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Sample records for growth retardation effect

  1. GROWTH RETARDANTS: Effects on Gibberellin Biosynthesis and Other Metabolic Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rademacher, Wilhelm

    2000-06-01

    Plant growth retardants are applied in agronomic and horticultural crops to reduce unwanted longitudinal shoot growth without lowering plant productivity. Most growth retardants act by inhibiting gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis. To date, four different types of such inhibitors are known: (a) Onium compounds, such as chlormequat chloride, mepiquat chloride, chlorphonium, and AMO-1618, which block the cyclases copalyl-diphosphate synthase and ent-kaurene synthase involved in the early steps of GA metabolism. (b) Compounds with an N-containing heterocycle, e.g. ancymidol, flurprimidol, tetcyclacis, paclobutrazol, uniconazole-P, and inabenfide. These retardants block cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases, thereby inhibiting oxidation of ent-kaurene into ent-kaurenoic acid. (c) Structural mimics of 2-oxoglutaric acid, which is the co-substrate of dioxygenases that catalyze late steps of GA formation. Acylcyclohexanediones, e.g. prohexadione-Ca and trinexapac-ethyl and daminozide, block particularly 3ss-hydroxylation, thereby inhibiting the formation of highly active GAs from inactive precursors, and (d) 16,17-Dihydro-GA5 and related structures act most likely by mimicking the GA precursor substrate of the same dioxygenases. Enzymes, similar to the ones involved in GA biosynthesis, are also of importance in the formation of abscisic acid, ethylene, sterols, flavonoids, and other plant constituents. Changes in the levels of these compounds found after treatment with growth retardants can mostly be explained by side activities on such enzymes.

  2. Effect of the growth retardant Cycocel® in controlling the growth of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-07-19

    Jul 19, 2010 ... Hydroponic culture of Gladiolus tristis: Application of paclobutrazol for flowering and height control. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 7(3): 239-243. Ninnemann H, Zeevaart JAD, Kende H, Lang A (1964). The plant growth retardant CCC as an inhibitor of gibberellin biosynthesis in. Fusarium moniliforme. Planta (Bert.) ...

  3. EFFECT OF SOME PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS WITH RETARDING ACTIVITY ON SPRING PEA FOR GRAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsenka ZHELYAZKOVA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted at Trakia University - Stara Zagora to establish the effect of some growth retardants on morphological and productive parameters in spring pea for grain variety Bogatir. Three combined preparations: Trisalvit (phenylphthalamic acid + chlorocholine chloride + chlorophenoxyacetic acid +salicylic acid at doses of 300 and 400 сmз*ha-1; SM-21 (phenylphthalamic acid + chlorocholine chloride at doses of 300 and 400 сmз*ha-1 and PNSA-44 (phenylphthalamic acid + naphthaleneacetic acid + chlorophenoxyacetic acid at doses of 200 and 300 сmз*ha-1 were applied in the early growth phase of the plant up to a height of 15-20 cm. The study showed that the greatest reduction in the stem height (by 12.8% compared to untreated plants was achieved by applying SM-21 (400 сmз*ha-1. The application of growth regulators Trisalvit and SM-21 had no appreciable effect on the production of spring pea grain. Maximum values of yield structure components (number of pods and grain per plant, grain mass per plant and mass of 1000 grain and the yield were obtained after application of PNSA-44 (300 сmз*ha-1 - up to 5.6% (117.2 kg*ha-1 more grain than the control. The investigation of the influence of tested factors (retardant, dose and year demonstrated that the conditions of the year as a factor had the strongest effect on plant height and grain yield.

  4. Effects of triazole derivatives on strigolactone levels and growth retardation in rice.

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    Shinsaku Ito

    Full Text Available We previously discovered a lead compound for strigolactone (SL biosynthesis inhibitors, TIS13 (2,2-dimethyl-7-phenoxy-4-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-ylheptan-3-ol. Here, we carried out a structure-activity relationship study of TIS13 to discover more potent and specific SL biosynthesis inhibitor because TIS13 has a severe side effect at high concentrations, including retardation of the growth of rice seedlings. TIS108, a new TIS13 derivative, was found to be a more specific SL biosynthesis inhibitor than TIS13. Treatment of rice seedlings with TIS108 reduced SL levels in both roots and root exudates in a concentration-dependent manner and did not reduce plant height. In addition, root exudates of TIS108-treated rice seedlings stimulated Striga germination less than those of control plants. These results suggest that TIS108 has a potential to be applied in the control of root parasitic weeds germination.

  5. The effects of 3g eicosapentaenoic acid daily on recurrence of intrauterine growth-retardation and pregnancy-induced hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulstra-Ramakers, M. T. E. W.; Huisjes, H. J.; Visser, G. H. A.

    Objective To study the effects of addition of 3 g eicosapentaenoic acid daily to the diet, on recurrence rate of intrauterine growth retardation and pregnancy induced hypertension in a high risk population. Design Prospective, double blind, randomised multicentre study, Eicosapentaenoic acid or

  6. Two tank-mix adjuvants effect on yield and quality attributes of wheat treated with growth retardants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Miziniak

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of seeds and yield of winter wheat under different retardants application. The two years field trials on winter wheat were carried out in the Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute in Poznan (Poland. Treatments consisted of trinexapac-ethyl, chlormequat and prohexadione calcium applied in mixtures with paraffin oil adjuvant or organosilicone surfactant in BBCH 31 growth stage of winter wheat. No lodging occurred in any experimental year. The retardants had varying effect on the quality parameters of wheat grain. The highest fluctuations in the content of protein, gluten and the Zeleny value were observed after the application of chlormequat chloride. Starch content in wheat grain, regardless of the retardant application method, was negatively correlated with others grain quality parameters evaluated in the experiment. Depending on the year of study and weather conditions, increased or decreased wheat quality.

  7. Effects of GHRP-2 and Cysteamine Administration on Growth Performance, Somatotropic Axis Hormone and Muscle Protein Deposition in Yaks (Bos grunniens) with Growth Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Rui; Wang, Zhisheng; Peng, Quanhui; Zou, Huawei; Wang, Hongze; Yu, Xiaoqiang; Jing, Xiaoping; Wang, Yixin; Cao, Binghai; Bao, Shanke; Zhang, Wenhua; Zhao, Suonan; Ji, Hanzhong; Kong, Xiangying; Niu, Quanxi

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of growth hormone-releasing peptide-2 (GHRP-2) and cysteamine (CS) administration on growth performance in yaks with growth retardation and try to elucidate its regulatory mechanisms. Trial 1, thirty-six 1-year-old Qinghai high plateau yaks (body weight 38–83.2 kg) were randomly chosen for body weight and jugular blood samples collection. The relationship between body weight and serum GHRH (P growth retardation (average body weight 54.8 ± 8.24 kg) were randomly selected and assigned to negative control group (NG), GHRP-2 injection group (GG) and cysteamine feeding group (CG), with 5 yaks per group. Another five 1-year-old Qinghai high plateau yaks with normal growth performance (average body weight 75.3 ± 2.43 kg) were selected as positive control group (PG). The average daily gain (ADG) of the GG and CG were significantly higher than those in the PG and NG (P Growth retardation in yaks was primarily due to somatotropic axis hormones secretion deficiency. Both GHRP-2 and CS administration can accelerate growth performance and GH, IGF-1 secretion in yaks with growth retardation. GHRP-2 enhanced muscle protein deposition mainly by up-regulated the protein synthesis pathways, whereas CS worked mainly by down-regulated the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. PMID:26894743

  8. Fatigue crack growth retardation in spot heated mild steel sheet

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A fatigue crack can be effectively retarded by heating a spot near the crack tip under nil remote stress condition. The subcritical spot heating at a proper position modifies the crack growth behaviour in a way, more or less, similar to specimen subjected to overload spike. It is observed that the extent of crack growth retardation ...

  9. Nitrogen, potassium and plant growth retardant effects on oil content and quality of cotton seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alkassas, A. R.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this field experiment was to investigate the effect of nitrogen, potassium and a plant growth retardant (PGR on seed yield and protein and oil content of an Egyptian cotton cultivar (Gossypium barbadense Giza 86. Treatments consisted of: soil application of N (95 and 143 kg N ha-1 in the form ammonium nitrate, foliar application of potassium (0, 319, 638 or 957 g K ha-1 as potassium sulfate and foliar application of mepiquat chloride (MC (0 and 48 + 24 g active ingredient ha-1 on seed, protein and oil yields and oil properties of Egyptian cotton cultivar “Giza 86” (Gossypium barbadense. After applying the higher N-rate, foliar application of potassium and plant growth retardant MC significantly increased seed yield and the content of seed protein and oil, seed oil refractive index, unsaponifiable matter and total unsaturated fatty acids (oleic and linoleic. In contrast, oil acid and saponification value as well as total saturated fatty acids were decreased by foliar application of potassium and MC. The seed oil content was decreased with soil application of N.El objetivo de los experimentos de campo fue investigar el efecto del nitrogeno, potasio y retardantes del crecimiento de plantas sobre el contenido en proteínas y aceite de una semilla de algodón cultivada en Egipto (Gossypium barbadense Giza 86. Los tratamientos consistieron en la aplicación en suelo de N (95 and 143 kg N ha-1 en forma de nitrato amónico, aplicación foliar de K (0, 319, 638 or 957 g K ha-1 como sulfato potásico y aplicación foliar de cloruro de m mepiquat (MC (0 and 48 + 24 g de ingrediente activo ha-1 sobre un cultivar de algodón «Giza 86» (Gossypium barbadense. La aplicación de la cantidad más elevada de N, unida a la aplicación de potasio y del retardador MC, aumentó significativamente el rendimiento en semilla, así como el contenido en proteinas y en aceite. Respecto al aceite, aumentó el índice de refracción, la fracci

  10. Intrauterine growth retardation - small events, big consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Syed R

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Intrauterine growth retardation refers to a rate of growth of a fetus that is less than normal for the growth potential of a fetus (for that particular gestational age. As one of the leading causes of perinatal mortality and morbidity, intrauterine growth retardation has immense implications for the short term and long term growth of children. It is an important public health concern in the developing countries. Health statistics encompassing parameters for maternal and child health in the Indian subcontinent have shown improvement in the past few years but they are still far from perfect. Maternal health, education and empowerment bears a strong influence on perinatal outcomes including intrauterine growth retardation and should be the primary focus of any stratagem targeted at reducing the incidence of intrauterine growth retardation. A concerted liaison of various medical and social disciplines is imperative in this regard.

  11. No effect of plant growth retarding compounds and growth stimulators on indolo-3-acetic acid oxidase activity in greening cucumber cotyledons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Knypl

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cotyledons dissected from 5-day-old etiolated cucumber seedlings were incubated in solutions on AMO-1618, B-Nine, CCC and Phosfon D for 48 h in light. In some tests the retardants were applied in mixed solutions with GA3 or BAP. IAA oxidase was extracted and purified by means of molecular sieving through a bed of Sephadex G-25. The retardants inhibited chlorophyll synthesis by 50 % or more, and had essentially no effect on IAA oxidase activity per cotyledon basis. GA3 and BAP also had no effect on enzyme activity in spite of a fact that the compounds stimulated growth of the cotyledons. The crude enzyme extract from B-Nine treated cotyledons showed lower IAA oxidase activity in comparison with the water treated control, the effect being due to a longer lag-phase preceding the initiation of IAA oxidation. KNO3 strikingly stimulated expansional growth of the cotyledons, the effect being correlated with the accelerated chlorophyll accumulation. KNO3 had no effect on IAA oxidase activity per cotyledon and decreased it per gram fr wt. It is concluded that [1] the growth rate of cucumber cotyledons is not correlated with IAA oxidase activity, and ;[2] the growth retarding compounds do not affect IAA oxidase system is this tissue.

  12. The effect of antenatal administration of solcoseryl on hepatic glycogen synthesis in rat fetuses with intrauterine growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, H; Cheng, K M; Araki, T

    1993-06-01

    The effect of antenatal solcoseryl administration on hepatic glycogen synthesis and storage was studied in normal developing and intrauterine growth-retarded (IUGR) rat fetuses using biochemical analyses. The maximal effect of solcoseryl occurred 2 hours after administration. The glycogen content of the liver showed a significant increase in normal and IUGR fetuses with antenatal solcoseryl administration compared to their non-solcoseryl counterparts (p solcoseryl administration. Active synthase also increased in normal fetuses with antenatal solcoseryl administration (p solcoseryl administration stimulates hepatic glycogen synthesis and storage in IUGR rat fetuses, and thus might favorably influence the development of neonatal hypoglycemia.

  13. AN EFFECT OF SHOT PEENING ON GROWTH AND RETARDATION OF PHYSICALLY SHORT FATIGUE CRACKS IN AN AIRCRAFT Al-ALLOY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Černý

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Results of an investigation of effect of shot peening on development of physically short fatigue crack in an aircraft V-95 Al-alloy, which is of a similar type as 7075 alloy, are described and discussed in the paper. The first part deals with adaptation and verification of direct current potential drop method for detection and measurement of short crack initiation and growth. The specific material and quite large dimensions of flat specimens with side necking of a low stress concentration factor had to be considered when position of electrodes was specified and the measurement method verified. The specimen type and dimensions were proposed taking account of the investigation of shot peening effects. Physically short fatigue cracks of the length from 0.2 mm to more than 3 mm, most of them between 0.8 – 1.5 mm, were prepared under high cycle fatigue loading of a constant nominal stress amplitude plus/minus 160 MPa. Specimens with existing short fatigue cracks were shot peened using two different groups of parameters. Development of crack growth after shot peening was measured and compared with crack growth in specimens without shot peening. Retardation of crack growth was significant particularly with cracks shorter than 2 mm. For the specific stress amplitude, evaluated results enable to estimate threshold length of defects, which after the application of shot peening will be reliably arrested.

  14. Unveiling causes for growth retardation in piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paredes Escobar, S.

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of hyper‐prolific sow breeds has led to a higher number of piglets born per sow per year. This increase in litter size has enlarged the number of light weight (or growth retarded) piglets, increased pre‐weaning mortality and heterogeneity at the end of the nursery phase (ten weeks of

  15. Growth retardation in children with chronic renal disease

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    Peco-Antić Amira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite recent advances in the management of children with chronic renal disease (CRD, growth retardation remains its most visible comorbid condition. Growth retardation has adverse impact on morbidity and mortality rates, quality of life and education, and in adult patients on job family life, and independent leaving accomodation. Pathophysiology of impaired growth in CRD is complex and still not fully understood. The following complications are: anorexia, malnutrition, inflammation, decreased residual renal function, dialysis frequency and adequacy, renal anemia, metabolic acidosis, fluid/electrolyte imbalance, renal osteodistrophy, growth hormone (GH and insulin-like growth factor -1 (IGF-1 resistance. Malnutrition is most frequent and most important factor contributing to the degree of growth retardation in infancy. The degree of renal dysfunction is the major determinant of variability in growth from third year of age until puberty onset, while in puberty hypergonadotropic hypogonadism has negative effect. The main factors that influence growth after renal transplantation are the age of the recipient and glucocorticoid drugs dosage with negative effect and allograft function with positive effect. In order to improve growth in children with CRD it is necessary to include: diet with optimal caloric intake, correction of fluid/ electrolyte imbalance, correction of acidosis, renal osteodistrophy and anemia. If growth velocity is insufficient to normalize growth, it is necessary to start recombinant human GH (rhGH therapy at 0.05 mg/kg per day (0.35 mg/kg per week or 28 IU/m2 per week administered by subcutaneous injection.

  16. [Growth retardation in children with chronic renal disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Despite recent advances in the management of children with chronic renal disease (CRD), growth retardation remains its most visible comorbid condition. Growth retardation has adverse impact on morbidity and mortality rates, quality of life and education, and in adult patients on job family life, and independent leaving accomodation. Pathophysiology of impaired growth in CRD is complex and still not fully understood. The following complications are: anorexia, malnutrition, inflammation, decreased residual renal function, dialysis frequency and adequacy, renal anemia, metabolic acidosis, fluid/electrolyte imbalance, renal osteodistrophy, growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) resistance. Malnutrition is most frequent and most important factor contributing to the degree of growth retardation in infancy. The degree of renal dysfunction is the major determinant of variability in growth from third year of age until puberty onset, while in puberty hypergonadotropic hypogonadism has negative effect. The main factors that influence growth after renal transplantation are the age of the recipient and glucocorticoid drugs dosage with negative effect and allograft function with positive effect. In order to improve growth in children with CRD it is necessary to include: diet with optimal caloric intake, correction of fluid/ electrolyte imbalance, correction of acidosis, renal osteodistrophy and anemia. If growth velocity is insufficient to normalize growth, it is necessary to start recombinant human GH (rhGH) therapy at 0.05 mg/kg per day (0.35 mg/kg per week or 28 IU/m2 per week) administered by subcutaneous injection.

  17. Psychomotor retardation in a girl with complete growth hormone deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayal, Devi; Malhi, Prabhjot; Kumar Bhalla, Anil; Sachdeva, Naresh; Kumar, Rakesh

    2013-01-01

    Infants with complete growth hormone deficiency may suffer from psychomotor retardation in addition to severe growth failure. Without replacement therapy, they may have a compromised intellectual potential manifesting as learning disabilities and attention-deficit disorders in later life. In this communication, we discuss an infant who showed improvement in physical growth after growth hormone therapy but her psychomotor skills did not improve probably due to late start of treatment. There is a need to start growth hormone therapy as early as possible in infants with complete growth hormone deficiency to avoid adverse effects on psychomotor and brain development.

  18. Fatigue crack growth retardation in spot heated mild steel sheet

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. A fatigue crack can be effectively retarded by heating a spot near the crack tip under nil remote stress condition. The subcritical spot heating at a proper position modifies the crack growth behaviour in a way, more or less, similar to specimen subjected to overload spike. It is observed that the extent of crack.

  19. Effects of medium-chain triglycerides on intestinal morphology and energy metabolism of intrauterine growth retarded weanling piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Li; Zhang, Hao; Li, Yue; Wang, Tian

    2017-06-01

    It has been shown that there is a relationship between intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and postnatal intestinal damage involved in energy deficits. Therefore, the present study was conducted to investigate the effect of medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) on the intestinal morphology, intestinal function and energy metabolism of piglets with IUGR. At weaning (21 ± 1.1 d of age), 24 IUGR piglets and 24 normal birth weight (NBW) piglets were selected according to their birth weights (BW) (IUGR: 0.95 ± 0.04 kg BW; NBW: 1.58 ± 0.04 kg BW) and their weights at the time of weaning (IUGR: 5.26 ± 0.15 kg BW; NBW: 6.98 ± 0.19 kg BW). The piglets were fed a diet of either long-chain triglycerides (LCT) (containing 5% LCT) or MCT (containing 1% LCT and 4% MCT) for 28 d. Then, the piglets' intestinal morphology, biochemical parameters and mRNA abundance related to intestinal damage and energy metabolism were determined. IUGR was found to impair intestinal morphology, with evidence of decreased villus height and increased crypt depth; however, these negative effects of IUGR were ameliorated by MCT treatment. IUGR piglets showed compromised intestinal digestion and absorption functions when compared with NBW piglets. However, feeding MCT increased the maltase activity in the jejunum and alleviated IUGR-induced reductions in plasma d-xylose concentrations and jejunal sucrase activity. IUGR decreased the efficiency of the piglets' intestinal energy metabolism; however, piglets fed an MCT diet exhibited increased adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentrations and ATP synthase F1 complex beta polypeptide expression, as well as decreased adenosine monophosphate-activated kinase alpha 1 expression in the jejunum of piglets. In addition, up-regulation of the piglets' citrate synthase and succinate dehydrogenase levels was found to occur following MCT treatment at both the activity and the transcriptional levels of the jejunum. Therefore, it can be postulated that

  20. Obstetric interventions and perinatal asphyxia in growth retarded term infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhoff-Roos, J; Lindmark, G

    1997-01-01

    -fold (6-8%) for growth retarded infants both in SGA infants in general and infants with asymmetric body proportions. The immediate perinatal outcome, however, was favorable with Apgar below 8 at 5 min in only 2% irrespective of the type of growth retardation, in spite of the fact that less than 25...

  1. Fatigue crack growth retardation in spot heated mild steel sheet

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Spot heating; overloading; fatigue crack growth retardation; residual stress; delay cycles. ... It is observed that the extent of crack growth retardation increases with increasing level of overload as well as with increasing spot temperature. It is also ... Manuscript received: 29 November 2001; Manuscript revised: 24 June 2002 ...

  2. Growth hormone treatment in children with rheumatic disease, corticosteroid induced growth retardation, and osteopenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.K. Grote (Floor); L.W.A. van Suijlekom-Smit (Lisette); D. Mul (Dick); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); R. ten Cate (Rebecca); W. Oostdijk (Wilma); W.H.J. van Luijk (Wilma); C.J.A. Jansen-Van Wijngaarden (C. J A); S.M.P.F. de Muinck Keizer-Schrama (Sabine)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractBackground: In children with severe rheumatic disease (RD), treatment with corticosteroids (CS) is frequently needed and growth retardation and osteopenia may develop. A beneficial effect of human growth hormone (hGH) has been reported but mostly in trials without a control group. Aims:

  3. Growth hormone treatment in children with rheumatic disease, corticosteroid induced growth retardation, and osteopenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grote, FK; van Suijlekom-Smit, LWA; Mul, D; Hop, WCJ; ten Cate, R; Oostdijk, W; Van Luijk, W; Jansen-van Wijngaarden, CJA; Keizer-Schrama, SMPFD

    Background: In children with severe rheumatic disease (RD), treatment with corticosteroids (CS) is frequently needed and growth retardation and osteopenia may develop. A beneficial effect of human growth hormone (hGH) has been reported but mostly in trials without a control group. Aims: To study the

  4. Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR): epidemiology and etiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo, Agustín; Carceller, Raquel; Tobajas, Javier

    2009-02-01

    Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is mainly due to a pathologic slow-down in the fetal growth pace, resulting in a fetus that is unable to reach its growth potential. IUGR frequency will vary depending on the discrimination criteria adopted. It is extremely important to use local or national fetal growth graphs in order to avoid some confounding factors. IUGR incidence in newborns would be between 3% and 7% of the total population. In our experience it is 5.13% a figure similar to the one obtained by other authors but with a progressively higher incidence during the last decade. There are multiple maternal factors that can generally be grouped into constitutional and general factors given that they affect age, weight, race, maternal cardiac volume, etc, socioeconomic factors with key incidence in the mother's nutrition level, where a poor maternal nutrition level would be the key factor in this group. We have evaluated multiple factors as possible contributors to the IUGR risk: race, parents' age, mother's height (cm), mother's birth weight and before pregnancy (kg), ponderal gain and blood pressure during pregnancy, and previous SGA newborns. Socioeconomic factors like social class, parents' profession, habitual residence, salary, immigration, and diet were also evaluated. We also included variables such as total daily working time and time mothers spent standing up, daily sleeping time (hrs), stress self-perception test at work and primiparity age. Toxic factors during pregnancy: tobacco (active and passive), alcohol, drugs and coffee consumption. Fetal or utero-placental factors were considered. In our study, the most significant etiologic factors were: Active and passive tobacco consuming, mother's stress level, increase of total months worked during pregnancy, total daily working hours and time mothers spent standing up and finally, the parent's height. Our data support the main objective of reducing the incidence of SGA newborns after IUGR by fighting

  5. Severe linear growth retardation in rural Zambian children: the influence of biological variables.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hautvast, J.L.A.; Tolboom, J.J.M.; Kaftwembe, E.M.; Musonda, R.M.; Mwanakasale, V.; Staveren, W.A. van; Hof, M.A. van 't; Sauerwein, R.W.; Willems, J.L.; Monnens, L.A.H.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of stunting in preschool children in Zambia is high; stunting has detrimental effects on concurrent psychomotor development and later working capacity. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to investigate biological variables that may contribute to linear growth retardation in

  6. Effects of dietary leucine supplementation on the hepatic mitochondrial biogenesis and energy metabolism in normal birth weight and intrauterine growth-retarded weanling piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Weipeng; Xu, Wen; Zhang, Hao; Ying, Zhixiong; Zhou, Le; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Tian

    2017-04-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary leucine supplementation on mitochondrial biogenesis and energy metabolism in the liver of normal birth weight (NBW) and intrauterine growth-retarded (IUGR) weanling piglets. A total of sixteen pairs of NBW and IUGR piglets from sixteen sows were selected according to their birth weight. At postnatal day 14, all piglets were weaned and fed either a control diet or a leucine-supplemented diet for 21 d. Thereafter, a 2 × 2 factorial experimental design was used. Each treatment consisted of eight replications with one piglet per replication. Compared with NBW piglets, IUGR piglets had a decreased ( P supplementation increased ( P supplemented diet exhibited increases ( P supplementation may exert beneficial effects on mitochondrial biogenesis and energy metabolism in NBW and IUGR weanling piglets.

  7. Final height and intrauterine growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauber, Maïthé

    2017-06-01

    Approximately 10% of small for gestational age (SGA) children maintain a small body size throughout childhood and often into adult life with a decreased pubertal spurt. Growth hormone (GH) therapy increases short-term growth in a dose-dependent manner and adult height had now been well documented. Shorter children might benefit from a higher dose at start (50μg/kg/day). The response to GH treatment was similar for both preterm and term short SGA groups and the effect of GH treatment on adult height showed a wide variation in growth response. As a whole, mean adult height is higher than -2 SDS in 60% of patients and 70% reached an adult height in their target height with better results with higher doses and combined GnRH analog therapy in those who were short at onset of puberty. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  8. Distal joint contractures, mental retardation, characteristic face and growth retardation: Chitayat syndrome revisited.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wortmann, S.B.; Rodenburg, R.J.T.; Schwahn, B.; Smeitink, J.A.M.; Morava, E.

    2007-01-01

    We report on a patient with congenital distal limb contractures, characteristic face, prominent metopic sutures, narrow forehead, severe psychomotor and growth retardation, white matter lesions and failure to thrive. The child has many overlapping features with those reported previously by Chitayat.

  9. Risk Factors to Growth Retardation in Major Thalassemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riva Uda

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The increasing in the life span of patients with major thalassemia should be followed by increased quality of life. There are factors which can affect growth retardation in these patients. The aim of this study was to find out the risk factors for growth retardation in patients with major thalassemia. An analytical study with cross-sectional design was conducted at Pediatric Thalassemia Clinics of Dr.Hasan Sadikin Hospital, Bandung, in June to July 2006. The subjects of this study were patients with major thalassemia. Inclusion criteria’s were age under 14 years old, had no chronic diseases like tuberculosis, cerebral palsy with complete medical records. Risk factors were the timing of diagnosis, initial and dose of deferoxamine, volume of transfused blood, mean pretransfusion hemoglobin level, family income, and age. Antropometric measurement indices were used to assess the growth which expressed in Z score. Growth evaluated based on height/age (H/A and growth retardation if H/A <-2 SD. Risk factors for growth retardation were analyzed separately using chi-square test and odds ratio (OR with 95% confidence interval (CI. Then they were analyzed simultaneously with logistic regression method. Subjects consisted of 152 patients with major thalassemia. Seventy three thalassemia patients were stunted. Analysis showed that age (OR: 5.42, 95% CI:2.32–12.65, p <0.001, dosage of deferoxamine (OR: 4.0, 95% CI: 1.29–12.41, p: 0.016, and family income (OR: 2.32, 95% CI: 1.06–5.06, p: 0.036 were risks factors for growth retardation. Conclusion, risk factors for growth retardation in major thalassemia are age, dosage of deferoxamine, and family income.

  10. Fatigue crack growth retardation in spot heated mild steel sheet

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Spot heating; overloading; fatigue crack growth retardation; residual stress; delay cycles. 1. Introduction. Despite the advances in the understanding of fatigue failure and the consequent improvement in the design of structures and components, fatigue is still the most common cause of service failure. During the growth of a.

  11. Developmental exposure to a brominated flame retardant: An assessment of effects on physiology, growth, and reproduction in a songbird, the zebra finch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eng, Margaret L.; Williams, Tony D.; Elliott, John E.

    2013-01-01

    Mixtures of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been widely used as additive flame retardants, and BDE-99 is one of the most predominant congeners found in the environment. BDE-99 has been reported in avian samples worldwide, yet knowledge of its toxicity to birds is minimal. We assessed the short- and long-term effects of nestling exposure to environmentally relevant levels of BDE-99 in a model passerine, the zebra finch. Early exposure to BDE-99 did not affect hematocrit, oxidative stress, or thyroid hormones in either the juvenile or adult stages, and there were no effects on chick growth or survival. BDE-99 exposure caused a dose-dependent delay in timing of reproduction, but there were no other effects on reproductive success. In zebra finches, endpoints related to reproductive behavior appear to be the most sensitive to BDE-99. However, passerines overall appear to be less sensitive than birds of prey or mammals to PBDE exposure. -- Highlights: •We exposed zebra finches nestlings to BDE-99 and raised them to sexual maturity. •Found no effects on physiology, chick growth, survival, or reproductive success. •As BDE-99 dose increased, laying interval increased. •Passerine birds possibly less sensitive to BDE-99 than mammals or other bird species. -- Nestling exposure to BDE-99 affects timing of breeding in zebra finches, but overall passerines appear to be less sensitive to PBDEs than mammals or other bird species

  12. Gitelman′s syndrome: Rare presentation with growth retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Gaur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gitelman′s syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis, hypokalemia, hypomagnesaemia, hypocalciuria, hyperreninemia and without hypertension. Gitelman′s syndrome is caused by mutations of the SLC12A3 gene, which encodes the Na/Cl co-transporter (NCCT in the distal convoluted tubule. Majority of cases manifest during adolescence or adulthood and growth retardation is not the common feature. We report a rare presentation of Gitelman′s syndrome in a four-year-old boy with growth retardation.

  13. Growth Retardation in Children with Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Salas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth failure is almost inextricably linked with chronic kidney disease (CKD and end-stage renal disease (ESRD. Growth failure in CKD has been associated with both increased morbidity and mortality. Growth failure in the setting of kidney disease is multifactorial and is related to poor nutritional status as well as comorbidities, such as anemia, bone and mineral disorders, and alterations in hormonal responses, as well as to aspects of treatment such as steroid exposure. This review covers updated management of growth failure in these children including adequate nutrition, treatment of metabolic alterations, and early administration of recombinant human growth hormone (GH.

  14. Growth Retardation in Children with Kidney Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Salas, Paulina; Pinto, Viola; Rodriguez, Josefina; Zambrano, Maria Jose; Mericq, Veronica

    2013-01-01

    Growth failure is almost inextricably linked with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Growth failure in CKD has been associated with both increased morbidity and mortality. Growth failure in the setting of kidney disease is multifactorial and is related to poor nutritional status as well as comorbidities, such as anemia, bone and mineral disorders, and alterations in hormonal responses, as well as to aspects of treatment such as steroid exposure. This review c...

  15. Retardation of muscle growth in castrated male mice: further ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Retardation of muscle growth in castrated male mice was studied as an evidence for the influence of hormones on the development of muscle mass. Male albino mice were castrated at 28days of age by open castration method. The weights and the muscle mass indices (mg muscle weight per gram body weight) of the ...

  16. Growth patterns in children with intrauterine growth retardation and their correlation to neurocognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattal-Valevski, Aviva; Toledano-Alhadef, Hagit; Leitner, Yael; Geva, Ronny; Eshel, Rina; Harel, Shaul

    2009-07-01

    The relationship between somatic growth and neurocognitive outcome was studied in a cohort of 136 children with intrauterine growth retardation. The children were followed up from birth to 9 to 10 years of age by annual measurements of growth parameters, neurodevelopmental evaluations, and IQ. The rate of catch-up for height between 1 and 2 years of age was significantly higher than the catch-up for weight (P importance for prediction of subsequent neurodevelopmental outcome in children with intrauterine growth retardation.

  17. Morpholine or methylpiperazine and salicylaldimine based heteroleptic square planner platinum (II) complexes: In vitro anticancer study and growth retardation effect on E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Faiz-Ur; Ali, Amjad; Khan, Inam Ullah; Duong, Hong-Quan; Yu, Shang-Bo; Lin, Yue-Jian; Wang, Hui; Li, Zhan-Ting; Zhang, Dan-Wei

    2017-05-05

    Morpholine and methylpiperazine are among the most important structural parts of different drugs including organic chemotherapeutic agents. In the current study we incorporated these entities as co-ligand and a series of structurally related mono- and di-metallic square planner Pt(II) complexes (Pt(II)(salicylaldimine)(morpholine)Cl C1a-C3a, Pt(II)(salicylaldimine) (methylpiperazine)Cl C1b-C3b, di-metallic Pt(II) 2 (bis-salicylaldimine)(morpholine) 2 Cl 2 C4a and Pt(II) 2 (bis-salicylaldimine)(methylpiperazine) 2 Cl 2 C4b were prepared. These complexes were characterized by 1 H, 13 C, 19 F, 2D NOESY NMR, HR ESI-MS and elemental analyses, while structures of C2a, C3a and C4b were determined by single crystal X-ray analysis. All these complexes were studied for their in vitro cytotoxic effect on breast (MCF-7), liver (HepG2) and lung (A549) cancer cell lines. All these complexes showed considerable cytotoxic effect on these tested cancer cell lines comparable to cisplatin. Moreover three complexes C1a, C4a and C1b were studied in details. Time- and dose-dependent study was performed for C1a, C4a and C1b. These complexes induced the expression of p53 that suppresses cancer cell growth. Induction of PUMA gene and repression of MYC oncogene suggested that these complexes targeted different genes to suppress cancer progression. TUNEL assay showed induction of apoptosis and invasion analysis showed reduction in invasion ability of breast cancer cells treated with C1a, C4a or C1b. Importantly, these novel complexes suppressed the expression of EMT and metastasis promoter genes. Similarly these complexes induced autophagy by enhancing the expression of autophagy related genes such as beclin, atg-5 and atg-7. The E. coli growth retardation study showed stronger growth inhibitory effects and subsequently resulted in filamentous morphology of bacterial cells. Gel electrophoresis study proved the interaction of these complexes with DNA. All these analysis revealed anticancer

  18. Obstetric interventions and perinatal asphyxia in growth retarded term infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhoff-Roos, J; Lindmark, G

    1997-01-01

    neonatal outcome at term have been studied in relation to different types of fetal growth retardation, including sub-groups with low ponderal index or low amount of subcutaneous fat. RESULTS: The need for obstetric intervention indicated by suspected fetal asphyxia before or during labor was increased 3......BACKGROUND: The monitoring of fetal growth during pregnancy is usually justified because of the increased perinatal risk of these babies. METHODS: In 1552 infants from the Scandinavian Small for Gestational Age Study the need for obstetric interventions, risk of fetal asphyxia and immediate...

  19. CONTINUOUS MATERNAL HYPEROXYGENATION IN THE TREATMENT OF EARLY FETAL GROWTH-RETARDATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    RIBBERT, LSM; VANLINGEN, RA; VISSER, GHA

    Continuous maternal hyperoxygenation treatment (2.5 l/min by means of a nasopharyngeal cannula) was given in four patients presenting with intrauterine growth-retarded (IUGR) fetuses and decelerative fetal heart rate (FHR) patterns at 27-28 weeks of gestation. The effect of maternal hyperoxia was

  20. Prognosis and risk factors for intrauterine growth retardation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehested, Line Thousig; Pedersen, Pernille

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is the term describing a foetus that has not reached its genetic growth potential. There is no international consensus on the definition of IUGR. The aim of this study was to describe a cohort of weight-restricted neonates and their mothers...... factors and neonatal growth and outcome at six weeks, five months and 12 months of age were collected. RESULTS: A total of 73 neonates and their mothers were included. Caesarean delivery was given in 78% of the cases. Maternal risk factors included gestational hypertension (33%), smoking (24......%) and placental infarction (17%). Hypoglycaemic episodes developed in 31% of the neonates. At 12 months, 90% had caught up growth and 7% had a neurologically poor outcome. No infants died. CONCLUSION: Maternal smoking and gestational hypertension are important risk factors for the development of IUGR. Special...

  1. Growth hormone treatment in growth-retarded adolescents after renal transplant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hokken-Koelega, A. C.; Stijnen, T.; de Ridder, M. A.; de Muinck Keizer-Schrama, S. M.; Wolff, E. D.; de Jong, M. C.; Donckerwolcke, R. A.; Groothoff, J. W.; Blum, W. F.; Drop, S. L.

    1994-01-01

    Growth failure is a psychosocial problem for many patients who have undergone renal transplantation. 18 adolescents (mean age 15.6, range 11.3-19.5) with severe growth retardation after renal transplantation were treated with biosynthetic growth hormone (GH) for 2 years. All received prednisone,

  2. Efecto del retardo prenatal de crecimiento y la subnutrición postnatal en el crecimiento craneofacial / Craneofacial effect of prenatal growth retardation and postnatal undernutrition in craniofacial growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Luna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue analizar en animales con retardo prenatal de crecimiento (RPC el efecto de la subnutrición proteico-calórica lactacional y postlactacional sobre la morfología craneofacial, particularizando en el crecimiento de los componentes funcionales neural y facial. Ratas Wistar fueron divididas en los grupos: Control, RPC (inducido por ligamiento parcial de ambas arterias uterinas el día 15 de gestación y Sham-operado (con igual técnica quirúrgica que RPC aunque sin ligamiento de las arterias. A su vez, el grupo RPC se dividió en: (a crías lactantes de madres con nutrición normal y a partir del destete alimentadas ad-libitum y (b crías lactantes de madres con restricción alimentaria del 25% y a partir del destete alimentadas con el 50% de lo consumido por un animal control. Se tomaron radiografías a las edades 1, 21, 42, 63 y 84 y se midieron longitud, ancho y altura de los componentes neural y facial. Se calcularon los índices volumétricos neural y facial y morfométrico neurofacial. Se aplicaron ANOVA y pruebas post-hoc y se calcularon diferencias porcentuales entre medias. Los resultados permitieron concluir que el estrés primario ocurrido durante la vida intrauterina resulta crítico en lo inmediato y en la vida postnatal, ya que aun mediando normonutrición postnatal el retardo de crecimiento perdura. Además, cuando al estrés prenatal le continúa restricción nutricional postnatal los efectos adversos son aditivos provocando retardo del crecimiento aún mayor. Finalmente, mientras que el componente neural es más resistente a las deficiencias nutricionales, el facial presenta mayor plasticidad, hecho que se evidencia en cambios de forma. Palabras clave: crecimiento craneofacial; desnutrición pre y postnatal; craneometría funcional    The aim of the study was to analyze the effect of protein-calorie malnutrition during lactation and post-lactation on craniofacial morphology in intrauterine growth-retarded (IUGR

  3. Nocturnal growth hormone and gonadotrophin secretion in growth retarded children with Crohn's disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Farthing, M J; Campbell, C A; Walker-Smith, J; Edwards, C R; Rees, L H; Dawson, A M

    1981-01-01

    Although impaired growth hormone secretion in response to pharmacological stimuli occurs in some growth retarded children with Crohn's disease, its relationship to past and future th is uncertain. We have therefore determined the growth hormone and gonadotrophin response to the physiological stimulus of sleep by continuous venous sampling in five severely gonadotrophin profiles, the mean plasma hormone concentrations during the first five hours of sleep were determined. In three of the five p...

  4. Epiphyseal growth plate growth hormone receptor signaling is decreased in chronic kidney disease-related growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troib, Ariel; Landau, Daniel; Kachko, Leonid; Rabkin, Ralph; Segev, Yael

    2013-11-01

    Linear growth retardation in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been ascribed to insensitivity to growth hormone. This resistance state has been attributed to impaired growth hormone signaling through the JAK2/STAT5 pathway in liver and skeletal muscle leading to reduced insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). Here we determine whether systemic and growth plate alterations in growth hormone signaling contribute to CKD-induced linear growth retardation using partially nephrectomized and pair-fed control 20-day-old rats. Serum growth hormone did not change in rats with CKD, yet serum IGF-I levels were decreased and growth retarded. The tibial growth plate hypertrophic zone was wider and vascularization at the primary ossification center was reduced in CKD. This was associated with a decrease in growth plate vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA and immunostainable VEGF and IGF-I levels. Growth plate growth hormone receptor and STAT5 protein levels were unchanged, while JAK2 was reduced. Despite comparable growth hormone and growth hormone receptor levels in CKD and control rats, relative STAT5 phosphorylation was significantly depressed in CKD. Of note, the mRNA of SOCS2, an inhibitor of growth hormone signaling, was increased. Thus, linear growth impairment in CKD can in part be explained by impaired long bone growth plate growth hormone receptor signaling through the JAK2/STAT5 pathway, an abnormality that may be caused by an increase in SOCS2 expression.

  5. Growth retardants in wheat and its effect in physiological quality of seeds Redutores de crescimento em plantas de trigo e seus efeitos na qualidade fisiológica de sementes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Torres de Souza

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Plant lodging in wheat has been controlled through growth retardants. However, there is lack of information on the effect of these products on the physiological quality of seeds. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physiological quality of wheat seeds obtained under different rates and application times of three growth retardants. The trial was carried out in Viçosa-MG, from May to September 2005, in a factorial and hierarchical scheme, in randomized block design with four replications and a control treatment. The treatments consisted of 500, 1000 and 1500g ha-1 of chlormequat; 40, 80 and 120g ha-1 of paclobutrazol and 62.5, 125 and 187.5g ha-1 of trinexapac-ethyl applied at the 6 or 8 growth stage based on the scale of Feeks and Large, and a control treatment without growth retardant application. Leaf application of growth retardants as chlormequat, paclobutrazol and trinexapac-ethyl did not affect the germination and vigor of wheat seeds.O acamamento de plantas na cultura do trigo tem sido controlado com o uso de redutores de crescimento. No entanto, há carência de informações sobre o efeito desses produtos na qualidade fisiológica de sementes. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a qualidade fisiológica das sementes de trigo obtidas sob efeito de doses e épocas de aplicação de três redutores de crescimento. O experimento, conduzido em Viçosa, Minas Gerais, entre maio e setembro de 2005, foi instalado com tratamentos em esquema fatorial e hierárquico com uma testemunha, no delineamento em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram 500, 1000 e 1500g ha-1 de clormequat; 40, 80 e 120g ha-1 de paclobutrazol e 62,5, 125 e 187,5g ha-1 de trinexapac-etil aplicados no estádio 6 ou 8 da escala Feeks e Large, mais uma testemunha sem aplicação de redutor. A aplicação foliar dos redutores de crescimento clormequat, paclobutrazol e trinexapac-etil não afeta a germinação e o vigor das sementes de trigo.

  6. School performance and behaviour in extremely preterm growth-retarded infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaap, A. H.; Wolf, H.; Bruinse, H. W.; Smolders-de Haas, H.; van Ertbruggen, I.; Treffers, P. E.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe school performance and behaviour of extremely preterm, growth-retarded infants. DESIGN: Cohort study at two tertiary care centres. Included were all surviving, singleton infants (N= 127) with fetal growth retardation due to placental insufficiency. All were delivered by

  7. Renal artery pulsatility index and renal volume: Normal fetuses versus growth-retarded fetuses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyung Soon; Woo, Bock Hi

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the blood flow velocity waveform of the renal artery and renal volume of growth-retarded fetuses and to compare them with those of normal fetuses. Pulsatility index of the renal artery and renal volume measured by three-dimensional ultrasonography were obtained from seventy eight normal fetuses at the gestational age from twenty five to thirty nine weeks and eighteen intrauterine growth retarded fetuses whose weight was below ten percentile at birth. We studied changes of the pulsatility index of the renal artery and renal volume according to the gestational age and compared with those of growth-retarded fetuses. Pulsatility index (PI) of the fetal renal artery decreased throughout the gestational period (r=0.703, p<0.0001). In growth-retarded fetuses, despite of abnormal doppler velocity waveform of the middle cerebral artery, which was showing fetal hypoxia, the renal PI was not increased significantly. The fetal renal volume increased throughout the gestational period (r=0.834, p<0.0001) whereas in growth-retarded fetuses, all renal volume was below fifth percentile of normal fetuses. In growth-retarded fetuses, fetal renal volume was decreased significantly without change of the renal vascular flow. Therefore, the fetal renal volume measured by three-dimensional ultrasonography may be a helpful parameter in the diagnosis of growth-retarded fetuses.

  8. Influence of Plant Growth Retardants on Quality of Codonopsis Radix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinyin Liao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth retardant (PGR refers to organics that can inhibit the cell division of plant stem tip sub-apical meristem cells or primordial meristem cell. They are widely used in the cultivation of rhizomatous functional plants; such as Codonopsis Radix, that is a famous Chinese traditional herb. However, it is still unclear whether PGR affects the medicinal quality of C. Radix. In the present study, amino acid analyses, targeted and non-targeted analyses by ultra-performance liquid chromatography combined with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-TOF-MS and gas chromatography-MS were used to analyze and compare the composition of untreated C. Radix and C. Radix treated with PGR. The contents of two key bioactive compounds, lobetyolin and atractylenolide III, were not affected by PGR treatment. The amounts of polysaccharides and some internal volatiles were significantly decreased by PGR treatment; while the free amino acids content was generally increased. Fifteen metabolites whose abundance were affected by PGR treatment were identified by UPLC-TOF-MS. Five of the up-regulated compounds have been reported to show immune activity, which might contribute to the healing efficacy (“buqi” of C. Radix. The results of this study showed that treatment of C. Radix with PGR during cultivation has economic benefits and affected some main bioactive compounds in C. Radix.

  9. Chromosomal aberrations as etiological factors of intrauterine growth retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Bojana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR is a pathological condition of pregnancy characterised by birth weight below the 10th centile. A number of fetal, placental and maternal causes can lead to IUGR; although, in most cases no specific causes can be identified. The aim of this study was to determine the part of chromosomal abnormalities in IUGR etiology. Methods. Fetal blood karyotype taken by cordocentesis from 168 fetuses with diagnosed IUGR was analyzed. Results. Chromosomal rearrangements both numerical and structural were detected in 14 cases (12.2%. Two cases were triploid. Patau syndrome, Edwards syndrome and Down syndrome were found in two cases each. There was one case of trisomy 7 (47, XY, +7 and one case of trisomy 16 (47, XX, +16; one translocation, 46, XY, t (2; 14(q23; q32 and a deletion 46, XYdel (12 (p12 as well as two cases of sex chromosomes abnormalities, 45, X (Turner syndrome and 47, XYY. Conclusion. These findings suggest that a consistent number of symmetrical IUGR cases (about 12% can be associated with chromosomal rearrangements. Chromosomal aberrations that cause IUGR are heterogeneous, aberration of autosomes, mostly autosomal trisomies, being the most common.

  10. Neonatal cardiovascular system adaptation in babies with intrauterine growth retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Petrova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to reveal the adaptive features of the cardiovascular system in newborn infants with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR on the basis of a clinical instrumental study.Subjects and methods. A study group included 100 newborn infants with IUGR; a control group consisted of 40 babies with normal anthropometric measurements at birth. Medical history and clinical data and electrocardiographic and echocardiographic findings were analyzed.Results. All the examinees with IUGR had manifestations of cardiovascular system dysadaptation. There was a high rate of electrocardiographic changes, such as cardiac arrhythmias; low voltage; systolic overload of the right heart and left ventricle; signs of ventricular hypertrophy; and transient myocardial ischemia. The specific features of cardiac hemodynamics were decreased sizes of the left ventricle, lower parameters of its systolic function, and longer functioning of fetal communications.Conclusion. IUGR is associated with the development of cardiovascular system dysadaptation syndrome, which is due to prior perinatal hypoxia. The findings necessitate a follow-up of children by involving a cardiologist.

  11. Retarded distances and the Doppler effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1992-01-01

    A relativistic transformation of the retarded distance is presented. Arguments of general nature in favour of the concept of the relativistic (radar) length leading to this formula are presented. 10 refs

  12. Global transcriptome profiles of Italian Mediterranean buffalo embryos with normal and retarded growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Strazzullo

    Full Text Available The transcriptome profiles were compared for buffalo embryos with normal growth and embryos with retarded growth on Day 25 after mating. Embryos with retarded growth on Day 25 after mating have a reduced likelihood of undergoing attachment to the uterine endometrium and establishing a pregnancy. Italian Mediterranean buffaloes were mated by AI and on Day 25 underwent trans-rectal ultrasonography to ascertain embryo development. Embryos with an embryonic width (EW>2.7 mm were classed as normal embryos and embryos with an EW<2.7 mm were classed as retarded embryos. Three buffaloes with embryos of the largest EW (3.7, 3.7 and 3.9 mm and three buffaloes with embryos of the smallest EW (1.5, 1.6 and 1.9 mm were slaughtered on Day 27 to recover embryos for transcriptome analysis using a bovine custom designed oligo array. A total of 1,047 transcripts were differentially expressed between embryos with normal growth and embryos with retarded growth. Retarded embryos showed 773/1,047 (74% transcripts that were down-regulated and 274/1,047 (26% transcripts that were up-regulated relative to normal embryos; in silico analyses focused on 680/1,047 (65% of the differentially expressed transcripts. The most altered transcripts observed in retarded embryos were associated with membrane structure and function and with metabolic and homeostasis maintenance functions. Other notable functions altered in retarded embryos were developmental processes and in particular nervous system differentiation and function. Specific biochemical pathways such as the complement cascade and coagulation were also altered in retarded embryos. It was concluded from the findings that buffalo embryos with retarded growth on Day 25 after mating show altered gene expression compared with normal embryos, and some de-regulated functions are associated with attachment to the uterine endometrium.

  13. Rates of nitrogen and growth retardant trinexapac-ethyl on wheat.

    OpenAIRE

    ESPINDULA, M. C.; ROCHA, V. S.; SOUZA, L. T. de.; SOUZA, M. A. de.; CAMPANHARO, M.; GROSSI, J. A. S.

    2011-01-01

    The objective in this study was to evaluate the effects of nitrogen rates in association with rates of the growth retardant trinexapac-ethyl on wheat. The experiment was conducted in Viçosa, MG and arranged in a 5×4 factorial, randomized block design, with four repetitions. A combination of five nitrogen rates (30, 60, 90, 120 and 150kg ha-1) with four rates of trinexapac-ethyl (0, 62.5, 125 and 187.5g ha-1) were tested. Trinexapac-ethyl promotes reduction of soot dry mass and grain yie...

  14. Prediction of fatigue crack growth and experimental result on overload retardation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, K.; Kawamura, T.; Hashimoto, M.

    1980-01-01

    The phenomena of crack growth retardation are frequently observed under variable amplitude or irregular loading fatigue tests. This paper describes a prediction method on crack growth retardation caused by an overload during fatigue loads. The prediction reported in this paper is performed by the following procedure using the yield strength and da/dN vs. ΔK relationship of the material. 1) Determination of the residual stress distribution caused by cyclic load and overload based on the Dugdale model. 2) Determination of the effective residual stress intensity factor and effective stress intensity range (ΔKsub(eff.)). 3) Prediction of the crack growth rate using ΔKsub(eff) and da/dN vs. ΔK relationship of the material. From the viewpoint to apply the prediction to a structural component, experiments have been carried out on steel pipes with an axial through thickness crack, which are subject to an overpressure during cyclic pressure. In the paper, the experimental results are compared with the prediction. (orig.)

  15. Disturbances in Maternal Steroidogenesis and Appearance of Intrauterine Growth Retardation at High-Altitude Environments Are Established from Early Pregnancy. Effects of Treatment with Antioxidant Vitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parraguez, Victor H; Mamani, Sandra; Cofré, Eileen; Castellaro, Giorgio; Urquieta, Bessie; De Los Reyes, Mónica; Astiz, Susana; Gonzalez-Bulnes, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancies at high-altitudes are influenced by hypoxia and oxidative stress and frequently affected by IUGR. However, a common thought is that early pregnant women visiting altitude have no major complications for gestation development, since IUGR is developed during the second half of pregnancy. Thus, using a well-characterized sheep-model, we aimed to determine whether long- and/or short-term exposure to high-altitude may affect maternal steroidogenesis and therefore embryo-fetal growth from conception. The second aim was to differentiate the relative role of hypoxia and oxidative stress by assessing the effects of supplementation with antioxidant agents during this early-pregnancy stage, which were previously found to be useful to prevent IUGR. The results indicate that both long- and short-term exposure to high-altitude causes disturbances in maternal ovarian steroidogenesis and negatively affects embryo-fetal growth already during the very early stages of gestation, with the consequences being even worsened in newcomers to high-altitude. The supply of antioxidant during this period only showed discrete effects for preventing IUGR. In conclusion, the present study gives a warning for clinicians about the risks for early-pregnant women when visiting high-altitude regions and suggests the need for further studies on the effects of the length of exposure and on the interaction of the exposure with the pregnancy stage.

  16. Disturbances in Maternal Steroidogenesis and Appearance of Intrauterine Growth Retardation at High-Altitude Environments Are Established from Early Pregnancy. Effects of Treatment with Antioxidant Vitamins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parraguez, Victor H.; Mamani, Sandra; Cofré, Eileen; Castellaro, Giorgio; Urquieta, Bessie; De los Reyes, Mónica; Astiz, Susana; Gonzalez-Bulnes, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancies at high-altitudes are influenced by hypoxia and oxidative stress and frequently affected by IUGR. However, a common thought is that early pregnant women visiting altitude have no major complications for gestation development, since IUGR is developed during the second half of pregnancy. Thus, using a well-characterized sheep-model, we aimed to determine whether long- and/or short-term exposure to high-altitude may affect maternal steroidogenesis and therefore embryo-fetal growth from conception. The second aim was to differentiate the relative role of hypoxia and oxidative stress by assessing the effects of supplementation with antioxidant agents during this early-pregnancy stage, which were previously found to be useful to prevent IUGR. The results indicate that both long- and short-term exposure to high-altitude causes disturbances in maternal ovarian steroidogenesis and negatively affects embryo-fetal growth already during the very early stages of gestation, with the consequences being even worsened in newcomers to high-altitude. The supply of antioxidant during this period only showed discrete effects for preventing IUGR. In conclusion, the present study gives a warning for clinicians about the risks for early-pregnant women when visiting high-altitude regions and suggests the need for further studies on the effects of the length of exposure and on the interaction of the exposure with the pregnancy stage. PMID:26560325

  17. Amplitude of pubertal growth in short stature children with intrauterine growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lienhardt, Anne; Carel, Jean-Claude; Preux, Pierre-Marie; Coutant, Régis; Chaussain, Jean-Louis

    2002-01-01

    Pubertal growth contributes to 15-18% of adult height. A blunted pubertal peak could contribute to short adult height in short children born with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). Pubertal growth, from onset of puberty to final height, was investigated in 75 short IUGR children: 47 were treated with recombinant human growth hormone (GH) (tx) before pubertal onset (mean dose: 0.4 IU/kg/week); 28 were not treated (no-tx). They were compared with 98 normal children. Puberty occurred later in IUGR children than in controls (boys 14.2 +/- 1 years vs. 12.1 +/- 0.8 years; girls 12 +/- 1 years vs. 11.2 +/- 0.8 years; p pubertal spurt, a finding that should be further evaluated in clinical trials. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  18. Alterations of fasting glucose and fat metabolism in intrauterine growth-retarded newborn dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliegman, R M

    1989-03-01

    Maternal nutritional deprivation resulted in reduced fetal weight at term gestation (251 +/- 7 vs. 277 +/- 7 g, P less than 0.01) in newborn dogs. Growth-retarded pups developed lower blood glucose levels after 3, 6, and 9 h of neonatal fasting, reduced plasma levels of free fatty acids (FFA) at 9 and 24 h, and lower ketone bodies at 24 h compared with age-matched newborn control pups. Systemic rates of palmitate and alanine turnover were not affected, but systemic glucose turnover was reduced for 3-9 h after birth. The rate of alanine incorporation into glucose from 3 to 9 h was also reduced in growth-retarded pups compared with timed controls. Paradoxically, the rate of incorporation of palmitate into triglycerides was augmented in the smaller growth-retarded pups. Hepatic glycogen content was reduced at every time in the study among growth-retarded pups, whereas the rates of glycogenolysis between birth and 24 h were equivalent in the two pup groups. In contrast, hepatic triglyceride levels were augmented throughout the study in pups with growth retardation. Maternal starvation and lower glucose levels resulted in a lower hepatic energy charge, and augmented cytoplasmic and mitochondrial NAD-to-NADH ratios in intrauterine growth-retarded pups. These data suggest that intrauterine growth retardation in dogs results in fasting neonatal hypoglycemia that is due in part to reduced systemic glucose production. We speculate that reduced rates of gluconeogenesis from alanine and reduced oxidation of alternate fuels such as FFA contribute to hypoglycemia. FFA recycling to triglyceride synthesis rather than oxidative pathways may contribute to the observed reduction of circulating glucose levels.

  19. Growth retardation of paramecium and mouse cells by shielding them from background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawanishi, Masanobu; Okuyama, Katsuyuki; Shiraishi, Kazunori; Matsuda, Yatsuka; Taniguchi, Ryoichi; Shiomi, Nobuyuki; Yonezawa, Morio; Yagi, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    In the 1970s and 1980s, Planel et al. reported that the growth of paramecia was decreased by shielding them from background radiation. In the 1990s, Takizawa et al. found that mouse cells displayed a decreased growth rate under shielded conditions. The purpose of the present study was to confirm that growth is impaired in organisms that have been shielded from background radiation. Radioprotection was produced with a shielding chamber surrounded by a 15 cm thick iron wall and a 10 cm thick paraffin wall that reduced the γ ray and neutron levels in the chamber to 2% and 25% of the background levels, respectively. Although the growth of Paramecium tetraurelia was not impaired by short-term radioprotection (around 10 days), which disagreed with the findings of Planel et al., decreased growth was observed after long-term (40-50 days) radiation shielding. When mouse lymphoma L5178Y cells were incubated inside or outside of the shielding chamber for 7 days, the number of cells present on the 6th and 7th days under the shielding conditions was significantly lower than that present under the non-shielding conditions. These inhibitory effects on cell growth were abrogated by the addition of a 137 Cs γ-ray source disk to the chamber. Furthermore, no growth retardation was observed in XRCC4-deficient mouse M10 cells, which display impaired DNA double strand break repair. (author)

  20. A randomized controlled trial of three years growth hormone and gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist treatment in children with idiopathic short stature and intrauterine growth retardation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.A. Kamp; D. Mul (Dick); J.J.J. Waelkens (Johan); M. Jansen (Maarten); H.A. Delemarre-van de Waal (Henriette); L. Verhoeven-Wind; M. Frölich (Marijke); W. Oostdijk (Wilma); J.M. Wit (Jan)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractWe assessed the effectiveness and safety of 3 yr combined GH and GnRH agonist (GnRHa) treatment in a randomized controlled study in children with idiopathic short stature (ISS) or intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). Gonadal suppression, GH reserve, and

  1. Comparison between Urinary Oestrogen Assay and Serial Ultrasonic Cephalometry in Assessment of Fetal Growth Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Stuart; Kurjak, Asim

    1972-01-01

    Urinary oestrogen assay and serial ultrasonic cephalometry were performed on 284 patients who were considered on clinical grounds to be at risk of having a growth-retarded fetus. It was found that ultrasonic cephalometry was significantly better than oestrogens in diagnosing the small-for-dates baby, but that there was no significant difference between the two methods in predicting perinatal asphyxia. Of the 14 stillbirths, three were in the normal ultrasonic growth rate group and five had normal oestrogen excretion. Both methods were found to be of value in the diagnosis of fetal growth-retardation, although cephalometry would seem to have some advantages, especially in distinguishing between fetal growth-retardation and mistaken maturity. PMID:4673993

  2. Highly accurate spectral retardance characterization of a liquid crystal retarder including Fabry-Perot interference effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, Asticio [Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad de La Frontera, Temuco (Chile); Center for Optics and Photonics, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 4016, Concepción (Chile); Mar Sánchez-López, María del [Instituto de Bioingeniería, Universidad Miguel Hernández, 03202 Elche (Spain); García-Martínez, Pascuala [Departament d' Òptica, Universitat de València, 45100 Burjassot (Spain); Arias, Julia; Moreno, Ignacio [Departamento de Ciencia de Materiales, Óptica y Tecnología Electrónica, Universidad Miguel Hernández, 03202 Elche (Spain)

    2014-01-21

    Multiple-beam Fabry-Perot (FP) interferences occur in liquid crystal retarders (LCR) devoid of an antireflective coating. In this work, a highly accurate method to obtain the spectral retardance of such devices is presented. On the basis of a simple model of the LCR that includes FP effects and by using a voltage transfer function, we show how the FP features in the transmission spectrum can be used to accurately retrieve the ordinary and extraordinary spectral phase delays, and the voltage dependence of the latter. As a consequence, the modulation characteristics of the device are fully determined with high accuracy by means of a few off-state physical parameters which are wavelength-dependent, and a single voltage transfer function that is valid within the spectral range of characterization.

  3. Language development in preschool children born after asymmetrical intrauterine growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simić Klarić, Andrea; Kolundžić, Zdravko; Galić, Slavka; Mejaški Bošnjak, Vlatka

    2012-03-01

    After intrauterine growth retardation, many minor neurodevelopmental disorders may occur, especially in the motor skills domain, language and speech development, and cognitive functions. The assessment of language development and impact of postnatal head growth in preschool children born with asymmetrical intrauterine growth retardation. Examinees were born at term with birth weight below the 10th percentile for gestational age, parity and gender. Mean age at the time of study was six years and four months. The control group was matched according to chronological and gestational age, gender and maternal education with mean age six years and five months. There were 50 children with intrauterine growth retardation and 50 controls, 28 girls and 22 boys in each group. For the assessment of language development Reynell Developmental Language Scale, the Naming test and Mottier test were performed. There were statistically significant differences (p language comprehension, total expressive language (vocabulary, structure, content), naming skills and non-words repetition. Statistically significant positive correlations were found between relative growth of the head [(Actual head circumference - head circumference at birth)/(Body weight - birth weight)] and language outcome. Children with neonatal complications had lower results (p language comprehension and total expressive language. Intrauterine growth retardation has a negative impact on language development which is evident in preschool years. Slow postnatal head growth is correlated with poorer language outcome. Neonatal complications were negatively correlated with language comprehension and total expressive language. Copyright © 2011 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The influence of growth retardants and cytokinins on flowering of ornamental plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Pobudkiewicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Growth retardants are applied in order to obtain short and well compact plants. They usually inhibit stem elongation, but also can influence the flowering of plants. The aim of cytokinin application is to obtain well branched plants without removing the apical meristem. Cytokinins usually increase the number of axillary shoots but also can influence flowering. Growth retardants and cytokinins can affect flower size, pedicel length, number of flowers, flower longevity, abortion of flower buds and number of days from potting plants to the first open flower. Flowering of growth retardant and cytokinin treated plants might depend on the method of growth regulator used (foliar spray or soil drench, plant species or even a plant cultivar, but in the highest degree it depends on the growth regulator rate used. These growth regulators, when are applied at rates appropriate for height and habit control, very seldom influence flowering of ornamental plants, but applied at high rates can delay flowering, diminish flower diameter or flower pedicel length and also can decrease the number of flowers per plant. In cultivation of bulb plants, growth retardants, used at very high rates, also cause abortion of flower buds.

  5. Endurance exercise and growth hormone improve bone formation in young and growth-retarded chronic kidney disease rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troib, Ariel; Guterman, Mayan; Rabkin, Ralph; Landau, Daniel; Segev, Yael

    2016-08-01

    Childhood chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with both short stature and abnormal bone mineralization. Normal longitudinal growth depends on proper maturation of epiphyseal growth plate (EGP) chondrocytes, leading to the formation of trabecular bone in the primary ossification centre. We have recently shown that linear growth impairment in CKD is associated with impaired EGP growth hormone (GH) receptor signalling and that exercise improved insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) signalling in CKD-related muscle atrophy. In this study, 20-day-old rats underwent 5/6 nephrectomy (CKD) or sham surgery (C) and were exercised with treadmill, with or without GH supplementation. CKD-related growth retardation was associated with a widened EGP hypertrophic zone. This was not fully corrected by exercise (except for tibial length). Exercise in CKD improved the expression of EGP key factors of endochondral ossification such as IGF-I, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) and osteocalcin. Combining GH treatment with treadmill exercise for 2 weeks improved the decreased trabecular bone volume in CKD, as well as the expression of growth plate runt-related transcription factor 2, RANKL, metalloproteinase 13 and VEGF, while GH treatment alone could not do that. Treadmill exercise improves tibial bone linear growth, as well as growth plate local IGF-I. When combined with GH treatment, running exercise shows beneficial effects on trabecular bone formation, suggesting the potential benefit of this combination for CKD-related short stature and bone disease. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  6. Growth retardation and functional disability in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeed, S.; Zammurrad, S.; Rasheed, U.

    2017-01-01

    To determine the frequency of growth retardation and functional disability in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Methods: This descriptive cross sectional study was carried out at the Department of Rheumatology, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad from March 2016 to December 2016. 92 patients with JIA were included in the study. Height and weight of each patient was recorded and BMI calculated. Functional Disability was determined by calculating the CHAQ Score, while disease activity was estimated through JADAS 27 score. Growth Retardation was defined as height, weight and/or BMI below the 3rd centile according to the CDC growth charts. A cut off of ?1 for CHAQ Score was used to define severe functional disability. Results: Out of 92 patients, there were 47 male (51.1%) and 45 (48.9%) females. Height, weight and BMI below 3rd centile was observed in 30(32.6%), 49(53.3%) and 41(44.6%) patients, respectively. The overall frequency of growth retardation was 64.1% (n=59) and severe functional disability (CHAQ Score ?1) was seen in 32.6% (n=30) of patients. Conclusions: Growth retardation was seen in more than half of patients with JIA and a significant proportion had severe functional disability. Severe functional disability was seen only in patients with active disease. (author)

  7. INTRAUTERINE GROWTH RETARDATION AND ITS IMPACT ON CHILDREN'S HEALTH IN LATER LIFE. THE POSSIBILITY OF NUTRITIONAL SUPPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Belousova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The sources of development, homeostasis and metabolism habits, long-term effects on the health of infants delivered with intrauterine growth retardation are considered. Principals and aspects of nutrition choice for these particular infants as well as some controversial aspects on this topic are discussed. Research data represents nutrition of newborns and up to 3 months infants, including those with the IGR and moderate postnatal inanition, fed with goat milk based formula, containing pre- and probiotics. 

  8. Psychological Effects on the Family of a Mentally Retarded Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Dorothy S.

    The paper discusses the birth of a mentally retarded infant in terms of initial parent reactions, adjustment, decision to institutionalize, psychological effect on the mother, psychological effect on the father, impact on the marriage, and impact on siblings. The birth is a traumatic experience for the parents and can result in initial feelings of…

  9. Characterization of community structure of culturable endophytic fungi in sweet cherry composite trees and their growth-retarding effect against pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddadderafshi, Neda; Pósa, Tímea Borbála; Péter, Gábor; Gáspár, László; Ladányi, Márta; Hrotkó, Károly; Lukács, Noémi; Halász, Krisztián

    2016-09-01

    Endophytic fungi have the potential to protect their host plants in stress situations. Characterizing the ecology and complex interaction between these endophytes and their host plants is therefore of great practical importance, particularly in horticultural plants. Among horticultural plants, fruit trees form a special category because of their longevity and because they are composites of rootstock and scion, which often belong to different plant species. Here we present the first characterization of culturable endophytic fungal community of sweet cherry. Samples from the Hungarian cultivar 'Petrus' grafted on 11 different rootstocks were collected in autumn and in spring in a bearing orchard and the dependence of colonization rate and endophyte diversity on rootstock, organ and season was analysed. On the basis of their ITS sequences 26 fungal operational taxonomic units were identified at least down to the genus level. The dominant genus, comprising more than 50% of all isolates, was Alternaria, followed by different Fusarium and Epicoccum species. We observed some organ-specificity amongst endophytes, and organs showed more sizeable differences in colonization rates and endophyte diversity than rootstocks. Most dynamic endophyte populations, strongly influenced by environmental conditions and crop management, were observed in leaves. The potential of selected endophytes to confer protection against Monilinia laxa was also analysed and 7 isolates were found to inhibit the growth of this pathogen in vitro.

  10. An autosomal recessive disorder with retardation of growth, mental deficiency, ptosis, pectus excavatum and camptodactyly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaldi, F.; Bennaceur, B.; Hammou, A.; Hamza, M.; Gharbi, H.A.

    1988-01-01

    Two strikingly similar brothers issued from consanguineous parents in the second degree present the following patterns of anomalies: Retardation of growth, mental deficiency, ocular abnormalities, pectus excavatum and camptodactyly. The ocular abnormalities include ptosis, microphthalmia and hypertelorism. No endocrine or metabolic aberrations are found. The authors conclude that the disorder has probably an autosomal recessive mode of transmission. (orig.)

  11. Cardiac and extra-cardiac flow velocity waveforms in the growth-retarded human fetus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.A.L. Groenenberg (Irene)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractThe central theme in this thesis is the documentation of Doppler flow velocity waveforms in a number of cardiac and extra-cardiac arterial vessels with emphasis on changes in the flow velocity waveforms relative to intrauterine growth retardation and fetal and neonatal condition. The

  12. [Definitions: small for gestational age and intrauterine growth retardation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ego, A

    2013-12-01

    Screening for intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a major component of antenatal care, but the debate about the choice of birthweight standards is longstanding. The objective of this first chapter is to provide guidelines about optimal definition of IUGR. Literature review about available birthweight curves to define IUGR, including the analysis of their diagnosis accuracy and their relevance to identify babies at risk of poor perinatal outcomes. Intrauterine growth curves are more suitable for "normal" growth modeling than birth weight curves, and fetal growth is influenced by individual characteristics, fetal gender being the most important among them (EL2). Infants with a low birth weight are either constitutionally small babies or babies with pathological fetal growth failure. Use of "SGA" for all Small for Gestational Age infants is now recommended, "IUGR" being appropriate only for infants with pathological growth restriction (Professional consensus). Depending on reference curves, identified SGA babies and pregnancy outcomes may be different. Customized birth weight standards are based on an intrauterine growth modeling adjusted for fetal gender, maternal height, weight and parity, and appear to be the most accurate to identify SGA births at risk (EL3). However, their benefit on perinatal morbidity and mortality has not been demonstrated by prospective studies. Benefits and drawbacks of customized birth weight curves seem in favor of their use. Their application in ante and postnatal investigations is a real opportunity to standardize clinical practice and make information provided to parents more consistent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Umbilical vessel wall fatty acids after normal and retarded fetal growth.

    OpenAIRE

    Felton, C V; Chang, T C; Crook, D; Marsh, M; Robson, S C; Spencer, J A

    1994-01-01

    In a prospective observational study, the fatty acid content of human umbilical artery and vein wall phospholipids was determined in fetuses classified according to their change in abdominal circumference during the third trimester. Three groups were identified: appropriate for gestational age (AGA; 24 infants) and small for gestational age (SGA; 38 infants) with normal antenatal growth rate, and SGA with fetal growth retardation (22 infants). The venous linoleic acid (18:2 omega 6) content (...

  14. Growth Retardation of Chick Embryo Exposed to a Low Dose of Electromagnetic Waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqi, N.; Norrish, M.; Heming, T.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The objectives of this study were to explore the effects of low dose of the non-ionizing (REW) emitted by a mobile phone on the development of chick embryo. Methods: one hundred and twenty chick fertilized eggs were equally divided into a control and an exposed group. Sixty fertilized eggs were placed in an egg incubator with a mobile phone (SAR US: 1.10W/kg (head) 0.47 W/kg body) in silent mode having vibration disable mode. Mobile was called for a total of 20 minutes in 24 hours. Twenty embryos each were sacrificed at day 5, 10 and 15, mortality, wet body weight, head to rump length, eye diameter and morphological changes were noted. The control group, 60 eggs were incubated in the same conditions, having removed the phone. Results: No mortality was noted. The experimental group exposed to REW showed subcutaneous haemorrhagic areas and significant growth retardation at day 10 as evidence by smaller eye diameter, wet weight and CR length than the control group. There were no significant growth differences at either day 5 or at day 15. Conclusion: Electromagnetic waves emitted from mobile phones even though for a very short duration of 20 minutes per day have affected the growth of the chick embryo at day 10 of incubation, Hence exposure of these waves are not 100 percent safe. (author)

  15. by recycled subirrigational supply of plant growth retardants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... seeds were sawed in 288-cell plug tray and subirrigated with nutrient solution mixed by six different concentrations of paclo- butrazol or uniconazole. After five ... of recirculation and used to culture the radish plants. After five days, the length of hypocotyle was measured and compared to the standard growth ...

  16. Prognosis and risk factors for intrauterine growth retardation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehested, Line Thousig; Pedersen, Pernille

    2014-01-01

    focusing on risk factors, catch up and neonatal outcome. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a retrospective descriptive study of IUGR neonates with a birth weight below 70% of the expected whose mothers were admitted to the Neonatal Ward at Hvidovre Hospital during 2007-2009. Obstetrical and maternal risk...... factors and neonatal growth and outcome at six weeks, five months and 12 months of age were collected. RESULTS: A total of 73 neonates and their mothers were included. Caesarean delivery was given in 78% of the cases. Maternal risk factors included gestational hypertension (33%), smoking (24......%) and placental infarction (17%). Hypoglycaemic episodes developed in 31% of the neonates. At 12 months, 90% had caught up growth and 7% had a neurologically poor outcome. No infants died. CONCLUSION: Maternal smoking and gestational hypertension are important risk factors for the development of IUGR. Special...

  17. Changes in GH/IGF-1 axis in intrauterine growth retardation: consequences of fetal programming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, S; Sridhar, M G

    2009-11-01

    Fetal growth is a complex process that depends on the genotype and epigenotype of the fetus, maternal nutrition, the availability of nutrients and oxygen to the fetus, intrauterine insults, and a variety of growth factors and proteins of maternal and fetal/placental origin. In the fetus, growth hormone (GH) plays little or no role in regulating fetal growth, and insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) control growth directly independent of fetal GH secretion. Placental growth hormone (PGH) is the prime regulator of maternal serum IGF-1 during pregnancy. Total as well as free PGH and IGFs are significantly lower in pregnancies with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). The GH/IGF axis is significantly affected by intrauterine growth retardation and some of these alterations may lead to permanent pathological programming of the IGF axis. Alterations in the IGF axis may play a role in the future occurrence of insulin resistance and hypertension. In this review we focus on the regulation of fetal growth and the role of fetal programming in the late consequences of a poor fetal environment reflected in IUGR.

  18. Growth retardation in artistic compared with rhythmic elite female gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgopoulos, Neoklis A; Markou, Kostas B; Theodoropoulou, Anastasia; Benardot, Dan; Leglise, Michel; Vagenakis, Apostolos G

    2002-07-01

    We studied 129 female rhythmic gymnasts (RG) and 142 female artistic gymnasts (AG) who participated in the 1999 Gymnastics World Championship for RG in Osaka, Japan, and the 1999 and 2001 Gymnastics World Championships for AG in Tianjin, China (n = 48), and Ghent, Belgium (n = 94), respectively. RG were taller than average, with a mean height SD score above the 50th percentile, whereas AG were relatively short, with a mean height SD score below the 50th percentile. Both RG and AG followed their respective reported target height SD score, which was above the 50th percentile for the RG and below the 50th percentile for the AG. The RG followed a growth pattern that was higher than their reported target height, whereas AG exhibited a negative growth pattern. RG and AG weighed less than the population mean, with the mean weight for age below the 50th percentile for both groups. RG were taller than AG (t = 17.15; P < 0.001), with a higher reported target height SD score (t = 6.44; P < 0.001), a greater Delta height-reported target height (t = 2.74; P < 0.001), and a lower mean body fat (t = -11.83; P < 0.001) and body mass index (t = -10.73; P < 0.001) than AG. AG started their training at an earlier age than RG (t = 4.13; P < 0.001). Using multiple regression analysis, actual height SD score was independently influenced positively by weight SD score for both RG (b = 0.421; t = 4.317; P < 0.001) and AG (b = 1.404; t = 16.514; P = <0.001), and by reported target height only for RG (b = 0.299; t = 3.139; P = 0.002), and negatively by body mass index only for AG (b = -0.80; t = -9.88; P < 0.001). In conclusion, in elite female AG, a deterioration of growth potential was observed, whereas in RG the genetic predisposition to growth was preserved.

  19. A case of functional growth hormone deficiency and early growth retardation in a child with IFT172 mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas-Herald, Angela K; Kinning, Esther; Iida, Aritoshi; Wang, Zheng; Miyake, Noriko; Ikegawa, Shiro; McNeilly, Jane; Ahmed, S Faisal

    2015-04-01

    Ciliopathies are a group of rare conditions that present through a wide range of manifestations. Given the relative common occurrence of defects of the GH/IGF-I axis in children with short stature and growth retardation, the association between ciliopathies and these defects needs further attention. Our patient is a boy who was born at term and noted to have early growth retardation and weight gain within the first 18 months of life. Biochemical tests demonstrated low IGF-I but a normal peak GH on stimulation and an adequate increase in IGF-I on administration of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH). A magnetic resonance imaging scan revealed pituitary hypoplasia and an ectopic posterior pituitary. His growth responded well to rhGH therapy. Subsequently he also developed a retinopathy of his rods and cones, metaphyseal dysplasia, and hypertension with renal failure requiring renal replacement therapy. Whole-exome sequencing demonstrated compound heterozygous mutations of IFT172, thus consistent with a ciliopathy. This is the first reported case of a child with a mutation in IFT172 who presented with growth retardation in early childhood and was initially managed as a case of functional GH deficiency that responded to rhGH therapy. This case highlights the importance of ciliary function in pituitary development and the link between early onset growth failure and ciliopathies.

  20. Fetal programming: prenatal testosterone excess leads to fetal growth retardation and postnatal catch-up growth in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikkam, Mohan; Crespi, Erica J; Doop, Douglas D; Herkimer, Carol; Lee, James S; Yu, Sunkyung; Brown, Morton B; Foster, Douglas L; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2004-02-01

    Alterations in the maternal endocrine, nutritional, and metabolic environment disrupt the developmental trajectory of the fetus, leading to adult diseases. Female offspring of rats, subhuman primates, and sheep treated prenatally with testosterone (T) develop reproductive/metabolic defects during adult life similar to those that occur after intrauterine growth retardation. In the present study we determined whether prenatal T treatment produces growth-retarded offspring. Cottonseed oil or T propionate (100 mg, im) was administered twice weekly to pregnant sheep between 30-90 d gestation (term = 147 d; cottonseed oil, n = 16; prenatal T, n = 32). Newborn weight and body dimensions were measured the day after birth, and postnatal weight gain was monitored for 4 months in all females and in a subset of males. Consistent with its action, prenatal T treatment produced females and males with greater anogenital distances relative to controls. Prenatal T treatment reduced body weights and heights of newborns from both sexes and chest circumference of females. Prenatally T-treated females, but not males, exhibited catch-up growth during 2-4 months of postnatal life. Plasma IGF-binding protein-1 and IGF-binding protein-2, but not IGF-I, levels of prenatally T-treated females were elevated in the first month of life, a period when the prenatally T-treated females were not exhibiting catch-up growth. This is suggestive of reduced IGF availability and potential contribution to growth retardation. These findings support the concept that fetal growth retardation and postnatal catch-up growth, early markers of future adult diseases, can also be programmed by prenatal exposure to excess sex steroids.

  1. Fetal growth retardation and lack of hypotaurine in ezrin knockout mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Nishimura

    Full Text Available Ezrin is a membrane-associated cytoplasmic protein that serves to link cell-membrane proteins with the actin-based cytoskeleton, and also plays a role in regulation of the functional activities of some transmembrane proteins. It is expressed in placental trophoblasts. We hypothesized that placental ezrin is involved in the supply of nutrients from mother to fetus, thereby influencing fetal growth. The aim of this study was firstly to clarify the effect of ezrin on fetal growth and secondly to determine whether knockout of ezrin is associated with decreased concentrations of serum and placental nutrients. Ezrin knockout mice (Ez(-/- were confirmed to exhibit fetal growth retardation. Metabolome analysis of fetal serum and placental extract of ezrin knockout mice by means of capillary electrophoresis-time-of-flight mass spectrometry revealed a markedly decreased concentration of hypotaurine, a precursor of taurine. However, placental levels of cysteine and cysteine sulfinic acid (precursors of hypotaurine and taurine were not affected. Lack of hypotaurine in Ez(-/- mice was confirmed by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Administration of hypotaurine to heterogenous dams significantly decreased the placenta-to-maternal plasma ratio of hypotaurine in wild-type fetuses but only slightly decreased it in ezrin knockout fetuses, indicating that the uptake of hypotaurine from mother to placenta is saturable and that disruption of ezrin impairs the uptake of hypotaurine by placental trophoblasts. These results indicate that ezrin is required for uptake of hypotaurine from maternal serum by placental trophoblasts, and plays an important role in fetal growth.

  2. Alterations of growth, blood biochemical components and hormone profiles by intensified nutrition in growth retarded Japanese Black cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Daisaku; Ikeda, Hiroki; Kazamatsuri, Hiroyuki; Ando, Takaaki; Ohtsuka, Hiromichi; Kobayashi, Shigeki; Oikawa, Masaaki; Sugimoto, Yoshikazu

    2010-09-01

    In order to determine the clinical conditions of Japanese Black (JB) cattle with growth retardation, we determined the changes of body growth, blood profiles of metabolism and hormones caused by intensified nutrition (sufficient total digestible nutrients and digestible crude protein for a target daily gain set at 1.2-1.3 kg/day) in three cattle. The daily gain (DG) was increased during the intensified period (Intense) compared with the preparation period (Pre), but the DG in the Intense period was 36-66% of the target DG. Serum albumin, total cholesterol, insulin and IGF-1 increased during the Intense period compared with the Pre period. Serum GH showed high levels in the Pre period, whereas it showed lower levels in the Intense period. These results suggested that the present growth retarded cattle had abnormalities in their metabolic systems and lacked nutrient absorption.

  3. THE COURSE OF THE EARLY NEONATAL PERIOD OF LIFE IN NEWBORNS WITH INTRAUTERINE GROWTH RETARDATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Kozlova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the complex clinical and anamnestic, laboratory, instrumental examination, a number of aspects of the health status of children born in the outcome of physiologically occurring and complicated pregnancies in practically healthy mothers (including delayed development of the fetus and without it, as well as in mothers with aggravated somatic and gynecological anamnesis. The intrauterine growth retardation was associated with cerebral ischaemia of I-II degrees of severity, toxic erythema, polycythemia, hypoglycaemia, prolapse of the anterior mitral valve leaf, limited and less sympathetic activity, tension of depleted compensatory resources, acceleration of atrio-ventricular conduction, lower frequency of contractile and impaired relaxation functions of the myocardium. As a result of the work, the criteria for early diagnosis of health disorders in term infants with intrauterine growth retardation were determined. The features of the course of the early neonatal period of life, adaptation, and the state of the vegetative nervous and cardiovascular systems are proved.  

  4. Plant growth retardation and conserved miRNAs are correlated to Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ruimin; Wan, Zi Yi; Wong, Sek-Man

    2013-01-01

    Virus infection may cause a multiplicity of symptoms in their host including discoloration, distortion and growth retardation. Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV) infection was studied using kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.), a non-wood fiber-producing crop in this study. Infection by HCRSV reduced the fiber yield and concomitant economic value of kenaf. We investigated kenaf growth retardation and fluctuations of four selected miRNAs after HCRSV infection. Vegetative growth (including plant height, leaf size and root development) was severely retarded. From the transverse and radial sections of the mock and HCRSV-infected kenaf stem, the vascular bundles of HCRSV-infected plants were severely disrupted. In addition, four conserved plant developmental and defence related microRNAs (miRNAs) (miR165, miR167, miR168 and miR171) and their respective target genes phabulosa (PHB), auxin response factor 8 (ARF8), argonaute 1 (AGO1) and scarecrow-like protein 1 (SCL1) displayed variation in expression levels after HCRSV infection. Compared with the mock inoculated kenaf plants, miR171 and miR168 and their targets SCL1 and AGO1 showed greater fluctuations after HCRSV infection. As HCRSV upregulates plant SO transcript in kenaf and upregulated AGO1 in HCRSV-infected plants, the expression level of AGO1 transcript was further investigated under sulfite oxidase (SO) overexpression or silencing condition. Interestingly, the four selected miRNAs were also up- or down-regulated upon overexpression or silencing of SO. Plant growth retardation and fluctuation of four conserved miRNAs are correlated to HCRSV infection.

  5. A Comparative Pathophysiological Study of Normal and Growth Retarded Human Placental Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Moyosore Afodun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the pathophysiology of normal and growth retarded human placental tissues. Female patients were recruited from the Antenatal Clinic of Dolu Specialist Hospital, Mafoluku, Oshodi, Lagos, between 2008 and 2012. A total of 48 normal term placentas and 15 placentas of known IUGR cases were used for this study. IUGR cases were confirmed on the basis of ultrasound follow-up and diagnosis. Normal term placentas were collected at the point of delivery by a consultant gynaecologist, the cords were clamped, and membranes were then carefully trimmed after which each placenta was weighed. About 1 cm thickness of both normal and growth retarded placenta tissues was cut, processed for hematoxylin and eosin stain, while tissues for enzyme (ALP assay were homogenized in cold 0.5 M sucrose solution. Comparative analysis of the data was done using ANOVA; P<0.05 was taken as significant. The photomicrographs were observed/studied under light microscope, using the X150 and X600 magnifications. It was revealed therein that placental tissues are homogenous (regionally, compromised of maternal spiral arterioles and deregulated villous vasculogenesis, and that there is a significant difference in the level of alkaline phosphatase enzyme. We therefore concluded that there is a distinct difference between the normal and growth retarded human placenta tissue.

  6. Fetal plasma erythropoietin concentration in severe growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snijders, R J; Abbas, A; Melby, O; Ireland, R M; Nicolaides, K H

    1993-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether hypoxemia induces an increase in plasma erythropoietin concentration in human fetal life and, if so, whether this response stimulates fetal erythropoiesis. The plasma erythropoietin concentration in blood samples from 33 small-for-gestational-age fetuses at 26 to 38 weeks' gestation was measured. Measurements were compared with the reference range for gestation, and associations with PO2, pH, and erythroblast and erythrocyte counts were examined. The mean plasma erythropoietin concentration in the small-for-gestational-age fetuses was significantly increased, and the degree of increase was significantly associated both with fetal acidemia and, more strongly, with fetal erythroblastosis. Erythropoietin production in response to tissue hypoxia occurs from at least 26 weeks' gestation with measurable physiologic effects on erythropoiesis. Furthermore, more accurate assessment of tissue oxygenation may be obtained by measuring the erythroblast count rather than the blood pH.

  7. Potential Utility of Melatonin in Preeclampsia, Intrauterine Fetal Growth Retardation, and Perinatal Asphyxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marseglia, Lucia; D'Angelo, Gabriella; Manti, Sara; Reiter, Russel J; Gitto, Eloisa

    2016-08-01

    Reactive oxygen species play an important role in the pathogenesis of several diseases during gestation and the perinatal period. During pregnancy, increased oxygen demand augments the rate of production of free radicals. Oxidative stress is involved in pregnancy disorders including preeclampsia and intrauterine fetal growth retardation (IUGR). Moreover, increased levels of oxidative stress and reduced antioxidative capacities may contribute to the pathogenesis of perinatal asphyxia. Melatonin, an efficient antioxidant agent, diffuses through biological membranes easily and exerts pleiotropic actions on every cell and appears to be essential for successful gestation. This narrative review summarizes current knowledge concerning the role of melatonin in reducing complications during human pregnancy and in the perinatal period. Melatonin levels are altered in women with abnormally functioning placentae during preeclampsia and IUGR. Short-term melatonin therapy is highly effective and safe in reducing complications during pregnancy and in the perinatal period. Because melatonin has been shown to be safe for both mother and fetus, it could be an attractive therapy in pregnancy and is considered a promising neuroprotective agent in perinatal asphyxia. We believe that the use of melatonin treatment during the late fetal and early neonatal period might result in a wide range of health benefits, improved quality of life, and may help limit complications during the critical periods prior to, and shortly after, delivery. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Endocrine dysfunction and growth retardation assessment in children with beta -thalassemia major

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noureldin, A.M.; Ahmed, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    Children suffering from beta-thalassemia major are reported to have endocrine abnormalities and growth retardation. This study was carried out to study the cause of their growth retardation and determine the extent and rate of endocrine complications. Twenty beta-thalassemic major pubertal children, with mean baemoglobin and ferritin concentration of 8.8±0.6 and 3.597± 1.931, respectively, and twenty pubertal control children were used in the study. The anthropometric measurements that carried out revealed significant low growth rate in patient groups in comparison with control. Patients divided into two groups; I) D-thal with delayed growth and II) S-thal with stunted growth. Basal serum thyoid hormones (T 3 and T 4 ) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were measured in patient groups and control group. T 3 showed highly significant decrease (P 4 showed non-significant change and TSH showed highly significant increase (P<0.001). Serum growth hormone showed significant lower concentrations in patient groups with values of 2.163±0.9 ng/ml, (P<0.01) and 1.832±1.9ng/ml, (P<0.01) for delayed growth thalassemic group (D-thal) and stunted growth thalassemic group (S-thal), respectively. Serum concentration of insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1) hormone was studied. D-thal and S-thal had significant lower basal IGF-1 concentrationsof-58.44% (P<0.001) for D-thal and -64.37%, (P<0.001) for S-thal

  9. Effectiveness of Flame Retardants in TufFoam.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abelow, Alexis Elizabeth [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Nissen, April [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Massey, Lee Taylor [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Whinnery, LeRoy L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-12-01

    An investigation of polyurethane foam filled with known flame retardant fillers including hydroxides, melamine, phosphate-containing compounds, and melamine phosphates was carried out to produce a low-cost material with high flame retardant efficiency. The impact of flame retardant fillers on the physical properties such a s composite foam density, glass transition temperature, storage modulus, and thermal expansion of composite foams was investigated with the goal of synthesizing a robust rigid foam with excellent flame retardant properties.

  10. Mental and growth retardation after medulloblastoma radiation therapy. MRI assessment of radiation injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyagi, Koichi; Mukawa, Jiro; Mekaru, Susumu; Harakuni, Tsuyoshi; Yamaguchi, Keiichiro; Tominaga, Daisuke; Nakasone, Susumu.

    1996-01-01

    We report on 3 cases of a medulloblastoma and discuss the usefulness of calculating the T2 value from long-term follow-up MRIs of 1.5 T in order to analyze the cause of mental retardation. Of 13 medulloblastoma patients who were treated at our hospital from 1970 through 1984, 4 patients survived. Excluding 1 of these patients, a 2-year-old child, the remaining 3 cases are discussed. The 3 patients underwent surgery and received postoperative craniospinal irradiation and chemotherapy. The radiation dose (tumoral dose) was 40 to 85 Gy to the posterior fossa, 0 to 30.4 Gy to the spinal cord, and 25.6 to 35.2 Gy to the whole brain. The long-term effects were evaluated by calculating the T2 value and conducting a psychometric analysis from 2 to 11 years after radiation therapy. Their respective Tanaka-Vineland IQ test results were 32, 46, and 102 and their respective growth heights were -3.6 SD, -6.4 SD, and +0.18 SD. Growth hormone deficiencies were identified in all 3 patients. The decline in ability and failure to grow became more pronounced with time. The calculated T2 values showed alterations in the hippocampus, the occipital white matter, and the hypothalamus of all 3 patients. The hippocampal alteration contributed to a decline in intellectual ability and resulted in learning difficulties at school. It should be noted that in addition to whole-brain radiation that was pursued, the focal radiation provided delivers the same radiation dose to the hippocampus as to the tumor. Such a high radiation dose thus might be responsible for the decline in intellectual ability. Therefore, to avoid radiation injury to these areas, stereotactic radiosurgery must be planned for focal radiation therapy. (K.H.)

  11. The maternal periodontal disease as a risk factor of intrauterine growth retardation

    OpenAIRE

    Carranza Samanez, Maynor; García Linares, Sixto; Profesor Asociado del D.A. Médico Quirúrgico; Dulanto Vargas, Julissa

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the relationship between the intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and the maternal periodontal disease (MPD). This case-control study of 120 mothers, 38 cases (mothers of babies with IUGR) and 82 controls (mothers of babies without IUGR) at the “Madre Niño San Bartolomé” Teaching Hospital. The mothers were interrogated and their medical histories were reviewed. Data was recorded, such as: the education level, marital status, smoking, alcohol and drug habits. All the mot...

  12. Horseshoe kidney with growth retardation: Don't forget Turner syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslansoyu-Çamlar, Seçil; Soylu, Alper; Abacı, Ayhan; Türkmen, Mehmet Atilla; Ülgenalp, Ayfer; Kavukçu, Salih

    2016-01-01

    Horseshoe kidney is the most frequent renal fusion anomaly that is usually asymptomatic and isolated malformation. However it can be seen with various syndromes and chromosomal anomalies. It was reported that 15-35% of Turner syndrome cases (TS) also display horseshoe kidney condition. TS is a chromosomal anomaly that had been characterized by delayed puberty, short body height and gonadal dysgenesis. In this report a five-year-old girl with horseshoe kidney, which has growth retardation during follow-up as only symptom of Turner syndrome.

  13. [Linear growth retardation in children under five years of age: a baseline study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissin, Anete; Figueiroa, José Natal; Benício, Maria Helena D'Aquino; Batista Filho, Malaquias

    2011-10-01

    The scope of this study was to describe the prevalence of, and analyze factors associated with, linear growth retardation in children. The baseline study analyzed 2040 children under the age of five, establishing a possible association between growth delay (height/age index sanitary, maternal, biological and healthcare access. Multivariate analysis was performed using Poisson regression with the robust standard error option, obtaining adjusted prevalence ratios with a CI of 95% and the respective significant probability values. Among non-binary variables, there was a positive association with roof type and number of inhabitants per room and a negative association with income per capita, mother's schooling and birth weight. The adjusted analysis also indicated water supply, visit from the community health agent, birth delivery location, internment for diarrhea, or for pneumonia and birth weight as significant variables. Several risk factors were identified for linear growth retardation pointing to the multi-causal aspects of the problem and highlighting the need for control measures by the various hierarchical government agents.

  14. Potential estrogenic effects of phosphorus-containing flame retardants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Quan; Lu, Meiya; Dong, Xiaowu; Wang, Cui; Zhang, Chunlong; Liu, Weiping; Zhao, Meirong

    2014-06-17

    As the substitute of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), further assessments about the potential ecological safety and health risks of phosphorus-containing flame retardants (PFRs) are required because the worldwide demand for PFRs has been increasing every year. In this study, we examined the agonistic/antagonistic activity of a group of PFRs by three in vitro models (luciferase reporter gene assay, yeast two-hybrid assay, and E-screen assay). Molecule docking was used to further explain the interactions between ERα and PFRs. Data from luciferase reporter gene analysis showed three members of the nine tested PFRs significantly induced estrogenic effects, with the order of TPP > TCP > TDCPP, while TCEP and TEHP have remarkable antiestrogenic properties with calculated REC20 and RIC20 values of 10(-6) M or lower. Results from the luciferase reporter gene method are generally consistent with results obtained from the yeast two-hybrid assay and E-screen, except for the positive estrogenic activity of TBP in E-screen testing. Docking results showed that binding between ligands and ERα was stabilized by hydrophobic interactions. As a proposed alternative for brominated flame retardant, PFRs may have anti/estrogenic activity via ERα at the low dose typical of residue in environmental matrix or animals. PFRs with a short chain, halogen, and benzene ring in the substituent group tend to be estrogenic. Our research suggests that comprehensive evaluations, including health and ecological assessments, are required in determining whether PFRs are preferable as an emerging industrial substitute.

  15. Thyroid stimulating hormone and leptin levels and severe growth retardation among beta- thalassaemic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dayer, D.; Salahcheh, M.; Jazayeri, S.M.H.; Kaydani, G.A.; Kadkhodaei Elyaderani, M.K.; Shaneh, S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: It has been proposed that thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) influences leptin secretion from adipocytes. We evaluated the association between TSH and leptin levels in thalassaemic patients with growth retardation. Methodology: Blood samples were collected from 30 major thalassaemic patients and 24 normal subjects (range: 12 - 20 y). Both Leptin and TSH were measured by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) method. The anthropomorphic data were collected based on standard methods. Independent sample t-test and Pearson's correlation were used to analyze data. Results: Patients had severe growth retardation. Mean concentration of leptin in thalassaemic mean value of serum TSH concentration of lepton in thalassaemic patients was significantly lower than normal subjects (2.26 +- 2,61 vs 13.14 +- 15.95 ng/ml). The mean value os serum TSH concentration in beta- thalassaemic patients was higher than normal subjects. But the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.146). There was no marked relationship between TSH and leptin concentration in thalassaemic patients (r= -0.022, P =0.909) and in control group (r =0.289, P=0.214). Conclusion: In beta - thalassaemic patients and normal group leptin secretion is a not affected by TSH concentration. (author)

  16. Numerical simulation of fatigue crack growth rate and crack retardation due to an overload using a cohesive zone model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silitonga, S.; Maljaars, J.; Soetens, F.; Snijder, H.H.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, a numerical method is pursued based on a cohesive zone model (CZM). The method is aimed at simulating fatigue crack growth as well as crack growth retardation due to an overload. In this cohesive zone model, the degradation of the material strength is represented by a variation of the

  17. Distinct mechanisms are responsible for osteopenia and growth retardation in OASIS-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Tomohiko; Hino, Shin-Ichiro; Nishimura, Riko; Yoneda, Toshiyuki; Wanaka, Akio; Imaizumi, Kazunori

    2011-03-01

    Old astrocyte specifically induced substance (OASIS), which is a new type of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress transducer, is a basic leucine zipper transcription factor of the CREB/ATF family that contains a transmembrane domain and is processed by regulated intramembrane proteolysis in response to ER stress. OASIS is selectively expressed in certain types of cells such as astrocytes and osteoblasts. We have previously demonstrated that OASIS activates transcription of the type I collagen gene Col1a1 and contributes to the secretion of bone matrix proteins in osteoblasts, and that OASIS-/- mice exhibit osteopenia and growth retardation. In the present study, we examined whether osteopenia in OASIS-/- mice is rescued by OASIS introduction into osteoblasts. We generated OASIS-/- mice that specifically expressed OASIS in osteoblasts using a 2.3-kb osteoblast-specific type I collagen promoter (OASIS-/-;Tg mice). Histological analysis of OASIS-/-;Tg mice revealed that osteopenia in OASIS-/- mice was rescued by osteoblast-specific expression of the OASIS transgene. The decreased expression levels of type I collagen mRNAs in the bone tissues of OASIS-/- mice were recovered by the OASIS transgene accompanied by the rescue of an abnormal expansion of the rough ER in OASIS-/- osteoblasts. In contrast, growth retardation in OASIS-/- mice did not improve in OASIS-/-;Tg mice. Interestingly, the serum levels of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 were downregulated in OASIS-/- mice compared with those in wild-type mice. These decreased GH and IGF-1 levels in OASIS-/- mice did not change when OASIS was introduced into osteoblasts. Taken together, these results indicate that OASIS regulates skeletal development by osteoblast-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Nicotine-induced retardation of chondrogenesis through down-regulation of IGF-1 signaling pathway to inhibit matrix synthesis of growth plate chondrocytes in fetal rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Yu; Cao, Hong; Cu, Fenglong; Xu, Dan; Lei, Youying; Tan, Yang; Magdalou, Jacques; Wang, Hui; Chen, Liaobin

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have confirmed that maternal tobacco smoking causes intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and skeletal growth retardation. Among a multitude of chemicals associated with cigarette smoking, nicotine is one of the leading candidates for causing low birth weights. However, the possible mechanism of delayed chondrogenesis by prenatal nicotine exposure remains unclear. We investigated the effects of nicotine on fetal growth plate chondrocytes in vivo and in vitro. Rats were given 2.0 mg/kg·d of nicotine subcutaneously from gestational days 11 to 20. Prenatal nicotine exposure increased the levels of fetal blood corticosterone and resulted in fetal skeletal growth retardation. Moreover, nicotine exposure induced the inhibition of matrix synthesis and down-regulation of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) signaling in fetal growth plates. The effects of nicotine on growth plates were studied in vitro by exposing fetal growth plate chondrocytes to 0, 1, 10, or 100 μM of nicotine for 10 days. Nicotine inhibited matrix synthesis and down-regulated IGF-1 signaling in chondrocytes in a concentration-dependent manner. These results suggest that prenatal nicotine exposure induces delayed chondrogenesis and that the mechanism may involve the down-regulation of IGF-1 signaling and the inhibition of matrix synthesis by growth plate chondrocytes. The present study aids in the characterization of delayed chondrogenesis caused by prenatal nicotine exposure, which might suggest a candidate mechanism for intrauterine origins of osteoporosis and osteoarthritis. - Highlights: ► Prenatal nicotine-exposure could induce delayed chondrogenesis in fetal rats. ► Nicotine inhibits matrix synthesis of fetal growth plate chondrocytes. ► Nicotine inhibits IGF-1 signaling pathway in fetal growth plate chondrocytes

  19. Nicotine-induced retardation of chondrogenesis through down-regulation of IGF-1 signaling pathway to inhibit matrix synthesis of growth plate chondrocytes in fetal rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Yu; Cao, Hong; Cu, Fenglong [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Xu, Dan [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Lei, Youying [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Tan, Yang [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Magdalou, Jacques [UMR 7561 CNRS-Nancy Université, Faculté de Médicine, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Wang, Hui [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Chen, Liaobin, E-mail: lbchen@whu.edu.cn [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2013-05-15

    Previous studies have confirmed that maternal tobacco smoking causes intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and skeletal growth retardation. Among a multitude of chemicals associated with cigarette smoking, nicotine is one of the leading candidates for causing low birth weights. However, the possible mechanism of delayed chondrogenesis by prenatal nicotine exposure remains unclear. We investigated the effects of nicotine on fetal growth plate chondrocytes in vivo and in vitro. Rats were given 2.0 mg/kg·d of nicotine subcutaneously from gestational days 11 to 20. Prenatal nicotine exposure increased the levels of fetal blood corticosterone and resulted in fetal skeletal growth retardation. Moreover, nicotine exposure induced the inhibition of matrix synthesis and down-regulation of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) signaling in fetal growth plates. The effects of nicotine on growth plates were studied in vitro by exposing fetal growth plate chondrocytes to 0, 1, 10, or 100 μM of nicotine for 10 days. Nicotine inhibited matrix synthesis and down-regulated IGF-1 signaling in chondrocytes in a concentration-dependent manner. These results suggest that prenatal nicotine exposure induces delayed chondrogenesis and that the mechanism may involve the down-regulation of IGF-1 signaling and the inhibition of matrix synthesis by growth plate chondrocytes. The present study aids in the characterization of delayed chondrogenesis caused by prenatal nicotine exposure, which might suggest a candidate mechanism for intrauterine origins of osteoporosis and osteoarthritis. - Highlights: ► Prenatal nicotine-exposure could induce delayed chondrogenesis in fetal rats. ► Nicotine inhibits matrix synthesis of fetal growth plate chondrocytes. ► Nicotine inhibits IGF-1 signaling pathway in fetal growth plate chondrocytes.

  20. Environmental fate & effects of new generation flame retardants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waaijers, S.L.

    2014-01-01

    There is a pressing need for substituting several halogenated flame retardants, given the human and environmental health concerns of many of these compounds. Halogen Free Flame Retardants (HFFRs) have been suggested as alternatives and are already being marketed, although their potential impact on

  1. Use of growth retardants in wheat Utilização de redutores de crescimento em trigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Espindula

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In general, lodging has been controlled by restricting nitrogen fertilizer application and/or using short cultivars. Growth retardants can also be used to solve this problem.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of rates and application times of three growth retardants on Pioneiro wheat cultivar. The trial was carried out in Viçosa-MG, from May to September 2005, in a factorial and hierarchical scheme, in a randomized block design with four replications and a control treatment. The treatments consisted of 500, 1,000 and 1,500 g ha-1 of chlormequat; 62.5, 125 and 187.5 g ha-1 of trinexapac-ethyl and 40, 80 and 120 g ha-1 of paclobutrazol applied at growth stages 6 or 8, growth stage used on the scale of Feeks and Large, and a control treatment without growth retardant application. Only trinexapac-ethyl and chlormequat were efficient in reducing plant height; the effect of chlormequat and paclobutrazol on plant height was independent of the application time, but the trinexapac-ethyl at growth stage 8 produced shorter plant height than at stage 6. Increasing growth retardant rates produced shorter plant heights; chlormequat and paclobutrazol did not affect grain yield. However, the highest trinexapac-ethyl rates reduced wheat yield.De modo geral, o acamamento tem sido controlado mediante restrição da aplicação de fertilizantes nitrogenados e/ou o uso de cultivares de porte baixo. No entanto, esse problema também pode ser solucionado pela utilização de redutores de crescimento. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o efeito de doses e épocas de aplicação de três redutores de crescimento sobre plantas de trigo do cultivar Pioneiro. O experimento, conduzido em Viçosa-MG de maio a setembro de 2005, foi instalado com os tratamentos dispostos em esquema fatorial e hierárquico com uma testemunha, no delineamento de blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram: 500, 1.000 e 1.500 g ha-1 de clormequat; 62

  2. Influence of gamma-irradiation, growth retardants and coatings on the shelf life of winter guava fruits (Psidium guajava L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, S.K.; Joshua, Jean E.; Bisen; Abhav

    2010-01-01

    Experiment was conducted to study the effect of gamma irradiation, growth retardants and coatings (coconut oil, mustard oil and liquid paraffin) on shelf life of winter guava fruits during storage. The results revealed that the superiority of coconut oil coating over other post harvest treatments. Physiological loss in weight (7.1%), marketable fruits retained over control (86.7%), total soluble solid (16.1%), ascorbic acid (195 mg/100 g pulp) and total sugar (10%) of fruit were positively influenced by coconut oil coating up to 12 days of storage. The treatment was found significantly effective in increasing the post harvest life of fruits for 12 days over control without adversely affecting the fruit quality. Coconut oil coating gave highest consumer acceptability while, maintaining sufficient level of total soluble solids and sugar content in fruits. (author)

  3. ROLE OF DOPPLER STUDY IN THE EVALUATION OF INTRAUTERINE GROWTH RETARDATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE : Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR is a fetal growth disorder defined on the basis of a fetal weight below 10 th percentile for the corresponding gestational age. Our study was an effort at establishing the role of Umbilical artery (UA and Middle cere bral artery (MCA Doppler indices in predicting the adverse perinatal out come in clinically suspected IUGR pregnancies, and to determine the role of Doppler velocimetry in clinical management of such pregnancies. Elevation of the umbilical artery systolic /diastolic ratio or of the pulsatility index (PI; absent or reversed end - diastolic flow in the umbilical artery and decreased systolic/diastolic ratio or pulsatility index in the fetal internal carotid and middle cerebral arteries are the predictors of ab normal perinatal outcome. Our study was to evaluate the role of ratio of pulsatility index (PI which is called as Cerebroplacental Ratio i.e. MCAPI/UAPI Doppler ratio as the most accurate predictor of adverse perinatal outcome among women with clinical sus picion of IUGR attending our (SVRR Govt. hospital. METHODOLOGY : 50 Antenatal women attending the antenatal O.P.D who were clinically suspected as having growth retardation based on clinical history of previous child with growth retardation , signs of pallor ( anaemia and high documented Blood pressures – s/o PIH, reduced abdominal height for gestational age , were evaluated using screening ultrasound. Doppler velocity wave forms were obtained from umbilical artery and fetal middle cerebral artery fro m all the 50 cases. 16 cases were followed up with repeat Doppler. Pulsatility index ratio of middle cerebral artery and umbilical artery, also called as Cerebroplacental ratio was evaluated in each case. Abnormal ratio is defined as Cerebroplacental ratio < 1.08 was considered as a cut off value. Ratio was calculated and correlated clinically with the perinatal outcomes – in the form of IUD’s, low APGAR

  4. Infant growth patterns in the slums of Dhaka in relation to birth weight, intrauterine growth retardation, and prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arifeen, S E; Black, R E; Caulfield, L E; Antelman, G; Baqui, A H; Nahar, Q; Alamgir, S; Mahmud, H

    2000-10-01

    Relations between size and maturity at birth and infant growth have been studied inadequately in Bangladesh, where the incidence of low birth weight is high and most infants are breast-fed. This study was conducted to describe infant growth patterns and their relations to birth weight, intrauterine growth retardation, and prematurity. A total of 1654 infants born in selected low-socioeconomic areas of Dhaka, Bangladesh, were enrolled at birth. Weight and length were measured at birth and at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 mo of age. The infants' mean birth weight was 2516 g, with 46.4% weighing birth weight, SGA, or preterm categories were retained throughout infancy. Mean z scores based on the pooled breast-fed sample were -2.38, -1. 72, and -2.34 at birth, 3 mo, and 12 mo. Correlation analysis showed greater plasticity of growth in the first 3 mo of life than later in the first year. Infant growth rates were similar to those observed among breast-fed infants in developed countries. Most study infants experienced chronic intrauterine undernourishment. Catch-up growth was limited and weight at 12 mo was largely a function of weight at birth. Improvement of birth weight is likely to lead to significant gains in infant nutritional status in this population, although interventions in the first 3 mo are also likely to be beneficial.

  5. [Etiology, prevalence of chronic renal failure and growth retardation in Lithuanian children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pundziene, Birute; Masalskiene, Jūrate; Jankauskiene, Augustina; Cerkauskiene, Rimante; Aleksyniene, Vilte; Dobiliene, Diana; Rudaitis, Sarūnas

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the causes, prevalence, and grades of chronic renal failure in Lithuanian children and to assess its influence on children's growth. The study was performed in Vilnius University Children's Hospital and Clinic of Children's Diseases, Kaunas University of Medicine. By March 31, 2006, 65 children with chronic renal failure had been registered. The prevalence was 88.3 cases per million children. The mean age was 10.8+/-4.9 years. The leading causes of chronic renal failure were congenital diseases (37%) and obstruction with interstitial nephritis (33.8%). At presentation, 23 (35.40%) children had mild, 17 (26.15%) had moderate, 9 (23.85%) had severe renal failure, and 16 (24.6%) had end-stage renal disease. Fourteen (21.54%) children were below the third percentile in height for their age. Growth failure was observed in one (4.35%) child with Grade 1 renal failure. The deterioration of renal function had a significant influence on growth impairment, and 13 (30.95%) children with glomerular filtration rate of less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 and 7 (43.75%) with end-stage renal disease had a height below the third percentile. Growth retardation as one of the symptoms of impairment of children's physical development depends on the severity of renal function.

  6. Environmental fate & effects of new generation flame retardants

    OpenAIRE

    Waaijers, S.L.

    2014-01-01

    There is a pressing need for substituting several halogenated flame retardants, given the human and environmental health concerns of many of these compounds. Halogen Free Flame Retardants (HFFRs) have been suggested as alternatives and are already being marketed, although their potential impact on the environment cannot be properly assessed because of a lack of information regarding their environmental and ecotoxicological properties. The aim of this study was to determine the aquatic fate an...

  7. Effect of Retarding Force on Mass Flow Rates of Fluid at Different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... mathematical model and software visualization to view the effect of retarding forces on the mass flow rate in term of visualization. C-sharp (C#) is the chosen program and this enable compares and us to determine the mass flow rates patterns in relation to retarding force in form of graphical tables at different temperature.

  8. Extinction properties of metallic nanowires: Quantum diffraction and retardation effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moradi, Afshin, E-mail: a.moradi@kut.ac.ir [Department of Engineering Physics, Kermanshah University of Technology, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Nano Sciences, Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics (IPM), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-10-09

    The standard Mie theory for the extinction of electromagnetic radiation by a metal cylinder that is irradiated by a normally incident plane wave is extended to the case of a metallic nanowire, where two quantum longitudinal waves are excited. The modification of the Mie theory due to quantum diffraction effects is included by employing the quantum hydrodynamic approximation and applying the appropriate quantum additional boundary conditions. The extinction properties of the system and their differences with previous treatments based on the standard local and nonlocal models are shown. Also, as an example the validity of the nonretarded approximation in the quantum nonlocal optical response of a sodium nanowire is discussed. - Highlights: • Extinction properties of metallic nanowires in the presence of quantum diffraction and retardation effects are studied. • The differences of new results with previous findings based on the standard local and nonlocal models are shown. • The validity of the nonretarded approximation in the quantum nonlocal optical response of a sodium nanowire is discussed.

  9. Increased lipolysis but diminished gene expression of lipases in subcutaneous adipose tissue of healthy young males with intrauterine growth retardation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerre, Lise; Alibegovic, Amra C; Sonne, Mette P

    2011-01-01

    Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is associated with a central fat distribution and risk of developing type 2 diabetes in adults when exposed to a sedentary Western lifestyle. Increased lipolysis is an early defect of metabolism in IUGR subjects, but the sites and molecular mechanisms involved...

  10. Heterogeneous growth and mental development of intrauterine growth-retarded infants during the first 3 years of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, J; Smeriglio, V; Martorell, R; Brown, C H; Klein, R E

    1984-11-01

    Postnatal growth and development were studied in two groups of term infants with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and one group of infants with normal birth weight up to 3 years of age (total sample, 205 infants). Infants with IUGR were classified as having low ponderal index (IUGR-LPI) or adequate ponderal index (IUGR-API). At birth, the two groups of infants with IUGR had similar birth weight, but length and head circumference measurements were significantly different. Overall, the IUGR-API infants remained lighter and shorter and had smaller head circumferences up to 30 months of age. The IUGR-LPI infants experienced catch-up growth in weight during the first months, because of greater fat deposition. At 24 months of age, the IUGR-API infants scored below the others on mental items. At 3 years of age the IUGR-API infants had the lowest values on seven of eight developmental measures and on the composite score; at these two time periods, the group with normal birth weight scored the highest, and the IUGR-LPI infants obtained intermediate values. It is concluded that infants with IUGR tend to follow postnatal growth and developmental patterns that are associated with their physical characteristics at birth.

  11. [Age-dependent alteration of insulin and ghrelin expression in pancreatic islets of intrauterine growth-retarded rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiu-Min; Liang, Li; Du, Li-Zhong

    2008-05-01

    To evaluate the age-dependent alteration of insulin and ghrelin expression in the pancreatic islets of intrauterine growth-retarded (IUGR) rats during development and to identify the role of ghrelin in insulin resistance induced by IUGR. Neonatal SD rats were divided into normal birth weight group (N group) and intrauterine growth-retarded group (I group). Plasma glucose, ghrelin and serum insulin were analyzed at day 1, 3, 7 and 10 and at week 2, 3, 4,8 and 12 after birth.Entire pancreas samples were collected for determination of ghrelin and insulin mRNA. Immunohistochemical double-staining and confocal microscopy was performed on rat pancreas. Plasma insulin levels of I group were lower than those of N group at day 1, 3 and 7 (P insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) of I group was higher than that of N group at day 1, 3 and 7 (Pinsulin, HOMA-IR and ghrelin concentrations decreased in an age-dependent manner (F = 4.12 to approximately 125.97, P insulin (+) cells and ghrelin (+) cells in both groups decreased in an age-dependent manner (F = -49.29 to approximately 427.28, PInsulin secretion was negatively correlated with ghrelin contents in both groups (r=-0.895, P=0.000; r=-0.458, P=0.002). Percentage of insulin(+) cells was negatively correlated with the percentage of ghrelin (+) cells in pancreatic islets in both groups (r=-0.810,P=0.000; r=-0.714, P=0.000). The distributions of ghrelin (+) cells in pancreatic islets of I group were different from those of N group. The effects of IUGR on weight, plasma ghrelin levels and insulin secretion of pups rats persist after birth and ghrelin may be involved in the process of insulin resistance in IUGR rats.

  12. Flame Retardant Effect of Nano Fillers on Polydimethylsiloxane Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagdale, Pravin; Salimpour, Samera; Islam, Md Hujjatul; Cuttica, Fabio; Hernandez, Francisco C Robles; Tagliaferro, Alberto; Frache, Alberto

    2018-02-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane has exceptional fire retardancy characteristics, which make it a popular polymer in flame retardancy applications. Flame retardancy of polydimethylsiloxane with different nano fillers was studied. Polydimethylsiloxane composite fire property varies because of the shape, size, density, and chemical nature of nano fillers. In house made carbon and bismuth oxide nano fillers were used in polydimethylsiloxane composite. Carbon from biochar (carbonised bamboo) and a carbon by-product (carbon soot) were selected. For comparative study of nano fillers, standard commercial multiwall carbon nano tubes (functionalised, graphitised and pristine) as nano fillers were selected. Nano fillers in polydimethylsiloxane positively affects their fire retardant properties such as total smoke release, peak heat release rate, and time to ignition. Charring and surface ceramization are the main reasons for such improvement. Nano fillers in polydimethylsiloxane may affect the thermal mobility of polymer chains, which can directly affect the time to ignition. The study concludes that the addition of pristine multiwall carbon nano tubes and bismuth oxide nano particles as filler in polydimethylsiloxane composite improves the fire retardant property.

  13. Maternal health-related quality of life after induction of labor or expectant monitoring in pregnancy complicated by intrauterine growth retardation beyond 36 weeks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlenga, D.; Boers, K.E.; Birnie, E.; Mol, B.W.J.; Vijgen, S.C.M.; van der Post, J.A.M.; de Groot, C.J.; Rijnders, R.J.P.; Pernet, P.J.; Roumen, F.J.; Stigter, R.H.; Delemarre, F.M.C.; Bremer, H.A.; Porath, M.; Scherjon, S.A.; Bonsel, G.J.

    2011-01-01

    Pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) beyond 36 weeks of gestation are at increased risk of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Optimal treatment in IUGR at term is highly debated. Results from the multicenter DIGITAT (Disproportionate Intrauterine Growth Intervention Trial

  14. PICK1 deficiency impairs secretory vesicle biogenesis and leads to growth retardation and decreased glucose tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitte Holst

    Full Text Available Secretory vesicles in endocrine cells store hormones such as growth hormone (GH and insulin before their release into the bloodstream. The molecular mechanisms governing budding of immature secretory vesicles from the trans-Golgi network (TGN and their subsequent maturation remain unclear. Here, we identify the lipid binding BAR (Bin/amphiphysin/Rvs domain protein PICK1 (protein interacting with C kinase 1 as a key component early in the biogenesis of secretory vesicles in GH-producing cells. Both PICK1-deficient Drosophila and mice displayed somatic growth retardation. Growth retardation was rescued in flies by reintroducing PICK1 in neurosecretory cells producing somatotropic peptides. PICK1-deficient mice were characterized by decreased body weight and length, increased fat accumulation, impaired GH secretion, and decreased storage of GH in the pituitary. Decreased GH storage was supported by electron microscopy showing prominent reduction in secretory vesicle number. Evidence was also obtained for impaired insulin secretion associated with decreased glucose tolerance. PICK1 localized in cells to immature secretory vesicles, and the PICK1 BAR domain was shown by live imaging to associate with vesicles budding from the TGN and to possess membrane-sculpting properties in vitro. In mouse pituitary, PICK1 co-localized with the BAR domain protein ICA69, and PICK1 deficiency abolished ICA69 protein expression. In the Drosophila brain, PICK1 and ICA69 co-immunoprecipitated and showed mutually dependent expression. Finally, both in a Drosophila model of type 2 diabetes and in high-fat-diet-induced obese mice, we observed up-regulation of PICK1 mRNA expression. Our findings suggest that PICK1, together with ICA69, is critical during budding of immature secretory vesicles from the TGN and thus for vesicular storage of GH and possibly other hormones. The data link two BAR domain proteins to membrane remodeling processes in the secretory pathway of

  15. Effect of DPK flame retardant on combustion characteristics and fire safety of PVC membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Xia

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the performances of PVC membrane with DPK flame retardant and without flame retardant were investigated under external radiation flux. The experimental results showed that the addition of DPK flame retardant can greatly reduce the peak heat release, total heat release of the material, and increase the time to peak heat release, time to ignition and the production of poisonous gas CO. By introducing the mathematical evaluation model and specifying the reliable evaluation indexes, the safety indexes of two kinds of materials are obtained. The results showed that by adding the flame retardant, the safety indexes of the PVC membranes were increased to 161% and 156% under 40 kw/m2 and 50 kw/m2 respectively, which is accordant to the result of experiments and suggest that the presence of DPK has a good flame retardant effect.

  16. Plant-made trastuzumab (herceptin inhibits HER2/Neu+ cell proliferation and retards tumor growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana V Komarova

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plant biotechnology provides a valuable contribution to global health, in part because it can decrease the cost of pharmaceutical products. Breast cancer can now be successfully treated by a humanized monoclonal antibody (mAb, trastuzumab (Herceptin. A course of treatment, however, is expensive and requires repeated administrations of the mAb. Here we used an Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression system to produce trastuzumab in plant cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We describe the cloning and expression of gene constructs in Nicotiana benthamiana plants using intron-optimized Tobacco mosaic virus- and Potato virus X-based vectors encoding, respectively, the heavy and light chains of trastuzumab. Full-size antibodies extracted and purified from plant tissues were tested for functionality and specificity by (i binding to HER2/neu on the surface of a human mammary gland adenocarcinoma cell line, SK-BR-3, in fluorescence-activated cell sorting assay and (ii testing the in vitro and in vivo inhibition of HER-2-expressing cancer cell proliferation. We show that plant-made trastuzumab (PMT bound to the Her2/neu oncoprotein of SK-BR-3 cells and efficiently inhibited SK-BR-3 cell proliferation. Furthermore, mouse intraperitoneal PMT administration retarded the growth of xenografted tumors derived from human ovarian cancer SKOV3 Her2+ cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that PMT is active in suppression of cell proliferation and tumor growth.

  17. Solution-mediated growth of NBA-ZSM-5 crystals retarded by gel entrapment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Mamani, Wilson; Akhtar, Farid; Hedlund, Jonas; Mouzon, Johanne

    2018-04-01

    The synthesis of flat tablet-shaped ZSM-5 crystals from a gel using metakaolin as aluminosilicate source and n-butyl amine as structure directing agent was investigated. The evolution inside the solid phase was characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, thermogravimetry and mass spectrometry. A kinetic study indicated that the nucleation of the majority crystals occurred concurrently with the formation of the gel upon heating the starting liquid suspension. Microstructural evidences undeniably showed that the gel precipitated on ZSM-5 crystals and mineral impurities originating from kaolin. As a result, crystal growth was retarded by gel entrapment, as indicated by the configuration and morphology of the embedded crystals. The results presented herein are harmonized with a solution-mediated nucleation and growth mechanism. Our observations differ from the autocatalytic model that suggests that the nuclei rest inside the gel until released when the gel is consumed. Our results show instead that it is crystals that formed in an early stage before entrapment inside the gel that rest inside the gel until exposed at the gel surface. These results illustrate the limitation of the classical method used in the field to determine nucleation profiles when the crystals become trapped inside the gel.

  18. Yogurt protects against growth retardation in weanling rats fed diets high in phytic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaetke, Lisa M.; McClain, Craig J.; Toleman, C. Jean; Stuart, Mary A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the affects of adding yogurt to animal diets which were high in phytic acid (PA) and adequate in zinc (38 μg Zn/g). The PA:Zn molar ratio was 60:1. Zinc status was determined by documenting growth and measuring the zinc concentration in bone (tibia) and plasma. For 25 days, 6 groups (n=6) of Sprague-Dawley weanling rats were fed one of the following AIN-76 diets. Half of the diets contained PA. Four of the diets contained yogurt with either active or heat-treated (inactive) cultures added at 25% of the diet. Diets: (without PA) 1) AIN, 2) AIN with active yogurt, 3) AIN and inactive yogurt; and (with PA) 4) AIN with PA, 5) AIN with PA plus active yogurt, and 6) AIN with PA plus inactive yogurt. Body weight, weight gain, and zinc concentration in bone and plasma were measured, and feed efficiency ratio (FER) was calculated. Rats fed diets with PA and yogurt had normal growth compared to the control group. Growth retardation was evident in the group fed the diet with PA and no yogurt. This group had significantly lower body weight compared to all other groups (p<0.05). Rats fed diets with PA, with or without yogurt, had significantly lower zinc concentration in bone and plasma (p<0.05). Adding yogurt to diets high in PA resulted in normal growth in weanling rats, however, zinc concentration in bone and plasma was still sub-optimal. PMID:19269152

  19. Growth hormone treatment in cartilage-hair hypoplasia: effects on growth and the immune system.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocca, G.; Weemaes, C.M.R.; Burgt, C.J.A.M. van der; Otten, B.J.

    2004-01-01

    Cartilage-hair hypoplasia (CHH) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by metaphyseal chondrodysplasia with severe growth retardation and impaired immunity. We studied the effects of growth hormone treatment on growth parameters and the immune system in four children with CHH. The

  20. Color Doppler myocardial imaging demonstrates reduced diastolic tissue velocity in growth retarded fetuses with flow redistribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Lene U; Petersen, Olav B; Sloth, Erik; Uldbjerg, Niels

    2011-04-01

    In fetuses suffering from intrauterine growth retardation with cerebroplacental redistribution (IUGR CPR), the diastolic heart function may be particularly susceptible to hypoxemia as described in postnatal pathological conditions. Using the newly introduced ultrasound technique, color Doppler myocardial imaging (CDMI), we investigated the correlation between diastolic tissue velocities and diastolic blood flow velocities and compared diastolic myocardial tissue velocities in fetuses with IUGR CPR and normal fetuses. Peak early and active atrial tissue velocities (E' and A') were acquired from both ventricular free walls in 18 fetuses with IUGR CPR and 42 normal fetuses. In 35 normal fetuses, blood flow across the atrio-ventricular valves was also recorded. Umbilical artery (UA), middle cerebral artery (MCA) and ductus venosus (DV) flows were obtained in all fetuses. Nonparametric tests were used for statistical analysis. There was a tendency towards increased E' and A' with fetal age in normal pregnancies. No correlation between tissue velocity and blood flow velocity was established. IUGR CPR fetuses had significantly lower E' and A', but when indexing to heart length, only A' remained significantly lower. E'/A' ratio was increased in the left ventricle but unchanged in the right. CDMI is easily applicable during standard fetal echocardiography and provides new information on the diastolic properties of the fetal myocardium. In fetuses with IUGR CPR, diastolic tissue velocities are abnormal and especially A' may be a marker of diastolic dysfunction. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Epigenetics of hypoxic pulmonary arterial hypertension following intrauterine growth retardation rat: epigenetics in PAH following IUGR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Xue-Feng

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accumulating evidence reveals that intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR can cause varying degrees of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH later in life. Moreover, epigenetics plays an important role in the fetal origin of adult disease. The goal of this study was to investigate the role of epigenetics in the development of PAH following IUGR. Methods The IUGR rats were established by maternal undernutrition during pregnancy. Pulmonary vascular endothelial cells (PVEC were isolated from the rat lungs by magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS. We investigated epigenetic regulation of the endothelin-1 (ET-1 gene in PVEC of 1-day and 6-week IUGR rats, and response of IUGR rats to hypoxia. Results The maternal nutrient restriction increased the histone acetylation and hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α binding levels in the ET-1 gene promoter of PVEC in IUGR newborn rats, and continued up to 6 weeks after birth. These epigenetic changes could result in an IUGR rat being highly sensitive to hypoxia later in life, causing more significant PAH or pulmonary vascular remodeling. Conclusions These findings suggest that epigenetics is closely associated with the development of hypoxic PAH following IUGR, further providing a new insight for improved prevention and treatment of IUGR-related PAH.

  2. Growth retardation due to idiopathic growth hormone deficiencies: MR findings in 24 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochi, M.; Morikawa, M.; Yoshimoto, M.; Kinoshita, E.; Hayashi, K.

    1992-01-01

    In this study we evaluated the pituitary-hypothalamic abnormalities of ''idiopathic growth hormone (GH) deficiency'' as demonstrated by MR imaging. Twenty-four patients were examined with a 1.5-T unit using spin echo T-1 weighted images. The patients were divided into two groups according to MR findings: those with ectopic posterior pituitary glands (12 patients), and those with normal posterior pituitary glands (12 patients). Ten patients in the former group and four in the latter group had small anterior pituitary glands. All patients in the former group but only four in the latter group had severe GH deficiencies. Multiple hormone deficiencies were found in eight patients in the former group, but in only two in the latter group. It is speculated that perinatal abnormalities can cause posterior pituitary ectopia and that there is a close correlation between breech delivery and the male disadvantage of posterior pituitary ectopia. Half of our patients with ''idiopathic GH deficiency'' had ectopic posterior pituitaries. GH deficiency with posterior pituitary ectopia should no longer be considered idiopathic because organic lesions can now be identified during life. (orig./GD)

  3. The effectiveness of resilience training on life satisfaction among mothers with mentally retarded children

    OpenAIRE

    Sahar Mirghobad Khodarahmi; Najmeh Sedrpoushan; Fatemeh Rezaei

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates the effectiveness of resilience training on life satisfaction among the mothers with mentally retarded children. The method is semi experimental using pretest posttest with control group. Statistical population of research includes elementary mentally retarded student who were enrolled in Najafabad Sareban exceptional school over the period 2012-2013 educational year. Sample group includes 50 subjects who randomly replaced in control and experimental groups. Exp...

  4. Intrauterine Growth Retarded Progeny of Pregnant Sows Fed High Protein:Low Carbohydrate Diet Is Related to Metabolic Energy Deficit

    OpenAIRE

    Metges, Cornelia C.; Lang, Iris S.; Hennig, Ulf; Br?ssow, Klaus-Peter; Kanitz, Ellen; Tuchscherer, Margret; Schneider, Falk; Weitzel, Joachim M.; Steinhoff-Ooster, Anika; Sauerwein, Helga; Bellmann, Olaf; N?rnberg, Gerd; Rehfeldt, Charlotte; Otten, Winfried

    2012-01-01

    High and low protein diets fed to pregnant adolescent sows led to intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). To explore underlying mechanisms, sow plasma metabolite and hormone concentrations were analyzed during different pregnancy stages and correlated with litter weight (LW) at birth, sow body weight and back fat thickness. Sows were fed diets with low (6.5%, LP), adequate (12.1%, AP), and high (30%, HP) protein levels, made isoenergetic by adjusted carbohydrate content. At -5, 24, 66, and 10...

  5. Retardation effects on the dispersion and propagation of plasmons in metallic nanoparticle chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Charles A.; Mariani, Eros; Weick, Guillaume

    2018-01-01

    We consider a chain of regularly-spaced spherical metallic nanoparticles, where each particle supports three degenerate localized surface plasmons. Due to the dipolar interaction between the nanoparticles, the localized plasmons couple to form extended collective modes. Using an open quantum system approach in which the collective plasmons are interacting with vacuum electromagnetic modes and which, importantly, readily incorporates retardation via the light-matter coupling, we analytically evaluate the resulting radiative frequency shifts of the plasmonic bandstructure. For subwavelength-sized nanoparticles, our analytical treatment provides an excellent quantitative agreement with the results stemming from laborious numerical calculations based on fully-retarded solutions to Maxwell’s equations. Indeed, the explicit expressions for the plasmonic spectrum which we provide showcase how including retardation gives rise to a logarithmic singularity in the bandstructure of transverse-polarized plasmons. We further study the impact of retardation effects on the propagation of plasmonic excitations along the chain. While for the longitudinal modes, retardation has a negligible effect, we find that the retarded dipolar interaction can significantly modify the plasmon propagation in the case of transverse-polarized modes. Moreover, our results elucidate the analogy between radiative effects in nanoplasmonic systems and the cooperative Lamb shift in atomic physics.

  6. Intrauterine growth retardation in Iowa communities with herbicide-contaminated drinking water supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munger, R.; Isacson, P.; Hu, S.; Burns, T.; Hanson, J.; Lynch, C.F.; Cherryholmes, K.; Van Dorpe, P.; Hausler, W.J.

    1997-01-01

    In a statewide survey of 856 Iowa municipal drinking water supplies in 1986-1987 the Rathbun rural water system was found to contain elevated levels of triazine herbicides. Rates of low birth weight, prematurity, and intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) in live singleton births during the period 1984-1990 by women living in 13 communities served by the Rathbun water system were compared to other communities of similar size in the same Iowa counties. The Rathbun communities had a greater risk of IUGR than southern Iowa communities with other surface sources of drinking water (relative risk = 1.8; 95% CI = 1.3, 2.7). Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that levels of the herbicides atrazine, metolachlor, and cyanazine were each significant predictors of community IUGR rates in southern Iowa after controlling for several potentially confounding factors including maternal smoking and socioeconomic variables. The association with IUGR was strongest for atrazine, but all three herbicides were intercorrelated and the independent contributions of each to IUGR risk could not be determined. We conclude that communities in southern Iowa with drinking water supplies contaminated with herbicides have elevated rates of IUGR compared to neighboring communities with different water supplies. Because of the limitations of the ecologic design of this study, including aggregate rather than individual measures of exposure and limited ability to control for confounding factors related to source of drinking water and risk of IUGR, a strong causal relationship between any specific water contaminant and risk of IUGR cannot yet be inferred. The association between the water supplied to the Rathbun communities and the increased risk of IUGR should be considered a preliminary finding that needs to be verified by more detailed epidemiologic studies.

  7. Ichthyosis, exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, impaired neutrophil chemotaxis, growth retardation, and metaphyseal dysplasia (Shwachman syndrome). : Report of a case with extensive skin lesions (clinical, histological, and ultrastructural findings)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Goeteyn (M.); A.P. Oranje (Arnold); V.D. Vuzevski (Vojislav); R. de Groot (Ronald); L.W.A. van Suijlekom-Smit (Lisette)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractThe Shwachman syndrome comprises exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, growth retardation, and bone marrow hypoplasia resulting in neutropenia. Clinical, morphological, and ultrastructural studies, as well as hair analysis, were performed in a patient with Shwachman's syndrome and severe

  8. Report of a consultants meeting on causes and consequences of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) in populations from developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) at its Headquarters in Vienna convened a consultants meeting from 9-13 December, 2002, to provide the Agency current insights into the application of nuclear and isotopic techniques as tool to support studies aimed at assessing the causes of Intrauterine Growth Retardation (IUGR). The consultants were: Dr. B. Caballero, Dr. D. Labadarios, Dr. G. Carroli, Dr. L.S. Bakketeig and Dr. P.T.V Nair. Representatives from the World Health Organization (WHO), Dr. G. Glugston and Dr. S. Khanum, were present as observers during the initial part of the meeting. Given the Consultants' areas of expertise and the topics covered in the discussions, the scope of the Meeting was modified to 'The application of isotopic and nuclear techniques to address the problem of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) in populations from developing countries'. The objectives of the meeting were to: (i) Evaluate the overall scope of a new co-ordinated research project (CRP) and suggest options for specific areas of research within that scope; (ii) Examine the applicability of nuclear and isotope based techniques in researches related to practical approaches for monitoring maternal weight and weight gain during pregnancy (e.g. body composition and energy balance assessment); (iii) Establish harmonised methods and criteria for appropriate weight gain and foetal growth charts for pregnant women in developing countries; (iv) Suggest approaches to assess the effectiveness of nutrition interventions aimed at reducing IUGR and its consequences. This meeting benefited from the broad areas of experience of scientists from both developed and developing countries. Their expertise in the use of isotopes and nuclear techniques, and in studies on human nutrition, epidemiology, IUGR, Low birth weight and undernutrition provided the advocacy and approaches to fellow in the application of nuclear and isotopic techniques as part of maternal malnutrition and IUGR studies

  9. Multigenerational effects evaluation of the flame retardant tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) using Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraudo, Maeva; Dubé, Maxime; Lépine, Mélanie; Gagnon, Pierre; Douville, Mélanie; Houde, Magali

    2017-09-01

    Tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) is an organophosphate ester used as substitute following the phase-out of brominated flamed retardants. Because of its high production volume and its use in a broad range of applications, this chemical is now frequently detected in the environment and biota. However, limited information is available on the long-term effects of TBOEP in aquatic organisms. In this study, Daphnia magna were exposed over three 21d generations to an environmentally relevant concentration of TBOEP (10μg/L) and effects were evaluated at the gene transcription, protein, and life-history (i.e., survival, reproduction and growth) levels. Chronic exposure to TBEOP did not impact survival or reproduction of D. magna but affected the growth output. The mean number of molts was also found to be lower in daphnids exposed to the chemical compared to control for a given generation, however there were no significant differences over the three generations. Molecular responses indicated significant differences in the transcription of genes related to growth, molting, ecdysteroid and juvenile hormone signaling, proteolysis, oxidative stress, and oxygen transport within generations. Levels of mRNA were also found to be significantly different for genes known to be involved in endocrine-mediated mechanisms such as reproduction and growth between generations F0, F1, and F2, indicating effects of parental exposure on offspring. Transcription results were supported by protein analyses with the significant decreased in catalase (CAT) activity in F1 generation, following the decreased transcription of cat in the parental generation. Taken together, these multi-biological level results suggest long-term potential endocrine disruption effects of TBOEP in D. magna exposed to an environmentally relevant concentration. This study highlights the importance of using chronic and multigenerational biological evaluation to assess risks of emerging chemicals. Crown Copyright

  10. Deletion of the MBII-85 snoRNA gene cluster in mice results in postnatal growth retardation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris V Skryabin

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS [MIM 176270] is a neurogenetic disorder characterized by decreased fetal activity, muscular hypotonia, failure to thrive, short stature, obesity, mental retardation, and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. It is caused by the loss of function of one or more imprinted, paternally expressed genes on the proximal long arm of chromosome 15. Several potential PWS mouse models involving the orthologous region on chromosome 7C exist. Based on the analysis of deletions in the mouse and gene expression in PWS patients with chromosomal translocations, a critical region (PWScr for neonatal lethality, failure to thrive, and growth retardation was narrowed to the locus containing a cluster of neuronally expressed MBII-85 small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA genes. Here, we report the deletion of PWScr. Mice carrying the maternally inherited allele (PWScr(m-/p+ are indistinguishable from wild-type littermates. All those with the paternally inherited allele (PWScr(m+/p- consistently display postnatal growth retardation, with about 15% postnatal lethality in C57BL/6, but not FVB/N crosses. This is the first example in a multicellular organism of genetic deletion of a C/D box snoRNA gene resulting in a pronounced phenotype.

  11. Synergistic effect of a novel triazine charring agent and ammonium polyphosphate on the flame retardant properties of halogen-free flame retardant polypropylene composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Caimin; Liang, Minyi; Jiang, Jiali; Huang, Jianguang, E-mail: hjguang@139.com; Liu, Hongbo, E-mail: 962651061@qq.com

    2016-03-20

    Highlights: • A novel triazine charring agent was prepared, and the synergistic effect has been studied between APP and novel charring agent. • The novel IFR system presents excellent flame retardant properties and smoke suppression ability. • The flame retardant mechanism shows that it has high graphitization degree and good shield properties of the char layer. - Abstract: A novel triazine charring agent poly(4,6-dichloro-N-butyl-1,3,5-triazin-2-amine-ethylenediamine) (CNCD-DA) was synthesized, which had good thermal stability and char-forming ability. The synergistic effects between ammonium polyphosphate (APP) and CNCD-DA on flame retardant properties and mechanism of polypropylene (PP) were investigated by the limited oxygen index (LOI), vertical burning test (UL-94), cone calorimeter test (CCT), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), laser Raman spectroscopy analysis (LRS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results illustrated when the mass ratio of APP to CNCD-DA was 3:1 with 30% loading, the intumescent flame retardant (IFR) showed the best synergistic effect with LOI value reaching 36.5%, and the IFR could greatly suppress the generation of the flame and smoke during combustion. The results from SEM, TGA, LRS and FTIR indicated that during the combustion IFR could form a continuous and intumescent char containing P−O−P and P−O−C crosslinking structures and polyaromatic structures, thus effectively retard the combustion of PP.

  12. Synergistic effects of iron powder on intumescent flame retardant polypropylene system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of iron powder as a synergistic agent on the flame retardancy of intumescent flame retardant polypropylene composites (IFR-PP were studied. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and cone calorimeter (CONE were used to evaluate the synergistic effects of iron powder (Fe. The TGA data showed that Fe could enhance the thermal stability of the IFR-PP systems at high temperature and effectively increase the char residue formation. The CONE results revealed that Fe and IFR could clearly change the decomposition behavior of PP and form a char layer on the surface of the composites, consequently resulting in efficient reduction of the flammability parameters, such as heat release rate (HRR, mass loss (ML, Mass loss rate (MLR, total heat release (THR, carbon monoxide and so on. Thus, a suitable amount of Fe plays a synergistic effect in the flame retardancy of IFR composites.

  13. Air tankers in Southern California Fires...effectiveness in delivering retardants rated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore G. Storey; Leon W. Cooley

    1967-01-01

    Eleven air attack experts were asked to rate 12 models of fixed-wing tankers and light helitankers for effectiveness ill delivering chemical fire retardants under 21 typical situations. They rated fixed-wing tankers as more effective in strong wind crosswinds, and downwind approaches, but helitankers as more effective in narrow canyons and on steep slopes. Certain...

  14. The impact of disease and antirheumatic therapy factors on growth retardation in children suffering from juvenile rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. Bzarova

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available THE STUDY EVALUATED THE IMPACT OF REFRACTORY JUVENILE IDIOPATHIC ARTHRITIS (JIA AND INTERFERENCE OF ANTIRHEUMATIC THERAPY ON PHYSICAL STATURE AND GROWTH AND PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT IN CHILDREN. WE OBSERVED 133 PATIENTS WITH JIA WITH AGE FROM 4.6 TO 18 YEARS. WE ASSESSED PATIENTS' PHYSICAL STATURE (DOCUMENTING HEIGHT AND WEIGHT AND FURTHER GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT STARING FROM BIRTH, BEFORE THE ONSET OF JIA, AT THE FIRST YEAR FROM THE ONSET OF THE DISB EASE AND LATER ON. PHYSICAL RETARDATION WAS MARKED IN ALL CHILDREN IN THE FIRST YEAR FROM THE ONSET OF JIA. SYSTEMIC JIA, WHICH IS KNOWN FOR HIGH ACTIVITY AND POLYARTICULAR OR GENERALIZED JOINT LESION, WAS LINKED TO SIGNIFICANT PHYSICAL RETARDATION IN ALL CHILDREN WITH SYSBTEMIC JIA. LONGBTERM GLUCOCORTICOID ADMINISTRATION, EVEN AT LOW DOSES, ACCENTUATED THE NEGATIVE IMPACT OF JIA ON GROWTH RESULTING IN MARKED GROWTH DELAY OR ITS' TOTAL ARREST. WE HAVE ELABORATED RISK FACTORS FOR SHORT STATURE IN CHILDREN WITH JIA, WHICH SUGGEST THERAPY GUIDELINES, PRESENTED IN THIS ARTICLE.KEY WORDS: JUVENILE IDIOPATHIC ARTHRITIS, СHILDREN.

  15. Chlorpyrifos reduces nickel-induced growth retardation of the soil dwelling Collembolan Folsomia candida.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broerse, M.; van Gestel, C.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    For 7 weeks, we studied the effects on body size and growth rate of Folsomia candida exposed to nickel and chlorpyrifos and their mixtures in a natural Lufa 2.2 soil. Nickel significantly reduced the development of body size of the springtails, although no complete dose-response curve was obtained.

  16. Effect of biochar on mechanical and flame retardant properties of wood - Plastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingfa; Cai, Hongzhen; Yang, Keyan; Yi, Weiming

    Biochar/wood/plastic composites were prepared with different biochar content by the extrusion method, and the mechanical properties and flame retardant properties were tested. The study indicated that: with the increase of biochar content, the mechanical properties of the composites tended to rise at first and then fell. This suggested that the appropriate amount of biochar can promote the mechanical properties of the biochar/wood/plastic composites. Though both Mg(OH)2 and Al(OH)3 could improve the Flame retardant properties of the material evidently, Mg(OH)2 obtained a better effect than Al(OH)3. In particular, when the adding amount of Mg(OH)2 is 40 wt%, the flame retardant effect is the best. Al(OH)3 can reduce the mechanical properties of the material, while Mg(OH)2 could evidently promote the tensile strength and impact resistance strength of the material.

  17. The Effects of a Vitamin Supplement on the Pica of a Child with Severe Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Gary M.; Toyer, Edward A.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of a common multiple vitamin on the pica of a 9-year-old with severe mental retardation and anemia were evaluated. A BAB design revealed that pica was decreased by the vitamin. Further research investigating the generality of this finding and effects of combining biological and behavioral interventions are discussed. (Contains five…

  18. Flame Retardant Effect of Aerogel and Nanosilica on Engineered Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Martha K.; Smith, Trent M.; Roberson, Luke B.; Yang, Feng; Nelson, Gordon L.

    2010-01-01

    Aerogels are typically manufactured vIa high temperature and pressure-critical-point drying of a colloidal metal oxide gel filled with solvents. Aerogel materials derived from silica materials represent a structural morphology (amorphous, open-celled nanofoams) rather than a particular chemical constituency. Aerogel is not like conventional foams in that it is a porous material with extreme microporosity and composed of individual features only a few nanometers in length with a highly porous dendriticlike structure. This unique substance has unusual properties such as low thermal conductivity, refractive index and sound suppression; in addition to its exceptional ability to capture fast moving dust. The highly porous nature of the aerogel's structure provides large amounts of surface area per unit weight. For instance, a silica aerogel material with a density of 100 kilograms per cubic meters can have surface areas of around 800 to 1500 square meters per gram depending on the precursors and process utilized to produce it. To take advantage of the unique properties of silica aerogels, especially the ultra light weight and low thermal conductivity, their composites with various engineering polymers were prepared and their flammability was investigated by Cone Calorimetry. The flammability of various polystyrene/silica aerogel nanocomposites were measured. The combination of these nanocomposites with a NASA patented flame retardant SINK were also studied. The results were compared with the base polymer to show the differences between composites with different forms of silica.

  19. Effect of clays on the fire-retardant properties of a polyethylenic copolymer containing intumescent formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Simone P S; Estevão, Luciana R M; Nascimento, Regina S V

    2008-04-01

    Organophilic clay particles were added to a standard intumescent formulation and, since the role of clay expansion or intercalation is still a matter of much controversy, several clays with varying degrees of interlayer distances were evaluated. The composites were obtained by blending the nanostructured clay and the intumescent system with a polyethylenic copolymer. The flame-retardant properties of the materials were evaluated by the limiting oxygen index (LOI), the UL-94 rating and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results showed that the addition of highly expanded clays to the ammonium polyphosphate and pentaerythritol formulation does not significantly increase the flame retardancy of the mixture, when measured by the LOI and UL-94. However, when clays with smaller basal distances were added to the intumescent formulation, a synergistic effect was observed. In contrast, the simple addition of clays to the copolymer, without the intumescent formulation, did not increase the fire retardance of the materials.

  20. Effect of clays on the fire-retardant properties of a polyethylenic copolymer containing intumescent formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone P S Ribeiro et al

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Organophilic clay particles were added to a standard intumescent formulation and, since the role of clay expansion or intercalation is still a matter of much controversy, several clays with varying degrees of interlayer distances were evaluated. The composites were obtained by blending the nanostructured clay and the intumescent system with a polyethylenic copolymer. The flame-retardant properties of the materials were evaluated by the limiting oxygen index (LOI, the UL-94 rating and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. The results showed that the addition of highly expanded clays to the ammonium polyphosphate and pentaerythritol formulation does not significantly increase the flame retardancy of the mixture, when measured by the LOI and UL-94. However, when clays with smaller basal distances were added to the intumescent formulation, a synergistic effect was observed. In contrast, the simple addition of clays to the copolymer, without the intumescent formulation, did not increase the fire retardance of the materials.

  1. Effect of retardation on the reflectance properties of the metallic Fibonacci quasi-superlattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Weiguo; Yao Hesheng; Xu Xiang

    1989-12-01

    Based on the hydrodynamic model theory and the transfer matrix method, we have re-examined the reflection properties by taking account of the retardation effect to the system of the metallic Fibonacci quasi-superlattice. For the normal incident S-polarized Soft X-rays and extreme ultraviolet, we find that the self-similar reflecting spectrum will be restrained with the increasing of the retardation, but for the higher frequency region or at the smaller grazing angle, the self similarity will still exist for the lower generation quasi-superlattice. (author). 19 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  2. Hypoxia-activated genes from early placenta are elevated in Preeclampsia, but not in Intra-Uterine Growth Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaiman, Daniel; Mondon, Françoise; Garcès-Duran, Alexandra; Mignot, Thérèse-Marie; Robert, Brigitte; Rebourcet, Régis; Jammes, Hélène; Chelbi, Sonia T; Quetin, Frédérique; Marceau, Geoffrey; Sapin, Vincent; Piumi, François; Danan, Jean-Louis; Rigourd, Virginie; Carbonne, Bruno; Ferré, Françoise

    2005-01-01

    Background As a first step to explore the possible relationships existing between the effects of low oxygen pressure in the first trimester placenta and placental pathologies developing from mid-gestation, two subtracted libraries totaling 2304 cDNA clones were constructed. For achieving this, two reciprocal suppressive/subtractive hybridization procedures (SSH) were applied to early (11 weeks) human placental villi after incubation either in normoxic or in hypoxic conditions. The clones from both libraries (1440 hypoxia-specific and 864 normoxia-specific) were spotted on nylon macroarrays. Complex cDNAs probes prepared from placental villi (either from early pregnancy, after hypoxic or normoxic culture conditions, or near term for controls or pathological placentas) were hybridized to the membranes. Results Three hundred and fifty nine clones presenting a hybridization signal above the background were sequenced and shown to correspond to 276 different genes. Nine of these genes are mitochondrial, while 267 are nuclear. Specific expression profiles characteristic of preeclampsia (PE) could be identified, as well as profiles specific of intra-uterine growth retardation (IUGR). Focusing on the chromosomal distribution of the fraction of genes that responded in at least one hybridization experiment, we could observe a highly significant chromosomal clustering of 54 genes into 8 chromosomal regions, four of which containing imprinted genes. Comparative mapping data indicate that these imprinted clusters are maintained in synteny in mice, and apparently in cattle and pigs, suggesting that the maintenance of such syntenies is requested for achieving a normal placental physiology in eutherian mammals. Conclusion We could demonstrate that genes induced in PE were also genes highly expressed under hypoxic conditions (P = 5.10-5), which was not the case for isolated IUGR. Highly expressed placental genes may be in syntenies conserved interspecifically, suggesting that the

  3. Hypoxia-activated genes from early placenta are elevated in Preeclampsia, but not in Intra-Uterine Growth Retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danan Jean-Louis

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a first step to explore the possible relationships existing between the effects of low oxygen pressure in the first trimester placenta and placental pathologies developing from mid-gestation, two subtracted libraries totaling 2304 cDNA clones were constructed. For achieving this, two reciprocal suppressive/subtractive hybridization procedures (SSH were applied to early (11 weeks human placental villi after incubation either in normoxic or in hypoxic conditions. The clones from both libraries (1440 hypoxia-specific and 864 normoxia-specific were spotted on nylon macroarrays. Complex cDNAs probes prepared from placental villi (either from early pregnancy, after hypoxic or normoxic culture conditions, or near term for controls or pathological placentas were hybridized to the membranes. Results Three hundred and fifty nine clones presenting a hybridization signal above the background were sequenced and shown to correspond to 276 different genes. Nine of these genes are mitochondrial, while 267 are nuclear. Specific expression profiles characteristic of preeclampsia (PE could be identified, as well as profiles specific of intra-uterine growth retardation (IUGR. Focusing on the chromosomal distribution of the fraction of genes that responded in at least one hybridization experiment, we could observe a highly significant chromosomal clustering of 54 genes into 8 chromosomal regions, four of which containing imprinted genes. Comparative mapping data indicate that these imprinted clusters are maintained in synteny in mice, and apparently in cattle and pigs, suggesting that the maintenance of such syntenies is requested for achieving a normal placental physiology in eutherian mammals. Conclusion We could demonstrate that genes induced in PE were also genes highly expressed under hypoxic conditions (P = 5.10-5, which was not the case for isolated IUGR. Highly expressed placental genes may be in syntenies conserved interspecifically

  4. High fat diet induced developmental defects in the mouse: oocyte meiotic aneuploidy and fetal growth retardation/brain defects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerri M Luzzo

    Full Text Available Maternal obesity is associated with poor outcomes across the reproductive spectrum including infertility, increased time to pregnancy, early pregnancy loss, fetal loss, congenital abnormalities and neonatal conditions. Furthermore, the proportion of reproductive-aged woman that are obese in the population is increasing sharply. From current studies it is not clear if the origin of the reproductive complications is attributable to problems that arise in the oocyte or the uterine environment.We examined the developmental basis of the reproductive phenotypes in obese animals by employing a high fat diet mouse model of obesity. We analyzed very early embryonic and fetal phenotypes, which can be parsed into three abnormal developmental processes that occur in obese mothers. The first is oocyte meiotic aneuploidy that then leads to early embryonic loss. The second is an abnormal process distinct from meiotic aneuploidy that also leads to early embryonic loss. The third is fetal growth retardation and brain developmental abnormalities, which based on embryo transfer experiments are not due to the obese uterine environment but instead must be from a defect that arises prior to the blastocyst stage.Our results suggest that reproductive complications in obese females are, at least in part, from oocyte maternal effects. This conclusion is consistent with IVF studies where the increased pregnancy failure rate in obese women returns to the normal rate if donor oocytes are used instead of autologous oocytes. We postulate that preconceptional weight gain adversely affects pregnancy outcomes and fetal development. In light of our findings, preconceptional counseling may be indicated as the preferable, earlier target for intervention in obese women desiring pregnancy and healthy outcomes.

  5. Effect of a Summer Camp Program on Self-Concept of Mentally Retarded Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourcade, Jack

    The effectiveness of a summer camp program in enhancing self-concept was investigated with 13 mildly and moderately mentally retarded young adults. The California Test of Personality, Primary Level, was utilized as the measure of self-concept. Results indicated significant improvement in self-concept of the experimental group over the 2-week camp…

  6. EFFECTS OF OVERTRAINING ON REVERSAL AND NONREVERSAL SHIFTS IN NORMAL AND RETARDED CHILDREN. FINAL REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HINER, GLADYS; VINEY, WAYNE

    TO STUDY THE EFFECTS OF OVERTRAINING ON REVERSAL AND NONREVERSAL SHIFTS OF CUES, 96 NORMAL (MEAN AGE = 117 MONTHS, MEAN IQ = 109.8) AND 96 RETARDED CHILDREN (MEAN AGE = 119 MONTHS, MEAN IQ = 70.1) WERE TESTED ON A SIMULTANEOUS 2-CHOICE DISCRIMINATION TASK. SUBJECTS WERE TRAINED ON TWO LEVELS (CRITERION AND OVERTRAINING). FOLLOWING TRAINING ON THE…

  7. Effects of Organophosphorus Flame Retardants on Spontaneous Activity in Neuronal Networks Grown on Microelectrode Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    EFFECTS OF ORGANOPHOSPHORUS FLAME RETARDANTS ON SPONTANEOUS ACTIVITY IN NEURONAL NETWORKS GROWN ON MICROELECTRODE ARRAYS TJ Shafer1, K Wallace1, WR Mundy1, M Behl2,. 1Integrated Systems Toxicology Division, NHEERL, USEPA, RTP, NC, USA, 2National Toxicology Program, NIEHS, RTP, NC...

  8. The Effects of Basketball Training on the Maladaptive Behaviors of Trainable Mentally Retarded Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gencoz, Faruk

    1997-01-01

    The effects of basketball training on the maladaptive behaviors of 19 children (ages 10-14) with mental retardation were investigated. Results indicated the children showed a reduction in their level of maladaptive behavior at home and in school. This reduction was maintained 45 days later in a follow-up assessment. (Author/CR)

  9. Effect of urea additive on the thermal decomposition kinetics of flame retardant greige cotton nonwoven fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunghyun Nam; Brian D. Condon; Robert H. White; Qi Zhao; Fei Yao; Michael Santiago Cintrón

    2012-01-01

    Urea is well known to have a synergistic action with phosphorus-based flame retardants (FRs) in enhancing the FR performance of cellulosic materials, but the effect of urea on the thermal decomposition kinetics has not been thoroughly studied. In this study, the activation energy (Ea) for the thermal decomposition of greige...

  10. Investigation of the Effectiveness of the Story-Map Method on Reading Comprehension Skills among Students with Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isikdogan, Necla; Kargin, Tevhide

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the story-map technique on reading comprehension skills among students with mild mental retardation. The research group consisted of 14 students with mild mental retardation. The students in the research group were chosen from students who attended to an elementary school and a…

  11. Retarding effect of prior-overloading on stress corrosion cracking of cold rolled 316L SS in simulated PWR water environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junjie; Lu, Zhanpeng; Xiao, Qian; Ru, Xiangkun; Ma, Jiarong; Shoji, Tetsuo

    2017-12-01

    The effect of prior single tensile overloading on the stress corrosion cracking behavior of cold rolled 316L in a simulated PWR water environment at 310 °C was investigated. SCC growth retardation by overloading was observed in cold rolled 316L specimens in both the T-L and L-T orientations. The stretch zone observed on the fracture surfaces of the overloaded specimens affected SCC propagation. The compressive residual stress induced by overloading process reduced the effective driving force of SCC propagation. The negative dK/da effect ahead of the crack tip likely contributes to the retardation of SCC growth. The duration of overloading is dependent on water chemistry and the local stress conditions.

  12. Etiology and treatment of growth retardation in children with chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease: a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Richard N

    2010-04-01

    Dramatic changes have occurred in our understanding of the etiology of the growth retardation associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) during the past 50 years. Significant interest has been focused on preventing and/or correcting the growth retardation because of the emergence of the dual therapeutic modalities of dialysis and renal transplantation to prolong the lives of infants, children, and adolescents afflicted with CKD and ESRD. These efforts have resulted in a significant improvement in the height Z-score over the past two decades of children with CKD and ESRD. This has had a salutary impact on the final adult height of such children which should hopefully lead to an enhanced quality of life in the future. This report addresses the progress that has been made in the management of growth retardation in the pediatric population with CKD and ESRD.

  13. Intrauterine growth retardation and consequences for endocrine and cardiovascular diseases in adult life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rikke Bodin Beck; Chellakooty, Marla; Vielwerth, Signe

    2003-01-01

    Low birth weight has been associated with an increased incidence of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and type 2 diabetes. Endocrine regulation of fetal growth by growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I is complex. Placental GH is detectable in maternal serum from the 8th to the 12th...... postnatal growth, insulin resistance and consequently the risk of cardiovascular disease. Thus IGF-I may serve as a link between fetal growth and adult-onset disease....

  14. Synergistic effect between ammonium polyphosphate and expandable graphite on flame-retarded poly(butylene terephthalate)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weizhou; Ren, Jiawei; Wei, Ting; Guo, Weihong

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, the synergistic effect of ammonium polyphosphate (APP) and expandable graphite (EG) on flame-retarded poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT) was systermically investigated using limiting oxygen index (LOI), UL-94 testing, microscale combustion calorimetry (MCC), thermal-gravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). PBT composites containing 20 wt% of APP: EG (1:3) combinations exhibits a high LOI value of 29.8 and reaches V-0 rating in UL-94 testing, indicating that the flame retardant property is greatly enhanced compared to the composites solely with APP or EG. SEM images show that the combination of APP and EG could promote the formation of a compact char layer. The compact char layer protects the PBT resin efficiently by preventing penetration of heat flux inside the matrix and retards the decomposition of PBT, consequently improves the thermal stability of PBT materials as revealed by TGA. All of the results demonstrate that APP and EG are high efficiency synergists for improving the flame retardation of PBT materials.

  15. The Effect of Core Stabilization Training Program on the Balance of Mentally Retarded Educable Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Daneshmandi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of core stabilization training program on the balance of mentally retarded educable students. Materials & Methods: The research was use Application of Quasi-experimental design with pretest and posttest control group. Our subjects included 31 students boys mentally retarded in the two groups (control, 14 patients with a mean age of 11.07±3.02years, height 152±7.86cm, weight 44.07 ± 8.08kg and (17experimental group with a mean age 11.23 ± 1.95years, height 147±7.07cm, weighing 38.11±4.85kg of the sample selected. Demographic data includes: height, weight and medical records and also the IQ of them were collected. The training program of experimental group that for 6 weeks, 3 times a week in the first three weeks experimental group performed exercise the 2 sets with 5 repetitions and three the second week of 2 sets with 10 repetitions and for evaluate used the dynamic balance Y test. For analysis data used the paired T test and independent test. Results: Results showed significant differences in mean posterior-lateral and posterior-medial in the experimental group in post-test (P&le0.05. Conclusion: People with mental retardation compared with normal people have problems with delays in motor development that seems to cause deficit in the balance. Due to the lack of balance in the people with mental retarded and the importance of balance in daily activities and the effects of core stability training on the balance was showed this training improve balance in these individuals, on base of the results of this research the core stability exercises can be performed for mental retarded by coaches and teachers.

  16. Intrauterine growth retardation and consequences for endocrine and cardiovascular diseases in adult life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rikke Bodin Beck; Chellakooty, Marla; Vielwerth, Signe

    2003-01-01

    Low birth weight has been associated with an increased incidence of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and type 2 diabetes. Endocrine regulation of fetal growth by growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I is complex. Placental GH is detectable in maternal serum from the 8th to the 12...... postnatal growth, insulin resistance and consequently the risk of cardiovascular disease. Thus IGF-I may serve as a link between fetal growth and adult-onset disease.......Low birth weight has been associated with an increased incidence of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and type 2 diabetes. Endocrine regulation of fetal growth by growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I is complex. Placental GH is detectable in maternal serum from the 8th to the 12th...

  17. Identification of a pathogenic FTO mutation by next-generation sequencing in a newborn with growth retardation and developmental delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoud, Hussein; Zhang, Dong; McMurray, Fiona; Yu, Andrea; Luco, Stephanie M; Vanstone, Jason; Jarinova, Olga; Carson, Nancy; Wickens, James; Shishodia, Shifali; Choi, Hwanho; McDonough, Michael A; Schofield, Christopher J; Harper, Mary-Ellen; Dyment, David A; Armour, Christine M

    2016-03-01

    A homozygous loss-of-function mutation p.(Arg316Gln) in the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene, which encodes for an iron and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent oxygenase, was previously identified in a large family in which nine affected individuals present with a lethal syndrome characterised by growth retardation and multiple malformations. To date, no other pathogenic mutation in FTO has been identified as a cause of multiple congenital malformations. We investigated a 21-month-old girl who presented distinctive facial features, failure to thrive, global developmental delay, left ventricular cardiac hypertrophy, reduced vision and bilateral hearing loss. We performed targeted next-generation sequencing of 4813 clinically relevant genes in the patient and her parents. We identified a novel FTO homozygous missense mutation (c.956C>T; p.(Ser319Phe)) in the affected individual. This mutation affects a highly conserved residue located in the same functional domain as the previously characterised mutation p.(Arg316Gln). Biochemical studies reveal that p.(Ser319Phe) FTO has reduced 2-oxoglutarate turnover and N-methyl-nucleoside demethylase activity. Our findings are consistent with previous reports that homozygous mutations in FTO can lead to rare growth retardation and developmental delay syndrome, and further support the proposal that FTO plays an important role in early development of human central nervous and cardiovascular systems. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. Memory function approach to retardation effects in the relativistic two-body problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilal, A.; Schuck, P.

    1984-08-01

    The memory function approach is applied to the relativistic two particle problem. We thus obtain integral equations similar to the Bethe-Salpeter equation, taking all retardation effects fully into account and eliminating the relative time variable. The formalism is studied for scalar Klein-Gordon fields as well as for spinorial Dirac fields. For both cases the memory function and the integral kernels are calculated for a given model explicitely. The scalar-scalar model of Cutkosky is treated in detail and numerical binding energies are obtained, very close to those of the original Bethe-Salpeter equation, thus showing the extreme importance of retardation effects. As an example for Dirac fields the memory function for a proton-antiproton pair interacting via exchange of a π 0 is established

  19. The effectiveness of resilience training on life satisfaction among mothers with mentally retarded children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Mirghobad Khodarahmi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the effectiveness of resilience training on life satisfaction among the mothers with mentally retarded children. The method is semi experimental using pretest posttest with control group. Statistical population of research includes elementary mentally retarded student who were enrolled in Najafabad Sareban exceptional school over the period 2012-2013 educational year. Sample group includes 50 subjects who randomly replaced in control and experimental groups. Experimental group members participated in a 10-session resilience training. Finally, both groups completed post-tests where research scales were Diener life satisfaction questionnaire. The data are analyzed by co-variance analysis test. Results are significant and indicates that resilience training is effective on life satisfaction (p<0.05.

  20. Effect of the operating temperature on hydrodynamics and membrane parameters in pressure retarded osmosis

    OpenAIRE

    Toauti, Khaled; Tadeo, Fernando; Hanel, C.; Schiestel, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Producción Científica The osmotic energy recovered by pressure-retarded osmosis from flows of different salinities is affected by the temperature, so its effect on hydrodynamic and membrane parameters is studied here. It is shown by models and experimental results that raising the temperature of the solutions leads to a variation in the mass transfer coefficient, the boundary layer, the diffusion coefficient, the solute resistivity, and the permeability, therefore, affecting the water flux...

  1. Performance Limiting Effects in Power Generation from Salinity Gradients by Pressure Retarded Osmosis

    KAUST Repository

    Yip, Ngai Yin

    2011-12-01

    Pressure retarded osmosis has the potential to utilize the free energy of mixing when fresh river water flows into the sea for clean and renewable power generation. Here, we present a systematic investigation of the performance limiting phenomena in pressure retarded osmosis-external concentration polarization, internal concentration polarization, and reverse draw salt flux-and offer insights on the design criteria of a high performance pressure retarded osmosis power generation system. Thin-film composite polyamide membranes were chemically modified to produce a range of membrane transport properties, and the water and salt permeabilities were characterized to determine the underlying permeability-selectivity trade-off relationship. We show that power density is constrained by the trade-off between permeability and selectivity of the membrane active layer. This behavior is attributed to the opposing influence of the beneficial effect of membrane water permeability and the detrimental impact of reverse salt flux coupled with internal concentration polarization. Our analysis reveals the intricate influence of active and support layer properties on power density and demonstrates that membrane performance is maximized by tailoring the water and salt permeabilities to the structural parameters. An analytical parameter that quantifies the relative influence of each performance limiting phenomena is employed to identify the dominant effect restricting productivity. External concentration polarization is shown to be the main factor limiting performance at high power densities. Enhancement of the hydrodynamic flow conditions in the membrane feed channel reduces external concentration polarization and thus, yields improved power density. However, doing so will also incur additional operating costs due to the accompanying hydraulic pressure loss. This study demonstrates that by thoughtful selection of the membrane properties and hydrodynamic conditions, the detrimental

  2. Deletions and rearrangements of the H19/IGF2 enhancer region in patients with Silver-Russell syndrome and growth retardation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønskov, Karen; Poole, Rebecca L; Hahnemann, Johanne M D

    2011-01-01

    Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS) is characterised by prenatal and postnatal growth retardation, dysmorphic facial features, and body asymmetry. In 35-60% of SRS cases the paternally methylated imprinting control region (ICR) upstream of the H19 gene (H19-ICR) is hypomethylated, leading to downregula...

  3. The relationship between the quantity and quality of prenatal movements in pregnancies complicated by intra-uterine growth retardation and premature rupture of the membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sival, D A; Visser, G H; Prechtl, H F

    1992-01-01

    In 17 fetuses with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), we studied the quantity of general movements and fetal breathing movements both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. In IUGR fetuses, cross-sectional comparisons were made between the quantity of fetal movements and (1) the fetal clinical

  4. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE QUANTITY AND QUALITY OF PRENATAL MOVEMENTS IN PREGNANCIES COMPLICATED BY INTRAUTERINE GROWTH-RETARDATION AND PREMATURE RUPTURE OF THE MEMBRANES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sival, DA; VISSER, GHA; PRECHTL, HFR

    1992-01-01

    In 17 fetuses with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), we studied the quantity of general movements and fetal breathing movements both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. In IUGR fetuses, cross-sectional comparisons were made between the quantity of fetal movements and (1) the fetal clinical

  5. Risk factors for preterm birth, low birth weight, and intrauterine growth retardation in infants born to HIV-infected pregnant women receiving zidovudine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambert, JS; Watts, DH; Mofenson, L; Stiehm, ER; Harris, DR; Bethel, J; Whitehouse, J; Jimenez, E; Gandia, J; Scott, G; O'Sullivan, MJ; Kovacs, A; Stek, A; Shearer, WT; Hammill, H; van Dyke, R; Maupin, R; Silio, M; Fowler, MG

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate independent contributions of maternal factors to adverse pregnancy outcomes (APO) in HIV-infected women receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). Design: Risk factors for preterm birth (<37 weeks gestation), low birth weight (LBW) (<2500 g), and intrauterine growth retardation

  6. Structural and functional development of small intestine in intrauterine growth retarded porcine offspring born to gilts fed diets with differing protein ratios throughout pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mickiewicz, M; Zabielski, R; Grenier, B

    2012-01-01

    Protein level in the maternal diet plays a crucial role in fetal programming during pregnancy. Low or high protein level increases the risk of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). The aim of this study was to investigate the structural and functional development of the small intestine in pigle...

  7. Structural and functional development of small intestine in intrauterine growth retarded porcine offspring born to gilts fed diets with differing protein ratios throughout pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mickiewicz, M; Zabielski, R; Grenier, B

    2012-01-01

    Protein level in the maternal diet plays a crucial role in fetal programming during pregnancy. Low or high protein level increases the risk of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). The aim of this study was to investigate the structural and functional development of the small intestine in piglets...

  8. Maternal health-related quality of life after induction of labor or expectant monitoring in pregnancy complicated by intrauterine growth retardation beyond 36 weeks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Bijlenga (Denise); K.E. Boers (Kim); E. Birnie (Erwin); B.W.J. Mol (Ben); S.C.M. Vijgen (Sylvia); J.A.M. van der Post (Joris); C.J.M. de Groot (Christianne); R.J.P. Rijnders (Robbert); P.J. Pernet (Paula); F.J.M.E. Roumen (Frans); R.H. Stigter (Rob); F.M.C. Delemarre (Friso); H.A. Bremer (Henk); M. Porath (Martina); S.A. Scherjon (Sico); G.J. Bonsel (Gouke)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) beyond 36 weeks of gestation are at increased risk of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Optimal treatment in IUGR at term is highly debated. Results from the multicenter DIGITAT (Disproportionate Intrauterine

  9. Effect of computer game intervention on the attention capacity of mentally retarded children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaiyan, Akram; Mohammadi, Eesa; Fallah, Parviz A

    2007-10-01

    The low rate of understanding and the limited domain of attention are two important and distinctive characteristics of mental retardation. One of the important strategies to provide effective education for these subjects is to lessen the backgrounds and impacts of these affective factors. The aim of this research was to find the effect of computer games program on the amount of mentally retarded persons' attention. Sixty educable male mentally retarded subjects were selected from two 24-h care centres in Tehran. The Toulouse-Pieron Scale was used to determinate the subjects' attention at pre-post test. Members of the experimental group were subjected to 35 sets of computer games. After use of the sets of computer games, the attention scores of the subjects were assessed immediately after the intervention and 5 weeks later. The results showed that exactly after the intervention the average attention scores of the experimental group were significantly higher than those of the control group. But, 5 weeks after the intervention, there was actually no significant difference.

  10. Growth retardants and nutrition characteristics of the Thompson seedless and Italia grape cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albuquerque Teresinha Costa Silveira de

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out in a greenhouse to evaluate the variability in macronutrient contents in relation to growth regulator sprays on ?Thompson Seedless? and ?Italia? grapevines. The treatments were: chlormequat - 1,500mg L-1; daminozide - 3,000mg L-1; uniconazole - 30mg L-1; mepiquat chloride - 300mg .L-1 and control. The cuttings were grafted on the ?Tropical? rootstock and were rooted in sand. After 105 days of growth they were transplanted to 35L pots with a mixture of 1:1:1 volume of sand, soil and organic matter. Grapevines were pruned each 150 days, leaving two canes with six buds each for the ?Italia? cultivar and with fifteen buds for the ?Thompson Seedless? cultivar. Water was supplied through drip irrigation (1L/plant/day. Grapevines were fertilized with 1L of manure and micronutrient solution at each pruning. Macronutrients (MAP-1.45g, Ca2NO3-3.42g, urea-1.61g de , KCl-3.53g and MgSO4-1.94g were suplied each 15 days during the plant growth. The petioles and the shoots were sampled each growth season (150 days and dry matter was evaluated for yield and macronutrient contents (N, P, K, Ca and Mg. Results show that the spray of growth regulators induced alteration in the macronutrient patterns due to the decrease of shoot rate growth and increase in fruitfull shoots.

  11. The retardation effect of structural graphite on the release of fission products in case of hypothetical accidents of HTRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iniotakis, N.; Decken, C.B. von der

    1982-01-01

    In case of a hypothetical core heat up accident of an HTR the structural graphite of the reactor causes under certain circumstances a very important retardation of the release of fission products into the containment building of the plant. A model is presented which describes the transport phenomena in the graphite structure extensively taking into account specially the macro-structure of the graphite. It is shown by parameter variations under which conditions one can expect a large retardation effect and quantitative values of this retardation, which can be very important, are given. (author)

  12. Combination effect of melamine polyphosphate and graphene on flame retardant properties of poly(vinyl alcohol)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Guobo; Liang Huading; Wang Yong; Wang Xu; Gao Jianrong; Fei Zhengdong

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► PVA/graphene/MPP composites were prepared by solvent blending. ► PVA/graphene systems improved the flame retardancy of the nanocomposites. ► Flame retardation mechanism was explained by SEM, FT-IR and XPS. - Abstract: A novel flame retardant poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/melamine polyphosphate (MPP)–graphene nanocomposite has been prepared by solvent blending. Results from X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) suggest that an excellent dispersion of exfoliated graphene and MPP in the PVA matrix was achieved. The thermal and flammability properties of the nanocomposite were investigated using thermogravimetry, cone calorimetry, and flammability tests (UL 94 and LOI). The presence of both MPP and graphene in the polymer matrix led to an enhanced thermal stability and significantly reduced flammability for the nanocomposite. PVA composites filled with 10 wt% MPP and 1 wt% graphene (PVA/G1/MPP10) achieved the LOI value of 29.6 and UL-94 V0 grade. Compared to pure PVA, the peak heat release rate (PHRR) of PVA/G1/MPP10 is reduced by about 60%. Meanwhile, the mechanical properties of PVA/G1/MPP10 composites exhibit almost no deterioration compared with pure PVA. The morphology and composition of residues generated after cone calorimeter tests were investigated by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The SEM images showed the compact and dense intumescent char jammed with graphene sheets was formed for PVA/G1/MPP10 during combustion. The results of XPS confirmed that carbon content of the char for PVA/G1/MPP10 is increased obviously by the combination effect of the flame retardant MPP and graphene.

  13. Synergistic effect of carbon nanotube and clay for improving the flame retardancy of ABS resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Haiyun [Institute of Polymer Composites, Key Laboratory of Macromolecular Synthesis and Functionalization, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Tong Lifang [Institute of Polymer Composites, Key Laboratory of Macromolecular Synthesis and Functionalization, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Xu Zhongbin [Institute of Polymer Composites, Key Laboratory of Macromolecular Synthesis and Functionalization, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Fang Zhengping [Institute of Polymer Composites, Key Laboratory of Macromolecular Synthesis and Functionalization, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2007-09-19

    Synergistic effect between multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) and clay on improving the flame retardancy of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) resin was studied. Flammability properties measured by a cone calorimeter revealed that incorporation of clay and MWNTs into ABS resin significantly reduced the peak heat release rate (PHRR) and slowed down the whole combustion process compared to the individually filled system based on clay or MWNTs. The flame retardancy of the ABS/clay/MWNTs nanocomposites was strongly affected by the formation of a network structure. Linear viscoelastic properties of the ABS nanocomposites showed that the coexistence of clay and MWNTs can enhance the network structure which can hinder the movement of polymer chains and improve flame retardancy. From transmission electron microscope analysis, MWNTs were shortened after combustion and there was no significant change in their diameters. For chars of ABS/clay/MWNTs nanocomposites, some MWNTs ran across between clay layers, indicating a strong interaction existed between clay and MWNTs. The existence of clay enhanced the graphitization degree of MWNTs during combustion. Clay can assist the elimination of dislocations and defects and the rearrangement of crystallites. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, one of the components of clay, acts as the catalyst of graphitization.

  14. THE SYNERGISTIC EFFECT OF HYBRID FLAME RETARDANTS ON PYROLYSIS BEHAVIOUR OF HYBRID COMPOSITE MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. ALBDIRY

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation is to comprehensively understand the polymeric composite behavior under direct fire sources. The synergistic effects of hybrid flame retardant material on inhabiting the pyrolysis of hybrid reinforced fibers, woven roving (0°- 45° carbon and kevlar (50/50 wt/wt, and an araldite resin composites were studied. The composites were synthesised and coated primarily by zinc borate (2ZnO.3B2O3.3.5H2O and modified by antimony trioxide (Sb2O3 with different amounts (10-30 wt% of flame retardant materials. In the experiments, the composite samples were exposed to a direct flame source generated by oxyacetylene flame (~3000ºC at variable exposure distances of 10-20 mm. The synergic flame retardants role of antimony trioxide and zinc borate on the composite surface noticeably improves the flame resistance of the composite which is attributed to forming a protective mass and heat barrier on the composite surface and increasing the melt viscosity.

  15. Effects on heat stress of a flame-retardant ensemble for aluminum smelters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Vizcaíno, C; Bernard, T E

    2000-01-01

    A common belief is that a flame-retardant clothing ensemble will increase the level of heat stress over ordinary cotton work clothes. This is supported by bench tests on fabrics that indicate higher insulation and vapor resistance values for flame-retardant clothing. This research compared a flame-retardant clothing ensemble for an aluminum smelter (Zirpo wool shirt and FR8 denim pants) with typical cotton work clothing. Four young men walked on a treadmill at two work levels inside a climatic chamber under controlled conditions of heat stress. During each test, heart rate, core temperature, and skin temperatures were continuously monitored and recorded every 5 min. After a physiological steady state was achieved, temperature and humidity were slowly increased to maintain a relative humidity of 50%. The critical condition was the time when thermal regulatory control was lost (called the inflection point, marked by a steady increase in core temperature). The climatic conditions at the inflection point were used to assign a critical wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT). A three-way analysis of variance examined the effects on critical WBGT of clothing, work level, subjects, and the interaction between clothing and work level. There were no significant findings. Therefore, there should be no difference in the level of heat stress between the two clothing ensembles under the same environmental and work conditions.

  16. Game System for Rehabilitation Based on Kinect is Effective for Mental Retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Ying

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Kinect has already been widely used in the area of retardation, and this study is to evaluate whether the Game System for Rehabilitation based on Kinect is effective for children with mental retardation. The subjects in this paper are 112 children with mental retardation in Zhejiang province of China. The Game System for Rehabilitation based on Kinect was applied to assist the rehabilitation of children. Before the training, the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI was used to evaluate abilities of children, including self-care, mobility, and social function. And after having been trained for a month, the abilities of these children were evaluated again by PEDI. The results in this paper is that, after the application of Game System for Rehabilitation based on Kinect, the PEDI score of children is significantly higher than the score before training. And it can be concluded that the Game System for Rehabilitation based on Kinect can significantly improve self-care, mobility, and social function of children with MR.

  17. Effect of Rhythmic Movement and Music on Attention Span of Mentally-Retarded Female Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyd Mahmoud Mirzamani

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This research is aimed to investigate the effect of rhythmic movement and music on attention span of mentally-retarded girl students. Materials & Methods: Twenty six mentally- retarded forth and fifth graded girls who were educating in an exceptional children school in shahr-e-rey participated in this survey. In this research which is an experimental–interventional study with a pretest-posttest and control group design, the students were selected by convenient sampling and assigned to two matched groups by balanced randomized method. Then musical activities intervention including music and rhythmic movements executed in experimental group for 15 weeks and twice in a week. During this period the control group received routine educational program. Before and after intervention, the attention spans of two groups were assessed by cancellation subscale of KLT. Data were analyzed by use of non – parametric statistical tests such as: Wilcoxon test and U-Man-Witney test. Results: There was significant difference in experimental group between mean of attention pretest and posttest scores (P<0/001, but in control group, there was no significant difference (P=0/367. Also, there was significant difference between mean of attention scores of two groups after intervention (P=0/002, but there was no significant difference before intervention (P=0/520. Conclusion: This finding reveals that musical activities can enhance attention level in mentally-retarded students.

  18. Effect of Particle Size of Additives on the Flammability and Mechanical Properties of Intumescent Flame Retarded Polypropylene Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Bocz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of particle size reduction of the components of a common intumescent flame retardant system, consisting of pentaerythritol (PER and ammonium polyphosphate (APP in a weight ratio of 1 to 2, was investigated on the flammability and mechanical performance of flame retarded polypropylene (PP compounds. Additives of reduced particle size were obtained by ball milling. In the case of PER, the significant reduction of particle size resulted in inferior flame retardant and mechanical performance, while the systems containing milled APP noticeably outperformed the reference intumescent system containing as-received additives. The beneficial effect of the particle size reduction of APP is explained by the better distribution of the particles in the polymer matrix and by the modified degradation mechanism which results in the formation of an effectively protecting carbonaceous foam accompanied with improved mechanical resistance. Nevertheless, 10% higher tensile strength was measured for the flame retarded PP compound when as-received APP was substituted by milled APP.

  19. Growth of high-density ZnO nanorods on wood with enhanced photostability, flame retardancy and water repellency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Lizhuo; Tu, Kunkun; Guan, Hao; Wang, Xiaoqing

    2017-06-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod arrays were successfully assembled on the wood surface in situ via a two-step process consisting of formation of ZnO seeds and subsequent crystal growth under hydrothermal conditions at a low temperature. The morphology and crystalline structure of the formed ZnO nanorods were studied by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Highly dense and uniform arrays of ZnO nanorods with well-defined hexagonal facets were generated on the wood surface by tuning the concentration of the ZnO growth solution during the hydrothermal treatment. Accelerated weathering tests indicated that the assembled ZnO nanorod arrays were highly protective against UV radiation and greatly enhanced the photostability of the coated wood. Meanwhile, the ZnO nanorod-coated wood can withstand continuous exposure to flame with only minor smoldering in contrast with the pristine wood catching fire easily and burning rapidly. Moreover, when further modified with low-surface-energy stearic acid, the ZnO nanorod decorated wood surface can be transformed into a superhydrophobic surface, with a water contact angle (CA) of ∼154°. Such ZnO nanorod-modified woods with enhanced photostability, flame retardancy and water repellency offer an interesting alternative to conventional wood preservation strategies, highlighting their potential applications in some novel wood products.

  20. Psychomotor and intellectual development of children born with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puga, B; Ferrández Longás, A; García Romero, R; Mayayo, E; Labarta, J I

    2004-03-01

    The possible impact of IUGR on the intellectual outcome of children born with IUGR gives special relevance to this condition. In order to determine the psychomotor and intellectual development of such children, we analyzed the evolution of 60 children through appropriate tests, along the years, and the possible influence of two factors, the socio-economic status of the family, and whether or not there was catch-up growth. Our results show a negative impact of IUGR on the intellectual outcome of these children, independent of catch-up growth, although those with catch-up growth showed better evolution. The socio-economic status plays a limited role only at older age. Those children followed longitudinally for 1 year did not show any amelioration of their IQ.

  1. Anemia and growth retardation associated with Schistosoma haematobium infection in Mali

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stecher, Chalotte W; Sacko, Moussa; Madsen, Henry

    2017-01-01

    BackgroundThe aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate a possible association of Schistosoma haematobium with child growth development and describe a plausible schistosomiasis-related anemia in children and adults in a highly schistosomiasis endemic area of Mali. MethodsUrine, feces a....... Lower height for age z-scores were also associated with anemia. ConclusionsS. haematobium infection is likely to impact on child growth and possibly also anemia in all age groups and advocates for inclusion of whole populations into future control programes.......BackgroundThe aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate a possible association of Schistosoma haematobium with child growth development and describe a plausible schistosomiasis-related anemia in children and adults in a highly schistosomiasis endemic area of Mali. MethodsUrine, feces...

  2. Growth retardants and nutrition characteristics of the Thompson seedless and Italia grape cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Albuquerque Teresinha Costa Silveira de; Dechen Antonio Roque; Castro Paulo Roberto de Camargo e

    2000-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out in a greenhouse to evaluate the variability in macronutrient contents in relation to growth regulator sprays on ‘Thompson Seedless’ and ‘Italia’ grapevines. The treatments were: chlormequat - 1,500mg L-1; daminozide - 3,000mg L-1; uniconazole - 30mg L-1; mepiquat chloride - 300mg .L-1 and control. The cuttings were grafted on the ‘Tropical’ rootstock and were rooted in sand. After 105 days of growth they were transplanted to 35L pots with a mixture of 1:1:1 vo...

  3. Intrauterine growth retardation and consequences for endocrine and cardiovascular diseases in adult life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rikke Bodin Beck; Chellakooty, Marla; Vielwerth, Signe

    2003-01-01

    Low birth weight has been associated with an increased incidence of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and type 2 diabetes. Endocrine regulation of fetal growth by growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I is complex. Placental GH is detectable in maternal serum from the 8th to the 12th...... to 40 weeks of gestation, but IGF-I levels are four to five times lower than those in the maternal circulation. Thus IGF-I levels in fetal as well as in maternal circulation are thought to regulate fetal growth. Circulating levels of IGF-I are thought to be genetically controlled and several IGF-I gene...... in healthy adults, and this decline could hypothetically be responsible for the increased risk of IHD with ageing. A recent nested case-control study found that adults without IHD, but with low circulating IGF-I levels and high IGF binding protein-3 levels, had a significantly increased risk of developing...

  4. Intrauterine growth retardation and consequences for endocrine and cardiovascular diseases in adult life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rikke Bodin Beck; Chellakooty, Marla; Vielwerth, Signe

    2003-01-01

    to 40 weeks of gestation, but IGF-I levels are four to five times lower than those in the maternal circulation. Thus IGF-I levels in fetal as well as in maternal circulation are thought to regulate fetal growth. Circulating levels of IGF-I are thought to be genetically controlled and several IGF-I gene......Low birth weight has been associated with an increased incidence of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and type 2 diabetes. Endocrine regulation of fetal growth by growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I is complex. Placental GH is detectable in maternal serum from the 8th to the 12th...... gestational week, and rises gradually during pregnancy where it replaces pituitary GH in the maternal circulation. The rise in placental GH may explain the pregnancy-induced rise in maternal serum IGF-I levels. In the fetal compartment, IGF-I levels increase significantly in normally growing fetuses from 18...

  5. Bone density and body composition in chronic renal failure: effects of growth hormone treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluis, I. M.; Boot, A. M.; Nauta, J.; Hop, W. C.; de Jong, M. C.; Lilien, M. R.; Groothoff, J. W.; van Wijk, A. E.; Pols, H. A.; Hokken-Koelega, A. C.; de Muinck Keizer-Schrama, S. M.

    2000-01-01

    Metabolic bone disease and growth retardation are common complications of chronic renal failure (CRF). We evaluated bone mineral density (BMD), bone metabolism, body composition and growth in children with CRF, and the effect of growth hormone treatment (GHRx) on these variables. Thirty-three

  6. Aid Effectiveness on Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doucouliagos, Hristos; Paldam, Martin

    The AEL (aid effectiveness literature) is econo¬metric studies of the macroeconomic effects of development aid. It contains about 100 papers of which 68 are reduced form estimates of theeffect of aid on growth in the recipient country. The raw data show that growth is unconnected to aid......, but the AEL has put so much structure on the data that all results possible have emerged. The present meta study considers both the best-set of the 68 papers and the all-set of 543 regressions published. Both sets have a positive average aid-growth elasticity, but it is small and insignificant: The AEL has...... betweenstudies is real. In particular, the aid-growth association is stronger for Asian countries, and the aid-growth association is shown to have been weaker in the 1970s....

  7. Gallium Maltolate Disrupts Tumor Iron Metabolism and Retards the Growth of Glioblastoma by Inhibiting Mitochondrial Function and Ribonucleotide Reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitambar, Christopher R; Al-Gizawiy, Mona M; Alhajala, Hisham S; Pechman, Kimberly R; Wereley, Janine P; Wujek, Robert; Clark, Paul A; Kuo, John S; Antholine, William E; Schmainda, Kathleen M

    2018-03-28

    Gallium, a metal with antineoplastic activity, binds transferrin (Tf) and enters tumor cells via Tf receptor1 (TfR1); it disrupts iron homeostasis leading to cell death. We hypothesized that TfR1 on brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) would facilitate Tf-Ga transport into the brain enabling it to target TfR-bearing glioblastoma. We show that U-87 MG and D54 glioblastoma cell lines and multiple glioblastoma stem cell (GSCs) lines express TfRs and that their growth is inhibited by gallium maltolate (GaM) in vitro. After 24-h of incubation with GaM, cells displayed a loss of mitochondrial reserve capacity followed by a dose-dependent decrease in oxygen consumption and a decrease in the activity of the iron-dependent M2 subunit of ribonucleotide reductase (RRM2). Immunohistochemical staining of rat and human tumor-bearing brains showed that glioblastoma, but not normal glial cells, expressed TfR1 and RRM2 and that glioblastoma expressed greater levels of H- and L-ferritin than normal brain. In an orthotopic U-87 MG glioblastoma xenograft rat model, GaM retarded the growth of brain tumors relative to untreated control (p=0.0159) and reduced tumor mitotic figures (p=0.045). Tumors in GaM-treated animals displayed an upregulation of TfR1 expression relative to control animals thus indicating that gallium produced tumor iron deprivation. GaM also inhibited iron uptake and upregulated TfR1 expression in U-87 MG and D54 cells in vitro. We conclude that GaM enters the brain via TfR1 on BMECs and targets iron metabolism in glioblastoma in vivo, thus inhibiting tumor growth. Further development of novel gallium compounds for brain tumor treatment is warranted. Copyright ©2018, American Association for Cancer Research.

  8. PICK1 deficiency impairs secretory vesicle biogenesis and leads to growth retardation and decreased glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Birgitte; Madsen, Kenneth L; Jansen, Anna M

    2013-01-01

    Secretory vesicles in endocrine cells store hormones such as growth hormone (GH) and insulin before their release into the bloodstream. The molecular mechanisms governing budding of immature secretory vesicles from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and their subsequent maturation remain unclear. Here...... for vesicular storage of GH and possibly other hormones. The data link two BAR domain proteins to membrane remodeling processes in the secretory pathway of peptidergic endocrine cells and support an important role of PICK1/ICA69 in maintenance of metabolic homeostasis....

  9. Oral Supplementation with a Special Additive of Retinyl Palmitate and Alpha Tocopherol Reduces Growth Retardation in Young Pancreatic Duct Ligated Pigs Used as a Model for Children Suffering from Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Mößeler

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI is a disease of diverse aetiology—e.g., majority of patients suffering from cystic fibrosis (CF show PEI congenitally. Malnutrition and malabsorption of nutrients impair growth and nutritional status. As reduced fat digestion leads to a deficiency of fat-soluble vitamins the supplementation is standard, but absorption is a critical point in PEI-patients. The pancreatic duct ligated (PL pig is an established model for PEI in humans and has been proven to be a suitable model to compare different vitamin additives for supplementation. In a former study, PEI caused distinct growth retardation in young piglets, but did not affect growth in older ones. Our study hypothesised that this age-dependent effect is caused by exhausted body reserves of fat-soluble vitamins and, therefore, extra supply reduces growth retardation. PEI was induced by PL at the age of seven (PL-7 or 16 weeks (PL-16. Controls (C underwent a sham surgery. Some PL-7 pigs (PL-7 + Vit were fed a special vitamin additive. PEI reduced the mean final body weight (kg at 26 weeks of age significantly with lower effect in PL-16-pigs (C:117; PL-7:49.5; PL-7 + Vit:77.1; PL-16:96.4. Extra vitamin supply resulted in an increased growth and normalised serum concentration of alpha-tocopherol, underlining the importance of special supplementation in PEI-patients.

  10. Color Doppler monitoring of changes of utero-placental-fetal circulation in normal pregnancy and intrauterine growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J; Wen, L; Ma, T; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Q; Gao, S; Zhao, M; Wu, H; Hu, J

    1997-01-01

    The utero-placental-fetal circulation (UPFC) of 150 subjects during second and third trimester was examined by using color Doppler. Of them 89 were normal woman and 58 were patients with intrauterine growth retardation IUGR). Our results showed that UPFC was increased gradually during normal pregnant period. In IUGR patients it was revealed that TAV and Q of UmA, UmV and UtA decreased at 20th week of gestation, especially after 30th week. PI, RI and S/D ratio of UmA were increased, but TAV, Q of UmA and UmV were markly reduced, so was UtA. PI were increased, but the changes of RI, S/D ratio in UtA were not significant. Hemodynamical findings of UmA, UmV and UtA were abnormal in 92.53% of IUGR patients. Only 81.03% present abnormal S/D ratio of UmA (P UtA. Our results suggested that using color doppler ultrasound for examination of hemodynamical changes of UmA, UmV and UtA could revealed UPFC function directly. It is one of the best methods for monitoring IUGR and might be used for early diagnosis of IUGR. The main pathophysiological changes of IUGR were UPFC obstruction and placental disfunction.

  11. Haploinsufficiency of KDM6A is associated with severe psychomotor retardation, global growth restriction, seizures and cleft palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Amelia M; Hoyos, Tatiana; Talkowski, Michael E; Hanscom, Carrie; Blumenthal, Ian; Chiang, Colby; Ernst, Carl; Pereira, Shahrin; Ordulu, Zehra; Clericuzio, Carol; Drautz, Joanne M; Rosenfeld, Jill A; Shaffer, Lisa G; Velsher, Lea; Pynn, Tania; Vermeesch, Joris; Harris, David J; Gusella, James F; Liao, Eric C; Morton, Cynthia C

    2013-05-01

    We describe a female subject (DGAP100) with a 46,X,t(X;5)(p11.3;q35.3)inv(5)(q35.3q35.1)dn, severe psychomotor retardation with hypotonia, global postnatal growth restriction, microcephaly, globally reduced cerebral volume, seizures, facial dysmorphia and cleft palate. Fluorescence in situ hybridization and whole-genome sequencing demonstrated that the X chromosome breakpoint disrupts KDM6A in the second intron. No genes were directly disrupted on chromosome 5. KDM6A is a histone 3 lysine 27 demethylase and a histone 3 lysine 4 methyltransferase. Expression of KDM6A is significantly reduced in DGAP100 lymphoblastoid cells compared to control samples. We identified nine additional cases with neurodevelopmental delay and various other features consistent with the DGAP100 phenotype with copy number variation encompassing KDM6A from microarray databases. We evaluated haploinsufficiency of kdm6a in a zebrafish model. kdm6a is expressed in the pharyngeal arches and ethmoid plate of the developing zebrafish, while a kdm6a morpholino knockdown exhibited craniofacial defects. We conclude KDM6A dosage regulation is associated with severe and diverse structural defects and developmental abnormalities.

  12. Deletion of SHP-2 in mesenchymal stem cells causes growth retardation, limb and chest deformity, and calvarial defects in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip E. Lapinski

    2013-11-01

    In mice, induced global disruption of the Ptpn11 gene, which encodes the SHP-2 tyrosine phosphatase, results in severe skeletal abnormalities. To understand the extent to which skeletal abnormalities can be attributed to perturbation of SHP-2 function in bone-forming osteoblasts and chondrocytes, we generated mice in which disruption of Ptpn11 is restricted to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs and their progeny, which include both cell types. MSC-lineage-specific SHP-2 knockout (MSC SHP-2 KO mice exhibited postnatal growth retardation, limb and chest deformity, and calvarial defects. These skeletal abnormalities were associated with an absence of mature osteoblasts and massive chondrodysplasia with a vast increase in the number of terminally differentiated hypertrophic chondrocytes in affected bones. Activation of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs and protein kinase B (PKB; also known as AKT was impaired in bone-forming cells of MSC SHP-2 KO mice, which provides an explanation for the skeletal defects that developed. These findings reveal a cell-autonomous role for SHP-2 in bone-forming cells in mice in the regulation of skeletal development. The results add to our understanding of the pathophysiology of skeletal abnormalities observed in humans with germline mutations in the PTPN11 gene (e.g. Noonan syndrome and LEOPARD syndrome.

  13. Recessive VARS2 mutation underlies a novel syndrome with epilepsy, mental retardation, short stature, growth hormone deficiency, and hypogonadism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsemari, Abdulaziz; Al-Younes, Banan; Goljan, Ewa; Jaroudi, Dyala; BinHumaid, Faisal; Meyer, Brian F; Arold, Stefan T; Monies, Dorota

    2017-11-14

    Most mitochondrial and cytoplasmic aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) are encoded by nuclear genes. Syndromic disorders resulting from mutation of aaRSs genes display significant phenotypic heterogeneity. We expand aaRSs-related phenotypes through characterization of the clinical and molecular basis of a novel autosomal-recessive syndrome manifesting severe mental retardation, ataxia, speech impairment, epilepsy, short stature, microcephaly, hypogonadism, and growth hormone deficiency. A G>A variant in exon 29 of VARS2 (c.3650G>A) (NM_006295) was identified in the index case. This homozygous variant was confirmed by Sanger sequencing and segregated with disease in the family studied. The c.3650G>A change results in alteration of arginine to histidine at residue 1217 (R1217H) of the mature protein and is predicted to be pathogenic. These findings contribute to a growing list of aaRSs disorders, broadens the spectrum of phenotypes attributable to VARS2 mutations, and provides new insight into genotype-phenotype correlations among the mitochondrial synthetase genes.

  14. Genetic markers for inherited thrombophilia are associated with fetal growth retardation in the population of Central Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshetnikov, Evgeny; Zarudskaya, Oksana; Polonikov, Alexey; Bushueva, Olga; Orlova, Valentina; Krikun, Evgeny; Dvornyk, Volodymyr; Churnosov, Mikhail

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the role of hereditary thrombophilia in the development of fetal growth retardation (FGR) in the population of Central Russia. The case-control study sample included 497 women in the third trimester of pregnancy recruited during 2009-2013. The participants were enrolled into two groups: patients with FGR (n = 250) and controls without FGR (n = 247). The participants were genotyped for four genetic markers of hereditary thrombophilia: factor V Leiden (G > A FV, rs6025), prothrombin (G > A FII, rs1799963), factor VII (G > A FVII, rs6046), and fibrinogen (G > A FI, rs1800790). The genetic factors for an increased risk of FGR were allele G of rs6046 (odds ratio [OR] = 2.34) and genotype GG of rs6046 (OR = 2.64), whereas genotype GA of rs6046 had the protective value (OR = 0.42). A combination of alleles G of rs1799963, A of rs6046, and G of rs1800790 (OR = 0.31) reduces the risk of FGR. Polymorphism rs6046 of the FVII gene is associated with the development of FGR. © 2017 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  15. Recessive VARS2 mutation underlies a novel syndrome with epilepsy, mental retardation, short stature, growth hormone deficiency, and hypogonadism

    KAUST Repository

    Alsemari, Abdulaziz

    2017-11-14

    Most mitochondrial and cytoplasmic aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) are encoded by nuclear genes. Syndromic disorders resulting from mutation of aaRSs genes display significant phenotypic heterogeneity. We expand aaRSs-related phenotypes through characterization of the clinical and molecular basis of a novel autosomal-recessive syndrome manifesting severe mental retardation, ataxia, speech impairment, epilepsy, short stature, microcephaly, hypogonadism, and growth hormone deficiency.A G>A variant in exon 29 of VARS2 (c.3650G>A) (NM_006295) was identified in the index case. This homozygous variant was confirmed by Sanger sequencing and segregated with disease in the family studied. The c.3650G>A change results in alteration of arginine to histidine at residue 1217 (R1217H) of the mature protein and is predicted to be pathogenic.These findings contribute to a growing list of aaRSs disorders, broadens the spectrum of phenotypes attributable to VARS2 mutations, and provides new insight into genotype-phenotype correlations among the mitochondrial synthetase genes.

  16. Intrauterine growth retarded progeny of pregnant sows fed high protein:low carbohydrate diet is related to metabolic energy deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metges, Cornelia C; Lang, Iris S; Hennig, Ulf; Brüssow, Klaus-Peter; Kanitz, Ellen; Tuchscherer, Margret; Schneider, Falk; Weitzel, Joachim M; Steinhoff-Ooster, Anika; Sauerwein, Helga; Bellmann, Olaf; Nürnberg, Gerd; Rehfeldt, Charlotte; Otten, Winfried

    2012-01-01

    High and low protein diets fed to pregnant adolescent sows led to intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). To explore underlying mechanisms, sow plasma metabolite and hormone concentrations were analyzed during different pregnancy stages and correlated with litter weight (LW) at birth, sow body weight and back fat thickness. Sows were fed diets with low (6.5%, LP), adequate (12.1%, AP), and high (30%, HP) protein levels, made isoenergetic by adjusted carbohydrate content. At -5, 24, 66, and 108 days post coitum (dpc) fasted blood was collected. At 92 dpc, diurnal metabolic profiles were determined. Fasted serum urea and plasma glucagon were higher due to the HP diet. High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC), %HDLC and cortisol were reduced in HP compared with AP sows. Lowest concentrations were observed for serum urea and protein, plasma insulin-like growth factor-I, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and progesterone in LP compared with AP and HP sows. Fasted plasma glucose, insulin and leptin concentrations were unchanged. Diurnal metabolic profiles showed lower glucose in HP sows whereas non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentrations were higher in HP compared with AP and LP sows. In HP and LP sows, urea concentrations were 300% and 60% of AP sows, respectively. Plasma total cholesterol was higher in LP than in AP and HP sows. In AP sows, LW correlated positively with insulin and insulin/glucose and negatively with glucagon/insulin at 66 dpc, whereas in HP sows LW associated positively with NEFA. In conclusion, IUGR in sows fed high protein:low carbohydrate diet was probably due to glucose and energy deficit whereas in sows with low protein:high carbohydrate diet it was possibly a response to a deficit of indispensable amino acids which impaired lipoprotein metabolism and favored maternal lipid disposal.

  17. Intrauterine growth retarded progeny of pregnant sows fed high protein:low carbohydrate diet is related to metabolic energy deficit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia C Metges

    Full Text Available High and low protein diets fed to pregnant adolescent sows led to intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR. To explore underlying mechanisms, sow plasma metabolite and hormone concentrations were analyzed during different pregnancy stages and correlated with litter weight (LW at birth, sow body weight and back fat thickness. Sows were fed diets with low (6.5%, LP, adequate (12.1%, AP, and high (30%, HP protein levels, made isoenergetic by adjusted carbohydrate content. At -5, 24, 66, and 108 days post coitum (dpc fasted blood was collected. At 92 dpc, diurnal metabolic profiles were determined. Fasted serum urea and plasma glucagon were higher due to the HP diet. High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC, %HDLC and cortisol were reduced in HP compared with AP sows. Lowest concentrations were observed for serum urea and protein, plasma insulin-like growth factor-I, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and progesterone in LP compared with AP and HP sows. Fasted plasma glucose, insulin and leptin concentrations were unchanged. Diurnal metabolic profiles showed lower glucose in HP sows whereas non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA concentrations were higher in HP compared with AP and LP sows. In HP and LP sows, urea concentrations were 300% and 60% of AP sows, respectively. Plasma total cholesterol was higher in LP than in AP and HP sows. In AP sows, LW correlated positively with insulin and insulin/glucose and negatively with glucagon/insulin at 66 dpc, whereas in HP sows LW associated positively with NEFA. In conclusion, IUGR in sows fed high protein:low carbohydrate diet was probably due to glucose and energy deficit whereas in sows with low protein:high carbohydrate diet it was possibly a response to a deficit of indispensable amino acids which impaired lipoprotein metabolism and favored maternal lipid disposal.

  18. Growth of high-density ZnO nanorods on wood with enhanced photostability, flame retardancy and water repellency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Lizhuo; Tu, Kunkun; Guan, Hao [Research Institute of Wood Industry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing 100091 (China); Wang, Xiaoqing, E-mail: wangxq@caf.ac.cn [Research Institute of Forestry New Technology, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing 100091 (China); Research Institute of Wood Industry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing 100091 (China)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • ZnO nanorod arrays were deposited on the wood surface via a hydrothermal process. • The assembled ZnO nanorod arrays greatly enhanced the photostability of wood. • The treated wood can sustain direct exposure to flame with only minor smoldering. • The ZnO-coated wood modified with stearic acid showed a superhydrophobic surface. - Abstract: Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod arrays were successfully assembled on the wood surface in situ via a two-step process consisting of formation of ZnO seeds and subsequent crystal growth under hydrothermal conditions at a low temperature. The morphology and crystalline structure of the formed ZnO nanorods were studied by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Highly dense and uniform arrays of ZnO nanorods with well-defined hexagonal facets were generated on the wood surface by tuning the concentration of the ZnO growth solution during the hydrothermal treatment. Accelerated weathering tests indicated that the assembled ZnO nanorod arrays were highly protective against UV radiation and greatly enhanced the photostability of the coated wood. Meanwhile, the ZnO nanorod-coated wood can withstand continuous exposure to flame with only minor smoldering in contrast with the pristine wood catching fire easily and burning rapidly. Moreover, when further modified with low-surface-energy stearic acid, the ZnO nanorod decorated wood surface can be transformed into a superhydrophobic surface, with a water contact angle (CA) of ∼154°. Such ZnO nanorod-modified woods with enhanced photostability, flame retardancy and water repellency offer an interesting alternative to conventional wood preservation strategies, highlighting their potential applications in some novel wood products.

  19.  Distal Renal Tubular Acidosis, Hypokalemic Paralysis, Nephrocalcinosis, Primary Hypothyroidism, Growth Retardation, Osteomalacia and Osteoporosis Leading to Pathological Fracture: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayada Mohammad Swar

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available  Renal tubular acidosis (RTA is a constellation of syndromes arising from different derangements of tubular acid transport. Recent advances in the biology of urinary acidification have allowed us to discern various molecular mechanisms responsible for these syndromes. RTA often presents as renal stone disease with nephrocalcinosis, ricket/osteomalacia and growth retardation in children with ultimate short stature in adulthood. The case reported here has features of distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA, hypokalemic paralysis, primary hypothyroidism, growth retardation, osteomalacia and osteopenia leading to stress fracture. All these features presenting in a single case (as in our case is a rare occurrence, so far other cases of distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA have been reported.

  20. Sensitivity analysis on retardation effect of natural barriers against radionuclide transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatanaka, K.

    1994-01-01

    The generic performance assessment of the geological disposal system for high level waste (HLW) in Japan has been carried out by the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) in accordance with the overall HLW management program defined by the Atomic Energy Commission of Japan. The Japanese concept of the geological disposal system is based on a multi-barrier system which is composed of vitrified waste, carbon steel overpack, thick bentonite buffer and a variety of realistic geological conditions. The main objectives of the study are the detailed analysis of the performance of engineered barrier system (EBS) and the analysis of the performance of natural barrier system (NBS) and the evaluation of its compliance with the required overall system performance. Sensitivity analysis was carried out for the objectives to investigate the way and extent of the retardation in the release to biosphere by the effect of NBS, and to clarify the conditions which is sufficient to ensure that the overall system meets safety requirement. The radionuclide transport model in geological media, the sensitivity analysis, and the calculated results of the retardation effect of NBS in terms of the sensitivity parameters are reported. (K.I.)

  1. ER stress-induced protein, VIGG, disturbs plant cation homeostasis, which is correlated with growth retardation and robustness to ER stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katoh, Hironori; Fujita, Keiko; Takuhara, Yuki [Laboratory of Fruit Genetic Engineering, The Institute of Enology and Viticulture, University of Yamanashi, Kofu, Yamanashi 400-0005 (Japan); Ogawa, Atsushi [Department of Biological Production, Akita Prefectural University, Shimosinjyou-nakano 241-438, Akita 010-0195 (Japan); Suzuki, Shunji, E-mail: suzukis@yamanashi.ac.jp [Laboratory of Fruit Genetic Engineering, The Institute of Enology and Viticulture, University of Yamanashi, Kofu, Yamanashi 400-0005 (Japan)

    2011-02-18

    Highlights: {yields} VIGG is an ER stress-induced protein in plant. {yields} We examine the characteristics of VIGG-overexpressing Arabidopsis plants. {yields} VIGG-overexpressing plants reveal growth retardation and robustness to ER stress. {yields} VIGG disturbs cation homeostasis in plant. -- Abstract: VIGG is a putative endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident protein induced by virus infection and ER stress, and is correlated with fruit quality in grapevine. The present study was undertaken to determine the biological function of VIGG in grapevine. Experiments using fluorescent protein-VIGG fusion protein demonstrated that VIGG is localized in ER and the ER targeting sequence is in the N-terminus. The overexpression of VIGG in Arabidopsis plant led to growth retardation. The rosette leaves of VIGG-overexpressing plants were smaller than those of the control plants and rolled at 42 days after seeding. VIGG-overexpressing plants revealed robustness to ER stress as well as the low expression of ER stress marker proteins, such as the luminal binding proteins. These characteristics of VIGG-overexpressing plants were supported by a microarray experiment that demonstrated the disruption of genes related to ER stress response and flowering, as well as cation mobility, in the plants. Finally, cation homeostasis in the plants was disturbed by the overexpression of VIGG. Taken together, these results suggest that VIGG may disturb cation homeostasis in plant, which is correlated with the robustness to ER stress and growth retardation.

  2. ER stress-induced protein, VIGG, disturbs plant cation homeostasis, which is correlated with growth retardation and robustness to ER stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katoh, Hironori; Fujita, Keiko; Takuhara, Yuki; Ogawa, Atsushi; Suzuki, Shunji

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → VIGG is an ER stress-induced protein in plant. → We examine the characteristics of VIGG-overexpressing Arabidopsis plants. → VIGG-overexpressing plants reveal growth retardation and robustness to ER stress. → VIGG disturbs cation homeostasis in plant. -- Abstract: VIGG is a putative endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident protein induced by virus infection and ER stress, and is correlated with fruit quality in grapevine. The present study was undertaken to determine the biological function of VIGG in grapevine. Experiments using fluorescent protein-VIGG fusion protein demonstrated that VIGG is localized in ER and the ER targeting sequence is in the N-terminus. The overexpression of VIGG in Arabidopsis plant led to growth retardation. The rosette leaves of VIGG-overexpressing plants were smaller than those of the control plants and rolled at 42 days after seeding. VIGG-overexpressing plants revealed robustness to ER stress as well as the low expression of ER stress marker proteins, such as the luminal binding proteins. These characteristics of VIGG-overexpressing plants were supported by a microarray experiment that demonstrated the disruption of genes related to ER stress response and flowering, as well as cation mobility, in the plants. Finally, cation homeostasis in the plants was disturbed by the overexpression of VIGG. Taken together, these results suggest that VIGG may disturb cation homeostasis in plant, which is correlated with the robustness to ER stress and growth retardation.

  3. Demethoxycurcumin Retards Cell Growth and Induces Apoptosis in Human Brain Malignant Glioma GBM 8401 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzuu-Yuan Huang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Demethoxycurcumin (DMC; a curcumin-related demethoxy compound has been recently shown to display antioxidant and antitumor activities. It has also produced a potent chemopreventive action against cancer. In the present study, the antiproliferation (using the MTT assay, DMC was found to have cytotoxic activities against GBM 8401 cell with IC50 values at 22.71 μM and induced apoptosis effects of DMC have been investigated in human brain malignant glioma GBM 8401 cells. We have studied the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, DNA fragmentation, caspase activation, and NF-κB transcriptional factor activity. By these approaches, our results indicated that DMC has produced an inhibition of cell proliferation as well as the activation of apoptosis in GBM 8401 cells. Both effects were observed to increase in proportion with the dosage of DMC treatment, and the apoptosis was induced by DMC in human brain malignant glioma GBM 8401 cells via mitochondria- and caspase-dependent pathways.

  4. Synergistic effects of mica and wollastonite fillers on thermal performance of intumescent fire retardant coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zia-ul-Mustafa, M., E-mail: engr.ziamustafa@gmail.com; Ahmad, Faiz; Megat-Yusoff, Puteri S. M.; Aziz, Hammad [Mechanical Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    In this study, intumescent fire retardant coatings (IFRC) were developed to investigate the synergistic effects of reinforced mica and wollastonite fillers based IFRC towards heat shielding, char expansion, char composition and char morphology. Ammonium poly-phosphate (APP) was used as acid source, expandable graphite (EG) as carbon source, melamine as blowing agent, boric acid as additive and Hardener H-2310 polyamide amine in bisphenol A epoxy resin BE-188(BPA) was used as curing agent. Bunsen burner fire test was used for thermal performance according to UL-94 for 1 h. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) was used to observe char microstructure. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to analyse char composition. The results showed that addition of clay filler in IFRC enhanced the fire protection performance of intumescent coating. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results showed the presence of boron phosphate, silicon phosphate oxide, aluminium borate in the char that improved the thermal performance of intumescent fire retardant coating (IFRC). Resultantly, the presence of these developed compounds enhanced the Integrity of structural steel upto 500°C.

  5. Effect of Nano bentonite on Fire Retardant Properties of Medium density fiberboard (MDF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghonche Rassam

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, Fire – Retarding properties of nano-bentonite in medium density of fiberboard (MDF was studied. 10% of urea-formaldehyde resin was used as the adhesive of the matrix. Nano Bentonite at 5 levels (0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% g/kg based of dry weight of fibers was used with the consumption of Urea-Formuldehyde (UF. Press pressure of 150 bar and temperature of 170during 4, 5, and 6 minutes were applied. Density was kept constant at 0.7 g/cm3 in all treatments. The measured properties consisted of mass reduction, inflammation time, fire-endurance, melting time and the burnt area. The results revealed that Nano-Bentonite had significant effect in approving fire retarding properties in medium density fiber board. The best properties at the level of 10% obtained and the same level recommended for industry use. The use of Nano-Bentonite more than 10% decreased the stickiness and the partly surface of fiberboards.

  6. Inhibition Effect of Phosphorus Flame Retardants on the Fire Disasters Induced by Spontaneous Combustion of Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibo Tang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Coal spontaneous combustion (CSC generally induces fire disasters in underground mines, thus causing serious casualties, environmental pollution, and property loss around the world. By using six P-containing additives to process three typical coal samples, this study investigated the variations of the self-ignition characteristics of the coal samples before and after treatment. The analysis was performed by combining thermogravimetric analysis/differential scanning calorimetry (TG/DSC Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR and low temperature oxidation. Experimental results showed that P-containing inhibitors could effectively restrain the heat emitted in the combustion of coal samples and therefore the ignition temperature of the coal samples was delayed at varying degrees. The combustion rate of the coal samples was reduced as well. At the temperatures ranging from 50°C to 150°C, the activation energy of the coal samples after the treatment was found to increase, which indicated that the coal samples were more difficult to be oxidized. After being treated with phosphorus flame retardants (PFRs, the content of several active groups represented by the C-O structure in the three coal samples was proved to be obviously changed. This suggested that PFRs could significantly inhibit the content of CO generated by the low temperature oxidation of coal, and the flame-retardant efficiency grew with the increasing temperature. At 200°C, the maximal inhibition efficiency reached approximately 85%.

  7. Synergistic effects of mica and wollastonite fillers on thermal performance of intumescent fire retardant coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia-ul-Mustafa, M.; Ahmad, Faiz; Megat-Yusoff, Puteri S. M.; Aziz, Hammad

    2015-07-01

    In this study, intumescent fire retardant coatings (IFRC) were developed to investigate the synergistic effects of reinforced mica and wollastonite fillers based IFRC towards heat shielding, char expansion, char composition and char morphology. Ammonium poly-phosphate (APP) was used as acid source, expandable graphite (EG) as carbon source, melamine as blowing agent, boric acid as additive and Hardener H-2310 polyamide amine in bisphenol A epoxy resin BE-188(BPA) was used as curing agent. Bunsen burner fire test was used for thermal performance according to UL-94 for 1 h. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) was used to observe char microstructure. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to analyse char composition. The results showed that addition of clay filler in IFRC enhanced the fire protection performance of intumescent coating. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results showed the presence of boron phosphate, silicon phosphate oxide, aluminium borate in the char that improved the thermal performance of intumescent fire retardant coating (IFRC). Resultantly, the presence of these developed compounds enhanced the Integrity of structural steel upto 500°C.

  8. Comparison of blood lead levels of mothers and cord blood in intrauterine growth retarded neonates and normal term neonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iranpour, R.; Besharati, Amir A.; Nasseri, F.; Hashemipour, M.; Kelishadi, R.; Balali-Mood, M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective was to compare the blood lead levels of mothers and cord blood in intrauterine growth retarded (IUGR) neonates and normal term neonates. From April 2005, we carried out a cross-sectional, prospective study in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran. Blood lead levels were measured in the umbilical cord and maternal venous blood samples in the 32 mother-infant pairs with IUGR full term neonates and 34 mother-infant pairs with normal full term neonates. Blood-lead levels were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. The mean lead concentration in neonates of IUGR and normal groups was not significantly different (107.47+- 16.75 versus 113.08+-19.08 ug/L, p=0.2). The mean lead concentration in mothers of IUGR group was lower than normal groups, but this difference was not significant (124.56+-19.71 versus 135.26+-26.91 ug/L, p=0.07). Maternal lead levels were strongly related with related with cord blood in both IUGR and normal groups (r=0.8, p 100ug/L by the centers for disease control; however, this was not statistically different between the groups. Our results indicate that the mean lead level was not higher in IUGR neonates, and the whole blood lead was not related to the birth weight. In addition, maternal and cord blood lead levels were strongly correlated, and there were remarkable lead burdens on both the mothers and their neonates in this industrial area. (author)

  9. Notes: Water Flow and Chemical Retardation in Soils: A Simple Effective Laboratory Demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, R. S.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes a laboratory demonstration that illustrates principles of miscible displacement and chemical retardation in soils. Discusses how the experimental apparatus can be constructed from readily available materials. (TW)

  10. Hydrologic effects of floodwater-retarding structures on Garza-Little Elm Reservoir, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Clarence R.; Sauer, Stanley P.

    1970-01-01

    The Texas District of the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey has collected and analyzed hydrologic data since 1953 to define the effects of systems of floodwater-retarding structures on downstream water and sediment yield. The district project includes 11 study areas ranging from 18 to 80 square miles in size and from 0 to 67 in percent of study area controlled by floodwaterretarding structures. The 11 study areas are within that part of Texas where the west-to-east average annual runoff ranges from about 2 to 7 inches. This report presents results of analyses, development of methodolgy, and results of application of methods for defining the downstream effects of systems of floodwaterretarding structures.

  11. Effect of structural parameters on burning behavior of polyester fabrics having flame retardancy property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çeven, E. K.; Günaydın, G. K.

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study is filling the gap in the literature about investigating the effect of yarn and fabric structural parameters on burning behavior of polyester fabrics. According to the experimental design three different fabric types, three different weft densities and two different weave types were selected and a total of eighteen different polyester drapery fabrics were produced. All statistical procedures were conducted using the SPSS Statistical software package. The results of the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) tests indicated that; there were statistically significant (5% significance level) differences between the mass loss ratios (%) in weft and mass loss ratios (%) in warp direction of different fabrics calculated after the flammability test. The Student-Newman-Keuls (SNK) results for mass loss ratios (%) both in weft and warp directions revealed that the mass loss ratios (%) of fabrics containing Trevira CS type polyester were lower than the mass loss ratios of polyester fabrics subjected to washing treatment and flame retardancy treatment.

  12. Effects of fire retardants on physical, mechanical, and fire properties of flat-pressed WPCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadir Ayrilmis; Jan T. Benthien; Heiko Thoemen; Robert H. White

    2012-01-01

    Physical, mechanical, and fire properties of the flat-pressed wood plastic composites (WPCs) incorporated with various fire retardants (10% by weight) at different levels of wood flour (WF) content, 40, 50, or 60 wt%, were investigated. The WPC panels were made from dry-blended WF, polypropylene (PP), and fire retardant (FR) powders with maleic anhydride-grafted PP (2...

  13. Effects of Growth Hormone on Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tritos, Nicholas A; Klibanski, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Describe the effects of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) on the skeleton. The GH and IGF-1 axis has pleiotropic effects on the skeleton throughout the lifespan by influencing bone formation and resorption. GH deficiency leads to decreased bone turnover, delayed statural growth in children, low bone mass, and increased fracture risk in adults. GH replacement improves adult stature in GH deficient children, increases bone mineral density (BMD) in adults, and helps to optimize peak bone acquisition in patients, during the transition from adolescence to adulthood, who have persistent GH deficiency. Observational studies suggest that GH replacement may mitigate the excessive fracture risk associated with GH deficiency. Acromegaly, a state of GH and IGF-1 excess, is associated with increased bone turnover and decreased BMD in the lumbar spine observed in some studies, particularly in patients with hypogonadism. In addition, patients with acromegaly appear to be at an increased risk of morphometric-vertebral fractures, especially in the presence of active disease or concurrent hypogonadism. GH therapy also has beneficial effects on statural growth in several conditions characterized by GH insensitivity, including chronic renal failure, Turner syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, postnatal growth delay in patients with intrauterine growth retardation who do not demonstrate catchup growth, idiopathic short stature, short stature homeobox-containing (SHOX) gene mutations, and Noonan syndrome. GH and IGF-1 have important roles in skeletal physiology, and GH has an important therapeutic role in both GH deficiency and insensitivity states. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of water content on strontium retardation factor and distribution coefficient in Chinese loess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Lijuan; Qian, Tianwei; Hao, Junting; Liu, Hongfang; Zhao, Dongye

    2013-12-01

    Geological burial and landfill are often employed for disposal of nuclear wastes. Typically, radionuclides from nuclear facilities transport through the unsaturated zone before reaching the groundwater aquifer. However, transport studies are often conducted under saturated and steady-state flow conditions. This research aimed to examine the effects of unsaturated flow conditions and soil water content (θ) on Sr sorption and retardation in Chinese loess through 1D column transport experiments. Reagent SrCl2 was used as a surrogate for the radioactive isotope ((90)Sr) in the experiment because of their analogous adsorption and transportation characteristics. The spatial distribution of Sr along the column length was determined by segmenting the soil bed and analysing the Sr content in each soil segment following each column breakthrough test. The single-region (SR) and two-region (TR) models were employed to interpret the transport data of Sr as well as a tracer (Br(-)), which resulted in the dispersion coefficient (D) and retardation factor (Rd) under a given set of unsaturated flow conditions. For the tracer, the SR and TR models offered nearly the same goodness of fitting to the breakthrough curves (R(2) ≈ 0.97 for both models). For the highly sorptive Sr, however, the TR model provided better fitting (R(2), 0.80-0.96) to the Sr retention profiles than the SR model (R(2), 0.20-0.89). The Sr retention curves exhibited physical non-equilibrium characteristics, particularly at lower water content of the soil. For the unsaturated soil, D and the pore water velocity (v) displayed a weak linear correlation, which is attributed to the altering dispersivity as the water content varies. A much improved linear correlation was observed between D and v/θ. The retardation factor of Sr increased from 69.1 to 174.2 as θ decreased from 0.46 to 0.26 (cm(3) cm(-3)), while the distribution coefficient (Kd) based on Rd remained nearly unchanged at various θ levels. These

  15. Effect of a fire retardant on the ignition of pine wood exposed to smoldering particles of pine bark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasymov, Denis; Paletsky, Alexander

    2017-10-01

    This paper represents the laboratory research results on the interaction of smoldering pine bark particles with pine wood. Fire retardant treatment "FUKAM" was studied to estimate its effect on the probability of wood ignition. The wind speed and the number and geometric sizes of particles were varied in the experiments. The results have shown that the increase in the wind speed leads to the increase in the probability of wood ignition by the particles of the same size, and fire-retardant treatment significantly increases the protective properties of wood exposed to smoldering pine bark particles.

  16. Post-Newtonian effect of gravitation and the retardation of the gravitational potential in classical and relativistic theories of gravitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treder, H.J.

    1975-08-01

    For planetary motions the post-Newtonian approximations of classical, special-relativistic, and general-covariant theories are compared. It is shown that, in this approximation, the anisotropy terms, which occur in the effective interaction potential in classical and special-relativistic theories, suggest a retardation of gravitation. In the post-Newtonian approximation of general-covariant theories the fixation of a retardation velocity is equivalent to coordinate conditions. All post-Newtonian corrections are dipole-like ones, while, according to Gauss, the classical perturbation theory generally leads to quadrupole-like corrections of the perturbation potential. (auth)

  17. The effect of electron-beam irradiation and halogen-free flame retardants on properties of poly butylene terephthalate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooshangi, Zhila; Feghhi, Seyed Amir Hossein; Sheikh, Nasrin

    2015-03-01

    Engineering plastics like Poly (butylene terephthalate) due to their desirable properties have various industrial applications. Neat PBT is highly combustible, so it is necessary to improve significantly its fire retardancy to meet the fire safety requirements. The combustion performance of PBT can be improved by addition of appropriate flame retardant additives. In this study we have investigated the effect of halogen free flame retardants, i.e. melamine and aluminum phosphate, and instantaneously electron beam radiation-induced crosslinking in the presence of Triallyl cyanurate on various properties of PBT. The results of gel content showed that a dose range of 200-400 kGy leads to high cross linked structure in this polymer. Also mechanical experiments showed that its structure became rigid and fragile due to irradiation. Radiation crosslinking of this polymer made its dielectric loss coefficient ten times lower than non-irradiated polymer, but had no effect on its dielectric constant. Moreover the addition of the fire retardant additives as impurity decreased the dielectric loss coefficient. TGA analysis in nitrogen exhibited that irradiation increases char formation and use of the fire retardant additives leads to reduction of onset temperature and formation of higher char quantity than pure PBT. According to the results of UL-94, irradiated samples burned with lower speed and less dripping in vertical and horizontal positions than pure polymer. Finally irradiation of the polymers containing fire retardant additives with a dose of 400 kGy led to self-extinguishing and non-dripping and reach to V-0 level in the UL-94 V.

  18. Ethylene Antagonizes Salt-Induced Growth Retardation and Cell Death Process via Transcriptional Controlling of Ethylene-, BAG- and Senescence-Associated Genes in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ya-Jie; Liu, Ling; Lin, Ying-Chao; Zu, Yuan-Gang; Li, Lei-Peng; Tang, Zhong-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The existing question whether ethylene is involved in the modulation of salt-induced cell death to mediate plant salt tolerance is important for understanding the salt tolerance mechanisms. Here, we employed Arabidopsis plants to study the possible role of ethylene in salt-induced growth inhibition and programmed cell death (PCD) profiles. The root length, DNA ladder and cell death indicated by Evan's blue detection were measured by compared to the control or salt-stressed seedlings. Secondly, the protoplasts isolated from plant leaves and dyed with Annexin V-FITC were subjected to flow cytometric (FCM) assay. Our results showed that ethylene works effectively in seedling protoplasts, antagonizing salt-included root retardation and restraining cell death both in seedlings or protoplasts. Due to salinity, the entire or partial insensitivity of ethylene signaling resulted in an elevated levels of cell death in ein2-5 and ein3-1 plants and the event were amended in ctr1-1 plants after salt treatment. The subsequent experiment with exogenous ACC further corroborated that ethylene could modulate salt-induced PCD process actively. Plant Bcl-2-associated athanogene (BAG) family genes are recently identified to play an extensive role in plant PCD processes ranging from growth, development to stress responses and even cell death. Our result showed that salinity alone significantly suppressed the transcripts of BAG6, BAG7 and addition of ACC in the saline solution could obviously re-activate BAG6 and BAG7 expressions, which might play a key role to inhibit the salt-induced cell death. In summary, our research implies that ethylene and salinity antagonistically control BAG family-, ethylene-, and senescence-related genes to alleviate the salt-induced cell death.

  19. Embryonic mortality and intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) associated with placental alterations in pregnant rats treated with methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) at the peri-implantation stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, Ryohei; Hayashi, Morimichi; Tamura, Toru; Kobayashi, Kazuo; Kuroda, Junji; Kusama, Hiroshi; Kagami, Hiroshi; Ono, Tamao

    2008-12-01

    Embryonic mortality and intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) are induced by exposure of rodents to xenobiotic agents during the pregastrulation period of development. We examined the time course of the effects of methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), an alkylating agent, on conceptus development in order to clarify the relative roles of the embryo and the placenta in their induction. Pregnant rats were treated orally with a single dose of MMS (200 mg/kg) in the morning of gestation day (GD) 6 (peri-implantation stage). Embryonic mortality was increased on GD12 and thereafter by MMS treatment, with newly dead embryos showing placental hypoplasia at GD12. Embryo or fetal weight was also smaller for MMS-treated dams than for control dams from GD14 to GD20. The labyrinth zone and junctional zone (JZ) of the placenta were thinner in MMS-treated rats from GD12 to GD17 and from GD12 to GD20 (except for GD17), respectively. Furthermore, MMS-treated dams showed a smaller number of glycogen cells in the JZ on GD14. In contrast, the placental glycogen concentration was higher and the expression of glucose transporter 1 in the JZ remained at GD20. These results indicate that exposure of pregnant rats to MMS at the peri-implantation stage of embryogenesis affects placental development and growth. The placental impairment induced by MMS was likely responsible for the embryonic death observed 6 days after exposure of dams to this agent as well as for the IUGR of surviving embryos or fetuses throughout the gestation period.

  20. Risk Factors and Relationship Between Intestinal Parasites and the Growth Retardation and Psychomotor Development Delays of Children in Şanlıurfa, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yentur Doni, Nebiye; Yildiz Zeyrek, Fadile; Simsek, Zeynep; Gurses, Gulcan; Sahin, İbrahim

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the risk factors for and relationship among parasitic infections, growth retardation, and psychomotor developmental delays in children aged 6 years and below. This case-control study was performed in Şanlıurfa in southeastern Turkey between October and December 2007. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire, anthropometry, Ankara Development Screening Inventory, and laboratory analysis of stool specimens. The most common parasite was Giardia intestinalis (42.53%) followed by Enterobius vermicularis (27.58%), Ascaris lumbricoides (18.39%), Hymenolepis nana (5.75%), Trichuris trichiura (3.45%), Escherichia coli (1.15%), and Blastocystis spp. (1.15%). Fifty-eight percent of all children were infected with intestinal parasites; 55.2% had only one parasite, whereas 44.8% had multiple parasites. The children infected with G. intestinalis and other intestinal parasites had significantly higher levels of growth retardation and psychomotor development delay than non-infected children. Children with parasitic infections had growth delay up to 2.9 times, general development delay up to 1.9 times, language-cognitive development delay up to 2.2 times, and fine motor development delay up to 2.9 times higher than children without any parasitic infections. However, no significant relationship among intestinal parasites, gross motor development, social-self skills, and development delay was identified. The education level of parents, poor economic situation, number of households, not washing hands, playing with soil, family history of parasitic infection were the significant risk factors for intestinal parasites. Our study indicates that the presence of either malnutrition or intestinal parasites may put a child in a high-risk group for developmental delays and growth retardation. Therefore, public health interventions can embrace nationwide deworming in children.

  1. Effects of Different Variations of Mental and Physical Practice on Sport Skill Learning in Adolescents with Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemayattalab, Rasool; Movahedi, Ahmadreza

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of five variations of imagery and physical practice on learning of Basketball free throws in adolescents with mental retardation (AWMR). Forty AWMR were randomly assigned to five groups and performed a variation of practice: physical practice, mental practice, physical practice followed by…

  2. Maternal glucocorticoid elevation and associated blood metabonome changes might be involved in metabolic programming of intrauterine growth retardation in rats exposed to caffeine prenatally

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kou, Hao; Liu, Yansong; Liang, Gai; Huang, Jing; Hu, Jieqiong; Yan, You-e; Li, Xiaojun; Yu, Hong; He, Xiaohua; Zhang, Baifang; Zhang, Yuanzhen; Feng, Jianghua; Wang, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Our previous studies demonstrated that prenatal caffeine exposure causes intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), fetuses are over-exposed to high levels of maternal glucocorticoids (GC), and intrauterine metabolic programming and associated metabonome alteration that may be GC-mediated. However, whether maternal metabonomes would be altered and relevant metabolite variations might mediate the development of IUGR remained unknown. In the present studies, we examined the dose- and time-effects of caffeine on maternal metabonome, and tried to clarify the potential roles of maternal GCs and metabonome changes in the metabolic programming of caffeine-induced IUGR. Pregnant rats were treated with caffeine (0, 20, 60 or 180 mg/kg · d) from gestational days (GD) 11 to 20, or 180 mg/kg · d caffeine from GD9. Metabonomes of maternal plasma on GD20 in the dose–effect study and on GD11, 14 and 17 in the time–course study were analyzed by 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, respectively. Caffeine administration reduced maternal weight gains and elevated both maternal and fetal corticosterone (CORT) levels. A negative correlation between maternal/fetal CORT levels and fetal bodyweight was observed. The maternal metabonome alterations included attenuated metabolism of carbohydrates, enhanced lipolysis and protein breakdown, and amino acid accumulation, suggesting GC-associated metabolic effects. GC-associated metabolite variations (α/β-glucoses, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, β-hydroxybutyrate) were observed early following caffeine administration. In conclusion, prenatal caffeine exposure induced maternal GC elevation and metabonome alteration, and maternal GC and relevant discriminatory metabolites might be involved in the metabolic programming of caffeine-induced IUGR. - Highlights: • Prenatal caffeine exposure elevated maternal blood glucocorticoid levels. • Prenatal caffeine exposure altered maternal blood metabonomes. • Maternal metabonome

  3. Maternal glucocorticoid elevation and associated blood metabonome changes might be involved in metabolic programming of intrauterine growth retardation in rats exposed to caffeine prenatally

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kou, Hao; Liu, Yansong; Liang, Gai; Huang, Jing; Hu, Jieqiong; Yan, You-e; Li, Xiaojun [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Yu, Hong; He, Xiaohua; Zhang, Baifang [Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Developmentally Originated Diseases, Wuhan 430071 (China); Zhang, Yuanzhen [Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Developmentally Originated Diseases, Wuhan 430071 (China); Center for Reproductive Medicine, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Feng, Jianghua, E-mail: jianghua.feng@xmu.edu.cn [Department of Electronic Science, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Plasma and Magnetic Resonance, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Wang, Hui, E-mail: wanghui19@whu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Developmentally Originated Diseases, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2014-03-01

    Our previous studies demonstrated that prenatal caffeine exposure causes intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), fetuses are over-exposed to high levels of maternal glucocorticoids (GC), and intrauterine metabolic programming and associated metabonome alteration that may be GC-mediated. However, whether maternal metabonomes would be altered and relevant metabolite variations might mediate the development of IUGR remained unknown. In the present studies, we examined the dose- and time-effects of caffeine on maternal metabonome, and tried to clarify the potential roles of maternal GCs and metabonome changes in the metabolic programming of caffeine-induced IUGR. Pregnant rats were treated with caffeine (0, 20, 60 or 180 mg/kg · d) from gestational days (GD) 11 to 20, or 180 mg/kg · d caffeine from GD9. Metabonomes of maternal plasma on GD20 in the dose–effect study and on GD11, 14 and 17 in the time–course study were analyzed by {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, respectively. Caffeine administration reduced maternal weight gains and elevated both maternal and fetal corticosterone (CORT) levels. A negative correlation between maternal/fetal CORT levels and fetal bodyweight was observed. The maternal metabonome alterations included attenuated metabolism of carbohydrates, enhanced lipolysis and protein breakdown, and amino acid accumulation, suggesting GC-associated metabolic effects. GC-associated metabolite variations (α/β-glucoses, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, β-hydroxybutyrate) were observed early following caffeine administration. In conclusion, prenatal caffeine exposure induced maternal GC elevation and metabonome alteration, and maternal GC and relevant discriminatory metabolites might be involved in the metabolic programming of caffeine-induced IUGR. - Highlights: • Prenatal caffeine exposure elevated maternal blood glucocorticoid levels. • Prenatal caffeine exposure altered maternal blood metabonomes. • Maternal

  4. Maternal glucocorticoid elevation and associated blood metabonome changes might be involved in metabolic programming of intrauterine growth retardation in rats exposed to caffeine prenatally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Hao; Liu, Yansong; Liang, Gai; Huang, Jing; Hu, Jieqiong; Yan, You-e; Li, Xiaojun; Yu, Hong; He, Xiaohua; Zhang, Baifang; Zhang, Yuanzhen; Feng, Jianghua; Wang, Hui

    2014-03-01

    Our previous studies demonstrated that prenatal caffeine exposure causes intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), fetuses are over-exposed to high levels of maternal glucocorticoids (GC), and intrauterine metabolic programming and associated metabonome alteration that may be GC-mediated. However, whether maternal metabonomes would be altered and relevant metabolite variations might mediate the development of IUGR remained unknown. In the present studies, we examined the dose- and time-effects of caffeine on maternal metabonome, and tried to clarify the potential roles of maternal GCs and metabonome changes in the metabolic programming of caffeine-induced IUGR. Pregnant rats were treated with caffeine (0, 20, 60 or 180 mg/kg·d) from gestational days (GD) 11 to 20, or 180 mg/kg·d caffeine from GD9. Metabonomes of maternal plasma on GD20 in the dose-effect study and on GD11, 14 and 17 in the time-course study were analyzed by ¹H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, respectively. Caffeine administration reduced maternal weight gains and elevated both maternal and fetal corticosterone (CORT) levels. A negative correlation between maternal/fetal CORT levels and fetal bodyweight was observed. The maternal metabonome alterations included attenuated metabolism of carbohydrates, enhanced lipolysis and protein breakdown, and amino acid accumulation, suggesting GC-associated metabolic effects. GC-associated metabolite variations (α/β-glucoses, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, β-hydroxybutyrate) were observed early following caffeine administration. In conclusion, prenatal caffeine exposure induced maternal GC elevation and metabonome alteration, and maternal GC and relevant discriminatory metabolites might be involved in the metabolic programming of caffeine-induced IUGR. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects Of Huntite/hydromagnesite On Capacity Of Flame Retardancy, Mechanical And Physical Properties Of Polypropylene

    OpenAIRE

    Zakut, Merve

    2012-01-01

    In this study, in order to increase the flame retardancy of polypropylene, usage of a flame retardant system comprising huntite and hydromagnesite was suggested. Four different commercial grades (U1250, U1253, LH15, H2090) of H/HM mixtures were used. In order to determine the ideal formulation, mixtures of H/HM were added to twin-screw extruder at 30-40-50-60% loading levels. The ratios of used H/HM mixtures on flame retardancy performances and mechanical properties of polypropylene were eval...

  6. Heterologous expression of a ketohexokinase in potato plants leads to inhibited rates of photosynthesis, severe growth retardation and abnormal leaf development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geigenberger, P.; Regierer, B.; Lytovchenko, A.

    2004-01-01

    of ketohexokinase but did not accumulate fructose 1-phosphate. They were, however, characterised by a severe growth retardation and abnormal leaf development. Studies of (14)CO(2) assimilation and metabolism, and of the levels of photosynthetic pigments, revealed that these lines exhibited restricted photosynthesis......-phosphoglycerate, and these lines were also characterised by an accumulation of glyceraldehyde. The transformants neither displayed consistent changes in the activities of Calvin cycle enzymes nor in enzymes of sucrose synthesis but displayed a metabolic profile partially reminiscent of that brought about by end...

  7. Retardo estatural em menores de cinco anos: um estudo "baseline" Linear growth retardation in children under five years of age: a baseline study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anete Rissin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever a prevalência e analisar fatores associados ao retardo estatural em menores de cinco anos. MÉTODOS: Estudo "baseline", que analisou 2.040 crianças, verificando possíveis associações entre o retardo estatural (índice altura/idade The scope of this study was to describe the prevalence of, and analyze factors associated with, linear growth retardation in children. The baseline study analyzed 2040 children under the age of five, establishing a possible association between growth delay (height/age index < 2 scores Z and variables in six hierarchical blocks: socio-economic, residence, sanitary, maternal, biological and healthcare access. Multivariate analysis was performed using Poisson regression with the robust standard error option, obtaining adjusted prevalence ratios with a CI of 95% and the respective significant probability values. Among non-binary variables, there was a positive association with roof type and number of inhabitants per room and a negative association with income per capita, mother's schooling and birth weight. The adjusted analysis also indicated water supply, visit from the community health agent, birth delivery location, internment for diarrhea, or for pneumonia and birth weight as significant variables. Several risk factors were identified for linear growth retardation pointing to the multi-causal aspects of the problem and highlighting the need for control measures by the various hierarchical government agents.

  8. Synergistic effect of iron and intumescent flame retardant on shape-stabilized phase change material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ping; Hu Yuan; Song Lei; Lu Hongdian; Wang Jian; Liu Qingqing

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the preparation of paraffin/high density polyethylene (HDPE)/intumescent flame retardant (IFR)/iron as flame retardant shape-stabilized phase change material (FSPCM). The influences of iron for FSPCM on morphology, flammability property, latent heat and thermal conductive property were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cone calorimeter, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and hot disk thermal constants analyser. It was found that iron could be well dispersed into the composite formed by HDPE and paraffin; the flame retardant efficiency of IFR could be improved by adding iron; the thermal conductivity of FSPCM could be increased due to the high thermal conductivity of iron. At the same time, the possible flame retardant mechanism for paraffin/HDPE/IFR with iron as a FSPCM was proposed

  9. Short Jute Fiber Reinforced Polypropylene Composites: Effect of Nonhalogenated Fire Retardants

    OpenAIRE

    Chestee, Sk. Sharfuddin; Poddar, Pinku; Sheel, Tushar Kumar; Mamunur Rashid, Md.; Khan, Ruhul A.; Chowdhury, A. M. Sarwaruddin

    2017-01-01

    Short jute fiber reinforced polypropylene (PP) composites were prepared using a single screw extrusion moulding. Jute fiber content in the composites is optimized with the extent of mechanical properties, and composites with 20% jute show higher mechanical properties. Dissimilar concentrations of several fire retardants (FRs), such as magnesium oxide (MO), aluminum oxide (AO), and phosphoric acid (PA), were used in the composites. The addition of MO, AO, and PA improved the fire retardancy pr...

  10. Effects of neonatal exposure to the flame retardant tetrabromobisphenol-A, aluminum diethylphosphinate or zinc stannate on long-term potentiation and synaptic protein levels in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, Hester; Koolen, Lucas; Dingemans, Milou; Viberg, Henrik; Lee, Iwa; Leonards, P.E.G.; Ramakers, G.M.J.; Westerink, Remco

    2014-01-01

    Brominated flame retardants such as tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA) may exert (developmental) neurotoxic effects. However, data on (neuro)toxicity of halogen-free flame retardants (HFFRs) are scarce. Recent in vitro studies indicated a high neurotoxic potential for some HFFRs, e.g., zinc stannate

  11. Effects of neonatal exposure to the flame retardant tetrabromobisphenol-A, aluminum diethylphosphinate or zinc stannate on long-term potentiation and synaptic protein levels in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, Hester S.; Koolen, Lucas A. E.; Dingemans, Milou M. L.; Viberg, Henrik; Lee, Iwa; Leonards, Pim E. G.; Ramakers, Geert M. J.; Westerink, Remco H. S.

    2015-01-01

    Brominated flame retardants such as tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA) may exert (developmental) neurotoxic effects. However, data on (neuro)toxicity of halogen-free flame retardants (HFFRs) are scarce. Recent in vitro studies indicated a high neurotoxic potential for some HFFRs, e.g., zinc stannate

  12. Flame Retardancy Effects of Graphene Nanoplatelet/Carbon Nanotube Hybrid Membranes on Carbon Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongxian Zhuo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotube/graphene nanoplatelet (MWCNT/GNP hybrid membranes with lower liquid permeability and better barrier effect compared to MWCNT membranes were successfully synthesized by vacuum filtering. Their morphologies, water permeability, and pore structures were characterized by a scanning electron microscope (SEM and nitrogen adsorption isotherms. Furthermore, MWCNT/GNP membranes were used to improve the flame retardancy of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP composites, and the influence of weight percentage of GNPs on the permeability and flame retardancy of MWCNT/GNP membranes was systematically investigated. Results show that incorporation of MWCNT/GNP membranes on CFRP composite plates can remarkably improve the flame retardancy of CFRP composites. Specifically, the incorporation of hierarchical MWCNT/GNP membrane with 7.5 wt% of GNP displays a 35% reduction in the peak heat release rate (PHRR for a CFRP composite plate with the epoxy as matrix and a 11% reduction in PHRR compared with the incorporation of MWCNT membrane only. A synergistic flame retarding mechanism is suggested to be attributed to these results, which includes controlling the pore size and penetrative network structure.

  13. Serum adiponectin levels, insulin resistance, and lipid profile in children born small for gestational age are affected by the severity of growth retardation at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evagelidou, Eleni N; Giapros, Vasileios I; Challa, Anna S; Kiortsis, Dimitrios N; Tsatsoulis, Agathocles A; Andronikou, Styliani K

    2007-02-01

    Insulin resistance has been linked to intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR); adiponectin is a protein with insulin-sensitizing properties. This study was designed to test whether being born small for gestational age (SGA) has an effect on blood levels of adiponectin and leptin, insulin resistance parameters, and lipid profile in pre-puberty, taking into consideration the severity of IUGR. Serum levels of adiponectin, leptin, total cholesterol (t-CHOL), high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, triglycerides, apolipoproteins A-1 (Apo A-1), Apo B and Apo E, lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)), fasting glucose, and insulin (Ins), the homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) and anthropometric indices were evaluated in 70 children aged 6-8 years, born appropriate for gestational age (AGA; n = 35) and SGA (n = 35), matched for age, gender, height, and BMI. SGA children were divided into two subgroups according to the severity of IUGR: SGA<3rd percentile (n = 20), and SGA 3rd-10th percentile (n = 15). They were also subdivided in two subgroups, those with (n = 25) and those without (n = 10) catch-up growth, considering their actual height corrected for mid-parental height. SGA children had higher Ins and HOMA-IR than AGA children (Ins, 42 +/- 23 vs 32 +/- 11 pmol/l; HOMA-IR, 1.30 +/- 0.8 vs 0.92 +/- 0.3; P<0.05). No significant difference in serum leptin was found between the SGA and the AGA groups but adiponectin showed a trend to be higher in SGA children (13.6 +/- 5.7 vs 10.8 +/- 5.9 microg/ml respectively). SGA children without catch-up growth had higher adiponectin (15.6 +/- 8.5 microg/ml, P<0.05) than AGA children. Among the SGA children, the subgroup <3rd percentile had higher Lp(a) than the subgroup 3rd-10th percentile (P<0.05). An independent positive correlation between adiponectin and Lp(a) was observed in SGA children (R = 0.59, P<0.01). SGA children, although more insulin resistant, had similar or

  14. Longitudinal space-charge effects in a retarding field energy analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zou

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical and experimental work has been carried out to study the longitudinal space-charge effects in a retarding field energy analyzer. A one-dimensional, steady state model for both a monoenergetic beam and a thermal beam has been developed for this purpose. Potential improvements of using two-dimensional and time-dependent solutions are also briefly discussed. The study shows that, if the current density inside the device is higher than a critical value, the longitudinal space-charge effect and the formation of a potential minimum similar to the virtual cathode formation in an electron gun will distort the measured energy spectrum. The measured FWHM and the rms energy spread will be affected. The measured mean energy will also be shifted toward the low-energy side. By using a two-dimensional correction, the theoretical model also qualitatively explains the appearance of a visible tail at the high-energy side of the spectrum, as observed in experiments. According to the theory, to avoid this measurement distortion due to the longitudinal space charge, care has to be taken to limit the current density inside the device.

  15. Effective non-retarded method as a tool for the design of tunable nanoparticle composite absorbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, Guillermo; Inchaussandague, Marina; Skigin, Diana; Depine, Ricardo; Mochán, W Luis

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the capabilities of an effective non-retarded formalism (ENR) for the exploration and design of nanoparticle composites with specific optical properties. We consider a composite material comprising periodically distributed metallic spheres in a dielectric host matrix. The effective macroscopic dielectric function of the composite medium is obtained by means of the ENR and is used to calculate the electromagnetic response of a slab made of an inhomogeneous material. This response is compared with that obtained by using the layer Korringa–Kohn–Rostoker wave calculation method (LKKR). We analyze the optical properties for different filling fractions, especially in the vicinity of the resonance frequencies of the macroscopic dielectric function. We notice that for dense systems within the long wavelength regime, the results of some analytical theories developed by other authors do not properly describe the multipolar excitations and interactions of orders higher than the dipole, in contrast with the results obtained by using an ENR. Therefore, those methods are not suitable for the design of compound films with novel properties. We show that by appropriately choosing the parameters of the composite, it is possible to achieve a tunable absorber film, and more generally, we show that ENR is a versatile tool for the design of nanoparticle composite materials with specific properties. (paper)

  16. Retardation of Listeria monocytogenes growth in mozzarella cheese using antimicrobial sachets containing rosemary oil and thyme oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jung H; Patel, Dhaval; Kim, Jung Eun; Min, Sea C

    2014-11-01

    An antimicrobial sachet containing microcellular foam starch (MFS) with embedded rosemary oil and thyme oil was developed to reduce bacterial growth in shredded mozzarella cheese. The efficacy of the volatiles of oils at various concentrations in reducing Listeria monocytogenes as well as the release of the oils from the MFS have been also determined in this study. The cheese, inoculated with a cocktail of 5 strains of L. monocytogenes (approximately 3 log CFU/g), was packaged in a Nylon/EVOH/PE bag. A paper sachet containing MFS embedded with rosemary oil and thyme oil, separately or together, was inserted into the bag. Rosemary and thyme oil volatiles released from the sachet restricted the growth of L. monocytogenes, resulting in a 2.5 log CFU/g reduction on day 9 at 10 °C. The volatile oils also showed inhibitory effects on the growth of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and total aerobic bacteria (TAB). After 15 d at 10 °C, the numbers of LAB and TAB in the samples containing the sachet with both oils experienced a 1.2 and 1.4 log CFU/g reduction, respectively, compared to untreated samples. Nonetheless, the sachet treatment produced a distinct odor, unfavorably received by the panelists. The results suggest the potential for application of the sachet system for the reduction of growth of L. monocytogenes, LAB, and TAB in food products. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Effect of reducing groundwater on the retardation of redox-sensitive radionuclides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose TP

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Laboratory batch sorption experiments were used to investigate variations in the retardation behavior of redox-sensitive radionuclides. Water-rock compositions were designed to simulate subsurface conditions at the Nevada Test Site (NTS, where a suite of radionuclides were deposited as a result of underground nuclear testing. Experimental redox conditions were controlled by varying the oxygen content inside an enclosed glove box and by adding reductants into the testing solutions. Under atmospheric (oxidizing conditions, radionuclide distribution coefficients varied with the mineralogic composition of the sorbent and the water chemistry. Under reducing conditions, distribution coefficients showed marked increases for 99Tc (from 1.22 at oxidizing to 378 mL/g at mildly reducing conditions and 237Np (an increase from 4.6 to 930 mL/g in devitrified tuff, but much smaller variations in alluvium, carbonate rock, and zeolitic tuff. This effect was particularly important for 99Tc, which tends to be mobile under oxidizing conditions. A review of the literature suggests that iodine sorption should decrease under reducing conditions when I- is the predominant species; this was not consistently observed in batch tests. Overall, sorption of U to alluvium, devitrified tuff, and zeolitic tuff under atmospheric conditions was less than in the glove-box tests. However, the mildly reducing conditions achieved here were not likely to result in substantial U(VI reduction to U(IV. Sorption of Pu was not affected by the decreasing Eh conditions achieved in this study, as the predominant sorbed Pu species in all conditions was expected to be the low-solubility and strongly sorbing Pu(OH4. Depending on the aquifer lithology, the occurrence of reducing conditions along a groundwater flowpath could potentially contribute to the retardation of redox-sensitive radionuclides 99Tc and 237Np, which are commonly identified as long-term dose contributors in the risk

  18. LOX/GOX sensitivity of fluoroelastomers. [effect of formulation components and addition of fire retardants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirshen, N.; Mill, T.

    1973-01-01

    The effect of formulation components and the addition of fire retardants on the impact sensitivity of Viton B fluoroelastomer in liquid oxygen was studied with the objective of developing a procedure for reliably reducing this sensitivity. Component evaluation, carried out on more than 40 combinations of components and cure cycles, showed that almost all the standard formulation agents, including carbon, MgO, Diak-3, and PbO2, will sensitize the Viton stock either singly or in combinations, some combinations being much more sensitive than others. Cure and postcure treatments usually reduced the sensitivity of a given formulation, often dramatically, but no formulated Viton was as insensitive as the pure Viton B stock. Coating formulated Viton with a thin layer of pure Viton gave some indication of reduced sensitivity, but additional tests are needed. It is concluded that sensitivity in formulated Viton arises from a variety of sources, some physical and some chemical in origin. Elemental analyses for all the formulated Vitons are reported as are the results of a literature search on the subject of LOX impact sensitivity.

  19. Synergistic flame retardant effects between sepiolite and magnesium hydroxide in ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Some customers are reluctant to change, because the halogen-free solutions may have higher cost. This is one of the reasons that the synergistic effect is always the subject for researchers to pursue. The synergy between sepiolite and magnesium hydroxide (MH in halogen-free flame retardant ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA copolymer was investigated in the paper through some common facilities, such as limiting oxygen index (LOI, UL-94 test, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, differential thermal analysis (DTA and cone calorimeter test (CCT. In the wake of the positive results from the LOI and UL-94 tests, the CCT data indicated not only the reduction of heat release rate (HRR and mass loss rates (MLR, but also prolonged ignition time (TTI and depressed smoke release (SR were observed during combustion. Simultaneously, the tensile strength and Young’s modulus of the system were also much better improved with the increase of sepiolite added due to the hydrogen bonds between silanol groups attached to the sepiolite molecules and the ester groups of EVA. The synergistic mechanism has been discussed in the paper in terms of the barrier mechanism in the condensed phase.

  20. Effects of organophosphorus flame retardant TDCPP on normal human corneal epithelial cells: Implications for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Ping; Liu, Rong-Yan; Li, Chao; Gao, Peng; Cui, Xin-Yi; Ma, Lena Q

    2017-11-01

    Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) is one of the most detected organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs) in the environment, especially in indoor dust. Continuous daily exposure to TDCPP-containing dust may adversely impact human cornea. However, its detrimental effects on human corneal epithelium are largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the cell apoptosis in normal human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) after TDCPP exposure and elucidated the underlying molecular mechanisms. Our data indicated a dose-dependent decrease of cell viability after TDCPP exposure with LC 50 at 202 μg/mL. A concentration-dependent apoptotic sign was observed in HCECs after exposing to ≥2 μg/mL TDCPP. Endoplasmic reticulum stress induction was evidenced by up-regulation of its biomarker genes (ATF-4, CHOP, BiP, and XBP1). Furthermore, alternation of Bcl-2/Bax expression, mitochondrial membrane potential loss, cellular ATP content decrease, and caspase-3 and -9 activity increase were observed after exposing to 2 or 20 μg/mL TDCPP. Taken together, the data implicated the involvement of endoplasmic reticulum stress in TDCPP-induced HCEC apoptosis, probably mediated by mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Our findings showed TDCPP exposure induced toxicity to human cornea. Due to TDCPP's presence at high levels in indoor dust, further study is warranted to evaluate its health risk on human corneas. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. The Effect of Ultrafine Magnesium Hydroxide on the Tensile Properties and Flame Retardancy of Wood Plastic Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiping Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of ultrafine magnesium hydroxide (UMH and ordinary magnesium hydroxide (OMH on the tensile properties and flame retardancy of wood plastic composites (WPC were investigated by tensile test, oxygen index tester, cone calorimeter test, and thermogravimetric analysis. The results showed that ultrafine magnesium hydroxide possesses strengthening and toughening effect of WPC. Scanning electron micrograph (SEM of fracture section of samples provided the positive evidence that the tensile properties of UMH/WPC are superior to that of WPC and OMH/WPC. The limited oxygen index (LOI and cone calorimeter test illustrated that ultrafine magnesium hydroxide has stronger flame retardancy and smoke suppression effect of WPC compared to that of ordinary magnesium hydroxide. The results of thermogravimetric analysis implied that ultrafine magnesium hydroxide can improve the char structure which plays an important role in reducing the degradation speed of the inner matrix during combustion process and increases the char residue at high temperature.

  2. Studying the effect of fire retardant coating on the fire hazard characteristics of wood using infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasymov, Denis; Agafontsev, Mikhail

    2017-10-01

    This paper represents a study concerning the effect of fire retardant treatment «FUKAM» on the fire hazard characteristics of pine, aspen and larch. The front of model ground fire was investigated to estimate its effect on the surface of wood samples. Infrared thermography was used as a diagnostic method. The surface temperature distribution was obtained for the test wood samples after exposure to a fire front that was modeled using pine needles. The probability of ignition was estimated for the chosen experimental parameters for each kind of wood. The fire hazard characteristics of wood after fire retardant treatment showed a significant reduction in the surface temperature and the resistance to fire for the chosen parameters of the experiment compared to the same untreated samples.

  3. The Effects of Difunctional Urone Catalysis on Selected Non-Halogenated Flame Retardant Synergies of Dicyandiamide Cured Epoxy Resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Nathan M.

    A standard grade diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A, DGEBA, epoxy resin was evaluated using differential scanning calorimetry, DSC, to determine the optimum stoichiometric balance of a dicyandiamide, DICY, curing agent. The maximum attainable glass transition temperature, Tg, was used as a reference point for the optimal reactivity. The stoichiometric value was found to be 8 epoxy groups to 1 equivalent of dicyandiamide, or an 80% stoichiometric ratio. This value lies within the known literature range of 7-8.5 epoxy groups per dicyandiamide molecule. The optimal blend was then catalyzed with 1, 2 and 3 parts by weight, PBW, of Dyhard UR500, a difunctional urone catalyst. A separate blend was developed for each addition level of Dyhard UR500. Six non-halogenated flame retardants synergies were selected from the literature, and each flame retardant was incorporated at 10 PBW into a separate optimized DGEBA/DICY blend, which contained either 0,1,2 or 3 PBW Dyhard UR500. Cured neat resin and composite samples for each synergy, with each addition level of catalyst, were evaluated to determine the effects of urone catalysis on known non-halogenated flame retardant synergies. The neat resin analysis was performed using thermogravimetric analysis, TGA. The ASTM methods of E1641 and E1877 were used to determine the slope of the thermal endurance graph, or RTI, the slope of the relative thermal index. Composite laminates were prepared using T300B 3K carbon fiber containing 40% resin content, and five samples were evaluated in accordance with the UL-94 test standard. The DSC data showed a reduction in Tg with each increased PBW of urone catalyst. The observed reduction in Tg for these blends is understood to be an accurate representation for the decrease in crosslink density resulting from chain termination during cure. A comparison between the slope of RTI and the UL-94 test data indicate that this reduction in crosslink density has different influences on the flammability and

  4. Transformation of Flame Retardant Tetrabromobisphenol A by Aqueous Chlorine and the Effect of Humic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuan; Pang, Su-Yan; Jiang, Jin; Ma, Jun; Zhou, Yang; Li, Juan; Wang, Li-Hong; Lu, Xue-Ting; Yuan, Li-Peng

    2016-09-06

    In this work, it was found that the most widely used brominated flame retardant tetrabromobisphenol A (TBrBPA) could be transformed by free chlorine over a wide pH range from 5 to 10 with apparent second-order rate constants from 138 to 3210 M(-1)·s(-1). A total of eight products, including one quinone-like compound (i.e., 2,6-dibromoquinone), two dimers, and several simple halogenated phenols (e.g., 4-(2-hydroxyisopropyl)-2,6-dibromophenol, 2,6-dibromohydroquinone, and 2,4,6-tribromophenol), were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) using a novel precursor ion scan (PIS) approach. A tentative reaction pathway was proposed: chlorine initially oxidized TBrBPA leading to the formation of a phenoxy radical, and then this primary radical and its secondary intermediates (e.g., 2,6-dibromo-4-isopropylphenol carbocation) formed via beta-scission subsequently underwent substitution, dimerization, and oxidation reactions. Humic acid (HA) considerably inhibited the degradation rates of TBrBPA by chlorine even accounting for oxidant consumption. A similar inhibitory effect of HA was also observed in permanganate and ferrate oxidation. This inhibitory effect was possibly attributed to the fact that HA competitively reacted with the phenoxy radical of TBrBPA and reversed it back to parent TBrBPA. This study confirms that chlorine can transform phenolic compounds (e.g., TBrBPA) via electron transfer rather than the well-documented electrophilic substitution, which also have implications on the formation pathway of halo-benzoquinones during chlorine disinfection. These findings can improve the understanding of chlorine chemistry in water and wastewater treatment.

  5. Solvent effects on quantitative analysis of brominated flame retardants with Soxhlet extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yin; Li, Dan; Zhu, Xifen; Huang, Weilin; Peng, Ping'an

    2017-05-18

    Reliable quantifications of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) not only ensure compliance with laws and regulations on the use of BFRs in commercial products, but also is key for accurate risk assessments of BFRs. Acetone is a common solvent widely used in the analytical procedure of BFRs, but our recent study found that acetone can react with some BFRs. It is highly likely that such reactions can negatively affect the quantifications of BFRs in environmental samples. In this study, the effects of acetone on the extraction yields of three representative BFRs [i.e., decabrominated diphenyl ether (decaBDE), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA)] were evaluated in the Soxhlet extraction (SE) system. The results showed that acetone-based SE procedure had no measureable effect for the recovery efficiencies of decaBDE but could substantially lower the extraction yields for both TBBPA and HBCD. After 24 h of extraction, the recovery efficiencies of TBBPA and HBCD by SE were 93 and 78% with acetone, 47 and 70% with 3:1 acetone:n-hexane, and 82 and 94% with 1:1 acetone:n-hexane, respectively. After 72 h of extraction, the extraction efficiencies of TBBPA and HBCD decreased to 68 and 55% with acetone, 0 and 5% with 3:1 acetone/n-hexane mixtures, and 0 and 13% with 1:1 acetone/n-hexane mixtures, respectively. The study suggested that the use of acetone alone or acetone-based mixtures should be restricted in the quantitative analysis of HBCD and TBBPA. We further evaluated nine alternative solvents for the extraction of the three BFRs. The result showed that diethyl ether might be reactive with HBCD and may not be considered as the alternative to acetone used solvents for the extraction of HBCD.

  6. The effect of basketball training on the muscle strength of adults with mental retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsimaras, Vasilios K; Samara, Christina A; Kotzamanidou, Marianna C; Bassa, Eleni I; Fotiadou, Eleni G; Kotzamanidis, Christos M

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of basketball training on the muscle strength of adults with mental retardation (MR). Twenty-four adults with and without MR were separated into 3 groups. Eight adults (mean age 25.4 years) with normal IQ constituted the control group (NIQ). Eight adults (mean age 26.5 years) with MR and all participating in a 4-year systematic basketball exercise program constituted the trained group (MR-T), and 8 adults (mean age 25.3 years) with MR exercised occasionally for recreational reasons formed the MR-R group. Parameters measured were isometric and isokinetic concentric and eccentric muscle strength. All subjects performed a leg strength test on a Cybex Norm isokinetic dynamometer. Analysis of variance was used to examine mean differences between the values of the 3 groups. A significance level of 0.05 was used for all tests. The NIQ group showed a statistically significant difference in all measured values compared to the MR groups. The MR-T group presented higher absolute and relative torque scores for both knee extensors and flexors than the MR-R group, whereas the MR-R group presented statistically higher antagonistic activity for both knee extensors and flexors than the MR-T group. In addition, both MR groups presented statistically higher antagonistic activity for both knee extensors and flexors compared to the NIQ group. Data support participation on a systematic and well-designed basketball training program to improve muscle strength levels of adults with MR. Participation in basketball without necessarily focusing on developing specific fitness components may be an effective training strategy for the promotion of strength of adults with MR.

  7. Effect of temperature on swelling and bubble growth in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, G.P.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of temperature on the swelling of copper-boron alloys has been studied in the temperature range of 900-1040deg C. It is observed that beyond 1030deg C, swelling as well as the rate of bubble growth decrease. Similar characteristics of the bubble growth have been observed in aluminium-boron alloys also. At 590deg C, the bubble growth in aluminium-boron alloys is faster as compared to that at 640deg C. It thus appears that the swelling as well as the growth of the gas bubble are retarded at temperatures near the melting point in metals. Possible reasons for this kind of behaviour are discussed. (author)

  8. Effects of a Memory Aid on Three Types of Conservation in Institutionalized Retarded Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roodin, Paul A.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Qualitative identity, qualitative identity and equivalence conservation were assessed in 60 retarded boys and girls in three groups (mental ages 5.4, 6.3, and 7.5). Half the subjects were provided a memory aid while the other half were not. (MS)

  9. Toxicity of brominated flame retardants in fish, with emphasis on endocrine effects and reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, R.V.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract The abundant use of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in modern polymers has over the passed decades resulted in contamination of the environment, and BFRs are increasingly found in fish. Laboratory studies have shown that a number of BFRs and BFR-metabolites can interfere with thyroid and

  10. Fire retardation of polystyrene/clay nanocomposites: initial study on synergy effect

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dujková, Z.; Měřínská, D.; Šlouf, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 9 (2013), s. 1278-1286 ISSN 0892-7057 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : fire retardation * synergy * clay Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.134, year: 2013

  11. Brief Report: Clonazepam Behavioral Side Effects with an Individual with Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalachnik, John E.; Hanzel, Thomas E.; Sevenich, Robert; Harder, Stuart R.

    2003-01-01

    This article describes an individual (age 49) with mental retardation who experienced behavioral exacerbation associated with clonazepam prescribed at 2 mg/day to treat aggression, self-injurious behavior, property destruction, and screaming. When clonazepam was reduced and discontinued, these behaviors significantly decreased from 3.1% of…

  12. A class of neutral-type delay differential equations that are effectively retarded

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoorvogel, Antonie Arij; Roy, Sandip; Wan, Yan; Saberi, Ali

    We demonstrate that some delay-differential equations of neutral type are, up to basis transformation, equivalent to retarded delay differential equations. In particular, for two classes of neutral delay differential equation models, we use state transformations to show that delayed derivatives can

  13. Effects of Surveillance and Punishment on the Cheating Behavior of Two Delinquent Retardates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascione, Frank R.; Burchard, John D.

    Through an experimental analysis, this study demonstrates characteristics of both observer-produced and punishment-produced suppression of cheating behavior. The research procedure, designed to eliminate the interpretative difficulties of prior, comparable research, is fully elaborated. Two delinquent, retarded, adolescent boys served as subjects.…

  14. Effects of Classification Exposure upon Numerical Achievement of Educable Mentally Retarded Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Kerri L.; Tseng, M. S.

    Two groups of 32 educable mentally retarded children (ages 7 to 14 years) were compared as to their arithmetic and classification performances attributable to the presence or absence of a 4 1/2 week exposure to classification tasks. The randomized block pretest-posttest design was used. The experimental group and the control group were matched on…

  15. Age-Appropriate Activities: Effects on the Social Perception of Adults with Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Mary Lynne; Calhoun, Lawrence G.

    1993-01-01

    Observers (n=94) of videotapes of a young woman with mental retardation engaging in either an age-appropriate leisure activity or an activity designed for much younger persons found that observers associated age-appropriate activities with higher ratings of estimated IQ and reading level. Findings support the development of age-appropriate and…

  16. Structural and functional development of small intestine in intrauterine growth retarded porcine offspring born to gilts fed diets with differing protein ratios throughout pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickiewicz, M; Zabielski, R; Grenier, B; Le Normand, L; Savary, G; Holst, J J; Oswald, I P; Metges, C C; Guilloteau, P

    2012-06-01

    Protein level in the maternal diet plays a crucial role in fetal programming during pregnancy. Low or high protein level increases the risk of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). The aim of this study was to investigate the structural and functional development of the small intestine in piglets from sows fed a control (C, 12.1% protein), a high protein (HP, 30% protein), or a low protein (LP, 6.5% protein) diet during pregnancy. Newborns were classified as IUGR (birth weight ≤1.18 kg) and non-IUGR (birth weight >1.18 kg). The piglets were euthanized on postnatal day (PD)1, PD28 and PD188. The LP diet in non-IUGR neonates resulted in decreased body weight on PD1. The LP and HP diets resulted in both decreased body weight and delayed catch-up growth in the IUGR piglets. The HP and LP-diets increased the length of villi on PD1 in non-IUGRs but not in IUGRs. At birth, the expressions of Ki67 and active caspase 3 in mid-jejunum epithelium of HP and LP non-IUGR neonates were significantly lower as compared to C non-IUGRs whilst in IUGRs the respective expressions were as high as in C non-IUGRs. The postnatal dynamics of brush border enzyme activities and vacuolated enterocytes disappearance showed significant drop in enterocyte maturation in IUGR as compared to non-IUGR neonates. In conclusion, both HP and LP diets led to retarded development of non-IUGR piglets. In IUGR piglets both HP and LP diets resulted in delayed catch-up growth, without adaptive changes in brush border digestive enzymes.

  17. Effect of stress inoculation training on coping styles and psychological well-being status of mothers with mental retard children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahanshir Tavakolizadeh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Mental retardation is one of the most significant problems of human society among children and adolescents. It puts families, especially mothers, under a lot of stress and threatens their mental health. The initial purpose of this study was to determine the effect of stress inoculation training on coping styles and psychological well-being status in women who have children with mental retardation. In this quasi-experimental study, 30 participants were randomly were selected by simple sampling method that were assigned into the experimental and control groups. The statistical population comprised the mothers who have children with mental retardation at the training center. Ryff scales of psychological well-being and coping inventory for stressful situations and psychological well-being scale were implemented before and after the stress inoculation training (presented only for the experimental group in eight sessions. The results of the statistical analysis showed that the training increased the problem-oriented coping style and decreased the avoidant and emotional coping styles. Thus, the results demonstrated that stress inoculation training was effective in stress coping and improving psychological well-being in mothers. According to the obtained finding, psychological well-being scores in the experimental group were remarkably different from those in the control group. Based on these results, it is recommended for the experts in the field to use stress inoculation training to decrease stress and enhance psychological well-being of mothers.

  18. Unsaturated polyester/expanded polystyrene composite : thermal characteristics and flame retardancy effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, R.; Syed Mustafa, S. A.; Norizan, Mohd N.; Amerudin, L. S.

    2017-07-01

    Panels for energy efficient buildings has to meet certain requirements such as low thermal conductivity and inherent flame retardancy characteristics, before being eligible for buildings and construction applications. Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) as waste material had been incorporated as filler in Unsaturated Polyester Resin (UPR) composites. The composite are fabricated as flat panel window or glazing to replace glass. In this study, different EPS content incorporated was found to affect flammability and thermal characteristics. Core additives such as Flame Retardant (FR) and Antioxidant (AO) were added to the composite for imparting flame retardancy and prevent aging of the composite. The result obtained via the comparison of the various composite systems studied had revealed that organic and metal oxide flame retardant (FR) additives imparts higher flame retardancy levels than others, but each type of additives had interacted with the polymeric matrixes differently. The thermal conductivity, k value, as measured from a handheld thermal probe had showed a minimum of ~0.124 W/m.K for the 1%wt zinc oxide sample, while the highest k value of ~0.280 W/m.K was exhibited by the 2%wt tin oxide sample. The first 1%wt of either metal oxide FR initially decreases both the thermal conductivity, k value; and volumetric specific heat, Cp,v of the samples. At 2%wt, increases in k value were obtained. The flammability was reduced with the use of organic Phosphate Ester FR, which had reduced the flame speed to about 37.1% of the original flame speed. With the equivalent mixture of all three organic FR system, the flammability reduced less than 30%, while the metal oxide FR additive doesn't reduces the flammability.

  19. Whole Body Vibration Retards Progression of Atherosclerosis via Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 in Apolipoprotein E-Deficient Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Wu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Whole body vibration (WBV has a marked impact on lipid metabolism and the endocrine system, which is related to the progression of atherosclerosis (AS. To investigate the effects of WBV, we measured the atherosclerotic plaque area of apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoE−/− AS mice, which were trained by WBV (15 Hz, 30 min for 12 weeks. Simultaneously, serum levels of lipids, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1, insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R, interleukin 6 (IL-6, and the mRNA and protein levels of the same in the aorta were compared between the control and WBV groups. The results indicated that WBV significantly reduced the atherosclerotic plaque area with lower very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL in the blood. Moreover, the levels of IGF-1 in serum and expression of IL-6, IGF-1R, and p-IGF-1R protein in the mice aorta decreased significantly in the WBV group. In addition, we found that serum IGF-1 in mice increased to the highest concentration in 30 min after WBV for 10, 30, 60, and 120 minutes. These results suggested that appropriate WBV may delay the progression of AS, which was associated with acutely elevated serum IGF-1 and lower levels of IGF-1 and IL-6 in the aorta for long-term treatment.

  20. Whole Body Vibration Retards Progression of Atherosclerosis via Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 in Apolipoprotein E-Deficient Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, He; Zhang, Yibo; Yang, Xuan; Li, Xian; Shao, Zhenya; Zhou, Zipeng; Li, Yuanlong; Pan, Shuwen; Liu, Chang

    2018-01-01

    Whole body vibration (WBV) has a marked impact on lipid metabolism and the endocrine system, which is related to the progression of atherosclerosis (AS). To investigate the effects of WBV, we measured the atherosclerotic plaque area of apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoE -/- ) AS mice, which were trained by WBV (15 Hz, 30 min) for 12 weeks. Simultaneously, serum levels of lipids, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and the mRNA and protein levels of the same in the aorta were compared between the control and WBV groups. The results indicated that WBV significantly reduced the atherosclerotic plaque area with lower very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) in the blood. Moreover, the levels of IGF-1 in serum and expression of IL-6, IGF-1R, and p-IGF-1R protein in the mice aorta decreased significantly in the WBV group. In addition, we found that serum IGF-1 in mice increased to the highest concentration in 30 min after WBV for 10, 30, 60, and 120 minutes. These results suggested that appropriate WBV may delay the progression of AS, which was associated with acutely elevated serum IGF-1 and lower levels of IGF-1 and IL-6 in the aorta for long-term treatment.

  1. Effect of tensile overloads on fatigue crack growth of high strength steel wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haag, J.; Reguly, A.; Strohaecker, T.R.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A proof load process may be an option to increase the fatigue life of flexible pipelines. • There is possibility to produce plastic deformation at crack tip of tensile armor wires. • Controlled overloads provide effective crack growth retardation. • Crack growth retardation is also evident at higher stress ratios. - Abstract: Fatigue of the tensile armor wires is the main failure mode of flexible risers. Techniques to increase the life of these components are required to improve the processes safety on oil exploration. This work evaluates the crack growth retardation of high strength steel wires used in flexible pipelines. Fracture toughness tests were performed to establish the level of stress intensity factor wherein the wires present significant plastic deformation at the crack tip. The effect of tensile overload on fatigue behavior was assessed by fatigue crack growth testing under constant ΔK control and different overload ratios with two different load ratios. The outcomes show that the application of controlled overloads provides crack retardation and increases the fatigue life of the wires more than 31%. This behavior is also evident at stress ratio of 0.5, in spite of the crack closure effect being minimized by increasing the applied mean stress

  2. Modeling retardation effects by barium and strontium solid solutions on radium cations in the near field of radioactive waste repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, H.; Kosakowski, G.; Kulik, D. A.; Kolditz, O.

    2009-04-01

    In the near field of a radioactive waste repository, bentonite is often used as a buffer material to prevent the migration of hazardous radionuclides into the biosphere. Traditionally the retardation mechanisms are simplified into a linear isotherm concept. The corresponding KD value is thereafter used for safety assessment purposes. Often, due to the lack of experimental data, the retardation based on the formation of solid solutions is ignored and only cation exchange and surface complexation processes are considered in evaluating KDs. In this contribution, we use the newly coupled code GeoSys-GEM to simulate the reactive transport of radium in a bentonite column. In a first step, a chemical model was set up which contained non-ideal radium, barium, and strontium sulfate and carbonate solid solutions. Our reactive transport simulations suggest that the formation of such solid solutions strongly contributes to the retardation of radium. The aqueous Ra2+ concentration will be lower by 3 ~ 4 orders of magnitudes in the presence of sulfate solid solutions. However, its fixation capacity is highly influenced by the sulfate inventory available in the medium. In a second step, the chemical model was further extended to include ion exchange effects, with the clay mineral montmorillonite acting as an ion-exchanger. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to find out to what extent the mechanisms and compounds influence the retardation of radium. With this model, we are able to predict the transport of radionuclides in a more realistic way and reduce the conservatism of the simplified models (linear isotherms) used for performance assessment.

  3. Effect of Sb2O3 Modified by Various Surface Active Agents on Flame Retardant Properties of PVC Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XU Jian-lin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Sb2O3 powders were prepared by high energy ball milling using polyethyleneglycol-6000,sodium dodecyl sulfate and OP-10 to modify the surface properties of the powder. The influence of Sb2O3 powders modified by various surface active agents on flame retardant properties of PVC composite materials was studied. The phase composition, morphology and the average particle size of the powders were characterized by XRD and TEM. The particle distribution and flame retardant properties of Sb2O3/PVC composite materials were studied by EDS, limiting oxygen index instrument and vertical burning test. The results show that nanometer Sb2O3 has good dispersion in the PVC matrix because of the higher space steric effect of organic film on the surface of nanometer Sb2O3 when polyethyleneglycol-6000 was used as the surface active agent. While the content of nanometer Sb2O3 is 1.26% in the PVC composite material, the oxygen index of the composite material is 27.1% and the composite material reaches fire retardant grade. Using sodium dodecyl sulfate and OP-10 as surface dispersants, the surface of Sb2O3 powders can not be coated completely. The particle size of Sb2O3 powders are 100nm and 150nm, respectively, The Sb2O3 powders have poor dispersion in the PVC matrix, and even some agglomerating phenomena took place. The oxygen index of Sb2O3/PVC composite materials are 24.7% and 25.3%, respectively, containing 1.26% Sb2O3 powders in Sb2O3/PVC composite material. The materials don't achieve flame retardant level.

  4. Flammability of Cellulose-Based Fibers and the Effect of Structure of Phosphorus Compounds on Their Flame Retardancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalifah A. Salmeia

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose fibers are promoted for use in various textile applications due their sustainable nature. Cellulose-based fibers vary considerably in their mechanical and flammability properties depending on their chemical composition. The chemical composition of a cellulose-based fiber is further dependent on their source (i.e., seed, leaf, cane, fruit, wood, bast, and grass. Being organic in nature, cellulose fibers, and their products thereof, pose considerable fire risk. In this work we have compared the flammability properties of cellulose fibers obtained from two different sources (i.e., cotton and peat. Compared to cotton cellulose textiles, peat-based cellulose textiles burn longer with a prominent afterglow which can be attributed to the presence of lignin in its structure. A series of phosphoramidates were synthesized and applied on both cellulose textiles. From thermogravimetric and pyrolysis combustion flow analysis of the treated cellulose, we were able to relate the flame retardant efficacy of the synthesized phosphorus compounds to their chemical structure. The phosphoramidates with methyl phosphoester groups exhibited higher condensed phase flame retardant effects on both types of cellulose textiles investigated in this study. In addition, the bis-phosphoramidates exhibited higher flame retardant efficacy compared to the mono-phosphoramidates.

  5. Effect of basalt fibres reinforcement and aluminum trihydrate on the thermal properties of intumescent fire retardant coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasir, Muhammad; Amir, Norlaili Binti; Ahmad, Faiz; Syahirah Rodzhan, N.

    2017-08-01

    This research is carried out in order to study the synergistic effect of aluminium trihydrate and basalt fibres on the properties of fire resistant intumescent coatings. Intumescent fire retardant coatings were developed using different flame retardants such as ammonium polyphosphate, expandable graphite, melamine and boric acid. These flame retardants were bound together with the help of epoxy binder along with curing agent. Furthermore, individual and combinations of aluminium trihydrate and basalt fibres was incorporated in the formulations to analyse mechanical and chemical properties of the coatings. Char expansion was observed using furnace test, thermogravimetric analysis was used to determine residual weight, X-Ray Diffraction was performed to investigate compounds present in the char, shear test was conducted to determine char strength and scanning electron microscopy analysis was performed to observe morphology of the burnt char. From the microscopic investigation it was concluded that the dense structure of the char increased the char integrity by adding basalt and aluminium trihydrate as fillers. X-Ray Diffraction results shows the presence boron phosphate, and boric acid which enhanced the thermal performance of the coating up to 800°C. From the Thermogravimetric analysis it was concluded that the residual weight of the char was increased up to 34.9 % for IC-B2A4 which enhanced thermal performance of intumescent coating.

  6. Study of the evolution of the placenta and fetal pancreas in the pathophysiology of growth retardation intrauterine due to restricted maternal diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilza Vieira Cunha Rudge

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Intrauterine growth retard (IUGR continues to be a significant perinatology problem at the end of this century. The nature of the etiologic agent, the time when the attack occurred during pregnancy and its duration affect the type of IUGR. OBJECTIVE: To study the evolution of fetal pancreas and placenta between the 18th and 21st day of pregnancy in rats submitted to maternal protein-calorie restriction. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial on laboratory animal. SAMPLE: Forty-one normoglycemic pregnant Wistar rats. INTERVENTION: Rats were divided into six experimental groups according to their access to food and date of cesarean section (18th or 21st day: control with free access to food; diet restricted to 25% introduced on 1st day of pregnancy; and diet restricted to 25% after the 3rd day of pregnancy. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Newborn weight, placenta weight, histopathological study (morphological histochemistry RESULTS: Maternal protein-calorie malnutrition caused intrauterine growth retard (IUGR after the 18th day of pregnancy. Dietary restriction did not interfere with the morphology of the fetal pancreas and the immunohistochemical study of the placenta showed that glycogen stores were decreased between the 18th and 21st day in the control group and in a diet restricted to 25% from the first day of pregnancy. Dietary restriction after the 3rd day of pregnancy led to low placental glycogen concentrations on the 18th day and disappearance on the 21st day. CONCLUSION: The pathophysiology of IUGR due to maternal protein-calorie restriction in rats is related to lower placental weight and low placental glycogen stores.

  7. Rates of nitrogen and growth retardant trinexapac-ethyl on wheat Doses de nitrogênio e do redutor de crescimento trinexapac-etil na cultura do trigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Curitiba Espindula

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective in this study was to evaluate the effects of nitrogen rates in association with rates of the growth retardant trinexapac-ethyl on wheat. The experiment was conducted in Viçosa, MG and arranged in a 5×4 factorial, randomized block design, with four repetitions. A combination of five nitrogen rates (30, 60, 90, 120 and 150kg ha-1 with four rates of trinexapac-ethyl (0, 62.5, 125 and 187.5g ha-1 were tested. Trinexapac-ethyl promotes reduction of soot dry mass and grain yield at the lowest N rates, but at the highest N rates there is increase in these characteristics. The combination between N and trinexapac-ethyl rates that promotes higher shoot dry mass is 150kg ha-1 and 187g ha-1 but that promotes higher grain yield is 100kg ha-1 and 120g ha-1, respectively.O objetivo neste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos de doses de nitrogênio associadas às doses do redutor de crescimento trinexapac-etil na cultura do trigo. O experimento, conduzido em Viçosa-MG, seguiu um esquema fatorial 5×4, no delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram 30, 60, 90, 120 e 150kg ha-1 de N, combinados com 0, 62,5, 125 e 187,5g ha-1 de trinexapac-etil. Trinexapac-etil promove redução da massa seca da parte aérea e do rendimento de grãos nas menores doses de N, mas sob doses elevadas de N o trinexapac-etil promove aumento dessas características. A combinação entre doses de N e trinexapac-etil que promove maior massa seca da parte aérea é de 150kg ha-1 e 187g ha-1, mas a que promove maior produção de grãos é de 100kg ha-1 e 120g ha-1, respectivamente.

  8. Dual inhibition of Wnt and Yes-associated protein signaling retards the growth of triple-negative breast cancer in both mesenchymal and epithelial states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Andrew; McGarry, Sarah; Li, Li; Jia, Deyong; Ooi, Sarah; Addison, Christina; Dimitroulakos, Jim; Arnaout, Angel; Nessim, Carolyn; Yao, Zemin; Ji, Guang; Song, Haiyan; Gadde, Suresh; Li, Xuguang; Wang, Lisheng

    2018-04-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), the most refractory subtype of breast cancer to current treatments, accounts disproportionately for the majority of breast cancer-related deaths. This is largely due to cancer plasticity and the development of cancer stem cells (CSCs). Recently, distinct yet interconvertible mesenchymal-like and epithelial-like states have been revealed in breast CSCs. Thus, strategies capable of simultaneously inhibiting bulk and CSC populations in both mesenchymal and epithelial states have yet to be developed. Wnt/β-catenin and Hippo/YAP pathways are crucial in tumorigenesis, but importantly also possess tumor suppressor functions in certain contexts. One possibility is that TNBC cells in epithelial or mesenchymal state may differently affect Wnt/β-catenin and Hippo/YAP signaling and CSC phenotypes. In this report, we found that YAP signaling and CD44 high /CD24 -/low CSCs were upregulated while Wnt/β-catenin signaling and ALDH+ CSCs were downregulated in mesenchymal-like TNBC cells, and vice versa in their epithelial-like counterparts. Dual knockdown of YAP and Wnt/β-catenin, but neither alone, was required for effective suppression of both CD44 high /CD24 -/low and ALDH+ CSC populations in mesenchymal and epithelial TNBC cells. These observations were confirmed with cultured tumor fragments prepared from patients with TNBC after treatment with Wnt inhibitor ICG-001 and YAP inhibitor simvastatin. In addition, a clinical database showed that decreased gene expression of Wnt and YAP was positively correlated with decreased ALDH and CD44 expression in patients' samples while increased patient survival. Furthermore, tumor growth of TNBC cells in either epithelial or mesenchymal state was retarded, and both CD44 high /CD24 -/low and ALDH+ CSC subpopulations were diminished in a human xenograft model after dual administration of ICG-001 and simvastatin. Tumorigenicity was also hampered after secondary transplantation. These data suggest a new

  9. The Effect of Particle Size of Wollastonite Filler on Thermal Performance of Intumescent Fire Retardant Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zia-ul-Mustafa M.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Intumescent Fire retardant coatings (IFRC’s are one of the simplest ways to protect substrates exposed to fire. In this study, Wollastonite (W filler of two different particle sizes were used to determine the fire performance of intumescent fire retardant coating. The basic ingredients of the coating were ammonium poly-phosphate (APP as acid source, expandable graphite (EG as carbon source, melamine (MEL as blowing agent in epoxy binder, boric acid as additive and hardener as curing agent. A series of coating formulations were developed by using different weight percentages of both sized Wollastonite fillers. The coated steel substrate samples were tested for fire performance using Bunsen burner and char expansion was measured using furnace fire test. A Comparison of the coatings thermal performance was determined. Wollastonite containing filler particle size 10 μm showed better thermal performance than formulations containing filler’s particle size 44 μm.

  10. Short Jute Fiber Reinforced Polypropylene Composites: Effect of Nonhalogenated Fire Retardants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sk. Sharfuddin Chestee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Short jute fiber reinforced polypropylene (PP composites were prepared using a single screw extrusion moulding. Jute fiber content in the composites is optimized with the extent of mechanical properties, and composites with 20% jute show higher mechanical properties. Dissimilar concentrations of several fire retardants (FRs, such as magnesium oxide (MO, aluminum oxide (AO, and phosphoric acid (PA, were used in the composites. The addition of MO, AO, and PA improved the fire retardancy properties (ignition time, flame height, and total firing time of the composites. Ignition time for 30% MO, flame height for 30% PA, and total firing time for 20% MO content composites showed good results which were 8 sec, 1 inch, and 268 sec, respectively. Mechanical properties (tensile strength, tensile modulus, bending strength, bending modulus, and elongation at break, degradation properties (soil test, weathering test, and percentage of weight loss, and water uptake were studied.

  11. Investigations of scattering and field enhancement effects in retardation-based plasmonic nanoantennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M. G.; Pors, A.; Nielsen, Rasmus Bundgaard

    2010-01-01

    Modifications in scattering strength of and local field enhancement by retardation-based plasmonic nanoantennas when being transformed from straight nanorods to split-rings are investigated. The scattering properties are monitored by linear reflection and extinction spectroscopy whereas local field......, a feature that we attribute to the decrease in the nanoantenna electric-dipole response in tact with its bending. The experimental observations are corroborated with numerical simulations using the finite-element method....

  12. Assessing oestrogenic effects of brominated flame retardants Hexabromocyclododecane and Tetrabromobisphenol A on MCF-7 cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dorosh, Andriy; Děd, Lukáš; Elzeinová, Fatima; Pěknicová, Jana

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 56, - (2010), s. 35-39 ISSN 0015-5500 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06011; GA MŠk(CZ) 2B06151 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : endocrine disruptors * BRF - brominated flame retardant * MCF-7 cells * TFF1 - trefoil factor Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 0.729, year: 2010

  13. Retardation Effects and the Born-Oppenheimer Approximation: Theory of Tunneling Ionization of Molecules Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstikhin, Oleg I.; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2013-01-01

    We show that retardation in adjusting an electronic state to an instantaneous internuclear configuration caused by the finiteness of the electron’s velocity breaks the validity of the Born-Oppenheimer (BO) approximation at large electron-nuclei distances. This applies even to the ground state. As...... approximation and the asymptotic expansion are compared with numerical results for a one-dimensional three-body system modeling a diatomic molecule, with both electronic and nuclear motions treated exactly....

  14. Research Paper: Effect of Eight Weeks Corrective Games on Kyphosis Curve and Strengths of Trunk Muscle in Kyphotic Mentally Retarded Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Ahmadnezhad

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion Corrective games can improve kyphosis curve and strength of trunk muscles in mentally retarded children. Based on the results of this research on the corrective effect of play therapy on kyphosis curve and strength of trunk muscle in kyphotic mentally retarded children who need to have an independent living and get rid of physical abnormalities, it is recommended to do play therapy protocols to improve physical abnormalities.

  15. Mandibulofacial syndrome with growth and mental retardation, microcephaly, ear anomalies with skin tags, and cleft palate in a mother and her son: autosomal dominant or X-linked syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guion-Almeida, Maria Leine; Vendramini-Pittoli, Siulan; Passos-Bueno, Maria Rita Santos; Zechi-Ceide, Roseli Maria

    2009-12-01

    We report on a Brazilian mother and her son affected with mandibulofacial dysostosis, growth and mental retardation, microcephaly, first branchial arch anomalies, and cleft palate. To date only three males and one female, all sporadic cases, with a similar condition have been reported. This article describes the first familial case with this rare condition indicating autosomal dominant or X-linked inheritance.

  16. Local Equilibrium and Retardation Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Scott K; Vesselinov, Velimir V

    2018-01-01

    In modeling solute transport with mobile-immobile mass transfer (MIMT), it is common to use an advection-dispersion equation (ADE) with a retardation factor, or retarded ADE. This is commonly referred to as making the local equilibrium assumption (LEA). Assuming local equilibrium, Eulerian textbook treatments derive the retarded ADE, ostensibly exactly. However, other authors have presented rigorous mathematical derivations of the dispersive effect of MIMT, applicable even in the case of arbitrarily fast mass transfer. We resolve the apparent contradiction between these seemingly exact derivations by adopting a Lagrangian point of view. We show that local equilibrium constrains the expected time immobile, whereas the retarded ADE actually embeds a stronger, nonphysical, constraint: that all particles spend the same amount of every time increment immobile. Eulerian derivations of the retarded ADE thus silently commit the gambler's fallacy, leading them to ignore dispersion due to mass transfer that is correctly modeled by other approaches. We then present a particle tracking simulation illustrating how poor an approximation the retarded ADE may be, even when mobile and immobile plumes are continually near local equilibrium. We note that classic "LEA" (actually, retarded ADE validity) criteria test for insignificance of MIMT-driven dispersion relative to hydrodynamic dispersion, rather than for local equilibrium. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  17. Animal models to explore the effects of glucocorticoids on skeletal growth and structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Claire L; Soucek, Ondrej; Wong, Sze C; Zaman, Farasat; Farquharson, Colin; Savendahl, Lars; Ahmed, S Faisal

    2018-01-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are effective for the treatment of many chronic conditions, but their use is associated with frequent and wide-ranging adverse effects including osteoporosis and growth retardation. The mechanisms that underlie the undesirable effects of GCs on skeletal development are unclear, and there is no proven effective treatment to combat them. An in vivo model that investigates the development and progression of GC-induced changes in bone is, therefore, important and a well-characterized pre-clinical model is vital for the evaluation of new interventions. Currently, there is no established animal model to investigate GC effects on skeletal development and there are pros and cons to consider with the different protocols used to induce osteoporosis and growth retardation. This review will summarize the literature and highlight the models and techniques employed in experimental studies to date. © 2018 Society for Endocrinology.

  18. Ocular disorder in children with mental retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Rajesh Subhash; Somani, Abhishek Arun Kumar

    2013-04-01

    Ocular problems are common in mentally retarded children. Due to population growth these problems are increasing. Prevalence rate is variable from region to region. Data on ocular problems in mentally retarded school children is lacking in this region. The aim of the present study was to identify the ocular disorders in children with mental retardation attending special schools in a district and to study their relationship with the degree of retardation. A total of 241 mentally retarded school children in the age group of 6-16 years attending special schools for the mentally retarded children in a district in central India were examined by a team of ophthalmologist, psychiatrist, and a resident in ophthalmology department of a medical college. Complete ocular examination was done. Ocular problems were identified and categorized according to the intelligent quotient. One hundred and twenty four children (51.45%) had ocular problems. Strabismus (10.37%) and refractive error (20.75%) were the common ocular problems seen in this study. An association was found between the severity of mental retardation and ocular problems (P<0.005). However, no association was seen between the severity of mental retardation and strabismus and refractive error. A high prevalence of ocular problems was seen in mentally retarded school children. Children with mental retardation should undergo annual ophthalmological check up. Early detection and correction of ocular problems will prevent visual impairment in future.

  19. Newborn length predicts early infant linear growth retardation and disproportionately high weight gain in a low-income population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berngard, Samuel Clark; Berngard, Jennifer Bishop; Krebs, Nancy F; Garcés, Ana; Miller, Leland V; Westcott, Jamie; Wright, Linda L; Kindem, Mark; Hambidge, K Michael

    2013-12-01

    Stunting is prevalent by the age of 6 months in the indigenous population of the Western Highlands of Guatemala. The objective of this study was to determine the time course and predictors of linear growth failure and weight-for-age in early infancy. One hundred and forty eight term newborns had measurements of length and weight in their homes, repeated at 3 and 6 months. Maternal measurements were also obtained. Mean ± SD length-for-age Z-score (LAZ) declined from newborn -1.0 ± 1.01 to -2.20 ± 1.05 and -2.26 ± 1.01 at 3 and 6 months respectively. Stunting rates for newborn, 3 and 6 months were 47%, 53% and 56% respectively. A multiple regression model (R(2) = 0.64) demonstrated that the major predictor of LAZ at 3 months was newborn LAZ with the other predictors being newborn weight-for-age Z-score (WAZ), gender and maternal education∗maternal age interaction. Because WAZ remained essentially constant and LAZ declined during the same period, weight-for-length Z-score (WLZ) increased from -0.44 to +1.28 from birth to 3 months. The more severe the linear growth failure, the greater WAZ was in proportion to the LAZ. The primary conclusion is that impaired fetal linear growth is the major predictor of early infant linear growth failure indicating that prevention needs to start with maternal interventions. © 2013.

  20. Factors Associated with Growth Retardation in Children Suffering from Sickle Cell Anemia: First Report from Central Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimé Lukusa Kazadi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study was to investigate and determine the risk factors associated with poor growth among SCA children. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Kinshasa, the capital’s country. The nutritional status was assessed using the Z scores of the anthropometric indices. Results. We gathered data on the 256 patients, 138 females (53.9%, who entered the study. The mean age at presentation was 8.4 ± 4.9 years of age. Underweight, stunting, and wasting were found, respectively, in 47.7%, 10.5%, and 50.3% of SCA children. A history of hand-foot syndrome, more than 3 blood transfusions, being less than 12 months of age when receiving the first transfusion, more than two severe sickle crises per year, a medical history of severe infections, and the presence of hepatomegaly were associated with poor growth. When comparing sickle cell patients under 12 years of age (n=159 to a group of 296 age-matched children with normal Hb-AA, a significantly higher proportion of subjects with stunting and underweight were found among SCA. Conclusion. Nutritional status encountered in Congolese sickle cell children has been described for the first time in this study. A high prevalence of poor growth in SCA children was found in our study.

  1. Consumo calórico, estado nutricional materno, y retraso del crecimiento intrauterino Energy intake, maternal nutritional status and intrauterine growth retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Bender Martins

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Para conocer la asociación entre el consumo de energía en el embarazo y el retraso del crecimiento intrauterino (RCIU, se llevó a cabo un estudio de caso-cohorte en tres hospitales de maternidad de la ciudad de México, entre enero y agosto de 1995. De un total de 4.000 partos que ocurrieron en este período, nos referimos en este estudio a los resultados de un análisis de 264 casos de RCIU y 892 controles. Se procedió a un análisis de regresión logística no condicionada, en el que también se ajustaron los factores maternos potencialmente proclives a la confusión. Para el total de los casos no se observó un efecto directo del consumo de energía en el RCIU (RM: 0,99; IC 95%: 0,99-1,00. Sin embargo, entre las mujeres que comenzaron el embarazo con un peso de 50 kilos o menos, el consumo de energía en relación a RCIU mostró una razón de momios de 2,31 (RM: 2,31; IC 95%: 1,59-3,36; para las mujeres primigestas de 1,72 (RM: 1,72; IC 95%: 1,18-2,51; en aquellas con antecedente de bajo peso al nacer de 3,54 (RM: 3,54; IC 95%: 1,93-6,46 y para aquellas que presentaron tensión arterial alta en el embarazo de 1,61 (RM: 1,61; IC 95%: 1,00-2,59.To explore the association between low caloric intake during pregnancy and intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR, a case-control study with 264 cases and 892 controls was conducted in three maternity hospitals in Mexico City from January to August 1995. Nutritional information on pregnancy was recorded using a previously validated food frequency questionnaire. After adjusting for other known maternal risk factors in the non-conditional logistic regression analysis, for the total sample, caloric intake did not present a direct effect on IUGR (OR: 0.99; CI 95%: 0.99-1.00. However the odds ratios were as follows for women: with low pre-gestational weight (OR: 2.31; CI 95%: 1.59-3.36, in first gestation (OR: 1.72; CI 95%: 1.18-2.51, with low birth weight infants (OR: 3.54; CI 95%: 1.93-6.46, and

  2. Effect of Magnesium Borates on the Fire-Retarding Properties of Zinc Borates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmi Seyhun Kipcak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium borate (MB is a technical ceramic exhibiting high heat resistance, corrosion resistance, great mechanical strength, great insulation properties, lightweightness, high strength, and a high coefficient of elasticity. Zinc borate (ZB can be used as a multifunctional synergistic additive in addition to flame retardant additives in polymers. In this study, the raw materials of zinc oxide (ZnO, magnesium oxide (MgO, and boric acid (H3BO3 were used in the mole ratio of 1 : 1 : 9, which was obtained from preexperiments. Using the starting materials, hydrothermal synthesis was applied, and characterisation of the products was performed using X-Ray diffraction (XRD and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR and Raman spectroscopies. The forms of Zn3B6O12·3.5H2O, MgO(B2O33·7(H2O, and Mg2(B6O7(OH62·9(H2O were synthesised successfully. Moreover, the surface morphology was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and the B2O3 content was determined. In addition, the reaction yields were calculated. The results of the B2O3 content analysis were in compliance with the literature values. Examination of the SEM images indicated that the obtained nanoscale minerals had a reaction efficiency ranging between 63–74% for MB and 87–98% for ZB. Finally, the fire-retarding properties of the synthesised pure MBs, pure ZBs, and mixtures of MB and ZB were determined using differential thermal analysis and thermal gravimetry (DTA-TG and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC.

  3. Separate and Combined Effects of Behavior Rehearsal and Self-Other Modeling Variations on the Grooming Skill Acquisition of Mentally Retarded Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroski, Richard A.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Compared the separate and combined effects of behavior rehearsal and modeling on grooming skill development of mentally retarded women (N=48). All treatments were superior to the control condition. Modeling and behavior rehearsal were both effective but there was no advantage to combining them. Cost effectiveness favored the other-model procedure.…

  4. Uterine Doppler wave form and the prediction of the recurrence of pre-eclampsia and intra-uterine growth retardation in patients treated with low-dose aspirin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, B; Uzan, M; Bréart, G; Uzan, S

    1995-10-01

    To examine if early uterine Doppler remains a predictor of vascular complications in pregnant women treated with low-dose aspirin for a poor previous obstetrical history. A study of the uterine diastolic index and the uterine notch with a continuous wave Doppler ultrasound. The maternity Hospital Port-Royal Baudelocque Paris, France. All pregnant women between 1991-1992 (n = 48) early treated with 100 mg daily of aspirin (15.9 (S.D. = 1) weeks) for a poor previous obstetrical history. The 48 patients underwent a uterine Doppler examination at 23.8 (S.D. = 2.6) weeks. A diastolic index was calculated and the presence of diastolic notch was noted. Vascular complications (pre-eclampsia, intra-uterine growth retardation), birth weight. Twenty six patients (54.2%) had an abnormal early uterine Doppler. Nine patients (18.7%) had a vascular complication, which occurred more frequently in pregnant patients with an abnormal uterine Doppler (8/26 vs. 1/22; P < 0.05). The mean birth weight was lower in patients with a pathological uterine Doppler (2419 (S.D. = 679) vs. 2841 (S.D. = 482) g; P < 0.05). In pregnant, early treated with low-dose aspirin for poor previous pregnancies, early uterine Doppler predicted patients with a high-risk of recurrence of vascular complications.

  5. Ketogenic Diet: Effects on Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the ketogenic diet on growth of 237 children (130 males, 107 females treated for intractable epilepsy has been evaluated in a prospective cohort study (average follow-up 308 days at the Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD.

  6. Effects of Special Olympics International on social competence in persons with mental retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykens, E M; Cohen, D J

    1996-02-01

    To evaluate the social and emotional goals of Special Olympics International, specifically whether Special Olympics facilitates social competence and self-esteem in persons with mental retardation. Findings were "triangulated" across three studies on the social competence, adaptation, and self-perceptions of 104 athletes from 1993 Team USA (mean age = 22 years; mean IQ = 59). Study 1 related behavior to athletes' length of time in Special Olympics. Study 2 compared Team USA to an appropriately matched group of non-Special Olympians. Study 3 assessed Team USA before and 4 months after their participation in the World Games held in Salzburg, Austria. Relative to age and IQ, length of time in Special Olympics was the most powerful predictor of social competence. Special Olympics athletes had higher social competence scores and more positive self-perceptions than the comparison group. Team USA's behavioral data remained stable over time, suggesting that high pre-Game scores were not simply a function of parental or athlete pre-Game excitement. Based on the most conservative meaning of triangulation, more support was found linking Special Olympics to social competence than to remaining behavioral domains.

  7. [Risk factors associated to growth retardation in children 12 to 120 months of age in Arandas, Jalisco, México].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez Garibay, Edgar M; Ortiz Ortega, Miguel Angel; Romero Velarde, Enrique; Nápoles Rodríguez, Francisco

    2008-12-01

    The purpose was to identify risk factors associated to deficit on linear growth in children from a semi-rural population in Arandas, Jalisco, Mexico. In a cross sectional study 432 children, 12 to 120 months old were included. Social, demographic, economical, dietetic and pathological characteristics and deficit in the height/age index ( 3 children in the family [OR 1.71 (1.01, 2.87)], soft drinks consumption > 4 times a week [OR 2.36 (1.19-4.73)], family's monthly income salary (100 USA dollars a month) [OR 1.81 (1.06, 3.09)]; age < 24 months [OR 2.02 (1.09, 3.75)], adding sweeteners to the bottle [OR 8.56 (1.84, 54.9)], diet modification during diarrhea [OR 2.40 (1.02, 5.77)], milk intake < 4 times a week [OR 2.71 (1.55, 4.73)] and nearly significant, bean consumption [1.75 (0.98, 3.13). Protection factors: nuclear family [OR 0.28 (0.09, 0.85)] and an adequate infant formula dilution [OR 0.71 (0.60, 0.85)]. In multivariate models associated factors to deficit of height were higher consumption of soft drinks, beans and the addition of sweeteners to the bottle. In addition to socioeconomic variables, lower consumption of high quality food and proteins and higher intake of legumes were important risk factors for mild and moderate deficit height/age.

  8. Effects of visual arts instruction on the mental health of adults with mental retardation and mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malley, Sharon M; Dattilo, John; Gast, David

    2002-08-01

    Single-subject multiple probe designs were employed in two studies with 5 young adults who had a dual diagnosis of mental retardation and mental illness. Our aim was to determine effects of instruction designed to teach visual arts activity skills and promote personal expressiveness on acquisition, maintenance, and generalization of these skills and behaviors associated with these persons' mental health. In Study 1, a 5-second constant time delay procedure was used to teach three chosen art activities. In Study 2, an instructional package was used to promote personally expressive behaviors. After learning the skills in Study 1, participants in Study 2 displayed improvement in occurrence of behaviors associated with mental illness and increases in personally expressive behaviors.

  9. Effects of reactive compatibilization on the morphological, thermal, mechanical, and rheological properties of intumescent flame-retardant polypropylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Pingan; Shen, Yu; Du, Baoxian; Peng, Mao; Shen, Lie; Fang, Zhengping

    2009-02-01

    Flame-retardant polypropylene (PP) samples were in situ compatibilized with maleic anhydride grafted PP. Compatibilization reaction was verified by an IR spectrum and gel content measurements. Electron microscopy images showed that compatibilization could considerably reduce the size of the flame-retardant domains, control the phase morphology, and improve the interfacial adhesion between PP and intumescent flame retardant (IFR) with different IFR loading levels. The limiting oxygen index (LOI) of flame-retardant PP increased to different extents after compatibilization, indicating an improvement in the flame retardancy. Compatibilization enhanced the thermal stability to some extent and remarkably delayed thermal oxidative degradation of flame-retardant PP. For PP containing 20 wt % flame retardant, the temperature at which the maximum weight loss rate occurred was enhanced by about 99 degrees C after compatibilization. The storage modulus and glass transition temperatures were elevated to different extents. Tensile strengths of samples reduced in the presence of flame retardant alone but in the additional presence of compatibilizer were restored to levels similar to those of pure PP. Elongation-at-break values, however, showed IFR concentration-dependent reductions that were less for compatibilized samples. Furthermore, the complex viscosity of a compatibilized PP melt turned slightly smaller, which is favorable to melt processing.

  10. THE EFFECT OF AGE AS A VARIABLE ON THE SCORES OF THE HARRIS-GOODENOUGH DRAWING TEST OF EDUCABLE RETARDATES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LEVY, IRWIN S.

    IN ORDER TO DETERMINE THE RELIABILITY OF PERFORMANCE OF RETARDED ADOLESCENTS ON THE HARRIS REVISION OF THE GOODENOUGH DRAW-A-MAN TEST (DAM) AND WHETHER THE DECLINE IN PERFORMANCE WHICH OCCURS IN NORMAL ADOLESCENTS AT THE MID-TEENS ALSO OCCURS WITH RETARDED ADOLESCENTS, 213 MALE AND 130 FEMALE SUBJECTS, AGED 11-20 YEARS AND WITH IQ'S OF 56-72, IN…

  11. Introduction to Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arc of the United States, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to define mental retardation and answer questions related to this topic. According to the American Association on Mental Retardation (AAMR), mental retardation is a disability that occurs before age 18. It is characterized by significant limitations in intellectual functioning and adaptive behaviors as expressed in…

  12. Including sheath effects in the interpretation of planar retarding potential analyzer's low-energy ion data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, L E; Lynch, K A; Fernandes, P A; Bekkeng, T A; Moen, J; Zettergren, M; Miceli, R J; Powell, S; Lessard, M R; Horak, P

    2016-04-01

    The interpretation of planar retarding potential analyzers (RPA) during ionospheric sounding rocket missions requires modeling the thick 3D plasma sheath. This paper overviews the theory of RPAs with an emphasis placed on the impact of the sheath on current-voltage (I-V) curves. It then describes the Petite Ion Probe (PIP) which has been designed to function in this difficult regime. The data analysis procedure for this instrument is discussed in detail. Data analysis begins by modeling the sheath with the Spacecraft Plasma Interaction System (SPIS), a particle-in-cell code. Test particles are traced through the sheath and detector to determine the detector's response. A training set is constructed from these simulated curves for a support vector regression analysis which relates the properties of the I-V curve to the properties of the plasma. The first in situ use of the PIPs occurred during the MICA sounding rocket mission which launched from Poker Flat, Alaska in February of 2012. These data are presented as a case study, providing valuable cross-instrument comparisons. A heritage top-hat thermal ion electrostatic analyzer, called the HT, and a multi-needle Langmuir probe have been used to validate both the PIPs and the data analysis method. Compared to the HT, the PIP ion temperature measurements agree with a root-mean-square error of 0.023 eV. These two instruments agree on the parallel-to-B plasma flow velocity with a root-mean-square error of 130 m/s. The PIP with its field of view aligned perpendicular-to-B provided a density measurement with an 11% error compared to the multi-needle Langmuir Probe. Higher error in the other PIP's density measurement is likely due to simplifications in the SPIS model geometry.

  13. Effects of small molecules water that may retard kidney stone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Pan, Jichuan; Zhang, Yue; Chang, Yangtao; Yang, Xiaoxiong; Yang, Baoyu; Mao, Xu; Wang, Zhonghui; Gao, Bing; Lu, Xiuli

    2018-02-01

    Water intake is important for preventing kidney stones. Small molecules water is a more active restructured water under magnetic field. Here, we studied the relation between small molecules water and crystal formation in the rat kidney. The small molecules water was prepared by a water machine providing a 0.8-T magnetic field. Calcium oxalate crystals were induced by 0.75% EG (ethylene glycol) in male Sprague-Dawley rats by drinking small molecules water and plain water for up to 6 weeks, respectively. Urinary ions were assayed. Osteopontin mRNA expression and urinary LDH were detected. Crystals were observed using a light microscope and a polarizing microscope. A significantly reduced urinary calcium and phosphorus excretion occurred in the 2nd and the 4th week after treatment of small molecules water. Crystals were initially detected in 40% of the experimental rats in the small molecules water group at the 6th week, later than the control group in which crystals were detected in 60% of rats at the 4th week. After 6 weeks of treatment, crystals were observed to form in renal cortex, medulla and papilla in the control group, whereas only to form in renal medulla and papilla in the small molecules water group. OPN mRNA expression significantly increased earlier in the 2nd week after treatment of the small molecules water compared to the control (P = 0.016). Small molecules water may retard crystal formation, reduce urinary calcium and phosphorus excretion and promote earlier OPN mRNA expression in the rat kidney.

  14. Basketball ability testing and category for players with mental retardation: 8-month training effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franciosi, Emanuele; Gallotta, Maria Chiara; Baldari, Carlo; Emerenziani, Gian Pietro; Guidetti, Laura

    2012-06-01

    Although sport for athletes with mental retardation (MR) is achieving an important role, the literature concerning basketball tests and training is still poor. The aims of this study were to verify whether the basketball test battery could be an appropriate modality to classify the players in the Promotion (Pro) category, to assess basketball abilities before (PRE) and after (POST) an 8-month training in players with MR in relation to Competitive (Comp) and Pro categories, to analyze the variation of specific basketball abilities based on subjects' MR diagnosis. Forty-one male basketball players with MR (17 Comp and 24 Pro; age range 18-45 years; MR: 15% mild, 54% moderate, 29% severe, and 2% profound) were assessed PRE and POST training through the basketball test battery, which assessed 4 ability levels of increasing difficulty (from I to IV), each one characterized by the analysis of fundamental areas (ball handling, reception, passing, and shooting). Level I was significantly changed after the intervention period regardless of the Category, whereas shooting was affected by the interaction between Category and Intervention. The results showed significant differences between categories in the scores of individual global, level I, level II, level III, and in all fundamental areas. Individual global score in both categories significantly increased. The players of Comp significantly improved in level III, in ball handling, reception, passing, and shooting scores. The players of Pro improved significantly in level II, in ball handling, reception, and passing scores. Individual global, ability levels I-III, and fundamental area scores were negatively correlated to the MR level indicating that the players with a lower MR obtained higher ability scores. In conclusion, it was found that the basketball test battery could be useful for improving and monitoring training in both Comp and Pro players.

  15. Retardadores de crescimento na produção de plantas floridas envasadas de açafrão-da-cochinchina Growth retardants on production of flowering potted thai tulip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Christina Rossini Pinto

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A introdução de novos produtos na floricultura brasileira é importante para o crescimento do setor. O açafrão-da-cochinchina (Curcuma alismatifolia possui inflorescência e folhagem altamente decorativas e grande potencial para produção como florífera envasada, com o auxílio de retardadores de crescimento, usados na produção de plantas compactas e atrativas. Avaliou-se o efeito de retardadores de crescimento na produção de açafrão-da-cochinchina `Pink', de 3/12/2004 a 28/4/2005, sob ambiente protegido, em Holambra (SP. Instalou-se experimento em blocos casualizados com três repetições e onze tratamentos: controle, paclobutrazol (20; 25; 30 e 35 mg i.a./vaso, via substrato, duas, três e cinco pulverizações de daminozide na concentração de 2,125 g L-1 e duas, três e cinco pulverizações de solução de daminozide (1,275 g L-1 mais chlormequat (0,2 g L-1. O propágulo foi plantado em vaso plástico (1,0 L com substrato comercial e fertirrigado diariamente. Paclobutrazol (35 mg i.a./vaso reduziu significativamente a altura da parte aérea e da folhagem e o comprimento da haste floral, sem alterar o comprimento da inflorescência e atrasar o ciclo de produção. Entretanto, as plantas não ficaram suficientemente compactas para atender às exigências de qualidade do mercado. Os demais retardadores estudados não afetaram significativamente a altura da folhagem e o comprimento da haste floral comparado ao controle.The introduction of new products is important for the growth of Brazilian floriculture industry. The thai tulip (Curcuma alismatifolia has a highly attractive inflorescence and foliage, and great prospect as a flowering potted plant with the aid of growth retardants, which are used to produce compact plants. The effect of growth retardants on `Pink' thai tulip production was evaluated under controlled growing conditions at Holambra, SP. The experimental design was randomized blocks, with three replications and

  16. Fetal growth-retardation and brain-sparing by malnutrition are associated to changes in neurotransmitters profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Contreras, C; Valent, D; Vázquez-Gómez, M; Arroyo, L; Isabel, B; Astiz, S; Bassols, A; Gonzalez-Bulnes, A

    2017-04-01

    The present study assesses possible changes in the levels of different neurotransmitters (catecholamines and indoleamines) in fetuses affected by nutrient shortage. Hence, we determined the concentration of catecholamines and indoleamines at the hypothalamus of 56 swine fetuses obtained at both 70 and 90days of pregnancy (n=33 and 23 fetuses, respectively). The degree of fetal development and the fetal sex affected the neurotransmitters profile at both stages. At Day 70, there were found higher mean concentrations of l-DOPA in both female and male fetuses with severe IUGR; male fetuses with severe IUGR also showed higher concentrations of TRP than normal male littermates. At Day 90 of pregnancy, the differences between sexes were more evident. There were no significant effects from either severe IUGR on the neurotransmitter profile in male fetuses. However, in the females, a lower body-weight was related to lower concentrations of l-DOPA and TRP and those female fetuses affected by severe IUGR evidenced lower HVA concentration. In conclusion, the fetal synthesis and use of neurotransmitters increase with time of pregnancy but, in case of IUGR, both catecholamines and indoleamines pathways are affected by sex-related effects. Copyright © 2017 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of phosphorous-containing modified poly(vinyl alcohol on the mechanical and flame retardant properties of polypropylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sauca

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Blends of polypropylene (PP and different phosphorous-modified poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA derivatives synthesized on purpose, were prepared by both solvent and melt mixing, and fully characterized. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that the addition of the phosphorous-modified PVAs significantly increased thermal stability and charring of PP, probably due to their dehydration and the subsequent formation of a protective layer onto PP. SEM analysis demonstrated poor phase compatibility between PP and the polymeric additives, however acceptable dispersion of the polymeric additives was obtained. It was also observed that grafting of the modified PVA on PP occurred due to radical reactions arising during melt processing. Mechanical characterization showed that the elastic behavior of the blends was not altered with respect to neat PP, while ductility was reduced; on the other hand, impact resistance was considerably improved by blending. Slightly higher LOI values were obtained for the blends even with phosphorous content as small as 1 wt%; reduced dripping was also observed during the burning tests for the blend samples. Moreover, cone calorimeter test results showed that heat release rate, total heat release, and fire growth rate decreased compared with PP, in particular for the blends containing residual –OH groups on the PVA backbone. Therefore, these blends can find application where the combination of toughness and fire retardancy is required, such as in the automotive industry.

  18. Maternal vitamin C deficiency during pregnancy results in transient fetal and placental growth retardation in guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Janne Gram; Paidi, Maya Devi; Lindblad, Maiken Marie

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Recently, we reported that preferential maternal-fetal vitamin C (vitC) transport across the placenta is likely to be impaired by prolonged maternal vitC deficiency. Maintenance of a basal maternal vitC supply at the expense of the fetus may impair fetal development; however, the knowledge...... of vitC's impact on intrauterine development is sparse. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of maternal vitC status on fetal and placental development in guinea pigs. METHODS: Twenty pregnant Dunkin Hartley guinea pigs were randomized into four groups to receive diets either sufficient (918...... mg/kg CTRL) or deficient (100 mg/kg DEF) in vitC. Cesarean sections at gestational day (GD) 45 or 56 allowed for fetal and placental measurements. RESULTS: At GD45, body, brain and placental weights were significantly reduced in DEF pups compared with CTRL (p

  19. Normal sex differences in prenatal growth and abnormal prenatal growth retardation associated with 46,XY disorders of sex development are absent in newborns with congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalmers Laura J

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency is the most common presentation of a disorder of sex development (DSD in genetic females. A report of prenatal growth retardation in cases of 46,XY DSD, coupled with observations of below-optimal final height in both males and females with congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency, prompted us to investigate prenatal growth in the latter group. Additionally, because girls with congenital adrenal hyperplasia are exposed to increased levels of androgens in the absence of a male sex-chromosome complement, the presence or absence of typical sex differences in growth of newborns would support or refute a hormonal explanation for these differences. Methods In total, 105 newborns with congenital adrenal hyperplasia were identified in our database. Gestational age (weeks, birth weight (kg, birth length (cm and parental heights (cm were obtained. Mid-parental height was considered in the analyses. Results Mean birth weight percentile for congenital adrenal hyperplasia was 49.26%, indicating no evidence of a difference in birth weight from the expected standard population median of 50th percentile (P > 0.05. The expected sex difference in favor of heavier males was not seen (P > 0.05. Of the 105 subjects, 44 (27%; 34 females, 10 males had birth length and gestational age recorded in their medical chart. Mean birth length for this subgroup was 50.90 cm (63rd percentile, which differed from the expected standard population median of 50th percentile (P = 0.0082. The expected sex difference in favor of longer males was also not seen (P > 0.05. Conclusion The prenatal growth retardation patterns reported in cases of 46,XY disorders of sex development do not generalize to people with congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Sex differences in body weight and length typically seen in young infants were not seen in the subjects who

  20. Chemical reaction and Co-60 retardation in unsteady, unsaturated soil water flow: the effect of clay content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smiles, D.E.

    2001-01-01

    The ability of the regolith to adsorb and retard radioactive and other noxious chemicals is important when selecting repository sites. Because of its surface charge and great specific surface, the clay in soil contributes significantly to this retardation. This paper illustrates a novel analysis of unsteady water and solute flow in unsaturated soil that quantifies these effects. Analysis and experiments suggest that the use of a clay-based space-like coordinate permits us to generalise results to account for variation in clay content and soil structure across many materials. Results imply that clay content, mineralogy, and charge permit quantitative material classification according to their ability to retard cationic wastes. The approach appears to offer significant economies in selecting materials where adsorption and retardation of cation pollutants is desired.Extension of that analysis (Smiles 2000) shows that, under these experimental conditions, the moisture ratio (the volume of water per unit volume of soil solid) and C w will also preserve similarity if a space-like coordinate defined by the distribution of the soil solid volume is used. This latter formulation is strain-independent and applies equally well to non-swelling systems or to systems where the volume changes with water content (Smiles and Rosenthal 1968). This approach is used in this paper, but with the trivial extension that v is replaced by the water mass fraction, θ g (gravimetric water content), and the cumulative mass of solid per unit cross-section area is used as the space-like coordinate (Raats and Klute 1968). Consistent with this convention, solute concentrations are expressed per unit mass of solvent (water) and of solid depending on the circumstances. Soil, at an initial water content, θ g(i) , was packed into a sectioned cylindrical column of internal diameter 20 mm. The soil was added in increments of 2-3 g and packed using a small drop-hammer to ensure uniformity. Saturated Ca

  1. Effects of neonatal exposure to the flame retardant tetrabromobisphenol-A, aluminum diethylphosphinate or zinc stannate on long-term potentiation and synaptic protein levels in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Hester S; Koolen, Lucas A E; Dingemans, Milou M L; Viberg, Henrik; Lee, Iwa; Leonards, Pim E G; Ramakers, Geert M J; Westerink, Remco H S

    2015-12-01

    Brominated flame retardants such as tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA) may exert (developmental) neurotoxic effects. However, data on (neuro)toxicity of halogen-free flame retardants (HFFRs) are scarce. Recent in vitro studies indicated a high neurotoxic potential for some HFFRs, e.g., zinc stannate (ZS), whereas the neurotoxic potential of other HFFRs, such as aluminum diethylphosphinate (Alpi), appears low. However, the in vivo (neuro)toxicity of these compounds is largely unknown. We therefore investigated effects of neonatal exposure to TBBPA, Alpi or ZS on synaptic plasticity in mouse hippocampus. Male C57bl/6 mice received a single oral dose of 211 µmol/kg bw TBBPA, Alpi or ZS on postnatal day (PND) 10. On PND 17-19, effects on hippocampal synaptic plasticity were investigated using ex vivo extracellular field recordings. Additionally, we measured levels of postsynaptic proteins involved in long-term potentiation (LTP) as well as flame retardant concentrations in brain, muscle and liver tissues. All three flame retardants induced minor, but insignificant, effects on LTP. Additionally, TBBPA induced a minor decrease in post-tetanic potentiation. Despite these minor effects, expression of selected synaptic proteins involved in LTP was not affected. The flame retardants could not be measured in significant amounts in the brains, suggesting low bioavailability and/or rapid elimination/metabolism. We therefore conclude that a single neonatal exposure on PND 10 to TBBPA, Alpi or ZS does affect neurodevelopment and synaptic plasticity only to a small extent in mice. Additional data, in particular on persistence, bioaccumulation and (in vivo) toxicity, following prolonged (developmental) exposure are required for further (human) risk assessment.

  2. Flame retardancy of polyamide 6 hybrid fibers: Combined effects of α-zirconium phosphate and ammonium sulfamate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hengxue Xiang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Synergistic effect between α-zirconium phosphate (α-ZrP and ammonium sulfamate (AS for enhanced flame retardant properties of Polyamide 6 (PA6 was investigated by using oxygen index instrument, cone calorimeter, thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA, Instron universal test machine and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. PA6/AS/α-ZrP ternary hybrid materials with various contents of α-ZrP and AS were fabricated by melt-mixing method. The result from flammability indicated that the Limiting oxygen index (LOI and Underwriters Laboratories-94 (UL-94 rating of PA6/AS/α-ZrP were significantly accelerated under the coordinating function of α-ZrP and AS. Moreover, the thermal stability for PA6/AS/α-ZrP studied by TGA also demonstrated this synergistic effect between α-ZrP and AS on the heat resistance. The effects of the usage amount of α-ZrP and AS on mechanical properties were analyzed by using uniaxial tensile test. It was found that the addition of AS provided negative effects on the tensile strength of PA6/AS/α-ZrP, however, the adverse trends that mentioned above could be overcome by using the well dispersed α-ZrP.

  3. Effects of prenatal exposure to hydoxylated PCB metabolites and some brominated flame retardants on the development of rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buitenhuis, C.; Cenijn, P.C.; Velzen, M. van; Gutleb, A.C.; Legler, J. [Institute for Environmental Studies (IVM), Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lilienthal, H. [Heinrich Univ., Duesseldorf (Germany). Dept. Neurobehavioural Toxicology, Medical Institute of Environmental Hygiene; Malmberg, T.; Bergman, Aa. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry; Brouwer, A.

    2004-09-15

    Possible human health effects from low-level exposure to environmental chemicals are an issue that has attracted much attention. Environmental compounds that may play a role are those that may disrupt endocrine function. Organohalogen compounds, and in particular their hydroxylated metabolites, show a striking resemblance to steroid hormones.The main objective of this research is to investigate comparative pathways of early life-stage exposure and long-term effects for several classes of organohalogens, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and flame retardants, polybrominated bisphenols and -diphenylethers, and their hydroxylated metabolites. Due to their prevalence in human plasma, the hydroxylated PCB metabolites 4-OH-CB107 and 4-OH-CB187, as well as 6-OH-BDE47 and 2,4,6- tribromophenol, were selected as test compounds. BDE 47 has been included as a test compound due to its relatively high levels in the environment and biota, whereas tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) was selected because of its high volume production. The in vivo studies involved prenatal exposure of rats to test compounds during critical stages of gonadal development and were focussed on low dose effects. Several endpoints were investigated, including endocrine (thyroid and sex steroid hormones) effects, developmental landmarks, sexual and neurobehavioural development. Blood plasma and tissue levels of test compounds were analysed to determine transplacental transfer of (hydroxylated) organohalogens.

  4. Effects of retarded electrical fields on observables sensitive to the high-density behavior of the nuclear symmetry energy in heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Gao-Feng; Li, Bao-An; Yong, Gao-Chan; Ou, Li; Cao, Xin-Wei; Liu, Xu-Yang

    2018-03-01

    Within the isospin- and momentum-dependent transport model IBUU11, we examine the relativistic retardation effects of electrical fields on the π-/π+ ratio and neutron-proton differential transverse flow in heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies. Compared to the static Coulomb fields, the retarded electric fields of fast-moving charges are known to be anisotropic and the associated relativistic corrections can be significant. They are found to increase the number of energetic protons in the participant region at the maximum compression by as much as 25% but that of energetic neutrons by less than 10% in 197Au+197Au reactions at a beam energy of 400 MeV/nucleon. Consequently, more π+ and relatively fewer π- mesons are produced, leading to an appreciable reduction of the π-/π+ ratio compared to calculations with the static Coulomb fields. Also, the neutron-proton differential transverse flow, as another sensitive probe of high-density symmetry energy, is also decreased appreciably due to the stronger retarded electrical fields in directions perpendicular to the velocities of fast-moving charges compared to calculations using the isotropic static electrical fields. Moreover, the retardation effects on these observables are found to be approximately independent of the reaction impact parameter.

  5. The Effect of Mg(OH)2 Nanoparticles on the Thermal Stability and Flame Retardancy of Paraloid Nanocomposites

    OpenAIRE

    H. R. Momenian; M. Salavati-Niasari; D. Ghanbari; B. Pedram; F. Mozaffar; S. Gholamrezaei

    2014-01-01

    Paraloid-Mg(OH)2 nanocomposites were synthesized via sonochemical method. Nanostructures were characterized by XRD and SEM. Thermal stability behavior of paraloid filled with magnesium hydroxide was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The influence of Mg(OH)2 nanostructures on the flame retardancy of the paraloid matrix was studied using UL-94 analysis. Our results show that the Mg(OH)2 nanostructure can enhance the flame retardant property of the paraloid matrix. The enhancemen...

  6. Preparation of Flame Retardant Modified with Titanate for Asphalt Binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving the compatibility between flame retardant and asphalt is a difficult task due to the complex nature of the materials. This study explores a low dosage compound flame retardant and seeks to improve the compatibility between flame retardants and asphalt. An orthogonal experiment was designed taking magnesium hydroxide, ammonium polyphosphate, and melamine as factors. The oil absorption and activation index were tested to determine the effect of titanate on the flame retardant additive. The pavement performance test was conducted to evaluate the effect of the flame retardant additive. Oxygen index test was conducted to confirm the effect of flame retardant on flame ability of asphalt binder. The results of this study showed that the new composite flame retardant is more effective in improving the compatibility between flame retardant and asphalt and reducing the limiting oxygen index of asphalt binder tested in this study.

  7. Synthesis of mesoporous silica@Co-Al layered double hydroxide spheres: layer-by-layer method and their effects on the flame retardancy of epoxy resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shu-Dong; Bai, Zhi-Man; Tang, Gang; Song, Lei; Stec, Anna A; Hull, T Richard; Hu, Yuan; Hu, Wei-Zhao

    2014-08-27

    Hierarchical mesoporous silica@Co-Al layered double hydroxide (m-SiO2@Co-Al LDH) spheres were prepared through a layer-by-layer assembly process, in order to integrate their excellent physical and chemical functionalities. TEM results depicted that, due to the electrostatic potential difference between m-SiO2 and Co-Al LDH, the synthetic m-SiO2@Co-Al LDH hybrids exhibited that m-SiO2 spheres were packaged by the Co-Al LDH nanosheets. Subsequently, the m-SiO2@Co-Al LDH spheres were incorporated into epoxy resin (EP) to prepare specimens for investigation of their flame-retardant performance. Cone results indicated that m-SiO2@Co-Al LDH incorporated obviously improved fire retardant of EP. A plausible mechanism of fire retardant was hypothesized based on the analyses of thermal conductivity, char residues, and pyrolysis fragments. Labyrinth effect of m-SiO2 and formation of graphitized carbon char catalyzed by Co-Al LDH play pivotal roles in the flame retardance enhancement.

  8. Untreated growth hormone deficiency with extremely short stature, bone dysplasia, cleft lip--palate and severe mental retardation in a 26-year-old man with a de novo unbalanced translocation t(1;12)(q24;q24).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callier, P; Faivre, L; Marle, N; Thauvin-Robinet, C; Mosca, A L; Masurel-Paulet, A; Borgnon, J; Falcon-Eicher, S; Danino, A; Malka, G; Le Merrer, M; Huet, F; Mugneret, F

    2007-01-01

    We report on a 26-year-old patient presenting with extremely short stature (height 72cm, weight 6.5kg, OFC 42.5cm), facial dysmorphism, cleft lip--palate, severe mental retardation and de novo 1q24.2--q25.2 and 12q24.31 interstitial deletion. He was the only child of non-consanguineous parents and his birth length was 43cm. He had severe feeding difficulties and required enteral nutrition until the age of 3 years. Standard cytogenetic analysis showed an apparently balanced de novo translocation t(1;12)(q24;q24). Endocrine studies at 11 years of age for severe growth retardation revealed multiple pituitary hormone deficiency with severe growth hormone deficiency, but the child was untreated because of associated mental retardation. At 26 years of age, he could not walk or speak and had no signs of puberty. Investigations revealed spondylo-epi-metaphyseal dysplasia with severe osteoporosis, enlarged aorta when compared to the patient's size and apparently normal pituitary development. High resolution karyotype showed a 1q24-q25 deletion, and comparative genomic hybridization studies confirmed the 1q interstitial deletion. FISH studies of both breakpoints using PACs and BACs enabled us to further characterize the 1q interstitial deletion (1q24.2-1q25.2) and also revealed a 12q24.31 interstitial microdeletion. This case is compared with previously reported patients with similar deletions, but the untreated pituitary deficiency could also be responsible in part for the severity of the growth deficiency. This observation is of interest for two reasons. First, these deletions could be a clue in the search for a gene responsible for growth hormone deficiency/midline defects. Second, it shows the importance of molecular cytogenetics in the study of de novo apparently balanced translocation with abnormal phenotype.

  9. Complete biallelic insulation at the H19/Igf2 imprinting control region position results in fetal growth retardation and perinatal lethality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Hoon Lee

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The H19/Igf2 imprinting control region (ICR functions as an insulator exclusively in the unmethylated maternal allele, where enhancer-blocking by CTCF protein prevents the interaction between the Igf2 promoter and the distant enhancers. DNA methylation inhibits CTCF binding in the paternal ICR allele. Two copies of the chicken β-globin insulator (ChβGI(2 are capable of substituting for the enhancer blocking function of the ICR. Insulation, however, now also occurs upon paternal inheritance, because unlike the H19 ICR, the (ChβGI(2 does not become methylated in fetal male germ cells. The (ChβGI(2 is a composite insulator, exhibiting enhancer blocking by CTCF and chromatin barrier functions by USF1 and VEZF1. We asked the question whether these barrier proteins protected the (ChβGI(2 sequences from methylation in the male germ line.We genetically dissected the ChβGI in the mouse by deleting the binding sites USF1 and VEZF1. The methylation of the mutant versus normal (ChβGI(2 significantly increased from 11% to 32% in perinatal male germ cells, suggesting that the barrier proteins did have a role in protecting the (ChβGI(2 from methylation in the male germ line. Contrary to the H19 ICR, however, the mutant (mChβGI(2 lacked the potential to attain full de novo methylation in the germ line and to maintain methylation in the paternal allele in the soma, where it consequently functioned as a biallelic insulator. Unexpectedly, a stricter enhancer blocking was achieved by CTCF alone than by a combination of the CTCF, USF1 and VEZF1 sites, illustrated by undetectable Igf2 expression upon paternal transmission.In this in vivo model, hypomethylation at the ICR position together with fetal growth retardation mimicked the human Silver-Russell syndrome. Importantly, late fetal/perinatal death occurred arguing that strict biallelic insulation at the H19/Igf2 ICR position is not tolerated in development.

  10. Fetal Genotype for the Xenobiotic Metabolizing Enzyme "NQO1" Influences Intrauterine Growth among Infants Whose Mothers Smoked during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Thomas S.; Grosser, Tilo; Plomin, Robert; Jaffee, Sara R.

    2010-01-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy retards fetal growth and depresses infant birth weight. The magnitude of these effects may be moderated by fetal genotype. The current study investigated maternal smoking, fetal genotype, and fetal growth in a large population sample of dizygotic twins. Maternal smoking retarded fetal growth in a dose-dependent…

  11. The effect of mineral fillers on the rheological, mechanical and thermal properties of halogen-free flame-retardant polypropylene/expandable graphite compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattausch, Hannelore; Laske, Stephan; Hohenwarter, Dieter; Holzer, Clemens

    2015-05-01

    In many polyolefin applications, such as electrical cables or automotive applications, the fire protection is a very important task. Unfortunately flame-retardant polymeric materials are often halogenated and form toxic substances in case of fire, which explains the general requirement to reduce the halogen content to zero. Non-halogenated, state-of-the-art flame retardants must be incorporated into the polymer in very high grades (> 40 wt%) leading to massive decrease in mechanical properties and/or processability. In this research work halogen-free flame-retardant polypropylene (PP) /expandable graphite (EG) were filled with minerals fillers such as layered silicates (MMT), magnesium hydroxide (MgOH), zeolite (Z) and expanded perlite (EP) in order to enhance the flame-retardant effect. The rheological, mechanical and thermal properties of these materials were investigated to gain more fundamental knowledge about synergistic combinations of flame-retardants and other additives. The rheological properties were characterized with a rotational rheometer with plate-plate setup. The EG/EP/PP compound exhibited the highest increase in viscosity (˜ 37 %). As representative value for the mechanical properties the Young's modulus was chosen. The final Young's modulus values of the twofold systems gained higher values than the single ones. Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) was utilized to investigate the material with respect to volatile substances and combustion behavior. All materials decomposed in one-step degradation. The EG filled compounds showed a significant increase in sample weight due to the expansion of EG. The combustion behavior of these materials was characterized by cone calorimeter tests. Especially combinations of expandable graphite with mineral fillers exhibit a reduction of the peak heat release rate during cone calorimeter measurements of up to 87% compared to pure PP.

  12. THE COMBINED EFFECT OF ORGANIC PHOSPHINATE BASED FLAME RETARDANT AND ZINC BORATE ON THE FIRE BEHAVIOR OF POLY(BUTYLENE TEREPHTHALATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Erdem ÜREYEN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Neat poly(butylene terephthalate is highly combustible. It is not self-extinguishing, and after ignition it burns with dripping. To meet the fire safety requirements, it should be rendered flame retardant. The most common flame retardants for PBT are based on halogenated (most often brominated or phosphorus compounds. Although their efficiency is lower than halogen based flame retardants, expensive phosphorus based flame retardants for polyester are preferred, because of low smoke generation, nontoxicity and low corrosion properties. Zinc borate has been widely used with other flame retardants in wood products and in several polymers. In this work the fire behavior of zinc borate, phosphinic acid and zinc borate/phosphinic acid combination doped poly(butylene terephthalate was investigated. Firstly, the mean particle size of zinc borate (2ZnO.3B2O3.3.5H2O powders were reduced by attrition milling. Samples were produced by twin screw micro compounder. The fire properties of the ZnB, DPA and ZnB/DPA doped PBT were investigated and compared to each other by LOI and thermal analysis. LOI values of ZnB/PBT samples were found very low even with higher filling content. At higher loading of ZnB, the dripping of the sample strongly decreased and char residue increased. It was seen that organic diethyl phosphinic acid based additives DPA is particularly effective with PBT. It was found that the combination of DPA and ZnB can be used to increase the char residue, decrease spread of flame and the melt dripping of PBT.

  13. Effects of nano-sized boron nitride (BN) reinforcement in expandable graphite based in-tumescent fire retardant coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkurnain, E. S.; Ahmad, F.; Gillani, Q. F.

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of in-tumescent fire retardant coating (IFRC) is to protect substrate from fire attack by limiting heat transfer. A range of coating formulations have been prepared using Bisphenol A epoxy resin BE-188 and polyamide solidifier H-2310 as two-part binder, ammonium polyphosphate (APP) as acid source, melamine (MEL) as the blowing agent, expandable graphite (EG) as carbon source and nano-boron nitride (BN) as inorganic nano filler. The filler was used to improve the performances of the APP-EG-MEL coating. The effects of nano-BN on the char morphology and thermal degradation were investigated by fire test, thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X- ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The results showed that by substituting or reinforcing of 4% weight percentage of nano-BN, residual weight of the char increases by 23.82% compared to APP-EG-MEL coating without filler. Higher carbon content was obtained in the char and a more compact char was produced. The results indicated that nano-BN could be used as a filler to improve thermal stability of the APP-EG-MEL coating.

  14. The effect of traditional games and ordinary games on manipulative skills development in educable mental retarded boys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hamid reza Gheiji

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background : Manipulative skills are one of the fundamental skills subtitles which is used in most of daily and sports activities. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of traditional games and ordinary games on manipulative skills development in 8-10 years old Gorgan boys with educable mental retardation. Materials and Methods: Personal information was evaluated by the researcher made questionnaire and children's intelligence by the Wechsler test. Also, manipulative skills were assessed by the Test of Gross Motor Development- edition 2 (TGMD-2 in pre-test. Then, participants were distributed into two groups traditional games (n=15 and ordinary games (n=15 randomly. Post-test of TGMD-2 were done from two groups after 8 weeks training (3 sessions per week and 45 min for each session. Data analyzes was done by independent t-test, paired t-test and variance analysis with repeated measurement in a significant rate (α= 0.05. Results: The two groups showed significant improvements in manipulation skills, but the improvement of traditional games group was significantly more than ordinary games group in all of measured manipulating skills (throwing, catching, kicking, striking, dribbling , rolling a ball (p<0.05. Conclusion: It can be said, selected traditional games could be an appropriate program for the manipulative skills development of children.

  15. In Ovo effects of two organophosphate flame retardants--TCPP and TDCPP--on pipping success, development, mRNA expression, and thyroid hormone levels in chicken embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat, Amani; Crump, Doug; Chiu, Suzanne; Williams, Kim L; Letcher, Robert J; Gauthier, Lewis T; Kennedy, Sean W

    2013-07-01

    Tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCPP) and tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) are organic flame retardants detected in the environment and biota for which avian toxicological data are limited. In this study, domestic chicken eggs were injected with TCPP or TDCPP (maximum dose = 51,600 and 45,000ng/g egg, respectively) to determine dose-dependent effects on pipping success, development, hepatic messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels of genes associated with xenobiotic metabolism and the thyroid hormone (TH) pathway, and TH levels following 20-22 days of incubation. Neither compound reduced pipping success; however, TCPP significantly delayed pipping at 9240 and 51,600ng/g and reduced tarsus length at 51,600ng/g. TDCPP exposure resulted in significant decreases in head plus bill length, embryo mass, and gallbladder size at 45,000ng/g and reduced plasma free T4 levels at 7640ng/g. Type I deiodinase, liver fatty acid-binding protein, and cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A37 mRNA levels were significantly induced by TCPP, whereas TDCPP induced CYP3A37 and CYP2H1. Chemical analysis of egg contents at incubation days 0, 5, 11, 18, and 19 revealed that > 92% of the injected TCPP or TDCPP concentration was detectable up to day 5; however, TDCPP exposure may be associated with disruption of the TH axis, which is critical for normal growth and development in birds. The effects of TDCPP on the gallbladder indicate that the disturbance of lipid metabolism is a likely mechanism of toxicity.

  16. Parental Attitude Towards Mental Retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEOKADIA WIATROWSKA

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available https://doaj.org/puChild's developmental retardation is an undoubted condition for the absence of educational attainment and its unpleasant mental state. Due to the nature of multidimensional state of that, parental attitudes become relevant, as they affect the acceleration or retardation of development. Positive parental attitudes are the strong weapon for the child and his struggles on the way to an equal start and equal development opportunities. For this reason you should emphasize those factors that build the structures supporting developmental progression.An ecosystem approach to human development emphasizes each factor as relevant component for growth and expansion, without denying its own human activity and his self-determination rightblisher/metadata

  17. The Effect of Mg(OH2 Nanoparticles on the Thermal Stability and Flame Retardancy of Paraloid Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. R. Momenian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Paraloid-Mg(OH2 nanocomposites were synthesized via sonochemical method. Nanostructures were characterized by XRD and SEM. Thermal stability behavior of paraloid filled with magnesium hydroxide was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. The influence of Mg(OH2 nanostructures on the flame retardancy of the paraloid matrix was studied using UL-94 analysis. Our results show that the Mg(OH2 nanostructure can enhance the flame retardant property of the paraloid matrix. The enhancement of flame retardancy of nanocomposite is due to endothermic decomposition of Mg(OH2 that absorbs energy and simultaneously releases of water (dilutes combustible gases. Photo-catalytic activity of the nanoparticles was evaluated by monitoring the degradation of methyl orange (MeO in an aqueous solution.

  18. The Effect of Eight Weeks of Tai-Chi Exercises on Status Parameters of Kyphosis and Balance among Educable Mentally Retarded Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayebeh Heidari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the most fragile stratums of every society is the people with certain disabilities, especially educable mentally retarded children. Some of the most tangible difficulties of these people are seen in their perceptual and motional abilities (coordination, balance, atmospheric awareness, time awareness, physical awareness and sense of direction. Overcoming these inabilities requires the integration of environmental information and decision making for performance of a special function. The objective of the present research is to investigate the effects of eight weeks of Tai-Chi exercises on status parameters of Kyphosis and balance among educable mentally retarded children. The research sample is consisted of 30 educable mentally retarded children suffering from Kyphosis abnormality. The sample individuals were selected from welfare centers of Tehran. After selection of samples, prior and post to execution of the protocol, the individuals were measured in terms of Kyphosis angle, chest expansion, coefficient of Delmas, spine extension and static and dynamic balances respectively through flexible rulers, tape measure, stoke test and Y test. The educable mentally retarded children were assigned to two 15 individual groups of experimental (age average of 11.6 years; average height of 142.30; average weight of 39.26kg and control (age average of 11.06; height average of 139.83 and weight average of 35.86kg. The subjects of the experimental group were participated in an 8 week course of Tai-Chi exercises in three weekly 45 minute sessions. These exercises included a 10 minute warm-up, 30 minutes of Tai-Chi movements and 5 minutes of cool-down. During this time, the subjects of the control group were not incorporated into any exercise. By the use of the Shapiro-Wilk test, the normality of data distribution was investigated and approved. Also the Leon test was used for investigation of equality of the variances. Afterwards, descriptive statistics

  19. Deletion of 4.4 Mb at 2q33.2q33.3 May Cause Growth Deficiency in a Patient with Mental Retardation, Facial Dysmorphic Features and Speech Delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoulidis, Ioannis; Paspaliaris, Vassilis; Papageorgiou, Elena; Siomou, Elissavet; Dagklis, Themistoklis; Sotiriou, Sotirios; Thomaidis, Loretta; Manolakos, Emmanouil

    2015-01-01

    A patient with a rare interstitial deletion of chromosomal band 2q33.2q33.3 is described. The clinical features resembled the 2q33.1 microdeletion syndrome (Glass syndrome), including mental retardation, facial dysmorphism, high-arched narrow palate, growth deficiency, and speech delay. The chromosomal aberration was characterized by whole genome BAC aCGH. A comparison of the current patient and Glass syndrome features revealed that this case displayed a relatively mild phenotype. Overall, it is suggested that the deleted region of 2q33 causative for Glass syndrome may be larger than initially suggested. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Stigma Perception and Social Adjustment of Mentally Retarded Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Frederick X.

    Two studies attempted to assess the effect of the mental retardation label on the formation of social impressions in mentally retarded (MR) adults. In the first study, 123 mildly retarded students, half of whom were institutionalized were interviewed and asked to respond to questions about individuals pictured (some of whom were labeled as MR).…

  1. Non-constant retardation coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhiming; Gu Zhijie; Yang Yue'e; Li Shushen

    2004-12-01

    Retardation coefficient is one of the important parameters used in transport models describing radionuclide migration in geological media and usually regarded as a constant in the models. The objectives of the work are to understand: (1) Whether the retardation coefficient, R d , is a constant? (2) How much effect is R d on calculated consequence if R d is not constant? (3) Is the retardation coefficient derived from distribution coefficient, k d , according to conventional equation suitable for safety assessment? The objectives are achieved through test and analysis of the test results on radionuclide migration in unsaturated loess. It can be seen from the results that retardation coefficient, R d , of 85 Sr is not constant and increases with water content, θ, under unsaturated condition. R d , of 85 Sr derived from k d according to conventional equation can not be used for safety assessment. R d , used for safety assessment should be directly measured, rather than derived from k d . It is shown from calculation that the effect of R d on calculated consequence is very considerable. (authors)

  2. Mental Retardation in Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Michael; And Others

    This monograph presents a general introduction to the history, classification, and characteristics of mental retardation. It begins with a discussion of the history of mental retardation from ancient Greece and Rome to the present. The beginnings of special education are traced to the early 19th century in Europe. Major influences in treatment of…

  3. Spurious effects of electron emission from the grids of a retarding field analyser on secondary electron emission measurements. Results on a (111) copper single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillon, J.; Roptin, D.; Cailler, M.

    1976-01-01

    Spurious effects of a four grid retarding field analyzer were studied for low energy secondary electron measurements. Their behavior was investigated and two peaks in the energy spectrum were interpreted as resulting from tertiary electrons from the grids. It was shown that the true secondary electron peak has to be separated from these spurious peaks. The spectrum and the yields sigma and eta obtained for a Cu(111) crystal after a surface cleanness control by Auger spectroscopy are given

  4. Effects of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) on regulation of thyroid-, growth-, and neurochemically related developmental processes in young rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juarez de Ku, L.M.

    1992-01-01

    Neonatal exposure to the toxic chemical polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) induces hypothyroidism and retarded growth. Neonatal rats made hypothyroid by chemical or surgical means experience retarded growth and subnormal activity of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) This study compared thyroid-, growth-, and neurochemically-related processes altered by hypothyroidism induced by other means, with PCB-induced hypothyroidism: (1) titers of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH); (2) titers of hormones that regulate growth [growth hormone (GH), insulin-growth like factor-I (IGF-1), growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) and somatostatin (SS)]; or (3) brain ChAT activity. Whether PCB-induced growth retardation and other alterations are secondary to accompanying hypothyroidism rather than or in addition to a direct effect of PCB was also examined. Pregnant rats were fed chow containing 0 (controls), 62.5, 125, or 250 ppm PCB (entering offspring through placenta and milk) throughout pregnancy and lactation. Neonates exposed to PCB displayed many alterations similar to those made hypothyroid by other means: depression of overall and skeletal growth, circulating by other means: depression of overall and skeletal growth, circulating T[sub 4] levels and ChAT activity, and no change in hypothalamic GHRH and SS concentrations. Differences included a paradoxical increase in circulating GH levels, and no significant alteration of circulation IGF-1 and TSH levels and pituitary GH and TSH levels (although trends were in the expected direction). Thus, PCB-induced hypothyroidism may partially cause altered skeletal growth, circulating GH and TSH concentrations, and ChAT activity. Both T[sub 4] and T[sub 3] injections returned circulating TSH and GH levels and pituitary TSH content toward control levels; T[sub 3] restored skeletal, but not overall growth; and T[sub 4] elevated ChAT activity.

  5. Fatigue crack growth behavior and overload effect of AISI 304 stainless steel in different atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelestemur, Mehmet Halidun

    1998-12-01

    AISI 304 stainless steel shows strain induced martensitic transformation at the crack tip. Such transformation may have effects on crack closure during fatigue crack propagation. Due to importance of AISI 304 in structural applications, the fatigue crack propagation and martensitic transformation in this material have to be investigated thoroughly. Fatigue crack growth behavior, overload retardation and characterization of martensitic transformation at the crack tip upon fatigue loading were investigated in 304 stainless steel at three different atmospheres, namely dry argon, moist air (75% relative humidity) and hydrogen. Comparison in various atmospheres showed that moist air did not influence that fatigue crack growth rate. However, in hydrogen atmosphere the material did not show threshold behavior and the crack growth rate was considerably higher. It was found that roughness-induced crack closure was the primary mechanism in the threshold region. Fractographic pictures taken by SEM and direct observation of crack profile showed that crack deflection and branching occurred during the fatigue crack propagation and plasticity-induced crack closure was not the primary closure mechanism. The influence of fatigue crack propagation on the rate and size of martensitic transformation at the crack tip was investigated. The overload retardation of the material was lower at hydrogen atmosphere. This low degree of retardation was explained by hydrogen embrittlement mechanism. Fractographic observations show striations at the overload zone in argon atmosphere indicating ductile fracture. In hydrogen atmosphere, overload area shows secondary cracks which represent brittle fracture. Crack closure measurements and modified Paris law did not show evidence for different retardation mechanisms at different atmospheres. It is found that primary retardation mechanisms were crack deflection, crack blunting and roughness-induced crack closure after application of overload(s). An

  6. Effectiveness of Resiliency Training in Improving Mother-Child Relationship in Mothers of Children With Mental Retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taghi Hadizad

    2016-09-01

    Discussion: It seems that the resiliency training program improves the mother-child relationship in the case of mothers and their mentally retarded children and hence, reduces the exclusion, extreme support, and being easy-going nature. This improvement may be due to the changing attitude towards disability and improvement in the skills and behaviors of mothers.

  7. Effect of Rhythmic Auditory Stimulation on Controlling Stepping Cadence of Individuals with Mental Retardation and Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varsamis, Panagiotis; Staikopoulos, Konstantinos; Kartasidou, Lefkothea

    2012-01-01

    One of the purposes of Rhythmic Auditory Stimulation (RAS) is to improve the control of dysfunctional movement patterns. This study aimed to extend the line of research by focussing on secondary students with mental retardation and cerebral palsy. According to the study's assumption, cadence can be controlled through a stable and low signal…

  8. Compensating effect of ultrasonic waves on retarding action of nanoparticles in drops liquid-liquid extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saien, Javad; Daneshamoz, Sana

    2018-03-01

    The influence of ultrasonic waves on liquid-liquid extraction of circulating drops and in the presence of magnetite nanoparticles was investigated. Experiments were conducted in a column equipped with an ultrasound transducer. The frequency and intensity of received waves, measured by the hydrophone standard method, were 35.40 kHz and 0.37 mW/cm 2 , respectively. The recommended chemical system of cumene-isobutyric acid-water was used in which mass transfer resistance lies in the aqueous phase. Nanoparticles, within concentration range of (0.0003-0.0030) wt%, were added to the aqueous continuous phase. The presence of nanoparticles and ultrasonic waves provided no sensible change in drop size (within 2.49-4.17 mm) and measured terminal velocities were close to Grace model. However, presence of nanoparticles, caused mass transfer to decrease. This undesired effect was significantly diminished by using ultrasonic waves so that mass transfer coefficient increased from (73.0-178.2) to (130.2-240.2) µm/s, providing a 55.6% average enhancement. It is presumably due to disturbing the accumulated nanoparticles around the drops. The current innovative study highlights the fact that using ultrasonic waves is an interesting way to improve liquid-liquid extraction in the presence and absence of nanoparticles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Triplets with growth failure, microcephaly, mental retardation, nail hypoplasia and corpus callosum agenesis: is it a variant of Coffin-Siris or a new syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirel, B; Kural, N; Yakut, A; Adapinar, B

    2000-01-01

    We report eight-year-old triplet girls whose clinical features included microcephaly, severe mental retardation, hypoplasia of distal phalanges of both fifth and second fingers and nail hypoplasia on second fingers, dysmorphic facial features, and partial corpus callosum agenesis. During infancy, a Pavlik harness was used for congenital hip dislocation, and they had difficulty in feeding. One had been operated for patent ductus arteriosus. To our knowledge, this rare combination has not been previously reported in triplets whose clinical features closely resemble those of Coffin-Siris syndrome. The other diagnostic possibilities are also reviewed.

  10. Fire retardant formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The present invention relates to compositions where a substrate is liable to catch fire such as bituminous products, paints, carpets or the like. The invention relates to a composition comprising 40-95 weight % of a substrate to be rendered fire resistant such as bituminous material or paint......, carpets which substrate is mixed with 5-60 weight % of a fire retardant component. The invention relates to a fire retardant component comprising or being constituted of attapulgite, and a salt being a source of a blowing or expanding agent, where the attapulgite and the salt are electrostatically...... connected by mixing and subjecting the mixture of the two components to agitation. Also, the invention relates to compositions comprising 40-95 weight % of a substrate to be rendered fire resistant mixed with 5-60 weight % of a fire retardant according to claim 1 or 2, which fire retardant component...

  11. Optimal Product Variety, Scale Effects and Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Groot, H.L.F. de; Nahuis, R.

    1997-01-01

    We analyze the social optimality of growth and product variety in a model of endogenous growth. The model contains two sectors, one assembly sector producing a homogenous consumption good, and one intermediate goods sector producing a differentiated input used in the assembly sector. Growth results from R&D performed by firms in the intermediate goods sector aimed at quality improvement. We disentangle three effects associated with increased variety, namely (i) a productivity effect, (ii) a b...

  12. Radiation and mental retardation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pochin, E.E.

    1988-01-01

    A brief article discusses mental retardation in children who had been exposed to ionizing radiation in utero. The time of greatest sensitivity is between the 8th and 15th week after conception and the time of lesser sensitivity between the 16th and 25th weeks. An examination of the thresholds for exposure indicate that severe mental retardation would not result from any present environmental exposures of the public. (U.K.)

  13. Fragile X founder effect and distribution of CGG repeats among the mentally retarded population of Andalusia, South Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda de Diego

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Fragile X syndrome is the most common inherited form of mental retardation. We investigated the prevalence of the Fragile X syndrome in the population with mental retardation of unknown etiology in Andalusia, South Spain. We analyzed 322 unrelated patients (280 males and 42 females, and found a fragile X syndrome frequency of 6.5%. Among the non-fragile X chromosomes, the 29 CGG repeat was the most common allele. At the linked microsatellite DXS548 locus, we found a new allele which we called "allele 10" (17 CA. Similar to other south European populations, allele 2 (25 CA at the DXS548 locus and the fragile X allele were in linkage disequilibrium supporting the idea of a common founder chromosome predisposing to the CGG expansion.

  14. Crack retardation by load reduction during fatigue crack propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Soo; Nam, Ki Woo; Ahn, Seok Hwan; Do, Jae Yoon

    2003-01-01

    Fracture life and crack retardation behavior were examined experimentally using CT specimens of aluminum alloy 5083. Crack retardation life and fracture life were a wide difference between 0.8 and 0.6 in proportion to ratio of load reduction. The wheeler model retardation parameter was used successfully to predict crack growth behavior. By using a crack propagation rule, prediction of fracture life can be evaluated quantitatively. A statistical approach based on Weibull distribution was applied to the test data to evaluate the dispersion in the retardation life and fracture life by the change of load reduction

  15. Is renewable energy effective in promoting growth?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, António Cardoso; Fuinhas, José Alberto

    2012-01-01

    This paper applies panel data techniques to analyze the role of the various energy sources in economic growth, for a set of 24 European countries (1990–2007), controlling for energy consumption and energy dependency. The results suggest that the negative effect of the use of renewables supplants the positive effect of creating income by exploiting a natural resource locally, and thus growth does not appear to improve with the change towards renewables. The high costs of promoting renewables are probably being placed excessively upon the economy, namely by increasing the costs of electricity tariffs, thus inducing a deceleration in economic activity. Fossil fuels lead to dissimilar effects on growth while natural gas does not appear to be relevant in explaining growth. Coal hampers the capacity for growth, whereas the use of oil stimulates that growth. This is in line with productive structures that are deeply grounded in fossil fuels, particularly oil. - Highlights: ► We empirically test the distinct effects of decomposing energy by source on growth. ► We focus on 24 European Countries (1990–1907) by applying a panel data approach. ► Fossil fuels lead to dissimilar effects on growth. Coal hampers and oil stimulates it. ► Economic growth does not appear to improve with the paradigm change to renewable. ► High costs of promotion of renewables are being placed excessively upon the economy.

  16. Effective growth paths for SMEs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakkee, I.A.M.; van der Veen, M.; Eurlings, W.

    2015-01-01

    How firms grow forms a key question in the research on small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Based on a survey amongst 1,535 SMEs, we show that the presence of growth capability factors, such as, innovation capacity, financing capacity and human capital, offers inadequate explanation for

  17. The Growth Effects of Education in Australia.

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Paradiso; Saten Kumar; B. Bhaskara Rao

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we estimate the growth effects of human capital with country-specific time series data for Australia. Previous empirical studies, based on international data, have been inconclusive, in terms of the extent of the contribution of human capital to growth. We extend the Solow (1956) growth model by using educational attainment as a measure of human capital, as developed by Barro and Lee (2010). The extended Solow (1956) model performs well after allowing for the presence of structu...

  18. The Effects of the Organic Flame-Retardant 1,2-Dibromo-4-(1,2-dibromoethyl) Cyclohexane (TBECH) on Androgen Signaling in Human Prostate Cancer Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Lilian I L; Reers, Alexandra R; Currier, Heidi A; Williams, Tony D; Cox, Michael E; Elliott, John E; Beischlag, Timothy V

    2016-05-01

    The effects of the organic flame retardant 1,2-Dibromo-4-(1,2-dibromoethyl) cyclohexane (TBECH) on androgen receptor target gene expression were examined in the human LNCaP prostate cancer cell line. While γ-/δ-TBECH alone led to a significant increase in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) mRNA accumulation, both the α-/-TBECH and γ-/δ-TBECH mixtures repressed androgen-inducible PSA mRNA and protein accumulation in human LNCaP cells. Thus, we hypothesize that isomeric mixtures of TBECH may act as partial agonists of the androgen receptor. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. The effects of growht hormone therapy in children with radiation-induced growth hormone deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shalet, S.M.; Whitehead, E.; Chapman, A.J.; Beardwell, C.G.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of growth hormone (GH) therapy were studied in 6 children, previously treated for brain tumours which did not directly involve the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, and who had received cranial irradiation between 2.1 and 10 years earlier. All 6 were short with a standing height standard deviation score (SDS) from -1.7 to -3.3. Impaired growth hormone responses to an insulin tolerance test (ITT) were observed in all 6 and a Bovril stimulation test in 5 children. The remainder of pituitary function was essentially normal. All 6 were prepubertal and 5 had a retarded bone age. Subsequently all received human GH in a dose of 5 units 3 times weekly for 1 year. The growth rate in each was at least 2 cm greater during the treatment year than the pre-treatment year.(author)

  20. Effect of renal graft on longitudinal growth in prepubertal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Cagla Serpil; Durmaz, Erdem; Comak, Elif; Uslu Gokceoglu, Arife; Koyun, Mustafa; Akman, Sema

    2013-08-01

    Linear growth impairment frequently accompanies chronic kidney disease in children. Despite successful renal transplant, growth retardation may persist in renal allograft recipients. We recorded the longitudinal growth and biochemical data of prepubertal children during the first 2 years after renal transplant in 34 children (18 boys [52.9%]; mean age at renal transplant, 7.3 ± 2.5 y; range, 1.4 to 9.8 y). Height standard deviation scores were calculated. The patients were divided into 2 groups according to the increase in height standard deviation scores over the first 2 years after renal transplant: group 1 (increases in height standard deviation scores 1). Increases in height standard deviation scores were 0.12 ± 0.34 and 1.62 ± 0.52 for group 1 and group 2 (P growth by providing moderate or accelerated growth in prepubertal children.

  1. The effects of soil moisture, texture, and nutrient levels on the growth of black walnut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard E. Dickson

    1971-01-01

    Black walnut seedlings grown in a clay loam and sandy soil were subjected to two soil moisture regimes and three fertility levels. Fertilization increased growth only under most conditions. Under draught, fertilization retarded growth in the sand. Nitrogen was the element primarily responsible for the greater growth under moist conditions.

  2. Cost-effectiveness and performance of overlay systems in Illinois, volume 1 : effectiveness assessment of HMA overlay interlayer systems used to retard reflective cracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    This project evaluated the ability of interlayer systems used in HMA overlays to retard reflective cracking. Field : crack surveys and forensic investigation, including video imaging and ground penetrating radar surveys as well : as laboratory testin...

  3. Overexpression of a natural chloroplast-encoded antisense RNA in tobacco destabilizes 5S rRNA and retards plant growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stern David B

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The roles of non-coding RNAs in regulating gene expression have been extensively studied in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, however few reports exist as to their roles in organellar gene regulation. Evidence for accumulation of natural antisense RNAs (asRNAs in chloroplasts comes from the expressed sequence tag database and cDNA libraries, while functional data have been largely obtained from artificial asRNAs. In this study, we used Nicotiana tabacum to investigate the effect on sense strand transcripts of overexpressing a natural chloroplast asRNA, AS5, which is complementary to the region which encodes the 5S rRNA and tRNAArg. Results AS5-overexpressing (AS5ox plants obtained by chloroplast transformation exhibited slower growth and slightly pale green leaves. Analysis of AS5 transcripts revealed four distinct species in wild-type (WT and AS5ox plants, and additional AS5ox-specific products. Of the corresponding sense strand transcripts, tRNAArg overaccumulated several-fold in transgenic plants whereas 5S rRNA was unaffected. However, run-on transcription showed that the 5S-trnR region was transcribed four-fold more in the AS5ox plants compared to WT, indicating that overexpression of AS5 was associated with decreased stability of 5S rRNA. In addition, polysome analysis of the transformants showed less 5S rRNA and rbcL mRNA associated with ribosomes. Conclusions Our results suggest that AS5 can modulate 5S rRNA levels, giving it the potential to affect Chloroplast translation and plant growth. More globally, overexpression of asRNAs via chloroplast transformation may be a useful strategy for defining their functions.

  4. A effective flame retardant for epoxy resins based on poly(DOPO substituted dihydroxyl phenyl pentaerythritol diphosphonate)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xin; Song Lei; Xing Weiyi; Lu Hongdian; Hu Yuan

    2011-01-01

    Poly(DOPO substituted dihydroxyl phenyl pentaerythritol diphosphonate) (PFR) was synthesized via the reaction between 10-(2,5-dihydroxyl-phenyl)-9, 10-dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenanthrene-10-oxide (DOPO-BQ) and pentaerythritol diphosphonate dichloride (SPDPC). The structures of PFR were characterized by Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 H NMR). Thermal degradation behaviors and flame retardant properties of the epoxy resin (ER)/PFR systems were investigated from the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), UL-94 test and the limiting oxygen index (LOI) test. Moreover, the surface morphology of the char residue was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). When the PFR content reached 10 wt%, the epoxy resin system met the UL-94 V0 classification and the LOI value of 30.2. The microscale combustion calorimetry (MCC) was used to evaluate the combustion behaviors of the ER/PFR. It was found that the addition of PFR obviously decreased the value of peak heat release rate and total heat release of the hybrids. The TGA results showed that the epoxy resin with 10 wt% PFR exhibited high char yields. The high char yields and the high limiting oxygen index values were found to certify the excellent flame retardancy of this phosphorus-containing epoxy resin.

  5. Insulin-Like Growth Factor-Independent Effects of Growth Hormone on Growth Plate Chondrogenesis and Longitudinal Bone Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shufang; Yang, Wei; De Luca, Francesco

    2015-07-01

    GH stimulates growth plate chondrogenesis and longitudinal bone growth directly at the growth plate. However, it is not clear yet whether these effects are entirely mediated by the local expression and action of IGF-1 and IGF-2. To determine whether GH has any IGF-independent growth-promoting effects, we generated (TamCart)Igf1r(flox/flox) mice. The systemic injection of tamoxifen in these mice postnatally resulted in the excision of the IGF-1 receptor (Igf1r) gene exclusively in the growth plate. (TamCart)Igf1r(flox/flox) tamoxifen-treated mice [knockout (KO) mice] and their Igf1r(flox/flox) control littermates (C mice) were injected for 4 weeks with GH. At the end of the 4-week period, the tibial growth and growth plate height of GH-treated KO mice were greater than those of untreated C or untreated KO mice. The systemic injection of GH increased the phosphorylation of Janus kinase 2 and signal transducer and activator of transcription 5B in the tibial growth plate of the C and KO mice. In addition, GH increased the mRNA expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2 and the mRNA expression and protein phosphorylation of nuclear factor-κB p65 in both C and KO mice. In cultured chondrocytes transfected with Igf1r small interfering RNA, the addition of GH in the culture medium significantly induced thymidine incorporation and collagen X mRNA expression. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that GH can promote growth plate chondrogenesis and longitudinal bone growth directly at the growth plate, even when the local effects of IGF-1 and IGF-2 are prevented. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the intracellular molecular mechanisms mediating the IGF-independent, growth-promoting GH effects.

  6. Size-Effects in Void Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    2005-01-01

    The size-effect on ductile void growth in metals is investigated. The analysis is based on unit cell models both of arrays of cylindrical voids under plane strain deformation, as well as arrays of spherical voids using an axisymmetric model. A recent finite strain generalization of two higher order...... strain gradient plasticity models is implemented in a finite element program, which is used to study void growth numerically. The results based on the two models are compared. It is shown how gradient effects suppress void growth on the micron scale when compared to predictions based on conventional...... models. This increased resistance to void growth, due to gradient hardening, is accompanied by an increase in the overall strength for the material. Furthermore, for increasing initial void volume fraction, it is shown that the effect of gradients becomes more important to the overall response but less...

  7. Transfer of hexabromocyclododecane flame retardant isomers from captive American kestrel eggs to feathers and their association with thyroid hormones and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marteinson, Sarah C; Eulaers, Igor; Jaspers, Veerle L B; Covaci, Adrian; Eens, Marcel; Letcher, Robert J; Fernie, Kim J

    2017-01-01

    Feathers are useful for monitoring contaminants in wild birds and are increasingly used to determine persistent organic pollutants. However, few studies have been conducted on birds with known exposure levels. We aimed to determine how well nestling feather concentrations reflect in ovo exposure to hexabromocyclododecane (α-, β- and γ-HBCDD), and to determine if feather concentrations are related to physiological biomarkers. Captive kestrels (n = 11) were exposed in ovo to maternally transferred HBCDD-isomers at concentrations of 127, 12 and 2 ng/g wet weight of α-, β- and γ-HBCDD (measured in sibling eggs), respectively, and compared to controls (n = 6). Nestling growth was monitored at 5 d intervals and circulating thyroid hormone concentrations assessed at d 20. Tail feathers were collected prior to the first molt and analyzed for HBCDD isomers. The mean ΣHBCDD concentration in feathers was 2405 pg/g dry weight (in exposed birds) and α-, β- and γ-HBCDD made up 32%, 13%, and 55%, respectively of the ΣHBCDD concentrations. This isomer distribution deviated from the typical dominance of α-HBCDD reported in vertebrate samples. Exposed chicks had significantly higher feather concentrations of β- and γ-HBCDD compared with controls (p = 0.007 and p = 0.001 respectively), while α-HBCDD concentrations did not differ between the two groups. Feather concentrations of α-HBCDD were best explained by egg concentrations of β- or γ-HBCDD concentrations (w i  = 0.50, 0.30 respectively), while feather concentrations of β- and γ-HBCDD were influenced by growth parameters (rectrix length: w i  = 0.61; tibiotarsus length: w i  = 0.28). These results suggest that feather α-HBCDD concentrations may reflect internal body burdens, whereas β- and γ-HBCDD may be subject to selective uptake. The α-HBCDD concentrations in the feathers were negatively associated with the ratio of plasma free triiodothyronine to free thyroxine (T 3 :T 4 ; p = 0

  8. Effect of fire retardants on cotton fabric grafted with acrylic acid by EB radiation: a thermal analysis study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, D.; Sabharwal, S.; Majali, A.B.

    1998-01-01

    Electron beam irradiation technique has been utilized to graft acrylic acid to cotton fabric in order to provide suitable functional groups that can subsequently react with urea or borax for making the fabric fire resistant. Thermal analytical technique such as, DSC and TG have been utilized to investigate the flame retardency characteristic of the grafted and treated fabric. The result shows that decay curve of exothermic peak due to combustion of cotton fabric in case of urea treated fabric at 330 degC becomes broad and shifts to higher temperature in DSC analysis as compared to pure cotton fabric and char residue in TG analysis is 20% in both the case. In borax treated fabric, char residue is found to be 40% in TG analysis and DSC profile is similar to that of urea treated fabric. (author)

  9. Comparison of the clinical effectiveness of a single and a triple-headed toothbrushes in a population of mentally retarded patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvetre, E; Rozow, A; de Meel, H; Richebe, A; Abi-Khalil, M; Demeure, F

    1995-01-01

    Tooth brushing is a very simple and effective method for removing daily dental deposits and for preventing dental and periodontal diseases. However, it can cause considerable manipulative difficulties among some populations, e.g., young children, physically handicapped and mentally retarded patients. In order to test and compare the efficiency of a newly designed toothbrush (Superbrush), we have performed a pilot study on patients staying at the "Reine Fabiola Village No. 1", an institution for patients who are followed for mental retardation at different levels. 30 patients were included in the study, aged between 18 to 40 years. Among these 30, five had to be eliminated for their incapacity to follow the initial training in how to brush their teeth. The comparison was made with a normal single headed tooth brush, in a double blind trial, based on bleeding and plaque indexes, performed on 6 different teeth on day 0, 7 and 21. The results of this study indicate that there is no significant difference between the two types of toothbrushes with respect to the ability of plaque removing and gingivitis prevention, during the period of time of this study. However, the easiness of manipulating this newly designed toothbrush renders it a useful tool for the dental hygiene for this special part of the dental compromised population.

  10. In vitro effects of selected brominated flame retardants on the adreno cortical enzyme (CYP17). A novel endocrine mechanism of action?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Canton, R.; Sanderson, T.; Nijmeijer, S.; Berg, M. van den [Utrecht Univ. (NL). Inst. for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS); Berkman, Aa. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry and Analytical Chemistry

    2004-09-15

    Fire incidents have decreased over the last 20 years partly due to regulations requiring addition of flame retardants (FRs) to materials. These compounds can be divided into different chemical classes: inorganic, nitrogen, phosphorus and halogen containing flame retardants (usually brominated or chlorinated). Not surprisingly, the use of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in a variety of commercial and household products has increased over the years due to their low cost and high effectiveness. Consequence of the high production of BFRs is that these compounds are now readily detectable in air, water, birds, fish, marine mammals, and in human adipose tissue and blood. The five major BFRs are hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA) and three commercial mixtures of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) (penta, octa, deca), which are extensively used as FRs at high production volume levels. In addition, concentrations of PBDEs concentration have been rapidly increasing during the last 10 years in human breast milk from European and American women and a number of endocrine (in vitro) effects have been reported. Consequently, the concern about BFRs and their metabolites with respect to their potential as endocrine disruptors (EDs) has been growing. Studies in our laboratory are focused on potential interactions of a wide range of BFRs with sex hormone synthesis and metabolism. Previous results from our research group, showed inhibitory and inductive effects on aromatase (CYP19) (the key enzyme that converts androgens to estrogens) by certain BFRs, in particular the hydroxylated PBDEs and several bromophenols. In the present study, the effects of ten of these BFRs on CYP17 activity were investigated. This enzyme also catalyzes an important step in the sex steroidogenesis and is responsible for the biosynthesis of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). DHEA, produced in the adrenal gland, is the most abundant sex steroid hormone in human blood and has been

  11. Polysiloxane-Based Organoclay Nanocomposites as Flame Retardants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Polysiloxanes INTRODUCTION Halogen -based flame - retardant (FR) polymers and additives have been a cost-effective solution for FR appli- cations. However, there...D ec em be r 20 13 non- halogenated flame retardant polymers. Green Chem. 2011, 13 (3), 659–665. 7. Lewicki, J.P.; Liggat, J.J.; Patel, M. The...blended through several techniques with organoclays Cloisite 30B, 10A and Naþ ranging from 1 to 5 wt.%. Thermal and flame - retardant analysis

  12. Bio-inspired design of ice-retardant devices based on benthic marine invertebrates: the effect of surface texture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homayun Mehrabani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Growth of ice on surfaces poses a challenge for both organisms and for devices that come into contact with liquids below the freezing point. Resistance of some organisms to ice formation and growth, either in subtidal environments (e.g., Antarctic anchor ice, or in environments with moisture and cold air (e.g., plants, intertidal begs examination of how this is accomplished. Several factors may be important in promoting or mitigating ice formation. As a start, here we examine the effect of surface texture alone. We tested four candidate surfaces, inspired by hard-shelled marine invertebrates and constructed using a three-dimensional printing process. We examined sub-polar marine organisms to develop sample textures and screened them for ice formation and accretion in submerged conditions using previous methods for comparison to data for Antarctic organisms. The sub-polar organisms tested were all found to form ice readily. We also screened artificial 3-D printed samples using the same previous methods, and developed a new test to examine ice formation from surface droplets as might be encountered in environments with moist, cold air. Despite limitations inherent to our techniques, it appears surface texture plays only a small role in delaying the onset of ice formation: a stripe feature (corresponding to patterning found on valves of blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, or on the spines of the Antarctic sea urchin Sterechinus neumayeri slowed ice formation an average of 25% compared to a grid feature (corresponding to patterning found on sub-polar butterclams, Saxidomas nuttalli. The geometric dimensions of the features have only a small (∼6% effect on ice formation. Surface texture affects ice formation, but does not explain by itself the large variation in ice formation and species-specific ice resistance observed in other work. This suggests future examination of other factors, such as material elastic properties and surface coatings, and their

  13. Sulfated hyaluronic acid hydrogels with retarded degradation and enhanced growth factor retention promote hMSC chondrogenesis and articular cartilage integrity with reduced hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Qian; Lin, Sien; Zhang, Kunyu; Dong, Chaoqun; Wu, Tianyi; Huang, Heqin; Yan, Xiaohui; Zhang, Li; Li, Gang; Bian, Liming

    2017-04-15

    Recently, hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogels have been extensively researched for delivering cells and drugs to repair damaged tissues, particularly articular cartilage. However, the in vivo degradation of HA is fast, thus limiting the clinical translation of HA hydrogels. Furthermore, HA cannot bind proteins with high affinity because of the lack of negatively charged sulfate groups. In this study, we conjugated tunable amount of sulfate groups to HA. The sulfated HA exhibits significantly slower degradation by hyaluronidase compared to the wild type HA. We hypothesize that the sulfation reduces the available HA octasaccharide substrate needed for the effective catalytic action of hyaluronidase. Moreover, the sulfated HA hydrogels significantly improve the protein sequestration, thereby effectively extending the availability of the proteinaceous drugs in the hydrogels. In the following in vitro study, we demonstrate that the HA hydrogel sulfation exerts no negative effect on the viability of encapsulated human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Furthermore, the sulfated HA hydrogels promote the chondrogenesis and suppresses the hypertrophy of encapsulated hMSCs both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, intra-articular injections of the sulfated HA hydrogels avert the cartilage abrasion and hypertrophy in the animal osteoarthritic joints. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that the sulfated HA is a promising biomaterial for the delivery of therapeutic agents to aid the regeneration of injured or diseased tissues and organs. In this paper, we conjugated sulfate groups to hyaluronic acid (HA) and demonstrated the slow degradation and growth factor delivery of sulfated HA. Furthermore, the in vitro and in vivo culture of hMSCs laden HA hydrogels proved that the sulfation of HA hydrogels not only promotes the chondrogenesis of hMSCs but also suppresses hypertrophic differentiation of the chondrogenically induced hMSCs. The animal OA model study showed that the injected

  14. Indirect Network Effects in New Product Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Stremersch (Stefan); G.J. Tellis (Gerard); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); J.L.G. Binken (Jeroen)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIndirect network effects are of prime interest to marketers because they affect the growth and takeoff of software availability for, and hardware sales of, a new product. While prior work on indirect network effects in the economics and marketing literature is valuable, these literatures

  15. Effects of the brominated flame retardants hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD), and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), on hepatic enzymes and other biomarkers in juvenile rainbow trout and feral eelpout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronisz, D.; Farmen Finne, E.; Karlsson, H.; Foerlin, L.

    2004-01-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) leak out in the environment, including the aquatic one. Despite this, sublethal effects of these chemicals are poorly investigated in fish. In this study, a screening of selected biomarkers in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and feral eelpout (Zoarces viviparus) was performed after exposure to hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA). Rainbow trout was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with HBCDD or TBBPA. Two out of four short-term experiments with HBCDD showed an increase in the activity of catalase. A 40% increase in liver somatic index (LSI) could be observed after 28 days. HBCDD did also seem to have an inhibitory effect on CYP1A's activity (ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD)). A putative peroxisome proliferating activity of the compound was investigated without giving a definite answer. HBCDD did not seem to be estrogenic or genotoxic. TBBPA increased the activity of glutathione reductase (GR) after 4, 14 and 28 days in rainbow trout suggesting a possible role of this compound in inducing oxidative stress. The compound did not seem to be estrogenic. TBBPA seemed to compete with the artificial substrate ethoxyresorufin in vitro, during the EROD assay. In eelpout, only one 5 days in vivo experiment was performed. Neither of the compounds gave rise to any effect in this fish. This was the first screening of sublethal effects of the two chemicals in fish, using high doses. Our results indicate that there is a need for further studies of long-term, low-dose effects of these two widely used flame retardants

  16. Comparison of Effect of Brassinosteroid and Gibberellin Biosynthesis Inhibitors on Growth of Rice Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadashi Matusmoto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Brassinosteroid (BR and gibberellin (GA are two predominant plant hormones that regulate plant cell elongation. Mutants disrupt the biosynthesis of these hormones and display different degrees of dwarf phenotypes in rice. Although the role of each plant hormone in promoting the longitudinal growth of plants has been extensively studied using genetic methods, their relationship is still poorly understood. In this study, we used two specific inhibitors targeting BR and GA biosynthesis to investigate the roles of BR and GA in growth of rice seedlings. Yucaizol, a specific inhibitor of BR biosynthesis, and Trinexapac-ethyl, a commercially available inhibitor of GA biosynthesis, were used. The effect of Yucaizol on rice seedlings indicated that Yucaizol significantly retarded stem elongation. The IC50 value was found to be approximately 0.8 μmol/L. Yucaizol also induced small leaf angle phenocopy in rice seedlings, similarly to BR-deficient rice, while Trinexapac-ethyl did not. When Yucaizol combined with Trinexapac-ethyl was applied to the rice plants, the mixture of these two inhibitors retarded stem elongation of rice at lower doses. Our results suggest that the use of a BR biosynthesis inhibitor combined with a GA biosynthesis inhibitor may be useful in the development of new technologies for controlling rice plant height.

  17. Intrauterine radiation exposures and mental retardation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    Small head size and mental retardation have been known as effects of intrauterine exposure to ionizing radiation since the 1920s. In the 1950s, studies of Japanese atomic-bomb survivors revealed that at 4-17 wk of gestation, the greater the dose, the smaller the brain (and head size), and that beginning at 0.5 Gy (50 rad) in Hiroshima, mental retardation increased in frequency with increasing dose. No other excess of birth defects was observed. Otake and Schull (1984) pointed out that the period of susceptibility to mental retardation coincided with that for proliferation and migration of neuronal elements from near the cerebral ventricles to the cortex. Mental retardation could be the result of interference with this process. Their analysis indicated that exposures at 8-15 wk to 0.01-0.02 Gy (1-2 rad) doubled the frequency of severe mental retardation. This estimate was based on small numbers of mentally retarded atomic-bomb survivors. Although nuclear accidents have occurred recently, new cases will hopefully be too rare to provide further information about the risk of mental retardation. It may be possible, however, to learn about lesser impairment. New psychometric tests may be helpful in detecting subtle deficits in intelligence or neurodevelopmental function. One such test is PEERAMID, which is being used in schools to identify learning disabilities due, for example, to deficits in attention, short- or long-term memory, or in sequencing information. This and other tests could be applied in evaluating survivors of intrauterine exposure to various doses of ionizing radiation. The results could change our understanding of the safety of low-dose exposures

  18. Intrauterine radiation exposures and mental retardation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.W.

    1988-08-01

    Small head size and mental retardation have been known as effects of intrauterine exposure to ionizing radiation since the 1920s. In the 1950s, studies of Japanese atomic-bomb survivors revealed that at 4-17 wk of gestation, the greater the dose, the smaller the brain (and head size), and that beginning at 0.5 Gy (50 rad) in Hiroshima, mental retardation increased in frequency with increasing dose. No other excess of birth defects was observed. Otake and Schull (1984) pointed out that the period of susceptibility to mental retardation coincided with that for proliferation and migration of neuronal elements from near the cerebral ventricles to the cortex. Mental retardation could be the result of interference with this process. Their analysis indicated that exposures at 8-15 wk to 0.01-0.02 Gy (1-2 rad) doubled the frequency of severe mental retardation. This estimate was based on small numbers of mentally retarded atomic-bomb survivors. Although nuclear accidents have occurred recently, new cases will hopefully be too rare to provide further information about the risk of mental retardation. It may be possible, however, to learn about lesser impairment. New psychometric tests may be helpful in detecting subtle deficits in intelligence or neurodevelopmental function. One such test is PEERAMID, which is being used in schools to identify learning disabilities due, for example, to deficits in attention, short- or long-term memory, or in sequencing information. This and other tests could be applied in evaluating survivors of intrauterine exposure to various doses of ionizing radiation. The results could change our understanding of the safety of low-dose exposures.

  19. Fire and smoke retardants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drews, M. J.

    Despite a reduction in Federal regulatory activity, research concerned with flame retardancy and smoke suppression in the private sector appears to be increasing. This trend seem related to the increased utilization of plastics for end uses which traditionally have employed metal or wood products. As a result, new markets have appeared for thermally stable and fire resistance thermoplastic materials, and this in turn has spurred research and development activity. In addition, public awareness of the dangers associated with fire has increased as a result of several highly publicized hotel and restaurant fires within the past two years. The consumers recognition of flammability characteristics as important materials property considerations has increased. The current status of fire and smoke retardant chemistry and research are summarized.

  20. Flame Retardant Epoxy Resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, C. M.; Smith, J. G., Jr.; Connell, J. W.; Hergenrother, P. M.; Lyon, R. E.

    2004-01-01

    As part of a program to develop fire resistant exterior composite structures for future subsonic commercial aircraft, flame retardant epoxy resins are under investigation. Epoxies and their curing agents (aromatic diamines) containing phosphorus were synthesized and used to prepare epoxy formulations. Phosphorus was incorporated within the backbone of the epoxy resin and not used as an additive. The resulting cured epoxies were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, propane torch test, elemental analysis and microscale combustion calorimetry. Several formulations showed excellent flame retardation with phosphorous contents as low as 1.5% by weight. The fracture toughness of plaques of several cured formulations was determined on single-edge notched bend specimens. The chemistry and properties of these new epoxy formulations are discussed.

  1. Effect of Kaolin Clay and Alumina on Thermal Performance and Char Morphology of Intumescent fire retardant coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    aziz Hammad

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Intumescent fire retardant coating (IFRC have been developed by using ammonium polyphosphate, expandable graphite, melamine, boric acid, kaolin clay and alumina as fillers bound together with epoxy resin and cured with the help of curing agent. Five different formulations were developed with and without using fillers. Cured samples were burned in furnace at 500°C for 2h for char expansion. Bunsen burner test was performed for 1h using UL-94 vertical burning test to investigate the thermal performance of IFRC. The resultant char obtained after burning of coated samples were characterized by using field emission scanning electron microscopy for char morphology. Char composition was analyzed by using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Thermogravimetric analysis was carried out to investigate the residual weight of coating. Results showed that formulation with 0.5 weight % of kaolin clay and 0.5 weight % of alumina provide best thermal performance, uniform and multi-porous char structure with high anti-oxidation property.

  2. Effect of massing on larval growth rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Aidan P; Wallman, James F

    2014-08-01

    Estimation of minimum postmortem interval commonly relies on predicting the age of blowfly larvae based on their size and an estimate of the temperatures to which they have been exposed throughout their development. The majority of larval growth rate data have been developed using small larval masses in order to avoid excess heat generation. The current study collected growth rate data for larvae at different mass volumes, and assessed the temperature production of these masses, for two forensically important blow fly species, Chrysomya rufifacies and Calliphora vicina. The growth rate of larvae in a small mass, exposed to the higher temperatures equivalent to those experienced by large masses, was also assessed to determine if observed differences were due to the known temperature effects of maggot masses. The results showed that temperature production increased with increasing mass volume, with temperature increases of 11 °C observed in the large Ch. rufifacies masses and increases of 5 °C in the large C. vicina masses. Similarly, the growth rate of the larvae was affected by mass size. The larvae from small masses grown at the higher temperatures experienced by large masses displayed an initial delay in growth, but then grew at a similar rate to those larvae at a constant 23 °C. Since these larvae from masses of equivalent sizes displayed similar patterns of growth rate, despite differing temperatures, and these growth rates differed from larger masses exposed to the same temperatures, it can be concluded that larval growth rate within a mass may be affected by additional factors other than temperature. Overall, this study highlights the importance of understanding the role of massing in larval development and provides initial developmental data for mass sizes of two forensically important blowfly species commonly encountered in Australian forensic casework. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of single flame retardant aluminum tri-hydroxide and boric acid against inflammability and biodegradability of recycled PP/KF composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suharty, Neng Sri; Dihardjo, Kuncoro; Handayani, Desi Suci; Firdaus, Maulidan

    2016-03-01

    Composites rPP/DVB/AA/KF had been reactively synthesized in melt using starting material: recycled polypropylene (rPP), kenaf fiber (KF), multifunctional compound acrylic acid (AA), compatibilizer divinyl benzene (DVB). To improve the inflammability of composites, single flame retardant aluminum tri-hydroxide (ATH) and boric acid (BA) as an additive was added. The inflammability of the composites was tested according to ASTM D635. By using 20% ATH and 5% BA additive in the composites it is effectively inhibiting its time to ignition (TTI). Its burning rate (BR) can be reduced and its heat realease (%HR) decreases. The biodegradability of composites was quantified by its losing weight (LW) of composites after buried for 4 months in the media with rich cellulolytic bacteria. The result shows that the LW of composites in the presence 20% ATH and 5% BA is 6.3%.

  4. Retardo mental Mental retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio M. Vasconcelos

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Esta revisão aborda as recentes descobertas da neurobiologia do retardo mental, enfatizando os novos recursos da citogenética, das técnicas moleculares e da neurorradiologia para esclarecer o diagnóstico. FONTES DE DADOS: O autor pesquisou o banco de dados MEDLINE da National Library of Medicine utilizando as palavras-chave "mental retardation", "developmental disability", "child" e "adolescent" em diferentes combinações, abrangendo o período de janeiro de 2000 a outubro de 2003. Também foram utilizados os bancos de dados das revistas científicas Pediatrics e New England Journal of Medicine através da palavra-chave "mental retardation". No total, o autor consultou cerca de 1.500 títulos de artigos e 500 resumos, e teve acesso direto a 150 artigos completos pertinentes. Quando oportuno, algumas referências dos artigos consultados também foram consideradas. O site Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man foi utilizado como fonte de informações em genética clínica. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Em outubro de 2003, o total de síndromes genéticas associadas a retardo mental chegou a 1.149. Considerando-se o conjunto das causas genéticas ou ambientais e congênitas ou adquiridas de retardo mental, a avaliação diagnóstica atual é capaz de esclarecer a etiologia em 50 a 70% dos casos. CONCLUSÕES: O autor sugere uma avaliação diagnóstica do retardo mental em etapas lógicas, visando ao uso racional dos dispendiosos recursos da citogenética, biologia molecular e neuroimagem.OBJECTIVE: This paper describes recent advances in the neurobiology of mental retardation, emphasizing new diagnostic resources provided by cytogenetics, molecular testing, and neuroimaging. SOURCES OF DATA: MEDLINE (January 2000 through October 2003, using the following key words: mental retardation, developmental disability, child, and adolescent. Search of the Pediatrics and New England Journal of Medicine websites using the key word mental retardation. The

  5. Studies concerning the effects of low level prenatal X-irradiation on postnatal growth and adult behaviour in the Wistar rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensh, R.P.; Brent, R.L.; Vogel, W.H.

    1986-01-01

    Fifty-nine pregnant Wistar strain rats were sham irradiated or given a 0.1 or 0.2 Gy exposure of X-radiation on the 9th or 17th day of gestation. Twenty-seven were killed at term for teratologic analysis. The remaining mothers raised their young. At 60 days of age the 252 offspring were randomly assigned three of six tests: open field, swimming, hanging, activity wheel, water T-maze, or conditioned avoidance response. Male offspring exposed at the 0.2 Gy level exhibited retarded growth only during the first few weeks of postnatal life. Female offspring exposed on the 17th day to 0.2 Gy X-radiation were growth retarded throughout the test period. Postnatal growth rates were not significantly different between the irradiated and control groups. There were no significant alterations in adult behaviour due to prenatal X-irradiation. There were sex differences in activity wheel and forelimb hanging performance, unrelated to radiation exposure. These results indicate that prenatal low level X-irradiation on the 9th or 17th day of gestation dose not result in significant alterations in rat adult behavioural performance but prenatal growth retardation persists postnatally. Growth may be a more sensitive indicator of the effects of prenatal exposure than postnatal behaviour. (author)

  6. Rotatable broadband retarders for far infrared spectroscopic ellipsometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, T.D.; Carr, G.; Zhou, T.; Kotelyanskii, M.; Sirenko, A.A.

    2010-12-09

    Rotatable retarders have been developed for applications in spectroscopic, full Mueller Matrix ellipsometry in the far-IR spectral range. Several materials, such as silicon, KRS-5, and a commercial polymer plastic (TOPAS) have been utilized to achieve a fully adjustable retardation between 0{sup o} and 90{sup o}. Experimental characteristics of the rotatable retarders that utilize three- and four-bounce designs are compared with calculations. We discuss the effect of light focusing on the performance of these rotatable retarders. Broadband optical retarders are required for spectroscopic ellipsometry in its full Mueller matrix (MM) realization. Performance of the MM ellipsometer depends on the capability to produce substantially linearly-independent Stokes vectors for the light incident onto the sample. As has been shown, the errors in the measuredMMof the sample are proportional to the condition number of the 4 x 4 matrix composed of the Stokes vectors of four polarization states incident at the sample. It can be proven that it is impossible to cover the Poincare sphere with linearly-independent Stokes vectors by only changing the linear polarization at the input surface of a stationary retarder. As we will illustrate further in this paper, total coverage of the Poincare sphere is possible by rotating a tandem of a linear polarizer and a retarder with a retardation of 90{sup o}. It is this goal that we are trying to achieve in the retarder designs described in this paper.

  7. Effective Exchange Rate Classifications and Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Justin M. Dubas; Byung-Joo Lee; Nelson C. Mark

    2005-01-01

    We propose an econometric procedure for obtaining de facto exchange rate regime classifications which we apply to study the relationship between exchange rate regimes and economic growth. Our classification method models the de jure regimes as outcomes of a multinomial logit choice problem conditional on the volatility of a country's effective exchange rate, a bilateral exchange rate and international reserves. An `effective' de facto exchange rate regime classification is then obtained by as...

  8. Developmental exposure to the organophosphorus flame retardant tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate: estrogenic activity, endocrine disruption and reproductive effects on zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiangwei; Lam, James C W; Han, Jian; Wang, Xianfeng; Guo, Yongyong; Lam, Paul K S; Zhou, Bingsheng

    2015-03-01

    Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) is an organophosphate flame retardant that is detectable in the environment and biota, prompting concern over its risk to wildlife and human health. Our objective was to investigate whether long-term exposure to low concentrations of TDCPP can affect fish reproduction. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to low concentrations (0, 4, 20 and 100μg/L) of TDCPP from 2h post-fertilization until sexual maturation. Exposure to TDCPP significantly increased plasma estradiol and testosterone levels in females, but had no effect in males. TDCPP exposure also caused a significant reduction in fecundity as indicated by decreased egg production. Real-time PCR was performed to examine selected genes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis and liver. Principle component analysis (PCA) showed that sex hormone levels and fecundity were related to the mRNA level of several genes in the HPG axis. Furthermore, hepatic vitellogenin (vtg1 and vtg3) expression was upregulated in both females and males, suggesting TDCPP has estrogenic activity. Histological examination revealed promotion of oocyte maturation in the females, but retardation of spermiation in males. Reduced egg quality (e.g., egg diameter) and increased malformation rates were observed in the F1 generation. Chemical analysis showed significant levels of TDCPP and its metabolite bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate in the gonads of males and females. In conclusion, long-term exposure to low concentrations of TDCPP impairs fish reproduction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Retardo no crescimento intrauterino, baixo peso ao nascer e prematuridade em recém-nascidos de grávidas com malária, na Colômbia Intrauterine growth retardation, low birth weight and prematurity in neonates of pregnant women with malaria in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Tobón-Castaño

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: É frequente a associação da malária com complicações como prematuridade, retardo no crescimento intrauterino, baixo peso ao nascer e mortalidade infantil, efeitos pouco estudados em áreas hipoendêmicas para malaria. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a relação da malária gestacional com estes efeitos em recém-nascidosnuma região endêmica para malária na Colômbia, entre 1993 e 2007. MÉTODOS: Foram estudadas as características em 1.716 recém-nascidos num estudo de coorte. Fez-se seguimento em 394 gestantes com malária (27% por Plasmodium falciparum e 73% por P. vivax e 1.322 sem malária. RESULTADOS: Foi encontrada uma relação entre a exposição à malária na gestação e o risco maior de baixo peso ao nascer (RR = 1,37; 1,03-1,83, assim como estatura baixa (RR = 1,52; 1,25-1,85, retardo no crescimento intrauterino (RR = 1,29; 1,0-1,66 e prematuridade (RR = 1,68; 1,3-2,17. A frequência de nascimentos prematuros foi maior nas mães com malária por P. falciparum (77% que aquelas com P. vivax (RR = 1,77; IC 95%: 1,2-2,6. CONCLUSÕES: O baixo peso ao nascer e o retardo no crescimento foi associado com malária na gestação na Colômbia. A infecção por P. vivax foi relacionada com efeitos adversos sobre o recém-nascido, de modo semelhante em relação ao P. falciparum.INTRODUCTION: Association between malaria and pregnancy complications, such as prematurity, intrauterine growth restriction, low birthweight and infant mortality has been reported. These effects have been studied widely in areas hyperendemic for malaria, but studies in low-endemic areas are scarce. The study investigated the relation between gestational malaria and low birthweight and intrauterine growth retardation in neonates of a malarial endemic region in Colombia, between 1993 and 2007. METHODS: The pattern of development in 1,716 neonates of women with and without malaria infection during pregnancy was evaluated in a cohort study. A

  10. Effects of growth-promoting factors on proliferation of mouse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    2012-02-16

    SSCs) in vitro are critical to our understanding of male infertility, genetic resources and endangered species conservation. To investigate the effects of growth-promoting factors, epidermal growth factor (EGF), insulin-like growth.

  11. Effect of salt-stresses on the hormonal regulation of growth, photosynthesis and distribution of 14C - assimilates in bean plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starck, Z.; Karwowska, R.

    1978-01-01

    The experiments were carried out to study the effect of salt-stresses and ABA on the growth photosynthesis and translocation of assimilates in bean plants. It was planned to reduce the content of GA 3 and cytokinins and increase ABA content in salinized plants. The results show that salt-stress (NaCl and concentrated nutrient solution), reduces all the investigated processes in a different degree. NaCl-stress retarded most seriously growth of apical part and blades in contrast to 7-times concentrated nutrient solution decreasing mainly the rate of root and blade growth. Photosynthesis and 14 C-translocation of 14 C-assimilates were retarded more seriously by NaCl than by 7-times concentrated nutrient solution. In the case of seriously stressed plants GA 3 and cytokinins (more effectively) reversed the negative effect of stress conditions both on the photosynthesis and on the 14 C-translocation. On the basis of the obtained results, it seems that changes in the rate of investigated processes in salinized plants are due to hormonal disturbances which cause directly or indirectly retardation of photosynthesis and translocation of assimilates. (author)

  12. Effect of salt-stresses on the hormonal regulation of growth, photosynthesis and distribution of 14C-assimilates in bean plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Starck

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiments were carried out to study the effect of salt-stresses and ABA on the growth, photosynthesis and translocation of assimilates in bean plants. It was planed to reduce the content of GA3 and cytokinins and increase ABA content in salinized plants. The results show that salt-stress (NaCl and concentrated nutrient solution, reduce all the investigated processes in a different degree. NaCl-stress retarded most seriously growth of apical part and blades in contrast to 7-times concentrated nutrient solution decreasing mainly the rate of root and blade growth. Photosynthesis and 14C-translocation of 14C-assimilates were retarded more seriously by NaCl than by 7-times concentrated nutrient. solution. In the case of seriously stressed plants GA3 and cytokinins (more effectively reversed the ,negative effect of stress conditions both on the photosynthesis and on the 14C-tramslocation. On the basis of the obtained results, it seemes that changes in the rate of investigated processes in salinized plants are due to hormonal disturbances which cause directly or indirectly retardation of photosynthesis and trans-location of assimilates.

  13. Effects of the Global Population Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voiculeţ Alina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The demographic factor is not purely natural. It is a social body that has its own structure andis manifested through a series of processes that make up its movement: birth rate, death rate,longevity, migration etc. All these processes depend on the social and economic environment inwhich people live. The growth of the world's population will have multiple effects on theenvironment, the economy and society as a whole.

  14. Effects of Acute Low-Dose Exposure to the Chlorinated Flame Retardant Dechlorane 602 and Th1 and Th2 Immune Responses in Adult Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yu; Tian, Jijing; Xie, Heidi Qunhui; She, Jianwen; Xu, Sherry Li; Xu, Tuan; Tian, Wenjing; Fu, Hualing; Li, Shuaizhang; Tao, Wuqun; Wang, Lingyun; Chen, Yangsheng; Zhang, Songyan; Zhang, Wanglong; Guo, Tai L; Zhao, Bin

    2016-09-01

    Although the chlorinated flame retardant Dechlorane (Dec) 602 has been detected in food, human blood, and breast milk, there is limited information on potential health effects, including possible immunotoxicity. We determined the immunotoxic potential of Dec 602 in mice by examining the expression of phenotypic markers on thymocyte and splenic lymphocyte subsets, Th1/Th2 transcription factors, and the production of cytokines and antibodies. Adult male C57BL/6 mice were orally exposed to environmentally relevant doses of Dec 602 (1 and 10 μg/kg body weight per day) for 7 consecutive days. Thymocyte and splenic CD4 and CD8 subsets and splenocyte apoptosis were examined by flow cytometric analysis. Cytokine expression was measured at both the mRNA and the protein levels. Levels of the transcription factors Th1 (T-bet and STAT1) and Th2 (GATA3) were determined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Serum levels of immunoglobulins IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b and IgE were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Splenic CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subsets were decreased compared with vehicle controls, and apoptosis was significantly increased in splenic CD4+ T cells. Expression (mRNA and protein) of Th2 cytokines [interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, and IL-13] increased, and that of Th1 cytokines [IL-2, interferon (IFN)-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α] decreased. The Th2 transcriptional factor GATA3 increased, whereas the Th1 transcriptional factors T-bet and STAT1 decreased. As additional indicators of the Th2-Th1 imbalance, production of IgG1 was significantly increased, whereas IgG2a was reduced. To our knowledge, we are the first to report evidence of the effects of Dec 602 on immune function in mice, with findings indicating that Dec 602 exposure favored Th2 responses and reduced Th1 function. Feng Y, Tian J, Xie HQ, She J, Xu SL, Xu T, Tian W, Fu H, Li S, Tao W, Wang L, Chen Y, Zhang S, Zhang W, Guo TL, Zhao B. 2016. Effects of acute low

  15. Occurrence and Source Effect of Novel Brominated Flame Retardants (NBFRs) in Soils from Five Asian Countries and Their Relationship with PBDEs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Long; Ma, Wan-Li; Zhang, Zi-Feng; Liu, Li-Yan; Song, Wei-Wei; Jia, Hong-Liang; Ding, Yong-Sheng; Nakata, Haruhiko; Minh, Nguyen Hung; Sinha, Ravindra Kumar; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Sverko, Ed; Li, Yi-Fan

    2017-10-03

    This paper presents the first comprehensive survey of 19 novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) in soil samples collected among five Asian countries. High variability in concentrations of all NBFRs was found in soils with the geometric mean (GM) values ranging from 0.50 ng/g dry weight (dw) in Vietnam to 540 ng/g dw in the vicinity of a BFR manufacturer in China. In urban, rural, and background locations, the GM concentrations of ∑ 19 NBFRs decreased in the order of Japan > South Korea > China > India > Vietnam. Correlations among different NBFR compounds were positive and statistically significant (p e-waste sites. For the first time, this study demonstrates a "point source fractionation effect" for NBFRs and PBDEs. The concentrations of all NBFRs and PBDEs were negatively and significantly correlated with the distance from BFR-related industrial and e-waste regions. Positive and significant correlation between population density and NBFR concentrations in soils was identified. Our study revealed that the primary sources effects were stronger than the secondary sources effects in controlling the levels and distribution of NBFRs and PBDEs in soils in these five Asian countries.

  16. Directed Technical Change and Economic Growth Effects of Environmental Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse-Andersen, Peter Kjær

    2016-01-01

    A Schumpeterian growth model is developed to investigate how environmental policy affects economic growth when environmental policy also affects the direction of technical change. In contrast to previous models, production and pollution abatement technologies are embodied in separate intermediate...... unambiguously directs research efforts toward pollution abatement technologies and away from production technologies. This directed technical change reduces economic growth and pollution emission growth. Simulation results indicate that even large environmental policy reforms have small economic growth effects....... However, these economic growth effects have relatively large welfare effects which suggest that static models and exogenous growth models leave out an important welfare effect of environmental policy....

  17. X-linked mental retardation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ropers, H.H.; Hamel, B.C.J.

    2005-01-01

    Genetic factors have an important role in the aetiology of mental retardation. However, their contribution is often underestimated because in developed countries, severely affected patients are mainly sporadic cases and familial cases are rare. X-chromosomal mental retardation is the exception to

  18. Uptake of Eudragit Retard L (Eudragit® RL Nanoparticles by Human THP-1 Cell Line and Its Effects on Hematology and Erythrocyte Damage in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosaad A. Abdel-Wahhab

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to prepare Eudragit Retard L (Eudragit RL nanoparticles (ENPs and to determine their properties, their uptake by the human THP-1 cell line in vitro and their effect on the hematological parameters and erythrocyte damage in rats. ENPs showed an average size of 329.0 ± 18.5 nm, a positive zeta potential value of +57.5 ± 5.47 mV and nearly spherical shape with a smooth surface. THP-1 cell lines could phagocyte ENPs after 2 h of incubation. In the in vivo study, male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed orally or intraperitoneally (IP with a single dose of ENP (50 mg/kg body weight. Blood samples were collected after 4 h, 48 h, one week and three weeks for hematological and erythrocytes analysis. ENPs induced significant hematological disturbances in platelets, red blood cell (RBC total and differential counts of white blood cells (WBCs after 4 h, 48 h and one week. ENP increased met-Hb and Co-Hb derivatives and decreased met-Hb reductase activity. These parameters were comparable to the control after three weeks when administrated orally. It could be concluded that the route of administration has a major effect on the induction of hematological disturbances and should be considered when ENPs are applied for drug delivery systems.

  19. Growth, physiology and flowering of chrysanthemum var. Punch as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth retardants have been proven to prevent excessive stem elongation and reduce internode length in plants by inhibiting the effect of cell division and enlargement of cell in plants. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of concentrations of daminozide and maleic hydrazide on growth, physiology and flowering of ...

  20. Retardo do crescimento e condições sociais em escolares de Osasco, São Paulo, Brasil Linear growth retardation and social factors among schoolchildren from the city of Osasco, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Lucia Martini Lei

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo identificar a associação existente entre classe social e retardo do crescimento físico, ocorrido nos primeiros anos de vida. Com base em um censo de estatura, envolvendo alunos ingressantes em todas as escolas (públicas e particulares do Município de Osasco, região metropolitana de São Paulo, Brasil, realizado no início do ano letivo de 1989, foram selecionados casos e controles para a investigação retrospectiva dos determinantes sociais do retardo do crescimento. Os casos, totalizando 125 ingressantes de sete a oito anos de idade, foram caracterizados pelo índice altura/idade inferior a -2 escores Z da população de referência do NHCS/OMS. Os controles, totalizando 139 ingressantes da mesma idade, foram caracterizados pelo índice altura/idade superior a -1 escore Z. Escolaridade do chefe da casa e da mãe, renda familiar per capita, condições de habitação e saneamento, ou seja, variáveis que devem mediar a relação entre classe social e déficit de estatura, foram fatores que se associaram significativamente com o risco de retardo do cresimento. Quanto à inserção da família no processo social de produção, avaliada através da classe social do chefe, as crianças do subproletariado apresentaram uma chance sete vezes maior de retardo do crescimento quando comparadas com as dos grupos da pequena burguesia, refletindo os efeitos biológicos da recessão econômica dos anos 80.Cases and controls were selected for this retrospective investigation of the social determinants of growth retardation, from a Height Census carried out in the 1989 school year,involving children attending the first grade of all public and private schools in Osasco (in the Greater Metropolitan Area of São Paulo, Brazil. The cases, totalling 125 children entering school aged 7-8 years old, were characterized by a height-for-age index below -2 z score of the NCHS/WHO reference. The controls, totalling 139 children

  1. Effect of electron beam irradiation and microencapsulation on the flame retardancy of ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer materials during hot water ageing test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng, Haibo; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Bibo; Yu, Bin; Shi, Yongqian; Song, Lei; Kundu, Chanchal Kumar; Tao, Youji; Jie, Ganxin; Feng, Hao; Hu, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Microencapsulated ammonium polyphosphate (MCAPP) in combination with polyester polyurethane (TPU) was used to flame retardant ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA). The EVA composites with different irradiation doses were immersed in hot water (80 °C) to accelerate ageing process. The microencapsulation and irradiation dose ensured positive impacts on the properties of the EVA composites in terms of better dimensional stability and flame retardant performance. The microencapsulation of APP could lower its solubility in water and the higher irradiation dose led to the more MCAPP immobilized in three dimensional crosslinked structure of the EVA matrix which could jointly enhance the flame retardant and electrical insulation properties of the EVA composites. So, the EVA composites with 180 kGy irradiation dose exhibited better dimensional stability than the EVA composites with 120 kGy due to the higher crosslinking degree. Moreover, the higher irradiation dose lead to the more MCAPP immobilizated in crosslinked three-dimensional structure of EVA, enhancing the flame retardancy and electrical insulation properties of the EVA composites. After ageing test in hot water at 80 °C for 2 weeks, the EVA/TPU/MCAPP composite with 180 kGy could still maintain the UL-94 V-0 rating and the limiting oxygen index (LOI) value was as high as 30%. This investigation indicated the flame retardant EVA cable containing MCAPP could achieve stable properties and lower electrical fire hazard risk during long-term hot water ageing test. - Highlights: • Microencapsulated ammonium polyphosphate is prepared by successive sol-gel process. • The higher irradiation dose induces the better dimensional stability for EVA system. • The higher irradiation, the more MCAPP immobilized in EVA crosslinked structure. • The higher irradiation dose enhances the flame retardancy of EVA composites. • The microencapsulated composites demonstrate stable flame retardancy in ageing test.

  2. Maternal smoking effects on infant growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar, G.; Berlanga, R.; Garcia, C.; Vio, F.

    2000-01-01

    Maternal smoking is known to have adverse effects on birth weight, duration and volume of breast feeding. It also negatively affects maternal body composition and prolactin concentration at the end of pregnancy. The effect of smoking on longitudinal growth has not been studied thoroughly. Sixteen smoking mothers (S) during pregnancy and lactation (7.1 ± 4.4 cigarettes/day) and 22 non-smoking mothers (NS), were selected at delivery time, in Santiago, Chile. Infants were evaluated monthly and volume of breast milk was measured at one month by dose-to-infant deuterium dilution, as well as cotinine levels. The concentration of zinc, copper and iron in milk was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). Zinc, copper and cadmium were also determined in the infant's hair at one and six months and once in the mother (beginning of lactation). Cotinine levels were determined at one and six months by a radio-immuno-analysis standard kit. In monthly visits to the house, additional formula/food intake to breast feeding was determined in a 48 hours questionnaire to the mother, as well as infant's morbidity was registered. At birth, weight and height were not significantly different, although higher in NS infants. Cotinine levels were 30 times higher in S-mothers compared to NS mothers and 12 times higher in their infants. Both S and NS infants grew within normality as defined by the National Centre for Health Statistics (NCHS) in the Z-scores curves (weight/age, height/age and weight/height). Breast milk was similar in a partial group of NS and S groups (730 ± 133 g/d, 736 ± 136 g/d) and there was no difference in the content of zinc, copper and iron in milk or hair, except for cadmium which was higher in infant's hair at one month of age. Significant differences in height and height/age were found from one to six months of age. Weight/height began to be significantly higher in S-infants from three months onward, due to their slower height growth. Another group of

  3. The effect of a genetically reduced plasma membrane protonmotive force on vegetative growth of Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruta, Miyoshi; Sussman, Michael R

    2012-03-01

    The plasma membrane proton gradient is an essential feature of plant cells. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), this gradient is generated by the plasma membrane proton pump encoded by a family of 11 genes (abbreviated as AHA, for Arabidopsis H(+)-ATPase), of which AHA1 and AHA2 are the two most predominantly expressed in seedlings and adult plants. Although double knockdown mutant plants containing T-DNA insertions in both genes are embryonic lethal, under ideal laboratory growth conditions, single knockdown mutant plants with a 50% reduction in proton pump concentration complete their life cycle without any observable growth alteration. However, when grown under conditions that induce stress on the plasma membrane protonmotive force (PMF), such as high external potassium to reduce the electrical gradient or high external pH to reduce the proton chemical gradient, aha2 mutant plants show a growth retardation compared with wild-type plants. In this report, we describe the results of studies that examine in greater detail AHA2's specific role in maintaining the PMF during seedling growth. By comparing the wild type and aha2 mutants, we have measured the effects of a reduced PMF on root and hypocotyl growth, ATP-induced skewed root growth, and rapid cytoplasmic calcium spiking. In addition, genome-wide gene expression profiling revealed the up-regulation of potassium transporters in aha2 mutants, indicating, as predicted, a close link between the PMF and potassium uptake at the plasma membrane. Overall, this characterization of aha2 mutants provides an experimental and theoretical framework for investigating growth and signaling processes that are mediated by PMF-coupled energetics at the cell membrane.

  4. Towards development of a rapid and effective non-destructive testing strategy to identify brominated flame retardants in the plastics of consumer products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallen, Christie; Banks, Andrew; Brandsma, Sicco; Baduel, Christine; Thai, Phong; Eaglesham, Geoff; Heffernan, Amy; Leonards, Pim; Bainton, Paul; Mueller, Jochen F

    2014-09-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a class of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) once extensively used in the plastics of a wide range of consumer products. The listing of certain congeners that are constituents of commercial PBDE mixtures (including c-octaBDE) in the Stockholm Convention and tightening regulation of many other BFRs in recent years have created the need for a rapid and effective method of identifying BFR-containing plastics. A three-tiered testing strategy comparing results from non-destructive testing (X-ray fluorescence (XRF)) (n=1714), a surface wipe test (n=137) and destructive chemical analysis (n=48) was undertaken to systematically identify BFRs in a wide range of consumer products. XRF rapidly identified bromine in 92% of products later confirmed to contain BFRs. Surface wipes of products identified tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), c-octaBDE congeners and BDE-209 with relatively high accuracy (>75%) when confirmed by destructive chemical analysis. A relationship between the amounts of BFRs detected in surface wipes and subsequent destructive testing shows promise in predicting not only the types of BFRs present but also estimating the concentrations present. Information about the types of products that may contain persistent BFRs will assist regulators in implementing policies to further reduce the occurrence of these chemicals in consumer products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Meta-analysis of the Effect of Fiscal Policies on Long-Run Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijkamp, P.; Poot, H.J.

    2004-01-01

    The issue of whether the public sector enhances or retards long-run economic growth has been debated passionately in recent years. We use meta-analysis to shed light on the issue. A sample of 93 published studies, yielding 123 meta-observations, is used to examine the robustness of the evidence

  6. Micronutrient supplementation of young stunted Beninese children: effects on appetite and growth performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dossa, R.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    Linear growth retardation (stunting) still has a high prevalence rate in developing countries (ACC/SCN, 2000). In the republic of Benin reported prevalence rates range from 25% to 40%. In malnourished children it is quite common to observe a combination of multiple micronutrient deficiency,

  7. Superior mesenteric artery syndrome causing growth retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil İbrahim Taşcı

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Superior mesenteric artery syndrome is a rare and lifethreateningclinical condition caused by the compressionof the third portion of the duodenum between the aortaand the superior mesenteric artery’s proximal part. Thiscompression may lead to chronic intermittent, acute totalor partial obstruction. Sudden weight-loss and the relateddecrease in the fat tissue are considered to be the etiologicalreason of acute stenosis. Weight-loss accompaniedby nausea, vomiting, anorexia, epigastric pain, andbloating are the leading complaints. Barium radiographs,computerized tomography, conventional angiography,tomographic and magnetic resonance angiography areused in the diagnosis. There are medical and surgical approachesto treatment. We hereby present the case ofa patient with superior mesenteric artery syndrome withdelayed diagnosis.Key words: superior mesenteric artery syndrome, nausea-vomiting, anorexia

  8. Dose-dependent effects of extracted microcystins on embryonic development, larval growth and histopathological changes of southern catfish (Silurus meridionalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuezhen; Xie, Ping; Wang, Weimin; Li, Dapeng; Li, Li; Tang, Rong; Lei, Hehua; Shi, Zechao

    2008-03-01

    A laboratory toxic experiment was conducted to examine dose-dependent effects of extracted microcystins (MCs) on embryonic development, larval growth and histopathological changes of southern catfish (Silurus meridionalis). Fertilized eggs were incubated in solutions with four concentrations of MCs (0, 1, 10, 100 microg MC-L Req l(-1)). Higher MCs retarded egg development (2-10h delays) and larval growth, reduced hatching rate (up to 45%), and caused high malformation rate (up to 15%) and hepatocytes damage (characterized by disorganization of cell structure and a loss of adherence between hepatocytes, cellular degeneration with vacuolar hepatocytes and marginal nuclei, even hepatocellular necrosis). A 10 microg MC-L Req l(-1) is close to a high concentration in natural cyanobacterial blooms, suggesting a possible existence of such toxic effects in eutrophic waters.

  9. Dietary supplementation with β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate calcium during the early postnatal period accelerates skeletal muscle fibre growth and maturity in intra-uterine growth-retarded and normal-birth-weight piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Haifeng; Zhu, Jiatao; Su, Guoqi; Liu, Yan; Hua, Lun; Hu, Liang; Wu, Caimei; Zhang, Ruinan; Zhou, Pan; Shen, Yong; Lin, Yan; Xu, Shengyu; Fang, Zhengfeng; Che, Lianqiang; Feng, Bin; Wu, De

    2016-04-01

    Intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) impairs postnatal growth and skeletal muscle development in neonatal infants. This study evaluated whether dietary β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate Ca (HMB-Ca) supplementation during the early postnatal period could improve muscle growth in IUGR neonates using piglets as a model. A total of twelve pairs of IUGR and normal-birth-weight (NBW) male piglets with average initial weights (1·85 (sem 0·36) and 2·51 (sem 0·39) kg, respectively) were randomly allotted to groups that received milk-based diets (CON) or milk-based diets supplemented with 800 mg/kg HMB-Ca (HMB) during days 7-28 after birth. Blood and longissimus dorsi (LD) samples were collected and analysed for plasma amino acid content, fibre morphology and the expression of genes related to muscle development. The results indicate that, regardless of diet, IUGR piglets had a significantly decreased average daily weight gain (ADG) compared with that of NBW piglets (Psupplementation markedly increased the type II fibre cross-sectional area and the mRNA expression of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), insulin-like growth factor-1 and myosin heavy-chain isoform IIb in the LD of piglets (Psupplementation during the early postnatal period could improve skeletal muscle growth and maturity by accelerating fast-twitch glycolytic fibre development in piglets.

  10. Psychomotor Retardation in untreated depressed elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieve Lia Beheydt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychomotor retardation (PR is one of the core features in depression according to 17 DSM V1, but also aging in itself causes cognitive and psychomotor slowing. This is the first study 18 investigating psychomotor retardation in relation to cognitive functioning and to the concomitant 19 effect of depression and aging in a geriatric population ruling out contending effects of psychotropic 20 medication. Methods: A group of 28 non-demented depressed elderly is compared to a matched 21 control group of 20 healthy elderly. All participants underwent a test battery containing clinical 22 depression measures, cognitive measures of processing speed, executive function and memory, 23 clinical ratings of psychomotor retardation and objective computerized fine motor skill-tests. 24 Statistical analysis consisted of a General Linear Method (GLM multivariate analysis of variance to 25 compare the clinical, cognitive and psychomotor outcomes of the two groups. Results: Patients 26 performed worse on all clinical, cognitive and psychomotor retardation measures. Both groups 27 showed an effect of cognitive load on fine motor function but the influence was significantly larger 28 for patients than for healthy elderly except for the initiation time. Limitations: due to the restrictive 29 inclusion criteria, only a relatively limited sample size could be obtained. Conclusion: With a 30 medication free sample, an additive effect of depression and aging on cognition and PR in geriatric 31 patients was found,. As this effect was independent of demand of effort (by varying the cognitive 32 load, it was apparently not a motivational slowing effect of depression.

  11. Decomposition of Phragmites australis litter retarded by invasive Solidago canadensis in mixtures: an antagonistic non-additive effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Zhang, Yaojun; Zou, Jianwen; Siemann, Evan

    2014-06-01

    Solidago canadensis is an aggressive invader in China. Solidago invasion success is partially attributed to allelopathic compounds release and more benefits from AM fungi, which potentially makes the properties of Solidago litter different from co-occurring natives. These properties may comprehensively affect litter decomposition of co-occurring natives. We conducted a field experiment to examine litter mixing effects in a Phragmites australis dominated community invaded by Solidago in southeast China. Solidago had more rapid mass and N loss rate than Phragmites when they decomposed separately. Litter mixing decreased N loss rate in Phragmites litter and increased that of Solidago. Large decreases in Phragmites mass loss and smaller increases in Solidago mass loss caused negative non-additive effect. Solidago litter extracts reduced soil C decomposition and N processes, suggested an inhibitory effect of Solidago secondary compounds. These results are consistent with the idea that nutrient transfer and secondary compounds both affected litter mixtures decomposition.

  12. Retarded Boson–Fermion interaction in atomic systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    The retardation effect arises from the finite speed of light, and the fact that a virtual photon is always in transit. By separating the center of mass motion, a wave equa- tion that looks like the effective equation for only one spin-1/2 fermion is derived in §3. The retardation ef- fect can now be calculated to all orders. Separation ...

  13. Effect of buffer thickness on the retardation of radionuclide release from the high-level waste repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Won Jin; Lee, Jae Owan; Kang, Chul Hyung; Han, Kyung Won

    2000-12-01

    The radionuclide release from buffer in the high-level waste repository to the surrounding host rock was assessed, and the effect of the radial buffer thickness on the release rate was analyzed. The total release rates decrease sharply with increasing radial buffer thickness up to 0.25 m, and decrease moderately at the buffer thickness between 0.25 m and 0.5 m. But increasing the radial buffer thickness beyond 0.5 m has little effect in reducing radionuclide release. Therefore a radial buffer thickness between 0.25 m and 0.5 m is sufficient based on the viewpoint of radionuclide retention.

  14. Neurotoxicity of brominated flame retardants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been commonly used as commercial flame retardants in a variety of products including plastics and textiles. Despite their decreasing usage worldwide, congeners continue to accumulate in the environment, including soil, dust, food, anima...

  15. Can earthworms survive fire retardants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W.N.; Olson, A.

    1996-01-01

    Most common fire retardants are foams or are similar to common agricultural fertilizers, such as ammonium sulfate and ammonium phosphate. Although fire retardants are widely applied to soils, we lack basic information about their toxicities to soil organisms. We measured the toxicity of five fire retardants (Firetrol LCG-R, Firetrol GTS-R, Silv-Ex Foam Concentrate, Phos-chek D-75, and Phos-chek WD-881) to earthworms using the pesticide toxicity test developed for earthworms by the European Economic Community. None was lethal at 1,000 ppm in the soil, which was suggested as a relatively high exposure under normal applications. We concluded that the fire retardants tested are relatively nontoxic to soil organisms compared with other environmental chemicals and that they probably do not reduce earthworm populations when applied under usual firefighting conditions.

  16. Flame Retardant Applications in Camping Tents and Potential Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Alexander S; Raju, Nikhilesh P; Webster, Thomas F; Stapleton, Heather M

    2014-02-11

    Concern has mounted over health effects caused by exposure to flame retardant additives used in consumer products. Significant research efforts have focused particularly on exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) used in furniture and electronic applications. However, little attention has focused on applications in textiles, particularly textiles meeting a flammability standard known as CPAI-84. In this study, we investigated flame retardant applications in camping tents that met CPAI-84 standards by analyzing 11 samples of tent fabrics for chemical flame retardant additives. Furthermore, we investigated potential exposure by collecting paired samples of tent wipes and hand wipes from 27 individuals after tent setup. Of the 11 fabric samples analyzed, 10 contained flame retardant additives, which included tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate (TDCPP), decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209), triphenyl phosphate, and tetrabromobisphenol-A. Flame retardant concentrations were discovered to be as high as 37.5 mg/g (3.8% by weight) in the tent fabric samples, and TDCPP and BDE-209 were the most frequently detected in these samples. We also observed a significant association between TDCPP levels in tent wipes and those in paired hand wipes, suggesting that human contact with the tent fabric material leads to the transfer of the flame retardant to the skin surface and human exposure. These results suggest that direct contact with flame retardant-treated textiles may be a source of exposure. Future studies will be needed to better characterize exposure, including via inhalation and dermal sorption from air.

  17. Decomposition of Phragmites australis litter retarded by invasive Solidago canadensis in mixtures: an antagonistic non-additive effect

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Ling; Zhang, Yaojun; Zou, Jianwen; Siemann, Evan

    2014-01-01

    Solidago canadensis is an aggressive invader in China. Solidago invasion success is partially attributed to allelopathic compounds release and more benefits from AM fungi, which potentially makes the properties of Solidago litter different from co-occurring natives. These properties may comprehensively affect litter decomposition of co-occurring natives. We conducted a field experiment to examine litter mixing effects in a Phragmites australis dominated community invaded by Solidago in southe...

  18. A, a Brominated Flame Retardant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomomi Takeshita

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA, a brominated flame retardant, has been found to exacerbate pneumonia in respiratory syncytial virus- (RSV- infected mice. We examined the effect of Brazilian propolis (AF-08 on the exacerbation of RSV infection by TBBPA exposure in mice. Mice were fed a powdered diet mixed with 1% TBBPA alone, 0.02% AF-08 alone, or 1% TBBPA and 0.02% AF-08 for four weeks and then intranasally infected with RSV. TBBPA exposure increased the pulmonary virus titer and level of IFN-γ, a representative marker of pneumonia due to RSV infection, in the lungs of infected mice without toxicity. AF-08 was significantly effective in reducing the virus titers and IFN-γ level increased by TBBPA exposure. Also, AF-08 significantly reduced proinflammatory cytokine (TNF-α and IL-6 levels in the lungs of RSV-infected mice with TBBPA exposure, but Th2 cytokine (IL-4 and IL-10 levels were not evidently increased. Neither TBBPA exposure nor AF-08 treatment affected the anti-RSV antibody production in RSV-infected mice. In flow cytometry analysis, AF-08 seemed to be effective in reducing the ratio of pulmonary CD8a+ cells in RSV-infected mice with TBBPA exposure. TBBPA and AF-08 did not exhibit anti-RSV activity in vitro. Thus, AF-08 probably ameliorated pneumonia exacerbated by TBBPA exposure in RSV-infected mice by limiting excess cellular immune responses.

  19. Effect of lead on root growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahr, Mouna; Laplaze, Laurent; Bendaou, Najib; Hocher, Valerie; Mzibri, Mohamed El; Bogusz, Didier; Smouni, Abdelaziz

    2013-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is one of the most widespread heavy metal contaminant in soils. It is highly toxic to living organisms. Pb has no biological function but can cause morphological, physiological, and biochemical dysfunctions in plants. Plants have developed a wide range of tolerance mechanisms that are activated in response to Pb exposure. Pb affects plants primarily through their root systems. Plant roots rapidly respond either (i) by the synthesis and deposition of callose, creating a barrier that stops Pb entering (ii) through the uptake of large amounts of Pb and its sequestration in the vacuole accompanied by changes in root growth and branching pattern or (iii) by its translocation to the aboveground parts of plant in the case of hyperaccumulators plants. Here we review the interactions of roots with the presence of Pb in the rhizosphere and the effect of Pb on the physiological and biochemical mechanisms of root development. PMID:23750165

  20. Autosomal recessive intestinal lymphangiectasia and lymphedema, with facial anomalies and mental retardation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennekam, R. C.; Geerdink, R. A.; Hamel, B. C.; Hennekam, F. A.; Kraus, P.; Rammeloo, J. A.; Tillemans, A. A.

    1989-01-01

    We report on two male and two female relatives with intestinal lymphangiectasia; severe lymphedema of limbs, genitalia, and face; facial anomalies; seizures; mild growth retardation; and moderate mental retardation. Main facial anomalies are a flat face, flat nasal bridge, hypertelorism, small

  1. Retardation effect of different alcohols on the cement coagulation in polycarboxylate- and naphthalene-based cement admixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, S. M.; Zhou, F. L.

    2017-12-01

    Alcohol has great potential to delay the coagulation of cement. The effects of alcohol on paste fluidity and normal consistency coagulation time have been studied for polycarboxylate superplasticizer and naphthene cement admixture. Seven alcohols were combined with polycarboxylate superplasticizer and naphthene at a concentration of 0.01-0.09%, respectively, including n-propanol, methanol, sorbitol, ethylene glycol, glycerol, ethanol, and mannitol. The fluidity and normal consistency coagulation time of each cement admixture were measured. The performance of both polycarboxylate superplasticizer and naphthene cement admixtures were compared to develop cement admixture with delayed coagulation.

  2. Corruption's effect on growth and its transmission channels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pellegrini, L.; Gerlagh, R.

    2004-01-01

    A common finding of recent theoretical and empirical literature is that corruption has a negative effect on economic growth. In the paper, through growth regression analysis, we estimate the direct and indirect effects of corruption on economic growth. The indirect transmission channels,

  3. MHC class I cross-talk with CD2 and CD28 induces specific intracellular signalling and leads to growth retardation and apoptosis via a p56(lck)-dependent mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruhwald, M; Pedersen, Anders Elm; Claesson, M H

    1999-01-01

    Ligation of the major histocompatibility complex class I molecules (MHC-I) on human T lymphoma cells (Jurkat) initiates p56(lck)-dependent intracellular signalling events (phosphotyrosine kinase activity; [Ca(2+)](i)) and leads to augmented growth inhibition and apoptosis. MHC-I ligation in concert...... of apoptosis. In parallel experiments with the p56(lck)-negative Jurkat mutant cell, JCaM1.6, cross-linking neither influenced cell signalling nor cellular growth functions, indicating a cardinal role of the src kinases in signal transduction via MHC-I, CD2 and CD28 molecules. The results presented here...... with ligation of CD2 or CD28 augments, changes or modifies the pattern of activation. Ligation of MHC-I and CD2 alone resulted in growth inhibition, whereas CD28 ligation alone had no effect on cell proliferation. Ligation of MHC-I together with CD2 augmented growth inhibition and enhanced the level...

  4. Excess TSH causes abnormal skeletal development in young mice with hypothyroidism via suppressive effects on the growth plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Toyoshi; Kobayashi, Tetsuro

    2013-09-01

    Hypothyroidism in the young leads to irreversible growth failure. hyt/hyt Mice have a nonfunctional TSH receptor (TSHR) and are severely hypothyroid, but growth retardation was not observed in adult mice. We found that epiphysial cartilage as well as cultured chondrocytes expressed functional TSHR at levels comparable to that seen in the thyroid, and that addition of TSH to cultured chondrocytes suppressed expression of chondrocyte differentiation marker genes such as Sox-9 and type IIa collagen. Next, we compared the long bone phenotypes of two distinct mouse models of hypothyroidism: thyroidectomized (THYx) mice and hyt/hyt mice. Although both THYx and hyt/hyt mice were severely hypothyroid and had similar serum Ca(2+) and growth hormone levels, the tibia was shorter and the proliferating and hypertrophic zones in the growth plate was significantly narrower in THYx mice than in hyt/hyt mice. Supplementation of hyt/hyt mice thyroid hormone resulted in a wider growth plate compared with that of wild-type mice. Expressions of chondrocyte differentiation marker genes Sox-9 and type IIa collagen in growth plate from THYx mice were 52 and 60% lower than those of hyt/hyt mice, respectively. High serum TSH causes abnormal skeletal development in young mice with hypothyroidism via suppressive effects on the growth plate.

  5. Time-dependent effects of the flame retardant tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) on mRNA expression, in vitro and in ovo, reveal optimal sampling times for rapidly metabolized compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat, Amani; Crump, Doug; Porter, Emily; Chiu, Suzanne; Letcher, Robert J; Su, Guanyong; Kennedy, Sean W

    2014-12-01

    The flame retardant, tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP), was previously shown to affect chicken embryo growth, gallbladder size, and lipid homeostasis. A microarray study, however, revealed only modest transcriptional alterations in liver tissue of pipping embryos (days 20-21), which was attributed to the rapid metabolism of TDCPP throughout incubation. To identify the most appropriate sampling time for rapidly metabolized compounds, the present study assessed the time-dependent effects of TDCPP on 27 genes, in ovo (50 µg [116 nmol] TDCPP/g egg) and in vitro (10 µM), using a chicken ToxChip polymerase chain reaction array. The greatest magnitude in dysregulation (up to 362-fold) occurred on day 8 of incubation (in ovo) with alterations of genes involved in phase I, II, and III metabolism, among others. Gallbladder hypotrophy was observed by embryonic day 12, corroborating the finding in pipping embryos from our previous study. From days 12 to 19, genes involved in lipid homeostasis, steroid hormone metabolism, and oxidative stress were affected. In chicken embryonic hepatoctyes (CEHs), TDCPP was completely metabolized to bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BDCPP) within 36 h, but transcriptional changes remained significant up to 36 h. These changes were not attributed to BDCPP exposure as it only altered 1 gene (CYP1A4). An 18-h exposure in CEHs altered the greatest number of genes, making it an appropriate time point for high-throughput chemical screening; however, depending on the biological pathways of interest, shorter or longer incubation times may be more informative. Overall, TDCPP elicits the transcriptional and phenotypic alterations observed in vitro and in ovo, whereas its major metabolite, BDCPP, is far less biologically active. © 2014 SETAC.

  6. The natural compound benzoxazolin-2(3H)-one selectively retards cell cycle in lettuce root meristems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Moreiras, Adela M; de la Peña, Teodoro Coba; Reigosa, Manuel J

    2008-08-01

    Benzoxazolin-2(3H)-one (BOA) is a natural plant product that is phytotoxic to target plant species, inhibiting germination and growth and causing oxidative damage. We investigated its effects on the root meristems of seedlings of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) by means of light and transmission electron microscopy, flow cytometry, and conventional determination of mitotic index. Flow cytometry analyses and mitotic index showed a retard of cell cycle in BOA-treated meristems with selective activity at G2/M checkpoint.

  7. The effect of 150μm expandable graphite on char expansion of intumescent fire retardant coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullah, Sami, E-mail: samichemist1@gmail.com; Shariff, A. M., E-mail: azmish@petronas.com.my, E-mail: azmibustam@petronas.com.my; Bustam, M. A., E-mail: azmish@petronas.com.my, E-mail: azmibustam@petronas.com.my [Research Center for Carbon Dioxide Capture, Department of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Techologi PETRONAS, Bandar Sri Iskandar, Tronoh 31750 Perak (Malaysia); Ahmad, Faiz, E-mail: faizahmadster@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Techologi PETRONAS, Bandar Sri Iskandar, Tronoh 31750 Perak (Malaysia)

    2014-10-24

    Intumescent is defined as the swelling of certain substances to insulate the underlying substrate when they are heated. In this research work the effect of 150μm expandable graphite (EG) was studied on char expansion, char morphology and char composition of intumescent coating formulations (ICFs). To study the expansion and thermal properties of the coating, nine different formulations were prepared. The coatings were tested at 500 °C for one hour and physically were found very stable and well bound with the steel substrate. The morphology was studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The char composition was analysed by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques. EG above than 10.8wt% expands the char abruptly with uniform network structure and affect the outer surface of the char.

  8. Effects of increasing dietary protein levels on growth, feed utilization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-05

    Jan 5, 2012 ... The effect of different dietary protein levels on growth performance and on feed utilization of catfish. (Heterobranchus ... Key words: Dietary protein, growth, nutrient utilization, body composition, Heterobranchus longifilis, fingerlings. INTRODUCTION ... good quality feed for economic production adversely.

  9. The Effect of Zirconia in Hydroxyapatite on Staphylococcus epidermidis Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widowati Siswomihardjo

    2012-01-01

    . Conclusion. The addition of zirconia into hydroxyapatite affected the growth of S. epidermidis. Hydroxyapatite with 20% zirconia proved to be an effective concentration to inhibit the growth of S. epidermidis colony.

  10. Dexamethasone differentially inhibits thyroxine- or growth hormone-induced body and organ growth of Snell dwarf mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooman, RPA; Kuijpers, G; Gresnigt, R; Bloemen, R; Koster, JG; van Buul-Offers, SC

    Supraphysiological doses of glucocorticoids cause growth retardation in both animals and humans. Many studies have addressed the interaction of glucocorticoids with the GH/IGF system, but little is known about the effect of glucocorticoids on T-4-stimulated growth. The Snell dwarf mouse is deficient

  11. A Comparison of the Effects of Interference and Distortion in Visual Information Processing by Normal and Retarded Children and by Adults. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Philip A.

    Reported were four experiments which investigated the developmental and mental retardation aspects of an initial stage of visual information processing termed iconic memory. The stage was explained to involve processing visual stimuli prior to sensation and through to recognition. In three of the four experiments, the paradigm of visual masking…

  12. The Effects of a Macromolecular Charring Agent with Gas Phase and Condense Phase Synergistic Flame Retardant Capability on the Properties of PP/IFR Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongda; Wang, Jihui; Ding, Anxin; Han, Xia; Sun, Ziheng

    2018-01-01

    In order to improve the efficiency of intumescent flame retardants (IFRs), a novel macromolecular charring agent named poly(ethanediamine-1,3,5-triazine-p-4-amino-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine) (PETAT) with gas phase and condense phase synergistic flame-retardant capability was synthesized and subsequently dispersed into polypropylene (PP) in combination with ammonium polyphosphate (APP) via a melt blending method. The chemical structure of PETAT was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Thermal properties of the PETAT and IFR systems were tested by thermogravimetric-derivative thermogravimetric analysis (TGA-DTG) and thermogravimetry–Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (TG-FTIR). The mechanical properties, thermal stability, flame-retardant properties, water resistance, and structures of char residue in flame-retardant composites were characterized using tensile and flexural strength property tests, TGA, limiting oxygen index (LOI) values before and after soaking, underwritten laboratory-94 (UL-94) vertical burning test, cone calorimetric test (CCT), scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDXS), and FTIR. The results indicated that PETAT was successfully synthesized, and when the ratio of APP to PETAT was 2:1 with 25 wt % loading, the novel IFR system could reduce the deterioration of tensile strength and enhance the flexural strength of composites. Meanwhile, the flame-retardant composite was able to pass the UL-94 V-0 rating with an LOI value of 30.3%, and the peak of heat release rate (PHRR), total heat release (THR), and material fire hazard values were considerably decreased compared with others. In addition, composites also exhibited excellent water resistance properties compared with traditional IFR composites. SEM-EDXS and FTIR analyses of the char residues, as well as TG-FTIR analyses of IFR were used to investigate the flame-retardant

  13. The Effects of a Macromolecular Charring Agent with Gas Phase and Condense Phase Synergistic Flame Retardant Capability on the Properties of PP/IFR Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongda; Wang, Jihui; Ni, Aiqing; Ding, Anxin; Han, Xia; Sun, Ziheng

    2018-01-11

    In order to improve the efficiency of intumescent flame retardants (IFRs), a novel macromolecular charring agent named poly(ethanediamine-1,3,5-triazine-p-4-amino-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine) (PETAT) with gas phase and condense phase synergistic flame-retardant capability was synthesized and subsequently dispersed into polypropylene (PP) in combination with ammonium polyphosphate (APP) via a melt blending method. The chemical structure of PETAT was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and ¹H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Thermal properties of the PETAT and IFR systems were tested by thermogravimetric-derivative thermogravimetric analysis (TGA-DTG) and thermogravimetry-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (TG-FTIR). The mechanical properties, thermal stability, flame-retardant properties, water resistance, and structures of char residue in flame-retardant composites were characterized using tensile and flexural strength property tests, TGA, limiting oxygen index (LOI) values before and after soaking, underwritten laboratory-94 (UL-94) vertical burning test, cone calorimetric test (CCT), scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDXS), and FTIR. The results indicated that PETAT was successfully synthesized, and when the ratio of APP to PETAT was 2:1 with 25 wt % loading, the novel IFR system could reduce the deterioration of tensile strength and enhance the flexural strength of composites. Meanwhile, the flame-retardant composite was able to pass the UL-94 V-0 rating with an LOI value of 30.3%, and the peak of heat release rate (PHRR), total heat release (THR), and material fire hazard values were considerably decreased compared with others. In addition, composites also exhibited excellent water resistance properties compared with traditional IFR composites. SEM-EDXS and FTIR analyses of the char residues, as well as TG-FTIR analyses of IFR were used to investigate the flame-retardant

  14. An assessment of sex chromosome copy number in a phenotypic female patient with hypergonadtropic hypogonadism, primary amenorrhea and growth retardation by GTG-banding and FISH in peripheral blood and skin tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, I.M.D.; DeMoranville, B.; Grollino, M.G. [Brown Univ. School of Medicine, Providence, RI (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    The present report describes studies performed on an 18-year-old phenotypic female referred because of primary amenorrhea, hypergonadotropic hypoganadism and growth retardation. The clinical features raised the possibility of a gonadal dysgenesis. The ovaries were not identified on either side. Her testosterone was significantly elevated, with serum level at 48 ng/dl, and her free testosterone at 7 pg/ml. A GTG-banding analysis of 33 peripheral blood leukocytes revealed the modal number of chromosomes to be 46 per cell with a male sex constitution and normal appearing banding patterns (46,XY). In view of the clinical findings, additional cells were scored to rule out low percentage mosaicism. Out of 35 additional GTG-banded cells scored for the sex chromosomes, 4 cells (11.5%) were found to contain only one copy of the X chromosome. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) using dual color biotinylated X and Y probes (Imagenetics) was subsequently performed. Out of approximately 500 cells scored, 87% were found to be XY and 9% were found to be positive for the X signal only, versus 7% and 3% X signal only for 2 XY controls, aged 61 and 46, respectively. As loss of the Y chromosome has been reported in elderly males as well as certain males with leukemia, the age of the controls was important to note. To unequivocally establish the presence of mosaicism, a skin biopsy was obtained for fibroblast culture. Out of 388 total cells scored, 286 (74%) were found to be XY and 46 (12%) were found to be X, versus 99% XY and <1% X in controls. GTG-banding analysis of the same fibroblast culture is currently in progress. Preliminary data on this specimen thus far corroborate results of the FISH study. The presence of XY cells, along with an increased testosterone level, raises the distinct possibility of a gonadoblastoma. In view of this increased risk, arrangements are being made for the patient to have a laparoscopy and surgical removal of her presumptive streak gonads.

  15. [The laboratory evaluation of pathogenic factors under retarded consolidation of fractures of bones of lower extremities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stogov, V M; Kireeva, E A; Karasev, A G

    2014-12-01

    The study was carried out to comparatively analyze metabolic profile and content of growth factors in blood serum of patients with retarded consolidation of fractures of bones of lower extremities. The evaluation was applied to concentration of metabolites, growth factors and enzyme activity of blood serum in 13 patients with retarded consolidation of fractures of thigh and shank bones (main group). The comparative group included 14 patients with solid fractures of thigh and shank bones. The analysis established that as compared to patients with solid fractures of bones, in patients with retarded consolidation of fractures blood serum contained reliably higher concentration of triglycerides, products of glycolysis, epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factors TGF-α and TGF-β2. The content of vitamin E and insullin-like growth factor (IGF-1) was decreased The given markers can be labeled as potential markers of diagnostic and prognosis of development of retarded consolidation of fractures.

  16. Dietary Chlorella supplementation effect on immune responses and growth performances of broiler chickens exposed to post hatch holding time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sugiharto, S; Lauridsen, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    of broilers was lowered (Phatch. In conclusion, post hatch holding time resulted in lower final BW of broilers. Although feeding 1% Chlorella could not alleviate the retarded growth rate in feed withheld-birds, the treatment may be useful......The study was carried out to investigate the effect of dietary Chlorella sp. supplementation on immune response and growth performance of broiler chickens exposed to post hatch holding time. Allotted in 36 pens, a total of 180 newly hatched chicks were assigned in a 3 × 2 factorial design......, with dietary Chlorella administration (0, 5 and 10 g kg-1) and feeding time post hatch (hour 0 and 48) as the factors. The Chlorella supplemented diets were provided to chicks either immediately (early) or after 48 hours (late) post hatch until day 35. Irrespective of the post hatch feeding times, Chlorella...

  17. Effect of Nano-ZnO Particle Suspension on Growth of Mung (Vigna radiata and Gram (Cicer arietinum Seedlings Using Plant Agar Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramod Mahajan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study demonstrates an effect of nano-ZnO particles on the growth of plant seedlings of mung (Vigna radiate and gram (Cicer arietinum. The study was carried out in plant agar media to prevent precipitation of water-insoluble nanoparticles in the test units. Various concentrations of nano-ZnO particles in suspension form were introduced to the agar media, and their effect on the root and shoot growth of the seedlings was examined. The main experimental approach, using correlative light and scanning electron microscopy provided evidence of adsorption of nanoparticles on the root surface. Absorption of nanoparticles by seedlings root was also detected by inductive coupled plasma/atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES. It was found that at certain optimum concentration, the seedlings displayed good growth over control, and beyond that, retardation in growth was observed.

  18. Effects of Credit on Economic Growth, Unemployment and Poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangasa Augustinus Sipahutar

    2016-06-01

                  Effect of credit on economic growth, unemployment and poverty provides evidence from Indonesia on the role of banks credit for promoting economic growth and reducing both unemployment and poverty.  To document the link between banks credit and economic growth, we estimate a VAR model and variance decompositions of annual GDP per capita growth rates to examine what proxy measures of banks credit are most important in accounting for economic growth over time and how much they contribute to explaining economic growth.  We also estimate an ECM to document the relationship between banks credit to both unemployment and poverty.  This paper revealed bi-direction causality between banks credit and economic growth.  Banks credit promotes economic growth and economic growth affects credit depth and financial development.  Furthermore, banks credit is a growth accelerating factor on Indonesian economic growth.  Banks credit is an endogenous growth and a good predictor on Indonesian economy. Our estimation model explained that credit allocated by banks increases business escalation to the real sectors then promotes economic growth, decreases unemployment rate through increasing in labor demanded, increases income and then decrease poverty.  This overall transmission mechanism just occurred through presence of banks credit by increasing money supply to the real sectors, promotes growth and social welfare.   Keywords :  banks credit, economic growth, growth accelerating factor, poverty, unemployment   JEL Classification : E51, E52, E58

  19. Effect of Placenta Previa on Fetal Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    HARPER, Lorie M.; ODIBO, Anthony O.; MACONES, George A.; CRANE, James P.; CAHILL, Alison G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To estimate the association between placenta previa and abnormal fetal growth. Study Design Retrospective cohort study of consecutive women undergoing ultrasound between 15–22 weeks. Groups were defined by the presence or absence of complete or partial placenta previa. The primary outcome was intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), defined as a birth weight placenta previa on fetal growth restriction. Results Of 59,149 women, 724 (1.2%) were diagnosed with a complete or partial previa. After adjusting for significant confounding factors (black race, gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, and single umbilical artery,), the risk of IUGR remained similar (adjusted odds ratio 1.1, 95% CI 0.9–1.5). The presence of bleeding did not impact the risk of growth restriction. Conclusion Placenta previa is not associated with fetal growth restriction. Serial growth ultrasounds are not indicated in patients with placenta previa. PMID:20599185

  20. Growth effects of EU and EZ memberships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, Johannes Kabderian; Schmid, Peter A.

    2017-01-01

    One of the major economic reasons for the creation of the European Union (EU) and of the Euro-zone (EZ) was an expected bonus of economic growth for member countries. Whilst several studies exist on the growth bonus of EU membership, there are none for the EZ, the latest and deepest step of econo......One of the major economic reasons for the creation of the European Union (EU) and of the Euro-zone (EZ) was an expected bonus of economic growth for member countries. Whilst several studies exist on the growth bonus of EU membership, there are none for the EZ, the latest and deepest step...

  1. Studies on the effects on growth and antioxidant responses of two marine microalgal species to uniconazole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Xueqiao; Zheng, Kang; Wang, Lingdong; Li, Yantuan

    2014-10-01

    Uniconazole, as a plant growth retardant, can enhance stress tolerance in plants, possibly because of improved antioxidation defense mechanisms with higher activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) enzymes that retard lipid peroxidation and membrane deterioration. These years much attention has been focused on the responses of antioxidant system in plants to uniconazole stress, but such studies on aquatic organism are very few. Moreover, no information is available on growth and antioxidant response in marine microalgae to uniconazole. In this paper, the growth and antioxidant responses of two marine microalgal species, Platymonas helgolandica and Pavlova viridis, at six uniconazole concentrations (0-15 mg L-1) were investigated. The results demonstrated that 3 mg L-1 uniconazole could increase significantly chlorophyll a and carbohydrate contents of P. helgolandica ( P catalase (CAT) were enhanced remarkably at low concentrations of uniconazole. However, significant reduction of SOD and CAT activities was observed at higher concentrations of uniconazole.

  2. Effects of acivicin on growth, mycotoxin production and virulence of phytopathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, K; Nakajima, Y; Motoyama, T; Kitou, Y; Kosaki, T; Saito, T; Nishiuchi, T; Kanamaru, K; Osada, H; Kobayashi, T; Kimura, M

    2014-10-01

    Acivicin is an inhibitor of γ-glutamyl transpeptidase and glutamine amidotransferase. When grown on a synthetic minimal agar medium, acivicin strongly inhibited the growth of Magnaporthe oryzae and Alternaria brassicicola, and to a lesser extent, Botrytis cinerea. However, only partial or marginal growth inhibition was observed with regard to Fusarium sporotrichioides and Fusarium graminearum. The growth retardation caused by acivicin was significantly alleviated by cultivating the fungus on a nutrient-rich medium. The inhibition of M. oryzae growth caused by 1 μmol l(-1) of acivicin on minimal agar medium was subdued by the addition of specific single amino acids, including His, a branched-chain amino acid (Leu, Ile or Val), an aromatic amino acid (Trp, Tyr or Phe), Met or Gln, at a concentration of 0·4 mmol l(-1). Trichothecene production by F. graminearum in trichothecene-inducing liquid medium was reduced significantly in the presence of acivicin despite its inability to inhibit growth in the trichothecene-inducing liquid medium. Foliar application of conidia in the presence of acivicin reduced the severity of rice blast disease caused by M. oryzae. These results suggest the usefulness of this modified amino acid natural product to mitigate agricultural problems caused by some phytopathogenic fungi. Significance and impact of the study: Fusarium head blight or scab disease and rice blast, caused by Fusarium graminearum and Magnaporthe oryzae, respectively, are major diseases of cereal crops that cause a significant loss of yield and deterioration in the quality of the grain. The present study investigated the effects of acivicin, a glutamine amino acid analog, on the physiology of various phytopathogenic fungi. Application of acivicin to a fungal culture and conidial suspension reduced mycotoxin production by the wheat scab fungus and the severity of rice blast, respectively. These results suggest the possibility that acivicin may serve as a lead compound to

  3. Education of Mentally Retarded Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Jelenc

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Adult education of people with severe, modest and profound mental retardation got only recently an important place in the special education theory and practice. It could be established that in this area both in the intentional as well as in the contentual field the meaningfull shift has been achieved. Today we are talking about authonomy and rights of these people to taking part in a decission-making about the way of their living, but on the other  side the fast development and changes in society are again and again compelling this people to the decisions which they are not able to put into effect and which are burdening them and making them dependent of others. This could partly be prevented by continuing education as it is also true for them that in the stage of initial education they cannot subdue everything what they would need later in their life. Next to the findings of the foreign experts this has been confirmed as well in the first our investigations in this area. Some of the findings will be presented in our paper.

  4. Development programme motor function of children with mental retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zh.L. Kozina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to study the rehabilitation program recovery of motor function of children with mental retardation. Material-methods: the study involved 19 students from primary diagnosis - mental retardation. Age of children was 8 - 9 years and 9 - 10 years. Motor speed detection reaction carried out using a falling line setting (in cm. Determination of speed integral motor actions performed with running 30 meters to go. From cross-country test also used the shuttle run 4x9 meters. Results : a program of exercise for children with mental retardation. Exercises aimed at correcting the basic movements, flexibility correction, correction and development of coordination abilities, adjustment and development of physical fitness, correction and prevention of secondary fractures. Conclusions : it was found that the rehabilitation program for development and correction of motor function of children with mental retardation is an effective and affordable to adjust coordination abilities and flexibility.

  5. Aryl Polyphosphonates: Useful Halogen-Free Flame Retardants for Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Aryl polyphosphonates (ArPPN have been demonstrated to function in wide applications as flame retardants for different polymer materials, including thermosets, polycarbonate, polyesters and polyamides, particularly due to their satisfactory thermal stability compared to aliphatic flame retardants, and to their desirable flow behavior observed during the processing of polymeric materials. This paper provides a brief overview of the main developments in ArPPN and their derivatives for flame-retarding polymeric materials, primarily based on the authors’ research work and the literature published over the last two decades. The synthetic chemistry of these compounds is discussed along with their thermal stabilities and flame-retardant properties. The possible mechanisms of ArPPN and their derivatives containing hetero elements, which exhibit a synergistic effect with phosphorus, are also discussed.

  6. Sterilization of mentally retarded persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Merwe, J V; Roux, J P

    1987-08-01

    South Africa's Abortion and Sterilization Act No 2 (1975) authorizes sterilization for severely retarded women provided the procedure is performed in a state hospital, certified by 2 medical practitioners (1 a psychiatrist), and the parent or guardian gives informed consent. Since 1975, 152 sterilizations (140 female, 12 male) have been performed under the provisions of this Act at Pretoria's H F Verwoerd Hospital. 92% of the patients were under 20 years of age. The majority were classified as profoundly or severely retarded (74) or moderately severely retarded (68). There were 20 patients with Down's syndrome and 22 with cerebral palsy. Hysterectomy was the method of choice in the 109 women in whom menstrual hygiene was a pertinent factor; the remaining 31 women were sterilized by tubal ligation. 98% of the parents or guardians of hysterectomy acceptors surveyed were satisfied with their decision and its outcome. Several indicated their daughter was more calm, cooperative, productive, and less irritable once relieved of her menstrual periods. A multidisciplinary team approach to the decision making process and the individualization of each case are essential to protect the rights of the mentally retarded. Factors such as the psychological trauma likely to result from pregnancy and childbirth, an inability to use contraception, and unsuitability to rear a child must be demonstrated. To ensure that legislation pertaining to the sterilization of the mentally retarded does not lead to abuse, inputs from the mental health professions are required.

  7. Growth and nutrition effects on gilt development

    Science.gov (United States)

    The growth and development of gilts are a component of their lifetime potential for productivity. Growth and development affects not only their ability to reach puberty, they also likely affect their reproductive performance through later parities and their physical soundness as they age. Because of...

  8. Including load sequence effects in the fatigue damage estimation of an offshore wind turbine substructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dragt, R.C.; Maljaars, J.; Tuitman, J.T.; Salman, Y.; Otheguy, M.E.

    2016-01-01

    Retardation is a load sequence effect, which causes a reduced fatigue crack growth rate after an overload is encountered. Retardation can be cancelled when the overload is followed by an underload. The net effect is beneficial to the fatigue lifetime of Offshore Wind Turbines (OWTs). To be able to

  9. Effect of solids retention time on Microthrix parvicella growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of solids retention time (SRT) on M. parvicella growth and to calculate growth kinetic parameters of this filamentous species. Bench-scale continuous-flow experiments showed that M. parvicella growth can be significantly suppressed at an SRT of lower than 5.7 d for ...

  10. Effects of Dietary Nucleotides on Growth Rate and Disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of dietary nucleotides on growth and disease resistance of crustaceans were evaluated using axenic Artemia culture tests. Higher Artemia growth in xenic culture (15.6 ± 2.9 mm) than in axenic culture (9.2 ± 1.9 mm) reaffirmed the need to eliminate microbial populations known to influence growth and disease ...

  11. Effects of growth-promoting factors on proliferation of mouse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SSCs) in vitro are critical to our understanding of male infertility, genetic resources and endangered species conservation. To investigate the effects of growth-promoting factors, epidermal growth factor (EGF), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and ...

  12. effects of dietary chromium tripicolinate and lysine on growth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AISA

    These results show that CrPic has minimal effects on growth efficiency, while lysine affects significantly growth performance, carcass characteristics and most of plasma metabolites in growing-finishing pigs. Key-words : Pig, chromium, lysine, growth, metabolites, USA. RESUME. EFFETS DU TRIPICOLINATE DE CHROME ...

  13. Modeling of Organic Effects on Aerosols Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caboussat, A.; Amundson, N. R.; He, J.; Seinfeld, J. H.

    2006-05-01

    Over the last two decades, a series of modules has been developed in the atmospheric modeling community to predict the phase transition, multistage growth phenomena, crystallization and evaporation of inorganic aerosols. In the same time, the water interactions of particles containing organic constituents have been recognized as an important factor for aerosol activation and cloud formation. However, the research on hygroscopicity of organic-containing aerosols, motivated by the organic effect on aerosol growth and activation, has gathered much less attention. We present here a new model (UHAERO), that is both efficient and rigorously computes phase separation and liquid-liquid equilibrium for organic particles, as well as the dynamics partitioning between gas and particulate phases, with emphasis on the role of water vapor in the gas-liquid partitioning. The model does not rely on any a priori specification of the phases present in certain atmospheric conditions. The determination of the thermodynamic equilibrium is based on the minimization of the Gibbs free energy. The mass transfer between the particle and the bulk gas phase is dynamically driven by the difference between bulk gas pressure and the gas pressure at the surface of a particle. The multicomponent phase equilibrium for a closed organic aerosol system at constant temperature and pressure and for specified feeds is the solution to the liquid-liquid equilibrium problem arising from the constrained minimization of the Gibbs free energy. A geometrical concept of phase simplex (phase separation) is introduced to characterize the thermodynamic equilibrium. The computation of the mass fluxes is achieved by coupling the thermodynamics of the organic aerosol particle and the determination of the mass fluxes. Numerical results show the efficiency of the model, which make it suitable for insertion in global three- dimensional air quality models. The Gibbs free energy is modeled by the UNIFAC model to illustrate

  14. Effect of Maternal Obesity on Fetal Growth and Expression of Placental Fatty Acid Transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Kui; Li, Li; Zhang, Dan; Li, Yi; Wang, Hai Qing; Lai, Han Lin; Hu, Chuan Lai

    2017-12-15

    To explore the effects of maternal high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity on fetal growth and the expression of placental nutrient transporters. Maternal obesity was established in rats by 8 weeks of pre-pregnancy fed HF diet, while rats in the control group were fed normal (CON) diet. Diet-induced obesity (DIO) rats and diet-induced obesity-resistant (DIR) rats were selected according to body weight gain over this period. After copulation, the CON rats were divided into two groups: switched to HF diet (CON-HF group) or maintained on the CON diet (CON-CON group). The DIO rats and DIR rats were maintained on the HF diet throughout pregnancy. Pregnant rats were euthanized at day 21 gestation, fetal and placental weights were recorded, and placental tissue was collected. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to determine mRNA expression of placental nutrient transporters. Protein expression was determined by Western blot. Average fetal weight of DIO dams was reduced by 6.9%, and the placentas of CON-HF and DIO dams were significantly heavier than the placentas of CON-CON and DIR dams at day 21 of gestation (pobesity induced by a HF diet led to intrauterine growth retardation and down-regulated the expression of placental fatty acid transporters.

  15. The effects of gestational age and growth restriction on compensatory kidney growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drougia, Aikaterini; Giapros, Vasileios; Hotoura, Efthalia; Papadopoulou, Frederica; Argyropoulou, Maria; Andronikou, Styliani

    2009-01-01

    Low birth weight is associated with altered renal development, adult onset hypertension and renal disease. The aim of this prospective longitudinal study was to estimate the renal growth during the first 2 years of life in small-for-gestational age (SGA) infants of varied gestational age (GA) and with differing degrees of growth retardation (GR) at birth. Material and methods. The study included 466 children: SGA, n = 243, and appropriate-for-gestational age (AGA), n = 223, classified according to GA into three groups (28-34, 34-36 and >36 weeks, respectively). The SGA children were also classified according to the degree of GR: birth weight kidney length (KL) measurement was performed at the ages of 36 and 40 weeks corrected age and 3, 6, 12 and 24 months of chronological age. The ratios of KL(3) to crown to heel length (CHL), body weight (BW) and body surface area (BSA) were used as estimators of relative kidney length (RKL). A total of 1898 measurements were performed. In the full-term and near-term SGA infants (GA >36 weeks), RKL was similar to or even higher than that in AGA controls (P < 0.05 at 12 and 24 months). In two groups of preterm infants (GA 34-36, 28-34 weeks), RKL was lower than in AGA controls either after the first 6 months (GA 34-36 group, P < 0.05) or throughout the study period (GA 28-34 group, P < 0.05). The absolute KL was more severely affected in the preterm babies (GA <36 weeks) with BW <3rd percentile than in those of GA 3rd-10th percentile. While in full-term and near-term SGA infants RKL is similar to or even higher than that of AGA infants, in smaller preterm babies (<36 weeks of GA) the RKL is impaired up to the second year of life.

  16. The effect of Bovine Growth Hormone on Growth, Carcass Composition and Meat Quality of Dairy Heifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Mogens; Sejrsen, Kristen; Foldager, John

    1993-01-01

    Our objective was to examine the effects of bovine growth hormone (bGH) on growth, carcass composition and meat quality of dairy heifers. Nine monozygotic twin pairs of Friesian or Red Danish cattle were used, and pair-fed diet consisting of grass silage, barley and soybean meal. Within each pair...... fat by 13% (P dairy heifers around puberty stimulated growth and reduced carcass fattening...

  17. Halogenated flame retardants in the Great Lakes environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venier, Marta; Salamova, Amina; Hites, Ronald A

    2015-07-21

    Flame retardants are widely used industrial chemicals that are added to polymers, such as polyurethane foam, to prevent them from rapidly burning if exposed to a small flame or a smoldering cigarette. Flame retardants, especially brominated flame retardants, are added to many polymeric products at percent levels and are present in most upholstered furniture and mattresses. Most of these chemicals are so-called "additive" flame retardants and are not chemically bound to the polymer; thus, they migrate from the polymeric materials into the environment and into people. As a result, some of these chemicals have become widespread pollutants, which is a concern given their possible adverse health effects. Perhaps because of their environmental ubiquity, the most heavily used group of brominated flame retardants, the polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), was withdrawn from production and use during the 2004-2013 period. This led to an increasing demand for other flame retardants, including other brominated aromatics and organophosphate esters. Although little is known about the use or production volumes of these newer flame retardants, it is evident that some of these chemicals are also becoming pervasive in the environment and in humans. In this Account, we describe our research on the occurrence of halogenated and organophosphate flame retardants in the environment, with a specific focus on the Great Lakes region. This Account starts with a short introduction to the first generation of brominated flame retardants, the polybrominated biphenyls, and then presents our measurements of their replacement, the PBDEs. We summarize our data on PBDE levels in babies, bald eagles, and in air. Once these compounds came off the market, we began to measure several of the newer flame retardants in air collected on the shores of the Great Lakes once every 12 days. These new measurements focus on a tetrabrominated benzoate, a tetrabrominated phthalate, a hexabrominated diphenoxyethane

  18. Separating plasticity-induced closure and residual stress contributions to fatigue crack retardation following an overload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvati, Enrico; Zhang, Hongjia; Fong, Kai Soon; Song, Xu; Korsunsky, Alexander M.

    2017-01-01

    The introduction of an overload or underload within a constant amplitude loading fatigue test leads to a retardation or acceleration of the Fatigue Crack Growth Rate (FCGR). The understanding of the causes of these effects is essential in the context of variable amplitude fatigue loading, since in principle any loading history can be represented as a sequence of overloads and underloads. In the case of overload, along with some other minor causes, the residual stress changes at the crack tip and crack closure behind the tip can be thought of as the main factors that affect the fatigue crack growth rate. Whilst this has been recognised and accepted for many decades, controversy persists regarding the relative significance and presence of these two effects, and consensus is yet to emerge. The effect of crack closure, when the baseline loading ratio is high enough, can be inhibited so that the main cause of retardation becomes doubtless the residual stress present ahead the crack tip. In the present paper we report our attempt to deconvolve the contributions of crack closure and residual stress on crack retardation following an overload. To accomplish this task we analyse the results of fatigue tests run at two baseline load ratios, namely R=0.1 and R=0.7. At the load ratio of R=0.7 the crack closure effect is not operative, as confirmed by Digital Image Correlation analysis of the crack flanks close to the tip, and post mortem fractographic analysis of crack surfaces. Therefore, for R=0.7 the compressive residual stress region created by the overload ahead of the crack tip is the sole mechanism causing crack retardation. Therefore, for R=0.7 the focus must be placed entirely on the strain field around the crack tip. To this end, line profiles along the crack bisector of elastic strain in the crack opening direction were collected at several stages of crack propagation past the overload using in situ Synchrotron X-ray Powder Diffraction (SXRPD) technique. By

  19. Effect of Temperature and Relative Humidity on the Growth of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of temperature and relative humidity on the growth of Helminthosporium fulvum were investigated. Various temperature regimes of 10oC, 15oC, 20oC, 25oC, 30oC, 35oC and 40¢ªC were used to determine the temperature effect on the growth of H. fulvum. Maximum growth of H. fulvum was obtained at 25¢ªC ...

  20. Effect of Temperature and Relative Humidity on the Growth of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT: The effects of temperature and relative humidity on the growth of Helminthosporium fulvum were investigated. Various temperature regimes of 10oC, 15oC, 20oC, 25oC, 30oC, 35oC and 40˚C were used to determine the temperature effect on the growth of H. fulvum. Maximum growth of H. fulvum was obtained ...

  1. Effect of growth regulators on growth, flowering and rhizome yield of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field experiments were conducted in 2001 and 2002, to study the effect of foliar application of growth regulators on growth; flowering and rhizome yield of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.). Treatments consisted of gibberellic acid (GA3) at 0,150 and 300 ppm; ethrel at 0,100 and 200 ppm and cycocel (CCC) at 0,250 ppm ...

  2. COLOUR LEARNING IN RETARDED CHILDREN*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tt has been observed' that mentally retarded children have. :olour preferences, preferring, for example, to pick red and yellow sweets from a multicoloured supply. Among normal nursery-school children the same 2 colours feature in tests for preference, and it has been suggested' that it might be useful to utilize these ...

  3. Genetic Counseling in Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Peter

    The task of the genetic counselor who identifies genetic causes of mental retardation and assists families to understand risk of recurrence is described. Considered are chromosomal genetic disorders such as Down's syndrome, inherited disorders such as Tay-Sachs disease, identification by testing the amniotic fluid cells (amniocentresis) in time…

  4. Effects of Credit on Economic Growth, Unemployment and Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Sipahutar, Mangasa Augustinus

    2016-01-01

    Abstract               Effect of credit on economic growth, unemployment and poverty provides evidence from Indonesia on the role of banks credit for promoting economic growth and reducing both unemployment and poverty.  To document the link between banks credit and economic growth, we estimate a VAR model and variance decompositions of annual GDP per capita growth rates to examine what proxy measures of banks credit are most important in accounting for economic growth over time and ho...

  5. Flame Retardants Used in Flexible Polyurethane Foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    The partnership project on flame retardants in furniture seeks to update the health and environmental profiles of flame-retardant chemicals that meet fire safety standards for upholstered consumer products with polyurethane foam

  6. Mental Retardation and Parenting Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Siamaga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Backround: The presence, upbringing and looking after of a mentally retarded child in the family, can become a threat to the mental health of its parents and is the main predisposing factor of stress for the parents.Aim: The purpose of this systematic review is (a to document the contemporary research bibliography related to the stress of parents with mentally retarded children, (b to aggregate the factors and secondary parameters based on the contemporary research related to the influence of the (child’s mental retardation on the parents and (c to show an intercultural aspect regarding the presence of stress to parents with mentally retarded children.Methods: Systematic review of research articles published in scientific journals included in the international academic databases HEAL-LING, SAGE, ELSEVIER, WILSON, SCIENCEDIRECT, MEDLINE, PUBMED, PsycINFO, Cochrane, EMBASE, SCIRUS and CINAHL having as search criteria and key words the terms («parental stress and mental retardation» [MeSH], «parenting stress and persons with special needs» [MeSH], «mental retardation and family problems» [MeSH], «stress and parents» [MeSH], «parenting and stress» [MeSH], «mental delay and parents» [MeSH], «developmental disabilities and family stress» [MeSH], «intellectual handicap and parenting» [MeSH], «maternal stress and child with disabilities» [MeSH].Discussion: The review has proven that all forms of mental retardation have an important -from a statistic point of viewimpacton the parents’ mental health. Anxiety, stress and depression are common symptoms mentioned by the parents.Additionally, there are individual variables such as the husband-wife relationship, the parents’ approach to their child’s disability, the parental strategies used in order to cope with the daily life of the child’s disability and the behavioural problems of their child, all of which contribute to the increase of the level of parental stress

  7. Growth Effects of International Economic Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Hino, Tomoko

    2011-01-01

    This paper quantitatively evaluates the influence of international risk sharing on econom-ic growth by extending the analysis in Obstfeld (1994). However, whereas Obstfeld employs only data on the growth rate of consumption to calculate the returns on risky and risk-free assets, we include additional data on the total rates of return for risky assets and the deposit rates for risk-free assets. We also assume more realistic values for the degree of relative risk aversion and the elasticity of...

  8. Direct and Maternal Additive Effects on Rabbit Growth and Linear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth and linear body measurements of rabbits which consisted of 17 ew Zealand White (ZW), 19 Chinchilla (CH), 29 ZW x CH and 33 CH x ZW kittens were compared. The aim of the experiment was to evaluate the crossbreeding effects (i.e direct and maternal additive effect) for growth (individual body weight, IBW) and ...

  9. Effect of crowding stress on growth performance and carcass quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The evaluation of the effect of crowding stress on growth performance of juvenile Clarias gariepinus fed varying crude protein levels might be useful in determining the optimal stocking density in relation to optimal dietary crude protein level and consequently better growth performance. The effect of crowding stress on ...

  10. Recombinant human growth hormone treatment, using two dose regimens in children with chronic renal failure--a report on linear growth and adverse effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Niels Thomas; Holmberg, Christer; Rönnholm, Kai A R

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to study the efficiency and the adverse effects of 2 or 4 IU/m2/day of growth hormone (GH) in the first year and 4 IU/m2/day in the second. Of 29 growth-retarded children with chronic renal failure (CRF) (aged 3.4-15.1 years), 23 completed the first year of therapy, and 16...... the first year (p bone age did not advance inappropriately. The integrated insulin levels (AUC) increased significantly after 1 year of therapy in both groups. HbA1c, levels did not change. The number of adverse events was highest in the low-dose group, in which one patient developed...... overt insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. In conclusion, glucose metabolism should be monitored in children with CRF during rhGH-treatment. GH therapy in our patients resulted in a significant increase in height velocity with no inappropriate bone age progression and few serious adverse effects, all...

  11. Potential effects of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Damping off caused by Sclerotium rolfsii on cowpea results in yield losses with serious socioeconomic implication. Induction of defense responses by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) is largely associated with the production of defense enzyme phenyl ammonia lyase (PAL) and oxidative enzymes like ...

  12. The effects of urban growth on dengue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio Pereira Horta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the spatial and temporal dynamics of dengue in Coronel Fabriciano, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, and to associate cases to the growth of urban areas and loss of natural areas in recent years. Methods: This is a descriptive, exploratory study, with a quantitative approach. Dengue cases of 2009 were obtained from the Health Municipal Secretariat, including the suspected and confirmed cases. Shape files were obtained, containing information about the municipal boundary, boundary of the urban area, census tracts, areas with buildings and natural areas. Based on the distribution of dengue cases, the Kernel estimator was used to measure data dispersion. Results: Dengue cases reported were georeferenced in GIS (Geographic Information System environment. The landscape showed changes in the units of urban area and pasture, as an urban growth over the pasture matrix. No changes were observed in the areas of remaining forest and eucalyptus. There are cases spatially spread with a tendency to form clusters. Conclusion: Cases of dengue were observed spatially clustered in the northern region of the city, where new neighborhoods have emerged in recent years, following the population growth without proper structure of urbanization and urban planning. In addition, urban growth have reduced the margin of watercourses providing a bare soil, suitable for accumulation of trash and formation of breeding sites for mosquitoes. Efficient public policies and appropriate urban planning might reduce the impact of dengue in endemic regions. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.5020/18061230.2013.p539

  13. People with Mental Retardation Are Dying, Legally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Denis; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Criticizes the institution of the death penalty for convicted criminals with mental retardation. Examples are given of cases in which juries were not told of the defendant's mental retardation before sentencing, and a list of defendants with mental retardation that have been executed since 1976 is provided. (CR)

  14. The Dynamic Effects of Entrepreneurship on Regional Economic Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matejovsky, Lukas; Mohapatra, Sandeep; Steiner, Bodo

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the temporal pattern of income disparity for Canadian provinces in two estimation steps. First, an econometric growth regression model is applied to identify the impact of entrepreneurship on regional economic growth. The estimation results suggest that entrepreneurship......, measured in terms of the selfemployment rate, plays a pivotal role in determining regional development in Canada. Second, a dynamic vector autoregression (VAR) model is employed to predict the long-run regional growth effects that result from policy shocks affecting entrepreneurship. Compared to other...... growth drivers, entrepreneurship is found to have more pronounced and long-term stimulative effects on regional development for the period of 1987 to 2007...

  15. Effect of Nitrogen Nutritional Stress on Some Growth Parameters of Zea mays L. and Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinbode Foluso OLOGUNDUDU

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the responses of maize (Zea mays L. and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. seedlings growth parameters to nitrogen nutritional stress. This was with a view to determining whether nitrogen nutritional stress would retard or enhance maize and cowpea growth, partly, wholly or not at all through its effect on biomass accumulation and some morphological parameters. Germination of seeds was done using treated sand in sixty plastic pots. A group of the seedlings was nutrient stressed by administering 200 ml of complete nutrient solution minus nitrogen (-N while the other groups were fed with five times (X5N and ten times (X10N the optimal concentration of nitrogen and the last regime was fed with full nutrient solution (FN. The effects of optimal concentration and nitrogen stress on the growth rates (as measured by their fresh and dry weight were studied. The result of the growth analysis showed that there was increase in shoot height with supraoptimal concentrations of nitrogen treatments (X10N and X5N while there was a decrease in shoot height with minus nitrogen (-N regimes. The observed higher biomass (dry matter yield under the FN regimes in both Zea mays and Vigna unguiculata were attributed to optimal nutrient assimilation rate.

  16. Flame retardancy and ultraviolet resistance of silk fabric coated by graphene oxide

    OpenAIRE

    Ji Yi-Min; Cao Ying-Ying; Chen Guo-Qiang; Xing Tie-Ling

    2017-01-01

    Silk fabrics were coated by graphene oxide hydrosol in order to improve its flame retardancy and ultraviolet resistance. In addition, montmorillonoid was doped into the graphene oxide hydrosol to further improve the flame retardancy of silk fabrics. The flame retardancy and ultraviolet resistance were mainly characterized by limiting oxygen index, vertical flame test, smoke density test, and ultraviolet protection factor. The synergistic effect of graphene oxide and montmorillonoid on the the...

  17. Retardation-enhanced van der Waals force between thin metal films

    OpenAIRE

    Boström, Mathias; Sernelius, Bo

    2000-01-01

    We recently investigated the van der Waals force between thin metal films. Under certain conditions this force decrease with separation to a fractional power. In the present work we use optical data of metals and the zero-temperature Lifshitz formalism to demonstrate a retardation effect. The retarded attraction between thin metal films may be larger than the nonretarded attraction. This property is related to a comparatively weak retardation dependence of the energy that originates from the ...

  18. The effect of starvation on growth and plasma growth hormone concentrations of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    OpenAIRE

    Sumpter, J.P.; Le Bail, Pierre-Yves; Pickering, A.D.; Pottinger, T.G.; Carragher, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    Two experiments, one using 0 + the other 1 + rainbow trout, were conducted to investigate the effect of prolonged starvation on plasma growth hormone levels. The results from both experiments were essentially the same. As expected, starvation resulted in cessation of growth and in a lower coefficient of condition, whereas fed fish continued to grow and remained in good condition. Starvation had relatively little effect on the plasma cortisol level; in one experiment levels were elevated tempo...

  19. Mitotic effects of monochromatic ultraviolet radiation at 225, 265, and 280 nm on eleven stages of the cell cycle of the grasshopper neuroblast in culture. I. Overall retardation from the stage irradiated to nuclear membrane breakdown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, J.G.

    1976-10-01

    Neuroblasts of Chortophaga viridifasciata (DeGeer) in culture were exposed to different doses of 225, 265, or 280 nm ultraviolet radiations at 11 different stages and substages of the mitotic cycle and individually selected cells were timed to breakdown of the nuclear membrane. Comparisons of the effectiveness of different wavelengths on the different stages were based on the dose that reduced the cell progression rate to 67 percent of normal (D/sub 67/) and the slope of the regression line, i.e., the control to treated time (C/T) ratio change/erg/mm/sup 2/ at the D/sub 67/ level. Cells of the prereplication period (metaphase + anaphase + early telophase) and the S phase (middle and late telophase + interphase + very early prophase) are equally sensitive to uv and contrast sharply with the much lower sensitivity of those in the postreplication period (early and middle prophase). This can best be interpreted if chromosomal DNA is the chromophore for uv-induced mitotic retardation. Cells in the prereplication period at exposure show no wavelength effect. In the S phase all stages except middle telophase and all stages combined are significantly more sensitive to 265 and 280 nm than to 225 nm. Of the postreplication stages, early prophase is retarded significantly more by 280 than by 225 or 265 nm. The C/T ratio/erg/mm/sup 2/ is greater after exposure to 265 nm at all prereplication and replication stages, but exhibits no consistent wavelength pattern during the postreplication period. Evidence based on the orientation of the neuroblast with respect to the uv-source suggests that the chromophore for mitotic retardation does not reside within the centrosome and related structures, but may be present, at least partly, in the nucleolus.

  20. Mitotic effects of monochromatic ultraviolet radiation at 225, 265, and 280 nm on eleven stages of the cell cycle of the grasshopper neuroblast in culture. I. Overall retardation from the stage irradiated to nuclear membrane breakdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, J.G.

    1976-01-01

    Neuroblasts of Chortophaga viridifasciata (DeGeer) in culture were exposed to different doses of 225, 265, or 280 nm ultraviolet radiations at 11 different stages and substages of the mitotic cycle and individually selected cells were timed to breakdown of the nuclear membrane. Comparisons of the effectiveness of different wavelengths on the different stages were based on the dose that reduced the cell progression rate to 67 percent of normal (D 67 ) and the slope of the regression line, i.e., the control to treated time (C/T) ratio change/erg/mm 2 at the D 67 level. Cells of the prereplication period (metaphase + anaphase + early telophase) and the S phase (middle and late telophase + interphase + very early prophase) are equally sensitive to uv and contrast sharply with the much lower sensitivity of those in the postreplication period (early and middle prophase). This can best be interpreted if chromosomal DNA is the chromophore for uv-induced mitotic retardation. Cells in the prereplication period at exposure show no wavelength effect. In the S phase all stages except middle telophase and all stages combined are significantly more sensitive to 265 and 280 nm than to 225 nm. Of the postreplication stages, early prophase is retarded significantly more by 280 than by 225 or 265 nm. The C/T ratio/erg/mm 2 is greater after exposure to 265 nm at all prereplication and replication stages, but exhibits no consistent wavelength pattern during the postreplication period. Evidence based on the orientation of the neuroblast with respect to the uv-source suggests that the chromophore for mitotic retardation does not reside within the centrosome and related structures, but may be present, at least partly, in the nucleolus

  1. A study on radiation energy of Pyramidal shape 1- Effect of housing within a Pyramid model on cancer growth and some blood parameters of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Abiad, N.M.; Lotfi, S.A.; El Hadary, A.A.; Nagi, G.A.

    2010-01-01

    A study of solid tumor growth retardation by impaling the pyramid energy radiation in a pyramidal model shape was carried out. The great Pyramid of Egypt has evoked a keen interest since 1920, both for its architectural, marvel and mystical significance. Its strange thing (via shaping of razers, longer shelf life of vegetables, alerted states of consciousnesses, sleeping in hum and, wound healing). Power energy radiations are said to occur within a pyramid constructed in the exact geometric properties of Giza pyramid. The effect of housing in two different pyramidal shapes on cancer growth and some blood physiological indices in mice infected with cancer were observed. The results obtained that housing in pyramid shape cage significantly reduced the development of cancer, significant increase in liver enzymes activity and α feto proteins, however, no effect was observed in levels of thyroid hormones concentration when compared with their matched value in ordinary 2 inverted pyramid cages. It could be concluded that the radiation energy of pyramidal shapes might improve certain biochemical and physiological indices leading to tumor growth retardation

  2. Studying Crystal Growth With the Peltier Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, David J., Jr.; Dressler, B.; Silberstein, R. P.; Poit, W. J.

    1986-01-01

    Peltier interface demarcation (PID) shown useful as aid in studying heat and mass transfer during growth of crystals from molten material. In PID, two dissimilar "metals" solid and liquid phases of same material. Current pulse passed through unidirectionally solidifying sample to create rapid Peltier thermal disturbance at liquid/solid interface. Disturbance, measured by thermocouple stationed along path of solidification at or near interface, provides information about position and shape of interface.

  3. Effects of microgravity on osteoblast growth activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes-Fulford, M.; Lewis, M. L.

    1996-01-01

    Space flight is an environmental condition where astronauts can lose up to 19% of weight-bearing bone during long duration missions. We used the MC3T3-E1 osteoblast to investigate bone cell growth in microgravity (10(-6) to 10(-9)g). Osteoblasts were launched on the STS-56 shuttle flight in a quiescent state with 0.5% fetal calf serum (FCS) medium and growth activation was initiated by adding fresh medium with 10% FCS during microgravity exposure. Four days after serum activation, the cells were fixed before return to normal Earth gravity. Ground controls were treated in parallel with the flight samples in identical equipment. On landing, cell number, cell cytoskeleton, glucose utilization, and prostaglandin synthesis in flight (n = 4) and ground controls (n = 4) were examined. The flown osteoblasts grew slowly in microgravity with total cell number significantly reduced (55 +/- 6 vs 141 +/- 8 cells per microscopic field). The cytoskeleton of the flight osteoblasts had a reduced number of stress fibers and a unique abnormal morphology. Nuclei in the ground controls were large and round with punctate Hoechst staining of the DNA nucleosomes. The flight nuclei were 30% smaller than the controls (P prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis when compared to controls (57.3 +/- 17 vs 138.3 +/- 41 pmol/ml). Cell viability was normal since, on a per-cell basis, glucose use and prostaglandin synthesis were comparable for flight and ground samples. Taken together, these data suggest that growth activation in microgravity results in reduced growth, causing reduced glucose utilization and reduced prostaglandin synthesis, with significantly altered actin cytoskeleton in osteoblasts.

  4. Restraint of fatigue crack growth by wedge effects of fine particles

    CERN Document Server

    Takahashi, I; Kotani, N

    2000-01-01

    Presents some experimental results which demonstrate restraint of fatigue crack growth in an Al-Mg alloy by wedge effects of fine particles. Fatigue test specimens were machined from a JIS A5083P-O Al-Mg alloy plate of 5 mm thickness and an EDM starter notch was introduced to each specimen. Three kinds of fine particles were prepared as the materials to be wedged into the fatigue cracks, i.e. magnetic particles and two kinds of alumina particles having different mean particle sizes of 47.3 mu m and 15.2 mu m. Particles of each kind were suspended in an oil to form a paste, which was applied on the specimen surface covering the notch zone prior to the fatigue tests. In order to make some fracture mechanics approaches, in situ observations of fatigue cracks were performed for the two cases using a CCD microscope, with a magnification of *1000. The crack length and the crack opening displacement (COD) at the notch root, delta , were measured. The crack retardation effect continues almost through the entire lifet...

  5. The effect of UV irradiated vegetative and generative nuclei as well as cytoplasm on pollen tube growth of Pinus Silvestris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelles, L.; Seibold, H.W.; Ernst, D.E.W.; Technische Univ. Hannover

    1976-01-01

    Pollen grains of Pinus Silvestris were irradiated with UV-rays, and the stimulation, or restraint of gemination was studied. Gemination of the pollen was retarded by irradiation of the nucleus. This book place proportionally to the increasing doses: The conditions of irradiation and the effects of the stimulation and retardation are described in detail. Different dose rates with different effects on nucleus and cytoplasma are observed. (AJ) [de

  6. Fish energy budget under ocean warming and flame retardant exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anacleto, Patrícia; Figueiredo, Cátia; Baptista, Miguel; Maulvault, Ana Luísa; Camacho, Carolina; Pousão-Ferreira, Pedro; Valente, Luísa M P; Marques, António; Rosa, Rui

    2018-02-28

    Climate change and chemical contamination are global environmental threats of growing concern for the scientific community and regulatory authorities. Yet, the impacts and interactions of both stressors (particularly ocean warming and emerging chemical contaminants) on physiological responses of marine organisms remain unclear and still require further understanding. Within this context, the main goal of this study was to assess, for the first time, the effects of warming (+ 5 °C) and accumulation of a polybrominated diphenyl ether congener (BDE-209, brominated flame retardant) through dietary exposure on energy budget of the juvenile white seabream (Diplodus sargus). Specifically, growth (G), routine metabolism (R), excretion (faecal, F and nitrogenous losses, U) and food consumption (C) were calculated to obtain the energy budget. The results demonstrated that the energy proportion spent for G dominated the mode of the energy allocation of juvenile white seabream (56.0-67.8%), especially under the combined effect of warming plus BDE-209 exposure. Under all treatments, the energy channelled for R varied around 26% and a much smaller percentage was channelled for excretion (F: 4.3-16.0% and U: 2.3-3.3%). An opposite trend to G was observed to F, where the highest percentage (16.0 ± 0.9%) was found under control temperature and BDE-209 exposure via diet. In general, the parameters were significantly affected by increased temperature and flame retardant exposure, where higher levels occurred for: i) wet weight, relative growth rate, protein and ash contents under warming conditions, ii) only for O:N ratio under BDE-209 exposure via diet, and iii) for feed efficiency, ammonia excretion rate, routine metabolic rate and assimilation efficiency under the combination of both stressors. On the other hand, decreased viscerosomatic index was observed under warming and lower fat content was observed under the combined effect of both stressors. Overall, under future

  7. Nanotechnology finding its way into flame retardancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schartel, Bernhard, E-mail: bernhard.schartel@bam.de [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Unter den Eichen 87, 12205 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    Nanotechnology is one of the key technologies of the 21{sup st} century. The exploitation of 'new' effects that arise from materials structured on the nano-scale has also been proposed successfully for flame retardancy of polymers since the end of the 90s. Of all of the approaches these include, at this time the use of nanocomposites offers the best potential for industrial application, also some other ideas are sketched, such as using electrospun nanofibers mats or layer-by-layer deposits as protection coatings, as well as sub-micrometer multilayer coatings as effective IR-mirrors. The general phenomena, inducing a flow limit in the pyrolysing melt and changing the fire residue, are identified in nanocomposites. Key experiments are performed such as quasi online investigation of the protection layer formation to understand what is going on in detail. The flame retardancy mechanisms are discussed and their impact on fire behaviour quantified. With the latter, the presentation pushes forward the state of the art. For instance, the heat shielding is experimentally quantified for a layered silicate epoxy resin nanocomposite proving that it is the only import mechanism controlling the reduction in peak heat release rate in the investigated system for different irradiations. The flame retardancy performance is assessed comprehensively illuminating not only the strengths but also the weak points of the concepts. Guidelines for materials development are deduced and discussed. Apart from inorganic fillers (layered silicate, boehmite, etc.) not only carbon nanoobjects such as multiwall carbon nanotubes, multilayer graphene and graphene are investigated, but also nanoparticles that are more reactive and harbor the potential for more beneficial interactions with the polymer matrix.

  8. Effect of soil cadmium on growth, photosynthesis and quality of Raphanus sativus and Lactuca sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Navjyot; Jhanji, Shalini

    2016-09-01

    Cadmium (Cd) raises serious concerns as its accumulation in the plant not only affect the growth and quality of plant but also threaten the health of consumers. In this research, two vegetables, i.e., radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L), were planted in pots having soil treated with Cd as Cd (NO3)2 at different doses (25, 50, 100 and 200 mg Cd kg-1 soil ) to investigate the influence of cadmium on their growth, photosynthetic attributes and quality. Cadmium retarded plant growth as dry weight of radish roots decline by 87% and leaves by 83% following 200 mg Cd kg-1 soil application and the corresponding values for lettuce were 64 and 69% respectively. Significant reductions in various photosynthetic parameters viz., leaf area per plant, total chlorophyll, Chl a and Chl b content were also recorded with Cd applications. The Cd treatments resulted in loss of membrane integrity as revealed by significant increase in electrolyte leakage in leaves of both vegetables. There was significant increase in Cd accumulation in radish and lettuce with all applications but no visual symptoms of Cd toxicity were noticed with 25 and 50 mg Cd kg-1 soil application except for yield differences, illustrating that Cd accumulate in this crop without visual evidence of its presence. However, toxicity symptoms in the form of interveinal chlorosis of the leaf lamina, followed by necrosis and leaf rolling, were clearly evident with 100 and 200 mg Cd kg-1 soil application. Apparently, Cd causes harm due to its phytotoxic effects and high accumulation in edible parts of radish and lettuce without any visible symptoms that constitutes a substantial hazard to human health.

  9. Implicit Memory in Aging Adults with Mental Retardation with and without Down Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krinsky-McHale, Sharon J.; Devenny, Darlynne A.; Kittler, Phyllis; Silverman, Wayne

    2003-01-01

    This study examined effects of age and IQ on implicit memory in adults with mild or moderate mental retardation with (n=48) and without (n=46) Down syndrome. Although implicit memory showed an age-associated difference and IQ-associated variation in adults with mental retardation, these effects were relatively small, which supported theories…

  10. Flame retardancy and ultraviolet resistance of silk fabric coated by graphene oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Yi-Min

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Silk fabrics were coated by graphene oxide hydrosol in order to improve its flame retardancy and ultraviolet resistance. In addition, montmorillonoid was doped into the graphene oxide hydrosol to further improve the flame retardancy of silk fabrics. The flame retardancy and ultraviolet resistance were mainly characterized by limiting oxygen index, vertical flame test, smoke density test, and ultraviolet protection factor. The synergistic effect of graphene oxide and montmorillonoid on the thermal stabilization property of the treated silk fabrics was also investigated. The results show that the treated silk fabrics have excellent flame retardancy, thermal stability, smoke suppression, and ultraviolet resistance simultaneously.

  11. Effect of mercury on algal growth rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannan, P.J.; Patouillet, C.

    1972-01-01

    In experiments with one freshwater (Chlorella pyrenoidosa) and three marine organisms (Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Cyclotella nana, and Chaetoceras gavestonensis), mercury was more toxic than the other metals tested (silver, cadmium, lead, and copper); and its toxicity is comparatively irreversible. Growth was monitored by changes in fluorescence of the cultures over a 3-day test period. The toxicity of the mercury varied inversely with the concentrations of nutrients present. Preliminary experiments indicate that mercury in the form of mercuric chloride is more toxic than as dimethylmercury. 12 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  12. Effects of Mycorrhiza on the Growth and Productivity of Faidherbia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of mycorrhiza on growth and growth components of Faidherbia albida (Del.) A. Chev. was investigated in the semi arid environment of Sokoto State, Nigeria. A complete randomized block design with five replications and factorial combination of three watering regimes (daily for unstressed plant, twice weekly for ...

  13. Boron, zinc and microtone effects on growth, chlorophyll contents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The micronutrient required in minute quantity and their deficiency leads to diminished growth and yield of crops. The effect of soil application of Zinc (Zn), Boron (B) and Microtone (MT) on growth, chlorophyll contents, mineral profile and yield components were investigated in rice at Chakkanwali Reclamation Research ...

  14. Effects of increasing dietary protein levels on growth, feed utilization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of different dietary protein levels on growth performance and on feed utilization of catfish (Heterobranchus longifilis) fingerlings was carried out in aquaria. Five dietary protein levels 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45% were tried in triplicates. The result shows that 25% protein is too limited to ensure good growth and also the ...

  15. The effect of rhizobacterial inoculation on growth and nutrient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-02

    Nov 2, 2009 ... was conducted to observe the effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacterial inoculation on growth, nutrient uptake of bananas grown under hydroponics condition. The design of the experiment was randomized complete block with five replicates. The following six treatments were imposed: T1 (control;.

  16. Effects of chromium uptake on the growth characteristics of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There were positive correlations between the concentration of chromium in the culture media and the amounts of the metal accumulated in the tissues of E. crassipes at any ... Plant growth analysis techniques were applied to assess the effects of chromium on the growth characteristics of the treated E. crassipes plants.

  17. Effects of mixed substrates on growth and vitamin production by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of mixed carbon sources on growth and production of vitamins E and A by Euglena gracilis cells were investigated in batch culture. The cells were grown mixotrophically in glucose (G), ethanol (E) and a mixture of glucose and ethanol (EG). Cell growth was measured by counting the cell number with microscope, ...

  18. Growth of second rotation Pinus patula stands: effect of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although, within the time limits of the present study, the anticipated beneficial effects of the Leucaena legumes in promoting the growth of none leguminous plantation trees were not indicated in terms of cumulative growth, they were clearly manifested in the fourth year of annual increment trends. These results should ...

  19. Effects of oregano essential oil and attapulgite on growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two experiments were conducted to study the effects of a blend of oregano essential oil (OEO) (as a source of natural antibacterial growth-promoting substances) and attapulgite (as a source of toxin-binder and as an antidiarrhoeal agent) on growth performance, intestinal microbiota, and intestinal morphometry in broiler ...

  20. Effects of environmental factors on growth traits in Ghezel sheep ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was carried out to study the effects of environmental factors on growth traits in Ghezel sheep breed. Growth related data (birth weight, weaning weight, month 6 weight, average daily gain from birth to weaning and weaning to month 6) were collected from lambs that have been born during 1994 - 2006 at ...

  1. Effects of tourmaline on growth of three kinds of microorganisms

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    2012-05-22

    May 22, 2012 ... concentration of 160 g/L), while promoted eukaryotic cell (the growth rate constant of Candida albicans increased 40.73% at tourmaline concentration of 160 g/L). However, the low concentration tourmaline had complex effects on growth of the studied microorganisms. Key words: Microcalorimetric, water ...

  2. Simulated flooding and drought effects on germination, growth, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    induce flooding and drought effects on plants cultivated in pots in a green house. Both flooding and drought resulted in stunted growth, reduced dry matter, number of leaves per plant and seed yield per plant. Prolonged flooding reduced maturity time, and induced chlorosis and floral abortion. The growth and seed yield of ...

  3. [Effect of medicinal plant extracts on the growth of microorganisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baronets, N G; Adlova, G P; Mel'nikova, V A

    2001-01-01

    Extracts obtained from sweatweed and licorice roots, flax seeds, milfoil, bur-marigold, plantain, coltsfoot, nettle, Indian corn stigmas, laminaria produced a stimulating effect on the growth of Candida albicans test strain and Streptococcus pyogenes test strain Dick 1. Sweatweed, licorice, Aerva lanata and violet extracts influenced the growth of Corynebacterium xerosis 1911, while sweatweed, violet, horse-tail, bur-marigold, camomile, plantain, and nettle extracts influenced the growth of shigellae. The stimulating effect could be supposedly produced by biologically active substances contained in medicinal plants (organic acids, alkaloids, carotinoids, vitamins, microelements). Further studies aimed at the identification of substances producing the stimulating effect are planned.

  4. Modeling the effects of ozone on soybean growth and yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, K; Miller, J E; Flagler, R B; Heck, W W

    1990-01-01

    A simple mechanistic model was developed based on an existing growth model in order to address the mechanisms of the effects of ozone on growth and yield of soybean [Glycine max. (L.) Merr. 'Davis'] and interacting effects of other environmental stresses. The model simulates daily growth of soybean plants using environmental data including shortwave radiation, temperature, precipitation, irrigation and ozone concentration. Leaf growth, dry matter accumulation, water budget, nitrogen input and seed growth linked to senescence and abscission of leaves are described in the model. The effects of ozone are modeled as reduced photosynthate production and accelerated senescence. The model was applied to the open-top chamber experiments in which soybean plants were exposed to ozone under two levels of soil moisture regimes. After calibrating the model to the growth data and seed yield, goodness-of-fit of the model was tested. The model fitted well for top dry weight in the vegetative growth phase and also at maturity. The effect of ozone on seen yield was also described satisfactorily by the model. The simulation showed apparent interaction between the effect of ozone and soil moisture stress on the seed yield. The model revealed that further work is needed concerning the effect of ozone on the senescence process and the consequences of alteration of canopy microclimate by the open-top chambers.

  5. Coupled effects of chemotaxis and growth on traveling bacterial waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhifeng; Bouwer, Edward J; Hilpert, Markus

    2014-08-01

    Traveling bacterial waves are capable of improving contaminant remediation in the subsurface. It is fairly well understood how bacterial chemotaxis and growth separately affect the formation and propagation of such waves. However, their interaction is not well understood. We therefore perform a modeling study to investigate the coupled effects of chemotaxis and growth on bacterial migration, and examine their effects on contaminant remediation. We study the waves by using different initial electron acceptor concentrations for different bacteria and substrate systems. Three types of traveling waves can occur: a chemotactic wave due to the biased movement of chemotactic bacteria resulting from metabolism-generated substrate concentration gradients; a growth/decay/motility wave due to a dynamic equilibrium between bacterial growth, decay and random motility; and an integrated wave due to the interaction between bacterial chemotaxis and growth. Chemotaxis hardly enhances the bacterial propagation if it is too weak to form a chemotactic wave or its wave speed is less than half of the growth/decay/motility wave speed. However, chemotaxis significantly accelerates bacterial propagation once its wave speed exceeds the growth/decay/motility wave speed. When convection occurs, it speeds up the growth/decay/motility wave but slows down or even eliminates the chemotactic wave due to the dispersion. Bacterial survival proves particularly important for bacterial propagation. Therefore we develop a conceptual model to estimate the speed of growth/decay/motility waves. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Hair growth-promoting effect of Carthamus tinctorius floret extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junlatat, Jintana; Sripanidkulchai, Bungorn

    2014-07-01

    The florets of Carthamus tinctorius L. have traditionally been used for hair growth promotion. This study aimed to examine the potential of hydroxysafflor yellow A-rich C. tinctorius extract (CTE) on hair growth both in vitro and in vivo. The effect of CTE on cell proliferation and hair growth-associated gene expression in dermal papilla cells and keratinocytes (HaCaT) was determined. In addition, hair follicles from mouse neonates were isolated and cultured in media supplemented with CTE. Moreover, CTE was applied topically on the hair-shaved skin of female C57BL/6 mice, and the histological profile of the skin was investigated. C. tinctorius floret ethanolic extract promoted the proliferation of both dermal papilla cells and HaCaT and significantly stimulated hair growth-promoting genes, including vascular endothelial growth factor and keratinocyte growth factor. In contrast, CTE suppressed the expression of transforming growth factor-β1 that is the hair loss-related gene. Furthermore, CTE treatment resulted in a significant increase in the length of cultured hair follicles and stimulated the growth of hair with local effects in mice. The results provided the preclinical data to support the potential use of CTE as a hair growth-promoting agent. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Mass spectrometric characterization of halogenated flame retardants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tan; LaBelle, Bruce; Petreas, Myrto; Park, June-Soo

    2013-07-15

    Concerns about the adverse health effects of ubiquitous flame retardants spurred our interest in the development of a sensitive and reliable analytical method for these toxic compounds in various sample matrices. This study focuses on the investigation of fragmentation pathways and the structures of target ions of thirteen new halogenated flame retardants. In this study, we use gas chromatography (GC)/high-resolution double-focusing sector mass spectrometry to characterize the fragmentation pathways of these new flame retardants. Along with the isotope patterns, accurate mass data were acquired to verify the molecular formula. The fragmentation pathways are classified based on the types of bond dissociations, e.g. σ-bond cleavage, α-bond cleavage and multiple-bond dissociations with a hydrogen shift. The α-bond dissociation occurs among 1,2-bis-(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane, allyl 2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (ATE), 2,3-dibromopropyl 2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (DPTE) and 2-bromoallyl 2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (BATE). The peak clusters that dominated ATE, BATE and hexachlorocyclopentenyl-dibromocyclooctane (HCDBCO) spectra correspond to two fragments as proved by accurate mass data and isotope patterns. These two fragments are formed as the result of two competing fragmentation pathways of radical loss and hydrogen shift. Fragmentation pathways of the other compounds are complex, involving cleavage of multiple bonds and hydrogen shifts. The accurate-mass-based GC/MS method offers great selectivity and sensitivity for quantitative analysis of the persistent organic pollutants. Thus, elucidation of the structures of the fragments is of prime importance for building an accurate-mass-based isotopic method. In addition, this study is useful for GC/MS/MS method development because multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transitions of precursor ions and product ions may be easily elucidated based on these fragmentation patterns. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Multiple Effects of Growth Hormone in the Body: Is it Really the Hormone for Growth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devesa, Jesús; Almengló, Cristina; Devesa, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we analyze the effects of growth hormone on a number of tissues and organs and its putative role in the longitudinal growth of an organism. We conclude that the hormone plays a very important role in maintaining the homogeneity of tissues and organs during the normal development of the human body or after an injury. Its effects on growth do not seem to take place during the fetal period or during the early infancy and are mediated by insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) during childhood and puberty. In turn, IGF-I transcription is dependent on an adequate GH secretion, and in many tissues, it occurs independent of GH. We propose that GH may be a prohormone, rather than a hormone, since in many tissues and organs, it is proteolytically cleaved in a tissue-specific manner giving origin to shorter GH forms whose activity is still unknown. PMID:27773998

  9. The Effect of Protein Impurities on Lysozyme Crystal Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Russell A.; Forsythe, Elizabeth L.; Pusey, Marc L.

    1998-01-01

    While bulk crystallization from impure solutions is used industrially as a purification step for a wide variety of materials, it is a technique that has rarely been used for proteins. Proteins have a reputation for being difficult to crystallize and high purity of the initial crystallization solution is considered paramount for success in the crystallization. Although little is written on the purifying capability of protein crystallization or of the effect of impurities on the various aspects of the crystallization process, recent published reports show that crystallization shows promise and feasibility as a purification technique for proteins. In order to further examine the issue of purity in macromolecule crystallization this study investigates the effect of the protein impurities, avidin, ovalbumin and conalbumin, at concentrations up to 50%, on the solubility, crystal face growth rates and crystal purity, of the protein lysozyme. Solubility was measured in batch experiments while a computer controlled video microscope system was used to measure the f {101} and {101} lysozyme crystal face growth rates. While little effect was observed on solubility and high crystal purity was obtained (>99.99%), the effect of the impurities on the face growth rates varied from no effect to a significant face specific effect leading to growth cessation, a phenomenon that is frequently observed in protein crystal growth. The results shed interesting light on the effect of protein impurities on protein crystal growth and strengthen the feasibility of using crystallization as a unit operation for protein purification.

  10. Demonstrating the Effects of Light Quality on Plant Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitesell, J. H.; Garcia, Maria

    1977-01-01

    Describes a lab demonstration that illustrates the effect of different colors or wavelengths of visible light on plant growth and development. This demonstration is appropriate for use in college biology, botany, or plant physiology courses. (HM)

  11. Effect of Industrial Effluent on the Growth of Marine Diatom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Effect of Industrial Effluent on the Growth of Marine Diatom, Chaetoceros simplex (Ostenfeld, 1901). P. KARTHIKEYAN*, S. JAYASUDHA, P. SAMPATHKUMAR, K. MANIMARAN,. C. SANTHOSHKUMAR, S. ASHOKKUMAR AND V. ASHOKPRABU. CAS in Marine Biology, Faculty of Marine Sciences, Annamalai University,.

  12. Effect of treated sewage on growth of marine algae

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dhargalkar, V.K.

    Eight algal species belonging to Chlorophyta, Rhodophyta and Phaeophyta were used to assess the effect of different concentrations of secondary treated sewage on their growth. Chlorophyta and Rhodophyta members. Ulva fasciata and Gracilaria...

  13. Improving health care communication for persons with mental retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, D C; Wadsworth, J S

    1992-01-01

    There has been little effort directed at training health care professionals in behaviors and attitudes that are effective in communicating with persons with mental retardation. Such training would be beneficial not only to assist those with congenital cognitive deficits but for those with acquired central nervous system conditions as well, for example, dementia. Persons with mental retardation are living in community settings in greater numbers and increasingly participating in vocational, residential, and health care programs. Yet, most health care professionals are not routinely offered an opportunity to gain experience interacting with people who have limited ability to express and understand health care information. An education program was focused on health care professionals' use of basic communication skills when providing health information to an adult who is mentally retarded. A self-study instructional text and a 20-minute companion video provided methods of communicating with a patient with mental retardation in medical and dental care settings. Resident physicians, medical students, nurses, and nursing assistants improved their communication skills, knew more about mental retardation, and were more proactive in health care interviews following training. Health care training needs to incorporate educational opportunities focusing on skills to assist special populations. Brief, structured, and interactive skill training in communication offered early in the health care professional's career has positive benefits for the recipient and the provider.

  14. A Polycarbonate/Magnesium Oxide Nanocomposite with High Flame Retardancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Quanxiao; Gao, Chong; Ding, Yanfen; Wang, Feng; Wen, Bin; Zhang, Shimin; Wang, Tongxin; Yang, Mingshu

    2012-01-15

    A new flame retardant polycarbonate/magnesium oxide (PC/MgO) nanocomposite, with high flame retardancy was developed by melt compounding. The effect of MgO to the flame retardancy, thermal property, and thermal degradation kinetics were investigated. Limited oxygen index (LOI) test revealed that a little amount of MgO (2 wt %) led to significant enhancement (LOI = 36.8) in flame retardancy. Thermogravimetric analysis results demonstrated that the onset temperature of degradation and temperature of maximum degradation rate decreased in both air and N 2 atmosphere. Apparent activation energy was estimated via Flynn-Wall-Ozawa method. Three steps in the thermal degradation kinetics were observed after incorporation of MgO into the matrix and the additive raised activation energies of the composite in the full range except the initial stage. It was interpreted that the flame retardancy of PC was influenced by MgO through the following two aspects: on the one hand, MgO catalyzed the thermal-oxidative degradation and accelerated a thermal protection/mass loss barrier at burning surface; on the other hand, the filler decreased activation energies in the initial step and improved thermal stability in the final period.

  15. EFFECT OF FISCAL DECENTRALIZATION ON CAPITAL EXPENDITURE, GROWTH, AND WELFARE

    OpenAIRE

    Badrudin, Rudy

    2013-01-01

    This research analyzes the influence of fiscal decentralization on capital expenditure, economic growth, and social welfare of 29 regencies and 6 cities in Central Java Province based on the data of year 2004 to 2008. The method used to analyze the hypotheses is the Partial Least Square. The results showes that fiscal decentralization has no significant effect on capital expenditure; fiscal decentralization has significant effect on economic growth and social welfare; capital expenditure has ...

  16. The Effect of International Business on SMEs Growth in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Oladimeji Moruff Sanjo; Muhammed Olaniyi Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    The research examined the effect of international business on SMEs growth in a competitive environment, particularly Nigeria. The secondary data were gathered from the Nigerian Bureau of Statistics and the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) annual report. This study adopted ordinary least square method of data analyses. The finding revealed that trade openness as a measure of competitiveness and FDI has no significant effect on SMEs growth in Nigeria. It was also revealed that the exchange rate ha...

  17. The Effect of International Business on SMEs Growth in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oladimeji Moruff Sanjo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The research examined the effect of international business on SMEs growth in a competitive environment, particularly Nigeria. The secondary data were gathered from the Nigerian Bureau of Statistics and the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN annual report. This study adopted ordinary least square method of data analyses. The finding revealed that trade openness as a measure of competitiveness and FDI has no significant effect on SMEs growth in Nigeria. It was also revealed that the exchange rate has a significant effect on SMEs growth in Nigeria, and the level at which exchange rate affects SMEs growth is relatively high. It was further showed that the exchange rate has a negative coefficient indicating that, as the exchange rate reduces SMEs growth increases. It is concluded that trade competitiveness had no significant effect on SMEs growth in Nigeria. It is therefore recommended that government should formulate policies, which will encourage the reduction of exchange rate in the country in order to enhance competition and improve business activities across the country, and improve the growth of SMEs across the country, as well as encouraging entrepreneurship spirit in the country.

  18. Effects of medium flow on axon growth with or without nerve growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumamoto, Junichi; Kitahata, Hiroyuki; Goto, Makiko; Nagayama, Masaharu; Denda, Mitsuhiro

    2015-09-11

    Axon growth is a crucial process in regeneration of damaged nerves. On the other hand, elongation of nerve fibers in the epidermis has been observed in skin of atopic dermatitis patients. Thus, regulation of nerve fiber extension might be an effective strategy to accelerate nerve regeneration and/or to reduce itching in pruritus dermatosis. We previously demonstrated that neurons and epidermal keratinocytes similarly contain multiple receptors that are activated by various environmental factors, and in particular, keratinocytes are influenced by shear stress. Thus, in the present study, we evaluated the effects of micro-flow of the medium on axon growth in the presence or absence of nerve growth factor (NGF), using cultured dorsal-root-ganglion (DRG) cells. The apparatus, AXIS™, consists of two chambers connected by a set of microgrooves, through which signaling molecules and axons, but not living cells, can pass. When DRG cells were present in chamber 1, NGF was present in chamber 2, and micro-flow was directed from chamber 1 to chamber 2, axon growth was significantly increased compared with other conditions. Acceleration of axon growth in the direction of the micro-flow was also observed in the absence of NGF. These results suggest that local micro-flow might significantly influence axon growth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The effect of growth rate, diameter and impurity concentration on structure in Czochralski silicon crystal growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digges, T. G., Jr.; Shima, R.

    1980-01-01

    It is demonstrated that maximum growth rates of up to 80% of the theoretical limit can be attained in Czochralski-grown silicon crystals while maintaining single crystal structure. Attaining the other 20% increase is dependent on design changes in the grower, to reduce the temperature gradient in the liquid while increasing the gradient in the solid. The conclusions of Hopkins et al. (1977) on the effect of diameter on the breakdown of structure at fast growth rates are substantiated. Copper was utilized as the test impurity. At large diameters (greater than 7.5 cm), concentrations of greater than 1 ppm copper were attained in the solid (45,000 ppm in the liquid) without breakdown at maximum growth speeds. For smaller diameter crystals, the sensitivity of impurities is much more apparent. For solar cell applications, impurities will limit cell performance before they cause crystal breakdown for fast growth rates of large diameter crystals.

  20. Development of low-smoke, flame-retarding cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, H.; Kanemitsuya, K.; Furukawa, K.; Mio, K.

    1983-01-01

    A great deal of attention has been given to the potential fire hazard of combustion gases from organic materials. Although cable industries have developed flame-retarding organic materials for the insulation and jacketing of wires and cables, there was insufficient prevention of toxic gas formation during combustion. To cope with these problems associated with conventional PVC cables, the authors have directed to develop low-smoke, flame-retarding plasticized PVC formulations retaining the original mechanical, electrical and aging properties. A series of basic investigations on smoke suppression followed by an evaluation on practical cables could indicate some effective means to end these problems. This paper describes the results and discussion on smoke suppressing study of plasticized PVC as well as behavior and characteristics of the low-smoke, flame-retarding PVC wires and cables using these materials. (author)