas growth reduction in biomass was observed when > 100 mM NaCl solutions were used for irrigation. Extreme salinity (400 mM NaCl) hardly impacted Fv/Fm, but a marked decreased in chlorophyll content was observed. A gradual decline of the leaf relative water content and water potential with increased NaCl feeding level was accompanied by increased Na+ accumulation. The total proline and soluble sugar contents were not significantly affected by low salinity (50 mM NaCl); however, both of these values decreased gradually at high salinities (> 100 mM NaCl). MDA and H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ were not markedly affected at low salinity (50 mM NaCl), but both of these values remarkably accumulated at high salinities (> 100 mM NaCl). Superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) presented the same variation trends, first increasing with concentrations of 100, 50 and 100 mM NaCl, respectively, and then decreasing compared to the control, whereas APX increased under all NaCl concentrations. (author)

  17. Status of ISS Water Management and Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Layne; Pruitt, Jennifer; Brown, Christopher A.; Bazley, Jesse; Gazda, Daniel; Schaezler, Ryan; Bankers, Lyndsey

    2016-01-01

    Water management on ISS is responsible for the provision of water to the crew for drinking water, food preparation, and hygiene, to the Oxygen Generation System (OGS) for oxygen production via electrolysis, to the Waste & Hygiene Compartment (WHC) for flush water, and for experiments on ISS. This paper summarizes water management activities on the ISS US Segment and provides a status of the performance and issues related to the operation of the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) and Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). This paper summarizes the on-orbit status as of May 2016 and describes the technical challenges encountered and lessons learned over the past year.

  18. Status of ISS Water Management and Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Layne; Brown, Christopher; Orozco, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Water management on ISS is responsible for the provision of water to the crew for drinking water, food preparation, and hygiene, to the Oxygen Generation System (OGS) for oxygen production via electrolysis, to the Waste & Hygiene Compartment (WHC) for flush water, and for experiments on ISS. This paper summarizes water management activities on the ISS US Segment, and provides a status of the performance and issues related to the operation of the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) and Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). This paper summarizes the on-orbit status as of June 2013, and describes the technical challenges encountered and lessons learned over the past year.

  19. Protecting water resources with smart growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-05-01

    Protecting Water Resources with : Smart Growth is intended for audiences already familiar with smart : growth, who now seek specific ideas : on how techniques for smarter growth : can be used to protect their water : resources. This document is one...

  20. Combined effects of elevated CO{sub 2} and Cd-contaminated water on growth, photosynthetic response, Cd accumulation and thiolic components status in Lemna minor L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietrini, F.; Bianconi, D.; Massacci, A. [Institute of Agro-Environmental and Forest Biology, National Research Council of Italy, Via Salaria Km 29,300, 00015 Monterotondo Scalo, Roma (Italy); Iannelli, M.A., E-mail: adelaide.iannelli@ibba.cnr.it [Institute of Agricultural Biology and Biotechnology, National Research Council of Italy, Via Salaria Km 29,300, 00015 Monterotondo Scalo, Roma (Italy)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Elevated CO{sub 2} did not affect the ability of L. minor plants to accumulate Cd in their tissues. • Elevated CO{sub 2} decreased Cd toxicity in L. minor plants by increasing photosynthesis. • Elevated CO{sub 2} reduced Cd toxicity in duckweed by enhancing antioxidant system. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the combined effects of elevated CO{sub 2} and cadmium (Cd) treatments on growth, photosynthetic efficiency and phytoremediation ability in Lemna minor L. Plants of L. minor were exposed to different Cd concentrations (0, 1.5, 2.5 and 5 mg L{sup −1} Cd) for periods of 24, 48 and 72 h at ambient (AC) and at elevated (EC) CO{sub 2} (350 and 700 ppm, respectively). Cadmium concentration, bioconcentration factor, enzyme activities and thiols content enhanced in plants with the increase of Cd treatments, time of exposure and at both CO{sub 2} levels. Glutathione levels increased only at AC. Growth, photosynthetic and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, and the reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione ratio declined in plants with increasing exposure time, Cd treatments and at both CO{sub 2} levels. Our results suggested that the alleviation of toxicity, at low Cd doses, observed in L. minor grown at EC is dependent on both increased photosynthesis and an enhanced antioxidant capacity.

  1. Pattern of head growth and nutritional status of microcephalic infants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the pattern of head growth and the early postnatal nutritional status of microcephalic infants in a low-income country. Materials and Methods: A cohort study in Lagos, Nigeria in which the head growth of full-term singletons within the first postnatal check-up at 6-8weeks was evaluated using the latest ...

  2. [African population growth: status and prospects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabutin, D

    1991-01-01

    Despite great improvements over the past several years, the quality of demographic data in Africa is still a problem, and Africa remains the least well known continent. Population growth is extremely rapid, with all countries growing at annual rates of over 3%. The natural increase rate even shows some signs of increasing slightly in the next decade or so. Africa's population was estimated at 220 million in 1950, 650 million at present, and is projected at 1.5 billion by 2025. Africans represented 9% of the world population in 1960, but will increase to 19% around 2025. The rapid population growth is the result of declining mortality since the 1950s unmatched by changes in fertility. There are significant socioeconomic and rural-urban mortality differentials in Africa, but as yet only highly educated urbanites have measurably reduced their family size. 2 consequences of this rapid growth are the youth of the population, with almost 50% under 20 years, and its high density in some areas. By 2025, 18 countries will have densities of over 100 persons per sq km. Almost everywhere in Africa, family sizes are at least 6 children/woman. 3 factors explaining this high level of fertility are the earliness and universality of marriage, rates of contraceptive usage of only 4-10% in most countries, and declining durations of breast feeding and sexual abstinence, which traditionally served as brakes on fertility. As a rule, women marry young and remain married until the end of their reproductive years. Divorce and widowhood are common, but remarriage is usually rapid if the woman is still of reproductive age. Life expectancy at birth in sub-Saharan Africa has increased from some 36 years around 1950 to 50 years at present. Progress in control of mortality, and especially infant mortality, has been slower than expected, and Africa still has by far the lowest life expectancy of any major region. Regional, rural-urban, and socioeconomic mortality differentials are considerable and

  3. Growth and nutritional status of Bengali adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, S R; Chakrabarty, S; Vasulu, T S; Bharati, S; Sinha, D; Banerjee, P; Bharati, P

    2009-04-01

    Assessment of the growth and nutritional status among healthy Bengali adolescent schoolgirls at peri-urban area. In this cross sectional study, sample consists of 527 school going adolescent girls, aged 10 to 18 years. The sample of the present study was collected from a peri-urban area (Duttapukur) of north 24 parganas district of West Bengal, India. Standard anthropometric measurements including linear, curvilinear and skinfold thickness were collected from each subject. Percentile curves and nutritional indices were used to determine the growth and nutritional status respectively. The nature of distance curves and percentile curves of the body measurements showed a high rate of increase in 10-11 years of age group corresponding to an earlier adolescent growth spurt than average Indian girls. The adolescent girls in the current study were found to be significantly (purban Bengali girls but slightly shorter than urban Bengali girls. They are significantly (pgrowth period. Both the indices of Waterlow's classification show least percentage of least malnutrition among the girls. The growth pattern and nutritional status observed among adolescent girls in peri-urban situation show heterogeneity with respect to some anthropometric traits and in conformity with the growth pattern and nutritional status of urban girls.

  4. Status of advanced small pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Peipei; Zhou Yun

    2012-01-01

    In order to expand the nuclear power in energy and desalination, increase competitiveness in global nuclear power market, many developed countries with strong nuclear energy technology have realized the importance of Small Modular Reactor (SMR) and initiated heavy R and D programs in SMR. The Advanced Small Pressurized Water Reactor (ASPWR) is characterized by great advantages in safety and economy and can be used in remote power grid and replace mid/small size fossil plant economically. This paper reviews the history and current status of SMR and ASPWR, and also discusses the design concept, safety features and other advantages of ASPWR. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overall review of ASPWR technology in western countries, and to promote the R and D in ASPWR in China. (authors)

  5. Socioeconomic Status, Somatic Growth and Physical Fitness of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SES differentiation in somatic growth and to a lesser extend in some physical fitness variables was noted in the of Ellisras rural children. Additional research to verify the relationships over time between lifestyle changes and health outcomes may be vital in this population. Keywords: Socio Economic Status, Physical fitness, ...

  6. Shoot water relations of mature black spruce families displaying a genotype × environment interaction in growth rate. III. Diurnal patterns as influenced by vapor pressure deficit and internal water status

    Science.gov (United States)

    John E. Major; Kurt H. Johnsen

    2001-01-01

    Pressure­volume curves were constructed and shoot water potentials measured for +20-year-old black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP) trees from four full-sib families growing on a moist site and a dry site at the Petawawa Research Forest, Ontario, to determine whether differences in diurnal water relations traits were related to productivity. To...

  7. Decreased growth-induced water potential: A primary cause of growth inhibition at low water potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nonami, Hiroshi [Ehime Univ., Matsuyama (Japan); Wu, Yajun; Boyer, J.S. [Univ. of Delaware, Lewes, DE (United States)

    1997-06-01

    Cell enlargement depends on a growth-induced difference in water potential to move water into the cells. Water deficits decrease this potential difference and inhibit growth. To investigate whether the decrease causes the growth inhibition, pressure was applied to the roots of soybean seedlings and the growth and potential difference were monitored in the stems. In water-limited plants, the inhibited stem growth increased when the roots were pressurized and it reverted to the previous rate when the pressure was released. The pressure around the roots was perceived as an increased turgor in the stem in small cells next to the xylem, but not in outlying cortical cells. This local effect implied that water transport was impeded by the small cells. The diffusivity for water was much less in the small cells than in the outlying cells. The small cells thus were a barrier that caused the growth-induced potential difference to be large during rapid growth, but to reverse locally during the early part of a water deficit. Such a barrier may be a frequent property of meristems. Because stem growth responded to the pressure-induced recovery of the potential difference across this barrier, we conclude that a decrease in the growth-induced potential difference was a primary cause of the inhibition.

  8. Urban growth and the water regimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savini, John; Kammerer, J.C.

    1961-01-01

    The continuing growth and concentration of population and industry in urban and suburban areas in recent decades has caused a complex merging of social, economic, and physical problems, The interrelationships of man and his use and development of the land and water resources is a particularly significant aspect of urbanization, but there has been relatively little study to date of the effect of urban man upon natural hydrologic conditions. As urban man changes an area from one of field and forest to one of buildings and streets, he covers land where water once entered the soil, and thus creates or aggravates problems of drainage, including storm-water runoff. As he requires increasing amounts of water for home and factory, he drills deeper wells, and builds longer aqueducts and larger dams and reservoirs. As he disposes of un- wanted waste materials, he either treats them by using water or pollutes the receiving body of water. As he dredges and deepens coastal streams carrying salt water, and he pumps greater quantities of water from wells in coastal areas, he increases the likelihood of salt-water contamination. These and many other urban effects upon hydrology deserve increasing study if we are to provide for the best use of the water and land resources available to the Nation's urban centers.

  9. Growth Rate and Health Status of Weaned Rabbits Fed Ensiled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a 6 week feeding experiment, twenty five New Zealand white breed of weaned rabbits, with an average age of 8-10 weeks were used to assess the effect of ensiled water hyacinth (WH) with different additives on growth rate and blood parameters of the animals. The animals were randomly allotted to five dietary groups, ...

  10. 76 FR 44948 - Status Report of Water Service, Repayment, and Other Water-Related Contract Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Status Report of Water Service, Repayment, and Other Water- Related Contract Actions AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Michelle Kelly, Water and Environmental...

  11. Polluted water exacerbates Barbus callensis oocyte oxidative status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafia Khebbache

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The deleterious effects of environmental pollutants on cellular components and tissues damage in fish have been studied extensively. However, there is no data about the oxidative status of fish oocytes once released into water. This study aimed to investigate the effects of polluted (Soummam River and unpolluted (Agrioun River fresh water on the oxidative biomarkers of Barbus callensis (=Lucibarbus callensis (Val. oocytes. The experimental design consisted of collecting fish oocytes from polluted and unpolluted rivers and then activating these oocytes separately in water collected from each site. Four groups were considered: oocytes from the Agrioun River activated in Agrioun fresh water (A-oocytes/A-fresh water; oocytes from the Agrioun River activated in Soummam fresh water (A-oocytes/S-fresh water; oocytes from the Soummam River activated in Agrioun fresh water (S-oocytes/A-fresh water; and oocytes from the Soummam River activated in Soummam fresh water (S-oocytes/S-fresh water. Oxidative stress biomarkers were evaluated by measuring total antioxidant status (TAS, catalase (CAT activity, and cell-free hemoglobin (Hb concentrations. The results showed that the oxidative status of fish oocytes was significantly affected by the quality of fresh water. Unpolluted fresh water improved the antioxidant activity of the fish oocytes. The results of this study suggest that once oocytes are released into polluted water, antioxidant protection is affected with subsequent cellular oxidative damage and potential reproduction impairment.

  12. Green roofs for a drier world: effects of hydrogel amendment on substrate and plant water status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savi, Tadeja; Marin, Maria; Boldrin, David; Incerti, Guido; Andri, Sergio; Nardini, Andrea

    2014-08-15

    Climate features of the Mediterranean area make plant survival over green roofs challenging, thus calling for research work to improve water holding capacities of green roof systems. We assessed the effects of polymer hydrogel amendment on the water holding capacity of a green roof substrate, as well as on water status and growth of Salvia officinalis. Plants were grown in green roof experimental modules containing 8 cm or 12 cm deep substrate (control) or substrate mixed with hydrogel at two different concentrations: 0.3 or 0.6%. Hydrogel significantly increased the substrate's water content at saturation, as well as water available to vegetation. Plants grown in 8 cm deep substrate mixed with 0.6% of hydrogel showed the best performance in terms of water status and membrane integrity under drought stress, associated to the lowest above-ground biomass. Our results provide experimental evidence that polymer hydrogel amendments enhance water supply to vegetation at the establishment phase of a green roof. In particular, the water status of plants is most effectively improved when reduced substrate depths are used to limit the biomass accumulation during early growth stages. A significant loss of water holding capacity of substrate-hydrogel blends was observed after 5 months from establishment of the experimental modules. We suggest that cross-optimization of physical-chemical characteristics of hydrogels and green roof substrates is needed to improve long term effectiveness of polymer-hydrogel blends. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. ZnO growth technologies: current status and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupan, Oleg

    2011-01-01

    Development of new technologies for ZnO nano materials and thin films is of critical importance for further fundamental investigations and practical applications. We discuss on the main technical control of the synthesis of zinc oxide and its properties, which are of significance in understanding the growth mechanism and further developing ZnO-based devices. Next, we present a brief summary of recent research activities, current status and progress in developing improved control of technological processes for zinc oxide as advanced material.

  14. Hygienic status assessment of dish washing waters, utensils, hands ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hygienic status assessment of dish washing waters, utensils, hands and pieces of money from street food processing sites in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso). N Barro, AR Bello, A Savadogo, CAT Ouattara, AJ Iiboudo, AS Traoré ...

  15. Asbestos in drinking water: a status report.

    OpenAIRE

    Cotruvo, J A

    1983-01-01

    The conference is briefly reviewed in the light of its impact on future regulatory decisions regarding the possible control of asbestos fiber in drinking water. The results of animal feeding studies indicate that asbestos fails to demonstrate toxicity in whole-animal lifetime exposures. The epidemiologic evidence of risk from ingestion of water containing asbestos fibers is not convincing, and in view of the lack of confirmation by animal studies, the existence of a risk has not been proven; ...

  16. Sugarbeet leaf growth and yield response to soil water deficit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    18 oct. 1999 ... This study evaluated the responses of sugarbeet leaf growth, sugar yield and yield components to soil water deficit imposed at various periods during growth in a glasshouse. Leaf growth showed high sensitivity to soil water deficit and responses varied with periods at which the deficit occurred. Water deficit ...

  17. Growth Hormone Overexpression Disrupts Reproductive Status Through Actions on Leptin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Chen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Growth and reproduction are closely related. Growth hormone (GH-transgenic common carp exhibit accelerated growth and delayed reproductive development, which provides an amenable model to study hormone cross talk between the growth and reproductive axes. We analyzed the energy status and reproductive development in GH-transgenic common carp by using multi-tissue RNA sequencing, real-time-PCR, Western blotting, ELISA, immunofluorescence, and in vitro incubation. The expression of gys (glycogen synthase and igfbp1 (insulin-like growth factor binding protein as well as blood glucose concentrations are lower in GH-transgenic carp. Agrp1 (agouti-related protein 1 and sla (somatolactin a, which are related to appetite and lipid catabolism, are significantly higher in GH-transgenic carp. Low glucose content and increased appetite indicate disrupted metabolic and energy deprivation status in GH-transgenic carp. Meanwhile, the expression of genes, such as gnrhr2 (gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor 2, gthα (gonadotropin hormone, alpha polypeptide, fshβ (follicle stimulating hormone, beta polypeptide, lhβ [luteinizing hormone, beta polypeptide] in the pituitary, cyp19a1a (aromatase A in the gonad, and cyp19a1b (aromatase B in the hypothalamus, are decreased in GH-transgenic carp. In contrast, pituitary gnih (gonadotropin inhibitory hormone, drd1 (dopamine receptor D1, drd3 (dopamine receptor D3, and drd4 (dopamine receptor D4 exhibit increased expression, which were associated with the retarded reproductive development. Leptin receptor mRNA was detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization in the pituitary including the pars intermedia and proximal pars distalis, suggesting a direct effect of leptin on LH. Recombinant carp Leptin protein was shown to stimulate pituitary gthα, fshβ, lhβ expression, and ovarian germinal vesicle breakdown in vitro. In addition to neuroendocrine factors, we suggest that reduced hepatic leptin signaling to the

  18. Current status on marine litter indicators in Nordic waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Jakob; Tairova, Zhanna; Magnusson, Kerstin

    Status for project on Marine litter in the Nordic waters. This includes a review of Nordic studies on marine litter indicators. Various studies as part of either research or existing monitoring have provided information on occurrence of marine litter in Nordic waters from Baltic Sea to the Arctic....

  19. Modelling stable water isotopes: Status and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner M.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Modelling of stable water isotopes H2 18O and HDO within various parts of the Earth’s hydrological cycle has clearly improved our understanding of the interplay between climatic variations and related isotope fractionation processes. In this article key principles and major research results of stable water isotope modelling studies are described. Emphasis is put on research work using explicit isotope diagnostics within general circulation models as this highly complex model setup bears many resemblances with studies using simpler isotope modelling approaches.

  20. Physical and Chemical Status of Drinking Water from Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erbil, Kurdistan, Iraq, for human consumptions, water samples were collected from three water treatment plants (WTP) on that river. The following water quality parameters were determined which were chosen as the major indicators namely PH, Total Dissolved Solid(TDS), Electrical conductivity(EC), Total Hardness(TH), Cl- ...

  1. Impact of drain water on water quality and eutrophication status of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ecological and biological status of Lake Burullus was examined in 2006 to determine its water quality and eutrophication status in response to the quality and quantity of drain water entering it. The lake suffers from excessive nutrient concentrations. Chlorophyll a showed wide variations over the sampling period with ...

  2. Iron status and fibroblast growth factor-23 in Gambian children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, Vickie; Jarjou, Landing M.A.; Goldberg, Gail R.; Prentice, Ann

    2012-01-01

    A relationship between iron and fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) metabolic pathways has been proposed. Iron deficiency anaemia is prevalent in The Gambia and concentrations of fibroblast growth factor-23 FGF23 are elevated in a large percentage of Gambian children with rickets-like bone deformity. We speculate that low iron status may be involved in the aetiology of Gambian rickets. The aim of this study was to determine if there was a relationship between haemoglobin, as a marker of iron status, and FGF23 in samples from children with and without a history of rickets-like bone deformities in The Gambia. We conducted a retrospective analysis of studies carried out from 2006 to 2008 in children from a rural community in The Gambia where iron deficiency anaemia is endemic and where elevated circulating concentrations of FGF23 have been found. To investigate the relationship between circulating FGF23 and haemoglobin concentrations we used an age-adjusted linear regression model on data from children rickets-like bone deformity (BD) (n = 108) and from the local community (LC) (n = 382). We found that circulating concentration of FGF23 was inversely correlated with haemoglobin concentration. This effect was more pronounced in BD children compared with LC children (interaction: P ≤ 0.0001). Anaemia and elevated FGF23 were more prevalent in BD children compared to LC children (P = 0.0003 and P = 0.0001 respectively). In conclusion, there is a stronger relationship between FGF23 and haemoglobin in Gambian children with a history of rickets compared to local community children. This study provides support for the contention that iron may be involved in FGF23 metabolic pathways. PMID:22465847

  3. Characterizing Vineyard Water Status Variability in a Premium Winegrape Vineyard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, David; Carvahlo, Angela

    2017-04-01

    One of the biggest challenges in viticulture and winemaking is managing and optimizing yield and quality across vineyard blocks that show high spatial variability. Studies have shown that zonal management of vine water status can contribute significantly to improving overall fruit quality and improving uniformity. Vine water status is a major parameter for vine management because it affects both wine quality and yield. In order to optimize vineyard management and harvesting practices, it is necessary to characterize vineyard variability in terms of water status. Establishing a targeted irrigation program first requires spatially characterizing the variability in vine water status of a vineyard. In California, due to the low or no rainfall during the active growing season, the majority of vineyards implement some type of irrigation management program. As water supplies continue to decrease as a consequence of persistent drought, establishing efficient and targeted water use programs is of growing importance in California. The aim of this work was to characterize the spatial variability of plant-water relations across a non-uniform 4 ha block in Napa Valley with the primary objective of establishing vineyard irrigation management zones. The study plot was divided into three sections, designated the North, Middle and South sections, each at about 1.3 hectares. Stem (Ψstem) and midday (Ψl) leaf water potential and predawn (ΨPD) water potential were measured at 36 locations within the block at 14 (Ψl), 10 (ΨPD) and 2 (Ψstem) points in time throughout the growing season. Of the three techniques utilized to evaluate water status, ΨPD and Ψstem were the most sensitive indicators of water stress conditions. An integrated overview of water use efficiency over the growing season was assessed by measuring the leaf carbon isotope ratio of δ13C. Fully mature leaves were sampled from 280 vines and results show, similarly to ΨPD and Ψstem, that the North section (-28

  4. Green and technical efficient growth in Danish fresh water aquaculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus

    2011-01-01

    growth can be achieved by introducing new environmentally friendly water purification systems in Danish fresh water aquaculture. Data Envelopment Analysis is used to investigate whether different water purification systems and farm size influence technical efficiency. The empirical results indicate...

  5. A meta-analysis of leaf gas exchange and water status responses to drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Weiming; Zhong, Yangquanwei; Shangguan, Zhouping

    2016-02-12

    Drought is considered to be one of the most devastating natural hazards, and it is predicted to become increasingly frequent and severe in the future. Understanding the plant gas exchange and water status response to drought is very important with regard to future climate change. We conducted a meta-analysis based on studies of plants worldwide and aimed to determine the changes in gas exchange and water status under different drought intensities (mild, moderate and severe), different photosynthetic pathways (C3 and C4) and growth forms (herbs, shrubs, trees and lianas). Our results were as follows: 1) drought negatively impacted gas exchange and water status, and stomatal conductance (gs) decreased more than other physiological traits and declined to the greatest extent in shrubs and C3 plants. Furthermore, C4 plants had an advantage compared to C3 plants under the same drought conditions. 2) The decrease in gs mainly reduced the transpiration rate (Tr), and gs could explain 55% of the decrease in the photosynthesis (A) and 74% of the decline in Tr. 3). Finally, gas exchange showed a close relationship with the leaf water status. Our study provides comprehensive information about the changes in plant gas exchange and water status under drought.

  6. Chemical water shutoff profile research status and development trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, L. T.

    2017-08-01

    Excess water production is now a common problem encountered in almost every water flooding mature oilfield. The exploitation of oil field is faced with great challenge because of the decrease of oil field production. For the development of high water cut rare the status quo chemical water shutoff profile control technology is an important solution to solve this problem. Oilfield chemical water shutoff has important application prospects. This paper analyzes the water shutoff profile control and water shutoff profile control agent currently oilfield applications, moreover the use and development of blocking agent profile technology is to improve reservoir recovery and propose solutions. With the constant increase in water cut, profile technology should be simple, efficient, practical and profile control agent of development should be economic, environmental, and long period

  7. Dwarf cashew growth irrigated with saline waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Orlando Carvallo Guerra

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The cashew production is one of the most important agricultural activities from the social-economical viewpoint for the North East of Brazil; besides to produce a great deal of hand labor, it is very important as an exporting commodity. The inadequate use of irrigation in the semi arid regions of the North East of Brazil has induced soil salinization and consequently problems for the irrigated agriculture. In spite of this, few works have been conducted to study the effect of saline stress on the growth and development of the cashew. Because of the lack of information for this crop, an experiment was conducted to study the effect of salinity stress on the phytomass production and nutrient accumulation on the different organs of the precocious dwarf cashew (Anacardium occidentale L. clone CCP76. The study was conducted under controlled conditions using as statistical scheme a randomized block design factorial with six replicates. Five salinity treatments were considered for the irrigation water (electrical conductivities of 0.8, 1.6, 2.4, 3.2 and 4.0 dS m-1 at 25oC. The increasing in salinity of the irrigation water reduced the phytomass at different organs of the studied plant. The nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, chloride and sodium in the plant varied with the salinity of the irrigation water according with the part of the plant analyzed; in some parts increased, in others decreased, in others increased initially and decreased afterwards, and finally, in other part of the plant the salinity of the irrigation water did not affect the nutrient concentration.

  8. Water quality status and trends in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Matthew C.; Hamilton, Pixie A.; Werkheiser, William H.; Ahuja, Satinder

    2013-01-01

    Information about water quality is vital to ensure long-term availability and sustainability of water that is safe for drinking and recreation and suitable for industry, irrigation, fish, and wildlife. Protecting and enhancing water quality is a national priority, requiring information on water-quality status and trends, progress toward clean water standards, continuing problems, and emerging challenges. In this brief review, we discuss U.S. Geological Survey assessments of nutrient pollution, pesticides, mixtures of organic wastewater compounds (known as emerging contaminants), sediment-bound contaminants (like lead and DDT), and mercury, among other contaminants. Additionally, aspects of land use and current and emerging challenges associated with climate change are presented. Climate change must be considered, as water managers continue their efforts to maintain sufficient water of good quality for humans and for the ecosystem.

  9. Growth and physiological responses to water and nutrient stress in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The research was conducted to detect changes in growth, physiology and nutrient concentration in response to two watering regimes (well-watered and water-stress conditions) and to two nutrient regimes (with or without fertilization) of oil palm. Under stress conditions, changes in plant growth, dry matter allocation, relative ...

  10. Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizae on photosynthesis and water status of maize plants under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Min; Tang, Ming; Chen, Hui; Yang, Baowei; Zhang, Fengfeng; Huang, Yanhui

    2008-09-01

    The influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus mosseae on characteristics of the growth, water status, chlorophyll concentration, gas exchange, and chlorophyll fluorescence of maize plants under salt stress was studied in the greenhouse. Maize plants were grown in sand and soil mixture with five NaCl levels (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 g/kg dry substrate) for 55 days, following 15 days of non-saline pretreatment. Under salt stress, mycorrhizal maize plants had higher dry weight of shoot and root, higher relative chlorophyll content, better water status (decreased water saturation deficit, increased water use efficiency, and relative water content), higher gas exchange capacity (increased photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate, and decreased intercellular CO(2) concentration), higher non-photochemistry efficiency [increased non-photochemical quenching values (NPQ)], and higher photochemistry efficiency [increased the maximum quantum yield in the dark-adapted state (Fv/Fm), the maximum quantum yield in the light-adapted sate (Fv'/Fm'), the actual quantum yield in the light-adapted steady state (phiPSII) and the photochemical quenching values (qP)], compared with non-mycorrhizal maize plants. In addition, AM symbiosis could trigger the regulation of the energy biturcation between photochemical and non-photochemical events reflected in the deexcitation rate constants (kN, kN', kP, and kP'). All the results show that G. mosseae alleviates the deleterious effect of salt stress on plant growth, through improving plant water status, chlorophyll concentration, and photosynthetic capacity, while the influence of AM symbiosis on photosynthetic capacity of maize plants can be indirectly affected by soil salinity and mycorrhizae-mediated enhancement of water status, but not by the mycorrhizae-mediated enhancement of chlorophyll concentration and plant biomass.

  11. Current status of radiation treatment of water and wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pikaev, A.K.

    1997-01-01

    This is a brief review of the current status of radiation treatment of surface water, groundwater, wastewaters, and sewage sludges. Sources of ionizing radiation, and combination radiation methods for purification are described in some detail. Special attention is paid to pilot and industrial facilities. (author)

  12. 76 FR 60527 - Status Report of Water Service, Repayment, and Other Water-Related Contract Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Status Report of Water Service, Repayment, and Other Water- Related Contract Actions AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... CONTACT: Michelle Kelly, Water and Environmental Resources Division, Bureau of Reclamation, P.O. Box 25007...

  13. 76 FR 73674 - Status Report of Water Service, Repayment, and Other Water-Related Contract Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Status Report of Water Service, Repayment, and Other Water- Related Contract Actions AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... INFORMATION CONTACT: Michelle Kelly, Water and Environmental Resources Division, Bureau of Reclamation, P.O...

  14. Drinking Water Quality Status and Contamination in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafees, Muhammad; Rizwan, Muhammad; Bajwa, Raees Ahmad; Shakoor, Muhammad Bilal; Arshad, Muhammad Umair; Chatha, Shahzad Ali Shahid; Deeba, Farah; Murad, Waheed; Malook, Ijaz

    2017-01-01

    Due to alarming increase in population and rapid industrialization, drinking water quality is being deteriorated day by day in Pakistan. This review sums up the outcomes of various research studies conducted for drinking water quality status of different areas of Pakistan by taking into account the physicochemical properties of drinking water as well as the presence of various pathogenic microorganisms. About 20% of the whole population of Pakistan has access to safe drinking water. The remaining 80% of population is forced to use unsafe drinking water due to the scarcity of safe and healthy drinking water sources. The primary source of contamination is sewerage (fecal) which is extensively discharged into drinking water system supplies. Secondary source of pollution is the disposal of toxic chemicals from industrial effluents, pesticides, and fertilizers from agriculture sources into the water bodies. Anthropogenic activities cause waterborne diseases that constitute about 80% of all diseases and are responsible for 33% of deaths. This review highlights the drinking water quality, contamination sources, sanitation situation, and effects of unsafe drinking water on humans. There is immediate need to take protective measures and treatment technologies to overcome unhygienic condition of drinking water supplies in different areas of Pakistan. PMID:28884130

  15. Drinking Water Quality Status and Contamination in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Daud

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to alarming increase in population and rapid industrialization, drinking water quality is being deteriorated day by day in Pakistan. This review sums up the outcomes of various research studies conducted for drinking water quality status of different areas of Pakistan by taking into account the physicochemical properties of drinking water as well as the presence of various pathogenic microorganisms. About 20% of the whole population of Pakistan has access to safe drinking water. The remaining 80% of population is forced to use unsafe drinking water due to the scarcity of safe and healthy drinking water sources. The primary source of contamination is sewerage (fecal which is extensively discharged into drinking water system supplies. Secondary source of pollution is the disposal of toxic chemicals from industrial effluents, pesticides, and fertilizers from agriculture sources into the water bodies. Anthropogenic activities cause waterborne diseases that constitute about 80% of all diseases and are responsible for 33% of deaths. This review highlights the drinking water quality, contamination sources, sanitation situation, and effects of unsafe drinking water on humans. There is immediate need to take protective measures and treatment technologies to overcome unhygienic condition of drinking water supplies in different areas of Pakistan.

  16. Anthropometry of fetal growth in rural Malawi in relation to maternal malaria and HIV status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalanda, B.F.; Buuren, S. van; Verhoeff, F.H.; Brabin, B.J.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To describe fetal growth centiles in relation to maternal malaria and HIV status, using cross sectional measurements at birth. Design: A cross sectional study of pregnant women and their babies. Data on maternal socioeconomic status and current pregnancy, including HIV status and newborn

  17. Genetic and physiological controls of growth under water deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardieu, François; Parent, Boris; Caldeira, Cecilio F; Welcker, Claude

    2014-04-01

    The sensitivity of expansive growth to water deficit has a large genetic variability, which is higher than that of photosynthesis. It is observed in several species, with some genotypes stopping growth in a relatively wet soil, whereas others continue growing until the lower limit of soil-available water. The responses of growth to soil water deficit and evaporative demand share an appreciable part of their genetic control through the colocation of quantitative trait loci as do the responses of the growth of different organs to water deficit. This result may be caused by common mechanisms of action discussed in this paper (particularly, plant hydraulic properties). We propose that expansive growth, putatively linked to hydraulic processes, determines the sink strength under water deficit, whereas photosynthesis determines source strength. These findings have large consequences for plant modeling under water deficit and for the design of breeding programs.

  18. Terahertz time domain spectroscopy allows contactless monitoring of grapevine water status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Gonzaga Santesteban

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is the sector with the greatest water consumption, since food production is frequently based on crop irrigation. Proper irrigation management requires reliable information on plant water status, but all the plant-based methods to determine it suffer from several inconveniences, mainly caused by the necessity of destructive sampling or of alteration of the plant organ due to contact installation. The aim of this work is to test if THz time domain reflectance measurements made on the grapevine trunk allows contactless monitoring of plant status. The experiments were performed on a potted 14-years old plant, using a general purpose THz emitter receiver head.Trunk THz time-domain reflection signal proved to be very sensitive to changes in plant water availability, as its pattern follows the trend of soil water content and trunk growth variations. Therefore, it could be used to contactless monitor plant water status. Apart from that, THz reflection signal was observed to respond to light conditions which, according to a specifically designed girdling experiment, was caused by changes in the phloem. This latter results opens a promising field of research for contactless monitoring of phloem activity.

  19. Status of advanced light water reactor designs 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-05-01

    The report is intended to be a source of reference information for interested organizations and individuals. Among them are decision makers of countries considering implementation of nuclear power programmes. Further, the report is addressed to government officials with an appropriate technical background and to research institutes of countries with existing nuclear programmes that wish to be informed on the global status in order to plan their nuclear power programmes including both research and development efforts and means for meeting future. The future utilization of nuclear power worldwide depends primarily on the ability of the nuclear community to further improve the economic competitiveness of nuclear power plants while meeting stringent safety requirements. The IAEA's activities in nuclear power technology development include the preparation of status reports on advanced reactor designs to provide all interested IAEA Member States with balanced and objective information on advances in nuclear plant technology. In the field of light water reactors, the last status report published by the IAEA was 'Status of Advanced Light Water Cooled Reactor Designs: 1996' (IAEA-TECDOC-968). Since its publication, quite a lot has happened: some designs have been taken into commercial operation, others have achieved significant steps toward becoming commercial products, including certification from regulatory authorities, some are in a design optimization phase to reduce capital costs, development for other designs began after 1996, and a few designs are no longer pursued by their promoters. With this general progress in mind, on the advice and with the support of the IAEA Department of Nuclear Energy's Technical Working Group on Advanced Technologies for Light Water Reactors (LWRs), the IAEA has prepared this new status report on advanced LWR designs that updates IAEA-TECDOC-968, presenting the various advanced LWR designs in a balanced way according to a common outline

  20. Does shoot water status limit leaf expansion of nitrogen-deprived barley?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, I C; Munns, Rana; Passioura, J B

    2002-08-01

    The role of shoot water status in mediating the decline in leaf elongation rate of nitrogen (N)-deprived barley plants was assessed. Plants were grown at two levels of N supply, with or without the application of pneumatic pressure to the roots. Applying enough pressure (balancing pressure) to keep xylem sap continuously bleeding from the cut surface of a leaf allowed the plants to remain at full turgor throughout the experiments. Plants from which N was withheld required a greater balancing pressure during both day and night. This difference in balancing pressure was greater at high (2.0 kPa) than low (1.2 kPa) atmospheric vapour pressure deficit (VPD). Pressurizing the roots did not prevent the decline in leaf elongation rate induced by withholding N at either high or low VPD. Thus low shoot water status did not limit leaf growth of N-deprived plants.

  1. Impact of water stress on growth reserves and re-growth of Themeda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... carbohydrates (TNCC) and water-soluble protein (WSPC) as growth reserves after defoliation were determined in the indigenous C4 semi-arid grass species Themeda triandra during three growth stages (vegetative, piping and reproductive) and in three plant parts (roots, stubble and leaves). Four water stress treatments ...

  2. Socioeconomic Status Accounts for Rapidly Increasing Geographic Variation in the Incidence of Poor Fetal Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Stephen J.; Jacoby, Peter; Zubrick, Stephen R.

    2013-01-01

    Fetal growth is an important risk factor for infant morbidity and mortality. In turn, socioeconomic status is a key predictor of fetal growth; however, other sociodemographic factors and environmental effects may also be important. This study modelled geographic variation in poor fetal growth after accounting for socioeconomic status, with a fixed effect for socioeconomic status and a combination of spatially-correlated and spatially-uncorrelated random effects. The dataset comprised 88,246 liveborn singletons, aggregated within suburbs in Perth, Western Australia. Low socioeconomic status was strongly associated with an increased risk of poor fetal growth. An increase in geographic variation of poor fetal growth from 1999–2001 (interquartile odds ratio among suburbs = 1.20) to 2004–2006 (interquartile odds ratio = 1.40) indicated a widening risk disparity by socioeconomic status. Low levels of residual spatial patterns strengthen the case for targeting policies and practices in areas of low socioeconomic status for improved outcomes. This study indicates an alarming increase in geographic inequalities in poor fetal growth in Perth which warrants further research into the specific aspects of socioeconomic status that act as risk factors. PMID:23799513

  3. Exploitation Status of Devis’Anchovy in Kei Island Waters: Based on Total Length Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supeni, E. A.; Dobo, J.

    2017-10-01

    Devis’ anchovy (Encrasicholina devisi) are a group of small pelagic fishes, which is thought to be one of the most abundant fishery resources in Indonesian waters. The high utilized of this resources will certainly affect to population status. This research aimed to know the exploitation status of anchovy in Kei Island waters. Sampling was carried out by using the data collected from lift net catches during April to July 2016 at Sathean, Selayar and Lebetawi, Kei Islands. A total of 3,524 anchovies were analyzed based on total length that ranged from 23 to 87 mm with a mean length of 55.4 ± 11.8 mm. The von Bertalanffy growth parameters estimated were L∞ = 89.25 mm and K = 0.74 year-1, with the growth models equation is Lt = 89.25 (1 ‑ e ‑0.74(t+0.161). The result of mortality analysis showed that Z = 2.97, M = 1.098, F= 1.87 year-1 and E = 0.63. This study reveals that exploitation status of anchovy in Kei Island is on fully exploited and leads to the over exploited condition.

  4. The effects of zinc status on early growth in infants with sickle cell disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Growth failure, maturational delay, and alterations in body composition occur in older children and adults with Sickle Cell Disease (SCD). Poor nutritional status, specifically zinc deficiency, has been widely implicated, although infants with SCD have not been studied. We determined zinc status in ...

  5. Growth and nutritional status of children with homozygous sickle cell disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Saqladi, A.-W. M.; Cipolotti, R.; Fijnvandraat, K.; Brabin, B. J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Poor growth and under-nutrition are common in children with sickle cell disease (SCD). This review summarises evidence of nutritional status in children with SCD in relation to anthropometric status, disease severity, body composition, energy metabolism, micronutrient deficiency and

  6. Current development status of advanced pressurized water reactors (APWRs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifritz, W.; Chawla, R.

    1985-08-01

    The current development status of advanced (high converting) pressurized water reactors (APWRs) is briefly reviewed. The areas covered are: reactor physics, thermohydraulics and other technical aspects, as well as electricity generating costs and longterm reactor strategical considerations related to the APWR's role in a plutonium economy. There does not seem to be any unsurmountable technical obstacle to the realization of an APWR. However, substantial further R and D efforts are required if an APWR is to go into commercial operation by the end of the century. (author)

  7. Influence of crop load on almond tree water status and its importance in irrigation scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puerto Conesa, Pablo; Domingo Miguel, Rafael; Torres Sánchez, Roque; Pérez Pastor, Alejandro

    2014-05-01

    In the Mediterranean area water is the main factor limiting crop production and therefore irrigation is essential to achieve economically viable yields. One of the fundamental techniques to ensure that irrigation water is managed efficiently with maximum productivity and minimum environmental impact is irrigation scheduling. The fact that the plant water status integrates atmospheric demand and soil water content conditions encourages the use of plant-based water status indicators. Some researchers have successfully scheduled irrigation in certain fruit trees by maintaining the maximum daily trunk diameter shrinkage (MDS) signal intensity at threshold values to generate (or not) water stress. However MDS not only depends on the climate and soil water content, but may be affected by tree factors such as age, size, phenological stage and fruit load. There is therefore a need to quantify the influence of these factors on MDS. The main objective of this work was to study the effects of crop load on tree water relations for scheduling purposes. We particularly focused on MDS vs VPD10-15 (mean air vapor pressure deficit during the period 10.00-15.00 h solar time) for different loads and phenological phases under non-limiting soil water conditions. The experiment was carried out in 2011 in a 1 ha plot in SE Spain with almond trees (Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A. Webb cv. 'Marta'). Three crop load treatments were studied according to three crop load levels, i) T100, high crop load, characteristic crop load, ii) T50, medium crop load, in which 50% of the fruits were removed and iii) T0, practically without fruits. Fruits were manually thinned. Each treatment, randomly distributed in blocks, was run in triplicate. Plant water status was assessed from midday stem water potential (Ψs), MDS, daily trunk growth rate (TGR), leaf turgor potential Ψp, fruit water potential (Ψf), stomatal conductance (gs) and photosynthesis (Pn) and transpiration rates (E). Yield, pruning weights and

  8. Pattern of head growth and nutritional status of microcephalic infants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-07-08

    Jul 8, 2011 ... indicator for both brain development and nutritional status from ... several neurodevelopmental problems such as mental retardation, cerebral palsy, epilepsy and intellectual disabilities.[2-5] By the time of onset, microcephaly can be ..... Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology and the Practice.

  9. Water reuse in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia - Status, prospects and research needs

    KAUST Repository

    Drewes, Jorg

    2012-10-01

    Saudi Arabia is one of the driest countries in the world. While desalination plants currently installed in the country represent 30% of the world\\'s desalination capacity, seawater desalination alone will not be able to provide sufficient supplies to meet the increasing freshwater demand. However, with only 9% of the total municipal wastewater generated currently being reused, the kingdom is projected as the third largest reuse market after China and the USA, and reuse capacities are projected to increase by 800% by 2016. This projected growth and the change in water portfolios offer tremendous opportunities to integrate novel approaches of water reclamation and reuse. This paper highlights the current status of reuse in the kingdom, discusses prospects of using distributed infrastructure for reuse tailored to local needs as well as the use of artificial recharge and recovery systems for reclaimed water. It also suggests research needs to helping overcoming barriers for wastewater reuse. Copyright © IWA Publishing 2012.

  10. Status of advanced technology and design for water cooled reactors: Heavy water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-07-01

    In 1987 the IAEA established the International Working Group on Advanced Technologies for Water-Cooled Reactors (IWGATWR). Within the framework of the IWGATWR the IAEA Technical Report on Status of Advanced Technology and Design for Water Cooled Reactors, Part I: Light Water Reactors and Part II: Heavy Water Reactors, has been undertaken to document the major current activities and trends of technological improvement and development for future water reactors. Part I of the report dealing with Light Water Reactors (LWRs) was published in 1988 (IAEA-TECDOC-479). Part II of the report covers Heavy Water Reactors (HWRs) and has now been prepared. This report is based largely upon submissions from Member States. It has been supplemented by material from the presentations at the IAEA Technical Committee and Workshop on Progress in Heavy Water Reactor Design and Technology held in Montreal, Canada, December 6-9, 1988. It is hoped that this part of the report, containing the status of advanced heavy water reactor technology up to 1988 and ongoing development programmes will aid in disseminating information to Member States and in stimulating international cooperation. Refs, figs and tabs

  11. Assessing Intake of Water and Sugar-Sweetened Beverages in Adolescents: its Relationship with Weight Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihalache Laura

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. The aim of the study is to evaluate fluid intake during adolescence and correlate it with weight status. Material and methods. We assessed fluid intake using a validated questionnaire in a group of 106 adolescent students (22 boys - 20.8%, aged 15-19 years. Weight status was evaluated with the BMI-for-age values,using growth normograms. Results. There were no statistically significant differences in the frequency of water intake between sexes (p>0.05. Water intake at least 3 times a day was declared by 72.16% of normal weight students and in 66% of overweight and obese, the difference being statistically significant (p=0.003. Boys consumed larger amounts of water (p=0.042 than girls. Intake of 100% natural fruit juice was significantly higher in boys compared to girls (p=0.002. A significantly higher percentage of normal weight adolescents consumed≤500 mL/day non-carbonated (p=0.004 and carbonated (p<0.001 sugar-sweetened beverages compared to the overweight or obese, who consumed ≥500 mL/day. Conclusions. The quantitative and qualitative assessment of fluid intake among adolescents is a mandatory step in the assessment of calorie and nutritional intake. Promoting low-calorie fluid intake in this age group, along with the principles of healthy eating, could contribute to achieving an optimal weight status.

  12. The Benefits of High School Experiences on Growth in Occupational Status in U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung-Nyun; Passmore, David L.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated high school graduates' school-to-work transition by considering their post-school occupational skill levels. Using an ordinal growth model analysis, occupational status increased in an arch-shaped curve as the number of years after high school graduation also increased. This growth trajectory was further related to…

  13. Investigation on water status and distribution in broccoli and the effects of drying on water status using NMR and MRI methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Fangfang; Jin, Xin; Zhang, Lu; Chen, Xiao Dong

    2017-01-01

    Many quality attributes of food products are influenced by the water status and the microstructure. Low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods are applied to non-destructively monitor the water status and structure of food. The aim of this study is to

  14. The dependence of water potential in shoots of Picea abies on air and soil water status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sellin

    Full Text Available Where there is sufficient water storage in the soil the water potential (Ψx in shoots of Norway spruce [Picea abies (L. Karst.] is strongly governed by the vapour pressure deficit of the atmosphere, while the mean minimum values of Ψx usually do not drop below –1.5 MPa under meteorological conditions in Estonia. If the base water potential (Ψb is above –0.62 MPa, the principal factor causing water deficiency in shoots of P. abies may be either limited soil water reserves or atmospheric evaporative demand depending on the current level of the vapour pressure deficit. As the soil dries the stomatal control becomes more efficient in preventing water losses from the foliage, and the leaf water status, in turn, less sensitive to atmospheric demand. Under drought conditions, if Ψb falls below –0.62 MPa, the trees' water stress is mainly caused by low soil water availability. Further declines in the shoot water potential (below –1.5 MPa can be attributed primarily to further decreases in the soil water, i.e. to the static water stress.Key words. Hydrology (evapotranspiration · plant ecology · soil moisture.

  15. Status of advanced technology and design for water cooled reactors: Light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-10-01

    Water reactors represent a high level of performance and safety. They are mature technology and they will undoubtedly continue to be the main stream of nuclear power. There are substantial technological development programmes in Member States for further improving the technology and for the development of new concepts in water reactors. Therefore the establishment of an international forum for the exchange of information and stimulation of international co-operation in this field has emerged. In 1987 the IAEA established the International Working Group on Advanced Technologies for Water-Cooled Reactors (IWGATWR). Within the framework of IWGATWR the IAEA Technical Report on Status of Advanced Technology and Design for Water Cooled Reactors, Part I: Light Water Reactors and Part II: Heavy Water Reactors has been undertaken to document the major current activities and different trends of technological improvements and developments for future water reactors. Part I of the report dealing with LWRs has now been prepared and is based mainly on submissions from Member States. It is hoped that this part of the report, containing the status of advanced light water reactor design and technology of the year 1987 and early 1988 will be useful for disseminating information to Agency Member States and for stimulating international cooperation in this subject area. 93 refs, figs and tabs

  16. SALINITY EFFECT ON SEEDLING GROWTH, WATER, SODIUM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AISA

    AND POTASSIUM DISTRIBUTIONS IN THE MANGROVE. SPECIES (Avicennia germinans L. ... EFFET DE LA SALINITE SUR LA CROISSANCE, LA DISTRIBUTION DES TENEURS EN EAU, SODIUM ET POTASSIUM. D'UNE ESPECE DE .... distilled water and stored for germination studies. After three days, seedlings were ...

  17. Growth performance and immunity status of starter broiler birds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding diets containing Neem Leaf Meal (NLM), Garlic Meal (GM) and their combinations (NLM + GM) on growth performance and serum parameters of starter broiler birds. A total of 180 day-old Cobb broiler chickens were divided into twelve groups of fifteen chicks with ...

  18. Growth and physiological responses to water and nutrient stress in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-07

    Sep 7, 2011 ... young carambola plants in relation to water stress. Sci. Hort. 60: 101-. 114. Jose S, Merritt S, Ramsey CL (2003). Growth, nutrition, photosynthesis and transpiration responses of longleaf pine seedlings to light, water and nitrogen. Forest Ecol Manag. 180: 335-344. Kallarackal J, Suman P, George J (2004).

  19. Water intake and consumption in sheep differing in growth potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water intake and consumption in sheep differing in growth potential and adaptability. S.J. Schoeman* and J.A. Visser. Department of Animal and Wildlife Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, 0002 Republic of South Africa. Received I0 February 1995; accepted 18 July 1995. Water intake, efficiency and consumption of ...

  20. The growth of bacteria on organic compounds in drinking water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, van der D.

    1984-01-01

    Growth ("regrowth") of bacteria In drinking water distribution systems results in a deterioration of the water quality. Regrowth of chemoheterotrophic bacteria depends on the presence of organic. compounds that serve as a nutrient source for these bacteria. A batch-culture technique was

  1. Growth of indoor fungi under changing water conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segers, Frank J J

    2017-01-01

    Fungi are ubiquitous in nature. Three fungal genera, Aspergillus, Cladosporium and Penicillium, have been found to be predominant in outdoor and indoor air. Fungal growth in indoor environments depends on water activity (aw) and relative humidity (RH), expressing the availability of water. In this

  2. Nutrient influx, Water quality and growth performance of Nile tilapia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nutrient influx, water quality and growth performance of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus fed recycled food wastebased diets was studied in a closed recirculation system for 11 weeks, during which no water renewal was carried out in the system. Fish (mean weight 1.2 + 0.11 g) were fed with different levels of recycled ...

  3. Outline and current status of crack growth evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Taku

    2017-01-01

    This paper explains the outline of crack growth evaluation against stress corrosion cracking (SCC), knowledge obtained from actual equipment failure cases, and the latest trends of technology development concerning crack growth evaluation. As for the reactor integrity evaluation system, the use of the maintenance standards for the nuclear power generation of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers (hereinafter referred to as maintenance standards') is specified for its evaluation. Based on whether or not the result satisfies the evaluation criteria for the SCC soundness assessment, it is judged whether continuous operation within the evaluation period is allowed or repair/replacement is required. According to main findings obtained from the cases of actual equipment failure, the following have been recognized. (1) The SCC generated and developed in the nickel base alloy welded metal stayed at the boundary between low alloy steel and stainless steel. (2) The progress of SCC strongly depends on the growth direction of dendrite, which is the welded solidified structure, and preferentially develops in the direction parallel to the growth direction. The latest development of crack propagation evaluation includes (1) development of solution for stress intensity factor, and (2) crack propagation evaluation by means of FEM analysis. With regard to the SCC of stainless steel in recirculation system piping under BWR environment, if the defect depth and surface length are sized, the progress of cracks in the actual equipment can be reproduced to some extent by crack growth according to maintenance standards. The sizing results of the defect based on non-destructive test are the starting point. (A.O.)

  4. Growth and health status of children and adolescents in medieval Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krenz-Niedbała Marta

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Subadult growth and health have been analyzed in three cemetery samples from medieval Poland, including two early-urban sites: Cedynia dated to the 10t-14th centuries AD, and Ostrów Lednicki dated to the 13th-15th centuries AD, and a rural site Słaboszewo dated to the 14th-17th centuries AD. The nutritional status was not expected to have substantially differed among the settlements, due to the culturally induced undiversified diet of children, and predominant share of medium-to-low status individuals. However, city life and village life were supposed to differ in factors correlated with the spread of infections, and as such it was expected to find significant differences in respiratory health among early-urban and rural dwellers.The prevalences of diet-dependent diseases, scurvy and rickets, were found to be statistically indistinguishable among the three studied populations, while higher frequency of skeletal signs of poor respiratory health was observed in early-urban Cedynia than rural Słaboszewo. Slightly lower prevalences of skeletal stress indicators were found for the rural than the early-urban site. Skeletal growth profiles and the dynamics of long bone growth were found to be remarkably similar for the early-urban samples (Cedynia and Ostrów Lednicki, with the rural subadults having the shortest diaphyseal lengths, and lower growth dynamics.It can be concluded that adverse factors associated with the urban settlement were more detrimental to respiratory health than those in the village. A variety of factors are potentially responsible for this pattern, including population density, building structure, quality of air and water, sanitation, and occupation. Perhaps, the key factor in response to environmental and socio-cultural constraints was the stability of living conditions in the village, which allowed the inhabitants to develop sufficient adaptive mechanisms. In contrast, the history of strongholds such as Cedynia was changeable

  5. Diurnal variations in water relations of deficit irrigated lemon trees during fruit growth period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. García-Orellana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Field-grown lemon trees (Citrus limon (L. Burm. fil. cv. Fino were subjected to different drip irrigation treatments: a control treatment, irrigated daily above crop water requirements in order to obtain non-limiting soil water conditions and two deficit irrigation treatments, reducing the water applied according to the maximum daily trunk shrinkage (MDS signal intensity (actual MDS/control treatment MDS threshold values of 1.25 (T1 treatment and 1.35 (T2 treatment, which induced two different drought stress levels. Daily variations in leaf (Yleaf and stem (Ystem water potentials, leaf conductance, net photosynthesis, sap flow (SF and trunk diameter fluctuations were studied on four occasions during the lemon fruit growth period. Ystem and Yleaf revealed a diurnal pattern in response to changes in evaporative demand of the atmosphere. Both water potentials decreased in response to water deficits, which were more pronounced in the T2 treatment. Ystem was seen to be a better plant water status indicator than Yleaf. The difference between the two values of Y (Ystem - Yleaf  = DY was closely correlated with sap flow, making it a suitable measure of leaf transpiration. Using the slope of this relationship, the canopy hydraulic conductance (KC was estimated. When other continuously recorded plant-based indicators are not accessible, the concurrent measurement of leaf and stem water potentials at midday, which are relatively inexpensive to measure and user-friendly, act as sufficiently good indicators of the plant water status in field grown Fino lemon trees.

  6. [Nanism caused by water deprivation, with transitory growth hormone deficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauvais, P; Debard, A; Brissaud, H E

    1975-10-01

    Report of a case of a girl admitted for alcoholic poisoning then for a toxic syndrome with considerable hypernatremia. Clinical examination showed a dwarfism (-4 S.D.) with break of the growth curve and bone-age retardation. History revealed cruelty and thirsting since the age of 2 years. Isolated somatotropin insufficiency was found. Separation from the family and free drinking induced a spectacular recovery of growth and normalization of growth hormone level. The relative role and relationships between growth hormone deficiency and chronic dehydration due to water deprivation in the physiopathology of dwarfism due to frustration are discussed.

  7. Social Status Variations in Attitudes and Conceptualization Pertaining to Water Pollution and Supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, Irving A.

    Data, secured by questionnaire from single household dwelling units in Warwick, Rhode Island, were used to ascertain differences among social status groups with respect to attitudes and conceptualization pertaining to water pollution and water supply. A social status index was used to delineate three status groups having high, middle, and low rank…

  8. Status of water pollution in relation to industrialization in Rajasthan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajput, Ritu Singh; Pandey, Sonali; Bhadauria, Seema

    2017-09-26

    India is a large and densely populated country; its economy is largely agricultural. Making the best use of the country's manpower has always posed a challenge. Industrialization could become a dominant component of the economy and displace agriculture. Traditional livelihoods of occupational groups are threatened by the practice of disposing untreated industrial waste into rivers and bodies of water. These uncontrolled disposals impact local natural resources with negative long-term effects. Industrialization is the development of intellectual and financial trade that changes a predominantly rustic culture into a modern one. Many industrial units discharge wastewater locally without treatment. Many industries directly discharged their waste into lakes, rivers and ocean. Water contamination impacts the environment. Pesticides, chemical, waste oil and heavy metals are regularly transported into their waters. Humans and other living organisms can accumulate heavy metals from industrial discharges in their tissues. Industrial waste may be reactive, corrosive, flammable, or toxic. When untreated sewage is emptied into rivers, it causes diseases like typhoid, dysentery and cholera. Natural elements and plant supplements like nitrate and phosphates stimulate growth of algae on the water surface. The algae reduce the oxygen in the water and cause eutrophication. It is harmful to the water ecosystem. In Rajasthan proper, there are a number of sites bordering rivers and lakes where the pace of industrialization has proceeded far beyond the ability of regulators to establish and enforce meaningful limits on the amount of point source pollution permitted to the various industrial complexes, which include cement, chemical, fertilizer, textile, mining, quarrying, dyeing and printing facilities. The scale of the problem is obvious to the casual observer, but actual documentation of the total impact remains to be done.

  9. Impact of Slow Blood Filling via Collaterals on Infarct Growth: Comparison of Mismatch and Collateral Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Jeong Pyo; Lee, Mi Ji; Kim, Suk Jae; Chung, Jong-Won; Cha, Jihoon; Kim, Gyeong-Moon; Chung, Chin-Sang; Lee, Kwang Ho; Bang, Oh Young

    2017-01-01

    Perfusion-diffusion mismatch has been evaluated to determine whether the presence of a target mismatch helps to identify patients who respond favorably to recanalization therapies. We compared the impact on infarct growth of collateral status and the presence of a penumbra, using magnetic resonance perfusion (MRP) techniques. Consecutive patients who were candidates for recanalization therapy and underwent serial diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and MRP were enrolled. A collateral flow map derived from MRP source data was generated by automatic post-processing. The impact of a target mismatch ( T max>6 s/apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) volume≥1.8, ADC volume10 s for ADC volumemismatch, whereas collaterals were poor in 14 (19.2%), intermediate in 36 (49.3%), and good in 23 (31.5%) patients. After adjusting for initial severity of stroke, early recanalization ( P mismatch, were independently associated with infarct growth. Even in patients with a target mismatch and successful recanalization, the degree of infarct growth depended on the collateral status. Perfusion status at later T max time points (beyond the arterial phase) was more closely correlated with collateral status. Patients with good collaterals show a favorable outcome in terms of infarct growth, regardless of the presence of a target mismatch pattern. The presence of slow blood filling predicts collateral status and infarct growth.

  10. Algal Growth Potential of Microcystis aeruginosa from Reclaimed Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Jin Chul; Ahn, Chang Hyuk; Lee, Saeromi; Jang, Dae-Gyu; Lee, Woo Hyoung; Ryu, Byong Ro

    2016-01-01

    Algal growth potential (AGP) of the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa (M. aeruginosa, NIES-298) using reclaimed water from various wastewater reclamation pilot plants was investigated to evaluate the feasibility of the reclaimed water usage for recreational purposes. After completing the coagulation and ultrafiltration processes, the concentrations of most contaminants in the reclaimed water were lower than the reuse guidelines for recreational water. However, M. aeruginosa successfully adapted to low levels of soluble reactive phosphorus (PO(3-)(4)) concentrations. The AGP values of M. aeruginosa decreased with the progression of treatment processes, and with the increases in the dilution volume. Also, both the AGP and chlorophyll-a values can be estimated a priori without conducting the AGP tests. Therefore, aquatic ecosystems in locations prone to environmental conditions favorable for the growth of M. aeruginosa require more rigorous nutrient management plans (e.g., reverse osmosis and dilution with clean water resources) to reduce the nutrient availability.

  11. DYNAMIC ANALYSES OF WATER RELATIONS AND LEAF GROWTH IN CUCUMBER PLANTS UNDER MIDDAY WATER DEFICIT

    OpenAIRE

    Kitano, Masaharu; Eguchi, Hiromi

    1993-01-01

    Effects of transient and mild midday water deficit on whole-plant water relations and on leaf expansive growth in cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L.) were analyzed by applying on-line evaluations of evaporative demand and whole-plant water balance. Around the fair midday, the larger impact of the evaporative demand was imposed on plant water balance, and the competitive relationship between the higher evaporative demand and transpiration induced the midday water deficit, in which 10% of the ...

  12. Wood chip mulch thickness effects on soil water, soil temperature, weed growth, and landscape plant growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood chip mulches are used in landscapes to reduce soil water evaporation and competition from weeds. A study was conducted over a three-year period to determine soil water content at various depths under four wood chip mulch treatments and to evaluate the effects of wood chip thickness on growth of...

  13. Growth Kinetics of the Homogeneously Nucleated Water Droplets: Simulation Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokshin, Anatolii V; Galimzyanov, Bulat N

    2012-01-01

    The growth of homogeneously nucleated droplets in water vapor at the fixed temperatures T = 273, 283, 293, 303, 313, 323, 333, 343, 353, 363 and 373 K (the pressure p = 1 atm.) is investigated on the basis of the coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation data with the mW-model. The treatment of simulation results is performed by means of the statistical method within the mean-first-passage-time approach, where the reaction coordinate is associated with the largest droplet size. It is found that the water droplet growth is characterized by the next features: (i) the rescaled growth law is unified at all the considered temperatures and (ii) the droplet growth evolves with acceleration and follows the power law.

  14. Plasma zinc and growth status in preadolescent children with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqbool, Asim; Schall, Joan I; Zemel, Babette S; Garcia-Espana, J Felipe; Stallings, Virginia A

    2006-07-01

    To investigate plasma zinc status in relation to dietary and supplemental zinc intake, growth and pulmonary status in preadolescent children with cystic fibrosis (CF) and pancreatic insufficiency (PI). Fasting plasma zinc was assessed in children (age, 8-11 years) with CF and PI. Food (7-day weighed records) and supplemental zinc intake, serum alkaline phosphatase and albumin, pulmonary function (spirometry), coefficient of fat absorption (%COA, 72-hour fecal fat) and growth status [height adjusted for genetic potential (AHAZ), weight (WAZ) and BMI Z scores (BMIZ)] were assessed. For the 62 children (32 males), mean plasma zinc (+/-SD) was 16.8 +/- 3.1 micromol/L (110 +/- 20 ug/dL). Sixty-five percent of the subjects had levels above the study reference range of 9.2 to 15.3 micromol/L (60-100 ug/dL); no subjects had low zinc levels. Median (range) total daily zinc intake was 279% (83-988%) recommended dietary allowance, growth status was suboptimal (mean +/- SD: AHAZ, -0.8 +/- 1.0; WAZ, -0.5 +/- 1.2; BMIZ, -0.2 +/- 1.1), and forced expiratory volume at 1 second (FEV1) was 92 +/- 13% predicted. Plasma zinc was not correlated with growth, pulmonary or alkaline phosphatase status. Plasma zinc was correlated with serum albumin (r = 0.25, P < 0.05) and was inversely correlated with coefficient of fat absorption (as %; r = -0.30, P = 0.02). Under current patterns of care in CF Centers, total zinc intake and plasma zinc status were adequate. These findings suggest that zinc was not a limiting micronutrient for preadolescent children with CF and PI and mild-to-moderate lung disease, and not likely contributing to their suboptimal growth status.

  15. Effect of Birth Weight and Socioeconomic Status on Children's Growth in Mashhad, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Mohammadzadeh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Socioeconomic status and birth weight are prominent factors for future growing of children. Also Studies show that this criterion is associated with reduced cognitive outcomes, school achievement, and adult work capacity. So in this paper we determined the effects of some socio-economic statuses and birth weight on physical growth of children in Mashhad, Iran. Method and materials. This is a cross sectional study that determined effect of socio-economic status and birth weight on weight, heighting and BMI of school age children. Healthy six years old children who were screened before enter, to school were eligible for participating in our study between 6 June 2006 and 31 July. Weight and standing height were documented at birth and measured at 6 years old. Then, their BMI were calculated in childhood period. Data were analyzed by using SPSS software. Result. Results show that some socio-economic variables and birth weight is associated with and, perhaps, influence the variation of growth in the children. The variables which show the most consistent and significant association were birth weight, sex, economic status and education of parents. Conclusion. In this paper, we found that birth weight, economic status and education parents of neonates have directly significant effect on growth childhood period. We recommended that paying attention to these criteria for improving growth of children in our society should be considered by authorities.

  16. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor from Embryonic Status to Cardiovascular Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Azimi-Nezhad

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF is a multifunctional cytokine with distinct functions in angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis, vascular permeability, and hematopoiesis. VEGF is a highly conserved, disulfide-bonded dimeric glycoprotein of 34 to 45 kDa produced by several cell types including fibroblasts, neutrophils, endothelial cells, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells, particularly T lymphocytes and macrophages. Six VEGF isoforms are generated as a result of alternative splicing from a single VEGF gene, consisting of 121, 145, 165, 183, 189, or 206 amino acids. VEGF121, VEGF145, and VEGF165 are secreted whereas VEGF183, VEGF189, and VEGF206 are cell membrane-bound. VEGF145 has a key role during the vascularization of the human ovarian follicle and corpus luteum, in the placentation and embryonic periods, and in bone and wound healing, while VEGF165 is the most abundant and biologically active isoform. VEGF has been linked with a number of vascular pathologies including cardiovascular diseases such ischemic heart disease, heart failure, stroke, and diabetes and its related complications. In this review we aimed to present some important roles of VEGF in a number of clinical issues and indicate its involvement in several phenomena from the initial steps of the embryonic period to cardiovascular diseases.

  17. Interact to survive: Phyllobacterium brassicacearum improves Arabidopsis tolerance to severe water deficit and growth recovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justine Bresson

    Full Text Available Mutualistic bacteria can alter plant phenotypes and confer new abilities to plants. Some plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR are known to improve both plant growth and tolerance to multiple stresses, including drought, but reports on their effects on plant survival under severe water deficits are scarce. We investigated the effect of Phyllobacterium brassicacearum STM196 strain, a PGPR isolated from the rhizosphere of oilseed rape, on survival, growth and physiological responses of Arabidopsis thaliana to severe water deficits combining destructive and non-destructive high-throughput phenotyping. Soil inoculation with STM196 greatly increased the survival rate of A. thaliana under several scenarios of severe water deficit. Photosystem II efficiency, assessed at the whole-plant level by high-throughput fluorescence imaging (Fv/Fm, was related to the probability of survival and revealed that STM196 delayed plant mortality. Inoculated surviving plants tolerated more damages to the photosynthetic tissues through a delayed dehydration and a better tolerance to low water status. Importantly, STM196 allowed a better recovery of plant growth after rewatering and stressed plants reached a similar biomass at flowering than non-stressed plants. Our results highlight the importance of plant-bacteria interactions in plant responses to severe drought and provide a new avenue of investigations to improve drought tolerance in agriculture.

  18. Effect of water stress on growth of three linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariuki, Lilian Wambui; Masinde, Peter; Githiri, Stephen; Onyango, Arnold N

    2016-01-01

    Linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) is an annual oil crop that accounts for approximately 1 % of the world's oilseed supplies. It produces seeds that are rich in the health-promoting ω-3 fatty acid, α-linolenic. In Kenya, linseed is grown in the Rift Valley and Western regions, places which often experience drought. This study was aimed at evaluating the effect of water stress on growth of three linseed cultivars and to establish the extent of drought tolerance in the three cultivars. A greenhouse pot experiment in a completely randomized design was conducted at Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya. The pots were well watered until the fourth week when watering was completely withheld to a half of the pots (stressed) while the other half (well watered control) was maintained at 90 % field capacity. Destructive harvesting was done when the stressed pots were at 90, 70, 60, 50, 40 % field capacities and at permanent wilting point. The experiment was replicated thrice and was repeated twice (February-May and August-November 2014). There were no significant differences in production of leaves, plant height, number of tillers and biomass between the three varieties in both seasons. Subjecting the linseed varieties to permanent wilting resulted in reduced production of leaves, growth in height, production of tillers and dry weight by 20-40 %. Decline in all growth parameters begun when 30-80 % of available soil water had been used up. There existed linear relationships between the various evaluated growth parameters. These relationships were not influenced either by the water status of soil or the varieties. Relative water content for the three linseed varieties declined after 25-67 % of available soil water had been used up.

  19. Moisture- and water-induced crack growth in optical materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranmer, David C.; Freiman, Stephen W.; White, Grady S.; Raynes, Alan S.

    1991-01-01

    A number of optically important materials such as ZnS, SiO2, SiO2-TiO2, GaAs, and heavy metal fluoride (e.g., ZBLAN) glasses are subject to moisture- and/or liquid water-induced crack growth. A notable exception to this behavior appears to be Si. Such environmentally enhanced crack growth can lead to ultimate failure in service at stresses well below those expected from normal strength tests. The sensitivity of a material to water can be obtained by determining a crack growth parameter, N. This parameter can be combined with other easily obtainable fracture information which include measures of the strength and strength distribution to create a lifetime design diagram using fracture mechanics concepts. Methods for determining these fracture parameters including direct crack growth measurements and dynamic fatigue are reviewed, and the influence of environmental water on the materials is discussed. Crack growth mechanisms including physical (dielectric) and chemical reaction mechanisms are discussed, and lifetime design diagrams which can be used to determine stress levels in service are presented.

  20. Productivity growth and price regulation of Slovenian water distribution utilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Zorić

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyse the price regulation method and performance of thewater industry in Slovenia. A stochastic cost frontier model is employed to estimate and decompose the total factor productivity (TFP growth of water distribution utilities in the 1997-2003 period. The main goal is to find out whether the lack of proper incentives to improve performance has resulted in the low TFP growth of Slovenian water distribution utilities. The evidence suggests that cost inefficiencies are present in water utilities, which indicates considerable cost saving potential in the analysed industry. Technical change is found to have positively affected the TFP growth over time, while cost inefficiency levels remained essentially unchanged. Overall, the average annual TFP growth in the analysed period is estimated to be only slightly above zero, which is a relatively poor result. This can largely be contributed to the present institutional and regulatory setting that does not stimulate utilities to improve productivity. Therefore, the introduction of an independent regulatory agency and an incentive-based price regulation scheme should be seriously considered in order to enhance the performance of Slovenian water distribution utilities.

  1. Water stress affects the germination, emergence, and growth of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two experiments were conducted to study the effects of water deficit stress on the germination, emergence and seedling growth of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] using Completely Randomised Block Design in four replications. Five sorghum cultivars (Jigurti, Gambella 1107, Meko, 76 T1 #23 and P9403) were ...

  2. Periconception Maternal Folate Status and Human Embryonic Cerebellum Growth Trajectories : The Rotterdam Predict Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, Irene V; Groenenberg, Irene A L; Gotink, Anniek W; Willemsen, Sten P; Gijtenbeek, Manon; Dudink, Jeroen; Go, Attie T J I; Reiss, Irwin K M; Steegers, Eric A P; Steegers-Theunissen, Régine P M

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to investigate whether periconceptional maternal folate status affects human embryonic cerebellar size and growth trajectories. In a prospective periconceptional cohort participants filled out questionnaires and received weekly transvaginal 3D-ultrasounds between 7+0 and 12+6 weeks

  3. Periconception maternal folate status and human embryonic cerebellum growth trajectories: The Rotterdam predict study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.V. Koning (Irene); I.A.L. Groenenberg (Irene); A.W. Gotink (Anniek W.); S.P. Willemsen (Sten); M. Gijtenbeek (M.); J. Dudink (Jeroen); A.T.J.I. Go (Attie); I.K.M. Reiss (Irwin); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); R.P.M. Steegers-Theunissen (Régine)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractWe aimed to investigate whether periconceptional maternal folate status affects human embryonic cerebellar size and growth trajectories. In a prospective periconceptional cohort participants filled out questionnaires and received weekly transvaginal 3D-ultrasounds between 7+0 and 12+6

  4. Does reservoir trophic status influence the feeding and growth of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Does reservoir trophic status influence the feeding and growth of the sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Teleostei: Clariidae)?. WM Potts, T Hecht, TG Andrew ... The diets of catfish in the two reservoirs had a similarity index of 68.1% and there was no significant difference in their nutritional value. Fish prey was the most ...

  5. Tomato Yield and Water Use Efficiency - Coupling Effects between Growth Stage Specific Soil Water Deficits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Si; Zhenjiang, Zhou; Andersen, Mathias Neumann

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the sensitivity of tomato yield and water use efficiency (WUE) to soil water content at different growth stages, the central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was employed in a five-factor-five-level pot experiment under regulated deficit irrigation. Two regression models concerning...... the effects of stage-specific soil water content on tomato yield and WUE were established. The results showed that the lowest available soil water (ASW) content (around 28%) during vegetative growth stage (here denoted θ1) resulted in high yield and WUE. Moderate (around 69% ASW) during blooming and fruit...... effects of ASW in two growth stages were between θ2 and θ5, θ3. In both cases a moderate θ2 was a precondition for maximum yield response to increasing θ5 and θ3. Sensitivity analysis revealed that yield was most sensitive to soil water content at fruit maturity (θ5). Numerical inspection...

  6. Effect of Water Deficit Stress on Peach Growth under Commercial Orchard Management Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rahmati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the sensitivity of vegetative growth to water deficit stress of a late-maturing peach (Prunus persica L. cv. Elberta under orchard conditions, an experiment was conducted as randomized complete-block design with three treatments and four repetitions in Shahdiran commercial orchard in Mashhad during 2011. Three irrigation treatments including 360 (low stress, 180 (moderate stress and 90 (severe stress m3ha-1week-1 using a drip irrigation system (minimum stem water potential near harvest: -1.2, -1.5 and -1.7 MPa, respectively from the mid-pit hardening stage (12th of June until harvest (23rd of Sep. applied. Predawn, stem and leaf water potentials, leaf photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal conductance and leaf temperature, the number of new shoots on fruit bearing shoots and vegetative shoots lengths during growing season as well as leaf area at harvest were measured. The results showed that water deficit stress had negative effects on peach tree water status, thereby resulting in decreased leaf gas exchange and tree vegetative growth. As significant decreased assimilate production of tree was resulted from both decreased leaf assimilation rate (until about 23 % and 50 %, respectively under moderate and severe stress conditions compared to low stress conditions and decreased leaf area of tree (until about 57% and 79%, respectively under moderate and severe stress conditions compared to low stress conditions at harvest. The significant positive correlation between leaf water potential and vegetative growth of peach revealed that shoot growth would decrease by 30% and 50% of maximum at leaf water potential of –1.56 and –2.30 MPa, respectively.

  7. Effect of water cadmium concentration and water level on the growth performance of Salix triandroides cuttings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xin; Ma, Fengfeng; Li, Youzhi; Ding, Xiaohui; Zou, Dongsheng; Niu, Yandong; Bian, Hualin; Deng, Jiajun

    2018-03-01

    The growth performance of Salix triandroides cuttings at three water cadmium (Cd) concentrations (0, 20, and 40 mg L -1 ) and three water levels (- 40 cm, water level 40 cm below the soil surface; 0 cm, water level even with the soil surface; and 40 cm, water level 40 cm above soil surface) was investigated to evaluate its potential in phytoextraction strategies. Compared to cuttings in the - 40 or 0 cm water levels, cuttings in the 40 cm water level showed significantly lower biomass, height, and adventitious root length and significantly fewer leaves and adventitious roots. However, these growth and morphological parameters were not different among the three water Cd concentrations. Water level decreased stomatal conduction and transpiration rate but showed no significant effects on chlorophyll concentration or photosynthetic rate. Chlorophyll concentration and stomatal conductance were higher at 40 mg L -1 Cd treatment than at 0 or 20 mg L -1 Cd treatment; yet, photosynthetic rate and transpiration rate were not different. Cd concentration in the leaves and stems increased as the water level increased, but the highest Cd concentration in the roots occurred in the 0 cm water level. As water Cd concentration increased, Cd concentration in the leaves, stems, and roots increased in all three water levels, except in stems in the - 40 cm water level. Under Cd stress, cuttings in the - 40 or 0 cm water levels were characterized by a higher bioaccumulation coefficient, but a lower translocation factor, than those in the 40 cm water level. However, the bioaccumulation coefficient increased with increasing water Cd concentration in all three water levels, as did the translocation factor in the 40 cm water level. The tolerance index for the cuttings was the same among all water levels and water Cd concentrations. The results clearly indicated that the low water level increased plant growth and Cd accumulation in underground parts, while the high

  8. EXO modifies sucrose and trehalose responses and connects the extracellular carbon status to growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina eLisso

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Plants have the capacity to adapt growth to changing environmental conditions. This implies the modulation of metabolism according to the availability of carbon (C. Particular interest in the response to the C availability is based on the increasing atmospheric levels of CO2. Several regulatory pathways that link the C status to growth have emerged. The extracellular EXO protein is essential for cell expansion and promotes shoot and root growth. Homologous proteins were identified in evolutionarily distant green plants. We show here that the EXO protein connects growth with C responses. The exo mutant displayed altered responses to exogenous sucrose supplemented to the growth medium. Impaired growth of the mutant in synthetic medium was associated with the accumulation of starch and anthocyanins, altered expression of sugar-responsive genes, and increased abscisic acid levels. Thus, EXO modulates several responses related to the C availability. Growth retardation on medium supplemented with 2-deoxy-glucose, mannose, and palatinose was similar to the wild type. Trehalose feeding stimulated root growth and shoot biomass production of exo plants whereas it inhibited growth of the wild type. The phenotypic features of the exo mutant suggest that apoplastic processes coordinate growth and C responses.

  9. Root Growth and Water distribution in living walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Lars

    walls; the vertical orientation of the growing medium, plants are growing vertically above or below each other in a limited rooting volume; there is an increased exposure to weather and the plants can react differently to water conditions and competition from other plants. Plant growth is the core...... for root growth. This thesis investigates the correlations between the growing media and root and shoots growth, and studies root growth patterns of different plant species and effects of planting position and root interactions of plants growing in living walls. There are a number of challenges with living...... of functional living walls and this thesis is a first step of understanding the essential but hidden part inside the growing medium, i.e. the roots. Ensuring successful performance of the plants in a living wall is complex and the choice of growing medium, plant species and planting position are important....

  10. Root Growth and Water distribution in living walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Lars

    of functional living walls and this thesis is a first step of understanding the essential but hidden part inside the growing medium, i.e. the roots. Ensuring successful performance of the plants in a living wall is complex and the choice of growing medium, plant species and planting position are important....... for root growth. This thesis investigates the correlations between the growing media and root and shoots growth, and studies root growth patterns of different plant species and effects of planting position and root interactions of plants growing in living walls. There are a number of challenges with living...... walls; the vertical orientation of the growing medium, plants are growing vertically above or below each other in a limited rooting volume; there is an increased exposure to weather and the plants can react differently to water conditions and competition from other plants. Plant growth is the core...

  11. Estimating growth status of winter wheat based on aerial images and hyperspectral data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yunxia; Li, Minzan; Jia, Liangliang; Zhang, Xijie; Zhang, Fusuo

    2005-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to estimate the growth status and yield of winter wheat using aerial images and hyperspectral data obtained by unmanned aircraft, and then to perform precision management to the crop. The test farm was divided into 48 cells. Twenty-four cells were selected as variable rate fertilization area, and the other 24 cells were used as contrast area with low fertilization in growth season. In 2004, the aerial images of winter wheat canopy were measured from an unmanned aircraft. The SPAD value of crop leaf was acquired using a SPAD-502 chlorophyll meter, and then the hyperspectral reflectance of the crop canopy was measured by a handheld spectroradiometer. The vegetation indices, NDVI and DVI, were calculated from the hyperspectral data. The characteristics of the aerial images were used to evaluate the growth status. The RGB values of all cells were calculated from aerial images. The result showed that total nitrogen had better correlation with SPAD, NDVI, DVI, and RGB. NDVI and DVI had high correlation with the growth condition, and R/(R+G+B) and G/(R+G+B) had good correlation with the growth status and yield. The variable rate fertilization based on aerial images and NDVI was executed in the experimental cells. The yield map showed that the spatial variation of the yield was reduced and the total yield was increased. While in contrast cells, the spatial variation of the yield is greater than in experimental cells because of the spatial variation of the field nutrition. Therefore, it is practical to use aerial images and hyperspectral data of the crop canopy in estimation of the crop growth status.

  12. Public health risk status of the water supply frame work at Kwame ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The aim of the study is to assess the public health risk status of the potable water supply framework at the Kwame Nkurumah ... Key words: Public health risk, potable water, physicochemical and microbial water quality, water pollution. INTRODUCTION ..... possibly leading to heavy metal contamination with attendant impacts ...

  13. Options for decoupling economic growth from water use and water pollution: A report of the Water Working Group of the International Resource Panel Options for decoupling economic growth from water use and water pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Global trends have pointed to a relative decoupling of water – that is, the rate of water resource use is increasing at a rate slower than that of economic growth. Despite this progress at the global level, it is projected that by 2030 there will be a 40% gap between water supply and water demand if...

  14. The Interaction of Learning Disability Status and Student Demographic Characteristics on Mathematics Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Joseph J; Schulte, Ann C

    This study examined mathematics achievement growth of students without disabilities (SWoD) and students with learning disabilities (LD) and tested whether growth and LD status interacted with student demographic characteristics. Growth was estimated in a statewide sample of 79,554 students over Grades 3 to 7. The LD group was significantly lower in achievement in each grade and had less growth than the SWoD group. We also found that student demographic characteristics were significantly related to mathematics growth, but only three demographic characteristics were statistically significant as interactions. We found that LD-SWoD differences at Grade 3 were moderated by student sex, while Black race/ethnicity and free or reduced lunch (FRL) status moderated LD-SWoD differences at all grades. These results provide practitioners and policy makers with more specific information about which particular LD students show faster or slower growth in mathematics. Our results show that simply including predictors in a regression equation may produce different results than direct testing of interactions and achievement gaps may be larger for some LD subgroups of students than previously reported.

  15. Diurnal variations in water relations of deficit irrigated lemon trees during fruit growth period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Orellana, Y.; Ortuno, M. F.; Conejero, W.; Ruiz-Sanchez, M. C.

    2013-05-01

    Field-grown lemon trees (Citrus limon (L.) Burm. fil. cv. Fino) were subjected to different drip irrigation treatments: a control treatment, irrigated daily above crop water requirements in order to obtain non-limiting soil water conditions and two deficit irrigation treatments, reducing the water applied according to the maximum daily trunk shrinkage (MDS) signal intensity (actual MDS/control treatment MDS) threshold values of 1.25 (T1 treatment) and 1.35 (T2 treatment), which induced two different drought stress levels. Daily variations in leaf (Y{sub l}eaf) and stem (Y{sub s}tem) water potentials, leaf conductance, net photosynthesis, sap flow (SF) and trunk diameter fluctuations were studied on four occasions during the lemon fruit growth period. Ystem and Y{sub l}eaf revealed a diurnal pattern in response to changes in evaporative demand of the atmosphere. Both water potentials decreased in response to water deficits, which were more pronounced in the T2 treatment. Y{sub s}tem was seen to be a better plant water status indicator than Y{sub l}eaf. The difference between the two values of Y (Y{sub s}tem - Y{sub l}eaf {Delta}{Psi}) was closely correlated with sap flow, making it a suitable measure of leaf transpiration. Using the slope of this relationship, the canopy hydraulic conductance (KC) was estimated. When other continuously recorded plant-based indicators are not accessible, the concurrent measurement of leaf and stem water potentials at midday, which are relatively inexpensive to measure and user-friendly, act as sufficiently good indicators of the plant water status in field grown Fino lemon trees. (Author) 40 refs.

  16. [Effects of sprinkler irrigation amount on winter wheat growth, water consumption, and water use efficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Li-Peng; Huang, Guan-Hua; Liu, Hai-Jun; Wang, Xiang-Ping; Wang, Ming-Qiang

    2010-08-01

    In 2006-2008, a field experiment was conducted at the Tongzhou Experimental Base for Water-Saving Irrigation Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, aimed to study the effects of sprinkler irrigation amount on the growth, grain yield, water consumption, and water use efficiency of winter wheat. Different treatments were installed, with the irrigation amounts expressed by the multiples of the evaporation (E) from a standard 20-cm diameter pan placed above winter wheat canopy. The grain yield was the highest in treatment 0.75 E in 2006-2007 and in treatment 0.625 E in 2007-2008. In treatments with irrigation amount less than 0.25 E, winter wheat growth was subjected to water stress, and the yield loss was larger than 25%. The water consumption of winter wheat in the two growth seasons was in the range of 219-486 mm, and increased with increasing irrigation amount. The relationships between the grain yield and the water consumption and water use efficiency could be described by quadratic function. Sprinkler irrigation with an amount of 0.50-0.75 E was recommended for the winter wheat growth after its turning green stage in Beijing area.

  17. Species differences in seedling growth and leaf water response to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of different levels of R:FR was studied on seedlings of four Ghanaian timber species of different ecological guilds to assess their growth and leaf water response to changes in R:FR. The experiment was conducted in shade houses of varying light qualities (0.30, 0.46 and 0.76 R:FR) achieved with the use of ...

  18. Diurnal Regulation of Leaf Water Status in High- and Low-Mannitol Olive Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Lo Bianco

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of mannitol and malic acid in the regulation of diurnal leaf water relations was investigated in ‘Biancolilla’ (high-mannitol and ‘Cerasuola’ (low-mannitol olive trees. Photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD, vapor pressure deficit (VPD, stomatal conductance (gs, transpiration rate (T, relative water content (RWC, mannitol and malic acid were measured in ‘Biancolilla’ and ‘Cerasuola’ leaves during a dry and hot day of summer in Sicily. In general, leaves of ‘Biancolilla’ trees exhibited greater mannitol content, higher gs and T, but lower RWC than leaves of ‘Cerasuola’ trees. Differences in gs and T between the two cultivars were evident mainly in mid to late morning. ‘Biancolilla’ leaves accumulated mannitol at midday and again late in the evening. Stomatal responses to VPD were RWC dependent, and limited somewhat T, only in ‘Biancolilla’. Mannitol was directly related to RWC, and may play an osmotic role, in ‘Biancolilla’ leaves, whereas ‘Cerasuola’ leaves remained well hydrated by just transpiring less and regardless of mannitol. A day-time accumulation and night-time utilization of mannitol in ‘Biancolilla’ leaves is proposed as an efficient mechanism to regulate water status and growth.

  19. Diurnal Regulation of Leaf Water Status in High- and Low-Mannitol Olive Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Bianco, Riccardo; Avellone, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The role of mannitol and malic acid in the regulation of diurnal leaf water relations was investigated in ‘Biancolilla’ (high-mannitol) and ‘Cerasuola’ (low-mannitol) olive trees. Photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD), vapor pressure deficit (VPD), stomatal conductance (gs), transpiration rate (T), relative water content (RWC), mannitol and malic acid were measured in ‘Biancolilla’ and ‘Cerasuola’ leaves during a dry and hot day of summer in Sicily. In general, leaves of ‘Biancolilla’ trees exhibited greater mannitol content, higher gs and T, but lower RWC than leaves of ‘Cerasuola’ trees. Differences in gs and T between the two cultivars were evident mainly in mid to late morning. ‘Biancolilla’ leaves accumulated mannitol at midday and again late in the evening. Stomatal responses to VPD were RWC dependent, and limited somewhat T, only in ‘Biancolilla’. Mannitol was directly related to RWC, and may play an osmotic role, in ‘Biancolilla’ leaves, whereas ‘Cerasuola’ leaves remained well hydrated by just transpiring less and regardless of mannitol. A day-time accumulation and night-time utilization of mannitol in ‘Biancolilla’ leaves is proposed as an efficient mechanism to regulate water status and growth. PMID:27135500

  20. Water Quality and Its Effect on Growth and Survival Rate of Lobster Reared in Floating Net Cage in Ekas Bay, West Nusa Tenggara Province

    OpenAIRE

    Junaidi, Muhammad; Hamzah, Mat Sardi

    2014-01-01

    The development of lobster farming in floating net cage in Ekas Bay caused an environmental degradation such as decrease water quality due to some aquaculture wastes. The purposes of this study were to determine the status of water quality and their effect on growth and survival rate of lobster reared in floating net cages (FNC) in the Ekas Bay, West Nusa Tenggara Province. Water sample collection and handling referred to the APHA (1992). Analyses of water quality data were conducted using Pr...

  1. Status of Growth of Group III-Nitride Heterostructures for Deep Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes

    OpenAIRE

    Kai Ding; Vitaliy Avrutin; Ümit Özgür; Hadis Morkoç

    2017-01-01

    We overview recent progress in growth aspects of group III-nitride heterostructures for deep ultraviolet (DUV) light-emitting diodes (LEDs), with particular emphasis on the growth approaches for attaining high-quality AlN and high Al-molar fraction AlGaN. The discussion commences with the introduction of the current status of group III-nitride DUV LEDs and the remaining challenges. This segues into discussion of LED designs enabling high device performance followed by the review of advances i...

  2. The influence of soil water status on Oryza Sativa Var. MR220 in KADA rice agroecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nashriyah Mat; Ismail Che Haron; Mazleha Maskin; Mohd Razi Ismail

    2006-01-01

    A study to determine the influence of soil water status on rice plant Oryza sativa var. MR220 after panicle initiation stage was carried out at Ladang Merdeka Mulong Lating in the Kemubu Agricultural Development Authority (KADA) area, Kelantan. Five water management treatments imposed on direct seeded rice were; T1. Continuous flooding, T2. Early flooding up to panicle initiation stage followed by saturated (F55-saturated), T3. Early flooding for the first month followed by saturated (F-30 saturated), T4. Continuous saturated, and T5. Continuous field capacity condition throughout the growth stage. The treatments were arranged in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replicates. Results showed significant differences in soil moisture content in the order of T1>T2>T3>T4>T5. Significant differences were also observed in rice plant water content at 68 DAS (days after seeding) in the order of T2>T3>T4>T1>T5. Moisture content also showed significant differences between replicates in the order of R1>R2>R3>R4 and R2>R1>R3>R4; in rice plant and ricefield soil, respectively. Results however showed no significant difference in leaf stomatal conductance due to water stress. Rice plant moisture, soil moisture and leaf stomatal conductance showed no interaction. Published results show that even though overall crop yield was reduced by sheath blight and panicle blast incidence that occur at later stage in 2004-2005 field trials, highest grain yields were obtained from T2 (off season) and T4 (main season). Saturated condition seems to be the most suitable method of growing rice under minimal water input in KADA rice agroecosystem. (Author)

  3. Physical growth and nutritional status of Tsimane' Amerindian children of lowland Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Z; Byron, E; Reyes-García, V; Huanca, T; Vadez, V; Apaza, L; Pérez, E; Tanner, S; Gutierrez, Y; Sandstrom, B; Yakhedts, A; Osborn, C; Godoy, R A; Leonard, W R

    2005-03-01

    This study examines patterns of growth and nutritional status of indigenous Tsimane' children under 9 years of age (n = 199 boys and 210 girls), based on a cross-sectional sample from 58 villages from the Beni Deparment of lowland Bolivia. Compared with US children, Tsimane' children are quite short, with linear growth tracking at or below the US 5th centile in both sexes. The prevalence of low height-for-age ("stunting;" HA Z-scores Tsimane' children approximates the US median, with the prevalence of low weight-for-height ("wasting"; WH Z-scores Tsimane' boys and girls are leaner than their US peers, but their levels of body fatness are not so low as to indicate severe energy stress. Arm muscularity of Tsimane' children is similar to that of their US age peers, and this suggests that they are not experiencing acute protein malnutrition. Variation in measures of nutritional status of Tsimane' children is modestly correlated with village-level differences. Degree of isolation, as measured by distance to urban centers or to primary forest, was not a strong predictor of children's anthropometric status. Rather, in both boys and girls, nutritional status was most strongly associated with number of teachers in the village, a measure of access to education. Comparative analyses indicate that high levels of statural growth stunting are common among indigenous populations throughout lowland South America. This problem appears to be largely attributable to poor dietary quality (diets low in key micronutrients) and high disease loads. Further research is needed to identify the specific causes and potential interventions for the high rates of childhood growth stunting in this region. (c) 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Nutrient status and plant growth effects of forest soils in the Basin of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark E. Fenn; V.M. Perea-Estrada; L.I. de Bauer; M. Pérez-Suárez; D.R. Parker; V.M. Cetina-Alcalá

    2006-01-01

    The nutrient status of forest soils in the Mexico City Air Basin was evaluated by observing plant growth responses to fertilization with N, P or both nutrients combined. P deficiency was the most frequent condition for soil from two high pollution sites and N deficiency was greatest at a low N deposition site. Concentrations of Pb and Ni, and to a lesser extent Zn and...

  5. Status of Growth of Group III-Nitride Heterostructures for Deep Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Ding

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We overview recent progress in growth aspects of group III-nitride heterostructures for deep ultraviolet (DUV light-emitting diodes (LEDs, with particular emphasis on the growth approaches for attaining high-quality AlN and high Al-molar fraction AlGaN. The discussion commences with the introduction of the current status of group III-nitride DUV LEDs and the remaining challenges. This segues into discussion of LED designs enabling high device performance followed by the review of advances in the methods for the growth of bulk single crystal AlN intended as a native substrate together with a discussion of its UV transparency. It should be stated, however, that due to the high-cost of bulk AlN substrates at the time of writing, the growth of DUV LEDs on foreign substrates such as sapphire still dominates the field. On the deposition front, the heteroepitaxial growth approaches incorporate high-temperature metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD and pulsed-flow growth, a variant of MOCVD, with the overarching goal of enhancing adatom surface mobility, and thus epitaxial lateral overgrowth which culminates in minimization the effect of lattice- and thermal-mismatches. This is followed by addressing the benefits of pseudomorphic growth of strained high Al-molar fraction AlGaN on AlN. Finally, methods utilized to enhance both p- and n-type conductivity of high Al-molar fraction AlGaN are reviewed.

  6. Secular trends in growth and nutritional status of Mozambican school-aged children and adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Karina dos Santos

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine secular changes in growth and nutritional status of Mozambican children and adolescents between 1992, 1999 and 2012. METHODS: 3374 subjects (1600 boys, 1774 girls, distributed across the three time points (523 subjects in 1992; 1565 in 1999; and 1286 in 2012, were studied. Height and weight were measured, BMI was computed, and WHO cut-points were used to define nutritional status. ANCOVA models were used to compare height, weight and BMI across study years; chi-square was used to determine differences in the nutritional status prevalence across the years. RESULTS: Significant differences for boys were found for height and weight (p2012, and those from 2012 had the highest BMI (1999<2012. In general, similar patterns were observed when mean values were analyzed by age. A positive trend was observed for overweight and obesity prevalences, whereas a negative trend emerged for wasting, stunting-wasting (in boys, and normal-weight (in girls; no clear trend was evident for stunting. CONCLUSION: Significant positive changes in growth and nutritional status were observed among Mozambican youth from 1992 to 2012, which are associated with economic, social and cultural transitional processes, expressing a dual burden in this population, with reduction in malnourished youth in association with an increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity.

  7. Community well-being and growth status of indigenous school children in rural Oaxaca, southern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Maria Eugenia Peña; Chavez, Guillermo Bali; Little, Bertis B; Malina, Robert M

    2010-07-01

    To evaluate the relationship between community well-being based on an index of marginalization and growth status of indigenous rural school children in Oaxaca. Heights and weights of a cross-sectional sample of 11,454 children, 6-14 years, from schools for indigenous rural children (escuelas albergue) in 158 municipios in Oaxaca were measured in 2007. Tertiles of an index of marginalization were used to classify the 158 municipios into three categories of community well-being: lowest (highest marginalization), low, and moderate (lowest marginalization). Multivariate analysis of covariance, controlling for age, relative isolation and population size, was used to compare body size of children by category of community well-being. Contributions of marginalization, isolation and population size to variation in body size were estimated with sex-specific linear regression. Children from municipios lowest in well-being were shorter and lighter than children from municipios low and moderate in well-being. Marginalization and relative isolation accounted for 23% (boys) and 21% (girls) of the variance in height and for 21% of the variance in weight of girls. Marginalization was the predictor of weight in boys (23%). Community well-being was reflected in the growth status of rural indigenous school children. Compromised growth status was consistent with poor health and nutritional conditions that were and are characteristic of rural areas in the state of Oaxaca. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of yoghurt serum powder dietary supplementation on growth performance and antioxidant status in fattening lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis E Simitzis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Large quantities of serum are produced during the strained yoghurt manufacturing process, which is the predominant type of yoghurt in Greece. However, the exploitation of this by-product as an alternative source of energy, protein and mineral elements in animal diets has not yet been examined. Therefore, this experiment was conducted to determine the effects of dietary yoghurt serum supplementation on growth performance and antioxidant status in sheep. Fourty eight male 2 months old lambs of Chios breed were randomly assigned to three experimental groups; control group was fed with a commercial basal diet, whereas the other two groups consumed the same diet, with the only difference that concentrated feed was uniformly supplemented with two levels of yoghurt serum powder (YS1: 25 g/kg feed or YS2: 50 g/kg feed. Lambs were weighed in a weekly basis from the beginning until the end of the experiment and blood samples were collected to measure antioxidant status. No significant effect of yoghurt serum powder on growth performance of fattening lambs was demonstrated, even after 28 days of dietary supplementation (P>0.05. At the same time, malondialdehyde (MDA levels in blood plasma were not significantly different among the experimental groups (P>0.05 and no incidents of lambs with diarrhea were recorded. It can be concluded that yoghurt serum powder appears as a promising alternative of the cereals in the diets of fattening lambs, since no negative effects on growth performance and health status were observed.

  9. Quality status of bottled water brands in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahlown, M. A.; Tahir, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    The (PCRWR) has carried out a study to evaluate the quality of mineral water brands available in the market owing to demand of general public and consumer associations. Twenty one brands of bottled water were collected from Islamabad and Rawalpindi. Each water sample was analyzed for 24 aesthetic, physico-chemical and bacteriological water quality parameters by adopting standard analytical methods. It was observed that only 10 out of 21 brands (47.62%) were fit for drinking purpose. The remaining eleven brands (52.38%), including one imported brand, were found unsafe for human consumption. It was also concluded that present situation of water quality of bottled water is due to lack of legislation for water quality control. Hence there is a dire need for a legal organization to monitor and regulate the quality issues of bottled water industry. (author)

  10. Does fungal endophyte infection improve tall fescue's growth response to fire and water limitation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L Hall

    Full Text Available Invasive species may owe some of their success in competing and co-existing with native species to microbial symbioses they are capable of forming. Tall fescue is a cool-season, non-native, invasive grass capable of co-existing with native warm-season grasses in North American grasslands that frequently experience fire, drought, and cold winters, conditions to which the native species should be better-adapted than tall fescue. We hypothesized that tall fescue's ability to form a symbiosis with Neotyphodium coenophialum, an aboveground fungal endophyte, may enhance its environmental stress tolerance and persistence in these environments. We used a greenhouse experiment to examine the effects of endophyte infection (E+ vs. E-, prescribed fire (1 burn vs. 2 burn vs. unburned control, and watering regime (dry vs. wet on tall fescue growth. We assessed treatment effects for growth rates and the following response variables: total tiller length, number of tillers recruited during the experiment, number of reproductive tillers, tiller biomass, root biomass, and total biomass. Water regime significantly affected all response variables, with less growth and lower growth rates observed under the dry water regime compared to the wet. The burn treatments significantly affected total tiller length, number of reproductive tillers, total tiller biomass, and total biomass, but treatment differences were not consistent across parameters. Overall, fire seemed to enhance growth. Endophyte status significantly affected total tiller length and tiller biomass, but the effect was opposite what we predicted (E->E+. The results from our experiment indicated that tall fescue was relatively tolerant of fire, even when combined with dry conditions, and that the fungal endophyte symbiosis was not important in governing this ecological ability. The persistence of tall fescue in native grassland ecosystems may be linked to other endophyte-conferred abilities not measured here

  11. Differences in proleptic and epicormic shoot structures in relation to water deficit and growth rate in almond trees (Prunus dulcis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrón, Claudia; Contador, Loreto; Lampinen, Bruce D; Metcalf, Samuel G; Guédon, Yann; Costes, Evelyne; DeJong, Theodore M

    2014-02-01

    Shoot characteristics differ depending on the meristem tissue that they originate from and environmental conditions during their development. This study focused on the effects of plant water status on axillary meristem fate and flowering patterns along proleptic and epicormic shoots, as well as on shoot growth rates on 'Nonpareil' almond trees (Prunus dulcis). The aims were (1) to characterize the structural differences between proleptic and epicormic shoots, (2) to determine whether water deficits modify shoot structures differently depending on shoot type, and (3) to determine whether shoot structures are related to shoot growth rates. A hidden semi-Markov model of the axillary meristem fate and number of flower buds per node was built for two shoot types growing on trees exposed to three plant water status treatments. The models segmented observed shoots into successive homogeneous zones, which were compared between treatments. Shoot growth rates were calculated from shoot extension measurements made during the growing season. Proleptic shoots had seven successive homogeneous zones while epicormic shoots had five zones. Shoot structures were associated with changes in growth rate over the season. Water deficit (1) affected the occurrence and lengths of the first zones of proleptic shoots, but only the occurrence of the third zone was reduced in epicormic shoots; (2) had a minor effect on zone flowering patterns and did not modify shoot or zone composition of axillary meristem fates; and (3) reduced growth rates, although patterns over the season were similar among treatments. Two meristem types, with different latency durations, produced shoots with different growth rates and distinct structures. Differences between shoot type structure responses to water deficit appeared to reflect their ontogenetic characteristics and/or resource availability for their development. Tree water deficit appeared to stimulate a more rapid progression through ontogenetic states.

  12. Does the water reuse affect the fish growth, welfare quality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štěpán Lang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The fish production in aquaculture is growing from year to year. However capacities of current aquaculture facilities are limited. So the need of intensification of old facilities and building new intensive facilities is obvious. The high intensity of fish culture generates some questions. Could water reuse affect fish growth, welfare, health or quality of final product? A lot of research was performed for this issue but just a few works compared water reuse systems (RAS versus flow thru systems (FTS. A problem with CO2 oversaturation was solved by shallow diffusers. Fin erosion seems to be a problem of high stocking density and system hygienic but it is not related directly to water reuse. A few papers were written about biochemical blood stress markers but it was mostly aimed to acute crowding or changes were found at extreme stocking densities over 124 kg.m3 for rainbow trout and 70 kg.m3 for sea bass. The fish are able to accustom to increased noise produced by RAS equipment very fast so it don’t affect fish negatively. There wasn’t found any prove of main water reuse to fish influence in the available literature. All results indicates that if the ecological parameters are kept in natural range for the fish reared in RAS, there is no negative effect of water reuse on fish.

  13. The status of water ecosystems under conditions of their chronic radioactive chemical pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evtushenko, N.Yu.; Shcherbak, V.I.; Klenus, V.G.

    2000-01-01

    There are two stages of consequences of the accident on the Chernobyl NPP for the water ecosystem status of Dnieper basin. The first is characterized by some disturbance of bio status stability, especially the structure-functional status of phytoplankton. At the second stage, due to the stabilization of radioactive pollution and in-reservoir biological processes, the recovery of functioning the phytoplankton association is observed

  14. Maternal nutrition and fetal growth: the role of iron status and intake during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez-Bernal CL

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available CL Rodriguez-Bernal,1,3 M Rebagliato,2,3 F Ballester1,3,41Centro Superior de Investigacion en Salud Publica (Center for Public Health Research, 2Direccion General de Salud Publica, Generalitat Valenciana (Public Health Board, Valencia, Valencia, Spain; 3Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP, 4University of Valencia, Valencia, SpainAbstract: Fetal growth restriction is an important predictor of infant mortality and morbidity. Maternal iron status and iron supplementation during pregnancy have been related to fetal growth with contrasting results. Therefore, indication of iron supplementation, doses, and timing is still controversial. Current literature was reviewed in PubMed/MEDLINE using the following terms: “iron” or “iron deficiency” or “anemia” or “iron intake” or “iron supplementation” and “pregnancy” or “maternal” and “fetal growth” or “birth weight” or “pregnancy outcomes” or “birth outcomes.” The search was limited to studies in humans since 1991 assessing iron status or supplementation in the periconceptional period or at any time during pregnancy. Evidence suggests that iron deficiency in early pregnancy has an adverse effect on fetal growth. On the other hand, high levels of maternal iron markers have shown a deleterious effect at different stages of pregnancy. The mechanisms underlying such effect are unclear. It is important to acknowledge the need to assess markers of iron status adequately in order to reach reliable conclusions regarding their relationship with fetal growth. In regard to supplementation, it has been shown that low or moderate doses of iron in early pregnancy have a positive effect on fetal growth, regardless of maternal iron status. No such effect has been seen in trials of supplementation later in pregnancy, with low or high doses. Nevertheless, results should be interpreted with caution as some randomized controlled trials lack adequate

  15. Bulk water phase and biofilm growth in drinking water at low nutrient conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boe-Hansen, Rasmus; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Arvin, Erik

    2002-01-01

    , and cell-specific leucine incorporation rate. Bacteria in the bulk water phase incubated without the presence of biofilmexhibited a bacterial growth rate of 0.30 day1. The biofilmwas radioactively labelled by the addition of 14C-benzoic acid. Subsequently, a biofilmdetachm ent rate of 0.013 day1...

  16. A meta-analysis of leaf gas exchange and water status responses to drought

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Weiming; Zhong, Yangquanwei; Shangguan, Zhouping

    2016-01-01

    Drought is considered to be one of the most devastating natural hazards, and it is predicted to become increasingly frequent and severe in the future. Understanding the plant gas exchange and water status response to drought is very important with regard to future climate change. We conducted a meta-analysis based on studies of plants worldwide and aimed to determine the changes in gas exchange and water status under different drought intensities (mild, moderate and severe), different photosy...

  17. Associations of Prenatal Growth with Metabolic Syndrome, Insulin Resistance, and Nutritional Status in Chilean Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Mardones

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The association of prenatal growth with nutritional status, metabolic syndrome (MS, and insulin resistance (IR was studied in school-age children. Methods. A retrospective cohort study was designed linking present data of children with perinatal records. 3325 subjects were enrolled. Anthropometry, blood pressure (BP, and pubertal status were assessed. Blood lipids, glucose, and insulin were measured. Linear associations were assessed using the Cochran-Armitage test. Odds ratios and nonlinear associations were computed. Results. 3290 children (52% females, mean age of 11.4 ± 1 years were analyzed. Prevalence of obesity, stunting, MS, and IR was 16.0%, 3.6%, 7.3%, and 25.5%, respectively. The strongest positive association was between birth weight (BW and obesity (OR 2.97 (95% CI 2.01–4.40 at BW ≥ 4,000 g compared to BW 2,500–2,999. The strongest inverse association was between birth length (BL and stunting (OR 8.70 (95% CI 3.66–20.67 at BL < 48 cm compared to BL 52-53 cm. A U-shaped association between BL and BP ≥ 90th percentile was observed. Significant ORs were also found for MS and IR. Adjustments for present fat mass increased or maintained the most prenatal growth influences. Conclusions. Prenatal growth influences MS, IR, and nutritional status. Prenatal growth was more important than present body composition in determining these outcomes.

  18. Semiconductor photocatalysts for water oxidation: current status and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lingling; Zhou, Han; Fan, Tongxiang; Zhang, Di

    2014-04-21

    Artificial photosynthesis is a highly-promising strategy to convert solar energy into hydrogen energy for the relief of the global energy crisis. Water oxidation is the bottleneck for its kinetic and energetic complexity in the further enhancement of the overall efficiency of the artificial photosystem. Developing efficient and cost-effective photocatalysts for water oxidation is a growing desire, and semiconductor photocatalysts have recently attracted more attention due to their stability and simplicity. This article reviews the recent advancement of semiconductor photocatalysts with a focus on the relationship between material optimization and water oxidation efficiency. A brief introduction to artificial photosynthesis and water oxidation is given first, followed by an explanation of the basic rules and mechanisms of semiconductor particulate photocatalysts for water oxidation as theoretical references for discussions of componential, surface structure, and crystal structure modification. O2-evolving photocatalysts in Z-scheme systems are also introduced to demonstrate practical applications of water oxidation photocatalysts in artificial photosystems. The final part proposes some challenges based on the dynamics and energetics of photoholes which are fundamental to the enhancement of water oxidation efficiency, as well as on the simulation of natural water oxidation that will be a trend in future research.

  19. Macrophyte abundance and water quality status of three impacted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of macrophyte abundance and water quality of three impacted inlet streams along Ikpa River Basin were investigated. A 5m x 5m quadrat through systematic sampling was used to sample the vegetation for density and frequency of species. Sediment and water samples were collected and analyzed using ...

  20. Water quality evaluation system to assess the status and the suitability of the Citarum river water to different uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulazzaky, Mohamad Ali

    2010-09-01

    Water quality degradation in the Citarum river will increase from the year to year due to increasing pollutant loads when released particularly from Bandung region of the upstream areas into the river without treatment. This will be facing the problems on water quality status to use for multi-purposes in the downstream areas. The water quality evaluation system is used to evaluate the available water condition that distinguishes into two categories, i.e., the water quality index (WQI) and water quality aptitude (WQA). The assessment of water quality for the Citarum river from 10 selected stations was found that the WQI situates in the bad category generally and the WQA ranges from the suitable quality for agriculture and livestock watering uses to the unsuitable for biological potential function, drinking water production, and leisure activities and sports in the upstream areas of Saguling dam generally.

  1. Associations of prenatal growth with metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, and nutritional status in Chilean children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardones, Francisco; Arnaiz, Pilar; Pacheco, Paz; Dominguez, Angelica; Villarroel, Luis; Eriksson, Johan G; Barja, Salesa; Farías, Marcelo; Castillo, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    The association of prenatal growth with nutritional status, metabolic syndrome (MS), and insulin resistance (IR) was studied in school-age children. A retrospective cohort study was designed linking present data of children with perinatal records. 3325 subjects were enrolled. Anthropometry, blood pressure (BP), and pubertal status were assessed. Blood lipids, glucose, and insulin were measured. Linear associations were assessed using the Cochran-Armitage test. Odds ratios and nonlinear associations were computed. 3290 children (52% females, mean age of 11.4 ± 1 years) were analyzed. Prevalence of obesity, stunting, MS, and IR was 16.0%, 3.6%, 7.3%, and 25.5%, respectively. The strongest positive association was between birth weight (BW) and obesity (OR 2.97 (95% CI 2.01-4.40) at BW ≥ 4,000 g compared to BW 2,500-2,999). The strongest inverse association was between birth length (BL) and stunting (OR 8.70 (95% CI 3.66-20.67) at BL nutritional status. Prenatal growth was more important than present body composition in determining these outcomes.

  2. Assessment of the environmental status in Hellenic coastal waters (Eastern Mediterranean: from the Water Framework Directive to the Marine Strategy Water Framework Directive.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. SIMBOURA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A  methodology is presented to assess the environmental status sensu the Marine Strategy Water Framework Directive (MSFD based on data obtained from the monitoring of water quality in the Hellenic coastal waters within the Water Framework Directive (WFD.   An adapted decision tree used for integrating the results of the WFD in the Basque country was applied. Modifications lie to the evaluation of the physicochemical status based on a eutrophication index developed for Eastern Mediterranean waters. Results on hydromorphological, physicochemical and biological elements are presented. The chemical status was evaluated based on measurements of heavy metals in water. The evaluation of the biological quality was based on the use of metrics developed for phytoplankton biomass, benthic macroinvertebrates and macroalgae updated to accommodate MSFD needs. Results on the integrative status of the water bodies were validated by correlating classification results with a pressure index and environmental indicators in water column and sediment. Following this decision tree the majority of stations expected to be at risk of achieving the good status were found in moderate status. Benthos was found to be the element with the closest agreement with the integrated final status having an increased weighting in the decision tree. The quality of benthos and in some  limited cases  the eutrophication index determined largely the final status. The highest disagreement with the integrative classification was produced by macroalgae. All indicators used correlated with water and sediment parameters but benthos correlated better with sediment factors while phytoplankton and eutrophication index with water column parameters.

  3. Current status and influencing factors of post-traumatic growth in maintenance hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuyun Cui

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the post-traumatic growth level and influencing factors in patients with maintenance hemodialysis. Methods: A total of 179 patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis from a third-level grade A hospital in Tianjin, China were investigated using Post-traumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI, Perceived Social Support Scale, and Medical Coping Modes Questionnaire. Results: The total score for the PTGI was 53.73 ± 16.45. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that social support, coping style, marital status, and family income significantly influenced the post-traumatic growth level in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis. These factors explained 41.4% of the variance. Conclusion: Medical staff should help patients under maintenance hemodialysis to fulfill their potentials by boosting the level of social support and to effectively cope with internal conflicts. In addition, nursing staff should provide relevant psychological health education to patients to improve their post-traumatic growth. Keywords: Maintenance hemodialysis, Patients, Post-traumatic growth, Root cause analysis

  4. Growth status of homeless Nepali boys: do they differ from rural and urban controls?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panter-Brick, C; Todd, A; Baker, R

    1996-08-01

    The rapid increase in numbers of homeless children in cities of the developed and developing world is a matter of grave concern. A multi-disciplinary study was undertaken to examine the health and lifestyles of the homeless in Nepal in comparison to other local children. Few studies have quantified the health of street-children in the developing world using anthropometric indicators, and to our knowledge this is the first to systematically compare the homeless with appropriate controls from both rural and urban areas. Heights and weights were measured for 307 six to fourteen year-old boys (III homeless 62 squatter, 82 privileged school and 52 village boys). Height for age (HAz), weight for age (WAz) and weight for height (WHz) I-scores relative to reference data from the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) were used as indicators of growth status. Stunting characterized all but the school-boys, but wasting was not observed. the homeless were less stunted than either poor squatter or village boys. On arrival on the streets, they were taller than village boys, and duration of homelessness had no effect on their growth status. Thus in terms of physical growth, and despite frequent health complaints, homeless boys in Nepal fare relatively better than control groups of poor urban and rural boys. Comparative studies which reveal some successful aspects of street-life show that urban homelessness may represent an appropriate response to circumstances of poverty.

  5. Status of advanced containment systems for next generation water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    The present IAEA status report is intended to provide information on the current status and development of containment systems of the next generation reactors for electricity production and, particularly, to highlight features which may be considered advanced, i.e. which present improved performance with evolutionary or innovative design solutions or new design approaches. The objectives of the present status report are: To present, on a concise and consistent basis, selected containment designs currently being developed in the world; to review and compare new approaches to the design bases for the containments, in order to identify common trends, that may eventually lead to greater worldwide consensus, to identify, list and compare existing design objectives for advanced containments, related to safety, availability, maintainability, plant life, decommissioning, economics, etc.; to describe the general approaches adopted in different advanced containments to cope with various identified challenges, both those included in the current design bases and those related to new events considered in the design; to briefly identify recent achievements and future needs for new or improved computer codes, standards, experimental research, prototype testing, etc. related to containment systems; to describe the outstanding features of some containments or specific solutions proposed by different parties and which are generally interesting to the international scientific community. 36 refs, 27 figs, 1 tab

  6. Secular trends in growth and nutritional status of Mozambican school-aged children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Fernanda Karina; Maia, José A R; Gomes, Thayse Natacha Q F; Daca, Timóteo; Madeira, Aspacia; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Prista, António

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine secular changes in growth and nutritional status of Mozambican children and adolescents between 1992, 1999 and 2012. 3374 subjects (1600 boys, 1774 girls), distributed across the three time points (523 subjects in 1992; 1565 in 1999; and 1286 in 2012), were studied. Height and weight were measured, BMI was computed, and WHO cut-points were used to define nutritional status. ANCOVA models were used to compare height, weight and BMI across study years; chi-square was used to determine differences in the nutritional status prevalence across the years. Significant differences for boys were found for height and weight (p2012), and those from 2012 had the highest BMI (1999nutritional status were observed among Mozambican youth from 1992 to 2012, which are associated with economic, social and cultural transitional processes, expressing a dual burden in this population, with reduction in malnourished youth in association with an increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity.

  7. Turbulence accelerates the growth of drinking water biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsagkari, E; Sloan, W T

    2018-02-10

    Biofilms are found at the inner surfaces of drinking water pipes and, therefore, it is essential to understand biofilm processes to control their formation. Hydrodynamics play a crucial role in shaping biofilms. Thus, knowing how biofilms form, develop and disperse under different flow conditions is critical in the successful management of these systems. Here, the development of biofilms after 4 weeks, the initial formation of biofilms within 10 h and finally, the response of already established biofilms within 24-h intervals in which the flow regime was changed, were studied using a rotating annular reactor under three different flow regimes: turbulent, transition and laminar. Using fluorescence microscopy, information about the number of microcolonies on the reactor slides, the surface area of biofilms and of extracellular polymeric substances and the biofilm structures was acquired. Gravimetric measurements were conducted to characterise the thickness and density of biofilms, and spatial statistics were used to characterise the heterogeneity and spatial correlation of biofilm structures. Contrary to the prevailing view, it was shown that turbulent flow did not correlate with a reduction in biofilms; turbulence was found to enhance both the initial formation and the development of biofilms on the accessible surfaces. Additionally, after 24-h changes of the flow regime it was indicated that biofilms responded to the quick changes of the flow regime. Overall, this work suggests that different flow conditions can cause substantial changes in biofilm morphology and growth and specifically that turbulent flow can accelerate biofilm growth in drinking water.

  8. Spatial and Temporal Variations of Water Quality and Trophic Status in Sembrong Reservoir, Johor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intan Najla Syed Hashim, Syarifah; Hidayah Abu Talib, Siti; Salleh Abustan, Muhammad

    2018-03-01

    A study of spatial and temporal variations on water quality and trophic status was conducted to determine the temporal (average reading by month) and spatial variations of water quality in Sembrong reservoir and to evaluate the trophic status of the reservoir. Water samples were collected once a month from November 2016 to June 2017 in seventeen (17) sampling stations at Sembrong Reservoir. Results obtained on the concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO), water temperature, pH and secchi depth had no significant differences compared to Total Phosphorus (TP) and chlorophyll-a. The water level has significantly decreased the value of the water temperature, pH and TP. The water quality of Sembrong reservoir is classified in Class II which is suitable for recreational uses and required conventional treatment while TSI indicates that sembrong reservoir was in lower boundary of classical eutrophic (TSI > 50).

  9. Spatial and Temporal Variations of Water Quality and Trophic Status in Sembrong Reservoir, Johor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashim Syarifah Intan Najla Syed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of spatial and temporal variations on water quality and trophic status was conducted to determine the temporal (average reading by month and spatial variations of water quality in Sembrong reservoir and to evaluate the trophic status of the reservoir. Water samples were collected once a month from November 2016 to June 2017 in seventeen (17 sampling stations at Sembrong Reservoir. Results obtained on the concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO, water temperature, pH and secchi depth had no significant differences compared to Total Phosphorus (TP and chlorophyll-a. The water level has significantly decreased the value of the water temperature, pH and TP. The water quality of Sembrong reservoir is classified in Class II which is suitable for recreational uses and required conventional treatment while TSI indicates that sembrong reservoir was in lower boundary of classical eutrophic (TSI > 50.

  10. Status of control assembly materials in Indian water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Date, V.G.; Kulkarni, P.G.

    2000-01-01

    India's present operating water cooled power reactors comprise boiling water reactors of Tarapur Atomic Power Station (TAPS) and pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs) at Kota (RAPS), Kalpakkam (MAPS), Narora (NAPS) and Kakrapara (KAPS). Boiling water reactors of TAPS use boron carbide control blades for control of power as well as for shut down (scram). PHWRs use boron steel and cobalt absorber rods for power control and Cd sandwiched shut off rods (primary shut down system) and liquid poison rods (secondary shut down system) for shut down. In TAPS, Gadolinium rods (burnable poison rods) are also incorporated in fuel assembly for flux flattening. Boron carbide control blades and Gadolinium rods for TAPS, cobalt absorber rods and shut down assemblies for PHWRs are fabricated indigenously. Considerable development work was carried out for evolving material specifications, component and assembly drawings, and fabrication processes. Details of various control and shut off assemblies being fabricated currently are highlighted in the paper. (author)

  11. Vulnerability Assessment of Water Supply Systems: Status, Gaps and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheater, H. S.

    2015-12-01

    Conventional frameworks for assessing the impacts of climate change on water resource systems use cascades of climate and hydrological models to provide 'top-down' projections of future water availability, but these are subject to high uncertainty and are model and scenario-specific. Hence there has been recent interest in 'bottom-up' frameworks, which aim to evaluate system vulnerability to change in the context of possible future climate and/or hydrological conditions. Such vulnerability assessments are generic, and can be combined with updated information from top-down assessments as they become available. While some vulnerability methods use hydrological models to estimate water availability, fully bottom-up schemes have recently been proposed that directly map system vulnerability as a function of feasible changes in water supply characteristics. These use stochastic algorithms, based on reconstruction or reshuffling methods, by which multiple water supply realizations can be generated under feasible ranges of change in water supply conditions. The paper reports recent successes, and points to areas of future improvement. Advances in stochastic modeling and optimization can address some technical limitations in flow reconstruction, while various data mining and system identification techniques can provide possibilities to better condition realizations for consistency with top-down scenarios. Finally, we show that probabilistic and Bayesian frameworks together can provide a potential basis to combine information obtained from fully bottom-up analyses with projections available from climate and/or hydrological models in a fully integrated risk assessment framework for deep uncertainty.

  12. Early life growth, socioeconomic status, and mammographic breast density in an urban US birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinyemiju, Tomi F; Tehranifar, Parisa; Flom, Julie D; Liao, Yuyan; Wei, Ying; Terry, Mary Beth

    2016-08-01

    Rapid infant and childhood growth has been associated with chronic disease later in life, including breast cancer. Early life socioeconomic status (SES) influences childhood growth, but few studies have prospective measures from birth to consider the effects of early life growth and SES on breast cancer risk. We used prospectively measured early life SES and growth (percentile weight change in height and weight between each pair of consecutive time points at birth, 4 months, 1 and 7 years). We performed linear regression models to obtain standardized estimates of the association between 1 standard deviation increase in early life SES and growth and adult mammographic density (MD), a strong risk factor for breast cancer, in a diverse birth cohort (n = 151; 37% white, 38% black, 25% Puerto Rican; average age at mammogram = 42.4). In models adjusted for race/ethnicity, prenatal factors, birthweight, infant and childhood growth, and adult body mass index, percentile weight change from 1 year to 7 years was inversely associated with percent MD (standardized coefficient (Stdβ) = -0.28, 95% CI: -0.55 to -0.01), and higher early life SES was positively associated with percent MD (Stdβ = 0.24, 95% CI: 0.04-0.43). Similar associations were observed for dense area, but those estimates were not statistically significant. These results suggest opposite and independent effects of early life SES and growth on MD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Impact of elimination diets on growth and nutritional status in children with multiple food allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Melissa J; Adams, Jennifer; Voutilainen, Helena; Feustel, Paul J; Celestin, Jocelyn; Järvinen, Kirsi M

    2015-03-01

    Impairment of growth has been reported in food-allergic children. It is not known whether this is related to the extent of food allergies. We sought to compare growth, nutritional status, and nutrient intake in children with food allergy either avoiding cow's milk or avoiding cow's milk and wheat, which are staples of the diet in young children. Infants and young children with challenge-proven allergy were recruited to this prospective study. They were strictly avoiding their allergic food triggers, either cow's milk, or cow's milk and wheat. They were counseled by a dietitian specialized in food allergies on food avoidance diets and nutritionally adequate supplementation at regular intervals. A 3-day food diary was kept. Children's height, weight, and laboratory data for nutritional parameters were monitored at 8-month intervals. A total of 18 patients avoiding milk and 28 patients avoiding milk and wheat were evaluated at an average of 12, 21, and 28 months of age. During the follow-up, the markers of nutritional status, nutrient intake or height for age, and weight for height were comparable between the two groups, although the means for anthropometric measures were below the average for age in both groups. The extent of food elimination diet has no impact on growth or nutritional status of food-allergic children, when diet is adequately supplemented. Close physician and dietitian follow-up are essential for food-allergic children when avoiding one or more foods, which are staples of the diet. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Public health risk status of the water supply frame work at Kwame ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study is to assess the public health risk status of the potable water supply framework at the Kwame Nkurumah Postgraduate Residence (PG) Hall, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, (UNN), Enugu State, Nigeria, and environs. Four potable water supply frame-works at the PG Hall, UNN, and exposed stagnant ...

  15. UAS-based infrared thermography for evaluating biofuel crop water status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remote sensing of crop canopy temperature is a scientifically-based method to evaluate crop water stress at or near real time. Potential approaches for estimating biofuel crop water status from an unmanned aerial system (UAS’s) equipped with a thermal camera were evaluated in this study. An experime...

  16. Seasonal influence on water quality status of Temenggor Lake, Perak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Mohd Afiq Wan Abdul Khalik; Mohd Pauzi Abdullah; Mohd Pauzi Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    A study of the water quality in Temenggor Lake was conducted within two different seasons, namely wet season (November - January 2009) and dry season (March - July 2010). Thirteen sampling stations were selected representing open water body of the lake particularly surrounding Banding Island. Three depths layered sampling (surface, middle and bottom of lake) was performed at each sampling stations except in zone B. An average WQI for Temenggor Lake in wet season (90.49) is slightly higher than the average for dry season (88.87). This study indicates quite significant seasonal influence of rainfalls on environmental lake ecosystems by improving the quality through dilution effect on several parameters. Statistical analysis of two-way ANOVA test indicates that all measured parameters are affected by seasonal changes except for pH, turbidity, DO, BOD, oil and grease. Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) and water hardness showed significant relationship with local community activities. Considering future development as eco tourism destination, the water quality of Temenggor Lake should be maintained thus some sort of integrated lake management system model on the integrated water resource management concept should be implemented. (author)

  17. Roadmap on solar water splitting: current status and future prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Sheng; Li, Wei; Yan, Yanfa; Hamann, Thomas; Shih, Ishiang; Wang, Dunwei; Mi, Zetian

    2017-09-01

    Artificial photosynthesis via solar water splitting provides a promising approach to storing solar energy in the form of hydrogen on a global scale. However, an efficient and cost-effective solar hydrogen production system that can compete with traditional methods using fossil fuels is yet to be developed. A photoelectrochemical (PEC) tandem cell consisting of a p-type photocathode and an n-type photoanode, with the photovoltage provided by the two photoelectrodes, is an attractive route to achieve highly efficient unassisted water splitting at a low cost. In this article, we provide an overview of recent developments of semiconductor materials, including metal oxides, nitrides, chalcogenides, Si, III-V compounds and organics, either as photocathodes or photoanodes for water reduction and oxidation, respectively. In addition, recent efforts in constructing a PEC tandem system for unassisted water splitting are outlined. The importance of developing a single-photon photocathode and photoanode that can deliver high photocurrent in the low bias region for efficient PEC tandem system is highlighted. Finally, we discuss the future development of photoelectrode materials, and viable solutions to realize highly efficient PEC water splitting device for practical applications.

  18. Effect of gamma radiation on plant growth, nodulation, nutritional status and yield of soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, F.A.; Hefni, E.H.; Maghraby, G.M.

    1988-01-01

    Field experiment was conducted under the conditions of a sandy clay-loam soil. Soybean seeds were exposed to gamma rays (0,5,10,20,40,80 and 160 Gry) before planting. Low-medium range of gamma rays (5-40 Gry), particularly at 20 Gry, considerably stimulated plant growth, nodules formation and development as well as the total uptake of N and Mn by plants. Significant increase in seed yield was obtained as a result of gamma rays ranged from 10 to 40 Gry, but the dose of 160 Gry, reduced it. The total contents of protein and oil in seeds were highly related to the produced yield, however their concentrations did not affect by the tested range of gamma rays. Generally, seed yield of soybean seemed to be positively related to the rate of plant growth, nodulation and nutritional status. Therefore, irradiation of seeds before planting with low gamma doses could be recommended to improve the productivity of soybean

  19. Automated corrosion fatigue crack growth testing in pressurized water environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceschini, L.J.; Liaw, P.K.; Rudd, G.E.; Logsdon, W.A.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes in detail a novel approach to construct a test facility for developing corrosion fatigue crack growth rate (FCGR) properties in aggressive environments. The environment studied is that of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) at 288 0 C (550 0 F) and 13.8 MPa (200 psig). To expedite data generation, each chamber was designed to accommodate two test specimens. A common water recirculation and pressurization system was employed to service two test chambers. Thus, four fatigue crack propagation rate tests could be conducted simultaneously in the pressurized water environment. The data analysis was automated to minimize the typically high labor costs associated with corrosion fatigue crack propagation testing. Verification FCGR tests conducted on an ASTM A469 rotor steel in a room temperature air environment as well as actual PWR environment FCGR tests performed on an ASTM A533 Grade B Class 2 pressure vessel steel demonstrated that the dual specimen test facility is an excellent system for developing the FCGR properties of materials in adverse environments

  20. Estimating Leaf Water Status from Vis-Nir Reflectance and Transmittance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderbilt, Vern; Daughtry, Craig; Dahlgren, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Remotely sensing the water status of plant canopies remains a long term goal of remote sensing research. Established approaches involve measurements in the thermal infrared and the 900-2000nm reflective infrared. Less popular UV-visible-NIR techniques presumably deserve research attention, because photochemical changes linked to plant water status manifest spectral light scattering and absorption changes. Here we monitored the visible and NIR light reflected from the leaf interior as well as the leaf transmittance as the relative water content of corn (Zeamays L.) leaves decreased. Our results highlight the importance of both scattering effects and effects due to absorption by leaf pigments.

  1. The status quo of research on South Africa's water resource ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The South African water resource management institutional landscape has seen some dramatic changes since the new dispensation came into power in 1994. Not only have legislation and policies changed, but there has also been a significant increase in the number of non-state actors in the policy development process.

  2. Urban groundwater quality in sub-Saharan Africa: current status and implications for water security and public health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapworth, D. J.; Nkhuwa, D. C. W.; Okotto-Okotto, J.; Pedley, S.; Stuart, M. E.; Tijani, M. N.; Wright, J.

    2017-06-01

    Groundwater resources are important sources of drinking water in Africa, and they are hugely important in sustaining urban livelihoods and supporting a diverse range of commercial and agricultural activities. Groundwater has an important role in improving health in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). An estimated 250 million people (40% of the total) live in urban centres across SSA. SSA has experienced a rapid expansion in urban populations since the 1950s, with increased population densities as well as expanding geographical coverage. Estimates suggest that the urban population in SSA will double between 2000 and 2030. The quality status of shallow urban groundwater resources is often very poor due to inadequate waste management and source protection, and poses a significant health risk to users, while deeper borehole sources often provide an important source of good quality drinking water. Given the growth in future demand from this finite resource, as well as potential changes in future climate in this region, a detailed understanding of both water quantity and quality is required to use this resource sustainably. This paper provides a comprehensive assessment of the water quality status, both microbial and chemical, of urban groundwater in SSA across a range of hydrogeological terrains and different groundwater point types. Lower storage basement terrains, which underlie a significant proportion of urban centres in SSA, are particularly vulnerable to contamination. The relationship between mean nitrate concentration and intrinsic aquifer pollution risk is assessed for urban centres across SSA. Current knowledge gaps are identified and future research needs highlighted.

  3. Human-water interface in hydrological modeling: Current status and future directions

    OpenAIRE

    Wada, Y.; Bierkens, M.F.P.; de Roo, A.; Dirmeyer, P.a.; Famiglietti, J.S.; Hanasaki, N.; Konar, M.; Liu, J.; Müller Schmied, H.; Oki, T.; Pokhrel, Y.; Sivapalan, M.; Troy, T.J.; van Dijk, A.I.J.M.; van Emmerik, T.

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decades, the global population has been rapidly increasing and human activities have altered terrestrial water fluxes at an unprecedented scale. The phenomenal growth of the human footprint has significantly modified hydrological processes in various ways (e.g., irrigation, artificial dams, and water diversion) and at various scales (from a watershed to the globe). During the early 1990s, awareness of the potential water scarcity led to the first detailed global water resource a...

  4. Water physico-chemical characteristics and trace heavy metal contamination status in sediment and waters of Kpeshie Lagoon, La, Accra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addo, M.A.; Okley, G.M.; Gbadago, J.K.; Avi, C.; Osae, S.; Sanu, J.K.

    2007-01-01

    Some physico-chemical water quality parameter (pH, temperature, conductivity, TDS, salinity, DO, major ions, nutrients, etc.) have been measured in the Kpeshie Lagoon, Accra. In addition trace heavy metal contamination status of water and bottom sediment were investigated. Some of the water quality parameters including conductivity (19370-28500mg/I), TDS (9750-14180mg/l), Chlorine (5725.2-8277.6mg/l) and Total Alkalinity (800-2000mg/l) were characterised as being high. However, nutrient contents of the water were within specified water quality regulatory limits for natural waters. The high presence of some heavy metals in the water and sediment especially Ni (71.8-1568μg/g), Pb (0.5-27.10μg/g) in the sediment was adjudged to pose a potential health risk to humans and the aquatic life of the lagoon's ecosystem. (au)

  5. Growth and nutritional status in children with chronic kidney disease on maintenance dialysis in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stańczyk, Małgorzata; Miklaszewska, Monika; Zachwieja, Katarzyna; Wierciński, Ryszard; Stankiewicz, Roman; Firszt-Adamczyk, Agnieszka; Zachwieja, Jacek; Borzęcka, Hanna; Zagożdżon, Ilona; Ziółkowska, Helena; Leszczyńska, Beata; Medyńska, Anna; Adamczyk, Piotr; Szczepańska, Maria; Tkaczyk, Marcin

    2016-03-01

    Despite vast availability of modern methods of treatment of chronic kidney disease and its complications, the short stature still is a major point of concern in adolescents with chronic kidney disease. The aim of the study was to assess changes in growth and nutritional status of Polish children on renal replacement therapy in the decade, 2004-2013. The study was designed as a cross-sectional analysis of anthropometric values and selected indices of growth status amongst children receiving dialysis in Poland between the years 2004 and 2013. Data were acquired during two different multicentre studies on hypertension in dialyzed children in Poland. Basic anthropometric parameters (body weight, body height/length, body mass index - BMI), dialysis adequacy and duration of RRT were assessed. The study showed that anthropometric parameters of children undergoing renal replacement therapy had not significantly changed in the last 10 years of observation. Children on RRT were still of short stature despite availability of modern methods of hormonal therapy and nutrition. Median of height z-score was -2.10 in 2004 and -2.19 in 2013. Expected clinical improvement in these measures was not proven. The cause of chronic kidney disease, method of dialysis, time on dialysis or dialysis adequacy did not influence the anthropometric parameters significantly in dialyzed children in Poland. Copyright © 2015 Medical University of Bialystok. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  6. Root-zone temperature and water availability affect early root growth of planted longleaf pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.A. Sword

    1995-01-01

    Longleaf pine seedlings from three seed sources were exposed to three root-zone temperatures and three levels of water availability for 28 days. Root growth declined as temperature and water availability decreased. Root growth differed by seed source. Results suggest that subtle changes in the regeneration environment may influence early root growth of longleaf pine...

  7. Growth of Lemon ( Citrus Limon L. Buru) in response to Water Stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of young leaves and whole plant. Since total dry matter accumulation is a very important growth index, the effects of water stress and shade on the vegetative growth of lemon are considered interactive. Keywords: Citrus, 'Eureka', lemon, shade, water stress, vegetative growth. Nigerian Journal of Horticultural Science Vol.

  8. Long-term Root Growth Response to Thinning, Fertilization, and Water Deficit in Plantation Loblolly Pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.A. Sword-Sayer; Z. Tang

    2004-01-01

    High water deficits limit the new root growth of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.), potentially reducing soil resource availability and stand growth. We evaluated new root growth and stand production in response to thinning and fertilization in loblolly pine over a 6-year period that consisted of 3 years of low water deficit followed by 3 years of high...

  9. Using FAO-56 model to estimate soil and crop water status: Application to a citrus orchard under regulated deficit irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenzano, Giuseppe; Gonzàles-Altozano, Pablo; Manzano-Juàrez, Juan; Rallo, Giovanni

    2015-04-01

    Agro-hydrological models allow schematizing exchange processes in the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum (SPAC) on a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. Each section of the SPAC system is characterized by complex behaviours arising, for instance, the adaptive plant strategies in response to soil water deficit conditions. Regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) has been considered as one of the potential strategies for sustainable crop production in regions characterized by water scarcity. Moreover, reducing water supply at certain growth stages can improve water use efficiency (WUE) and quality of productions, without affecting significantly crop yield. Environmental policy requires to improve WUE in crops with high water requirements, so that it is necessary to identify easy-to-use tools aimed at irrigation water saving strategies, without the need of tedious and time consuming experiments. Accurate evaluation of crop water status and actual transpiration plays a key role in irrigation scheduling under RDI, in order to avoid that water stress becomes too severe and detrimental to yield and fruit quality. Objective of the research was to assess the suitability of FAO56 agro-hydrological model (Allen et al., 1998) on citrus orchards under different water deficit conditions, to estimate soil and crop water status. The ability of the model to predict actual crop water stress was evaluated based on the temporal dynamic of simulated relative transpirations and on the similarities with the corresponding dynamic of measured midday stem water potentials, MSWP. During dry periods, simulated relative crop transpiration was correlated to MSWP with the aim to assess the model ability to predict crop water stress and to identify "plant-based" irrigation scheduling parameters. Experiments were carried out during three years from 2009 and 2011 in Senyera (39° 3' 35.4" N, 0° 30' 28.2" W), Spain, in a commercial orchard planted with Navelina/Cleopatra citrus trees. Three RDI

  10. Water quality of Danube Delta systems: ecological status and prediction using machine-learning algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoica, C; Camejo, J; Banciu, A; Nita-Lazar, M; Paun, I; Cristofor, S; Pacheco, O R; Guevara, M

    2016-01-01

    Environmental issues have a worldwide impact on water bodies, including the Danube Delta, the largest European wetland. The Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) implementation operates toward solving environmental issues from European and national level. As a consequence, the water quality and the biocenosis structure was altered, especially the composition of the macro invertebrate community which is closely related to habitat and substrate heterogeneity. This study aims to assess the ecological status of Southern Branch of the Danube Delta, Saint Gheorghe, using benthic fauna and a computational method as an alternative for monitoring the water quality in real time. The analysis of spatial and temporal variability of unicriterial and multicriterial indices were used to assess the current status of aquatic systems. In addition, chemical status was characterized. Coliform bacteria and several chemical parameters were used to feed machine-learning (ML) algorithms to simulate a real-time classification method. Overall, the assessment of the water bodies indicated a moderate ecological status based on the biological quality elements or a good ecological status based on chemical and ML algorithms criteria.

  11. Status of ground water in the 1100 Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, A.G.

    1990-12-01

    This document contains the results of monthly sampling of 1100 Area Wells and ground water monitoring. Included is a table that presents all of the results of monthly sampling and analyses between April 1989 and May 1990, for four constituents selected to be most indicative of the potential for contamination from US Department of Energy facilities. The samples were collected from the three wells near the city of Richland well field. Also included is a table that presents a listing of the analytical results from sampling and analyses of five wells between April 1989, and May 1990 in the 1100 Area. The detection limit and drinking water standards or maximum contaminant level are also listed in the tables for each constituent

  12. Coalbed methane produced water in China: status and environmental issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yanjun; Tang, Dazhen; Xu, Hao; Li, Yong; Gao, Lijun

    2014-01-01

    As one of the unconventional natural gas family members, coalbed methane (CBM) receives great attention throughout the world. The major associated problem of CBM production is the management of produced water. In the USA, Canada, and Australia, much research has been done on the effects and management of coalbed methane produced water (CMPW). However, in China, the environmental effects of CMPW were overlooked. The quantity and the quality of CMPW both vary enormously between coal basins or stratigraphic units in China. The unit produced water volume of CBM wells in China ranges from 10 to 271,280 L/well/day, and the concentration of total dissolved solids (TDS) ranges from 691 to 93,898 mg/L. Most pH values of CMPW are more than 7.0, showing the alkaline feature, and the Na-HCO3 and Na-HCO3-Cl are typical types of CMPW in China. Treatment and utilization of CMPW in China lag far behind the USA and Australia, and CMPW is mainly managed by surface impoundments and evaporation. Currently, the core environmental issues associated with CMPW in China are that the potential environmental problems of CMPW have not been given enough attention, and relevant regulations as well as environmental impact assessment (EIA) guidelines for CMPW are still lacking. Other potential issues in China includes (1) water quality monitoring issues for CMPW with special components in special areas, (2) groundwater level decline issues associated with the dewatering process, and (3) potential environmental issues of groundwater pollution associated with hydraulic fracturing.

  13. Status Report on Ex-Vessel Coolability and Water Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, M. T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Robb, K. R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-15

    Specific to BWR plants, current accident management guidance calls for flooding the drywell to a level of approximately 1.2 m (4 feet) above the drywell floor once vessel breach has been determined. While this action can help to submerge ex-vessel core debris, it can also result in flooding the wetwell and thereby rendering the wetwell vent path unavailable. An alternate strategy is being developed in the industry guidance for responding to the severe accident capable vent Order, EA-13-109. The alternate strategy being proposed would throttle the flooding rate to achieve a stable wetwell water level while preserving the wetwell vent path. The overall objective of this work is to upgrade existing analytical tools (i.e. MELTSPREAD and CORQUENCH - which have been used as part of the DOE-sponsored Fukushima accident analyses) in order to provide flexible, analytically capable, and validated models to support the development of water throttling strategies for BWRs that are aimed at keeping ex-vessel core debris covered with water while preserving the wetwell vent path.

  14. Selenium status in soil, water and essential crops of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazemi Lyly

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstracts As a contributing factor to health, the trace element selenium (Se is an essential nutrient of special interest for humans and all animals. It is estimated that 0.5 to 1 billion people worldwide suffer from Se deficiency. In spite of the important role of Se, its concentrations in soil, water and essential crops have not been studied in Iran. Therefore, the main aim of the current study was to determine the Se content of soil, water, and essential crops (rice in North, wheat in Center, date, and pistachio in South of different regions of Iran. Sampling was performed in the North, South, and Central regions of Iran. In each selected area in the three regions, 17 samples of surface soil were collected; samples of water and essential crops were also collected at the same sampling points. Upon preliminary preparation of all samples, the Se concentrations were measured by ICP-OES Model Varian Vista-MPX. The amount of soil-Se was found to be in the range between 0.04 and 0.45 ppm in the studied areas; the Se content of soil in the central region of Iran was the highest compared to other regions (p

  15. Maternal nutritional status, breast-milk production and newborn growth and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concepcion, P.V.; Sanchez Jaeger, A.; Marino, A.

    2000-01-01

    Breast-feeding practice of Venezuelan mothers is very short (less than 3 months). In 1995, 52% of the lactating women stopped breast feeding before the first month. Exclusive breast-feeding is very infrequent, especially among low income women. The most important reasons for quitting breast feeding are: early weaning, working mothers in 'informal market', and lack of nutritional knowledge. There are new programs, from governmental (CONALAMA) and non-governmental (UNICEF) groups that improve this practice. There is little information regarding breast-milk production, composition, nutritional and socio-cultural behaviors of lactating women in Venezuela. With the goal of providing reliable information on this topic, we are studying maternal nutritional status, and breast-milk production of low SES mothers, and growth of their infants. In this study we selected isotopic methods to measure breast-milk intake, on the other hand, vitamin A contained in women breast milk was determined. Another objective of this project was to assess mother's vitamin A status according to the conjunctival impression cytology (CIC) and the retinol dose response (RDR) methodology. Mother body composition was determined through different skinfold measurements and body mass index (BMI). Also, the babies' growth during the first three months of breast-feeding was evaluated. During that period it was possible to evaluate vitamin A reserves and corporal composition of the mother and nutritional status of their infants. No important prevalence of vitamin A deficiency was detected (6.3%), high risk of malnutrition was demonstrated by SES (92%), and between 11 and 18% of the mother began the lactating period undernourished. (author)

  16. Growth and Water Relations of Sun-cured Tobacco Irrigated with Saline Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelino G

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the effects of saline irrigation on growth and water relations of two sun-cured tobacco genotypes, Xp102 and Px107, which belong to the Xanthia and Perustitza tobacco ecotypes, respectively. We compared three commercial sea salt concentrations of the irrigation water (0.25%, 0.5%, and 1% w/v plus a non-salinized control, corresponding to an electrical conductivity (ECw of 4.4, 8.5, 15.7, 0.5 dS m-1 and osmotic potentials of -0.22, -0.35, -0.73, -0.02 MPa, respectively. The ECsoil increased with the salinity of the irrigation water. At high salinity (1%, the soil where Px107 plants were grown showed a significantly higher salinity compared to the soil of Xp102. For both genotypes, the soil water content increased at increasing salinity and during the growth season. Increasing salinity progressively reduced the leaf turgor pressure and enhanced the cellular osmotic adjustment. The latter resulted to be more pronounced in Px107 compared to Xp102 (0.36 vs. 0.20 MPa. At higher salinity (0.5% and 1%, both genotypes showed reduced leaf surface area, dry matter accumulation, water use, net assimilation rate (NAR and crop growth rate (CGR. Px107 roots were more sensitive than shoot to salinity (3% reduction per dS m-1 and compared to Xp102 roots, which showed a reduced development only at 1% salinity. Assessment of plant salt tolerance according to the Maas and Hoffman model revealed a slope of 1-2% for both genotypes, indicating that these tobaccos are relatively more salt tolerant compared to other species.

  17. Research on water hammer forces caused by rapid growth of bubbles at severe accidents of water cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inasaka, Fujio; Adachi, Masaki; Aya, Izuo

    2004-01-01

    At severe accidents of Water Cooled Reactors a great deal of gas is expected to be produced in a short time within the water of lower part of nuclear pressure vessel and containment vessel caused by hydrogen production with a metal water reaction and steam explosions with direct contact of melting core and water. Water hammer forces caused by rapid growth of bubbles shall work on the wall of containment vessel and affect its integrity. Coherency of water block movement is not clear, whether simultaneous or in the same direction. Water block behavior and water hammer forces caused by rapid growth of bubbles have been tested using a modified scale model and analyzed to obtain experimental correlated equation to estimate water block's rising distance and velocity from water hammer data. Numerical analysis using RELAP5-3D (Reactor Excursion and Leak Analysis Program) has been conducted to evaluate water hammer forces and makes clear its modifications needed. (T. Tanaka)

  18. Toxicity of Vrishabhavathy river water and sediment to the growth of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxicity of Vrishabhavathy river water and sediment to the growth of phaseolus vulgharis (french beans) ... It is concluded that this river water and sediment might be used as a source of fertilizer for better growth of plants. Presence of heavy metals though high in water and sediment does not enter the food chain and hence ...

  19. Effect of three water treatments on growth of rice variety IR36 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rice (Oryza Sativa L.) variety IR36 was grown under three water treatments namely: saturated sand, water table held at 15cm below the sand surface and water table at 30 cm below the sand surface. The growth period was 6 weeks with plants harvested at two week intervals. Growth parameters measured included total ...

  20. Transformation rules and degradation of CAHs by Fentonlike oxidation in growth ring of water distribution network-A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, D.; Ma, W. C.; Jiang, X. Q.; Yuan, Y. X.; Yuan, Y.; Wang, Z. Q.; Fang, T. T.; Huang, W. Y.

    2017-08-01

    Chlorinated hydrocarbons are widely used as organic solvent and chemical raw materials. After treatment, water polluted with trichloroethylene (TCE)/tetrachloroethylene (PCE) can reach the water quality requirements, while water with trace amounts of TCE/PCE is still harmful to humans, which will cause cancers. Water distribution network is an extremely complicated system, in which adsorption, desorption, flocculation, movement, transformation and reduction will occur, leading to changes of TCE/PCE concentrations and products. Therefore, it is important to investigate the transformation rules of TCE/PCE in water distribution network. What’s more, growth-ring, including drinking water pipes deposits, can act as catalysts in Fenton-like reagent (H2O2). This review summarizes the status of transformation rules of CAHs in water distribution network. It also evaluates the effectiveness and fruit of CAHs degradation by Fenton-like reagent based on growth-ring. This review is important in solving the potential safety problems caused by TCE/PCE in water distribution network.

  1. Development and Validation of a New Methodology to Assess the Vineyard Water Status by On-the-Go Near Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diago, Maria P.; Fernández-Novales, Juan; Gutiérrez, Salvador; Marañón, Miguel; Tardaguila, Javier

    2018-01-01

    Assessing water status and optimizing irrigation is of utmost importance in most winegrowing countries, as the grapevine vegetative growth, yield, and grape quality can be impaired under certain water stress situations. Conventional plant-based methods for water status monitoring are either destructive or time and labor demanding, therefore unsuited to detect the spatial variation of moisten content within a vineyard plot. In this context, this work aims at the development and comprehensive validation of a novel, non-destructive methodology to assess the vineyard water status distribution using on-the-go, contactless, near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Likewise, plant water status prediction models were built and intensely validated using the stem water potential (ψs) as gold standard. Predictive models were developed making use of a vast number of measurements, acquired on 15 dates with diverse environmental conditions, at two different spatial scales, on both sides of vertical shoot positioned canopies, over two consecutive seasons. Different cross-validation strategies were also tested and compared. Predictive models built from east-acquired spectra yielded the best performance indicators in both seasons, with determination coefficient of prediction (RP2) ranging from 0.68 to 0.85, and sensitivity (expressed as prediction root mean square error) between 0.131 and 0.190 MPa, regardless the spatial scale. These predictive models were implemented to map the spatial variability of the vineyard water status at two different dates, and provided useful, practical information to help delineating specific irrigation schedules. The performance and the large amount of data that this on-the-go spectral solution provides, facilitates the exploitation of this non-destructive technology to monitor and map the vineyard water status variability with high spatial and temporal resolution, in the context of precision and sustainable viticulture. PMID:29441086

  2. Association between body water status and acute mountain sickness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes Gatterer

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The present study determined the association between body fluid variation and the development of acute mountain sickness (AMS in adults. METHODS: Forty-three healthy participants (26 males and 17 females, age: 26 ± 6 yr, height: 174 ± 9 cm, weight: 68 ± 12 kg were passively exposed at a FiO2 of 12.6% (simulated altitude hypoxia of 4500 m, PiO2 = 83.9 mmHg for 12-h. AMS severity was assessed using the Lake Louise Score (LLS. Food and drink intakes were consumed ad libitum and measured; all urine was collected. Before and after the 12-h exposure, body weight and plasma osmolality were measured and whole-body bioimpedance analysis was performed. RESULTS: The overall AMS incidence was 43% (38% males, 50% females. Participants who developed AMS showed lower fluid losses (3.0 ± 0.9 vs. 4.5 ± 2.0 ml/kg/h, p = 0.002, a higher fluid retention (1.9 ± 1.5 vs. 0.6 ± 0.8 ml/kg/h, p = 0.022, greater plasma osmolality decreases (-7 ± 7 vs. -2 ± 5 mOsm/kg, p = 0.028 and a larger plasma volume expansion (11 ± 10 vs. 1 ± 15%, p = 0.041 compared to participants not developing AMS. Net water balance (fluid intake--fluid loss and the amount of fluid loss were strong predictors whether getting sick or not (Nagelkerkes r(2 = 0.532. The LLS score was related to net water balance (r = 0.358, p = 0.018, changes in plasma osmolality (r = -0.325, p = 0.033 and sodium concentration (r = -0.305, p = 0.047. Changes in the impedance vector length were related to weight changes (r = -0.550, p<0.001, fluid intake (r = -0.533, p<0.001 and net water balance (r = -0.590, p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Participants developing AMS within 12 hours showed a positive net water balance due to low fluid loss. Thus measures to avoid excess fluid retention are likely to reduce AMS symptoms.

  3. Status of advanced light water cooled reactor designs 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    The present report, which is significantly more comprehensive than the previously one, addresses the rationale and basic motivations that lead to a continuing development of nuclear technology, provides an overview of the world status of current LWRs, describes the present market situations, and identifies desired characteristics for future plants. The report also provides a detailed description of utility requirements that largely govern today's nuclear development efforts, the situation with regard to enhanced safety objectives, a country wise description of the development activities, and a technical description of the various reactor designs in a consistent format. The reactor designs are presented in two categories: (1) evolutionary concepts that are expected to be commercially available soon; and (2) innovative designs. The report addresses the main technical characteristics of each concept without assessing or evaluating them from a particular point of view (e.g. safety or economics). Additionally, the report identifies basic reference documents that can provide further information for detailed evaluations. The report closes with an outlook on future energy policy developments

  4. Solar water heating in Lebanon: Current status and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houri, Ahmad

    2006-01-01

    The use of solar thermal collectors is an economic alternative for water heating in Lebanon. More than 100,000m 2 of collector area has been installed while the market can accommodate more than 1.5 million m 2 . The domestic sector, which is a main energy-consuming sector, stands to benefit the most from the implementation of such systems. Despite the lack of encouraging legislation, the solar thermal market has been continuously growing over the past decade. Both local manufacturers and importers have been active in the field. In addition, advanced forced circulation and collective systems are being used in large establishments, individual house and apartment buildings. Internationally funded demonstration projects using collective systems have been implemented in recent years with promising results. Simplified initial estimates indicate a payback period of 4-5 years while advanced mathematical models (RETScreen) indicate that the most advanced evacuated tube technology has a payback period of less than 9 years at current market prices. With decreasing cost per square meter of installed collectors, payback periods are expected to rapidly decrease. Regulatory support and tax breaks, if implemented, will have a positive effect on the market. The current increases in diesel prices are increasing demand on solar thermal water heaters. [Author

  5. Growth, food consumption, and energy status of juvenile pallid sturgeon fed natural or artificial diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Hilary A.; Chipps, Steven R.; Graeb, Brian D. S.; Klumb, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Stocking of hatchery-raised fish is an important part of the pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus recovery program. In the wild, juvenile pallid sturgeon consume primarily aquatic insects, although little is known about specific dietary needs. In hatchery settings, pallid sturgeon are fed commercial diets that are formulated for salmonids. To compare food consumption, growth, and energy status of pallid sturgeon fed artificial or natural diets, we conducted a laboratory study using 24 juvenile pallid sturgeon (initial fork length 153–236 mm). Pallid sturgeon were fed a daily ration of either commercial pellets (1 mm, slow sinking; 45% protein, 19% fat) or chironomid larvae for 5 wk. Natural-fed pallid sturgeon exhibited a greater specific growth rate (2.12% d−1) than pellet-fed fish (0.06% d−1). Similarly, relative condition was greater for natural-fed sturgeon (Kn = 1.11) than that observed for pellet-fed fish (Kn = 0.87). In contrast, the hepatosomatic index was significantly higher in pellet-fed fish (2.5%), indicating a high lipid diet compared with natural-fed sturgeon (1.4%). Given the importance of natural diets to fish digestion and growth, it is suggested that a more holistic approach be applied in the development of a practical diet for pallid sturgeon that incorporates attributes of natural prey.

  6. Nutrient status and plant growth effects of forest soils in the Basin of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenn, M.E.; Perea-Estrada, V.M.; Bauer, L.I. de; Perez-Suarez, M.; Parker, D.R.; Cetina-Alcala, V.M.

    2006-01-01

    The nutrient status of forest soils in the Mexico City Air Basin was evaluated by observing plant growth responses to fertilization with N, P or both nutrients combined. P deficiency was the most frequent condition for soil from two high pollution sites and N deficiency was greatest at a low N deposition site. Concentrations of Pb and Ni, and to a lesser extent Zn and Co, were higher at the high pollution sites. However, positive plant growth responses to P and sometimes to N, and results of wheat root elongation bioassays, suggest that heavy metal concentrations were not directly phytotoxic. Further studies are needed to determine if heavy metal toxicity to mycorrhizal symbionts of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh.) from high pollution sites may explain the P deficiency and stunted growth. P deficiency is expected to limit the capacity for biotic N retention in N saturated forested watersheds in the Basin of Mexico dominated by Andisols. - Plant response to N deposition may be limited by P limitation in forests growing on Andisol soils in the Basin of Mexico

  7. Research on the Effects of Water Stress on Growth Traits and Water Use Efficiency of Winter Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Shuhong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research about the effects of water stress at different growth stages on the crop growth traits has a practical significance in guiding water-saving irrigation. The box test method is adopted to test the water stress of winter wheat at different stages, observe the plant height, leaf area and yield, and analyze the water use efficiency under the condition of water stress. The results show that the water stress in each growth period will play an inhibiting role in the plant height and leaf area of winter wheat; the water stress duration at a single stage is relatively short, and rehydration crop has a certain compensatory growth without making a big difference; the continuous water stress stage plays a significantly inhibiting role in the plant height and leaf area.; water stress has a largest effect on the plant height in the elongation period; the heading period suffers from water stress, so the leaf area decreases rapidly; water stress at a single stage in the appropriate period can increase water use efficiency. Regulated deficit irrigation can reduce luxury water consumption, which has a little effect on the yield and plays a guiding role in water saving and stable yield.

  8. Volatile composition of Merlot wine from different vine water status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Michael C; Fang, Yu; Shellie, Krista

    2009-08-26

    The impact of deficit irrigation during berry development on Merlot wine volatile composition was investigated in this study. Own-rooted Merlot vines grown in a commercial vineyard in Idaho were supplied with 100 or 35% of their estimated crop evapotranspiration needs throughout the berry development. Wines were produced from those grapes from the 2002, 2003, and 2004 growing seasons. Volatile compounds in the wines were analyzed using the stir bar sorptive extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technique. The results demonstrated that despite vintage differences in volatile composition, in each of 3 years of this study, deficit irrigation during berry development had a consistent effect on wine volatile composition. Wine produced from deficit-irrigated vines had increased amounts of vitispiranes, beta-damascenone, guaiacol, 4-methylguaiacol, 4-ethylguaiacol, and 4-vinylguaiacol relative to wine produced from well-watered vines. Deficit irrigation had no effect on the concentrations of other measured volatiles such as esters and terpenes.

  9. Current status of surface water pollution in Punjab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, M.T.; Ghauri, Moin-ud-Din

    2001-01-01

    Eleven years investigations (1988-99) on river Ravi revealed that U.C. canal with a capacity of 220 m/sup 3//s at the tail and Q.B. Link canal with capacity of 410 m/sup 3//s are mainly responsible for higher flows during dry season. A decreasing trend has been observed in the DO levels indicating increasing pollution. An increasing trend has been observed in BOD, SS, TDS and Indicators. Even with the discharge of pollution from U.C. canal, Hudiara Nullah and Lahore city BOD at Balkoi was unexpectedly low. Problems confronting environment engineers regarding surface water pollution control has been highlighted and their solutions has been recommended. (author)

  10. Root distribution and seasonal water status in weathered granitic bedrock under chaparral

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. D. Sternberg; M. A. Anderson; R. C. Graham; J. L. Beyers; K. R. Tice

    1996-01-01

    Soils in mountainous terrain are often thin and unable to store sufficient water to support existing vegetation through dry seasons. This observation has led to speculation about the role of bedrock in supporting plant growth in natural ecosystems, since weathered bedrocks often have appreciable porosity and, like soil, can store and transmit water. This study, within...

  11. Spatio-temporal effects of soil and bedrock variability on grapevine water status in hillslope vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brillante, Luca; Bois, Benjamin; Mathieu, Olivier; Leveque, Jean

    2014-05-01

    Hillslope vineyards show various and complex water dynamics between soil and plants, and in order to gain further insight into this phenomenon, 8 grapevine plots were monitored during three vintages, from 2010 to 2013, on Corton Hill, Burgundy, France. Plots were distributed along a topolithosequence from 330 to 270 metres a.s.l. Grapevine water status was monitored weekly by surveying water potential, and, at the end of the season, by the use of the δ13C analysis of grape juice. Soil profile of each plot was described and analysed (soil texture, gravel content, organic carbon, total nitrogen, pH, CEC). Soil volumetric humidity was measured weekly, using TDR probes. A pedotransfer function was developed to transform Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI) into soil volume wetness and therefore to spatialise and observe variation in the Fraction of Transpirable Soil Water (FTSW). During the three years of monitoring, grapevines experienced great variation in water status, which ranged from low to considerable water deficit (as expressed by pre-dawn leaf water potential and δ13C analysis of grape juice). With ERI imaging, it was possible to observe differences in water absorption pattern by roots, in different soils, and at different depth. In addition, significant differences were observed in grapevine water status in relation to variations in the physical characteristics of the terroir along the hillslope (i.e. the geo-pedological context, the elevation etc.). Grapevine water behaviour and plant-soil water relationships on the hillslope of Corton Hill have been extensively characterised in this study by ultimate technologies, allowing to present this terroir as a very interesting example for future generalisation and modelling of the hillslope vineyard water dynamics.

  12. Physiological and growth responses to water deficit in the bioenergy crop Miscanthus x giganteus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer eIngs

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available High yielding perennial biomass crops of the species Miscanthus are widely recognized as one of the most promising lignocellulosic feedstocks for the production of bioenergy and bioproducts. Miscanthus is a C4 grass and thus has relatively high water use efficiency. Cultivated Miscanthus comprises primarily of a single clone, Miscanthus x giganteus, a sterile hybrid between M. sacchariflorus and M. sinensis. M. x giganteus is high yielding and expresses desirable combinations of many traits present in the two parental species types; however, it responds poorly to low water availability. To identify the physiological basis of the response to water stress in M. x giganteus and to identify potential targets for breeding improvements we characterised the physiological responses to water-deficit stress in a pot experiment. The experiment has provided valuable insights into the temporal aspects of drought-induced responses of M. x giganteus. Withholding water resulted in marked changes in plant physiology with growth-associated traits among the first affected, the most rapid response being a decline in the rate of stem elongation. A reduction in photosynthetic performance was among the second set of changes observed; indicated by a decrease in stomatal conductance followed by decreases in chlorophyll fluorescence and chlorophyll content. Measures reflecting the plant water status were among the last affected by the drought treatment. Metabolite analysis indicated that proline was a drought stress marker in M. x giganteus, metabolites in the proline synthesis pathway were more abundant when stomatal conductance decreased and dry weight accumulation ceased. The outcomes of this study in terms of drought-induced physiological changes, accompanied by a proof-of-concept metabolomics investigation, provide a platform for identifying targets for improved drought-tolerance of the Miscanthus bioenergy crop.

  13. Non-destructive assessment of grapevine water status in the field using a portable NIR spectrophotometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardaguila, Javier; Fernández-Novales, Juan; Gutiérrez, Salvador; Diago, Maria Paz

    2017-08-01

    Until now, the majority of methods employed to assess grapevine water status have been destructive, time-intensive, costly and provide information of a limited number of samples, thus the ability of revealing within-field water status variability is reduced. The goal of this work was to evaluate the capability of non-invasive, portable near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy acquired in the field, to assess the grapevine water status in diverse varieties, grown under different environmental conditions, in a fast and reliable way. The research was conducted 2 weeks before harvest in 2012, in two commercial vineyards, planted with eight different varieties. Spectral measurements were acquired in the field on the adaxial and abaxial sides of 160 individual leaves (20 leaves per variety) using a commercially available handheld spectrophotometer (1600-2400 nm). Principal component analysis (PCA) and modified partial least squares (MPLS) were used to interpret the spectra and to develop reliable prediction models for stem water potential (Ψ s ) (cross-validation correlation coefficient (r cv ) ranged from 0.77 to 0.93, and standard error of cross validation (SECV) ranged from 0.10 to 0.23), and leaf relative water content (RWC) (r cv ranged from 0.66 to 0.81, and SECV between 1.93 and 3.20). The performance differences between models built from abaxial and adaxial-acquired spectra is also discussed. The capability of non-invasive NIR spectroscopy to reliably assess the grapevine water status under field conditions was proved. This technique can be a suitable and promising tool to appraise within-field variability of plant water status, helpful to define optimised irrigation strategies in the wine industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Periconception Maternal Folate Status and Human Embryonic Cerebellum Growth Trajectories: The Rotterdam Predict Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene V Koning

    Full Text Available We aimed to investigate whether periconceptional maternal folate status affects human embryonic cerebellar size and growth trajectories. In a prospective periconceptional cohort participants filled out questionnaires and received weekly transvaginal 3D-ultrasounds between 7+0 and 12+6 weeks gestational age (GA. Viable non-malformed singleton pregnancies were selected for cerebellar measurements; transcerebellar diameter, (TCD, left and right cerebellar diameters (LCD, RCD. Linear mixed models were performed to estimate associations between questionnaire data on the timing of maternal folic acid supplement initiation and longitudinal cerebellar measurements as a function of crown-rump length (CRL and GA. Maternal red blood cell folate concentrations were analysed before 8 weeks GA to validate the associations. A total of 263 serial high quality three-dimensional ultrasound scans of 135 pregnancies were studied. Preconceptional compared to postconceptional initiation of folic acid use was associated with slightly larger cerebellar diameters per millimetre increase of CRL (TCD: β = 0.260mm, 95%CI = 0.023-0.491, p<0.05; LCD: β = 0.171mm, 95%CI = 0.038-0.305, p<0.05; RCD: β = 0.156mm, 95%CI = 0.032-0.280, p<0.05 and with proportional cerebellar growth (TCD/CRL:β = 0.015mm/mm, 95%CI = 0.005-0.024, p<0.01; LCD/CRL:β = 0.012mm/mm, 95%CI = 0.005-0.018, p<0.01; RCD/CRL:β = 0.011mm/mm, 95%CI = 0.005-0.017, p<0.01. Cerebellar growth was significantly highest in the third quartile of maternal red blood cell folate levels (1538-1813 nmol/L. These first findings show that periconceptional maternal folate status is associated with human embryonic cerebellar development. Implications of these small but significant variations for fetal cerebellar growth trajectories and the child's neurodevelopmental outcome are yet unknown and warrant further investigation.

  15. Seasonal dynamics of radial growth and stem water deficit in co-occurring saplings and mature conifers under drought: Canopy density affects water stress experienced by saplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberhuber, Walter

    2017-04-01

    Size-mediated climate sensitivity of trees will affect forest structure, composition and productivity under a warmer and drier climate. Therefore, the influence of tree size (saplings vs. mature trees) and site conditions on radial stem growth and stem water deficit of Picea abies (dry-mesic site; canopy cover [CC]: 70 %) and Pinus sylvestris (xeric site; CC: 30 %) were evaluated in a drought-prone inner Alpine environment (c. 750 m a.s.l.). Stem radius variations (SRVs) of saplings (mean stem diameter [SDM]: 2.3 cm) and co-occurring mature trees (SDM: 24 cm) were continuously recorded by dendrometers during two years (n = 6 - 8 individuals per species and size class). Growth-detrended SRVs (SSRV), which represent reversible shrinkage and swelling of tissues outside the cambium and contribute most to stem water storage capacity, were calculated by removing the Gompertz-modeled daily growth from SRVs. Dendrometer records revealed that irrespective of tree size, radial growth in Pinus sylvestris occurred in April-May, whereas the main growing period of Picea abies was April-June and May-June in saplings and mature trees, respectively. Growth-detrended SRVs were approximately twice as large in Pinus sylvestris compared to Picea abies indicating more intense exploitation of stem water reserves at the xeric site. Linear relationships between SSRVs of mature trees vs. saplings and climate-SSRV relationships revealed greater use of stem water reserves by mature Picea abies compared to saplings. This suggests that the strikingly depressed radial growth of Picea abies saplings was primarily caused by reduced carbon availability beneath the dense canopy. In contrast, a tree size effect on the seasonal dynamics of radial growth, stem water deficit and climate-SSRV relationships was mostly lacking in Pinus sylvestris, indicating comparable water status in mature trees and saplings under an open canopy. Results of this study provide evidence that development of a buffered

  16. Growth performance and oxidative status in piglets supplemented with verbascoside and teupolioside

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Pastorelli

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred forty piglets, half female and half barrows, 8.1 ± 1.40 kg LW, were divided into 6 experimental groups and fed ad libitum with a diet supplemented with the following levels of antioxidants: 0 (CON + = positive control added with 100 mg lincomicine/kg, 5 (LT = low teupolioside or LV = low verbascoside, 10 (HT = high teupolioside; HV = high verbascoside; LT+LV mg/kg of diet for 56 days. Body weight and feed intake were recorded on d0, 14 and 56 of the trial. Ten piglets from each group were selected and blood collected by anterior vena cava puncture at 0, 14 and 56 d for reactive oxygen metabolite (ROMs determination. HV showed final weight higher than the other groups (P<0.05, and oxidative stability was improved by both integrations of verbascoside. These results support the view that Verbascoside influences the growth performances and oxidative status of piglets.

  17. Role of medicinal plants on growth performance and immune status in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Elham; Awaad, Amani

    2017-08-01

    Disease outbreaks increase proportionally with increases in intensive aquaculture. Natural products including medicinal plants have been known from thousands of years for treating some human diseases. It is well known that many active compounds are responsible for potential bio-activities. For that reason, there has been considerable interest in the use of medicinal plants in aquaculture with a view to providing safe and eco-friendly compounds for replacing antibiotics and chemical compounds as well as to enhance immune status and control fish diseases. This article describes a wide range of medicinal plants such as herbs, seeds, and spices with different forms such as crude, extracts, mixed and active compounds, used as immunostimulants and resulting in a marked enhancement in the immune system of fish to prevent and control microbial diseases. Moreover, different activity was recorded from plant parts like seeds, roots, flowers and leaves. The mode of action of medicinal plants was stimulation of the cellular and humoral immune response which was monitored through elevation in immune parameters. Various levels of immune stimulation have been shown by medicinal plants at different concentrations through injection or immersion or oral administration. However, it is critically important to determine the optimal dose to enhance the immune system of fish and avoid the risk of immunosuppression. Some medicinal plants have been used to replace the protein in fishmeal as a cheap source of protein and proved to be efficient in this respect. Medicinal plants can act as a growth promoter and immunomodulator at the same time. Further investigations should be carried out to examine the influence of those plants on fish health (including physiological and histological parameters) as a preliminary step for use in large scale in aquaculture. The current review describes the role of medicinal plants and their derivatives on innate and adaptive immune status as well as growth

  18. The impact of water intake on energy intake and weight status: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Daniels, Melissa C.; Popkin, Barry M.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of consuming water with meals rather than drinking no beverage or various other beverages remains under-studied. This systematic review of English language studies compared the effects of drinking water and various beverage alternatives on energy intake and/or weight status. We collected relevant clinical trials, epidemiologic, and intervention studies and summarized findings across the literature. Using clinical trials, average differences in total energy intake at test meals (ΔT...

  19. effects of magnetically treated water on germination and growth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    Keywords: irrigation, magnetically treated water, magnetic water, tomato. INTRODUCTION. Magnetic treatment of water is a modern technology in Agriculture and a non – chemical method of water treatment to soften the water, boost crop yield, improve crop quality and enhance effective utilization of the arable land.

  20. The critical role of water in sustainable growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebo, P V

    2001-01-01

    Business can play an important role in protecting and improving water quality by: raising public awareness; reducing and recycling water within manufacturing operations; reducing the use of/impact on water in the use of products; forming partnerships with private sector organizations focused on pilot programs to improve water quality; and by integrating water as a critical and strategic issue in all business strategies.

  1. Irradiation enhancement of water corrosion of Zr alloys: materials and water radiochemistry aspects of oxide growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iltis, X.; Salot, R.; Lefebvre, F.; Lemaignan, C.

    1994-01-01

    It is well known that under irradiation the corrosion rates of Zircaloy's are significantly increased. The aim of this paper is to present the two main mechanisms by which the irradiation is supposed to contribute to such a corrosion rate enhancement. The first one concerns the effects of irradiation on the base metal and their consequences on the zirconia nucleation and growth. The second one implies the contribution of water radiolysis and is proposed as an explanation for all the reported cases of local or gross corrosion enhancement. (authors). 3 figs., 13 refs

  2. Artificial recharge of groundwater through sprinkling infiltration: impacts on forest soil and the nutrient status and growth of Scots pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nöjd, Pekka; Lindroos, Antti-Jussi; Smolander, Aino; Derome, John; Lumme, Ilari; Helmisaari, Heljä-Sisko

    2009-05-01

    We studied the chemical changes in forest soil and the effects on Scots pine trees caused by continuous sprinkling infiltration over a period of two years, followed by a recovery period of two years. Infiltration increased the water input onto the forest soil by a factor of approximately 1000. After one year of infiltration, the pH of the organic layer had risen from about 4.0 to 6.7. The NH(4)-N concentration in the organic layer increased, most probably due to the NH(4) ions in the infiltration water, as the net N mineralization rate did not increase. Sprinkling infiltration initiated nitrification in the mineral soil. Macronutrient concentrations generally increased in the organic layer and mineral soil. An exception, however, was the concentration of extractable phosphorus, which decreased strongly during the infiltration period and did not show a recovery within two years. The NO(3)-N and K concentrations had reverted back to their initial level during the two-year recovery period, while the concentrations of Ca, Mg and NH(4)-N were still elevated. Nutrient concentrations in the pine needles increased on the infiltrated plots. However, the needle P concentration increased, despite the decrease in plant-available P in the soil. Despite the increase in the nutrient status, there were some visible signs of chlorosis in the current-year needles after two years of infiltration. The radial growth of the pines more than doubled on the infiltrated plots, which suggests that the very large increase in the water input onto the forest floor had no adverse effect on the functioning of the trees. However, a monitoring period of four years is not sufficient for detecting potential long term detrimental effects on forest trees.

  3. Nutritional/Growth Status in a Large Cohort of Medically Fragile Children Receiving Long-Term Enteral Nutrition Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Zahra; Marinschek, Sabine; Pahsini, Karoline; Scheer, Peter; Morris, Nicholas; Urlesberger, Berndt; Dunitz-Scheer, Marguerite

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the nutritional status and growth of medically fragile children receiving long-term enteral nutritional support (ENS). A retrospective cross-sectional survey was conducted at a tertiary-level pediatric hospital. Growth features and nutritional intake of children (n = 287) receiving ENS were evaluated. During a period of 5 years (2009-2013), study patients in the age group of 1 to 36 months had been referred for the explicit reason of tube weaning. Data were documented with the help of ARCHIMED (version 46.2) and analyzed using SPSS for Windows version 21. Nutritional/growth status was determined by using World Health Organization growth standard tables. Anthropometric parameters of children were compared with World Health Organization standards, and the prevalence of underweight, wasting, and stunting was very high despite being exclusively or predominantly on ENS. Results revealed that the age of a child, inadequate amount of caloric supply/day, the diagnosis of small-for-gestational age, and the type of tube (nasogastric tube) were significantly associated with growth/nutritional status (P growth outcomes. In medically fragile children, ENS does not ensure adequate growth per se. ENS requires highly specialized and individually tailored management and in many cases regular adjustments. Long-term tube feeding plans often seem unable to ensure the required amount of nutritional support, which surely compromise the individual efficacy of ENS.

  4. River Water Pollution Status and Water Policy Scenario in Ethiopia: Raising Awareness for Better Implementation in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awoke, Aymere; Beyene, Abebe; Kloos, Helmut; Goethals, Peter L M; Triest, Ludwig

    2016-10-01

    Despite the increasing levels of pollution in many tropical African countries, not much is known about the strength and weaknesses of policy and institutional frameworks to tackle pollution and ecological status of rivers and their impacts on the biota. We investigated the ecological status of four large river basins using physicochemical water quality parameters and bioindicators by collecting samples from forest, agriculture, and urban landscapes of the Nile, Omo-Gibe, Tekeze, and Awash River basins in Ethiopia. We also assessed the water policy scenario to evaluate its appropriateness to prevent and control pollution. To investigate the level of understanding and implementation of regulatory frameworks and policies related to water resources, we reviewed the policy documents and conducted in-depth interviews of the stakeholders. Physicochemical and biological data revealed that there is significant water quality deterioration at the impacted sites (agriculture, coffee processing, and urban landscapes) compared to reference sites (forested landscapes) in all four basins. The analysis of legal, policy, and institutional framework showed a lack of cooperation between stakeholders, lack of knowledge of the policy documents, absence of enforcement strategies, unavailability of appropriate working guidelines, and disconnected institutional setup at the grass root level to implement the set strategies as the major problems. In conclusion, river water pollution is a growing challenge and needs urgent action to implement intersectoral collaboration for water resource management that will eventually lead toward integrated watershed management. Revision of policy and increasing the awareness and participation of implementers are vital to improve ecological quality of rivers.

  5. River Water Pollution Status and Water Policy Scenario in Ethiopia: Raising Awareness for Better Implementation in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awoke, Aymere; Beyene, Abebe; Kloos, Helmut; Goethals, Peter L. M.; Triest, Ludwig

    2016-10-01

    Despite the increasing levels of pollution in many tropical African countries, not much is known about the strength and weaknesses of policy and institutional frameworks to tackle pollution and ecological status of rivers and their impacts on the biota. We investigated the ecological status of four large river basins using physicochemical water quality parameters and bioindicators by collecting samples from forest, agriculture, and urban landscapes of the Nile, Omo-Gibe, Tekeze, and Awash River basins in Ethiopia. We also assessed the water policy scenario to evaluate its appropriateness to prevent and control pollution. To investigate the level of understanding and implementation of regulatory frameworks and policies related to water resources, we reviewed the policy documents and conducted in-depth interviews of the stakeholders. Physicochemical and biological data revealed that there is significant water quality deterioration at the impacted sites (agriculture, coffee processing, and urban landscapes) compared to reference sites (forested landscapes) in all four basins. The analysis of legal, policy, and institutional framework showed a lack of cooperation between stakeholders, lack of knowledge of the policy documents, absence of enforcement strategies, unavailability of appropriate working guidelines, and disconnected institutional setup at the grass root level to implement the set strategies as the major problems. In conclusion, river water pollution is a growing challenge and needs urgent action to implement intersectoral collaboration for water resource management that will eventually lead toward integrated watershed management. Revision of policy and increasing the awareness and participation of implementers are vital to improve ecological quality of rivers.

  6. Growth and Nitrogen Fixation in Silicon and/or Potassium Fed Chickpeas Grown under Drought and Well Watered Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawaz Kurdali

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of silicon (Si and/or potassium (K on plant growth, nitrogen uptake and N2-fixation in water stressed (FC1 and well watered (FC2 chickpea plants using 15N and 13C isotopes. Three fertilizer rates of Si (Si50, Si100 and Si200 and one fertilizer rate of K were used. For most of the growth parameters, it was found that Si either alone or in combination with K was more effective to alleviate water stress than K alone. Increasing soil water level from FC1 to FC2 often had a positive impact on values of almost all studied parameters. The Si100K+ (FC1 and Si50K+ (FC2 treatments gave high enough amounts of N2-fixation, higher dry matter production and greater nitrogen yield. The percent increments of total N2-fixed in the above mentioned treatments were 51 and 47% over their controls, respectively. On the other hand, increasing leave’s dry matter in response to the solely added Si (Si50K- and Si100K- is associated with lower Δ13C under both watering regimes. This may indicate that Si fertilization had a beneficial effect on water use efficiency (WUE. Hence, Δ13C could be an adequate indicator of WUE in response to the exogenous supply of silicon to chickpea plants. Our results highlight that Si is not only involved in amelioration of growth and in maintaining of water status but it can be also considered an important element for the symbiotic performance of chickpea plants. It can be concluded that the synergistic effect of silicon and potassium fertilization with adequate irrigation improves growth and nitrogen fixation in chickpea plants.

  7. Macroalgae and phytoplankton as indicators of ecological status of Danish coastal waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Jacob; Krause-Jensen, Dorte; Dahl, Karsten

    This report contributes to the development of tools that can be applied to assess the five classes of ecological status of the Water Framework Directive based on the biological quality elements phytoplankton and macroalgae. Nitrogen inputs and concentrations representing reference conditions...... and boundaries between the five ecological status classes were calculated from estimates of nitrogen inputs from Denmark to the Danish straits since 1900 combined with expert judgement of the general environmental conditions of Danish waters during different time periods. From these calculated nitrogen...... concentrations and a macroalgal model ecological status class boundaries were established for six macroalgal indicators in a number of Danish estuaries and coastal areas. Furthermore, site-specific correlations between concentrations of nitrogen and chlorophyll a were used to define reference conditions...

  8. The effect of osmocote fertilizers on growth and nutrient status of Carex buchananii Berggr.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Henschke

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An experiment on the effect of Osmocote fertilizers on growth and nutrient status of Carex buchananii was conducted in the years 2008–2009. Carex buchananii is a dense-tufted sedge growing up to 60 cm in height, with very narrow, stiff, red, copper and olive colored leaves throughout the season. Plants were grown in a greenhouse in pots with peat substrate for 18 weeks. The differentiating factors included the type of fertilizer, i.e. Exact Standard 16:11:11 and Osmocote Exact High Start 11:11:19, and fertilizer application rates of 2 and 4 g dm−3, the phase of growth, i.e. 1 to 9 weeks and 9 to 18 weeks of culture. The greatest increment in the tuft circumference of C. buchananii was recorded in the first 9 weeks of culture, while that of the fresh weight of aboveground parts – in the period from 9 to 18 weeks. The application of Osmocote Exact High Start at 4 g dm−3 in the culture of C. buchananii resulted in the production of the desired quality of the plants with a greater tuft circumference and shorter leaves. It was shown that best quality plants contained in their aboveground parts the following amounts of macronutrients and sodium (g kg−1: N – 18.9, P – 3.5, K – 37.2, Ca – 5.8, Mg – 3.0, and Na – 0.3.

  9. Evaluation of Growth Status in Children with Congenital Heart Disease: A Case- Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Mohammad Noori

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children with congenital heart disease (CHD are prone to malnutrition and growth retardation. This study aimed to compare growth status between children with CHD and healthy children.                Materials and Methods: This case–control study included 310 children with CHD and 300 healthy children matched in age and gender. CHD patients grouped according to cardiac diagnosis: group 1 (n=5, cyanotic patients with pulmonary hypertension; group 2 (n=22, cyanotic patients without pulmonary hypertension; group 3 (n=43, Acyanotic patients with pulmonary hypertension; and group 4 (n=240, Acyanotic patients without pulmonary hypertension. Anthropometric measurements of weight (Kg, height (cm, and head circumference (cm were measured and recorded for both case and control groups.  Descriptive and analytical statistics were performed using the by SPSS version 21.0. Results: Weight and head circumference were significantly lower in CHD children compared to healthy children (p

  10. Effect of hospital nutrition support on growth velocity and nutritional status of low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzeh, Firas S; Alazzeh, Awfa Y; Dabbour, Ibrahim R; Jazar, Abdelelah S; Obeidat, Ahmed A

    2014-10-01

    Infants with low birth weights are provided with hospital nutrition support to enhance their survivability and body weights. However, different hospitals have different nutrition support formulas. Therefore, the effectiveness of these nutrition support formulas should be investigated. To assess the effect of hospital nutrition support on growth velocity and nutritional status of low birth weight infants at Al-Noor hospital, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted between October, 2010 and December, 2012. Three hundred newborns were recruited from Al-Noor Hospital in Makkah city, Saudi Arabia. Infants were selected according to their birth weights and were divided equally into three groups; (i) Low Birth Weight (LBW) infants (1501- 2500 g birth weight), (ii) Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW) infants (1001-1500 g birth weight) and (iii) Extremely Low Birth Weight (ELBW) infants ( 0.05) were observed among groups. Serum calcium, phosphorus and potassium levels at discharge were higher (p Hospital was not sufficient to achieve normal growth rate for low birth weight infants, while biochemical indicators were remarkably improved in all groups. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  11. Socioeconomic status and the growth of intelligence from infancy through adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Stumm, Sophie; Plomin, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Low socioeconomic status (SES) children perform on average worse on intelligence tests than children from higher SES backgrounds, but the developmental relationship between intelligence and SES has not been adequately investigated. Here, we use latent growth curve (LGC) models to assess associations between SES and individual differences in the intelligence starting point (intercept) and in the rate and direction of change in scores (slope and quadratic term) from infancy through adolescence in 14,853 children from the Twins Early Development Study (TEDS), assessed 9 times on IQ between the ages of 2 and 16 years. SES was significantly associated with intelligence growth factors: higher SES was related both to a higher starting point in infancy and to greater gains in intelligence over time. Specifically, children from low SES families scored on average 6 IQ points lower at age 2 than children from high SES backgrounds; by age 16, this difference had almost tripled. Although these key results did not vary across girls and boys, we observed gender differences in the development of intelligence in early childhood. Overall, SES was shown to be associated with individual differences in intercepts as well as slopes of intelligence. However, this finding does not warrant causal interpretations of the relationship between SES and the development of intelligence.

  12. Maternal nutritional status, breast-milk production and newborn growth and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paez Valery, M.C.; Eden Yepez, C.; Sanchez Jaeger, A.; Pontiles Colina, M.; Llovera, D.; Teran, D.

    1999-01-01

    The decrease in the practice of breast-feeding has occurred in Venezuela like in many other countries. In Venezuela, many efforts have been made to promote this practice because of its impact on children growth and development, and also because breast-feeding is not a common practice among the socioeconomic deprived groups of our urban areas. Several methodologies have been used to evaluate different breast-milk aspects, including questionnaires on beliefs and attitudes, milk composition studies, and immunity studies. However, is not an accurate and reliable technique for breast milk volume determinations. In this study we selected to use isotopic methods to measure breast-milk output, and its composition in lactating women who are at nutritional risk. Another objective of the project is to assess vitamin A status and reserves according to the conjunctival impression cytology (CIC) and the retinol dose response (RDR) methodology. Body composition will be determined through different skinfold measurements, and body mass composition (BMI). Also, the growth development of their babies, during the first three months of breast-feeding will be evaluated. (author)

  13. [Correlation between the maternal nutritional status, quality of lactation and child growth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalah, E; Bustos, P; Rúz, M; Hurtado, C; Masson, L; Urteaga, C; Castaños, M; Godoy, R; Oliver, H; Araya, J

    1980-01-01

    16 nursing mothers with regular height but low body weight were compared to 26 healthy and robust nursing controls to study the relationship between mother's alimentation and infant growth. An analysis of the diet of both groups revealed it to be 30.8% and 20% deficient, respectively. After 3 months of breast feeding, infants of mothers in the 1st. group were shorter and less heavy than infants of mothers in the 2nd. group. Chemical composition of breast milk did not show any significant difference between the 2 groups. On the other hand, a comparison of the infants' weight at 3 months with all the variables considered showed a significant correlation with birth weight, fat and energetic contents and linoleic acids of breast milk, and the mother's antropometric variables, while comparison of breast milk was not related with any maternal variables. Such results indicate that differences in infant growth depend more on the volume than on the composition of breast milk, and that the nutritional status of the mother is more important during pregnancy than during lactation.

  14. Effect of water stress on the growth and some yield parameters of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of water stress on the growth and some yield parameters of Solanum lycopersicum L. ... Plants in the first group (W1) were supplied with 200 ml of water everyday; plants in the second group (W2) were supplied with 200 ml of water once every 3 days; plants in the third group (W3) were supplied with 200 ml of water ...

  15. Water security, risk, and economic growth: Insights from a dynamical systems model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadson, Simon; Hall, Jim W.; Garrick, Dustin; Sadoff, Claudia; Grey, David; Whittington, Dale

    2017-08-01

    Investments in the physical infrastructure, human capital, and institutions needed for water resources management have been noteworthy in the development of most civilizations. These investments affect the economy in two distinct ways: (i) by improving the factor productivity of water in multiple economic sectors, especially those that are water intensive such as agriculture and energy and (ii) by reducing acute and chronic harmful effects of water-related hazards like floods, droughts, and water-related diseases. The need for capital investment to mitigate risks and promote economic growth is widely acknowledged, but prior conceptual work on the relationship between water-related investments and economic growth has focused on the productive and harmful roles of water in the economy independently. Here the two influences are combined using a simple, dynamical systems model of water-related investment, risk, and growth. In cases where initial water security is low, initial investment in water-related assets enables growth. Without such investment, losses due to water-related hazards exert a drag on economic growth and may create a poverty trap. The presence and location of the poverty trap is context-specific and depends on the exposure of productive water-related assets to water-related risk. Exogenous changes in water-related risk can potentially push an economy away from a growth path toward a poverty trap. Our investigation shows that an inverted-U-shaped investment relation between the level of investment in water security and the current level of water security leads to faster rates of growth than the alternatives that we consider here, and that this relation is responsible for the "S"-curve that is posited in the literature. These results illustrate the importance of accounting for environmental and health risks in economic models and offer insights for the design of robust policies for investment in water-related productive assets to manage risk, in the face

  16. Response of the water status of soybean to changes in soil water potentials controlled by the water pressure in microporous tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, S. L.; Henninger, D. L.

    1997-01-01

    Water transport through a microporous tube-soil-plant system was investigated by measuring the response of soil and plant water status to step change reductions in the water pressure within the tubes. Soybeans were germinated and grown in a porous ceramic 'soil' at a porous tube water pressure of -0.5 kpa for 28 d. During this time, the soil matric potential was nearly in equilibrium with tube water pressure. Water pressure in the porous tubes was then reduced to either -1.0, -1.5 or -2.0 kPa. Sap flow rates, leaf conductance and soil, root and leaf water potentials were measured before and after this change. A reduction in porous tube water pressure from -0.5 to -1.0 or -1.5 kPa did not result in any significant change in soil or plant water status. A reduction in porous tube water pressure to -2.0 kPa resulted in significant reductions in sap flow, leaf conductance, and soil, root and leaf water potentials. Hydraulic conductance, calculated as the transpiration rate/delta psi between two points in the water transport pathway, was used to analyse water transport through the tube-soil-plant continuum. At porous tube water pressures of -0.5 to-1.5 kPa soil moisture was readily available and hydraulic conductance of the plant limited water transport. At -2.0 kPa, hydraulic conductance of the bulk soil was the dominant factor in water movement.

  17. Growth-supporting activity for Legionella pneumophila in tap water cultures and implication of hartmannellid amoebae as growth factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadowsky, R M; Butler, L J; Cook, M K; Verma, S M; Paul, M A; Fields, B S; Keleti, G; Sykora, J L; Yee, R B

    1988-11-01

    Photosynthetic cyanobacteria, heterotrophic bacteria, free-living amoebae, and ciliated protozoa may support growth of Legionella pneumophila. Studies were done with two tap water cultures (WS1 and WS2) containing L. pneumophila and associated microbiota to characterize growth-supporting activity and assess the relative importance of the microbiota in supporting multiplication of L. pneumophila. The water cultures were incubated in the dark at 35 degrees C. The growth-supporting factor(s) was separated from each culture by filtration through 1-micron-pore-size membrane filters. The retentate was then suspended in sterile tap water. Multiplication of L. pneumophila occurred when both the retentate suspension and the filtrate from either culture were inoculated into sterile tap water. L. pneumophila did not multiply in tap water inoculated with only the filtrate, even though filtration did not reduce the concentration of L. pneumophila or heterotrophic bacteria in either culture. Growth-supporting activity of the retentate suspension from WS1 was inactivated at 60 degrees C but unaffected at 0, 25, and 45 degrees C after 30-min incubations. Filtration experiments indicated that the growth-supporting factor(s) in WS1 was 2 to 5 micron in diameter. Ciliated protozoa were not detected in either culture. Hartmannellid amoebae were conclusively demonstrated in WS2 but not in WS1. L. pneumophila multiplied in tap water inoculated with the amoebae (10(3)/ml) and the 1-micron filtrate of WS2. No multiplication occurred in tap water inoculated with the filtrate only. Growth-supporting activity for L. pneumophila may be present in plumbing systems; hartmannellid amoebae appear to be important determinants of multiplication of L. pneumophila in some tap water cultures.

  18. Water Load Test in Childhood Functional Abdominal Pain: No Relation to Food Intake and Nutritional Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Roberto Koity Fujihara; Soares, Ana Cristina Fontenele; Speridião, Patricia da Graça Leite; de Morais, Mauro Batista

    2015-09-01

    This cross-sectional study evaluates the relations between the water load test in childhood functional gastrointestinal disorders with food intake and nutritional status. Patients with functional dyspepsia required a lower maximum water intake to produce fullness (n = 11, median = 380 mL) than patients with irritable bowel syndrome (n = 10, median = 695 mL) or functional abdominal pain (n = 10, median = 670 mL) (P 560 mL (n = 14) in the water load test, there was no relation between the maximum drinking capacity and food intake, body mass index, or height.

  19. EVALUATION OF WATER POLLUTION STATUS IN SIRET HYDROGRAPHICAL BASIN (SUCEAVA REGION DUE TO AGRICULTURAL ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Zaharia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study presents data concerning the water pollution status of Siret hydrographical basin (i.e. surface and ground waters, lakes in Suceava County area (different controlling/monitoring sections due to agricultural productive activities, especially regarding some quality indicators (nitrogen-based nutrient concentrations evaluated for 2008. These data are recommending the necessity of continuous monitoring of water quality in the Siret River hydrographical basin, in all existing control sections, for identification of any pollution episodes, non-reported by polluters to the local environmental regulators.

  20. Factor analysis and growth prospects of potable water local market

    OpenAIRE

    MEKUSH G. E.; ANTONOVA A. V.; LAVROV A. M.; BUVALTSEVA V. I.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the clean potable water is globally the restricted economic benefit. In highly urbanized and environmentally unfavorable regions, including the Kemerovo region, development of food plants to fill drinking water is the most promising way to solve the problem of potable water availability. Factors and conditions of the drinking water market formation are studied by integral evaluation of drinking water availability in all municipal districts of the region, using the criteria of avail...

  1. Growth is required for perception of water availability to pattern root branches in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Neil E; Dinneny, José R

    2018-01-23

    Water availability is a potent regulator of plant development and induces root branching through a process termed hydropatterning. Hydropatterning enables roots to position lateral branches toward regions of high water availability, such as wet soil or agar media, while preventing their emergence where water is less available, such as in air. The mechanism by which roots perceive the spatial distribution of water during hydropatterning is unknown. Using primary roots of Zea mays (maize) we reveal that developmental competence for hydropatterning is limited to the growth zone of the root tip. Past work has shown that growth generates gradients in water potential across an organ when asymmetries exist in the distribution of available water. Using mathematical modeling, we predict that substantial growth-sustained water potential gradients are also generated in the hydropatterning competent zone and that such biophysical cues inform the patterning of lateral roots. Using diverse chemical and environmental treatments we experimentally demonstrate that growth is necessary for normal hydropatterning of lateral roots. Transcriptomic characterization of the local response of tissues to a moist surface or air revealed extensive regulation of signaling and physiological pathways, some of which we show are growth-dependent. Our work supports a "sense-by-growth" mechanism governing hydropatterning, by which water availability cues are rendered interpretable through growth-sustained water movement. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  2. Vineyard water status assessment using on-the-go thermal imaging and machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Salvador; Diago, María P; Fernández-Novales, Juan; Tardaguila, Javier

    2018-01-01

    The high impact of irrigation in crop quality and yield in grapevine makes the development of plant water status monitoring systems an essential issue in the context of sustainable viticulture. This study presents an on-the-go approach for the estimation of vineyard water status using thermal imaging and machine learning. The experiments were conducted during seven different weeks from July to September in season 2016. A thermal camera was embedded on an all-terrain vehicle moving at 5 km/h to take on-the-go thermal images of the vineyard canopy at 1.2 m of distance and 1.0 m from the ground. The two sides of the canopy were measured for the development of side-specific and global models. Stem water potential was acquired and used as reference method. Additionally, reference temperatures Tdry and Twet were determined for the calculation of two thermal indices: the crop water stress index (CWSI) and the Jones index (Ig). Prediction models were built with and without considering the reference temperatures as input of the training algorithms. When using the reference temperatures, the best models casted determination coefficients R2 of 0.61 and 0.58 for cross validation and prediction (RMSE values of 0.190 MPa and 0.204 MPa), respectively. Nevertheless, when the reference temperatures were not considered in the training of the models, their performance statistics responded in the same way, returning R2 values up to 0.62 and 0.65 for cross validation and prediction (RMSE values of 0.190 MPa and 0.184 MPa), respectively. The outcomes provided by the machine learning algorithms support the use of thermal imaging for fast, reliable estimation of a vineyard water status, even suppressing the necessity of supervised acquisition of reference temperatures. The new developed on-the-go method can be very useful in the grape and wine industry for assessing and mapping vineyard water status.

  3. Vineyard water status assessment using on-the-go thermal imaging and machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Salvador; Diago, María P.; Fernández-Novales, Juan

    2018-01-01

    The high impact of irrigation in crop quality and yield in grapevine makes the development of plant water status monitoring systems an essential issue in the context of sustainable viticulture. This study presents an on-the-go approach for the estimation of vineyard water status using thermal imaging and machine learning. The experiments were conducted during seven different weeks from July to September in season 2016. A thermal camera was embedded on an all-terrain vehicle moving at 5 km/h to take on-the-go thermal images of the vineyard canopy at 1.2 m of distance and 1.0 m from the ground. The two sides of the canopy were measured for the development of side-specific and global models. Stem water potential was acquired and used as reference method. Additionally, reference temperatures Tdry and Twet were determined for the calculation of two thermal indices: the crop water stress index (CWSI) and the Jones index (Ig). Prediction models were built with and without considering the reference temperatures as input of the training algorithms. When using the reference temperatures, the best models casted determination coefficients R2 of 0.61 and 0.58 for cross validation and prediction (RMSE values of 0.190 MPa and 0.204 MPa), respectively. Nevertheless, when the reference temperatures were not considered in the training of the models, their performance statistics responded in the same way, returning R2 values up to 0.62 and 0.65 for cross validation and prediction (RMSE values of 0.190 MPa and 0.184 MPa), respectively. The outcomes provided by the machine learning algorithms support the use of thermal imaging for fast, reliable estimation of a vineyard water status, even suppressing the necessity of supervised acquisition of reference temperatures. The new developed on-the-go method can be very useful in the grape and wine industry for assessing and mapping vineyard water status. PMID:29389982

  4. A Cross-sectional Survey of Growth and Nutritional Status in Children With Cerebral Palsy in West China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fangfang; Cai, Qianyun; Shi, Wei; Jiang, Huayin; Li, Na; Ma, Dan; Wang, Qiu; Luo, Rong; Mu, Dezhi

    2016-05-01

    We describe the growth and nutritional status of children with cerebral palsy (2 to 18 years old) in West China and to explore the correlation between the nutritional status and age, gender, and gross and fine motor function. We performed a cross-sectional survey of children registered as having cerebral palsy in the China Disabled Persons' Federation branch in Chengdu. Growth (height and weight) and nutritional (body mass index) status were recorded. Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) and Manual Ability Classification System (MACS) were used to determine gross and fine motor function, respectively. The association between nutritional status and age, GMFCS and MACS levels was evaluated. We enrolled 377 children (53.6% male), among whom 160 (42.4%) were stunting, 48 (12.7%) underweight, 81 (21.5%) thin, and 70 (18.5%) overweight and obese. Thinness was the main nutritional problem in older patients (12 to 18 years), whereas overweight and obesity were the major issues in younger patients (2 to 12 years). Growth deviation and malnutrition were significantly more prevalent in patients with severe motor impairments. A significant negative correlation was found between nutritional status and age, GMFCS and MACS levels, and between growth and GMFCS and MACS levels. Growth abnormality is common in children with cerebral palsy. Malnutrition and overnutrition both exist in children with cerebral palsy. Characteristics at different age stages and motor functional levels should be taken into consideration in the management of growth and nutrition in this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. CSIR Technologies and Interventions to maximise the availability of water for Scenarios of Industrial Growth

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Harrison, Pienaar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available conflict with regional consequences Large-scale involuntary migration 1 2 3 4 5 Economic Growth & Business Risks It creates jobs and stimulates GDP growth Water-Related Business Risks • Companies experiencing increased detrimental impacts... solution providers to offer cost-effective, innovative solutions designed to reduce water use through improved efficiency. • “Critical to economic growth is policy alignment and coherence. If we can get this right as government, and at the same time...

  6. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis Alleviates Salt Stress in Black Locust through Improved Photosynthesis, Water Status, and K+/Na+Homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Zhang, Haoqiang; Zhang, Xinlu; Tang, Ming

    2017-01-01

    effects of AM symbiosis on the photosynthetic capacity, water status, and K + /Na + homeostasis lead to the improved growth performance and salt tolerance of black locust exposed to salt stress.

  7. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis Alleviates Salt Stress in Black Locust through Improved Photosynthesis, Water Status, and K+/Na+ Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Chen

    2017-10-01

    symbiosis on the photosynthetic capacity, water status, and K+/Na+ homeostasis lead to the improved growth performance and salt tolerance of black locust exposed to salt stress.

  8. Global water resources: vulnerability from climate change and population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vörösmarty, C J; Green, P; Salisbury, J; Lammers, R B

    2000-07-14

    The future adequacy of freshwater resources is difficult to assess, owing to a complex and rapidly changing geography of water supply and use. Numerical experiments combining climate model outputs, water budgets, and socioeconomic information along digitized river networks demonstrate that (i) a large proportion of the world's population is currently experiencing water stress and (ii) rising water demands greatly outweigh greenhouse warming in defining the state of global water systems to 2025. Consideration of direct human impacts on global water supply remains a poorly articulated but potentially important facet of the larger global change question.

  9. Water-assisted growth of graphene-carbon nanotube hybrids in plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Aarti; Ghosh, Santanu; Srivastava, Pankaj

    2018-04-01

    The enhanced growth of graphene-carbon nanotube (CNT) hybrids in a hydrocarbon and hydrogen plasma assisted by water is numerically formulated. The catalyst activity and agglomeration of catalyst particles are the rate determining factors in the growth of hybrids and their constituents, i.e., the CNT and graphene. The water vapor concentration is varied to investigate its effect on the growth process. The enhanced catalyst activity on account of oxidation by hydroxyl ions of water to impede the agglomeration of catalyst particles and the removal of amorphous carbon through etching by hydrogen ions of water are seen to be the main driving forces behind the many fold increase in the dimensions of constituent nanostructures and the hybrids with water vapor concentration. Importantly, beyond a certain specific water vapor concentration, the growth rates dropped due to active oxidation of the catalyst particle.

  10. Strong association of epidermal growth factor receptor status with breast cancer FDG uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joohee; Moon, Seung Hwan; Hyun, Seung Hyup; Cho, Young Seok; Choi, Joon Young; Kim, Byung-Tae; Lee, Kyung-Han [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Eun Jeong [Seoul Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seokhwi [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-15

    Imaging tumor FDG uptake could complement breast cancer biomarkers of risk and treatment response. Although breast cancer FDG uptake is reputedly influenced by major biomarker states, the role of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression remains largely unexplored. This is a retrospective study that included 499 patients with primary breast cancer at initial presentation. Tumor FDG uptake was measured on pretreatment PET/CT as maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), and biomarkers were assessed by immunohistochemistry of tumor tissue. Regression analysis was performed for predictors of high tumor FDG uptake (SUVmax ≥ 8.6). SUVmax was higher in ER- (36.5%; 11.2 ± 6.0 vs. 8.3 ± 5.3), PR- (42.3%; 10.9 ± 6.0 vs. 8.2 ± 5.2), and triple-negative tumors (19.8%; 12.0 ± 6.9 vs. 8.7 ± 5.2; all p < 0.0001). EGFR expression (28.5%) was more frequent in ER-, PR-, triple-negative, cytokeratin 5/6 (CK5/6) + and mutant P53 (mP53) + tumors (all p < 0.0001). EGFR+ was associated with higher SUVmax among all tumors (11.9 ± 6.0 vs. 8.3 ± 5.3), ER- tumors (p < 0.0001), PR- and + tumors (p < 0.0001 and 0.027), hormone receptor- and + tumors (p < 0.0001 and 0.004), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)- and + tumors (p < 0.0001 and 0.006), non-triple negative tumors (p < 0.0001), CK5/6- and + tumors (p = 0.021 and <0.0001), and mP53- and + tumors (p < 0.0001 and 0.008). Tumors had high FDG uptake in 73.2% of EGFR+ and 40.6% of EGFR- tumors. On regression analysis, significant multivariate predictors of high tumor FDG uptake were large size, EGFR+ and CK5/6+ for the entire subjects, and EGFR+ and CK5/6+ for ER- and hormone receptor negative subgroups. High FDG uptake was able to sub-stratify EGFR+ tumors that were more likely to be ER- and CK5/6+, and EGFR- tumors more likely to be mP53 +. Primary breast tumor FDG uptake is strongly influenced by EGFR status beyond that by other major biomarkers including hormone receptor and HER2 status, and EGFR

  11. Math Growth Trajectories of Students with Disabilities: Disability Category, Gender, Racial, and Socioeconomic Status Differences from Ages 7 to 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xin; Lenz, Keith B.; Blackorby, Jose

    2013-01-01

    This study examined math growth trajectories by disability category, gender, race, and socioeconomic status using a nationally representative sample of students ages 7 to 17. The students represented 11 federal disability categories. Compared with the national norming sample, students in all 11 disability categories had lower math achievement…

  12. Race, socioeconomic status, and obesity in 9- to 10 year-old girls : The NHLBI Growth and Health Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kimm, SYS; Obarzanek, E; Barton, BA; Aston, CE; Similo, SL; Morrison, JA; Sabry, ZI; Schreiber, GB; McMahon, RP

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether measures of socioeconomic status (SES) are inversely associated with obesity in 9- to 10-year-old black and white girls and their parents. Subjects were participants in the Growth and Health Study (NGHS) of the National Heart, Lung, and

  13. Water stress inhibits hydraulic conductance and leaf growth in rice seedlings but not the transport of water via mercury-sensitive water channels in the root

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu; Neumann

    1999-05-01

    The mechanisms by which moderate water stress (adding polyethylene glycol 6000 to the root medium) induces a sustained inhibition of growth in emerging first leaves of intact rice (Oryza sativa) seedlings was investigated under growth-chamber conditions. Early (24 h) inhibition of leaf growth was not related to changes in root size or in osmotic potential gradients and cell wall-yielding characteristics in the leaf-expansion zone of stressed seedlings. However, reductions in root-to-leaf hydraulic conductance (L) were measured in two rice cultivars after 4 or 24 h at various levels of water stress, and these reductions correlated well with the inhibition of leaf growth. We assayed L by a psychrometric method and, in intact seedlings, by a novel osmotic-jump method. The addition of 0.5 mM HgCl2 to the root medium to inhibit water transport through Hg-sensitive water channels in the roots did not inhibit leaf growth in unstressed seedlings. However, both leaf growth and L were additionally reduced (by 49% and 43%, respectively) within minutes of adding HgCl2 to roots of water-stressed seedlings. Water stress therefore appeared to increase the transport of water via Hg-sensitive water channels. Other mechanisms were apparently involved in inhibiting overall L and leaf growth.

  14. Disentangling the Effects of Water Stress on Carbon Acquisition, Vegetative Growth, and Fruit Quality of Peach Trees by Means of the QualiTree Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmati, Mitra; Mirás-Avalos, José M; Valsesia, Pierre; Lescourret, Françoise; Génard, Michel; Davarynejad, Gholam H; Bannayan, Mohammad; Azizi, Majid; Vercambre, Gilles

    2018-01-01

    Climate change projections predict warmer and drier conditions. In general, moderate to severe water stress reduce plant vegetative growth and leaf photosynthesis. However, vegetative and reproductive growths show different sensitivities to water deficit. In fruit trees, water restrictions may have serious implications not only on tree growth and yield, but also on fruit quality, which might be improved. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to understand the complex interrelations among the physiological processes involved in within-tree carbon acquisition and allocation, water uptake and transpiration, organ growth, and fruit composition when affected by water stress. This can be studied using process-based models of plant functioning, which allow assessing the sensitivity of various physiological processes to water deficit and their relative impact on vegetative growth and fruit quality. In the current study, an existing fruit-tree model (QualiTree) was adapted for describing the water stress effects on peach ( Prunus persica L. Batsch) vegetative growth, fruit size and composition. First, an energy balance calculation at the fruit-bearing shoot level and a water transfer formalization within the plant were integrated into the model. Next, a reduction function of vegetative growth according to tree water status was added to QualiTree. Then, the model was parameterized and calibrated for a late-maturing peach cultivar ("Elberta") under semi-arid conditions, and for three different irrigation practices. Simulated vegetative and fruit growth variability over time was consistent with observed data. Sugar concentrations in fruit flesh were well simulated. Finally, QualiTree allowed for determining the relative importance of photosynthesis and vegetative growth reduction on carbon acquisition, plant growth and fruit quality under water constrains. According to simulations, water deficit impacted vegetative growth first through a direct effect on its sink strength

  15. Disentangling the Effects of Water Stress on Carbon Acquisition, Vegetative Growth, and Fruit Quality of Peach Trees by Means of the QualiTree Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Rahmati

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change projections predict warmer and drier conditions. In general, moderate to severe water stress reduce plant vegetative growth and leaf photosynthesis. However, vegetative and reproductive growths show different sensitivities to water deficit. In fruit trees, water restrictions may have serious implications not only on tree growth and yield, but also on fruit quality, which might be improved. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to understand the complex interrelations among the physiological processes involved in within-tree carbon acquisition and allocation, water uptake and transpiration, organ growth, and fruit composition when affected by water stress. This can be studied using process-based models of plant functioning, which allow assessing the sensitivity of various physiological processes to water deficit and their relative impact on vegetative growth and fruit quality. In the current study, an existing fruit-tree model (QualiTree was adapted for describing the water stress effects on peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch vegetative growth, fruit size and composition. First, an energy balance calculation at the fruit-bearing shoot level and a water transfer formalization within the plant were integrated into the model. Next, a reduction function of vegetative growth according to tree water status was added to QualiTree. Then, the model was parameterized and calibrated for a late-maturing peach cultivar (“Elberta” under semi-arid conditions, and for three different irrigation practices. Simulated vegetative and fruit growth variability over time was consistent with observed data. Sugar concentrations in fruit flesh were well simulated. Finally, QualiTree allowed for determining the relative importance of photosynthesis and vegetative growth reduction on carbon acquisition, plant growth and fruit quality under water constrains. According to simulations, water deficit impacted vegetative growth first through a direct effect on

  16. [Effects of water deficit and nitrogen fertilization on winter wheat growth and nitrogen uptake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, You-Ling; Zhang, Fu-Cang; Li, Kai-Feng

    2009-10-01

    Winter wheat plants were cultured in vitro tubes to study their growth and nitrogen uptake under effects of water deficit at different growth stages and nitrogen fertilization. Water deficit at any growth stages could obviously affect the plant height, leaf area, dry matter accumulation, and nitrogen uptake. Jointing stage was the most sensitive stage of winter wheat growth to water deficit, followed by flowering stage, grain-filling stage, and seedling stages. Rewatering after the water deficit at seedling stage had a significant compensation effect on winter wheat growth, and definite compensation effect was observed on the biomass accumulation and nitrogen absorption when rewatering was made after the water deficit at flowering stage. Under the same nitrogen fertilization levels, the nitrogen accumulation in root with water deficit at seedling, jointing, flowering, and grain-filling stages was reduced by 25.82%, 55.68%, 46.14%, and 16.34%, and the nitrogen accumulation in aboveground part was reduced by 33.37%, 51.71%, 27.01%, and 2.60%, respectively, compared with no water deficit. Under the same water deficit stages, the nitrogen content and accumulation of winter wheat decreased with decreasing nitrogen fertilization level, i. e., 0.3 g N x kg(-1) FM > 0.2 g N x kg(-1) FM > 0.1 g N x kg(-1) FM. Nitrogen fertilization had obvious regulation effect on winter wheat plant growth, dry matter accumulation, and nitrogen uptake under water stress.

  17. Glophymed: an index to establish the ecological status for the Water Framework Directive based on phytoplankton in coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, I; Pachés, M; Martínez-Guijarro, R; Ferrer, J

    2013-10-15

    Phytoplankton and its attributes (biomass, abundance, composition, and frequency and intensity of phytoplankton blooms) are essential to establish the ecological status in the Water Frame Directive. The aim of this study is to develop an index "Glophymed" based on all phytoplankton attributes for coastal water bodies according to the directive requirements. It is also developed an anthropogenic pressure index that takes into account population density, tourism, urbanization, industry, agriculture, fisheries and maritime transport for Comunitat Valenciana (Spain). Both indexes (Glophymed and human pressure index) based on a multisampling dataset collected monthly during several years, show a significant statistical correlation (r2 0.75 α<0.01) for typology IIA and (r2 0.93 α<0.01) for typology III-W. The relation between these indexes provides suitable information about the integrated management plans and protection measures of water resources since the Glophymed index is very sensitive to human pressures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Growth, root colonization and nutrient status of Helianthemum sessiliflorum Desf. inoculated with a desert truffle Terfezia boudieri Chatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slama, Awatef; Gorai, Mustapha; Fortas, Zohra; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Neffati, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of inoculation using Terfezia boudieri Chatin ascospores (ectomycorrhizal fungus) on growth, root colonization and nutrient status of Helianthemum sessiliflorum Desf. seedlings grown in pots on two-soil types (gypseous and sandy loam). Mycorrhizal seedlings had significantly increased their height and leaf number compared to non-mycorrhizal ones. Regardless of mycorrhizal inoculation treatments, the plants growing on gypseous soil showed higher growth as compared to sandy loam one. It appears that inoculation with T. boudieri changed root morphology, increasing branching of first-order lateral roots of H. sessiliflorum seedlings. The highest root mycorrhizal colonization was recorded in inoculated seedlings on sandy loam soil (89%) when compared to gypseous one (52%). N, P and K concentrations in mycorrhizal seedlings were significantly improved by fungal inoculation. It can be concluded that inoculation of H. sessiliflorum with T. boudieri increased growth attributes and improved plant nutritional status.

  19. Design Status of the Capillary Brine Residual in Containment Water Recovery System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargusingh, Miriam J.; Callahan, Michael R.; Garison, John; Houng, Benjamin; Weislogel, Mark M.

    2016-01-01

    One of the goals of the AES Life Support System (LSS) Project is to achieve 98% water loop closure for long duration human exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit. To meet this objective, the AES LSS Project is developing technologies to recover water from wastewater brine; highly concentrated waste products generated from a primary water recovery system. The state of the art system used aboard the International Space Station (ISS) has the potential to recover up to 85% water from unine wastewater, leaving a significant amounts of water in the waste brine, the recovery of which is critical technology gap that must be filled in order to enable long duration human exploration. Recovering water from the urine wastewater brine is complicated by the concentration of solids as water is removed from the brine, and the concentration of the corrosive, toxic chemicals used to stabilize the urine which fouls and degrades water processing hardware, and poses a hazard to operators and crew. Brine Residual in Containment (BRIC) is focused on solids management through a process of "in-place" drying - the drying of brines within the container used for final disposal. Application of in-place drying has the potential to improve the safety and reliability of the system by reducing the exposure to curew and hardware to the problematic brine residual. Through a collaboration between the NASA Johnson Space Center and Portland Status University, a novel water recovery system was developed that utilizes containment geometry to support passive capillary flow and static phase separation allowing free surface evaporation to take place in a microgravity environment. A notional design for an ISS demonstration system was developed. This paper describes the testing performed to characterize the performance of the system as well as the status of the system level design.

  20. Physical Growth and Nutritional Status among Ao Naga Children of Nagaland, Northeast India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temsumongla Longkumer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out on 571 Ao Naga children including 289 boys and 282 girls aged 8 to 15 years from Mokokchung town, Nagaland. This study tried to find out the physical growth according to the height and weight and nutritional status according to the body mass index (BMI following the classification by Cole et al. Our study revealed that the girls were taller than boys till 13 years and the boys became taller thereafter. As for weight, the girls were heavier during 10 to 14 years. The mean height and weight increased as the age advanced in both boys and girls. The prevalence of underweight was 30.12% and the prevalence of overweight was 2.28% among the Ao Naga children, and the girls were found to have a higher prevalence of overweight and the boys had a higher prevalence of underweight. This revealed that both underweight and overweight coexisted among the Ao Naga children from Mokokchung town, although the prevalence of overweight was not high.

  1. Human-water interface in hydrological modelling : Current status and future directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wada, Yoshihide; Bierkens, Marc F.P.; De Roo, Ad; Dirmeyer, Paul A.; Famiglietti, James S.; Hanasaki, Naota; Konar, Megan; Liu, Junguo; Schmied, Hannes Möller; Oki, Taikan; Pokhrel, Yadu; Sivapalan, Murugesu; Troy, Tara J.; Van Dijk, Albert I.J.M.; Van Emmerik, Tim; van Huijgevoort, Marjolein H.J.; van Lanen, Henny A.J.; VöRöSmarty, Charles J.; Wanders, Niko; Wheater, Howard

    2017-01-01

    Over recent decades, the global population has been rapidly increasing and human activities have altered terrestrial water fluxes to an unprecedented extent. The phenomenal growth of the human footprint has significantly modified hydrological processes in various ways (e.g. irrigation, artificial

  2. Human-water interface in hydrological modelling : Current status and future directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wada, Yoshihide; Bierkens, Marc F.P.; de Roo, A; Dirmeyer, Paul A.; Famiglietti, James S.; Hanasaki, Naota; Konar, Megan; Liu, Junguo; Schmied, Hannes Möller; Oki, Taikan; Pokhrel, Yadu; Sivapalan, Murugesu; Troy, Tara J.; Van Dijk, Albert I J M; van Emmerik, T.H.M.; Van Huijgevoort, Marjolein H.J.; Van Lanen, Henny A.J.; Vörösmarty, Charles J.; Wanders, Niko; Wheater, Howard

    2017-01-01

    Over recent decades, the global population has been rapidly increasing and human activities have altered terrestrial water fluxes to an unprecedented extent. The phenomenal growth of the human footprint has significantly modified hydrological processes in various ways (e.g. irrigation, artificial

  3. Flow cytometry total cell counts : A field study assessing microbiological water quality and growth in unchlorinated drinking water distribution systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, G.; Van der Mark, E.J.; Verberk, J.Q.; Van Dijk, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    e objective of this study was to evaluate the application of flow cytometry total cell counts (TCCs) as a parameter to assess microbial growth in drinking water distribution systems and to determine the relationships between different parameters describing the biostability of treated water. A

  4. Effects of magnetic treatment of water on the growth, yield and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of magnetic treatment of water on the growth, yield and quality of maize. Three magnetic flux densities of 443, 319 and 124 gauss (G) produced by the electromagnet were used to treat the water and they were lablelled as T1, T2 and T3, respectively. The water was called ...

  5. Human–water interface in hydrological modelling: current status and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Wada

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Over recent decades, the global population has been rapidly increasing and human activities have altered terrestrial water fluxes to an unprecedented extent. The phenomenal growth of the human footprint has significantly modified hydrological processes in various ways (e.g. irrigation, artificial dams, and water diversion and at various scales (from a watershed to the globe. During the early 1990s, awareness of the potential for increased water scarcity led to the first detailed global water resource assessments. Shortly thereafter, in order to analyse the human perturbation on terrestrial water resources, the first generation of large-scale hydrological models (LHMs was produced. However, at this early stage few models considered the interaction between terrestrial water fluxes and human activities, including water use and reservoir regulation, and even fewer models distinguished water use from surface water and groundwater resources. Since the early 2000s, a growing number of LHMs have incorporated human impacts on the hydrological cycle, yet the representation of human activities in hydrological models remains challenging. In this paper we provide a synthesis of progress in the development and application of human impact modelling in LHMs. We highlight a number of key challenges and discuss possible improvements in order to better represent the human–water interface in hydrological models.

  6. Water security, risk and economic growth: lessons from a dynamical systems model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadson, Simon; Hall, Jim; Garrick, Dustin; Sadoff, Claudia; Grey, David; Whittington, Dale

    2016-04-01

    Investments in the physical infrastructure, human capital, and institutions needed for water resources management have been a noteworthy feature in the development of most civilisations. These investments affect the economy in two distinct ways: (i) by improving the factor productivity of water in multiple sectors of the economy, especially those that are water intensive such as agriculture and energy; and (ii) by reducing the acute and chronic harmful effects of water-related hazards like floods, droughts, and water-related diseases. The need for capital investment to mitigate these risks in order to promote economic growth is widely acknowledged, but prior work to conceptualise the relationship between water-related risks and economic growth has focused on the productive and harmful roles of water in the economy independently. Here the two influences are combined using a simple, dynamical model of water-related investment, risk, and growth at the national level. The model suggests the existence of a context-specific threshold above which growth proceeds along an 'S'-curve. In many cases there is a requirement for initial investment in water-related assets to enable growth. Below the threshold it is possible for a poverty trap to arise. The presence and location of the poverty trap is context-specific and depends on the relative exposure of productive water-related assets to risk, compared with risks faced by assets in the wider economy. Exogenous changes in the level of water-related risk (through, for example, climate and land cover change) can potentially push an economy away from a growth path towards a poverty trap. These results illustrate the value of accounting for environmental risk in models of economic growth and may offer guidance in the design of robust policies for investment in water-related productive assets to manage risk, particularly in the face of global and regional environmental change.

  7. GROWTH RESPONSE OF CLOWN LOACH (Chromobotia macracanthus Bleeker 1852 JUVENILES IMMERSED IN WATER CONTAINING RECOMBINANT GROWTH HORMONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asep Permana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main problem in the culture of clown loach (Chromobotia macracanthus is the slow growth rate, which takes about six months to reach its market size (two inches total body length. Slow growth eventually cause a long production time and increase the production costs. An alternative solution can be proposed in order to enhance the growth is by using recombinant growth hormone. The aim of this study was to determine the immersion dose of recombinant Epinephelus lanceolatus growth hormone (rElGH which can generate the highest growth in clown loach. Larvae at seven day after hatching were hyperosmotic treated with NaCl 2.0% for one minute, then immersed for one hour in water containing 0.3% NaCl, 0.01% bovine serum albumin (BSA, and different doses of rElGH, namely: 0.12 (treatment A, 1.2 (B, 12 (C, and 120 mg/L (D. As control, fish were immersed in water without rElGH and NaCl (control-1, water containing 0.3% NaCl and 0.01% BSA (control-2, and 0.3% NaCl water (control-3. Each treatment was replicated three times. The results showed that clown loach juveniles in treatment B, C, and D had longer total body length (P0.05. In addition, the percentage of large size juveniles increased approximately 5% in treatment B, almost the same as in the medium size, while the small size were decrease compared to the control-1. Thus, the best immersion dose of rElGH was 1.2 mg/L water.

  8. Detecting Canopy Water Status Using Shortwave Infrared Reflectance Data From Polar Orbiting and Geostationary Platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fensholt, Rasmus; Huber Gharib, Silvia; Proud, Simon Richard

    2010-01-01

    analyses performed on SEVIRI SIWSI during a dry period within the growing season support these findings. These results suggest that the combined advantage of an improved temporal resolution and a fixed viewing angle potentially makes the SEVIRI sensor an interesting complementary data source to POES data......-based canopy water status detection from geostationary Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) data as compared to polar orbiting environmental satellite (POES)-based moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. The EO-based SWIR water stress index...

  9. Evaluation of leaf water status by means of permittivity at terahertz frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jördens, C; Scheller, M; Breitenstein, B; Selmar, D; Koch, M

    2009-08-01

    We present an electromagnetic model of plant leaves which describes their permittivity at terahertz frequencies. The complex permittivity is investigated as a function of the water content of the leaf. Our measurements on coffee leaves (Coffea arabica L.) demonstrate that the dielectric material parameters can be employed to determine the leaf water status and, therefore, to monitor drought stress in plant leaves. The electromagnetic model consists of an effective medium theory, which is implemented by a third order extension of the Landau, Lifshitz, Looyenga model. The influence of scattering becomes important at higher frequencies and is modeled by a Rayleigh roughness factor.

  10. Soil Water Balance and Recharge Monitoring at the Hanford Site - FY09 Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rockhold, Mark L.; Saunders, Danielle L.; Strickland, Christopher E.; Waichler, Scott R.; Clayton, Ray E.

    2009-09-28

    Recharge provides the primary driving force for transporting contaminants from the vadose zone to underlying aquifer systems. Quantification of recharge rates is important for assessing contaminant transport and fate and for evaluating remediation alternatives. This report describes the status of soil water balance and recharge monitoring performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory at the Hanford Site for Fiscal Year 2009. Previously reported data for Fiscal Years 2004 - 2008 are updated with data collected in Fiscal Year 2009 and summarized.

  11. The status of water demand management in selected cities of southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumbo, Bekithemba

    As a result of the rapid rate of urbanisation throughout Africa, many African cities face mounting challenges of providing their increasing populations with adequate and sustainable water services. Water demand management (WDM) offers a sustainable solution to water woes experienced in most cities in the southern Africa region. The region is characterised by frequent droughts, floods and erratic, unevenly distributed rainfall. Meanwhile nearly half of the southern Africa’s 200 million inhabitants do not have access to safe water and sanitation. This paper makes an assessment of the status of WDM in eight cities in the region based on published data and reports. It provides a basis of benchmarking the progress and success in WDM programmes by using selected key performance indicators. Gross unaccounted-for-water (UAW) is used as a crude measure of WDM good practice. From the eight selected case studies, Windhoek, Bulawayo and Hermanus have achieved considerable success in water use efficiency, implementing WDM programmes and recording UAW values of less than 20%, whilst Johannesburg; Maputo; Maseru; Lusaka and Mutare cannot account for about 40-60% of the water introduced into the distribution system. WDM projects require some key performance indicators which need to be recorded systematically by water supply agencies to enable a consistent monitoring and evaluation of programme. Finally for WDM to succeed, a new breed of professionals with multi-disciplinary skills is required as well as training of operatives, i.e. technicians, plumbers and meter readers.

  12. Probiotics lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 and lactobacillus casei CRL 431 modestly increase growth, but non iron and zinc status, among Indonesian children aged 1-6 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agustina, R.; Bovee-Oudenhoven, I.M.J.; Lukito, W.; Fahmida, U.; Rest, van de O.; Zimmermann, M.B.; Firmansyah, A.; Wulanti, R.; Albers, R.; Heuvel, van den E.G.H.M.; Kok, F.J.

    2013-01-01

    Probiotics and milk calcium may increase resistance to intestinal infection, but their effect on growth and iron and zinc status of Indonesian children is uncertain. We investigated the hypotheses that cow milk with added probiotics would improve growth and iron and zinc status of Indonesian

  13. Determinants of epidemiologic transition in rural Africa: the role of socioeconomic status and drinking water source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelaer, Frouke M; Koopman, Jacob J E; van Bodegom, David; Eriksson, Ulrika K; Westendorp, Rudi G J

    2014-06-01

    Many African countries experience a protracted epidemiologic transition, different from the classical transition in western societies. The factors driving this protracted transition are largely unknown. In northeast Ghana, we studied an ongoing epidemiologic transition and investigated the effects of socioeconomic status and drinking water source on the transition. During a 9-year period, we followed a cohort of almost 30 000 individuals and collected information on mortality and fertility rates. In addition, using the standards set out by the WHO, we obtained the causes of death by verbal autopsy. Individuals were stratified according to their socioeconomic status and the households' use of an improved or unimproved drinking water source. Mortality rates decreased by -5.0% annually (pwater source. Factors other than socioeconomic status and drinking water source are responsible for the observed declines in mortality and fertility observed during the protracted epidemiologic transition. Identifying the specific determinants of the ongoing transition is of importance, as they could be targeted in order to further improve public health in rural African countries. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Crop yield response to water stress imposed at different growth stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, M.; Mahmood Shah, M.; Wisal, M.

    1995-01-01

    Potato requires sufficient soil moisture and fertilization to produce high yields but the present water resoures are limited compared to the cultivable land, field experiments were conduced from 1991 to 1995 to study relationship between yield and crop water use as a function of water stress imposed at different growth stages. The irrigation treatments involved application of full and stress watering s selectively at four growth stages : Establishment , Flowering Tuber formation and ripening. In full watering, full water requirements of the crop were met, i.e., ET sub a = ET sub m whereas in stress watering about half the amount of full watering was applied, i.e., ET sub a < ET sub m. Changes in moisture content of the soil pre files after irrigation were monitored with the help of neutron moisture probe in order to compute ET sub a by the water balance method. The results obtained showed that the tuber yield was produced by full watering ( T 1) and the lowest by continuous stress watering (T 2). A plot of relative yield against relative evapotranspiration deficit revealed that ripening was the lest sensitive whereas early development followed by flowering the most sensitive growth stage to water stress. The crop water use efficiencies were generally higher in the treatments where a combination of normal and stress watering was applied compared to where all - normal watering s were applied. The traditional irrigation practice resulted in wasteful water application with relatively lower yields, hence the results from this project will have high value for the farming community to get this higher yields with scarce water resources. The studies with labelled fertilizer showed that planting and earthing - up were equally important growth stages of potato for applying fertilizer for its efficient utilization. 3 figs; 25 tabs; 12 refs (Author)

  15. Water-nitrogen relationships for wheat growth and productivity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field experiments were conducted on a sandy loam soil (Typic Ustochrept) to study the water-nitrogen –yield relationships of late sown wheat under adequate and limited water supply conditions. The treatments comprised of four levels of irrigation (I0, no post-sown irrigation; I1, one irrigation at CRI stage; I2, two irrigations, ...

  16. Root environment water potential and tomato fruit growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanden, van de P.A.C.M.; Uittien, J.J.

    1995-01-01

    Tomato plants were grown in a climate chamber in water culture at standard nutrient solution concentration with electrical conductivity of 2 mS-cm-1. At the start of the development of the fourth cluster the EC was increased to 6, 9 or 12 mS-cm-1, resulting in a water potential of the nutrient

  17. Water intake and consumption in sheep differing in growth potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water intake, efficiency and consumption of 30 growing individually fed Blackhead Persian, Dorper and South African Mutton Merino (Mutton Merino) ewe lambs were investigated.A veraged aily water intakes were2.2,4.6 and 5.4 litre for the BlackheadP ersian,D orper and Mutton Menno, respectively.T he BlackheadP ...

  18. Effect of water deficit on growth and photosynthetic characteristics of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-26

    Sep 26, 2011 ... watered and allowed to drain freely until the weight was constant. The difference between this weight and soil dry weight was used to calculate water field capacity (FC). .... Vertical bars represent standard errors based on variability among 5 plants. meters except Fv/Fm. Differences among wheat cultivars.

  19. Effect of water activity and temperature on the growth of Eurotium species isolated from animal feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Mariana; Pardo, Alejandro; Pose, Graciela; Patriarca, Andrea

    Xerophilic fungi represent a serious problem due to their ability to grow at low water activities causing the spoiling of low and intermediate moisture foods, stored goods and animal feeds, with the consequent economic losses. The combined effect of water activity and temperature of four Eurotium species isolated from animal feeds was investigated. Eurotium amstelodami, Eurotium chevalieri, Eurotium repens and Eurotium rubrum were grown at 5, 15, 25, 37 and 45°C on malt extract agar adjusted with glycerol in the range 0.710-0.993 of water activities. The cardinal model proposed by Rosso and Robinson (2001) was applied to fit growth data, with the variable water activity at fixed temperatures, obtaining three cardinal water activities (a wmin , a wmax , a wopt ) and the specific growth rate at the optimum a w (μ opt ). A probabilistic model was also applied to define the interface between growth and no-growth. The cardinal model provided an adequate estimation of the optimal a w to grow and the maximum growth rate. The probabilistic model showed a good performance to fit growth/no-growth cases in the predicted range. The results presented here could be applied to predict Eurotium species growth in animal feeds. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Acid-base balance and hydration status following consumption of mineral-based alkaline bottled water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heil Daniel P

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study sought to determine whether the consumption of a mineral-rich alkalizing (AK bottled water could improve both acid-base balance and hydration status in young healthy adults under free-living conditions. The AK water contains a naturally high mineral content along with Alka-PlexLiquid™, a dissolved supplement that increases the mineral content and gives the water an alkalizing pH of 10.0. Methods Thirty-eight subjects were matched by gender and self-reported physical activity (SRPA, hrs/week and then split into Control (12 women, 7 men; Mean +/- SD: 23 +/- 2 yrs; 7.2 +/- 3.6 hrs/week SRPA and Experimental (13 women, 6 men; 22 +/- 2 yrs; 6.4 +/- 4.0 hrs/week SRPA groups. The Control group consumed non-mineralized placebo bottled water over a 4-week period while the Experimental group consumed the placebo water during the 1st and 4th weeks and the AK water during the middle 2-week treatment period. Fingertip blood and 24-hour urine samples were collected three times each week for subsequent measures of blood and urine osmolality and pH, as well as total urine volume. Dependent variables were analyzed using multivariate repeated measures ANOVA with post-hoc focused on evaluating changes over time within Control and Experimental groups (alpha = 0.05. Results There were no significant changes in any of the dependent variables for the Control group. The Experimental group, however, showed significant increases in both the blood and urine pH (6.23 to 7.07 and 7.52 to 7.69, respectively, a decreased blood and increased urine osmolality, and a decreased urine output (2.51 to 2.05 L/day, all during the second week of the treatment period (P Conclusions Consumption of AK water was associated with improved acid-base balance (i.e., an alkalization of the blood and urine and hydration status when consumed under free-living conditions. In contrast, subjects who consumed the placebo bottled water showed no changes over the

  1. Water status and associated processes mark critical stages in pollen development and functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firon, Nurit; Nepi, Massimo; Pacini, Ettore

    2012-01-01

    Background The male gametophyte developmental programme can be divided into five phases which differ in relation to the environment and pollen hydration state: (1) pollen develops inside the anther immersed in locular fluid, which conveys substances from the mother plant – the microsporogenesis phase; (2) locular fluid disappears by reabsorption and/or evaporation before the anther opens and the maturing pollen grains undergo dehydration – the dehydration phase; (3) the anther opens and pollen may be dispersed immediately, or be held by, for example, pollenkitt (as occurs in almost all entomophilous species) for later dispersion – the presentation phase; (4) pollen is dispersed by different agents, remaining exposed to the environment for different periods – the dispersal phase; and (5) pollen lands on a stigma and, in the case of a compatible stigma and suitable conditions, undergoes rehydration and starts germination – the pollen–stigma interaction phase. Scope This review highlights the issue of pollen water status and indicates the various mechanisms used by pollen grains during their five developmental phases to adjust to changes in water content and maintain internal stability. Conclusions Pollen water status is co-ordinated through structural, physiological and molecular mechanisms. The structural components participating in regulation of the pollen water level, during both dehydration and rehydration, include the exine (the outer wall of the pollen grain) and the vacuole. Recent data suggest the involvement of water channels in pollen water transport and the existence of several molecular mechanisms for pollen osmoregulation and to protect cellular components (proteins and membranes) under water stress. It is suggested that pollen grains will use these mechanisms, which have a developmental role, to cope with environmental stress conditions. PMID:22523424

  2. Two prototype tools for assessing good environmental/ecological status (GES) in aquatic ecosystems – DEVOTES and WATERS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murray, Ciarán; Carstensen, Jacob; Andersen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    We present two prototype tools for assessment of GES (good ecological status and good environmental status) in aquatic ecosystems: the DEVOTES biodiversity assessment tool (for the MSFD) and the WATERS ecological status assessment tool (for the WFD). Both tools are multi-metric indicator......-based tools, which classify ecological/environmental status in two classes (good or not good) and five classes (High, Good, Moderate, Poor or Bad) by comparing observed indicator values with specified status classification boundaries. Assessments are made for geographical entities (“sectors” in DEVOTES...

  3. The impact of water intake on energy intake and weight status: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Melissa C.; Popkin, Barry M.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of consuming water with meals rather than drinking no beverage or various other beverages remains under-studied. This systematic review of English language studies compared the effects of drinking water and various beverage alternatives on energy intake and/or weight status. We collected relevant clinical trials, epidemiologic, and intervention studies and summarized findings across the literature. Using clinical trials, average differences in total energy intake at test meals (ΔTEI) were calculated across studies for each of several beverage categories compared to water. The literature for these comparisons is sparse and somewhat inconclusive. One of the most consistent sets of findings comes from comparing adults drinking sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB’s) vs. water before a single meal. Total energy intakes were increased 7.8% (ΔTEI range −7.5 to 18.9) when SSBs were consumed. Studies comparing nonnutritive sweeteners with water were also relatively consistent and found no impact on energy intake among adults (ΔTEI = −1.3, range −9 to13.8). Much less conclusive evidence replacing water with milk and juice estimated increases in TEI of 14.9% (range 10.9 to 23.9). These findings, along with epidemiologic and intervention studies suggested a potentially important role for water in reducing energy intakes, and by this means a role in obesity prevention. A need for randomized-controlled trials exists. PMID:20796216

  4. DEVELOPMENT ELECTRONIC MAPS OF ECOLOGICAL STATUS OF WATER OBJECTS OF THE VOLGA RIVER DELTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. N. Isenalieva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Aim. The aim of this work was the comprehensive study of the ecological state of water objects of the Volga River delta. Methods. The following methods were used: field (collection, observation, organoleptic, uniform chemical analysis techniques are based on colorimetric, settlement, photometric, spectrometric measurement methods. Results. On the basis of results of researches for 2010-2014 performed a comparative analysis of the dynamics of the content of hydro-chemical indicators of environmental quality in waters of the Volga River delta and the residential areas of the background. Applying an integrated approach to the study of biological indicators of water quality. Created digitized map of the quality of aquatic ecosystems of the Volga River delta. Displaying modern ecological condition of watercourses investigated, determined the degree of contamination, the overall trophic and saprobic. Main conclusions. The work has identified adverse environmental situation in water objects of the Astrakhan and the surrounding areas. Average annual concentrations of toxicological substances water objects in the background zone 10 times less than in the water objects of settlements. As a result of work on the basis of ArcGis 10.2.2 created information environment "Eco-monitor", which is a systematic set of information, and quantitatively characterizing the ecological status of water objects. Created on the basis of ArcGis 10.2.2 information environment monitoring system of waterways allows for a temporary and spatial analysis, to assess the quality of different streams in the control sections.

  5. Growth Status and Its Relationship with Serum Lipids and Albumin in Children with Cystic Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Hossein Fallahi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis (CF is an autosomal recessive disease, which affects many organs as it impairs chloride channel. This study was performed to evaluate growth status and its relationship with some laboratory indices such as Cholesterol (chol, Triglyceride (TG, albumin and total protein in children with CF referred to pediatrics center. This study was designed as a cross-sectional study in one year section. Demographic features were compared with standard percentiles curves. Chol, TG, albumin, total protein, prothrombin time, and hemoglobin were measured. Stool exams were also performed. A questionnaire was designed to obtain a history of the first presentation of disease, birth weight, type of labor and parent relativity. In 52% of patients, failure to thrive (FTT was the first presentation. Steatorrhea and respiratory infections were the first presentations, which were seen in 13.7% and 33% of the cases, respectively. The weight of 88% of patients was below the 15th percentile while 82% had a height percentile below 15th. Head circumference in 53% of patients was below the 15th percentile. There was a significant association between weight percentile and serum albumin and total protein (P=0.03 and P=0.007, respectively. There was also a significant relationship between height percentile and serum albumin and total protein (P<0.001 and P<0.000, respectively. The relationships between head circumference and serum albumin and total protein were also significant (P=0.006 and P<0.000, respectively. There was also a significant association between height percentile and hemoglobin. The decrease in anthropometric percentiles leads to decreased serum albumin and total protein.

  6. Iron and Obesity Status-Associated Insulin Resistance Influence Circulating Fibroblast-Growth Factor-23 Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Real, José Manuel; Puig, Josep; Serrano, Marta; Sabater, Mónica; Rubió, Antoni; Moreno-Navarrete, José María; Fontan, Marina; Casamitjana, Roser; Xifra, Gemma; Ortega, Francisco José; Salvador, Javier; Frühbeck, Gema; Ricart, Wifredo

    2013-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) is known to be produced by the bone and linked to metabolic risk. We aimed to explore circulating FGF-23 in association with fatness and insulin sensitivity, atherosclerosis and bone mineral density (BMD). Circulating intact FGF-23 (iFGF-23) and C-terminal (CtFGF-23) concentrations (ELISA) were measured in 133 middle aged men from the general population in association with insulin sensitivity (Cohort 1); and in association with fat mass and bone mineral density (DEXA) and atherosclerosis (intima media thickness, IMT) in 78 subjects (52 women) with a wide range of adiposity (Cohort 2). Circulating iFGF-23 was also measured before and after weight loss. In all subjects as a whole, serum intact and C-terminal concentrations were linearly and positively associated with BMI. In cohort 1, both serum iFGF-23 and CtFGF-23 concentrations increased with insulin resistance. Serum creatinine contributed to iFGF-23 variance, while serum ferritin and insulin sensitivity (but not BMI, age or serum creatinine) contributed to 17% of CtFGF-23 variance. In cohort 2, CtFGF-23 levels were higher in women vs. men, and increased with BMI, fat mass, fasting and post-load serum glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR and PTH, being negatively associated with circulating vitamin D and ferritin levels. The associations of CtFGF-23 with bone density in the radius, lumbar spine and carotid IMT were no longer significant after controlling for BMI. Weight loss led to decreased iFGF-23 concentrations. In summary, the associations of circulating FGF-23 concentration with parameters of glucose metabolism, bone density and atherosclerosis are dependent on iron and obesity status-associated insulin resistance. PMID:23555610

  7. Iron and obesity status-associated insulin resistance influence circulating fibroblast-growth factor-23 concentrations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Fernández-Real

    Full Text Available Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23 is known to be produced by the bone and linked to metabolic risk. We aimed to explore circulating FGF-23 in association with fatness and insulin sensitivity, atherosclerosis and bone mineral density (BMD. Circulating intact FGF-23 (iFGF-23 and C-terminal (CtFGF-23 concentrations (ELISA were measured in 133 middle aged men from the general population in association with insulin sensitivity (Cohort 1; and in association with fat mass and bone mineral density (DEXA and atherosclerosis (intima media thickness, IMT in 78 subjects (52 women with a wide range of adiposity (Cohort 2. Circulating iFGF-23 was also measured before and after weight loss. In all subjects as a whole, serum intact and C-terminal concentrations were linearly and positively associated with BMI. In cohort 1, both serum iFGF-23 and CtFGF-23 concentrations increased with insulin resistance. Serum creatinine contributed to iFGF-23 variance, while serum ferritin and insulin sensitivity (but not BMI, age or serum creatinine contributed to 17% of CtFGF-23 variance. In cohort 2, CtFGF-23 levels were higher in women vs. men, and increased with BMI, fat mass, fasting and post-load serum glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR and PTH, being negatively associated with circulating vitamin D and ferritin levels. The associations of CtFGF-23 with bone density in the radius, lumbar spine and carotid IMT were no longer significant after controlling for BMI. Weight loss led to decreased iFGF-23 concentrations. In summary, the associations of circulating FGF-23 concentration with parameters of glucose metabolism, bone density and atherosclerosis are dependent on iron and obesity status-associated insulin resistance.

  8. Lattice Boltzmann simulation of water isotope fractionation during ice crystal growth in clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Guoping; DePaolo, Donald J.

    2016-05-01

    We describe a lattice Boltzmann (LB) method for simulating water isotope fractionation during diffusion-limited ice crystal growth by vapor deposition from water-oversaturated air. These conditions apply to the growth of snow crystals in clouds where the vapor composition is controlled by the presence of both ice crystals and water droplets. Modeling of water condensation with the LB method has the advantage of allowing concentration fields to evolve based on local conditions so that the controls on grain shapes of the condensed phase can be studied simultaneously with the controls on isotopic composition and growth rate. Water isotope fractionation during snow crystal growth involves kinetic effects due to diffusion of water vapor in air, which requires careful consideration of the boundary conditions at the ice-vapor interface. The boundary condition is relatively simple for water isotopes because the molecular exchange rate for water at the interface is large compared to the crystal growth rate. Our results for the bulk crystal isotopic composition are consistent with simpler models using analytical solutions for radial geometry. However, the model results are sufficiently different for oxygen isotopes that they could affect the interpretation of D-excess values of snow and ice. The extent of vapor oversaturation plays a major role in determining the water isotope fractionation as well as the degree of dendritic growth. Departures from isotopic equilibrium increase at colder temperatures as diffusivity decreases. Dendritic crystals are isotopically heterogeneous. Isotopic variations within individual snow crystals could yield information on the microphysics of ice condensation as well as on the accommodation or sticking coefficient of water associated with vapor deposition. Our results are ultimately a first step in implementing LB models for kinetically controlled condensation or precipitation reactions, but needs to be extended also to cases where the

  9. Investigation of the instability and low water kefir grain growth during an industrial water kefir fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laureys, David; Van Jean, Amandine; Dumont, Jean; De Vuyst, Luc

    2017-04-01

    A poorly performing industrial water kefir production process consisting of a first fermentation process, a rest period at low temperature, and a second fermentation process was characterized to elucidate the causes of its low water kefir grain growth and instability. The frozen-stored water kefir grain inoculum was thawed and reactivated during three consecutive prefermentations before the water kefir production process was started. Freezing and thawing damaged the water kefir grains irreversibly, as their structure did not restore during the prefermentations nor the production process. The viable counts of the lactic acid bacteria and yeasts on the water kefir grains and in the liquors were as expected, whereas those of the acetic acid bacteria were high, due to the aerobic fermentation conditions. Nevertheless, the fermentations progressed slowly, which was caused by excessive substrate concentrations resulting in a high osmotic stress. Lactobacillus nagelii, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus hilgardii, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Bifidobacterium aquikefiri, Gluconobacter roseus/oxydans, Gluconobacter cerinus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Zygotorulaspora florentina were the most prevalent microorganisms. Lb. hilgardii, the microorganism thought to be responsible for water kefir grain growth, was not found culture-dependently, which could explain the low water kefir grain growth of this industrial process.

  10. Energy balance concept in the evaluation of water table management effects on corn growth: experimental investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalita, P.K.; Kanwar, R.S.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of water table management practices (WTMP) on corn growth in 1989 and 1990 at two field sites, Ames and Ankeny, Iowa, were evaluated by calculating crop water stress index (CWSI) and monitoring plant physiological parameters during the growing seasons. Experiments were conducted on field lysimeters at the Ames site by maintaining water tables at 0.3-, 0.6-, and 0.9-m depths and in a subirrigation field at the Ankeny site with 0.2-, 0.3-, 0.6-, 0.9-, and 1.1-m water table depths, and periodically measuring leaf and air temperature, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) using leaf chamber techniques. Net radiation of canopy was estimated using the leaf energy balance equation and leaf chamber measurements and then correlated with PAR. Analysis of data revealed that net radiation, leaf air temperature differential, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, and CWSI were strongly related to WTMP during vegetative and flowering stages of corn growth. Excess water in the root zone with a water table depth of 0.2 m caused the maximum crop water stress and ceased crop growth. Both water and oxygen could be adequately maintained for favorable crop growth by adopting the best WTMP. Results indicate that plant physiological parameters and CWSI could be used to evaluate the effectiveness of WTMP and develop the best WTMP for corn growth in the humid region

  11. Vineyard water status assessment using on-the-go thermal imaging and machine learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Gutiérrez

    Full Text Available The high impact of irrigation in crop quality and yield in grapevine makes the development of plant water status monitoring systems an essential issue in the context of sustainable viticulture. This study presents an on-the-go approach for the estimation of vineyard water status using thermal imaging and machine learning. The experiments were conducted during seven different weeks from July to September in season 2016. A thermal camera was embedded on an all-terrain vehicle moving at 5 km/h to take on-the-go thermal images of the vineyard canopy at 1.2 m of distance and 1.0 m from the ground. The two sides of the canopy were measured for the development of side-specific and global models. Stem water potential was acquired and used as reference method. Additionally, reference temperatures Tdry and Twet were determined for the calculation of two thermal indices: the crop water stress index (CWSI and the Jones index (Ig. Prediction models were built with and without considering the reference temperatures as input of the training algorithms. When using the reference temperatures, the best models casted determination coefficients R2 of 0.61 and 0.58 for cross validation and prediction (RMSE values of 0.190 MPa and 0.204 MPa, respectively. Nevertheless, when the reference temperatures were not considered in the training of the models, their performance statistics responded in the same way, returning R2 values up to 0.62 and 0.65 for cross validation and prediction (RMSE values of 0.190 MPa and 0.184 MPa, respectively. The outcomes provided by the machine learning algorithms support the use of thermal imaging for fast, reliable estimation of a vineyard water status, even suppressing the necessity of supervised acquisition of reference temperatures. The new developed on-the-go method can be very useful in the grape and wine industry for assessing and mapping vineyard water status.

  12. Status of the advanced boiling water reactor and simplified boiling water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.F.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the excess of U.S. electrical generating capacity which has existed for the past 15 years is coming to an end as we enter the 1990s. Environmental and energy security issues associated with fossil fuels are kindling renewed interest in the nuclear option. The importance of these issues are underscored by the National Energy Strategy (NES) which calls for actions which are designed to ensure that the nuclear power option is available to utilities. Utilities, utility associations, and nuclear suppliers, under the leadership of the Nuclear Power Oversight Committee (NPOC), have jointly developed a 14 point strategic plan aimed at establishing a predictable regulatory environment, standardized and pre-licensed Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) nuclear plants, resolving the long-term waste management issue, and other enabling conditions. GE is participating in this national effort and GE's family of advanced nuclear power plants feature two new reactor designs, developed on a common technology base, aimed at providing a new generation of nuclear plants to provide safe, clean, economical electricity to the world's utilities in the 1990s and beyond. Together, the large-size (1300 MWe) Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) and the small-size (600 MWe) Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR) are innovative, near-term candidates for expanding electrical generating capacity in the U.S. and worldwide. Both possess the features necessary to do so safely, reliably, and economically

  13. Evaluating Changes In Fertility Status Of An Alfisol Under Different Growth Stages Of Cassava Manihot Esculenta Crantz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Osundare

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Evaluating changes in soil nutrient status under different growth stages of cassava makes possible determination of the most critical stage in its vegetative growth phase when its demand for nutrients is highest. Determining the most critical stage in cassava vegetative growth phase when its nutrient demand is highest will enhance properly timed fertilizer application in such a way the application will coincide with the most critical stage in cassava vegetative phase when its demand for nutrients is highest. In view of this a two year field experiment was designed to assess changes in nutrient status of an Alfisol under different growth stages of cassava during 2010 and 2011 cropping seasons at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Ekiti State University Ado Ekiti Ekiti State Nigeria. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replicates. The different growth stages of cassava when changes in nutrient status of Alfisol were evaluated included 3 6 9 and 12 months after planting MAP. The results indicated existence of significant P 0.05 differences among the different growth stages of cassava as regards their effects on chemical properties of Alfisol. During 2010 cropping season the significant decreases in soil organic carbon SOC under growth stages of cassava were from 0.96 g kg-1 for ISNSPTC to 0.88 0.80 0.72 and0.64 g kg-1 for ages 3 6 9 and 12 MAP respectively. Similarly during 2011 cropping season the significant decreases in soil organic carbon SOC under growth stages of cassava were from 0.96 g kg-1 for ISNSPTC to 0.80 0.73 0.66 and0.58 g kg-1 for ages 3 6 9 and 12 MAP respectively. During 2010 cropping season the significant decreases in total N under growth stages of cassava were from 0.68 g kg-1 for ISNSPTC to 0.57 0.50 0.43 and0.35 g kg-1 for ages 3 6 9 and 12 MAP respectively. During 2011 cropping season the significant decreases in total N under growth stages of cassava were from 0.68 g kg-1

  14. 40 CFR 265 interim-status ground-water monitoring plan for the 2101-M pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamness, M.A.; Luttrell, S.P.; Dudziak, S.

    1989-03-01

    This report outlines a ground-water monitoring plan for the 2101-M pond, located in the southwestern part of the 200-East Area on the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. It has been determined that hazardous materials may have been discharged to the pond. Installation of an interim-status ground-water monitoring system is required under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act to determine if hazardous chemicals are moving out of the pond. This plan describes the location of new wells for the monitoring system, how the wells are to be completed, the data to be collected, and how those data can be used to determine the source and extent of any ground-water contamination from the 2101-M pond. Four new wells are planned, one upgradient and three downgradient. 35 refs., 12 figs., 9 tabs

  15. Biomass gasification in near- and super-critical water: Status and prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumura, Yukihiko [Department of Mechanical System Engineering, Hiroshima University, 1-4-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-hiroshima-shi, Hiroshima 739-8527 (Japan); Minowa, Tomoaki [Biomass Technology Research Laboratory, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 2-2-2 Hiro-Suehiro, Kure-shi, Hiroshima 737-0197 (Japan); Potic, Biljana; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; Prins, Wolter; van Swaaij, Willibrordus P.M. [TCCB Group, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE, Enschede (Netherlands); van de Beld, Bert [Biomass Technology Group B.V., Pantheon 12, 7521 PR, Enschede (Netherlands); Elliott, Douglas C.; Neuenschwander, Gary G. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, MSIN K2-12, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Kruse, Andrea [Institut fuer Technische Chemie, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Postfach 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Jerry Antal Jr., Michael [Hawaii Natural Energy Institute, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii 96822 (United States)

    2005-10-01

    The current status of biomass gasification in near- and supercritical water (SCWG) is reviewed. There are two approaches to biomass gasification in supercritical water. The first: low-temperature catalytic gasification, employs reaction temperature ranging from 350 to 600{sup o}C, and gasifies the feedstock with the aid of metal catalysts. The second: high-temperature supercritical water gasification, employs reaction temperatures ranging from 500 to 750{sup o}C, without catalyst or with non-metallic catalysts. Reviews are made on reaction mechanism, catalyst, and experimental results for these two approaches. Engineering technologies for SCWG gasification, and an example of process analysis are also introduced. Finally, the authors' prognostications on the future prospects of this technology are offered. (author)

  16. Mould growth on building materials under low water activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Holm, G.; Uttrup, L.P.

    2004-01-01

    The influence of relative humidity (RH) and temperature on growth and metabolism of eight microfungi on 21 different types of building material was investigated. The fungi were applied as a dry mixture to the materials, which were incubated at 5degreesC, 10degreesC, 20degreesC and 25degreesC at t...

  17. Germination, seedling growth and relative water content of shoot in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-18

    Aug 18, 2008 ... seeds survived even at the lower osmotic potential of PEG and NaCl; whereas, seedling obtained from small seeds did not survive in the intensive stress. Key words: xTriticosecale Witm, seed size, drought, germination, seedling growth. INDRODUCTION. Seed germination is an essential process in plant.

  18. Acclimation to high CO2 in maize is related to water status and dependent on leaf rank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, Anneke; Mukubi, Josephine Muchwesi; Pellny, Till K; Verrier, Paul J; Beyene, Getu; Lopes, Marta Silva; Emami, Kaveh; Treumann, Achim; Lelarge-Trouverie, Caroline; Noctor, Graham; Kunert, Karl J; Kerchev, Pavel; Foyer, Christine H

    2011-02-01

    The responses of C(3) plants to rising atmospheric CO(2) levels are considered to be largely dependent on effects exerted through altered photosynthesis. In contrast, the nature of the responses of C(4) plants to high CO(2) remains controversial because of the absence of CO(2) -dependent effects on photosynthesis. In this study, the effects of atmospheric CO(2) availability on the transcriptome, proteome and metabolome profiles of two ranks of source leaves in maize (Zea mays L.) were studied in plants grown under ambient CO(2) conditions (350 +/- 20 µL L(-1) CO(2) ) or with CO(2) enrichment (700 +/- 20 µL L(-1) CO(2) ). Growth at high CO(2) had no effect on photosynthesis, photorespiration, leaf C/N ratios or anthocyanin contents. However, leaf transpiration rates, carbohydrate metabolism and protein carbonyl accumulation were altered at high CO(2) in a leaf-rank specific manner. Although no significant CO(2) -dependent changes in the leaf transcriptome were observed, qPCR analysis revealed that the abundance of transcripts encoding a Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor and a serpin were changed by the growth CO(2) level in a leaf rank specific manner. Moreover, CO(2) -dependent changes in the leaf proteome were most evident in the oldest source leaves. Small changes in water status may be responsible for the observed responses to high CO(2,) particularly in the older leaf ranks. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Photosynthetic capacity and water use efficiency in sugarcane genotypes subject to water deficit during early growth phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Almeida Silva

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the gas exchange, photosynthetic capacity and water potential of sugarcane genotypes cultivated under water deficit conditions imposed during the initial growth phase. Experiments were performed in a greenhouse using two sugarcane genotypes namely: HoCP93-776 (drought susceptible and TCP02-4587 (drought tolerant. Sixty days after planting, two different water treatments were applied (i.e., with or without water deficit. At 0,30 and 60 days after the treatment, gas exchange variables were evaluated for their relationship with water use, intrinsic instantaneous water use efficiency and instantaneous carboxylation efficiency. The SPAD index, photosynthetic pigments, water potential and relative water content in the leaves were also analyzed. The genotype HoCP93-776 was more sensitive to drought treatment as indicated by the significantly lower values of SPAD index, photosynthetic pigments, water potential (Ψw and relative water content (RWC variables. The genotype TCP02-4587 had higher water potential, stomatal control efficiency, water use efficiency (WUE, intrinsic instantaneous water use efficiency (WUEintr, instantaneous carboxylation efficiency and photosynthetic capacity. The highest air vapor pressure deficit during the drought conditions could be due to the stomatal closing in the HoCP93-776, which contributed to its lower photosynthetic capacity.

  20. Changes in seed water status as characterized by NMR in developing soybean seed grown under moisture stress conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, P., E-mail: pkrishnan@iari.res.in; Singh, Ravender; Verma, A.P.S.; Joshi, D.K.; Singh, Sheoraj

    2014-02-21

    Highlights: • In developing soybean seeds, moisture stress resulted in more proportion of water to bound state. • These changes are further corroborated by concomitant changes in seed metabolites. • Thus there exists a moisture stress and development stage dependence of seed tissue water status. - Abstract: Changes in water status of developing seeds of Soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill.) grown under different moisture stress conditions were characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)- spin–spin relaxation time (T{sub 2}). A comparison of the seed development characteristics, composition and physical properties indicated that, characteristics like seed weight, seed number/ear, rate of seed filling increased with development stages but decreased with moisture stress conditions. The NMR- spin–spin relaxation (T{sub 2}) component like bound water increased with seed maturation (40–50%) but decreased with moisture stress conditions (30–40%). The changes in seed water status to increasing levels of moisture stress and seed maturity indicates that moisture stress resulted in more proportion of water to bound state and intermediate state and less proportion of water in free-state. These changes are further corroborated by significant changes in protein and starch contents in seeds under high moisture stress treatments. Thus seed water status during its development is not only affected by development processes but also by moisture stress conditions. This study strongly indicated a clear moisture stress and development stage dependence of seed tissue water status in developing soybean seeds.

  1. Changes in seed water status as characterized by NMR in developing soybean seed grown under moisture stress conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, P.; Singh, Ravender; Verma, A.P.S.; Joshi, D.K.; Singh, Sheoraj

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • In developing soybean seeds, moisture stress resulted in more proportion of water to bound state. • These changes are further corroborated by concomitant changes in seed metabolites. • Thus there exists a moisture stress and development stage dependence of seed tissue water status. - Abstract: Changes in water status of developing seeds of Soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill.) grown under different moisture stress conditions were characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)- spin–spin relaxation time (T 2 ). A comparison of the seed development characteristics, composition and physical properties indicated that, characteristics like seed weight, seed number/ear, rate of seed filling increased with development stages but decreased with moisture stress conditions. The NMR- spin–spin relaxation (T 2 ) component like bound water increased with seed maturation (40–50%) but decreased with moisture stress conditions (30–40%). The changes in seed water status to increasing levels of moisture stress and seed maturity indicates that moisture stress resulted in more proportion of water to bound state and intermediate state and less proportion of water in free-state. These changes are further corroborated by significant changes in protein and starch contents in seeds under high moisture stress treatments. Thus seed water status during its development is not only affected by development processes but also by moisture stress conditions. This study strongly indicated a clear moisture stress and development stage dependence of seed tissue water status in developing soybean seeds

  2. Levers supporting tariff growth for water services: evidence from a contingent valuation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrini, Andrea; Vigolo, Vania; Romano, Giulia; Testa, Federico

    2018-02-01

    The backwardness of the water utilities sector necessitates urgent investment in infrastructure to improve water quality and efficiency in water supply networks. A policy of tariff growth represents the main source to sustain such investments. Therefore, customer engagement in the form of willingness to pay (WTP) is highly desirable by water utilities to obtain social legitimization and support. This study examines the determinants of consumers' WTP for improvement programs for three drinking water issues: quality of water sources, renewal of water mains, and building of new wastewater treatment plants. The study is based on a survey conducted among a sample of 587 customers of a water utility located in the province of Verona in the north of Italy. The contingence valuation method is used to measure WTP. Specifically, an ordinal logistic regression model yields the following significant determinants of WTP: quality of water and services provided, preference for privatization of the water utility, sustainable consumption of water, and some socio-demographic variables. The findings provide interesting insights into the drivers of WTP as well as managerial recommendations for water utilities. In particular, the findings show that water utilities need to improve service and water quality to increase customers' acceptance of tariff growth. In addition, utilities should invest in customer education and communication activities focusing on specific age groups (e.g., older customers) to enhance their WTP. Finally, communication strategies should reinforce the possible role of liberalization and privatization in supporting infrastructure investments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. URBAN GROWTH AND WATER QUALITY IN THIMPHU, BHUTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandu Giri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Detailed study was undertaken in 2008 and 2009 on assessment of water quality of River Wang Chhu which flows through Thimphu urban area, the capital city of Bhutan. The water samples were examined at upstream of urban area, within the urban area and its downstream. The water quality was analyzed by studying the physico-chemical, biological and benthic macro-invertebrates. The water quality data obtained during present study are discussed in relation to land use/land cover changes (LULC and various ongoing human activities at upstream, within the each activity areas and it’s downstream. Analyses of satellite imagery of 1990 and 2008 using GIS revealed that over a period of eighteen years the forest, scrub and agricultural areas have decreased whereas urban area and road network have increased considerably. The forest cover, agriculture area and scrub decreased from 43.3% to 42.57%, 6.88% to 5.33% and 42.55% to 29.42%, respectively. The LULC changes effect water quality in many ways. The water temperature, pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids, turbidity, nitrate, phosphate, chloride, total coliform, and biological oxygen demand were lower at upstream and higher in urban area. On the other hand dissolved oxygen was found higher at upstream and lower in urban area. The pollution sensitive benthic macro- invertebrates population were dominant at upstream sampling sites whereas pollution tolerant benthic macro-invertebrates were found abundant in urban area and its immediate downstream. The rapid development of urban infrastructure in Thimphu city may be posing serious threats to water regime in terms of its quality. Though the deterioration of water quality is restricted to a few localized areas, the trend is serious and needs proper attention of policy planners and decision makers. Proper treatment of effluents from urban areas is urgently needed to reduce water pollution in such affected areas to check further deterioration of water quality

  4. URBAN GROWTH AND WATER QUALITY IN THIMPHU, BHUTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandu Giri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Detailed study was undertaken in 2008 and 2009 on assessment of water quality of River Wang Chhu which flows through Thimphu urban area, the capital city of Bhutan. The water samples were examined at upstream of urban area, within the urban area and its downstream. The water samples were analyzed by studying the physico-chemical, biological and benthic macro-invertebrates. The water quality data obtained during present study are discussed in relation to land use/land cover changes(LULC and various ongoing human activities at upstream, within the each activity areas and it’s downstream. Analyses of satellite imagery of 1990 and 2008 using GIS revealed that over a period of eighteen years the forest, scrub and agricultural areas have decreased whereas urban area and road network have increased considerably. The forest cover, agriculture area and scrub decreased from 43.3% to 42.57%, 6.88% to 5.33% and 42.55% to 29.42%, respectively. The LULC changes effect water quality in many ways. The water temperature, pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids, turbidity, nitrate, phosphate, chloride, total coliform, and biological oxygen demand were lower at upstream and higher in urban area. On the other hand dissolved oxygen was found higher at upstream and lower in urban area. The pollution sensitive benthic macro-invertebrates population were dominant at upstream sampling sites whereas pollution tolerant benthic macro-invertebrates were found abundant in urban area and its immediate downstream. The rapid development of urban infrastructure in Thimphu city may be posing serious threats to water regime in terms of its quality. Though the deterioration of water quality is restricted to a few localized areas, the trend is serious and needs proper attention of policy planners and decision makers. Proper treatment of effluents from urban areas is urgently needed to reduce water pollution in such affected areas to check further deterioration of water quality

  5. Clinical and laboratory parameters predicting a requirement for the reevaluation of growth hormone status during growth hormone treatment: Retesting early in the course of GH treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuralli, Dogus; Gonc, E Nazli; Ozon, Z Alev; Alikasifoglu, Ayfer; Kandemir, Nurgun

    2017-06-01

    We aimed to define the predictive criteria, in the form of specific clinical, hormonal and radiological parameters, for children with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) who may benefit from the reevaluation of GH status early in the course of growth hormone (GH) treatment. Two hundred sixty-five children with growth hormone deficiency were retested by GH stimulation at the end of the first year of GH treatment. The initial clinical and laboratory characteristics of those with a normal (GH≥10ng/ml) response and those with a subnormal (GHGH status during reassessment. Sixty-nine patients (40.6%) out of the 170 patients with isolated growth hormone deficiency (IGHD) had a peak GH of ≥10ng/ml during the retest. None of the patients with multiple pituitary hormone deficiency (MPHD) had a peak GH of ≥10ng/ml. Puberty and sex steroid priming in peripubertal cases increased the probability of a normal GH response. Only one patient with IGHD who had an ectopic posterior pituitary without stalk interruption on MRI analysis showed a normal GH response during the retest. Patients with a peak GH between 5 and 10ng/ml, an age at diagnosis of ≥9years or a height gain below 0.61 SDS during the first year of treatment had an increased probability of having a normal GH response at the retest. Early reassessment of GH status during GH treatment is unnecessary in patients who have MPHD with at least 3 hormone deficiencies. Retesting at the end of the first year of therapy is recommended for patients with IGHD who have a height gain of <0.61 SDS in the first year of treatment, especially those with a normal or 'hypoplastic' pituitary on imaging. Priming can increase the likelihood of a normal response in patients in the pubertal age group who do not show overt signs of pubertal development. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Disruption of mycorrhizal extraradical mycelium and changes in leaf water status and soil aggregate stability in rootbox-grown trifoliate orange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Ning eZou

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Arbuscular mycorrhizas possess well developed extraradical mycelium (ERM network that enlarge the surrounding soil for better acquisition of water and nutrients, besides soil aggregation. Distinction in ERM functioning was studied under a rootbox system, which consisted of root+hyphae and root-free hyphae compartments separated by 37-μm nylon mesh with an air gap. Trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata seedlings were inoculated with Funneliformis mosseae in root+hyphae compartment, and the ERM network was established between the two compartments. The ERM network of air gap was disrupted before 8 h of the harvest (one time disruption or multiple disruptions during seedlings acclimation. Our results showed that mycorrhizal inoculation induced a significant increase in growth (plant height, stem diameter, and leaf, stem, and root biomass and physiological characters (leaf relative water content, leaf water potential, and transpiration rate, irrespective of ERM status. Easily-extractable glomalin-related soil protein (EE-GRSP and total GRSP (T-GRSP concentration and mean weight diameter (MWD, an indicator of soil aggregate stability were significantly higher in mycorrhizosphere of root+hyphae and root-free hyphae compartments than non-mycorrhizosphere. One time disruption of ERM network did not influence plant growth and soil properties but only notably decreased leaf water. Periodical disruption of ERM network at weekly interval markedly inhibited the mycorrhizal roles on plant growth, leaf water, GRSP production, and MWD in root+hyphae and hyphae chambers. EE-GRSP was the most responsive GRSP fraction to changes in leaf water and MWD under root+hyphae and hyphae conditions. It suggests that effect of peridical disruption of ERM network was more impactful than one-time disruption of ERM network with regard to leaf water, plant growth, and aggregate stability responses, thereby, implying ERM network aided in developing the host plant metabolically

  7. Growth response, water relations and K/Na ratio in wheat under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth response, water relations and K/Na ratio in wheat under sodium and calcium interactions. BH Niazi, B Zaman, M Salim, H Athar. Abstract. A study was conducted in the glass house to observe the role of K/Na ratio and moisture contents on the growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L .cv. Lu-26) under NaCl stress.

  8. The relationship between turbidity of mouth-rinsed water and oral health status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Susumu; Ueno, Masayuki; Takehara, Sachiko; Pham, Thuy Anh Vu; Hakuta, Chiyoko; Morishima, Seiji; Shinada, Kayoko; Kawaguchi, Yoko

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between turbidity of mouth rinsed water and oral health status such as dental and periodontal conditions, oral hygiene status, flow rate of saliva and oral bacteria. Subjects were 165 patients who visited the Dental Hospital, Tokyo Medical and Dental University. Oral health status, including dental and periodontal conditions, oral hygiene status and flow rate of saliva, was clinically examined. The turbidity was measured with a turbidimeter. Quantification of Fusobacterium spp, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola and total bacteria levels was performed using real-time PCR. The Pearson correlation and multiple regression analysis were used to explore the associations between the turbidity and oral health parameters. The turbidity showed significant correlations with the number of decayed teeth and deep pockets, the plaque index, extent of tongue coating and Fusobacterium spp, P. gingivalis, T. forsythia, T. denticola and total bacteria levels. In a multiple regression model, the turbidity was negatively associated with the flow rate of saliva and positively associated with the total number of bacteria (p oral health condition and the amount of bacteria in the oral cavity. In addition, the turbiditimeter appeared as a simple and objective device for screening abnormality of oral health condition at chair side as well as community-based research.

  9. Mitigation of soil water repellency improves rootzone water status and yield in precision irrigated apples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostka, S.; Gadd, N.; Bell, D.

    2009-04-01

    Water repellent soils are documented to impact a range of hydrological properties, yet studies evaluating the consequences of soil water repellency (SWR) and its mitigation on crop yield and quality are conspicuously absent. With global concerns on drought and water availability and the projected impacts of climate change, development of novel strategies to optimize efficient rootzone delivery of water are required. Co-formulations of alkyl polyglycoside (APG) and ethylene oxide-propylene oxide (EO/PO) block copolymer surfactants have been shown to improve wetting synergistically. The objectives of this study were to determine if this surfactant technology: 1) increased soil water content and wetting front depth in mini-sprinkler irrigated, water repellent, Goulburn Valley clay loam soils and 2) assess the consequence of SWR mitigation on yield of Malus domestica Borkh. Three trials were conducted in the apple varieties 'Pink Lady' (2006/07 and 2007/08) and 'Gala' (2007/08) growing on Goulburn Valley clay loam soils in Victoria, AU. The test design was a randomized complete block with treatments replicated 5-6 times. Plot size varied by location. SWR was mitigated by applying surfactant at initial rates of 0, 5, or 10 L ha-1 in the spring, then at 0, 2.5, or 5 L ha-1 monthly for up to four months and compared to an untreated control. Treatments were applied to tree lines using a hand held small plot sprayer (118 liters of spray solution ha-1) followed by irrigation within 1-3 days of treatment applications. At each location, plots were irrigated by mini sprinklers and received the same irrigation volumes and management practices. Soil volumetric water content (VWC) was monitored at depths of 0-10 and 10-20 cm using a Theta probe (Delta-T Devices, Cambridge, UK). At harvest, fruit number and weights were measured and used for crop yield estimations. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance with mean values summarized and separated using Least Significant Test

  10. Assessment of Psychosocial Status among Short-stature Children with and without Growth Hormone Therapy and Their Parents

    OpenAIRE

    Naiki, Yasuhiro; Horikawa, Reiko; Tanaka, Toshiaki

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the psychosocial status of short children with and without growth hormone therapy (GHT) and that of their parents, self-administered questionnaires were collected from patients and parents who regularly visit the outpatient clinics participating in the Child Health and Development Network. Completed questionnaires were received for one hundred and thirteen patients with GHT and 67 patients without GHT. According to the parents, both children with GHT and without GHT have no diffic...

  11. Soil water status under perennial and annual pastures on an acid duplex soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heng, L.K.; White, R.E.; Chen, D.

    2000-01-01

    A comprehensive field study of soil water balance, nitrogen (N) cycling, pasture management and animal production was carried out on an acid duplex soil at Book Book near Wagga Wagga in southern New South Wales. The experiment, carried out over a 3-year period, tested the hypothesis that sown perennial grass pastures improve the sustainability of a grazing system through better use of water and N. The treatments were: annual pastures without lime (AP-), annual pastures with lime (AP+), perennial pastures without lime (PP-) and perennial pastures with lime (PP+). Soil water measurement was made using a neutron probe on one set of the treatments comprising four adjacent paddocks. Over three winter and spring periods, the results showed that perennial grass pastures, especially PP+, consistently extracted about 40 mm more soil water each year than did the annual grass pastures. As a result, surface runoff, sub-surface flow and deep drainage (percolation below 180 cm depth) were about 40 mm less from the perennial pastures. The soil water status of the four pasture treatments was simulated reasonably well using a simple soil water model. Together with the long-term simulation of deep drainage, using past meteorological records, it is shown that proper management of perennial pastures can reduce recharge to groundwater and make pastoral systems more sustainable in the high rainfall zone. However, to completely reduce recharge, more-deeply rooted plants or trees are needed. (author)

  12. Design Status of the Capillary Brine Residual in Containment Water Recovery System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Sargusingh, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    One of the goals of the AES Life Support System (LSS) Project is to achieve 98% water loop closure for long duration human exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit. To meet this objective, the AES LSS Project is developing technologies to recover water from wastewater brine; highly concentrated waste products generated from a primary water recovery system. The state of the art system used aboard the International Space Station (ISS) has the potential to recover up to 85% water from unine wastewater, leaving a significant amounts of water in the waste brine, the recovery of which is a critical technology gap that must be filled in order to enable long duration human exploration. Recovering water from the urine wastewater brine is complicated by the concentration of solids as water is removed from the brine, and the concentration of the corrosive, toxic chemicals used to stabilize the urine which fouls and degrades water processing hardware, and poses a hazard to operators and crew. Brine Residual in Containment (BRIC) is focused on solids management through a process of "in-place" drying - the drying of brines within the container used for final disposal. Application of in-place drying has the potential to improve the safety and reliability of the system by reducing the exposure to crew and hardware to the problematic brine residual. Through a collaboration between the NASA Johnson Space Center and Portland Status University, a novel water recovery system was developed that utilizes containment geometry to support passive capillary flow and static phase separation allowing free surface evaporation to take place in a microgravity environment. A notional design for an ISS demonstration system was developed. This paper describes the concept for the system level design.

  13. Growth strategies and threshold responses to water deficit modulate effects of warming on tree seedlings from forest to alpine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Brynne E.; Castanha, Cristina; Germino, Matthew; Kueppers, Lara M.; Moyes, Andrew B.

    2018-01-01

    1.Predictions of upslope range shifts for tree species with warming are based on assumptions of moisture stress at lower elevation limits and low temperature stress at high elevation limits. However, recent studies have shown that warming can reduce tree seedling establishment across the entire gradient from subalpine forest to alpine via moisture limitation. Warming effects also vary with species, potentially resulting in community shifts in high elevation forests. 2.We examined the growth and physiology underlying effects of warming on seedling demographic patterns. We evaluated dry mass (DM), root length, allocation above- and belowground, and relative growth rate (RGR) of whole seedlings, and their ability to avoid or endure water stress via water-use efficiency and resisting turgor loss, for Pinus flexilis, Picea engelmannii and Pinus contorta seeded below, at, and above treeline in experimentally warmed, watered, and control plots in the Rocky Mountains, USA. We expected that growth and allocation responses to warming would relate to moisture status and that variation in drought tolerance traits would explain species differences in survival rates. 3.Across treatments and elevations, seedlings of all species had weak turgor-loss resistance, and growth was marginal with negative RGR in the first growth phase (-0.01 to -0.04 g/g/d). Growth was correlated with soil moisture, particularly in the relatively small-seeded P. contorta and P. engelmannii. P. flexilis, known to have the highest survivorship, attained the greatest DM and longest root but was also the slowest growing and most water-use-efficient. This was likely due to its greater reliance on seed reserves. Seedlings developed 15% less total DM, 25% less root DM, and 11% shorter roots in heated compared to unheated plots. Higher temperatures slightly increased DM, root length and RGR where soils were wettest, but more strongly decreased these variables under drier conditions. 4.Synthesis: The surprising

  14. Effects of anticoccidial and antibiotic growth promoter programs on broiler performance and immune status

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated the effects of various coccidiosis control programs in combination with antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) on growth performance and host immune responses in broiler chickens. The coccidiosis programs that were investigated include in ovo coccidiosis vaccination (CVAC) with ...

  15. Synergistic use of biochar, compost and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria for enhancing cucumber growth under water deficit conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Sajid M; Imran, Muhammad; Naveed, Muhammad; Khan, Muhammad Y; Ahmad, Maqshoof; Zahir, Zahir A; Crowley, David E

    2017-12-01

    Limited information is available about the effectiveness of biochar with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and compost. A greenhouse study was conducted to evaluate the effect of biochar in combination with compost and PGPR (Pseudomonas fluorescens) for alleviating water deficit stress. Both inoculated and un-inoculated cucumber seeds were sown in soil treated with biochar, compost and biochar + compost. Three water levels - field capacity (D0), 75% field capacity (D1) and 50% field capacity (D2) - were maintained. The results showed that water deficit stress significantly suppressed the growth of cucumber; however, synergistic use of biochar, compost and PGPR mitigated the negative impact of stress. At D2, the synergistic use of biochar, compost and PGPR caused significant increases in shoot length, shoot biomass, root length and root biomass, which were respectively 88, 77, 89 and 74% more than in the un-inoculated control. Significant improvements in chlorophyll and relative water contents as well as reduction in leaf electrolyte leakage demonstrated the effectiveness of this approach. Moreover, the highest population of P. fluorescens was observed where biochar and compost were applied together. These results suggest that application of biochar with PGPR and/or compost could be an effective strategy for enhancing plant growth under stress. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Effects on growth and oxidative stress status of rice plants (Oryza sativa) exposed to two extracts of toxin-producing cyanobacteria (Aphanizomenon ovalisporum and Microcystis aeruginosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Ana; Campos, Alexandre; Cameán, Ana; Vasconcelos, Vitor

    2011-10-01

    Toxic cyanobacteria are considered emerging world threats, being responsible for the degradation of the aquatic ecosystems. Aphanizomenon ovalisporum produces the toxin Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) being a concern in fresh water habitats. This work aims to increase our knowledge on the effects of this toxic cyanobacterium in plants by studying the alterations in growth parameters and oxidative stress status of rice (Oriza sativa) exposed to the cyanobacteria cell extracts containing CYN. Significant increases in glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities were detected in the different experiments performed. The roots showed to be more sensitive than leaves regarding the enzyme activities. A reduction in the leaf tissue fresh weight was observed after 9 days of plant treatment suggesting a major physiological stress. The exposure of rice plants to a mixture of A. ovalisporum and Microcystis aeruginosa cell extracts containing CYN and microcystins including microcystin-LR, resulted in a significant increase in the GST and GPx activities, suggesting a synergistic effect of both extracts. Together these results point out the negative effects of cyanotoxins on plant growth and oxidative status, induced by A. ovalisporum cell extracts, raising also concerns in the accumulation of CYN. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Water availability is the main climate driver of neotropical tree growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Wagner

    Full Text Available • Climate models for the coming century predict rainfall reduction in the Amazonian region, including change in water availability for tropical rainforests. Here, we test the extent to which climate variables related to water regime, temperature and irradiance shape the growth trajectories of neotropical trees. • We developed a diameter growth model explicitly designed to work with asynchronous climate and growth data. Growth trajectories of 205 individual trees from 54 neotropical species censused every 2 months over a 4-year period were used to rank 9 climate variables and find the best predictive model. • About 9% of the individual variation in tree growth was imputable to the seasonal variation of climate. Relative extractable water was the main predictor and alone explained more than 60% of the climate effect on tree growth, i.e. 5.4% of the individual variation in tree growth. Furthermore, the global annual tree growth was more dependent on the diameter increment at the onset of the rain season than on the duration of dry season. • The best predictive model included 3 climate variables: relative extractable water, minimum temperature and irradiance. The root mean squared error of prediction (0.035 mm x d(-1 was slightly above the mean value of the growth (0.026 mm x d(-1. • Amongst climate variables, we highlight the predominant role of water availability in determining seasonal variation in tree growth of neotropical forest trees and the need to include these relationships in forest simulators to test, in silico, the impact of different climate scenarios on the future dynamics of the rainforest.

  18. Water availability is the main climate driver of neotropical tree growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Fabien; Rossi, Vivien; Stahl, Clément; Bonal, Damien; Hérault, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    • Climate models for the coming century predict rainfall reduction in the Amazonian region, including change in water availability for tropical rainforests. Here, we test the extent to which climate variables related to water regime, temperature and irradiance shape the growth trajectories of neotropical trees. • We developed a diameter growth model explicitly designed to work with asynchronous climate and growth data. Growth trajectories of 205 individual trees from 54 neotropical species censused every 2 months over a 4-year period were used to rank 9 climate variables and find the best predictive model. • About 9% of the individual variation in tree growth was imputable to the seasonal variation of climate. Relative extractable water was the main predictor and alone explained more than 60% of the climate effect on tree growth, i.e. 5.4% of the individual variation in tree growth. Furthermore, the global annual tree growth was more dependent on the diameter increment at the onset of the rain season than on the duration of dry season. • The best predictive model included 3 climate variables: relative extractable water, minimum temperature and irradiance. The root mean squared error of prediction (0.035 mm x d(-1)) was slightly above the mean value of the growth (0.026 mm x d(-1)). • Amongst climate variables, we highlight the predominant role of water availability in determining seasonal variation in tree growth of neotropical forest trees and the need to include these relationships in forest simulators to test, in silico, the impact of different climate scenarios on the future dynamics of the rainforest.

  19. Silicon alleviates drought stress of rice plants by improving plant water status, photosynthesis and mineral nutrient absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Yao, Xiaoqin; Cai, Kunzheng; Chen, Jining

    2011-07-01

    Drought is a major constraint for rice production in the rainfed lowlands in China. Silicon (Si) has been verified to play an important role in enhancing plant resistance to environmental stress. Two near-isogenic lines of rice (Oryza sativa L.), w-14 (drought susceptible) and w-20 (drought resistant), were selected to study the effects of exogenous Si application on the physiological traits and nutritional status of rice under drought stress. In wet conditions, Si supply had no effects on growth and physiological parameters of rice plants. Drought stress was found to reduce dry weight, root traits, water potential, photosynthetic parameters, basal quantum yield (F(v)/F(0)), and maximum quantum efficiency of PSII photochemistry (F(v)/F(m)) in rice plants, while Si application significantly increased photosynthetic rate (Pr), transpiration rate (Tr), F(v)/F(0), and F(v)/F(m) of rice plants under drought stress. In addition, water stress increased K, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe content of rice plants, but Si treatment significantly reduced these nutrient level. These results suggested that silicon application was useful to increase drought resistance of rice through the enhancement of photochemical efficiency and adjustment of the mineral nutrient absorption in rice plants.

  20. Assessment of the terrestrial water balance using the global water availability and use model WaterGAP - status and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller Schmied, Hannes; Döll, Petra

    2017-04-01

    The estimation of the World's water resources has a long tradition and numerous methods for quantification exists. The resulting numbers vary significantly, leaving room for improvement. Since some decades, global hydrological models (GHMs) are being used for large scale water budget assessments. GHMs are designed to represent the macro-scale hydrological processes and many of those models include human water management, e.g. irrigation or reservoir operation, making them currently the first choice for global scale assessments of the terrestrial water balance within the Anthropocene. The Water - Global Assessment and Prognosis (WaterGAP) is a model framework that comprises both the natural and human water dimension and is in development and application since the 1990s. In recent years, efforts were made to assess the sensitivity of water balance components to alternative climate forcing input data and, e.g., how this sensitivity is affected by WaterGAP's calibration scheme. This presentation shows the current best estimate of terrestrial water balance components as simulated with WaterGAP by 1) assessing global and continental water balance components for the climate period 1971-2000 and the IPCC reference period 1986-2005 for the most current WaterGAP version using a homogenized climate forcing data, 2) investigating variations of water balance components for a number of state-of-the-art climate forcing data and 3) discussing the benefit of the calibration approach for a better observation-data constrained global water budget. For the most current WaterGAP version 2.2b and a homogenized combination of the two WATCH Forcing Datasets, global scale (excluding Antarctica and Greenland) river discharge into oceans and inland sinks (Q) is assessed to be 40 000 km3 yr-1 for 1971-2000 and 39 200 km3 yr-1 for 1986-2005. Actual evapotranspiration (AET) is close to each other with around 70 600 (70 700) km3 yr-1 as well as water consumption with 1000 (1100) km3 yr-1. The

  1. The achievement of good chemical status: an impossible mission for local water managers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Jeunesse, Isabelle; Jadas-Hécart, Alain; Landry, David

    2017-04-01

    The European Water Framework Directive (2000) required to achieve good ecological and chemical status in surface waters of the EU Member States in 2015. For pesticides, this means ensuring that concentrations in rivers do not exceed 0.1 μg/L per molecule and 0.5 µg/L for the sum of the concentrations of the different molecules found. At national scale, EcoPhyto plan (2008) aimed to reduce pesticide use by 50% within 10. This plan has been revised and postponed to 2025 as observed pesticide use is varying between years and concentrations in river did not decrease as expected. Although vineyards cover a small percentage of agricultural land surfaces, they contribute to 20% of national pesticide use. The presence of pesticides in rivers surrounding wine territories is therefore a current environmental concern. Thus, the recovery of the water quality requires local action programs to reduce pesticide contamination in rivers. The Layon catchment comprises 13% of vineyard. It is therefore subject to an action program led by the local water committee: the SAGE Layon-Aubance-Louet. Its goal is to ensure pesticide concentrations are reduced to 1 µg/L in 2018 and 0.5 µg/L in 2027. In this context, one of the actions of the SAGE, with the assistance of the University of Angers, addresses the study of peaks in pesticide concentrations during runoff events in a small catchment covered by vineyards. Between 2009 and 2016, one of the two farmers has converted to organic farming with consequent decreases in pesticides input to the case study which thus complied with the EcoPhyto objectives. Results demonstrate first a peak intensity of pesticides in runoff waters in relation with the date of application with a decrease of concentrations during time after the treatment and second a relation between peaks of SPM and pesticides. Transfer of pesticides in this catchment is strongly linked to runoff. Thus, even if the increase of grass surface within vineyard improves the soil

  2. Effects of magnetically treated water on germination and growth of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lycopersicon Esculentum: variety UC82B) plant. The water was allowed to pass through magnetic treatment pipe for duration of 113 s. The mean magnetic flux density used was 719 gauss (G) measured inside the pipe. The treatments (T1 to T5) were ...

  3. Salinity effect on seedling growth, water, sodium and potassium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mature leaves exhibited good adaptative behavior toward salinity stress by increasing succulence due to absorption of large quantities of water and K+ in leaves. Potassium uptake in leaves was not found to be affected by NaCl concentration. As a consequence, monovalent cations adsorption resulted in an increase in the ...

  4. Effect of water deficit on growth and photosynthetic characteristics of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water deficit decreased total leaf area, above-ground biomass, net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, internal CO2 concentration and the actual quantum yield of PS II electron transport relative to cultivars that were grown under control condition. Measurement of stomatal conductance provided useful information to ...

  5. Growth performance and water consumption pattern of broiler chicks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion efficiency, water consumption and final live weights at four (4) weeks were significantly different (p0.05). The results of the trial favored the inclusion of GWM up to 20% in normal maize-soyabean diet ...

  6. Visual observation of gas hydrates nucleation and growth at a water - organic liquid interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoporev, Andrey S.; Semenov, Anton P.; Medvedev, Vladimir I.; Sizikov, Artem A.; Gushchin, Pavel A.; Vinokurov, Vladimir A.; Manakov, Andrey Yu.

    2018-03-01

    Visual observation of nucleation sites of methane and methane-ethane-propane hydrates and their further growth in water - organic liquid - gas systems with/without surfactants was carried out. Sapphire Rocking Cell RCS6 with transparent sapphire cells was used. The experiments were conducted at the supercooling ΔTsub = 20.2 °C. Decane, toluene and crude oils were used as organics. Gas hydrate nucleation occurred on water - metal - gas and water - sapphire - organic liquid three-phase contact lines. At the initial stage of growth hydrate crystals rapidly covered the water - gas or water - organics interfaces (depending on the nucleation site). Further hydrate phase accrete on cell walls (sapphire surface) and into the organics volume. At this stage, growth was accompanied by water «drawing out» from under initial hydrate film formed at water - organic interface. Apparently, it takes place due to water capillary inflow in the reaction zone. It was shown that the hydrate crystal morphology depends on the organic phase composition. In the case of water-in-decane emulsion relay hydrate crystallization was observed in the whole sample, originating most likely due to the hydrate crystal intergrowth through decane. Contacts of such crystals with adjacent water droplets result in rapid hydrate crystallization on this droplet.

  7. Effect of Seed Source and Watering Intervals on Growth and Dry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shea butter tree seeds obtained from five locations in Guinea and Sudan savanna zones of Nigeria were evaluated for seedling growth under three watering intervals. The accessions were named after the site of collection, which included Makurdi, Minna, Jalingo, Yola and Kano while the watering intervals included 3, 6, ...

  8. Irrigation of grapevines with saline water. II. Mathematical simulation of vine growth and yield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ben-Asher, J.; Dam, van J.C.; Feddes, R.A.; Jhorar, R.K.

    2006-01-01

    Soil, water, atmosphere and plant (SWAP) model simulates deterministic transport of water and solutes, incorporating a semi-analytical sink function. It enables one to simulate detailed (SAWPd) or simple (SWAPs) crop growth patterns in response to flow patterns in the root zone. The objectives of

  9. Modelling growth and water use in four Pinus patula stands with the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Existing prediction models do not take sufficient stand and site detail into account to usefully predict water use patterns on a scale that is practical to forest managers. Several relatively simple simulation models based on the major physiological processes behind growth and water use of forest stands have emerged recently, ...

  10. Modelling the effects of soil water potential on growth and quality of cut chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, L.; Li, W.; Shao, J.; Luo, W.; Dai, J.; Yin, X.; Zhou, Y.; Zhao, C.

    2011-01-01

    A complete dynamic model was developed to describe the effects of soil water potential (WP) on the growth and external quality of standard cut chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium) in order to optimise water management of greenhouse crops. Experiments using chrysanthemum cv. ‘Jinba’ with

  11. Survival and growth rate of coastal water Escherichia coli isolates in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of salt concentration on the survival and growth rate of Escherichia coli isolated from Lagos Lagoon surface water was investigated. This was necessitated to ascertain the suitability of using E. coli as feacal pollution indicator in this water body which experiences fluctuation in salinity values. The salinity during the ...

  12. Water and growth: An econometric analysis of climate and policy impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Hassaan Furqan; Morzuch, Bernard J.; Brown, Casey M.

    2017-06-01

    Water-related hazards such as floods, droughts, and disease cause damage to an economy through the destruction of physical capital including property and infrastructure, the loss of human capital, and the interruption of economic activities, like trade and education. The question for policy makers is whether the impacts of water-related risk accrue to manifest as a drag on economic growth at a scale suggesting policy intervention. In this study, the average drag on economic growth from water-related hazards faced by society at a global level is estimated. We use panel regressions with various specifications to investigate the relationship between economic growth and hydroclimatic variables at the country-river basin level. In doing so, we make use of surface water runoff variables never used before. The analysis of the climate variables shows that water availability and water hazards have significant effects on economic growth, providing further evidence beyond earlier studies finding that precipitation extremes were at least as important or likely more important than temperature effects. We then incorporate a broad set of variables representing the areas of infrastructure, institutions, and information to identify the characteristics of a region that determine its vulnerability to water-related risks. The results identify water scarcity, governance, and agricultural intensity as the most relevant measures affecting vulnerabilities to climate variability effects.

  13. The effects of water type on growth, survival and condition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-02-01

    Feb 1, 2010 ... There are optimum water quality requirements for each species, however it is important to consider the ... perature and water quality parameters on growth and survival of P. velifera by assessing their daily ..... Tidwell JH, Coyle SD, Evans J, Weibel C, McKinney J, Dodson K,. Jones H (1999). Effect of culture ...

  14. Effect of Water Deficit Stress on the Physiology, Growth and Leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted in growth chambers to study the response of sorghum cultivars to water deficit stress. Seven sorghum cultivars were evaluated under three water deficit levels [control (-0.05 MPa), mild stress (-0.27 MPa), and severe stress (-0.96 MPa)] in a hydroponic culture in a completely randomised block ...

  15. Modelling of salad plants growth and physiological status in vitamin space greenhouse during lighting regime optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovalova, Irina; Berkovich, Yuliy A.; Smolyanina, Svetlana; Erokhin, Alexei; Yakovleva, Olga; Lapach, Sergij; Radchenko, Stanislav; Znamenskii, Artem; Tarakanov, Ivan

    2016-07-01

    The efficiency of the photoautotrophic element as part of bio-engineering life-support systems is determined substantially by lighting regime. The artificial light regime optimization complexity results from the wide range of plant physiological functions controlled by light: trophic, informative, biosynthetical, etc. An average photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD), light spectral composition and pulsed light effects on the crop growth and plant physiological status were studied in the multivariate experiment, including 16 independent experiments in 3 replicates. Chinese cabbage plants (Brassica chinensis L.), cultivar Vesnianka, were grown during 24 days in a climatic chamber under white and red light-emitting diodes (LEDs): photoperiod 24 h, PPFD from 260 to 500 µM/(m ^{2}*s), red light share in the spectrum varying from 33% to 73%, pulsed (pulse period from 30 to 501 µs) and non-pulsed lighting. The regressions of plant photosynthetic and biochemical indexes as well as the crop specific productivity in response to the selected parameters of lighting regime were calculated. Developed models of crop net photosynthesis and dark respiration revealed the most intense gas exchange area corresponding to PPFD level 450 - 500 µM/(m ^{2}*s) with red light share in the spectrum about 60% and the pulse length 30 µs with a pulse period from 300 to 400 µs. Shoot dry weight increased monotonically in response to the increasing PPFD and changed depending on the pulse period under stabilized PPFD level. An increase in ascorbic acid content in the shoot biomass was revealed when increasing red light share in spectrum from 33% to 73%. The lighting regime optimization criterion (Q) was designed for the vitamin space greenhouse as the maximum of a crop yield square on its ascorbic acid concentration, divided by the light energy consumption. The regression model of optimization criterion was constructed based on the experimental data. The analysis of the model made it

  16. Spatial-temporal particularities of the ecological status of surface water bodies and pollution sources from Siret river basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan DĂSCĂLIȚA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The ecological status of surface water bodies from Siret River Basin is monitored systematically and spatial in accordance with the requirements of European Directives in the water area. Analysis temporary and spatial of qualitative and quantitative status of surface waters (rivers, lakes is achieved according to the specificities of each body of water resulting from physical and geographical conditions, climatic and hydromorphological regimes of river basin and from human activities.In order to know of those features, there are needed specific monitoring systems of water bodies. The parametersunderlying the assessment of ecological status of rivers and lakes are monitored systematically and temporary: daily, monthly, quarterly, annually, according to these characteristics. In this context, the daily variations in environmental condition, expresses the current status of surface waters. Monthly changes are correlated with climate change and characterize the seasonal variations. On annual basis are identified the mean, minimum and maximum for each parameter and the trends (increase, decrease, regularity, periodicity, changes, etc.. Based on this information, extensive to multiannual level, itcan achieve medium and long term forecasts and it might be issued the concepts and strategies for maintaining a balance and sustainable development of water resources.In this paper we have presented some issues related to the synthesis of spatial-temporal ecological status of water bodies managed by Administration of Siret Water Basin(ABAS. Results of studies on the ecological status of water bodies have been presented for the year 2009. Also, in this paper it was presented an evolution of the quantities ofpollutants from wastewater discharged in surface receptors and their purification by water users from of activity of ABAS area in 1999-2009 periods.

  17. Regression analysis of growth responses to water depth in three wetland plant species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorrell, Brian K; Tanner, Chris C; Brix, Hans

    2012-01-01

    ) differing in depth preferences in wetlands, using non-linear and quantile regression analyses to establish how flooding tolerance can explain field zonation. Methodology Plants were established for 8 months in outdoor cultures in waterlogged soil without standing water, and then randomly allocated to water...... depths from 0 – 0.5 m. Morphological and growth responses to depth were followed for 54 days before harvest, and then analysed by repeated measures analysis of covariance, and non-linear and quantile regression analysis (QRA), to compare flooding tolerances. Principal results Growth responses to depth...... differed between the three species, and were non-linear. P. tenax growth rapidly decreased in standing water > 0.25 m depth, C. secta growth increased initially with depth but then decreased at depths > 0.30 m, accompanied by increased shoot height and decreased shoot density, and T. orientalis...

  18. Status of water quality in the Dhaleshwari River and its effect on aquatic organism

    OpenAIRE

    Sirajul Islam; Mahmudul Islam

    2012-01-01

    The study was conducted to know the status of water quality in the Dhaleshwari river and its temporal changes over monsoon, post-monsoon and pre-monsoon seasons due to change of physicochemical parameters during the period from June 2011 to May 2012. The river starts off the Jamuna near the north-western tip of Tangail district with high potential for fisheries production in this area. Over exploitation of fisheries resources, river bank erosion and human activities are gradually hampered the ...

  19. Water Quality, Sediment Characteristics and Benthic Status of the Razim-Sinoie Lagoon System, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catianis, Irina; Secrieru, Dan; Pojar, Iulian; Grosu, Dumitru; Scrieciu, Albert; Pavel, Ana Bianca; Vasiliu, Dan

    2018-03-01

    Razim Lake is the biggest of Romania's freshwater lakes and along with other basins as Golovita, Zmeica and Sinoie constitutes a system of great ecological significance, playing also an essential role in the supply of water for irrigation, fishery exploitation, farming, flood prevention, recreational navigation and water tourism. Due to their importance, the environmental conditions in the Razim - Sinoie coastal lakes have attracted an increased public attention in contemporary society. To assess the levels, dissemination and potential sources of contamination in the above-mentioned lagoon system, random sampling was used to collect water and sediment samples from every lake and several analytical techniques were performed to investigate their environmental characteristics. The results obtained from this study indicated that, in water, concentrations of various physico-chemical parameters are, mostly, in agreement with correlated environmental standards. Slight variations and/or occasional exceeding of the maximum admissible limits were generally limited to small areas showing levels that would not warrant special concern. In sediments, the mean concentrations of some specific trace metals were below the levels of potential effect. Benthic samples revealed 31 taxa belonging to 16 zoo-benthal subdivisions. The results of this study showed good ecological status despite local several natural and anthropogenic stressors as fishery exploitation, farming, recreational navigation and water tourism.

  20. Growth response and ionic relation in two brassica species under water stress conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaman, B.U.; Salim, M.; Niazi, B.H.; Ali, A.

    2008-01-01

    A glasshouse study of Brassica campestris and Brassica juncea showed that the growth and the ionic parameters of both the species were significantly (p < 0.0 I) affected due to water stress. Shoot length of both the species decreased consistently with decrease in solute potential (PSI) in the root medium. Relative growth rate and dry mass was higher in B. juncea than B. campestris but leaf area was less. Concentrations of K Ca/sup 2/ P and S generally decreased with gradual increase in water stress B. campestris was more susceptible to water stress than B juncea. (author)

  1. Effects of metals on Legionella pneumophila growth in drinking water plumbing systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    States, S.J.; Conley, L.F.; Ceraso, M.; Stephenson, T.E.; Wolford, R.S.; Wadowsky, R.M.; McNamara, A.M.; Yee, R.B.

    1985-11-01

    Water samples were collected from hospital and institutional hot-water tanks known to have supported L. pneumophila and were analyzed for 23 chemical parameters. The chemical environment of these tanks was found to vary extensively, with the concentrations of certain metals reaching relatively high levels due to corrosion. The effect of various chemical conditions on L. pneumophila growth was then examined by observing its multiplication in a series of tap water samples artificially supplemented with various concentrations of metals. Additionally, growth of L. pneumophila was examined in a more natural setting by monitoring its multiplication in the chemically analyzed hot-water tank samples after sterilization and reinoculation with L. pneumophila. L. Pneumophila and associated microbiota used in these experiments were obtained from a hot-water tank. These strains were maintained in tap water and had never been passaged on agar. The results of the growth studies indicate that although elevated concentrations of a number of metals are toxic, lower levels of certain metals such as iron, zinc, and potassium enhance growth of naturally occurring L. pneumophila. Parallel observations on accompanying non-Legionellaceae bacteria failed to show the same relationship. These findings suggest that metal plumbing components and associated corrosion products are important factors in the survival and growth of L. pneumophila in plumbing systems and may also be important in related habitats such as cooling towers and air-conditioning systems. 1 figure, 2 tables.

  2. Water temperature and fish growth: otoliths predict growth patterns of a marine fish in a changing climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rountrey, Adam N; Coulson, Peter G; Meeuwig, Jessica J; Meekan, Mark

    2014-08-01

    Ecological modeling shows that even small, gradual changes in body size in a fish population can have large effects on natural mortality, biomass, and catch. However, efforts to model the impact of climate change on fish growth have been hampered by a lack of long-term (multidecadal) data needed to understand the effects of temperature on growth rates in natural environments. We used a combination of dendrochronology techniques and additive mixed-effects modeling to examine the sensitivity of growth in a long-lived (up to 70 years), endemic marine fish, the western blue groper (Achoerodus gouldii), to changes in water temperature. A multi-decadal biochronology (1952-2003) of growth was constructed from the otoliths of 56 fish collected off the southwestern coast of Western Australia, and we tested for correlations between the mean index chronology and a range of potential environmental drivers. The chronology was significantly correlated with sea surface temperature in the region, but common variance among individuals was low. This suggests that this species has been relatively insensitive to past variations in climate. Growth increment and age data were also used in an additive mixed model to predict otolith growth and body size later this century. Although growth was relatively insensitive to changes in temperature, the model results suggested that a fish aged 20 in 2099 would have an otolith about 10% larger and a body size about 5% larger than a fish aged 20 in 1977. Our study shows that species or populations regarded as relatively insensitive to climate change could still undergo significant changes in growth rate and body size that are likely to have important effects on the productivity and yield of fisheries. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Growth hormone treatment improves final height and nutritional status of children with chronic kidney disease and growth deceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizzarri, C; Lonero, A; Delvecchio, M; Cavallo, L; Faienza, M F; Giordano, M; Dello Strologo, L; Cappa, M

    2018-03-01

    Growth retardation is a common complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in children. Treatment with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) has been used to help short children with CKD to attain a height more in keeping with their age group, but the scientific evidence regarding the effect of rhGH on final height is scarce. Final heights of children with CKD receiving rhGH treatment (cases) were compared with final heights of a matched cohort of children with CKD that did not receive rhGH therapy (controls). Sixty-eight rhGH-treated cases (44 boys) were compared with 92 untreated controls (60 boys). Mean duration of rhGH therapy was 4.2 ± 0.9 years; rhGH dose was 0.3 ± 0.07 mg/kg/week. Height SDS at baseline was lower in rhGH-treated patients than in controls (-2.00 ± 1.02 versus -0.96 ± 1.11, p growth deceleration of children with CKD, and ultimately to improve their final height, reducing the difference with target height.

  4. Junk Food Consumption and Effects on Growth Status among Children Aged 6-24 Months in Mashhad, Northeastern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Vakili

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Junk food, due to the lack of vitamins, minerals and trace amounts of energy and protein, there is the risk that the child's stomach filled and by reducing her/his appetite, reduce the chance of nutritious foods. So it is necessary to determine the relationship between using of junk food with growth rate in children. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study was conducted on 300 mothers and their babies , who were referring to 10 selected Mashhad health-care centers for monitoring their 6-24 months children. Participants were selected by cluster and simple random sampling and valid and reliable   questionnaire was used to collect data. Data were analyzed by descriptive- analytic statistics and using SPSS version 16. Results In growth chart, 86.7 percent of children showed appropriate growth, 10.3 percent had delayed growth and 3 percent had horizontal growth curve. In 11.3 percent of families, the junk food has been used for children regularly, 44.7 percent did not believe in these snacks and 44 percent of mothers sometimes used this junk food for their children. Results showed the statistical correlation between junk food consumption and  growth status of children was significant, so children whom haven’t had junk food, have grown more favorable than the other kids (P

  5. Relationship Between Growth of AIgae and Water Purification in a Slow Sand Filter in Summe

    OpenAIRE

    中本, 信忠; 池田, 大介; 田口, 香代; 山本, 満寿夫; 松田, 卓也

    1995-01-01

    The effects of water depth on the growth of algae and on the purification capacity of water in slow sand filters in summer were studied. Filamentous algae grew well in a shallow filter pond. The higher removal rates of available nutrients and dissolved organic carbon in a raw water were observed in the filteration of a shallow filter pond. Importance of algae as a nutrient assimilator and as an oxygen producer in the purification process was discussed.

  6. Do Amplitudes of Water Level Fluctuations Affect the Growth and Community Structure of Submerged Macrophytes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mo-Zhu; Liu, Zheng-Yuan; Luo, Fang-Li; Lei, Guang-Chun; Li, Hong-Li

    2016-01-01

    Submerged macrophytes are subjected to potential mechanical stresses associated with fluctuating water levels in natural conditions. However, few experimental studies have been conducted to further understand the effects of water level fluctuating amplitude on submerged macrophyte species and their assemblages or communities. We designed a controlled experiment to investigate the responses of three submerged macrophyte species (Hydrilla verticillata, Ceratophyllum demersum and Elodea nuttallii) and their combinations in communities to three amplitudes (static, ± 30 cm, ± 60 cm) of water level fluctuations. Results showed that water level fluctuating amplitude had little effects on the community performance and the three tested species responded differently. H. verticillata exhibited more growth in static water and it was negatively affected by either of the water level fluctuations amplitude, however, growth parameters of H. verticillata in two fluctuating water level treatments (i.e., ± 30 cm, ± 60 cm) were not significantly different. On the other hand, the growth of C. demersum was not significantly correlated with different amplitude treatments. However, it became more abundant when water levels fluctuated. E. nuttallii was inhibited by the two fluctuating water level treatments, and was less in growth parameters compared to the other species especially in water level fluctuating conditions. The inherent differences in the adaptive capabilities of the tested species indicate that C. demersum or other species with similar responses may be dominant species to restore submerged macrophyte communities with great fluctuating water levels. Otherwise, H. verticillata, E. nuttallii or other species with similar responses could be considered for constructing the community in static water conditions.

  7. Do Amplitudes of Water Level Fluctuations Affect the Growth and Community Structure of Submerged Macrophytes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mo-Zhu Wang

    Full Text Available Submerged macrophytes are subjected to potential mechanical stresses associated with fluctuating water levels in natural conditions. However, few experimental studies have been conducted to further understand the effects of water level fluctuating amplitude on submerged macrophyte species and their assemblages or communities. We designed a controlled experiment to investigate the responses of three submerged macrophyte species (Hydrilla verticillata, Ceratophyllum demersum and Elodea nuttallii and their combinations in communities to three amplitudes (static, ± 30 cm, ± 60 cm of water level fluctuations. Results showed that water level fluctuating amplitude had little effects on the community performance and the three tested species responded differently. H. verticillata exhibited more growth in static water and it was negatively affected by either of the water level fluctuations amplitude, however, growth parameters of H. verticillata in two fluctuating water level treatments (i.e., ± 30 cm, ± 60 cm were not significantly different. On the other hand, the growth of C. demersum was not significantly correlated with different amplitude treatments. However, it became more abundant when water levels fluctuated. E. nuttallii was inhibited by the two fluctuating water level treatments, and was less in growth parameters compared to the other species especially in water level fluctuating conditions. The inherent differences in the adaptive capabilities of the tested species indicate that C. demersum or other species with similar responses may be dominant species to restore submerged macrophyte communities with great fluctuating water levels. Otherwise, H. verticillata, E. nuttallii or other species with similar responses could be considered for constructing the community in static water conditions.

  8. Exogenous proline mediates alleviation of cadmium stress by promoting photosynthetic activity, water status and antioxidative enzymes activities of young date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouari, M; Ben Ahmed, Ch; Zorrig, W; Elloumi, N; Rabhi, M; Delmail, D; Ben Rouina, B; Labrousse, P; Ben Abdallah, F

    2016-06-01

    The ability of exogenous compatible solutes, such as proline, to counteract cadmium (Cd) inhibitory effects in young date palm plants (Phoenix dactylifera L. cv Deglet Nour) was investigated. Two-year-old date palm plants were subjected for five months at different Cd stress levels (0, 10 and 30 mg CdCl2 kg(-1) soil) whether supplied or not with exogenous proline (20mM) added through the irrigation water. Different levels of Cd stress altered plant growth, gas exchanges and chlorophyll content as well as water status, but at different extent among them. In contrast, an increase of antioxidant enzymes activities of Cd-treated plants in association with high amounts of proline content, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and electrolyte leakage (EL) were observed. Interestingly, exogenous proline mitigated the adverse effects of Cd on young date palm. Indeed, it alleviated the oxidative damage induced by Cd accumulation and established better levels of plant growth, water status and photosynthetic activity. Moreover, proline-treated plants showed high antioxidant enzymes activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxydase) in roots and leaves as compared to Cd-treated plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact of water intake on energy intake and weight status: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Melissa C; Popkin, Barry M

    2010-09-01

    The effects of consuming water with meals rather than drinking no beverage or various other beverages remain under-studied. This systematic review of studies reported in the English-language literature was performed to compare the effects of drinking water and various beverage alternatives on energy intake and/or weight status. Relevant clinical trials, epidemiologic studies, and intervention studies were identified and findings across the literature were summarized. From the clinical trials, average differences were calculated in total energy intake at test meals (DeltaTEI) for each of several beverage categories in comparison with water. The available literature for these comparisons is sparse and somewhat inconclusive. However, one of the most consistent sets of findings was related to adults drinking sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) versus water before a single meal. In these comparisons, total energy intakes were 7.8% higher (DeltaTEI range, -7.5 to 18.9) when SSBs were consumed. Studies comparing non-nutritive sweeteners with water were also relatively consistent and found no impact on energy intake among adults (DeltaTEI, -1.3; range, -9 to 13.8). Much less conclusive evidence was found in studies replacing water with milk and juice, with estimated increases in TEI of 14.9% (range, 10.9 to 23.9%). These findings from clinical trials, along with those from epidemiologic and intervention studies, suggest water has a potentially important role to play in reducing energy intake, and consequently in obesity prevention. A need for randomized-controlled trials to confirm this role exists.

  10. Dynamics of phreatophyte root growth relative to a seasonally fluctuating water table in a Mediterranean-type environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canham, Caroline A; Froend, Raymond H; Stock, William D; Davies, Muriel

    2012-12-01

    While seasonal redistribution of fine root biomass in response to fluctuations in groundwater level is often inferred in phreatophytic plants, few studies have observed the in situ growth dynamics of deep roots relative to those near the surface. We investigated the root growth dynamics of two Banksia species accessing a seasonally dynamic water table and hypothesized that root growth phenology varied with depth, i.e. root growth closest to the water table would be influenced by water table dynamics rather than surface micro-climate. Root in-growth bags were used to observe the dynamics of root growth at different soil depths and above-ground growth was also assessed to identify whole-plant growth phenology. Root growth at shallow depths was found to be in synchrony with above-ground growth phenophases, following increases in ambient temperature and soil water content. In contrast, root growth at depth was either constant or suppressed by saturation. Root growth above the water table and within the capillary fringe occurred in all seasons, corresponding with consistent water availability and aerobic conditions. However, at the water table, a seasonal cycle of root elongation with drawdown in summer followed by trimming in response to water table rise and saturation in winter, was observed. The ability to grow roots year-round at the capillary fringe and redistribute fine root biomass in response to groundwater drawdown is considered critical in allowing phreatophytes, in seasonally water-limited environments, to maintain access to groundwater throughout the year.

  11. Morphological plasticity of root growth under mild water stress increases water use efficiency without reducing yield in maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qian; Zhang, Yulong; Sun, Zhanxiang; Zheng, Jiaming; Bai, Wei; Zhang, Yue; Liu, Yang; Feng, Liangshan; Feng, Chen; Zhang, Zhe; Yang, Ning; Evers, Jochem B.; Zhang, Lizhen

    2017-08-01

    A large yield gap exists in rain-fed maize (Zea mays L.) production in semi-arid regions, mainly caused by frequent droughts halfway through the crop-growing period due to uneven distribution of rainfall. It is questionable whether irrigation systems are economically required in such a region since the total amount of rainfall does generally meet crop requirements. This study aimed to quantitatively determine the effects of water stress from jointing to grain filling on root and shoot growth and the consequences for maize grain yield, above- and below-ground dry matter, water uptake (WU) and water use efficiency (WUE). Pot experiments were conducted in 2014 and 2015 with a mobile rain shelter to achieve conditions of no, mild or severe water stress. Maize yield was not affected by mild water stress over 2 years, while severe stress reduced yield by 56 %. Both water stress levels decreased root biomass slightly but shoot biomass substantially. Mild water stress decreased root length but increased root diameter, resulting in no effect on root surface area. Due to the morphological plasticity in root growth and the increase in root / shoot ratio, WU under water stress was decreased, and overall WUE for both above-ground dry matter and grain yield increased. Our results demonstrate that an irrigation system might be not economically and ecologically necessary because the frequently occurring mild water stress did not reduce crop yield much. The study helps us to understand crop responses to water stress during a critical water-sensitive period (middle of the crop-growing season) and to mitigate drought risk in dry-land agriculture.

  12. Availability of irrigation water for domestic use in Pakistan: its impact on prevalence of diarrhoea and nutritional status of children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Hoek, Wim; Feenstra, Sabiena G; Konradsen, Flemming

    2002-01-01

    This study assessed whether availability of water for domestic use had any impact on nutritional status of children in an area where people depend on irrigation water for all their domestic water needs. During May 1998-April 1999, data on the occurrence of diarrhoea among 167 children aged less...... of diarrhoea and malnutrition in this area. An integrated approach to water management is needed in irrigation schemes, so that supply of domestic water is given priority when allocating water in time and space within the systems....

  13. Chronic water stress reduces tree growth and the carbon sink of deciduous hardwood forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzostek, Edward R; Dragoni, Danilo; Schmid, Hans Peter; Rahman, Abdullah F; Sims, Daniel; Wayson, Craig A; Johnson, Daniel J; Phillips, Richard P

    2014-08-01

    Predicted decreases in water availability across the temperate forest biome have the potential to offset gains in carbon (C) uptake from phenology trends, rising atmospheric CO2 , and nitrogen deposition. While it is well established that severe droughts reduce the C sink of forests by inducing tree mortality, the impacts of mild but chronic water stress on forest phenology and physiology are largely unknown. We quantified the C consequences of chronic water stress using a 13-year record of tree growth (n = 200 trees), soil moisture, and ecosystem C balance at the Morgan-Monroe State Forest (MMSF) in Indiana, and a regional 11-year record of tree growth (n > 300 000 trees) and water availability for the 20 most dominant deciduous broadleaf tree species across the eastern and midwestern USA. We show that despite ~26 more days of C assimilation by trees at the MMSF, increasing water stress decreased the number of days of wood production by ~42 days over the same period, reducing the annual accrual of C in woody biomass by 41%. Across the deciduous forest region, water stress induced similar declines in tree growth, particularly for water-demanding 'mesophytic' tree species. Given the current replacement of water-stress adapted 'xerophytic' tree species by mesophytic tree species, we estimate that chronic water stress has the potential to decrease the C sink of deciduous forests by up to 17% (0.04 Pg C yr(-1) ) in the coming decades. This reduction in the C sink due to mesophication and chronic water stress is equivalent to an additional 1-3 days of global C emissions from fossil fuel burning each year. Collectively, our results indicate that regional declines in water availability may offset the growth-enhancing effects of other global changes and reduce the extent to which forests ameliorate climate warming. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Impact of root growth and root hydraulic conductance on water availability of young walnut trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerszurki, Daniela; Couvreur, Valentin; Hopmans, Jan W.; Silva, Lucas C. R.; Shackel, Kenneth A.; de Souza, Jorge L. M.

    2015-04-01

    Walnut (Juglans regia L.) is a tree species of high economic importance in the Central Valley of California. This crop has particularly high water requirements, which makes it highly dependent on irrigation. The context of decreasing water availability in the state calls for efficient water management practices, which requires improving our understanding of the relationship between water application and walnut water availability. In addition to the soil's hydraulic conductivity, two plant properties are thought to control the supply of water from the bulk soil to the canopy: (i) root distribution and (ii) plant hydraulic conductance. Even though these properties are clearly linked to crop water requirements, their quantitative relation remains unclear. The aim of this study is to quantitatively explain walnut water requirements under water deficit from continuous measurements of its water consumption, soil and stem water potential, root growth and root system hydraulic conductance. For that purpose, a greenhouse experiment was conducted for a two month period. Young walnut trees were planted in transparent cylindrical pots, equipped with: (i) rhizotron tubes, which allowed for non-invasive monitoring of root growth, (ii) pressure transducer tensiometers for soil water potential, (iii) psychrometers attached to non-transpiring leaves for stem water potential, and (iv) weighing scales for plant transpiration. Treatments consisted of different irrigation rates: 100%, 75% and 50% of potential crop evapotranspiration. Plant responses were compared to predictions from three simple process-based soil-plant-atmosphere models of water flow: (i) a hydraulic model of stomatal regulation based on stem water potential and vapor pressure deficit, (ii) a model of plant hydraulics predicting stem water potential from soil-root interfaces water potential, and (iii) a model of soil water depletion predicting the water potential drop between the bulk soil and soil-root interfaces

  15. Effects of magnetized water application on soil and maize growth indices under different amounts of salt in the water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meysam Abedinpour

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Application of low quality water for irrigation is compulsive in facing water scarcity. Use of a magnetic field is an approach to overcome this challenge. This study examined the impact of magnetic field technology on improving germination under water of different salinity levels. An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of saline water levels, i.e. (S1:0.5, (S2:2, (S3:4 and (S4:6 dS/m combined with magnetized technology (with or without on maize growth. Thus, magnetic treatment was applied by passing the irrigation water through a 1,500 mT magnetic field at 3 litres per minute (lpm flow rate. Some emergence indices, such as emergence index, emergence rate index (ERI and mean emergence time, were used to evaluate the germination of maize seed. As for soil properties after plant harvest, the use of magnetically treated irrigation water reduced soil pH but increased soil electrical conductivity and available N and P. ERI increased from 7.6 to 10.2, 9.1 to 11.1, 10.3 to 13.3, and 11.8 to 13.3 when applying the magnetized field for S1, S2, S3 and S4, respectively. Overall, the growth parameters of maize were improved by using magnetic technology with saline water, while the opposite trend was shown for increasing salinity without magnetic treatment.

  16. [Schistosomiasis status of staff in Hydrology Bureau of Yangtze Water Resources Committee in 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jun; Leng, Cheng-mei; Tang, Min; Yao, Wei-gang

    2014-08-01

    To understand the status of schistosomiasis of staff in the Hydrology Bureau of Yangtze Water Resources Committee and the Oncomelania hupensis snail condition of their work areas in 2013, so as to provide the evidences for the schistosomiasis control in the industry. The physical examination data about schistosomiasis of the staff from 2006 to 2013 were collected and analyzed to understand the schistosomiasis prevalence condition of the staff and the changes of their liver parenchyma. Meanwhile, the snail status in the work areas was surveyed. There were 1,393 staff involved in the physical examinations of schistosomiasis in 2003, 197 of them were schistosomiasis patients, the prevalence rate was 14.14%, and no new acute schistosomiasis case occurred. The cases whose liver parenchyma were classified as Grade 0, I , II , III occupied 28.9%, 67.0%, 3.05% and 1.02%, respectively. A total of 24 work areas were involved in the snail survey, and 71 snails were captured. Among the whole snails captured, 39 were living snails, but no schistosome infected snails were found. The prevalence rate of schistosomiasis in staff of the Hydrology Bureau of Yangtze Water Resources Committee is relatively high, so the schistosomiasis surveillance as well as the snail survey and control still should be carried out consistently.

  17. Use of biofilm-dwelling ciliate communities to determine environmental quality status of coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Henglong; Zhang, Wei; Jiang, Yong; Yang, Eun Jin

    2014-02-01

    It has increasingly been recognized that the ecological features of protozoan communities have many advantages as a favorable bioindicator to evaluate environmental stress and anthropogenic impact in many aquatic ecosystems. The ability of biofilm-dwelling ciliate communities for assessing environmental quality status was studied, using glass slides as an artificial substratum, during a 1-year cycle (August 2011-July 2012) in coastal waters of the Yellow Sea, northern China. The samples were collected monthly at a depth of 1m from four sampling stations with a spatial gradient of environmental stress. Environmental variables, e.g., salinity, dissolved oxygen (DO), chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N), ammonium nitrogen (NH4-N) and soluble reactive phosphates (SRP), were measured synchronously for comparison with biotic parameters. Results showed that: (1) the community structures of the ciliates represented significant differences among the four sampling stations; (2) spatial patterns of the ciliate communities were significantly correlated with environmental variables, especially COD and the nutrients; (3) five dominant species (Hartmannula angustipilosa, Metaurostylopsis sp.1, Discocephalus ehrenbergi, Stephanopogon minuta and Pseudovorticella paracratera) were significantly correlated with nutrients or COD; and (4) the species richness measure was significantly correlated with the nutrient NO3-N. It is suggested that biofilm-dwelling ciliate communities might be used as a potentially robust bioindicator for discriminating environmental quality status in coastal waters. © 2013.

  18. Maize water status and physiological traits as affected by root endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica under combined drought and mechanical stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Fatemeh; Mosaddeghi, Mohammad Reza; Dexter, Anthony Roger; Sepehri, Mozhgan

    2018-02-16

    Under combined drought and mechanical stresses, mechanical stress primarily controlled physiological responses of maize. Piriformospora indica mitigated the adverse effects of stresses, and inoculated maize experienced less oxidative damage and had better adaptation to stressful conditions. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of maize root colonization by an endophytic fungus P. indica on plant water status, physiological traits and root morphology under combined drought and mechanical stresses. Seedlings of inoculated and non-inoculated maize (Zea mays L., cv. single cross 704) were cultivated in growth chambers filled with moistened siliceous sand at a matric suction of 20 hPa. Drought stress was induced using PEG 6000 solution with osmotic potentials of 0, - 0.3 and - 0.5 MPa. Mechanical stress (i.e., penetration resistances of 1.05, 4.23 and 6.34 MPa) was exerted by placing weights on the surface of the sand medium. After 30 days, leaf water potential (LWP) and relative water content (RWC), root and shoot fresh weights, root volume (RV) and diameter (RD), leaf proline content, leaf area (LA) and catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities were measured. The results show that exposure to individual drought and mechanical stresses led to higher RD and proline content and lower plant biomass, RV and LA. Moreover, increasing drought and mechanical stress severity increased APX activity by about 1.9- and 3.1-fold compared with the control. When plants were exposed to combined stresses, mechanical stress played the dominant role in controlling plant responses. P. indica-inoculated plants are better adapted to individual and combined stresses. The inoculated plants had greater RV, LA, RWC, LWP and proline content under stressful conditions. In comparison with non-inoculated plants, inoculated plants showed lower CAT and APX activities which means that they experienced less oxidative stress induced by stressful conditions.

  19. [Plant growth with limited water]. [Annual report, December 15, 1992--December 14, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    We used a soybean seedling system to explore the mechanism of growth limitation by water deficiency (low {Psi}{sub W}). Our prior work had show that (low {Psi}{sub W} inhibited plant growth initially because of a physical limitation to water uptake that appeared to result from a decrease in the {Psi}{sub W} gradient feeding water to the enlarging cells. The gradient was shown to originate from cell wall yielding and was altered primarily at the vascular tissue. In the present grant, we reported the detailed shape of the gradient. We also found that growth could mobilize water from mature tissues in the complete absence of external water using the gradient in {Psi}{sub W}. Growth was maintained by this mobilization. After growth has been inhibited a few hours, metabolic changes occur and a 28kD protein accumulates in the wall fraction of the growth-affected cells. In the present grant, we showed that the mRNA for the protein accumulated in a tissue-specific manner similar to that of the protein, and the accumulation was correlated with the growth response. Other investigators working independently with an acid phosphatase found a deduced amino acid sequence similar to that for the 28kD protein we had published. Biochemical tests showed that the 28kD protein and a related 3lkD protein expressed acid phosphatase activity. We found that the acid phosphatase Of the 28kD protein was in the cell walls of intact plants (in addition to being in the cytoplasm). Current work focuses on the role of this protein. Efforts were made to reverse the growth inhibition at low {Phi}{sub W} by treating growing tissues with low pH buffer, but the protons apparently failed to penetrate the cuticle.

  20. Effects of metals on Legionella pneumophila growth in drinking water plumbing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    States, S J; Conley, L F; Ceraso, M; Stephenson, T E; Wolford, R S; Wadowsky, R M; McNamara, A M; Yee, R B

    1985-11-01

    An investigation of the chemical environment and growth of Legionella pneumophila in plumbing systems was conducted to gain a better understanding of its ecology in this habitat. Water samples were collected from hospital and institutional hot-water tanks known to have supported L. pneumophila and were analyzed for 23 chemical parameters. The chemical environment of these tanks was found to vary extensively, with the concentrations of certain metals reaching relatively high levels due to corrosion. The effect of various chemical conditions on L. pneumophila growth was then examined by observing its multiplication in the chemically analyzed hot-water tank samples after sterilization and reinoculation with L. pneumophila. L. pneumophila and associated microbiota used in these experiments were obtained from a hot-water tank. These stains were maintained in tap water and had never been passaged on agar. The results of the growth studies indicate that although elevated concentrations of a number of metals are toxic, lower levels of certain metals such as iron, zinc, and potassium enhance growth of naturally occurring L. pneumophila. Parallel observations on accompanying non-Legionellaceae bacteria failed to show the same relationship. These findings suggest that metal plumbing components and associated corrosion products are important factors in the survival and growth of L. pneumophila in plumbing systems and may also be important in related habitats such as cooling towers and air-conditioning systems.

  1. Growth of Byssochlamys nivea in pineapple juice under the effect of water activity and ascospore age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Zimmermann

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of thermal resistant mould, including Byssochlamys nivea, is of extreme importance since it has been associated with fruit and fruit products. The aim of this work is to analyze the influence of water activity (a w and ascospore age (I on the growth of Byssochlamys nivea in pineapple juice. Mold growth was carried out under different conditions of water activity (a w (0.99, 0.96, 0.95, 0.93, 0.90 and ascospore age (I (30, 51, 60, 69, 90 days. Growth parameters as length of adaptation phase (λ, maximum specific growth rate (µmax and maximum diameter reached by the colony (λ were obtained through the fit of the Modified Gompertz model to experimental data (measuring radial colony diameter. Statistica 6.0 was used for statistical analyses (significance level α = 0.05. The results obtained clearly showed that water activity is statistically significant and that it influences all growth parameters, while ascospore age does not have any statistically significant influence on growth parameters. Also, these data showed that by increasing a w from 0.90 to 0.99, the λ value substantially decreased, while µmax and λ values rose. The data contributed for the understanding of the behavior of B. nivea in pineapple juice. Therefore, it provided mathematical models that can well predict growth parameters, also helping on microbiological control and products' shelf life determination.

  2. Ecological Status of Rivers and Streams in Saxony (Germany According to the Water Framework Directive and Prospects of Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Müller

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Federal State of Saxony (Germany transposed the EU Water Framework Directive into state law, identifying 617 surface water bodies (rivers and streams for implementation of the water framework directive (WFD. Their ecological status was classified by biological quality elements (macrophytes and phytobenthos, benthic invertebrates and fish, and in large rivers, phytoplankton and specific synthetic and non-synthetic pollutants. Hydromorphological and physico-chemical quality elements were used to identify significant anthropogenic pressures, which surface water bodies are susceptible to, and to assess the effect of these pressures on the status of surface water bodies. In 2009, the data for classification of the ecological status and the main pressures and impacts on water bodies were published in the river basin management plans (RBMP of the Elbe and Oder rivers. To that date, only 23 (4% streams achieved an ecological status of “good”, while the rest failed to achieve the environmental objective. The two main reasons for the failure were significant alterations to the stream morphology (81% of all streams and nutrient enrichment (62% caused by point (industrial and municipal waste water treatment plants and non-point (surface run-off from arable fields, discharges from urban drainages and decentralized waste water treatment plants sources. It was anticipated that a further 55 streams would achieve the environmental objective by 2015, but the remaining 539 need extended deadlines.

  3. Decomposing the Decoupling of Water Consumption and Economic Growth in China’s Textile Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Unprecedented economic achievement in China’s textile industry (TI has occurred along with rising water consumption. The goal of industrial sustainable development requires the decoupling of economic growth from resource consumption. This paper examines the relationship between water consumption and economic growth, and the internal influence mechanism of China’s TI and its three sub-sectors: the manufacture of textiles (MT sector, the Manufacture of Textile Wearing Apparel, Footwear, and Caps (MTWA sector, and the manufacture of chemical fibers (MCF sector. A decoupling analysis was performed and the Laspeyres decomposition method was applied to the period from 2001 to 2014. We showed that six of the fourteen years analyzed (2003, 2006, 2008, 2009, 2011, and 2013 exhibited a strong decoupling effect and three of the fourteen years (2005, 2007, and 2010 exhibited a weak decoupling effect. Overall, China’s TI experienced a good decoupling between economic growth and water consumption from 2002 to 2014. For the three sub-sectors, the MTWA sector experienced a more significant positive decoupling than the MT and MCF sectors. The decomposition results confirm that the industrial scale factor is the most important driving force of China’s TI water consumption increase, while the water efficiency factor is the most important inhibiting force. The industrial structure adjustment does not significantly affect water consumption. The industrial scale and water use efficiency factors are also the main determinants of change in water consumption for the three sub-sectors.

  4. Application of Low cost Spirulina growth medium using Deep sea water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Dae-hack; Kim, Bong-ju; Lee, Sung-jae; Choi, Nag-chul; Park, Cheon-young

    2017-04-01

    Deep-sea water has a relatively constant temperature, abundant nutrients such as calcium, magnesium, nitrates, and phosphates, etc., and stable water quality, even though there might be some variations of their compositions according to collection places. Thus, deep-sea water would be a good substrate for algal growth and biomass production since it contains various nutrients, including a fluorescent red pigment, and β-carotene, etc. The aim of this study was to investigate the economics of a culture condition through comparative analysis to Spirulina platensis growth characteristic under various medium conditions for cost-effective production of Spirulina sp.. Growth experiments were performed with S. platensis under various culture medium conditions (deep sea water + SP medium). Growth tests for culture medium demonstrated that the deep sea water to SP medium ratio of 50:50(W/W) was effective in S. platensis with the maximum biomass (1.35g/L) and minimum medium making cost per production mass (133.28 KRW/g). Parameter estimation of bio-kinetics (maximum growth rate and yield) for low cost medium results showed that the maximum growth rate and yield of N, P, K were obtained under deep sea water to SP medium ratio of 50:50(W/W) of 0.057 1/day and 0.151, 0.076, 0.123, respectively. Acknowledgment : "This research was a part of the project titled 'Development of microalgae culture technique for cosmetic materials based on ocean deep sea water(20160297)', funded by the Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries, Korea."

  5. Interaction effects of water salinity and hydroponic growth medium on eggplant yield, water-use efficiency, and evapotranspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnoosh Mahjoor

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Eggplant (Solanum melongena L. is a plant native to tropical regions of Southeast Asia. The water crisis and drought on the one hand and eggplant greenhouse crop development as one of the most popular fruit vegetables for people on the other hand, led to the need for more research on the use of saline water and water stress to optimize salinity level and their impact on eggplant evapotranspiration and encounter better yield and crop quality. The objective of the present study was to investigate the interactions of water salinity and hydroponic growth medium on qualitative and quantitative properties of eggplant and its water-use efficiency. The study used the factorial experiment based on completely randomized design with three replications of four levels of water salinity (electrical conductivity of 0.8 (control, 2.5, 5, and 7 dS m−1 and three growth media (cocopeat, perlite, and a 50–50 mixture of the two by volume. Total yield, yield components, evapotranspiration, and water-use efficiency were determined during two growing periods, one each in 2012 and 2013. All of these indices decreased significantly as water salinity increased. Water with of 0.8 dS m−1 produced an average eggplant yield of 2510 g per plant in 2012 and 2600 g in 2013. The highest yield was observed in cocopeat. Water with 7 dS m−1 reduced yield to 906 g per plant in 2012 and to 960 g in 2013. Lowest yield was observed in perlite. The highest evapotranspiration values occurred in cocopeat at the lowest salinity in both years. Cocopeat and the cocopeat–perlite mixture were equally good substrates. The mixture significantly improved the quantitative and qualitative properties of eggplant yield.

  6. Development and validation of a combined temperature, water activity, pH model for bacterial growth rate of Lactobacillus curvatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijtzes, T.; Rombouts, F.M.; Kant-Muermans, M.L.T.; Riet, van 't K.; Zwietering, M.H.

    2001-01-01

    A model was established to predict growth rate as a function of temperature, pH and water activity. The model is based on two, earlier developed models, one for growth rate as a function of temperature and water activity and the other for growth rate as a function of temperature and pH. Based on the

  7. Power-law Growth and Punctuated Equilibrium Dynamics in Water Resources Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parolari, A.; Katul, G. G.; Porporato, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    The global rise in population-driven water scarcity and recent appreciation of strong dynamic coupling between human and natural systems has called for new approaches to predict the future sustainability of regional and global water resources systems. The dynamics of coupled human-water systems are driven by a complex set of social, environmental, and technological factors. Present projections of water resources systems range from a finite carrying capacity regulated by accessible freshwater, or `peak renewable water,' to punctuated evolution with new supplied and improved efficiency gained from technological and social innovation. However, these projections have yet to be quantified from observations or in a comprehensive theoretical framework. Using data on global water withdrawals and storage capacity of regional water supply systems, non-trivial dynamics are identified in water resources systems development over time, including power-law growth and punctuated equilibria. Two models are introduced to explain this behavior: (1) a delay differential equation and (2) a power-law with log-periodic oscillations, both of which rely on past conditions (or system memory) to describe the present rate of growth in the system. In addition, extension of the first model demonstrates how system delays and punctuated equilibria can emerge from coupling between human population growth and associated resource demands. Lastly, anecdotal evidence is used to demonstrate the likelihood of power-law growth in global water use from the agricultural revolution 3000 BC to the present. In a practical sense, the presence of these patterns in models with delayed oscillations suggests that current decision-making related to water resources development results from the historical accumulation of resource use decisions, technological and social changes, and their consequences.

  8. The Causal Relationship between Urbanization, Economic Growth and Water Use Change in Provincial China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Bao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between urbanization, economic growth, and water use change is one of the key issues for China’s sustainable development, as rapid urbanization and continuous economic growth are accompanied by a steady water stress. Thus, we applied a cointegration test and a VECM (vector error correction model Granger causality test to investigate the causal relationship between the urbanization level, the economic development level, and the total water use in China and its 31 provincial administrative regions during 1997–2013. Results show that the three indicators have a long-run equilibrium relationship in most provincial administrative regions in China. However, the short-run effects and Granger causal relationship are insignificant for China and most provincial administrative regions. Therefore, that an idea such as urbanization as the engine or major driving force of economic growth, and that China’s urbanization and economic growth will bring a water crisis and will be strongly constrained by water resources, might be properly weakened. Targeted and relatively separate policies should be emphasized more for the coordinated development of China’s urbanization, economy, and water resources.

  9. Growth and water relations of Kentucky coffee tree in protective shelters during establishment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjelgren, R.

    1994-01-01

    Growth and water relations of Kentucky coffee tree [Gymnocladus dioica (L.) K. Koch] whips in translucent tubelike shelters were investigated. In a container study, 1.2-m-high shelters were placed over whips following transplanting, then diurnal microclimate, water relations, and water use were measured. Shelter air temperature and vapor pressure were substantially higher, and solar radiation was 70% lower, than ambient conditions. Sheltered trees responded with nearly three-times higher stomatal conductance than nonsheltered trees. However, due to substantially lower boundary layer conductance created by the shelter, normalized water use was 40% lower. In a second experiment, same-sized shelters were placed on whips following spring transplanting in the field. Predawn and midday leaf water potentials and midday stomatal conductance (g(s)) were monitored periodically through the season, and growth was measured in late summer. Midday g(s) was also much higher in field-grown trees with shelters than in those without. Sheltered trees in the field had four times greater terminal shoot elongation but 40% less stem diameter growth. Attenuated radiation in the shelters and lower-specific leaf area of sheltered trees indicated shade acclimation. Shelters can improve height and reduce water loss during establishment in a field nursery, but they do not allow for sufficient trunk growth

  10. Algal massive growth in relation to water quality and salinity at Damietta, north of Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ali Ibraheem Deyab

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To relate the proliferation and dominance of certain algal species at the Damietta and its relation to water quality. Methods: Water and algal biomass were bimonthly sampled from five selected sites at Damietta Province, Egypt during 2012. Algae were identified and quantified. Waters, algae and sediment were analyzed. Results: The physicochemical properties of water showed limited seasonal but substantial local variation. The high levels of nitrogen and phosphorus and turbidity of water pointed to marked eutrophication, which could enhance massive algal growth. The temporal fluctuation in temperature, exposure to industrial and domestic sewage and salinity results in succession between blooming algal species. Spirulina platensis and Chlorella vulgaris alternated in a moderately saline water and Oscillatoria agardhii and Mougeotia scalaris in a fresh water body during summer and winter respectively. Likewise, Microcystis aureginosa and Ulva lactuca alternated in a moderately saline site during autumn and summer respectively. Cladophora albida dominated a fish pond of brackish water and Dunaliella salina dominated the most saline water over the whole period of study. Conclusions: Growth of the predominant algal species is correlated to water quality. These species are of considerable nutritive value, with moderate contents of protein, carbohydrate, macronutrients and micronutrients, which evaluates them for usage as food (green and macroalgae, fodder or bio-fertilizer (cyanophytes.

  11. Effects of water availability and pest pressures on tea (Camellia sinensis) growth and functional quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Selena; Orians, Colin M; Griffin, Timothy S; Buckley, Sarabeth; Unachukwu, Uchenna; Stratton, Anne Elise; Stepp, John Richard; Robbat, Albert; Cash, Sean; Kennelly, Edward J

    2014-01-01

    Extreme shifts in water availability linked to global climate change are impacting crops worldwide. The present study examines the direct and interactive effects of water availability and pest pressures on tea (Camellia sinensis; Theaceae) growth and functional quality. Manipulative greenhouse experiments were used to measure the effects of variable water availability and pest pressures simulated by jasmonic acid (JA) on tea leaf growth and secondary metabolites that determine tea quality. Water treatments were simulated to replicate ideal tea growing conditions and extreme precipitation events in tropical southwestern China, a major centre of tea production. Results show that higher water availability and JA significantly increased the growth of new leaves while their interactive effect was not significant. The effect of water availability and JA on tea quality varied with individual secondary metabolites. Higher water availability significantly increased total methylxanthine concentrations of tea leaves but there was no significant effect of JA treatments or the interaction of water and JA. Water availability, JA treatments or their interactive effects had no effect on the concentrations of epigallocatechin 3-gallate. In contrast, increased water availability resulted in significantly lower concentrations of epicatechin 3-gallate but the effect of JA and the interactive effects of water and JA were not significant. Lastly, higher water availability resulted in significantly higher total phenolic concentrations but there was no significant impact of JA and their interaction. These findings point to the fascinating dynamics of climate change effects on tea plants with offsetting interactions between precipitation and pest pressures within agro-ecosystems, and the need for future climate studies to examine interactive biotic and abiotic effects.

  12. Monitoring plant water status and rooting depth for precision irrigation in the vineyards of Classic Karst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savi, Tadeja; Moretti, Elisa; Dal Borgo, Anna; Petruzzellis, Francesco; Stenni, Barbara; Bertoncin, Paolo; Dreossi, Giuliano; Zini, Luca; Martellos, Stefano; Nardini, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    The extreme summer drought and heat waves that occurred in South-Europe in 2003 and 2012 have led to the loss of more than 50% of winery production in the Classic Karst (NE Italy). The irrigation of vineyards in this area is not appropriately developed and, when used, it does not consider the actual water status and needs of plants, posing risks of inappropriate or useless usage of large water volumes. The predicted future increase in frequency and severity of extreme climate events poses at serious risk the local agriculture based on wine business. We monitored seasonal trends of pre-dawn (Ψpd) and minimum (Ψmin) leaf water potential, and stomatal conductance (gL) of 'Malvasia' grapevine in one mature (MV, both in 2015 and 2016) and one young vineyard (YV, in 2016). Moreover, we extracted xylem sap form plant stems and soil water from samples collected in nearby caves, by cryo-vacuum distillation. We also collected precipitation and irrigation water in different months. Oxygen isotope composition (δ18O) of atmospheric, plant, soil and irrigation water was analyzed to get information about rooting depth. In 2015, at the peak of summer aridity, two irrigation treatments were applied according to traditional management practices. The treatments were performed in a sub-area of the MV, followed by physiological analysis and yield measurements at grape harvest. In 2016, the soil water potential (Ψsoil) at 50 cm depth was also monitored throughout the season. Under harsh environmental conditions the apparently deep root system ensured relatively favorable plant water status in both MV and YV and during both growing seasons. The Ψsoil at 50 cm depth gradually decreased as drought progressed, reaching a minimum value of about -1.7 MPa, far more negative than Ψpd recorded in plants (about -0.5 MPa). In July, significant stomatal closure was observed, but Ψmin never surpassed the critical threshold of -1.3 MPa, indicating that irrigation was not needed. The xylem sap

  13. Assessment of Carbon Status in Marine Protected Area of Payung Island Waters, South Sumatera Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ida Sunaryo Purwiyanto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available CO2 is a greenhouse gas that receive more attention than the other gases because the properties of carbon easily deformed and diffuseed. Changes in the concentration of CO2 in the water will impact on changes in the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere that affect sea surface temperatures. It continuously will result in a change of marine capture fisheries. Payung Island is one of the important areas in South Sumatra that acts as the provider of the fishery. This because Payung Island is located in the mouth of Musi and Telang River covered by mangrove, has a very important ecological function. However, the condition of the carbon in the waters of the Payung Island has not explored further. This elementary study is to determine status on Payung Island waters as a sink or source of CO2. The study was conducted in June until August 2015. The research stages include surface water sampling, measurement of the CO2 in the atmosphere, the analysis of the concentration of Dissolved Inorganic Carbon (DIC and Total Alkalinity (TA, and partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2 calculation.  Atmospheric CO2 were measured insitu, while the DIC and TA were analyzed using titration methods. Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2 obtained from the calculation using the software CO2Calc using data of  DIC, TA, nutrients and atmospheric CO2. The results showed that the content of DIC and TA on the Payung Island waters has similar distribution pattern  i.e. high in areas close to the river, and getting lower in the area which were closer to the sea. The comparisons between pCO2 atmosphere and pCO2 waters showed that Payung Island waters generally act as a carbon sink in area towards the sea but however, in the territorial waters adjacent to the river as a source of carbon.   Keywords: carbon, marine protected area, Payung Island waters

  14. The agony of choice: how plants balance growth and survival under water-limiting conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claeys, Hannes; Inzé, Dirk

    2013-08-01

    When confronted with water limitation, plants actively reprogram their metabolism and growth. Recently, it has become clear that growing tissues show specific and highly dynamic responses to drought, which differ from the well-studied responses in mature tissues. Here, we provide an overview of recent advances in understanding shoot growth regulation in water-limiting conditions. Of special interest is the balance between maintained growth and competitiveness on the one hand and ensured survival on the other hand. A number of master regulators controlling this balance have been identified, such as DELLAs and APETALA2/ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR-type transcription factors. The possibilities of engineering or breeding crops that maintain growth in periods of mild drought, while still being able to activate protective tolerance mechanisms, are discussed.

  15. The Agony of Choice: How Plants Balance Growth and Survival under Water-Limiting Conditions1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claeys, Hannes; Inzé, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    When confronted with water limitation, plants actively reprogram their metabolism and growth. Recently, it has become clear that growing tissues show specific and highly dynamic responses to drought, which differ from the well-studied responses in mature tissues. Here, we provide an overview of recent advances in understanding shoot growth regulation in water-limiting conditions. Of special interest is the balance between maintained growth and competitiveness on the one hand and ensured survival on the other hand. A number of master regulators controlling this balance have been identified, such as DELLAs and APETALA2/ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR-type transcription factors. The possibilities of engineering or breeding crops that maintain growth in periods of mild drought, while still being able to activate protective tolerance mechanisms, are discussed. PMID:23766368

  16. Modeling gravity effects on water retention and gas transport characteristics in plant growth substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deepagoda Thuduwe Kankanamge Kelum, Chamindu; Jones, Scott B.; Tuller, Markus

    2014-01-01

    utilization to conserve energy and to limit transport costs, native materials mined on Moon or Mars are of primary interest for plant growth media in a future outpost, while terrestrial porous substrates with optimal growth media characteristics will be useful for onboard plant growth during space missions....... Due to limited experimental opportunities and prohibitive costs, liquid and gas behavior in porous substrates under reduced gravity conditions has been less studied and hence remains poorly understood. Based on ground-based measurements, this study examined water retention, oxygen diffusivity and air...... permeability characteristics of six plant growth substrates for potential applications in space, including two terrestrial analogs for lunar and Martian soils and four particulate substrates widely used in reduced gravity experiments. To simulate reduced gravity water characteristics, the predictions...

  17. Growth effects of water excess on coffee seedlings (Coffea arabica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helbert Rezende de Oliveira Silveira

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the interference of water excess in soil on the growth of young coffee plants of the Mundo Novo and Catuaí cultivars.Plants were subjected to the following three different substrate water availability conditions: control (well-watered, continuous substrate waterlogged, and intermittent substrate waterlogged. Several growth-related traits were evaluated over the course of 19 weeks. Based on the number and quality of the affected variables from all forms of analyses, the Catuaí cultivar showed greater sensitivity to waterlogging. Both cultivars exhibited growth inhibition in response to substrate waterlogging stress, which was exacerbated by premature leaf dropping.

  18. GROWTH AND NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF THE FIRST SIX MONTHS OF LIFE AMONG SELECTED HOSPITALS--NAIROBI PROVINCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakati, A S; Makokha, A O; Binns, C W; Kombe, Y

    2013-11-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding for infants is recommended for the first six months for optimal health, development and growth. However, there is limited data on infant feeding practices and nutrition status of infants in Nairobi. To assess infant growth and nutritional status and compare with feeding practices in the first six months of life in selected hospitals, Nairobi Province. Prospective cohort design Five major hospitals in Nairobi namely; The Aga Khan, Pumwani Maternity, Mater Misercordiae, St Mary's Langata and Jamaa Hospitals. A sample of 692 mother-infant pairs were recruited at birth and followed up until six months. There was no direct experimental intervention, but there was observation of infant feeding practices, weight and height measurement was recorded every four weeks and determination of nutrition status of the infants for a period of six months. Nutritional status and infant feeding practices in the first six months. Slightly more than half (58.8%) of the mothers were formally employed and the rest were self employed. The mean age of the mothers was 28.3 ± 4.9 years. The mean income was KES 26,360 ± 34,696. The mean birth weight of infants was 3.24 ± 0.43 kg and 53.3% of all infants were male. Above 80% of infants were within normal weight based on weight for age Z-scores (WAZ) at 6, 10, 14 and 23 weeks. The prevalence of overweight based on WAZ was 9.5%, 11.6%, 11.9% and 11% at 6, 14, 19 and 23 weeks, respectively. There were no significant (P > 0.05) differences in WAZ between infants on different feeding methods. There was no significant difference in weight or length gain among children that were fully breastfed in comparison to those who were given infant formula or had mixed feeding. However, there was concern over the proportion of overweight infants, as the condition may lead to long term health problems.

  19. Crack embryo formation before crack initiation and growth in high temperature water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arioka, Koji; Yamada, Takuyo; Terachi, Takumi; Miyamoto, Tomoki

    2008-01-01

    Crack growth measurements were performed in high temperature water and in air to examine the role of creep on IGSCC growth using cold rolled non-sensitized Type316(UNS S31600), TT690 alloy, MA600 alloy, and Carbon steel (STPT42). In addition, crack initiation tests were performed also in high temperature water and in air using specially designed CT specimen. The obtained major results are as follows: (1) TT690 did crack in intergranularly in hydrogenated high temperature water if material is cold worked in heavily. (2) Cold worked carbon steel also cracked in intergranularly in dearated high temperature water. (3) Intergranular crack growth was recognized on cold worked 316, TT690, MA600, and carbon steel even in air which might be crack embryo of IGSCC. (4) Simple Arrhenius type temperature dependence was observed on IGSCC in high temperature water and creep crack growth in air. This suggested that intergranular crack growth rate was determined by some thermal activated reaction. (5) Vacancy condensation was recognized at just ahead of the crack tips of IGSCC and creep crack of cold worked steel. This showed that IGSCC and creep crack growth was controlled by same mechanism. (6) Clear evidence of vacancies condensation was recognized at just beneath the surface before crack initiation. This proved that crack did initiate as the result of diffusion of vacancies in the solid. And the incubation time seems to be controlled by the required time for the condensation of vacancies to the stress concentrated zone. (7) Diffusion of subsituational atoms was also driven by stress gradient. This is the important knowledge to evaluate the SCC initiation after long term operation in LWR's. Based on the observed results, IGSCC initiation and growth mechanism were proposed considering the diffusion process of cold worked induced vacancies. (author)

  20. Exogenous Application of Growth Enhancers Mitigate Water Stress in Wheat by Antioxidant Elevation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid eNawaz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available TThe present study was conducted to investigate the response of two wheat cultivars (AARI-11 and Millat-11 to a foliar application of four growth enhancers which include: {H2O (water, MLE30 (moringa leaf extract, KCl (potassium chloride and BAP (benzyl-amino purine}, within the six irrigation water-regimes which are applied at the various critical growth stages such as crown root initiation (CRI, tillering (T, booting (B and heading (H. Irrigation water-regimes include: CRI+T+B, CRI+T, CRI+B, T+B, T+H and control (CRI+T+B+H. The growth enhancers i.e. H2O, MLE30 (1:30, KCl (2% and BAP (50 mg L-1 were applied @ 500 L ha-1 at tillering and heading stages. The results demonstrated some increased quantities of both enzymatic (superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase and non-enzymatic (ascorbic acid, phenol antioxidants in leaves of AARI-11 when MLE30 was applied under T+B and T+H irrigation water-regimes. Similar results were also observed in the case of leaf chlorophyll a & b and K+ contents in both cultivars under control, T+B and CRI+T+B irrigation water regimes. AARI-11 produced the highest biological and grain yield, due to the application of MLE30 and BAP under control, CRI+T+B, T+B and T+H irrigation water-regimes. However, KCl lagged behind among the treatments set for both cultivars under all the irrigation water-regimes. Foliar spray of MLE30 remained prominent growth enhancer and stresses mitigating agent under water deficit conditions particularly under T+B and T+H irrigation water-regimes. Moreover, economic analysis indicated that the foliar application of MLE30 is a cost effective and environment friendly strategy for the maximum yield and income.

  1. Influence of water relations and growth rate on plant element uptake and distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greger, Maria

    2006-02-01

    Plant uptake of Ni, Sr, Mo, Cs, La, Th, Se, Cl and I was examined to determine how plant water relations and growth rate influence the uptake and distribution of these elements in the studied plants. The specific questions were how water uptake and growth rate influenced the uptake of various nuclides and how transpiration influenced translocation to the shoot. The knowledge gained will be used in future modelling of radionuclide leakage from nuclear waste deposits entering the ecosystem via plants. The plant studied was willow, Salix viminalis, a common plant in the areas suggested for waste disposal; since there can be clone variation, two different clones having different uptake properties for several other heavy metals were used. The plants were grown in nutrient solution and the experiments on 3-month-old plants were run for 3 days. Polyethylene glycol was added to the medium to decrease the water uptake rate, a fan was used to increase the transpiration rate, and different light intensities were used to produce different growth rates. Element concentration was analysed in roots and shoots. The results show that both the uptake and distribution of various elements are influenced in different ways and to various extents by water flow and plant growth rate, and that it is not possible from the chemical properties of these elements to know how they will react. However, in most cases increased growth rate diluted the concentration of the element in the tissue, reduced water uptake reduced the element uptake, while transpiration had no effect on the translocation of elements to the shoot. The clones did not differ in terms of either the uptake or translocation of the elements, except that I was not taken up and translocated to the shoot in one of the clones when the plant water flow or growth rate was too low. Not all of the elements were found in the plant in the same proportions as they had been added to the nutrient solution

  2. Plant Pathogen-Induced Water-Soaking Promotes Salmonella enterica Growth on Tomato Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potnis, Neha; Colee, James; Jones, Jeffrey B.

    2015-01-01

    Plant pathogen infection is a critical factor for the persistence of Salmonella enterica on plants. We investigated the mechanisms responsible for the persistence of S. enterica on diseased tomato plants by using four diverse bacterial spot Xanthomonas species that differ in disease severities. Xanthomonas euvesicatoria and X. gardneri infection fostered S. enterica growth, while X. perforans infection did not induce growth but supported the persistence of S. enterica. X. vesicatoria-infected leaves harbored S. enterica populations similar to those on healthy leaves. Growth of S. enterica was associated with extensive water-soaking and necrosis in X. euvesicatoria- and X. gardneri-infected plants. The contribution of water-soaking to the growth of S. enterica was corroborated by an increased growth of populations on water-saturated leaves in the absence of a plant pathogen. S. enterica aggregates were observed with bacterial spot lesions caused by either X. euvesicatoria or X. vesicatoria; however, more S. enterica aggregates formed on X. euvesicatoria-infected leaves as a result of larger lesion sizes per leaf area and extensive water-soaking. Sparsely distributed lesions caused by X. vesicatoria infection do not support the overall growth of S. enterica or aggregates in areas without lesions or water-soaking; S. enterica was observed as single cells and not aggregates. Thus, pathogen-induced water-soaking and necrosis allow S. enterica to replicate and proliferate on tomato leaves. The finding that the pathogen-induced virulence phenotype affects the fate of S. enterica populations in diseased plants suggests that targeting of plant pathogen disease is important in controlling S. enterica populations on plants. PMID:26386057

  3. Influence of water relations and growth rate on plant element uptake and distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greger, Maria [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Botany

    2006-02-15

    Plant uptake of Ni, Sr, Mo, Cs, La, Th, Se, Cl and I was examined to determine how plant water relations and growth rate influence the uptake and distribution of these elements in the studied plants. The specific questions were how water uptake and growth rate influenced the uptake of various nuclides and how transpiration influenced translocation to the shoot. The knowledge gained will be used in future modelling of radionuclide leakage from nuclear waste deposits entering the ecosystem via plants. The plant studied was willow, Salix viminalis, a common plant in the areas suggested for waste disposal; since there can be clone variation, two different clones having different uptake properties for several other heavy metals were used. The plants were grown in nutrient solution and the experiments on 3-month-old plants were run for 3 days. Polyethylene glycol was added to the medium to decrease the water uptake rate, a fan was used to increase the transpiration rate, and different light intensities were used to produce different growth rates. Element concentration was analysed in roots and shoots. The results show that both the uptake and distribution of various elements are influenced in different ways and to various extents by water flow and plant growth rate, and that it is not possible from the chemical properties of these elements to know how they will react. However, in most cases increased growth rate diluted the concentration of the element in the tissue, reduced water uptake reduced the element uptake, while transpiration had no effect on the translocation of elements to the shoot. The clones did not differ in terms of either the uptake or translocation of the elements, except that I was not taken up and translocated to the shoot in one of the clones when the plant water flow or growth rate was too low. Not all of the elements were found in the plant in the same proportions as they had been added to the nutrient solution.

  4. Source-sink relationships in two soybean cultivars with indeterminate growth under water deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre José da Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract Water deficit is a major factor limiting crop yield in rainfed areas. We hypothesized that under water deficit the decrease of photosynthetic production stimulates: carbohydrate remobilization from leaves, stems and roots to reproductive organs; and decreasing flowering intensity and pod development. The present work aims to study the effect of water deficit during bloom and grain pod-filling stages in two indeterminate soybean cultivar, Vtop and Nidera. The following physiological parameters were evaluated by means of daily CO2 assimilation rate (Ai, dynamic of carbohydrates in tissues, plant growth, grain yield and yield components. The study was conducted in a greenhouse with plants sown in tanks of 0.5 m3. Regardless of the phenological phase, water deficit reduced Ai, plant growth and number of pods and seeds per plant. The fact that grain yield was less affected by water deficit at bloom than at grain pod-filling stage was attributed to larger seeds found at bloom. In both treatments, a sharp reduction on carbohydrate content was found in leaves, stem and roots at the beginning of pod formation. The high amounts of carbohydrates remobilized for seed growth, along with the high values of Ai observed in well-watered plants, indicate that grain yield of soybeans is source rather than sink limited. On the other hand, in water deficit treatments, a new stimulus for carbohydrate storage was found in the leaves and stem at the beginning of grain maturity, suggesting that grain yield was limited by sink capacity.

  5. Reactions of formic acid with protonated water clusters: Implications of cluster growth in the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goken, E. G.; Castleman, A. W.

    2010-08-01

    Obtaining direct and detailed chemical information about the initial stages of nucleation continues to be a challenging task, but it is necessary for improved understanding of the growth process of particles in the atmosphere. To elucidate the role of organic molecules, specifically formic acid, in nucleation and particle growth, the present work uses a flow tube reactor to study formic acid-water interactions using water cluster distributions of 2-30 water molecules. The reactions studied herein are compared to methanol-water interactions to provide evidence of a change to the stable clathrate-like structure of the H+(H2O)21 "magic" cluster. Intensity ratios of the form R = I[H+(H2O)n]/I[H+(H2O)n+1] are used to identify prominent clusters in spectra containing pure water, methanol-water mixed clusters, and formic acid-water mixed clusters. Relative concentration flow rates of 12.5, 25, 50, and 125.5 standard cubic centimeters per minute (sccm) of formic acid were added to a pure water distribution, and the resultant spectra were compared to those from methanol relative concentrations of 25, 50, and 100 sccm. The formic acid-water mixed cluster distributions observed in these reactions do not contain a prominent peak in the intensity ratio graphs, indicating a disruption in the clathrate structure of the 21-molecule cluster while a prominent peak for 21-molecule cluster is observed in the methanol system. Also observed was an increase in intensity with increased cluster size, which indicates that formic acid-water mixed clusters could serve as a prenucleation embryo for the nucleation of water molecules and a possible particle growth pathway.

  6. Effects of Wine by-Products on Growth Performance, Complete Blood Count and Total Antioxidant Status in Broilers

    OpenAIRE

    Pascariu, SM; Pop, IM; Simeanu, D; Pavel, G; Solcan, C

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study aimed to investigate the effect of whole grape pomace (GP), grape seed (GS) and grape pomace polyphenolic extract (GPEP) on growth performance, total antioxidant status (TAS) and complete blood count (CBC) of 40-day-old chicks (hybrid Cobb 500). A total of 432 unsexed one-day-old chicks were divided into six groups: control (CON) and five experimental groups, 10 g/kg GP, 20 g/kg GP, 5 g/kg GS, 10 g/kg GS and 15 mL/L GPEP. The results showed a higher increase in growing rat...

  7. Growth Status of Iranian Children with Hemodynamically Important Congenital Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Dalili

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between congenital heart disease (CHD and growth retardation is well documented. We investigated the growth condition of Iranian children with several types of congenital heart disease (CHD and compared it with worldwide researches. Growth condition was investigated in 469 patients with important CHD aged from 1 month to 18 years. The patients were divided into two groups; infants (aged 12 months or less, and children (1-18 yrs of age. Children with hemodynamically unimportant small VSDs or small ASDs were not studied. Other exclusion criteria were prematurity, known genetic disorders and neurologic disease affecting growthd. All patients' cardiac diagnoses were made on the basis of clinical and laboratory examinations; including electrocardiography, echocardiography, cardiac catheterization, and angiography. Body weight and height of all patients were measured using conventional methods and compared with standard growth charts. In all patients body weights and heights were significantly lower than normal population. This difference was greater in the weight of female children. Other risk factors for growth failure were large left-to-right intracardiac shunts, pulmonary hypertension and cyanosis. Iranian children with CHD have growth failure somewhat different from other countries. Lower body weights of cyanotic patients and female children indicated that these patients need more nutritional and psychosocial attention.

  8. Monitoring and modeling water temperature and trophic status of a shallow Mediterranean lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giadrossich, Filippo; Bueche, Thomas; Pulina, Silvia; Marrosu, Roberto; Padedda, Bachisio Mario; Mariani, Maria Antonietta; Vetter, Mark; Cohen, Denis; Pirastru, Mario; Niedda, Marcello; Lugliè, Antonella

    2017-04-01

    Lakes are sensitive to changes in climate and human activities. Over the last few decades, Mediterranean lakes have experienced various problems due to the current climate change (drought, flood, warming, salt accumulation, water quality changes, etc.), often amplified by water use, intensification of land use activities, and pollution. The overall impact of these changes on water resources is still an open question. In this study we monitor the trophic status and the dynamics of water temperature of Lake Baratz, the only natural lake in Sardinia, Italy, characterized by high salinity and shallow depth. We extend the research carried out in the past 8 years by integrating new physical, chemical and biological data using a multidisciplinary approach that combines hydrological and biological dynamics. In particular, the lake water balance and the thermal and hydrochemical regime are studied with a lake dynamic model (the General Lake Model or GLM) which combine the energy budget method for estimating lake evaporation, and a physically-based rainfall-runoff simulator for estimating lake inflow, calibrated with measurements at the cross section of the main inlet stream. The trophic state of the lake was evaluated applying the OCDE Probability Distribution Diagrams method, which requires nutrient concentrations in the lake (total phosphorus), phytoplankton chlorophyll a and Secchi disk transparency data. We collected field data from a raft station and a land station, measuring net solar radiation, air temperature and relative humidity, precipitation, wind velocity, atmospheric pressure, and temperature from thermistors submerged in the uppermost three centimeters of water and beneath the lake surface at depths of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 8 m. Samples for nutrients and chlorophyll a analyses were collected at the same above mentioned depths close to the raft station using a Niskin bottle. Temperature, salinity, pH, and dissolved oxygen were measured using a multi

  9. Plant water status relationships among major floodplain sites of the Flathead River, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, L.C.; Hinckley, T.M.; Scott, M.L.

    1985-01-01

    Water status measurements of dominant species from major floodplain plant community types of the North Fork Flathead River, Montana were used to test the accuracy of site moisture gradient relationships postulated from floristic ordinations and site water balance estimates. Analysis of variance tests showed significant differences among the average predawn xylem pressure potential (ψp) of species in several community types. However, additional analyses failed to indicate a significant degree of association between averaged predawn Yp measurements and either floristic ordination or site water balance results. Sixty eight percent of 22 trials comparing the diurnal average ψp of the same species in different community types on the same day were less negative for a species in the wetter community types as predicted by floristic ordinations. Similarly, 64% of the trials indicated that the diurnal average stomatal conductance was higher for a species in the wetter type. These results suggest that although a floodplain moisture gradient exists, it alone does not limit the distribution of floodplain plant communities in the North Fork.

  10. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Status of Silicon Carbide Joining Technology Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Advanced, accident tolerant nuclear fuel systems are currently being investigated for potential application in currently operating light water reactors (LWR) or in reactors that have attained design certification. Evaluation of potential options for accident tolerant nuclear fuel systems point to the potential benefits of silicon carbide (SiC) relative to Zr-based alloys, including increased corrosion resistance, reduced oxidation and heat of oxidation, and reduced hydrogen generation under steam attack (off-normal conditions). If demonstrated to be applicable in the intended LWR environment, SiC could be used in nuclear fuel cladding or other in-core structural components. Achieving a SiC-SiC joint that resists corrosion with hot, flowing water, is stable under irradiation and retains hermeticity is a significant challenge. This report summarizes the current status of SiC-SiC joint development work supported by the Department of Energy Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program. Significant progress has been made toward SiC-SiC joint development for nuclear service, but additional development and testing work (including irradiation testing) is still required to present a candidate joint for use in nuclear fuel cladding.

  11. The effect of supplementation of clove and agrimony or clove and lemon balm on growth performance, antioxidant status and selected indices of lipid profile of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovic, V; Marcincak, S; Popelka, P; Simkova, J; Martonova, M; Buleca, J; Marcincakova, D; Tuckova, M; Molnar, L; Kovac, G

    2012-12-01

    The study investigated the effects of diet supplementation with 1% clove flower buds powder combined with either 0.2% lemon balm extract or 0.2% agrimony extract (each of the two pulverized extracts supplied through drinking water) on body weight of broilers, total feed intake, feed conversion ratio and the carcass yield, activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, EC 1.11.1.9) in blood, concentration of sulfhydryl (-SH) groups, malondialdehyde (MDA), vitamin A and E, low-density lipoproteins in the blood plasma, serum cholesterol, total lipids, triglycerides and high-density lipoproteins in broiler chickens at 42 days of age. On the day of hatching, 120 male and female broilers of Cobb 500 were randomly divided into three groups. The control group (1st group) of broilers received a basal diet (BD) without any feed and water additive. Both experimental groups of chicks were fed BD enriched with clove (Syzygium aromaticum L.) powder at a dose of 10 g/kg DM for 42 days. Moreover, either lemon balm (Mellisa officinalis L.) extract or agrimony (Agrimonia eupatoria L.) extract diluted with drinking water (2:1000) was given to broilers in the 2nd and 3rd group respectively. The results indicated that feeding the diets enriched with selected herbal supplements failed to affect the growth performance of broiler chickens at 42 days of age. In addition, this supplementation had no influence on the activities of SOD and GSH-Px, concentration of vitamin A and selected lipid metabolism indices. On the other hand, we observed beneficial effects on some indices of the antioxidant status (increased concentration of -SH groups and vitamin E, decreased concentration of MDA) in the blood of broilers in both experimental groups in comparison with the control group of chickens (p lemon balm compared to clove and agrimony (vitamin E, 11.26 ± 0.73 vs. 9.73 ± 0.64 μmol/L, p lemon balm extract or agrimony extract

  12. The Effects of Salt Water on the Slow Crack Growth of Soda Lime Silicate Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann, Bronson D.; Salem, Jonathan A.

    2016-01-01

    The slow crack growth parameters of soda-lime silicate were measured in distilled and salt water of various concentrations in order to determine if stress corrosion susceptibility is affected by the presence of salt and the contaminate formation of a weak sodium film. Past research indicates that solvents effect the rate of crack growth, however, the effects of salt have not been studied. The results indicate a small but statistically significant effect on the slow crack growth parameters A and n. However, for typical engineering purposes, the effect can be ignored.

  13. Impact of dual inoculation with Rhizobium and PGPR on growth and antioxidant status of Vicia faba L. under copper stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatnassi, Imen Challougui; Chiboub, Manel; Saadani, Omar; Jebara, Moez; Jebara, Salwa Harzalli

    2015-04-01

    Plant-growth-promoting bacteria (PGPR) may help reduce the toxicity of heavy metals in plants in polluted environments. In this work, the effects of dual inoculation with Rhizobium and PGPR strains on the growth of Vicia faba grown under copper stress were assessed during hydroponic culture. Growth parameters, copper (Cu) accumulation and antioxidant enzyme activities were studied. Copper concentrations above 1mM damaged plant growth, but co-inoculation reduced its harmful effect. Co-inoculation of plants treated with 1mM Cu and 2mM Cu increased the dry weights as compared with Cu-treated and uninoculated plants. However, it decreased copper uptake up to 80% in the roots of 1-mM-Cu-treated plants as compared to non-inoculated control. Copper tolerance in Vicia faba is linked to the activity of antioxidant systems that are modulated by metal concentrations: both superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were higher in the presence of Cu; a lower Cu dose of 0.5mM stimulated ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and/or peroxidase (POX) activities in shoots and roots; however in nodules CAT appeared to be the main peroxidase in H2O2 scavenging. The 1mM Cu treatment enhanced SOD, CAT and APX activities in roots and only SOD and POX were activated in shoots. All enzyme activities were inhibited by inoculation of 2mM Cu. The effect of inoculation with copper-accumulating PGPRs and the status of the antioxidant enzyme system were linked to changes in the copper tolerance status of Vicia faba. Our results suggested that Vicia faba inoculation with Rhizobium and PGPR Enterobacter clocae and Pseudomonas sp. could help to alleviate copper stress under hydroponic conditions. This result should be tested under field conditions for soil fertilization and phytostabilisation purposes. Copyright © 2015 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Impacts of population growth and economic development on water quality of a lake: case study of Lake Victoria Kenya water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juma, Dauglas Wafula; Wang, Hongtao; Li, Fengting

    2014-04-01

    Anthropogenic-induced water quality pollution is a major environmental problem in freshwater ecosystems today. As a result of this, eutrophication of lakes occurs. Population and economic development are key drivers of water resource pollution. To evaluate how growth in the riparian population and in the gross domestic product (GDP) with unplanned development affects the water quality of the lake, this paper evaluates Lake Victoria Kenyan waters basin. Waters quality data between 1990 and 2012 were analyzed along with reviews of published literature, papers, and reports. The nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N), soluble phosphorus (PO4-P), chlorophyll a, and Secchi transparencies were evaluated as they are key water quality indicators. The NO3-N increased from 10 μg l(-1) in 1990 to 98 μg 1(-1) in 2008, while PO4-P increased from 4 μg l(-1) in 1990 to 57 μg l(-1) in 2008. The population and economic growth of Kenya are increasing with both having minimums in 1990 of 24.143 million people and 12.18 billion US dollars, to maximums in 2010 of 39.742 million people and 32.163 billion US dollars, respectively. A Secchi transparency is reducing with time, indicating an increasing pollution. This was confirmed by an increase in aquatic vegetation using an analysis of moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) images of 2000 and 2012 of Kenyan waters. This study found that increasing population and GDP increases pollution discharge thus polluting lakes. One of major factors causing lake water pollution is the unplanned or poor waste management policy and service.

  15. Influence of Biochar Amendment on Soil Water Characteristics and Crop Growth Enhancement Under Salinity Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Gamareldawla H.D

    2017-01-01

    Salinity is an important environmental constraint to crop productivity in arid and semi-arid regions of the world. Most crop plants, including tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill), are sensitive to salinity throughout the ontogeny of the plant. Biochar was used in the present study to improve the available water content (AWC), growth, yield and irrigation water use efficiency of tomato plant under saline soil condition. The biochar was applied at the rates of, 0%, 2% and 4% w/w and expressed...

  16. Influence of Biochar Amendment on Soil Water Characteristics and Crop Growth Enhancement Under Salinity Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Agbna , Gamareldawla ,; Ali1 , Abubaker ,; Bashir , Amir ,; Eltoum , Farid; Hassan , Mohamed ,

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Salinity is an important environmental constraint to crop productivity in arid and semi-arid regions of the world. Most crop plants, including tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill), are sensitive to salinity throughout the ontogeny of the plant. Biochar was used in the present study to improve the available water content (AWC), growth, yield and irrigation water use efficiency of tomato plant under saline soil condition. The biochar was applied at the rates of, 0%, 2% ...

  17. Interactive Effects of Ocean Acidification and Warming on Growth, Fitness and Survival of the Cold-Water Coral Lophelia pertusa under Different Food Availabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina V. Büscher

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cold-water corals are important bioengineers that provide structural habitat for a diverse species community. About 70% of the presently known scleractinian cold-water corals are expected to be exposed to corrosive waters by the end of this century due to ocean acidification. At the same time, the corals will experience a steady warming of their environment. Studies on the sensitivity of cold-water corals to climate change mainly concentrated on single stressors in short-term incubation approaches, thus not accounting for possible long-term acclimatisation and the interactive effects of multiple stressors. Besides, preceding studies did not test for possible compensatory effects of a change in food availability. In this study a multifactorial long-term experiment (6 months was conducted with end-of-the-century scenarios of elevated pCO2 and temperature levels in order to examine the acclimatisation potential of the cosmopolitan cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa to future climate change related threats. For the first time multiple ocean change impacts including the role of the nutritional status were tested on L. pertusa with regard to growth, “fitness,” and survival. Our results show that while L. pertusa is capable of calcifying under elevated CO2 and temperature, its condition (fitness is more strongly influenced by food availability rather than changes in seawater chemistry. Whereas growth rates increased at elevated temperature (+4°C, they decreased under elevated CO2 concentrations (~800 μatm. No difference in net growth was detected when corals were exposed to the combination of increased CO2 and temperature compared to ambient conditions. A 10-fold higher food supply stimulated growth under elevated temperature, which was not observed in the combined treatment. This indicates that increased food supply does not compensate for adverse effects of ocean acidification and underlines the importance of considering the nutritional status

  18. Monitoring methods and predictive models for water status in Jonathan apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trincă, Lucia Carmen; Căpraru, Adina-Mirela; Arotăriţei, Dragoş; Volf, Irina; Chiruţă, Ciprian

    2014-02-01

    Evaluation of water status in Jonathan apples was performed for 20 days. Loss moisture content (LMC) was carried out through slow drying of wholes apples and the moisture content (MC) was carried out through oven drying and lyophilisation for apple samples (chunks, crushed and juice). We approached a non-destructive method to evaluate LMC and MC of apples using image processing and multilayer neural networks (NN) predictor. We proposed a new simple algorithm that selects the texture descriptors based on initial set heuristically chosen. Both structure and weights of NN are optimised by a genetic algorithm with variable length genotype that led to a high precision of the predictive model (R(2)=0.9534). In our opinion, the developing of this non-destructive method for the assessment of LMC and MC (and of other chemical parameters) seems to be very promising in online inspection of food quality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. STATUS OF BONE METABOLISM AND LINEAR GROWTH OF INFANTS DEPENDENT ON MOTHER'S CALCIUM PROVISION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Shcheplyagina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the analytical findings of the mineral metabolism, bone metabolism and linear growth along with the bone strength of the infants dependent on the mother's calcium and vitamin D provision during pregnancy. The researchers have prospectively examined 160 mother–newborn infant pairs and 87 children for 6–8 months. They confirmed that infant's calcium and vitamin D provision depends on calcium and vitamin d contained in mother's body. Prophylaxis and correction of the calcium and vitamin D deficit in the mother's body will ensure necessary rates of the linear growth, mineral metabolism, and bone remodeling both during antenatal period and within the first 6–8 months, following the birth, increase the bone strength and reduce the frequency of rachitic and rachiticblike changes in the infant skeleton.Key words: newborn infants, infants, calcium provision, bone metabolism, linear growth, bone strength.

  20. Growth, digestive and absorptive capacity and antioxidant status in intestine and hepatopancreas of sub-adult grass carp Ctenopharyngodonidella fed graded levels of dietary threonine

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Yang; Jiang, Weidan; Kuang, Shengyao; Hu, Kai; Tang, Ling; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Zhang, Yongan; Zhou, Xiaoqiu; Feng, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Background This study was carried out to investigate effects of threonine levels on growth, digestive and absorptive capacity and antioxidant status in intestine and hepatopancreas of sub-adult grass carp (Ctenopharyngodonidella). Results Weight gain, specific growth rate, feed intake and feed efficiency were significantly improved by dietary threonine (P?

  1. Water growth on metals and oxides: binding, dissociation and role of hydroxyl groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmeron, M.; Bluhm, H.; Tatarkhanov, M.; Ketteler, G.; Shimizu, T.K.; Mugarza, A.; Deng, Xingyi; Herranz, T.; Yamamoto, S.; Nilsson, A.

    2008-09-01

    The authors discuss the role of the presence of dangling H bonds from water or from surface hydroxyl species on the wetting behavior of surfaces. Using Scanning Tunneling and Atomic Force Microscopies, and Photoelectron Spectroscopy, they have examined a variety of surfaces, including mica, oxides, and pure metals. They find that in all cases, the availability of free, dangling H-bonds at the surface is crucial for the subsequent growth of wetting water films. In the case of mica electrostatic forces and H-bonding to surface O atoms determine the water orientation in the first layer and also in subsequent layers with a strong influence in its wetting characteristics. In the case of oxides like TiO{sub 2}, Cu{sub 2}O, SiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, surface hydroxyls form readily on defects upon exposure to water vapor and help nucleate the subsequent growth of molecular water films. On pure metals, such as Pt, Pd, and Ru, the structure of the first water layer and whether or not it exhibits dangling H bonds is again crucial. Dangling H-bonds are provided by molecules with their plane oriented vertically, or by OH groups formed by the partial dissociation of water. By tying the two II atoms of the water molecules into strong H-bonds with pre-adsorbed O on Ru can also quench the wettability of the surface.

  2. Growth status of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaman V Khadilkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Growth parameters are important indicators of a child′s overall health, and they are influenced by factors like blood glucose control in diabetic children. Data on growth parameters of Indian diabetic children is scarce. This retrospective, cross-sectional, case control study was conducted at diabetes clinic for children at a tertiary care center at Pune, to study growth parameters of diabetic children in comparison with age-gender matched healthy controls and evaluate effect of different insulin regimes and age at diagnosis of diabetes on growth. Materials and Methods: One twenty five diabetic children (boys: 50 and age gender matched healthy controls were enrolled. All subjects underwent anthropometric measurements (standing height and weight. Mean height (HAZ, weight (WAZ and body mass index (BAZ for age Z scores were calculated. Diabetes control was evaluated by measuring glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS version 12. Results: Mean age of diabetic children and age gender matched controls was 9.7 ± 4.4 years. Diabetic children were shorter (128.3 ± 24.3 cm vs. 133.6 ± 24.7 cm and lighter (29.2 kg ± 15.3 vs. 31.3 ± 15.4 kg. HAZ (−1.1 ± 1.2 vs. −0.2 ± 0.8 and WAZ (−1.2 ± 1.3 vs. −0.7 ± 1.3 were significantly lower in diabetic children (P 14 years were comparable to healthy controls. Conclusions: Growth was compromised in diabetic children in comparison to controls. Children diagnosed at younger age need more attention to optimize growth.

  3. Urban growth and water access in sub-Saharan Africa: Progress, challenges, and emerging research directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, S; Adams, E A; Neville, G; Wada, Y; de Sherbinin, A; Mullin Bernhardt, E; Adamo, S B

    2017-12-31

    For the next decade, the global water crisis remains the risk of highest concern, and ranks ahead of climate change, extreme weather events, food crises and social instability. Across the globe, nearly one in ten people is without access to an improved drinking water source. Least Developed Countries (LDCs) especially in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are the most affected, having disproportionately more of the global population without access to clean water than other major regions. Population growth, changing lifestyles, increasing pollution and accelerating urbanization will continue to widen the gap between the demand for water and available supply especially in urban areas, and disproportionately affect informal settlements, where the majority of SSA's urban population resides. Distribution and allocation of water will be affected by climate-induced water stresses, poor institutions, ineffective governance, and weak political will to address scarcity and mediate uncertainties in future supply. While attempts have been made by many scientists to examine different dimensions of water scarcity and urban population dynamics, there are few comprehensive reviews, especially focused on the particular situation in Sub-Saharan Africa. This paper contributes to interdisciplinary understanding of urban water supply by distilling and integrating relevant empirical knowledge on urban dynamics and water issues in SSA, focusing on progress made and associated challenges. It then points out future research directions including the need to understand how alternatives to centralized water policies may help deliver sustainable water supply to cities and informal settlements in the region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Growth and Saxitoxin Production by Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii (Cyanobacteria Correlate with Water Hardness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Maria Feliciano de Oliveira e Azevedo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The cosmopolitan and increasing distribution of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii can be attributed to its ecophysiological plasticity and tolerance to changing environmental factors in water bodies. In reservoirs in the semi-arid region of Brazil, the presence and common dominance of C. raciborskii have been described in waters that are considered hard. We investigated the response of a Brazilian C. raciborskii strain to water hardness by evaluating its growth and saxitoxin production. Based on environmental data, a concentration of 5 mM of different carbonate salts was tested. These conditions affected growth either positively (MgCO3 or negatively (CaCO3 and Na2CO3. As a control for the addition of cations, MgCl2, CaCl2 and NaCl were tested at 5 or 10 mM, and MgCl2 stimulated growth, NaCl slowed but sustained growth, and CaCl2 inhibited growth. Most of the tested treatments increased the saxitoxin (STX cell quota after six days of exposure. After 12 days, STX production returned to concentrations similar to that of the control, indicating an adaptation to the altered water conditions. In the short term, cell exposure to most of the tested conditions favored STX production over neoSTX production. These results support the noted plasticity of C. raciborskii and highlight its potential to thrive in hard waters. Additionally, the observed relationship between saxitoxin production and water ion concentrations characteristic of the natural environments can be important for understanding toxin content variation in other harmful algae that produce STX.

  5. Changes in carbon and nitrogen allocation, growth and grain yield induced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) subjected to a period of water deficit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Qin; Ravnskov, Sabine; Jiang, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Drought is a major abiotic factor limiting agricultural crop production. One of the effective ways to increase drought resistance in plants could be to optimize the exploitation of symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Hypothesizing that alleviation of water deficits by AMF in wheat...... will help maintain photosynthetic carbon-use, we studied the role of AMF on gas-exchange, light-use efficiencies, carbon/nitrogen ratios and growth and yield parameters in the contrasting wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars ‘Vinjett’ and ‘1110’ grown with/without AMF symbiosis. Water deficits applied...... rate and increased non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) in ‘1110’ but not in ‘Vinjett’. With AMF, nitrogen concentrations increased in roots of both cultivars, but decreased in grains of ‘Vinjett’ and in side-tiller grains of ‘1110’ regardless of water status. With water deficits, AMF colonization...

  6. Two prototype tools for assessing good environmental/ecological status (GES) in aquatic ecosystems – DEVOTES and WATERS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murray, Ciarán; Carstensen, Jacob; Andersen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    for sub-division of sectors and habitat types into hierarchical structures. The DEVOTES tool weights indicator results from different sectors according to their geographical extent and/or assigned quantitative value scores. The DEVOTES tool allows the assessment to be targeted to a particular ecosystem......We present two prototype tools for assessment of GES (good ecological status and good environmental status) in aquatic ecosystems: the DEVOTES biodiversity assessment tool (for the MSFD) and the WATERS ecological status assessment tool (for the WFD). Both tools are multi-metric indicator...

  7. Nutritional status and growth of children on macrobiotic diets : a population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dagnelie, P.C.

    1988-01-01

    This thesis reports on the relationship between diet, growth, blood chemistry, psychomotor development, and clinical findings in the Dutch population of children on macrobiotic diets.- The macrobiotic diet mainly consisted of cereals, pulses and vegetables with small additions of seaweeds,

  8. Status and trend of tree growth and mortality rate at the CONECOFOR plots, 1997-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Fabbio

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The circumference of trees in the CONECOFOR permanent monitoring plots (PMPs were measured by three surveys carried out in 1997, 2000 and 2005. Plots were arranged into forest types according to tree species, management system and stand structure: beech (Fagus sylvatica L. and spruce (Picea abies K. high forests, aged coppice forests and transitory crops (deciduous, evergreen oaks and beech. Diameter distribution, basal area, basal area increment, tree mortality rate and in-growth were calculated per layer (dominant, intermediate, dominated within each PMP, to point out relative contributions and changes. A range in relative annual growth was detected both within and between types over the monitored period, but an obvious reduction of annual increment was found in two/thirds of plots over 2000-04 as compared to 1997-99. Current mortality, mostly allocated into the dominated and intermediate layers, can be explained as “regular” due to overstocking and high inter-tree competition in almost all of the observed case-studies. Opposite patterns were found to occur as for stand growth vs. mortality rate between coppice forests and the other types owing to the different dynamics of tree competition in progress. Drought 2003 is the likely large-scale factor determining the reduced annual growth course over the second period.

  9. Exogenous nitric oxide improves sugarcane growth and photosynthesis under water deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Neidiquele M; Frungillo, Lucas; Marcos, Fernanda C C; Pelegrino, Milena T; Miranda, Marcela T; Seabra, Amedea B; Salgado, Ione; Machado, Eduardo C; Ribeiro, Rafael V

    2016-07-01

    Nitric oxide (NO)-mediated redox signaling plays a role in alleviating the negative impact of water stress in sugarcane plants by improving root growth and photosynthesis. Drought is an environmental limitation affecting sugarcane growth and yield. The redox-active molecule nitric oxide (NO) is known to modulate plant responses to stressful conditions. NO may react with glutathione (GSH) to form S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), which is considered the main reservoir of NO in cells. Here, we investigate the role of NO in alleviating the effects of water deficit on growth and photosynthesis of sugarcane plants. Well-hydrated plants were compared to plants under drought and sprayed with mock (water) or GSNO at concentrations ranging from 10 to 1000 μM. Leaf GSNO sprayed plants showed significant improvement of relative water content and leaf and root dry matter under drought compared to mock-sprayed plants. Additionally, plants sprayed with GSNO (≥ 100 μM) showed higher leaf gas exchange and photochemical activity as compared to mock-sprayed plants under water deficit and after rehydration. Surprisingly, a raise in the total S-nitrosothiols content was observed in leaves sprayed with GSH or GSNO, suggesting a long-term role of NO-mediated responses to water deficit. Experiments with leaf discs fumigated with NO gas also suggested a role of NO in drought tolerance of sugarcane plants. Overall, our data indicate that the NO-mediated redox signaling plays a role in alleviating the negative effects of water stress in sugarcane plants by protecting the photosynthetic apparatus and improving shoot and root growth.

  10. Growth status of indigenous school children 6-14 years in the Tarahumara Sierra, Northern Mexico, in 1990 and 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña Reyes, Maria Eugenia; Cárdenas Barahona, Eyra E; Lamadrid, Paola Stefani; Del Olmo Calzada, Margarita; Malina, Robert M

    2009-01-01

    The study evaluated the growth status and secular change in body size of indigenous Tarahumara children in northern Mexico. Heights and weights of Tarahumara children 6-14 years were measured in 1990 (n = 601) and 2007 (n = 583); the BMI was calculated. International criteria defined weight status while United States reference data defined stunting. Estimated secular gains in height from 1990 to 2007 were greatest in 6-7 year-old boys and declined with age to a small, non-significant secular decline in boys 12-14 years. Among girls secular gains in height were similar at 6-7 and 8-9 years, largest at 10-11 years and small and non-significant at 12-14 years. Secular gains in weight were similar among 6-7 and 8-9 year-old boys and girls, were greater in girls than in boys at 10-11 years and showed a small, non-significant secular decline in boys and girls 12-14 years. Secular change in the BMI paralleled those for weight. The prevalence of stunting declined from 1990 to 2007 in both sexes and all age groups except 12-14 year youth. Overweight was more prevalent in girls than boys in both years and increased from 4% to 7% in boys and 9% to 13% in girls. Obesity was not common among boys and girls in each age group and in both years. Stunting and overweight/obesity were not related in either 1990 or 2007. Positive secular changes in growth status have occurred in Tarahumara children 6-11 years in contrast to negligible changes among children 12-14 years. The results suggest recent improvements in health and nutrition sufficient to support a positive secular trend in younger children.

  11. Slides from the 2013 Smart Growth Summit on How to Learn from the New Orleans Urban Waters Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presentation Slides for 2013 Smart Growth Summit, Baton Rouge, LA, H2O Overview: How to Learn from the New Orleans Urban Waters Partnership - Danny Wiegand Urban Waters Ambassador to New Orleans November 19, 2013

  12. Determination of Water Quality Status at Sampean Watershed Bondowoso Residence Using Storet Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyarto; Hariono, B.; Destarianto, P.; Nuruddin, M.

    2018-01-01

    Sampean watershed has an important social and economic function for the people surroundings. Sampean watershed wich cover Bondowoso and Situbondo residence is an urban watershed that has strategic value for national context needs special traetment. Construction activity at upper and lower course of Sampean watershed is highly intensive and growth of inhabitant also increase. The change of land utilization and increase of settlement area at upper, midlle, and lower course caused polutant infiltration to Sampean river watershed so it has impact on water quality. The source of pollution at Sampean river comes from domestic waste, industrial waste, agricultural waste and animal husbandry waste. The purpose of this research is to determine load of pollution and analize the pollution load carrying capacity at Sampean watershed. The data used in this research are rainfall, river flow rate and water quality at 6 certain points within 3 years during 2014 until 2016. The method to determine overall pollution rate is STORET (Storage and Retrieval of Water Quality Data System) method. The analysis results for the first, second, third and forth grade are -24 (moderate quality), -12 (moderate quality), -2 (good quality), and 0 (good quality) respectively.

  13. In situ growth rates of deep-water octocorals determined from 3D photogrammetric reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennecke, Swaantje; Kwasnitschka, Tom; Metaxas, Anna; Dullo, Wolf-Christian

    2016-12-01

    Growth rates of deep-water corals provide important information on the recovery potential of these ecosystems, for example from fisheries-induced impacts. Here, we present in situ growth dynamics that are currently largely unknown for deep-water octocorals, calculated by applying a non-destructive method. Videos of a boulder harbouring multiple colonies of Paragorgia arborea and Primnoa resedaeformis in the Northeast Channel Coral Conservation Area at the entrance to the Gulf of Maine at 863 m depth were collected in 2006, 2010 and 2014. Photogrammetric reconstructions of the boulder and the fauna yielded georeferenced 3D models for all sampling years. Repeated measurements of total length and cross-sectional area of the same colonies allowed the observation of growth dynamics. Growth rates of total length of Paragorgia arborea decreased over time with higher rates between 2006 and 2010 than between 2010 and 2014, while growth rates of cross-sectional area remained comparatively constant. A general trend of decreasing growth rates of total length with size of the coral colony was documented. While no growth was observed for the largest colony (165 cm in length) between 2010 and 2014, a colony 50-65 cm in length grew 3.7 cm yr-1 between 2006 and 2010. Minimum growth rates of 1.6-2.7 cm yr-1 were estimated for two recruits (<23 cm in 2014) of Primnoa resedaeformis. We successfully extracted biologically meaningful data from photogrammetric models and present the first in situ growth rates for these coral species in the Northwest Atlantic.

  14. Skeletal growth, respiration rate and fatty acid composition in the cold-water coral

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsson, A.I.; Lundälv, T.; van Oevelen, D.

    2013-01-01

    Reefs of the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa form biodiversity-rich habitats in the deep ocean, but physiology, reproduction, feeding and growth in this species remain poorly investigated. Food supply to reef sites varies considerably both spatially and temporarily. In this study we investigated

  15. Growth, Yield and Water Use Efficiency of Maize-Sorghum Intercrop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two field experiments were conducted during the rainy seasons in 2000 and 2001 at the Research Farm, Institute for Agricultural Research, Samaru, (11° 11' N, 7 °37'E and 675m above sea level), Northern Nigeria to evaluate the effect of intercropping on the growth, yield and water use efficiency of a Maize-Sorghum ...

  16. Straw gasification biochar increases plant available water capacity and plant growth in coarse sandy soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Veronika; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Petersen, Carsten Tilbæk

    Gasification biochar (GB) contains recalcitrant carbon that can contribute to soil carbon sequestration and soil quality improvement. However, the impact of GB on plant available water capacity (AWC) and plant growth in diverse soil types needs further reserach. A pot experiment with spring barley...

  17. Effects of Water Replacement rate on Growth and Survival of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of frequency of water replacement on growth performance and survival of the Nile tilapia,Oreochromis niloticus fry of mean 1.14g + 0.00 of the same brood stock reared in a static culture was investigated in the laboratory over a period of forty-two days. There were five treatments namely, treatment A = daily ...

  18. Regulation of K uptake, water uptake, and growth of tomato during K starvation and recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amor, del F.M.; Marcelis, L.F.M.

    2004-01-01

    In order to analyze the dynamics of growth, water and K uptake, the effects of 1, 3 and 7 days of potassium starvation and the recovery capability during 7 days afterwards were investigated in vegetative tomato plants. After 7 days of K starvation, plant dry matter was reduced by 36% compared to

  19. Influence of Culture Water Draw-off on Growth of the African Catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was carried out over a period of 10 weeks to investigate the influence of culture water draw-‐off on growth and feed utilization of the African catfish. Two similar fish culture tanks (designated A and B) were stocked with juveniles of African catfish at 43 fish per m3. The fish were fed twice daily at 3 % body ...

  20. Effect of potting media and watering frequencies on the growth of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A nursery trial was conducted in the screen house of the Teaching and Research Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria in 2011 to investigate the effect of different potting media and watering frequencies on the growth of Dennetia tripetala seedlings. Three different growing media: Rice husks ...

  1. Impact of water deficit stress on growth and alkaloid content of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experiments were conducted to study the effect of water deficit stress on the growth and alkaloid content of different organs of Spigelia anthelmia (L), a medicinal plant used locally as an anthelminthic. Plants were subjected to 6 days drought at the early (EV plants) and late (LV plants) vegetative stages (30-35 and 52-57 ...

  2. Influence of tanks liner material on water quality and growth of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three tank liner materials: polyvinylchloride (PVC), polyethylene and polyester were evaluated in a 93 days experiment for their influence on culture water quality and growth performance of Clarias gariepinus. Fish of average weight of 5.03±0.21g were stocked at 375 per m3 in tanks lined with the aforementioned materials.

  3. Effect of salinity on growth, water use and nutrient use in radish (Raphanus sativus L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcelis, L.F.M.; Hooijdonk, van J.

    1999-01-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) plants were grown at five soil salinity levels (1, 2, 4, 9 and 13 dS m-1) to analyse the effects on growth, dry matter partitioning, leaf expansion and water and nutrient use. Salinity was varied by proportionally changing the concentration of all macro nutrients. When

  4. Influence of tanks liner material on water quality and growth of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fish were hand fed twice a day. Growth performance and water quality parameters were measured using standard methods. Average temperature of 25.09±1.14OC was recorded in the tanks. Dissolved oxygen with the highest mean value of 5.41±0.96 mg/l was recorded in polyethylene lined tanks while the highest mean ...

  5. Growth and yield response to plant density of water leaf ( Talinum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of different planting spaces (15cm x 15cm, 20cm x 20cm, 25cm x 25cm and 30cm x 30cm) on the growth and yield of Talinum triangulare (Water leaf) were investigated in two cropping seasons from 2012 to 2013 (rainy and dry seasons) at University of Port Harcourt Teaching and Research farm, Port Harcourt, ...

  6. Effect of water stress on growth and yield of okra (Abemoscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The growth and yield responses of okra (Abemoscus esculentus) to water stress under three regimes of 100%, 80% and 60% field capacity were examined during field irrigation at Oke-Oyi Ilorin (Nigeria). A Latin Square Design was used for the test plot of 100 mP2P, which was subdivided into nine equal subplots of 9 ...

  7. Dynamic analyses on physical growth and development status in Chinese students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    China's National Group On Students' Constitution And Health Survey; Ji, Chengye

    2002-03-01

    To analyze the increments of physical growth and development in adolescents and young students in China during the years of 1979-2000 and to lay a scientific basis to make a plan for promoting their healthy growth and development in the new century. Students aged seven to 17 years of Han ethnic were randomly selected from 16 proviness and municipalities during the past 21 years, and increments of their height, body weight, chest circumference and Weierweike index were measured. Significant increments of physical growth and development were found in adolescents and young students of China during 1979-2000, showing a clearly secular trend in changes of growth and development with the advanced growth spurt the most prominent. The average increments were 6.2 cm, 4.8 cm, 7.5 cm and 6.1 cm for height, 8.2 kg, 5.1 kg, 5.4 kg and 3.8 kg for body weight, and 4.8 cm, 3.2 cm, 2.2 cm and 2.0 cm for chest circumference, respectively, for the urban boys, urban girls, rural boys and rural girls. The increment of height was more in the rural students than in the urban ones, but, the increments of body weight and chest circumference in the rural youth lagged behind the urban ones. It was showed significant improvement in Weierweike Index in the urban students and an increasing trend of "bean sprout" statue in the rural students. It is suggested much more should be input for the rural students in the future. For their nutritional intake, disease prevention and treatment, strengthening physical exercises, reducing study burden and rational daily life system.

  8. Growth and metal bioconcentration by conspecific freshwater macroalgae cultured in industrial waste water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B. Ellison

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The bioremediation of industrial waste water by macroalgae is a sustainable and renewable approach to the treatment of waste water produced by multiple industries. However, few studies have tested the bioremediation of complex multi-element waste streams from coal-fired power stations by live algae. This study compares the ability of three species of green freshwater macroalgae from the genus Oedogonium, isolated from different geographic regions, to grow in waste water for the bioremediation of metals. The experiments used Ash Dam water from Tarong power station in Queensland, which is contaminated by multiple metals (Al, Cd, Ni and Zn and metalloids (As and Se in excess of Australian water quality guidelines. All species had consistent growth rates in Ash Dam water, despite significant differences in their growth rates in “clean” water. A species isolated from the Ash Dam water itself was not better suited to the bioremediation of that waste water. While there were differences in the temporal pattern of the bioconcentration of metals by the three species, over the course of the experiment, all three species bioconcentrated the same elements preferentially and to a similar extent. All species bioconcentrated metals (Cu, Mn, Ni, Cd and Zn more rapidly than metalloids (As, Mo and Se. Therefore, bioremediation in situ will be most rapid and complete for metals. Overall, all three species of freshwater macroalgae had the ability to grow in waste water and bioconcentrate elements, with a consistent affinity for the key metals that are regulated by Australian and international water quality guidelines. Together, these characteristics make Oedogonium a clear target for scaled bioremediation programs across a range of geographic regions.

  9. Assessing wheat yield, Biomass, and water productivity responses to growth stage based irrigation water allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing irrigated wheat yields is important to the overall profitability of limited-irrigation cropping systems in western Kansas. A simulation study was conducted to (1) validate APSIM's (Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator) ability to simulate wheat growth and yield in Kansas, and (2) app...

  10. Variable stabilities and recoveries of rat-liver RNA polymerases A and B according to growth status of the tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, D; Tata, J R

    1976-05-01

    1. The effect of growth status on the relative levels and recoveries of DNA-dependent RNA polymerase in rat liver nuclei was determined by two independent procedures: (a) measurement of RNA polymerase A and B activities in fraction IV [Roeder, R. G. and Rutter, W. J. (1970) Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 65, 675--682] in the presence and absence of low concentrations of alpha-amanitin; (b) DEAE-Sephadex chromatography of fraction IV to resolve RNA polymerases A and B (and possibly other forms of the enzyme). 2. Growth was arrested in young rats (less than 100 g body weight) by hypophysectomy and stimulated by the administration of growth hormone or triiodothyronine. Under these conditions the rate of RNA synthesis in vivo or in isolated nuclei is known to be markedly depressed or stimulated relatively soon after hypophysectomy or hormone administration, respectively. RNA polymerases were obtained from animals under different growth conditions. There were no differences in the activities of nuclear RNA ploymerases per se, when these were separated from their endogenous template and assayed with heterologous denatured DNA. These reports contrast with earlier reports [Smuckler, E. A. and Tata, J. R. (1971) Nat. New Biol. 234, 37--39; Sajdel, E. M. and Jacob, S. T. (1971) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 45, 707--715]. 3. The discrepancy was resolved when a 'balance sheet' of enzyme recovery was established. Cessation of growth by hypophysectomy led to a marked reduction in the recovery of both forms A and B of the enzyme (less than 20% of the input RNA polymerase activity in fraction iv) following chromatography on DEAE-Sephadex. This effect was reversed within a short time after the administration of growth hormone (3--9 h) or triiodothyronine (18--24 h), leading to a doubling of the enzyme recoveries. These alterations which were more marked for RNA polymerase A, resulted in different elution profiles for RNA polymerases A and B upon chromatography. 4. It is concluded

  11. Effect of water regime on the growth, flower yield, essential oil and proline contents of Calendula officinalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAMI ALI METWALLY

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Metwally SA,Khalid KA, Abou-Leila BH. 2013. Effect of water regime on the growth, flower yield, essential oil and proline contents of Calendula officinalis. Nusantara Bioscience 5: 63-67. The effects of water regime on the growth, content of essential oil and proline of Calendula officinalis L. plants were investigated. Water regimes of 75% of field water capacity increased certain growth characters [i.e. plant height (cm, leaf area (cm2, flower diameter (cm and spike stem diameter] and vase life (day. Water regime promoted the accumulation of essential oil content and its main components as well as proline contents.

  12. Expert system for diagnostics and status monitoring of NPP water chemistry condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shvedova, M.N.; Kritski, V.G.; Zakharova, S.V.; Benediktov, V.B.; Nikolaev, F.V.

    2002-01-01

    Water chemistry condition (WCC) has been the subject of constant study and improvement up to the present day. It is connected with the presence of a direct relationship between the violation of water chemistry regulation on the one hand and components reliability of the circuit's equipment and cost-effectiveness of their operation on the other. It dictates the necessity to apply different optimization methods in the field of monitoring and use of information analytical and diagnostic systems to assess WCC quality, control and support. LI ''VNIPIET'' employees have, for several years, been developing an expert diagnostic system for supporting WCC and status monitoring of RBMK - reactor NPPs [2]. This system has not only conveniently organized the traditional functions of information acquisition and storage, a complete presentation of information in the form of tables, graphs of a dynamical changes of parameters and formation regular reports, diagnostic functions and issuing recommendations on WCC correction, but it also allows the assessment of confidence in the diagnosis made, relying on a wide range of numerical estimates, which were calculated by the use of expert data, and to make a credible prediction of an existing situation development. (authors)

  13. Present status of grouper fisheries at waters of Kotania Bay, Western Seram District Maluku Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huliselan, N. V.; Wawo, M.; Tuapattinaja, M. A.; Sahetapy, D.

    2017-10-01

    Study on present status of groupers fishes at waters of Kotania Bay was conducted from 2016 to 2017. Survey and Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) method were used to collect and examine data and information concerning species potential and utilization of these species. The result shows that there are 35 species of grouper fishes inhabit Kotania Bay waters. From six genera recorded, Epinephelus found to have more varieties species richness compared to other five genera. In general, main habitat of adult grouper is coral reef, whilst mangrove and seagrass are habitat for nursery and grow out. The potency of the Epinephelus, Cephalopholis and Plectropomus genus tend to decrease started in 2000 up to 2017. At the same period, the production of these genera was also declined. Species potency and production declined was attributable to habitat (coral reef) degradation and high fishing intensity as a result of high market demand. Hand line, bottom long line and trap net are general fishing gear used in harvesting of theses fishes. Fishing activities took place all year round except for bottom long line which only lasted from June to October (East monsoon). Spatial fishing ground distribution is predominantly at coral reef ecosystem of Kotania Bay.

  14. Selection based on indirect genetic effects for growth, environmental enrichment and coping style affect the immune status of pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inonge Reimert

    Full Text Available Pigs living in intensive husbandry systems may experience both acute and chronic stress through standard management procedures and limitations in their physical and social environment, which may have implications for their immune status. Here, the effect of a new breeding method where pigs were selected on their heritable influence on their pen mates' growth, and environmental enrichment on the immune status of pigs was investigated. Hereto, 240 pigs with a relatively positive genetic effect on the growth of their pen mates (+SBV and 240 pigs with a relatively negative genetic effect on the growth of their pen mates (-SBV were housed in barren or straw-enriched pens from 4 to 23 weeks of age (n  =  80 pens in total. A blood sample was taken from the pigs before, three days after a 24 h regrouping test, and at week 22. In addition, effects of coping style, as assessed in a backtest, and gender were also investigated. Mainly, +SBV were found to have lower leukocyte, lymphocyte and haptoglobin concentrations than -SBV pigs. Enriched housed pigs had a lower neutrophil to lymphocyte (N:L ratio and lower haptoglobin concentrations, but had higher antibody titers specific for Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin (KLH than barren housed pigs. No interactions were found between SBV class and housing. Furthermore, pigs with a proactive coping style had higher alternative complement activity and, in the enriched pens, higher antibody titers specific for KLH than pigs with a reactive coping style. Lastly, females tended to have lower leukocyte, but higher haptoglobin concentrations than castrated males. Overall, these results suggest that +SBV pigs and enriched housed pigs were less affected by stress than -SBV and barren housed pigs, respectively. Moreover, immune activation might be differently organized in individuals with different coping styles and to a lesser extent in individuals of opposite genders.

  15. Transpiration and leaf growth of potato clones in response to soil water deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Trevisan de Souza

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Potato (Solanum tuberosum ssp. Tuberosum crop is particularly susceptible to water deficit because of its small and shallow root system. The fraction of transpirable soil water (FTSW approach has been widely used in the evaluation of plant responses to water deficit in different crops. The FTSW 34 threshold (when stomatal closure starts is a trait of particular interest because it is an indicator of tolerance to water deficit. The FTSW threshold for decline in transpiration and leaf growth was evaluated in a drying soil to identify potato clones tolerant to water deficit. Two greenhouse experiments were carried out in pots, with three advanced clones and the cultivar Asterix. The FTSW, transpiration and leaf growth were measured on a daily basis, during the period of soil drying. FTSW was an efficient method to separate potato clones with regard to their response to water deficit. The advancedclones SMINIA 02106-11 and SMINIA 00017-6 are more tolerant to soil water deficit than the cultivar Asterix, and the clone SMINIA 793101-3 is more tolerant only under high solar radiation.

  16. Disentangling effects of growth and nutritional status on seabird stable isotope ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, J.; Hatch, Shyla A.; O'Brien, D. M.

    2009-01-01

    A growing number of studies suggest that an individual's physiology affects its carbon and nitrogen stable isotope signatures, obscuring a signal often assumed to be only a reflection of diet and foraging location. We examined effects of growth and moderate food restriction on red blood cell (RBC) and feather ??15N and ??13C in rhinoceros auklet chicks (Cerorhinca monocerata), a piscivorous seabird. Chicks were reared in captivity and fed either control (75 g/day; n = 7) or ~40% restricted (40 g/day; n = 6) amounts of high quality forage fish. We quantified effects of growth on isotopic fractionation by comparing ??15N and ??13C in control chicks to those of captive, non-growing subadult auklets (n = 11) fed the same diet. To estimate natural levels of isotopic variation, we also collected blood from a random sample of free-living rhinoceros auklet adults and chicks in the Gulf of Alaska (n = 15 for each), as well as adult feather samples (n = 13). In the captive experiment, moderate food restriction caused significant depletion in ??15N of both RBCs and feathers in treatment chicks compared to control chicks. Growth also induced depletion in RBC ??15N, with chicks exhibiting lower ??15N when they were growing the fastest. As growth slowed, ??15N increased, resulting in an overall pattern of enrichment over the course of the nestling period. Combined effects of growth and restriction depleted ??15N in chick RBCs by 0.92???. We propose that increased nitrogen-use efficiency is responsible for 15N depletion in both growing and food-restricted chicks. ??15N values in RBCs of free-ranging auklets fell within a range of only 1.03???, while feather ??15N varied widely. Together, our captive and field results suggest that both growth and moderate food restriction can affect stable isotope ratios in an ecologically meaningful way in RBCs although not feathers due to greater natural variability in this tissue. ?? 2008 Springer-Verlag.

  17. Formation and growth of molecular clusters containing sulfuric acid, water, ammonia, and dimethylamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePalma, Joseph W; Doren, Douglas J; Johnston, Murray V

    2014-07-24

    The structures and thermochemistry of molecular clusters containing sulfuric acid, water, ammonia, and/or dimethylamine ((CH3)2NH or DMA) are explored using a combination of Monte Carlo configuration sampling, semiempirical calculations, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Clusters are of the general form [(BH(+))n(HSO4(-))n(H2O)y], where B = NH3 or DMA, 2 ≤ n ≤ 8, and 0 ≤ y ≤ 10. Cluster formulas are written based on the computed structures, which uniformly show proton transfer from each sulfuric acid molecule to a base molecule while the water molecules remain un-ionized. Cluster formation is energetically favorable, owing to strong electrostatic attraction among the ions. Water has a minor effect on the energetics of cluster formation, lowering the free energy of formation by ∼ 10% depending on the cluster size and number of water molecules. Cluster growth (addition of one base molecule and one sulfuric acid molecule to a pre-existing cluster) and base substitution (substituting DMA for ammonia) are also energetically favorable processes for both anhydrous and hydrated clusters. However, the effect of water is different for different bases. Hydrated ammonium bisulfate clusters have a more favorable free energy for growth (i.e., incrementing n with fixed y) than anhydrous clusters, while the reverse is observed for dimethylammonium bisulfate clusters, where the free energy for growth is more favorable for anhydrous clusters. The substitution of DMA for ammonia in bisulfate clusters is favorable but exhibits a complex water dependence. Base substitution in smaller bisulfate clusters is enhanced by the presence of water, while base substitution in larger bisulfate clusters is less favorable for hydrated clusters than that for anhydrous clusters. While DMA substitution can stabilize small clusters containing one or a few sulfuric acid molecules, the free energy advantage of forming amine clusters relative to ammonia clusters becomes less

  18. Impacts of population growth, urbanisation and sanitation changes on global human Cryptosporidium emissions to surface water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstra, Nynke; Vermeulen, Lucie C

    2016-10-01

    Cryptosporidium is a pathogenic protozoan parasite and is a leading cause of diarrhoea worldwide. The concentration of Cryptosporidium in the surface water is a determinant for probability of exposure and the risk of disease. Surface water concentrations are expected to change with population growth, urbanisation and changes in sanitation. The objective of this paper is to assess the importance of future changes in population, urbanisation and sanitation on global human emissions of Cryptosporidium to surface water. The GloWPa-Crypto H1 (the Global Waterborne Pathogen model for Human Cryptosporidium emissions version 1) model is presented and run for 2010 and with scenarios for 2050. The new scenarios are based on the Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs) developed for the climate community. The scenarios comprise assumptions on sanitation changes in line with the storylines and population and urbanisation changes from the SSPs. In SSP1 population growth is limited, urbanisation large and sanitation and waste water treatment strongly improve. SSP1* is the same as SSP1, but waste water treatment does not improve. SSP3 sees large population growth, moderate urbanisation and sanitation and waste water treatment fractions that are the same as in 2010. Total global Cryptosporidium emissions to surface water for 2010 are estimated to be 1.6×10 17 oocysts per year, with hotspots in the most urbanised parts of the world. In 2050 emissions are expected to decrease by 24% or increase by 52% and 70% for SSP1, SSP3 and SSP1* respectively. The emissions increase in all scenarios for countries in the Middle East and Africa (MAF) region, while emissions in large parts in Europe decrease in scenarios SSP1 and SSP3. Improving sanitation by connecting the population to sewers, should be combined with waste water treatment, otherwise (SSP1*) emissions in 2050 are expected to be much larger than in a situation with strong population growth and slow development of safe water and

  19. Effect of Nutritional Status on Concentrations of Insulin-Like Growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of diet on concentrations of milk insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), and their relationships with plasma IGF-I, and with somatic cell count (SCC) were evaluated in two trials. In Trial 1, 32 multi-parous Holstein cows at 4 to 5 wk of lactation received 4 different diets formulated to provide high (H) or low (L) dry matter ...

  20. Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the growth and nutrient status of bermudagrass grown in alkaline bauxite processing residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giridhar Babu, A.; Sudhakara Reddy, M.

    2011-01-01

    A nursery experiment was conducted to evaluate the potential role of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in encouraging the vegetation cover on bauxite residue (red mud) sites. An alkali tolerant bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) adapted to local conditions were grown in red mud with different amendments with and without AM fungi to assess mycorrhizal effects on plant growth, mineral nutrition, metal uptake and neutralization of bauxite residue. Inoculation of AM fungi significantly increased the plant growth, nutrient uptake and reduced Fe, Al accumulation in plant tissue and also improved the soil physico-chemical and biochemical properties. Gypsum and sludge amended treatments inoculated with AM fungi had maximum biomass, nutrient uptake and reduced accumulation of metals. The neutralization of red mud was significant in presence of AM fungi than control. The experiment provided evidence for the potential use of bermudagrass in combination with AM fungi for ecological restoration of bauxite residue sites. - Inoculation of red mud tolerant AM fungi enhanced the growth and nutrient status of bermudagrass and the physico-chemical properties of the bauxite residues amended with gypsum or sewage sludge.

  1. Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the growth and nutrient status of bermudagrass grown in alkaline bauxite processing residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giridhar Babu, A., E-mail: anamgiri@gmail.co [Department of Biotechnology, Thapar University, Patiala 147 004 (India); Sudhakara Reddy, M., E-mail: msreddy@thapar.ed [Department of Biotechnology, Thapar University, Patiala 147 004 (India)

    2011-01-15

    A nursery experiment was conducted to evaluate the potential role of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in encouraging the vegetation cover on bauxite residue (red mud) sites. An alkali tolerant bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) adapted to local conditions were grown in red mud with different amendments with and without AM fungi to assess mycorrhizal effects on plant growth, mineral nutrition, metal uptake and neutralization of bauxite residue. Inoculation of AM fungi significantly increased the plant growth, nutrient uptake and reduced Fe, Al accumulation in plant tissue and also improved the soil physico-chemical and biochemical properties. Gypsum and sludge amended treatments inoculated with AM fungi had maximum biomass, nutrient uptake and reduced accumulation of metals. The neutralization of red mud was significant in presence of AM fungi than control. The experiment provided evidence for the potential use of bermudagrass in combination with AM fungi for ecological restoration of bauxite residue sites. - Inoculation of red mud tolerant AM fungi enhanced the growth and nutrient status of bermudagrass and the physico-chemical properties of the bauxite residues amended with gypsum or sewage sludge.

  2. Growth of castor bean plant under different types of wastewaters and soil water levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia Antunes de Lima

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the effect of different levels of water into the soil and types of treated wastewaters from industries of Campina Grande city, Paraíba state, on the growth of castor bean plant, variety BRS Nordestina. The experiment was conducted in greenhouse of the National Center of Research of Cotton. The experimental design was in entirely randomized blocks with 15 treatments in scheme of additional factorial analysis [(4 x 3 + 3] with three replications, having the following factors: three types of treated wastewaters and water of provisioning (A1 = IPELSA - Industry of Cellulose and Paper of Paraíba S/A; A2 = COTEMINAS - Industry of improvement of cotton fiber S/A; A3 = ILCASA - Industry of dairy products of Grande S/A (LEBOM; A4 = Water of the network of public provisioning of Campina Grande city, three levels of available soil water (AW (N1 = 100%, N2 = 80% and N3 = 70% and three controls, one for each AW with water of provisioning and with inorganic fertilizer in the foundation (A4C. In order to evaluate the growth of the castor bean plant during a period of 135 days, biweekly measures of the plant height, diameter of the stem and total foliar area variables were accomplished. For all growth variables there were significant interactions among the studied factors, denoting the interdependence among them, what was reflected on the growth of the plants. The castor bean plant, variety BRS Nordestina, responded well to irrigation with treated wastewater, especially from COTEMINAS industry mainly when associated to the level of 100% of the available soil water.

  3. Physiological Plasticity Is Important for Maintaining Sugarcane Growth under Water Deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo E. R. Marchiori

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The water availability at early phenological stages is critical for crop establishment and sugarcane varieties show differential performance under drought. Herein, we evaluated the relative importance of morphological and physiological plasticity of young sugarcane plants grown under water deficit, testing the hypothesis that high phenotypic plasticity is associated with drought tolerance. IACSP95-5000 is a high yielding genotype and IACSP94-2094 has good performance under water limiting environments. Plants were grown in rhizotrons for 35 days under three water availabilities: high (soil water matric potential [Ψm] higher than -20 kPa; intermediate (Ψm reached -65 and -90 kPa at the end of experimental period and low (Ψm reached values lower than -150 kPa. Our data revealed that morphological and physiological responses of sugarcane to drought are dependent on genotype and intensity of water deficit. In general, IACSP95-5000 showed higher physiological plasticity given by leaf gas exchange and photochemical traits, whereas IACSP94-2094 showed higher morphological plasticity determined by changes in leaf area (LA and specific LA. As IACSP94-2094 accumulated less biomass than IACSP95-5000 under varying water availability, it is suggested that high morphological plasticity does not always represent an effective advantage to maintain plant growth under water deficit. In addition, our results revealed that sugarcane varieties face water deficit using distinct strategies based on physiological or morphological changes. When the effectiveness of those changes in maintaining plant growth under low water availability is taken into account, our results indicate that the physiological plasticity is more important than the morphological one in young sugarcane plants.

  4. Application of Landsat 8 OLI Image and Empirical Model for Water Trophic Status Identification of Riam Kanan Reservoir, Banjar, South Kalimantan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saputra, A. N.; Danoedoro, P.; Kamal, M.

    2017-12-01

    Remote sensing has a potential for observing, mapping and monitoring the quality of lake water. Riam Kanan is a reservoir which has a water resource from Riam Kanan River with the area width of its watershed about 1043 km2. The accumulation of nutrient in this reservoir simultaneously deteriorates the condition of waters, which can cause an increasingly growth of harm micro algae or Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs). This research applied Carlson’s trophic status index (CTSI) at Riam Kanan Reservoir using Landsat-8 OLI satellite image. The Landsat 8 OLI image was recorded on 14 August 2016 and was used in this research based on its surface reflectance values. The result of correlation test shows that band 3 of the image as coefficient of chlorophyll-a parameter, channel 2 as coefficient of phosphate, and band ratio of SDT as coefficient of SDT. Based on the result of modelling using CTSI, the majority scale of CTSI score at Riam Kanan Reservoir is between 60 to70 in medium eutrophic class. The class of medium eutrophic at Riam Kanan Reservoir potentially emerges the threat both of the improvement of water fertility and the reduction of water quality. Improvement of the fertility is apprehensive since it can trigger an explosion of micro algae which will endanger the ecological condition at the area of Riam Kanan Reservoir.

  5. Growth Performance, Mineral Digestibility, and Blood Characteristics of Ostriches Receiving Drinking Water Supplemented with Varying Levels of Chelated Trace Mineral Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfori, Hossein; Ghasemi, Hossein Ali; Hajkhodadadi, Iman; Nazaran, Mohammad Hassan; Hafizi, Maryam

    2018-05-01

    The effects of water supplementation of chelated trace minerals (CTM, which is named Bonzaplex designed with chelate compounds technology) on growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of minerals, and some blood metabolites, TM, and antioxidant enzyme values in African ostriches were investigated from 8 to 12 months of age. A total of 20 8-month-old ostriches (five birds in five replicate pens) was randomly allocated into one of the following four treatments: (1) control (basal diet + tap water), (2) low CTM (basal diet +100 mg/bird/day CTM powder in tap water), (3) medium CTM (basal diet +1 g/bird/day CTM powder in tap water), and (4) high CTM (basal diet +2 g/bird/day CTM powder in tap water). Compared with control, medium CTM improved (P water can be recommended for improving growth performance, mineral absorption, and antioxidant status of ostriches fed diets containing the recommended levels of inorganic TM.

  6. A stochastic dynamic model to assess land use change scenarios on the ecological status of fluvial water bodies under the Water Framework Directive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Samantha Jane, E-mail: shughes@utad.pt [Fluvial Ecology Laboratory, CITAB – Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environment and Biological Sciences, University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Vila Real (Portugal); Cabral, João Alexandre, E-mail: jcabral@utad.pt [Laboratory of Applied Ecology, CITAB – Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environment and Biological Sciences, University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Vila Real (Portugal); Bastos, Rita, E-mail: ritabastos@utad.pt [Laboratory of Applied Ecology, CITAB – Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environment and Biological Sciences, University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Vila Real (Portugal); Cortes, Rui, E-mail: rcortes@utad.pt [Fluvial Ecology Laboratory, CITAB – Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environment and Biological Sciences, University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Vila Real (Portugal); Vicente, Joana, E-mail: jsvicente@fc.up.pt [Centro de Investigacão em Biodiversidade e Recursos Genéticos (CIBIO), Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade do Porto, Porto (Portugal); Eitelberg, David, E-mail: d.a.eitelberg@vu.nl [Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1087, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Yu, Huirong, E-mail: h.yu@vu.nl [Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1087, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, 2 Yuanmingyuan W. Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100193 (China); and others

    2016-09-15

    This method development paper outlines an integrative stochastic dynamic methodology (StDM) framework to anticipate land use (LU) change effects on the ecological status of monitored and non-monitored lotic surface waters under the Water Framework Directive (WFD). Tested in the Alto Minho River Basin District in North West Portugal, the model is an innovative step towards developing a decision-making and planning tool to assess the influence impacts such as LU change and climate change on these complex systems. Comprising a series of sequential steps, a Generalized Linear Model based, competing model Multi Model Inference (MMI) approach was used for parameter estimation to identify principal land use types (distal factors) driving change in biological and physicochemical support elements (proximal factors) in monitored water bodies. The framework integrated MMI constants and coefficients of selected LU categories in the StDM simulations and spatial projections to simulate the ecological status of monitored and non-monitored lotic waterbodies in the test area under 2 scenarios of (1) LU intensification and (2) LU extensification. A total of 100 simulations were run for a 50 year period for each scenario. Spatially dynamic projections of WFD metrics were obtained, taking into account the occurrence of stochastic wildfire events which typically occur in the study region and are exacerbated by LU change. A marked projected decline to “Moderate” ecological status for most waterbodies was detected under intensification but little change under extensification; only a few waterbodies fell to “moderate” status. The latter scenario describes the actual regional socio-economic situation of agricultural abandonment due to rural poverty, partly explaining the projected lack of change in ecological status. Based on the WFD “one out all out” criterion, projected downward shifts in ecological status were due to physicochemical support elements, namely increased

  7. Effect of salinity and ascorbic acid on growth, water and osmotic relations of Lepidium sativum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Najjar-Khodabakhsh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity is a serious environmental problem in arid and semi-arid regions that have negative impacts on crop production. In this research, because of medicinal and nutritional importance of the garden cress (Lepidium sativum plant, the interactive effects of salinity (225 mM NaCl and ascorbic acid (1 mM were evaluated on growth and its water relations. A completely randomized design with four replications was conducted under controlled conditions. The results showed that salinity decreased growth, relative water content, osmotic potential and soluble proteins and increased soluble sugars, amino acids and proline contents. Many of salinity damaged characteristic were improved by adding exogenous ascorbic acid to salty environment. Exogenous ascorbic acid alone, in comparison with control, enhanced the growth of garden cress by increasing relative water content, soluble sugars and soluble proteins contents. The results indicated that usage of ascorbic acid, as an antioxidant, reduced harmful effects of salinity stress and led to growth improvement in garden cress plants.

  8. Assessing the Crop-Water Status in Almond (Prunus dulcis Mill. Trees via Thermal Imaging Camera Connected to Smartphone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Francisco García-Tejero

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Different tools are being implemented in order to improve the water management in agricultural irrigated areas of semiarid environments. Thermography has been progressively introduced as a promising technique for irrigation scheduling and the assessing of crop-water status, especially when deficit irrigation is being implemented. However, an important limitation is related to the cost of the actual cameras, this being a severe limitation to its practical usage by farmers and technicians. This work evaluates the potential and the robustness of a thermal imaging camera that is connected to smartphone (Flir One recently developed by Flir Systems Inc. as a first step to assess the crop water status. The trial was developed in mature almond (Prunus dulcis Mill. trees that are subjected to different irrigation treatments. Thermal information obtained by the Flir One camera was deal with the thermal information obtained with a conventional Thermal Camera (Flir SC660 with a high resolution, and subsequently, confronted with other related plant physiological parameters (leaf water potential, Ψleaf, and stomatal conductance, gs. Thermal imaging camera connected to smartphone provided useful information in estimating the crop-water status in almond trees, being a potential promising tool to accelerate the monitoring process and thereby enhance water-stress management of almond orchards.

  9. Assessing the Crop-Water Status in Almond (Prunus dulcis Mill.) Trees via Thermal Imaging Camera Connected to Smartphone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Tejero, Iván Francisco; Ortega-Arévalo, Carlos José; Iglesias-Contreras, Manuel; Moreno, José Manuel; Souza, Luciene; Tavira, Simón Cuadros; Durán-Zuazo, Víctor Hugo

    2018-03-31

    Different tools are being implemented in order to improve the water management in agricultural irrigated areas of semiarid environments. Thermography has been progressively introduced as a promising technique for irrigation scheduling and the assessing of crop-water status, especially when deficit irrigation is being implemented. However, an important limitation is related to the cost of the actual cameras, this being a severe limitation to its practical usage by farmers and technicians. This work evaluates the potential and the robustness of a thermal imaging camera that is connected to smartphone (Flir One) recently developed by Flir Systems Inc. as a first step to assess the crop water status. The trial was developed in mature almond ( Prunus dulcis Mill.) trees that are subjected to different irrigation treatments. Thermal information obtained by the Flir One camera was deal with the thermal information obtained with a conventional Thermal Camera (Flir SC660) with a high resolution, and subsequently, confronted with other related plant physiological parameters (leaf water potential, Ψ leaf , and stomatal conductance, g s ). Thermal imaging camera connected to smartphone provided useful information in estimating the crop-water status in almond trees, being a potential promising tool to accelerate the monitoring process and thereby enhance water-stress management of almond orchards.

  10. Herbivorous snails can increase water clarity by stimulating growth of benthic algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiufeng; Taylor, William D; Rudstam, Lars G

    2017-11-01

    Eutrophication in shallow lakes is characterized by a switch from benthic to pelagic dominance of primary productivity that leads to turbid water, while benthification is characterized by a shift in primary production from the pelagic zone to the benthos associated with clear water. A 12-week mesocosm experiment tested the hypothesis that the herbivorous snail Bellamya aeruginosa stimulates the growth of pelagic algae through grazing on benthic algae and through accelerating nutrient release from sediment. A tube-microcosm experiment using 32 P-PO 4 as a tracer tested the effects of the snails on the release of sediment phosphorus (P). The mesocosm experiment recorded greater total nitrogen (TN) concentrations and a higher ratio of TN:TP in the overlying water, and a higher light intensity and biomass of benthic algae as measured by chlorophyll a (Chl a) in the snail treatment than in the control. Concentrations of total phosphorus (TP), total suspended solids (TSSs), and inorganic suspended solids (ISSs) in the overlying water were lower in the snail treatment than in the control, though no significant difference in Chl a of pelagic algae between the snail treatment and control was observed. In the microcosm experiment, 32 P activity in the overlying water was higher in the snail treatment than in the control, indicating that snails accelerated P release from the sediment. Our interpretation of these results is that snails enhanced growth of benthic algae and thereby improved water clarity despite grazing on the benthic algae and enhancing P release from the sediment. The rehabilitation of native snail populations may therefore enhance the recovery of eutrophic shallow lakes to a clear water state by stimulating growth of benthic algae.

  11. Understanding, Monitoring, and Controlling Biofilm Growth in Drinking Water Distribution Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sanly; Gunawan, Cindy; Barraud, Nicolas; Rice, Scott A; Harry, Elizabeth J; Amal, Rose

    2016-09-06

    In drinking water distribution systems (DWDS), biofilms are the predominant mode of microbial growth, with the presence of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) protecting the biomass from environmental and shear stresses. Biofilm formation poses a significant problem to the drinking water industry as a potential source of bacterial contamination, including pathogens, and, in many cases, also affecting the taste and odor of drinking water and promoting the corrosion of pipes. This article critically reviews important research findings on biofilm growth in DWDS, examining the factors affecting their formation and characteristics as well as the various technologies to characterize and monitor and, ultimately, to control their growth. Research indicates that temperature fluctuations potentially affect not only the initial bacteria-to-surface attachment but also the growth rates of biofilms. For the latter, the effect is unique for each type of biofilm-forming bacteria; ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, for example, grow more-developed biofilms at a typical summer temperature of 22 °C compared to 12 °C in fall, and the opposite occurs for the pathogenic Vibrio cholerae. Recent investigations have found the formation of thinner yet denser biofilms under high and turbulent flow regimes of drinking water, in comparison to the more porous and loosely attached biofilms at low flow rates. Furthermore, in addition to the rather well-known tendency of significant biofilm growth on corrosion-prone metal pipes, research efforts also found leaching of growth-promoting organic compounds from the increasingly popular use of polymer-based pipes. Knowledge of the unique microbial members of drinking water biofilms and, importantly, the influence of water characteristics and operational conditions on their growth can be applied to optimize various operational parameters to minimize biofilm accumulation. More-detailed characterizations of the biofilm population size and structure are now

  12. On the spatial linear growth of gravity-capillary water waves sheared by a laminar air flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsai, Y.S.; Grass, A.J.; Simons, R.R.

    2005-01-01

    The initial growth of mechanically generated small amplitude water waves below a laminar air stream was examined numerically and experimentally in order to explore the primary growth mechanism, that is, the interfacial instability of coupled laminar air and water flows. Measurements of the laminar

  13. Growth scenarios with thorium fuel cycles in pressurised heavy water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balakrishnan, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    Since India has generous deposits of thorium, the availability of thorium will not be a limiting factor in any growth scenario. It is fairly well accepted that the best system for utilisation of thorium is the heavy water reactor. The growth scenarios possible using thorium in HWRs are considered. The base has been taken as 50,000 tons of natural uranium and practically unlimited thorium. The reference reactor has been assumed to be the PHWR, and all other growth scenarios are compared with the growth scenario provided by the once-through natural cycle in the PHWR. Two reactor types have been considered: the heavy water moderated, heavy water cooled, pressure tube reactor, known as the PHWR; and the heavy water moderated and cooled pressure vessel kind, similar to the ATUCHA reactor in Argentina. For each reactor, a number of different fuel cycles have been studied. All these cycles have been based on thorium. These are: the self-sustaining equilibrium thorium cycle (SSET); the high conversion ratio high burnup cycle; and the once through thorium cycle (OTT). The cycle have been initiated in two ways: one is by starting the cycle with natural uranium, reprocessing the spent fuel to obtain plutonium, and use that plutonium to initiate the thorium cycle; the other is to enrich the uranium to about 2-3% U-235 (the so-called Low Enriched Uranium or LEU), and use the LEU to initiate the thorium cycle. Both cases have been studied, and growth scenarios have been projected for every one of the possible combinations. (author). 1 tab

  14. Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chovanec, A.; Grath, J.; Kralik, M.; Vogel, W.

    2002-01-01

    An up-date overview of the situation of the Austrian waters is given by analyzing the status of the water quality (groundwater, surface waters) and water protection measures. Maps containing information of nitrate and atrazine in groundwaters (analyses at monitoring stations), nitrate contents and biological water quality of running waters are included. Finally, pollutants (nitrate, orthophosphate, ammonium, nitrite, atrazine etc.) trends in annual mean values and median values for the whole country for the years 1992-1999 are presented in tables. Figs. 5. (nevyjel)

  15. Mixtures of Cu, Ni, and Zn act mostly noninteractively on Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata growth in natural waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Regenmortel, Tina; De Schamphelaere, Karel A C

    2018-02-01

    Freshwater biota are usually exposed to mixtures of different metals in the environment, which raises concern because risk-assessment procedures for metals are still mainly based on single-metal toxicity. Because microalgae are primary producers and therefore at the base of the food web, it is of utmost importance to understand the effects of metal mixtures on these organisms. Most studies that have investigated the combined interactive effects of mixtures on microalgae performed tests in only one specific water. The objective of the present study was to test if combined effects of mixtures to Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata were the same or different across natural waters showing diverse water-chemistry characteristics. This was done by performing experiments with ternary Cu-Ni-Zn mixtures in 3 natural waters and with binary Cu-Ni mixtures in 5 natural waters. We showed that the ternary mixture acted noninteractively on algal growth, except in one water in which the mixture acted antagonistically. We suggest that a low-cationic competition situation in the latter water could be the reason for the antagonistic interaction between the metals. On the other hand, the binary mixture acted noninteractively on algal growth in all tested waters. We showed that both the concentration addition and independent action models can serve as accurate models for toxicity of ternary Cu-Ni-Zn and binary Cu-Ni mixtures to P. subcapitata in most cases and as protective models in all cases. In addition, we developed a metal mixture bioavailability model, by combining the independent action model and the single-metal bioavailability models, that can be used to predict Cu-Ni-Zn and Cu-Ni toxicity to P. subcapitata as a function of metal concentration and water characteristics. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;37:587-598. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  16. Effect of top soil wettability on water evaporation and plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Bharat; Shah, D O; Mishra, Brijesh; Joshi, P A; Gandhi, Vimal G; Fougat, R S

    2015-07-01

    In general, agricultural soil surfaces being hydrophilic in nature get easily wetted by water. The water beneath the soil moves through capillary effect and comes to the surface of the soil and thereafter evaporates into the surrounding air due to atmospheric conditions such as sunlight, wind current, temperature and relative humidity. To lower the water loss from soil, an experiment was designed in which a layer of hydrophobic soil was laid on the surface of ordinary hydrophilic soil. This technique strikingly decreased loss of water from the soil. The results indicated that the evaporation rate significantly decreased and 90% of water was retained in the soil in 83 h by the hydrophobic layer of 2 cm thickness. A theoretical calculation based on diffusion of water vapour (gas phase) through hydrophobic capillaries provide a meaningful explanation of experimental results. A greater retention of water in the soil by this approach can promote the growth of plants, which was confirmed by growing chick pea (Cicer arietinum) plants and it was found that the length of roots, height of shoot, number of branches, number of leaves, number of secondary roots, biomass etc. were significantly increased upon covering the surface with hydrophobic soil in comparison to uncovered ordinary hydrophilic soil of identical depth. Such approach can also decrease the water consumption by the plants particularly grown indoors in residential premises, green houses and poly-houses etc. and also can be very useful to prevent water loss and enhance growth of vegetation in semi-arid regions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Effect of AM fungi on water and nutrition status of corn plants under salt stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, G; Li, X; Zhang, F; Li, S

    2000-08-01

    Under NaCl stress, the dry matter production of corn plants inoculated with or without arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus (Glomus mosseae) was decreased, but the decrement for non-mycorrhizal plants was 10% higher than that for mycorrhizal ones. Under salt stress condition, the dry weights of root system and aboveground part of mycorrhizal corn and its leaf water potential were higher than those of non-mycorrhizal corn, while the proline content of mycorrhizal corn was less than that of non-mycorrhizal corn. The contribution of hypha to P uptake of plants decreased from 45.3% to 42.6%, while the effect of AM fungi on plant growth increased from 30.9% to 63.5% under salt stress condition. The above-mentioned results indicated that the mechanism that AM fungi enhance the salt-resistance of corn is related with the improvements of water and P nutrition conditions. Meanwhile, it was found whether under salt stress or not, the ratio of P accumulation of root system to aboveground part of mycorrhizal corn was higher than that of non-mycorrhizal corn, indicating that the infection of AM fungi changed the P distribution pattern in plant bodies, which is beneficial to increase the salt-resistance of plants.

  18. Status and Trends of Thermal-Hydraulic System Codes for Nuclear Power Plants With Pressurized Water Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhitao; Wang Binghua; Qin Benke; Xie Heng

    2009-01-01

    Research and development of thermal-hydraulic system codes for nuclear power plants with pressurized water reactors were analyzed on their history, status and application ranges. The important roles of best-estimate methodology, codes coupling and codes qualification were pointed out. The development models of thermal-hydraulic system codes around the world provide references to China's self-innovation. (authors)

  19. Large scale snow water status monitoring: comparison of different snow water products in the upper Colorado basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artan, G.A.; Verdin, J.P.; Lietzow, R.

    2013-01-01

    We illustrate the ability to monitor the status of snowpack over large areas by using a~spatially distributed snow accumulation and ablation model in the Upper Colorado Basin. The model was forced with precipitation fields from the National Weather Service (NWS) Multi-sensor Precipitation Estimator (MPE) and the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) datasets; remaining meteorological model input data was from NOAA's Global Forecast System (GFS) model output fields. The simulated snow water equivalent (SWE) was compared to SWEs from the Snow Data Assimilation System (SNODAS) and SNOwpack TELemetry system (SNOTEL) over a~region of the Western United States that covers parts of the Upper Colorado Basin. We also compared the SWE product estimated from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) and Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) to the SNODAS and SNOTEL SWE datasets. Agreement between the spatial distribution of the simulated SWE with both SNODAS and SNOTEL was high for the two model runs for the entire snow accumulation period. Model-simulated SWEs, both with MPE and TRMM, were significantly correlated spatially on average with the SNODAS (r = 0.81 and r = 0.54; d.f. = 543) and the SNOTEL SWE (r = 0.85 and r = 0.55; d.f. = 543), when monthly basinwide simulated average SWE the correlation was also highly significant (r = 0.95 and r = 0.73; d.f. = 12). The SWE estimated from the passive microwave imagery was not correlated either with the SNODAS SWE or (r = 0.14, d.f. = 7) SNOTEL-reported SWE values (r = 0.08, d.f. = 7). The agreement between modeled SWE and the SWE recorded by SNODAS and SNOTEL weakened during the snowmelt period due to an underestimation bias of the air temperature that was used as model input forcing.

  20. Modelling the growth of Listeria monocytogenes in fresh green coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Eduardo H M; Kabuki, Dirce Y; Esper, Luciana M R; Sant'Ana, Anderson S; Kuaye, Arnaldo Y

    2009-09-01

    The behaviour of Listeria monocytogenes in the fresh coconut water stored at 4 degrees C, 10 degrees C and 35 degrees C was studied. The coconut water was aseptically extracted from green coconuts (Cocos nucifera L.) and samples were inoculated in triplicate with a mixture of 5 strains of L. monocytogenes with a mean population of approximately 3 log(10) CFU/mL. The kinetic parameters of the bacteria were estimated from the Baranyi model, and compared with predictions of the Pathogen Modelling Program so as to predict its behaviour in the beverage. The results demonstrated that fresh green coconut water was a beverage propitious for the survival and growth of L. monocytogenes and that refrigeration at 10 degrees C or 4 degrees C retarded, but did not inhibit, growth of this bacterium. Temperature abuse at 35 degrees C considerably reduced the lagtimes. The study shows that L. monocytogenes growth in fresh green coconut water is controlled for several days by storage at low temperature, mainly at 4 degrees C. Thus, for risk population this product should only be drunk directly from the coconut or despite the sensorial alterations should be consumed pasteurized.

  1. Industrial waste water management in district Gujranwala of Pakistan - current status and future suggestions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazir, A.; Arslan, C.; Khan, M.A.; Nazir, N.; Awan, U.K.; Ali, M.A.; Waqas, U.

    2012-01-01

    Generally industrial sector in Pakistan is impairing the surface as well as groundwater qualities by indiscriminately routing their effluents into streams, watercourses, agricultural fields, river, lakes and ocean that are invariably resulting in human ailments apart from threatening the health of water. In Pakistan, little wastewater treatment facilities are available for the municipal discharges. Consequently, the effluents are dumped into the water bodies causing surface and groundwater pollution which is endangering biodiversity, health of the people and other ecosystems. Gujranwala waste effluents are no exception either. The present study has, therefore, been planned to investigate quality status of the city effluents from Gujranwala; a hub of several industries in Pakistan. A field survey was conducted to locate where effluent samples may be collected from different industrial wastewater discharge outlets or locations. The study involved determination of water quality parameters at different points. The values of chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), total suspended solids (TSS), total dissolved solids (TDS), dissolved oxygen (DO), pH, turbidity, electric conductivity (EC), Carbonates (CO/sub 3/)/sup -1/ and Bicarbonates (HCO/sub 3/)/sup -1/ varied for the different industries as 337-617 mg l/sup -1/, 115-301 mg l/sup -1/ , 385-820 mg l/sup -1/, 195-6537 mg l/sup -1/, 0.2-1.8 mg l/sup -1/ , 5.63-8.8 mg l/sup -1/, 18-540 FTU, 389-9950 mu s/cm, 0-390 mg l/sup -1/ and 60-750 mg l/sup -1/, respectively. The measured values of different parameters were compared with those of National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS) for precise assessment of their quality. The analysis of the parameters showed that almost all of the samples were unfit according to NEQS. This situation is indeed a serious threat for the environment and biodiversity and hence policy makers in the region have to start wastewater monitoring program with the help of

  2. Expert System for Diagnostics and Status Monitoring of NPP Water Chemistry Condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shvedova, M.N.; Kritski, V.G.; Zakharova, S.V.; Nikolaev, F.V.; Benediktov, V.B.

    2002-01-01

    Water chemistry condition (WCC) has been the subject of constant study and improvement up to the present day. It is connected with the presence of a direct relationship between the violation of water chemistry regulation on the one hand and components reliability of the circuit's equipment and cost-effectiveness of their operation on the other. It dictates the necessity to apply different optimization methods in the field of monitoring and use of information - analytical and diagnostic systems to assess WCC quality, control and support. By now NPP experts have broad experience in revealing and removing the causes of WCC disturbances. However this knowledge is often of an intuitive, non-classified nature, scattered among various working documents, which makes their transfer difficult. Based on what has been mentioned above, special attention is currently being paid to the problem of creating expert diagnostic systems for supporting the optimum WCC. The existing developments in this field (DIWA, Smart chem Works, the water quality control system at the Onagava NPP etc. [1,3,4,5] are based on wide use of experts' knowledge. Such expert diagnostic systems for supporting WCC refer to the new generation of intellectual control methods, which allow the incorporation of the latest achievements both in the field of water chemistry simulation and in the field of artificial intelligence and computer technologies. LI 'VNIPIET' employees have, for several years, been developing an expert diagnostic system for supporting WCC and status monitoring of RBMK - reactor NPPs [2]. This system has not only conveniently organized the traditional functions of information acquisition and storage, a complete presentation of information in the form of tables, graphs of a dynamical changes of parameters and formation regular reports, diagnostic functions and issuing recommendations on WCC correction, but it also allows the assessment of confidence in the diagnosis made, relying on a wide

  3. Height, weight and BMI percentiles and nutritional status relative to the international growth references among Pakistani school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, Muhammad Umair; Gull, Sibgha; Mushtaq, Komal; Abdullah, Hussain Muhammad; Khurshid, Usman; Shahid, Ubeera; Shad, Mushtaq Ahmad; Akram, Javed

    2012-03-19

    Child growth is internationally recognized as an important indicator of nutritional status and health in populations. This study was aimed to compare age- and gender-specific height, weight and BMI percentiles and nutritional status relative to the international growth references among Pakistani school-aged children. A population-based study was conducted with a multistage cluster sample of 1860 children aged five to twelve years in Lahore, Pakistan. Smoothed height, weight and BMI percentile curves were obtained and comparison was made with the World Health Organization 2007 (WHO) and United States' Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2000 (USCDC) references. Over- and under-nutrition were defined according to the WHO and USCDC references, and the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) cut-offs. Simple descriptive statistics were used and statistical significance was considered at P references. Mean differences from zero for height-, weight- and BMI-for-age z score values relative to the WHO and USCDC references were significant (P reference were closer to zero and the present study as compared to the USCDC reference. Mean differences between weight-for-age (0.19, 95% CI 0.10-0.30) and BMI-for-age (0.21, 95% CI 0.11-0.30) z scores relative to the WHO and USCDC references were significant. Over-nutrition estimates were higher (P reference as compared to the USCDC reference (17% vs. 15% overweight and 7.5% vs. 4% obesity) while underweight and thinness/wasting were lower (P reference as compared to the USCDC reference (7% vs. 12% underweight and 10% vs. 13% thinness). Significantly lower overweight (8%) and obesity (5%) prevalence and higher thinness grade one prevalence (19%) was seen with use of the IOTF cut-offs as compared to the WHO and USCDC references. Mean difference between height-for-age z scores and difference in stunting prevalence relative to the WHO and USCDC references was not significant. Pakistani school-aged children significantly differed

  4. Soil-plant water status and wine quality: the case study of Aglianico wine (the ZOViSA project)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfante, Antonello; Manna, Piero; Albrizio, Rossella; Basile, Angelo; Agrillo, Antonietta; De Mascellis, Roberto; Caputo, Pellegrina; Delle Cave, Aniello; Gambuti, Angelita; Giorio, Pasquale; Guida, Gianpiero; Minieri, Luciana; Moio, Luigi; Orefice, Nadia; Terribile, Fabio

    2014-05-01

    The terroir analysis, aiming to achieve a better use of environmental features with respect to plant requirement and wine production, needs to be strongly rooted on hydropedology. In fact, the relations between wine quality and soil moisture regime during the cropping season is well established. The ZOViSA Project (Viticultural zoning at farm scale) tests a new physically oriented approach to terroir analysis based on the relations between the soil-plant water status and wine quality. The project is conducted in southern Italy in the farm Quintodecimo of Mirabella Eclano (AV) located in the Campania region, devoted to quality Aglianico red wine production (DOC). The soil spatial distribution of study area (about 3 ha) was recognized by classical soil survey and geophysics scan by EM38DD; then the soil-plant water status was monitored for three years in two experimental plots from two different soils (Cambisol and Calcisol). Daily climate variables (temperature, solar radiation, rainfall, wind), daily soil water variables (through TDR probes and tensiometers), crop development (biometric and physiological parameters), and grape must and wine quality were monitored. The agro-hydrological model SWAP was calibrated and applied in the two experimental plots to estimate soil-plant water status in different crop phenological stages. The effects of crop water status on crop response and wine quality was evaluated in two different pedo-systems, comparing the crop water stress index with both: crop physiological measurements (leaf gas exchange, leaf water potential, chlorophyll content, LAI measurement), grape bunches measurements (berry weight, sugar content, titratable acidity, etc.) and wine quality (aromatic response). Finally a "spatial application" of the model was carried out and different terroirs defined.

  5. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor and K-RAS status in two cohorts of squamous cell carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Damme, Nancy; Pauwels, Patrick; Peeters, Marc; Deron, Philippe; Van Roy, Nadine; Demetter, Pieter; Bols, Alain; Dorpe, Jo Van; Baert, Filip; Van Laethem, Jean-Luc; Speleman, Franki

    2010-01-01

    With the availability of effective anti-EGFR therapies for various solid malignancies, such as non-cell small lung cancer, colorectal cancer and squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, the knowledge of EGFR and K-RAS status becomes clinically important. The aim of this study was to analyse EGFR expression, EGFR gene copy number and EGFR and K-RAS mutations in two cohorts of squamous cell carcinomas, specifically anal canal and tonsil carcinomas. Formalin fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues from anal and tonsil carcinoma were used. EGFR protein expression and EGFR gene copy number were analysed by means of immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridisation. The somatic status of the EGFR gene was investigated by PCR using primers specific for exons 18 through 21. For the K-RAS gene, PCR was performed using exon 2 specific primers. EGFR immunoreactivity was present in 36/43 (83.7%) of anal canal and in 20/24 (83.3%) of tonsil squamous cell carcinomas. EGFR amplification was absent in anal canal tumours (0/23), but could be identified in 4 of 24 tonsil tumours. From 38 anal canal specimens, 26 specimens were successfully analysed for exon 18, 30 for exon 19, 34 for exon 20 and 30 for exon 21. No EGFR mutations were found in the investigated samples. Thirty samples were sequenced for K-RAS exon 2 and no mutation was identified. From 24 tonsil specimens, 22 were successfully analysed for exon 18 and all 24 specimens for exon 19, 20 and 21. No EGFR mutations were found. Twenty-two samples were sequenced for K-RAS exon 2 and one mutation c.53C > A was identified. EGFR mutations were absent from squamous cell carcinoma of the anus and tonsils, but EGFR protein expression was detected in the majority of the cases. EGFR amplification was seen in tonsil but not in anal canal carcinomas. In our investigated panel, only one mutation in the K-RAS gene of a tonsil squamous cell carcinoma was identified. This indicates that EGFR and K-RAS mutation analysis is not

  6. Data on the use of industrial cooling waters. Study on growth of Anguilla Anguilla (L) in heated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foulquier, L.; Descamps, B.; Grauby, A.

    1978-01-01

    This paper describes, in a general way, possibilities for using the nuclear energy for urban and greenhouse heating or in field agricultural techniques. In particular, it points out the use of the heated waters in pisciculture at an international level. Considering the principal topic of the A.F.L. 23nd Congress, fish, the authors present some of the works realized in this field by the C.E.A. The C.E.A. radioecology section at Cadarache is now carrying out three types of experiments on the growth of eels in hot water. In a first experiment, eels were kept at constant temperature (approximately 20 0 C) and their average weight increased from 30g to 210g after 18 months while it reached only 87g in a control pond. In an other experimental work, eels were kept in waters which temperature was always 10 0 C greater than the control pond water temperature. Preliminary results indicate that after 18 months, eel weight had increased from 12g to 180g in the heated waters and to 43 g in the control pond. The C.E.A. group at Pierrelate is achieving the installation of integrated facilities using water from the Isotope Separation Plant for pisciculture and for soil and greenhouse heating. All works are now oriented on the improvement of technical knowledge to assess in pilot-plants the economic feasiility of these technics. Current projects and installations show clearly that the use of heated waters from thermal or nuclear plants for pisciculture is a developing technical practice [fr

  7. Available water and the orange trees growth on soils of a toposequence of the Reconcavo Baiano

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paiva, Arlicelio de Queiroz; Souza, Luciano da Silva; Ribeiro, Antonio Carlos; Costa, Liovando Marciano da; Santana, Marlete Bastos

    1997-01-01

    Aiming the study of the influence of available water in soils, at different depths, on the orange trees growth, the present work was carried out on a toposequence located at the Sapeacu-BA-Brazil municipality, with 190 m length and 0.097 mm -1 declivity. Due to the declivity and soils variations, the area was divided into three sectors with different constitutions. Weekly basis measurements of the soil water content have been performed, in the period of Dec 18, 1995 - Dec 18, 1996, at different depths, by using a neutron probe. The water considered as available was the stored water in the soil, at different depths, less the volumetric humidity under the -1,500 kPa

  8. Epidermal growth factor receptor gene status by fluorescence in situ hybridization in malignant, atypical, and benign hidradenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piris, Adriano; Scopsi, Lucio; Clemente, Claudio; Cetti Serbelloni, Federica; Mihm, Martin C; Hoang, Mai P

    2010-08-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) protein overexpression and gene amplification are important prognostic factors in various tumors and EGFR inhibitors are now available as promising chemotherapeutic agents. There is little information in the literature regarding the EGFR protein and gene status in hidradenocarcinomas which has an aggressive biologic course characterized by repeated local recurrences and systemic metastasis. We have previously reported EGFR protein overexpression in malignant, atypical, and benign hidradenomas and would like to further evaluate their gene status by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Fluorescence in situ hybridization by 2-color probe Vysis LSI EGFR SpectrumOrange/CEP 7 SpectrumGreen Probe (Abbott Molecular) and EGFR immunostain (H11, Dakocytomation) were performed in 15 malignant, 15 atypical, and 7 benign hidradenomas. High polysomy and low trisomy was noted in 1 and 4 hidradenocarcinoma, respectively; however, EGFR overexpression was seen only in 1 low trisomy case. Disomy is noted in the remaining 29 cases (9 hidradenocarcinomas, 15 atypical hidradenomas, and 5 benign hidradenomas). EGFR overexpression was seen in 3/12 (25%) malignant hidradenomas, 7/15 (47%) atypical hidradenomas, and 3/5 (60%) benign hidradenomas; none of these cases demonstrated EGFR gene amplification. Polysomy/trisomy is more frequently seen in hidradenocarcinoma than atypical and benign hidradenomas. The role of EGFR inhibitor therapy in hidradenocarcinoma cases with protein overexpression remains unclear. Lack of correlation between the protein expression and polysomy/gene amplification suggests that molecular mechanisms other than gene amplification play a role in EGFR overexpression in malignant, atypical, and benign hidradenomas.

  9. Mammographic features of calcifications in DCIS: correlation with oestrogen receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Min Sun; Moon, Woo Kyung; Chang, Jung Min; Cho, Nariya [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, So Yeon; Won, Jae-Kyung; Jeon, Yoon-Kyung; Park, In Ae [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Hyeong-Gon; Han, Wonshik [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Surgery, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    This study investigated the correlation of oestrogen receptor (ER) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status with the probability of malignancy (POM) of mammographic calcifications in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). A total of 101 women (age range, 27-83 years) with pure DCIS that presented as mammographic calcifications were included. Three radiologists independently reviewed mammograms according to the BI-RADS lexicon and provided 100-point POM scores and a BI-RADS category. ER, HER2 and breast cancer subtypes were determined using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescence in situ hybridisation. Pairwise correlations between POM and IHC biomarker scores were calculated, and mammographic features were compared between breast cancer subtypes. HER2 level positively correlated with the POM score (P < 0.0001) and BI-RADS category (P < 0.0001), and ER level inversely correlated with the POM score (P < 0.013) and BI-RADS category (P < 0.010). Fine linear branching (P = 0.004) and segmental (P = 0.014) calcifications were significantly associated with HER2-positive cancers, and clustered calcifications were more frequently observed in ER-positive cancers (P = 0.014). HER2 status in DCIS correlated positively with the POM of mammographic calcifications, as determined by radiologists on the basis of the BI-RADS lexicon. (orig.)

  10. MicroRNAs as growth regulators, their function and biomarker status in colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cekaite, Lina; Eide, Peter W.; Lind, Guro E.; Skotheim, Rolf I.; Lothe, Ragnhild A.

    2016-01-01

    Gene expression is in part regulated by microRNAs (miRNAs). This review summarizes the current knowledge of miRNAs in colorectal cancer (CRC); their role as growth regulators, the mechanisms that regulate the miRNAs themselves and the potential of miRNAs as biomarkers. Although thousands of tissue samples and bodily fluids from CRC patients have been investigated for biomarker potential of miRNAs (>160 papers presented in a comprehensive tables), none single miRNA nor miRNA expression signatures are in clinical use for this disease. More than 500 miRNA-target pairs have been identified in CRC and we discuss how these regulatory nodes interconnect and affect signaling pathways in CRC progression. PMID:26623728

  11. The impact of supplementing lambs with algae on growth, meat traits and oxidative status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, D L; Clayton, E H; Lamb, T A; van de Ven, R J; Refshauge, G; Kerr, M J; Bailes, K; Lewandowski, P; Ponnampalam, E N

    2014-10-01

    The current study examined the effect of supplementing lambs with algae. Forty, three month old lambs were allocated to receive a control ration based on oats and lupins (n=20) or the control ration with DHA-Gold™ algae (~2% of the ration, n=20). These lambs came from dams previously fed a ration based on either silage (high in omega-3) or oats and cottonseed meal (OCSM: high in omega-6) at joining (dam nutrition, DN). Lamb performance, carcase weight and GR fat content were not affected by treatment diet (control vs algae) or DN (silage vs OSCM). Health claimable omega-3 fatty acids (EPA+DHA) were significantly greater in the LL of lambs fed algae (125±6mg/100g meat) compared to those not fed algae (43±6mg/100g meat) and this effect was mediated by DN. Supplementing with algae high in DHA provides a means of improving an aspect of the health status of lamb meat. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Status of researches in the field of safety of pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couturier, Jean; Schwarz, Michel

    2017-01-01

    This collective publication proposes a synthesis of the status of researches performed in the field of safety of pressurized water reactors. They may discuss past, current and projected research works, involved actors, or lessons learned from these works. The authors propose a presentation of some research tools privileged by the IRSN for these researches: the CABRI and PHEBUS reactors, the GALAXIE experimental platform, and some other installations. Then they address researches related to loss-of-coolant accidents (two-phase thermohydraulics, fuel rod behaviour), to reactivity accidents, to accidents related to dewatering of irradiated fuel storage pools, to fires, to extreme aggressions of natural origin (earthquake, extreme flooding), to core fusion accidents (core heating and fusion within the vessel, vessel failure and apron erosion by corium, containment enclosure dynamic loading, release of radioactive products), to the behaviour of nuclear plant important metallic or civil works components and notably to their ageing, to organisational and human factors or more generally to social and human sciences (design of control rooms, safety organisation and management in EDF nuclear plants), and to other issues and research perspectives

  13. Midazolam-Ketamine Dual Therapy Stops Cholinergic Status Epilepticus And Reduces Morris Water Maze Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niquet, Jerome; Baldwin, Roger; Norman, Keith; Suchomelova, Lucie; Lumley, Lucille; Wasterlain, Claude G.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Objective Pharmacoresistance remains an unsolved therapeutic challenge in status epilepticus (SE) and in cholinergic SE induced by nerve agent intoxication. SE triggers a rapid internalization of synaptic GABAA receptors and externalization of NMDA receptors that may explain the loss of potency of standard anti-epileptic drugs (AED). We hypothesized that a drug combination aimed at correcting the consequences of receptor trafficking would reduce SE severity and its long-term consequences. Methods A severe model of SE was induced in adult Sprague-Dawley rats with a high dose of lithium and pilocarpine. The GABAA receptor agonist midazolam, the NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine and/or the AED valproate were injected 40 min after SE onset in combination or as monotherapy. Measures of SE severity were the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes were acute neuronal injury, spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS), and Morris water maze (MWM) deficits. Results Midazolam-ketamine dual therapy was more efficient than double-dose midazolam or ketamine monotherapy or than valproate-midazolam or valproate-ketamine dual therapy in reducing several parameters of SE severity, suggesting a synergistic mechanism. In addition, midazolam-ketamine dual therapy reduced SE-induced acute neuronal injury, epileptogenesis and MWM deficits. Significance This study showed that a treatment aimed at correcting maladaptive GABAA receptor and NMDA receptor trafficking can stop SE and reduce its long-term consequences. Early Midazolam-ketamine dual therapy may be superior to monotherapy in the treatment of benzodiazepine-refractory SE. PMID:27500978

  14. [Distribution Characteristics and Pollution Status Evaluation of Sediments Nutrients in a Drinking Water Reservoir].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ting-lin; Liu, Fei; Shi, Jian-chao

    2016-01-15

    The main purpose of this paper is to illustrate the influence of nutrients distribution in sediments on the eutrophication of drinking water reservoir. The sediments of three representative locations were field-sampled and analyzed in laboratory in March 2015. The distribution characteristics of TOC, TN and TP were measured, and the pollution status of sediments was evaluated by the comprehensive pollution index and the manual for sediment quality assessment. The content of TOC in sediments decreased with depth, and there was an increasing trend of the nitrogen content. The TP was enriched in surface sediment, implying the nutrients load in Zhoucun Reservoir was aggravating as the result of human activities. Regression analysis indicated that the content of TOC in sediments was positively correlated with contents of TN and TP in sediments. The TOC/TN values reflected that the vascular land plants, which contain cellulose, were the main source of organic matter in sediments. The comprehensive pollution index analysis result showed that the surface sediments in all three sampling sites were heavily polluted. The contents of TN and TP of surface sediments in three sampling sites were 3273-4870 mg x kg(-1) and 653-2969 mg x kg(-1), and the content of TOC was 45.65-83.00 mg x g(-1). According to the manual for sediment quality assessment, the TN, TP and TOC contents in sediments exceed the standard values for the lowest level of ecotoxicity, so there is a risk of eutrophication in Zhoucun Reservoir.

  15. Water diffusion closely reveals neural activity status in rat brain loci affected by anesthesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshifumi Abe

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Diffusion functional MRI (DfMRI reveals neuronal activation even when neurovascular coupling is abolished, contrary to blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD functional MRI (fMRI. Here, we show that the water apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC derived from DfMRI increased in specific rat brain regions under anesthetic conditions, reflecting the decreased neuronal activity observed with local field potentials (LFPs, especially in regions involved in wakefulness. In contrast, BOLD signals showed nonspecific changes, reflecting systemic effects of the anesthesia on overall brain hemodynamics status. Electrical stimulation of the central medial thalamus nucleus (CM exhibiting this anesthesia-induced ADC increase led the animals to transiently wake up. Infusion in the CM of furosemide, a specific neuronal swelling blocker, led the ADC to increase further locally, although LFP activity remained unchanged, and increased the current threshold awakening the animals under CM electrical stimulation. Oppositely, induction of cell swelling in the CM through infusion of a hypotonic solution (-80 milliosmole [mOsm] artificial cerebrospinal fluid [aCSF] led to a local ADC decrease and a lower current threshold to wake up the animals. Strikingly, the local ADC changes produced by blocking or enhancing cell swelling in the CM were also mirrored remotely in areas functionally connected to the CM, such as the cingulate and somatosensory cortex. Together, those results strongly suggest that neuronal swelling is a significant mechanism underlying DfMRI.

  16. Curcuma aromatica Water Extract Attenuates Ethanol-Induced Gastritis via Enhancement of Antioxidant Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo-Young Jeon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Curcuma aromatica is an herbal medicine and traditionally used for the treatment of various diseases in Asia. We investigated the effects of C. aromatica water extract (CAW in the stomach of rats with ethanol-induced gastritis. Gastritis was induced in rats by intragastric administration of 5 mL/kg body weight of absolute ethanol. The CAW groups were given 250 or 500 mg of extract/kg 2 h before administration of ethanol, respectively. To determine the antioxidant effects of CAW, we determined the level of lipid peroxidation, the level of reduced glutathione (GSH, the activities of catalase, degree of inflammation, and mucus production in the stomach. CAW reduced ethanol-induced inflammation and loss of epithelial cells and increased the mucus production in the stomach. CAW reduced the increase in lipid peroxidation associated with ethanol-induced gastritis (250 and 500 mg/kg, p<0.01, resp. and increased mucosal GSH content (500 mg/kg, p<0.01 and the activity of catalase (250 and 500 mg/kg, p<0.01, resp.. CAW increased the production of prostaglandin E2. These findings suggest that CAW protects against ethanol-induced gastric mucosa injury by increasing antioxidant status. We suggest that CAW could be developed for the treatment of gastritis induced by alcohol.

  17. Ice growth and interface oscillation of water droplets impinged on a cooling surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Yoshimichi; Ishikawa, Shoji; Kimura, Ryota; Toyohara, Kazumasa

    2017-06-01

    We focused on the attenuation of air-water interface oscillation for impinged water droplets freezing on a cooling surface. We carried out not only experiments but also two-dimensional numerical simulation on the droplets using a Phase-field method and an immersed boundary method. The Reynolds number and Weber number were in the range of 35-129 and 1.6-22, respectively. The experimental and computational results showed that the height of the impinged droplets on the symmetrical axis started to oscillate as a result of the impact of the collision of droplets with the surfaces in all the cases that we investigated. The measured frequency of the oscillations in the case of the adiabatic droplets was equal to the frequency estimated from the equation for the capillary-gravity waves on sessile droplets (Temperton, 2013) [30]. The oscillations converged rapidly in all impinged water droplets that froze on the cooling surface. This is due partly to the growth of ice shells along the air-water interface and partly to decreases in water volume as a result of the ice growth mainly on the cooling surface. In addition, the thermal field was disturbed not only by the latent heat transfer but also by the upward component of recirculating flow induced by the droplet impingement.

  18. Bacterial growth efficiency in the tropical estuarine and coastal waters of Goa, southwest coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ram, A.; Nair, S.; Chandramohan, D.

    that affect or regulate them? To answer the above ques tions, a series of experiments were conducted with both estuarine and coastal waters using short incubation peri ods [4, 36], In this paper we report for the first time the growth efficiencies...M and 0.62 IlM, respectively. The minimum and maximum phosphate levels in the es· tuarine waters were from 0.85 to 1.58 J.lM. The ammonium concentration ranged from 0.08 to 4.21 IlM. In general, the nutrient concentration was comparatively higher...

  19. Can xenon in water inhibit ice growth? Molecular dynamics of phase transitions in water-Xe system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artyukhov, Vasilii I; Pulver, Alexander Yu; Peregudov, Alex; Artyuhov, Igor

    2014-07-21

    Motivated by recent experiments showing the promise of noble gases as cryoprotectants, we perform molecular dynamics modeling of phase transitions in water with xenon under cooling. We follow the structure and dynamics of xenon water solution as a function of temperature. Homogeneous nucleation of clathrate hydrate phase is observed and characterized. As the temperature is further reduced we observe hints of dissociation of clathrate due to stronger hydrophobic hydration, pointing towards a possible instability of clathrate at cryogenic temperatures and conversion to an amorphous phase comprised of "xenon + hydration shell" Xe·(H2O)21.5 clusters. Simulations of ice-xenon solution interface in equilibrium and during ice growth reveal the effects of xenon on the ice-liquid interface, where adsorbed xenon causes roughening of ice surface but does not preferentially form clathrate. These results provide evidence against the ice-blocker mechanism of xenon cryoprotection.

  20. Growth and weight status in treatment-naïve 12-16 year old adolescents with Alcohol Use Disorders in Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laubscher Ria

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heavy alcohol consumption during adolescence has many known harmful health and social consequences and is strongly associated with numerous health risk behaviours. The consequences of heavy alcohol use during adolescence on nutritional status, specifically growth and weight status are largely unknown at this time. Methods Substance use, anthropometric indices of growth and weight, dietary energy intake and physical activity in heavy drinking adolescents (meeting DSM-IV criteria for alcohol use disorders and matched light/non-drinking control adolescents were assessed. Results Lifetime alcohol dose, measured in standard drinks of alcohol, was orders of magnitude higher in adolescents with alcohol use disorders (AUDs compared to controls. The AUDs group was selected to represent relatively 'pure' AUDs, with minimal other drug use and no psychiatric diagnoses. The growth and weight status of adolescents with AUDs were generally comparable to that of controls, and is in line with the growth and weight status of the South African adolescent population. A greater proportion of overweight/obese females was found in both groups, with this percentage tending to be greater, although not significantly so, in the AUDs group. Adolescent females with AUDs had increased odds of being overweight/obese compared to controls, after adjustment for smoking, physical activity and energy intake. Conclusion Anthropometric indices of growth and weight status of participants in the Control and AUD groups were generally comparable. Female adolescents with AUDs may have an increased risk of being overweight/obese compared to adolescent females without AUDs. The presence of an AUD in our adolescent sample was associated with higher energy intake. Longitudinal studies are needed to elucidate the effects of heavy alcohol use on energy balance, growth and weight status in adolescents as they age. Nonetheless, the current study contributes to our

  1. [Investigation of susceptibility of materials contacting with drinking water for microbial growth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczotko, Maciej; Krogulska, Bozena; Krogulski, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Main purpose of this paper was to confirm of results obtained by new method based on bioluminescence technique for determination of susceptibility of materials contacting with drinking water were repeatable. Investigation was conducted during 8 weeks in dynamic conditions using continuous flow reactor UPE. Every week swabbes from tested materials were collected and level of ATP was examined. The results obtained from the surface of tested materials were repeatable and clearly approximate to those obtained from the surface of negative control material (stainless steel, low susceptibility for microbial growth). The level of the ATP on the surface of positive control material (paraffin, large susceptibility for microbial growth) was fifty times higher than that observed on other materials. Presented investigation was the main part of validation process, which in short time will serve to initiate system of complete assessment for materials contacting with drinking water according to Council Directives 89/106/EEC and 98/83/EC requirements.

  2. Growth Performance and Meat Quality of Broiler Chickens Supplemented with Bacillus licheniformis in Drinking Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaolu; Yan, Hai; Lv, Le; Xu, Qianqian; Yin, Chunhua; Zhang, Keyi; Wang, Pei; Hu, Jiye

    2012-05-01

    A feeding trial was conducted to investigate effects of Bacillus licheniformis on growth performance and meat quality of broilers. Nine hundred one-d-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 3 experimental groups with three replicate pens of 100 broiler chicks. Three treatments were i) control, ii) basal diets supplemented with 1 ml of B. licheniformis for each in feed water per day iii) basal diets supplemented with 2 ml of B. licheniformis per chick in feed water per day. The supplementation of B. licheniformis significantly increased body weight in grower chickens (psensorial characteristics of breast fillet. Overall, the study indicates that B. licheniformis can be used as a growth promoter and meat quality enhancer in broiler poultry.

  3. Circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I correlate with disease status in leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues Luciana

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Caused by Mycobacterium leprae (ML, leprosy presents a strong immune-inflammatory component, whose status dictates both the clinical form of the disease and the occurrence of reactional episodes. Evidence has shown that, during the immune-inflammatory response to infection, the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-I (GH/IGF-I plays a prominent regulatory role. However, in leprosy, little, if anything, is known about the interaction between the immune and neuroendocrine systems. Methods In the present retrospective study, we measured the serum levels of IGF-I and IGBP-3, its major binding protein. These measurements were taken at diagnosis in nonreactional borderline tuberculoid (NR BT, borderline lepromatous (NR BL, and lepromatous (NR LL leprosy patients in addition to healthy controls (HC. LL and BL patients who developed reaction during the course of the disease were also included in the study. The serum levels of IGF-I, IGFBP-3 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α were evaluated at diagnosis and during development of reversal (RR or erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL reaction by the solid phase, enzyme-labeled, chemiluminescent-immunometric method. Results The circulating IGF-I/IGFBP-3 levels showed significant differences according to disease status and occurrence of reactional episodes. At the time of leprosy diagnosis, significantly lower levels of circulating IGF-I/IGFBP-3 were found in NR BL and NR LL patients in contrast to NR BT patients and HCs. However, after treatment, serum IGF-I levels in BL/LL patients returned to normal. Notably, the levels of circulating IGF-I at diagnosis were low in 75% of patients who did not undergo ENL during treatment (NR LL patients in opposition to the normal levels observed in those who suffered ENL during treatment (R LL patients. Nonetheless, during ENL episodes, the levels observed in RLL sera tended to decrease, attaining similar levels to those found in NR LL patients

  4. Variation in water use efficiency and leaf carbon isotope ratio in navy bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) with growth stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Y, L.; Midmore, D.J.; Ashwath, N.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: One pot culture experiment was carried out to determine if leaf carbon isotope ratio and water use efficiency (WUE) in four genotypes of navy bean (BAT 477, DOR364, BAT881 and G21212) change with growth stages (initial flowering, peak flowering and fruit growth). One set of pots were irrigated regularly to 85% field capacity (well watered) and other set was maintained at 35% field capacity (water stressed). Plants were monitored for water-use and leaf 13 C ( 13 C/ 12 C expressed with a differential notation as 13 C ). The leaf 13 C values decreased from initial flowering to fruit growth stage in both well watered and water stressed treatments. This result suggests that carbon might have been relocated as the plants advanced in growth. The differences between initial flowering and fruit growth stage, and between peak flowering and fruit growth were significant (p 13 C and WUE, and there were no significant genotype x growth stage interactions. There was a positive correlation between WUE and above ground dry matter (AGDM) across genotypes, and a good relationship (r=0.74*) between WUE and specific leaf area (cm 2 /g) was found at initial flowering. These results support the hypothesis that a higher WUE for the four genotypes of navy bean was achieved by higher photosynthetic capacity. Significant differences in leaf 13 C were also noted between the well watered and water stressed plants. Well watered plants maintained a correlation between leaf 13 C and WUE (r=0.92* 0.67* and 0.51* at initial flowering, peak flowering and fruit growth stage, respectively), but no such correlation was found for water stressed plants. Based on these results we conclude that (i) WUE of navy bean genotypes can best be assessed by determining leaf 13 C of well watered plants at initial flowering stage and (ii) leaf 13 C was not a promising indicator of adaptation to water deficit in navy beans

  5. Effect of water management, tillage options and phosphorus status on arsenic uptake in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukder, A S M H M; Meisner, C A; Sarkar, M A R; Islam, M S

    2011-05-01

    High arsenic (As) concentrations in soil may lead to elevated concentrations of arsenic in agricultural products. Field experiments were conducted to examine the effects of water management (WM) and Phosphorus (P) rates on As uptake, rice growth, yield and yield attributes of winter (boro) and monsoon (aman) rice in an As contaminated soil-water at Gobindagonj, Gaibandha, Bangladesh in 2004 and 2005. Significantly, the highest average grain yields (6.88±0.07 t ha(-1) in boro 6.38±0.06 t ha(-1) in aman) were recorded in permanent raised bed (PRB; aerobic WM: Eh=+360 mV) plus 100% P amendment. There was a 12% yield increase over conventional till on flat (CTF; anaerobic WM: Eh=-56 mV) at the same P level. In boro, the As content in grain and As content in straw were about 3 and 6 times higher in CTF compared to PRB, respectively. The highest total As content (0.646±0.01 ppm in grain and 10.93±0.19 ppm in straw) was recorded under CTF, and the lowest total As content (0.247±0.01 and 1.554±0.09 ppm in grain and straw, respectively) was recorded under PRB (aerobic WM). The results suggest that grain and straw As are closely associated in boro rice. The furrow irrigation approach of the PRB treatments consistently reduced irrigation input by 29-31% for boro and 27-30% for aman rice relative to CTF treatments in 2004 and 2005, respectively, thus reducing the amount of As added to the soil from the As-contaminated irrigation water. Yearly, 30% less As was deposited to the soil compared to CTF system through irrigation water during boro season. High As concentrations in grain and straw in rice grown using CTF in the farmers' field, and the fact that using PRB reduced grain As concentrations to value less than half of the proposed food hygiene standard. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Hygroscopic growth of common organic aerosol solutes, including humic substances, as derived from water activity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Idania R.; Tabazadeh, Azadeh; Golden, David M.; Jacobson, Mark Z.

    2011-12-01

    Studies have shown that organic matter often constitutes up to 50% by mass of tropospheric aerosols. These organics may considerably affect the water uptake properties of these aerosols, impacting Earth's climate and atmosphere. However, considerable uncertainties still exist about hygroscopic properties of organic carbon (OC) in particles. In this study, we have assembled an apparatus to measure equilibrium water vapor pressure over bulk solutions. We used these results to calculate the hygroscopic growth curve and deliquescence relative humidity (DRH) of representative compounds in three OC categories: saccharides, mono/dicarboxylic acids, and HULIS (Humic-Like Substances). To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the hygroscopic growth of HULIS by means of a bulk method on representative compounds such as fulvic and humic acids. We also explored the temperature effect on hygroscopic growth within the 0°C-30°C temperature range and found no effect. The DRH and hygroscopic growth obtained were in excellent agreement with published tandem differential mobility analyzer (TDMA), electrodynamic balance, and bulk data for sodium chloride, ammonium sulfate, d-glucose, levoglucosan, succinic acid, and glutaric acid. However, we found a hygroscopic growth factor of 1.0 at a relative humidity of 90% for phthalic, oxalic, humic, and two fulvic acids; these results disagree with various TDMA studies. The TDMA is used widely to study water uptake of organic particles but can be affected by particle microstructural arrangements before the DRH and by the inability to fully dry particles. Thus, in the future it will be important to confirm TDMA data for nondeliquescent organic particles with alternate methods.

  7. Effects of Wine by-Products on Growth Performance, Complete Blood Count and Total Antioxidant Status in Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SM Pascariu

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to investigate the effect of whole grape pomace (GP, grape seed (GS and grape pomace polyphenolic extract (GPEP on growth performance, total antioxidant status (TAS and complete blood count (CBC of 40-day-old chicks (hybrid Cobb 500. A total of 432 unsexed one-day-old chicks were divided into six groups: control (CON and five experimental groups, 10 g/kg GP, 20 g/kg GP, 5 g/kg GS, 10 g/kg GS and 15 mL/L GPEP. The results showed a higher increase in growing rate in 5 g/kg GS group, from the first week of the chicks’ life throughout their growth, the average body weight of the chicks being significantly higher (p0.05 at 40 days of age. As a conclusion, the amount of 5 g/kg seeds, 10 g/kg and 20 g/kg pomace, can be added to the diet of the broilers, the dose of 5 g/kg seeds in the diet offering advantages in growing rate and feed valorization in weight gain.

  8. Hyperspectral-based predictive modelling of grapevine water status in the Portuguese Douro wine region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pôças, Isabel; Gonçalves, João; Costa, Patrícia Malva; Gonçalves, Igor; Pereira, Luís S.; Cunha, Mario

    2017-06-01

    In this study, hyperspectral reflectance (HySR) data derived from a handheld spectroradiometer were used to assess the water status of three grapevine cultivars in two sub-regions of Douro wine region during two consecutive years. A large set of potential predictors derived from the HySR data were considered for modelling/predicting the predawn leaf water potential (Ψpd) through different statistical and machine learning techniques. Three HySR vegetation indices were selected as final predictors for the computation of the models and the in-season time trend was removed from data by using a time predictor. The vegetation indices selected were the Normalized Reflectance Index for the wavelengths 554 nm and 561 nm (NRI554;561), the water index (WI) for the wavelengths 900 nm and 970 nm, and the D1 index which is associated with the rate of reflectance increase in the wavelengths of 706 nm and 730 nm. These vegetation indices covered the green, red edge and the near infrared domains of the electromagnetic spectrum. A large set of state-of-the-art analysis and statistical and machine-learning modelling techniques were tested. Predictive modelling techniques based on generalized boosted model (GBM), bagged multivariate adaptive regression splines (B-MARS), generalized additive model (GAM), and Bayesian regularized neural networks (BRNN) showed the best performance for predicting Ψpd, with an average determination coefficient (R2) ranging between 0.78 and 0.80 and RMSE varying between 0.11 and 0.12 MPa. When cultivar Touriga Nacional was used for training the models and the cultivars Touriga Franca and Tinta Barroca for testing (independent validation), the models performance was good, particularly for GBM (R2 = 0.85; RMSE = 0.09 MPa). Additionally, the comparison of Ψpd observed and predicted showed an equitable dispersion of data from the various cultivars. The results achieved show a good potential of these predictive models based on vegetation indices to support

  9. Airborne Thermal Imagery to Detect the Seasonal Evolution of Crop Water Status in Peach, Nectarine and Saturn Peach Orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Bellvert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current scenario of worldwide limited water supplies, conserving water is a major concern in agricultural areas. Characterizing within-orchard spatial heterogeneity in water requirements would assist in improving irrigation water use efficiency and conserve water. The crop water stress index (CWSI has been successfully used as a crop water status indicator in several fruit tree species. In this study, the CWSI was developed in three Prunus persica L. cultivars at different phenological stages of the 2012 to 2014 growing seasons, using canopy temperature measurements of well-watered trees. The CWSI was then remotely estimated using high-resolution thermal imagery acquired from an airborne platform and related to leaf water potential (ѰL throughout the season. The feasibility of mapping within-orchard spatial variability of ѰL from thermal imagery was also explored. Results indicated that CWSI can be calculated using a common non-water-stressed baseline (NWSB, upper and lower limits for the entire growing season and for the three studied cultivars. Nevertheless, a phenological effect was detected in the CWSI vs. ѰL relationships. For a specific given CWSI value, ѰL was more negative as the crop developed. This different seasonal response followed the same trend for the three studied cultivars. The approach presented in this study demonstrated that CWSI is a feasible method to assess the spatial variability of tree water status in heterogeneous orchards, and to derive ѰL maps throughout a complete growing season. A sensitivity analysis of varying pixel size showed that a pixel size of 0.8 m or less was needed for precise ѰL mapping of peach and nectarine orchards with a tree crown area between 3.0 to 5.0 m2.

  10. The changes in redox status of ascorbate in stem tissue cells during Scots pine tree growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. F. Antonova

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The contents of ascorbate (AsA and dehydroascorbate (DHA and their ratio, showing cellular redox state of AsA, were studied in the cells of the separate tissues at different levels of Pinus sylvestris L. stem during early- and latewood formation. Morphological status of the cells in the tissues and the content of soluble carbohydrates were also estimated. The cellular redox potential of AsA has been found to depend on the type of tissue, cell development degree, the level of stem and the type of forming wood. The content of AsA and AsA/DHA ratio in the cells of non-conducting phloem along the stem were higher than in mature xylem and less during earlywood than latewood formation. The cells of conducting phloem and forming xylem, as the principal tissues taking part in annual ring wood formation, differed in the content of acids in the course of early and late xylem formation. Along the stem, the content of AsA decreased in conducting phloem cells and increased in the cells of forming xylem during both early- and latewood formation. The AsA/DHA of conducting phloem during earlywood formation was greatest below the stem and diminished to the top of the tree, while in the course of latewood development it was similar at all levels. In forming xylem AsA/DHA increased to the top of tree during the early xylem formation and decreased in late xylem that indicates the differences in oxidation-reduction reactions into the cells of two type of forming wood. The data are discussed according to morphological development of cells and the content of carbohydrates.

  11. On the growth of homogeneously nucleated water droplets in nitrogen: an experimental study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fransen, M. A. L. J.; Sachteleben, E.; Hrubý, Jan; Smeulders, D. M. J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 7 (2014), s. 1780-1780 ISSN 0723-4864 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP101/11/1593 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : droplet nucleation * droplet growth * water Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 1.670, year: 2014 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00348-014-1780-y

  12. Adaptation, growth and survival of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in Bafgh brackish water

    OpenAIRE

    Sarsangi, A.H.; Mohammadi, M.; Mashaii, N.; Rajabipou, F.; Bitaraf, A.; Askari, H.M.; Moazedi, J.; Nezamabadi, H.; Hosseinzadeh Sahafi, H.

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the possibility of adaptation, growth and survival of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) with 0.3g initial weight and red tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) with 0.7g initial weight in underground brackish water. Fry of Nile tilapia and red tilapia imported from Indonesia and after passing larviculture (25g) were examined separately in fiber glass tank by two replicate. Fish were fed at a restricted feeding program according to standard table during the light ...

  13. Characterization of Stachybotrys from water-damaged buildings based on morphology, growth, and metabolite production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Birgitte; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Jarvis, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    was a Macrocyclic trichothecene-producer. The second undescribed taxon produced atranones and could be differentiated from S. chartarum by its growth characteristics arid pigment production. Our results correlate with different inflammatory and toxicological properties reported for these same isolates and show......, but inconsistent toxicity results arid taxonomic confusion prompted the present study. In this study, 122 Stachybotrys isolates, mainly from,water-damaged buildings, were characterized arid identified by combining three different approaches: morphology. colony characteristics, arid metabolite production. Two...

  14. Evaluation of nitrogen status and total chlorophyll in longkong (Aglaia dookkoo Griff. leaves under water stress using a chlorophyll meter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sdoodee, S.

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available A chlorophyll meter (SPAD-502 was used to assess nitrogen status and total chlorophyll in longkong leaves, leaves from twelve of 10-year-old trees grown in the experimental plot at Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla province. The relationship between SPAD-502 meter reading and nitrogen status and total chlorophyll content analyzed in the laboratory was evaluated during 8 months (May-December 2003. It was found that the trend of the relationships in each month was similar. There was no significant differenceamong regression linears of all months. The data of 8 months showed that SPAD-reading and nitrogen content, and SPAD-reading and total chlorophyll content were related in a positive manner. They were Y = 0.19X+10.10, r = 0.76** (n = 240, and Y = 0.43X-7.89, r = 0.79** (n = 400, respectively. The SPAD-502 was then used to assess total nitrogen and total chlorophyll content during imposed water stress. Fifteen 4-yearold plants were grown in pots (each pot containing 50 kg soil volume. The experiment was arranged in acompletely randomized design with 3 treatments: (1 daily watering (2 once watering on day 7 (3 no watering with 5 replications during 14 days of the experimental period. Measurements showed a continuous decrease of SPAD-reading in the treatment of no watering. On day 14, a significant difference of SPAD- reading values between the treatment of daily watering and no watering was found. Then, the values of nitrogen content and total chlorophyll were assessed by using the linear regression equations. From the result, it is suggested that the measurement by chlorophyll meter is a rapid technique for the evaluation of total chlorophyll and nitrogen status in longkong leaves during water stress.

  15. [Effects of ground cover and water-retaining agent on winter wheat growth and precipitation utilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ji-Cheng; Guan, Xiu-Juan; Yang, Yong-Hui

    2011-01-01

    An investigation was made at a hilly upland in western Henan Province to understand the effects of water-retaining agent (0, 45, and 60 kg x hm(-2)), straw mulching (3000 and 6000 kg x hm(-2)), and plastic mulching (thickness straw- or plastic mulching was combined with the use of water-retaining agent. Comparing with the control, all the measures increased the soil moisture content at different growth stages by 0.1%-6.5%. Plastic film mulching had the best water-retention effect before jointing stage, whereas water-retaining agent showed its best effect after jointing stage. Soil moisture content was the lowest at flowering and grain-filling stages. Land cover increased the grain yield by 2.6%-20.1%. The yield increment was the greatest (14.2%-20.1%) by the combined use of straw mulching and water-retaining agent, followed by plastic mulching combined with water-retaining agent (11.9% on average). Land cover also improved the precipitation use efficiency (0.4-3.2 kg x mm(-1) x hm(-2)) in a similar trend as the grain yield. This study showed that land cover and water-retaining agent improved soil moisture and nutrition conditions and precipitation utilization, which in turn, promoted the tillering of winter wheat, and increased the grain number per ear and the 1000-grain mass.

  16. Interactive effects of rice residue and water stress on growth and metabolism of wheat seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimisha Amist

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present study effects of rice residue with and without water stress were studied on Triticum aestivum L. cv. Shatabadi. The mixture of residue and garden soil in 1:1 ratio was considered as 50% (R1 and only decomposed residue as 100% (R2. Garden soil was taken as control. Twenty five seeds were sown in each experimental trays filled with soil mixture according to the treatments. Trays were arranged in two groups. After 15 days one set was subjected to water stress (WS by withholding water supply for 3 days. Morphological and biochemical parameters of 18 days old seedlings were recorded. Seedling height decreased in all treatments. A gradual decrease in relative water content, pigment and protein contents of wheat seedlings were observed. Sugar and proline contents increased in treatments. An increase in malondialdehyde (MDA content and antioxidative enzyme activities was recorded. Elevation in catalase activity was observed in all treatments except in plants with water deficit. Ascorbate peroxidase (APX and guaiacol peroxidase (GPX activities increased when residue mixed with soil but decreased in seedlings under the combined influence of the residue and water stress. Higher amount of MDA and lower activities of APX and GPX reflected the oxidative damage in seedlings under combined treatments. Rice residue inhibited growth of wheat seedlings. Water stress intensified the effects of residue.

  17. Water deficit imposed by deficit irrigation at different plant growth stages of maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvache, M.; Reichardt, C.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify specific growth stages of maize Crop, at which the plant is less sensitive to water stress so that irrigation can be omitted withhout significant decrease yield. The field experiment was conducted at a University experiment station, Tumbaco, Pichincha, Ecuador, during may - october 1993, on a sandy loam soil ( typic durustoll). Soil moisture was monitored with a neutron probe down to 0.70 m depth, before and 24 h after each irrigation. The actual evapotranspiration of the crop was estimated by the water - balance technique. Field water efficiency and crop water use efficiency were calculated by dividing actual grain yield by irrigation and by ETa, respectively. Nitrogen fertilizer use efficiency was calculated using N - 15 methodology in the 75 kg N/ ha treatment. From the yield data, it can be concluded that treatments which had irrigation deficit had lower yield than those that had suplementary irrigation. The flowering and yield formation stages were the most sensitive to moisture stress. Nitrogen fertilization significantly increased the grain yield. The crop water use effeciency was the lowest at the flowering and yield formation of the region, the treatments I1 and I7 had the same crop water use efficiency. The results of N - 15 labelled plots ( F1) showed that soil water deficiency significantly affects nitrogen was derived from fertilizer in treatments I3 and I7 and only 11 - 9% in the treatments I2 and I5 respectively. ( Author)

  18. Seed germination and seedling growth of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris as influenced by magnetized saline water

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    Fateme Aghamir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetized water is considered eco-friendly physical presowing seed germination.The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of magnetized watertreatments on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris germination under saline conditions (0, 25, 50, 75, 100 and 120 mM NaCl. This experiment was performed as factorial in a complete randomized design (CRD with three replications. The results revealed that the roots and shoots length, fresh and dry weight of shoots and roots and roots to shoots ratio, chlorophyll content index, water uptake, tissue water contentwere significantly affected by magnetized water.Irrigation with magnetized water significantly increased the physiologic factors such as germination percentage and index, vigor index and salt tolerance index, compared to untreated control seeds.Mean germination time and parameters T1, T10, T25, T50and T90 (required time for germination of one to 90 percent of seeds were reduced significantly in all magnetized water treated plants in comparison to control.The results also demonstrated that magnetized water was conducive to promote the growth of bean seedlings under saline conditions.

  19. Association between polymorphism in the Prolactin I promoter and growth of tilapia in saline-water

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    Ariel Velan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Tilapias are a group of species with a variable tolerance to high salinity, which are cultured worldwide in fresh, brackish and seawater. Prolactin I (PRL I is known as a key hormone in osmoregulatory physiological pathways. A previous study, conducted in a single family, reported on association between polymorphism in a repetitive element within the promoter of the PRL I gene and growth rate of tilapia in saline water. This study was aiming to further validate this association in a larger sample size, and was conducted in nine families over two consecutive breeding seasons. We have confirmed this association in the three F2 families of Oreochromis mossambicus × Oreochromis niloticus hybrids challenged in the first year. The same pattern of improved growth for genotypes with shorter alleles originating from the O. niloticus grand-parental fish, although O. mossambicus is considered to be a more salt tolerant species, was demonstrated. The effects accounted for 13–15% of the phenotypic variance for growth rate (P < 0.05. In the six families from the second spawning season there was no association between the gene polymorphism and the fish growth in saline water. No association was evident between the polymorphism in the PRL I promoter and the expression of the gene.

  20. [Growth characteristics and control of iron bacteria on cast iron in drinking water distribution systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Zhang, Xiao-Jian; Chen, Yu-Qiao; Lu, Pin-Pin; Chen, Chao

    2009-11-01

    This study investigated the growth characteristics of iron bacteria on cast iron and relationship between suspended and attached iron bacteria. The steady-state growth of iron bacteria would need 12 d and iron bacteria level in effluents increased 1 lg. Hydraulics influence on iron bacteria level and detachment rate of steady-state attached iron bacteria was not significant. But it could affect the time of attached iron bacteria on cast-iron coupons reaching to steady state. When the chlorine residual was 0.3 mg/L, the iron bacteria growth could be controlled effectively and suspended and attached iron bacteria levels both decreased 1 lg. When the chlorine residual was more than 1.0 mg/L, it could not inactivate the iron bacteria of internal corrosion scale yet. There was little effect on inhibiting the iron bacteria growth that the chlorine residual was 0.05 mg/L in drinking water quality standard of China. The iron bacteria on coupons reached to steady state without disinfectant and then increased the chlorine residual to 1.25 mg/L, the attached iron bacteria level could decrease 2 lg to 3 lg. Under steady-state, the suspended iron bacteria levels were linearly dependent on the attached iron bacteria. The control of iron bacteria in drinking water distribution systems was advanced: maintaining the chlorine residual (0.3 mg/L), flushing the pipeline with high dosage disinfectant, adopting corrosion-resistant pipe materials and renovating the old pipe loop.

  1. The growth and population dynamics of seagrass Thalassia hemprichii in Suli Waters, Ambon Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupan, C. I.; Uneputty, Pr A.

    2017-10-01

    The objectives of the research were to determined growth of rhizome, age structure, recruitment rate, and mortality rate of Thalassia hemprichii. Data were collected by using reconstruction technique which the measurements were based on past growth history. The age of seagrass was based on plastochrone interval. The recruitment rate was estimated by age structure of living shoots while mortality rate was estimated by age structure of dead shoots. The research was conducted on coastal waters of Suli where divided into two stations with different substrates, namely mixed substrates of sand and mud (S1) and mixed substrates of sand and coral fragment (S2). The growth rate of horizontal rhizome ranged from 4.15-8.68 cm.year-1 whereas the growth rate of vertical rhizome was 1.11-1.16 cm.year-1. The average age of T. hemprichii varied between 3.22-4.15 years. The youngest shoots were found at age 0.38 years and the oldest shoots were 7.82 years. Distribution of age was polymodal which reflecting cohort. The recruitment rate ranged from 0.23-0.54 year-1. Otherwise, the mortality rate ranged from 0.21-0.26 year-1.Seagrass population of T. hemprichii in Suli Waters indicated an increasing condition which shown by higher recruitment rate than mortality rate.

  2. Growth and antioxidant status of oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense fed with diets containing vitamin E

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Weihong; Wang, Zisheng; Yu, Yebing; Qi, Zhitao; Lü, Linlan; Zhang, Yuxia; Lü, Fu

    2016-05-01

    A feeding trial was carried out to investigate the dietary vitamin E requirement of the oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense (weight of 0.3-0.4 g) and its effect role on antioxidant activity. Prawns were fed with seven levels of vitamin E (0, 25, 50, 75, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg diet) for 60 days. The results show that dietary vitamin E supplementation could significantly increased the prawn weight ( P 0.05). The contents of vitamin E in the hepatopancreas and in the muscle increased with increasing dietary vitamin E. There was a linear correlation between the vitamin E level in diet and that in muscle, and between the vitamin E level in diet and that in the hepatopancreas. All the above results indicated that dietary vitamin E can be stored in the hepatopancreas and muscle and lower both the activities of SOD and CAT in the hepatopancreas, suggesting that it is a potential antioxidant in M. nipponense. Broken line analysis conducted on the weight gains of prawns in each diet group showed that the dietary vitamin E requirement for maximum growth is 94.10 mg/kg.

  3. Modeling and Testing of Growth Status for Chinese Cabbage and White Radish with UAV-Based RGB Imagery

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    Dong-Wook Kim

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Conventional crop-monitoring methods are time-consuming and labor-intensive, necessitating new techniques to provide faster measurements and higher sampling intensity. This study reports on mathematical modeling and testing of growth status for Chinese cabbage and white radish using unmanned aerial vehicle-red, green and blue (UAV-RGB imagery for measurement of their biophysical properties. Chinese cabbage seedlings and white radish seeds were planted at 7–10-day intervals to provide a wide range of growth rates. Remotely sensed digital imagery data were collected for test fields at approximately one-week intervals using a UAV platform equipped with an RGB digital camera flying at 2 m/s at 20 m above ground. Radiometric calibrations for the RGB band sensors were performed on every UAV flight using standard calibration panels to minimize the effect of ever-changing light conditions on the RGB images. Vegetation fractions (VFs of crops in each region of interest from the mosaicked ortho-images were calculated as the ratio of pixels classified as crops segmented using the Otsu threshold method and a vegetation index of excess green (ExG. Plant heights (PHs were estimated using the structure from motion (SfM algorithm to create 3D surface models from crop canopy data. Multiple linear regression equations consisting of three predictor variables (VF, PH, and VF × PH and four different response variables (fresh weight, leaf length, leaf width, and leaf count provided good fits with coefficients of determination (R2 ranging from 0.66 to 0.90. The validation results using a dataset of crop growth obtained in a different year also showed strong linear relationships (R2 > 0.76 between the developed regression models and standard methods, confirming that the models make it possible to use UAV-RGB images for quantifying spatial and temporal variability in biophysical properties of Chinese cabbage and white radish over the growing season.

  4. Physical growth and nutritional status of Car Nicobarese and Moplah children of Andaman-Nicobar Islands in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahani, R; Dinda, A; Kumar, U; Chakrabarty, S; Bharati, P

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to assess growth and nutritional status of Car Nicobarese children and compare it with Moplah children, who live in a similar environment. A total of 436 Car Nicobarese children and 438 Moplah children, aged 6-10 years, were selected for the study. The anthropometric measurements included stature, body weight, sitting height, bi-acromial breadth, bi-iliac breadth, mid-upper arm circumference, skinfold thickness of biceps, triceps and subscapular region. 50th percentile (median) growth curves were calculated among the studied children and compared with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 2000 reference. Z scores of weight for age (WAZ), height for age (HAZ) and BMI for age (BMIZ) were computed using growth references of the CDC 2000. It was observed that the Car Nicobarese children were shorter but heavier than Moplah children of both sexes all through the age range, which was also reflected in median value of anthropometric variables. Car Nicobarese children were nutritionally better compared to Moplah children based on the nutritional indices. The major differences between Car Nicobarese and Moplah children were found in their arm muscularity rather than arm adiposity. Overall, Car Nicobarese children were nutritionally in normal and better condition than Moplah children. However, present dietary change (intake of high calories and fat diet) of Car Nicobarese population may be reflected in the form of childhood obesity in the recent future, which has already been observed in their adult population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Water stress and soil compaction impacts on clover growth and nutrient concentration

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    Abdolrahman Barzegar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Soil compaction and insufficient water supply generally decrease crop performance. The effects of varying compaction and water availability levels on the growth of Berseem or Egyptian clover (Trifolium alexandrimum L., water use efficiency and nutrient concentration were investigated under greenhouse conditions. Treatments consisted of three soil compaction levels (bulk density of 1.2, 1.4 and 1.6 Mg m-3, and four water availability treatments (40%, 60%, 80% and 100% of soil field capacity in a factorial combination. Soil compaction had a significant effect on water use efficiency with the highest (0.32 g l-1 at bulk density of 1.4 Mg m-3 and the lowest at the other bulk densities. Soil compaction had no significant effects on leaf area, shoot, root and total dry masses. Water stress resulted in lower leaf area (from 231 to 153 mm2 pot-1, and the stem lengths were 7.6 cm and 4.3 cm for 80% and 60% of field capacity, respectively. Likewise, the highest (0.47 g pot-1 and lowest (0.33 g pot-1 total dry masses were observed at 80% and 60% field capacities. Water use efficiencies were 0.32 and 0.20 g l-1 for 100% and 60% field capacities, respectively. The accumulation of N, P and K per unit length of roots increased with soil compaction. As the water supply increased, the root and shoot dry weight and water use efficiency increased. Treatment of 100% field capacity resulted in the highest accumulation of N, P and K. Results indicated that the treatment of 80% field capacity and bulk density of 1.4 Mg m-3 provided the best conditions for clover performance, among the applied treatments. This study suggests that sufficient water supply can moderate the adverse effects of soil compaction on clover performance.

  6. Relationship between Industrial Water Use and Economic Growth in China: Insights from an Environmental Kuznets Curve

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    Alun Gu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Global inequity and the unbalance of water resources has been a critical issue for many years; and the Chinese per capita water resources are only 1/4 of the global average. Meanwhile, as the Chinese economy is growing rapidly, the demand of Chinese industrial water use is also increasing. In this case, it is important to balance the relationship between economic growth and industrial water use. In this study, a reduction model is established for the northeastern, northern coastal, eastern coastal, southern coastal, middle Yellow River, middle Yangtze River, southwestern, and northwestern regions to verify the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC for their respective industrial water use and provide theoretical support for decision making from an economic perspective. It adopts the per capita industrial water use and GDP of the eight economic zones from 2002 to 2014. The unit root test and co-integration test were adopted to analyze the stationarity of the data, and the triple reduction model was used for the fitting of variables. The relationship between per capita industrial water use and GDP showed an inverted U-shaped curve from 2002 to 2014 for China, as well as for the eastern coastal and middle Yangtze River regions, with the coordinates of the turning points being (9.8749, 4.6735, (10.3098, 5.4783, and (9.8184, 5.0622, respectively. The per capita GDP at the turning point of the inverted U-shaped curve is 18,000–30,000 Yuan (at constant prices from 2000. This study provides important thoughts and lessons for collaborative research into the relationship between industrial water consumption and economic development. The central government should focus on the central and western regions when creating policies for water resource management and technological development to improve their industrial water use efficiency.

  7. Papaya seedlings growth using a low-cost, automatic watering controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Cardoso de Oliveira Dias

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed growth and physiological parameters of 'Sunrise Golden' and 'Tainung 01' papaya seedlings grown in 280mL plastic tubes and watered using a low-cost automatic irrigation s