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Sample records for growth specific heat

  1. Specific heats of degenerate ideal gases

    OpenAIRE

    Caruso, Francisco; Oguri, Vitor; Silveira, Felipe

    2017-01-01

    From arguments based on Heisenberg's uncertainty principle and Pauli's exclusion principle, the molar specific heats of degenerate ideal gases at low temperatures are estimated, giving rise to values consistent with the Nerst-Planck Principle (third law of Thermodynamics). The Bose-Einstein condensation phenomenon based on the behavior of specific heat of massive and non-relativistic boson gases is also presented.

  2. Essential Specification Elements for Heat Exchanger Replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bower, L.

    2015-07-01

    Performance upgrade and equipment degradation are the primary impetuses for a nuclear power plant to engage in the large capital cost project of heat exchanger replacement. Along with attention to these issues, consideration of heat exchanger Codes and Standards, material improvements, thermal redesign, and configuration are essential for developing User’s Design Specifications for successful replacement projects. The User’s Design Specification is the central document in procuring ASME heat exchangers. Properly stated objectives for the heat exchanger replacement are essential for obtaining the materials, configurations and thermal designs best suited for the nuclear power plant. Additionally, the code of construction required and the applied manufacturing standard (TEMA or HEI) affects how the heat exchanger may be designed or configured to meet the replacement goals. Knowledge of how Codes and Standards affect design and configuration details will aid in writing the User’s Design Specification. Joseph Oat Corporation has designed and fabricated many replacement heat exchangers for the nuclear power industry. These heat exchangers have been constructed per ASME Section III to various Code-Years or ASME Section VIII-1 to the current Code-Year also in accordance with TEMA and HEI. These heat exchangers have been a range of like-for-like replacement to complete thermal, material and configuration redesigns. Several examples of these heat exchangers with their Code, Standard and specification implications are presented. (Author.

  3. Measurement of low-temperature specific heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, G.R.

    1983-01-01

    The measurement of low-temperature specific heat (LTSH) (0.1 K< T<60 K) has seen a number of breakthroughs both in design concepts and instrumentation in the last 15 years: particularly in small sample calorimetry. This review attempts to provide an overview of both large and small sample calorimetry techniques at temperatures below 60 K, with sufficient references to enable more detailed study. A comprehensive review is made of the most reliable measurements of the LTSH of 84 of the elements to illustrate briefly some of the problems of measurements and analysis, as well as to provide additional references. More detail is devoted to three special areas of low-temperature calorimetry that have seen rapid development recently: (1) measurement of the specific heat of highly radioactive samples, (2) measurement of the specific heat of materials in high magnetic fields (18 T), and (3) measurement of the specific heat of very small (100 μg) samples. The review ends with a brief discussion of the frontier research currently underway on microcalorimetry for nanogram sample weights

  4. MEASUREMENT OF SPECIFIC HEAT CAPACITY OF SALTSTONE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harbour, J.; Williams, V.

    2008-01-01

    One of the goals of the Saltstone variability study is to identify (and quantify the impact of) the operational and compositional variables that control or influence the important processing and performance properties of Saltstone grout mixtures. The heat capacity of the Saltstone waste form is one of the important properties of Saltstone mixes that was last measured at SRNL in 1997. It is therefore important to develop a core competency for rapid and accurate analysis of the specific heat capacity of the Saltstone mixes in order to quantify the impact of compositional and operational variations on this property as part of the variability study. The heat capacity, coupled with the heat of hydration data obtained from isothermal calorimetry for a given Saltstone mix, can be used to predict the maximum temperature increase in the cells within the vaults of the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). The temperature increase controls the processing rate and the pour schedule. The maximum temperature is also important to the performance properties of the Saltstone. For example, in mass pours of concrete or grout of which Saltstone is an example, the maximum temperature increase and the maximum temperature difference (between the surface and the hottest location) are controlled to ensure durability of the product and prevent or limit the cracking caused by the thermal gradients produced during curing. This report details the development and implementation of a method for the measurement of the heat capacities of Saltstone mixes as well as the heat capacities of the cementitious materials of the premix and the simulated salt solutions used to batch the mixes. The developed method utilizes the TAM Air isothermal calorimeter and takes advantage of the sophisticated heat flow measurement capabilities of the instrument. Standards and reference materials were identified and used to validate the procedure and ensure accuracy of testing. Heat capacities of Saltstone mixes were

  5. MEASUREMENT OF SPECIFIC HEAT CAPACITY OF SALTSTONE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harbour, J; Vickie Williams, V

    2008-09-29

    One of the goals of the Saltstone variability study is to identify (and quantify the impact of) the operational and compositional variables that control or influence the important processing and performance properties of Saltstone grout mixtures. The heat capacity of the Saltstone waste form is one of the important properties of Saltstone mixes that was last measured at SRNL in 1997. It is therefore important to develop a core competency for rapid and accurate analysis of the specific heat capacity of the Saltstone mixes in order to quantify the impact of compositional and operational variations on this property as part of the variability study. The heat capacity, coupled with the heat of hydration data obtained from isothermal calorimetry for a given Saltstone mix, can be used to predict the maximum temperature increase in the cells within the vaults of the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). The temperature increase controls the processing rate and the pour schedule. The maximum temperature is also important to the performance properties of the Saltstone. For example, in mass pours of concrete or grout of which Saltstone is an example, the maximum temperature increase and the maximum temperature difference (between the surface and the hottest location) are controlled to ensure durability of the product and prevent or limit the cracking caused by the thermal gradients produced during curing. This report details the development and implementation of a method for the measurement of the heat capacities of Saltstone mixes as well as the heat capacities of the cementitious materials of the premix and the simulated salt solutions used to batch the mixes. The developed method utilizes the TAM Air isothermal calorimeter and takes advantage of the sophisticated heat flow measurement capabilities of the instrument. Standards and reference materials were identified and used to validate the procedure and ensure accuracy of testing. Heat capacities of Saltstone mixes were

  6. Specific heat, polarization and heat conduction in microwave heating systems: A nonequilibrium thermodynamic point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergese, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    A microwave (MW) field can induce in a dielectric material an oscillatory polarization. By this mechanism part of the energy carried by the waves is converted into chaotic agitation, and the material heats up. MW heating is a nonequilibrium phenomenon, while conventional heating can generally be considered as quasi-static. Excess (or nonthermal) effects of MWs with respect to conventional heating lie in this difference. Macroscopically, MW heating can be described in the framework of linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics (NET). This approach indicates that in a dielectric material under MW heating the specific heat has a dynamic component linked to the variation of polarization with temperature, and that polarization and heat conduction are intertwined. In particular, linear NET provides a new phenomenological equation for heat conduction that is composed of the classic Fourier's law and an additional term due to polarization relaxation. This term quantitatively describes the excess effect of MWs on thermal conduction

  7. Specific heat of praseodymium and neodymium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayana Murthy, J.V.S.S.; Ramji Rao, R.

    1983-01-01

    The elements of the dynamical matrix of an ideal deep lattice, with nearest neighbour central interactions, have been obtained in a homogeneously strained state. The dispersion relations along the [0001] direction, on this model, have been presented for Pr and Nd. The frequency distribution function g(ω) is obtained and the lattice specific heat is calculated for Pr and Nd and the temperature variation of the equivalent Debye temperature is presented. (author)

  8. Electronic specific heat of transition metal carbides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conte, R.

    1964-07-01

    The experimental results that make it possible to define the band structure of transition metal carbides having an NaCI structure are still very few. We have measured the electronic specific heat of some of these carbides of varying electronic concentration (TiC, either stoichiometric or non-stoichiometric, TaC and mixed (Ti, Ta) - C). We give the main characteristics (metallography, resistivity, X-rays) of our samples and we describe the low temperature specific heat apparatus which has been built. In one of these we use helium as the exchange gas. The other is set up with a mechanical contact. The two use a germanium probe for thermometer. The measurement of the temperature using this probe is described, as well as the various measurement devices. The results are presented in the form of a rigid band model and show that the density of the states at the Fermi level has a minimum in the neighbourhood of the group IV carbides. (author) [fr

  9. Cappuccino and Specific Heat Versus Heat of Vaporization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidden, Frits; Boomsma, Jorn; Schins, Anton; van den Berg, Ed

    2012-02-01

    A cappuccino is prepared by adding about 50 mL frothing, foaming milk to a cup of espresso. Whole milk is best for foaming and the ideal milk temperature when adding it to the espresso is 65 °C. The espresso itself may be warmer than that. During the heating the milk should not burn, as that would spoil the taste. The best way is to heat the milk slowly while stirring to froth the milk and create foam. But modern cappuccino machines in restaurants do not have time for slow heating. Could we heat the milk by just adding hot water?

  10. DETERMINATION OF THE SPECIFIC GROWTH RATE ON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sewage generation is one of the dense problems Nigerians encounter on daily bases, mostly at the urbanized area where factories and industries are located. This paper is aimed at determining the specific growth rate “K” of biological activities on cassava wastewater during degradation using Michaelis-Menten Equation.

  11. Age-Specific Correlates of Child Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Rieger (Matthias); S.K. Trommlerová (Sofia Karina)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractGrowth faltering describes a widespread phenomenon that height- and weight-for-age of children in developing countries collapse rapidly in the first two years of life. We study age-specific correlates of child nutrition using Demographic and Health Surveys from 56 developing countries to

  12. The Heat Is on: An Inquiry-Based Investigation for Specific Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrington, Deborah G.

    2011-01-01

    A substantial number of upper-level science students and practicing physical science teachers demonstrate confusion about thermal equilibrium, heat transfer, heat capacity, and specific heat capacity. The traditional method of instruction, which involves learning the related definitions and equations, using equations to solve heat transfer…

  13. Natural convection heat transfer of fluid with temperature-dependent specific heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Amane; Kubo, Shinji; Akino, Norio

    1998-01-01

    The present study investigates natural convection from a heated vertical plate of fluid with temperature-dependent specific heat, which is introduced as a model of microencapsulated phase change material slurries (MCPCM slurries). The temperature dependence of specific heat is represented by Gauss function with three physical parameters (peak temperature, width of phase change temperature and latent heat). Boundary layer equations are solved numerically, and the velocity and temperature fields of the flow are obtained. The relation between the heat transfer coefficients and the physical parameters of specific heat is discussed. The results show that the velocities and temperatures are smaller, and the heat transfer coefficients are larger comparing with those of the fluid with constant specific heat. (author)

  14. Fatigue crack growth retardation in spot heated mild steel sheet

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A fatigue crack can be effectively retarded by heating a spot near the crack tip under nil remote stress condition. The subcritical spot heating at a proper position modifies the crack growth behaviour in a way, more or less, similar to specimen subjected to overload spike. It is observed that the extent of crack growth retardation ...

  15. Heat-source specification 500 watt(e) RTG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-02-01

    This specification establishes the requirements for a 90 SrF 2 heat source and its fuel capsule for application in a 500 W(e) thermoelectric generator. The specification covers: fuel composition and quantity; the Hastelloy S fuel capsule material and fabrication; and the quality assurance requirements for the assembled heat source

  16. Prediction of Liquid Specific Heat Capacity of Food Lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoyi; Phinney, David M; Paluri, Sravanti; Heldman, Dennis R

    2018-04-01

    Specific heat capacity (c p ) is a temperature dependent physical property of foods. Lipid-being a macromolecular component of food-provides some fraction of the food's overall heat capacity. Fats/oils are complex chemicals that are generally defined by carbon length and degree of unsaturation. The objective of this investigation was to use advanced specific heat capacity measurement to determine the effect of fatty acid chemical structure on specific heat capacity of food lipids. In this investigation, the specific heat capacity of a series of triacylglycerols were measured to quantify the influence of fatty acid composition on specific heat capacity based on two parameters; the -average carbon number (C) and the average number of double bonds (U). A prediction model for specific heat capacity of food lipids as a function of C, U and temperature (T) has been developed. A multiple linear regression to the three-parameter model (R 2 = 0.87) provided a good fit to the experimental data. The prediction model was evaluated by comparison with previously published specific heat capacity values of vegetable oils. It was found that the model provided a 0.53% error, while three other models from the literature predicted c p values with 0.85% to 1.83% average relative deviation from experimental data. The outcomes from this research confirm that the thermophysical properties of fat present in foods are directly related to the physical chemical properties. The specific heat capacity of food products is widely used in process design. Improvements of current models to predict specific heat capacity of food products will assist in the development of efficient processes and in the control of food quality and safety. Furthermore, the understanding of how changes in chemical structure of macromolecular components of foods effect thermophysical properties may begin to allude to models that are not just empirical, but represent portions of the differences in chemistry. © 2018

  17. The Specific Heat of Matter at Low Temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Tari, A

    2003-01-01

    Recent discoveries of new materials and improvements in calorimetric techniques have given new impetus to the subject of specific heat. Nevertheless, there is a serious lack of literature on the subject. This invaluable book, which goes some way towards remedying that, is concerned mainly with the specific heat of matter at ordinary temperatures. It discusses the principles that underlie the theory of specific heat and considers a number of theoretical models in some detail. The subject matter ranges from traditional materials to those recently discovered - heavy fermion compounds, high temper

  18. Specific heat in diluted magnetic semiconductor quantum ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babanlı, A. M.; Ibragimov, B. G.

    2017-11-01

    In the present paper, we have calculated the specific heat and magnetization of a quantum ring of a diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) material in the presence of magnetic field. We take into account the effect of Rashba spin-orbital interaction, the exchange interaction and the Zeeman term on the specific heat. We have calculated the energy spectrum of the electrons in diluted magnetic semiconductor quantum ring. Moreover we have calculated the specific heat dependency on the magnetic field and Mn concentration at finite temperature of a diluted magnetic semiconductor quantum ring.

  19. On the specific heat in a limited medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, A.T.

    1980-03-01

    The specific heat of solids is studied, following the usual approach in which the solid is considered as an elastic, isotropic and continuum system which bears normal modes of characteristic frequency. (L.C.) [pt

  20. Electronic specific heats in metal--hydrogen systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flotow, H.E.

    1979-01-01

    The electronic specific heats of metals and metal--hydrogen systems can in many cases be evaluated from the measured specific heats at constant pressure, C/sub p/, in the temperature range 1 to 10 K. For the simplest case, C/sub p/ = γT + βT 3 , where γT represents the specific heat contribution associated with the conduction electrons, and βT 3 represents lattice specific heat contribution. The electronic specific heat coefficient, γ, is important because it is proportional to electron density of states at the Fermi surface. A short description of a low temperature calorimetric cryostat employing a 3 He/ 4 He dilution refrigeration is given. Various considerations and complications encountered in the evaluation of γ from specific heat data are discussed. Finally, the experimental values of γ for the V--Cr--H system and for the Lu--H system are summarized and the variations of γ as function of alloy composition are discussed

  1. Growth arrest specific protein (GAS) 6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haase, T N; Rasmussen, Morten; Jaksch, C A M

    2013-01-01

    using RNA microarray and quantitative PCR. The role of a differentially expressed gene, growth arrest specific protein 6 (GAS6), was evaluated in vitro using neonatal rat islets. Results The mRNA level of Gas6, known to be mitogenic in other tissues, was reduced in LP offspring. The mRNA content of Mafa...... was increased in LP offspring suggesting an early maturation of beta cells. When applied in vitro, GAS6 increased proliferation of neonatal pancreatic beta cells, while reducing glucose-stimulated insulin secretion without changing the total insulin content of the islets. In addition, GAS6 decreased the m......RNA content of Mafa. Conclusions/interpretation We propose a role for GAS6 in the regulation of pancreatic beta cells in the critical period around the time of birth. Our results support the hypothesis that the reduced beta cell mass seen in LP offspring is caused by a change in the intra-uterine environment...

  2. Low temperature specific heat anomalies in melanins and tumor melanosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizutani, U [Carnegie--Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh; Massalski, T B; McGinness, J E; Corry, P M

    1976-02-12

    Human malignant melanoma cells obtained at autopsy were used. Data indicate that melanins exhibit a large linear term (50-200 erg g/sup -1/K/sup -2/) and that they seem to undergo a phase transition as indicated by the heat capacity near 1.9/sup 0/K. A table is presented to show low temperature specific heat data for melanin samples. The measurements include two anomalies, a transition and an unusually high linear contribution. (HLW)

  3. Fluctuation-dissipation theorem for frequency-dependent specific heat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, Jeppe; Nielsen, Johannes K.

    1996-01-01

    A derivation of the fluctuation-dissipation (FD) theorem for the frequency-dependent specific heat of a system described by a master equation is presented. The FD theorem is illustrated by a number of simple examples, including a system described by a linear Langevin equation, a two-level system......, and a system described by the energy master equation. It is shown that for two quite different models with low-energy cutoffs—a collection of two-level systems and a system described by the energy master equation—the frequency-dependent specific heat in dimensionless units becomes universal at low temperatures......, i.e., independent of both energy distribution and temperature. These two models give almost the same universal frequency-dependent specific heat, which compares favorably to experiments on supercooled alcohols....

  4. Superconductivity and specific heat of titanium base A15 alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junod, A.; Flukiger, R.; Muller, J.

    1976-01-01

    Experimental data on the superconducting transition temperature, and low temperature specific heat, together with X-ray investigations, are reported for binary and pseudo-binary compounds of Ti with the A15-type structure. A 'true' relative maximum of the coefficient of the electronic specific heat, γ, as well as the superconducting transition temperature, Tsub(c), occurs in the Tisub(3)Irsub(1-x)Ptsub(x) system near x = 0.2. Tisub(3)Irsub(0.8)Ptsub(0.2) shows the lowest Debye temperature, theta 0 , of all A15-type compounds known to date. The anomalous temperature dependence of the lattice specific heat may be reproduced by a model phonon spectrum similar to that of Nb 3 Sn. (author)

  5. Specific heat of the simple-cubic Ising model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feng, X.; Blöte, H.W.J.

    2010-01-01

    We provide an expression quantitatively describing the specific heat of the Ising model on the simple-cubic lattice in the critical region. This expression is based on finite-size scaling of numerical results obtained by means of a Monte Carlo method. It agrees satisfactorily with series expansions

  6. Measurement of the specific heat capacity of graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picard, S.; Burns, D.T.; Roger, P

    2006-01-15

    With the objective of implementing graphite calorimetry at the BIPM to measure absorbed dose, an experimental assembly has recently been constructed to measure the specific heat capacity of graphite. A status description of the apparatus and results from the first measurements are given. The outcome is discussed and the experimental uncertainty is reviewed. (authors)

  7. Measurement of the specific heat capacity of graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picard, S.; Burns, D.T.; Roger, P.

    2006-01-01

    With the objective of implementing graphite calorimetry at the BIPM to measure absorbed dose, an experimental assembly has recently been constructed to measure the specific heat capacity of graphite. A status description of the apparatus and results from the first measurements are given. The outcome is discussed and the experimental uncertainty is reviewed. (authors)

  8. Transport properties and specific heat of UTe and USb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochiai, A.; Suzuki, Y.; Shikama, T.; Suzuki, K.; Hotta, E.; Haga, Y.; Suzuki, T.

    1994-01-01

    Uranium monochalcogenides and monopnictides crystallize in the NaCl-type structure and exhibit ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic order, respectively. These series reveal interesting properties such as Kondo behavior of UTe. However, such interesting properties are much sample dependent. We grew single crystals of USb and UTe with high purity using the Bridgman technique, and measured transport properties and specific heat. ((orig.))

  9. Specific heat of ZnCoSe semimagnetic semiconductor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Twardowski, A.; Swagten, H.J.M.; Jonge, de W.J.M.; Demianiuk, M.

    1990-01-01

    The magnetic specific heat of ZnCoSe data are reported in the temperature range 1.5

  10. Specific heat of Cr-based semimagnetic semiconductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Twardowski, A.; Eggenkamp, P.J.T.; Mac, W.; Swagten, H.J.M.; Demianiuk, M.

    1993-01-01

    Specific heat of ZnCrSe and ZnCrS was measured for 1.5

  11. Negative specific heat with trapped ultracold quantum gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzys, M. P.; Anglin, J. R.

    2014-01-01

    The second law of thermodynamics normally prescribes that heat tends to disperse, but in certain cases it instead implies that heat will spontaneously concentrate. The spontaneous formation of stars out of cold cosmic nebulae, without which the universe would be dark and dead, is an example of this phenomenon. Here we show that the counter-intuitive thermodynamics of spontaneous heat concentration can be studied experimentally with trapped quantum gases, by using optical lattice potentials to realize weakly coupled arrays of simple dynamical subsystems, so that under the standard assumptions of statistical mechanics, the behavior of the whole system can be predicted from ensemble properties of the isolated components. A naive application of the standard statistical mechanical formalism then identifies the subsystem excitations as heat in this case, but predicts them to share the peculiar property of self-gravitating protostars, of having negative micro-canonical specific heat. Numerical solution of real-time evolution equations confirms the spontaneous concentration of heat in such arrays, with initially dispersed energy condensing quickly into dense ‘droplets’. Analysis of the nonlinear dynamics in adiabatic terms allows it to be related to familiar modulational instabilities. The model thus provides an example of a dictionary mesoscopic system, in which the same non-trivial phenomenon can be understood in both thermodynamical and mechanical terms.

  12. Genetic evaluations for growth heat tolerance in Angus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, H L; Fragomeni, B O; Bertrand, J K; Lourenco, D A L; Misztal, I

    2016-10-01

    The objectives were to assess the impact of heat stress and to develop a model for genetic evaluation of growth heat tolerance in Angus cattle. The American Angus Association provided weaning weight (WW) and yearling weight (YW) data, and records from the Upper South region were used because of the hot climatic conditions. Heat stress was characterized by a weaning (yearling) heat load function defined as the mean temperature-humidity index (THI) units greater than 75 (70) for 30 (150) d prior to the weigh date. Therefore, a weaning (yearling) heat load of 5 units corresponded to 80 (75) for the corresponding period prior to the weigh date. For all analyses, 82,669 WW and 69,040 YW were used with 3 ancestral generations in the pedigree. Univariate models were a proxy for the Angus growth evaluation, and reaction norms using 2 B-splines for heat load were fit separately for weaning and yearling heat loads. For both models, random effects included direct genetic, maternal genetic, maternal permanent environment (WW only), and residual. Fixed effects included a linear age covariate, age-of-dam class (WW only), and contemporary group for both models and fixed regressions on the B-splines in the reaction norm. Direct genetic correlations for WW were strong for modest heat load differences but decreased to less than 0.50 for large differences. Reranking of proven sires occurred for only WW direct effects for the reaction norms with extreme heat load differences. Conversely, YW results indicated little effect of heat stress on genetic merit. Therefore, weaning heat tolerance was a better candidate for developing selection tools. Maternal heritabilities were consistent across heat loads, and maternal genetic correlations were greater than 0.90 for nearly all heat load combinations. No evidence existed for a genotype × environment interaction for the maternal component of growth. Overall, some evidence exists for phenotypic plasticity for the direct genetic effects of WW

  13. Heat loss mechanisms in a measurement of specific heat capacity of graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipley, D.R.; Duane, S.

    1996-01-01

    Absorbed dose to graphite in electron beams with nominal energies in the range 3-20 MeV is determined by measuring the temperature rise in the core of a primary standard graphite calorimeter. This temperature rise is related to absorbed dose by a separate measurement of the specific heat capacity of the graphite core. There is, however, a small but significant amount of heat loss from the sample in the determination of specific heat capacity and corrections for these losses are required. This report discusses the sources of heat loss in the measurements and, where possible, provides estimates for the magnitude of these losses. For those mechanisms which are significant, a more realistic model of the measurement system is analysed and corrections for the losses are provided. (UK)

  14. Bacterial growth in solar heating prepared and traditional tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagh, L.K.

    2000-01-01

    In Denmark it has been put forward that the introduction of solar heating prepared tanks into the building regulation can cause increased nuisance with respect to bacterial growth in hot water for domestic use. The reason is that solar heating prepared tanks have a larger volume and another form of operation than traditional tanks. In this investigation the difference between bacterial growth in solar heating prepared and traditional tanks was measured by heterotrophic plate counts as a general parameter for microbiological growth. There was no significant difference between the bacterial number in the solar heating prepared tanks and in the traditional tanks, either for bacteria determined at 37 deg. C, 44 deg. C, 55 deg. C or at 65 deg. C. The hot water for domestic use from the solar heating prepared tanks and the traditional tanks had in most cases a bacterial number below 1.000 CFU/ml, and all tests had a bacterial number below 10.000 CFU/ml. The number of bacteria must be considered low seen in relation to the other measurements of bacteria in hot water for domestic use, particularly in larger block of flats. (au)

  15. Development of silicon growth techniques from melt with surface heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravtsov, Anatoly

    2018-05-01

    The paper contains literary and personal data on the development history of silicon-growing technology with volumetric and surface melt heating. It discusses the advantages and disadvantages of surface-heating technology. Examples are given of the implementation of such processes in the 60s-70s of the last century, and the reasons for the discontinuation of the relevant work. It describes the main solutions for the implementation of crystal growth process with the electron-beam heating of the melt surface, implemented by KEPP EU (Latvia). It discusses differences in the management of the growth process for the crystals with constant diameters compared to the Czochralski method. It lists geometrical and electro-physical properties of the obtained crystals. It describes the possible use of such crystals and the immediate challenges of technology development.

  16. Specific Heat Capacity of Alloy 690 for Simulating Neutron Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Dae Gyu; Kim, Hee Moon; Song, Woong Sub; Baik, Seung Je; Joo, Young Sun; Ahn, Sang Bok; Park, Jin Seok; Lee, Won Jae; Ryu, Woo Seok

    2011-01-01

    The KAERI(Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) is developing new type of nuclear reactor, so called 'SMART'(System Integrated Modular Advanced Reactor) which has many features of small power and system integrated modular type. Alloy 690 was selected as the candidate material for the heat exchanger tube of the steam generator of SMART. The SMART R and D is now facing the stage of engineering verification and approval of standard design to apply to DEMO reactors. Therefore, the material performance under the relevant environment is required to be evaluated. The important material performance issues are mechanical properties i.e. (fracture toughness, tensile and hardness) and thermal properties i.e. (thermal diffusivity, specific heat capacity and thermal conductivity) for which the engineering database is necessary to design a steam generator. However, the neutron post irradiation characteristics of the alloy 690 are barely known. As a result, PIE(Post Irradiation Examination) of thermal properties are planed and performed successfully. But specific heat capacity measurement is not performed because of not having proper test system for irradiated materials. Therefore in order to verify the effect of neutron irradiation for alloy 690, simulation method is adopted. In general, high energy neutron bombardment in material bring about lattice defects i.e. void, pore and dislocation. Dominant factor to impact to heat capacity is mainly dislocation in material. Therefore, simulation of neutron irradiation is devised by material rolling method in order to make artificial dislocation in alloy 690 as same effect of neutron irradiation. After preparing test specimens, heat capacity measurements are performed and results are compared with rolled materials and un-rolled materials to verify the effect of neutron irradiation simulation. Main interest of simulation is that heat capacity value is changed by neutron irradiation

  17. Non Debye approximation on specific heat of solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Ruma; Das, Anamika; Sarkar, A.

    2018-05-01

    A simple non Debye frequency spectrum is proposed. The normalized frequency spectrum is compared to that of Debye spectrum. The proposed spectrum, provides a good account of low frequency phonon density of states, which gives a linear temperature variation at low temperature in contrast to Debye T3 law. It has been analyzed that the proposed model provides a good account of excess specific heat for nanostructure solid.

  18. Specific heat of V3GaH/sub x/

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cort, B.; Stewart, G.R.; Huang, S.Z.; Meng, R.L.; Chu, C.W.

    1981-01-01

    Specific-heat measurements have been made on V 3 GaH/sub x/ for x = 0, 0.2, 1.4, and 1.9 in the temperature range 1.2--20 K. In addition to increased lattice parameter and depressed transition temperature with increased hydrogen concentrations, the Debye temperature increases and the electronic density of states drops, both dramatically. Decreased electron-phonon coupling is also indicated with hydrogenation

  19. Measurement of specific heat and specific absorption rate by nuclear magnetic resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gultekin, David H., E-mail: david.gultekin@aya.yale.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Gore, John C. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States)

    2010-05-20

    We evaluate a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) method of calorimetry for the measurement of specific heat (c{sub p}) and specific absorption rate (SAR) in liquids. The feasibility of NMR calorimetry is demonstrated by experimental measurements of water, ethylene glycol and glycerol using any of three different NMR parameters (chemical shift, spin-spin relaxation rate and equilibrium nuclear magnetization). The method involves heating the sample using a continuous wave laser beam and measuring the temporal variation of the spatially averaged NMR parameter by non-invasive means. The temporal variation of the spatially averaged NMR parameter as a function of thermal power yields the ratio of the heat capacity to the respective nuclear thermal coefficient, from which the specific heat can be determined for the substance. The specific absorption rate is obtained by subjecting the liquid to heating by two types of radiation, radiofrequency (RF) and near-infrared (NIR), and by measuring the change in the nuclear spin phase shift by a gradient echo imaging sequence. These studies suggest NMR may be a useful tool for measurements of the thermal properties of liquids.

  20. Generic Guide Specification for Geothermal Heat Pump Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, WKT

    2000-04-12

    The attached Geothermal (Ground-Source) Heat Pump (GHP) Guide Specifications have been developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) with the intent to assist federal agency sites and engineers in the preparation of construction specifications for GHP projects. These specifications have been developed in the industry-standard Construction Specification Institute (CSI) format and cover several of the most popular members of the family of GHP systems. These guide specifications are applicable to projects whether the financing is with conventional appropriations, arranged by GHP specialty ESCOs under the U.S. Department of Energy's Technology-Specific GHP Super ESPCs, arranged by utilities under Utility Energy Service Contracts (UESCs) or arranged by generalist ESCOs under the various regional ESPCs. These specifications can provide several benefits to the end user that will help ensure successful GHP system installations. GHP guide specifications will help to streamline the specification development, review, and approval process because the architecture and engineering (AE) firm will be working from the familiar CSI format instead of developing the specifications from other sources. The guide specifications help to provide uniformity, standardization, and consistency in both the construction specifications and system installations across multiple federal sites. This standardization can provide future benefits to the federal sites in respect to both maintenance and operations. GHP guide specifications can help to ensure that the agency is getting its money's worth from the GHP system by preventing the use of marginal or inferior components and equipment. The agency and its AE do not have to start from scratch when developing specifications and can use the specification as a template and/or a checklist in developing both the design and the contract documents. The guide specifications can save project costs by reducing the engineering effort required

  1. Effect of heat-treatment on elevated temperature fatigue-crack growth behavior of two heats of Alloy 718

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, W.J.; James, L.A.

    1978-05-01

    The room temperature and elevated temperature fatigue-crack growth behavior of two heats of Alloy 718 was characterized within a linear-elastic fracture mechanics framework. Two different heat-treatments were used: the ''conventional'' (ASTM A637) treatment, and a ''modified'' heat-treatment designed to improve the toughness of Alloy 718 base metal and weldments. Heat-to-heat variations in the fatigue-crack propagation behavior were observed in the conventionally-treated material. On the other hand, no heat-to-heat variations were observed in the modified condition. Furthermore, both heats of Alloy 718 exhibited superior fatigue-crack growth resistance when given the modified heat-treatment. Electron fractographic examination of Alloy 718 fatigue fracture surfaces revealed that the operative crack growth mechanisms were dependent on heat-treatment, temperature, and ΔK level

  2. Impacts of urban growth and heat waves events on the urban heat island in Bucharest city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoran, Maria A.; Savastru, Roxana S.; Savastru, Dan M.; Dida, Adrian I.

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated the influences of urban growth and heat waves events on Urban Heat Island in relationship with several biophysical variables in Bucharest metropolitan area of Romania through satellite and in-situ monitoring data. Remote sensing data from Landsat TM/ETM+ and time series MODIS Terra/Aqua sensors have been used to assess urban land cover- temperature interactions over period between 2000 and 2016 years. Vegetation abundances and percent impervious surfaces were derived by means of linear spectral mixture model, and a method for effectively enhancing impervious surface has been developed to accurately examine the urban growth. The land surface temperature (Ts), a key parameter for urban thermal characteristics analysis, was also analyzed in relation with the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) at city level. Based on these parameters, the urban growth, urban heat island effect (UHI) and the relationships of Ts to other biophysical parameters (surface albedo, precipitations, wind intensity and direction) have been analyzed. Results show that in the metropolitan area ratio of impervious surface in Bucharest increased significantly during investigated period, the intensity of urban heat island and heat wave events being most significant. The correlation analyses revealed that, at the pixel-scale, Ts possessed a strong positive correlation with percent impervious surfaces and negative correlation with vegetation abundances at the regional scale, respectively. This analysis provided an integrated research scheme and the findings can be very useful for urban ecosystem modeling.

  3. Monoclonal antibodies specific to heat-treated porcine blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja Nhari, Raja Mohd Hafidz; Hamid, Muhajir; Rasli, Nurmunirah Mohamad; Omar, Abdul Rahman; El Sheikha, Aly Farag; Mustafa, Shuhaimi

    2016-05-01

    Porcine blood is potentially being utilized in food as a binder, gelling agent, emulsifier or colorant. However, for certain communities, the usage of animal blood in food is strictly prohibited owing to religious concerns and health reasons. This study reports the development of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against heat-treated soluble proteins (HSPs) of autoclaved porcine blood; characterization of MAbs against blood, non-blood and plasma from different animal species using qualitative indirect non-competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); and immunoblotting of antigenic components in HSPs of porcine blood. Fifteen MAbs are specific to heat-treated and raw porcine blood and not cross-reacted with other animal blood and non-blood proteins (meat and non-meat). Twelve MAbs are specific to porcine plasma, while three MAbs specific to porcine plasma are cross-reacted with chicken plasma. Immunoblotting revealed antigenic protein bands (∼60, ∼85-100 and ∼250 kDa) in porcine blood and plasma recognized by the MAbs. Selection of MAbs that recognized 60 kDa HSPs of porcine blood and plasma as novel monoclonal antibodies would be useful for detection of porcine plasma in processed food using the immunoassay method. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Specific heat measurements in KCN:KCL mixed crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghivelder, L.

    1983-01-01

    An adiabatic calorimeter to perform specific heat measurements of small samples (approximatelly 150 mg) was built. The measurements were taken from 6 to 120 K, iN KCN:KCL mixed crystals, in order to observe the evolution of the antiferroelectric phase transition - that occurs at 83 K in KCN pure. From the experimental results the values of the phase transition critical temperature are found, for some particular concentrations of the mixture, and it was detected that this phase transition disappears with only 10% of Cl - . This result is explained in terms of a change of the potential wells in the crystal. (Author) [pt

  5. Specific heat of MgB_2 after irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yuxing; Bouquet, Frederic; Sheikin, Ilya; Toulemonde, Pierre; Revaz, Bernard; Eisterer, Michael; Weber, Harald W.; Hinderer, Joerg; Junod, Alain

    2002-01-01

    We studied the effect of disorder on the superconducting properties of polycrystalline MgB_2 by specific-heat measurements. In the pristine state, these measurements give a bulk confirmation of the presence of two superconducting gaps with 2 Delta 0 / k_B T_c = 1.3 and 3.9 with nearly equal weights. The scattering introduced by irradiation suppresses T_c and tends to average the two gaps although less than predicted by theory. We also found that by a suitable irradiation process by fast neutr...

  6. Electromagnetic induction heating for single crystal graphene growth: morphology control by rapid heating and quenching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chaoxing; Li, Fushan; Chen, Wei; Veeramalai, Chandrasekar Perumal; Ooi, Poh Choon; Guo, Tailiang

    2015-03-01

    The direct observation of single crystal graphene growth and its shape evolution is of fundamental importance to the understanding of graphene growth physicochemical mechanisms and the achievement of wafer-scale single crystalline graphene. Here we demonstrate the controlled formation of single crystal graphene with varying shapes, and directly observe the shape evolution of single crystal graphene by developing a localized-heating and rapid-quenching chemical vapor deposition (CVD) system based on electromagnetic induction heating. Importantly, rational control of circular, hexagonal, and dendritic single crystalline graphene domains can be readily obtained for the first time by changing the growth condition. Systematic studies suggest that the graphene nucleation only occurs during the initial stage, while the domain density is independent of the growth temperatures due to the surface-limiting effect. In addition, the direct observation of graphene domain shape evolution is employed for the identification of competing growth mechanisms including diffusion-limited, attachment-limited, and detachment-limited processes. Our study not only provides a novel method for morphology-controlled graphene synthesis, but also offers fundamental insights into the kinetics of single crystal graphene growth.

  7. Specific heat studies of lanthanum and yttrium sesquicarbides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cort, B.; Stewart, G.R.; Giorgi, A.L.

    1984-01-01

    The specific heats of the sesquicarbides LaC/sub 1.35/ and La/sub 0.9/Th/sub 0.1/C/sub 1.6/ (prepared by arc melting) and YC/sub 1.35/ (prepared by a high-pressure technique) have been measured for the first time. No bulk specific heat anomaly appears in either lanthanum compounds, even though (1) inductively measured superconducting transition temperatures are respectively high (11.0 K for LaC/sub 1.35/ and 12.7 K for La/sub 0.9/Th/sub 0.1/C/sub 1.6/) and (2) YC/sub 1.35/ is a bulk superconductor with a T/sub c/ = 10.5 K and Y/sub 0.7/Th/sub 0.3/C/sub 1.58/ (also prepared by high pressure) was previously reported to be a bulk superconductor with a T/sub c/ = 17.1 K. The apparent correlation with preparation technique is discussed

  8. Specific heat of nano-ferrites modified composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muntenita Cristian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The specific heat of nano-ferrites modified composites was studied using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC method in the temperature range of 30 to 150°C. Initially, nano-ferrites were introduced in epoxy systems in order to improve the electromagnetic properties of formed materials. Together with the changes in electromagnetic properties some modifications occur regarding thermal and mechanical properties. The materials were formed by placing 5g or 10g of ferrite into 250g polymer matrix leading to a very low weight ratio of modifying agent. At so low ratios the effect of ferrite presence should be insignificant according to mixing rule. Anyway there is possible to appear some chelation reaction with effects on thermal properties of materials. Three types of epoxy resins had been used as matrix and barium ferrite and strontium ferrite as modifying agents. The thermal analysis was developed on two heatingcooling cycles and the specific heat was evaluated for each segment of the cycle analysis.

  9. Age-specific growth, reproductive values, and intrinsic r

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Schoen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The age-specific growth function of an observed population and the reproductive value function based on the population's current vital rates determine the intrinsic rate of growth implied by those vital rates through the simple relationship given in equation (1. That equation establishes the analytical significance of age-specific growth, and leads to relationships that quantify a population's approach to stability and that specify the extraordinarily close connection between reproductive values and population momentum.

  10. Specific heat of MgB{sub 2} after irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Yuxing [Universite de Geneve, Departement de physique de la matiere condensee, 24 quai Ernest-Ansermet, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Bouquet, Frederic [Universite de Geneve, Departement de physique de la matiere condensee, 24 quai Ernest-Ansermet, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Sheikin, Ilya [Universite de Geneve, Departement de physique de la matiere condensee, 24 quai Ernest-Ansermet, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Toulemonde, Pierre [Universite de Geneve, Departement de physique de la matiere condensee, 24 quai Ernest-Ansermet, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Revaz, Bernard [Universite de Geneve, Departement de physique de la matiere condensee, 24 quai Ernest-Ansermet, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Eisterer, Michael [Atominstitut der Oesterreichischen Universitaeten, A-1020 Vienna (Austria); Weber, Harald W [Atominstitut der Oesterreichischen Universitaeten, A-1020 Vienna (Austria); Hinderer, Joerg [GHMFL, Max-Planck Institute Grenoble, BP 166, F-38042, Grenoble (France); Junod, Alain [Universite de Geneve, Departement de physique de la matiere condensee, 24 quai Ernest-Ansermet, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland)

    2003-02-19

    We studied the effect of disorder on the superconducting properties of polycrystalline MgB{sub 2} by specific-heat measurements. In the pristine state, these measurements give a bulk confirmation of the presence of two superconducting gaps with 2{delta}{sub 0}/k{sub B}T{sub c}=1.3 and 3.9 with nearly equal weights. The scattering introduced by irradiation suppresses T{sub c} and tends to average the two gaps although less than predicted by theory. We also found that by a suitable irradiation process by fast neutrons, a substantial bulk increase of dH{sub c2}/dT at T{sub c} can be obtained without sacrificing more than a few degrees in T{sub c}. The upper critical field of the sample after irradiation exceeds 28 T at T{yields}0.

  11. Specific heat of MgB2 after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuxing; Bouquet, Frederic; Sheikin, Ilya; Toulemonde, Pierre; Revaz, Bernard; Eisterer, Michael; Weber, Harald W; Hinderer, Joerg; Junod, Alain

    2003-01-01

    We studied the effect of disorder on the superconducting properties of polycrystalline MgB 2 by specific-heat measurements. In the pristine state, these measurements give a bulk confirmation of the presence of two superconducting gaps with 2Δ 0 /k B T c =1.3 and 3.9 with nearly equal weights. The scattering introduced by irradiation suppresses T c and tends to average the two gaps although less than predicted by theory. We also found that by a suitable irradiation process by fast neutrons, a substantial bulk increase of dH c2 /dT at T c can be obtained without sacrificing more than a few degrees in T c . The upper critical field of the sample after irradiation exceeds 28 T at T→0

  12. Unsteady Flow in a Supersonic Turbine with Variable Specific Heats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorney, Daniel J.; Griffin, Lisa W.; Huber, Frank; Sondak, Douglas L.; Turner, James (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Modern high-work turbines can be compact, transonic, supersonic, counter-rotating, or use a dense drive gas. The vast majority of modern rocket turbine designs fall into these Categories. These turbines usually have large temperature variations across a given stage, and are characterized by large amounts of flow unsteadiness. The flow unsteadiness can have a major impact on the turbine performance and durability. For example, the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) fuel turbine, a high work, transonic design, was found to have an unsteady inter-row shock which reduced efficiency by 2 points and increased dynamic loading by 24 percent. The Revolutionary Reusable Technology Turbopump (RRTT), which uses full flow oxygen for its drive gas, was found to shed vortices with such energy as to raise serious blade durability concerns. In both cases, the sources of the problems were uncovered (before turbopump testing) with the application of validated, unsteady computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to the designs. In the case of the RRTT and the Alternate Turbopump Development (ATD) turbines, the unsteady CFD codes have been used not just to identify problems, but to guide designs which mitigate problems due to unsteadiness. Using unsteady flow analyses as a part of the design process has led to turbine designs with higher performance (which affects temperature and mass flow rate) and fewer dynamics problems. One of the many assumptions made during the design and analysis of supersonic turbine stages is that the values of the specific heats are constant. In some analyses the value is based on an average of the expected upstream and downstream temperatures. In stages where the temperature can vary by 300 to 500 K, however, the assumption of constant fluid properties may lead to erroneous performance and durability predictions. In this study the suitability of assuming constant specific heats has been investigated by performing three-dimensional unsteady Navier

  13. Sex specific effects of heat induced hormesis in Hsf-deficient Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, J G; Kristensen, Torsten Nygård; Kristensen, K V

    2007-01-01

    In insects mild heat stress early in life has been reported to increase life span and heat resistance later in life, a phenomenon termed hormesis. Here, we test if the induction of the heat shock response by mild heat stress is mediating hormesis in longevity and heat resistance at older age...... line, seemingly mediated by the production of heat shock proteins (Hsps). The results indicate that heat inducible Hsps are important for heat induced hormesis in longevity and heat stress resistance. However, the results also suggest that other processes are involved and that different mechanisms...... might have marked sex specific impact...

  14. Specific and General Human Capital in an Endogenous Growth Model

    OpenAIRE

    Evangelia Vourvachaki; Vahagn Jerbashian; : Sergey Slobodyan

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we define specific (general) human capital in terms of the occupations whose use is spread in a limited (wide) set of industries. We analyze the growth impact of an economy's composition of specific and general human capital, in a model where education and research and development are costly and complementary activities. The model suggests that a declining share of specific human capital, as observed in the Czech Republic, can be associated with a lower rate of long-term grow...

  15. heat-induced biological changes as heat tolerance indices related to growth performance in buffaloes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaldes, M.Z.N.

    2004-01-01

    the main objective of this study was to predict new heat tolerance indices related to hot summer growth performance, depending on heat - induced changes in some physiological and biochemical parameters of young water buffalo calves. the present study was carried out on 8 egyptian male buffalo calves of 6 months old and 106.8 kg mean body weight (B W), and on the same animals of 12 months old and 179.5 kg mean B W. the animals were maintained in a climatic chamber of the egyptian atomic energy authority. the animals were maintained in metabolic cages inside a climatic chamber for 3 weeks under mild climate (20-24 c and 50-60% Rh, equivalent to 62-72 THI) for 6 hours daily as adjustment period,followed by 5 and 7 days in the 6- and 12-month old calves, respectively at the same climatic conditions as a control period.this was followed by 6 hours of acute heat exposure period (33-43 c and 40-60% Rh, equivalent to 85-93 Thi), then by chronic heat exposure period of the same climatic conditions for 5 and 7 days in the 6- and 12- month old calves, respectively.Rectal temperature (RT) and respiration rate (RR) were estimated daily, whereas BW was estimated at the beginning and the end of each exposure period

  16. Modeling growth of specific spoilage organisms in tilapia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tilapia is an important aquatic fish, but severe spoilage of tilapia is most likely related to the global aquaculture. The spoilage is mostly caused by specific spoilage organisms (SSO). Therefore, it is very important to use microbial models to predict the growth of SSO in tilapia. This study firstly verified Pseudomonas and Vibrio ...

  17. Modeling and impacts of the latent heat of phase change and specific heat for phase change materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoggin, J.; Khan, R. S.; Silva, H.; Gokirmak, A.

    2018-05-01

    We model the latent heats of crystallization and fusion in phase change materials with a unified latent heat of phase change, ensuring energy conservation by coupling the heat of phase change with amorphous and crystalline specific heats. We demonstrate the model with 2-D finite element simulations of Ge2Sb2Te5 and find that the heat of phase change increases local temperature up to 180 K in 300 nm × 300 nm structures during crystallization, significantly impacting grain distributions. We also show in electrothermal simulations of 45 nm confined and 10 nm mushroom cells that the higher amorphous specific heat predicted by this model increases nucleation probability at the end of reset operations. These nuclei can decrease set time, leading to variability, as demonstrated for the mushroom cell.

  18. Frictional Heating with Time-Dependent Specific Power of Friction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Topczewska Katarzyna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper analytical solutions of the thermal problems of friction were received. The appropriate boundary-value problems of heat conduction were formulated and solved for a homogeneous semi–space (a brake disc heated on its free surface by frictional heat fluxes with different and time-dependent intensities. Solutions were obtained in dimensionless form using Duhamel's theorem. Based on received solutions, evolution and spatial distribution of the dimensionless temperature were analyzed using numerical methods. The numerical results allowed to determine influence of the time distribution of friction power on the spatio-temporal temperature distribution in brake disc.

  19. House owners' perceptions and factors influencing their choice of specific heating systems in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decker, Thomas; Menrad, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Against the background of global climate changes and several legal obligations, the target of this paper is to analyze the buying behavior of house owners in Germany with respect to heating systems and the main factors influencing choice when purchasing a specific heating system (e.g., oil heating or wood pellet heating). To investigate these issues, a Germany-wide written survey was conducted and the completed questionnaires of 775 respondents analyzed using multinomial logistic regression. Of 29 different variables influencing the purchase of a heating system, 12 statistically significant variables have been identified which characterize the owners of oil heating, a heat pump, gas heating and wood pellet heating. The membership of different ecological clusters primarily segregates the owners of a specific heating system, but the assessment of the different combustibles also plays a major role in this context. Suppliers of heating systems can use the results of this study to fine-tune their marketing strategies. With respect to policy issues only limited room for additional economic incentives can be identified to promote replacement of fossil-fuel based heating systems in favor of renewable ones. -- Highlights: •Current regulations support renewable heating systems insufficiently in Germany. •We developed a model to characterize the purchasers of different heating systems. •Ecological attitudes differentiate the purchasers of the different heating systems. •Economic reasons are mainly important for owners of gas and oil heating systems

  20. On a specific feature of heat transfer to organic coolants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kafengauz, N.L.; Gladkikh, V.A.

    1986-01-01

    Heat transfer to organic coolants, which is accompanied by solid carbon deposit formation, is experimentally studied. Polished and rough steel tubes with 3 mm outside diameter and 0.5 mm wall thickness, heated by electric current, were used as fuel elements. Results of experiments with kerosene T-1 are presented under the following regime parameters: pressure - 45 b; flow rate - 3.75 m/s; temperature - 25-40 deg C; fuel element temperature - 400-900 deg C. In experiments on fuel elements with natural roughness deposit formation caused a smooth increase of the wall temperature. In fuel elements with polished surface, deposit formation caused during the first minutes the reduction of the wall temperature and after that it increased. Intensity of solid deposit formation in fuel elements with polished and rough surface was the same. Similar results were observed not only in experiments with kerosene T-1, but with other organic fluids as well: with toluene, n-heptane, diisopropylcyclohexane etc. The results obtained can be explained in the following way. Solid deposits on a smooth surface create roughness which improves heat exchange and reduces, respectively, the heating surface temperature. But deposits possess weak heat conductivity and create additional thermal resistance, which aggravates heat exchange. Interaction of these two factors causes the complicated time dependence of wall temperature

  1. Feedlot cattle susceptibility to heat stress: an animal specific model

    Science.gov (United States)

    The extreme effects of heat stress in a feedlot situation can cause losses exceeding 5% of all the cattle on feed in a single feedlot. These losses can be very devastating to a localized area of feedlot producers. Animal stress is a result of the combination of three different components: environm...

  2. Effects of heat transfer, friction and variable specific heats of working fluid on performance of an irreversible dual cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Lingen; Ge Yanlin; Sun Fengrui; Wu Chih

    2006-01-01

    The thermodynamic performance of an air standard dual cycle with heat transfer loss, friction like term loss and variable specific heats of working fluid is analyzed. The relations between the power output and the compression ratio, between the thermal efficiency and the compression ratio, as well as the optimal relation between power output and the efficiency of the cycle, are derived by detailed numerical examples. Moreover, the effects of variable specific heats of the working fluid and the friction like term loss on the irreversible cycle performance are analyzed. The results show that the effects of variable specific heats of working fluid and friction like term loss on the cycle performance are obvious, and they should be considered in practical cycle analysis. The results obtained in this paper may provide guidance for the design of practical internal combustion engines

  3. Performance of an Atkinson cycle with heat transfer, friction and variable specific-heats of the working fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge Yanlin; Chen Lingen; Sun, Fengrui; Wu Chih

    2006-01-01

    The performance of an air standard Atkinson cycle with heat-transfer loss, friction-like term loss and variable specific-heats of the working fluid is analyzed using finite-time thermodynamics. The relations between the power output and the compression ratio, between the thermal efficiency and the compression ratio, as well as the optimal relation between the power output and the efficiency of the cycle are derived by detailed numerical examples. Moreover, the effects of variable specific-heats of the working fluid and the friction-like term loss on the irreversible cycle performance are analyzed. The results show that the effects of variable specific-heats of working fluid and friction-like term loss on the irreversible cycle performance should be considered in cycle analysis. The results obtained in this paper provide guidance for the design of Atkinson engines

  4. Spontaneous growth in growth hormone deficiency from birth until 7 years of age: development of disease-specific growth curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, M; Schmitt, K; Kapelari, K; Frisch, H; Köstl, G; Voigt, M

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about spontaneous growth of growth hormone (GH)-deficient children during infancy and childhood. Retrospectively, we calculated disease-specific pretreatment percentiles for height, weight, BMI and growth velocity of 113 GH-deficient boys and 41 GH-deficient girls from birth until 7 years of age, by mean and standard deviation. Infants with idiopathic GH deficiency (GHD) grow in disease-specific percentile channels. There is a significant difference in length and weight from birth onward compared to regional reference (pgrowth velocity, despite a wide variance in the first years, so height deficit became more evident with increasing age. GHD is a congenital disease no matter when height deficit becomes clinically evident, because GH-deficient children grow in disease-specific percentile channels with a highly significantly reduced length and weight, which demonstrates that GH is essential for adequate growth in infancy and early childhood. Copyright (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Effect of heat treatment upon the fatigue-crack growth behavior of Alloy 718 weldments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, L.A.; Mills, W.J.

    1981-05-01

    Gas-tungsten-arc weldments in Alloy 718 were studied in fatigue-crack growth test conducted at five temperatures over the range 24--649 degree C. In general, crack growth rates increased with increasing temperature, and weldments given the ''conventional'' post-weld heat-treatment generally exhibited crack growth rates that were higher than for weldments given the ''modified'' (INEL) heat-treatment. Limited testing in the as-welded condition revealed crack growth rates significantly lower than observed for the heat-treated cases, and this was attributed to residual stresses. Three different heats of filler wire were utilized, and no heat-to-heat variations were noted. 23 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs

  6. Experimental determination of nanofluid specific heat with SiO2 nanoparticles in different base fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akilu, S.; Baheta, A. T.; Sharma, K. V.; Said, M. A.

    2017-09-01

    Nanostructured ceramic materials have recently attracted attention as promising heat transfer fluid additives owing to their outstanding heat storage capacities. In this paper, experimental measurements of the specific heats of SiO2-Glycerol, SiO2-Ethylene Glycol, and SiO2-Glycerol/Ethylene Glycol mixture 60:40 ratio (by mass) nanofluids with different volume concentrations of 1.0-4.0% have been carried out using differential scanning calorimeter at temperatures of 25 °C and 50 °C. Experimental results indicate lower specific heat capacities are found with SiO2 nanofluids compared to their respective base fluids. The specific heat was decreasing with the increase of concentration, and this decrement depends on upon the type of the base fluid. It is observed that temperature has a positive impact on the specific heat capacity. Furthermore, the experimental values were compared with the theoretical model predictions, and a satisfactory agreement was established.

  7. Neighbor Detection Induces Organ-Specific Transcriptomes, Revealing Patterns Underlying Hypocotyl-Specific Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohnen, Markus V; Schmid-Siegert, Emanuel; Trevisan, Martine; Petrolati, Laure Allenbach; Sénéchal, Fabien; Müller-Moulé, Patricia; Maloof, Julin; Xenarios, Ioannis; Fankhauser, Christian

    2016-12-01

    In response to neighbor proximity, plants increase the growth of specific organs (e.g., hypocotyls) to enhance access to sunlight. Shade enhances the activity of Phytochrome Interacting Factors (PIFs) by releasing these bHLH transcription factors from phytochrome B-mediated inhibition. PIFs promote elongation by inducing auxin production in cotyledons. In order to elucidate spatiotemporal aspects of the neighbor proximity response, we separately analyzed gene expression patterns in the major light-sensing organ (cotyledons) and in rapidly elongating hypocotyls of Arabidopsis thaliana PIFs initiate transcriptional reprogramming in both organs within 15 min, comprising regulated expression of several early auxin response genes. This suggests that hypocotyl growth is elicited by both local and distal auxin signals. We show that cotyledon-derived auxin is both necessary and sufficient to initiate hypocotyl growth, but we also provide evidence for the functional importance of the local PIF-induced response. With time, the transcriptional response diverges increasingly between organs. We identify genes whose differential expression may underlie organ-specific elongation. Finally, we uncover a growth promotion gene expression signature shared between different developmentally regulated growth processes and responses to the environment in different organs. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of kondo effect on the specific heat jump of anisotropic superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoksan, S.

    1986-01-01

    A calculation for the specific heat jump of an anisotropic superconductor with Kondo impurities is presented. The impurities are treated within the Matsuura - Ichinose - Nagaoka framework and the anisotropy effect is described by the factorizable model of Markowitz and Kadanoff. We give explicit expressions for the change in specific heat jump due to anisotropy and impurities which can be tested experimentally.

  9. Influence of Kondo effect on the specific heat jump of anisotropic superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoksan, S.

    1986-01-01

    A calculation for the specific heat jump of an anisotropic superconductor with Kondo impurities is presented. The impurities are treated within the Matsuura - Ichinose - Nagaoka framework and the anisotropy effect is described by the factorizable model of Markowitz and Kadanoff. Explicit expressions are given for the change in specific heat jump due to anisotropy and impurities which can be tested experimentally. (author)

  10. Silver oxides. II. Specific heats of silver oxide and silver peroxide. [20 to 99 C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jirsa, F

    1949-01-01

    Specific heats were determined in a water calorimeter over the temperature range 20 through 99 C. The specific heat of Ag/sub 2/O is given as 0.0803 +- 0.001 cal/g-C, and that of Ag/sub 2/O/sub 2/ is given as 0.0869 +- 0.0005 cal/g-C.

  11. Deregulated Cardiac Specific MicroRNAs in Postnatal Heart Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pujiao Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The heart is recognized as an organ that is terminally differentiated by adulthood. However, during the process of human development, the heart is the first organ with function in the embryo and grows rapidly during the postnatal period. MicroRNAs (miRNAs, miRs, as regulators of gene expression, play important roles during the development of multiple systems. However, the role of miRNAs in postnatal heart growth is still unclear. In this study, by using qRT-PCR, we compared the expression of seven cardiac- or muscle-specific miRNAs that may be related to heart development in heart tissue from mice at postnatal days 0, 3, 8, and 14. Four miRNAs—miR-1a-3p, miR-133b-3p, miR-208b-3p, and miR-206-3p—were significantly decreased while miR-208a-3p was upregulated during the postnatal heart growth period. Based on these results, GeneSpring GX was used to predict potential downstream targets by performing a 3-way comparison of predictions from the miRWalk, PITA, and microRNAorg databases. Gene Ontology (GO and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG analysis were used to identify potential functional annotations and signaling pathways related to postnatal heart growth. This study describes expression changes of cardiac- and muscle-specific miRNAs during postnatal heart growth and may provide new therapeutic targets for cardiovascular diseases.

  12. Habitat-specific population growth of a farmland bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Arlt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To assess population persistence of species living in heterogeneous landscapes, the effects of habitat on reproduction and survival have to be investigated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a matrix population model to estimate habitat-specific population growth rates for a population of northern wheatears Oenanthe oenanthe breeding in farmland consisting of a mosaic of distinct habitat (land use types. Based on extensive long-term data on reproduction and survival, habitats characterised by tall field layers (spring- and autumn-sown crop fields, ungrazed grasslands displayed negative stochastic population growth rates (log lambda(s: -0.332, -0.429, -0.168, respectively, that were markedly lower than growth rates of habitats characterised by permanently short field layers (pastures grazed by cattle or horses, and farmyards, log lambda(s: -0.056, +0.081, -0.059. Although habitats differed with respect to reproductive performance, differences in habitat-specific population growth were largely due to differences in adult and first-year survival rates, as shown by a life table response experiment (LTRE. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results show that estimation of survival rates is important for realistic assessments of habitat quality. Results also indicate that grazed grasslands and farmyards may act as source habitats, whereas crop fields and ungrazed grasslands with tall field layers may act as sink habitats. We suggest that the strong decline of northern wheatears in Swedish farmland may be linked to the corresponding observed loss of high quality breeding habitat, i.e. grazed semi-natural grasslands.

  13. Simulation of cracks in tungsten under ITER specific heat loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peschany, S.

    2006-01-01

    The problem of high tritium retention in co-deposited carbon layers on the walls of ITER vacuum chamber motivates investigation of materials for the divertor armour others than carbon fibre composite (CFC). Tungsten is most probable material for CFC replacement as the divertor armour because of high vaporisation temperature and heat conductivity. In the modern ITER design tungsten is a reference material for the divertor cover, except for the separatrix strike point armoured with CFC. As divertor armour, tungsten should withstand severe heat loads at off-normal ITER events like disruptions, ELMs and vertical displacement events. Experiments on tungsten heating with plasma streams and e-beams have shown an intense crack formation at the surface of irradiated sample [ V.I. Tereshin, A.N. Bandura, O.V. Byrka et al. Repetitive plasma loads typical for ITER type-I ELMs: Simulation at QSPA Kh-50.PLASMA 2005. ed. By Sadowski M.J., AIP Conference Proceedings, American Institute of Physics, 2006, V 812, p. 128-135., J. Linke. Private communications.]. The reason for tungsten cracking under severe heat loads is thermo stress. It appears as due to temperature gradient in solid tungsten as in resolidified layer after cooling down. Both thermo stresses are of the same value, but the gradiental stress is compressive and the stress in the resolidified layer is tensile. The last one is most dangerous for crack formation and it was investigated in this work. The thermo stress in tungsten that develops during cooling from the melting temperature down to room temperature is ∼ 8-16 GPa. Tensile strength of tungsten is much lower, < 1 GPa at room temperature, and at high temperatures it drops at least for one order of magnitude. As a consequence, various cracks of different characteristic scales appear at the heated surface of the resolidified layer. For simulation of the cracks in tungsten the numeric code PEGASUS-3D [Pestchanyi and I. Landman. Improvement of the CFC structure to

  14. Some specific features of subcooled boiling heat transfer and crisis at extremely high heat flux densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotovsky, M.A.

    2001-01-01

    Forced convection boiling is the process used widely in a lot of industry branches including NPP. Heat transfer intensity under forced convection boiling is considered in different way in dependence on conditions. One of main problems for the process considered is an influence of interaction between forced flow and boiling on heat transfer character. For saturated water case a transition from ''pure'' forced convection to nucleate boiling can be realized in smooth form. (author)

  15. Determination and Application of Comprehensive Specific Frictional Resistance in Heating Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanan Tian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we analyze the deficiencies of specific frictional resistance in heating engineering. Based on economic specific frictional resistance, we put forward the concept of comprehensive specific frictional resistance, which considers the multiple factors of technology, economy, regulation modes, pipe segment differences, and medium pressure. Then, we establish a mathematical model of a heating network across its lifespan in order to develop a method for determining the comprehensive specific frictional resistance. Relevant conclusions can be drawn from the results. As an application, we have planned the heating engineering for Yangyuan County in China, which demonstrates the feasibility and superiority of the method.

  16. Heating water. Specifications for feedwater; Heizungswasser. Eine Standortbestimmung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannemann, M. [Hannemann Wassertechnik (Germany)

    2004-08-01

    Water is indispensable for life and for engineering. It is so universal that we seem to have lost respect for it. In heating systems, it is recommended to know about its technical properties and to account for them by appropriate measures. (orig.) [German] Wasser ist fuer Leben und Technik unverzichtbar. Vielleicht ist es auf die enormen Vorkommen und die Selbstverstaendlichkeit der Nutzung zurueckzufuehren, dass wir ein Stueck Achtung vor diesem Gut verloren haben. Wer bei der technischen Verwendung als Waermetraeger in Heizungsanlagen die speziellen Eigenschaften und die Wechselwirkungen mit Werkstoffen missachtet, kann schnell in unruhiges Fahrwasser geraten, mithin bis zum Schiffbruch. Wer die Wechselwirkungen kennt, beachtet und mit speziellen Behandlungsverfahren gegensteuert, ist daher gut beraten. (orig.)

  17. Determination of the thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity of neem seeds by inverse problem method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.N. Nnamchi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Determination of the thermal conductivity and the specific heat capacity of neem seeds (Azadirachta indica A. Juss usingthe inverse method is the main subject of this work. One-dimensional formulation of heat conduction problem in a spherewas used. Finite difference method was adopted for the solution of the heat conduction problem. The thermal conductivityand the specific heat capacity were determined by least square method in conjunction with Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm.The results obtained compare favourably with those obtained experimentally. These results are useful in the analysis ofneem seeds drying and leaching processes.

  18. Specific heat and electric conductivity of zirconium alloy with 2,5 mass% niobium in the range of phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roshchupkin, V.V.; Pokrasin, M.A.; Chernov, A.I.; Semashko, N.A.

    1996-01-01

    Experimental investigation of specific heat and electric resistance of zirconium alloy with 2.5 mass% niobium in the range of phase transitions was conducted, using adiabatic calorimeter of original design, characterized by high sensitivity, efficiency and high accuracy. It was revealed that temperature dependence of specific heat was characterized by anomalous growth at 590 deg C, related with (α+β Nb )→(α+β Zr )-transition, and at 810 deg -related with (α+β Zr )→β Zr - transition. Temperature dependence of electric resistance was specific in the region of α+β Zr →β Zr phase transition. It was established that revealed anomalies were connected with high oxygen absorption at high temperatures. 11 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  19. Determination of Specific Heat Capacity on Composite Shape-Stabilized Phase Change Materials and Asphalt Mixtures by Heat Exchange System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Biao; Zhou, Xue-Yan; Liu, Jiang; You, Zhanping; Wei, Kun; Huang, Xiao-Feng

    2016-05-19

    Previous research has shown that composite shape-stabilized phase change material (CPCM) has a remarkable capacity for thermal storage and stabilization, and it can be directly applied to highway construction without leakage. However, recent studies on temperature changing behaviors of CPCM and asphalt mixture cannot intuitively reflect the thermoregulation mechanism and efficiency of CPCM on asphalt mixture. The objective of this paper is to determine the specific heat capacity of CPCM and asphalt mixtures mixed with CPCM using the heat exchange system and the data acquisition system. Studies have shown that the temperature-rise curve of 5 °C CPCM has an obvious temperature plateau, while an asphalt mixture mixed with 5 °C CPCM does not; with increasing temperature, the specific heat capacities of both 5 °C CPCM and asphalt mixture first increase and then decrease, while the variation rate of 5 °C CPCM is larger than that of the asphalt mixture, and the maximum specific heat capacity of 5 °C CPCM appears around the initial phase change temperature. It is concluded that the temperature intervals of 5 °C CPCM are -18 °C-7 °C, 7 °C-25 °C and 25 °C-44 °C, respectively, and that of the asphalt mixture are -18 °C~10 °C, -10 °C~5 °C and 5 °C~28 °C. A low dosage of 5 °C CPCM has little influence on the specific heat capacity of asphalt mixture. Finally, the functions of specific heat capacities and temperature for CPCM and asphalt mixture mixed with CPCM were recommended by the sectional regression method.

  20. Origin of two maxima in specific heat in enthalpy relaxation under thermal history composed of cooling, annealing, and heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakatsuji, Waki; Konishi, Takashi; Miyamoto, Yoshihisa

    2016-12-01

    The origin of two maxima in specific heat observed at the higher and the lower temperatures in the glass-transition region in the heating process has been studied for polymethyl methacrylate and polyvinyl chloride using differential scanning calorimetry, and the calculation was done using the phenomenological model equation under a thermal history of the typical annealing experiment composed of cooling, annealing, and heating. The higher maximum is observed above the glass-transition temperature, and it remains almost unchanged independent of annealing time t_{a}, while the lower one is observed above an annealing temperature T_{a} and shifts toward the higher one, increasing its magnitude with t_{a}. The analysis by the phenomenological model equation proposed in order to interpret the memory effect in the glassy state clarifies that under a typical annealing history, two maxima in specific heat essentially appear. The shift of the lower maximum toward higher temperatures from above T_{a} is caused by an increase in the amount of relaxation during annealing with t_{a}. The annealing temperature and the amount of relaxation during annealing play a major role in the determination of the number of maxima in the specific heat.

  1. Measurement and Model Validation of Nanofluid Specific Heat Capacity with Differential Scanning Calorimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry O'Hanley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanofluids are being considered for heat transfer applications; therefore it is important to know their thermophysical properties accurately. In this paper we focused on nanofluid specific heat capacity. Currently, there exist two models to predict a nanofluid specific heat capacity as a function of nanoparticle concentration and material. Model I is a straight volume-weighted average; Model II is based on the assumption of thermal equilibrium between the particles and the surrounding fluid. These two models give significantly different predictions for a given system. Using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, a robust experimental methodology for measuring the heat capacity of fluids, the specific heat capacities of water-based silica, alumina, and copper oxide nanofluids were measured. Nanoparticle concentrations were varied between 5 wt% and 50 wt%. Test results were found to be in excellent agreement with Model II, while the predictions of Model I deviated very significantly from the data. Therefore, Model II is recommended for nanofluids.

  2. Fetal head circumference growth in children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, Andrew J O; Zubrick, Stephen R; Blair, Eve; Newnham, John P; Hickey, Martha

    2012-01-01

    To characterise fetal brain growth in children with specific language impairment (SLI). A nested case-control study. Perth, Western Australia. Thirty children meeting criteria for SLI at age 10 years were individually matched with a typically developing comparison child on sex, non-verbal ability, fetal gestational age, maternal age at conception, smoking and alcohol intake during pregnancy. Occipitofrontal head circumference (HC) was measured using ultrasonography at approximately 18 weeks gestation. Femur length provided a measure of fetal length. Occipitofrontal HC was measured at birth and at the 1-year postnatal follow-up using a precise paper tape measure, while crown-heel length acted as an index of body length at both time points. Raw data were transformed to z-scores using reference norms. The SLI group had a significantly smaller mean HC than the typically developing comparison children at birth, but there was no group difference at 18 weeks gestation or at the 1-year postnatal follow-up. Individual analyses found that 12 SLI children had an HC z-score less than -1 at birth, with three of these cases meeting criteria for microcephaly. There was no group difference in the indices of overall body size at any time point. Children with SLI are more likely to have a small HC at birth but not at 18 weeks gestation or infancy, suggesting growth asynchrony in brain development during the second half of pregnancy.

  3. Cylinder pressure, performance parameters, heat release, specific heats ratio and duration of combustion for spark ignition engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shehata, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    An experimental work were conducted for investigating cylinder pressure, performance parameters, heat release, specific heat ratio and duration of combustion for multi cylinder spark ignition engine (SIE). Ccylinder pressure was measured for gasoline, kerosene and Liquefied Petroleum Gases (LPG) separately as a fuel for SIE. Fast Fourier Transformations (FFT) was used to cylinder pressure data transform from time domain into frequency domain to develop empirical correlation for calculating cylinder pressures at different engine speeds and different fuels. In addition, Inverse Fast Fourier Transformations (IFFT) was used to cylinder pressure reconstruct into time domain. The results gave good agreement between the measured cylinder pressure and the reconstructed cylinder pressure in time domain with different engine speeds and different fuels. The measured cylinder pressure and hydraulic dynamotor were the sours of data for calculating engine performance parameters. First law of thermodynamics and single zone heat release model with temperature dependant specific heat ratio γ(T) were the main tools for calculating heat release and heat transfer to cylinder walls. Third order empirical correlation for calculating γ(T) was one of the main gains of the present study. The correlation gave good agreement with other researchers with wide temperatures range. For kerosene, cylinder pressure is higher than for gasoline and LPG due to high volumetric efficiency where kerosene density (mass/volume ratio) is higher than gasoline and LPG. In addition, kerosene heating value is higher than gasoline that contributes in heat release rate and pressure increases. Duration of combustion for different engine speeds was determined using four different methods: (I) Mass fuel burnt, (II) Entropy change, (III) Temperature dependant specific heat ratio γ(T), and (IV) Logarithmic scale of (P and V). The duration of combustion for kerosene is smaller than for gasoline and LPG due to high

  4. Cylinder pressure, performance parameters, heat release, specific heats ratio and duration of combustion for spark ignition engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shehata, M.S. [Mechanical Engineering Technology Department, Higher Institute of Technology, Banha University, 4Zagalol Street, Benha, Galubia 1235 Z (Egypt)

    2010-12-15

    An experimental work were conducted for investigating cylinder pressure, performance parameters, heat release, specific heat ratio and duration of combustion for multi cylinder spark ignition engine (SIE). Ccylinder pressure was measured for gasoline, kerosene and Liquefied Petroleum Gases (LPG) separately as a fuel for SIE. Fast Fourier Transformations (FFT) was used to cylinder pressure data transform from time domain into frequency domain to develop empirical correlation for calculating cylinder pressures at different engine speeds and different fuels. In addition, Inverse Fast Fourier Transformations (IFFT) was used to cylinder pressure reconstruct into time domain. The results gave good agreement between the measured cylinder pressure and the reconstructed cylinder pressure in time domain with different engine speeds and different fuels. The measured cylinder pressure and hydraulic dynamotor were the source of data for calculating engine performance parameters. First law of thermodynamics and single zone heat release model with temperature dependant specific heat ratio {gamma}(T) were the main tools for calculating heat release and heat transfer to cylinder walls. Third order empirical correlation for calculating {gamma}(T) was one of the main gains of the present study. The correlation gave good agreement with other researchers with wide temperatures range. For kerosene, cylinder pressure is higher than for gasoline and LPG due to high volumetric efficiency where kerosene density (mass/volume ratio) is higher than gasoline and LPG. In addition, kerosene heating value is higher than gasoline that contributes in heat release rate and pressure increases. Duration of combustion for different engine speeds was determined using four different methods: (I) Mass fuel burnt, (II) Entropy change, (III) Temperature dependant specific heat ratio {gamma}(T), and (IV) Logarithmic scale of (P and V). The duration of combustion for kerosene is smaller than for gasoline and

  5. An analysis of boundary-effects in obtaining the frequency dependent specific heat by effusivity measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tage Emil; Behrens, Claus

    The frequency dependent specific heat is a significant response function characterizing the glass transition. Contrary to the dielectric response it is not easily measured over many decades. The introduction of the 3-omega method, where the temperature oscillations at a planar oscillatoric heat g...

  6. The Impact of Urban Growth and Climate Change on Heat Stress in an Australian City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, S.; Mcalpine, C. A.; Thatcher, M. J.; Salazar, A.; Watson, J. R.

    2017-12-01

    Over half of the world's population lives in urban areas. Most people will therefore be exposed to climate change in an urban environment. One of the climate risks facing urban residents is heat stress, which can lead to illness and death. Urban residents are at increased risk of heat stress due to the urban heat island effect. The urban heat island is a modification of the urban environment and increases temperatures on average by 2°C, though the increase can be much higher, up to 8°C when wind speeds and cloud cover are low. The urban heat island is also expected to increase in the future due to urban growth and intensification, further exacerbating urban heat stress. Climate change alters the urban heat island due to changes in weather (wind speed and cloudiness) and evapotranspiration. Future urban heat stress will therefore be affected by urban growth and climate change. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of urban growth and climate change on the urban heat island and heat stress in Brisbane, Australia. We used CCAM, the conformal cubic atmospheric model developed by the CSIRO, to examine temperatures in Brisbane using scenarios of urban growth and climate change. We downscaled the urban climate using CCAM, based on bias corrected Sea Surface Temperatures from the ACCESS1.0 projection of future climate. We used Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 for the periods 1990 - 2000, 2049 - 2060 and 2089 - 2090 with current land use and an urban growth scenario. The present day climatology was verified using weather station data from the Australian Bureau of Meteorology. We compared the urban heat island of the present day with the urban heat island with climate change to determine if climate change altered the heat island. We also calculated heat stress using wet-bulb globe temperature and apparent temperature for the climate change and base case scenarios. We found the urban growth scenario increased present day temperatures by 0.5°C in the

  7. Timing Effects of Heat-Stress on Plant Ecophysiological Characteristics and Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Heckathorn, Scott A; Mainali, Kumar; Tripathee, Rajan

    2016-01-01

    Heat-waves with higher intensity and frequency and longer durations are expected in the future due to global warming, which could have dramatic impacts in agriculture, economy and ecology. This field study examined how plant responded to heat-stress (HS) treatment at different timing in naturally occurring vegetation. HS treatment (5 days at 40.5°C) were applied to 12 1 m 2 plots in restored prairie vegetation dominated by a warm-season C 4 grass, Andropogon gerardii , and a warm-season C 3 forb, Solidago canadensis , at different growing stages. During and after each heat stress (HS) treatment, temperature were monitored for air, canopy, and soil; net CO 2 assimilation ( A net ), quantum yield of photosystem II (Φ PSII ), stomatal conductance ( g s ), and internal CO 2 level ( C i ), specific leaf area (SLA), and chlorophyll content of the dominant species were measured. One week after the last HS treatment, all plots were harvested and the biomass of above-ground tissue and flower weight of the two dominant species were determined. HS decreased physiological performance and growth for both species, with S. canadensis being affected more than A. gerardii , indicated by negative HS effect on both physiological and growth responses for S. canadensis . There were significant timing effect of HS on the two species, with greater reductions in the net photosynthetic rate and productivity occurred when HS was applied at later-growing season. The reduction in aboveground productivity in S. canadensis but not A. gerardii could have important implications for plant community structure by increasing the competitive advantage of A. gerardii in this grassland. The present experiment showed that HS, though ephemeral, may promote long-term effects on plant community structure, vegetation dynamics, biodiversity, and ecosystem functioning of terrestrial biomes when more frequent and severe HS occur in the future.

  8. High-field specific heats of A15 V3Si and Nb3Sn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, G.R.; Brandt, B.L.

    1984-01-01

    In order to further understand the anomalous behavior of the specific heat of Nb 3 Sn in an 18-T magnetic field discovered by Stewart, Cort, and Webb [Phys. Rev. B 24, 3841 (1981)], we have performed specific-heat measurements on a different sample of Nb 3 Sn at lower fields both in the normal and mixed states, as well as measurement to 19 T on both transforming and nontransforming V 3 Si. The high-field data for V 3 Si indicate that this material behaves quite normally, and that γ/sup trans/ 3 Sn, however, remains anomalous, with both the same ''kink'' in the normal-state field data as observed by Stewart, Cort, and Webb (although at a slightly higher temperature) and unusual mixed-state behavior. The mixed-state specific heat of the V 3 Si samples is as expected, based on earlier work on the mixed-state specific heat of V and Nb

  9. Effect of pH on Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum DSM 571 growth, spore heat resistance and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mtimet, Narjes; Guégan, Stéphanie; Durand, Lucile; Mathot, Anne-Gabrielle; Venaille, Laurent; Leguérinel, Ivan; Coroller, Louis; Couvert, Olivier

    2016-05-01

    Thermophilic spore-forming bacteria are potential contaminants in several industrial sectors involving high temperatures (40-65 °C) in the manufacturing process. Among those thermophilic spore-forming bacteria, Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum, called "the swelling canned food spoiler", has generated interest over the last decade in the food sector. The aim of this study was to investigate and to model pH effect on growth, heat resistance and recovery abilities after a heat-treatment of T. thermosaccharolyticum DSM 571. Growth and sporulation were conducted on reinforced clostridium media and liver broth respectively. The highest spore heat resistances and the greatest recovery ability after a heat-treatment were obtained at pH condition allowing maximal growth rate. Growth and sporulation boundaries were estimated, then models using growth limits as main parameters were extended to describe and quantify the effect of pH on recovery of injured spores after a heat-treatment. So, cardinal values were used as a single set of parameters to describe growth, sporulation and recovery abilities. Besides, this work suggests that T. thermosaccharolyticum preserve its ability for germination and outgrowth after a heat-treatment at a low pH where other high resistant spore-forming bacteria like Geobacillus stearothermophilus are unable to grow. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Technical specifications for the provision of heat and steam sources for INPP and Visaginas. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    In October 1999, the National Energy Strategy was approved by the Lithuanian Parliament. The National Energy Strategy included the decision to close Unit-1 of INPP before 2005. Later is has been decided to close Unit 2 before the end of 2009 as well. The closure and decommissioning will have heavy impact on the heat supply for the city of Visaginas. Unit 1 and Unit 2 of INPP supplies hot water and steam to INPP for process purposes and for space heating of residential and commercial buildings. When Unit 1 is permanently shut down, reliable heat and steam sources independent of the power plants own heat and steam generation facilities are required for safety reasons in the event of shutdown of the remaining unit for maintenance or in an emergency. These steam and heat sources must be operational before single unit operation is envisaged. Provision of a reliable independent heat and steam source is therefore urgent. After both reactors are shut down permanently, a steam source will be needed at the plant for radioactive waste storage and disposal. INPP and DEA has performed a feasibility study for the provision of a reliable heat source for Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant and Visaginas, and the modernisation of Visaginas district heating system. The objective of this project is to prepare technical specifications for the provision of new heat and steam sources for INPP and Visaginas, and for rehabilitation of the heat transmission pipeline between INPP, the back-up boiler station and Visaginas City. The results of the study are presented in detail in the reports and technical specifications: 1. Transient analysis for Visaginas DH system, 2. Non-destructive testing of boiler stations, pump stations and transmission lines, 3. Conceptual design, 4. Technical specifications, Package 1 to 6. The study has suggested: 1. Construction of new steam boiler station, 2. Construction of new heat only boiler station, 3. Renovation of existing back-up heat only boiler station, 4

  11. Specific heat and magnetization of RMn2(H,D)2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarnawski, Z.; Kolwicz-Chodak, L.; Figiel, H.; Kim-Ngan, N.-T.H.; Havela, L.; Miliyanchuk, K.; Sechovsky, V.; Santava, E.; Sebek, J.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of hydrogen absorption on magnetic and thermodynamic properties of hydrides compounds RMn 2 (H,D) 2 (R = Y, Nd, Tb, Ho, and Er) have been investigated by performing specific heat and magnetization measurements in the temperature range of 2-320 K and in magnetic fields up to 9 T. The phase transition to the antiferromagnetic order accompanying a crystal structure transformation have been revealed by complicated-structure anomalies in specific heat and weak anomalies in magnetization

  12. Development of Field Angle Resolved Specific Heat Measurement System for Unconventional Superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Yasuhiro; Matsubara, Takeshi; Machida, Yo; Izawa, Koichi; Onuki, Yoshichika; Salce, Bernard; Flouquet, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    We developed a measurement system for field angle resolved specific heat under multiple extreme conditions at low temperature down to 50 mK, in magnetic field up to 7 T, and under high pressure up to 10 GPa. We demonstrated the performance of our developed system by measuring field angle dependence of specific heat of pressure induced unconventional superconductor CeIrSi 3

  13. Measurements of thermal diffusivity, specific heat capacity and thermal conductivity with LFA 447 apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zajas, Jan Jakub; Heiselberg, Per

    The LFA 447 can be successfully used for measurements of thermal diffusivity, specific heat and thermal conductivity of various samples. It is especially useful when determining the properties of materials on a very small scale. The matrix measurement mode allows for determining the local...... that the heat losses from both samples during the measurement are similar. Finally, the leveling of the samples is very important. Very small discrepancies can cause a massive error in the derivation of specific heat capacity and, as a result, thermal conductivity....

  14. Fatigue crack growth retardation in spot heated mild steel sheet

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Department of Metallurgical Engineering, *Department of Applied Mechanics and Hydraulics, ... growth retardation increases with increasing level of overload as well as with ..... Suresh S 1996 Fatigue of materials (Cambridge: Cambridge.

  15. Experimental Investigation on the Specific Heat of Carbonized Phenolic Resin-Based Ablative Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Te; Ye, Hong; Zhang, Lisong; Cai, Qilin

    2017-10-01

    As typical phenolic resin-based ablative materials, the high silica/phenolic and carbon/phenolic composites are widely used in aerospace field. The specific heat of the carbonized ablators after ablation is an important thermophysical parameter in the process of heat transfer, but it is rarely reported. In this investigation, the carbonized samples of the high silica/phenolic and carbon/phenolic were obtained through carbonization experiments, and the specific heat of the carbonized samples was determined by a 3D DSC from 150 °C to 970 °C. Structural and compositional characterizations were performed to determine the mass fractions of the fiber and the carbonized product of phenolic which are the two constituents of the carbonized samples, while the specific heat of each constituent was also measured by 3D DSC. The masses of the carbonized samples were reduced when heated to a high temperature in the specific heat measurements, due to the thermal degradation of the carbonized product of phenolic resin in the carbonized samples. The raw experimental specific heat of the two carbonized samples and the carbonized product of phenolic resin was modified according to the quality changes of the carbonized samples presented by TGA results. Based on the mass fraction and the specific heat of each constituent, a weighted average method was adopted to obtain the calculated results of the carbonized samples. Due to the unconsolidated property of the fiber samples which impacts the reliability of the DSC measurement, there is a certain deviation between the experimental and calculated results of the carbonized samples. Considering the similarity of composition and structure, the data of quartz glass and graphite were used to substitute the specific heat of the high silica fiber and carbon fiber, respectively, resulting in better agreements with the experimental ones. Furthermore, the accurate specific heat of the high silica fiber and carbon fiber bundles was obtained by

  16. Electricity consumption and economic growth: Exploring panel-specific differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karanfil, Fatih; Li, Yuanjing

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the long- and short-run dynamics between electricity consumption and economic activities, using panel data of per capita electricity consumption and per capita GDP of 160 countries for the period of 1980–2010, accounting for the degree of electricity dependence and the level of urbanization. Furthermore, in order to capture the differences in this relationship, the full sample is divided into various subsamples based on countries' income levels, regional locations and OECD memberships. This framework is argued and found to be appropriate since the causal links and inferences arising therefrom differ considerably among the subsamples, which led us to conclude that the electricity-growth nexus is highly sensitive to regional differences, countries' income levels, urbanization rates and supply risks. -- Highlights: •The causal relationship between electricity consumption and GDP is investigated. •Cointegration techniques are used for 160 countries and 13 subsamples. •Urbanization and electricity trade are accounted for as additional covariates. •Causal inferences are found to be associated with panel-specific differences. •Policy issues are discussed based on the study results

  17. Microstructure vs. Near-threshold Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior of an Heat-treated Ductile Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radomila KONEČNÁ

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Perferritic isothermal ductile iron (IDI® is an intermediate grade between the low-strength grades of austempered ductile iron (ADI and pearlitic ductile iron (DI recently developed by Zanardi Fonderie Italy. IDI is produced by heat-treating an unalloyed nodular cast iron. The specific matrix microstructure is called “Perferritic” and consists predominantly of ferrite and pearlite. Compared to the pearlitic grades of nodular ductile iron, IDI combines similar strength with higher toughness as a result of the isothermal heat treatment. In this contribution the fatigue crack growth resistance and Kath of IDI are investigated and correlated to mechanical properties and microstructural features. The threshold Ka was determined using the load shedding technique as per ASTM Standard E-647 using CT specimens extracted from a cast block. Tensile specimens were extracted from the broken CT halves and used to determine the static mechanical properties. A metallographic investigation was carried out to correlate structural features and mechanical properties.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.18.1.1336

  18. Specification of steam generator, condenser and regenerative heat exchanger materials for nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovasevic, J.V.; Stefanovic, V.M.; Spasic, Z.LJ.

    1977-01-01

    The basic standards specifications of materials for nuclear applications are selected. Seamless Ni-Cr-Fe alloy Tubes (Inconel-600) for steam generators, condensers and other heat exchangers can be employed instead of austenitic stainless steal or copper alloys tubes; supplementary requirements for these materials are given. Specifications of Ni-Cr-Fe alloy plate, sheet and strip for steam generator lower sub-assembly, U-bend seamless copper-alloy tubes for heat exchanger and condensers are also presented. At the end, steam generator channel head material is proposed in the specification for carbon-steel castings suitable for welding

  19. The UK solar water heating industry: a period of development and growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blower, John

    2001-01-01

    This 2001 edition of the guide to UK renewable energy companies examines the solar water heating sector in the UK and presents an illustration of the layout of a typical solar water heating system. The rising demand for solar water heating and growth in sales especially in the export market are noted. Developments within the UK solar water heating manufacturing industry are considered, and details are given of design and development in innovative policy infrastructure, and the SHINE 21 project supported by the EU's ADAPT programme and the UK Department of Trade and Industry involving collaboration between the solar water heating and plumbing industries. Developments in the new build sectors including in-roof solar collector products and the increasing number of solar water heating systems installed in UK houses are discussed along with the promising future for the market

  20. Transient heating effects on tungsten: Ablation of Be layers and enhanced fuzz growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, J.H.; Baldwin, M.J.; Doerner, R.P.; Dittmar, T.; Hakola, A.; Höschen, T.; Likonen, J.; Nishijima, D.; Toudeshki, H.H.

    2015-01-01

    A pulsed laser in the PISCES-B facility is used to simulate transient heating events such as ELMs and disruptions on W. The first study of enhanced nano-scale W tendril growth (“fuzz”) due to cyclic fast transient heating of W exposed to low energy (E He+ ∼ 30 eV) He + ions is presented. Fuzz due to transient heating is up to ∼10× thicker than the steady state fuzz thickness with no laser heating. A general thermal activation model yields higher values for the activation energy and pre-exponential factor than previously reported in steady state experiments with E He+ ∼ 60 eV. Transient heating of W exposed to D plasma with Be seeding shows that the removal threshold of Be follows simple energy considerations based on the heat of formation of Be

  1. On the importance of specific heats as regards efficiency increases for highly dilute IC engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caton, Jerald A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Importance of specific heats towards increasing engine efficiency was quantified. • Decreases of specific heats contribute 3.5–6.3% (abs) to the efficiency. • Dilute engines benefit from decreases of specific heats due to lower temperatures. - Abstract: Engineering and scientific efforts continue with the development of advanced, IC engines using highly dilute mixtures, and relatively high compression ratios. Such engines are known to provide opportunities for low emissions as well as high efficiencies. The main features of these engines include higher compression ratios, lean operation, use of EGR, and shorter burn durations. First, this study reviews the quantitative contributions of each of these features as determined by an engine cycle simulation. Second, this study provides the quantitative contributions to the increased efficiency in terms of fundamental thermodynamic considerations. An automotive engine operated at 2000 rpm was selected for this study. For the conditions examined, the net indicated thermal efficiency increased from 37.0% (conventional engine) to 53.9% (high efficiency engine) – for an incremental increase of 16.9% (absolute). The contribution of increases of the ratio of specific heats towards the final thermal efficiency is quantified. This aspect has been well known, but has not been quantified for actual engines. For the various conditions examined, 21–35% of the total efficiency improvement was estimated to be due to the increase of the ratio of specific heats

  2. Ordering effects on structure and specific heat of nonstoichiometric titanium carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipatnikov, V.N.; Gusev, A.I.

    1999-01-01

    The experimental results on the change in the crystal structure and specific heat of the nonstoichiometric titanium carbide TiC y (0.5 2 C phases with cubic and trigonal symmetry and the rhombic ordered Ti 3 C 2 phase are formed in the titanium carbide at the temperature below 1000 K by the phase transitions mechanism. The temperatures and heats of the order-disorder phase transitions are determined [ru

  3. Specific microRNAs Regulate Heat Stress Responses in Caenorhabditis elegans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nehammer, Camilla; Podolska, Agnieszka; Mackowiak, Sebastian D

    2015-01-01

    have identified additional functions for already known players (mir-71 and mir-239) as well as identifying mir-80 and the mir-229 mir-64-66 cluster as important regulators of the heat stress response in C. elegans. These findings uncover an additional layer of complexity to the regulation of stress...... to heat stress in Caenorhabditis elegans and show that a discrete subset of miRNAs is thermoregulated. Using in-depth phenotypic analyses of miRNA deletion mutant strains we reveal multiple developmental and post-developmental survival and behavioral functions for specific miRNAs during heat stress. We...

  4. Specific heat of filled skutterudite PrOs4P12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuhira, Kazuyuki; Doi, Yoshihiro; Wakeshima, Makoto; Hinatsu, Yukio; Kihou, Kunihiro; Sekine, Chihiro; Shirotani, Ichimin

    2005-01-01

    We report the specific heat of filled skutterudite compounds PrOs 4 P 12 and LaOs 4 P 12 down to 1.8K. The specific heat divided by temperature C(T)/T in PrOs 4 P 12 shows a shoulder around 13K. This shoulder is caused by a Schottky anomaly due to a crystalline electric field effect. The electronic specific heat coefficients γ of PrOs 4 P 12 and LaOs 4 P 12 are estimated to be 56.5 and 21.6mJ/K 2 mol, respectively. The value of γ in PrOs 4 P 12 is 2.6 times larger than that in LaOs 4 P 12

  5. Beam Energy Scan of Specific Heat Through Temperature Fluctuations in Heavy Ion Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Sumit; Nandi, Basanta K.; Chatterjee, Sandeep; Chatterjee, Rupa; Nayak, Tapan

    2016-01-01

    Temperature fluctuations may have two distinct origins, first, quantum fluctuations that are initial state fluctuations, and second, thermodynamical fluctuations. We discuss a method of extracting the thermodynamic temperature from the mean transverse momentum of pions, by using controllable parameters such as centrality of the system, and range of the transverse momenta. Event-by-event fluctuations in global temperature over a large phase space provide the specific heat of the system. We present Beam Energy Scan of specific heat from data, AMPT and HRG model prediction. Experimental results from NA49, STAR, PHENIX, PHOBOS and ALICE are combined to obtain the specific heat as a function of beam energy. These results are compared to calculations from AMPT event generator, HRG model and lattice calculations, respectively.

  6. Phonon spectrum of YBCO obtained by specific heat inversion method for real data

    CERN Document Server

    Tao Wen; Dai Xian Xi; Dai Ji Xin; Evenson, W E

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the phonon spectrum of YBCO is obtained from experimental specific heat data by an exact inversion formula with a parameter for eliminating divergences. The results can be compared to those of neutron inelastic scattering, which can only be carried out in a few laboratories. Some key points of specific heat-phonon spectrum inversion (SPI) theory and a method of asymptotic behaviour control are discussed. An improved unique existence theorem is presented, and a universal function set for numerical calculation of SPI is calculated with high accuracy, which makes the inversion method applicable and convenient in practice. This is the first time specific heat-phonon SPI has been realized for a concrete system.

  7. Detection of Second Order Melting Transitions in the HTSC's by Specific Heat Measurements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Stephen W.; Valls, Oriol T.

    1997-03-01

    The finite magnetic field phase transition in the high-temperature superconductors from the solid vortex lattice to the liquid has been under intense study recently. Detection of this melting is difficult but has been seen in magnetization and resistivity measurements. It has also been reported recently in specific heat measurements. In particular, in one case, evidence for a second order melting phase transition has been presented based on specific heat measurements.(M. Roulin, A. Junod, and E. Walker. Science 273), 1210 (1996). However, we present evidence that the feature in the specific heat data can be explained using a theory derived using the lowest-Landau-level approximation(Z. Tes)anović and A. V. Andreev, Phys. Rev. B 49, 4064 (1994) that does not invoke flux lattice melting arguments.

  8. Specific heat study of quasi-one-dimensional antiferromagnetic model for an organic polymer chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu Shaohua; Zhu Lin

    2008-01-01

    The specific heat of an infinite one-dimensional polymer chain bearing periodically arranged side radicals connected to the even sites is studied by means of quantum transfer-matrix method based on a Ising-Heisenberg model. In the absence of the exchange interactions between side radicals and the main chain, the curves of specific heat show a round peak due to the antiferromagnetic excitations for the all antiferromagnetic interactions along the polymer chain. Considering the exchange interactions between the side radicals and the main chain, the curves of the specific heat show double-peak structure for ferromagnetic interactions between the radicals and main chain, indicating that a competition between ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic interactions and the possibility of the occurrence of the stable ferrimagnetic state along the polymer chain

  9. Negative specific heat, phase transition and particles spilling from a potential well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, J.; Liu, Q.H.; Liu, T.G.; Li, L.X.

    2008-01-01

    For a finite number of noninteracting particles in a box with a potential well in the center, the microcanonical kinetic energy in dependence on the total energy as it is negative can be classified into three categories. The first exhibits a monotonical rise and the specific heat is positive. The second shows a diminishing sawtooth wave with a global rise. The last corresponds to the extreme case and takes the regular sawtooth wave form. The sawtooth wave portion associates periodically a kinetic energy fall in spite of an increase of the total energy; and we attribute to such a fall the negative specific heat. The phase transition can be defined when the relatively dense particle state in the well and relatively dilute particle state in the rest volume of the box coexist, and the appearance of the negative specific heat is sufficient but not necessary for the onset of the phase transition

  10. Theoretical analysis for the specific heat and thermal parameters of solid C60

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, J. R.; Calles, A.; Castro, J. J.

    1997-08-01

    We present the results of a theoretical analysis for the thermal parameters and phonon contribution to the specific heat in solid C60. The phonon contribution to the specific heat is calculated through the solution of the corresponding dynamical matrix, for different points in the Brillouin zone, and the construccion of the partial and generalized phonon density of states. The force constants are obtained from a first principle calculation, using a SCF Hartree-Fock wave function from the Gaussian 92 program. The thermal parameters reported are the effective temperatures and vibrational amplitudes as a function of temperature. Using this model we present a parametization scheme in order to reproduce the general behaviour of the experimental specific heat for these materials.

  11. On the low-temperature specific heat of icosahedral and decagonal quasicrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernikov, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Calorimetric experiments on icosahedral (Al-Re-Pd, Al-Mn-Pd) and decagonal (Al-Cu-Co, Al-Ni-Co) quasicrystals are described. For quasicrystals of both classes, the coefficient γ of the linear term to the specific heat falls into the range of 0.1-0.6 mJ/g-atom K 2 indicating a low density of energy states at Fermi level. For icosahedral Al-Mn-Pd, the cubic-in-temperature term to the specific heat is distinctly larger than the estimated contribution of long-wave acoustic excitations. On the contrary, the magnitude of the cubic-in-temperature term to the specific heat of decagonal Al-Ni-Co is in agreement,within the experimental accuracy, with the Debye acoustic contribution from the results of low-temperature measurements of the elastic modules [ru

  12. Specific heat of amorphous 3He films and confined liquid 3He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golov, A.; Pobell, F.

    1995-01-01

    We have measured the heat capacities of 3 He films and liquid 3 He in porous Vycor glass at 10 to 600 mK. With increasing the film thickness front 1 to 3 atomic layers , the specific heat evolves gradually from that typical to solid to that of liquid 3 He. At about 2 atomic layers, however, its low-temperature part is nearly temperature-independent; we interpret this as a result of gradual freezing of spins in an amorphous solid 3 He film with decreasing the temperature. The contribution of liquid 3 He in the center of the Vycor pores can be described as the specific heat of bulk liquid 3 He at corresponding pressures in the range 0 to 28 bar. The thickness of amorphous solid on the pore walls increases with external pressure roughly linearly. Preplating the walls with 4 He allows to determine the positions of 3 He atoms contributing to the surface specific heat at 10 to 50 mK. In addition, the contribution from the specific heat of 3 He- 4 He mixing at 100 to 600 mK is discussed as a function of pressure and amount of 4 He

  13. Specific heat of 4He and 3He--4He mixtures at their lambda transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasparini, F.M.; Moldover, M.R.

    1975-01-01

    We have measured the specific heat near the lambda transition of pure 4 He and of five 3 He-- 4 He mixtures up to a mole fraction of 0.39 3 He in 4 He. Our data for 4 He confirm the results of Ahlers revealing an asymmetry in the exponents above and below T/sub lambda/ when the specific heat is represented by a simple-power-law temperature dependence. Our results for these exponents (α = 0.012 plus-or-minus 0.002 and α' = -0.012 plus-or-minus 0.004) differ somewhat from Ahlers's. Our results can be reconciled with the requirement of scaling (α = α') only by supposing substantial contributions to C/sub p/ are made by singular correction terms to a simple power law. The measured specific heat of the mixtures richest in 3 He appears to be finite, continuous, and cusped at the lambda line. These qualitative features have been termed ''renormalization'' by Fisher. An analysis of our mixture data with a power-law temperature dependence does not yield a fully renormalized exponent, but rather an effective exponent. Derivatives at the lambda line were used to calculate the specific heat along paths of constant pressure and constant relative chemical potential.This specific heat behaves very much like C/sub p/ of pure 4 He, this behavior supporting the idea of universality for the specific-heat exponents. It is also true that the same asymmetry in the branches above and below T/sub lambda/ which is []bserved in pure 4 He is retained in the mixtures. The persistence of the asymmetry of C/subp//sub phi/ as one moves along the lambda line towards increasing 3 He concentration (at the saturated vapor pressure of the mixtures) is analogous to the persistence of the asymmetry of C/subp/ as one moves along the lambda line towards increasing pressure in pure 4 He

  14. Specific heat jump at T/sub c/ of proximity effect sandwiches containing nonmagnetic localized states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maneeratankul, S.; Tang, I.M.

    1987-01-01

    The decrease in the transition temperature and the jump in the specific heat at T/sub c/ of proximity effect sandwiches containing nonmagnetic Anderson impurities in the normal layer are studied. The effects of the resonant scattering by the impurities are treated in the same manner as that used by Kaiser in his study of the effects of resonant scattering on the properties of bulk superconductors. Numerical calculations of the decrease in T/sub c/ and the jump in the specific heat at T/sub c/ as a function of the thickness of the normal layer are presented

  15. Specific heat studies of pure Nb3Sn single crystals at low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escudero, R; Morales, F; Bernes, S

    2009-01-01

    Specific heat measurements performed on high purity vapor-grown Nb 3 Sn crystals show clear features related to both the martensitic and superconducting transitions. Our measurements indicate that the martensitic anomaly does not display hysteresis, meaning that the martensitic transition could be a weak first-order or a second-order thermodynamic transition. Careful measurements of the two transition temperatures display an inverse correlation between them. At low temperature, specific heat measurements show the existence of a single superconducting energy gap feature.

  16. Elastic modulus, thermal expansion, and specific heat at a phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testardi, L.R.

    1975-01-01

    The interrelation of the elastic modulus, thermal-expansion coefficient, and specific heat of a transformed phase relative to the untransformed phase is calculated assuming a particular but useful form of the thermodynamic potential. For second-order phase transitions where this potential applies, measurements of modulus, expansion, and specific heat can yield the general (longitudinal as well as shear) first- and second-order stress (or strain) dependences of the transition temperature and of the order parameter at absolute zero. An exemplary application to one type of phase transition is given

  17. Low-temperature specific heat of YMn sub 2 in the paramagnetic and antiferromagnetic phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, R.A.; Emerson, J.P.; Phillips, N.E. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Ballou, R.; Lelievre-Berna, E. (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 38 - Grenoble (France). Lab. Louis Neel)

    1992-07-01

    The low-temperature specific heat of YMn{sub 2} has been measured at applied pressures of 0 to 7.7 kbar. A paramagnetic state is stabilized for moderate values of the applied pressure (of the order of 1.6 kbar). A large linear term in the specific heat, which decreases regularly with increasing pressure, is observed in this phase. It is ascribed to giant spin fluctuations associated with a magnetic-non magnetic instability and a strong geometrical spin frustration.

  18. Symmetric Anderson impurity model: Magnetic susceptibility, specific heat and Wilson ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalom, Peter; Pokorný, Vladislav; Janiš, Václav

    2018-05-01

    We extend the spin-polarized effective-interaction approximation of the parquet renormalization scheme from Refs. [1,2] applied on the symmetric Anderson model by adding the low-temperature asymptotics of the total energy and the specific heat. We calculate numerically the Wilson ratio and determine analytically its asymptotic value in the strong-coupling limit. We demonstrate in this way that the exponentially small Kondo scale from the strong-coupling regime emerges in qualitatively the same way in the spectral function, magnetic susceptibility and the specific heat.

  19. Specific heats of lunar surface materials from 90 to 350 degrees Kelvin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robie, R.A.; Hemingway, B.S.; Wilson, W.H.

    1970-01-01

    The specific heats of lunar samples 10057 and 10084 returned by the Apollo 11 mission have been measured between 90 and 350 degrees Kelvin by use of an adiabatic calorimeter. The samples are representative of type A vesicular basalt-like rocks and of finely divided lunar soil. The specific heat of these materials changes smoothly from about 0.06 calorie per gram per degree at 90 degrees Kelvin to about 0.2 calorie per gram per degree at 350 degrees Kelvin. The thermal parameter ??=(k??C)-1/2 for the lunar surface will accordingly vary by a factor of about 2 between lunar noon and midnight.

  20. Fish culture in heated effluents (eastern Europe). [Growth increase in carp and rainbow trout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backiel, T; Gay, B; La Croix, M J.B.; Ophel, I L [eds.

    1976-01-01

    Dependence of growth and reproduction of cultivated fishes on temperature are briefly reviewed. Experiments with and commercial-size operations of various methods of fish culture with the use of heated effluents are exemplified. Cage culture, earthen ponds, flowing water culture have demonstrated possibilities of growth increase in carp and rainbow trout and of controlled reproduction of the former. Problems involved in utilization of various systems and several points of view on the use of low-grade heat for fish culture are considered.

  1. Quantifying variety-specific heat resistance and the potential for adaptation to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tack, Jesse; Barkley, Andrew; Rife, Trevor W; Poland, Jesse A; Nalley, Lawton Lanier

    2016-08-01

    The impact of climate change on crop yields has become widely measured; however, the linkages for winter wheat are less studied due to dramatic weather changes during the long growing season that are difficult to model. Recent research suggests significant reductions under warming. A potential adaptation strategy involves the development of heat resistant varieties by breeders, combined with alternative variety selection by producers. However, the impact of heat on specific wheat varieties remains relatively unstudied due to limited data and the complex genetic basis of heat tolerance. Here, we provide a novel econometric approach that combines field-trial data with a genetic cluster mapping to group wheat varieties and estimate a separate extreme heat impact (temperatures over 34 °C) across 24 clusters spanning 197 varieties. We find a wide range of heterogeneous heat resistance and a trade-off between average yield and resistance. Results suggest that recently released varieties are less heat resistant than older varieties, a pattern that also holds for on-farm varieties. Currently released - but not yet adopted - varieties do not offer improved resistance relative to varieties currently grown on farm. Our findings suggest that warming impacts could be significantly reduced through advances in wheat breeding and/or adoption decisions by producers. However, current adaptation-through-adoption potential is limited under a 1 °C warming scenario as increased heat resistance cannot be achieved without a reduction in average yields. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Determination of the specific heat petroleum derivates; Determinacao do calor especifico de derivados ultrapesados de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballesteros Hernandez, Julie A.; Zuniga Linan, Lamia; Jardini, Andre; Maciel, Maria Regina Wolf; Maciel Filho, Rubens Maciel [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica; Medina, Lilian Carmen [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2008-07-01

    In the development of the specific mathematical modeling for heavy and ultra heavy petroleum fractions in a molecular distiller is very important the definition of physical and chemical parameters as density and specific heat of the mixture, the enthalpy of vaporization, among others, since they are used in the energy balance. Information on these properties and their variation with temperature are found in the open literature for mixture with few components (simple mixtures). However, for multicomponent solutions consisting of complex mixtures such as oil and its heavy and ultraheavy fractions, available data are few, or are limited to low temperatures. The specific heat is an important property in the energy balance. This property can be measured by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), which gives results with great sensitivity and accuracy. This paper presents the variation of specific heat with the temperature of ultra-heavy oil fractions in the range from 80 deg to 350 deg C . Through the study of this variation, the equation nowadays used can be adjusted, in order to determine the specific heat. New values of the constants are determined, so that the equation can be used for these complex products, optimizing the estimative of Cp and so no experimental data are always necessary for simulations. (author)

  3. Development of disease-specific growth charts in Turner syndrome and Noonan syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Isojima

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Many congenital diseases are associated with growth failure, and patients with these diseases have specific growth patterns. As the growth patterns of affected individuals differ from those of normal populations, it is challenging to detect additional conditions that can influence growth using standard growth charts. Disease-specific growth charts are thus very useful tools and can be helpful for understanding the growth pattern and pathogenesis of congenital diseases. In addition, disease-specific growth charts allow doctors to detect deviations from the usual growth patterns for early diagnosis of an additional condition and can be used to evaluate the effects of growth-promoting treatment for patients. When developing these charts, factors that can affect the reliability of the charts should be considered. These factors include the definition of the disease with growth failure, selection bias in the measurements used to develop the charts, secular trends of the subjects, the numbers of subjects of varying ages and ethnicities, and the statistical method used to develop the charts. In this review, we summarize the development of disease-specific growth charts for Japanese individuals with Turner syndrome and Noonan syndrome and evaluate the efforts to collect unbiased measurements of subjects with these diseases. These charts were the only available disease-specific growth charts of Turner syndrome and Noonan syndrome for Asian populations and were developed using a Japanese population. Therefore, when these charts are adopted for Asian populations other than Japanese, different growth patterns should be considered.

  4. Development of disease-specific growth charts in Turner syndrome and Noonan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isojima, Tsuyoshi; Yokoya, Susumu

    2017-12-01

    Many congenital diseases are associated with growth failure, and patients with these diseases have specific growth patterns. As the growth patterns of affected individuals differ from those of normal populations, it is challenging to detect additional conditions that can influence growth using standard growth charts. Disease-specific growth charts are thus very useful tools and can be helpful for understanding the growth pattern and pathogenesis of congenital diseases. In addition, disease-specific growth charts allow doctors to detect deviations from the usual growth patterns for early diagnosis of an additional condition and can be used to evaluate the effects of growth-promoting treatment for patients. When developing these charts, factors that can affect the reliability of the charts should be considered. These factors include the definition of the disease with growth failure, selection bias in the measurements used to develop the charts, secular trends of the subjects, the numbers of subjects of varying ages and ethnicities, and the statistical method used to develop the charts. In this review, we summarize the development of disease-specific growth charts for Japanese individuals with Turner syndrome and Noonan syndrome and evaluate the efforts to collect unbiased measurements of subjects with these diseases. These charts were the only available disease-specific growth charts of Turner syndrome and Noonan syndrome for Asian populations and were developed using a Japanese population. Therefore, when these charts are adopted for Asian populations other than Japanese, different growth patterns should be considered.

  5. Effects of different CMV-heat-inactivation-methods on growth factors in human breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goelz, Rangmar; Hihn, Eva; Hamprecht, Klaus; Dietz, Klaus; Jahn, Gerhard; Poets, Christian; Elmlinger, Martin

    2009-04-01

    Preterm infants can inoculate virulent cytomegalovirus (CMV) through their mothers' raw breast milk. Complete virus inactivation is achieved only by heat treatment, but the effect on growth factors has never been assessed systematically. Insulin-like-growth-factor-1-, IGF-2-, insulin-like-growth-factor-binding-protein-2-, and IGFBP-3-concentrations were measured, before and after heating, in 51 breast-milk-samples from 28 mothers, and epidermal-growth-factor-concentrations in a subgroup of 35 samples from 22 mothers. Two heating methods were applied: Short-term (5 s) pasteurisation at 62, 65, and 72 degrees C, and long-term Holder-Pasteurisation (30 min) at 63 degrees C. IGF-1, IGF-2, IGFBP-2, and IGFBP-3 were measured by RIA, and EGF by ELISA. Heating for 30 min decreased significantly IGF-1 by 39.4%, IGF-2 by 9.9%, IGFBP-2 by 19.1%, and IGFBP-3 by 7.0%. In contrast, IGF-1, IGF-2, IGFBP-2, and IGFBP-3 were not altered significantly when using a short heating duration of 5 s, irrespective of the level of temperature, except for IGF-2 at 62 degrees C for 5 s (p = 0.041) and IGFBP-2 at 72 degrees C for 5 s (p = 0.025). Neither long- nor short-time heating methods changed the concentration of EGF. Only short heating methods (5 s, 62-72 degrees C) can preserve, almost completely, the concentrations of IGFs in human milk, whereas Holder-Pasteurization does not.

  6. Specific heat measurement set-up for quench condensed thin superconducting films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poran, Shachaf; Molina-Ruiz, Manel; Gérardin, Anne; Frydman, Aviad; Bourgeois, Olivier

    2014-05-01

    We present a set-up designed for the measurement of specific heat of very thin or ultra-thin quench condensed superconducting films. In an ultra-high vacuum chamber, materials of interest can be thermally evaporated directly on a silicon membrane regulated in temperature from 1.4 K to 10 K. On this membrane, a heater and a thermometer are lithographically fabricated, allowing the measurement of heat capacity of the quench condensed layers. This apparatus permits the simultaneous thermal and electrical characterization of successively deposited layers in situ without exposing the deposited materials to room temperature or atmospheric conditions, both being irreversibly harmful to the samples. This system can be used to study specific heat signatures of phase transitions through the superconductor to insulator transition of quench condensed films.

  7. Comparison of air-standard rectangular cycles with different specific heat models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chao; Chen, Lingen; Ge, Yanlin; Sun, Fengrui

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Air-standard rectangular cycle models are built and investigated. • Finite-time thermodynamics is applied. • Different dissipation models and variable specific heats models are adopted. • Performance characteristics of different cycle models are compared. - Abstract: In this paper, performance comparison of air-standard rectangular cycles with constant specific heat (SH), linear variable SH and non-linear variable SH are conducted by using finite time thermodynamics. The power output and efficiency of each cycle model and the characteristic curves of power output versus compression ratio, efficiency versus compression ratio, as well as power output versus efficiency are obtained by taking heat transfer loss (HTL) and friction loss (FL) into account. The influences of HTL, FL and SH on cycle performance are analyzed by detailed numerical examples.

  8. Direction-specific interactions control crystal growth by oriented attachment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Dongsheng; Nielsen, Michael H; Lee, Jonathan R.I.

    2012-01-01

    The oriented attachment of molecular clusters and nanoparticles in solution is now recognized as an important mechanism of crystal growth in many materials, yet the alignment process and attachment mechanism have not been established. We performed high-resolution transmission electron microscopy ...

  9. Specific and general human capital in an endogenous growth model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jerbashian, Vahagn; Slobodyan, Sergey; Vourvachaki, E.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 3 (2015), s. 167-204 ISSN 0012-8775 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA700850902 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : economic growth * human capital types * education policy Subject RIV: AH - Economic s Impact factor: 0.404, year: 2015

  10. Specific and general human capital in an endogenous growth model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jerbashian, Vahagn; Slobodyan, Sergey; Vourvachaki, E.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 3 (2015), s. 167-204 ISSN 0012-8775 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : economic growth * human capital types * education policy Subject RIV: AH - Economic s Impact factor: 0.404, year: 2015

  11. Lattice specific heat and local density of states of Ni-based dilute ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The required perfect lattice phonons of Ni are calculated using a general 4 Th neighbour force model derived by Birge- neau et al [14], on the basis of Born Von Karman fit to the measured dispersion curves in neutron scattering experiments. A comparison of calculated and experi- mental lattice specific heat provides us an ...

  12. The analysis of the specific heat of RFe2Si2 compounds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, P.; Vejpravová, J.; Honda, F.; Šantavá, E.; Schneeweiss, Oldřich; Komatsubara, T.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 328, 1-2 (2003), s. 139-141 ISSN 0921-4526 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/02/0943 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2041904 Keywords : specific heat * magnetic properties * intermetallics Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.908, year: 2003

  13. Specific heat and magnetism of a UIrGe single crystal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sechovský, V.; Vejpravová, J.; Andreev, Alexander V.; Honda, F.; Prokeš, K.; Šantavá, Eva

    359-361, - (2005), s. 1126-1128 ISSN 0921-4526 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : uranium intermetallics * antiferromagnetism * magnetic anisotropy * specific heat Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.796, year: 2005

  14. Specific heat and magnetism of LuFe.sub.6./sub.Al.sub.6./sub..

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, P.; Andreev, Alexander V.; Šantavá, Eva; Šebek, Josef

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 113, č. 1 (2008), s. 307-310 ISSN 0587-4246. [CSMAG'07. Košice, 09.07.2007-12.07.2007] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : specific heat * LuFe 6 Al 6 Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.321, year: 2008

  15. Specific heat of FeSe: Two gaps with different anisotropy in superconducting state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratov, A. V.; Sadakov, A. V.; Gavrilkin, S. Yu.; Prishchepa, A. R.; Epifanova, G. S.; Chareev, D. A.; Pudalov, V. M.

    2018-05-01

    We present detailed study of specific heat of FeSe single crystals with critical temperature Tc = 8.45 K at 0.4 - 200 K in magnetic fields 0 - 9 T. Analysis of the electronic specific heat at low temperatures shows the coexistence of isotropic s-wave gap and strongly anisotropic extended s-wave gap without nodes. It was found two possibilities of superconducting gap parameters which give equally description of experimental data: (i) two gaps with approximately equal amplitudes and weight contribution to specific heat: isotropic Δ1 = 1.7 meV (2Δ1 /kBTc =4.7) and anisotropic gap with the amplitude Δ2max = 1.8 meV (2 Δ2max /kBTc =4.9 and anisotropy parameter m = 0.85); (ii) two gaps with substantially different values: isotropic large gap Δ1 = 1.65 meV (2Δ1 /kBTc = 4.52) and anisotropic small gap Δ2max = 0.75 meV (2Δ2max /kBTc = 2) with anisotropy parameter m = 0.71 . These results are confirmed by the field behavior of the residual electronic specific heat γr.

  16. Specific heat of the Ising linear chain in a Random field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, P.R.; Sa Barreto, F.C. de

    1984-01-01

    Starting from correlation identities for the Ising model the effect of a random field on the one dimension version of the model is studied. Explicit results for the magnetization, the two-particle correlation function and the specific heat are obtained for an uncorrelated distribution of the random fields. (Author) [pt

  17. Investigation of enthalpy and specific heat of the gallium-indium-tin eutectic alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roshchupkin, V.V.; Migaj, L.L.; Fordeeva, L.K.; Perlova, N.L.

    1978-01-01

    Enthalpy and specific heat of the fusible (melting point is 10.6 deg C) eutectic alloy (67% Ga - 20.5% In - 12.5% Sn according to mass) are determined by the mixing method. The determination was carried out in vacuum at the residual pressure of >= 1x10 -5 torr in the temperature range from 59.3 to 437.0 deg C. It is established that temperature dependence of alloy enthalpy is described by the equation: Hsub(t) - Hsub(0degC)=1.014+0.0879t-0.0000129 t 2 , where (Hsub(t) - Hsub(0degC)) is enthalpy, cal/g; t-temperature, deg C. Mean-square dispersion is +-0.6%. Temperature dependence of alloy specific heat in the temperature range under study was determined by differentiation of the equation obtained for enthalpy: Csub(p)=0.0879-0.000026t, where Csub(p)-specific heat, cal/gx deg. It is supposed that temperature increase makes it possible to decrease slightly specific heat

  18. Low-temperature specific-heat and thermal-conductivity of silica aerogels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernasconi, A.; Sleator, T.; Posselt, D.

    1992-01-01

    Specific heat, C(p), and thermal conductivity, lambda, have been measured on a series of base-catalyzed silica aerogels at temperatures between 0.05 and 20 K. Results for both C(p)(T) and lambda(T) confirm that the different length-scale regions observed in the aerogel structure are reflected...

  19. Low-temperature specific heat and thermal conductivity of silica aerogels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sleator, T.; Bernasconi, A.; Posselt, D.

    1991-01-01

    Specific-heat and thermal-conductivity measurements were made on a series of base-catalyzed silica aerogels at temperatures between 0.05 and 20 K. Evidence for a crossover between regimes of characteristically different excitations was observed. The data analysis indicates a "bump" in the density...

  20. Summary of some feasibility studies for site-specific solar industrial process heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    Some feasibility studies for several different site specific solar industrial process heat applications are summarized. The followng applications are examined. Leather Tanning; Concrete Production: Lumber and Paper Processing; Milk Processing; Molding, Curing or Drying; Automobile Manufacture; and Food Processing and Preparation. For each application, site and process data, system design, and performance and cost estimates are summarized.

  1. Specific heat and magnetic susceptibility vs long range order in V3Ga

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junod, A.; Fluekiger, R.; Treyvaud, A.; Muller, J.

    1976-01-01

    A new technique of studying the magnetic susceptibility together with the specific heat and the superconducting transition of typical A15-type compounds in different ordering states enables us to consistently isolate the spin paramagnetism. Satisfactory results are obtained for V 3 Ga and these are compared with data on V 3 Au and Nb 3 (Au-Pt). (author)

  2. High-field specific heats of A15 V3Si and Nb3Sn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, G. R.; Brandt, B. L.

    1984-04-01

    In order to further understand the anomalous behavior of the specific heat of Nb3Sn in an 18-T magnetic field discovered by Stewart, Cort, and Webb [Phys. Rev. B 24, 3841 (1981)], we have performed specific-heat measurements on a different sample of Nb3Sn at lower fields both in the normal and mixed states, as well as measurement to 19 T on both transforming and nontransforming V3Si. The high-field data for V3Si indicate that this material behaves quite normally, and that γtransJunod and Muller [Solid State Commun. 36, 721 (1980)]. Nb3Sn, however, remains anomalous, with both the same "kink" in the normal-state field data as observed by Stewart, Cort, and Webb (although at a slightly higher temperature) and unusual mixed-state behavior. The mixed-state specific heat of the V3Si samples is as expected, based on earlier work on the mixed-state specific heat of V and Nb.

  3. Laboratory Activity: Specific Heat by Change in Internal Energy of Silly Putty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koser, John

    2011-01-01

    Students in introductory physics courses often don't study thermodynamics or thermodynamic events. If any thermal physics is taught in introductory courses (e.g., Physics 101 for Liberal Arts Majors), it usually involves the concepts of specific heat and various temperature scales. Seldom are the first and second laws of thermodynamics taught in…

  4. Stage- and sex-specific heat tolerance in the yellow dung fly Scathophaga stercoraria

    OpenAIRE

    Blanckenhorn Wolf U.; Gautier Roland; Nick Marcel; Puniamoorthy Nalini; Schäfer Martin A.

    2014-01-01

    Thermal tolerance varies at all hierarchical levels of biological organization: among species populations individuals and even within individuals. Age or developmental stage and sex specific thermal effects have received relatively little attention in the literature despite being crucial for understanding thermal adaptation in nature and responses to global warming. We document stage and sex specific heat tolerance in the yellow dung fly Scathophaga stercoraria (Diptera: Scathophagidae) a...

  5. Specific heat of holmium and YNi2B2C. Criticalbehaviour and superconducting properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekkali, Abdelhakim

    2010-01-01

    Object of the thesis is the study of the specific heat of holmium and YNi 2 B 2 C in the temperature ranges from 50 to 200 KI respectively from 380 mK to 20 K in magnetic fields up to 9 T. In the present thesis the criticalbehaviour of YNi 2 B 2 C and properties of the superconducting state of tne non-magnetic rare-earth nickel borocarbide YNi 2 B 2 C are studied by means of a self-developed measurement apparatur of the specific heat using the quasi-adiabatic heating-pulse method as well as of holmium by means of the relaxation method. In this thesis reliable statements about the critical exponents on monocrystalline holmium could be made. The study on holmium proves that the critical behaviour of the specific heats cannot be described in the framework of the predictions of the chiral universality classes. By means of measurements of the specific heat in this thesis could be confirmed that YNi 2 B 2 C is a multiband superconductor. The positive curvature of the boundary line below T c in the phase diagram yields a first hint to the many-band character of YNI 2 B 2 C. In the zero-field the electronic specific heat in the superconducting state c es (T) can be not explained in the framework of the pure BCS theory. At low temperatures a residual contribution by normally conducting electrons could be detected, which hints to a not completely opened energy gap. A possible explanation would be that a band (or several bands) with low charge-carrier concentration not contribute to the superconductivity. This result agrees with de Haas-van Alphen measurements on isostructural superconducting LuNi 2 B 2 C monocrystals, which suggest the many-band character of the superconductivity as well as a vanishing energy gap in one band. The fluctuation behaviour of the specific heat of YNi 2 B 2 C in the neighbourhood of the superconducting-normally conducting transition agrees well with that of the 3D-XY model. [de

  6. Effect of water content on specific heat capacity of porcine septum cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Yongseok; Lavernia, Enrique J.; Wong, Brian J.

    2002-06-01

    The effect of water content on specific heat capacity was examined using temperature modulated Differential Scanning Calorimetry (TMDSC). This research was motivated in part by the development laser cartilage reshaping operations, which use photothermal heating to accelerate stress relaxation and shape change. Deposition of thermal energy leads to mechanical stress relaxation and redistribution of cartilage internal stresses, which may lead to a permanent shape change. The specific heat of cartilage specimens (dia: 3 mm and thickness 1-2 mm) was measured using a heating rate of 2 degree(s)C/min for conventional DSC and 2 degree(s)C/min with an amplitude 0.38-0.45 degree(s)C and a period 60-100 sec for TMDSC. The amount of water in cartilaginous tissue was determined using thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) under ambient conditions. In order to correlate changes in heat flow with alterations in cartilage mechanical behavior, dynamic mechanical temperature analysis (DMTA) was used to estimate the specific transition temperatures where stress relaxation occurs. With decreasing water content, we identified a phase transition that shifted to a higher temperature after 35-45% water content was measured. The phase transition energy increased from 0.12 J/g to 1.68 J/g after a 45% weight loss. This study is a preliminary investigation focused on understanding the mechanism of the stress relaxation of cartilage during heating. The energy requirement of such a transition estimated using TMDSC and temperature range, where cartilage shape changes likely occur, was estimated.

  7. Changes in cause-specific mortality during heat waves in central Spain, 1975-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miron, Isidro Juan; Linares, Cristina; Montero, Juan Carlos; Criado-Alvarez, Juan Jose; Díaz, Julio

    2015-09-01

    The relationship between heat waves and mortality has been widely described, but there are few studies using long daily data on specific-cause mortality. This study is undertaken in central Spain and analysing natural causes, circulatory and respiratory causes of mortality from 1975 to 2008. Time-series analysis was performed using ARIMA models, including data on specific-cause mortality and maximum and mean daily temperature and mean daily air pressure. The length of heat waves and their chronological number were analysed. Data were stratified in three decadal stages: 1975-1985, 1986-1996 and 1997-2008. Heat-related mortality was triggered by a threshold temperature of 37 °C. For each degree that the daily maximum temperature exceeded 37 °C, the percentage increase in mortality due to circulatory causes was 19.3 % (17.3-21.3) in 1975-1985, 30.3 % (28.3-32.3) in 1986-1996 and 7.3 % (6.2-8.4) in 1997-2008. The increase in respiratory cause ranged from 12.4 % (7.8-17.0) in the first period, to 16.3 % (14.1-18.4) in the second and 13.7 % (11.5-15.9) in the last. Each day of heat-wave duration explained 5.3 % (2.6-8.0) increase in respiratory mortality in the first period and 2.3 % (1.6-3.0) in the last. Decadal scale differences exist for specific-causes mortality induced by extreme heat. The impact on heat-related mortality by natural and circulatory causes increases between the first and the second period and falls significantly in the last. For respiratory causes, the increase is no reduced in the last period. These results are of particular importance for the estimation of future impacts of climate change on health.

  8. Pseudogap and the specific heat of high Tc superconductors: a Hubbard model in a n-pole approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calegari, E J; Lausmann, A C; Magalhaes, S G; Chaves, C M; Troper, A

    2015-01-01

    In this work the specific heat of a two-dimensional Hubbard model, suitable to discuss high-T c superconductors (HTSC), is studied taking into account hopping to first (t) and second (t 2 ) nearest neighbors. Experimental results for the specific heat of HTSC's, for instance, the YBCO and LSCO, indicate a close relation between the pseudogap and the specific heat. In the present work, we investigate the specific heat by the Green's function method within a n-pole approximation. The specific heat is calculated on the pseudogap and on the superconducting regions. In the present scenario, the pseudogap emerges when the antiferromagnetic (AF) fluctuations become sufficiently strong. The specific heat jump coefficient Δγ decreases when the total occupation per site (n T ) reaches a given value. Such behavior of Δγ indicates the presence of a pseudogap in the regime of high occupation

  9. Pseudogap and the specific heat of high Tc superconductors: a Hubbard model in a n-pole approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calegari, E. J.; Lausmann, A. C.; Magalhaes, S. G.; Chaves, C. M.; Troper, A.

    2015-03-01

    In this work the specific heat of a two-dimensional Hubbard model, suitable to discuss high-Tc superconductors (HTSC), is studied taking into account hopping to first (t) and second (t2) nearest neighbors. Experimental results for the specific heat of HTSC's, for instance, the YBCO and LSCO, indicate a close relation between the pseudogap and the specific heat. In the present work, we investigate the specific heat by the Green's function method within a n-pole approximation. The specific heat is calculated on the pseudogap and on the superconducting regions. In the present scenario, the pseudogap emerges when the antiferromagnetic (AF) fluctuations become sufficiently strong. The specific heat jump coefficient Δγ decreases when the total occupation per site (nT) reaches a given value. Such behavior of Δγ indicates the presence of a pseudogap in the regime of high occupation.

  10. Estimating thermal diffusivity and specific heat from needle probe thermal conductivity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, W.F.; Gilbert, L.Y.; Winters, W.J.; Mason, D.H.

    2006-01-01

    Thermal diffusivity and specific heat can be estimated from thermal conductivity measurements made using a standard needle probe and a suitably high data acquisition rate. Thermal properties are calculated from the measured temperature change in a sample subjected to heating by a needle probe. Accurate thermal conductivity measurements are obtained from a linear fit to many tens or hundreds of temperature change data points. In contrast, thermal diffusivity calculations require a nonlinear fit to the measured temperature change occurring in the first few tenths of a second of the measurement, resulting in a lower accuracy than that obtained for thermal conductivity. Specific heat is calculated from the ratio of thermal conductivity to diffusivity, and thus can have an uncertainty no better than that of the diffusivity estimate. Our thermal conductivity measurements of ice Ih and of tetrahydrofuran (THF) hydrate, made using a 1.6 mm outer diameter needle probe and a data acquisition rate of 18.2 pointss, agree with published results. Our thermal diffusivity and specific heat results reproduce published results within 25% for ice Ih and 3% for THF hydrate. ?? 2006 American Institute of Physics.

  11. Specific heat capacities of different clayey samples obtained by differential scanning calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The thermo-physical properties allow to calculate heat flows and to determine the thermal behaviour of the materials. Temperature influences the rates of the physical, chemical and biological reactions and processes in the soil or a material. Variations in temperature and water content in thermal, hydraulic, mechanical and geochemical processes affect the thermal properties such as density, specific heat, thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity. Therefore, mathematical models that describe the dependence of the thermal properties on temperature and concentration are of interest to be used in computational programs applied to the modelling of coupled thermo-mechanical-hydraulic and chemical (THMC) processes. In this work, the specific heat capacity of different clayey international reference materials was determined. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) was used for such purpose. DSC is the main tool for determining the specific heat capacities of materials as a function of temperature. The specific heat capacity, c p (J/Kg.K), is a measurement of the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a unit mass of a substance by one unit of temperature. A change in temperature, caused by a gain or a loss of heat from a material, depends on the specific heat capacity of the material. Thus, the specific heat capacity is a key and characteristic property of a material and/or substance, which should be determine accurately. The specific heat capacity is an intensive property and, unlike the thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity, is independent of the dry density of the material. C p of the solid samples was determined by using a SETSYS Evolution 16 thermal analyser coupled to a differential scanning calorimeter (TG-DSC-DTA) from SETARAM Instrumentation. The thermal analyser system can use a heating rate from 0.01 to 100 C/min under a dynamic argon atmosphere and temperatures ranging from ambient to

  12. Calculation of cracking under pulsed heat loads in tungsten manufactured according to ITER specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arakcheev, A.S.; Skovorodin, D.I.; Burdakov, A.V.; Shoshin, A.A.; Polosatkin, S.V.; Vasilyev, A.A.; Postupaev, V.V.; Vyacheslavov, L.N.; Kasatov, A.A.; Huber, A.; Mertens, Ph; Wirtz, M.; Linsmeier, Ch; Kreter, A.; Löwenhoff, Th; Begrambekov, L.; Grunin, A.; Sadovskiy, Ya

    2015-01-01

    A mathematical model of surface cracking under pulsed heat load was developed. The model correctly describes a smooth brittle–ductile transition. The elastic deformation is described in a thin-heated-layer approximation. The plastic deformation is described with the Hollomon equation. The time dependence of the deformation and stresses is described for one heating–cooling cycle for a material without initial plastic deformation. The model can be applied to tungsten manufactured according to ITER specifications. The model shows that the stability of stress-relieved tungsten deteriorates when the base temperature increases. This proved to be a result of the close ultimate tensile and yield strengths. For a heat load of arbitrary magnitude a stability criterion was obtained in the form of condition on the relation of the ultimate tensile and yield strengths.

  13. Temperature and air-fuel ratio dependent specific heat ratio functions for lean burned and unburned mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceviz, M.A.; Kaymaz, I.

    2005-01-01

    The most important thermodynamic property used in heat release calculations for engines is the specific heat ratio. The functions proposed in the literature for the specific heat ratio are temperature dependent and apply at or near stoichiometric air-fuel ratios. However, the specific heat ratio is also influenced by the gas composition in the engine cylinder and especially becomes important for lean combustion engines. In this study, temperature and air-fuel ratio dependent specific heat ratio functions were derived to minimize the error by using an equilibrium combustion model for burned and unburned mixtures separately. After the error analysis between the equilibrium combustion model and the derived functions is presented, the results of the global specific heat ratio function, as varying with mass fraction burned, were compared with the proposed functions in the literature. The results of the study showed that the derived functions are more feasible at lean operating conditions of a spark ignition engine

  14. Optimizing the District Heating Primary Network from the Perspective of Economic-Specific Pressure Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haichao Wang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A district heating (DH system is one of the most important components of infrastructures in cold areas. Proper DH network design should balance the initial investment and the heat distribution cost of the DH network. Currently, this design is often based on a recommended value for specific pressure loss (R = ∆P/L in the main lines. This will result in a feasible network design, but probably not be optimal in most cases. The paper develops a novel optimization model to facilitate the design by considering the initial investment in the pipes and the heat distribution costs. The model will generate all possible network scenarios consisting of different series of diameters for each pipe in the flow direction of the network. Then, the annuity on the initial investment, the heat distribution cost, and the total annual cost will be calculated for each network scenario, taking into account the uncertainties of the material prices and the yearly operating time levels. The model is applied to a sample DH network and the results indicate that the model works quite well, clearly identifying the optimal network design and demonstrating that the heat distribution cost is more important than the initial investment in DH network design.

  15. Effect of heat treatment upon the fatigue-crack growth behavior of Alloy 718 weldments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, W.J.; James, L.A.

    1981-05-01

    The microstructural features that influenced the room and elevated temperature fatigue-crack growth behavior of as-welded, conventional heat-treated, and modified heat-treated Alloy 718 GTA weldments were studied. Electron fractographic examination of fatigue fracture surfaces revealed that operative fatigue mechanisms were dependent on microstructure, temperatures and stress intensity factor. All specimens exhibited three basic fracture surface appearances at temperatures up to 538 degrees C: crystallographic faceting at low stress intensity range (ΔK) levels, striation, formation at intermediate values, and dimples coupled with striations in the highest (ΔK) regime. At 649 degrees C, the heat-treated welds exhibited extensive intergranular cracking. Laves and δ particles in the conventional heat-treated material nucleated microvoids ahead of the advancing crack front and caused on overall acceleration in crack growth rates at intermediate and high ΔK levels. The modified heat treatment removed many of these particles from the weld zone, thereby improving its fatigue resistance. The dramatically improved fatigue properties exhibited by the as-welded material was attributed to compressive residual stresses introduced by the welding process. 19 refs., 16 figs

  16. Specification Search for Identifying the Correct Mean Trajectory in Polynomial Latent Growth Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minjung; Kwok, Oi-Man; Yoon, Myeongsun; Willson, Victor; Lai, Mark H. C.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the optimal strategy for model specification search under the latent growth modeling (LGM) framework, specifically on searching for the correct polynomial mean or average growth model when there is no a priori hypothesized model in the absence of theory. In this simulation study, the effectiveness of different starting…

  17. Theoretical approach to the phonon modes and specific heat of germanium nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trejo, A.; López-Palacios, L.; Vázquez-Medina, R.; Cruz-Irisson, M., E-mail: irisson@ipn.mx

    2014-11-15

    The phonon modes and specific heat of Ge nanowires were computed using a first principles density functional theory scheme with a generalized gradient approximation and finite-displacement supercell algorithms. The nanowires were modeled in three different directions: [001], [111], and [110], using the supercell technique. All surface dangling bonds were saturated with Hydrogen atoms. The results show that the specific heat of the GeNWs at room temperature increases as the nanowire diameter decreases, regardless the orientation due to the phonon confinement and surface passivation. Also the phonon confinement effects could be observed since the highest optical phonon modes in the Ge vibration interval shifted to a lower frequency compared to their bulk counterparts.

  18. The effect of Ca doping on specific heat of YCoO{sub 3} cobaltate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakur, Rasna, E-mail: rasnathakur@yahoo.com; Thakur, Rajesh K., E-mail: thakur.rajesh2009@gmail.com; Gaur, N. K., E-mail: srl-nkgaur@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, Barkatullah University, Bhopal, 462026 (India)

    2016-05-06

    We have investigated the thermodynamic properties of Y{sub 1-x}Ca{sub x}CoO{sub 3} (0.0≤x≤0.1) perovskites by means of a modified rigid ion model (MRIM). The variations of specific heat at wide temperatures 1 K ≤ T ≤ 1000 K are reported. Also, the effect of lattice distortions on the elastic and thermal properties of pure and Ca doped cobaltates has been studied by an atomistic approach. Besides, we have reported bulk modulus (B), cohesive energy (ϕ), molecular force constant (f), Reststrahlen frequency (υ), Debye temperature (θ{sub D}), Gruneisen parameter (γ) and specific heat (C). It is found that the present model has a promise to predict the thermodynamic properties of other perovskites as well.

  19. Specific-heat measurements in superconducting indium-thallium alloys and the pseudopotential form factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munukutla, L.V.; Cappelletti, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    Normal-state specific heats between 1 and 4.4 K and superconducting transition temperatures of pure indium and In-Tl alloys have been measured. Excellent agreement with previous results was found. N/sub bs/(0) was extracted using our γ values and Dynes's lambda values and shows a large variation. The measured variation of lambda 2 > was also obtained from Dynes's results and found to be nearly linear in spite of the large variation of N/sub bs/(0). This is shown to be a consequence of the fact that the ratio of the calculated average screened pseudopotential form factor to electron density of states, 2 /sub s/>/N/sub bs/(0), is nearly constant across the alloy series for each element. No anomaly was found in the specific heat of In/sub 0.69/Tl/sub 0.31/ at the expected martensitic transition temperature

  20. Specific-heat measurements on dilute 3He-4He mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeeuw, H.C.M. van der.

    1985-01-01

    The author measured the specific heat of dilute 3 He- 4 He mixtures in the concentration range from X = 1 x 10 -3 to X = 3 x 10 -3 and in the temperature range from 100 mK to 600 mK. This has been done by means of a thermal relaxation method. This method provides some interesting features and is applied, to our knowledge, for the first time to dilute 3 He- 4 He mixtures. To reach the required temperature range for our experiments a 4 He circulating 3 He- 4 He dilution refrigerator has been constructed. The results confirm the deviation of the 3 He contribution to the specific heat from the ideal Fermi gas behaviour. (Auth.)

  1. Communication: High pressure specific heat spectroscopy reveals simple relaxation behavior of glass forming molecular liquid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roed, Lisa Anita; Niss, Kristine; Jakobsen, Bo

    2015-01-01

    The frequency dependent specific heat has been measured under pressure for the molecular glass forming liquid 5-polyphenyl-4-ether in the viscous regime close to the glass transition. The temperature and pressure dependences of the characteristic time scale associated with the specific heat...... is compared to the equivalent time scale from dielectric spectroscopy performed under identical conditions. It is shown that the ratio between the two time scales is independent of both temperature and pressure. This observation is non-trivial and demonstrates the existence of specially simple molecular...... liquids in which different physical relaxation processes are both as function of temperature and pressure/density governed by the same underlying “inner clock.” Furthermore, the results are discussed in terms of the recent conjecture that van der Waals liquids, like the measuredliquid, comply...

  2. Specific heat of ceramic and single crystal MgB{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junod, A.; Wang, Y.; Bouquet, F.; Sheikin, I.; Toulemonde, P.; Eskildsen, M.R.; Eisterer, M.; Weber, H.W.; Lee, S.; Tajima, S

    2003-05-15

    The two-gap structure of MgB{sub 2} gives rise to unusual thermodynamic properties which depart markedly from the single-gap BCS model, both in their temperature- and field-dependence. We report measurements of the specific heat up to 16 T on ceramic and single crystal samples, which demonstrate these effects in bulk. The low-temperature mixed-state specific heat reveals a field-dependent anisotropy, and points to the existence of unusually large vortices, in agreement with local density-of-states measurements by scanning tunneling spectroscopy. It is finally shown that a suitable irradiation process nearly doubles H{sub c2} in the bulk.

  3. The DNA electronic specific heat at low temperature: The role of aperiodicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarmento, R.G. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970, Natal, RN (Brazil); Mendes, G.A. [Departamento de Biofísica e Farmacologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970, Natal, RN (Brazil); Albuquerque, E.L., E-mail: eudenilson@gmail.com [Departamento de Biofísica e Farmacologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970, Natal, RN (Brazil); Fulco, U.L. [Departamento de Biofísica e Farmacologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970, Natal, RN (Brazil); Vasconcelos, M.S. [Escola de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970, Natal, RN (Brazil); Ujsághy, O. [Department of Theoretical Physics and Condensed Matter Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budafoki út 8, H-1521 Budapest (Hungary); Freire, V.N. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Ceará, 60455-760, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Caetano, E.W.S. [Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Ceará, 60040-531, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2012-07-16

    The electronic specific heat spectra at constant volume (C{sub V}) of a long-range correlated extended ladder model, mimicking a DNA molecule, is theoretically analyzed for a stacked array of a double-stranded structure made up from the nucleotides guanine G, adenine A, cytosine C and thymine T. The role of the aperiodicity on C{sub V} is discussed, considering two different nucleotide arrangements with increasing disorder, namely the Fibonacci and the Rudin–Shapiro quasiperiodic structures. Comparisons are made for different values of the band fillings, considering also a finite segment of natural DNA, as part of the human chromosome Ch22. -- Highlights: ► Quasiperiodic sequence to mimic the DNA nucleotides arrangement. ► Electronic tight-binding Hamiltonian model. ► Electronic density of states. ► Electronic specific heat spectra.

  4. Numerical simulation of convection and heat transfer in Czochralski crystal growth by multiple-relaxation-time LBM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ding; Huang, Weichao; Zhang, Ni

    2017-07-01

    A two-dimensional axisymmetric swirling model based on the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) in a pseudo Cartesian coordinate system is posited to simulate Czochralski (Cz) crystal growth in this paper. Specifically, the multiple-relaxation-time LBM (MRT-LBM) combined with the finite difference method (FDM) is used to analyze the melt convection and heat transfer in the process of Cz crystal growth. An incompressible axisymmetric swirling MRT-LB D2Q9 model is applied to solve for the axial and radial velocities by inserting thermal buoyancy and rotational inertial force into the two-dimensional lattice Boltzmann equation. In addition, the melt temperature and the azimuthal velocity are solved by MRT-LB D2Q5 models, and the crystal temperature is solved by FDM. The comparison results of stream functions values of different methods demonstrate that our hybrid model can be used to simulate the fluid-thermal coupling in the axisymmetric swirling model correctly and effectively. Furthermore, numerical simulations of melt convection and heat transfer are conducted under the conditions of high Grashof (Gr) numbers, within the range of 105 ˜ 107, and different high Reynolds (Re) numbers. The experimental results show our hybrid model can obtain the exact solution of complex crystal-growth models and analyze the fluid-thermal coupling effectively under the combined action of natural convection and forced convection.

  5. Phonon-induced anomalous specific heat of a model nanocrystal by computer simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.; Wolf, D.; Phillpot, S.R.; Gleiter, H.

    1994-10-01

    The authors construct a simple model of a nanocrystalline material in which all the grains are the same size and shape, and in which all the grain boundaries are crystallographically identical. The authors show that the model nanocrystal has a low-temperature specific-heat anomaly similar to that seen in experiment, which arises from the presence of low-frequency phonons localized at the grain boundaries

  6. Low temperature specific heat of the spin-density-wave compound (TMTSF)2PF6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odin, J.; Lasjaunias, J.C.; Biljakovic, K.

    1994-01-01

    We report on specific heat measurements of the SDW compound (TMTSF)2PF6 between 2 and 25 K, performed by two different techniques. We discuss the two successive transitions which occur in this T-range : the SDW ordering transition at T = 12.1 K, and a glass transition around-3-3.5 K. The latter i...... is very dependent on the kinetics of measurements, and has all characteristic features of freezing of supercooled liquids....

  7. Susceptibility and specific heat of the Heisenberg antiferromagnet on the Kagome lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernhard, B.H.; Canals, B.; Lacroix, C.

    2001-01-01

    The dynamic susceptibility of the S=((1)/(2)) Heisenberg antiferromagnet is calculated on the Kagome lattice by means of a Green's function decoupling scheme. The spin-spin correlation functions decrease exponentially with distance. The specific heat exhibits a single-peak structure with a T 2 dependence at low temperature and the correct high-temperature behaviour. The calculated total change in entropy indicates a ground-state entropy of 0.46 ln 2

  8. Specific heat of rare earth cobaltates RCoO{sub 3} (R = La, Pr and Nd)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakur, Rasna, E-mail: rasnathakur@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Barkatullah University, Bhopal 462026 (India); Srivastava, Archana [Department of Physics, Sri Sathya Sai College for Women, Bhopal 462024 (India); Thakur, Rajesh K.; Gaur, N.K. [Department of Physics, Barkatullah University, Bhopal 462026 (India)

    2012-03-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have reported the temperature dependence (5 K {<=} T {<=} 1000 K) of the lattice contribution to the specific heat of rhombohedral LaCoO{sub 3} and orthocobaltates RCoO{sub 3} (R = Pr and Nd). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The strong electron phonon interactions are present in these compounds and lattice distortions can affect them substantially. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thus Rigid Ion Model (RIM) is used for the first time to study the cohesive and thermal properties of the cobaltates RCoO{sub 3} with rare earth cation (R = La, Pr and Nd). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The values of specific heat calculated by us have shown remarkably good agreement with corresponding experimental data. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In addition, the results on the temperature dependence of cohesive energy ({phi}), molecular force constant (f), Reststrahlen frequency ({upsilon}), Debye temperature ({theta}{sub D}) and Gruneisen parameter ({gamma}) are also reported. - Abstract: We have reported the temperature dependence (5 K {<=} T {<=} 1000 K) of the lattice contribution to the specific heat of rhombohedral LaCoO{sub 3} and orthocobaltates RCoO{sub 3} (R = Pr and Nd). The strong electron phonon interactions are present in these compounds and lattice distortions can affect them substantially. Thus Rigid Ion Model (RIM) is used for the first time to study the cohesive and thermal properties of the cobaltates RCoO{sub 3} with rare earth cation (R = La, Pr and Nd). The values of specific heat calculated by us have shown remarkably good agreement with corresponding experimental data. In addition, the results on the temperature dependence of cohesive energy ({phi}), molecular force constant (f), Reststrahlen frequency ({upsilon}), Debye temperature ({theta}{sub D}) and Gruneisen parameter ({gamma}) are also reported.

  9. Magnetic ordering and specific heat analysis of TmPtSn

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vejpravová, J.; Svoboda, P.; Šebek, Josef; Janeček, M.; Komatsubara, T.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 328, - (2003), s. 142-144 ISSN 0921-4526 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/02/0943 Grant - others:GA UK(CZ) 165/01; VACUUM PRAHA(CZ) 2002 Keywords : rare-earth intermetallic compounds * magnetic ordering * specific heat Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.908, year: 2003

  10. Hyperfine coupling in gadolinium-praseodymium alloys by specific heat measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, J.

    1969-01-01

    We have studied the hyperfine coupling in gadolinium-praseodymium alloys by specific heat measurements down to 0.3 K. In the first part we describe the apparatus used to perform our measurements. The second part is devoted to some theoretical considerations. We have studied in detail the case of praseodymium which is an exception in the rare earth series. The third part shows the results we have obtained. (author) [fr

  11. Renormalisation-group specific heat of the square lattice Potts ferromagnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, H.O.; Tsallis, C.

    1982-01-01

    The free and internal energies and specific heat of the q-state Potts ferromagnet are discussed. A real space renormalisation group approach is presented which recovers a considerable amount of exact particular results for all dimensionalities (hypercubic lattices). The square lattice case is calculated in detail by using self-dual clusters (which provide the exact critical point for all q). Comparison with Onsager results (q=2) is satisfactory; the general tendencies for q different 2 (1 [pt

  12. The low temperature specific heat of Lu-Cu-Y metallic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, K.A.; Lanchester, P.C.

    1987-01-01

    The specific heat of a series of amorphous metallic alloys of the form Lu x Cu 0.37 Y 0.36 (x=0, 0.1, 0.3 and 0.4) has been measured between 2 and 50 K, primarily in order to be able to determine the non-magnetic contributions to the specific heat in magnetic Re-Cu-Y amorphous alloys. The data at low temperature fit the simple form C p =γT+βT 3 from which values of γ and θ D (0) have been determined. Consideration is given to the error that arises if Y is used rather than Lu or La in forming non-magnetic rare earth intermetallics for purposes of determining the non-magnetic contributions to the specific heat of magnetic samples. A simple procedure is described that allows a useful improvement in accuracy in estimating non-magnetic contributions below 20 K if Y is used. The method may also be useful if only a restricted range of compositions using Lu is possible. (orig.)

  13. Low temperature specific heat of Lu-Cu-Y metallic glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammed, K.A.; Lanchester, P.C.

    1987-02-01

    The specific heat of a series of amorphous metallic alloys of the form Lu/sub x/Cu/sub 0.37/Y/sub 0.36/ (x=0, 0.1, 0.3 and 0.4) has been measured between 2 and 50 K, primarily in order to be able to determine the non-magnetic contributions to the specific heat in magnetic Re-Cu-Y amorphous alloys. The data at low temperature fit the simple form C/sub p/=..gamma..T+..beta..T/sup 3/ from which values of ..gamma.. and theta/sub D/(0) have been determined. Consideration is given to the error that arises if Y is used rather than Lu or La in forming non-magnetic rare earth intermetallics for purposes of determining the non-magnetic contributions to the specific heat of magnetic samples. A simple procedure is described that allows a useful improvement in accuracy in estimating non-magnetic contributions below 20 K if Y is used. The method may also be useful if only a restricted range of compositions using Lu is possible.

  14. Effects of variable specific heat on energy transfer in a high-temperature supersonic channel flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoping; Li, Xiaopeng; Dou, Hua-Shu; Zhu, Zuchao

    2018-05-01

    An energy transfer mechanism in high-temperature supersonic turbulent flow for variable specific heat (VSH) condition through turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), mean kinetic energy (MKE), turbulent internal energy (TIE) and mean internal energy (MIE) is proposed. The similarities of energy budgets between VSH and constant specific heat (CSH) conditions are investigated by introducing a vibrational energy excited degree and considering the effects of fluctuating specific heat. Direct numerical simulation (DNS) of temporally evolving high-temperature supersonic turbulent channel flow is conducted at Mach number 3.0 and Reynolds number 4800 combined with a constant dimensional wall temperature 1192.60 K for VSH and CSH conditions to validate the proposed energy transfer mechanism. The differences between the terms in the two kinetic energy budgets for VSH and CSH conditions are small; however, the magnitude of molecular diffusion term for VSH condition is significantly smaller than that for CSH condition. The non-negligible energy transfer is obtained after neglecting several small terms of diffusion, dissipation and compressibility related. The non-negligible energy transfer involving TIE includes three processes, in which energy can be gained from TKE and MIE and lost to MIE. The same non-negligible energy transfer through TKE, MKE and MIE is observed for both the conditions.

  15. q-deformed Einstein's model to describe specific heat of solid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Atanu; Das, Prasanta Kumar

    2018-04-01

    Realistic phenomena can be described more appropriately using generalized canonical ensemble, with proper parameter sets involved. We have generalized the Einstein's theory for specific heat of solid in Tsallis statistics, where the temperature fluctuation is introduced into the theory via the fluctuation parameter q. At low temperature the Einstein's curve of the specific heat in the nonextensive Tsallis scenario exactly lies on the experimental data points. Consequently this q-modified Einstein's curve is found to be overlapping with the one predicted by Debye. Considering only the temperature fluctuation effect(even without considering more than one mode of vibration is being triggered) we found that the CV vs T curve is as good as obtained by considering the different modes of vibration as suggested by Debye. Generalizing the Einstein's theory in Tsallis statistics we found that a unique value of the Einstein temperature θE along with a temperature dependent deformation parameter q(T) , can well describe the phenomena of specific heat of solid i.e. the theory is equivalent to Debye's theory with a temperature dependent θD.

  16. Specific heat of heavy-fermion CePd2Si2 in high magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikin, I.; Wang, Y.; Bouquet, F.; Junod, A.; Lejay, P.

    2002-01-01

    We report specific heat measurements on the heavy-fermion compound CePd 2 Si 2 in magnetic fields up to 16 T and in the temperature range 1.4-16 K. A sharp peak in the specific heat signals the antiferromagnetic transition at T N ∼ 9.3 K in zero field. The transition is found to shift to lower temperatures when a magnetic field is applied along the crystallographic a-axis, while a field applied parallel to the tetragonal c-axis does not affect the transition. The magnetic contribution to the specific heat below T N is well described by a sum of a linear electronic term and an antiferromagnetic spin-wave contribution. Just below T N , an additional positive curvature, especially at high fields, arises most probably due to thermal fluctuations. The field dependence of the coefficient of the low-temperature linear term, γ 0 , extracted from the fits shows a maximum at about 6 T, at the point where an anomaly was detected in susceptibility measurements. The relative field dependences of both T N and the magnetic entropy at T N scale as [1-(B/B 0 ) 2 ] for B parallel a, suggesting the disappearance of antiferromagnetism at B 0 ∼42 T. The expected suppression of the antiferromagnetic transition temperature to zero makes the existence of a magnetic quantum critical point possible. (author). Letter-to-the-editor

  17. Technical specification improvements to containment heat removal and emergency core cooling systems: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, W.P.; Ha, C.; Pentzien, D.C.; Visweswaran, S.

    1988-07-01

    This report presents the results of an analysis for technical specification improvements to the emergency core cooling systems (ECCS) and containment heat removal systems (EPRI Research Project 2142-3). The objective of this project is to further develop a reliability- and risk-based methodology to provide improvements by considering groups of surveillance test intervals and allowed out-of-service times jointly. This was done for the technical specifications for the ECCS, containment heat removal equipment, and supporting systems of a boiling water reactor plant. The project (1) developed a methodology for optimizing groups of surveillance test intervals and allowed out-of-service times jointly, (2) applied the methodology in a case study of a specific operating plant, Hatch-2, and (3) evaluated benefits of the application. The results of the case study demonstrate that beneficial technical specification improvements can be realized with application of the methodology. By tightening a small group of sensitive surveillance test intervals (STIs) and allowed out-of-service times (AOTs), a larger group of less sensitive STIs and AOTs can be extended resulting in an overall plant operating cost improvement without reducing the plant safety. The reliability- and risk-based methodology and results from this project can be effectively applied for technical specification improvements at other operating plants

  18. Growth of ruby crystals by the heat exchanger method, phase 1: NSF small business innovation research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, F.; Khattak, C. P.

    1980-03-01

    Conditions for the growth of large, uniformly doped laser crystals by the heat exchanger method are explored. Determination of the melt point, selection of crucible material and establishment of furnace operating parameters are discussed. The melt point of ruby was found to be 2040 plus or minus 10 C. Molybdenum crucibles can be used to contain ruby in vacuum as well as under argon atmospheres at desired superheat temperatures over extended periods required for crystal growth. Thermodynamic analysis was conducted and vapor pressures of volatile species calculated. Experimentally, volatilization of chromium oxides was suppressed by using welded covers on crucibles and operating under an argon pressure in the furnace.

  19. Members of the heat-shock protein 70 family promote cancer cell growth by distinct mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Mikkel; Daugaard, Mads; Jensen, Mette Hartvig

    2005-01-01

    Whereas the stress-inducible heat-shock protein 70 (Hsp70) has gained plenty of attention as a putative target for tumor therapy, little is known about the role of other Hsp70 proteins in cancer. Here we present the first thorough analysis of the expression and function of the cytosolic Hsp70...... proteins in human cancer cells and identify Hsp70-2, a protein essential for spermatogenesis, as an important regulator of cancer cell growth. Targeted knock-down of the individual family members by RNA interference revealed that both Hsp70 and Hsp70-2 were required for cancer cell growth, whereas...

  20. Increment of specific heat capacity of solar salt with SiO2 nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreu-Cabedo, Patricia; Mondragon, Rosa; Hernandez, Leonor; Martinez-Cuenca, Raul; Cabedo, Luis; Julia, J Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Thermal energy storage (TES) is extremely important in concentrated solar power (CSP) plants since it represents the main difference and advantage of CSP plants with respect to other renewable energy sources such as wind, photovoltaic, etc. CSP represents a low-carbon emission renewable source of energy, and TES allows CSP plants to have energy availability and dispatchability using available industrial technologies. Molten salts are used in CSP plants as a TES material because of their high operational temperature and stability of up to 500°C. Their main drawbacks are their relative poor thermal properties and energy storage density. A simple cost-effective way to improve thermal properties of fluids is to dope them with nanoparticles, thus obtaining the so-called salt-based nanofluids. In this work, solar salt used in CSP plants (60% NaNO3 + 40% KNO3) was doped with silica nanoparticles at different solid mass concentrations (from 0.5% to 2%). Specific heat was measured by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). A maximum increase of 25.03% was found at an optimal concentration of 1 wt.% of nanoparticles. The size distribution of nanoparticle clusters present in the salt at each concentration was evaluated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and image processing, as well as by means of dynamic light scattering (DLS). The cluster size and the specific surface available depended on the solid content, and a relationship between the specific heat increment and the available particle surface area was obtained. It was proved that the mechanism involved in the specific heat increment is based on a surface phenomenon. Stability of samples was tested for several thermal cycles and thermogravimetric analysis at high temperature was carried out, the samples being stable. 65.: Thermal properties of condensed matter; 65.20.-w: Thermal properties of liquids; 65.20.Jk: Studies of thermodynamic properties of specific liquids.

  1. Short communication. Effect of soybean meal heat procedures on growth performance of broiler chickens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tousi-Mojarradi, M.; Seidavi, A.; Dadashbeiki, M.; Roca-Fernandez, A. I.

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this research was to study the effect of soybean meal (SBM) heat procedures on growth performance of broiler chickens. A trial was carried out using 200 male Ross 308 strain chickens during 3 feeding periods (starter, grower and finisher, 42 days). The experiment was based on a completely randomized design with 5 treatments giving 4 replications of 10 broilers per treatment. Treatments consisted on: T1 (control, un-processed SBM), T2 (autoclaved SBM: 121 degree centigrade, 20 min), T3 (autoclaved SBM: 121 degree centigrade, 30 min), T4 (roasted SBM: 120 degree centigrade, 20 min) and T5 (microwaved SBM: 46 degree centigrade, 540 watt, 7 min). Growth performance of animals was examined by determining body weight (BW), body weight grain (BWG), feed intake (FI) and feed conversion rate (FCR). Higher BW (p<0.05) and BWG (p<0.05) and lower FCR (p<0.05) were found in broiler chickens fed heat processed SBM diets compared to those fed a raw SBM diet, probably due to higher nutrient availability. However, no differences were found among heat SBM procedures (autoclaving, roasting and microwaving) on growth performance of animals for the starter, grower and finisher periods. From the results of this experiment, it is concluded that further research needs to be developed to establish the effect of temperature-time heat procedures on nutritive value of SBM in terms of levels of anti-nutritional factors (trypsin inhibitor activity and phytic acid) and amino acids profile and its influence on growth performance of broilers. (Author)

  2. Effects of heat-treatment on plasma rich in growth factors-derived autologous eye drop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitua, E; Muruzabal, F; De la Fuente, M; Merayo-Lloves, J; Orive, G

    2014-02-01

    We have developed and characterized a new type of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) derived eye-drop therapy for patients suffering from autoimmune diseases. To determine the concentration of several growth factors, proteins, immunoglobulins and complement activity of the heat-inactivated eye-drop and to study its biological effects on cell proliferation and migration of different ocular surface cells, blood from healthy donors was collected, centrifuged and PRGF was prepared avoiding the buffy coat. The half volume of the obtained plasma supernatant from each donor was heat-inactivated at 56 °C for 1 h (heat-inactivated PRGF). The concentration of several proteins involved on corneal wound healing, immunoglubolins G, M and E and functional integrity of the complement system assayed by CH50 test were determined. The proliferative and migratory potential of inactivated and non-inactivated PRGF eye drops were assayed on corneal epithelial cells (HCE), keratocytes (HK) and conjunctival fibroblasts (HConF). Heat-inactivated PRGF preserves the content of most of the proteins and morphogens involved in its wound healing effects while reduces drastically the content of IgE and complement activity. Heat-inactivated PRGF eye drops increased proliferation and migration potential of ocular surface cells with regard to PRGF showing significant differences on proliferation and migration rate of HCE and HConF respectively. In summary, heat-inactivation of PRGF eye drops completely reduced complement activity and deceased significantly the presence of IgE, maintaining the biological activity of PRGF on ocular surface cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Recrystallization and grain growth induced by ELMs-like transient heat loads in deformed tungsten samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suslova, A.; El-Atwani, O.; Sagapuram, D.; Harilal, S. S.; Hassanein, A.

    2014-11-01

    Tungsten has been chosen as the main candidate for plasma facing components (PFCs) due to its superior properties under extreme operating conditions in future nuclear fusion reactors such as ITER. One of the serious issues for PFCs is the high heat load during transient events such as ELMs and disruption in the reactor. Recrystallization and grain size growth in PFC materials caused by transients are undesirable changes in the material, since the isotropic microstructure developed after recrystallization exhibits a higher ductile-to-brittle transition temperature which increases with the grain size, a lower thermal shock fatigue resistance, a lower mechanical strength, and an increased surface roughening. The current work was focused on careful determination of the threshold parameters for surface recrystallization, grain growth rate, and thermal shock fatigue resistance under ELM-like transient heat events. Transient heat loads were simulated using long pulse laser beams for two different grades of ultrafine-grained tungsten. It was observed that cold rolled tungsten demonstrated better power handling capabilities and higher thermal stress fatigue resistance compared to severely deformed tungsten. Higher recrystallization threshold, slower grain growth, and lower degree of surface roughening were observed in the cold rolled tungsten.

  4. Nanocalorimeter platform for in situ specific heat measurements and x-ray diffraction at low temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willa, K.; Diao, Z.; Campanini, D.; Welp, U.; Divan, R.; Hudl, M.; Islam, Z.; Kwok, W.-K.; Rydh, A.

    2017-12-01

    Recent advances in electronics and nanofabrication have enabled membrane-based nanocalorimetry for measurements of the specific heat of microgram-sized samples. We have integrated a nanocalorimeter platform into a 4.5 T split-pair vertical-field magnet to allow for the simultaneous measurement of the specific heat and x-ray scattering in magnetic fields and at temperatures as low as 4 K. This multi-modal approach empowers researchers to directly correlate scattering experiments with insights from thermodynamic properties including structural, electronic, orbital, and magnetic phase transitions. The use of a nanocalorimeter sample platform enables numerous technical advantages: precise measurement and control of the sample temperature, quantification of beam heating effects, fast and precise positioning of the sample in the x-ray beam, and fast acquisition of x-ray scans over a wide temperature range without the need for time-consuming re-centering and re-alignment. Furthermore, on an YBa2Cu3O7-δ crystal and a copper foil, we demonstrate a novel approach to x-ray absorption spectroscopy by monitoring the change in sample temperature as a function of incident photon energy. Finally, we illustrate the new insights that can be gained from in situ structural and thermodynamic measurements by investigating the superheated state occurring at the first-order magneto-elastic phase transition of Fe2P, a material that is of interest for magnetocaloric applications.

  5. The real gas dynamics of the fluids of high specific heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, G.E.A.

    1987-01-01

    The gas dynamics of real fluids show several new effects beyond the gas dynamics of ideal substances. Many of these effects rely on phase changes in the flow fields and can be explained with the help of more complicated thermal and caloric state equations of the real fluids. Complete adiabatic liquefaction and evaporation are possible for those substances whose specific heat exceeds a limit of about twenty gas constants. These fluids consisting of great molecules have so much internal energy storage capacity in their numerous vibrational degrees of freedom that the heat of evaporation can be supplied or also stored in the case of condensation. So liquefaction shock waves, which transform a gas completely or partly into a liquid, are possible. The shock front becomes thereby the surface of a liquid. Partial liquefaction with droplet condensation occurs in weaker shock waves. On the other hand a superheated liquid with high specific heat can be changed into a gas or mixture state in expansion waves or flows. (orig.)

  6. The specific heat of Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz-Larrea, I.; Lopez-Echarri, A.; Bocanegra, E.H.; No, M.L.; San Juan, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    The specific heat of Cu 81.8 Al 13.7 Ni 4.5 (AK10) shape memory alloy has been studied by means of conventional DSC and adiabatic calorimetry techniques. The transformation temperatures and the shape of the calorimetric curves obtained by adiabatic calorimetry do not show any noticeable dependence on the temperature measurement rates, contrarily to what is observed by other calorimetric techniques. The dynamical character of the various experimental methods together with the influence of the latent heat associated to the first order character of these phase transitions are discussed. The specific heat of AK10 has been measured from 50 to 350 K which covers the phase transformation temperature range. The forward and reverse martensitic transformation peaks were found at 299.5 and 304.6 K, showing a thermal hysteresis of 5.1 deg. C. The C p accuracy can be estimated in 0.1% of C p and permits a reliable assignment of the following values to the phase transition thermodynamic functions: ΔH = 7.4 ± 0.2 J/g and ΔS = 0.025 ± 0.001 J/gK

  7. Growth of Listeria spp. in shredded cabbage is enhanced by a mild heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ells, Timothy C; Truelstrup Hansen, Lisbeth

    2010-03-01

    Mild thermal processing can enhance the shelf life of cut fruits and vegetables by delaying the onset of spoilage and preserving the organoleptic properties of shredded cabbage. However, food safety issues related to this process have not been fully investigated. Therefore, the survival and growth of Listeria spp. on cabbage treated in this manner was examined. Experimentally, 24 strains of Listeria spp. (including L. monocytogenes) were inoculated onto cut and intact cabbage tissues and stored at 5 degrees C. All strains on intact tissues exhibited a moderate decline in numbers (up to 1.0 log CFU/cm(2)) over the 28-day storage period. Conversely, cut tissue supported growth of most strains during the first 7 to 14 days of incubation with maximum increases of 1.2 log CFU/cm(2). Subsequently, the survival or growth on heat-treated (50 degrees C for 3 min) and untreated shredded cabbage of four L. monocytogenes and four nonpathogenic Listeria spp. strains were compared during storage for 21 days at 5 degrees C. Growth on untreated shred for all strains was similar to the results observed on cut tissue with a maximum increase of approximately 1.0 log CFU/g. However, in the heat-treated cabbage shred all strains displayed a rapid increase in growth (up to 2.5 log CFU/g) during the first 7 days of incubation, which may be indicative of the destruction of an endogenous growth-inhibiting compound within the cabbage. In conclusion, this study shows that mild thermal treatments of cut cabbage may promote pathogen growth if other inimical barriers are not implemented downstream of the thermal treatment.

  8. SCC growth behavior of stainless steel weld heat-affected zone in hydrogenated high temperature water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Takuyo; Terachi, Takumi; Miyamoto, Tomoki; Arioka, Koji

    2010-01-01

    It is known that the SCC growth rate of stainless steels in high-temperature water is accelerated by cold-work (CW). The weld heat-affected-zone (HAZ) of stainless steels is also deformed by weld shrinkage. However, only little have been reported on the SCC growth of weld HAZ of SUS316 and SUS304 in hydrogenated high-temperature water. Thus, in this present study, SCC growth experiments were performed using weld HAZ of stainless steels, especially to obtain data on the dependence of SCC growth on (1) temperature and (2) hardness in hydrogenated water at temperatures from 250degC to 340degC. And then, the SCC growth behaviors were compared between weld HAZ and CW stainless steels. The following results have been obtained. Significant SCC growth were observed in weld HAZ (SUS316 and SUS304) in hydrogenated water at 320degC. The SCC growth rates of the HAZ are similar to that of 10% CW non-sensitized SUS316, in accordance with that the hardness of weld HAZ is also similar to that of 10% CW SUS316. Temperature dependency of SCC growth of weld HAZ (SUS316 and SUS304) is also similar to that of 10% CW non-sensitized SUS316. That is, no significant SCC were observed in the weld HAZ (SUS316 and SUS304) in hydrogenated water at 340degC. This suggests that SCC growth behaviors of weld HAZ and CW stainless steels are similar and correlated with the hardness or yield strength of the materials, at least in non-sensitized regions. And the similar temperature dependence between the HAZ and CW stainless steels suggests that the SCC growth behaviors are also attributed to the common mechanism. (author)

  9. Research supporting potential modification of the NASA specification for dry heat microbial reduction of spacecraft hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spry, James A.; Beaudet, Robert; Schubert, Wayne

    Dry heat microbial reduction (DHMR) is the primary method currently used to reduce the microbial load of spacecraft and component parts to comply with planetary protection re-quirements. However, manufacturing processes often involve heating flight hardware to high temperatures for purposes other than planetary protection DHMR. At present, the specifica-tion in NASA document NPR8020.12, describing the process lethality on B. atrophaeus (ATCC 9372) bacterial spores, does not allow for additional planetary protection bioburden reduction credit for processing outside a narrow temperature, time and humidity window. Our results from a comprehensive multi-year laboratory research effort have generated en-hanced data sets on four aspects of the current specification: time and temperature effects in combination, the effect that humidity has on spore lethality, and the lethality for spores with exceptionally high thermal resistance (so called "hardies"). This paper describes potential modifications to the specification, based on the data set gener-ated in the referenced studies. The proposed modifications are intended to broaden the scope of the current specification while still maintaining confidence in a conservative interpretation of the lethality of the DHMR process on microorganisms.

  10. EBSD characterization of the growth mechanism of SiC synthesized via direct microwave heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jigang, E-mail: wangjigang@seu.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Metallic Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China); Xizang Key Laboratory of Optical Information Processing and Visualization Technology, School of Information Engineering, Xizang Minzu University, Xianyang 712082 (China); Huang, Shan; Liu, Song; Qing, Zhou [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Metallic Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China)

    2016-04-15

    Well-crystallized 3C-silicon carbide (SiC) grains/nanowires have been synthesized rapidly and conveniently via direct microwave heating, simply using silicon dioxide powders and artificial graphite as raw materials. The comprehensive characterizations have been employed to investigate the micro-structure of the obtained 3C-SiC products. Results indicated that, different from the classic screw dislocation growth mechanism, the 3C-SiC grains/nanowires synthesized via high-energy vacuum microwave irradiation were achieved through the two-dimension nucleation and laminar growth mechanism. Especially, the electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) was employed to characterize the crystal planes of the as-grown SiC products. The calculated Euler angles suggested that the fastest-growing crystal planes (211) were overlapped gradually. Through the formation of the (421) transformation plane, (211) finally evolved to (220) which existed as the side face of SiC grains. The most stable crystal planes (111) became the regular hexagonal planes in the end, which could be explained by the Bravais rule. The characterization results of EBSD provided important experimental information for the evolution of crystal planes. - Graphical abstract: The formation of 3C-SiC prepared via direct microwave heating follows the mechanism of two-dimension nucleation and laminar growth. - Highlights: • 3C−SiC grains/nanowires were obtained via direct microwave heating. • 3C−SiC followed the mechanism of two-dimension nucleation and laminar growth. • In-situ EBSD analysis provided the experimental evidences of the growth.

  11. Instantaneous Metabolic Cost of Walking: Joint-Space Dynamic Model with Subject-Specific Heat Rate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dustyn Roberts

    Full Text Available A subject-specific model of instantaneous cost of transport (ICOT is introduced from the joint-space formulation of metabolic energy expenditure using the laws of thermodynamics and the principles of multibody system dynamics. Work and heat are formulated in generalized coordinates as functions of joint kinematic and dynamic variables. Generalized heat rates mapped from muscle energetics are estimated from experimental walking metabolic data for the whole body, including upper-body and bilateral data synchronization. Identified subject-specific energetic parameters-mass, height, (estimated maximum oxygen uptake, and (estimated maximum joint torques-are incorporated into the heat rate, as opposed to the traditional in vitro and subject-invariant muscle parameters. The total model metabolic energy expenditure values are within 5.7 ± 4.6% error of the measured values with strong (R2 > 0.90 inter- and intra-subject correlations. The model reliably predicts the characteristic convexity and magnitudes (0.326-0.348 of the experimental total COT (0.311-0.358 across different subjects and speeds. The ICOT as a function of time provides insights into gait energetic causes and effects (e.g., normalized comparison and sensitivity with respect to walking speed and phase-specific COT, which are unavailable from conventional metabolic measurements or muscle models. Using the joint-space variables from commonly measured or simulated data, the models enable real-time and phase-specific evaluations of transient or non-periodic general tasks that use a range of (aerobic energy pathway similar to that of steady-state walking.

  12. Numerical renormalization group calculation of impurity internal energy and specific heat of quantum impurity models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merker, L.; Costi, T. A.

    2012-08-01

    We introduce a method to obtain the specific heat of quantum impurity models via a direct calculation of the impurity internal energy requiring only the evaluation of local quantities within a single numerical renormalization group (NRG) calculation for the total system. For the Anderson impurity model we show that the impurity internal energy can be expressed as a sum of purely local static correlation functions and a term that involves also the impurity Green function. The temperature dependence of the latter can be neglected in many cases, thereby allowing the impurity specific heat Cimp to be calculated accurately from local static correlation functions; specifically via Cimp=(∂Eionic)/(∂T)+(1)/(2)(∂Ehyb)/(∂T), where Eionic and Ehyb are the energies of the (embedded) impurity and the hybridization energy, respectively. The term involving the Green function can also be evaluated in cases where its temperature dependence is non-negligible, adding an extra term to Cimp. For the nondegenerate Anderson impurity model, we show by comparison with exact Bethe ansatz calculations that the results recover accurately both the Kondo induced peak in the specific heat at low temperatures as well as the high-temperature peak due to the resonant level. The approach applies to multiorbital and multichannel Anderson impurity models with arbitrary local Coulomb interactions. An application to the Ohmic two-state system and the anisotropic Kondo model is also given, with comparisons to Bethe ansatz calculations. The approach could also be of interest within other impurity solvers, for example, within quantum Monte Carlo techniques.

  13. Specific heat and magnetization of a ZrB12 single crystal: characterization of a type II/1 superconductor

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yuxing; Lortz, Rolf; Paderno, Yuriy; Filippov, Vladimir; Abe, Satoko; Tutsch, Ulrich; Junod, Alain

    2005-01-01

    We measured the specific heat, the magnetization, and the magnetoresistance of a single crystal of ZrB12, which is superconducting below Tc ~ 6 K. The specific heat in zero field shows a BCS-type superconducting transition. The normal- to superconducting-state transition changes from first order (with a latent heat) to second order (without latent heat) with increasing magnetic field, indicating that the pure compound is a low-kappa, type-II/1 superconductor in the classification of Auer and ...

  14. Physical Properties and Specific Heat Capacity of Tamarind (Tamarindus indica Seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dauda

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of moisture content on physical properties and specific heat capacity of Tamarindus indica seed. Physical properties investigated were axial dimensions, one thousand seed weight, bulk and true densities, porosity, roundness and sphericity, surface area, angle of repose and static coefficient of friction. The thermal property determined was the specific heat. These properties of Tamarindus indica seed were investigated within the moisture content range of 7.55 - 10.47% (d.b. The length, width and thickness increased from 9.979 to 10.634mm, 8.909 to 10.089mm and 5.039 to 5.658mm, respectively in the above moisture range. One thousand seed weight, surface area, seed volume, true density and porosity, increased from 388.4 to 394.8g, 86.916 to 87.58cm2, 0.353 to 0.366cm3, 1217.5 to 1287.00kg/m3 and 28.22 to 33.87%, respectively, as moisture content increased in the above range, while bulk density decreased from 873.9 to 851.4kg/m3. Roundness and sphericity, and angle of repose also increased from 41 to 42.4% and 73.7 to 76.3% and 36.1 to 38.93o, respectively. Specific heat capacity values increased linearly from 589.00J/kgK to 638.61 J/kgK in the above moisture range.

  15. Competing pseudogap and impurity effects on the normal-state specific heat properties of cuprate superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhumanov, S.; Karimboev, E. X.

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, we show that the pseudogap in the excitation spectra of high-Tc cuprates together with the impurity phase and charge inhomogeneity plays key roles in determining the essential features of their anomalous specific heat properties observed above Tc. We consider the doped cuprate superconductor as a multi-carrier model system (which consists of intrinsic and extrinsic polarons and pre-formed bosonic Cooper pairs) and study the competing pseudogap and impurity effects on the normal-state electronic specific heat of high-Tc cuprates taking into account charge inhomogeneities. We argue that unconventional electron-phonon interactions are responsible for the precursor Cooper pairing in the polaronic band below a mean-field temperature T∗ and the existence of a pseudogap above Tc in the cuprates. The electronic specific heat Ce(T) of doped cuprates below T∗ is calculated taking into account three contributions coming from the excited components of Cooper pairs, the ideal Bose-gas of incoherent Cooper pairs and the unpaired carriers in the impurity band. Above T∗, two contributions to Ce(T) coming from the unpaired intrinsic and extrinsic polarons are calculated within the two-component degenerate Fermi-gas model. By comparing our results with the experimental Ce(T) data obtained for La- and Y-based cuprates, we find that the observed behaviors of Ce(T) (below and above T∗) are similar to the calculated results for Ce(T) and the BCS-type jumps of Ce(T) at T∗ may be depressed by the impurity effects and may become more or less pronounced BCS-type anomalies in Ce(T) .

  16. Analysis of the phonon surface specific heat using Green function techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrico, A.S.; Albuquerque, E.L.

    1980-01-01

    Green functions are derived for the displacement associated with acoustic vibrations in isotropic elastic media and used to evaluate the surface specific heat in the harmonic approximation. We consider only the low-temperature limit case since, provided K B 1/h is very samll, we can replace the dispersion relation for the three acoustic branches by its long-wavelenghts form. The contributions of surface elastic waves ot the Rayleigh and Love types are pointed out and their features discussed. The nature of the result and their relations to previous work in this field is also presented and discussed. (author) [pt

  17. Pressure dependence of the specific heat of heavy-fermion YbCu4.5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amato, A.; Fisher, R.A.; Phillips, N.E.; Jaccard, D.; Walker, E.

    1990-03-01

    The specific heat of a polycrystalline sample of YbCu 4.5 has been measured between 0.3 and 20K at pressures to 8.2 kbar. Unlike cerium-based heavy-fermion compounds, an increase of C/T is observed with increasing pressure, with the linear term enhanced by about 16% at 8.2 kbar. Above 7K, (∂C/∂P) T is negative. The nuclear contribution observed at P = 0 is increased by roughly a factor of two at 8.2 kbar. 7 refs., 3 figs

  18. Analysis of the phonon surface specific heat using Green function techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Carrico, A. da; Albuquerque, E.L. de

    1981-01-01

    Green functions are derived for the displacement associated with acoustic vibrations in isotropic elastic media and used to evaluate the surface specific heat in the harmonic approximation. Only the low-temperature limit case is considered since, provided K sub(B) T/h is very small, the dispersion relation for the three acoustic branches can be replaced by its long-wavelenght form. The contributions of surface elastic waves of the Rayleigh and Love types are pointed out and their features discussed. The nature of the result and their relations to previous work in this field is also presented and discussed. (Author) [pt

  19. Specific heat of Ginzburg-Landau fields in the n-1 expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bray, A.J.

    1975-01-01

    The n -1 expansion for the specific heat C/subv/ of the n-component Ginzburg-Landau model is discussed in terms of an n -1 expansion for the irreducible polarization. In the low-temperature limit, each successive term of the latter expansion diverges more strongly than the last, invalidating a truncation of this series at any finite order in 1/n. The most divergent terms in each order are identified and summed. The results provide justification for the usual truncated expansions for C/subv/

  20. Dynamic properties of silica aerogels as deduced from specific-heat and thermal-conductivity measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernasconi, A.; Sleator, T.; Posselt, D.

    1992-01-01

    The specific heat C(p) and the thermal conductivity lambda of a series of base-catalyzed silica aerogels have been measured at temperatures between 0.05 and 20 K. The results confirm that the different length-scale regions observed in the aerogel structure are reflected in the dynamic behavior of...... SiO2 are most likely not due to fractal behavior....... the possibility of two spectral dimensions characterizing the fracton modes. Our data imply important differences between the physical mechanisms dominating the low-temperature behavior of aerogels and dense glasses, respectively. From our analysis we also conclude that the low-temperature properties of amorphous...

  1. Effects of phonon dimensionality in the specific heat of multiwall carbon nanotubes at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorge, Guillermo A; Bekeris, V; Acha, C; Escobar, M M; Goyanes, S; Zilli, D; Cukierman, A L; Candal, R J

    2009-01-01

    We have measured the specific heat at constant pressure, C p , of three different samples of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNT). For all samples, C p departs from a graphitic behavior at T p measurements show a temperature threshold from a linear regime for intermediate temperature to a higher-order power law for low temperatures. Moreover, it was found that this crossover only depends on the internal structure of the individual MWNT and not on the spatial order of the MWNT within a bundle.

  2. Low-temperature specific heat of the β-pyrochlore oxide superconductors under high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isono, T.; Iguchi, D.; Machida, Y.; Izawa, K.; Salce, B.; Flouquet, J.; Ogusu, H.; Yamaura, J.; Hiroi, Z.

    2011-01-01

    We report the results of the low-temperature specific heat measurements of the single crystalline β-pyrochlore oxide superconductors AOs 2O 6 (A=K, Rb, and Cs) under high pressure up to 13 GPa. We find that superconducting transition temperature ( Tc) monotonically increases for CsOs 2O 6 and RbOs 2O 6, while the one for KOs 2O 6 decreases by applying the pressure. With further increasing the pressure, Tc is suddenly suppressed at the same lattice volume for all compounds, concomitant with the first-order structural phase transition.

  3. Study of vibrational modes and specific heat of wurtzite phase of BN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Daljit, E-mail: daljit.jt@gmail.com; Sinha, M. M. [Department of Physics, SLIET, Longowal (India)

    2016-05-06

    In these days of nanotechnology the materials like BN is of utmost importance as in hexagonal phase it is among hardest materials. The phonon mode study of the materials is most important factor to find structural and thermodynamcal properties. To study the phonons de launey angular force (DAF) constant model is best suited as it involves many particle interactions. Therefore in this presentation we have studied the lattice dynamical properties and specific heat of BN in wurtzite phase using DAF model. The obtained results are in excellent agreement with existing results.

  4. Study of vibrational modes and specific heat of wurtzite phase of BN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Daljit; Sinha, M. M.

    2016-01-01

    In these days of nanotechnology the materials like BN is of utmost importance as in hexagonal phase it is among hardest materials. The phonon mode study of the materials is most important factor to find structural and thermodynamcal properties. To study the phonons de launey angular force (DAF) constant model is best suited as it involves many particle interactions. Therefore in this presentation we have studied the lattice dynamical properties and specific heat of BN in wurtzite phase using DAF model. The obtained results are in excellent agreement with existing results.

  5. Crystal-field and clustering effects in the specific heat of Dy in Pd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devine, R.A.B.; Jacques, P.; Poirier, M.

    1975-01-01

    Recent results of specific-heat measurements on dilute alloys of Dy in Pd are reanalyzed. Assuming the ionic ground state found from paramagnetic-resonance measurements, the Schottky-anomaly and cluster contributions are segregated and the crystal-field splitting of the ground and first-excited states is found to be in reasonable agreement with theoretical predictions. The nature of the cluster contribution is discussed and an upper limit to the range of the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida interaction deduced

  6. Anomalous Schottky specific heat and structural distortion in ferromagnetic PrAl2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Arjun K; Paudyal, D; Mudryk, Y; Gschneidner, K A; Pecharsky, V K

    2013-05-03

    Unique from other rare earth dialuminides, PrAl(2) undergoes a cubic to tetragonal distortion below T = 30 K in a zero magnetic field, but the system recovers its cubic symmetry upon the application of an external magnetic field of 10 kOe via a lifting of the 4f crystal field splitting. The nuclear Schottky specific heat in PrAl(2) is anomalously high compared to that of pure Pr metal. First principles calculations reveal that the 4f crystal field splitting in the tetragonally distorted phase of PrAl(2) underpins the observed unusual low temperature phenomena.

  7. Effects of phonon dimensionality in the specific heat of multiwall carbon nanotubes at low temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorge, Guillermo A; Bekeris, V; Acha, C [Laboratorio de Bajas Temperaturas, Departamento de Fisica, FCEyN-UBA, Pab. 1, Ciudad Universitaria (1428), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Escobar, M M; Goyanes, S [Laboratorio de Polimeros y Materiales Compuestos, Departamento de Fisica, FCEyN-UBA, Pab. 1, Ciudad Universitaria (1428), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Zilli, D; Cukierman, A L [PINMATE, Departamento de Industrias, FCEyN-UBA, Pab. Industrias, Ciudad Universitaria (1428), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Candal, R J, E-mail: gjorge@df.uba.a [Instituto de Fisicoquimica de Materiales, Ambiente y EnergIa, CONICET-UBA, Ciudad Universitaria (1428) Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2009-05-01

    We have measured the specific heat at constant pressure, C{sub p}, of three different samples of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNT). For all samples, C{sub p} departs from a graphitic behavior at T < 120 K. C{sub p} measurements show a temperature threshold from a linear regime for intermediate temperature to a higher-order power law for low temperatures. Moreover, it was found that this crossover only depends on the internal structure of the individual MWNT and not on the spatial order of the MWNT within a bundle.

  8. Do Specific Growth Drivers Exist for Firms? A Regional Analysis of Start-ups and Industrial Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAUL I. OJEAGA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of start-ups, have remained largely a micro economic issue. Firms are the key drivers of industrial sector GDP (or enterprise growth in countries across regions. Few studies have tried to examine the consequence of start-ups in the broad macroeconomics terms on enterprise growth in general with special emphasis on industrial sector output. This study provides a macroeconomic study of the effect of start- ups on industrial sector growth for countries in some specific geographical regions of the world. Panel data is utilized due to it obvious advantages such its ability to utilize a panel of short time frames and its suitability for controlling for omitted variable bias and unobservable heterogeneity across regions. The results show that start-ups remain an intrinsic variable for enterprise growth and industrial sector output discussion in general.

  9. Effects of heat loss as percentage of fuel's energy, friction and variable specific heats of working fluid on performance of air standard Otto cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, J.-C.; Hou, S.-S.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the effects of heat loss characterized by a percentage of the fuel's energy, friction and variable specific heats of working fluid on the performance of an air standard Otto cycle with a restriction of maximum cycle temperature. A more realistic and precise relationship between the fuel's chemical energy and the heat leakage that is based on a pair of inequalities is derived through the resulting temperature. The variations in power output and thermal efficiency with compression ratio, and the relations between the power output and the thermal efficiency of the cycle are presented. The results show that the power output as well as the efficiency where maximum power output occurs will increase with increase of the maximum cycle temperature. The temperature dependent specific heats of the working fluid have a significant influence on the performance. The power output and the working range of the cycle increase with the increase of specific heats of the working fluid, while the efficiency decreases with the increase of specific heats of the working fluid. The friction loss has a negative effect on the performance. Therefore, the power output and efficiency of the cycle decrease with increasing friction loss. It is noteworthy that the effects of heat loss characterized by a percentage of the fuel's energy, friction and variable specific heats of the working fluid on the performance of an Otto cycle engine are significant and should be considered in practical cycle analysis. The results obtained in the present study are of importance to provide good guidance for performance evaluation and improvement of practical Otto engines

  10. Exposure of Lactating Dairy Cows to Acute Pre-Ovulatory Heat Stress Affects Granulosa Cell-Specific Gene Expression Profiles in Dominant Follicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanselow, Jens; Vernunft, Andreas; Koczan, Dirk; Spitschak, Marion; Kuhla, Björn

    2016-01-01

    High environmental temperatures induce detrimental effects on various reproductive processes in cattle. According to the predicted global warming the number of days with unfavorable ambient temperatures will further increase. The objective of this study was to investigate effects of acute heat stress during the late pre-ovulatory phase on morphological, physiological and molecular parameters of dominant follicles in cycling cows during lactation. Eight German Holstein cows in established lactation were exposed to heat stress (28°C) or thermoneutral conditions (15°C) with pair-feeding for four days. After hormonal heat induction growth of the respective dominant follicles was monitored by ultrasonography for two days, then an ovulatory GnRH dose was given and follicular steroid hormones and granulosa cell-specific gene expression profiles were determined 23 hrs thereafter. The data showed that the pre-ovulatory growth of dominant follicles and the estradiol, but not the progesterone concentrations tended to be slightly affected. mRNA microarray and hierarchical cluster analysis revealed distinct expression profiles in granulosa cells derived from heat stressed compared to pair-fed animals. Among the 255 affected genes heatstress-, stress- or apoptosis associated genes were not present. But instead, we found up-regulation of genes essentially involved in G-protein coupled signaling pathways, extracellular matrix composition, and several members of the solute carrier family as well as up-regulation of FST encoding follistatin. In summary, the data of the present study show that acute pre-ovulatory heat stress can specifically alter gene expression profiles in granulosa cells, however without inducing stress related genes and pathways and suggestively can impair follicular growth due to affecting the activin-inhibin-follistatin system. PMID:27532452

  11. On calculation of difference in specific heats at constant pressure and constant volume using an empiric Nernst-Lindeman equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leont'ev, K.L.

    1981-01-01

    Known theoretical and empirical formulae are considered for the difference in specific heats at constant pressure and volume. On the basis of the Grunaiser law on the ratio of specific heat to thermal expansion and on the basis of the correlation proposed by the author, between this ratio and average velocity of elastic waves obtained in a new expression for the difference in specific heats and determined are conditions at which empiric Nernst-Lindeman equation can be considered to be strict. Results of calculations for metals with fcc lattice are presented

  12. Growth-Phase Sterigmatocystin Formation on Lactose Is Mediated via Low Specific Growth Rates in Aspergillus nidulans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltán Németh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Seed contamination with polyketide mycotoxins such as sterigmatocystin (ST produced by Aspergilli is a worldwide issue. The ST biosynthetic pathway is well-characterized in A. nidulans, but regulatory aspects related to the carbon source are still enigmatic. This is particularly true for lactose, inasmuch as some ST production mutant strains still synthesize ST on lactose but not on other carbon substrates. Here, kinetic data revealed that on d-glucose, ST forms only after the sugar is depleted from the medium, while on lactose, ST appears when most of the carbon source is still available. Biomass-specified ST production on lactose was significantly higher than on d-glucose, suggesting that ST formation may either be mediated by a carbon catabolite regulatory mechanism, or induced by low specific growth rates attainable on lactose. These hypotheses were tested by d-glucose limited chemostat-type continuous fermentations. No ST formed at a high growth rate, while a low growth rate led to the formation of 0.4 mg·L−1 ST. Similar results were obtained with a CreA mutant strain. We concluded that low specific growth rates may be the primary cause of mid-growth ST formation on lactose in A. nidulans, and that carbon utilization rates likely play a general regulatory role during biosynthesis.

  13. Neutron diffraction, specific heat and magnetic susceptibility of Ni3(PO4)2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escobal, J.; Pizarro, J.L.; Mesa, J.L.; Rojo, J.M.; Bazan, B.; Arriortua, M.I.; Rojo, T.

    2005-01-01

    The Ni 3 (PO 4 ) 2 phosphate was synthesized by the ceramic method in air atmosphere. The crystal structure consists of a three-dimensional skeleton constructed from Ni 3 O 14 edge-sharing octahedra, which are interconnected by (PO 4 ) 3- oxoanions with tetrahedral geometry. The magnetic behavior was studied on powdered sample by using susceptibility, specific heat and neutron diffraction data. The nickel(II) orthophosphate exhibits a three-dimensional magnetic ordering at approximately 17.1 K. However, its complex crystal structure hampers any parametrization of the J-exchange parameter. The specific heat measurements of Ni 3 (PO 4 ) 2 exhibit a three-dimensional magnetic ordering (λ-type) peak at 17.1 K. Measurements above T N suggest the presence of a small short-range order in this phase. The total magnetic entropy was found to be 28.1 KJ/mol at 50 K. The magnetic structure of the nickel(II) phosphate exhibits ferromagnetic interactions inside the Ni 3 O 14 trimers which are antiferromagnetically coupled between them, giving rise to a purely antiferromagnetic structure

  14. Magnetic susceptibility, specific heat and magnetic structure of CuNi2(PO4)2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escobal, Jaione; Pizarro, Jose L.; Mesa, Jose L.; Larranaga, Aitor; Fernandez, Jesus Rodriguez; Arriortua, Maria I.; Rojo, Teofilo

    2006-01-01

    The CuNi 2 (PO 4 ) 2 phosphate has been synthesized by the ceramic method at 800 deg. C in air. The crystal structure consists of a three-dimensional skeleton constructed from MO 4 (M II =Cu and Ni) planar squares and M 2 O 8 dimers with square pyramidal geometry, which are interconnected by (PO 4 ) 3- oxoanions with tetrahedral geometry. The magnetic behavior has been studied on powdered sample by using susceptibility, specific heat and neutron diffraction data. The bimetallic copper(II)-nickel(II) orthophosphate exhibits a three-dimensional magnetic ordering at, approximately, 29.8 K. However, its complex crystal structure hampers any parametrization of the J-exchange parameter. The specific heat measurements exhibit a three-dimensional magnetic ordering (λ-type) peak at 29.5 K. The magnetic structure of this phosphate shows ferromagnetic interactions inside the Ni 2 O 8 dimers, whereas the sublattice of Cu(II) ions presents antiferromagnetic couplings along the y-axis. The change of the sign in the magnetic unit-cell, due to the [1/2, 0, 1/2] propagation vector determines a purely antiferromagnetic structure. - Graphical abstract: Magnetic structure of CuNi2(PO4)2

  15. Unusual specific heat of almost dry L-cysteine and L-cystine amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, M S; Lima, T A; Ferreira, F F; Martinho, H S

    2015-03-01

    A detailed quantitative analysis of the specific heat in the 0.5- to 200-K temperature range for almost dry L-cysteine and its dimer, L-cystine, amino acids is presented. We report the occurrence of a sharp first-order transition at ∼76 K for L-cysteine associated with the thiol group ordering which was successfully modeled with the two-dimensional Ising model. We demonstrated that quantum rotors, two-level systems (TLS), Einstein oscillators, and acoustic phonons (the Debye model) are essential ingredients to correctly describe the overall experimental data. Our analysis pointed out the absence of the TLS contribution to the low temperature specific heat of L-cysteine. This result was similar to that found in other noncrystalline amorphous materials, e.g., amorphous silicon, low density amorphous water, and ultrastable glasses. L-cystine presented an unusual nonlinear acoustic dispersion relation ω(q)=vq0.95 and a Maxwell-Boltzmann-type distribution of tunneling barriers. The presence of Einstein oscillators with ΘE∼70 K was common in both systems and adequately modeled the boson peak contributions.

  16. Numerical Simulation of Vapor Bubble Growth and Heat Transfer in a Thin Liquid Film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu-Jia, Tao; Xiu-Lan, Huai; Zhi-Gang, Li

    2009-01-01

    A mathematical model is developed to investigate the dynamics of vapor bubble growth in a thin liquid film, movement of the interface between two fluids and the surface heat transfer characteristics. The model takes into account the effects of phase change between the vapor and liquid, gravity, surface tension and viscosity. The details of the multiphase now and heat transfer are discussed for two cases: (1) when a water micro-droplet impacts a thin liquid film with a vapor bubble growing and (2) when the vapor bubble grows and merges with the vapor layer above the liquid film without the droplet impacting. The development trend of the interface between the vapor and liquid is coincident qualitatively with the available literature, mostly at the first stage. We also provide an important method to better understand the mechanism of nucleate spray cooling. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))

  17. First and Second-Law Efficiency Analysis and ANN Prediction of a Diesel Cycle with Internal Irreversibility, Variable Specific Heats, Heat Loss, and Friction Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Rashidi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The variability of specific heats, internal irreversibility, heat and frictional losses are neglected in air-standard analysis for different internal combustion engine cycles. In this paper, the performance of an air-standard Diesel cycle with considerations of internal irreversibility described by using the compression and expansion efficiencies, variable specific heats, and losses due to heat transfer and friction is investigated by using finite-time thermodynamics. Artificial neural network (ANN is proposed for predicting the thermal efficiency and power output values versus the minimum and the maximum temperatures of the cycle and also the compression ratio. Results show that the first-law efficiency and the output power reach their maximum at a critical compression ratio for specific fixed parameters. The first-law efficiency increases as the heat leakage decreases; however the heat leakage has no direct effect on the output power. The results also show that irreversibilities have depressing effects on the performance of the cycle. Finally, a comparison between the results of the thermodynamic analysis and the ANN prediction shows a maximum difference of 0.181% and 0.194% in estimating the thermal efficiency and the output power. The obtained results in this paper can be useful for evaluating and improving the performance of practical Diesel engines.

  18. Switching Vertical to Horizontal Graphene Growth Using Faraday Cage-Assisted PECVD Approach for High-Performance Transparent Heating Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yue; Deng, Bing; Guo, Xiao; Chen, Shulin; Gao, Jing; Li, Tianran; Dou, Zhipeng; Ci, Haina; Sun, Jingyu; Chen, Zhaolong; Wang, Ruoyu; Cui, Lingzhi; Chen, Xudong; Chen, Ke; Wang, Huihui; Wang, Sheng; Gao, Peng; Rummeli, Mark H; Peng, Hailin; Zhang, Yanfeng; Liu, Zhongfan

    2018-02-01

    Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) is an applicable route to achieve low-temperature growth of graphene, typically shaped like vertical nanowalls. However, for transparent electronic applications, the rich exposed edges and high specific surface area of vertical graphene (VG) nanowalls can enhance the carrier scattering and light absorption, resulting in high sheet resistance and low transmittance. Thus, the synthesis of laid-down graphene (LG) is imperative. Here, a Faraday cage is designed to switch graphene growth in PECVD from the vertical to the horizontal direction by weakening ion bombardment and shielding electric field. Consequently, laid-down graphene is synthesized on low-softening-point soda-lime glass (6 cm × 10 cm) at ≈580 °C. This is hardly realized through the conventional PECVD or the thermal chemical vapor deposition methods with the necessity of high growth temperature (1000 °C-1600 °C). Laid-down graphene glass has higher transparency, lower sheet resistance, and much improved macroscopic uniformity when compare to its vertical graphene counterpart and it performs better in transparent heating devices. This will inspire the next-generation applications in low-cost transparent electronics. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Specific heat measurements of TiB2 and 6LiF from 0.5 to 30 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, Brian E.; Donaldson, Marcus H.; Woodfield, Brian F.; Burger, Arnold; Roy, Utupal N.; Lamberti, Vincent; Bell, Zane W.

    2005-01-01

    The specific heats of TiB 2 and 6 LiF have been measured from 0.5 to 30 K as part of a larger project in the construction of a neutron spectrometer. For this application, the measured specific heats were used to extrapolate the specific heats down to 0.1 K with lattice, electronic, and Schottky equations for the respective samples. The resultant specific heat values at 0.1 K for TiB 2 and 6 LiF are 4.08 x 10 -4 ± 0.27 x 10 -4 J/K/mol and 9.19 x 10 -9 ± 0.15 x 10 -9 J/K/mol, respectively

  20. Investigate the effect of anisotropic order parameter on the specific heat of anisotropic two-band superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udomsamuthirun, P.; Peamsuwan, R.; Kumvongsa, C.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of anisotropic order parameter on the specific heat of anisotropic two-band superconductors in BCS weak-coupling limit is investigated. An analytical specific heat jump and the numerical specific heat are shown by using anisotropic order parameters, and the electron-phonon interaction and non-electron-phonon interaction. The two models of anisotropic order parameters are used for numerical calculation that we find little effect on the numerical results. The specific heat jump of MgB 2 , Lu 2 Fe 3 Si 5 and Nb 3 Sn superconductors can fit well with both of them. By comparing the experimental data with overall range of temperature, the best fit is Nb 3 Sn, MgB 2 , and Lu 2 Fe 3 Si 5 superconductors.

  1. Compact Representation for Specific Heat of Interacting Fermion Systems in Terms of Fully Renormalized Matsubara Green Function

    OpenAIRE

    Miyake, Kazumasa; Tsuruta, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of the Luttinger-Ward formalism for the thermodynamic potential, the specific heat of single-component interacting fermion systems with fixed chemical potential is compactly expressed in terms of the fully renormalized Matsubara Green function.

  2. The rapid growth of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes using laser heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J B; Jeong, S H; Jeong, M S; Lim, S C; Lee, I H; Lee, Y H

    2009-05-06

    Growth of densely packed vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VA-CNTs) using laser-induced chemical vapor deposition with visible laser (lambda = 532 nm) irradiation at room temperature is reported. Using a multiple-catalyst layer (Fe/Al/Cr) on quartz as the substrate and an acetylene-hydrogen mixture as the precursor gas, VA-CNT pillars with 60 microm height and 4 microm diameter were grown at a high rate of around 1 microm s(-1) with good reproducibility. It is demonstrated that the fabrication of uniform pillar arrays of VA-CNTs can be achieved with a single irradiation for each pillar using LCVD with no annealing or preprocessing of the substrate. Here, laser fast heating is considered the primary mechanism facilitating the growth of VA-CNT pillars. Field emission characteristics of an array of VA-CNT pillars were then examined to investigate their potential application in vacuum electronic devices.

  3. Heat stress and recovery of photosystem II efficiency in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars acclimated to different growth temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haque, Sabibul; Kjær, Katrine Heinsvig; Rosenqvist, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The effect of heat stress on photosystem II (PS II) efficiency and post-stress recovery was studied in four wheat cultivars using chlorophyll fluorescence. The main aim was to examine the cultivar differences in relation to inhibition and recovery of PSII functionality after heat stress...... and 25 °C) and subjected to heat stress (40 °C) for two days at early tillering and three days at anthesis and early grain development stages. The plants were returned to their original growth conditions after heat stress and recovery was observed for three days. The maximum photochemical efficiency (Fv...... heat tolerance characteristics as compared to the other three cultivars. The largest decrease in Fv/Fm and F′q/F′m after heat stress occurred in the cultivar PWS7, which did not recover completely after 72 h. All cultivars grown at 25 °C had a slightly increased heat tolerance and better recovery...

  4. Heat flux measurements of Tb{sub 3}M series (M=Co, Rh and Ru): Specific heat and magnetocaloric properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, J.C.B., E-mail: jolmiui@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, Campinas, SP 13083-859 (Brazil); Lombardi, G.A. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, Campinas, SP 13083-859 (Brazil); Reis, R.D. dos [Max-Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, Nöthnitzer Str. 40, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Freitas, H.E.; Cardoso, L.P.; Mansanares, A.M.; Gandra, F.G. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, Campinas, SP 13083-859 (Brazil)

    2016-12-15

    We report on the magnetic properties and magnetocaloric effect (MCE) for the Tb{sub 3}M series, with M=Co, Rh and Ru, obtained using a heat flux technique. The specific heat of Tb{sub 3}Co and Tb{sub 3}Rh are very similar, with a first order type transition occurring around 6 K below the magnetic ordering temperature without any corresponding feature on the magnetization. The slightly enhanced electronic specific heat, the Debye temperature around 150 K and the presence of the magnetic specific heat well above the ordering temperature are also characteristic of many other compounds of the R{sub 3}M family (R=Rare Earth). The specific heat for Tb{sub 3}Ru, however, presents two peaks at 37 K and 74 K. The magnetization shows that below the first peak the system presents an antiferromagnetic behavior and is paramagnetic above 74 K. We obtained a magnetocaloric effect for M=Co and Rh, −∆S=12 J/kg K, but for Tb{sub 3}Ru it is less than 3 J/kg K (μ{sub 0}∆H=5 T). We believe that the experimental results show that the MCE is directly related with the process of hybridization of the (R)5d-(M)d electrons that occurs in the R{sub 3}M materials.

  5. Enhanced specific heat capacity of molten salt-based nanomaterials: Effects of nanoparticle dispersion and solvent material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Byeongnam; Banerjee, Debjyoti

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of nanoparticle dispersion on the specific heat capacity for carbonate salt mixtures doped with graphite nanoparticles. The effect of the solvent material was also examined. Binary carbonate salt mixtures consisting of lithium carbonate and potassium carbonate were used as the base material for the graphite nanomaterial. The different dispersion uniformity of the nanoparticles was created by employing two distinct synthesis protocols for the nanomaterial. Different scanning calorimetry was employed to measure the specific heat capacity in both solid and liquid phases. The results showed that doping the molten salt mixture with the graphite nanoparticles significantly raised the specific heat capacity, even in minute concentrations of graphite nanoparticles. Moreover, greater enhancement in the specific heat capacity was observed from the nanomaterial samples with more homogeneous dispersion of the nanoparticles. A molecular dynamics simulation was also performed for the nanomaterials used in the specific heat capacity measurements to explain the possible mechanisms for the enhanced specific heat capacity, including the compressed layering and the species concentration of liquid solvent molecules

  6. Specific heat and magnetic properties of single-crystalline ZnxDyyCrzSe4 spinels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jendrzejewska, Izabela; Groń, Tadeusz; Maciążek, Ewa; Duda, Henryk; Kubisztal, Marian; Ślebarski, Andrzej; Pietrasik, Ewa; Fijałkowski, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    The crystal structure, magnetic isotherm, magnetic susceptibility, electrical conductivity and specific heat measurements for single-crystalline Zn x Dy y Cr z Se 4 (where x+y+z≈3) spinels are presented. A semiconducting behavior with the activation energy of 0.53 eV, an antiferromagnetic order with a Néel temperature T N =22 K and a strong ferromagnetic exchange evidenced by a positive Curie–Weiss temperature θ=79, 71 and 70 K with increasing Dy-content in the sequence 0.05, 0.13 and 0.19 were established. Below T N the magnetic field dependence of magnetization, M(H), shows two peaks at critical fields H c1 and H c2 . The values of H c1 decrease slightly with temperature, especially for the larger Dy-content, while the values of H c2 drop rapidly with temperature. The magnetic contribution to the specific heat displays a sharp peak at T N , which is strongly shifted to much lower temperatures in the applied magnetic fields. Similar behavior was found for the temperature dependence of the specific heat C(T) plotted as C(T)/T vs. T. The value of the magnetic and phonon contribution to the entropy at T N and at H=0 is only ∼4.8, ∼4.4 and ∼4.2 J mol −1 K −1 /Cr 3+ for y=0.05, 0.13 and 0.19, respectively, much lower than the average magnetic contribution S m =(z/2)Rln(2S+1)=12.33 J mol −1 K −1 /Cr 3+ calculated for Cr 3+ ion with S=3/2, as the dysprosium one is paramagnetic. - Highlights: • Dy-substitution does not affect the Cr 3+ 3d 3 electronic configuration and AFM order. • The larger Dy-content, the smaller FM short-range interactions. • The magnetic and phonon contribution to the entropy decreases as Dy-content increases.

  7. Method to reduce non-specific tissue heating of small animals in solenoid coils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ananda; Attaluri, Anilchandra; Mallipudi, Rajiv; Cornejo, Christine; Bordelon, David; Armour, Michael; Morua, Katherine; Deweese, Theodore L; Ivkov, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Solenoid coils that generate time-varying or alternating magnetic fields (AMFs) are used in biomedical devices for research, imaging and therapy. Interactions of AMF and tissue produce eddy currents that deposit power within tissue, thus limiting effectiveness and safety. We aim to develop methods that minimise excess heating of mice exposed to AMFs for cancer therapy experiments. Numerical and experimental data were obtained to characterise thermal management properties of water using a continuous, custom water jacket in a four-turn simple solenoid. Theoretical data were obtained with method-of-moments (MoM) numerical field calculations and finite element method (FEM) thermal simulations. Experimental data were obtained from gel phantoms and mice exposed to AMFs having amplitude >50 kA/m and frequency of 160 kHz. Water has a high specific heat and thermal conductivity, is diamagnetic, polar, and nearly transparent to magnetic fields. We report at least a two-fold reduction of temperature increase from gel phantom and animal models when a continuous layer of circulating water was placed between the sample and solenoid, compared with no water. Thermal simulations indicate the superior efficiency in thermal management by the developed continuous single chamber cooling system over a double chamber non-continuous system. Further reductions of heating were obtained by regulating water temperature and flow for active cooling. These results demonstrate the potential value of a contiguous layer of circulating water to permit sustained exposure to high intensity alternating magnetic fields at this frequency for research using small animal models exposed to AMFs.

  8. Specifics of heat and mass transfer in spherical dimples under the effect of external factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchukin, A. V.; Il'inkov, A. V.; Takmovtsev, V. V.; Khabibullin, I. I.

    2017-06-01

    The specifics are examined of heat transfer enhancement with spherical dimples under the effect of factors important for practice and characteristic of cooling systems of gas-turbine engines and power units. This experimental investigation deals with the effect of the following factors on the flow in a channel with hemispherical dimples: continuous air swirl in an annulus with dimples on its concave wall, dimples on the convex or concave wall of a curved rectangular channel, imposition of regular velocity fluctuations on the external flow in a straight rectangular channel, and adverse or favorable pressure gradient along the flow direction. The flow is turbulent. Reynolds numbers based on the channel hydraulic diameter are on the order of 104. Results of the investigation of a model of a two-cavity diffuser dimple proposed by the authors are presented. It has been found that results for channels with spherical dimples and for smooth channels differ not only quantitatively but also qualitatively. Thus, if the effect of centrifugal mass forces on convex and concave surfaces with hemispherical dimples and in a smooth channel is almost the same (quantitative and qualitative indicators are identical), the pressure gradient in the flow direction brings about the drastically opposite results. At the same time, the quantitative contribution to a change in heat transfer in hemispherical dimples is different and depends on the impact type. The results are discussed with the use of physical models created on the basis of the results of flow visualization studies and data on the turbulence intensity, pressure coefficient, etc. Results of the investigations suggest that application of spherical dimples under nonstandard conditions requires the calculated heat transfer to be corrected to account for one or another effect.

  9. Control of heat transfer in continuous-feeding Czochralski-silicon crystal growth with a water-cooled jacket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenhan; Liu, Lijun

    2017-01-01

    The continuous-feeding Czochralski method is an effective method to reduce the cost of single crystal silicon. By promoting the crystal growth rate, the cost can be reduced further. However, more latent heat will be released at the melt-crystal interface under a high crystal growth rate. In this study, a water-cooled jacket was applied to enhance the heat transfer at the melt-crystal interface. Quasi-steady-state numerical calculation was employed to investigate the impact of the water-cooled jacket on the heat transfer at the melt-crystal interface. Latent heat released during the crystal growth process at the melt-crystal interface and absorbed during feedstock melting at the feeding zone was modeled in the simulations. The results show that, by using the water-cooled jacket, heat transfer in the growing crystal is enhanced significantly. Melt-crystal interface deflection and thermal stress increase simultaneously due to the increase of radial temperature at the melt-crystal interface. With a modified heat shield design, heat transfer at the melt-crystal interface is well controlled. The crystal growth rate can be increased by 20%.

  10. Rapid growth of ZnO hexagonal prism crystals by direct microwave heating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Zhenqi; ZHOU Jian; LIU Guizhen; REN Zhiguo

    2008-01-01

    ZnO hexagonal prism crystals were synthesized from ZnO powders by microwave heating in a short time (within 20 min) without any metal catalyst or transport agent.Zinc oxide raw materials were made by evaporating from the high-temperature zone in an enclosure atmosphere and crystals were grown on the self-source substrate.The inherent asymmetry in microwave heating provides the temperature gradient for crystal growth.Substrate and temperature distribution in the oven show significant effects on the growth of the ZnO crystal.The morphologies demonstrate that these samples are pure hexagonal prism crystals with maximum 80 μm in diameter and 600 μm in length,which possess a well faceted end and side surface.X-ray diffraction (XRD) reveals that these samples are pure crystals.The photoluminescence (PL) exhibits strong ultraviolet emission at room temperature,indicating potential applications for short-wave light-emitting photonic devices.

  11. Single-cell analysis of S. cerevisiae growth recovery after a sublethal heat-stress applied during an alcoholic fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibayrenc, Pierre; Preziosi-Belloy, Laurence; Ghommidh, Charles

    2011-06-01

    Interest in bioethanol production has experienced a resurgence in the last few years. Poor temperature control in industrial fermentation tanks exposes the yeast cells used for this production to intermittent heat stress which impairs fermentation efficiency. Therefore, there is a need for yeast strains with improved tolerance, able to recover from such temperature variations. Accordingly, this paper reports the development of methods for the characterization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae growth recovery after a sublethal heat stress. Single-cell measurements were carried out in order to detect cell-to-cell variability. Alcoholic batch fermentations were performed on a defined medium in a 2 l instrumented bioreactor. A rapid temperature shift from 33 to 43 °C was applied when ethanol concentration reached 50 g l⁻¹. Samples were collected at different times after the temperature shift. Single cell growth capability, lag-time and initial growth rate were determined by monitoring the growth of a statistically significant number of cells after agar medium plating. The rapid temperature shift resulted in an immediate arrest of growth and triggered a progressive loss of cultivability from 100 to 0.0001% within 8 h. Heat-injured cells were able to recover their growth capability on agar medium after a lag phase. Lag-time was longer and more widely distributed as the time of heat exposure increased. Thus, lag-time distribution gives an insight into strain sensitivity to heat-stress, and could be helpful for the selection of yeast strains of technological interest.

  12. Specific heat of S=1 quasi-1D antiferromagnet NDMAP in magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujii, H.; Honda, Z.; Andraka, B.; Katsumata, K.; Takano, Y.

    2003-01-01

    NDMAP, Ni(C 5 H 14 N 2 ) 2 N 3 (PF 6 ), is a quasi-one-dimensional S=1 Heisenberg antiferromagnet with Haldane-gap energies of 22 and 5.5 K for excitations polarized parallel and perpendicular to the chain c-axis, respectively. We have extended the specific-heat measurements by Honda et al. in this compound to 150 mK in temperature and 18 T in magnetic field, employing a novel relaxation calorimeter. The experiment provides an accurate determination of the exponent for the transition line for the field-assisted ordered phase. In addition, a new feature has been found in the phase diagram at around 14 T

  13. Electron spectroscopic evidence of electron correlation in Ni-Pt alloys: comparison with specific heat measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Nahm, T U; Kim, J Y; Oh, S J

    2003-01-01

    We have performed photoemission spectroscopy of Ni-Pt alloys to understand the origin of the discrepancy between the experimental linear coefficient of specific heat gamma and that predicted by band theory. We found that the quasiparticle density of states at the Fermi level deduced from photoemission measurement is in agreement with the experimental value of gamma, if we include the electron correlation effect. It was also found that the Ni 2p core level satellite intensity increases as Ni content is reduced, indicating a strong electron correlation effect which can enhance the quasiparticle effective mass considerably. This supports our conclusion that electron correlation is the most probable reason of disagreement of gamma between experiment and band theory.

  14. Field-orientation dependence of the specific heat of PrOs4Sb12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Custers, Jeroen; Namai, Yukie; Tayama, Takashi; Sakakibara, Toshiro; Sugawara, Hitoshi; Aoki, Yuji; Sato, Hideyuki

    2006-01-01

    The superconducting (SC) gap of the Pr-based skutterudite PrOs 4 Sb 12 has been investigated by means of field-angle-dependent specific heat C(H,φ) experiments. At fixed temperatures, H was varied and rotated in the basal planes. A 4-fold oscillation of C(H,φ) is observed in the entire H-T SC phase diagram. The minima are located along the [100] directions suggesting the excistence of gap nodes or minima along these directions. The oscillation amplitude vertical bar A vertical bar becomes maximum at H/H c2 ∼0.3. Below, vertical bar A vertical bar->0. The temperature variation of vertical bar A vertical bar follows a quadratic dependence

  15. Specific-heat measurement of single metallic, carbon, and ceramic fibers at very high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradere, C.; Goyheneche, J.M.; Batsale, J.C.; Dilhaire, S.; Pailler, R.

    2005-01-01

    The main objective of this work is to present a method for measuring the specific heat of single metallic, carbon, and ceramic fibers at very high temperature. The difficulty of the measurement is due to the microscale of the fiber (≅10 μm) and the important range of temperature (700-2700 K). An experimental device, a modelization of the thermal behavior, and an analytic model have been developed. A discussion on the measurement accuracy yields a global uncertainty lower than 10%. The characterization of a tungsten filament with thermal properties identical to those of the bulk allows the validation of the device and the thermal estimation method. Finally, measurements on carbon and ceramic fibers have been done at very high temperature

  16. Modelling of Dynamic Transmission Cable Temperature Considering Soil-Specific Heat, Thermal Resistivity, and Precipitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rasmus; Anders, George J.; Holboell, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm for the estimation of the time-dependent temperature evolution of power cables, when real-time temperature measurements of the cable surface or a point within its vicinity are available. The thermal resistivity and specific heat of the cable surroundings are varied...... as functions of the moisture content which is known to vary with time. Furthermore, issues related to the cooling effect during rainy weather are considered. The algorithm is based on the lumped parameters model and takes as input distributed temperature sensing measurements as well as the current and ambient...... temperature. The concept is verified by studying a laboratory setup of a 245 kV cable system....

  17. Specific heat of single crystalline YBa2Cu3O7 in 20 Tesla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonjour, E.; Calemczuk, R.; Henry, J.Y.; Muller, J.; Triscone, G.; Vallier, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    The specific heat of a single crystal of YBa 2 Cu 3 0 7 is measured from 40 to 150 K in magnetic fields up to 20 Tesla applied either parallel or normal to the c axis. Adiabatic calorimetry with a scatter well below 0.1% is used. The scaling of the superconducting transitions determines the bulk anisotropy ratio 5.5±0.5. A Maki-like term is observed at intermediate temperatures. The unusual behaviour of YBa 2 Cu 3 0 7 in a field, featuring a considerable smearing of the transition and an apparently field-independent onset, may be qualitatively understood as a phenomenological consequence of the small and anisotropic value of the coherence length alone, using the relevant models of field-induced critical I-D fluctuations on one hand, and London-like regime for the mean-field part of the transition on the other hand

  18. Using specific heat to scan gaps and anisotropy of MgB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouquet, F.; Wang, Y.; Toulemonde, P.; Guritanu, V.; Junod, A.; Eisterer, M.; Weber, H.W.; Lee, S.; Tajima, S.

    2004-01-01

    We performed specific heat measurements to study the superconducting properties of the ∼40 K superconductor MgB 2 , up to 16 T, using polycrystal and single crystal samples. Our results establish the validity of the two-gap model. We tested the effect of disorder by irradiating our sample. This procedure decreased T c down to ∼26 K, but did not suppress completely the smaller gap, at variance with theoretical expectations. A positive effect of the irradiation was the increase of H c2 up to almost 30 T. Our results on the single crystal allow the anisotropy of each band to be determined independently, and show the existence of a cross-over field well below H c2 characterizing the physics of the small-gapped band. We also present preliminary results on Nb 3 Sn, showing similar, but weaker effects

  19. Using specific heat to scan gaps and anisotropy of MgB{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouquet, F.; Wang, Y.; Toulemonde, P.; Guritanu, V.; Junod, A.; Eisterer, M.; Weber, H.W.; Lee, S.; Tajima, S

    2004-08-01

    We performed specific heat measurements to study the superconducting properties of the {approx}40 K superconductor MgB{sub 2}, up to 16 T, using polycrystal and single crystal samples. Our results establish the validity of the two-gap model. We tested the effect of disorder by irradiating our sample. This procedure decreased T{sub c} down to {approx}26 K, but did not suppress completely the smaller gap, at variance with theoretical expectations. A positive effect of the irradiation was the increase of H{sub c2} up to almost 30 T. Our results on the single crystal allow the anisotropy of each band to be determined independently, and show the existence of a cross-over field well below H{sub c2} characterizing the physics of the small-gapped band. We also present preliminary results on Nb{sub 3}Sn, showing similar, but weaker effects.

  20. Specific heat of single crystalline YBa2Cu3O7 in 20 Tesla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junod, A.; Bonjour, E.; Calemczuk, R.; Henry, J.Y.; Muller, J.; Triscone, G.; Vallier, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    The specific heat of a single crystal of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 is measured from 40 to 150 K in magnetic fields up to 20 Tesla applied either parallel or normal to the c axis. Adiabatic calorimetry with a scatter well below 0.1% is used. The scaling of the superconducting transitions determines the bulk anisotropy ratio, 5.5±0.5. A Maki-like term is observed at intermediate temperatures. The unusual behaviour of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 in a field, featuring a considerable smearing of the transition and an apparently field-independent onset, may be qualitatively understood as a phenomenological consequence of the small and anisotropic value of the coherence length alone, using the relevant models of field-induced critical 1-D fluctuations on one hand, and London-like regime for the mean-field part of the transition on the other hand. (orig.)

  1. Solid and liquid Equation of state for initially porous aluminum where specific heat is constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Jerry W.; Lemar, E. R.; Brown, Mary

    2011-06-01

    A porous solid's initial state is off the thermodynamic surface of the non-porous solid to start with but when pressure is high enough to cause total pore collapse or crush up, then the final states are on the condensed matter thermodynamic surfaces. The Hugoniot for the fully compacted solid is above the Principle Hugoniot with pressure, temperature and internal energy increased at a given v. There are a number of ways to define this hotter Hugoniot, which can be referenced to other thermodynamic paths on this thermodynamic surface. The choice here was to use the Vinet isotherm to define a consistent thermodynamic surface for the solid and melt phase of 6061 aluminum where specific heat is constant for the P-v-T space of interest. Analytical equations are developed for PH and TH.

  2. Measurement of the specific heats of Santowax 'R', para-, meta- and ortho-terphenyl, diphenyl and dowtherm 'A'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowring, R.W.; Garton, D.A.; Norris, H.F.

    1960-12-01

    New absolute measurements have been made of the specific heats of Santowax 'R1, the terphenyl isomers, diphenyl and Dowtherm 'A'. An adiabatic calorimeter was used in which the sample was heated electrically while a surrounding jacket was maintained at the same temperature as the calorimeter. The specific heats of all materials tested were found to increase linearly with temperature, the slope being substantially the same for all the pure materials except para-terphenyl. The specific heat of Santowax 'R' was about 1/2% less than the weighted mean of its components. The probable accuracy of the measurements was ± 2% and this was confirmed by comparison with diphenyl ether. A summary of results is given in Table 1 and Figure 10. (author)

  3. Moisture Dependence of physical Properties and Specific Heat Capacity of Neem (Azadirachta Indica A. Juss Kernels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dauda

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of moisture content on the physical properties and specific heat capacity of Neem (Azadirachta Indica A. Juss nut kernels. The major, intermediate and minor axial dimensions of the kernels increased from 1.04 to 1.23cm, 0.42 to 0.6cm, and 0.32 to 0.45cm respectively, as the moisture content increased from 5.2 to 44.9 % (db. The arithmetic and geometric mean diameters determined at the same moisture level were significantly different from each other, with the arithmetic mean diameter being higher. In the above moisture range, one thousand kernel weight, true density, porosity, sphericity, roundness and surface area all increased linearly from 0.0987 to 0.1755kg, 632 to 733kgm-3, 6.42 to 32.14%, 41.3 to 47.5%, 22 to 36% and 13 to 24cm2 respectively, while bulk density decreased from 591.4 to 497.4kgm-3 with increase in moisture content. Angle of repose increased from 21.22 to 29.8o with increase in moisture content. The Static coefficient of friction on ply wood with grains parallel to the direction of movement ranged from 0.41 to 0.61, it ranged from 0.19 to 0.24 on on fiber glass, 0.28 to .038 on hessian bag material and 0.25 to 0.33 on galvanized steel sheet. The specific heat of the seed varied from 2738.1- 4345.4J/kg/oC in the above moisture range.

  4. Empirical equations for viscosity and specific heat capacity determination of paraffin PCM and fatty acid PCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreneche, C.; Ferrer, G.; Palacios, A.; Solé, A.; Inés Fernández, A.; Cabeza, L. F.

    2017-10-01

    Phase change materials (PCM) used in thermal energy storage (TES) systems have been presented, over recent years, as one of the most effective options in energy storage. Paraffin and fatty acids are some of the most used PCM in TES systems, as they have high phase change enthalpy and in addition they do not present subcooling nor hysteresis and have proper cycling stability. The simulations and design of TES systems require the knowledge of the thermophysical properties of PCM. Thermal conductivity, viscosity, specific heat capacity (Cp) can be experimentally determined, but these are material and time consuming tasks. To avoid or to reduce them, and to have reliable data without the need of experimentation, thermal properties can be calculated by empirical equations. In this study, five different equations are given to calculate the viscosity and specific heat capacity of fatty acid PCM and paraffin PCM. Two of these equations concern, respectively, the empirical calculation of the viscosity and liquid Cp of the whole paraffin PCM family, while the other three equations presented are for the corresponding calculation of viscosity, solid Cp, liquid Cp of the whole fatty acid family of PCM. Therefore, this study summarize the work performed to obtain the main empirical equations to measure the above mentioned properties for whole fatty acid PCM family and whole paraffin PCM family. Moreover, empirical equations have been obtained to calculate these properties for other materials of these PCM groups and these empirical equations can be extrapolated for PCM with higher or lower phase change temperatures within a lower relative error 4%.

  5. Electronic specific heat of transition metal carbides; Chaleur specifique electronique de carbures de metaux de transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conte, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-15

    The experimental results that make it possible to define the band structure of transition metal carbides having an NaCI structure are still very few. We have measured the electronic specific heat of some of these carbides of varying electronic concentration (TiC, either stoichiometric or non-stoichiometric, TaC and mixed (Ti, Ta) - C). We give the main characteristics (metallography, resistivity, X-rays) of our samples and we describe the low temperature specific heat apparatus which has been built. In one of these we use helium as the exchange gas. The other is set up with a mechanical contact. The two use a germanium probe for thermometer. The measurement of the temperature using this probe is described, as well as the various measurement devices. The results are presented in the form of a rigid band model and show that the density of the states at the Fermi level has a minimum in the neighbourhood of the group IV carbides. (author) [French] Les donnees experimentales permettant de preciser la structure de bandes des carbures de metaux de transition de structure NaCI sont encore peu.nombreuses. Nous avons mesure la chaleur specifique electronique de certains de ces carbures, de differentes concentrations electroniques (TiC stoechiometrique ou non, TaC et mixtes (Ti, Ta) - C). Nous donnons les principales caracteristiques (metallographie, resistivite, rayon X), de nos echantillons, et nous decrivons l'appareillage de chaleur specifique a basse temperature realise. Dans l'un nous utilisons l'helium comme gaz d'echange. L'autre est monte avec un contact mecanique. Les deux utilisent une sonde au germanium comme thermometre. La mesure de la resistance de cette sonde est decrite, ainsi que les differents montages de mesure. Les resultats, presentes dans un modele de bande rigide, font apparaitre que la densite des etats au niveau de Fermi presente un minimum au voisinage des carbures du groupe IV. (auteur)

  6. Bank-specific shocks and house price growth in the U.S.

    OpenAIRE

    Bremus, Franziska; Krause, Thomas; Noth, Felix

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the link between mortgage supply shocks at the banklevel and regional house price growth in the U.S. using micro-level data on mortgage markets from the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act for the 1990-2014 period. Our results suggest that bank-specific mortgage supply shocks indeed affect house price growth at the regional level. The larger the idiosyncratic shocks to newly issued mortgages, the stronger is house price growth. We show that the positive link between idiosyncr...

  7. Austenite grain growth and microstructure control in simulated heat affected zones of microalloyed HSLA steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Lei [Department of Machine Tools and Factory Management, Technical University of Berlin, Pascalstraße 8 – 9, 10587, Berlin (Germany); Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Unter den Eichen 87, 12205, Berlin (Germany); Kannengiesser, Thomas [Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Unter den Eichen 87, 12205, Berlin (Germany); Institute of Materials and Joining Technology, Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg, Universitetsplatz 2, 39106, Magdeburg (Germany)

    2014-09-08

    The roles of microalloying niobium, titanium and vanadium for controlling austenite grain growth, microstructure evolution and hardness were investigated at different simulated heat affected zones (HAZ) for high strength low alloy (HSLA) S690QL steel. High resolution FEG-SEM has been used to characterize fine bainitic ferrite, martensite and nanosized second phases at simulated coarse and fine grain HAZs. It was found that for Ti bearing steel (Ti/N ratio is 2) austenite grain had the slowest growth rate due to the presence of most stable TiN. The fine cuboidal particles promoted intragranular acicular ferrite (IGF) formation. Nb bearing steel exhibited relatively weaker grain growth retardation compared with titanium bearing steels and a mixed microstructure of bainite and martensite was present for all simulated HAZs. IGF existed at coarse grain HAZ of Ti+V bearing steel but it was totally replaced by bainite at fine grain HAZs. Hardness result was closely related to the morphology of bainitic ferrite, intragranular ferrite and second phases within ferrite. The microstructure and hardness results of different simulated HAZs were in good agreement with welded experimental results.

  8. Experimental drought and heat can delay phenological development and reduce foliar and shoot growth in semiarid trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Henry D; Collins, Adam D; Briggs, Samuel P; Vennetier, Michel; Dickman, L Turin; Sevanto, Sanna A; Garcia-Forner, Núria; Powers, Heath H; McDowell, Nate G

    2015-11-01

    Higher temperatures associated with climate change are anticipated to trigger an earlier start to the growing season, which could increase the terrestrial C sink strength. Greater variability in the amount and timing of precipitation is also expected with higher temperatures, bringing increased drought stress to many ecosystems. We experimentally assessed the effects of higher temperature and drought on the foliar phenology and shoot growth of mature trees of two semiarid conifer species. We exposed field-grown trees to a ~45% reduction in precipitation with a rain-out structure ('drought'), a ~4.8 °C temperature increase with open-top chambers ('heat'), and a combination of both simultaneously ('drought + heat'). Over the 2013 growing season, drought, heat, and drought + heat treatments reduced shoot and needle growth in piñon pine (Pinus edulis) by ≥39%, while juniper (Juniperus monosperma) had low growth and little response to these treatments. Needle emergence on primary axis branches of piñon pine was delayed in heat, drought, and drought + heat treatments by 19-57 days, while secondary axis branches were less likely to produce needles in the heat treatment, and produced no needles at all in the drought + heat treatment. Growth of shoots and needles, and the timing of needle emergence correlated inversely with xylem water tension and positively with nonstructural carbohydrate concentrations. Our findings demonstrate the potential for delayed phenological development and reduced growth with higher temperatures and drought in tree species that are vulnerable to drought and reveal potential mechanistic links to physiological stress responses. Climate change projections of an earlier and longer growing season with higher temperatures, and consequent increases in terrestrial C sink strength, may be incorrect for regions where plants will face increased drought stress with climate change. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Specific Genetic Immunotherapy Induced by Recombinant Vaccine Alpha-Fetoprotein-Heat Shock Protein 70 Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoping; Lin, Huanping; Wang, Qiaoxia

    Purposes: To construct a recombinant vaccine alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)-heat shock protein (HSP70) complex, and study its ability to induce specific CTL response and its protective effect against AFP-producing tumor. Material/Methods: A recombinant vaccine was constructed by conjugating mouse alpha-fetoprotein to heat shock protein 70. By way of intracutaneous injection, mice were primed and boosted with recombinant vaccine mAFP/HSP70, whereas single mAFP or HSP70 injection as controls. The ELISPOT and ELISA were used to measure the frequency of cells producing the cytokine IFN-γ in splenocytes and the level of anti-AFP antibody of serum from immunized mice respectively. In vivo tumor challenge were carried out to assess the immune effect of the recombinant vaccine. Results: By recombinant mAFP/HSP70 vaccine immunization, the results of ELISPOT and ELISA showed that the number of splenic cells producing IFN-γ and the level of anti-AFP antibody of serum were significantly higher in mAFP/HSP70 group than those in mAFP and HSP70 groups (108.50±11.70 IFN-γ spots/106 cells vs 41.60±10.40 IFN-γ spots/106 cells, 7.32±3.14 IFN-γ spots/106 cells, P<0.01; 156.32±10.42 μg/mL vs 66.52±7.35 μg/mL, 5.73±2.89 μg/mL, P<0.01). The tumor volume in mAFP/HSP70 group was significantly smaller than that in mAFP and HSP70 groups (42.44±7.14 mm3 vs 392.23±12.46 mm3, 838.63±13.84 mm3, P<0.01). Conclusions: The study further confirmed the function of heat shock protein 70's immune adjuvant. Sequential immunization with recombinant mAFP/HSP70 vaccine could generate effective antitumor immunity on AFP-producing tumor. The recombined mAFP/HSP70 vaccine may be suitable for serving as an immunotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma.

  10. The response of leaves to heat stress in tomato plants with source-sink modulated by growth regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Starck

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The response to heat stress was investigated in heat-sensitive, Roma V. F. and heat-tolerant, Robin, cultivars whose fruit growth was stimulated by NOA + GA3 , or NOA + GA3 + zeatin. The treated plants were compared with untreated control plant. In each of these series half of the plants were subjected to one or three cycles of heat stress. A single cycle of 38°/25°C day and night did not significantly affect either the respiration rate or chlorophyll content. In PGR-untreated intact cv. Roma, heat stress inhibited starch formation during the day and strongly depressed night export from the blades. High temperature depressed the night transport less in plants having a higher sink demand of fruits in plant treated with PGR. In this case the amount of substances available for export was much higher and both sugars and starch were more intensively remobilized at night. In intact Robin plants, PGR and heat stress much less affected sugar and starch content. High temperature diminished noctural starch remobilization only in the NOA + GA3 series. Leaf disc growth was evaluated as a measure of response to heat stress after elimination of the direct effect of fruit demands. One cycle of high temperature did not negatively affect the growth of leaf discs; it even caused thermal low growth activation in both cultivars. Three cycles of heat stress depressed leaf disc growth after short-term stimulation, especially in Roma plants. Immediately after 3-day heat stress, there was no response of discs to GA3 or zeatin added to the solution on which the discs were floated. Leaf disc growth of Robin control and NOA + GA3 series was very similar in plants from optimal temperature conditions. High temperature inhibited only disc growth of the NOA + GA3 series owing to depression of starch break-down, diminishing the pool of sugars. In contrast, leaf discs of Roma cv. excided from NOA + GA3 treated plants from the optimal temperature series, grew more intensively

  11. Intellectual Growth in Children as a Function of Domain Specific and Domain General Working Memory Subgroups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, H. Lee

    2011-01-01

    This study examined whether children's growth on measures of fluid (Raven Colored Progressive Matrices) and crystallized (reading and math achievement) intelligence was attributable to domain-specific or domain-general functions of working memory (WM). A sample of 290 elementary school children was tested on measures of intelligence across three…

  12. Levels and Growth of Specific and General Norms for Nonviolence among Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymnicki, Allison B.; Antonio, Tiago; Henry, David B.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the levels and growth of specific and general normative beliefs about nonviolence (called norms for nonviolence). The sample consisted of 1254 middle school students from four metropolitan areas who participated in the control condition of the Multisite Violence Prevention Project. We predicted that the association and…

  13. Pleiotropic role of growth arrest-specific gene 6 in atherosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjwa, Marc; Moons, Lieve; Lutgens, Esther

    2009-01-01

    Growth arrest-specific gene 6 (Gas6) belongs to the family of vitamin K-dependent coagulation proteins, but in contrast to its other members, has only a limited role in hemostasis. Instead, Gas6 plays a prominent role in conditions of injury, inflammation and repair. Gas6 amplifies the activation of

  14. Sex-specific effects of yolk testosterone on survival, begging and growth of zebra finches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Engelhardt, N; Carere, C; Dijkstra, C; Groothuis, TGG

    2006-01-01

    Yolk androgens affect offspring hatching, begging, growth and survival in many bird species. If these effects are sex-specific, yolk androgen deposition may constitute a mechanism for differential investment in male and female offspring. We tested this hypothesis in zebra finches. In this species,

  15. Dual substrate feedback control of specific growth-rate in vaccine production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neeleman, R.; Beuvery, E.C.; Vries, D.; Straten, van G.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract: Unexpectedly, primary concern of bio-pharmaceutical industry is not optimisation of product yield or cost reduction, but consistency in production and product quality. This paper describes the methodology and experimental results of specific growth-rate control for vaccine production. The

  16. Do high-growth entrepreneurial firms have a specific system of governance?

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Wirtz

    2009-01-01

    From a meta-model linking a firm’s corporate governance system to managerial discretion (Charreaux, 2008), this article presents a specific corporate governance model for the high growth entrepreneurial firm. A survey of the empirical literature on the governance of entrepreneurial firms confirms the plausibility of this theoretical framework, especially with respect to the cognitive dimension of corporate governance.

  17. Effects of fin pitch and array of the frost layer growth on extended surface of a heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Dong Keun; Lee, Kwan Soo

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the effects of the fin array and pitch on the frost layer growth of a heat exchanger. The numerical results are compared with experimental data of a cold plate to validate the present model, and agree well with experimental data within a maximum error of 8%. The characteristics of the frost formation on staggered fin array are somewhat different from those of in-line array. For fin pitch below 10 mm, the frost layer growth of second fin in the staggered array is affected by that of first fin. The heat transfer of single fin deteriorate with decreasing fin pitch regardless of fin array, however, the thermal performance of a heat exchanger, considering increase of heat surface area, becomes better

  18. Heat and mass transfer in semiconductor melts during single-crystal growth processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakimoto, Koichi

    1995-03-01

    The quality of large semiconductor crystals grown from melts is significantly affected by the heat and mass transfer in the melts. The current understanding of the phenomena, especially melt convection, is reviewed starting from the results of visualization using model fluids or silicon melt, and continuing to the detailed numerical calculations needed for quantitative modeling of processing with solidification. The characteristics of silicon flows are also reviewed by focusing on the Coriolis force in the rotating melt. Descriptions of flow instabilities are included that show the level of understanding of melt convection with a low Prandtl number. Based on hydrodynamics, the origin of the silicon flow structure is reviewed, and it is discussed whether silicon flow is completely turbulent or has an ordered structure. The phase transition from axisymmetric to nonaxisymmetric flow is discussed using different geometries. Additionally, surface-tension-driven flow is reviewed for Czochralski crystal growth systems.

  19. Automatic diameter control system applied to the laser heated pedestal growth technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreeta M.R.B.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We described an automatic diameter control system (ADC, for the laser heated pedestal growth technique, that reduces the diameter fluctuations in oxide fibers grown from unreacted and non-sinterized pedestals, to less than 2% of the average fiber diameter, and diminishes the average diameter fluctuation, over the entire length of the fiber, to less than 1%. The ADC apparatus is based on an artificial vision system that controls the pulling speed and the height of the molten zone within a precision of 30 mum. We also show that this system can be used for periodic in situ axial doping the fiber. Pure and Cr3+ doped LaAlO3 and pure LiNbO3 were usedas model materials.

  20. Purification and growth of LiF by induction heating furnace with electronic temperature control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria Junior, R.N. de

    1985-01-01

    An eletronic power control system for a radio frequency generator and a quartz vacuum furnace heated by induction were developed. This furnace was employed for the growth of single crystals and purification of starting materials. A lithium fluoride single crystal was grown by the Czochralski technique in order to test the temperature control and the quartz furnace. An X-ray diffraction analysis of the crystal revealed the monocrystallinity high optical quality of the crystal obtained. Lithium fluoride of 95% purity prepared by Nuclemon starting material was purified by a vertical Bridgmann method. The emission spectrographic analysis of the purified crystal demonstrated the segregation of impurities. This study showed that the purification by this method of starting materials produced by local industry resulted in a crystal 99.9% pure in the first crystallization. (Author) [pt

  1. Stage- and sex-specific heat tolerance in the yellow dung fly Scathophaga stercoraria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanckenhorn, Wolf U; Gautier, Roland; Nick, Marcel; Puniamoorthy, Nalini; Schäfer, Martin A

    2014-12-01

    Thermal tolerance varies at all hierarchical levels of biological organization: among species, populations, individuals, and even within individuals. Age- or developmental stage- and sex-specific thermal effects have received relatively little attention in the literature, despite being crucial for understanding thermal adaptation in nature and responses to global warming. We document stage- and sex- specific heat tolerance in the yellow dung fly Scathophaga stercoraria (Diptera: Scathophagidae), a species common throughout the northern hemisphere that generally favours cool climates. Exposure of eggs to temperatures up to 32°C did not affect larval hatching rate, but subsequent egg-to-adult survival at a benign temperature was reduced. Permanent transfer from benign (18°C) to hot temperatures (up to 31°C) at different larval and pupal stages strongly decreased egg-to-adult survival, though survival continuously improved the later the transfer occurred. Temporary transfer for only two days increased mortality more weakly, survival being lowest when temperature stress was imposed early during the larval or pupal stages. Adult flies provided with sugar and water tolerated 31°C longer than previously thought (5 days in males to 9 days in females). Eggs were thus less susceptible to thermal stress than larvae, pupae or adults, in agreement with the hypothesis that more mobile stages require less physiological protection against heat because they can behaviourally thermoregulate. The probability of mating, of laying a clutch, and hatching success were generally independently reduced by exposure of females or males to warm temperatures (24°C) during the juvenile or adult stages, with some interactions evident. High temperature stress thus affects survival differentially depending on when it occurs during the juvenile or the pre-reproductive adult life stage, and affects reproductive success via the mating behaviour of both sexes, female physiology in terms of

  2. Enhanced specific absorption rate of bi-magnetic nanoparticles for heating applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammad, Mohaned; Hempelmann, Rolf, E-mail: r.hempelmann@mx.uni-saarland.de

    2017-02-15

    Truncated octahedron bi-magnetic core/shell nanoparticles of Zn{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.6}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}@Zn{sub 0.4}Mn{sub 0.6}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} with different size distributions have been synthesized, and their structural and magnetic properties have been studied. The structure and morphology of the core/shell nanostructures were established by using X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. Dark field-TEM and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results confirmed the formation of bi-magnetic core/shell nanoparticles. The synthesized nanoparticles are superparamagnetic at room temperature. The Curie temperature increases with the increase of particle size from 360 K to 394 K. The experimental results showed that core/shell nanoparticles have a higher specific absorption rate compared to the core ones. These nanoparticles are interfacial exchange coupled between hard and soft magnetic phases. We demonstrated that the specific absorption rate could be tuned by the concentration of precursor and the synthesis time. - Highlights: • Zn{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.6}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}@Zn{sub 0.4}Mn{sub 0.6}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were synthesized by seed-mediated growth method. • Exchange-coupling between magnetic hard and soft phase of the magnetic nanoparticles affects the specific absorption rate. • The specific absorption rate could be tuned by the concentration of precursor and the synthesis time. • An increase of the core/shell magnetic nanoparticles size resulted in the increase of Curie temperature.

  3. Carbon-14 labeling of phytoplankton carbon and chlorophyll a carbon: determination of specific growth rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welschmeyer, N.A.; Lorenzen, C.J.

    1984-01-01

    The pattern of photosynthetic 14 C labeling over time is described for phytoplankton. The carbon-specific growth rate (d -1 ) is defined explicitly by changes in the specific activity (dpm μg -1 C) of the algae. For Skeletonema costatum, growing in axenic batch culture, the specific activities of both total cellular carbon and chlorophyll carbon increase at equal rates and the change in specific activity with time follows the predicted pattern. The specific activity of 14 C-labeled chlorophyll a was used to estimate phytoplankton growth rates and C:Chl ratios of field samples in Dabob Bay (Puget Sound), Washington. Growth rates decreased with depth and C:Chl ratios were higher for samples incubated under high light intensity. In several instances the C:Chl ratio increased from the beginning to the end of the incubation; this trend was most conspicuous near surface light intensities and for days of high total incident radiation. On these occasions, Chl a was actively 14 C labeled, yet little (or even negative) change was noted in the concentration of Chl a. These results suggest that some process (or processes) of chlorophyll degradation must be active at the same time that chlorophyll is being synthesized

  4. Highly macroscopically degenerated single-point ground states as source of specific heat capacity anomalies in magnetic frustrated systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurčišinová, E.; Jurčišin, M.

    2018-04-01

    Anomalies of the specific heat capacity are investigated in the framework of the exactly solvable antiferromagnetic spin- 1 / 2 Ising model in the external magnetic field on the geometrically frustrated tetrahedron recursive lattice. It is shown that the Schottky-type anomaly in the behavior of the specific heat capacity is related to the existence of unique highly macroscopically degenerated single-point ground states which are formed on the borders between neighboring plateau-like ground states. It is also shown that the very existence of these single-point ground states with large residual entropies predicts the appearance of another anomaly in the behavior of the specific heat capacity for low temperatures, namely, the field-induced double-peak structure, which exists, and should be observed experimentally, along with the Schottky-type anomaly in various frustrated magnetic system.

  5. Application of the modulated temperature differential scanning calorimetry technique for the determination of the specific heat of copper nanofluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Robertis, E.; Cosme, E.H.H.; Neves, R.S.; Kuznetsov, A.Yu.; Campos, A.P.C.; Landi, S.M.; Achete, C.A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the applicability of the modulated temperature differential scanning calorimetry technique to measure specific heat of copper nanofluids by using the ASTM E2719 standard procedure, which is generally applied to thermally stable solids and liquids. The one-step method of preparation of copper nanofluid samples is described. The synthesized nanoparticles were separated from the base fluid and examined by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy in order to evaluate their structure, morphology and chemical nature. The presence of copper nanoparticles in the base fluid alters the characteristics of crystallization and melting processes and reduces the specific heat values of nanofluids in the whole studied temperature range. - Highlights: ► Copper nanofluids prepared by one-step method. ► Methodology of synthesis improved nanofluid stability. ► Specific heat determinations using modulated temperature differential scanning calorimetry. ► Good agreement between theoretical and experimental values.

  6. Monte Carlo study of internal energy and specific heat of a nano-graphene bilayer in a longitudinal magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Xiao-hong; Wang, Wei, E-mail: ww9803@126.com; Chen, Dong-dong; Xu, Si-yuan

    2016-06-15

    The thermodynamic properties of a nano-graphene bilayer, consisting of the upper layer A of spin-3/2 with antiferromagnetic intralayer exchange coupling and the bottom layer B of spin-5/2 with ferromagnetic intralayer exchange coupling, have been studied by the use of Monte Carlo simulation. We find a number of characteristic phenomena. The effects of the exchange coupling, the single-ion anisotropy and the longitudinal magnetic field on the internal energy, the specific heat and the blocking temperature of the mixed-spin bilayer system have been investigated in detail. The internal energy and the specific heat profiles are clarified. In particular, we have found that the specific heat curve may show two peaks phenomenon for appropriate values of the system parameters.

  7. A new experimental method to determine specific heat capacity of inhomogeneous concrete material with incorporated microencapsulated-PCM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pomianowski, Michal Zbigniew; Heiselberg, Per; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2014-01-01

    PCM. This paper describes the development of the new material and the experimental set-up to determine the specific heat capacity of the PCM concrete material. Moreover, various methods are proposed and compared to calculate the specific heat capacity of the PCM concrete. Finally, it is hoped......The study presented in this paper focuses on an experimental investigation of the specific heat capacity as a function of the temperature Cp (T) of concrete mixed with various amounts of phase change material (PCM). The tested specimens are prepared by directly mixing concrete and microencapsulated...... that this work can be used as an inspiration and guidance to perform measurements on the various composite materials containing PCM....

  8. Low-temperature specific heat of the degenerate supersymmetric t-J model in one dimension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.; Schlottmann, P.

    1996-01-01

    We consider the one-dimensional SU(N)-invariant t-J model, which consists of electrons with N spin components on a lattice with nearest-neighbor hopping t constrained by the excluded multiple occupancy of the sites and spin-exchange J between neighboring lattice sites. The model is integrable and has been diagonalized in terms of nested Bethe ansatze at the supersymmetric point t=J. The low-T specific heat is proportional to T. The γ-coefficient is extracted from the thermodynamic Bethe-ansatz equations and is expressed in terms of the spin wave velocities and the group velocity of the charges for arbitrary N, band filling, and splitting of the levels (magnetic and crystalline fields). Our results contain the following special cases: (i) For N=2 the traditional spin-1/2 supersymmetric t-J model, (ii) for exactly one electron per site the SU(N)-Heisenberg chain, and (iii) for N=4 the two-band supersymmetric t-J model with crystalline field splitting. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  9. Thermal behaviour of the Debye-Waller factor and the specific heat of anharmonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, R.A.T. de; Tsallis, C.

    1979-08-01

    The influence of the cubic and quartic crystalline anharmonicity on the classical and quantum thermal behaviour of the specific heat, Debye temperaturetheta, Debye-Waller factor W, crystalline expansion and phonon spectrum is studied, within the framework of the Variational Method in Statistical Mechanics. The sistems, mainly focalized are the single oscillator, the mono-atomic linear chain and simple cubic crystal. The trial Hamiltonian is an harmonic one, therefore the various anharmonic influences are mainly absorbed into the renormalization of theta(T). Several differences between the classical and quantum results are exhibited. Satisfactory qualitative agreement with experience was obtained in the low-temperature regime, in particular in what concerns the existence of a minimum in theta(T) which has been observed in Cu, Al, Ag, Au and Pb. For the intermediate-temperature regime the customary linear behaviour of W(T) (hence theta(T) almost constant) is reobtained. Finally in the high-temperature regime, the present treatment leads to a √T - dependence for the W-factor, which implies in the wrong curvature with respect to experimental data. A possible explanation of this disagreement might be related to the melting phenomenon, which is not covered by the present theory. (Author) [pt

  10. Growth specificity of vertical ZnO nanorods on patterned seeded substrates through integrated chemical process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, P. Suresh [Thin Film and Nanomaterials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641 046 (India); Maniam, S.M. [Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Sundaramurthy, J. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, National University of Singapore (NUS) (Singapore); Arokiaraj, J. [3M R and D Center (Singapore); Mangalaraj, D., E-mail: dmraj800@yahoo.com [Department of Nanoscience and Technology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641046 (India); Rajarathnam, D. [CERAR, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA-5095 (Australia); Srinivasan, M.P. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, National University of Singapore (NUS) (Singapore); Jian, L.K. [Singapore Synchrotron Light Source (SSLS), National University of Singapore (NUS) (Singapore)

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simple integrated chemical process was adopted for specific ZnO nanorod growth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Size and orientation of nanorods are well controlled by optimum reaction time and temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different site-selective ZnO nanorod growths are demonstrated. - Abstract: A simple and cost effective method has been employed for the random growth and oriented ZnO nanorod arrays over as-prepared and patterned seeded glass substrates by low temperature two step growth process and growth specificity by direct laser writing (DLW) process. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images and X-ray diffraction analysis confirm the growth of vertical ZnO nanorods with perfect (0 0 2) orientation along c-axis which is in conjunction with optimizing the parameters at different reaction times and temperatures. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images show the formation of vertical ZnO nanorods with diameter and length of {approx}120 nm and {approx}400 nm respectively. Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopic studies show a narrow emission at {approx}385 nm and a broad visible emission from 450 to 600 nm. Further, site-selective ZnO nanorod growth is demonstrated for its high degree of control over size, orientation, uniformity, and periodicity on a positive photoresist ZnO seed layer by simple geometrical (line, circle and ring) patterns of 10 {mu}m and 5 {mu}m dimensions. The demonstrated control over size, orientation and periodicity of ZnO nanorods process opens up an opportunity to develop multifunctional properties which promises their potential applications in sensor, piezoelectric, and optoelectronic devices.

  11. Specific features of hydrogen boiling heat transfer on the AMg-6 alloy massive heater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirichenko, Yu.A.; Kozlov, S.M.; Rusanov, K.V.; Tyurina, E.G.

    1989-01-01

    Heat transfer and nucleate burns-out saturated with hydrogen at a plate heater (thickness-13 mm, diameter of heat-transferring surface - 30 mm) made of an aluminium alloy with the low value of a heat assimilation coefficient in the pressure range from 7.2x10 3 to 6x10 5 Pa is experimentally investigated. Value of start of boiling characteristics and heat transfer coefficients during nucleate burn-out, as well as the first critical densities of a heat flux and temperature heads are obtained. Existence of certain differrences of heat exchange during boiling is shown using a massive heater made of low-heat-conductive material in comparison with other cases of hydrogen boiling. Hypothesis concerning the existence of so-called mixed boiling on the heat transfer surface, which has been detected earlier only in helium boiling, as well as concerning possible reasons of stability of film boiling ficii in preburn-out region of heat duty is discussed

  12. Bone growth, limb proportions and non-specific stress in archaeological populations from Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinhasi, R; Timpson, A; Thomas, M; Slaus, M

    2014-01-01

    The effect of environmental factors and, in particular, non-specific stress on the growth patterns of limbs and other body dimensions of children from past populations is not well understood. This study assesses whether growth of mediaeval and post-mediaeval children aged between 0-11.5 years from Adriatic (coastal) and continental Croatia varies by region and by the prevalence and type of non-specific stress. Dental ages were estimated using the Moorrees, Fanning and Hunt (MFH) scoring method. Growth of long bone diaphyses (femur, tibia, humerus, radius and ulna) was assessed by using a composite Z-score statistic (CZS). Clavicular length was measured as a proxy for upper trunk width, distal metaphyseal width of the femur was measured as a proxy for body mass and upper and lower intra-limb indices were calculated. Differences between sub-sets sampled by (a) region and (b) active vs healed non-specific stress indicators and (c) intra-limb indices were tested by Mann--Whitney U-tests and Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA). Adriatic children attained larger dimensions-per-age than continental children. Children with healed stress lesions had larger dimensions-per-age than those with active lesions. No inter-regional difference was found in intra-limb indices. These findings highlight the complexity of growth patterns in past populations and indicate that variation in environmental conditions such as diet and differences in the nature of non-specific stress lesions both exert a significant effect on long bone growth.

  13. Electronic contributions to the transport properties and specific heat of solid UO2: an empirical, self-consistent analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyland, G.J.; Ralph, J.

    1982-07-01

    From an empirical, self-consistent analysis of new high temperature data on the thermo-electric Seebeck coefficient and d.c. electrical conductivity, the value of the free energy controlling the equilibrium of the thermally induced reaction, 2U 4+ reversible U 3+ + U 5+ is determined (treating the U 3+ and U 5+ as small polarons) and used to calculate the contribution of the process to the high temperature thermal conductivity and specific heat of UO 2 . It is found that the transport properties can be completely accounted for in this way, but not the anomalous rise in specific heat - the origin of which remains obscure. (U.K.)

  14. Flux line lattice melting transition in YBa2Cu3O6.94 observed in specific heat experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roulin, M.; Junod, A.; Walker, E.

    1996-01-01

    When a magnetic field penetrates a type II superconductor, it forms a lattice of thin quantized filaments called magnetic vortices. Resistance, magnetization, and neutron diffraction experiments have shown that the vortex lattice of high-temperature superconductors can melt along a line in the field-temperature plane. The calorimetric signature of melting on this line was observed in a high-accuracy adiabatic specific heat experiment performed on YBa 2 Cu 3 O 6.94 . The specific heat of the vortex liquid was greater than that of the vortex solid. 17 refs., 3 figs

  15. Uncertainties in the estimation of specific absorption rate during radiofrequency alternating magnetic field induced non-adiabatic heating of ferrofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiri, B. B.; Ranoo, Surojit; Philip, John

    2017-11-01

    Magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) is becoming a viable cancer treatment methodology where the alternating magnetic field induced heating of magnetic fluid is utilized for ablating the cancerous cells or making them more susceptible to the conventional treatments. The heating efficiency in MFH is quantified in terms of specific absorption rate (SAR), which is defined as the heating power generated per unit mass. In majority of the experimental studies, SAR is evaluated from the temperature rise curves, obtained under non-adiabatic experimental conditions, which is prone to various thermodynamic uncertainties. A proper understanding of the experimental uncertainties and its remedies is a prerequisite for obtaining accurate and reproducible SAR. Here, we study the thermodynamic uncertainties associated with peripheral heating, delayed heating, heat loss from the sample and spatial variation in the temperature profile within the sample. Using first order approximations, an adiabatic reconstruction protocol for the measured temperature rise curves is developed for SAR estimation, which is found to be in good agreement with those obtained from the computationally intense slope corrected method. Our experimental findings clearly show that the peripheral and delayed heating are due to radiation heat transfer from the heating coils and slower response time of the sensor, respectively. Our results suggest that the peripheral heating is linearly proportional to the sample area to volume ratio and coil temperature. It is also observed that peripheral heating decreases in presence of a non-magnetic insulating shielding. The delayed heating is found to contribute up to ~25% uncertainties in SAR values. As the SAR values are very sensitive to the initial slope determination method, explicit mention of the range of linear regression analysis is appropriate to reproduce the results. The effect of sample volume to area ratio on linear heat loss rate is systematically studied and the

  16. Uncertainties in the estimation of specific absorption rate during radiofrequency alternating magnetic field induced non-adiabatic heating of ferrofluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahiri, B B; Ranoo, Surojit; Philip, John

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) is becoming a viable cancer treatment methodology where the alternating magnetic field induced heating of magnetic fluid is utilized for ablating the cancerous cells or making them more susceptible to the conventional treatments. The heating efficiency in MFH is quantified in terms of specific absorption rate (SAR), which is defined as the heating power generated per unit mass. In majority of the experimental studies, SAR is evaluated from the temperature rise curves, obtained under non-adiabatic experimental conditions, which is prone to various thermodynamic uncertainties. A proper understanding of the experimental uncertainties and its remedies is a prerequisite for obtaining accurate and reproducible SAR. Here, we study the thermodynamic uncertainties associated with peripheral heating, delayed heating, heat loss from the sample and spatial variation in the temperature profile within the sample. Using first order approximations, an adiabatic reconstruction protocol for the measured temperature rise curves is developed for SAR estimation, which is found to be in good agreement with those obtained from the computationally intense slope corrected method. Our experimental findings clearly show that the peripheral and delayed heating are due to radiation heat transfer from the heating coils and slower response time of the sensor, respectively. Our results suggest that the peripheral heating is linearly proportional to the sample area to volume ratio and coil temperature. It is also observed that peripheral heating decreases in presence of a non-magnetic insulating shielding. The delayed heating is found to contribute up to ∼25% uncertainties in SAR values. As the SAR values are very sensitive to the initial slope determination method, explicit mention of the range of linear regression analysis is appropriate to reproduce the results. The effect of sample volume to area ratio on linear heat loss rate is systematically studied and

  17. INVESTIGATION OF HEAT CONDUCTION AND SPECIFIC ELECTRIC IMPEDANCE OF POROUS MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Golubtsova

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article there was investigated the influence of porosity and temperature change on heat condition and electrical resistance of porous iron (PZh4M nickel and steel 14X17H2. There are received the adequate equations of regression, establishing connection between heat conduction and electrical resistance of the investigated materials with their porosity and temperature.

  18. Novel specific heat and magnetoresistance behavior of Tb0.5Ho0.5Mn2Si2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Swati; Siruguri, V.; Rawat, R.

    2018-04-01

    In this report, we study temperature dependent heat capacity and electrical resistance of Tb1-xHoxMn2Si2 (x = 0.5). Two successive low temperature magnetic transitions T1 (˜15 K) and T2 (˜25 K) are observed from both measurements. Anomalous rise in heat capacity at low temperatures is ascribed to the nuclear Schottky effect. Sommerfeld coefficient (γ), Debye temperature (θD) and density of states at Fermi level N(EF) is calculated from the zero field specific heat data. We observe 4f contribution to heat capacity from T1 to 100K, which is attributed to crystal field effect. In the electrical transport study, application of the magnetic field shows a substantial change around the ordering temperature of rare earth moment resulting in large positive magnetoresistance of about 20% with field change of 6T.

  19. Tomato Yield and Water Use Efficiency - Coupling Effects between Growth Stage Specific Soil Water Deficits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Si; Zhenjiang, Zhou; Andersen, Mathias Neumann

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the sensitivity of tomato yield and water use efficiency (WUE) to soil water content at different growth stages, the central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was employed in a five-factor-five-level pot experiment under regulated deficit irrigation. Two regression models concerning...... the effects of stage-specific soil water content on tomato yield and WUE were established. The results showed that the lowest available soil water (ASW) content (around 28%) during vegetative growth stage (here denoted θ1) resulted in high yield and WUE. Moderate (around 69% ASW) during blooming and fruit...... effects of ASW in two growth stages were between θ2 and θ5, θ3. In both cases a moderate θ2 was a precondition for maximum yield response to increasing θ5 and θ3. Sensitivity analysis revealed that yield was most sensitive to soil water content at fruit maturity (θ5). Numerical inspection...

  20. Modelling subject-specific childhood growth using linear mixed-effect models with cubic regression splines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grajeda, Laura M; Ivanescu, Andrada; Saito, Mayuko; Crainiceanu, Ciprian; Jaganath, Devan; Gilman, Robert H; Crabtree, Jean E; Kelleher, Dermott; Cabrera, Lilia; Cama, Vitaliano; Checkley, William

    2016-01-01

    Childhood growth is a cornerstone of pediatric research. Statistical models need to consider individual trajectories to adequately describe growth outcomes. Specifically, well-defined longitudinal models are essential to characterize both population and subject-specific growth. Linear mixed-effect models with cubic regression splines can account for the nonlinearity of growth curves and provide reasonable estimators of population and subject-specific growth, velocity and acceleration. We provide a stepwise approach that builds from simple to complex models, and account for the intrinsic complexity of the data. We start with standard cubic splines regression models and build up to a model that includes subject-specific random intercepts and slopes and residual autocorrelation. We then compared cubic regression splines vis-à-vis linear piecewise splines, and with varying number of knots and positions. Statistical code is provided to ensure reproducibility and improve dissemination of methods. Models are applied to longitudinal height measurements in a cohort of 215 Peruvian children followed from birth until their fourth year of life. Unexplained variability, as measured by the variance of the regression model, was reduced from 7.34 when using ordinary least squares to 0.81 (p linear mixed-effect models with random slopes and a first order continuous autoregressive error term. There was substantial heterogeneity in both the intercept (p modeled with a first order continuous autoregressive error term as evidenced by the variogram of the residuals and by a lack of association among residuals. The final model provides a parametric linear regression equation for both estimation and prediction of population- and individual-level growth in height. We show that cubic regression splines are superior to linear regression splines for the case of a small number of knots in both estimation and prediction with the full linear mixed effect model (AIC 19,352 vs. 19

  1. Specific heat of Nb{sub 3}Sn: The case for a single gap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Y. J., E-mail: jophy@knu.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Zhou, Jian; Sung, Zu Hawn; Lee, Peter J.; Larbalestier, D. C. [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32310 (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The important influence of multiple gaps in the superconductivity of MgB{sub 2} and Fe-based compounds, especially because of the possibility that manipulation of a second gap can significantly raise the upper critical field H{sub c2}, has refocused attention on Nb{sub 3}Sn because anomalies in both specific heat and point-contact tunneling studies have led to the proposal that Nb{sub 3}Sn is also a two-gap superconductor. Here, we search for evidence of the second gap in a careful study of the influence of the homogenization temperature on the sample uniformity. We show that it is very difficult to fabricate samples that are both homogeneous and stoichiometric. We find so-called “second-gap” anomalies disappear only after high temperature and long-term annealing. Such a well-annealed sample shows only a strong, electron-phonon-coupled, single-gap behavior. In contrast, samples reacted and annealed at lower temperatures, as in the earlier two-gap studies, show small chemical composition variations of the A15 phase. We propose that the second gap sightings are actually due to variation of T{sub c} within very difficult-to-fully homogenize samples. A curiosity of the A15 Nb{sub 3}Sn phase is that almost any mixture of Nb and Sn tries to form a stoichiometric A15 composition, but the residue of course contains off-stoichiometric A15, Nb, and other phases when the Nb:Sn ratio departs from the true 3:1 stoichiometry.

  2. Superconductivity and specific heat measurements in V--Nb--Ta ternary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, R.Y.P.

    1977-01-01

    The correlation between the superconducting transition temperature T/sub c/ with electronic specific heat coefficient γ and Debye temperature theta/sub D/ in some isoelectronic ternary V--Nb--Ta alloys is investigated. It has been known that the variation of theta/sub D/ with concentration in both V--Nb and V--Ta systems is clearly of the same curvature as that of T/sub c/ and γ. In Ta--Nb alloys, however, over most of the concentration range theta/sub D/ seems to have a slight negative curvature while T/sub c/ and γ curve upwards. (But beyond approx. 80 at. % Nb theta/sub D/ rises rapidly to the pure Nb value.) By choosing alloys along a line connecting Ta and V 25 --Nb 75 which is close to the Nb--Ta side of the Gibb's triangle the extent to which the Nb--Ta type of behavior persists in this ternary system can be estimated. A model proposed by Miedema that takes into account the variation of properties caused by possible charge transfer among constituent atoms in an alloy has been found to apply almost quantitatively for nearly all binary alloy systems whose experimental data are available, including those for which Hopfield's method fails. A previous test of the extension of Miedema's empirical model into ternary alloys shows qualitatively correct behavior for intra-row Zr/sub x/Nb/sub 1-2x/Mo/sub x/ alloys. The good agreement between the predicted values of γ and T/sub c/ and the experimental values in the inter-row ternary V--Nb--Ta system studied here gives another and better test of the application of Miedema's model

  3. Amino acid compositions in heated carbonaceous chondrites and their compound-specific nitrogen isotopic ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Queenie Hoi Shan; Chikaraishi, Yoshito; Takano, Yoshinori; Ogawa, Nanako O.; Ohkouchi, Naohiko

    2016-01-01

    A novel method has been developed for compound-specific nitrogen isotope compositions with an achiral column which was previously shown to offer high precision for nitrogen isotopic analysis. We applied the method to determine the amino acid contents and stable nitrogen isotopic compositions of individual amino acids from the thermally metamorphosed (above 500 °C) Antarctic carbonaceous chondrites Ivuna-like (CI)1 (or CI-like) Yamato (Y) 980115 and Ornans-like (CO)3.5 Allan Hills (ALH) A77003 with the use of gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry. ALHA77003 was deprived of amino acids due to its extended thermal alteration history. Amino acids were unambiguously identified in Y-980115, and the δ15N values of selected amino acids (glycine +144.8 ‰; α-alanine +121.2 ‰) are clearly extraterrestrial. Y-980115 has experienced an extended period of aqueous alteration as indicated by the presence of hydrous mineral phases. It has also been exposed to at least one post-hydration short-lived thermal metamorphism. Glycine and alanine were possibly produced shortly after the accretion event of the asteroid parent body during the course of an extensive aqueous alteration event and have abstained from the short-term post-aqueous alteration heating due to the heterogeneity of the parent body composition and porosity. These carbonaceous chondrite samples are good analogs that offer important insights into the target asteroid Ryugu of the Hayabusa-2 mission, which is a C-type asteroid likely composed of heterogeneous materials including hydrated and dehydrated minerals.

  4. Specific heat of the antiferro/ferro-magnet NpGa3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colineau, E.; Griveau, J.-C.; Wastin, F.; Rebizant, J.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The Actinide Research Department at ITU is devoted to basic and strategic research on actinide elements and compounds. The scientific programme encompasses both physics and chemistry, and is carried out in collaboration with a number of academic research partners worldwide. → The availability of state-of-the-art instrumentation adapted for measuring spectroscopic, thermodynamic and transport properties of radioactive samples, together with specialised facilities for preparation and characterisation of high quality samples, makes the department a centre of excellence in actinide research and one of the leading institutions in this field. → The object of actinide research is the understanding of chemical bonding in, and the solid-state physics properties of, the actinide metals and their compounds. The level of knowledge of actinides is far inferior to that of the rest of the periodic table, mainly because of the difficulty of handling transuranium materials, but also because of the inherent difficulty of understanding the behavior of the 5f-electrons. Their spatial extent and tendency to interact with electrons on ligand sites give actinide elements a complexity unique in the periodic table. Experiments and theory are performed with a view to improved understanding. - Abstract: The specific heat of NpGa 3 has been measured for the first time. The magnetic transitions and more generally the full magnetic phase diagram have been re-established precisely. The Sommerfeld coefficient and the magnetic entropy point to a rather localized system, in agreement with previous studies, in particular high pressure Moessbauer and resistivity. The comparison with other NpX 3 suggests that NpGa 3 is the most localized member of the series.

  5. Simultaneous Assessment of Acidogenesis-Mitigation and Specific Bacterial Growth-Inhibition by Dentifrices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Forbes

    Full Text Available Dentifrices can augment oral hygiene by inactivating bacteria and at sub-lethal concentrations may affect bacterial metabolism, potentially inhibiting acidogenesis, the main cause of caries. Reported herein is the development of a rapid method to simultaneously measure group-specific bactericidal and acidogenesis-mitigation effects of dentifrices on oral bacteria. Saliva was incubated aerobically and anaerobically in Tryptone Soya Broth, Wilkins-Chalgren Broth with mucin, or artificial saliva and was exposed to dentifrices containing triclosan/copolymer (TD; sodium fluoride (FD; stannous fluoride and zinc lactate (SFD1; or stannous fluoride, zinc lactate and stannous chloride (SFD2. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC were determined turbidometrically whilst group-specific minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC were assessed using growth media and conditions selective for total aerobes, total anaerobes, streptococci and Gram-negative anaerobes. Minimum acid neutralization concentration (MNC was defined as the lowest concentration of dentifrice at which acidification was inhibited. Differences between MIC and MNC were calculated and normalized with respect to MIC to derive the combined inhibitory and neutralizing capacity (CINC, a cumulative measure of acidogenesis-mitigation and growth inhibition. The overall rank order for growth inhibition potency (MIC under aerobic and anaerobic conditions was: TD> SFD2> SFD1> FD. Acidogenesis-mitigation (MNC was ordered; TD> FD> SFD2> SFD1. CINC was ordered TD> FD> SFD2> SFD1 aerobically and TD> FD> SFD1> SFD2 anaerobically. With respect to group-specific bactericidal activity, TD generally exhibited the greatest potency, particularly against total aerobes, total anaerobes and streptococci. This approach enables the rapid simultaneous evaluation of acidity mitigation, growth inhibition and specific antimicrobial activity by dentifrices.

  6. Specific features of the electrophysical parameters of NTD Si treated under different conditions of heat treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaidar, G. P., E-mail: gaydar@kinr.kiev.ua [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Institute for Nuclear Research (Ukraine); Baranskii, P. I. [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Lashkaryov Institute of Semiconductor Physics (Ukraine)

    2016-06-15

    The effect of thermal annealing in the temperature range 800 ⩽ T{sub ann} ⩽ 1200°C and of two cooling rates (v{sub cl} = 1 and 15°C min{sup –1}) upon a change in the concentration of charge carriers in the conduction band, their mobility, and tensoresistance in n-Si crystals doped by nuclear transmutation and doped with phosphorus impurity via the melt (during growth by the Czochralski method) was investigated. It is found that, after annealing of all of the crystals at T{sub ann} = 1050–1100°C, the concentration of charge carriers is increased by a factor of 1.3–1.7 compared to the initial concentration (irrespective of the method of doping). The specific annealing-temperature-dependent effect of cooling with a rate of 15°C min{sup –1} on the properties of transmutation-doped n-Si:P crystals is detected.

  7. Specific heat of parabolic quantum dot with Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanjeev Kumar, D., E-mail: sanjeevchs@gmail.com; Chatterjee, Ashok [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad, India - 500046 (India); Mukhopadhyay, Soma [DVR College of Engineering & Technology, Kashipur, Medak, India - 502285 (India)

    2016-04-13

    The heat capacity of a two electron quantum dot with parabolic confinement in magnetic field in the presence of electron-electron interaction, Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction (DSOI) has been studied. The electron-electron interaction has been treated by a model potential which makes the Hamiltonian to be soluble exactly. The RSOI has been treated by a unitary transformation and the terms up to second order in DSOI constants have been considered. The heat capacity is obtained by canonical averaging. So far no study has been reported in literature on the effect of DSOI on the heat capacity of quantum dot.

  8. Specific heat measurements of the antiferroelectric phase transition in the mixed system KCN sub(x)Cl sub(1-x)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghivelder, L.; Bastos, C.A.M.; Ribeiro, P.C.; Weid, J.P. von der.

    1984-01-01

    The specific heat of KCN sub(x)Cl sub(1-x) mixed crystals was measured for four chlorine concentrations between x=0,90 and x=1,00. The entropy change ΔS and critical temperature T sub(c) were obtained and the results are discussed in terms of the orientational motion of the CN - molecular ions. (Author) [pt

  9. Magnon specific heat and free energy of Heisenberg ferromagnetic single-walled nanotubes: Green's function approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mi, Bin-Zhou, E-mail: mbzfjerry2008@126.com [Department of Basic Curriculum, North China Institute of Science and Technology, Beijing 101601 (China); Department of Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhai, Liang-Jun [The School of Mathematics and Physics, Jiangsu University of Technology, Changzhou 213001 (China); Hua, Ling-Ling [Department of Basic Curriculum, North China Institute of Science and Technology, Beijing 101601 (China)

    2016-01-15

    The effect of magnetic spin correlation on the thermodynamic properties of Heisenberg ferromagnetic single-walled nanotubes are comprehensively investigated by use of the double-time Green's function method. The influence of temperature, spin quantum number, diameter of the tube, anisotropy strength and external magnetic field to internal energy, free energy, and magnon specific heat are carefully calculated. Compared to the mean field approximation, the consideration of the magnetic correlation effect significantly improves the internal energy values at finite temperature, while it does not so near zero temperature, and this effect is related to the diameter of the tube, anisotropy strength, and spin quantum number. The magnetic correlation effect lowers the internal energy at finite temperature. As a natural consequence of the reduction of the internal energy, the specific heat is reduced, and the free energy is elevated. - Highlights: • Magnon specific heat and free energy of Heisenberg ferromagnetic single-walled nanotubes (HFM-SWNTs) are investigated. • The magnetic correlations effect has a considerable contribution to the thermodynamics properties of HFM-SWNTs. • Magnetic correlation effects are always to lower the internal energy at finite temperature. • At Curie point, magnetic correlation energy is much less than zero. • The peak values of magnon specific heat curves rise and shift right towards higher temperatures with the diameter of tubes, the anisotropy strength, and the spin quantum number rising.

  10. Specific heat (1-330K), magnetic susceptiblity and Meissner effect Bi-(Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-O samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junod, A.; Eckert, D.; Triscone, G.; Brunner, O.; Muller, J.; Zhao, Z.

    1989-01-01

    Five samples in the Bi 2 - y Pb y Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8 + x system selected for their sharp diamagnetic transitions are characterized with particular emphasis on the specific heat. The behavior of the magnetic susceptibility upon doping with holes (Pb) is similar to that of the La 1 - y Sr y CuO 4 system

  11. Specific heat of NiCl26NH3 between 0.3 and 4.2K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sano, W.

    1979-01-01

    A careful specific heat measurements of nickel hexammine cloride, at liquid helium temperatures, revealed two maxima of magnetic origin in agreement with one of the works available in the literature. An inequivalency of Ni ions, resulting from a structural change at high temperatures, is considered as the new explanation of the magnetic ordering. (Author) [pt

  12. Effects of heat treatment on conformation and cell growth activity of alpha- lactalbumin and beta-lactoglobulin from market milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Mizuho; Kawai, Shuji; Ijier, X; Fukuoka, Mayuko; Yabe, Tomio; Iwamoto, Satoshi; Kanamaru, Yoshihiro

    2017-01-01

    Heat processes, low temperature for long time (LTLT) pasteurization and ultra-heat treatment (UHT) sterilization, are essential for commercial market milk to improve the shelf life of raw milk and ensure microbial safety. We evaluated the effects of heat experience on the molecular properties of α-lactalbumin (α-LA) and β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) isolated from four types of market milk such as LTLT-A (66°C for 30 min), LTLT-B (65°C for 30 min), UHT-I (130°C for 2 s, indirect heating) and UHT-D (135°C for 2 s, direct heating) samples. We examined molecular conformations using circular dichroism spectrum measurement and cell growth activity using the WST-1 method for the proteins. α-LA isolated from each of these four types of market milk displayed no significant structural difference as compared to raw milk α-LA, while α-LA of UHT-I only inhibited cell growth of an intestinal epithelial cell line more potently than raw milk α-LA. In the case of β-LG, only the UHT-I sample demonstrated a drastic change in structure, while it did not exhibit any cytotoxicity. We found that cell viability effects of α-LA and β-LG are attributable to the type of UHT; indirect and direct. These findings indicate that the effect of heat treatment on whey proteins should carefully be investigated further.

  13. Drought priming at vegetative growth stages improves tolerance to drought and heat stresses occurring during grain filling in spring wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiao; Vignjevic, Marija; Liu, Fulai

    2015-01-01

    Plants of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Vinjett) were exposed to moderate water deficit at the vegetative growth stages six-leaf and/or stem elongation to investigate drought priming effects on tolerance to drought and heat stress events occurring during the grain filling stage. Compared......Plants of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Vinjett) were exposed to moderate water deficit at the vegetative growth stages six-leaf and/or stem elongation to investigate drought priming effects on tolerance to drought and heat stress events occurring during the grain filling stage...... of abscisic acid in primed plants under drought stress could contribute to higher grain yield compared to the non-primed plants. Taken together, the results indicate that drought priming during vegetative stages improved tolerance to both drought and heat stress events occurring during grain filling in wheat....

  14. Istra district heating system. Specific technical report. Appendix 2 to the master plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-09-01

    The objective of the master plan project is to improve heat supply in Istra. The considerable system losses from the fuel supplied to the end-users are one subject for improvement. At the same time, the current system operation results in poor quality heat for the consumers. Due to the inflexibility of the system, the dwellings/premises of the consumers are either overheated or insufficiently heated. The financial situation in Istra, the legal ownership of the district heating system and consumers ability to pay limit the possibilities for system improvements. The Master Plan and Feasibility Study evaluates four different development scenarios. Each of the scenarios is compared to the current situation in Istra, where nothing is done to change the system, but only to operate the present system in a sustainable way. The sustainable operation of the district heating system includes all necessary renovations and component replacements necessary. The project does not take into account the present financial situation in Istra, which has resulted in less maintenance than necessary. This situation is not a comparable parameter, as it is not sustainable and will lead to a breakdown of the heat supply within a short time horizon. (EHS)

  15. Turbulent heat transfer as a control of platelet ice growth in supercooled under-ice ocean boundary layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhee, Miles G.; Stevens, Craig L.; Smith, Inga J.; Robinson, Natalie J.

    2016-04-01

    Late winter measurements of turbulent quantities in tidally modulated flow under land-fast sea ice near the Erebus Glacier Tongue, McMurdo Sound, Antarctica, identified processes that influence growth at the interface of an ice surface in contact with supercooled seawater. The data show that turbulent heat exchange at the ocean-ice boundary is characterized by the product of friction velocity and (negative) water temperature departure from freezing, analogous to similar results for moderate melting rates in seawater above freezing. Platelet ice growth appears to increase the hydraulic roughness (drag) of fast ice compared with undeformed fast ice without platelets. Platelet growth in supercooled water under thick ice appears to be rate-limited by turbulent heat transfer and that this is a significant factor to be considered in mass transfer at the underside of ice shelves and sea ice in the vicinity of ice shelves.

  16. The sex of specific neurons controls female body growth in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawala, Annick; Gould, Alex P

    2017-10-01

    Sexual dimorphisms in body size are widespread throughout the animal kingdom but their underlying mechanisms are not well characterized. Most models for how sex chromosome genes specify size dimorphism have emphasized the importance of gonadal hormones and cell-autonomous influences in mammals versus strictly cell-autonomous mechanisms in Drosophila melanogaster. Here, we use tissue-specific genetics to investigate how sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is established in Drosophila. We find that the larger body size characteristic of Drosophila females is established very early in larval development via an increase in the growth rate per unit of body mass. We demonstrate that the female sex determination gene, Sex-lethal (Sxl), functions in central nervous system (CNS) neurons as part of a relay that specifies the early sex-specific growth trajectories of larval but not imaginal tissues. Neuronal Sxl acts additively in 2 neuronal subpopulations, one of which corresponds to 7 median neurosecretory cells: the insulin-producing cells (IPCs). Surprisingly, however, male-female differences in the production of insulin-like peptides (Ilps) from the IPCs do not appear to be involved in establishing SSD in early larvae, although they may play a later role. These findings support a relay model in which Sxl in neurons and Sxl in local tissues act together to specify the female-specific growth of the larval body. They also reveal that, even though the sex determination pathways in Drosophila and mammals are different, they both modulate body growth via a combination of tissue-autonomous and nonautonomous inputs.

  17. Complete suppression of in vivo growth of human leukemia cells by specific immunotoxins: nude mouse models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, H.; Seon, B.K.

    1987-01-01

    In this study, immunotoxins containing monoclonal anti-human T-cell leukemia antibodies are shown to be capable of completely suppressing the tumor growth of human T-cell leukemia cells in vivo without any overt undersirable toxicity. These immunotoxins were prepared by conjugating ricin A chain (RA) with our monoclonal antibodies, SN1 and SN2, directed specifically to the human T-cell leukemia cell surface antigens TALLA and GP37, respectively. The authors have shown that these monoclonal antibodies are highly specific for human T-cell leukemia cells and do not react with various normal cells including normal T and B cells, thymocytes, and bone marrow cells. Ascitic and solid human T-cell leukemia cell tumors were generated in nude mice. The ascitic tumor was generated by transplanting Ichikawa cells (a human T-cell leukemia cell) i.p. into nude mice, whereas the solid tumor was generated by transplanting s.c. MOLT-4 cells (a human T-cell leukemia cell line) and x-irradiated human fibrosarcoma cells into x-irradiated nude mice. To investigate the efficacy of specific immunotoxins in suppression the in vivo growth of the ascitic tumor, they divided 40 nude mice that were injected with Ichikawa cells into four groups. None of the mice in group 4 that were treated with SN1-RA and SN2-RA showed any signs of a tumor or undesirable toxic effects for the 20 weeks that they were followed after the transplantation. Treatment with SN1-RA plus SN2-RA completely suppressed solid tumor growth in 4 of 10 nude mice carrying solid tumors and partially suppressed the tumor growth in the remaining 6 nude mice. These results strongly suggest that SN1-RA and SN2-RA may be useful for clinical treatment

  18. Genome-wide association mapping of growth dynamics detects time-specific and general quantitative trait loci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bac-Molenaar, J.A.; Vreugdenhil, D.; Granier, C.; Keurentjes, J.J.B.

    2015-01-01

    Growth is a complex trait determined by the interplay between many genes, some of which play a role at a specific moment during development whereas others play a more general role. To identify the genetic basis of growth, natural variation in Arabidopsis rosette growth was followed in 324 accessions

  19. Tumor-specific RNA interference targeting Pokemon suppresses tumor growth and induces apoptosis in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yining; Xu, Shuxiong; Wang, Xiangwei; Shi, Hua; Sun, Zhaolin; Yang, Zhao

    2013-02-01

    To explore the exact mechanism of Pokemon in prostate cancer. Pokemon is a member of the POK family of transcriptional repressors. Its main function is suppression of the p14ARF (alternate reading frame) tumor suppressor gene. Although Pokemon expression has been found to be increased in various types of lymphoma, the exact mechanism of the gene in prostate cancer is not clear. In the present study, prostate cancer cells were transfected with the specific short hairpin ribonucleic acid (RNA) expression vector targeting Pokemon. The expression of Pokemon messenger RNA and its protein was detected by semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, respectively. The cell growth and cell apoptosis were also examined using the methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay and flow cytometry. The results demonstrated that specific RNA interference (RNAi) could decrease the expression levels of Pokemon gene messenger RNA and protein in prostate cancer cells. In addition, that specific RNAi significantly inhibited the cell proliferation and increased the apoptotic rate. In vivo experiments showed that specific RNAi inhibited the tumorigenicity of prostate cancer cells and significantly suppressed tumor growth. Therefore, an RNAi-targeted Pokemon gene strategy could be a potential approach to prostate cancer therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Enhanced Thermostability of Arabidopsis Rubisco activase improves photosynthesis and growth rates under moderate heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurek, Itzhak; Chang, Thom Kai; Bertain, Sean M; Madrigal, Alfredo; Liu, Lu; Lassner, Michael W; Zhu, Genhai

    2007-10-01

    Plant photosynthesis declines when the temperature exceeds its optimum range. Recent evidence indicates that the reduction in photosynthesis is linked to ribulose-1,5-bis-phosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) deactivation due to the inhibition of Rubisco activase (RCA) under moderately elevated temperatures. To test the hypothesis that thermostable RCA can improve photosynthesis under elevated temperatures, we used gene shuffling technology to generate several Arabidopsis thaliana RCA1 (short isoform) variants exhibiting improved thermostability. Wild-type RCA1 and selected thermostable RCA1 variants were introduced into an Arabidopsis RCA deletion (Deltarca) line. In a long-term growth test at either constant 26 degrees C or daily 4-h 30 degrees C exposure, the transgenic lines with the thermostable RCA1 variants exhibited higher photosynthetic rates, improved development patterns, higher biomass, and increased seed yields compared with the lines expressing wild-type RCA1 and a slight improvement compared with untransformed Arabidopsis plants. These results provide clear evidence that RCA is a major limiting factor in plant photosynthesis under moderately elevated temperatures and a potential target for genetic manipulation to improve crop plants productivity under heat stress conditions.

  1. Evaluating Growth of Zeolites on Fly Ash in Hydro-Thermally Heated Low Alkaline Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Bhagwanjee; Singh, D. N.

    2017-12-01

    Fly ash has been well established materials for synthesis of zeolites, under hydrothermally heated aqueous NaOH solution. Efficacy of such technique is reported to be improved when high molarity of NaOH is used. Consequently, highly alkaline waste solution, as by-product, is generally disposed of in the surrounding, which may contaminate the environment. In this context, less alkaline NaOH solution may become a safer option, which has not been tried in the past as per the literature. With this in view, the present study demonstrates effectiveness of the 0.5 M NaOH solution and critically monitors transition on the fly ash after hydrothermal treatment. As an enhancement over previous researchers, such activation of the fly ash finally results in remarkable morphological and mineralogical growth on the bulk material (the residue), which comprises of new nano-sized crystals (the zeolites Na-P1 and natrolite), after 24 h of activation of the fly ash.

  2. Laser heat hyperalgesia is not a feature of non-specific chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, M; Ritter, A; Puta, C; Nötzel, D; Miltner, W H R; Weiss, T

    2014-11-01

    Based upon studies using mechanical pin-prick, pressure, electrical or heat stimuli applied to painful and/or pain-free parts of the body, chronic low back pain (CLBP) has been shown to be associated with generalized and enhanced pain sensitivity and altered brain responses to noxious stimuli. To date, no study examined the processing of noxious laser heat pulses, which are known to selectively excite thermal nociceptors located in the superficial skin layers, in CLBP. We studied laser heat pain thresholds (LHPTs) and nociceptive laser-evoked brain electrical potentials (LEPs) following skin stimulation of the pain-affected back and the pain-free abdomen using noxious laser heat stimulation in 16 CLBP patients and 16 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (HCs). We observed no statistically significant differences in LHPTs between CLBP patients and HCs, neither on the back nor on the abdomen. Furthermore, we found no evidence for altered brain responses between CLBP patients and HCs in response to stimulation of the back and abdomen in single-trial latencies and amplitudes of LEP components (N2, P2). The results are in contrast to previous studies showing hypersensitivity to different experimental noxious stimuli (e.g., contact heat). We argue that these discrepancies may be due to low spatial and temporal summation within the central nervous system following laser heat stimulation. Our results indicate important methodological differences between laser heat and thermode stimulation that should be taken into account when interpreting results, such as from thermal quantitative sensory testing. © 2014 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  3. [Specific growth rate and the rate of energy metabolism in the ontogenesis of axolotl, Ambystoma mexicanum (Amphibia: Ambystomatidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimirova, I G; Kleĭmenov, S Iu; Alekseeva, T A; Radzinskaia, L I

    2003-01-01

    Concordant changes in the rate of energy metabolism and specific growth rate of axolotls have been revealed. Several periods of ontogeny are distinguished, which differ in the ratio of energy metabolism to body weight and, therefore, are described by different allometric equations. It is suggested that the specific growth rate of an animal determines the type of dependence of energy metabolism on body weight.

  4. Gender-specific heart rate dynamics in severe intrauterine growth-restricted fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Hernâni; Bernardes, João; Ayres-de-Campos, Diogo

    2013-06-01

    Management of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) remains a major issue in perinatology. The objective of this paper was the assessment of gender-specific fetal heart rate (FHR) dynamics as a diagnostic tool in severe IUGR. FHR was analyzed in the antepartum period in 15 severe IUGR fetuses and 18 controls, matched for gestational age, in relation to fetal gender. Linear and entropy methods, such as mean FHR (mFHR), low (LF), high (HF) and movement frequency (MF), approximate, sample and multiscale entropy. Sensitivities and specificities were estimated using Fisher linear discriminant analysis and the leave-one-out method. Overall, IUGR fetuses presented significantly lower mFHR and entropy compared with controls. However, gender-specific analysis showed that significantly lower mFHR was only evident in IUGR males and lower entropy in IUGR females. In addition, lower LF/(MF+HF) was patent in IUGR females compared with controls, but not in males. Rather high sensitivities and specificities were achieved in the detection of the FHR recordings related with IUGR male fetuses, when gender-specific analysis was performed at gestational ages less than 34 weeks. Severe IUGR fetuses present gender-specific linear and entropy FHR changes, compared with controls, characterized by a significantly lower entropy and sympathetic-vagal balance in females than in males. These findings need to be considered in order to achieve better diagnostic results. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Heat-shock induction of ionizing radiation resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and the correlation with stationary growth phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchel, R.E.J.; Morrison, D.P.

    1982-01-01

    Radiation resistance and thermal resistance vary as a function of culture temperature in logarithmically growing Saccharomyces cerevisiae and are related to the optimum temperature for growth. Radiation resistance and thermal resistance were also induced when cells grown at low temperatures were subjected to a heat shock at or above the optimum growth temperature. Exposure to ionizing radiation followed by a short incubation at low temperature also induced resistance to killing by heat. Heat-shocked cells are induced to a level of thermal and radioresistance much greater than the characteristic resistance level of cells grown continuously at the shock temperature. This high level of resistance, which resembles that of stationary-phase cells, decays to the characteristic log-phase level within one doubling of cell number after the heat shock. Both induction of resistance and decay of that induction require protein synthesis. It is postulated that induction of resistance by heat shock or ionizing radiation is a response of the cells to stress and represents a preparation to enter stationary phase

  6. Occupational exposure in small and medium scale industry with specific reference to heat and noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakhwinder Pal Singh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to assess heat and noise exposure and occupational safety practices in small and medium scale casting and forging units (SMEs of Northern India. We conducted personal interviews of 350 male workers of these units through a comprehensive questionnaire and collected information on heat and noise exposure, use of protective equipment, sweat loss and water intake, working hour. The ambient wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT index was measured using quest temp 34/36o area heat stress monitor. A-weighted Leq ambient noise was measured using a quest sound level meter "ANSI SI. 43-1997 (R 2002 type-1 model SOUNDPRO SE/DL". We also incorporated OSHA norms for hearing conservation which include - an exchange rate of 5dB(A, criterion level at 90dB(A, criterion time of eight hours, threshold level is equal to 80dB(A, upper limit is equal to 140dB(A and with F/S response rate. Results of the study revealed that occupational heat exposure in melting, casting, forging and punching sections is high compared to ACGIH/NIOSH norms. Ambience noise in various sections like casting / molding, drop forging, cutting presses, punching, grinding and barreling process was found to be more than 90dB(A. About 95% of the workers suffered speech interference where as high noise annoyance was reported by only 20%. Overall, 68% workers were not using any personal protective equipment (PPE. The study concluded that the proportion of SME workers exposed to high level heat stress and noise (60 - 72 hrs/week is high. The workers engaged in forging and grinding sections are more prone to noise induced hearing loss (NIHL at higher frequencies as compared to workers of other sections. It is recommended that there is a strong need to implement the standard of working hours as well as heat stress and noise control measures.

  7. Specifics of forced-convective heat transfer in supercritical carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saltanov, A.E.; Mann, B.D.; Harvel, C.G.; Pioro, D.I., E-mail: Eugene.saltanov@hotmail.com [University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Oshawa, ON (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    The appropriate description of heat-transfer to coolants at supercritical state is one of the main challenges in development of supercritical-fluids applications for the Generation-IV reactors. In this paper the basis for comparison of relatively recent experimental data on supercritical carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) obtained at facilities of the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) is discussed, and a preliminary heat-transfer correlation for joint CRL and KAERI datasets is presented. (author)

  8. Timing of Maternal Depression and Sex-Specific Child Growth, the Upstate KIDS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyojun; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Gilman, Stephen E; Bell, Griffith; Louis, Germaine M Buck; Yeung, Edwina H

    2018-01-01

    Equivocal findings have been reported on the association between maternal depression and children's growth, possibly because of the limited attention to its disproportionate impact by child sex. The relationship between the timing of maternal depression and children's growth was assessed in a population-based prospective birth cohort, with particular attention to sex differences. The Upstate KIDS Study comprised 4,394 children followed through 3 years of age from 2008 to 2010. Maternal depression was measured antenatally by linkage with hospital discharge records before delivery and postnatally by depressive symptoms reported from questionnaires. Children's growth was measured by sex- and age-specific weight, height, weight for height, and BMI. Adjusted linear mixed effects models were used to estimate growth outcomes for the full sample and separately by plurality and sex. Antenatal depression was associated with lower weight for age (-0.24 z score units; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.43, -0.05) and height for age (-0.26 z score units; 95% CI: -0.51, -0.02) among singleton boys. Postnatal depressive symptoms were associated with higher weight for height (0.21 z score units; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.42) among singleton girls. The findings of this study suggest that antenatal depression was associated with lower weight and smaller height only for boys, whereas postnatal depressive symptoms were associated with higher weight for height only for girls. The timing of depression and the mechanisms of sex-specific responses require further examination. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  9. Involvement of DNA methylation in the control of cell growth during heat stress in tobacco BY-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centomani, Isabella; Sgobba, Alessandra; D'Addabbo, Pietro; Dipierro, Nunzio; Paradiso, Annalisa; De Gara, Laura; Dipierro, Silvio; Viggiano, Luigi; de Pinto, Maria Concetta

    2015-11-01

    The alteration of growth patterns, through the adjustment of cell division and expansion, is a characteristic response of plants to environmental stress. In order to study this response in more depth, the effect of heat stress on growth was investigated in tobacco BY-2 cells. The results indicate that heat stress inhibited cell division, by slowing cell cycle progression. Cells were stopped in the pre-mitotic phases, as shown by the increased expression of CycD3-1 and by the decrease in the NtCycA13, NtCyc29 and CDKB1-1 transcripts. The decrease in cell length and the reduced expression of Nt-EXPA5 indicated that cell expansion was also inhibited. Since DNA methylation plays a key role in controlling gene expression, the possibility that the altered expression of genes involved in the control of cell growth, observed during heat stress, could be due to changes in the methylation state of their promoters was investigated. The results show that the altered expression of CycD3-1 and Nt-EXPA5 was consistent with changes in the methylation state of the upstream region of these genes. These results suggest that DNA methylation, controlling the expression of genes involved in plant development, contributes to growth alteration occurring in response to environmental changes.

  10. Visualized study on specific points on demand curves and flow patterns in a single-side heated narrow rectangular channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Junfeng; Huang Yanping; Wang Yanlin

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Specific points on the demand curve and flow patterns are visually studied. → Bubbly, churn, and annular flows were observed. → Onset of flow instability and bubbly-churn transition occurs at the same time. → The evolution of specific points and flow pattern transitions were examined. - Abstract: A simultaneous visualization and measurement study on some specific points on demand curves, such as onset of nucleate boiling (ONB), onset of significant void (OSV), onset of flow instability (OFI), and two-phase flow patterns in a single-side heated narrow rectangular channel, having a width of 40 mm and a gap of 3 mm, was carried out. New experimental approaches were adopted to identify OSV and OFI in a narrow rectangular channel. Under experimental conditions, the ONB could be predicted well by the Sato and Matsumura model. The OSV model of Bowring can reasonably predict the OSV if the single-side heated condition is considered. The OFI was close to the saturated boiling point and could be described accurately by Kennedy's correlation. The two-phase flow patterns observed in this experiment could be classified into bubbly, churn, and annular flow. Slug flow was never observed. The OFI always occurred when the bubbles at the channel exit began to coalesce, which corresponded to the beginning of the bubbly-churn transition in flow patterns. Finally, the evolution of specific points and flow pattern transitions were examined in a single-side heated narrow rectangular channel.

  11. Timing effects of heat-stress on plant physiological characteristics and growth: a field study with prairie vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available More intense, more frequent, and longer heat-waves are expected in the future due to global warming, which could have dramatic agricultural, economic and ecological impacts. This field study examined how plant responded to heat-stress (HS treatment at different timing in naturally-occurring vegetation. HS treatment (5 days at 40.5 ºC were applied to 12 1m2 plots in restored prairie vegetation dominated by Andropogon gerardii (warm-season C4 grass and Solidago canadensis (warm-season C3 forb at different growing stages. During and after HS, air, canopy, and soil temperature were monitored; net CO2 assimilation (Pn, quantum yield of photosystem II (ФPSII, stomatal conductance (gs, and internal CO2 level (Ci of the dominant species were measured. One week after the last HS treatment, all plots were harvested and the biomass of above-ground tissue and flower weight of the two dominant species was determined. HS decreased physiological performance and growth for both species, with S. canadensis being affected more than A. gerardii, indicated by negative heat stress effect on both physiological and growth responses. There were significant timing effect of heat stress on the two species, with greater reductions in the photosynthesis and productivity occurred when heat stress was applied at later-growing season. The reduction in aboveground productivity in S. canadensis but not A. gerardii could have important implications for plant community structure by increasing the competitive advantage of A. gerardii in this grassland. The present experiment showed that heat stress, though ephemeral, may promote long-term effects on plant community structure, vegetation dynamics, biodiversity, and ecosystem functioning of terrestrial biomes when more frequent and severe heat stress occur in the future.

  12. Specific power reduction of an ion source due to heating and cathode sputtering of electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, G.U.; Semashko, N.N.

    The potentialities and limitations of the water-cooled ion-optical system of the ion source designed for continuous operation of the high-power neutral beam injector are determined. The following problems are analyzed: thermal expansion and deformation of electrodes, electrode sputtering as a result of bombardment, and heat transfer to turbulent flow of water

  13. Arabidopsis non-specific phospholipase C1: Characterization and its involvement in response to heat stress

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krčková, Zuzana; Brouzdová, Jitka; Daněk, Michal; Kocourková, Daniela; Rainteau, D.; Ruelland, E.; Valentová, O.; Pejchar, Přemysl; Martinec, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, NOV 4 (2015), s. 928 ISSN 1664-462X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP501/12/1942 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Arabidopsis thaliana * Diacylglycerol * Heat stress Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 4.495, year: 2015

  14. Using Experts to Validate an Animal Specific Heat Stress Model for Feedlot Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The extreme effects of heat stress in a feedlot situation can cause losses exceeding 5% of all the cattle on feed in a single feedlot. These losses can be very devastating to a localized area of feedlot producers. Animal stress is a result of the combination of three different components: environm...

  15. Transgenerational effects of mild heat in Arabidopsis thaliana show strong genotype specificity that is explained by climate at origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groot, Maartje P; Kubisch, Alexander; Ouborg, N Joop; Pagel, Jörn; Schmid, Karl J; Vergeer, Philippine; Lampei, Christian

    2017-08-01

    Transgenerational environmental effects can trigger strong phenotypic variation. However, it is unclear how cues from different preceding generations interact. Also, little is known about the genetic variation for these life history traits. Here, we present the effects of grandparental and parental mild heat, and their combination, on four traits of the third-generation phenotype of 14 Arabidopsis thaliana genotypes. We tested for correlations of these effects with climate and constructed a conceptual model to identify the environmental conditions that favour the parental effect on flowering time. We observed strong evidence for genotype-specific transgenerational effects. On average, A. thaliana accustomed to mild heat produced more seeds after two generations. Parental effects overruled grandparental effects in all traits except reproductive biomass. Flowering was generally accelerated by all transgenerational effects. Notably, the parental effect triggered earliest flowering in genotypes adapted to dry summers. Accordingly, this parental effect was favoured in the model when early summer heat terminated the growing season and environments were correlated across generations. Our results suggest that A. thaliana can partly accustom to mild heat over two generations and genotype-specific parental effects show non-random evolutionary divergence across populations that may support climate change adaptation in the Mediterranean. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. Urban Heat Island Growth Modeling Using Artificial Neural Networks and Support Vector Regression: A case study of Tehran, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherafati, Sh. A.; Saradjian, M. R.; Niazmardi, S.

    2013-09-01

    Numerous investigations on Urban Heat Island (UHI) show that land cover change is the main factor of increasing Land Surface Temperature (LST) in urban areas. Therefore, to achieve a model which is able to simulate UHI growth, urban expansion should be concerned first. Considerable researches on urban expansion modeling have been done based on cellular automata. Accordingly the objective of this paper is to implement CA method for trend detection of Tehran UHI spatiotemporal growth based on urban sprawl parameters (such as Distance to nearest road, Digital Elevation Model (DEM), Slope and Aspect ratios). It should be mentioned that UHI growth modeling may have more complexities in comparison with urban expansion, since the amount of each pixel's temperature should be investigated instead of its state (urban and non-urban areas). The most challenging part of CA model is the definition of Transfer Rules. Here, two methods have used to find appropriate transfer Rules which are Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and Support Vector Regression (SVR). The reason of choosing these approaches is that artificial neural networks and support vector regression have significant abilities to handle the complications of such a spatial analysis in comparison with other methods like Genetic or Swarm intelligence. In this paper, UHI change trend has discussed between 1984 and 2007. For this purpose, urban sprawl parameters in 1984 have calculated and added to the retrieved LST of this year. In order to achieve LST, Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) night-time images have exploited. The reason of implementing night-time images is that UHI phenomenon is more obvious during night hours. After that multilayer feed-forward neural networks and support vector regression have used separately to find the relationship between this data and the retrieved LST in 2007. Since the transfer rules might not be the same in different regions, the satellite image of the city has

  17. An examination of the estimation method for the specific heat of TRU dioxides: evaluation with PuO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serizawa, H.; Arai, Y.

    2000-01-01

    This work set out to study the estimation method of the specific heat, C p , for the dioxides of the transuranic elements. C p was evaluated as a sum of three terms, contributions of phonon vibration, C ph , dilation, C d , and Schottky specific heat, C s , C ph and C d were calculated using the Debye temperature and Grueneisen constant obtained by high-temperature X-ray diffractometry. The method was applied to PuO 2 . The estimated C p was in good accordance with the reported one measured using a calorimeter. The error in the estimation was small compared to that which arises from using the conventional method based on C p (298) and the melting temperature. (orig.)

  18. Low-temperature specific heat measurements on the NdCoxFe1-xO3 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartolome, F.; Kuz'min, M.D.; Bartolome, J.; Blasco, J.; Garcia, J.

    1995-01-01

    Low-temperature specific heat measurements have been carried out on the NdCo x Fe 1-x O 3 perovskite system (x=0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.9, 1). Magnetic ordering of Nd 3+ ions have been observed in NdCoO 3 (at 1.20 K) and NdFeO 3 (at 1.05 K). The studied dilutions, unlike the pure Fe or Co compounds, do not show a magnetic order of the Nd ions due to the stronger molecular field caused by decompensation of the internal field upon the introduction of the (Co 3+ ) magnetic vacancies in the antiferromagnetically ordered Fe subsystem. The specific heat curve of the system at x=0.9 resembles spin-glass behaviour. ((orig.))

  19. Site-specific growth of Au particles on ZnO nanopyramids under ultraviolet illumination

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Kexin

    2011-01-01

    In this work, wurtzite ZnO nanocrystals with unique "pyramid" morphology were firstly prepared via solvothermal synthesis. It was determined that the ZnO nanopyramids are grown along the polar c-axis with the vertexes pointing to the [001] direction. When the mixture of ZnO nanopyramids and Au precursor (HAuCl4) was exposed to ultraviolet (UV) illumination, Au particles were site-specifically formed on the vertexes of ZnO nanopyramids. The obtained Au/ZnO nanocomposite showed significantly enhanced photocatalytic activity as compared to the bare ZnO nanopyramids. First-principles based calculations well explained the formation of ZnO nanopyramids as well as the site-specific growth of Au, and revealed that during the photocatalysis process the Au particles can accommodate photoelectrons and thus facilitate the charge separation. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  20. Effects of Heat-oxidized Soy Protein Isolate on Growth Performance and Digestive Function of Broiler Chickens at Early Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Chen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate effects of heat-oxidized soy protein isolate (HSPI on growth performance, serum biochemical indices, apparent nutrient digestibility and digestive function of broiler chickens. A total of 320 1-day-old Arbor Acres chicks were randomly divided into 4 groups with 8 replicates of 10 birds, receiving diets containing soy protein isolate (SPI, control group or the same amount of SPI heated in an oven at 100°C for 1, 4, or 8 h, for 21 days, respectively. The results indicated that compared with the control group, body weight gain and feed intake of birds fed diet containing SPI heated for 8 h were significantly lower (p<0.05. Serum urea nitrogen concentration was higher in the broilers fed diet containing SPI heated for 4 or 8 h at d 21 (p<0.05. In contrast, serum glucose content was decreased by HSPI substitution at d 21 (p<0.05. The relative pancreas weight in HSPI groups was higher than that in the control group at d 21 (p<0.05. Meanwhile, the opposite effect was observed for relative weight of anterior intestine and ileum in broilers fed a diet containing SPI heated for 8 h (p<0.05. Birds fed diets containing SPI heated for 4 or 8 h had a decreased lipase activity in anterior intestinal content at d 14 and 21 (p<0.05, respectively. In addition, the same effect was also noted in broilers given diets containing SPI heated for 1 h at d 21 (p<0.05. Similarly, amylase, protease and trypsin activity in anterior intestinal content were lower in broilers fed diets containing SPI heated for 8 h at d 21 (p<0.05. The apparent digestibility of dry matter (DM from d 8 to 10 and DM, crude protein (CP, and ether extract from d 15 to 17 were lower in broilers fed diets containing SPI heated for 8 h (p<0.05. Besides, birds given diets containing SPI heated for 4 h also exhibited lower CP apparent digestibility from d 15 to 17 (p<0.05. It was concluded that HSPI inclusion can exert a negative influence on the growth

  1. Abnormal Grain Growth in the Heat Affected Zone of Friction Stir Welded Joint of 32Mn-7Cr-1Mo-0.3N Steel during Post-Weld Heat Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijun Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The abnormal grain growth in the heat affected zone of the friction stir welded joint of 32Mn-7Cr-1Mo-0.3N steel after post-weld heat treatment was confirmed by physical simulation experiments. The microstructural stability of the heat affected zone can be weakened by the welding thermal cycle. It was speculated to be due to the variation of the non-equilibrium segregation state of solute atoms at the grain boundaries. In addition, the pressure stress in the welding process can promote abnormal grain growth in the post-weld heat treatment.

  2. Organ-Specific Metabolic Shifts of Flavonoids in Scutellaria baicalensis at Different Growth and Development Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyuan Xu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine mainly containing flavonoids that contribute to its bioactivities. In this study, the distributions and dynamic changes of flavonoid levels in various organs of S. baicalensis at different development stages were investigated by UHPLC-QTOF-MS/MS and HPLC-DAD methods. The results indicated that the metabolic profiles of S. baicalensis changed with growth and development. During the initial germination stage, the seeds mainly contained flavonols. With growth, the main kinds of flavonoids in S. baicalensis changed from flavonols to flavanones and flavones. The results also revealed that the accumulation of flavonoids in S. baicalensis is organ-specific. The flavones without 4′-OH groups mainly accumulate in the root and the flavanones mainly accumulate in aerial organs. Dynamic accumulation analysis showed that the main flavonoids in the root of S. baicalensis accumulated rapidly before the full-bloom stage, then changed to a small extent. The results suggested the proper harvest time for the aerial parts was at the initial stage of reproductive growth and the flower buds should be collected before flowering. This study deepening the knowledge of S. baicalensis should provide valuable information for guiding the scientific cultivation of this plant and the development and utilization of S. baicalensis.

  3. Predictors of growth or attrition of the first language in Latino children with specific language impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon-Cereijido, Gabriela; Gutiérrez-Clellen, Vera F.; Sweet, Monica

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the factors that may help understand the differential rates of language development in the home language (i.e., Spanish) of Latino preschoolers with specific language impairment (SLI). Children were randomly assigned to either bilingual or English-only small group interventions and followed from preschool to kindergarten. Predictors of Spanish growth included the language of intervention, the child’s level of language development or severity, the child’s socio-emotional skills, and the child’s level of English use. Spanish performance outcomes were assessed over time using a series of longitudinal models with baseline and post-treatment measures nested within child. Children demonstrated growth on Spanish outcomes over time. The language of instruction and the child’s level of vocabulary and socio-emotional development at baseline were significant predictors of differences in rates of growth in the home language. Clinicians may need to take into consideration these factors when making clinical recommendations. PMID:24489415

  4. Low-temperature specific heat of the 'nearly ferromagnetic' amorphous alloy Ysub(0.22)Nisub(0.78)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garoche, P.; Veyssie, J.J.; Lienard, A.; Rebouillat, J.P.

    1979-01-01

    Results of specific heat measurements, between 0.3K and 10 K in magnetic fields up to 75 kOe, on the 'nearly ferromagnetic' amorphous alloy Ysub(0.22)Nisub(0.78) are reported. The results, especially the magnetic field dependence, exclude any appreciable contribution from uniform paramagnons. In contrast a quantitative analysis is obtained in terms of superparamagnetic clusters, demonstrating that the onset of ferromagnetism, as a function of concentration, is inhomogeneous in this amorphous metallic system. (author)

  5. Quantum single oscillator with a (mod X) sup(#betta#) - type potential : energy eigenvalues and specific heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariz, A.M.; Rio Grande do Norte Univ., Natal; Tsallis, C.

    1982-01-01

    The quantum single one-dimensional oscillator associated with a potential proportional to /X/ sup(#betta#) (#betta# > 0) is discussed. The exact energy eigenvalues recently established by Turschner are further elaborated and convenient exact as well as asymptotic relations are exhibited. The exact T → 0 and T → infinite specific heat is discussed and numerical results for typical values of #betta# and intermediate temperature are presented. (Author) [pt

  6. Magnetic determination of the specific heat jump at Tc in YBa2Cu3O7-δ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triscone, G.; Junod, A.; Muller, J.

    1989-01-01

    Magnetization measurements M(H,T) were performed on a polycrystalline YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 - δ sample in the reversible region near T c . Thermodynamic relations are used to address the question: is the specific heat jump an intrinsic characteristic property of the electron system at the superconducting transition? It is shown that the measured data up to 8T (rather than extrapolated to H c2 ) already yield 45% of the calorimetric jump

  7. Thermal fluctuations in the classical superconductor Nb3Sn from high-resolution specific-heat measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lortz, Rolf; Wang Yuxing; Junod, Alain; Toyota, Naoki

    2007-01-01

    The range of thermal fluctuations in 'classical' bulk superconductors is extremely small and especially in low-fields hardly experimentally accessible. With a new type of calorimeter we were able to detect a tiny lambda anomaly in the specific-heat of the superconductor Nb 3 Sn within a narrow temperature range around the H c2 line. We show that the evolution of the anomaly as a function of magnetic field follows scaling laws expected in the presence of critical thermal fluctuations

  8. Computational analysis of heat transfer, thermal stress and dislocation density during resistively Czochralski growth of germanium single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, Mohammad Hossein; Renani, Elahe Kabiri; Honarmandnia, Mohtaram; Ezheiyan, Mahdi

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, a set of numerical simulations of fluid flow, temperature gradient, thermal stress and dislocation density for a Czochralski setup used to grow IR optical-grade Ge single crystal have been done for different stages of the growth process. A two-dimensional steady state finite element method has been applied for all calculations. The obtained numerical results reveal that the thermal field, thermal stress and dislocation structure are mainly dependent on the crystal height, heat radiation and gas flow in the growth system.

  9. Synthesis of silicon carbide coating on diamond by microwave heating of diamond and silicon powder: A heteroepitaxial growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leparoux, S. [Empa, Department of Materials Technology, Feuerwerkerstrasse 39, CH-3602 Thun (Switzerland)], E-mail: susanne.leparoux@empa.ch; Diot, C. [Consultant, allee de Mozart 10, F-92300 Chatillon (France); Dubach, A. [Empa, Department of Materials Technology, Feuerwerkerstrasse 39, CH-3602 Thun (Switzerland); Vaucher, S. [Empa, Department of Materials Technology, Feuerwerkerstrasse 39, CH-3602 Thun (Switzerland)

    2007-10-15

    When a powder mixture of diamond and silicon is heated by microwaves, heteroepitaxial growth of SiC is observed on the (1 1 1) as well as on the (1 0 0) faces of the diamond. The SiC over-layer was characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. High-resolution scanning electron microscopy shows the presence of triangular silicon carbide on the (1 1 1) faces of diamond while prismatic crystals are found on the (1 0 0) faces. The crystal growth seems to be favored in the plane parallel to the face (1 1 1)

  10. Synthesis of silicon carbide coating on diamond by microwave heating of diamond and silicon powder: A heteroepitaxial growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leparoux, S.; Diot, C.; Dubach, A.; Vaucher, S.

    2007-01-01

    When a powder mixture of diamond and silicon is heated by microwaves, heteroepitaxial growth of SiC is observed on the (1 1 1) as well as on the (1 0 0) faces of the diamond. The SiC over-layer was characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. High-resolution scanning electron microscopy shows the presence of triangular silicon carbide on the (1 1 1) faces of diamond while prismatic crystals are found on the (1 0 0) faces. The crystal growth seems to be favored in the plane parallel to the face (1 1 1)

  11. Crystal-field study of magnetization and specific heat properties of frustrated pyrochlore Pr2Zr2O7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, J.; Jana, Y.M.; Biswas, A. Ali

    2016-01-01

    The experimental results of temperature dependent dc magnetic susceptibility, field dependent isothermal magnetization, magnetic specific heat and entropy of the pyrochlore Pr 2 Zr 2 O 7 are simulated and analyzed using appropriate D 3d crystal-field (CF) and anisotropic molecular field tensors at Pr-sites in the self-consistent mean-field approach involving four magnetically non-equivalent rare-earth spins on the tetrahedral unit of the pyrochlore structure. CF level pattern and wave-functions of the ground 3 H 4 multiplet of the Pr 3+ ions are obtained considering intermediate coupling between different Russell-Saunders terms of the 4f 2 electronic configurations of Pr-ion and J-mixing effects. CF analysis shows that the CF ground-state of the Pr 3+ ion in Pr 2 Zr 2 O 7 is a well-isolated doublet, with significant admixtures of terms coming from |M J =±4〉 and |M J =±1〉, and the Pr-spins are effectively Ising-like along the local <111> axes. Magnetic specific heat in zero-field is simulated by considering a temperature dependence of the exchange splitting of the ground doublet. - Highlights: • Full CF diagonalization using intermediate coupling and J-mixing. • Pr-spins are Ising-like along local [111] axis. • Magnetic specific heat is due to temperature dependence exchange splitting of ground CF doublet.

  12. Low-temperature specific heat of the quasi-two-dimensional charge-density wave compound KMo6O17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junfeng; Xiong, Rui; Yin, Di; Li, Changzhen; Tang, Zheng; Wang, Ququan; Shi, Jing; Wang, Yue; Wen, Haihu

    2006-05-01

    Low temperature specific heat (Cp) of quasi-two-dimensional charge-density wave (CDW) compound KMo6O17 has been studied by a relaxation method from 2to48K under zero and 12T magnetic fields. The results show that no specific heat anomaly is found at 16K under both zero and 12T magnetic fields, although an anomaly is clearly observed in the resistivity and magnetoresistance measurements. From the data between 2 and 4K , the density of states at Fermi level is estimated as 0.2eV-1permolecule and the Debye temperature is extracted to be 418K . A bump appearing in Cp/T3 is found between 4 and 48K centered around 12.5-15K , indicating that the phason excitations contribute to the total specific heat similarly as in quasi-one-dimensional CDW conductors. Using a modified Debye model, a pinning frequency of 0.73THz for KMo6O17 is estimated from the phason contribution.

  13. Experimental study on density, thermal conductivity, specific heat, and viscosity of water-ethylene glycol mixture dispersed with carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganeshkumar Jayabalan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the effect of adding multi wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT in water – ethylene glycol mixture on density and various thermophysical properties such as thermal conductivity, specific heat and viscosity. Density of nanofluids was measured using standard volumetric flask method and the data showed a good agreement with the mixing theory. The maximum thermal conductivity enhancement of 11 % was noticed for the nanofluids with 0.9 wt. %. Due to lower specific heat of the MWCNT, the specific heat of the nanofluids decreased in proportion with the MWCNT concentration. The rheological analysis showed that the transition region from shear thinning to Newtonian extended to the higher shear stress range compared to that of base fluids. Viscosity ratio of the nanofluids augmented anomalously with respect to increase in temperature and about 2.25 fold increase was observed in the temperature range of 30 – 40 ˚C. The modified model of Maron and Pierce predicted the viscosity of the nanofluids with the inclusion of effect of aspect ratio of MWCNT and nanoparticle aggregates.

  14. A study on specific heat capacities of Li-ion cell components and their influence on thermal management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loges, André; Herberger, Sabrina; Seegert, Philipp; Wetzel, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    Thermal models of Li-ion cells on various geometrical scales and with various complexity have been developed in the past to account for the temperature dependent behaviour of Li-ion cells. These models require accurate data on thermal material properties to offer reliable validation and interpretation of the results. In this context a thorough study on the specific heat capacities of Li-ion cells starting from raw materials and electrode coatings to representative unit cells of jelly rolls/electrode stacks with lumped values was conducted. The specific heat capacity is reported as a function of temperature and state of charge (SOC). Seven Li-ion cells from different manufactures with different cell chemistry, application and design were considered and generally applicable correlations were developed. A 2D thermal model of an automotive Li-ion cell for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) application illustrates the influence of specific heat capacity on the effectivity of cooling concepts and the temperature development of Li-ion cells.

  15. IGFBP-4 regulates adult skeletal growth in a sex-specific manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maridas, David E; DeMambro, Victoria E; Le, Phuong T; Nagano, Kenichi; Baron, Roland; Mohan, Subburaman; Rosen, Clifford J

    2017-04-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and its binding proteins are critical mediators of skeletal growth. Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 4 (IGFBP-4) is highly expressed in osteoblasts and inhibits IGF-1 actions in vitro Yet, in vivo studies suggest that it could potentiate IGF-1 and IGF-2 actions. In this study, we hypothesized that IGFBP-4 might potentiate the actions of IGF-1 on the skeleton. To test this, we comprehensively studied 8- and 16-week-old Igfbp4 -/- mice. Both male and female adult Igfbp4 -/- mice had marked growth retardation with reductions in body weight, body and femur lengths, fat proportion and lean mass at 8 and 16 weeks. Marked reductions in aBMD and aBMC were observed in 16-week-old Igfbp4 -/- females, but not in males. Femoral trabecular BV/TV and thickness, cortical fraction and thickness in 16-week-old Igfbp4 -/- females were significantly reduced. However, surprisingly, males had significantly more trabeculae with higher connectivity density than controls. Concordantly, histomorphometry revealed higher bone resorption and lower bone formation in Igfbp4 -/- females. In contrast, Igfbp4 -/- males had lower mineralized surface/bone surface. Femoral expression of Sost and circulating levels of sclerostin were reduced but only in Igfbp4 -/- males. Bone marrow stromal cultures from mutants showed increased osteogenesis, whereas osteoclastogenesis was markedly increased in cells from Igfbp4 -/- females but decreased in males. In sum, our results indicate that loss of Igfbp4 affects mesenchymal stromal cell differentiation, regulates osteoclastogenesis and influences both skeletal development and adult bone maintenance. Thus, IGFBP-4 modulates the skeleton in a gender-specific manner, acting as both a cell autonomous and cell non-autonomous factor. © 2017 The authors.

  16. Solar feasibility study for site-specific industrial-process-heat applications. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, O.L.

    1980-03-18

    This study addresses the technical feasibility of solar energy in industrial process heat (IPH) applications in Mid-America. The study was one of two contracted efforts covering the MASEC 12-state region comprised of: Illinois, Michigan, North Dakota, Indiana, Minnesota, Ohio, Iowa, Missouri, South Dakota, Kansas, Nebraska, Wisconsin. The results of our study are encouraging to the potential future role of solar energy in supplying process heat to a varied range of industries and applications. We identified and developed Case Study documentation of twenty feasible solar IPH applications covering eight major SIC groups within the Mid-American region. The geographical distribution of these applications for the existing range of solar insolation levels are shown and the characteristics of the applications are summarized. The results of the study include process identification, analysis of process heat requirements, selection of preliminary solar system characteristics, and estimation of system performance and cost. These are included in each of the 20 Case Studies. The body of the report is divided into two primary discussion sections dealing with the Study Methodology employed in the effort and the Follow-On Potential of the identified applications with regard to possible demonstration projects. The 20 applications are rated with respect to their relative overall viability and procedures are discussed for possible demonstration project embarkment. Also, a possible extension of this present feasibility study for late-comer industrial firms expressing interest appears worthy of consideration.

  17. Effects of Irrigation Methods on the Growth of Petunia Grown in Heat Fusion Polyester Fiber Hardened Medium without Polythylene Pot

    OpenAIRE

    後藤, 丹十郎; 島, 浩二; 東, 千里; 森下, 照久; 藤井, 一徳; 元岡, 茂治

    2006-01-01

    Recenty, polyethylene pots(PP) present a significant environmental issue for waste disposal. To develop bedding plant production system without PP, properties of compacted medium hardened by heat fusion polyester fiber were investigated. Effects of irrigation methods on the growth of vegetative propagated petunia grown in medium without PP were investigated. The effect of medium type was not as significant as the difference in water loss per pot. Water loss per pot of medium without PP was ab...

  18. Numerical modeling of Czochralski growth of Li2MoO4 crystals for heat-scintillation cryogenic bolometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelian, Carmen; Velázquez, Matias; Veber, Philippe; Ahmine, Abdelmounaim; Sand, Jean-Baptiste; Buşe, Gabriel; Cabane, Hugues; Duffar, Thierry

    2018-06-01

    Lithium molybdate Li2MoO4 (LMO) crystals of mass ranging between 350 and 500 g are excellent candidates to build heat-scintillation cryogenic bolometers likely to be used for the detection of rare events in astroparticle physics. In this work, numerical modeling is applied in order to investigate the Czochralski growth of Li2MoO4 crystals in an inductive furnace. The numerical model was validated by comparing the numerical predictions of the crystal-melt interface shape to experimental visualization of the growth interface. Modeling was performed for two different Czochralski furnaces that use inductive heating. The simulation of the first furnace, which was used to grow Li2MoO4 crystals of 3-4 cm in diameter, reveals non-optimal heat transfer conditions for obtaining good quality crystals. The second furnace, which will be used to grow crystals of 5 cm in diameter, was numerically optimized in order to reduce the temperature gradients in the crystal and to avoid fast crystallization of the bath at the later stages of the growth process.

  19. Reaction layer growth and reaction heat of U-Mo/Al dispersion fuels using centrifugally atomized powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Ho Jin; Han, Young Soo; Park, Jong Man; Park, Soon Dal; Kim, Chang Kyu

    2003-01-01

    The growth behavior of reaction layers and heat generation during the reaction between U-Mo powders and the Al matrix in U-Mo/Al dispersion fuels were investigated. Annealing of 10 vol.% U-10Mo/Al dispersion fuels at temperatures from 500 to 550 deg. C was carried out for 10 min to 36 h to measure the growth rate and the activation energy for the growth of reaction layers. The concentration profiles of reaction layers between the U-10Mo vs. Al diffusion couples were measured and the integrated interdiffusion coefficients were calculated for the U and Al in the reaction layers. Heat generation of U-Mo/Al dispersion fuels with 10-50 vol.% of U-Mo fuel during the thermal cycle from room temperature to 700 deg. C was measured employing the differential scanning calorimetry. Exothermic heat from the reaction between U-Mo and the Al matrix is the largest when the volume fraction of U-Mo fuel is about 30 vol.%. The unreacted fraction in the U-Mo powders increases as the volume fraction of U-Mo fuel increases from 30 to 50 vol.%

  20. Specific heat of superconducting metallic glasses at low temperatures; Spezifische Waerme von supraleitenden metallischen Glaesern bei tiefen Temperaturen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reifenberger, Andreas

    2017-11-15

    In the framework of this thesis we performed, for the first time, an in-depth investigation of the thermodynamic properties of superconducting bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) by means of specific heat measurements in the temperature range between 25 mK and 300 K. To determine the specific heat we used a setup based on the well-established relaxation method. Furthermore we developed a novel micro-fabricated platform to measure superconducting, mg-sized samples down to T=5 mK. The platform temperature is measured by a metallic paramagnetic Ag:Er sensor that is inductively coupled to the input coil of a dc-SQUID by means of a micro-structured gradiometric meander coil. Thereby, we reached a temperature resolution of less than 30 nK/√(Hz) and a very low addenda heat capacity below 200 pJ/K at 50 mK. Connecting the obtained results with thermal conductivity data we were able to consistently model the various degrees of freedom in these BMGs and their interaction mechanisms: For temperatures T>2 K, we find pronounced low temperature anomalies in the phononic specific heat, which are attributed to localized harmonic vibration modes. In the superconducting state close to T{sub C}, where interactions of atomic tunneling systems with quasi-particles need to be taken into account, both measurements agree well with BCS-theory predictions. Far below T{sub C} we find good agreement between the data and the standard tunneling model predictions.

  1. Heat stress in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.): Effects on grain growth and quality traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiertz, J.H.J.; Hamer, R.J.; Xu, H.; Primo-Martin, C.; Don, C.; Putten, P.E.L. van der

    2006-01-01

    Heat stress effects on grain dry mass and quality were studied in spring wheat genotypes (Triticum aestivum L.). Three cultivars were chosen with respect to heat tolerance: Lavett (genotype 1), selected for temperate growing conditions and two CIMMYT cultivars, Ciano-79 (genotype 2) and Attila

  2. The Arabidopsis Phytocystatin AtCYS5 Enhances Seed Germination and Seedling Growth under Heat Stress Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chieun; Kim, Taeyoon; Chung, Woo Sik; Lim, Chae Oh

    2017-08-01

    Phytocystatins (PhyCYSs) are plant-specific proteinaceous inhibitors that are implicated in protein turnover and stress responses. Here, we characterized a PhyCYS from Arabidopsis thaliana , which was designated AtCYS5. RT-qPCR analysis showed that the expression of AtCYS5 in germinating seeds was induced by heat stress (HS) and exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) treatment. Analysis of the expression of the β -glucuronidase reporter gene under the control of the AtCYS5 promoter showed that AtCYS5 expression during seed germination was induced by HS and ABA. Constitutive overexpression of AtCYS5 driven by the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter led to enhanced HS tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis , which was characterized by higher fresh weight and root length compared to wild-type (WT) and knockout ( cys5 ) plants grown under HS conditions. The HS tolerance of At-CYS5 -overexpressing transgenic plants was associated with increased insensitivity to exogenous ABA during both seed germination and post-germination compared to WT and cys5 . Although no HS elements were identified in the 5'-flanking region of AtCYS5 , canonical ABA-responsive elements (ABREs) were detected. AtCYS5 was upregulated in ABA-treated protoplasts transiently co-expressing this gene and genes encoding bZIP ABRE-binding factors (ABFs and AREB3). In the absence of ABA, ABF1 and ABF3 directly bound to the ABREs in the AtCYS5 promoter, which activated the transcription of this gene in the presence of ABA. These results suggest that an ABA-dependent pathway plays a positive role in the HS-responsive expression of AtCYS5 during seed germination and post-germination growth.

  3. Nerve growth factor induces facial heat hyperalgesia and plays a role in trigeminal neuropathic pain in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Reis, Renata C; Kopruszinski, Caroline M; Nones, Carina F M; Chichorro, Juliana G

    2016-09-01

    There is preclinical evidence that nerve growth factor (NGF) contributes toward inflammatory hyperalgesia in the orofacial region, but the mechanisms underlying its hyperalgesic effect as well as its role in trigeminal neuropathic pain require further investigation. This study investigated the ability of NGF to induce facial heat hyperalgesia and the involvement of tyrosine kinase receptor A, transient receptor potential vanilloid 1, and mast cells in NGF pronociceptive effects. In addition, the role of NGF in heat hyperalgesia in a model of trigeminal neuropathic pain was evaluated. NGF injection into the upper lip of naive rats induced long-lasting heat hyperalgesia. Pretreatment with an antibody anti-NGF, antagonists of tyrosine kinase receptor A, and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 receptors or compound 48/80, to induce mast-cell degranulation, all attenuated NGF-induced hyperalgesia. In a rat model of trigeminal neuropathic pain, local treatment with anti-NGF significantly reduced heat hyperalgesia. In addition, increased NGF levels were detected in the ipsilateral infraorbital nerve branch at the time point that represents the peak of heat hyperalgesia. The results suggest that NGF is a prominent hyperalgesic mediator in the trigeminal system and it may represent a potential therapeutic target for the management of painful orofacial conditions, including trigeminal neuropathic pain.

  4. Nanocalorimeter platform for in situ specific heat measurements and x-ray diffraction at low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willa, K. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA; Diao, Z. [Department of Physics, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden; Laboratory of Mathematics, Physics and Electrical Engineering, Halmstad University, P.O. Box 823, SE-301 18 Halmstad, Sweden; Campanini, D. [Department of Physics, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden; Welp, U. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA; Divan, R. [Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA; Hudl, M. [Department of Physics, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden; Islam, Z. [X-ray Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA; Kwok, W. -K. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA; Rydh, A. [Department of Physics, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden

    2017-12-01

    Recent advances in electronics and nanofabrication have enabled membrane-based nanocalorimetry for measurements of the specific heat of microgram-sized samples. We have integrated a nanocalorimeter platform into a 4.5 T split-pair vertical-field magnet to allow for the simultaneous measurement of the specific heat and x-ray scattering in magnetic fields and at temperatures as low as 4 K. This multi-modal approach empowers researchers to directly correlate scattering experiments with insights from thermodynamic properties including structural, electronic, orbital, and magnetic phase transitions. The use of a nanocalorimeter sample platform enables numerous technical advantages: precise measurement and control of the sample temperature, quantification of beam heating effects, fast and precise positioning of the sample in the x-ray beam, and fast acquisition of x-ray scans over a wide temperature range without the need for time-consuming re-centering and re-alignment. Furthermore, on an YBa2Cu3O7-delta crystal and a copper foil, we demonstrate a novel approach to x-ray absorption spectroscopy by monitoring the change in sample temperature as a function of incident photon energy. Finally, we illustrate the new insights that can be gained from in situ structural and thermodynamic measurements by investigating the superheated state occurring at the first-order magneto-elastic phase transition of Fe2P, a material that is of interest for magnetocaloric applications.

  5. Evaluation of specific heat for superfluid helium between 0 - 2.1 K based on nonlinear theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Shosuke

    2009-01-01

    The specific heat of liquid helium was calculated theoretically in the Landau theory. The results deviate from experimental data in the temperature region of 1.3 - 2.1 K. Many theorists subsequently improved the results of the Landau theory by applying temperature dependence of the elementary excitation energy. As well known, many-body system has a total energy of Galilean covariant form. Therefore, the total energy of liquid helium has a nonlinear form for the number distribution function. The function form can be determined using the excitation energy at zero temperature and the latent heat per helium atom at zero temperature. The nonlinear form produces new temperature dependence for the excitation energy from Bose condensate. We evaluate the specific heat using iteration method. The calculation results of the second iteration show good agreement with the experimental data in the temperature region of 0 - 2.1 K, where we have only used the elementary excitation energy at 1.1 K.

  6. Changing the insulin receptor to possess insulin-like growth factor I ligand specificity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, A.S.; Kjeldsen, T.; Wiberg, F.C.; Christensen, P.M.; Rasmussen, J.S.; Norris, K.; Moeller, K.B.; Moeller, N.P.H.

    1990-01-01

    To examine the role of the N-terminal part of the insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) receptor and insulin receptor in determining ligand specificity, the authors prepared an expression vector encoding a hybrid receptor where exon 1 (encoding the signal peptide and seven amino acids of the α-subunit), exon 2, and exon 3 of the insulin receptor were replaced with the corresponding IGF-I receptor cDNA (938 nucleotides). To allow direct quantitative comparison of the binding capabilities of this hybrid receptor with those of the human IGF-I receptor and the insulin receptor, all three receptors were expressed in baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells as soluble molecules and partially purified before characterization. The hybrid IGF-I/insulin receptor bound IGF-I with an affinity comparable to that of the wild-type IGF-I receptor. In contrast, the hybrid receptor no longer displayed high-affinity binding of insulin. These results directly demonstrate that it is possible to change the specificity of the insulin receptor to that of the IGF-I receptor and, furthermore, that the binding specificity for IGF-I is encoded within the nucleotide sequence from 135 to 938 of the IGF-I receptor cDNA. Since the hybrid receptor only bound insulin with low affinity, the insulin binding region is likely to be located within exons 2 and 3 of the insulin receptor

  7. Design specifications to ensure flow-induced vibration and fretting-wear performance in CANDU steam generators and heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janzen, V.P.; Han, Y.; Pettigrew, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Preventing flow-induced vibration and fretting-wear problems in steam generators and heat exchangers requires design specifications that bring together specific guidelines, analysis methods, requirements and appropriate performance criteria. This paper outlines the steps required to generate and support such design specifications for CANDU nuclear steam generators and heat exchangers, and relates them to typical steam-generator design features and computer modeling capabilities. It also describes current issues that are driving changes to flow-induced vibration and fretting-wear specifications that can be applied to the design process for component refurbishment, replacement or new designs. These issues include recent experimental or field evidence for new excitation mechanisms, e.g., the possibility of in-plane fluidelastic instability of U-tubes, the demand for longer reactor and component lifetimes, the need for better predictions of dynamic properties and vibration response, e.g., two-phase random-turbulence excitation, and requirements to consider system 'excursions' or abnormal scenarios, e.g., a main steam line break in the case of steam generators. The paper describes steps being taken to resolve these issues. (author)

  8. Manufacture of a heat-resistant alloy with modified specifications for HTGR structural applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahira, K.; Kondo, T.; Takeiri, T.

    1984-01-01

    A method of manufacturing a nuclear grade nickel-base heat-resistant alloy in application to heliumcooled reactor primary circuit components has been developed. The Hastelloy-XR alloy, a version of Hastelloy-X, was made available by combining the basic studies of the oxidation behavior of Hastelloy-X and the improvement of manufacturing techniques. In the primary and remelting steps, the choice of appropriate processes was made by performing numerical analyses of the statistical deviation of both chemical composition and the products' mechanical properties. The feasibility of making larger electroslag remelting ingots with reasonable control of macrosegregation was examined by the calculation of a molten metal pool shape during melting. The hot workability of Hastelloy-XR was confirmed to be equivalent to that of Hastelloy-X and the importance of controlling the thermal and mechanical processes more closely was stressed in obtaining a higher level of quality assurance for the nuclear applications. The possibility of enhancing the high-temperature mechanical performance of Hastelloy-XR was suggested based on the preliminary test results with the heats manufactured with controlled boron content

  9. Determination of specific growth stages of plant cell suspension cultures by monitoring conductivity changes in the medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahlbrock, K; Ebel, J; Oaks, A; Auden, J; Liersch, M

    1974-03-01

    Conductivity changes in the medium of cultured soybean (Glycine max L.) cells were shown to be strictly correlated with nitrate uptake and growth of the cultures. A continuous record of the conductivity was used as a simple and reliable method of determining specific growth stages and concomitant peaks in the activities of nitrate reductase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase.

  10. Specific phosphorylation of histone demethylase KDM3A determines target gene expression in response to heat shock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mo-bin Cheng

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Histone lysine (K residues, which are modified by methyl- and acetyl-transferases, diversely regulate RNA synthesis. Unlike the ubiquitously activating effect of histone K acetylation, the effects of histone K methylation vary with the number of methyl groups added and with the position of these groups in the histone tails. Histone K demethylases (KDMs counteract the activity of methyl-transferases and remove methyl group(s from specific K residues in histones. KDM3A (also known as JHDM2A or JMJD1A is an H3K9me2/1 demethylase. KDM3A performs diverse functions via the regulation of its associated genes, which are involved in spermatogenesis, metabolism, and cell differentiation. However, the mechanism by which the activity of KDM3A is regulated is largely unknown. Here, we demonstrated that mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase 1 (MSK1 specifically phosphorylates KDM3A at Ser264 (p-KDM3A, which is enriched in the regulatory regions of gene loci in the human genome. p-KDM3A directly interacts with and is recruited by the transcription factor Stat1 to activate p-KDM3A target genes under heat shock conditions. The demethylation of H3K9me2 at the Stat1 binding site specifically depends on the co-expression of p-KDM3A in the heat-shocked cells. In contrast to heat shock, IFN-γ treatment does not phosphorylate KDM3A via MSK1, thereby abrogating its downstream effects. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence that a KDM can be modified via phosphorylation to determine its specific binding to target genes in response to thermal stress.

  11. Overview of OVATE FAMILY PROTEINS, a novel class of plant-specific growth regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shucai eWang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available OVATE FAMILY PROTEINS (OFPs are a class of proteins with a conserved OVATE domain. OVATE protein was first identified in tomato as a key regulator of fruit shape. OFPs are plant-specific proteins that are widely distributed in the plant kingdom including mosses and lycophytes. Transcriptional activity analysis of Arabidopsis OFPs (AtOFPs in protoplasts suggests that they act as transcription repressors. Functional characterization of OFPs from different plant species including Arabidopsis, rice, tomato, pepper and banana suggests that OFPs regulate multiple aspects of plant growth and development, which is likely achieved by interacting with different types of transcription factors including the KNOX and BELL classes, and/or directly regulating the expression of target genes such as Gibberellin 20 oxidase (GA20ox. Here, we examine how OVATE was originally identified, summarize recent progress in elucidation of the roles of OFPs in regulating plant growth and development, and describe possible mechanisms underpinning this regulation. Finally, we review potential new research directions that could shed additional light on the functional biology of OFPs in plants.

  12. Systemic Hypoxia Changes the Organ-Specific Distribution of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Its Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, Hugo H.; Risau, Werner

    1998-12-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a key role in physiological blood vessel formation and pathological angiogenesis such as tumor growth and ischemic diseases. Hypoxia is a potent inducer of VEGF in vitro. Here we demonstrate that VEGF is induced in vivo by exposing mice to systemic hypoxia. VEGF induction was highest in brain, but also occurred in kidney, testis, lung, heart, and liver. In situ hybridization analysis revealed that a distinct subset of cells within a given organ, such as glial cells and neurons in brain, tubular cells in kidney, and Sertoli cells in testis, responded to the hypoxic stimulus with an increase in VEGF expression. Surprisingly, however, other cells at sites of constitutive VEGF expression in normal adult tissues, such as epithelial cells in the choroid plexus and kidney glomeruli, decreased VEGF expression in response to the hypoxic stimulus. Furthermore, in addition to VEGF itself, expression of VEGF receptor-1 (VEGFR-1), but not VEGFR-2, was induced by hypoxia in endothelial cells of lung, heart, brain, kidney, and liver. VEGF itself was never found to be up-regulated in endothelial cells under hypoxic conditions, consistent with its paracrine action during normoxia. Our results show that the response to hypoxia in vivo is differentially regulated at the level of specific cell types or layers in certain organs. In these tissues, up- or down-regulation of VEGF and VEGFR-1 during hypoxia may influence their oxygenation after angiogenesis or modulate vascular permeability.

  13. Distinct phosphotyrosines on a growth factor receptor bind to specific molecules that mediate different signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantl, W J; Escobedo, J A; Martin, G A; Turck, C W; del Rosario, M; McCormick, F; Williams, L T

    1992-05-01

    The receptor for platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) binds two proteins containing SH2 domains, GTPase activating protein (GAP) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase). The sites on the receptor that mediate this interaction were identified by using phosphotyrosine-containing peptides representing receptor sequences to block specifically binding of either PI3-kinase or GAP. These results suggested that PI3-kinase binds two phosphotyrosine residues, each located in a 5 aa motif with an essential methionine at the fourth position C-terminal to the tyrosine. Point mutations at these sites caused a selective elimination of PI3-kinase binding and loss of PDGF-stimulated DNA synthesis. Mutation of the binding site for GAP prevented the receptor from associating with or phosphorylating GAP, but had no effect on PI3-kinase binding and little effect on DNA synthesis. Therefore, GAP and PI3-kinase interact with the receptor by binding to different phosphotyrosine-containing sequence motifs.

  14. Growth Arrest-Specific Protein 6 is Hepatoprotective Against Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llacuna, Laura; Bárcena, Cristina; Bellido-Martín, Lola; Fernández, Laura; Stefanovic, Milica; Marí, Montserrat; García-Ruiz, Carmen; Fernández-Checa, José C.; de Frutos, Pablo García; Morales, Albert

    2010-01-01

    Growth arrest-specific gene 6 (GAS6) promotes growth and cell survival during tissue repair and development in different organs, including the liver. However, the specific role of GAS6 in liver ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury has not been previously addressed. Here, we report an early increase in serum GAS6 levels following I/R exposure. Moreover, unlike wild type mice, Gas6-/- mice were highly sensitive to partial hepatic I/R, with 90% of mice dying within 12 hours of reperfusion due to massive hepatocellular injury. I/R induced early hepatic AKT phosphorylation in wild type but not in Gas6-/- mice, without significant changes in JNK phosphorylation or nuclear NF-κB translocation, whereas hepatic IL-1β and TNF mRNA levels were higher in Gas6-/- mice compared to wild type mice. In line with the in vivo data, in vitro studies indicated that GAS6 induced AKT phosphorylation in primary mouse hepatocytes protecting them from hypoxia-induced cell death, while GAS6 diminished lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cytokine expression (IL-1β and TNF) in murine macrophages. Finally, in vivo recombinant GAS6 treatment not only rescued GAS6 knockout mice from I/R-induced severe liver damage, but also attenuated hepatic damage in wild type mice following I/R. In conclusion, our data uncover GAS6 as a new player in liver I/R injury, emerging as a potential therapeutic target to reduce post-ischemic hepatic damage. PMID:20730776

  15. Growth arrest-specific protein 6 is hepatoprotective against murine ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llacuna, Laura; Bárcena, Cristina; Bellido-Martín, Lola; Fernández, Laura; Stefanovic, Milica; Marí, Montserrat; García-Ruiz, Carmen; Fernández-Checa, José C; García de Frutos, Pablo; Morales, Albert

    2010-10-01

    Growth arrest-specific gene 6 (GAS6) promotes growth and cell survival during tissue repair and development in different organs, including the liver. However, the specific role of GAS6 in liver ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury has not been previously addressed. Here we report an early increase in serum GAS6 levels after I/R exposure. Moreover, unlike wild-type (WT) mice, Gas6(-/-) mice were highly sensitive to partial hepatic I/R, with 90% of the mice dying within 12 hours of reperfusion because of massive hepatocellular injury. I/R induced early hepatic protein kinase B (AKT) phosphorylation in WT mice but not in Gas6(-/-) mice without significant changes in c-Jun N-terminal kinase phosphorylation or nuclear factor kappa B translocation, whereas hepatic interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) messenger RNA levels were higher in Gas6(-/-) mice versus WT mice. In line with the in vivo data, in vitro studies indicated that GAS6 induced AKT phosphorylation in primary mouse hepatocytes and thus protected them from hypoxia-induced cell death, whereas GAS6 diminished lipopolysaccharide-induced cytokine expression (IL-1β and TNF) in murine macrophages. Finally, recombinant GAS6 treatment in vivo not only rescued GAS6 knockout mice from severe I/R-induced liver damage but also attenuated hepatic damage in WT mice after I/R. Our data have revealed GAS6 to be a new player in liver I/R injury that is emerging as a potential therapeutic target for reducing postischemic hepatic damage.

  16. A new PET tracer specific for vascular endothelial growth factor receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hui; Cai, Weibo; Chen, Kai; Li, Zi-Bo; Kashefi, Amir; He, Lina; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2007-01-01

    Noninvasive positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2) expression could be a valuable tool for evaluation of patients with a variety of malignancies, and particularly for monitoring those undergoing antiangiogenic therapies that block VEGF/VEGFR-2 function. The aim of this study was to develop a VEGFR-2-specific PET tracer. The D63AE64AE67A mutant of VEGF 121 (VEGF DEE ) was generated by recombinant DNA technology. VEGF 121 and VEGF DEE were purified and conjugated with DOTA for 64 Cu labeling. The DOTA conjugates were tested in vitro for VEGFR-2 specificity and functional activity. In vivo tumor targeting efficacy and pharmacokinetics of 64 Cu-labeled VEGF 121 and VEGF DEE were compared using an orthotopic 4T1 murine breast tumor model. Blocking experiments, biodistribution studies, and immunofluorescence staining were carried out to confirm the noninvasive imaging results. Cell binding assay demonstrated that VEGF DEE had about 20-fold lower VEGFR-1 binding affinity and only slightly lower VEGFR-2 binding affinity as compared with VEGF 121 . MicroPET imaging studies revealed that both 64 Cu-DOTA-VEGF 121 and 64 Cu-DOTA-VEGF DEE had rapid and prominent activity accumulation in VEGFR-2-expressing 4T1 tumors. The renal uptake of 64 Cu-DOTA-VEGF DEE was significantly lower than that of 64 Cu-DOTA-VEGF 121 as rodent kidneys expressed high levels of VEGFR-1 based on immunofluorescence staining. Blocking experiments and biodistribution studies confirmed the VEGFR specificity of 64 Cu-DOTA-VEGF DEE . We have developed a VEGFR-2-specific PET tracer, 64 Cu-DOTA-VEGF DEE . It has comparable tumor targeting efficacy to 64 Cu-DOTA-VEGF 121 but much reduced renal toxicity. This tracer may be translated into the clinic for imaging tumor angiogenesis and monitoring antiangiogenic treatment efficacy. (orig.)

  17. Effect of guava leaves on growth and the non-specific immune response of Penaeus monodon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiao-Li; Li, Zhuo-Jia; Yang, Keng; Lin, Hei-Zhao; Guo, Zhi-Xun

    2014-09-01

    Guava (Psidium guajava L.) leaf extracts have antiviral and antibacterial activity against shrimp pathogens such as yellow-head virus (YHV), white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), and Vibrio harveyi, which make it a potential water disinfectant for use in shrimp culture. In this study, the safety of guava leaf supplementation in shrimp was evaluated by studying its influence on growth and the non-specific immune response of Penaeus monodon. Six diets containing different levels of guava leaves (0% [basal diet], 0.025% [G1], 0.05% [G2], 0.1% [G3], 0.2% [G4], and 0.4% [G5]) were fed to groups of shrimp (1.576 ± 0.011 g body weight) in triplicate for 56 days. Growth performance (final body weight, WG, PWG, SGR) of shrimp fed guava leaf diets was significantly higher (P 0.05) were found. Dietary supplementation with guava leaf improved the activities of prophenoloxidase (PO) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in serum, and of superoxide dismutase (SOD), acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), and lysozyme (LSZ) both in serum and hepatopancreas of shrimp. In the experimental groups, the activities of these enzymes followed a similar pattern of change; they increased initially at low levels of dietary supplementation and then decreased with increasing concentrations of dietary guava leaf. Serum PO and SOD activities in shrimp fed the G1 diet reached 7.50 U ml(-1) and 178.33 U ml(-1), respectively, with PO activity being significantly higher than in controls. In shrimp fed the G1 diet, SOD, ACP, and AKP activities in hepatopancreas were significantly higher than in the controls, reaching 57.32 U g(-1), 23.28 U g(-1), and 19.35 U g(-1) protein, respectively. The highest activities of serum ACP, AKP, LSZ, and of hepatopancreas LSZ, were observed in the G3 diet group. Total nitric oxide synthase (TNOS) activity was highest (64.80 U ml(-1)) in the G4 diet group, which was significantly higher than that observed in the control group. These results suggest that dietary

  18. Effect of cold water and inverse lighting on growth performance of broiler chickens under extreme heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-oh; Park, Byung-sung; Hwangbo, Jong

    2015-07-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of provision of extreme heat stress diet (EHD), inverse lighting, cold water on growth performance of broiler chickens exposed to extreme heat stress. The chickens were divided into four treatment groups, (T1, T2, T3, T4) as given below: Ti (EHD 1, 10:00-19:00 dark, 19:00-10:00 light, cool water 9 degrees C); T2 (EHD 2, 10:00-19:00 dark, 19:00-10:00 light, cool water 9 degrees C); T3 (EHD 1, 09:00-18:00 dark, 18:00-09:00 light, cool water 141C); T4 (EHD 2, 09:00-18:00 dark, 18:00-09:00 light, cool water 14 degrees C. EHD 1 contained soybean oil, molasses, methionine and lysine; EHD 2 contained the same ingredients as EHD 1 with addition of vitamin C. Groups T1 and T2 were given cooler water than the othertwo groups, and displayed higher body weight increase and diet intake as compared to T3 and T4 (pstress diet, inverse lighting (10:00-19:00 dark, 19:00-10:00 light) with cold water at 9 degrees C under extreme heat stress could enhance growth performance of broiler chickens.

  19. Specific heat of heavy-fermion CePd{sub 2}Si{sub 2} in high magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheikin, I. [University of Geneva, DPMC, Geneva (Switzerland)]. E-mail: Ilya.Sheikin@physics.unige.ch; Wang, Y.; Bouquet, F.; Junod, A. [University of Geneva, DPMC, Geneva (Switzerland); Lejay, P. [CRTBT, CNRS, Grenoble (France)

    2002-07-22

    We report specific heat measurements on the heavy-fermion compound CePd{sub 2}Si{sub 2} in magnetic fields up to 16 T and in the temperature range 1.4-16 K. A sharp peak in the specific heat signals the antiferromagnetic transition at T{sub N} {approx} 9.3 K in zero field. The transition is found to shift to lower temperatures when a magnetic field is applied along the crystallographic a-axis, while a field applied parallel to the tetragonal c-axis does not affect the transition. The magnetic contribution to the specific heat below T{sub N} is well described by a sum of a linear electronic term and an antiferromagnetic spin-wave contribution. Just below T{sub N}, an additional positive curvature, especially at high fields, arises most probably due to thermal fluctuations. The field dependence of the coefficient of the low-temperature linear term, {gamma}{sub 0}, extracted from the fits shows a maximum at about 6 T, at the point where an anomaly was detected in susceptibility measurements. The relative field dependences of both T{sub N} and the magnetic entropy at T{sub N} scale as [1-(B/B{sub 0}){sup 2}] for B parallel a, suggesting the disappearance of antiferromagnetism at B{sub 0}{approx}42 T. The expected suppression of the antiferromagnetic transition temperature to zero makes the existence of a magnetic quantum critical point possible. (author). Letter-to-the-editor.

  20. Selection of DNA aptamers against epidermal growth factor receptor with high affinity and specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Deng-Liang; Song, Yan-Ling; Zhu, Zhi; Li, Xi-Lan; Zou, Yuan; Yang, Hai-Tao; Wang, Jiang-Jie; Yao, Pei-Sen; Pan, Ru-Jun; Yang, Chaoyong James; Kang, De-Zhi

    2014-10-31

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR/HER1/c-ErbB1), is overexpressed in many solid cancers, such as epidermoid carcinomas, malignant gliomas, etc. EGFR plays roles in proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis of malignant cancer cells and is the ideal antigen for clinical applications in cancer detection, imaging and therapy. Aptamers, the output of the systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX), are DNA/RNA oligonucleotides which can bind protein and other substances with specificity. RNA aptamers are undesirable due to their instability and high cost of production. Conversely, DNA aptamers have aroused researcher's attention because they are easily synthesized, stable, selective, have high binding affinity and are cost-effective to produce. In this study, we have successfully identified DNA aptamers with high binding affinity and selectivity to EGFR. The aptamer named TuTu22 with Kd 56±7.3nM was chosen from the identified DNA aptamers for further study. Flow cytometry analysis results indicated that the TuTu22 aptamer was able to specifically recognize a variety of cancer cells expressing EGFR but did not bind to the EGFR-negative cells. With all of the aforementioned advantages, the DNA aptamers reported here against cancer biomarker EGFR will facilitate the development of novel targeted cancer detection, imaging and therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Anatomical specificity of vascular endothelial growth factor expression in glioblastomas: a voxel-based mapping analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Xing [Capital Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Beijing (China); Wang, Yinyan [Capital Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Beijing (China); Capital Medical University, Department of Neuropathology, Beijing Neurosurgical Institute, Beijing (China); Wang, Kai; Ma, Jun; Li, Shaowu [Capital Medical University, Department of Neuroradiology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Beijing (China); Liu, Shuai [Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Departments of Neurosurgery, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing (China); Liu, Yong [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Brainnetome Center, Institute of Automation, Beijing (China); Jiang, Tao [Capital Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Beijing (China); Beijing Academy of Critical Illness in Brain, Department of Clinical Oncology, Beijing (China)

    2016-01-15

    The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a common genetic alteration in malignant gliomas and contributes to the angiogenesis of tumors. This study aimed to investigate the anatomical specificity of VEGF expression levels in glioblastomas using voxel-based neuroimaging analysis. Clinical information, MR scans, and immunohistochemistry stains of 209 patients with glioblastomas were reviewed. All tumor lesions were segmented manually and subsequently registered to standard brain space. Voxel-based regression analysis was performed to correlate the brain regions of tumor involvement with the level of VEGF expression. Brain regions identified as significantly associated with high or low VEGF expression were preserved following permutation correction. High VEGF expression was detected in 123 (58.9 %) of the 209 patients. Voxel-based statistical analysis demonstrated that high VEGF expression was more likely in tumors located in the left frontal lobe and the right caudate and low VEGF expression was more likely in tumors that occurred in the posterior region of the right lateral ventricle. Voxel-based neuroimaging analysis revealed the anatomic specificity of VEGF expression in glioblastoma, which may further our understanding of genetic heterogeneity during tumor origination. This finding provides primary theoretical support for potential future application of customized antiangiogenic therapy. (orig.)

  2. Anatomical specificity of vascular endothelial growth factor expression in glioblastomas: a voxel-based mapping analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Xing; Wang, Yinyan; Wang, Kai; Ma, Jun; Li, Shaowu; Liu, Shuai; Liu, Yong; Jiang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a common genetic alteration in malignant gliomas and contributes to the angiogenesis of tumors. This study aimed to investigate the anatomical specificity of VEGF expression levels in glioblastomas using voxel-based neuroimaging analysis. Clinical information, MR scans, and immunohistochemistry stains of 209 patients with glioblastomas were reviewed. All tumor lesions were segmented manually and subsequently registered to standard brain space. Voxel-based regression analysis was performed to correlate the brain regions of tumor involvement with the level of VEGF expression. Brain regions identified as significantly associated with high or low VEGF expression were preserved following permutation correction. High VEGF expression was detected in 123 (58.9 %) of the 209 patients. Voxel-based statistical analysis demonstrated that high VEGF expression was more likely in tumors located in the left frontal lobe and the right caudate and low VEGF expression was more likely in tumors that occurred in the posterior region of the right lateral ventricle. Voxel-based neuroimaging analysis revealed the anatomic specificity of VEGF expression in glioblastoma, which may further our understanding of genetic heterogeneity during tumor origination. This finding provides primary theoretical support for potential future application of customized antiangiogenic therapy. (orig.)

  3. Magnetic field dependence of the specific heat of heavy-fermion YbCu4.5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amato, A.; Fisher, R.A.; Phillips, N.E.; Jaccard, D.; Walker, E.

    1990-03-01

    The specific heat of a polycrystalline sample of YbCu 4.5 has been measured between 0.3 and 20K in magnetic fields to 7T. At zero field a minimum in C/T is observed near 11K. Below that temperature C/T increases and below 0.5K exhibits an upturn ascribed to a hyperfine contribution. The increase in C/T below 11K is reduced by a factor 1.5 for H = 7T, whereas the hyperfine term is enhanced due to the contribution of the 63 Cu and 65 Cu and nuclei. 5 refs., 3 figs

  4. Model for the orientation, magnetic field, and temperature dependence of the specific heat of CeCu6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edelstein, A.S.

    1988-01-01

    The results of a model calculation of the orientation, magnetic field, and temperature dependence of the specific heat C of CeCu 6 are found to be in good agreement with the single-crystal data of Amato et al. The model incorporates both the Kondo and crystal-field effects. It is suggested that the low-temperature Wilson's ratio CTchi, where chi is the susceptibility, may not change in an applied field H and that both CT and chi at low temperatures as a function of H may be proportional to the many-body density of states at the energy μH

  5. Behavior of specific heat and self diffusion coefficient of sodium near transition temperature: a molecular dynamics study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, N.; Khan, G.

    1990-09-01

    In this report the author used of a very useful technique of simulation and applied it to successfully for determining the various properties of sodium, both in liquid and solid phase near transition point. As a first step the determination of specific heat and diffusion coefficient have been carried out. In liquid state the molecular dynamics (MD) values calculated matched the experimental data. But in solid state the diffusion coefficient obtained were not consistent with the one expected for a solid, rather the values obtained suggested that sodium remained in liquid state even below the melting point. (A.B.)

  6. Chlamydia trachomatis and chlamydial heat shock protein 60-specific antibody and cell-mediated responses predict tubal factor infertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiitinen, A.; Surcel, H.-M.; Halttunen, M.

    2006-01-01

    60)-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies were analysed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Proliferative reactivity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells was studied in vitro against Chlamydia elementary body (EB) and recombinant CHSP60 antigens. RESULTS: C. trachomatis......BACKGROUND: To evaluate the role of Chlamydia trachomatis-induced humoral and cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses in predicting tubal factor infertility (TFI). METHODS: Blood samples were taken from 88 women with TFI and 163 control women. C. trachomatis and chlamydial heat shock protein 60 (CHSP...

  7. Multi-band description of the specific heat and thermodynamic critical field in MgB2 superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szcześniak, R.; Jarosik, M. W.; Tarasewicz, P.; Durajski, A. P.

    2018-05-01

    The thermodynamic properties of MgB2 superconductor can be explained using the multi-band models. In the present paper we have examined the experimental data available in literature and we have found out that it is possible to reproduce the measured values of the superconducting energy gaps, the thermodynamic critical magnetic field and specific heat jump within the framework of two-band Eliashberg formalism and appropriate defined free energy difference between superconducting and normal state. Moreover, we found that the obtained results differ significantly from the predictions of the conventional Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory.

  8. Thermal fluctuations in the classical superconductor Nb{sub 3}Sn from high-resolution specific-heat measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lortz, Rolf [Department of Condensed Matter Physics, University of Geneva, 24 Quai Ernest-Ansermet, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland)], E-mail: Rolf.Lortz@physics.unige.ch; Wang Yuxing; Junod, Alain [Department of Condensed Matter Physics, University of Geneva, 24 Quai Ernest-Ansermet, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Toyota, Naoki [Physics Department, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, 980-8571 Sendai (Japan)

    2007-09-01

    The range of thermal fluctuations in 'classical' bulk superconductors is extremely small and especially in low-fields hardly experimentally accessible. With a new type of calorimeter we were able to detect a tiny lambda anomaly in the specific-heat of the superconductor Nb{sub 3}Sn within a narrow temperature range around the H{sub c2} line. We show that the evolution of the anomaly as a function of magnetic field follows scaling laws expected in the presence of critical thermal fluctuations.

  9. Recrystallization and grain growth behavior of rolled tungsten under VDE-like short pulse high heat flux loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Y.; Greuner, H.; Böswirth, B.; Krieger, K.; Luo, G.-N.; Xu, H. Y.; Fu, B. Q.; Li, M.; Liu, W.

    2013-02-01

    Short pulse heat loads expected for vertical displacement events (VDEs) in ITER were applied in the high heat flux (HHF) test facility GLADIS at IPP-Garching onto samples of rolled W. Pulsed neutral beams with the central heat flux of 23 MW/m2 were applied for 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 s, respectively. Rapid recrystallization of the adiabatically loaded 3 mm thick samples was observed when the pulse duration was up to 1.0 s. Grains grew markedly following recrystallization with increasing pulse length. The recrystallization temperature and temperature dependence of the recrystallized grain size were also investigated. The results showed that the recrystallization temperature of the W grade was around 2480 °C under the applied heat loading condition, which was nearly 1150 °C higher than the conventional recrystallization temperature, and the grains were much finer. A linear relationship between the logarithm of average grain size (ln d) and the inverse of maximum surface temperature (1/Tmax) was found and accordingly the activation energy for grain growth in temperature evolution up to Tmax in 1.5 s of the short pulse HHF load was deduced to be 4.1 eV. This provided an effective clue to predict the structure evolution under short pulse HHF loads.

  10. Enterocyte-specific epidermal growth factor prevents barrier dysfunction and improves mortality in murine peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jessica A; Gan, Heng; Samocha, Alexandr J; Fox, Amy C; Buchman, Timothy G; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2009-09-01

    Systemic administration of epidermal growth factor (EGF) decreases mortality in a murine model of septic peritonitis. Although EGF can have direct healing effects on the intestinal mucosa, it is unknown whether the benefits of systemic EGF in peritonitis are mediated through the intestine. Here, we demonstrate that enterocyte-specific overexpression of EGF is sufficient to prevent intestinal barrier dysfunction and improve survival in peritonitis. Transgenic FVB/N mice that overexpress EGF exclusively in enterocytes (IFABP-EGF) and wild-type (WT) mice were subjected to either sham laparotomy or cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Intestinal permeability, expression of the tight junction proteins claudins-1, -2, -3, -4, -5, -7, and -8, occludin, and zonula occludens-1; villus length; intestinal epithelial proliferation; and epithelial apoptosis were evaluated. A separate cohort of mice was followed for survival. Peritonitis induced a threefold increase in intestinal permeability in WT mice. This was associated with increased claudin-2 expression and a change in subcellular localization. Permeability decreased to basal levels in IFABP-EGF septic mice, and claudin-2 expression and localization were similar to those of sham animals. Claudin-4 expression was decreased following CLP but was not different between WT septic mice and IFABP-EGF septic mice. Peritonitis-induced decreases in villus length and proliferation and increases in apoptosis seen in WT septic mice did not occur in IFABP-EGF septic mice. IFABP-EGF mice had improved 7-day mortality compared with WT septic mice (6% vs. 64%). Since enterocyte-specific overexpression of EGF is sufficient to prevent peritonitis-induced intestinal barrier dysfunction and confers a survival advantage, the protective effects of systemic EGF in septic peritonitis appear to be mediated in an intestine-specific fashion.

  11. 16 kDa heat shock protein from heat-inactivated Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a homodimer - suitability for diagnostic applications with specific llama VHH monoclonals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh K Srivastava

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The 16 kDa heat shock protein (HSP is an immuno-dominant antigen, used in diagnosis of infectious Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb. causing tuberculosis (TB. Its use in serum-based diagnostics is limited, but for the direct identification of M.tb. bacteria in sputum or cultures it may represent a useful tool. Recently, a broad set of twelve 16 kDa specific heavy chain llama antibodies (VHH has been isolated, and their utility for diagnostic applications was explored. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To identify the epitopes recognized by the nine (randomly selected from a set of twelve 16 kDa specific VHH antibodies distinct VHH antibodies, 14 overlapping linear epitopes (each 20 amino acid long were characterized using direct and sandwich ELISA techniques. Seven out of 14 epitopes were recognized by 8 out of 9 VHH antibodies. The two highest affinity binders B-F10 and A-23 were found to bind distinct epitopes. Sandwich ELISA and SPR experiments showed that only B-F10 was suitable as secondary antibody with both B-F10 and A-23 as anchoring antibodies. To explain this behavior, the epitopes were matched to the putative 3D structure model. Electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and size exclusion chromatography were used to determine the higher order conformation. A homodimer model best explained the differential immunological reactivity of A-23 and B-F10 against heat-treated M.tb. lysates. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The concentrations of secreted antigens of M.tb. in sputum are too low for immunological detection and existing kits are only used for identifying M.tb. in cultures. Here we describe how specific combinations of VHH domains could be used to detect the intracellular HSP antigen. Linked to methods of pre-concentrating M.tb. cells prior to lysis, HSP detection may enable the development of protein-based diagnostics of sputum samples and earlier diagnosis of diseases.

  12. Specific heat of the 38-K superconductor MgB_2 in the normal and superconducting state: bulk evidence for a double gap

    OpenAIRE

    Junod, Alain; Wang, Yuxing; Bouquet, Frederic; Toulemonde, Pierre

    2001-01-01

    The specific heat of two polycrystalline samples of MgB_2 is presented and analyzed (2 - 300 K, 0 - 16 T), together with magnetic properties. The main characteristics are a low density of states at the Fermi level, high phonon frequencies, and an anomalous temperature- and field- dependence of the specific heat at T < T_c. A two-gap model with a gap ratio of 3:1 fits the specific heat in zero field. The smaller gap is washed out by a field of 0.5 T.

  13. Growth-arrest-specific protein 2 inhibits cell division in Xenopus embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Zhang

    Full Text Available Growth-arrest-specific 2 gene was originally identified in murine fibroblasts under growth arrest conditions. Furthermore, serum stimulation of quiescent, non-dividing cells leads to the down-regulation of gas2 and results in re-entry into the cell cycle. Cytoskeleton rearrangements are critical for cell cycle progression and cell division and the Gas2 protein has been shown to co-localize with actin and microtubules in interphase mammalian cells. Despite these findings, direct evidence supporting a role for Gas2 in the mechanism of cell division has not been reported.To determine whether the Gas2 protein plays a role in cell division, we over-expressed the full-length Gas2 protein and Gas2 truncations containing either the actin-binding CH domain or the tubulin-binding Gas2 domain in Xenopus laevis embryos. We found that both the full-length Gas2 protein and the Gas2 domain, but not the CH domain, inhibited cell division and resulted in multinucleated cells. The observation that Gas2 domain alone can arrest cell division suggests that Gas2 function is mediated by microtubule binding. Gas2 co-localized with microtubules at the cell cortex of Gas2-injected Xenopus embryos using cryo-confocal microscopy and co-sedimented with microtubules in cytoskeleton co-sedimentation assays. To investigate the mechanism of Gas2-induced cell division arrest, we showed, using a wound-induced contractile array assay, that Gas2 stabilized microtubules. Finally, electron microscopy studies demonstrated that Gas2 bundled microtubules into higher-order structures.Our experiments show that Gas2 inhibits cell division in Xenopus embryos. We propose that Gas2 function is mediated by binding and bundling microtubules, leading to cell division arrest.

  14. Microbial growth in domestic hot water systems with special emphasis on connections to district heating networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederiksen, S [Lund Institute of Technology, Dept. of Heat and Power Engineering, Lund (SE); Krongaard Kristensen, K [Regional Food and Hygiene Authority, Koebenhavns Amt Vest, Glostrup (DK)

    1991-01-01

    It is by now well-estalished that domestic hot water systems often harbour Legionella bacteria. Measurements into a number of Danish systems have revealed many other bacteria, among them the thermophilic species Thermus, which is predominantly found on heating coils, where local temperatures are higher. This bacterium not only hampers heat transfer due to fouling, but may also be pathogenic, due to release of endotoxins. Its presence may explain a wide spectrum of symptoms experienced by people after hot baths, such as rashes and itching. The paper summarizes these findings, and on this basis engineering and microbiological considerations are presented in an effort to find ways of future control strategies that go beyond Legionella prevention. Special attention is given to district heating connections, in which low supply and return temperatures are generally wanted in the primary circuit. (author) 16 refs.

  15. Recrystallization and grain growth behavior of rolled tungsten under VDE-like short pulse high heat flux loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Y.; Greuner, H.; Böswirth, B.; Krieger, K.; Luo, G.-N.; Xu, H.Y.; Fu, B.Q.; Li, M.; Liu, W.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Recrystallization temperature of a rolled W was ∼2480 °C under applied HHF loads. ► Fine grains were obtained under HHF loads with appropriate short pulse length. ► With increasing pulse length, the recrystallized grains significantly grew larger. ► A linear relationship between ln d and 1/T max was found. ► Activation energy for grain growth in T evolution up to T max in 1.5 s was obtained. -- Abstract: Short pulse heat loads expected for vertical displacement events (VDEs) in ITER were applied in the high heat flux (HHF) test facility GLADIS at IPP-Garching onto samples of rolled W. Pulsed neutral beams with the central heat flux of 23 MW/m 2 were applied for 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 s, respectively. Rapid recrystallization of the adiabatically loaded 3 mm thick samples was observed when the pulse duration was up to 1.0 s. Grains grew markedly following recrystallization with increasing pulse length. The recrystallization temperature and temperature dependence of the recrystallized grain size were also investigated. The results showed that the recrystallization temperature of the W grade was around 2480 °C under the applied heat loading condition, which was nearly 1150 °C higher than the conventional recrystallization temperature, and the grains were much finer. A linear relationship between the logarithm of average grain size (ln d) and the inverse of maximum surface temperature (1/T max ) was found and accordingly the activation energy for grain growth in temperature evolution up to T max in 1.5 s of the short pulse HHF load was deduced to be 4.1 eV. This provided an effective clue to predict the structure evolution under short pulse HHF loads

  16. Structural specificity of chloroquine-hematin binding related to inhibition of hematin polymerization and parasite growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vippagunta, S R; Dorn, A; Matile, H; Bhattacharjee, A K; Karle, J M; Ellis, W Y; Ridley, R G; Vennerstrom, J L

    1999-11-04

    Considerable data now support the hypothesis that chloroquine (CQ)-hematin binding in the parasite food vacuole leads to inhibition of hematin polymerization and parasite death by hematin poisoning. To better understand the structural specificity of CQ-hematin binding, 13 CQ analogues were chosen and their hematin binding affinity, inhibition of hematin polymerization, and inhibition of parasite growth were measured. As determined by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), the stoichiometry data and exothermic binding enthalpies indicated that, like CQ, these analogues bind to two or more hematin mu-oxo dimers in a cofacial pi-pi sandwich-type complex. Association constants (K(a)'s) ranged from 0.46 to 2.9 x 10(5) M(-1) compared to 4.0 x 10(5) M(-1) for CQ. Remarkably, we were not able to measure any significant interaction between hematin mu-oxo dimer and 11, the 6-chloro analogue of CQ. This result indicates that the 7-chloro substituent in CQ is a critical structural determinant in its binding affinity to hematin mu-oxo dimer. Molecular modeling experiments reinforce the view that the enthalpically favorable pi-pi interaction observed in the CQ-hematin mu-oxo dimer complex derives from a favorable alignment of the out-of-plane pi-electron density in CQ and hematin mu-oxo dimer at the points of intermolecular contact. For 4-aminoquinolines related to CQ, our data suggest that electron-withdrawing functional groups at the 7-position of the quinoline ring are required for activity against both hematin polymerization and parasite growth and that chlorine substitution at position 7 is optimal. Our results also confirm that the CQ diaminoalkyl side chain, especially the aliphatic tertiary nitrogen atom, is an important structural determinant in CQ drug resistance. For CQ analogues 1-13, the lack of correlation between K(a) and hematin polymerization IC(50) values suggests that other properties of the CQ-hematin mu-oxo dimer complex, rather than its association

  17. Influence of heat shock and osmotic stresses on the growth and viability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae SUBSC01.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munna, Md Sakil; Humayun, Sanjida; Noor, Rashed

    2015-08-23

    With a preceding scrutiny of bacterial cellular responses against heat shock and oxidative stresses, current research further investigated such impact on yeast cell. Present study attempted to observe the influence of high temperature (44-46 °C) on the growth and budding pattern of Saccharomyces cerevisiae SUBSC01. Effect of elevated sugar concentrations as another stress stimulant was also observed. Cell growth was measured through the estimation of the optical density at 600 nm (OD600) and by the enumeration of colony forming units on the agar plates up to 450 min. Subsequent transformation in the yeast morphology and the cellular arrangement were noticed. A delayed and lengthy lag phase was observed when yeast strain was grown at 30, 37, and 40 °C, while at 32.5 °C, optimal growth pattern was noticed. Cells were found to lose culturability completely at 46 °C whereby cells without the cytoplasmic contents were also observed under the light microscope. Thus the critical growth temperature was recorded as 45 °C which was the highest temperature at which S. cerevisiae SUBSC01 could grow. However, a complete growth retardation was observed at 45 °C with the high concentrations of dextrose (0.36 g/l) and sucrose (0.18 g/l). Notably, yeast budding was found at 44 and 45 °C up to 270 min of incubation, which was further noticed to be suppressed at 46 °C. Present study revealed that the optimal and the critical growth temperatures of S. cerevisiae SUBSC01 were 32.5 and 45 °C, respectively; and also projected on the inhibitory concentrations of sugars on yeast growth at that temperature.

  18. Flow-induced vibration and fretting-wear specifications to ensure steam-generator and heat exchanger lifetime performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janzen, V.P.; Han, Y.; Pettigrew, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    The current interest in refurbishment, life extension and new-build activity has meant a renewed emphasis on technical specifications that will ensure improved reliability and longer life. Preventing vibration and fretting-wear problems in steam generators and heat exchangers requires design specifications that bring together specific guidelines, analysis methods, requirements and appropriate performance criteria. The specifications must be firmly based on experimental data and field inspections. In addition, the specifications must be supported by theoretical analyses and fundamental scaling correlations, to cover conditions and geometries over the wide range applicable to existing components and probable future designs. The specifications are expected to evolve to meet changing industry requirements. This paper outlines the steps required to generate and support design specifications, and relates them to typical steam-generator design features and computer modeling capabilities. It also describes current issues that are driving changes to flow-induced vibration and fretting-wear specifications that can be applied to the design process for component refurbishment, replacement or new designs. These issues include recent experimental or field evidence for new excitation mechanisms, e.g., the possibility of in-plane fluidelastic instability of U-tubes, the demand for longer reactor and component lifetimes, the need for better predictions of dynamic properties and vibration response, e.g., two-phase random-turbulence excitation, and requirements to consider system 'excursions' or abnormal scenarios, e.g., a main steam line break in the case of steam generators. The paper describes steps being taken to resolve these issues. (author)

  19. Potential Costs of Acclimatization to a Warmer Climate: Growth of a Reef Coral with Heat Tolerant vs. Sensitive Symbiont Types

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Alison; Berkelmans, Ray

    2010-01-01

    One of the principle ways in which reef building corals are likely to cope with a warmer climate is by changing to more thermally tolerant endosymbiotic algae (zooxanthellae) genotypes. It is highly likely that hosting a more heat-tolerant algal genotype will be accompanied by tradeoffs in the physiology of the coral. To better understand one of these tradeoffs, growth was investigated in the Indo-Pacific reef-building coral Acropora millepora in both the laboratory and the field. In the Kepp...

  20. Improvement of stability of Nb3 Sn superconductors by introducing high specific heat substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, X. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Li, P. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Zlobin, A. V. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Peng, X. [Unlisted, US, OH

    2018-01-24

    High-Jc Nb3Sn conductors have low stability against perturbations, which accounts for the slow training rates of high-field Nb3Sn magnets. While it is known that adding substances with high specific heat (C) into Nb3Sn wires can increase their overall specific heat and thus improve their stability, there has not been a practical method that is compatible with the fabrication of long-length conductors. In this work, we put forward a scheme to introduce such substances to distributed-barrier Nb3Sn wires, which adds minimum difficulty to the wire manufacturing process. Multifilamentary wires using a mixture of Cu and high-C Gd2O3 powders have been successfully fabricated along this line. Measurements showed that addition of Gd2O3 had no negative effects on residual resitivity ratio or non-Cu Jc, and that flux jumps were remarkably reduced, and minimum quench energy values at 4.2 K, 14 T were increased by a factor of three, indicating that stability was significantly improved. We also discussed the influences of the positioning of high-C substances and their thermal diffusivity on their effectiveness in reducing the superconductor temperature rise against perturbations. Based on these results, we proposed an optimized conductor architecture to maximize the effectiveness of this approach.

  1. A broad set of different llama antibodies specific for a 16 kDa heat shock protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anke K Trilling

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recombinant antibodies are powerful tools in engineering of novel diagnostics. Due to the small size and stable nature of llama antibody domains selected antibodies can serve as a detection reagent in multiplexed and sensitive assays for M. tuberculosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Antibodies for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb recognition were raised in Alpaca, and, by phage display, recombinant variable domains of heavy-chain antibodies (VHH binding to M. tuberculosis antigens were isolated. Two phage display selection strategies were followed: one direct selection using semi-purified protein antigen, and a depletion strategy with lysates, aiming to avoid cross-reaction to other mycobacteria. Both panning methods selected a set of binders with widely differing complementarity determining regions. Selected recombinant VHHs were produced in E. coli and shown to bind immobilized lysate in direct Enzymelinked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA tests and soluble antigen by surface plasmon resonance (SPR analysis. All tested VHHs were specific for tuberculosis-causing mycobacteria (M. tuberculosis, M. bovis and exclusively recognized an immunodominant 16 kDa heat shock protein (hsp. The highest affinity VHH had a dissociation constant (KD of 4 × 10(-10 M. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A broad set of different llama antibodies specific for 16 kDa heat shock protein of M. tuberculosis is available. This protein is highly stable and abundant in M. tuberculosis. The VHH that detect this protein are applied in a robust SPR sensor for identification of tuberculosis-causing mycobacteria.

  2. Evaluation of high specific-heat ceramic for regenerator use at temperatures between 2-30 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawless, W. N.

    1979-01-01

    Specific heat, thermal conductivity (both in the range 2-30 K), and microhardness data were measured on the ceramics labelled LS-8, LS-8A, and LS-8A doped with CsI, SnCl2, and AgCl. A work hardened sample of LS-8A was also studied in an effort to determine the feasibility of using these types of LS-8 materials to replace Pb spheres in the regenerator of the JPL cryocooler. The LS-8A materials are all more than an order of magnitude harder than Pb, and the dopants do not significantly improve the hardness. However, the SnCl2 dopant has a remarkable effect in improving the specific heat and thermal conductivity of LS-8A. The SnCl2 doping level which maximized the regenerator enthalpy change in going from an unloaded to a loaded condition was found to be 0.2 percent SnCl2 in LS-8A. It was also found that the enthalpy change for a regenerator employing the LS-8A material is more than three times larger than for the Pb spheres case. The use of rods, rather than spheres, of optimally doped LS-8A in regenerators is discussed.

  3. Influence of tribomechanical micronization and hydrocolloids addition on enthalpy and apparent specific heat of whey protein model solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Herceg

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of thermophysical properties, especially the phase transitions temperature, specific heat and enthalpy, are essential in defining the freezing process parameters as well as storage conditions of frozen food. In this work thermophysical properties of 10% model solutions prepared with 60% whey protein concentrate (WPC with various hydrocolloids addition (HVEP, YO-EH, YO-L i YO-M were investigated. Powdered whey protein concentrate was treated in equipment for tribomechanical micronization and activation at 40000 rpm (Patent: PCT/1B99/00757 just before model solutions preparation. Particle size analysis was performed using Frich –laser particle sizer “analysette 22”. The phase transition temperatures were determined by differential thermal analysis (DTA, while specific heat and enthalpy were calculated according to several mathematical equations. The results have shown that, due to tribomechanical treatment, certain changes in thermophysical and energetic properties of materials occurred. Tribomechanical treatment affects changes in granulometrical composition of WPC which result in higher abilities of reactions with hydrocolloids in model solutions and significant changes in thermophysical properties of the mentioned models.

  4. Investigation of structure, specific heat and superconducting transition in Mg1-xAlxB2(x∼0.5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang, J.Y.; Zheng, D.N.; Lang, P.L.; Zhao, Z.X.; Luo, J.L.

    2004-01-01

    We have carried out structure, magnetic and specific heat measurements on aluminum doped magnetism diboride samples Mg 1-x Al x B 2 in order to investigate possible superconductivity at the x=0.5 concentration. A diamagnetic signal was observed in magnetization measurements accompanied by a decrease in resistivity. However, the diamagnetic signal was extremely small as compared to what expected from full diamagnetism. Also, the transition both in magnetization and resistance was very broad. We propose that the diamagnetism is due to a very small amount of superconducting phase such as MgB 2 and the resistive transition is due to the percolation behavior. Furthermore, we performed specific heat measurements, which are considered as a tool to investigate the bulk nature of superconducting transition, on the x=0.5 sample to verify the existence of superconductivity. We observed no evident superconducting transition in the entire temperature region from 2 to 300 K. The undistinguishable data between 0 and 5 T magnetic fields also indicated the absence of bulk superconductivity in the x=0.5 sample

  5. Unusual effects of anisotropy on the specific heat of ceramic and single crystal MgB{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouquet, F.; Wang, Y.; Sheikin, I.; Toulemonde, P.; Eisterer, M.; Weber, H.W.; Lee, S.; Tajima, S.; Junod, A

    2003-03-01

    The two-gap structure in the superconducting state of MgB{sub 2} gives rise to unusual thermodynamic properties which depart markedly from the isotropic single-band BCS model, both in their temperature- and field dependence. We report and discuss measurements of the specific heat up to 16 T on ceramic, and up to 14 T on single crystal samples, which demonstrate these effects in the bulk. The behavior in zero field is described in terms of two characteristic temperatures, a crossover temperature T{sub c,{pi}} congruent with 13 K, and a critical temperature T{sub c}=T{sub c,{sigma}} congruent with 38 K, whereas the mixed-state specific heat requires three characteristic fields, an isotropic crossover field {mu}{sub 0}H{sub c2,{pi}} congruent with 0.35 T, and an anisotropic upper critical field with extreme values {mu}{sub 0}H{sub c2,{sigma}}{sub ,c} congruent with 3.5 T and {mu}{sub 0}H{sub c2,{sigma}}{sub ,ab} congruent with 19 T, where the indexes {pi} and {sigma} refer to the three-dimensional and two-dimensional sheets of the Fermi surface. Irradiation-induced interband scattering tends to move the gaps toward a common value, and increases the upper critical field up to {approx}28 T when T{sub c} congruent with 30 K.

  6. Melting of the flux line lattice observed by specific heat experiments in YBa2Cu3O7-δ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roulin, M.; Junod, A.; Erb, A.; Walker, E.

    1996-01-01

    High resolution adiabatic specific heat experiments on YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ (0≤δ≤0.05) are performed in magnetic fields from 0 to 14 T (B parallel c and B perpendicular c). In a 0.3 gram, twinned crystal with strong pinning, a step is consistently observed at the melting temperature T m of the vortex solid up to a critical point that depends on δ. The field B m and step temperature T m obey the relation B m =B m0 (δ)(1-T m /T c ) ∼4/3 . The anisotropy of B m and that of the upper critical field B c2 are found to be equal. Alternatively, in a 18 mg, twinned crystal of high purity with low pinning, first-order-like specific heat peaks are observed on the melting line from 8 to 14 T. The entropy under these peaks is ∼0.5 k B /vortex/bilayer. These characteristic features are attributed to the melting of a vortex glass in the former case and that of a vortex lattice in the latter case

  7. Linear expansion, specific heat and thermodynamic properties of the CdTl2Te4 compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimov, S.K.

    1979-01-01

    Presented are the results of studying temperature dependence of the thermal expansion coefficient for poly- and monocrystalline samples of CdTl 2 Te 4 . The coefficient of linear expansion in a perpendicular direction to the axis of growth (0010) is shown to be larger than the coefficient of linear expansion along the axis. Temperature dependence of thermal capacity (Csub(p)(T)) has been obtained, which is used to plot tables of adjusted values of Csub(p)(T); the values of entropy and enthalpy are calculated. Standard values of these parameters are as follows: Csub(p)=42.90 cal/molxgrad; Ssub(298.15K)sup(.)=78.95+-0.32 cal/mol, and Δsub(298.15K)sup(.)=10629+-31 cal/mol. Lattice contribution and thermal expansion contribution into thermal capacity are calculated. Determined are Debye characteristic temperature, isothermal coefficient of compressibility, and Grueneisen constant. The calculations testify to the prevalence of the repulsive force along the axis (0010) over the attractive force

  8. Selection of DNA aptamers against epidermal growth factor receptor with high affinity and specificity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Deng-Liang; Song, Yan-Ling; Zhu, Zhi; Li, Xi-Lan; Zou, Yuan; Yang, Hai-Tao; Wang, Jiang-Jie; Yao, Pei-Sen; Pan, Ru-Jun; Yang, Chaoyong James; Kang, De-Zhi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • This is the first report of DNA aptamer against EGFR in vitro. • Aptamer can bind targets with high affinity and selectivity. • DNA aptamers are more stable, cheap and efficient than RNA aptamers. • Our selected DNA aptamer against EGFR has high affinity with K d 56 ± 7.3 nM. • Our selected DNA aptamer against EGFR has high selectivity. - Abstract: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR/HER1/c-ErbB1), is overexpressed in many solid cancers, such as epidermoid carcinomas, malignant gliomas, etc. EGFR plays roles in proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis of malignant cancer cells and is the ideal antigen for clinical applications in cancer detection, imaging and therapy. Aptamers, the output of the systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX), are DNA/RNA oligonucleotides which can bind protein and other substances with specificity. RNA aptamers are undesirable due to their instability and high cost of production. Conversely, DNA aptamers have aroused researcher’s attention because they are easily synthesized, stable, selective, have high binding affinity and are cost-effective to produce. In this study, we have successfully identified DNA aptamers with high binding affinity and selectivity to EGFR. The aptamer named TuTu22 with K d 56 ± 7.3 nM was chosen from the identified DNA aptamers for further study. Flow cytometry analysis results indicated that the TuTu22 aptamer was able to specifically recognize a variety of cancer cells expressing EGFR but did not bind to the EGFR-negative cells. With all of the aforementioned advantages, the DNA aptamers reported here against cancer biomarker EGFR will facilitate the development of novel targeted cancer detection, imaging and therapy

  9. Selection of DNA aptamers against epidermal growth factor receptor with high affinity and specificity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Deng-Liang [The First Clinical Medical College of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou (China); Department of Neurosurgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou (China); Song, Yan-Ling; Zhu, Zhi; Li, Xi-Lan; Zou, Yuan [State Key Laboratory for Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, Key Laboratory for Chemical Biology of Fujian Province, Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, and Department of Chemical Biology, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Yang, Hai-Tao; Wang, Jiang-Jie [The First Clinical Medical College of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou (China); Yao, Pei-Sen [Department of Neurosurgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou (China); Pan, Ru-Jun [The First Clinical Medical College of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou (China); Yang, Chaoyong James, E-mail: cyyang@xmu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, Key Laboratory for Chemical Biology of Fujian Province, Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, and Department of Chemical Biology, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Kang, De-Zhi, E-mail: kdzy99988@163.com [The First Clinical Medical College of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou (China); Department of Neurosurgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou (China)

    2014-10-31

    Highlights: • This is the first report of DNA aptamer against EGFR in vitro. • Aptamer can bind targets with high affinity and selectivity. • DNA aptamers are more stable, cheap and efficient than RNA aptamers. • Our selected DNA aptamer against EGFR has high affinity with K{sub d} 56 ± 7.3 nM. • Our selected DNA aptamer against EGFR has high selectivity. - Abstract: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR/HER1/c-ErbB1), is overexpressed in many solid cancers, such as epidermoid carcinomas, malignant gliomas, etc. EGFR plays roles in proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis of malignant cancer cells and is the ideal antigen for clinical applications in cancer detection, imaging and therapy. Aptamers, the output of the systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX), are DNA/RNA oligonucleotides which can bind protein and other substances with specificity. RNA aptamers are undesirable due to their instability and high cost of production. Conversely, DNA aptamers have aroused researcher’s attention because they are easily synthesized, stable, selective, have high binding affinity and are cost-effective to produce. In this study, we have successfully identified DNA aptamers with high binding affinity and selectivity to EGFR. The aptamer named TuTu22 with K{sub d} 56 ± 7.3 nM was chosen from the identified DNA aptamers for further study. Flow cytometry analysis results indicated that the TuTu22 aptamer was able to specifically recognize a variety of cancer cells expressing EGFR but did not bind to the EGFR-negative cells. With all of the aforementioned advantages, the DNA aptamers reported here against cancer biomarker EGFR will facilitate the development of novel targeted cancer detection, imaging and therapy.

  10. Specifications of ZnO growth for heterostructure solar cell and PC1D based simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babar Hussain

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This data article is related to our recently published article (Hussain et al., in press [1] where we have proposed a new solar cell model based on n-ZnO as front layer and p-Si as rear region. The ZnO layer will act as an active n-layer as well as antireflection (AR coating saving considerable processing cost. There are several reports presenting use of ZnO as window/antireflection coating in solar cells (Mansoor et al., 2015; Haq et al., 2014; Hussain et al., 2014; Matsui et al., 2014; Ding et al., 2014 [2–6] but, here, we provide data specifically related to simultaneous use of ZnO as n-layer and AR coating. Apart from the information we already published, we provide additional data related to growth of ZnO (with and without Ga incorporation layers using MOCVD. The data related to PC1D based simulation of internal and external quantum efficiencies with and without antireflection effects of ZnO as well as the effects of doping level in p-Si on current–voltage characteristics have been provided.

  11. Specific, high affinity receptors for insulin-like growth factor II in the rat kidney glomerulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haskell, J.F.; Pillion, D.J.; Meezan, E.

    1988-01-01

    Rat renal glomeruli were isolated by a technique involving kidney perfusion with a solution containing magnetic iron oxide particles, followed by homogenization, sieving, and concentration over a strong magnet. Isolated glomeruli were treated with 1% Triton X-100 to solubilize plasma membrane components, while insoluble basement membrane components were removed by centrifugation. [ 125 I]Insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) binding to this preparation was competitively inhibited by increasing amounts of unlabeled IGF-II, with 50% inhibition at an IGF-II concentration of 1 ng/ml. [ 125 I]IGF-II was covalently cross-linked with disuccinimidyl suberate to its receptor in rat renal glomeruli and a specific high mol wt (255,000) band could be identified on autoradiograms of dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. [ 125 I]IGF-II binding and cross-linking to this band was inhibited by a polyclonal antibody against the type II IGF receptor. These results demonstrate for the first time that the isolated rat renal glomerulus contains a high affinity receptor for IGF-II

  12. Crack growth analysis in a weld-heat-affected zone using S-version FEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Masanori; Wada, Yoshitaka; Shimizu, Yuto; Li, Yulong

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is the prediction of crack propagation under thermal, residual stress fields using S-Version FEM (S-FEM). By using the S-FEM technique, only the local mesh should be re-meshed and it becomes easy to simulate crack growth. By combining with an auto-meshing technique, the local mesh is re-meshed automatically, and a curved crack path is modeled easily. Virtual crack closure integral method (VCCM) is used to evaluate energy release rate at the crack tip. For crack growth analyses, crack growth rate and growth direction are determined using criteria for mixed mode loading condition. In order to confirm the validity of this analysis, some comparisons with previously reported analyses were done, and good agreement obtained. In this study, residual stress data were provided by JAEA, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, based on their numerical simulation. Stress corrosion crack (SCC) growth analyses in a pipe are conducted in two-dimensional and three-dimensional fields. Two cases, for an axi-symmetric distribution of residual stress in the pipe wall and a non-axisymmetric one are assumed. Effects of residual stress distribution patterns on SCC cracking are evaluated and discussed.

  13. Quantitative automated microscopy (QuAM elucidates growth factor specific signalling in pain sensitization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levine Jon D

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dorsal root ganglia (DRG-neurons are commonly characterized immunocytochemically. Cells are mostly grouped by the experimenter's eye as "marker-positive" and "marker-negative" according to their immunofluorescence intensity. Classification criteria remain largely undefined. Overcoming this shortfall, we established a quantitative automated microscopy (QuAM for a defined and multiparametric analysis of adherent heterogeneous primary neurons on a single cell base. The growth factors NGF, GDNF and EGF activate the MAP-kinase Erk1/2 via receptor tyrosine kinase signalling. NGF and GDNF are established factors in regeneration and sensitization of nociceptive neurons. If also the tissue regenerating growth factor, EGF, influences nociceptors is so far unknown. We asked, if EGF can act on nociceptors, and if QuAM can elucidate differences between NGF, GDNF and EGF induced Erk1/2 activation kinetics. Finally, we evaluated, if the investigation of one signalling component allows prediction of the behavioral response to a reagent not tested on nociceptors such as EGF. Results We established a software-based neuron identification, described quantitatively DRG-neuron heterogeneity and correlated measured sample sizes and corresponding assay sensitivity. Analysing more than 70,000 individual neurons we defined neuronal subgroups based on differential Erk1/2 activation status in sensory neurons. Baseline activity levels varied strongly already in untreated neurons. NGF and GDNF subgroup responsiveness correlated with their subgroup specificity on IB4(+- and IB4(--neurons, respectively. We confirmed expression of EGF-receptors in all sensory neurons. EGF treatment induced STAT3 translocation into the nucleus. Nevertheless, we could not detect any EGF induced Erk1/2 phosphorylation. Accordingly, intradermal injection of EGF resulted in a fundamentally different outcome than NGF/GDNF. EGF did not induce mechanical hyperalgesia, but blocked

  14. Numerical Simulation of Yttrium Aluminum Garnet(YAG) Single Crystal Growth by Resistance Heating Czochralski(CZ) Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Myeong Hyeon; Cha, Pil Ryung [Kookmin University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (YAG) single crystal has received much attention as the high power solid-state laser’s key component in industrial and medical applications. Various growth methods have been proposed, and currently the induction-heating Czochralski (IHCZ) growth method is mainly used to grow YAG single crystal. Due to the intrinsic properties of the IHCZ method, however, the solid/liquid interface has a downward convex shape and a sharp tip at the center, which causes a core defect and reduces productivity. To produce YAG single crystals with both excellent quality and higher yield, it is essential to control the core defects. In this study, using computer simulations we demonstrate that the resistance-heating CZ (RHCZ) method may avoid a downward convex interface and produce core defect free YAG single crystal. We studied the effects of various design parameters on the interface shape and found that there was an optimum combination of design parameter and operating conditions that produced a flat solid-liquid interface.

  15. Indoor Heating Drives Water Bacterial Growth and Community Metabolic Profile Changes in Building Tap Pipes during the Winter Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-Han; Chen, Sheng-Nan; Huang, Ting-Lin; Shang, Pan-Lu; Yang, Xiao; Ma, Wei-Xing

    2015-10-27

    The growth of the bacterial community harbored in indoor drinking water taps is regulated by external environmental factors, such as indoor temperature. However, the effect of indoor heating on bacterial regrowth associated with indoor drinking water taps is poorly understood. In the present work, flow cytometry and community-level sole-carbon-source utilization techniques were combined to explore the effects of indoor heating on water bacterial cell concentrations and community carbon metabolic profiles in building tap pipes during the winter season. The results showed that the temperature of water stagnated overnight ("before") in the indoor water pipes was 15-17 °C, and the water temperature decreased to 4-6 °C after flushing for 10 min ("flushed"). The highest bacterial cell number was observed in water stagnated overnight, and was 5-11 times higher than that of flushed water. Meanwhile, a significantly higher bacterial community metabolic activity (AWCD590nm) was also found in overnight stagnation water samples. The significant "flushed" and "taps" values indicated that the AWCD590nm, and bacterial cell number varied among the taps within the flushed group (p heating periods.

  16. Determination of regional heat fluxes from the growth of the mixed layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gryning, S.E. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Batchvarova, E. [National Inst. of Meteorology and Hydrology, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1997-10-01

    The distribution of surface sensible heat flux is a critical factor in producing and modifying the mesoscale atmospheric flows, turbulence and evaporation. Parameterizations that assume homogeneous land characteristics are inappropriate to represent the spatial variability often found in nature. One possibility to overcome this problem is to increase the resolution of the model grid which demands unrealistic computing resources and data for model initialization. Area averaged fluxes can be obtained from aircraft measurements. It is essential that the flights are performed at a height where the individual surface features are not felt. A large number of flights and appropriate pattern to meet the task are needed in order to achieve a fair statistics. The mixed layer grows in response to the regional turbulent fluxes including the aggregation and small scale processes. The region of influence in upwind direction is typically 20 times the height of the mixed layer for convective and 100 times the height of the mixed layer for atmospheric near neutral conditions. In this study we determine the regional integrated sensible heat flux from information on the evolution of the mixed layer over the area. The required information to use the method can be derived from wind speed and temperature profiles obtained by radio-soundings when performed frequently enough to provide a reasonably detailed structure of the development of the mixed-layer. The method is applied to estimate the regional heat flux over the NOPEX experimental area for three days during the campaign in 1994. (au)

  17. Measurement of the enthalpy and specific heat of a Be2C-graphite-UC2 reactor fuel material to 19800K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, E.P.

    1980-01-01

    The enthalpy and specific heat of a Be 2 C-graphite-UC 2 composite nuclear fuel material were measured over the temperature range 300 to 1980 0 K using differential scanning calorimetry and liquid argon vaporization calorimetry. The fuel material measured was developed at Sandia National Laboratories for use in pulsed test reactors. The material is a hot-pressed composite consisting of 40 vol % Be 2 C, 49.5 vol % graphite, 3.5 vol % UC 2 and 7.0 vol % void. The specific heat was measured with the differential scanning calorimeter over the temperature range 300 to 950 0 K while the enthalpy was measured over the range 1185 to 1980 0 K with the liquid argon vaporization calorimeter. The normal spectral emittance at a wavelength of 6.5 x 10 -5 cm was measured over the experimental temperature range. The combined experimental enthalpy data were fit using a spline routine and differentiated to give the specific heat. Comparison of the measured specific heat of the composite to the specific heat calculated by summing the contributions of the individual components indicates that the specific heat of the Be 2 C component differs significantly from literature values and is approximately 0.6 cal/g-K (2.5 x 10 3 J/Kg-K) for temperatures above 1000 0 K

  18. Effect of high energy electron beam (10 MeV) on specific heat capacity of low-density polyethylene/hydroxyapatite nano-composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soltani, Z., E-mail: zhr_soltani@yahoo.com [Health Physics and Radiation Dosimetry Research Laboratory, Department of Energy Engineering and Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ziaie, F. [Radiation Application Research School, Nuclear Science & Technology Research Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghaffari, M. [Polymer Group, Golestan University, Golestan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Beigzadeh, A.M. [Radiation Application Research School, Nuclear Science & Technology Research Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-02-01

    In the present work, thermal properties of low density polyethylene (LDPE) and its nano composites are investigated. For this purpose LDPE reinforced with different weight percents of hydroxyapatite (HAP) powder which was synthesized via hydrolysis method are produced. The samples were irradiated with 10 MeV electron beam at doses of 75 to 250 kGy. Specific heat capacity measurement have been carried out at different temperatures, i.e. 25, 50, 75 and 100 °C using modulated temperature differential scanning calorimetry (MTDSC) apparatus and the effect of three parameters include of temperature, irradiation dose and the amount of HAP nano particles as additives on the specific heat capacity of PE/HAP have been investigated precisely. The MTDSC results indicate that the specific heat capacity have decreased by addition of nano sized HAP as reinforcement for LDPE. On the other hand, the effect of radiation dose is reduction in the specific heat capacity in all materials including LDPE and its nano composites. The HAP nano particles along with cross-link junctions due to radiation restrain the movement of the polymer chains in the vicinity of each particle and improve the immobility of polymer chains and consequently lead to reduction in specific heat capacity. Also, the obtained results confirm that the radiation effect on the specific heat capacity is more efficient than the reinforcing effect of nano-sized hydroxyapatite.

  19. Growth hormone-specific induction of the nuclear localization of porcine growth hormone receptor in porcine hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, H N; Hong, P; Li, R N; Shan, A S; Zheng, X

    2017-10-01

    The phenomenon of nuclear translocation of growth hormone receptor (GHR) in human, rat, and fish has been reported. To date, this phenomenon has not been described in a domestic animal (such as pig). In addition, the molecular mechanisms of GHR nuclear translocation have not been thoroughly elucidated. To this end, porcine hepatocytes were isolated and used as a cell model. We observed that porcine growth hormone (pGH) can induce porcine GHR's nuclear localization in porcine hepatocytes. Subsequently, the dynamics of pGH-induced pGHR's nuclear localization were analyzed and demonstrated that pGHR's nuclear localization occurs in a time-dependent manner. Next, we explored the mechanism of pGHR nuclear localization using different pGHR ligands, and we demonstrated that pGHR's nuclear translocation is GH(s)-dependent. We also observed that pGHR translocates into cell nuclei in a pGH dimerization-dependent fashion, whereas further experiments indicated that IMPα/β is involved in the nuclear translocation of the pGH-pGHR dimer. The pGH-pGHR dimer may form a pGH-GHR-JAK2 multiple complex in cell nuclei, which would suggest that similar to its function in the cell membrane, the nuclear-localized pGH-pGHR dimer might still have the ability to signal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Mutation of Growth Arrest Specific 8 Reveals a Role in Motile Cilia Function and Human Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Wesley R; Malarkey, Erik B; Tritschler, Douglas; Bower, Raqual; Pasek, Raymond C; Porath, Jonathan D; Birket, Susan E; Saunier, Sophie; Antignac, Corinne; Knowles, Michael R; Leigh, Margaret W; Zariwala, Maimoona A; Challa, Anil K; Kesterson, Robert A; Rowe, Steven M; Drummond, Iain A; Parant, John M; Hildebrandt, Friedhelm; Porter, Mary E; Yoder, Bradley K; Berbari, Nicolas F

    2016-07-01

    Ciliopathies are genetic disorders arising from dysfunction of microtubule-based cellular appendages called cilia. Different cilia types possess distinct stereotypic microtubule doublet arrangements with non-motile or 'primary' cilia having a 9+0 and motile cilia have a 9+2 array of microtubule doublets. Primary cilia are critical sensory and signaling centers needed for normal mammalian development. Defects in their structure/function result in a spectrum of clinical and developmental pathologies including abnormal neural tube and limb patterning. Altered patterning phenotypes in the limb and neural tube are due to perturbations in the hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway. Motile cilia are important in fluid movement and defects in motility result in chronic respiratory infections, altered left-right asymmetry, and infertility. These features are the hallmarks of Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia (PCD, OMIM 244400). While mutations in several genes are associated with PCD in patients and animal models, the genetic lesion in many cases is unknown. We assessed the in vivo functions of Growth Arrest Specific 8 (GAS8). GAS8 shares strong sequence similarity with the Chlamydomonas Nexin-Dynein Regulatory Complex (NDRC) protein 4 (DRC4) where it is needed for proper flagella motility. In mammalian cells, the GAS8 protein localizes not only to the microtubule axoneme of motile cilia, but also to the base of non-motile cilia. Gas8 was recently implicated in the Hh signaling pathway as a regulator of Smoothened trafficking into the cilium. Here, we generate the first mouse with a Gas8 mutation and show that it causes severe PCD phenotypes; however, there were no overt Hh pathway phenotypes. In addition, we identified two human patients with missense variants in Gas8. Rescue experiments in Chlamydomonas revealed a subtle defect in swim velocity compared to controls. Further experiments using CRISPR/Cas9 homology driven repair (HDR) to generate one of these human missense variants in

  1. Subsurface earthworm casts can be important soil microsites specifically influencing the growth of grassland plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaller, Johann G; Wechselberger, Katharina F; Gorfer, Markus; Hann, Patrick; Frank, Thomas; Wanek, Wolfgang; Drapela, Thomas

    Earthworms (Annelida: Oligochaeta) deposit several tons per hectare of casts enriched in nutrients and/or arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and create a spatial and temporal soil heterogeneity that can play a role in structuring plant communities. However, while we begin to understand the role of surface casts, it is still unclear to what extent plants utilize subsurface casts. We conducted a greenhouse experiment using large mesocosms (volume 45 l) to test whether (1) soil microsites consisting of earthworm casts with or without AMF (four Glomus taxa) affect the biomass production of 11 grassland plant species comprising the three functional groups grasses, forbs, and legumes, (2) different ecological groups of earthworms (soil dwellers- Aporrectodea caliginosa vs. vertical burrowers- Lumbricus terrestris ) alter potential influences of soil microsites (i.e., four earthworms × two subsurface microsites × two AMF treatments). Soil microsites were artificially inserted in a 25-cm depth, and afterwards, plant species were sown in a regular pattern; the experiment ran for 6 months. Our results show that minute amounts of subsurface casts (0.89 g kg -1 soil) decreased the shoot and root production of forbs and legumes, but not that of grasses. The presence of earthworms reduced root biomass of grasses only. Our data also suggest that subsurface casts provide microsites from which root AMF colonization can start. Ecological groups of earthworms did not differ in their effects on plant production or AMF distribution. Taken together, these findings suggest that subsurface earthworm casts might play a role in structuring plant communities by specifically affecting the growth of certain functional groups of plants.

  2. Mutation of Growth Arrest Specific 8 Reveals a Role in Motile Cilia Function and Human Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley R Lewis

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ciliopathies are genetic disorders arising from dysfunction of microtubule-based cellular appendages called cilia. Different cilia types possess distinct stereotypic microtubule doublet arrangements with non-motile or 'primary' cilia having a 9+0 and motile cilia have a 9+2 array of microtubule doublets. Primary cilia are critical sensory and signaling centers needed for normal mammalian development. Defects in their structure/function result in a spectrum of clinical and developmental pathologies including abnormal neural tube and limb patterning. Altered patterning phenotypes in the limb and neural tube are due to perturbations in the hedgehog (Hh signaling pathway. Motile cilia are important in fluid movement and defects in motility result in chronic respiratory infections, altered left-right asymmetry, and infertility. These features are the hallmarks of Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia (PCD, OMIM 244400. While mutations in several genes are associated with PCD in patients and animal models, the genetic lesion in many cases is unknown. We assessed the in vivo functions of Growth Arrest Specific 8 (GAS8. GAS8 shares strong sequence similarity with the Chlamydomonas Nexin-Dynein Regulatory Complex (NDRC protein 4 (DRC4 where it is needed for proper flagella motility. In mammalian cells, the GAS8 protein localizes not only to the microtubule axoneme of motile cilia, but also to the base of non-motile cilia. Gas8 was recently implicated in the Hh signaling pathway as a regulator of Smoothened trafficking into the cilium. Here, we generate the first mouse with a Gas8 mutation and show that it causes severe PCD phenotypes; however, there were no overt Hh pathway phenotypes. In addition, we identified two human patients with missense variants in Gas8. Rescue experiments in Chlamydomonas revealed a subtle defect in swim velocity compared to controls. Further experiments using CRISPR/Cas9 homology driven repair (HDR to generate one of these human missense

  3. Growth Arrest-Specific 6 (Gas6) and TAM Receptors in Mouse Platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uras, Fikriye; Küçük, Burhanettin; Bingöl Özakpınar, Özlem; Demir, Ahmet Muzaffer

    2015-03-05

    Growth arrest-specific 6 (Gas6) is a newly discovered vitamin K-dependent protein, which is a ligand for TAM receptors [Tyro3 (Sky), Axl, and Mer] from the tyrosine kinase family. Gas6 knockout mice were resistant to venous and arterial thrombosis. There are contradictory reports on the presence of Gas6 and its receptors in mouse platelets. The objective of this study was to investigate whether Gas6 and its receptors were present in mouse platelets or not. Specific pathogen-free BALB/c male and female mice of 8-10 weeks old and 25-30 g in weight were anesthetized under light ether anesthesia and blood samples were taken from their hearts. RNAs were isolated from isolated platelets, and then mRNAs encoding Gas6 and TAM receptors were detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Protein concentrations of Gas6 and TAM receptors in platelets were measured by ELISA, but not those of Mer, because of the absence of any commercial ELISA kit for mouse specimens. RT-PCR results indicated the presence of mRNAs encoding Gas6 and Mer in mouse platelets. However, although RT-PCR reactions were performed at various temperatures and cycles, we could not detect the presence of mRNAs encoding Axl and Tyro3 (Sky). Receptor protein levels of Axl and Tyro3 were below the detection limits of the ELISA method. We found the presence of mRNAs encoding Gas6 and the receptor Mer in mouse platelets, but not Axl and Tyro3. Gas6, Axl, and Tyro3 protein levels were below the detection limits of the ELISA. The presence of mRNA is not obvious evidence of protein expression in platelets that have no nucleus or DNA. Further studies are required to clarify the presence of Gas6/TAM receptors in platelets using real-time PCR and more sensitive immunological methods, and future studies on mechanisms will indicate whether the Gas6/TAM pathway is a strategy for treatment of disorders.

  4. Thermal Conductivity and Specific Heat Capacity of Dodecylbenzenesulfonic Acid-Doped Polyaniline Particles—Water Based Nanofluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tze Siong Chew

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Nanofluid has attracted great attention due to its superior thermal properties. In this study, chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline was carried out in the presence of dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (DBSA as a dopant. Particles of DBSA-doped polyaniline (DBSA-doped PANI with the size range of 15 to 50 nm were obtained, as indicated by transmission electron microscope (TEM. Results of ultra violet-visible (UV-Vis absorption and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopies as well as thermogravimetric analysis showed that PANI nanoparticles were doped with DBSA molecules. The doping level found was 36.8%, as calculated from elemental analysis data. Thermal conductivity of water was enhanced by 5.4% when dispersed with 1.0 wt% of DBSA-PANI nanoparticles. Specific heat capacity of water-based nanofluids decreased with increasing amount of DBSA-PANI nanoparticles.

  5. Specific heat of Nb3Sn and V2Zr compounds irradiated with high fluences fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kar'kin, A.E.; Mirmel'shtejn, A.V.; Arkhipov, V.E.; Goshchitskij, B.N.

    1987-01-01

    Specific heat of Nb 3 Sn (structure A15) and V 2 Zr (C15) specimens irradiated with high fluences of bast neutrons has been measured. It is shown that in these compounds the temperature reduction of superconducting transition T c under neutron irradiation is accompanied with high decrease of N(E F ). Phonon spectrum of the irradiated V 2 Zr (amorphous phase) on the whole is harder, than at an initial state, for irradiated Nb 3 Sn state (disordered crystalline structure) phonon spectrum is differ weakly from initial one. General regularities of parameter change of electron and phonon subsystems for A15 compounds investigated here and earlier (V 3 Si, Mo 3 Si, Mo 3 Ge) have been analysed

  6. Self-dual cluster renormalization group approach for the square lattice Ising model specific heat and magnetization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, H.O.; Tsallis, C.

    1981-01-01

    A simple renormalization group approach based on self-dual clusters is proposed for two-dimensional nearest-neighbour 1/2 - spin Ising model on the square lattice; it reproduces the exact critical point. The internal energy and the specific heat for vanishing external magnetic field, spontaneous magnetization and the thermal (Y sub(T)) and magnetic (Y sub(H)) critical exponents are calculated. The results obtained from the first four smallest cluster sizes strongly suggest the convergence towards the exact values when the cluster sizes increases. Even for the smallest cluster, where the calculation is very simple, the results are quite accurate, particularly in the neighbourhood of the critical point. (Author) [pt

  7. Pressure dependence of thermal conductivity and specific heat in CeRh2Si2 measured by an extended thermal relaxation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishigori, Shijo; Seida, Osamu

    2018-05-01

    We have developed a new technique for measuring thermal conductivity and specific heat under pressure by improving a thermal relaxation method. In this technique, a cylindrical sample with a small disc heater is embedded in the pressure-transmitting medium, then temperature variations of the sample and heater were directly measured by thermocouples during a heating and cooling process. Thermal conductivity and specific heat are estimated by comparing the experimental data with temperature variations simulated by a finite element method. The obtained thermal conductivity and specific heat of the test sample CeRh2Si2 exhibit a small enhancement and a clear peak arising from antiferromagnetic transition, respectively. The observation of these typical behaviors for magnetic compounds indicate that the technique is valid for the study on thermal properties under pressure.

  8. Experimental observations of the microlayer in vapor bubble growth on a heated solid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koffman, L.D.; Plesset, M.S.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental measurements of microlayer formation and of the time history of microlayer thickness change have been obtained for nucleate boiling of water and ethanol. These detailed measurements were obtained using laser interometry combined with high-speed cinematography. The measurement technique is discussed in detail with emphasis on the difficulties encountered in interpretation of the fringe patterns. The measurements for water can be reasonably applied to the data of Gunther and Kreith, in which case it is concluded that microlayer evaporate alone cannot account for the increased heat transfer rates observed in highly subcooled nucleate boiling. It appears that microconvection must play at least an equal role

  9. 125I-human epidermal growth factor specific binding to placentas and fetal membranes from varoius pregnancy states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, G.E.; Siddiqi, T.A.; Rao, Ch. V.; Carman, F.R.

    1988-01-01

    Specific binding of 125 I-human epidermal growth factor (hEGF) to homogenates of term human placentas and fetal membranes from normal and appropriate for gestational age (N = 20), intrauterine growth retarded (N = 9), twin (N = 11), White class A/B diabetic (N = 12), and large for gestational age (N = 13) pregnancies was measured. In all pregnancy states, placentas bound approximately four times more 125 I-hEGF than did fetal membranes (P 125 I-hEGF binding to fetal membranes from the various pregnancy states (P 125 I-hEGF specific binding to placentas from intrauterine growth retarded or twin pregnancies was significantly greater compared with placentas from normal and appropriate for gestational age pregnancies (P 125 I-hEGF specific binding did not differ between placentas from intrauterine growth retarded or twin pregnancies (P 125 I-hEGF binding did not vary with fetal sex, maternal race, placental weight, or gestational age between 37 to 42 weeks (P 125 I-hEGF binding increased with increasing infant weight when appropriate for gestational age and large for gestational age infants were included (P<0.05, r = 0.38, N = 32) but not for intrauterine growth retarded, appropriate for gestational age, or large for gestational age infants alone. (author)

  10. Advances in Single-Crystal Fibers and Thin Rods Grown by Laser Heated Pedestal Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Maxwell

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Single-crystal fibers are an intermediate between laser crystals and doped glass fibers. They have the advantages of both guiding laser light and matching the efficiencies found in bulk crystals, which is making them ideal candidates for high-power laser and fiber laser applications. This work focuses on the growth of a flexible fiber with a core of dopant (Er, Nd, Yb, etc. and a polycrystalline clad of yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG that will exhibit good wave guiding properties. Direct growth or a combination of growth and cladding experiments are described. Scattering loss measurements at visible wavelengths, along with dopant profile characterization with damage threshold results, are also presented. For single-pass amplification, a single-pass linear gain of 7.4 was obtained for 29 nJ pulses of 5 ns duration at 1 MHz repetition rate. We also obtained a laser efficiency of over 58% in a diode-pumped configuration. These results confirm the potential for single-crystal fibers to overcome the limitations of the glass fibers commonly used in fiber lasers, making them prime candidates for high-power compact fiber lasers and amplifiers.

  11. Growth, immune, antioxidant, and bone responses of heat stress-exposed broilers fed diets supplemented with tomato pomace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini-Vashan, S. J.; Golian, A.; Yaghobfar, A.

    2016-08-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of supplementation of dried tomato pomace (DTP) on growth performance, relative weights of viscera, serum biological parameters, antioxidant status, immune response, and bone composition of broilers exposed to a high ambient temperature. A total of 352 one-day-old male broiler chickens were randomly divided into four groups consisting of four replicates with 22 birds each. One group was reared under the thermoneutral zone and fed a corn-soybean meal basal diet. The other three groups were subjected to a cyclic heat stress from 29 to 42 days of age (34 ± 1 °C, 55 % RH, 5 h/day). These birds were fed corn-soybean meal basal diet or the same diet supplemented with 3 % DTP (420 mg lycopene/kg diet) or 5 % (708 mg lycopene/kg diet) of DTP. Blood samples were collected on days 28 and 42, and the birds were slaughtered at the same times. Supplementation of 5 % of DTP increased body weight and production index and decreased feed conversion ratio during 1-28 days of age. On day 28, the broilers supplemented with 5 % DTP had lower serum triglycerides and higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration than those on the other dietary treatments. The activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were higher and the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) was lower in the broilers fed 5 % TP than those of the broilers fed other diets at 28 days of age. The effects of heat stress (HS) were impaired body weight, enhanced serum activities of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lipase, and MDA concentration while reducing the activities of GPx and SOD. Dried tomato pomace supplementation did not influence growth performance under HS but ameliorated the negative effects of HS on the serum enzyme activities, GPx activity, and lipid peroxidation. Heat stress did not change the relative weights of the lymphoid organs but reduced the total and IgG titers

  12. Provenance-specific growth responses to drought and air warming in three European oak species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arend, Matthias; Kuster, Thomas; Gunthardt-Goerg, Madeleine S.; Dobbertin, Matthias

    2011-03-15

    This study evaluated oak growth responses to air warming through research conducted with species coming from climatically different sites submitted to differing climates including periodic drought and air warming. Results showed different responses to drought and air warming as an adaptation to the conditions, and differences in growth response from one provenance to another were found but local climate factors were not responsible. This study highlighted that provenance was important to growth responses and it will have to be taken into account for regeneration of oaks in a changed climate if these results are confirmed.

  13. Multi-omics approach to study the growth efficiency and amino acid metabolism in Lactococcus lactis at various specific growth rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arike Liisa

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lactococcus lactis is recognised as a safe (GRAS microorganism and has hence gained interest in numerous biotechnological approaches. As it is fastidious for several amino acids, optimization of processes which involve this organism requires a thorough understanding of its metabolic regulations during multisubstrate growth. Results Using glucose limited continuous cultivations, specific growth rate dependent metabolism of L. lactis including utilization of amino acids was studied based on extracellular metabolome, global transcriptome and proteome analysis. A new growth medium was designed with reduced amino acid concentrations to increase precision of measurements of consumption of amino acids. Consumption patterns were calculated for all 20 amino acids and measured carbon balance showed good fit of the data at all growth rates studied. It was observed that metabolism of L. lactis became more efficient with rising specific growth rate in the range 0.10 - 0.60 h-1, indicated by 30% increase in biomass yield based on glucose consumption, 50% increase in efficiency of nitrogen use for biomass synthesis, and 40% reduction in energy spilling. The latter was realized by decrease in the overall product formation and higher efficiency of incorporation of amino acids into biomass. L. lactis global transcriptome and proteome profiles showed good correlation supporting the general idea of transcription level control of bacterial metabolism, but the data indicated that substrate transport systems together with lower part of glycolysis in L. lactis were presumably under allosteric control. Conclusions The current study demonstrates advantages of the usage of strictly controlled continuous cultivation methods combined with multi-omics approach for quantitative understanding of amino acid and energy metabolism of L. lactis which is a valuable new knowledge for development of balanced growth media, gene manipulations for desired product

  14. Morphological characteristics of loblolly pine wood as related to specific gravity, growth rate and distance from pith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles W. McMillin

    1968-01-01

    Earlywood and latewood tracheid length and transverse cellular dimensions of wood removed from stems of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) and factorially aegregated by specific gravity, rings from the pith, and growth rate were determined from sample chips. The independent relationships of each factor with fiber morphology are described.

  15. Patient- and Aneurysm-Specific Risk Factors for Intracranial Aneurysm Growth : A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Backes, Daan; Rinkel, Gabriel J E; Laban, Kamil G.; Algra, Ale; Vergouwen, Mervyn D I

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE—: Follow-up imaging is often performed in intracranial aneurysms that are not treated. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis on patient- and aneurysm-specific risk factors for aneurysm growth. METHODS—: We searched EMBASE and MEDLINE for cohort studies describing

  16. Toward epigenetic and gene regulation models of specific language impairment: looking for links among growth, genes, and impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rice Mabel L

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Children with specific language impairment (SLI are thought to have an inherited form of language impairment that spares other developmental domains. SLI shows strong heritability and recent linkage and association studies have replicated results for candidate genes. Regulatory regions of the genes may be involved. Behavioral growth models of language development of children with SLI reveal that the onset of language is delayed, and the growth trajectories of children with SLI parallel those of younger children without SLI. The rate of language acquisition decelerates in the pre-adolescent period, resulting in immature language levels for the children with SLI that persist into adolescence and beyond. Recent genetic and epigenetic discoveries and models relevant to language impairment are reviewed. T cell regulation of onset, acceleration, and deceleration signaling are described as potential conceptual parallels to the growth timing elements of language acquisition and impairment. A growth signaling disruption (GSD hypothesis is proposed for SLI, which posits that faulty timing mechanisms at the cellular level, intrinsic to neurocortical functioning essential for language onset and growth regulation, are at the core of the growth outcomes of SLI. The GSD highlights the need to document and account for growth patterns over childhood and suggests needed directions for future investigation.

  17. No accession-specific effect of rhizosphere soil communities on the growth and competition of Arabidopsis thaliana accessions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna G Aguilera

    Full Text Available Soil communities associated with specific plant species affect individual plants' growth and competitive ability. Limited evidence suggests that unique soil communities can also differentially influence growth and competition at the ecotype level. Previous work with Arabidopsis thaliana has shown that accessions produce distinct and reproducible rhizosphere bacterial communities, with significant differences in both species composition and relative abundance. We tested the hypothesis that soil communities uniquely affect the growth and reproduction of the plant accessions with which they are associated. Specifically, we examined the growth of four accessions when exposed to their own soil communities and the communities generated by each of the other three accessions. To do this we planted focal accessions inside a ring of six plants that created a "background" soil community. We grew focal plants in this design in three separate soil treatments: non-sterile soil, sterilized soil, and "preconditioned" soil. We preconditioned soil by growing accessions in non-sterile soil for six weeks before the start of the experiment. The main experiment was harvested after seven weeks of growth and we recorded height, silique number, and dry weight of each focal plant. Plants grown in the preconditioned soil treatment showed less growth relative to the non-sterile and sterile soil treatments. In addition, plants in the sterile soil grew larger than those in non-sterile soil. However, we saw no interaction between soil treatment and background accession. We conclude that the soil communities have a negative net impact on Arabidopsis thaliana growth, and that the unique soil communities associated with each accession do not differentially affect growth and competition of study species.

  18. Characteristics of light and heat conditions of a chamber with prism light guides and electrodeless discharge lamps and its effect on growth of tomato and cucumber seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashide, T.; Shimaji, H.; Hamamoto, H.; Shimazu, T.; Takaichi, M.

    2004-01-01

    Summary Light and heat conditions were measured in a growth chamber with prism light guides and electrolodeless discharge lamps (LP chamber) , a growth chamber with metal halide lamps (MH chamber) and a glasshouse. In the LP chamber, photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) was larger and heat radiation was smaller than in the others. Growth of tomato seedlings increased in high PPF condition. However, the growth with high PPF in the MH chamber was restricted. Leaf temperature with high PPF in the MH chamber was higher than that in the LP chamber. We thought that excessive heat had restricted the growth with high PPF in the MH chamber. There were no differences in nutrient or water absorption, except with conditions of the largest heat radiation and the lowest PPF. Cucumber seedlings were grown with high PPF in the LP chamber. The growth at high temperatures was smaller than that at the optimum temperature. However the leaf number at high temperatures was higher than that at the optimum temperature

  19. Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Jones; George A. Schier

    1985-01-01

    This chapter considers aspen growth as a process, and discusses some characteristics of the growth and development of trees and stands. For the most part, factors affecting growth are discussed elsewhere, particularly in the GENETICS AND VARIATION chapter and in chapters in PART 11. ECOLOGY. Aspen growth as it relates to wood production is examined in the WOOD RESOURCE...

  20. Recombinant heat shock protein 70 functional peptide and alpha-fetoprotein epitope peptide vaccine elicits specific anti-tumor immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Ping; Wang, Qiao-Xia; Lin, Huan-Ping; Xu, Bing; Zhao, Qian; Chen, Kun

    2016-11-01

    Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is a marker of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and serves as a target for immunotherapy. However, current treatments targeting AFP are not reproducible and do not provide complete protection against cancer. This issue may be solved by developing novel therapeutic vaccines with enhanced immunogenicity that could effectively target AFP-expressing tumors. In this study, we report construction of a therapeutic peptide vaccine by linking heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) functional peptide to the AFP epitope to obtain HSP70-P/AFP-P. This novel peptide was administered into BALB/c mice to observe the effects. Quantification of AFP-specific CD8 + T cells that secrete IFN-γ in these mice via ELISPOT revealed the synergistic effects of HSP70-P/AFP-P with increased numbers of AFP-specific CD8 + T cells. Similarly, ELISA analysis showed increased granzyme B and perforin released by natural killer cells. Moreover, in vitro cytotoxic T-lymphocyte assays and in vivo tumor preventive experiments clearly showed the higher antitumor effects of HSP70-P/AFP-P against AFP-expressing tumors. These results show that treatment of BALB/c mice with HSP70-P/AFP-P induced stronger T-cells responses and improved protective immunity. Our data suggest that HSP70-P/AFP-P may be used as a therapeutic approach in the treatment of AFP-expressing cancers.

  1. Effects of Diet and Genetics on Growth Performance of Pigs in Response to Repeated Exposure to Heat Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy M. Rauw

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Heat stress (HS is one of the costliest issues in the U.S. pork industry. Aims of the present study were to determine the consequences of repeated exposure to HS on growth performance, and the effects of a high fiber diet, the genetic potential for high lean tissue accretion, and the genetic potential for residual feed intake (RFI on resilience to HS. Barrows (n = 97 from three genetic lines (commercial, high RFI, low RFI where subjected three times to a 4-day HS treatment (HS1, HS2, and HS3 which was preceded by a 9-day neutral (TN adaptation period (TN1 and alternated by 7-day periods of neutral temperatures (TN2, TN3, and TN4. Body weight gain (BWG, feed intake (FI, feed conversion efficiency (FCE, RFI, and the drop in BWG and FI between TN and HS were estimated for each period, and slaughter traits were measured at the end of TN4. Commercial pigs had lower FI when fed a high fiber diet compared to a regular diet (2.70 ± 0.08 vs. 2.96 ± 0.08 kg/d; P < 0.05, while no differences were found for BWG, RFI or FCE. HS reduced FI, BWG, and FCE, increased RFI, and resulted in leaner pigs that generate smaller carcasses at slaughter. In TN, commercial pigs grew faster than the low and high RFI pigs (1.22 ± 0.06 vs. 0.720 ± 0.05 and 0.657 ± 0.07; P < 0.001 but growth rates were not significantly different between the lines during HS. Growth rates for the low RFI and high RFI pigs were similar both during TN and during HS. Pigs of interest for genetic improvement are those that are able to maintain growth rates during HS. Our results show that response in growth to HS was repeatable over subsequent 4-d HS cycles, which suggests the potential for including this response in the breeding index. The best performing animals during HS are likely those that are not highly superior for growth in TN.

  2. Tritiated-water heat-tolerance index to predict the growth rate in calves in hot deserts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamal, T.H.

    1982-01-01

    It was the intention of this study to develop a heat-tolerance index that predicts at an early age the growth rate of calves in a hot desert area (Inshas). Twelve female Friesian calves aged 13-15 months were maintained in climatic chambers for 2 weeks at a mild climate (control), followed by 2 weeks at a hot climate (experimental). Determinations of body water content, body solids, body weight and final rectal temperature were undertaken during the second week of the control and experimental periods. Afterwards the animals were transferred to the farm and maintained outdoors; they were weighed at the end of the 4 summer months. Body water content and rectal temperature were 9.47 and 2.42%, respectively, higher in the hot climate than in the control at P 1 ) or body solids content (X 2 ) that had occurred previously during the 2-weeks heat stress in the climatic chamber by using the equation Y = 39.44 - 1.65X 1 or Y = 45.02 - 1.27X 2 . The standard errors of the regression coefficients for the two equations were 0.094 and 0.132, respectively. The standard errors of the predicted Y for the two equations were 0.207 and 0.218, respectively

  3. Impact of Chlorine and Heat on the Survival of Hartmannella vermiformis and Subsequent Growth of Legionella pneumophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchta, J M; Navratil, J S; Shepherd, M E; Wadowsky, R M; Dowling, J N; States, S J; Yee, R B

    1993-12-01

    Hartmannella vermiformis, a common amoebal inhabitant of potable-water systems, supports intracellular multiplication of Legionella pneumophila and is probably important in the transportation and amplification of legionellae within these systems. To provide a practical guide for decontamination of potable-water systems, we assessed the chlorine and heat resistance of H. vermiformis. H. vermiformis cysts and trophozoites were treated independently with chlorine at concentrations of 2.0 to 10.0 ppm for 30 min and then cocultured with L. pneumophila. Both cysts and trophozoites were sensitive to concentrations between 2.0 and 4.0 ppm and above (trophozoites somewhat more so than cysts), and 10.0 ppm was lethal to both forms. Hartmannellae treated with chlorine up to a concentration of 4.0 ppm supported the growth of legionellae. To determine whether heat would be an effective addendum to chlorine treatment of amoebae, hartmannellae were subjected to temperatures of 55 and 60 degrees C for 30 min and alternatively to 50 degrees C followed by treatment with chlorine at a concentration of 2 ppm. Fewer than 0.05% of the amoebae survived treatment at 55 degrees C, and there were no survivors at 60 degrees C. Pretreatment at 50 degrees C appeared to make hartmannella cysts more susceptible to chlorine but did not further reduce the concentration of trophozoites.

  4. Heat Production by the Denitrifying Bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens and the Dissimilatory Ammonium-Producing Bacterium Pseudomonas putrefaciens during Anaerobic Growth with Nitrate as the Electron Acceptor

    OpenAIRE

    Samuelsson, M.-O.; Cadez, P.; Gustafsson, L.

    1988-01-01

    The heat production rate and the simultaneous nitrate consumption and production and consumption of nitrite and nitrous oxide were monitored during the anaerobic growth of two types of dissimilatory nitrate reducers. Pseudomonas fluorescens, a denitrifier, consumed nitrate and accumulated small amounts of nitrite or nitrous oxide. The heat production rate increased steadily during the course of nitrate consumption and decreased rapidly concomitant with the depletion of the electron acceptors....

  5. Lattice specific heat for the RMIn5 (R=Gd, La, Y; M=Co, Rh) compounds: Non-magnetic contribution subtraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facio, Jorge I.; Betancourth, D.; Cejas Bolecek, N.R.; Jorge, G.A.; Pedrazzini, Pablo; Correa, V.F.; Cornaglia, Pablo S.; Vildosola, V.; García, D.J.

    2016-01-01

    We analyze theoretically a common experimental process used to obtain the magnetic contribution to the specific heat of a given magnetic material. In the procedure, the specific heat of a non-magnetic analog is measured and used to subtract the non-magnetic contributions, which are generally dominated by the lattice degrees of freedom in a wide range of temperatures. We calculate the lattice contribution to the specific heat for the magnetic compounds GdMIn 5 (M=Co, Rh) and for the non-magnetic YMIn 5 and LaMIn 5 (M=Co, Rh), using density functional theory based methods. We find that the best non-magnetic analog for the subtraction depends on the magnetic material and on the range of temperatures. While the phonon specific heat contribution of YRhIn 5 is an excellent approximation to the one of GdCoIn 5 in the full temperature range, for GdRhIn 5 we find a better agreement with LaCoIn 5 , in both cases, as a result of an optimum compensation effect between masses and volumes. We present measurements of the specific heat of the compounds GdMIn 5 (M=Co, Rh) up to room temperature where it surpasses the value expected from the Dulong–Petit law. We obtain a good agreement between theory and experiment when we include anharmonic effects in the calculations.

  6. Investigation of the variation of the specific heat capacity of local soil samples from the Niger delta, Nigeria with moisture content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ofoegbu, C.O.; Adjepong, S.K.

    1987-11-01

    Results of an investigation of the variation, with moisture content, of the specific heat capacity of samples of three texturally different types of soil (clayey, sandy and sandy loam) obtained from the Niger delta area of Nigeria, are presented. The results show that the specific heat capacities of the soils studied, increase with moisture content. This increase is found to be linear for the entire range of moisture contents considered (0-25%), in the case of the sandy loam soil while for the clayey and sandy soils the specific heat capacity is found to increase linearly with moisture content up to about 15% after which the increase becomes parabolic. The rate of increase of specific heat capacity with moisture content appears to be highest in the clayey soil and lowest in the sandy soil. It is thought that the differences in the rates of increase of specific heat capacity with moisture content, observed for the soils, reflect the soils' water-retention capacities. (author) 3 refs, 5 figs

  7. Lattice specific heat for the RMIn{sub 5} (R=Gd, La, Y; M=Co, Rh) compounds: Non-magnetic contribution subtraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facio, Jorge I., E-mail: jorge.facio@cab.cnea.gov.ar [Centro Atómico Bariloche and Instituto Balseiro, CNEA, 8400 Bariloche (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET) (Argentina); Betancourth, D.; Cejas Bolecek, N.R. [Centro Atómico Bariloche and Instituto Balseiro, CNEA, 8400 Bariloche (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET) (Argentina); Jorge, G.A. [Instituto de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de General Sarmiento, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Pedrazzini, Pablo; Correa, V.F.; Cornaglia, Pablo S. [Centro Atómico Bariloche and Instituto Balseiro, CNEA, 8400 Bariloche (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET) (Argentina); Vildosola, V. [Centro Atómico Constituyentes, CNEA, 1650 San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET) (Argentina); García, D.J. [Centro Atómico Bariloche and Instituto Balseiro, CNEA, 8400 Bariloche (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET) (Argentina)

    2016-06-01

    We analyze theoretically a common experimental process used to obtain the magnetic contribution to the specific heat of a given magnetic material. In the procedure, the specific heat of a non-magnetic analog is measured and used to subtract the non-magnetic contributions, which are generally dominated by the lattice degrees of freedom in a wide range of temperatures. We calculate the lattice contribution to the specific heat for the magnetic compounds GdMIn{sub 5} (M=Co, Rh) and for the non-magnetic YMIn{sub 5} and LaMIn{sub 5} (M=Co, Rh), using density functional theory based methods. We find that the best non-magnetic analog for the subtraction depends on the magnetic material and on the range of temperatures. While the phonon specific heat contribution of YRhIn{sub 5} is an excellent approximation to the one of GdCoIn{sub 5} in the full temperature range, for GdRhIn{sub 5} we find a better agreement with LaCoIn{sub 5}, in both cases, as a result of an optimum compensation effect between masses and volumes. We present measurements of the specific heat of the compounds GdMIn{sub 5} (M=Co, Rh) up to room temperature where it surpasses the value expected from the Dulong–Petit law. We obtain a good agreement between theory and experiment when we include anharmonic effects in the calculations.

  8. The impact of population growth on environment: the debate heats up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, R P

    1992-02-01

    A proposed framework, which was introduced at the 1989 meetings of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, included political constraints as well as population growth as a proximate cause with potentially important impacts on the environment in Paul and Ann Ehrlich's well-known PAT equation. PAT limitations are identified as the 1.2 billion people caught in the debt-poverty trap, less developed countries' balance of payments deficits, and "distortionary factors" that undermined economic incentives and contributed to mismanagement of resources. Such factors could be keeping farm prices low and have an impact on deterring use of environmentally sound traditional agricultural practices. Mismanagement of public lands occurs when large commercial enterprises or large scale mechanization displace population onto marginal or less productive lands. Intergroup warfare is a new form impacting on the environment. In Burma loggers are authorized to clear cut large tracts of teak forests in order to ferret out Karen guerrillas. Over 15 million refugees were thus displaced and forced to live in encampments that require trees for shelter, firewood for survival, and overgrazing of livestock. Social and economic environments are also undermined by "dependency" factors such as trade protectionism, brain drain, and limited foreign aid. The Group of 77 Non-Aligned Developing Countries proposed that discussions of the links between population and the environment be omitted from the agenda of the 1994 UN Conference on Population and Development. Basic clarifications are needed to distinguish ultimate versus proximate factors and current versus future concerns. The debate ignores distribution patterns, migration, or changing age structures. The debate blames unjustifiably rapid population growth as the ultimate cause of global environmental degradation and links population growth to a host of other social problems such as famine and refugees, while ignoring civil unrest

  9. GABA signalling modulates plant growth by directly regulating the activity of plant-specific anion transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Sunita A; Tyerman, Stephen D; Xu, Bo; Bose, Jayakumar; Kaur, Satwinder; Conn, Vanessa; Domingos, Patricia; Ullah, Sana; Wege, Stefanie; Shabala, Sergey; Feijó, José A; Ryan, Peter R; Gilliham, Matthew; Gillham, Matthew

    2015-07-29

    The non-protein amino acid, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) rapidly accumulates in plant tissues in response to biotic and abiotic stress, and regulates plant growth. Until now it was not known whether GABA exerts its effects in plants through the regulation of carbon metabolism or via an unidentified signalling pathway. Here, we demonstrate that anion flux through plant aluminium-activated malate transporter (ALMT) proteins is activated by anions and negatively regulated by GABA. Site-directed mutagenesis of selected amino acids within ALMT proteins abolishes GABA efficacy but does not alter other transport properties. GABA modulation of ALMT activity results in altered root growth and altered root tolerance to alkaline pH, acid pH and aluminium ions. We propose that GABA exerts its multiple physiological effects in plants via ALMT, including the regulation of pollen tube and root growth, and that GABA can finally be considered a legitimate signalling molecule in both the plant and animal kingdoms.

  10. Age-specific vibrissae growth rates: a tool for determining the timing of ecologically important events in Steller sea lions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rea, L.D.; Christ, A.M.; Hayden, A.B.; Stegall, V.K.; Farley, S.D.; Stricker, Craig A.; Mellish, J.E.; Maniscalco, John M.; Waite, J.N.; Burkanov, V.N.; Pitcher, K.W.

    2015-01-01

    Steller sea lions (SSL; Eumetopias jubatus) grow their vibrissae continually, providing a multiyear record suitable for ecological and physiological studies based on stable isotopes. An accurate age-specific vibrissae growth rate is essential for registering a chronology along the length of the record, and for interpreting the timing of ecologically important events. We utilized four methods to estimate the growth rate of vibrissae in fetal, rookery pup, young-of-the-year (YOY), yearling, subadult, and adult SSL. The majority of vibrissae were collected from SSL live-captured in Alaska and Russia between 2000 and 2013 (n = 1,115), however, vibrissae were also collected from six adult SSL found dead on haul-outs and rookeries during field excursions to increase the sample size of this underrepresented age group. Growth rates of vibrissae were generally slower in adult (0.44 ± 0.15 cm/mo) and subadult (0.61 ± 0.10 cm/mo) SSL than in YOY (0.87 ± 0.28 cm/mo) and fetal (0.73 ± 0.05 cm/mo) animals, but there was high individual variability in these growth rates within each age group. Some variability in vibrissae growth rates was attributed to the somatic growth rate of YOY sea lions between capture events (P = 0.014, r2 = 0.206, n = 29).

  11. Iron oxide nanoparticles modulate heat shock proteins and organ specific markers expression in mice male accessory organs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundarraj, Kiruthika; Raghunath, Azhwar; Panneerselvam, Lakshmikanthan; Perumal, Ekambaram, E-mail: ekas2009@buc.edu.in

    2017-02-15

    With increased industrial utilization of iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-NPs), concerns on adverse reproductive health effects following exposure have been immensely raised. In the present study, the effects of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-NPs exposure in the seminal vesicle and prostate gland were studied in mice. Mice were exposed to two different doses (25 and 50 mg/kg) of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-NPs along with the control and analyzed the expressions of heat shock proteins (HSP60, HSP70 and HSP90) and organ specific markers (Caltrin, PSP94, and SSLP1). Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-NPs decreased food consumption, water intake, and organo-somatic index in mice with elevated iron levels in serum, urine, fecal matter, seminal vesicle and prostate gland. FTIR spectra revealed alterations in the functional groups of biomolecules on Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-NPs treatment. These changes are accompanied by increased lactate dehydrogenase levels with decreased total protein and fructose levels. The investigation of oxidative stress biomarkers demonstrated a significant increase in reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl content and glutathione peroxidase with a concomitant decrement in the glutathione and ascorbic acid in the male accessory organs which confirmed the induction of oxidative stress. An increase in NADPH-oxidase-4 with a decrease in glutathione-S-transferase was observed in the seminal vesicle and prostate gland of the treated groups. An alteration in HSP60, HSP70, HSP90, Caltrin, PSP94, and SSLP1 expression was also observed. Moreover, accumulation of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-NPs brought pathological changes in the seminal vesicle and prostate gland of treated mice. These findings provide evidence that Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-NPs could be an environmental risk factor for reproductive disease. - Highlights: • Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-NPs caused adverse effects on the seminal vesicle and prostate gland of mice • Heat shock proteins (Hsp60, 70 and 90) were

  12. Thermal transport during the growth of crystalline fibers by the laser-heated float zone method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feigelson, R.S.

    1990-01-01

    Single crystal fibers may someday prove useful in a variety of advanced device applications. At the current time, fibers for optical, superconducting, and structural applications are under investigation. The advantage of single crystal fibers for optical devices lies in the enhanced light guiding properties one can obtain compared to a bulk crystal of the same material. Potential fiber-optic applications include optical transmission lines for remote temperature sensing and spectroscopy, solid-state lasers and amplifiers, and nonlinear devices such as harmonic generators, Raman shifters and optical parameters oscillators. In the area of superconductivity, the potential for producing long flexible fibers of the Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8 high temperature superconductor which are capable of carrying high electrical current has been demonstrated. This superconductor, like other high T c materials is incongruently melting and growth rates (fiber throughput), therefore, have to be reduced to optimize the superconducting properties. Interest in single crystal fibers for structural applications stems from a strong technological interest in high strength, light weight fiber-matrix composites capable of operating at elevated temperatures. The very high crystalline perfection possible in single crystal fibers of certain materials, for example Al 2 O 3 , make them very attractive for special high temperature structural applications. Single crystal fibers are noted for having greater lower defects and hence higher strength than comparable bulk crystals. For most of the fiber applications mentioned above, stringent requirements exist for uniform diameter, homogeneous composition, and a low density of crystalline defects. Excellent growth stability is needed to obtain such fibers

  13. Effects of Coenzyme Q10 and Vitamin C on Growth Performance and Blood Components in Broiler Chickens under Heat Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raeisi-Zeydabad S

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out to study the effects of Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 and vitamin C (VC on growth performance and blood biochemistry in broiler chickens under heat stress conditions. One of three levels of CoQ10 (0, 20, and 40 mg/kg of diet and one of two levels of VC (0 and 250 mg/kg of diet were supplemented to diets of chicks (from 1-42 d of age in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement. Each dietary treatment had four replicate pens (10 chicks/pen. In order to create chronic heat stress, the house temperature was set at an ambient temperature of 35±2°C for 8 hrs daily (09:00 to 17:00 between 25-42 d of age. Feed intake, body weight gain (BWG, and feed to gain ratio (F:G were recorded at d 10, 25 and 42. At the end of experiment, two chicks/pen were randomly selected to assess blood components. CoQ10 supplementation improved BWG and F:G during 11-25 days, 26-42 days, and the whole period of the experiment (P < 0.05, while VC supplementation improved BWG and F:G only during 11-25 d of age. Blood glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations were reduced (P < 0.05 by addition of CoQ10 to the diet. Both Supplementation of CoQ10 and VC together lowered heterophil (H count but increased lymphocyte (L count, thereby reducing H/L ratio (P < 0.05. Serum concentrations of corticosterone and T4 were positively affected by dietary supplementation of CoQ10 (P < 0.05, but no differences were obtained with addition of VC to the diet. In conclusion, our observations demonstrated that dietary supplementation of 40 mg/kg CoQ10 or 250 mg/kg VC improves the growth performance of broiler chickens under the heat stress.

  14. Heating and cooling performance of air-to-air heat pumps installed in the greenhouses with vegetables growth. Kuki netsugen hito ponpuno saibai jokenkani okeru onshitsuno danreibo seino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozakai, Kazuyoshi; Uehara, Tsuyoshi; Okano, Toshiaki

    1987-05-01

    Two units of integral-type air-air heat pumps (rated capacity: 7.5 KW each) and a heat storage type air-air heat pump (rated capacity: 7.5 KW) equipped with a heat storage water tank were installed in the experimental greenhouses (315 m/sup 2/ and 126 m/sup 2/) to introduced the heat pump as part of the development of power demand for the greenhouse culture. The experiment of hydroponic culture of tomatos in both summer and winter and merons in summer was made controlling the temperature and humidity in the greenhouse. The coefficient of performance (COP) of the integral-type air-air heat pump was 2.2 to 2.3 in the cooling season and 2.3 to 2.6 in the heating season. The crop of tomato per 10 areas was 11.6 tons in summer and 14.2 tons in winter and both crops were more than the mean valve in the greenhouse culture. The COP of the heat storage type air-air heat pump was 2.2 in the cooling season and 2.6 in the heating season. The average weight of a melon was 1.7 kg and the sugar content was approximately 13%. The crop and quality of melon exceeded the levels in the greenhouse culture. (14 figs, 8 tabs, 7 refs)

  15. The effects of design and operating factors on the frost growth and thermal performance of a flat plate fin-tube heat exchanger under the frosting condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kwan Soo; Kim, Woo Seung

    1999-01-01

    An experimental study of the effects of various factors(fin pitch, fin arrangement, air temperature, air humidity, and air velocity) on the frost growth and thermal performance of a fin-tube heat exchanger has been conducted under the frosting condition. It is found that the thermal performance of a heat exchanger is closely related to the blockage ratio of the air flow passages due to the frost growth. The maximum allowable blockage ratio is used to determine the criteria for the optimal operating conditions of a fin-tube heat exchanger. It is also shown that heat transfer rate of heat exchanger with staggered fin arrangement increases about 17% and the time required for heat transfer rate to reach a maximum value becomes longer, compared with those of an inline fin-tube heat exchanger under the frosting condition. The energy transfer resistance between the air and coolant decreases with the increase of inlet air temperature and velocity and with decreasing inlet air humidity

  16. Effect of midrotation fertilization on growth and specific gravity of loblolly pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finto Antony; Lewis Jordan; Richard F. Daniels; Laurence R. Schimleck; Alexander Clark III; Daniel B. Hall

    2009-01-01

    Wood properties and growth were measured on breast-height cores and on disks collected at different heights from a thinned and fertilized midrotation loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantation in the lower Coastal Plain of North Carolina. The study was laid out in a randomized complete-block design receiving four levels of nitrogen (N) fertilizer: unfertilized...

  17. The influence of age-specific migration on housing growth in the rural Midwest (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yohan Lee; Claire A. Montgomery; Jeff Kline

    2016-01-01

    Natural resource policymakers and planners increasingly rely on regional and national-level spatial data describing projections of future housing growth, to anticipate development impacts on natural resources and identify policy and planning needs. Such projections have not always been well-grounded in demographic and other factors that influence population and thus...

  18. The potato-specific apyrase is apoplastically localized and has influence on gene expression, growth, and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riewe, David; Grosman, Lukasz; Fernie, Alisdair R; Wucke, Cornelia; Geigenberger, Peter

    2008-07-01

    Apyrases hydrolyze nucleoside triphosphates and diphosphates and are found in all eukaryotes and a few prokaryotes. Although their enzymatic properties have been well characterized, relatively little is known regarding their subcellular localization and physiological function in plants. In this study, we used reverse genetic and biochemical approaches to investigate the role of potato (Solanum tuberosum)-specific apyrase. Silencing of the apyrase gene family with RNA interference constructs under the control of the constitutive 35S promoter led to a strong decrease in apyrase activity to below 10% of the wild-type level. This decreased activity led to phenotypic changes in the transgenic lines, including a general retardation in growth, an increase in tuber number per plant, and differences in tuber morphology. Silencing of apyrase under the control of a tuber-specific promoter led to similar changes in tuber morphology; however, there were no direct effects of apyrase inhibition on tuber metabolism. DNA microarrays revealed that decreased expression of apyrase leads to increased levels of transcripts coding for cell wall proteins involved in growth and genes involved in energy transfer and starch synthesis. To place these results in context, we determined the subcellular localization of the potato-specific apyrase. Using a combination of approaches, we were able to demonstrate that this enzyme is localized to the apoplast. We describe the evidence that underlies both this fact and that potato-specific apyrase has a crucial role in regulating growth and development.

  19. Reduction in the specific consumption of heat by the thermal circuit, achieved by rationalization of the steam turbine condensation at nuclear power plants of the WWER-440 type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubacek, A.

    1992-01-01

    Specific consumption of heat needed for the production of a net electricity unit is a criterion for assessing the efficiency of conversion of thermal energy into mechanical energy in the steam turbine. Based on theoretical calculations and analyses, a way of evaluating the specific heat consumption is demonstrated for the thermal circuit of the steam-engine equipment with one turbogenerator. The dependence of the specific heat consumption on the steam condensation temperature and on the amount of cooling water flowing through the condenser is calculated, as is the dependence of the limiting pressure on the relative loss of vacuum of the condenser and on the cooling water temperature. Such dependences can be used to upgrade the thermal circuit condensation regime. (M.D.). 2 figs., 12 refs

  20. Specific heat characteristics of Ce70Ga8.5Cu18.5Ni3 metallic glass at low temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rentao; Zhong, Langxiang; Zhang, Bo

    2018-03-01

    Specific heat behaviors have been studied in Ce70Ga8.5Cu18.5Ni3 bulk metallic glass (BMG) from 2 K to 50 K. The low-temperature specific heat of the Ce-based metallic glass is a combined action of the Fermi liquids term, Debye oscillator term, and Einstein oscillator term as well as excess term. We also observed an intense boson peak around 15 K and attributed it to a harmonic localized Einstein mode influenced by the dense-packed atomic cluster structure. It is also demonstrated that Ce70Ga8.5Cu18.5Ni3 BMG belongs to the strongly correlated heavy-fermion system with a great electron specific heat coefficient and a high Wilson ratio. It exhibits a typical Fermi-Liquid feature when the temperature is above 10 K, while it exhibits a Non-Fermi-Liquid feature when the temperature is below 3.5 K.

  1. Potential costs of acclimatization to a warmer climate: growth of a reef coral with heat tolerant vs. sensitive symbiont types.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Jones

    Full Text Available One of the principle ways in which reef building corals are likely to cope with a warmer climate is by changing to more thermally tolerant endosymbiotic algae (zooxanthellae genotypes. It is highly likely that hosting a more heat-tolerant algal genotype will be accompanied by tradeoffs in the physiology of the coral. To better understand one of these tradeoffs, growth was investigated in the Indo-Pacific reef-building coral Acropora millepora in both the laboratory and the field. In the Keppel Islands in the southern Great Barrier Reef this species naturally harbors nrDNA ITS1 thermally sensitive type C2 or thermally tolerant type D zooxanthellae of the genus Symbiodinium and can change dominant type following bleaching. We show that under controlled conditions, corals with type D symbionts grow 29% slower than those with type C2 symbionts. In the field, type D colonies grew 38% slower than C2 colonies. These results demonstrate the magnitude of trade-offs likely to be experienced by this species as they acclimatize to warmer conditions by changing to more thermally tolerant type D zooxanthellae. Irrespective of symbiont genotype, corals were affected to an even greater degree by the stress of a bleaching event which reduced growth by more than 50% for up to 18 months compared to pre-bleaching rates. The processes of symbiont change and acute thermal stress are likely to act in concert on coral growth as reefs acclimatize to more stressful warmer conditions, further compromising their regeneration capacity following climate change.

  2. Potential Costs of Acclimatization to a Warmer Climate: Growth of a Reef Coral with Heat Tolerant vs. Sensitive Symbiont Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alison; Berkelmans, Ray

    2010-01-01

    One of the principle ways in which reef building corals are likely to cope with a warmer climate is by changing to more thermally tolerant endosymbiotic algae (zooxanthellae) genotypes. It is highly likely that hosting a more heat-tolerant algal genotype will be accompanied by tradeoffs in the physiology of the coral. To better understand one of these tradeoffs, growth was investigated in the Indo-Pacific reef-building coral Acropora millepora in both the laboratory and the field. In the Keppel Islands in the southern Great Barrier Reef this species naturally harbors nrDNA ITS1 thermally sensitive type C2 or thermally tolerant type D zooxanthellae of the genus Symbiodinium and can change dominant type following bleaching. We show that under controlled conditions, corals with type D symbionts grow 29% slower than those with type C2 symbionts. In the field, type D colonies grew 38% slower than C2 colonies. These results demonstrate the magnitude of trade-offs likely to be experienced by this species as they acclimatize to warmer conditions by changing to more thermally tolerant type D zooxanthellae. Irrespective of symbiont genotype, corals were affected to an even greater degree by the stress of a bleaching event which reduced growth by more than 50% for up to 18 months compared to pre-bleaching rates. The processes of symbiont change and acute thermal stress are likely to act in concert on coral growth as reefs acclimatize to more stressful warmer conditions, further compromising their regeneration capacity following climate change. PMID:20454653

  3. Potential costs of acclimatization to a warmer climate: growth of a reef coral with heat tolerant vs. sensitive symbiont types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alison; Berkelmans, Ray

    2010-05-03

    One of the principle ways in which reef building corals are likely to cope with a warmer climate is by changing to more thermally tolerant endosymbiotic algae (zooxanthellae) genotypes. It is highly likely that hosting a more heat-tolerant algal genotype will be accompanied by tradeoffs in the physiology of the coral. To better understand one of these tradeoffs, growth was investigated in the Indo-Pacific reef-building coral Acropora millepora in both the laboratory and the field. In the Keppel Islands in the southern Great Barrier Reef this species naturally harbors nrDNA ITS1 thermally sensitive type C2 or thermally tolerant type D zooxanthellae of the genus Symbiodinium and can change dominant type following bleaching. We show that under controlled conditions, corals with type D symbionts grow 29% slower than those with type C2 symbionts. In the field, type D colonies grew 38% slower than C2 colonies. These results demonstrate the magnitude of trade-offs likely to be experienced by this species as they acclimatize to warmer conditions by changing to more thermally tolerant type D zooxanthellae. Irrespective of symbiont genotype, corals were affected to an even greater degree by the stress of a bleaching event which reduced growth by more than 50% for up to 18 months compared to pre-bleaching rates. The processes of symbiont change and acute thermal stress are likely to act in concert on coral growth as reefs acclimatize to more stressful warmer conditions, further compromising their regeneration capacity following climate change.

  4. Statistical mechanics of Roskilde liquids: configurational adiabats, specific heat contours, and density dependence of the scaling exponent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Nicholas P; Bøhling, Lasse; Veldhorst, Arno A; Schrøder, Thomas B; Dyre, Jeppe C

    2013-11-14

    We derive exact results for the rate of change of thermodynamic quantities, in particular, the configurational specific heat at constant volume, CV, along configurational adiabats (curves of constant excess entropy Sex). Such curves are designated isomorphs for so-called Roskilde liquids, in view of the invariance of various structural and dynamical quantities along them. The slope of the isomorphs in a double logarithmic representation of the density-temperature phase diagram, γ, can be interpreted as one third of an effective inverse power-law potential exponent. We show that in liquids where γ increases (decreases) with density, the contours of CV have smaller (larger) slope than configurational adiabats. We clarify also the connection between γ and the pair potential. A fluctuation formula for the slope of the CV-contours is derived. The theoretical results are supported with data from computer simulations of two systems, the Lennard-Jones fluid, and the Girifalco fluid. The sign of dγ∕dρ is thus a third key parameter in characterizing Roskilde liquids, after γ and the virial-potential energy correlation coefficient R. To go beyond isomorph theory we compare invariance of a dynamical quantity, the self-diffusion coefficient, along adiabats and CV-contours, finding it more invariant along adiabats.

  5. Resonant vibrations of self-interstitials in fcc metals with application to specific heat and neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ram, P.N.; Dederichs, P.H.

    1981-07-01

    Some aspects of resonant vibrations of self-interstitials in the 100-dumbbell configuration in fcc-metals are discussed by extending previous calculations of Zeller et al. and Schober et al. Employing a simple defect model with nearest-neighbour interaction the local frequency spectrum of the defect is calculated showing several localized modes and low-frequency resonant modes. The change in the total density of states due to the defects is expressed as the derivative of a generalized phase shift which is used to calculate the change in the lattic specific heat due to single interstitials. Inelastic neutron scattering away from the one-phonon lines is proposed as a method to observe the resonant modes induced by self-interstitials. The model calculation in Cu shows that the well defined resonant modes due to dumbbell vibrations have appreciable intensity and could presumably be detected in neutron scattering measurements. The effect of di-interstitials on the phonon dispersion in Al is also discussed. (orig./GSCH)

  6. ORIGEN2.1 Cycle Specific Calculation of Krsko Nuclear Power Plant Decay Heat and Core Inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukovic, J.; Grgic, D.; Konjarek, D.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents ORIGEN2.1 computer code calculation of Krsko Nuclear Power Plant core for Cycle 24. The isotopic inventory, core activity and decay heat are calculated in one run for the entire core using explicit depletion and decay of each fuel assembly. Separate pre-ori application which was developed is utilized to prepare corresponding ORIGEN2.1 inputs. This application uses information on core loading pattern to determine fuel assembly specific depletion history using 3D burnup which is obtained from related PARCS computer code calculation. That way both detailed single assembly calculations as well as whole core inventory calculations are possible. Because of the immense output of the ORIGEN2.1, another application called post-ori is used to retrieve and plot any calculated property on the basis of nuclide, element, summary isotope or group of elements for activation products, actinides and fission products segments. As one additional possibility, with the post-ori application it is able to calculate radiotoxicity from calculated ORIGEN2.1 inventory. The results which are obtained using the calculation model of ORIGEN2.1 computer code are successfully compared against corresponding ORIGEN-S computer code results.(author).

  7. Modification of the cellular heat sensitivity of cucumber by growth under supplemental ultraviolet-B radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, C.R.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of ultraviolet B (UV-B) radiation on the thermal sensitivity of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) was studied using UV-B-sensitive cv Poinsett 76 and UV-B-resistant cv Ashley grown under control and elevated (300 mW m -2 ) UV-B radiation levels. Using both cotyledon and leaf discs, the ability of the tissue to reduce triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) was determined after treatment at 50 degrees C for various times. Semilogarithmic plots of TTC reduction as a function of time at 50 degrees were curvilinear. They were monophasic for the control cucumber and biphasic for cucumber grown in the presence of elevated UV-B. Treatment of cucumber plants at 37 degrees C for 24 h or of tissue discs at acute UV-B levels for 1 h further modified their response to elevated temperature. These results suggest that growth of cucumber under enhanced UV-B radiation levels increased its ability to withstand elevated temperatures. 19 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  8. HEAT PUMP STATION WITH CARBON DIOXIDE AS A WORKING FLUID ENERGY EFFICIENCY GROWTH IN COMBINED DISTRICT HEATING SYSTEM DUE TO ITS CONTROL SYSTEM OPTIMIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sit B.M.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A diagram of the heat pump station (HPS for the central heat supply station of the district heating system, which gets the power from the CHP plant is examined. A block diagram of the control of the system and compressor pressure control system are examined. The description of the control laws of evaporator at the variable heat load of the HPS and control laws of the gas cooler taking into account the goal of achieving the maximum of COP of HPS is shown as well.

  9. /sup 125/I-human epidermal growth factor specific binding to placentas and fetal membranes from varoius pregnancy states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, G.E.; Siddiqi, T.A.; Rao, Ch. V.; Carman, F.R.

    1988-01-01

    Specific binding of /sup 125/I-human epidermal growth factor (hEGF) to homogenates of term human placentas and fetal membranes from normal and appropriate for gestational age (N = 20), intrauterine growth retarded (N = 9), twin (N = 11), White class AB diabetic (N = 12), and large for gestational age (N = 13) pregnancies was measured. In all pregnancy states, placentas bound approximately four times more /sup 125/I-hEGF than did fetal membranes (P<0.0001). There was no significant differnce in /sup 125/I-hEGF binding to fetal membranes from the various pregnancy states (P<0.05). /sup 125/I-hEGF specific binding to placentas from intrauterine growth retarded or twin pregnancies was significantly greater compared with placentas from normal and appropriate for gestational age pregnancies (P<0.05). The binding to placentas from pregnancies complicated by White class AB diabetes or large for gestational age infants, on the other hand, was not significantly different from that to placentas from normal and appropriate for gestational age pregnancies. /sup 125/I-hEGF specific binding did not differ between placentas from intrauterine growth retarded or twin pregnancies (P<0.05). Placental and fetal membrane /sup 125/I-hEGF binding did not vary with fetal sex, maternal race, placental weight, or gestational age between 37 to 42 weeks (P<0.05). Placental but not fetal membrane /sup 125/I-hEGF binding increased with increasing infant weight when appropriate for gestational age and large for gestational age infants were included (P<0.05, r = 0.38, N = 32) but not for intrauterine growth retarded, appropriate for gestational age, or large for gestational age infants alone.

  10. Debye–Einstein approximation approach to calculate the lattice specific heat and related parameters for a Si nanowire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. KH. Alassafee

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The modified Debye–Einstein approximation model is used to calculate nanoscale size-dependent values of Gruneisen parameters and lattice specific heat capacity for Si nanowires. All parameters forming the model, including Debye temperatures, bulk moduli, the lattice thermal expansion and the lattice volume, are calculated according to their nanoscale size dependence. Values for lattice volume Gruneisen parameters increase with the decrease of the nanowires’ diameter, while all other parameters decrease. The nanosize dependence of lattice thermal parameters agree with other reported theoretical results. Keywords: Lattice specific heat capacity, Gruneisen parameter, Debye–Einstein model, Si nanowires

  11. Indication for a chiral phase in the molecular magnetic chain Gd(hfac)3NiTiPr by specific heat and μ+SR measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lascialfari, A.; Ullu, R.; Affronte, M.; Cinti, F.; Caneschi, A.; Gatteschi, D.; Rovai, D.; Pini, M.G.; Rettori, A.

    2004-01-01

    Specific heat and muon spin relaxation (μ + SR) measurements performed in the molecular magnetic chain Gd(hfac) 3 NiTiPr provide indication for the onset, at T 0 =2.08 K, of a phase with chiral order in the absence of long-range helical order. Specific heat data (probing the chirality-chirality correlation function) show a peak at T 0 that disappears upon application of a 5 T magnetic field, while μ + SR data (probing the spin-spin correlation function) do not present any anomaly at T 0 nor oscillations in the asymmetry curve below T 0

  12. Specificity of induced defenses, growth, and reproduction in lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) in response to multispecies herbivory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Xoaquín; Abdala-Roberts, Luis; Hernández-Cumplido, Johnattan; Cuny, Maximilien A C; Glauser, Gaetan; Benrey, Betty

    2015-08-01

    • Following herbivore attack, plants can either reduce damage by inducing defenses or mitigate herbivory effects through compensatory growth and reproduction. It is increasingly recognized that such induced defenses in plants are herbivore-specific, but less is known about the specificity of compensatory responses. Damage by multiple herbivores may also lead to synergistic effects on induction and plant fitness that differ from those caused by a single herbivore species. Although largely unstudied, the order of arrival and damage by different herbivore species might also play an important role in the impacts of herbivory on plants.• We investigated the specificity of defense induction (phenolics) and effects on growth (number of stems and leaves) and reproduction (number of seeds, seed mass, and germination rate) from feeding by two generalist leaf-chewing herbivores (Spodoptera eridania and Diabrotica balteata) on Phaseolus lunatus plants and evaluated whether simultaneous attack by both herbivores and their order of arrival influenced such dynamics.• Herbivory increased levels of leaf phenolics, but such effects were not herbivore-specific. In contrast, herbivory enhanced seed germination in an herbivore-specific manner. For all variables measured, the combined effects of both herbivore species did not differ from their individual effects. Finally, the order of herbivore arrival did not influence defense induction, plant growth, or seed number but did influence seed mass and germination.• Overall, this study highlights novel aspects of the specificity of plant responses induced by damage from multiple species of herbivores and uniquely associates such effects with plant lifetime fitness. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  13. Single-walled carbon nanotubes: a nano-specific enhancer of cellular growth in LB culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jinming; Yang Xiafeng; Zhao Yun; Huang Qing; Li Jiang; Lu Min

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a study to characterize the antimicrobial properties of SWNTs to B.subtilis in a saline solution or in a LB culture. Dimensions and the antibacterial ability of SWNTs in a saline solution were different from those in a LB culture. Transmission and scanning electron microscopes were used to characterize the SWNTs structure with and without LB culture. The antibacterial ability of SWNTs was affected by the environment of bacterial growth. The antibacterial mechanism of SWNTs was studied,too. (authors)

  14. Bacterial Signaling Nucleotides Inhibit Yeast Cell Growth by Impacting Mitochondrial and Other Specifically Eukaryotic Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Hesketh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We have engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae to inducibly synthesize the prokaryotic signaling nucleotides cyclic di-GMP (cdiGMP, cdiAMP, and ppGpp in order to characterize the range of effects these nucleotides exert on eukaryotic cell function during bacterial pathogenesis. Synthetic genetic array (SGA and transcriptome analyses indicated that, while these compounds elicit some common reactions in yeast, there are also complex and distinctive responses to each of the three nucleotides. All three are capable of inhibiting eukaryotic cell growth, with the guanine nucleotides exhibiting stronger effects than cdiAMP. Mutations compromising mitochondrial function and chromatin remodeling show negative epistatic interactions with all three nucleotides. In contrast, certain mutations that cause defects in chromatin modification and ribosomal protein function show positive epistasis, alleviating growth inhibition by at least two of the three nucleotides. Uniquely, cdiGMP is lethal both to cells growing by respiration on acetate and to obligately fermentative petite mutants. cdiGMP is also synthetically lethal with the ribonucleotide reductase (RNR inhibitor hydroxyurea. Heterologous expression of the human ppGpp hydrolase Mesh1p prevented the accumulation of ppGpp in the engineered yeast and restored cell growth. Extensive in vivo interactions between bacterial signaling molecules and eukaryotic gene function occur, resulting in outcomes ranging from growth inhibition to death. cdiGMP functions through a mechanism that must be compensated by unhindered RNR activity or by functionally competent mitochondria. Mesh1p may be required for abrogating the damaging effects of ppGpp in human cells subjected to bacterial infection.

  15. Sex-specific impact of prenatal stress on growth and reproductive parameters of guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöpper, Hanna; Klaus, Teresa; Palme, Rupert; Ruf, Thomas; Huber, Susanne

    2012-12-01

    Body condition and reproductive maturation are parameters of reproductive success that are influenced by sexual hormones rising in the circulation during the time of puberty. Various endocrine systems can be programmed by conditions experienced during early life. Stress for instance is supposed to be capable of influencing fetal development, leading to adjustments of offspring's later physiology. We examined whether prenatal stress (induced by exposure to strobe light) during early- to mid-gestation was capable of affecting later reproductive parameters in guinea pigs (Cavia aperea f. porcellus). Therefore, we measured the levels of testosterone and progesterone from the age of day 12-124 in prenatally stressed (PS, n = 20) and unaffected control animals (n = 24). Furthermore, we determined the timing of puberty and growth. Body weight development revealed significantly faster growth in PS females compared to control animals. The onset of first estrus was slightly earlier in PS females, however not significantly so. Cycle lengths and levels of progesterone differed between groups over the course of time with higher progesterone levels and more constant cycles among PS females compared to control females who displayed marked differences between first and subsequent cycles. Levels of testosterone did not differ between groups. We conclude that prenatal stress accelerates growth and maturity in females, but not in males.

  16. Patient-specific Distraction Regimen to Avoid Growth-rod Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Aakash; Jayaswal, Arvind; Goel, Vijay K; Agarwal, Anand K

    2018-02-15

    A finite element study to establish the relationship between patient's curve flexibility (determined using curve correction under gravity) in juvenile idiopathic scoliosis and the required distraction frequency to avoid growth rod fracture, as a function of time. To perform a parametric analysis using a juvenile scoliotic spine model (single mid-thoracic curve with the apex at the eighth thoracic vertebra) and establish the relationship between curve flexibility (determined using curve correction under gravity) and the distraction interval that allows a higher factor of safety for the growth rods. Previous studies have shown that frequent distraction with smaller magnitude of distractions are less likely to result in rod failure. However there has not been any methodology or a chart provided to apply this knowledge on to the individual patients that undergo the treatment. This study aims to fill in that gap. The parametric study was performed by varying the material properties of the disc, hence altering the axial stiffness of the scoliotic spine model. The stresses on the rod were found to increase with increased axial stiffness of the spine, and this resulted in the increase of required optimal frequency to achieve a factor of safety of two for growth rods. A relationship between the percentage correction in Cobb's angle due to gravity alone, and the required distraction interval for limiting the maximum von Mises stress to 255 MPa on the growth rods was established. The distraction interval required to limit the stresses to the selected nominal value reduces with increase in stiffness of the spine. Furthermore, the appropriate distraction interval reduces for each model as the spine becomes stiffer with time (autofusion). This points to the fact the optimal distraction frequency is a time-dependent variable that must be achieved to keep the maximum von Mises stress under the specified factor of safety. The current study demonstrates the possibility of

  17. Bacterial Signaling Nucleotides Inhibit Yeast Cell Growth by Impacting Mitochondrial and Other Specifically Eukaryotic Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesketh, Andy; Vergnano, Marta; Wan, Chris; Oliver, Stephen G

    2017-07-25

    We have engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae to inducibly synthesize the prokaryotic signaling nucleotides cyclic di-GMP (cdiGMP), cdiAMP, and ppGpp in order to characterize the range of effects these nucleotides exert on eukaryotic cell function during bacterial pathogenesis. Synthetic genetic array (SGA) and transcriptome analyses indicated that, while these compounds elicit some common reactions in yeast, there are also complex and distinctive responses to each of the three nucleotides. All three are capable of inhibiting eukaryotic cell growth, with the guanine nucleotides exhibiting stronger effects than cdiAMP. Mutations compromising mitochondrial function and chromatin remodeling show negative epistatic interactions with all three nucleotides. In contrast, certain mutations that cause defects in chromatin modification and ribosomal protein function show positive epistasis, alleviating growth inhibition by at least two of the three nucleotides. Uniquely, cdiGMP is lethal both to cells growing by respiration on acetate and to obligately fermentative petite mutants. cdiGMP is also synthetically lethal with the ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) inhibitor hydroxyurea. Heterologous expression of the human ppGpp hydrolase Mesh1p prevented the accumulation of ppGpp in the engineered yeast and restored cell growth. Extensive in vivo interactions between bacterial signaling molecules and eukaryotic gene function occur, resulting in outcomes ranging from growth inhibition to death. cdiGMP functions through a mechanism that must be compensated by unhindered RNR activity or by functionally competent mitochondria. Mesh1p may be required for abrogating the damaging effects of ppGpp in human cells subjected to bacterial infection. IMPORTANCE During infections, pathogenic bacteria can release nucleotides into the cells of their eukaryotic hosts. These nucleotides are recognized as signals that contribute to the initiation of defensive immune responses that help the infected

  18. Assessment of thermal conductivity, viscosity and specific heat of nanofluids in single phase laminar indernal forced convection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanapalli, Srinivas; ter Brake, Hermanus J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Nanofluids are considered for improving the heat exchange in forced convective flow. In literature, the benefit of nanofluids compared to the corresponding base fluid is represented by several figures-of-merit in which the heat transfer benefit and the cost of pumping the fluid are considered. These

  19. Specific heat measurements of CePt{sub 3}Si and Ce{sub 1+x}Pt{sub 3+y}Si{sub 1+z}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motoyama, G. [Graduate School of Material Science, University of Hyogo, Kamigori-cho, Ako-gun, Hyogo 678-1297 (Japan)]. E-mail: motoyama@sci.u-hyogo.ac.jp; Watanabe, M. [Graduate School of Material Science, University of Hyogo, Kamigori-cho, Ako-gun, Hyogo 678-1297 (Japan); Maeda, K. [Graduate School of Material Science, University of Hyogo, Kamigori-cho, Ako-gun, Hyogo 678-1297 (Japan); Oda, Y. [Graduate School of Material Science, University of Hyogo, Kamigori-cho, Ako-gun, Hyogo 678-1297 (Japan); Ueda, K. [Graduate School of Material Science, University of Hyogo, Kamigori-cho, Ako-gun, Hyogo 678-1297 (Japan); Kohara, T. [Graduate School of Material Science, University of Hyogo, Kamigori-cho, Ako-gun, Hyogo 678-1297 (Japan)

    2007-03-15

    We have measured the specific heat of a series of polycrystalline CePt{sub 3}Si and Ce{sub 1+x}Pt{sub 3+y}Si{sub 1+z} samples whose compositions vary slightly from the stoichiometric composition. We observed two peaks derived from magnetic anomalies on the specific heat measurements of the Ce{sub 1+x}Pt{sub 3+y}Si{sub 1+z} samples. One of the peaks relates to the antiferromagnetic phase transition at T{sub N}=2.2K. The other is a large peak at 2.7K observed for the sample that showed a ferromagnetic anomaly at 3.0K on the temperature dependence of the magnetization. Heat treatment had different effects between these anomalies.

  20. Iron oxide nanoparticles modulate heat shock proteins and organ specific markers expression in mice male accessory organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundarraj, Kiruthika; Raghunath, Azhwar; Panneerselvam, Lakshmikanthan; Perumal, Ekambaram

    2017-02-15

    With increased industrial utilization of iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe 2 O 3 -NPs), concerns on adverse reproductive health effects following exposure have been immensely raised. In the present study, the effects of Fe 2 O 3 -NPs exposure in the seminal vesicle and prostate gland were studied in mice. Mice were exposed to two different doses (25 and 50 mg/kg) of Fe 2 O 3 -NPs along with the control and analyzed the expressions of heat shock proteins (HSP60, HSP70 and HSP90) and organ specific markers (Caltrin, PSP94, and SSLP1). Fe 2 O 3 -NPs decreased food consumption, water intake, and organo-somatic index in mice with elevated iron levels in serum, urine, fecal matter, seminal vesicle and prostate gland. FTIR spectra revealed alterations in the functional groups of biomolecules on Fe 2 O 3 -NPs treatment. These changes are accompanied by increased lactate dehydrogenase levels with decreased total protein and fructose levels. The investigation of oxidative stress biomarkers demonstrated a significant increase in reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl content and glutathione peroxidase with a concomitant decrement in the glutathione and ascorbic acid in the male accessory organs which confirmed the induction of oxidative stress. An increase in NADPH-oxidase-4 with a decrease in glutathione-S-transferase was observed in the seminal vesicle and prostate gland of the treated groups. An alteration in HSP60, HSP70, HSP90, Caltrin, PSP94, and SSLP1 expression was also observed. Moreover, accumulation of Fe 2 O 3 -NPs brought pathological changes in the seminal vesicle and prostate gland of treated mice. These findings provide evidence that Fe 2 O 3 -NPs could be an environmental risk factor for reproductive disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Critical current, electro-mechanical properties and specific heat of bronze Nb{sub 3}Sn conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uglietti, D.; Seeber, B.; Abacherli, V.; Flukiger, R. [Geneva Univ., Groupe Applique de Physique (GAP) (Switzerland); Wang, X.Y.; Junod, A.; Flukiger, R. [Geneva Univ., Dept. Phys. Mat. Condensee (DPMC) (Switzerland)

    2004-07-01

    The fabrication process leading to a Nb{sub 3}Sn wire by using the bronze route with 15.4 wt per cent of Sn is described. The critical current density, J{sub c}, is studied as a function of the applied magnetic field, B, up to 25 T; the uniaxial strain, {epsilon}, was measured up to 17. In the second part our device for measuring I{sub c}({epsilon}) is presented. The device is based on the concept of the Walters spring (WASP), which allows to measure long length wires (voltage taps distance up to 50 cm), up to 1000 A and to obtain an absolute measurement of the strain value. It is thus possible to measure the voltage-current relation of technical superconducting wires and tapes down to 0.01 {mu}V/cm, an important requirement for the characterisation in view of applications like NMR high field magnets which require persistent mode operation with high current densities. Finally specific heat measurements on Nb{sub 3}Sn wires prepared at GAP have allowed to determine for the first time the overall distribution of T{sub c} in the filaments. The onset of T{sub c} was observed at 17.2 K, the T{sub c} distribution being centred at 15.9 K. This analysis confirms the reduction of T{sub c} due to the Ti addition and the presence of a distribution of Sn in Nb{sub 3}Sn bronze wires. (authors)

  2. A new predictive dynamic model describing the effect of the ambient temperature and the convective heat transfer coefficient on bacterial growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Yaghlene, H; Leguerinel, I; Hamdi, M; Mafart, P

    2009-07-31

    In this study, predictive microbiology and food engineering were combined in order to develop a new analytical model predicting the bacterial growth under dynamic temperature conditions. The proposed model associates a simplified primary bacterial growth model without lag, the secondary Ratkowsky "square root" model and a simplified two-parameter heat transfer model regarding an infinite slab. The model takes into consideration the product thickness, its thermal properties, the ambient air temperature, the convective heat transfer coefficient and the growth parameters of the micro organism of concern. For the validation of the overall model, five different combinations of ambient air temperature (ranging from 8 degrees C to 12 degrees C), product thickness (ranging from 1 cm to 6 cm) and convective heat transfer coefficient (ranging from 8 W/(m(2) K) to 60 W/(m(2) K)) were tested during a cooling procedure. Moreover, three different ambient air temperature scenarios assuming alternated cooling and heating stages, drawn from real refrigerated food processes, were tested. General agreement between predicted and observed bacterial growth was obtained and less than 5% of the experimental data fell outside the 95% confidence bands estimated by the bootstrap percentile method, at all the tested conditions. Accordingly, the overall model was successfully validated for isothermal and dynamic refrigeration cycles allowing for temperature dynamic changes at the centre and at the surface of the product. The major impact of the convective heat transfer coefficient and the product thickness on bacterial growth during the product cooling was demonstrated. For instance, the time needed for the same level of bacterial growth to be reached at the product's half thickness was estimated to be 5 and 16.5 h at low and high convection level, respectively. Moreover, simulation results demonstrated that the predicted bacterial growth at the air ambient temperature cannot be assumed to be

  3. Lower solar chromosphere-corona transition region. II - Wave pressure effects for a specific form of the heating function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, D. Tod; Holzer, Thomas E.; Macgregor, Keith B.

    1990-01-01

    Lower transition region models with a balance between mechanical heating and radiative losses are expanded to include wave pressure effects. The models are used to study the simple damping length form of the heating function. The results are compared to the results obtained by Woods et al. (1990) for solutions in the lower transition region. The results suggest that a mixture of fast-mode and slow-mode waves may provide the appropriate heating mechanism in the lower transition region, with the decline in effective vertical wave speed caused by the refraction and eventual total reflection of the fast-mode wave resulting from the decreasing atmospheric density.

  4. Measurement of the specific heat of small vanadium particles in the normal- and superconducting state in the temperature range of 1.5-12 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergara Garcia, O.

    1982-01-01

    The specific heat of small crystalline vanadium particles in form of polyeders with diameters between 2.9 and 13.2 mm was measured in the temperature range of 1.5-12 K. Quantum effects are interpreted in the frame of theoretical models. (BEF)

  5. Heat transfer calculations for the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). Technical specifications: bases for safety limits and limiting safety system settings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sims, T.M.; Swanks, J.H.

    1977-09-01

    Heat transfer analyses, in support of the preparation of the HFIR technical specifications, were made to establish the bases for the safety limits and limiting safety system settings applicable to the HFIR. The results of these analyses, along with the detailed bases, are presented

  6. Heavy mediums and materials (physics of the condensed state). Study of disordered systems at low temperature. Specific heat measurement in neutron irradiated quartz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Sa, L.

    1987-09-01

    Specific heat of neutron irradiated silicas presents characteristics evolving with radiation dose and is a good way to study properties of disordered systems. Results obtained and comparison with other experiments allow to follow amorphization and defects created by irradiation and raise hypothesis about the evolution of microscopic structure of these materials [fr

  7. Effect of variable thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity on the calculation of the critical metal hydride thickness for Ti1.1CrMn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzucco, Andrea; Rokni, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    model is applied to the metal hydride system, with Ti 1.1 CrMn as the absorbing alloy, to predict the weight fraction of absorbed hydrogen and solid bed temperat ure . Dependencies of thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity upon pressure and hydrogen content respectively , are accounted for...

  8. Variation of prostate-specific antigen expression in different tumour growth patterns present in prostatectomy specimens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P.W. Gallee; E. Visser-de Jong (E.); J.A.G.M. van der Korput (J. A G M); Th.H. van der Kwast (Theo); F.J.W. ten Kate (Fiebo); F.H. Schröder (Fritz); J. Trapman (Jan)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractA series of 55 randomly chosen radical prostatectomy specimens was analyzed for expression of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) by immunohistochemical techniques. Tissue sections were selected in such a manner that in addition to glandular benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), one or more

  9. Predictors of Growth or Attrition of the First Language in Latino Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon-Cereijido, Gabriela; Gutierrez-Clellen, Vera F.; Sweet, Monica

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the factors that may help understand the differential rates of language development in the home language (i.e., Spanish) of Latino preschoolers with specific language impairment. Children were randomly assigned to either bilingual or English-only small group interventions and followed from preschool to kindergarten. Predictors of…

  10. Statistical aspects of fatigue crack growth life of base metal, weld metal and heat affected zone in FSWed 7075-T651aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Hye Jeong; Haryadi, Gunawan Dwi; Kim, Seon Jin

    2014-01-01

    The statistical aspects of fatigue crack growth life of base metal (BM), weld metal (WM) and heat affected zone (HAZ) in friction stir welded (FSWed) 7075-T651 aluminum alloy has been studied by Weibull statistical analysis. The fatigue crack growth tests were performed at room temperature on ASTM standard CT specimens under three different constant stress intensity factor range controls. The main objective of this paper is to investigate the effects of statistical aspects of fatigue crack growth life on stress intensity factor ranges and material properties, namely BM, WM and HAZ specimens. In this work, the Weibull distribution was employed to estimate the statistical aspects of fatigue crack growth life. The shape parameter of Weibull distribution for fatigue crack growth life was significantly affected by material properties and the stress intensity factor range. The scale parameter of WM specimen exhibited the lowest value at all stress intensity factor ranges.

  11. Gender and Facebook motives as predictors of specific types of Facebook use: A latent growth curve analysis in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frison, Eline; Eggermont, Steven

    2016-10-01

    Despite increasing evidence that specific types of Facebook use (i.e., active private, active public, and passive Facebook use) are differently related to adolescents' well-being, little is known how these types function over the course of adolescence and whether gender and Facebook motives may predict the initial level and changes in these types over time. To address these gaps, Flemish adolescents (ages 12-19) were questioned at three different time points, with six months in between (NTime1 = 1866). Latent growth curve models revealed that active private Facebook use increased over the course of adolescence, whereas public Facebook use decreased. Passive Facebook use, however, remained stable. In addition, gender and Facebook motives were related to initial levels of specific types of Facebook use, and predictive of dynamic change in specific types of Facebook use over time. The discussion focuses on the understanding and implications of these findings. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Effect of specific industrial gases on the growth of some tree species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antipov, V G

    1963-01-01

    Variations in the growth increment of annual rings can serve as index of the injuries effect of various industrial gases on plants. For such an objective, young trees are preferable because they are more responsive to changes of surrounding conditions and recover more rapidly after being affected by gas. The older trees react more slowly, take longer to recover, and as a rule eventually dry up. These differences may be related to the prevalence of different kinds of gas resistance (N.P. Krasinskiy, 1950) at definite ages; in the case of old trees the nature of resistant being anatomical, morphological, and physiological (less oxidation of the cell content), whereas in young trees the biological resistance to gases is greater.

  13. Sublattice-specific ordering of ZnO layers during the heteroepitaxial growth at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redondo-Cubero, A.; Vinnichenko, M.; Muecklich, A.; Kolitsch, A.; Krause, M.; Munoz, E.; Gago, R.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of the substrate temperature on the sublattice ordering in ZnO layers grown by reactive pulsed magnetron sputtering on sapphire has been investigated by different techniques. The improvement of the crystal quality and heteroepitaxial growth at relatively low temperatures (550 deg. C) is verified by x-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry in channeling mode (RBS/C), and Raman spectroscopy. Sublattice-resolved analysis by resonant RBS/C and Raman spectroscopy reveals that the progressive transition to the single crystal phase is accomplished in a faster way for Zn- than for O-sublattice. This behavior is attributed to the preferential annealing of defects in the Zn sublattice at low temperatures when compared to those of the O sublattice.

  14. Maximum Likelihood based comparison of the specific growth rates for P. aeruginosa and four mutator strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipsen, Kirsten Riber; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Mandsberg, Lotte Frigaard

    2008-01-01

    with an exponentially decaying function of the time between observations is suggested. A model with a full covariance structure containing OD-dependent variance and an autocorrelation structure is compared to a model with variance only and with no variance or correlation implemented. It is shown that the model...... are used for parameter estimation. The data is log-transformed such that a linear model can be applied. The transformation changes the variance structure, and hence an OD-dependent variance is implemented in the model. The autocorrelation in the data is demonstrated, and a correlation model...... that best describes data is a model taking into account the full covariance structure. An inference study is made in order to determine whether the growth rate of the five bacteria strains is the same. After applying a likelihood-ratio test to models with a full covariance structure, it is concluded...

  15. Development of an integrated model for heat transfer and dynamic growth of Clostridium perfringens during the cooling of cooked boneless ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amézquita, A; Weller, C L; Wang, L; Thippareddi, H; Burson, D E

    2005-05-25

    Numerous small meat processors in the United States have difficulties complying with the stabilization performance standards for preventing growth of Clostridium perfringens by 1 log10 cycle during cooling of ready-to-eat (RTE) products. These standards were established by the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) of the US Department of Agriculture in 1999. In recent years, several attempts have been made to develop predictive models for growth of C. perfringens within the range of cooling temperatures included in the FSIS standards. Those studies mainly focused on microbiological aspects, using hypothesized cooling rates. Conversely, studies dealing with heat transfer models to predict cooling rates in meat products do not address microbial growth. Integration of heat transfer relationships with C. perfringens growth relationships during cooling of meat products has been very limited. Therefore, a computer simulation scheme was developed to analyze heat transfer phenomena and temperature-dependent C. perfringens growth during cooling of cooked boneless cured ham. The temperature history of ham was predicted using a finite element heat diffusion model. Validation of heat transfer predictions used experimental data collected in commercial meat-processing facilities. For C. perfringens growth, a dynamic model was developed using Baranyi's nonautonomous differential equation. The bacterium's growth model was integrated into the computer program using predicted temperature histories as input values. For cooling cooked hams from 66.6 degrees C to 4.4 degrees C using forced air, the maximum deviation between predicted and experimental core temperature data was 2.54 degrees C. Predicted C. perfringens growth curves obtained from dynamic modeling showed good agreement with validated results for three different cooling scenarios. Mean absolute values of relative errors were below 6%, and deviations between predicted and experimental cell counts were within 0.37 log10

  16. Stage specific requirement of platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α in embryonic development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Qian

    Full Text Available Platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRα is a cell-surface receptor tyrosine kinase for platelet-derived growth factors. Correct timing and level of Pdgfra expression is crucial for embryo development, and deletion of Pdgfra caused developmental defects of multiple endoderm and mesoderm derived structures, resulting in a complex phenotypes including orofacial cleft, spina bifida, rib deformities, and omphalocele in mice. However, it is not clear if deletion of Pdgfra at different embryonic stages differentially affects these structures.To address the temporal requirement of Pdgfra in embryonic development.We have deleted the Pdgfra in Pdgfra-expressing tissues at different embryonic stages in mice, examined and quantified the developmental anomalies.Current study showed that (i conditional deletion of Pdgfra at different embryonic days (between E7.5 and E10.5 resulted in orofacial cleft, spina bifida, rib cage deformities, and omphalocele, and (ii the day of Pdgfra deletion influenced the combinations, incidence and severities of these anomalies. Deletion of Pdgfra caused apoptosis of Pdgfra-expressing tissues, and developmental defects of their derivatives.Orofacial cleft, spina bifida and omphalocele are among the commonest skeletal and abdominal wall defects of newborns, but their genetic etiologies are largely unknown. The remarkable resemblance of our conditional Pdgfra knockout embryos to theses human congenital anomalies, suggesting that dysregulated PDGFRA expression could cause these anomalies in human. Future work should aim at defining (a the regulatory elements for the expression of the human PDGFRA during embryonic development, and (b if mutations / sequence variations of these regulatory elements cause these anomalies.

  17. Levels of human and rat hypothalamic growth hormone-releasing factor as determined by specific radioimmunoassay systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audhya, T.; Manzione, M.M.; Nakane, T.; Kanie, N.; Passarelli, J.; Russo, M.; Hollander, C.S.

    1985-01-01

    Polyclonal antibodies to synthetic human pancreatic growth hormone-releasing factor [hpGRF(1-44)NH 2 ] and rat hypothalamic growth hormone-releasing factor [rhGRF(1-43)OH] were produced in rabbits. A subsequent booster injection by the conventional intramuscular route resulted in high-titer antibodies, which at a 1:20,000 dilution were used to develop highly sensitive and specific radioimmunoassays for these peptides. The antibody to hpGRF(1-44)NH 2 is directed against the COOH-terminal region of the molecule, as shown by its cross reactivity with various hpGRF analogues. Serial dilutions of human and rat hypothalamic extracts demonstrated parallelism with the corresponding species-specific standard and 125 I-labeled tracer. There was no cross reactivity with other neuropeptides, gastrointestinal peptides, or hypothalamic extracts of other species. Age-related changes in hypothalamic GRF content were present in rats, with a gradual increase from 2 to 16 weeks and a correlation between increasing body weight and GRF content. These radioimmunoassays will serve as important tools for understanding the regulation of growth hormone secretion in both human and rat

  18. Effects of dietary nucleotides on growth, non-specific immune response and disease resistance of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zehong; Yi, Lina; Xu, Wei; Zhou, Huihui; Zhang, Yanjiao; Zhang, Wenbing; Mai, Kangsen

    2015-11-01

    A 9-week feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary nucleotides (NT) on growth, immune response and disease resistance of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicas (initial weight: 5.87 ± 0.03 g). Four graded levels of dietary NT were designed as 0, 150, 375 and 700 mg/kg, respectively. After the feeding trial, sea cucumbers were challenged with Vibrio splendidus for the determination of disease resistance. The results showed that the specific growth rates were significantly higher in sea cucumber fed the diet with 375 mg/kg NT than those fed the basal diet without NT supplementation (P sea cucumber fed diets with nucleotides (≥ 375 mg/kg) had significantly higher phagocytic activities in coelomic fluid (P 0.05). After being challenged with V. splendidus, the cumulative mortalities of sea cucumber fed diets with 150 and 375 mg/kg NT were significantly lower than that in the treatment without dietary nucleotide supplementation (P sea cucumber in vivo. In conclusion, it was showed that dietary NT does increase the growth performance, non-specific immunity and disease resistance of sea cucumber. The optimum dietary NT supplementation level for sea cucumber was found to be 375 mg/kg. The application of dietary NT may present a novel strategy for health management in sea cucumber's aquaculture. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Waterborne cues from crabs induce thicker skeletons, smaller gonads and size-specific changes in growth rate in sea urchins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selden, Rebecca; Johnson, Amy S; Ellers, Olaf

    2009-01-01

    Indirect predator-induced effects on growth, morphology and reproduction have been extensively studied in marine invertebrates but usually without consideration of size-specific effects and not at all in post-metamorphic echinoids. Urchins are an unusually good system, in which, to study size effects because individuals of various ages within one species span four orders of magnitude in weight while retaining a nearly isometric morphology. We tracked growth of urchins, Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis (0.013-161.385 g), in the presence or absence of waterborne cues from predatory Jonah crabs, Cancer borealis. We ran experiments at ambient temperatures, once for 4 weeks during summer and again, with a second set of urchins, for 22 weeks over winter. We used a scaled, cube-root transformation of weight for measuring size more precisely and for equalizing variance across sizes. Growth rate of the smallest urchins (summer: scent by 7% in the winter. At the end of the 22-week experiment, additional gonadal and skeletal variables were measured. Cue-exposed urchins developed heavier, thicker skeletons and smaller gonads, but no differences in spine length or jaw size. The differences depended on urchin size, suggesting that there are size-specific shifts in gonadal and somatic investment in urchins.

  20. Specific interactions between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and plant growth-promoting bacteria--as revealed by different combinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaderlund, Lotta; Arthurson, Veronica; Granhall, Ulf; Jansson, Janet K.

    2008-05-15

    The interactions between two plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 and Paenibacillus brasilensis PB177, two arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi (Glomus mosseae and G. intraradices) and one pathogenic fungus (Microdochium nivale) were investigated on winter wheat (Triticum aestivum cultivar Tarso) in a greenhouse trial. PB177, but not SBW25, had strong inhibitory effects on M. nivale in dual culture plate assays. The results from the greenhouse experiment show very specific interactions; e.g. the two AM fungi react differently when interacting with the same bacteria on plants. G. intraradices (single inoculation or together with SBW25) increased plant dry weight on M. nivale infested plants, suggesting that the pathogenic fungus is counteracted by G. intraradices, but PB177 inhibited this positive effect. This is an example of two completely different reactions between the same AM fungus and two species of bacteria, previously known to enhance plant growth and inhibit pathogens. When searching for plant growth promoting microorganisms it is therefore important to test for the most suitable combination of plant, bacteria and fungi in order to get satisfactory plant growth benefits.

  1. The heat shock protein 90 inhibitor 17-AAG suppresses growth and induces apoptosis in human cholangiocarcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianjun; Zheng, Zhichao; Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Tao; Gu, Xiaohu; Yang, Wei

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 17-Allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG), a heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) inhibitor, on the proliferation, cell cycle, and apoptosis of human cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) cells. Cell proliferation and cell cycle distribution were measured by the MTT assay and flow cytometry analysis, respectively. Induction of apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry and Hoechst staining. The expressions of cleaved poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP), Bcl-2, Survivin, and Cyclin B1 were detected by Western blot analysis. The activity of caspase-3 was also examined. We found that 17-AAG inhibited cell growth and induced G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in CCA cells together with the down-regulation of Bcl-2, Survivin and Cyclin B1, and the up-regulation of cleaved PARP. Moreover, increased caspase-3 activity was also observed in CCA cells treated with 17-AAG. In conclusion, our data suggest that the inhibition of HSP90 function by 17-AAG may provide a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of human CCA.

  2. Enhanced Thermostability of Arabidopsis Rubisco Activase Improves Photosynthesis and Growth Rates under Moderate Heat Stress[OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurek, Itzhak; Chang, Thom Kai; Bertain, Sean M.; Madrigal, Alfredo; Liu, Lu; Lassner, Michael W.; Zhu, Genhai

    2007-01-01

    Plant photosynthesis declines when the temperature exceeds its optimum range. Recent evidence indicates that the reduction in photosynthesis is linked to ribulose-1,5-bis-phosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) deactivation due to the inhibition of Rubisco activase (RCA) under moderately elevated temperatures. To test the hypothesis that thermostable RCA can improve photosynthesis under elevated temperatures, we used gene shuffling technology to generate several Arabidopsis thaliana RCA1 (short isoform) variants exhibiting improved thermostability. Wild-type RCA1 and selected thermostable RCA1 variants were introduced into an Arabidopsis RCA deletion (Δrca) line. In a long-term growth test at either constant 26°C or daily 4-h 30°C exposure, the transgenic lines with the thermostable RCA1 variants exhibited higher photosynthetic rates, improved development patterns, higher biomass, and increased seed yields compared with the lines expressing wild-type RCA1 and a slight improvement compared with untransformed Arabidopsis plants. These results provide clear evidence that RCA is a major limiting factor in plant photosynthesis under moderately elevated temperatures and a potential target for genetic manipulation to improve crop plants productivity under heat stress conditions. PMID:17933901

  3. The Effect of Moisture Content and Temperature on the Specific Heat Capacity of Nut and Kernel of Two Iranian Pistachio Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R Salari Kia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Pistachio has a special ranking among Iranian agricultural products. Iran is known as the largest producer and exporter of pistachio in the world. Agricultural products are imposed under different thermal treatments during storage and processing. Designing all these processes requires thermal parameters of the products such as specific heat capacity. Regarding the importance of pistachio processing as an exportable product, in this study the specific heat capacity of nut and kernel of two varieties of Iranian pistachio (Kalle-Ghochi and Badami were investigated at four levels of moisture content (initial moisture content (5%, 15%, 25% and 40% w.b. and three levels of temperature (40, 50 and 60°C. In both varieties, the differences between the data were significant at the 1% of probability; however, the effect of moisture content was greater than that of temperature. The results indicated that the specific heat capacity of both nuts and kernels increase logarithmically with increase of moisture content and also increase linearly with increase of temperature. This parameter has altered for nut and kernel of Kalle-Ghochi and Badami varieties within the range of 1.039-2.936 kJ kg-1 K-1, 1.236-3.320 kJ kg-1 K-1, 0.887-2.773 kJ kg-1 K-1 and 0.811-2.914 kJ kg-1 K-1, respectively. Moreover, for any given level of temperature, the specific heat capacity of kernels was higher than that of nuts. Finally, regression models with high R2 values were developed to predict the specific heat capacity of pistachio varieties as a function of moisture content and temperature

  4. Specific heat measurements on metals up to their melting point; Mesure de la chaleur specifique des metaux jusqu'a leur temperature de fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Affortit, Ch [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-15

    We have built an apparatus to measure the specific heat of metal up to the melting point. The method is the pulse-heating method, where the specimen is heated very rapidly (1/10 s) from room temperature to the melting point by a very intense d.c. current (1000 A). The simultaneous measurements of intensity, voltage and temperature in the specimen allows a calculation of the specific heat. We have obtained good results for niobium, tungsten, tantalum and uranium. The accuracy is around 3 to 5 per cent and allows a measurement of the heat of formation of vacancies near the melting temperature. (author) [French] Nous avons construit un appareil permettant la mesure de la chaleur specifique des metaux jusqu'a leur temperature de fusion. La methode utilisee est la methode dite de chauffage instantane, L'echantillon est echauffe tres rapidement (1/10 s) de la temperature ambiante a la temperature de fusion par le passage d'un courant tres intense ({approx} 1000 A). L'enregistrement simultane de l'intensite du courant, de la difference de potentiel aux bornes de l'echantillon et de la temperature, permet de calculer la chaleur specifique. Nous avons obtenu de bons resultats pour le niobium, le tungstene tantale et l'uranium. La precision de la methode est de l'ordre de 3 a 5 pour cent et permet une mesure de la chaleur de formation des lacunes au voisinage de la fusion. (auteur)

  5. Characteristics of six small heat shock protein genes from Bactrocera dorsalis: Diverse expression under conditions of thermal stress and normal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Wei; Tian, Yi; Liu, Hong; Shi, Yan; Smagghe, Guy; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2017-11-01

    To explore the functions of small heat shock proteins (sHsps) in relation to thermal stress and development in Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), one of the most economically important pest species attacking a wide range of fruits and vegetables, six full-length cDNAs of sHsp genes (BdHsp17.7, 18.4, 20.4, 20.6, 21.6 and 23.8) were cloned, and the expression patterns in different developmental stages and tissues, as well as in response to both thermal and 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) exposures, were examined using real time quantitative PCR. The open reading frames (ORFs) of six sHsps are 453, 489, 537, 543, 567 and 630bp in length, encoding proteins with molecular weights of 17.7, 18.4, 20.4, 20.6, 21.6 and 23.8kDa, respectively. BdHsp18.4 and BdHsp20.4 maintained lower expression levels in both eggs and larvae, whereas remarkably up-regulated after the larval-pupal transformation, suggesting that these two sHsps may be involved in metamorphosis. Significant tissue specificity exists among sHsps: the highest expression of BdHsp20.6 and BdHsp23.8 in the Malpighian tubules and ovary, respectively, versus a peak in the fat body for others. BdHsp20.4 and BdHsp20.6 were significantly up-regulated by thermal stress. In contrast, BdHsp18.4 and BdHsp23.8 reacted only to heat stress. BdHsp17.7 and BdHsp21.6 were insensitive to both heat and cold stresses. The degree of sHsps response depends on intensity of 20E treatment, i.e., dose and time. These results strongly suggest functional differentiation within the sHsp subfamily in B. dorsalis. The physiological function of sHsp members under thermal stress and normal growth remains the subjects of further investigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Presence of specific growth hormone binding sites in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) tissues: characterization of the hepatic receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, K.; Niu, P.D.; Le Gac, F.; Le Bail, P.Y. (Laboratoire de Physiologie des Poissons, INRA, Rennes, (France))

    1991-01-01

    The present work outlines the presence of specific binding for chinook salmon growth hormone (sGH) in different tissue preparations of rainbow trout. Optimal incubation conditions (pH, Tris, MgCl{sub 2}) were determined. Specific binding was very sensitive to salt concentration during incubation. The specific binding reached a plateau after 15 and 25 hr of incubation at 12 and 4 {degree}. At 20 {degree}, specific and nonspecific binding were not stable. Specific binding dissociation was slower than association and was only partial. The binding was saturable (Bmax = 187 +/- 167 pmol), of high affinity (Ka = 2.4 +/- 0.8 10(9) M-1), and very specific for GH, properties which are in agreement with the characteristics of hormonal receptors. Sea bream and mammalian GH appeared 2- and 30-fold, respectively, less potent than cold sGH2 for displacing {sup 125}I-sGH2. Tissue preparations from ovary, testis, fat, skin, cartilage, gill, blood pellet, brain, spleen, kidney, and muscle showed significant saturable binding.

  7. Presence of specific growth hormone binding sites in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) tissues: characterization of the hepatic receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, K.; Niu, P.D.; Le Gac, F.; Le Bail, P.Y.

    1991-01-01

    The present work outlines the presence of specific binding for chinook salmon growth hormone (sGH) in different tissue preparations of rainbow trout. Optimal incubation conditions (pH, Tris, MgCl 2 ) were determined. Specific binding was very sensitive to salt concentration during incubation. The specific binding reached a plateau after 15 and 25 hr of incubation at 12 and 4 degree. At 20 degree, specific and nonspecific binding were not stable. Specific binding dissociation was slower than association and was only partial. The binding was saturable (Bmax = 187 +/- 167 pmol), of high affinity (Ka = 2.4 +/- 0.8 10(9) M-1), and very specific for GH, properties which are in agreement with the characteristics of hormonal receptors. Sea bream and mammalian GH appeared 2- and 30-fold, respectively, less potent than cold sGH2 for displacing 125 I-sGH2. Tissue preparations from ovary, testis, fat, skin, cartilage, gill, blood pellet, brain, spleen, kidney, and muscle showed significant saturable binding

  8. Expression of collagen and related growth factors in rat tendon and skeletal muscle in response to specific contraction types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinemeier, K M; Olesen, J L; Haddad, F

    2007-01-01

    greater than the effect of concentric training on the expression of several transcripts. In conclusion, the study supports an involvement of TGF-beta-1 in loading-induced collagen synthesis in the muscle-tendon unit and importantly, it indicates that muscle tissue is more sensitive than tendon......Acute exercise induces collagen synthesis in both tendon and muscle, indicating an adaptive response in the connective tissue of the muscle-tendon unit. However, the mechanisms of this adaptation, potentially involving collagen-inducing growth factors (such as transforming growth factor-beta-1 (TGF......-beta-1)), as well as enzymes related to collagen processing, are not clear. Furthermore, possible differential effects of specific contraction types on collagen regulation have not been investigated. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 4 days of concentric, eccentric or isometric training (n = 7...

  9. Polycystic ovarian disease: endocrinological parameters with specific reference to growth hormone and somatomedin-C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urdl, W

    1988-01-01

    Thirty-three women (22-38 years old) with polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD) were included in this study. The criteria for diagnosis were: an LH/FSH ratio greater than 2.0; polycystic ovaries, diagnosed by means of palpation and ultrasound; androgenism and menstrual cycle abnormalities. Using endocrine parameters, we attempted to define distinct forms of PCOD. The patients were placed in three groups according to serum levels of testosterone (T) and 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (17 alpha OHP) and the estrone/androstendione (E1/delta 4A) ratio. Patients in group I (n = 18) had an elevated T level (greater than 1.0 ng/ml) and a 17 alpha OHP level under 4.0 ng/ml. This type of POCD was called the "androgen" type. Patients in group II (n = 7) had normal T- and 17 alpha OHP levels under 4.0 ng/ml and an elevated (E1/delta 4A) ratio. This type of PCOD was called the "estrogen" type. Group III (n = 8) comprised patients with 17 alpha OHP levels over 4.0 ng/ml. This type of PCOD was called the "adrenocortical" type. In two patients of this group, a modified ACTH test revealed late-onset congenital hyperplasia. The endocrine parameters of the patients with PCOD were compared with those of 17 adult without signs of PCOD. Statistical evaluation was done by variance analysis. Women with acromegaly often show signs of androgenism as well as menstrual cycle abnormalities. This may indicate an association between the growth factors human growth hormone (HGH) and somatomedin-C (Sm-C) and the biosynthese and metabolism of steroid hormone. Recent experiments have demonstrated such associations. Our study showed an association between the HGH and Sm-C levels and abnormal steroid hormone concentrations in women with androgen type PCOD (group I). These patients had a significantly decreased HGH level, a significantly decreased HGH/Sm-C ratio, and an increased average Sm-C level. These data suggest that elevated Sm-C levels can, by a negative-feedback mechanism, inhibit pituitary HGH

  10. Growth-Phase-Specific Modulation of Cell Morphology and Gene Expression by an Archaeal Histone Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulmage, Keely A; Todor, Horia; Schmid, Amy K

    2015-09-08

    In all three domains of life, organisms use nonspecific DNA-binding proteins to compact and organize the genome as well as to regulate transcription on a global scale. Histone is the primary eukaryotic nucleoprotein, and its evolutionary roots can be traced to the archaea. However, not all archaea use this protein as the primary DNA-packaging component, raising questions regarding the role of histones in archaeal chromatin function. Here, quantitative phenotyping, transcriptomic, and proteomic assays were performed on deletion and overexpression mutants of the sole histone protein of the hypersaline-adapted haloarchaeal model organism Halobacterium salinarum. This protein is highly conserved among all sequenced haloarchaeal species and maintains hallmark residues required for eukaryotic histone functions. Surprisingly, despite this conservation at the sequence level, unlike in other archaea or eukaryotes, H. salinarum histone is required to regulate cell shape but is not necessary for survival. Genome-wide expression changes in histone deletion strains were global, significant but subtle in terms of fold change, bidirectional, and growth phase dependent. Mass spectrometric proteomic identification of proteins from chromatin enrichments yielded levels of histone and putative nucleoid-associated proteins similar to those of transcription factors, consistent with an open and transcriptionally active genome. Taken together, these data suggest that histone in H. salinarum plays a minor role in DNA compaction but important roles in growth-phase-dependent gene expression and regulation of cell shape. Histone function in haloarchaea more closely resembles a regulator of gene expression than a chromatin-organizing protein like canonical eukaryotic histone. Histones comprise the major protein component of eukaryotic chromatin and are required for both genome packaging and global regulation of expression. The current paradigm maintains that archaea whose genes encode

  11. Heavy and hot : bitumen-specific technology fuels growth at Cold Lake-Bonnyville

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byfield, M.

    2008-08-15

    The bitumen corridor between Fort McMurray, Wood Buffalo, and the Cold Lake region is now providing more than half of the province's total crude oil. Growth in the region has been attributed to new technology developments for oil sands drilling and production. Progressive cavity pumps (PCPs) are estimated to have increased production at the Lloyd minister site by 75 per cent. New steel-on-steel pumps have been designed to withstand temperatures of 350 degrees C. The pumps do not require the use of elastomers to line the steel stator. The region's production levels have also been boosted by the use of drilling megapads capable of improving recovery levels by 20 per cent. Many of the region's operators are now using combined steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD), cyclic steam stimulation (CSS) and cold production technologies. Despite the use of advanced technologies, development in the region is still inhibited by manpower shortages. Oil companies operating in the region are now working to build adequate municipal infrastructure for new employees, and are offering substantial bonuses to entice new workers to relocate to the region. 2 figs.

  12. Modeling metabolism and stage-specific growth of Plasmodium falciparum HB3 during the intraerythrocytic developmental cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xin; Reifman, Jaques; Wallqvist, Anders

    2014-10-01

    The human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum goes through a complex life cycle, including a roughly 48-hour-long intraerythrocytic developmental cycle (IDC) in human red blood cells. A better understanding of the metabolic processes required during the asexual blood-stage reproduction will enhance our basic knowledge of P. falciparum and help identify critical metabolic reactions and pathways associated with blood-stage malaria. We developed a metabolic network model that mechanistically links time-dependent gene expression, metabolism, and stage-specific growth, allowing us to predict the metabolic fluxes, the biomass production rates, and the timing of production of the different biomass components during the IDC. We predicted time- and stage-specific production of precursors and macromolecules for P. falciparum (strain HB3), allowing us to link specific metabolites to specific physiological functions. For example, we hypothesized that coenzyme A might be involved in late-IDC DNA replication and cell division. Moreover, the predicted ATP metabolism indicated that energy was mainly produced from glycolysis and utilized for non-metabolic processes. Finally, we used the model to classify the entire tricarboxylic acid cycle into segments, each with a distinct function, such as superoxide detoxification, glutamate/glutamine processing, and metabolism of fumarate as a byproduct of purine biosynthesis. By capturing the normal metabolic and growth progression in P. falciparum during the IDC, our model provides a starting point for further elucidation of strain-specific metabolic activity, host-parasite interactions, stress-induced metabolic responses, and metabolic responses to antimalarial drugs and drug candidates.

  13. Host specificity and growth of kelp gametophytes symbiotic with filamentous red algae (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Charlene B.; Garbary, David J.; Kim, Kwang Young; Chiasson, David M.

    2004-02-01

    Kelp gametophytes were previously observed in nature living endophytically in red algal cell walls. Here we examine the interactions of two kelp species and six red algae in culture. Gametophytes of Nereocystis luetkeana (Mertens) Postels et Ruprecht became endophytic in the cell walls of Griffithsia pacifica Kylin and Antithamnion defectum Kylin, and grew epiphytically in high abundance on G. japonica Okamura and Aglaothamnion oosumiense Itono. Alaria esculenta (Linnaeus) Greville from the Atlantic coast of Nova Scotia became endophytic in Aglaothamnion oosumiense, Antithamnion defectum, Callithamnion sp., G. japonica, G. pacifica, and Pleonosporium abysicola Gardner, all from the Pacific Ocean. Some cultures were treated with phloroglucinol before infection to thicken the cell walls. The endophytic gametophytes were smaller and grew more slowly than gametophytes epiphytic on the same host. N. luetkeana failed to become endophytic in some of the potential hosts, and this may reflect host specificity, or culture artifacts. This work improves our understanding of the process of infection of red algae by kelp gametophytes, and broadens our knowledge of host specificity in endophytic symbioses.

  14. CONCERNING CHAIN GROWTH SPECIFIC REACTION RATE AS A PART OF THE PROCESS OF METHYL METHACRYLATE MASS RADICAL POLYMERIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Sultanova

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available It is the chain growth specific reaction rate that was determined for the process of methyl methacrylate mass radical polymerization within the temperature range of 40–900 С in quasi-steady approximation by means of Monte Carlo method. The theoretical model of radical polymerization was developed taking the gel effect into account. Computer software was developed that enables to imitate radical polymerization process taking gel effect into account within the minimum run time. The programme was tested on asymptotic examples as well as was applied for methyl methacrylate mass radical polymerization. The programme makes it possible to calculate monomer conversion, molecular mass variation, molecular-mass distribution, etc.

  15. Isobaric specific heat capacity of water and aqueous cesium chloride solutions for temperatures between 298 K and 370 K at p = 0.1 MPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lourenco, M.J.V.; Santos, F.J.V.; Ramires, M.L.V.; Nieto de Castro, C.A.

    2006-01-01

    There has been some controversy regarding the uncertainty of measurements of thermal properties using differential scanning calorimeters, namely heat capacity of liquids. A differential scanning calorimeter calibrated in enthalpy and temperature was used to measure the isobaric specific heat capacity of water and aqueous solutions of cesium chloride, in the temperature range 298 K to 370 K, for molalities up 3.2 mol . kg -1 , at p = 0.1 MPa, with an estimated uncertainty (ISO definition) better than 1.1%, at a 95% confidence level. The measurements are completely traceable to SI units of energy and temperature. The results obtained were correlated as a function of temperature and molality and compared with other authors, obtained by different methods and permit to conclude that a DSC calibrated by Joule effect is capable of very accurate measurements of the isobaric heat capacity of liquids, traceable to SI units of measurement

  16. Covalent cross-linking of insulin-like growth factor-1 to a specific inhibitor from human serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ooi, G.T.; Herington, A.C.

    1986-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that a specific inhibitor of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) action in vitro can be isolated from normal human serum and subsequently partially purified on an IGF-affinity column. The ability of the inhibitor to bind the IGFs has now been confirmed directly using covalent cross-linking techniques. When 125 I-IGF-1 was cross-linked to inhibitor using disuccinimidyl suberate, five specifically labelled bands were seen on SDS-PAGE and autoradiography. Two bands (MW 21.5 K and 25.5 K) were intensely labelled, while the remaining three (MW 37 K, 34 K and 18 K) appeared as minor bands only. Inhibitor bioactivity, following further analysis by hydrophobic interaction chromatography or Con A-Sepharose affinity chromatography, was always associated with the presence of the 21.5 K and/or 25.5 K bands

  17. Human antibody fragments specific for the epidermal growth factor receptor selected from large non-immunised phage display libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souriau, Christelle; Rothacker, Julie; Hoogenboom, Hennie R; Nice, Edouard

    2004-09-01

    Antibodies to EGFR have been shown to display anti-tumour effects mediated in part by inhibition of cellular proliferation and angiogenesis, and by enhancement of apoptosis. Humanised antibodies are preferred for clinical use to reduce complications with HAMA and HAHA responses frequently seen with murine and chimaeric antibodies. We have used depletion and subtractive selection strategies on cells expressing the EGFR to sample two large antibody fragment phage display libraries for the presence of human antibodies which are specific for the EGFR. Four Fab fragments and six scFv fragments were identified, with affinities of up to 2.2nM as determined by BIAcore analysis using global fitting of the binding curves to obtain the individual rate constants (ka and kd). This overall approach offers a generic screening method for the identification of growth factor specific antibodies and antibody fragments from large expression libraries and has potential for the rapid development of new therapeutic and diagnostic reagents.

  18. Study of nucleation, growth and coarsening of precipitates in a novel 9%Cr heat resistant steel: Experimental and modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prat, O.; García, J.; Rojas, D.; Sanhueza, J.P.; Camurri, C.

    2014-01-01

    Nucleation, growth and coarsening of three different precipitates (NbC, M 23 C 6 and V(C,N)) in a novel 9%Cr heat resistant steel designed by the authors were investigated. The microstructure evolution after tempering (780 °C/2 h) and after creep (650 °C/100 MPa) was characterized using transmission electron microscopy in the scanning mode (STEM). Thermodynamic and kinetic modeling was carried out using the softwares Thermo-Calc, DICTRA and TC-PRISMA. The Thermo-Calc software predicted formation of NbC, V(C,N) and M 23 C 6 carbides at the tempering temperature of 780 °C. STEM investigations revealed that M 23 C 6 precipitated on prior austenite grain boundaries and lath or block boundaries whereas NbC and V(C,N) were located within sub-grains. Simulations by TC-PRISMA showed that M 23 C 6 , NbC and V(C,N) particles nucleation begins as soon as the tempering treatment starts and it is completed in a very short time, reaching the equilibrium volume fraction after 40 s for M 23 C 6 , 100 s for NbC and 80 s for V(C,N). Best agreement between simulations and experimental investigations was found for low interfacial energy values of 0.1 J m −2 . Both STEM measurements as well as DICTRA simulations indicate very low coarsening rate for both kind of precipitates. Creep tests up to 4000–5000 h suggest that this special combination of NbC, V(C,N) and M 23 C 6 may provide increased pinning of dislocations reducing boundary migration therefore enhancing creep strength. - Highlights: • Nucleation, growth and coarsening of NbC and M 23 C 6 precipitates were investigated. • The microstructure was characterized using transmission electron microscopy (STEM). • Modeling was carried out using the softwares Thermo-Calc, DICTRA and TC-PRISMA. • M 23 C 6 and NbC nucleation begins as soon as the solution treatmentinitiates. • Best agreement modeling/experiments was found for low interfacial energy values of 0.1 J m −2

  19. Expression of collagen and related growth factors in rat tendon and skeletal muscle in response to specific contraction types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemeier, K M; Olesen, J L; Haddad, F; Langberg, H; Kjaer, M; Baldwin, K M; Schjerling, P

    2007-08-01

    Acute exercise induces collagen synthesis in both tendon and muscle, indicating an adaptive response in the connective tissue of the muscle-tendon unit. However, the mechanisms of this adaptation, potentially involving collagen-inducing growth factors (such as transforming growth factor-beta-1 (TGF-beta-1)), as well as enzymes related to collagen processing, are not clear. Furthermore, possible differential effects of specific contraction types on collagen regulation have not been investigated. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 4 days of concentric, eccentric or isometric training (n = 7-9 per group) of the medial gastrocnemius, by stimulation of the sciatic nerve. RNA was extracted from medial gastrocnemius and Achilles tendon tissue 24 h after the last training bout, and mRNA levels for collagens I and III, TGF-beta-1, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), lysyl oxidase (LOX), metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and -9) and their inhibitors (TIMP-1 and 2) were measured by Northern blotting and/or real-time PCR. In tendon, expression of TGF-beta-1 and collagens I and III (but not CTGF) increased in response to all types of training. Similarly, enzymes/factors involved in collagen processing were induced in tendon, especially LOX (up to 37-fold), which could indicate a loading-induced increase in cross-linking of tendon collagen. In skeletal muscle, a similar regulation of gene expression was observed, but in contrast to the tendon response, the effect of eccentric training was significantly greater than the effect of concentric training on the expression of several transcripts. In conclusion, the study supports an involvement of TGF-beta-1 in loading-induced collagen synthesis in the muscle-tendon unit and importantly, it indicates that muscle tissue is more sensitive than tendon to the specific mechanical stimulus.

  20. Dynamics of growth/mature-related substances in vegetables using specific triple labeled compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamato, Yoichi; Hamano, Megumi; Yamazaki, Hiroko; Miura, Hiroyuki

    2000-01-01

    To progress physiological studies of vegetables, development of biosynthetic method for production of triple labeled compounds was attempted in this study and such method for vegetables using specifically labeled sugars was examined. As a sugar compound, 6-C 14 -glucose (14-CG) and 1-H 3 -glucose (3-HG) were given to culture medium for cells derived from tomato embryonic axis and the changes of these compounds were monitored. Tomato embryonic cells were harvested 20 and 44 hours after the addition of 14-CG or 3-CG into the culture medium the cells. The cells were homogenized and the supernatant after centrifugation was applied onto HPLC. Radio analyzer revealed major two peaks in the chromatography of the sugar fraction from the cells after 20 hours from the addition of 14-CG. One was the peak of glucose, itself and the other was estimated to be that of fructose based on the retention time. Whereas in the elution pattern of the sugar fraction after 44 hours from the addition, a peak of sucrose was found along with the peak of glucose. These results indicate that C 14 in 14-CG but not H 3 in 3-HG was transferred into fructose after the metabolism in tomato. Moreover, in both elution patterns, there was a peak positioned at the same retention time, indicating that the compound in this peak was produced from either of 14-CG or 3-HG. Therefore, it is thought that H 3 and C 14 double-labeled compound could be produced from the cell culture added with both labeled compounds; 14-CG and 3-HG. (M.N.)