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Sample records for growth morphology nitrate

  1. Nitrogen nutrition of Salvinia natans: Effects of inorganic nitrogen form on growth, morphology, nitrate reductase activity and uptake kinetics of ammonium and nitrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jampeetong, Arunothai; Brix, Hans

    2009-01-01

    In this study we assessed the growth, morphological responses, and N uptake kinetics of Salvinia natans when supplied with nitrogen as NO3-, NH4+, or both at equimolar concentrations (500 μM). Plants supplied with only NO3- had lower growth rates (0.17 ± 0.01 g g-1 d-1), shorter roots, smaller......+ is probably the main N source for S. natans, but plants probably also exploit NO3- when NH4+ concentrations are low. This is suggested based on the observation that the plants maintain high NRA in the roots at relatively high NH4+ levels in the water, even though the uptake capacity for NO3- is reduced under...

  2. Efficiency of nitrate uptake in spinach : impact of external nitrate concentration and relative growth rate on nitrate influx and efflux

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ter Steege, MW; Stulen, [No Value; Wiersema, PK; Posthumus, F; Vaalburg, W

    1999-01-01

    Regulation of nitrate influx and efflux in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L., cv. Subito), was studied in short-term label experiments with N-13- and N-15-nitrate. Nitrate fluxes were examined in relation to the N demand for growth, defined as relative growth rate (RGR) times plant N concentration.

  3. Growth morphologies of crystal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Rong-Fu; Alexander, J. Iwan D.; Rosenberger, Franz

    1991-03-01

    We have expanded our earlier Monte Carlo model [Phys. Rev. A 38, 2447 (1988); J. Crystal Growth 100, 313 (1990)] to three dimensions and included reevaporation after accommodation and growth on dislocation-induced steps. We found again that, for a given set of growth parameters, the critical size, beyond which a crystal cannot retain its macroscopically faceted shape, scales linearly with the mean free path in the vapor. However, the three-dimensional (3D) the systems show increased shape stability compared to corresponding 2D cases. Extrapolation of the model results to mean-free-path conditions used in morphological stability experiments leads to order-of-magnitude agreement of the predicted critical size with experimental findings. The stability region for macroscopically smooth (faceted) surfaces in the parameter space of temperature and supersaturation depends on both the surface and bulk diffusion. While surface diffusion is seen to smooth the growth morphology on the scale of the surface diffusion length, bulk diffusion is always destabilizing. The atomic surface roughness increases with increase in growth temperature and supersaturation. That is, the tendency of surface kinetics anisotropies to stabilize the growth shape is reduced through thermal and kinetic roughening. It is also found that the solid-on-solid assumption, which can be advantageously used at low temperatures and supersaturations, is insufficient to describe the growth dynamics of atomically rough interfaces where bulk diffusion governs the process. For surfaces with an emerging screw dislocation, we find that the spiral growth mechanism dominates at low temperatures and supersaturations. The polygonization of a growth spiral decreases with increasing temperature or supersaturation. When the mean free path in the nutrient is comparable to the lattice constant, the combined effect of bulk and surface diffusion reduces the terrace width of a growth spiral in its center region. At elevated

  4. Determination of Nitrate Reductase Assay Depending on the Microbial Growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Kabbany, H.M.

    2012-01-01

    A rapid micro-dilution assay for determination of the antimicrobial susceptibility of different bacterial isolates was developed. This assay is based on the ability of the most of viable organisms to reduce nitrates. The MIC or MBC could be determined by nitrate reductase (NR) only after 30 to 90 min of incubation depending on the behaviour of microbial growth. Bacterial viability is detected by a positive nitrite reduction rather than visible turbidity. The nitrate reduction assay was compared with standard micro-assay using 250 isolates of different taxa against 10 antibiotics belonging to different classes. An excellent agreement of 82.5 % was found between the two methods and only 17.5 % of 1794 trials showed difference in the determined MIC by tow-dilution interval above or below the MIC determined by the turbidimetric method under the same test conditions. However, the nitrate reduction assay was more rapid and sensitive in detecting viable bacteria and so, established an accurate estimate of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) or the minimal bacterial concentration (MBC). The nitrate reduction assay offers the additional advantage that it could be used to determine the MBC without having to subculture the broth. 232 cases of resistance were detected by NR and 4 different media were tested for susceptibility test. The bacterial isolates were exposed to ultra violet (UV) light for different period

  5. Compensatory periplasmic nitrate reductase activity supports anaerobic growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 in the absence of membrane nitrate reductase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Alst, Nadine E.; Sherrill, Lani A.; Iglewski, Barbara H.; Haidaris, Constantine G.

    2009-01-01

    Nitrate serves as a terminal electron acceptor under anaerobic conditions in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Reduction of nitrate to nitrite generates a transmembrane proton motive force allowing ATP synthesis and anaerobic growth. Inner membrane-bound nitrate reductase NarGHI is encoded within the narK1K2GHJI operon and the periplasmic nitrate reductase NapAB is encoded within the napEFDABC operon. The role of the two dissimilatory nitrate reductases in anaerobic growth, and the regulation of their expression were examined by using a set of deletion mutants in P. aeruginosa PAO1. NarGHI mutants were unable to grow anaerobically, but plate cultures remained viable up to 120 hr. In contrast, nitrate sensor-response regulator mutant ΔnarXL displayed growth arrest initially, but resumed growth after 72 hr and reached early stationary phase in liquid culture after 120 hr. Genetic, transcriptional, and biochemical studies demonstrated that anaerobic growth recovery by the NarXL mutant was the result of NapAB periplasmic nitrate reductase expression. A novel transcriptional start site for napEFDABC expression was identified in the NarXL mutant grown anaerobically. Furthermore, mutagenesis of a consensus NarL-binding site monomer upstream of the novel transcriptional start site restored anaerobic growth recovery in the NarXL mutant. The data suggest that during anaerobic growth of wild type P. aeruginosa PAO1, nitrate response regulator NarL directly represses expression of periplasmic nitrate reductase, while inducing maximal expression of membrane nitrate reductase. PMID:19935885

  6. The influence of Metisevit on biochemical and morphological indicators of blood of piglets under nitrate loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gutyj

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of research on the influence of the developed complex preparation Metisevit on the dynamics of morphological and biochemical blood indicators of piglets under nitrate loading. The research established that sodium nitrate intoxication causes disbalance of the physiological level of hematological indicators of the tested animals’ organisms. This was indicated by the manifestations of subclinical chronic nitrate-nitrite toxicosis: the increase in the level of nitrates, nitrites and methemoglobin in the blood. After prolonged feeding of the piglets with sodium nitrate at a dose of 0.3 g nitrate ion/kg, the concentration of nitrates and nitrites in the blood serum reached its maximum on the 60th day of the experiment. Also, the number of leukocytes and erythrocytes in the blood increased, and the activity of aspartate- and alanineaminotransferase in the blood serum increased. We rank the extent of liver intoxication with nitrates according to intensity of aminotransferase in the blood serum of the tested piglets. The normalization of morphological and biochemical blood indicators of piglets under nitrate-nitrite intoxication requires usage of a preparation which contains vitamins, zeolites and antioxidants. If the fodder contains high doses of nitrates, 1.0 mg/kg dose of Metisevit is added to the fodder for preventing subclinical nitrate-nitrite toxicosis. Metisevit contains the following agents: phenozan acid, methionine, zeolite, selenium, vitamins E and C. The research conducted proved the feasibility of using Metisevit for preventing chronic nitrate-nitrite toxicosis in piglets. This preparation caused a decrease in the concentration of nitrates, nitrites and in the level of methemoglobin in the blood of piglets. Usage of Metisevit on piglets showed normalization of the number of erythrocytes and hemoglobin in the blood on the 10th day, and normalization of ASAT and ALAT on 30th and 90th days. The mechanism of

  7. Effect of Nitrate on Nodule and Root Growth of Soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinori Saito

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The application of combined nitrogen, especially nitrate, to soybean plants is known to strongly inhibit nodule formation, growth and nitrogen fixation. In the present study, we measured the effects of supplying 5 mM nitrate on the growth of nodules, primary root, and lateral roots under light at 28 °C or dark at 18 °C conditions. Photographs of the nodulated roots were periodically taken by a digital camera at 1-h intervals, and the size of the nodules was measured with newly developed computer software. Nodule growth was depressed approximately 7 h after the addition of nitrate under light conditions. The nodule growth rate under dark conditions was almost half that under light conditions, and nodule growth was further suppressed by the addition of 5 mM nitrate. Similar results were observed for the extending growth rate of the primary root as those for nodule growth supplied with 5 mM nitrate under light/dark conditions. In contrast, the growth of lateral roots was promoted by the addition of 5 mM nitrate. The 2D-PAGE profiles of nodule protein showed similar patterns between the 0 and 5 mM nitrate treatments, which suggested that metabolic integrity may be maintained with the 5 mM nitrate treatment. Further studies are required to confirm whether light or temperature condition may give the primary effect on the growth of nodules and roots.

  8. Semantic growth of morphological families in English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Regina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the question of when and how morphological families are formed in one’s mental lexicon, by analyzing age-of-acquisition norms to morphological families (e.g., booking, bookshelf, check book and their shared morphemes (book. We demonstrate that the speed of growth and the size of the family depend on how early the shared morpheme is acquired and how many connections the family has at the time a new concept is incorporated in the family. These findings dovetail perfectly with the Semantic Growth model of connectivity in semantic networks by Steyvers and Tenenbaum (2005. We discuss implications of our findings for theories of vocabulary acquisition.

  9. Discovery of nitrate-CPK-NLP signalling in central nutrient-growth networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kun-Hsiang; Niu, Yajie; Konishi, Mineko; Wu, Yue; Du, Hao; Sun Chung, Hoo; Li, Lei; Boudsocq, Marie; McCormack, Matthew; Maekawa, Shugo; Ishida, Tetsuya; Zhang, Chao; Shokat, Kevan; Yanagisawa, Shuichi; Sheen, Jen

    2017-05-18

    Nutrient signalling integrates and coordinates gene expression, metabolism and growth. However, its primary molecular mechanisms remain incompletely understood in plants and animals. Here we report unique Ca 2+ signalling triggered by nitrate with live imaging of an ultrasensitive biosensor in Arabidopsis leaves and roots. A nitrate-sensitized and targeted functional genomic screen identifies subgroup III Ca 2+ -sensor protein kinases (CPKs) as master regulators that orchestrate primary nitrate responses. A chemical switch with the engineered mutant CPK10(M141G) circumvents embryo lethality and enables conditional analyses of cpk10 cpk30 cpk32 triple mutants to define comprehensive nitrate-associated regulatory and developmental programs. Nitrate-coupled CPK signalling phosphorylates conserved NIN-LIKE PROTEIN (NLP) transcription factors to specify the reprogramming of gene sets for downstream transcription factors, transporters, nitrogen assimilation, carbon/nitrogen metabolism, redox, signalling, hormones and proliferation. Conditional cpk10 cpk30 cpk32 and nlp7 mutants similarly impair nitrate-stimulated system-wide shoot growth and root establishment. The nutrient-coupled Ca 2+ signalling network integrates transcriptome and cellular metabolism with shoot-root coordination and developmental plasticity in shaping organ biomass and architecture.

  10. Effect of Vermicompost on Nitrate Leaching and Strawberry Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broz, A. P.; Verma, P.; Appel, C.; Stubler, C.; Yost, J.; Hurley, S.

    2016-12-01

    The use of vermicompost is suggested as a method to reduce nitrogen losses in crop production; however, it is unclear whether and how vermicompost can affect water quality after a significant irrigation or rainfall event. The objectives of this experiment were to: a) determine the concentration of nitrate-nitrogen in drainage water from vermicompost-amended media planted with strawberry in a greenhouse setting and b) determine vegetative biomass of strawberry grown in vermicompost-amended media. Bare-root strawberry plugs were grown in one-gallon plastic pots. The treatments consisted of two media: 1) a peat:perlite soil-less mix and 2) a fine sand soil with three levels of dairy manure vermicompost addition: 0%, 10%, 25% by weight, and a biweekly synthetic fertilizer treatment of 150 mg N-P-K L-1 evaluated in a full factorial randomized block design. Drainage water from each plant was collected for 18 weeks and analyzed for NO3- concentration. High (1000-5000 mg l-1) amounts of NO3- leaching in vermicompost -amended media were observed during the first two weeks of drainage collection relative to non vermicompost-amended media. Plants grown with vermicompost at 25% with synthetic fertilizer had the highest above-ground vegetative biomass (15.3 g) relative to plants with synthetic fertilizer alone (5.3 g). These data suggest vermicompost addition rates of 10% and 25% by weight promote high vegetative biomass in greenhouse strawberry but may facilitate high nitrate leaching, which can negatively affect water quality and environmental health.

  11. Effects of melatonin on seedling growth, mineral nutrition, and nitrogen metabolism in cucumber under nitrate stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruimin; Sun, Yunkuo; Liu, Zeyu; Jin, Wen; Sun, Yan

    2017-05-01

    In China, excessive use of nitrogen fertilizers in glasshouses leads to nitrate accumulations in soil and plants, which then limits productivity. Melatonin, an evolutionarily highly conserved molecule, has a wide range of functions in plants. We analyzed the effects of melatonin pretreatment on the growth, mineral nutrition, and nitrogen metabolism in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. "Jin You No. 1") when seedlings were exposed to nitrate stress. An application of 0.1 mmol/L melatonin significantly improved the growth of plants and reduced their susceptibility to damage due to high nitrate levels (0.6 mol/L) during the ensuing period of stress treatment. Although excess nitrate led to an increase in the concentrations of nitrogen, potassium, and calcium, as well as a decrease in levels of phosphorus and magnesium, exogenous melatonin generally had the opposite effect except for a further rise in calcium concentrations. Pretreatment also significantly reduced the accumulations of nitrate nitrogen and ammonium nitrogen and enhanced the activities of enzymes involved in nitrogen metabolism. Expression of Cs-NR and Cs-GOGAT, two genes that function in that metabolism, was greatly down-regulated when plants were exposed to 0.6 mol/L nitrate, but was up-regulated in plants that had received the 0.1 mmol/L melatonin pretreatment. Our results are the first evidence that melatonin has an important role in modulating the composition of mineral elements and nitrogen metabolism, thereby alleviating the inhibitory effect on growth normally associated with nitrate stress. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Nitrogen nutrition of Canna indica: Effects of ammonium versus nitrate on growth, biomass allocation, photosynthesis, nitrate reductase activity and N uptake rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konnerup, Dennis; Brix, Hans

    2010-01-01

    The effects of inorganic nitrogen (N) source (NH4+, NO3- or both) on growth, biomass allocation, photosynthesis, N uptake rate, nitrate reductase activity and mineral composition of Canna indica were studied in hydroponic culture. The relative growth rates (0.05-0.06 g g-1 d-1), biomass allocation...

  13. Plant growth improvement mediated by nitrate capture in co-composted biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammann, Claudia I.; Schmidt, Hans-Peter; Messerschmidt, Nicole; Linsel, Sebastian; Steffens, Diedrich; Müller, Christoph; Koyro, Hans-Werner; Conte, Pellegrino; Stephen, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Soil amendment with pyrogenic carbon (biochar) is discussed as strategy to improve soil fertility to enable economic plus environmental benefits. In temperate soils, however, the use of pure biochar mostly has moderately-negative to -positive yield effects. Here we demonstrate that co-composting considerably promoted biochars’ positive effects, largely by nitrate (nutrient) capture and delivery. In a full-factorial growth study with Chenopodium quinoa, biomass yield increased up to 305% in a sandy-poor soil amended with 2% (w/w) co-composted biochar (BCcomp). Conversely, addition of 2% (w/w) untreated biochar (BCpure) decreased the biomass to 60% of the control. Growth-promoting (BCcomp) as well as growth-reducing (BCpure) effects were more pronounced at lower nutrient-supply levels. Electro-ultra filtration and sequential biochar-particle washing revealed that co-composted biochar was nutrient-enriched, particularly with the anions nitrate and phosphate. The captured nitrate in BCcomp was (1) only partly detectable with standard methods, (2) largely protected against leaching, (3) partly plant-available, and (4) did not stimulate N2O emissions. We hypothesize that surface ageing plus non-conventional ion-water bonding in micro- and nano-pores promoted nitrate capture in biochar particles. Amending (N-rich) bio-waste with biochar may enhance its agronomic value and reduce nutrient losses from bio-wastes and agricultural soils. PMID:26057083

  14. Nitrate Sources, Supply, and Phytoplankton Growth in the Great Australian Bight: An Eulerian-Lagrangian Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetina-Heredia, Paulina; van Sebille, Erik; Matear, Richard J.; Roughan, Moninya

    2018-02-01

    The Great Australian Bight (GAB), a coastal sea bordered by the Pacific, Southern, and Indian Oceans, sustains one of the largest fisheries in Australia but the geographical origin of nutrients that maintain its productivity is not fully known. We use 12 years of modeled data from a coupled hydrodynamic and biogeochemical model and an Eulerian-Lagrangian approach to quantify nitrate supply to the GAB and the region between the GAB and the Subantarctic Australian Front (GAB-SAFn), identify phytoplankton growth within the GAB, and ascertain the source of nitrate that fuels it. We find that nitrate concentrations have a decorrelation timescale of ˜60 days; since most of the water from surrounding oceans takes longer than 60 days to reach the GAB, 23% and 75% of nitrate used by phytoplankton to grow are sourced within the GAB and from the GAB-SAFn, respectively. Thus, most of the nitrate is recycled locally. Although nitrate concentrations and fluxes into the GAB are greater below 100 m than above, 79% of the nitrate fueling phytoplankton growth is sourced from above 100 m. Our findings suggest that topographical uplift and stratification erosion are key mechanisms delivering nutrients from below the nutricline into the euphotic zone and triggering large phytoplankton growth. We find annual and semiannual periodicities in phytoplankton growth, peaking in the austral spring and autumn when the mixed layer deepens leading to a subsurface maximum of phytoplankton growth. This study highlights the importance of examining phytoplankton growth at depth and the utility of Lagrangian approaches.

  15. Growth morphology of zinc tris (thiourea) sulphate crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The growth morphology of crystals of zinc tris(thiourea) sulphate (ZTS) is investigated experimentally, and computed using the Hartman–Perdok approach. Attachment energies of the observed habit faces are calculated for determining their relative morphological importance. A computer code is developed for carrying out ...

  16. Equilibrium And Growth Morphologies Of Trinickel Boride Ni3b ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The morphology of the trinickel boride Ni3B precipitates during slow cooling in differential thermal analysis (DTA) has been investigated using high resolution electron microscopy (HREM). Due to the large development of the facets of the type {022}, the crystal tends towards an equilibrium morphology whereas the growth ...

  17. Growth morphology of zinc tris(thiourea) sulphate crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The growth morphology of crystals of zinc tris(thiourea) sulphate (ZTS) is investigated experimentally, and computed using the Hartman–Perdok approach. Attachment energies of the observed habit faces are calculated for determining their relative morphological importance. A com- puter code is developed for ...

  18. Effect of added nickel nitrate on the physical, thermal and morphological characteristics of polyacrylonitrile-based carbon nanofibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nataraj, S.K.; Kim, B.H.; Yun, J.H.; Lee, D.H.; Aminabhavi, T.M.; Yang, K.S.

    2009-01-01

    Porous carbon nanofibers (CNFs) with enhanced physical, thermal and morphological properties are desirable in many areas like catalyst support in fuel cells and supercapacitors as electrode material. This research addresses the effect of added nickel nitrate in 1, 3 and 5 wt% into polyacrylonitrile (PAN) precursor solution to produce CNF webs using electrospinning method. Based on the quantitative data obtained from field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) images, we can notice that CNFs were formed with diameters in the size range of 100-300 nm after carbonization at 1000 deg. C. Fiber diameter of the random CNFs was decreased by increasing the nickel nitrate contents along with dramatic improvements in porosity and specific surface areas. This study indicated that the optimal nickel nitrate concentration of 5 wt% has produced CNFs with enhanced physical and thermo-chemical properties. The high resolution X-ray diffraction (HR-XRD) showed an increase in intensity of 0 0 2 peak of the CNFs due to the catalytic function of nickel oxide in the carbonized web and these observations are in agreement with the thermal gravimetric data.

  19. Density effects on ammonium nitrate toxicity on amphibians. Survival, growth and cannibalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Santaliestra, Manuel E; Fernández-Benéitez, María José; Marco, Adolfo

    2012-04-01

    Temporary ponds where many amphibians breed experience a gradual desiccation that leads to growing larval densities, which can reduce tadpole survival rates and increase cannibalistic interactions among carnivorous salamander larvae. Concentrations of many agrochemicals, including nitrogenous fertilizers, can also increase as the water volume decreases. We analyzed the effects of ammonium nitrate fertilizer at two larval densities on growth and survival of Rana dalmatina tadpoles, and on cannibalistic behaviors of Salamandra salamandra larvae. We observed synergistic lethal effects until day 17 of exposure, when ammonium nitrate-related mortality of tadpoles was five times greater at high than at low density. The fertilizer impaired tadpole growth. This effect was stronger at low density than at high density. In the absence of ammonium nitrate, the incidence of cannibalism was higher at high than at low larval density. However, fertilizer exposure removed this density-dependent effect, which, under field conditions, would negate some potentially advantageous effects of cannibalism such as reduced intraspecific competition and the stimulation of defensive behaviors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Disguised as a Sulfate Reducer: Growth of the Deltaproteobacterium Desulfurivibrio alkaliphilus by Sulfide Oxidation with Nitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casper Thorup

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study demonstrates that the deltaproteobacterium Desulfurivibrio alkaliphilus can grow chemolithotrophically by coupling sulfide oxidation to the dissimilatory reduction of nitrate and nitrite to ammonium. Key genes of known sulfide oxidation pathways are absent from the genome of D. alkaliphilus. Instead, the genome contains all of the genes necessary for sulfate reduction, including a gene for a reductive-type dissimilatory bisulfite reductase (DSR. Despite this, growth by sulfate reduction was not observed. Transcriptomic analysis revealed a very high expression level of sulfate-reduction genes during growth by sulfide oxidation, while inhibition experiments with molybdate pointed to elemental sulfur/polysulfides as intermediates. Consequently, we propose that D. alkaliphilus initially oxidizes sulfide to elemental sulfur, which is then either disproportionated, or oxidized by a reversal of the sulfate reduction pathway. This is the first study providing evidence that a reductive-type DSR is involved in a sulfide oxidation pathway. Transcriptome sequencing further suggests that nitrate reduction to ammonium is performed by a novel type of periplasmic nitrate reductase and an unusual membrane-anchored nitrite reductase.

  1. Effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on root morphology of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rooting characteristics significantly affect the water-use patterns and acquirement of nutrient for any plant species. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria improve the plant growth by a variety of ways like the production of phytohormones, nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization and improvement in root morphology etc, ...

  2. Transcriptional responses of three model diatoms to nitrate limitation of growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara J Bender

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Diatoms are among the most diverse groups of phytoplankton in the ocean. Despite their widely recognized influence on ocean ecosystems and global biogeochemistry, little is known about the impact of this diversity on large-scale processes. Here, we examined the ramifications of between-species diversity by documenting the transcriptional response of three diatoms - Thalassiosira pseudonana, Fragilariopsis cylindrus, and Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries - to the onset of nitrate limitation of growth, a common limiting nutrient in the ocean. The three species shared 5,583 clusters of orthologous genes based on OrthoMCL clustering of publically available diatom genomes. These clusters represent 30-54% of the predicted genes in each diatom genome. Less than 5% of genes within these core clusters displayed the same transcriptional responses across species when growth was limited by nitrate availability. Orthologs, such as those involved in nitrogen uptake and assimilation, as well as carbon metabolism, were differently expressed across the three species. The two pennate diatoms, F. cylindrus and P. multiseries, shared 3,839 clusters without orthologs in the genome of the centric diatom T. pseudonana. A majority of these pennate-clustered genes, as well as the non-orthologous genes in each species, had minimal annotation information, but were often significantly differentially expressed under nitrate limitation, indicating their potential importance in the response to nitrogen availability. Despite these variations in the specific transcriptional response of each diatom, overall transcriptional patterns suggested that all three diatoms displayed a common physiological response to nitrate limitation that consisted of a general reduction in carbon fixation and carbohydrate and fatty acid metabolism and an increase in nitrogen recycling. Characterization of these finely tuned responses will help to better predict which types of diatoms will bloom under which

  3. Craniofacial morphology in Turner syndrome patients treated with growth hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovana Julsoki

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: In addition to well-established physical characteristics, Turner syndrome patients have distinct craniofacial morphology. Since short stature is the most typical characteristic, Turner syndrome patients are commonly treated with growth hormone in order to increase final height. At the same time, growth hormone treatment was found to influence craniofacial growth and morphology in various groups of treated patients. Whereas craniofacial characteristics of Turner syndrome patients are well documented, comparatively little is known of craniofacial morphology of those who are treated with growth hormone. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate craniofacial morphology in Turner syndrome patients treated with growth hormone in comparison to healthy females. Materials and methods: The cephalometric evaluation was conducted on twenty lateral cephalograms of Turner syndrome patients (13.53 ± 4.04 years treated with growth hormone for at least one year (4.94 ± 1.92 years in average. As a control group, forty lateral cephalograms of healthy female controls, who matched Turner syndrome patients by chronological (11.80 ± 2.37 years and skeletal age, were used. Eleven angular, seven linear measurements and six dimensional ratios were measured to describe craniofacial morphology. Results: The results obtained for angular measurements, in cephalometric analyses for Turner syndrome patients treated with growth hormone, revealed bimaxillary retrognathism. The linear measurements indicated longer mandibular ramus, anterior cranial base and both anterior and posterior facial heights. However, posterior cranial base and maxilla were in proportion to the anterior cranial base, when comparing dimensional ratios. Anterior cranial base, maxilla and mandibular ramus were larger in proportion to mandibular body; as well as posterior facial height was when compared to anterior facial height. Turner syndrome patients treated with growth

  4. Influences of clinoptilolite and surfactant-modified clinoptilolite zeolite on nitrate leaching and plant growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malekian, Raheleh; Abedi-Koupai, Jahangir; Eslamian, Sayed Saeid

    2011-01-01

    The increasing demands for environmental protection and sustainable food production require an increase in the use of natural and non-toxic materials for agriculture. In this study, the feasibility of using surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) in comparison with zeolite clinoptilolite (Cp) application to reduce nitrate leaching and enhance crop growth was investigated. The effects of size (millimeter and nanometer) and application rate (20 g kg -1 and 60 g kg -1 ) of Cp and SMZ on nitrate leaching and crop response were also evaluated. Using soil lysimeters, it was determined that the maximum and mean nitrate concentration in the leachate of SMZ-amended soil were significantly (p 3 -N leached from SMZ- and Cp-amended lysimeters at the higher application rate (60 g kg -1 ) was approximately 26% and 22% lower, respectively, than that from the control system. The mean grain yield, grain nitrogen content, stover dry matter, and N uptake were significantly greater in Cp-amended than SMZ-amended lysimeters. There was no significant effect due to the particle size of the two soil amendments. The results implicitly suggest that plants may have a better response if Cp is used as a fertilizer carrier rather than SMZ when applied at a rate of 60 g kg -1 .

  5. Novel multiform morphologies of hydroxyapatite: Synthesis and growth mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mary, I. Reeta [Department of Nanoscience and Technology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641046 (India); Department of Physics, Government Arts College, Coimbatore 641018 (India); Sonia, S.; Viji, S.; Mangalaraj, D.; Viswanathan, C. [Department of Nanoscience and Technology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641046 (India); Ponpandian, N., E-mail: ponpandian@buc.edu.in [Department of Nanoscience and Technology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641046 (India)

    2016-01-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Novel multiform morphologies of hydroxyapatite from nanoscale building blocks. • Facile hydro/solvothermal method under mild reaction conditions without the necessity of post-annealing treatment. • Growth mechanism by Ostwald ripening and self-assembly processes. - Abstract: Morphological evolution of materials becomes a prodigious challenge due to their key role in defining their functional properties and desired applications. Herein, we report the synthesis of hydroxyapatite (HAp) microstructures with multiform morphologies, such as spheres, cubes, hexagonal rods and nested bundles constructed from their respective nanoscale building blocks via a simple cost effective hydro/solvothermal method. A possible formation mechanism of diverse morphologies of HAp has been presented. Structural analysis based on X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy confirms the purity of the HAp microstructures. The multiform morphologies of HAp were corroborated by using Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM).

  6. Novel multiform morphologies of hydroxyapatite: Synthesis and growth mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mary, I. Reeta; Sonia, S.; Viji, S.; Mangalaraj, D.; Viswanathan, C.; Ponpandian, N.

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Novel multiform morphologies of hydroxyapatite from nanoscale building blocks. • Facile hydro/solvothermal method under mild reaction conditions without the necessity of post-annealing treatment. • Growth mechanism by Ostwald ripening and self-assembly processes. - Abstract: Morphological evolution of materials becomes a prodigious challenge due to their key role in defining their functional properties and desired applications. Herein, we report the synthesis of hydroxyapatite (HAp) microstructures with multiform morphologies, such as spheres, cubes, hexagonal rods and nested bundles constructed from their respective nanoscale building blocks via a simple cost effective hydro/solvothermal method. A possible formation mechanism of diverse morphologies of HAp has been presented. Structural analysis based on X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy confirms the purity of the HAp microstructures. The multiform morphologies of HAp were corroborated by using Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM).

  7. Growth and Morphology of Rod Eutectics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing Teng; Shan Liu; R. Trivedi

    2008-03-17

    The formation of rod eutectic microstructure is investigated systematically in a succinonitrile-camphor alloy of eutectic composition by using the directional solidification technique. A new rod eutectic configuration is observed in which the rods form with elliptical cylindrical shape. Two different orientations of the ellipse are observed that differ by a 90{sup o} rotation such that the major and the minor axes are interchanged. Critical experiments in thin samples, where a single layer of rods forms, show that the spacing and orientation of the elliptic rods are governed by the growth rate and the sample thickness. In thicker samples, multi layers of rods form with circular cross-section and the scaling law between the spacing and velocity predicted by the Jackson and Hunt model is validated. A theoretical model is developed for a two-dimensional array of elliptical rods that are arranged in a hexagonal or a square array, and the results are shown to be consistent with the experimental observations. The model of elliptic rods is also shown to reduce to that for the circular rod eutectic when the lengths of the two axes are equal, and to the lamellar eutectic model when one of the axes is much larger than the other one.

  8. Disguised as a Sulfate Reducer: Growth of the Deltaproteobacterium Desulfurivibrio alkaliphilus by Sulfide Oxidation with Nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorup, Casper; Schramm, Andreas; Findlay, Alyssa J; Finster, Kai W; Schreiber, Lars

    2017-07-18

    This study demonstrates that the deltaproteobacterium Desulfurivibrio alkaliphilus can grow chemolithotrophically by coupling sulfide oxidation to the dissimilatory reduction of nitrate and nitrite to ammonium. Key genes of known sulfide oxidation pathways are absent from the genome of D. alkaliphilus Instead, the genome contains all of the genes necessary for sulfate reduction, including a gene for a reductive-type dissimilatory bisulfite reductase (DSR). Despite this, growth by sulfate reduction was not observed. Transcriptomic analysis revealed a very high expression level of sulfate-reduction genes during growth by sulfide oxidation, while inhibition experiments with molybdate pointed to elemental sulfur/polysulfides as intermediates. Consequently, we propose that D. alkaliphilus initially oxidizes sulfide to elemental sulfur, which is then either disproportionated, or oxidized by a reversal of the sulfate reduction pathway. This is the first study providing evidence that a reductive-type DSR is involved in a sulfide oxidation pathway. Transcriptome sequencing further suggests that nitrate reduction to ammonium is performed by a novel type of periplasmic nitrate reductase and an unusual membrane-anchored nitrite reductase. IMPORTANCE Sulfide oxidation and sulfate reduction, the two major branches of the sulfur cycle, are usually ascribed to distinct sets of microbes with distinct diagnostic genes. Here we show a more complex picture, as D. alkaliphilus , with the genomic setup of a sulfate reducer, grows by sulfide oxidation. The high expression of genes typically involved in the sulfate reduction pathway suggests that these genes, including the reductive-type dissimilatory bisulfite reductases, are also involved in as-yet-unresolved sulfide oxidation pathways. Finally, D. alkaliphilus is closely related to cable bacteria, which grow by electrogenic sulfide oxidation. Since there are no pure cultures of cable bacteria, D. alkaliphilus may represent an

  9. Isotopic signatures associated with growth and metabolic activities of chemosynthetic nitrate-reducing microbes from deep-sea hydrothermal vents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Rodriguez, I. M.; Foustoukos, D.; Fogel, M. L.; Sievert, S. M.

    2013-12-01

    Epsilonproteobacteria and Aquificaceae have been identified as dominant members of microbial communities at deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Cultured representatives from these two groups appear to be mostly genetically wired to perform chemosynthesis at moderate-to-high temperatures (45 - 80oC) under anaerobic and sulfidic conditions. In this study we used Caminibacter mediatlanticus and Thermovibrio ammonificans as model organisms to constrain physiological parameters associated with dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) in deep-sea vent Epsilonproteobacteria and Aquificaceae. We postulate that nitrate-based metabolic processes are of relevance for understanding primary production as well as nitrate mobilization in deep-sea vents. By constraining growth and respiration rates during DNRA, we observed that C. mediatlanticus achieved higher cell densities than T. ammonificans while exhibiting similar growth rates. DNRA kinetic rate constants and cell-specific nitrate reduction rates (csNRR) obtained from our data showed that within similar time frames T. ammonificans used 2.5 to 3 times as much nitrate than C. mediatlanticus and it did so ~3 times faster. However, the increased consumption of nitrate in T. ammonificans did not translate into higher growth yield. This is suggestive of either differential efficiencies in energy generating pathways or differential organic matter production (cell biomass versus extracellular organic material) associated with DNRA in these microorganisms. Nitrogen isotope fractionation for nitrate was similar for both organisms, with discrimination factors of ~ -5 to -6‰ for C. mediatlanticus and ~ -7 to -8‰ for T. ammonificans. Similar experiments performed under high hydrostatic pressure conditions (50 and 200 bar) showed that changes in pressure greatly affected both growth rates and DNRA kinetic rate constants in both microorganisms, however, δ15N discrimination factors for nitrate were not affected. This study provides

  10. Growth, yield and fiber morphology of kenaf ( Hibiscus cannabinus L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of carbon levels on plant growth, yield and fiber morphological properties are not available for kenaf that is considered as a potential source of low cost natural fiber and feedstock for energy production as well. A pot-culture experiment was conducted in shade house to determine the effects of carbon levels on ...

  11. Effect of yoghurt waste on gut morphology and growth performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experiment was carried out to determine the effect of yoghurt waste on intestinal morphology and growth performance of pigs weaned at 7 weeks of age. A total of 20 weaned pigs (15.6 ± 2kg, initial body weight {BW}) were randomly assigned in groups of four, to 5 experimental treatments in a randomized block design.

  12. Influence of growth temperature on morphological, structural and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Influence of growth temperature on morphological, structural and photoluminescence properties of ZnO nanostructure thin layers and powders deposited by thermal evaporation. YASER ARJMAND and HOSEIN ESHGHI. ∗. Department of Physics, University of Shahrood, Shahrood 36155-316, Iran. MS received 9 April ...

  13. Influence of growth temperature on morphological, structural and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 37; Issue 7. Influence of growth temperature on morphological, structural and photoluminescence properties of ZnO nanostructure thin layers and powders deposited by thermal evaporation. Yaser Arjmand Hosein Eshghi. Volume 37 Issue 7 December 2014 pp 1663- ...

  14. Growth-morphology-luminescence correlation in ZnO-containing nanostructures synthesized in different media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japic, Dajana; Antonio Paramo, J.; Marinsek, Marjan; Strzhemechny, Yuri M.; Crnjak Orel, Zorica

    2012-01-01

    Zinc hydroxide particles were prepared by a two-step process employing zinc nitrate hexahydrate, urea, ethylene glycol, water and p-toluene-sulfonic acid monohydrate (p-TSA). We used different concentrations of the reactants as well as different volume ratios of the solvents. ZnO particles were obtained by thermal treatment of the reaction products at two different temperatures: 350 °C and 500 °C. The samples were characterized by scanning field emission electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy, BET analysis, thermogravimetry (TG) analysis and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. It was found that after the thermal treatment particles become smaller, with the p-TSA concentration strongly affecting the morphology of the particles. Luminescence properties of the samples probed by PL at 8 K and room temperature exhibited a remarkable correlation with specimens′ nanomorphology. Luminescent features at ∼2.0–2.2 eV, ∼2.4–2.5 eV, ∼2.65 eV, ∼2.9 eV, ∼3.0–3.1 eV and ∼3.3 eV were observed in most specimens, although their relative intensity and temperature dependence were specific to an individual group of samples vis-à-vis their growth history and morphology. - Highlights: ► ZnO-containing nanostructures grown by precipitation were investigated. ► Samples' morphology can be carefully tailored via growth control parameters. ► Strong dependence of optoelectronic properties on specimens' morphology was observed. ► Efficient control of composition, morphology and luminescence via synthesis parameters.

  15. Effect of different concentrations of cadmium growth and morphological changes in basil (ocimum basilicum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarian, M.; Amouzgar, D.; Sedghianzadeh, H.

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted on four treatments (0, 3, 5 and 10 milligrams per liter of cadmium nitrate solution) and three replications in a completely randomized design. The morphological characteristics including fresh weight, dry weight, stem length, root length, leaf weight ratio, measuring index of the imposed stress, specific leaf area and water availability per unit leaf area, and the amount of cadmium in stems and roots were measured. By increasing cadmium treatment at 10 ppm concentration, the root growth varied between 3.47 and 1.93 cm and the lowest root growth belonged to the treatment at 10 ppm concentration measured 1.93 ± 0.4 cm. The rising stem growth was also indicated. Fresh and dry weight analysis indicates their descending growth. The growth reduction was observed by increasing cadmium treatment at 10 ppm concentration in the study of the trait of weight and specific leaf area. Relative water content (RWC) of the leaves varies between 81 to 89 percent which represents the greatest amount of stress in the treatment at 10 ppm concentration. A notable decline in transport from the root to stem and a significant reduction in plant tolerance index were observed through the analysis of transfer factor and tolerance index in plants. The process of reducing metal transition from the root to stem has become slower by increasing the substance concentration. Basil can absorb and accumulate cadmium and its root is able to accumulate more quantity of the metal than its stem. The morphological signs of cadmium toxicity are remarkable through discolored roots, shortening the distance between nodes, creating an amorphous spots on the leaves, reducing the leaves extent and a slight pallor of the leaves. (author)

  16. A comparison of nitrate level in spinach grown both under different densities in aquaponic system and under natural growth conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan Mihai PETREA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available As bio-integrated systems that link both plants and fish culture, inside aquaponic systems, the processes of ammonia-oxidizing and nitrification in nitrite and nitrate are essential for growth and development of both fish and plants culture biomass. Plants with nearly the same nutritional requirements during their life cycle, like spinach in our case, are recommended to be grown under aquaponic conditions. Although nitrates concentrations up to 200 – 250mg/l are reported to be acceptable for fish growth, in the last years the toxic effect of long term exposure to high nitrate levels on fish and plants cultured biomass were highlighted. The main goal of the present study is to compare the nitrate level of spinach, grown in an aquaponic system, under three plant densities (V1 - 59 plants/m2, V2 - 48plants/m2 and V3 – 39 plants/m2. The second objective is to compare the results obtained, in term of nitrate content, for spinach grown in the integrated rainbow trout – spinach aquaponic system with those of marketable spinach, grown under conventional condition, in the field. The experimental design consists in a recirculating aquaculture system with 12 growing units, mechanical and biological water treatment units and four aquaponic units. Fish were fed with two types of feed with 41% and 50% protein, using 3 different feeding regimes. The results show a higher nitrate level on spinach grown in aquaponic system, compared to the one derived from field culture. Differences were observed also among the three variants grown in aquaponic conditions, under different plant densities. As a conclusion, it can be said that considering the nitrate level, spinach grown in aquaponic system is marketable.

  17. Morphological and proteomic responses of Eruca sativa exposed to silver nanoparticles or silver nitrate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candida Vannini

    Full Text Available Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs are widely used in commercial products, and there are growing concerns about their impact on the environment. Information about the molecular interaction of AgNPs with plants is lacking. To increase our understanding of the mechanisms involved in plant responses to AgNPs and to differentiate between particle specific and ionic silver effects we determined the morphological and proteomic changes induced in Eruca sativa (commonly called rocket in response to AgNPs or AgNO3. Seedlings were treated for 5 days with different concentrations of AgNPs or AgNO3. A similar increase in root elongation was observed when seedlings were exposed to 10 mg Ag L(1 of either PVP-AgNPs or AgNO3. At this concentration we performed electron microscopy investigations and 2-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE proteomic profiling. The low level of overlap of differentially expressed proteins indicates that AgNPs and AgNO3 cause different plant responses. Both Ag treatments cause changes in proteins involved in the redox regulation and in the sulfur metabolism. These responses could play an important role to maintain cellular homeostasis. Only the AgNP exposure cause the alteration of some proteins related to the endoplasmic reticulum and vacuole indicating these two organelles as targets of the AgNPs action. These data add further evidences that the effects of AgNPs are not simply due to the release of Ag ions.

  18. Chelating effect of silver nitrate by chitosan on its toxicity and growth performance in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yemdjie Mane Divine Doriane

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted to investigate the chelating effect of silver nitrate (AgNO3 by chitosan on growth performances, hematological and biochemical parameters, and the histopathological structure of the liver and the kidney in broiler chicken. Materials and methods: A total of 192 day-old Cobb 500 strain chicks were randomly assigned to 3 treatments of 64 chicks each. Control group was fed on basal diet without supplement (R0 and the two others groups were fed on rations supplemented with 10 mg of unchelated (RAg or chelated (RCs-Ag AgNO3 per Kg of feed, respectively. Parameters that have been studied consisted of feed intake, weight gain, blood and serum biochemical, and histopathological analyses of liver and kidney. Results: Results revealed that chelation of AgNO3 by chitosan did not have any effect on growth performances and hematological parameters in chicken. However, chelated and unchelated AgNO3 increased the serum content in triglyceride, and cholesterol and decreased the serum content in creatinin, albumin and alanine aminotransferase (ALAT. Chelating AgNO3 with chitosan prevented and corrected the toxicity induced on the histological structure of liver and kidney. Conclusion: Chitosan can be used as a chelating agent to alleviate the harmful effects of AgNO3 as silver ion for poultry. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2017; 4(2.000: 187-193

  19. EMERGENCE, GROWTH AND PRODUCTION OF SESAME UNDER SALT STRESS AND PROPORTIONS OF NITRATE AND AMMONIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADAAN SUDARIO DIAS

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In arid and semi - arid regions, the quality of irrigation water varies in geographic terms and during the year, and the occurrence of water with high concentrations of salts is common. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate the emergence, growth and production of sesame, cultivar CNPA G3, irrigated with saline water and fertilized with N of different carrier proportions by the ratio of nitrate and ammonium ( NO 3 - - N and NH 4 + - N in an experiment conducted in lysimeters arranged in a greenhouse in the municipality of Campina Grande - PB, Brazil. The treatments were distributed into randomized blocks using a 5 × 5 factorial scheme relative to levels of irrigation water salinity (ECw; 0.6, 1.2, 1.8, 2.4 and 3.0 dS m - 1 and five proportions of NO 3 - - N/NH 4 + - N (200/0; 150/50; 100/100; 50/150 and 0/200 mg of N kg - 1 , with three replicates. The increase in ECw compromised the emergence, growth and production of sesame, cultivar CNPA G3, and the production components were the most sensitive variables. The highest growth in diameter was obtained with the proportion of 200/0 mg kg - 1 of NO 3 - - N /NH 4 + - N . An ECw level of 3.0 dS m - 1 and fertilization with 0/200 mg kg - 1 of NO 3 - - N /NH 4 + - N promoted deleterious effects on the total mass of sesame fruits and mass of seeds. The interaction between water salinity levels and NO 3 - /NH 4 + proportions significantly affected the number of leaves (at 50 and 70 days after sowing, the total mass of fruits and the mass of seeds.

  20. Growth, structure, morphology, and magnetic properties of Ni ferrite films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chunhui; Wang, Gaoxue; Guo, Dangwei; Jiang, Changjun; Xue, Desheng

    2013-04-27

    The morphology, structure, and magnetic properties of nickel ferrite (NiFe2O4) films fabricated by radio frequency magnetron sputtering on Si(111) substrate have been investigated as functions of film thickness. Prepared films that have not undergone post-annealing show the better spinel crystal structure with increasing growth time. Meanwhile, the size of grain also increases, which induces the change of magnetic properties: saturation magnetization increased and coercivity increased at first and then decreased. Note that the sample of 10-nm thickness is the superparamagnetic property. Transmission electron microscopy displays that the film grew with a disorder structure at initial growth, then forms spinel crystal structure as its thickness increases, which is relative to lattice matching between substrate Si and NiFe2O4.

  1. Glucagon Amyloid-like Fibril Morphology Is Selected via Morphology-Dependent Growth Inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, C.B.; Otzen, D.; Christiansen, Gunna

    2007-01-01

    Protein Structure and Biophysics, Novo Nordisk A/S, Novo Nordisk Park, DK-2760 Malov, Denmark, Centre for Insoluble Protein Structures (inSPIN), Department of Life Sciences, Aalborg University, Sohngaardsholmsvej 49, DK-9000 Aalborg, Denmark, and Institute of Medical Microbiology and Immunology...... twisted fibril seeds cannot grow at high concentrations. We conclude that there exists a morphology-dependent mechanism for inhibition of glucagon fibril growth. Light scattering experiments indicate that glucagon is mainly monomeric below 1 mg/mL and increasingly trimeric above this concentration. We...

  2. ECO and RESOLVE: Morphology and Disk Growth in Environmental Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffett, Amanda J.; Kannappan, Sheila; Berlind, Andreas A.; Eckert, Kathleen D.; Stark, David; Hendel, David; Norris, Mark A.; Grogin, Norman A.; RESOLVE Team

    2016-01-01

    We present the first data release of the Environmental COntext (ECO) catalog, which was designed to surround and complement the RESOLVE survey with matched photometry, gas and stellar mass estimates, and environment metrics for ~13,000 galaxies in a >500,000 cubic Mpc volume. In the first results from ECO, we study the phenomenon of galaxy disk growth by considering by-eye and quantitative morphological classifications as well as galaxy environments quantified using group identifications and halo abundance matching (on integrated r-band luminosity) as well as smoothed galaxy density fields. Additionally, we derive HI gas masses and upper limits from ALFALFA data and HI mass estimates from the photometric gas fraction technique. We find that blue early-type (E/S0) galaxies, gas-dominated galaxies, and UV-bright disk host galaxies all become distinctly more common below group halo mass ˜10^11.5 Msun, implying that this low group halo mass regime may be a preferred regime for significant disk growth activity. We also find that blue early-type and blue late-type galaxies inhabit environments of similar group halo mass at fixed baryonic mass, consistent with a scenario in which blue early types can regrow late-type disks. More generally, we argue that the traditional morphology-environment relation (i.e., that denser environments have more early types) can be largely attributed to the morphology-galaxy mass relation for centrals and the color-environment relation for satellites. This work has been supported through NSF grant AST-0955368.

  3. Effect of growth plate geometry and growth direction on prediction of proximal femoral morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Priti; Shefelbine, Sandra J; Gutierrez-Farewik, Elena M

    2016-06-14

    Mechanical stimuli play a significant role in the process of endochondral growth. Thus far, approaches to understand the endochondral mechanical growth rate have been limited to the use of approximated location and geometry of the growth plate. Furthermore, growth has been simulated based on the average deflection of the growth plate or of the femoral neck. It has also been reported in the literature that the growth plate lies parallel to one of the principal stresses acting on it, to reduce the shear between epiphysis and diaphysis. Hence the current study objectives were (1) to evaluate the significance of a subject-specific finite element model of the femur and growth plate compared to a simplified growth plate model and (2) to explore the different growth direction models to better understand proximal femoral growth mechanisms. A subject-specific finite element model of an able-bodied 7-year old child was developed. The muscle forces and hip contact force were computed for one gait cycle and applied to a finite element model to determine the specific growth rate. Proximal femoral growth was simulated for two different growth direction models: femoral neck deflection direction and principal stress direction. The principal stress direction model captured the expected tendency for decreasing the neck shaft angle and femoral anteversion for both growth plate models. The results of this study suggest that the subject-specific geometry and consideration of the principal stress direction as growth direction may be a more realistic approach for correct prediction of proximal femoral growth morphology. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Disguised as a sulfate reducer: Growth of the Deltaproteobacterium Desulfurivibrio alkaliphilus by Sulfide Oxidation with Nitrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Casper; Schramm, Andreas; Findlay, Alyssa Jean Lehsau

    2017-01-01

    This study demonstrates that the deltaproteobacterium Desulfurivibrio alkaliphilus can grow chemolithotrophically by coupling sulfide oxidation to the dissimilatory reduction of nitrate and nitrite to ammonium. Key genes of known sulfide oxidation pathways are absent from the genome of D...... of the sulfate reduction pathway. This is the first study providing evidence that a reductive-type DSR is involved in a sulfide oxidation pathway. Transcriptome sequencing further suggests that nitrate reduction to ammonium is performed by a novel type of periplasmic nitrate reductase and an unusual membrane......-anchored nitrite reductase....

  5. Organic matrix based slow release fertilizer enhances plant growth, nitrate assimilation and seed yield of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vinod K; Singh, Rana P

    2011-09-01

    Field experiments were conducted to study the effect of organic matrix based slow release fertilizers (SRFs) on plant growth, nitrate assimilation and seed yield of Brassica juncea L. cv, pusa bold. The agro-waste materials like cow dung, clay soil, neem leaves and rice bran were mixed together in 2:2:1:1 ratio and used as organic matrix for the immobilization of chemical fertilizer nutrients with commercial grade saresh (Acacia gum, 15% solution) as binder. Different fertilizer treatments were organic matrix based slow release fertilizers, SRF-I (542.0 kg ha(-1)); SRF-II (736.5 kg ha(-1)) and chemical fertilizer combinations, boron (3 kg ha(-1))+sulphur (15 kg ha(-1))+nitrogen (80 kg ha(-1)) and boron (3 kg ha(-1)) + sulphur (15 kg ha(-1))+nitrogen (80 kg ha(-1))+phosphorus (15 kg ha(-1))+potassium (100 kg ha(-1)). Organic matrix based SRF-II released ammonium up to 50-d in wetsoil under laboratory conditions which showed maximum retention of the nutrients. Avery significant increase in plant growth, nitrate assimilation and seed yield was recorded in organic matrix based SRF-II applied plants. The maximum percent increase in biomass production was observed with organic matrix based SRF-II (increase of 65.8% in root fresh weight, 38.0% in root dry weight, 45.9% in leaf fresh weight plant(-1) and 27.5 % in leaf dry weight plant(-1) in 60-d old plants). It also increased the acquisition and assimilation of nitrate from the plant's rhizosphere which was evident by 45.6% increase in nitrate, 27.5% in nitrite and 11.7% in nitrate reductase activity (NRA) in leaves of 45-d old plants over control. The organic matrix based SRF-II significantly increased the seed yield by 28% in Indian mustard. Cost analysis revealed thatthis formulation is cost effective as it is based on agro waste materials.

  6. Growth and Chlorophyll Content of Canola Plants Supplied with Urea and Ammonium Nitrate in Response to Various Nickel Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad BYBORDI

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Both the beneficial and the adverse effects of various nickel level supplements on growth and chlorophyll content of canola plants were evaluated while either urea or ammonium nitrate was supplied as the sole N source in the nutrient solutions. This study was arranged in completely randomized with three replications. Treatments included nutrient solution cultures containing urea and ammonium nitrate at the rate of 84 mg N L-1 separately as nitrogen sources with four nickel levels as NiSO4.6H2O at the rates of 0, 0.01, 0.05 and 0.1 mg Ni L-1. Plants were allowed to grow for 6 weeks then leaves chlorophyll content and shoots and roots fresh and dry weight were determined. Both plant growth and leaves chlorophyll content of the urea-fed plants increased significantly with the increase in nickel content up to 0.1 mg Ni L-1. However, root fresh and dry weight increased up to 0.01 mg Ni L-1 and started to decrease with further increase in solutions nickel content. Nickel did not affect these parameters with plants supplied with ammonium nitrate significantly. In these plants, the optimum nickel level for shoot growth and leaves chlorophyll content was 0.05 mg L-1 and for root fresh and dry weight was 0.01 mg Ni L-1. Further increase in Ni concentration reduced growth. As a whole, plants received urea plus nickel performed better than those received ammonium nitrate plus nickel.

  7. Morphology and physiology of the epiphyseal growth plate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Klepacz

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The epiphyseal growth plate develops from the cartilaginous-orientated mesenchymal cells that express SOX family genes. This multilayer structure is formed by the proliferation and hypertrophy of cells that synthesize the extracellular matrix composed of collagen (mainly type II, IX, X, XI and proteoglycans (aggrecan, decorin, annexin II, V and VI. The resting zone is responsible for protein synthesis and maintaining a germinal structure. In the proliferative zone, cells rapidly duplicate. The subsequent morphological changes take place in the transformation zone, divided into the upper and lower hypertrophic layers. In the degenerative zone, the mineralization process becomes intensive due to increased release of alkaline phosphate, calcium and matrix vesicles by terminally differentiated chondrocytes and some other factors e.g., metaphyseal ingrowth vessels. At this level, as well as in the primary and secondary spongiosa zones, chondrocytes undergo apoptosis and are physiologically eliminated. Unlike adult cartilage, in fetal and early formed growth plates, unusual forms such as authophagal bodies, paralysis and dark chondrocytes were also observed. Their ultrastructure differs greatly from apoptotic and normal cartilage cells. Chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation are regulated by various endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine agents such as growth, thyroid and sex hormones, beta-catenin, bone morphogenetic proteins, insulin-like growth factor, iodothyronine deiodinase, leptin, nitric oxide, transforming growth factor beta and vitamin D metabolites. However, the most significant factor is parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP which is synthesized in the perichondrium by terminally differentiated chondrocytes. Secondary to activation of PTH/PTHrP receptors, PTHrP stimulates cell proliferation by G protein activation and delays their transformation into prehypertrophic and hypertrophic chondrocytes. When proliferation is completed

  8. Direct observation of morphological evolution of a catalyst during carbon nanotube forest growth: new insights into growth and growth termination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seojeong; Lee, Jaegeun; Kim, Hwan-Chul; Hwang, Jun Yeon; Ku, Bon-Cheol; Zakharov, Dmitri N.; Maruyama, Benji; Stach, Eric A.; Kim, Seung Min

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we develop a new methodology for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis that enables us to directly investigate the interface between carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays and the catalyst and support layers for CNT forest growth without any damage induced by a post-growth TEM sample preparation. Using this methodology, we perform in situ and ex situ TEM investigations on the evolution of the morphology of the catalyst particles and observe the catalyst particles to climb up through CNT arrays during CNT forest growth. We speculate that the lifted catalysts significantly affect the growth and growth termination of CNT forests along with Ostwald ripening and sub-surface diffusion. Thus, we propose a modified growth termination model which better explains various phenomena related to the growth and growth termination of CNT forests.In this study, we develop a new methodology for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis that enables us to directly investigate the interface between carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays and the catalyst and support layers for CNT forest growth without any damage induced by a post-growth TEM sample preparation. Using this methodology, we perform in situ and ex situ TEM investigations on the evolution of the morphology of the catalyst particles and observe the catalyst particles to climb up through CNT arrays during CNT forest growth. We speculate that the lifted catalysts significantly affect the growth and growth termination of CNT forests along with Ostwald ripening and sub-surface diffusion. Thus, we propose a modified growth termination model which better explains various phenomena related to the growth and growth termination of CNT forests. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr05547d

  9. Growth models for morphological traits of sunn hemp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Marques de Bem

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to fit Gompertz and Logistic nonlinear to descriptions of morphological traits of sunn hemp. Two uniformity trials were conducted and the crops received identical treatment in all experimental area. Sunn hemp seeds were sown in rows 0.5 m apart with a plant density of 20 plants per row meter in a usable area of 52 m × 50 m. The following morphological traits were evaluated: plant height (PH, number of leaves (NL, stem diameter (SD, and root length (RL. These traits were assessed daily during two sowing periods—seeds were sown on October 22, 2014 (first period and December 3, 2014 (second period. Four plants were randomly collected daily, beginning 7 days after first period and 13 days after for second period, totaling 94 and 76 evaluation days, respectively. For Gompertz models the equation was used y=a*e^((?-e?^((b-c*xiand Logistic models the equation was used yi= a/(1+e^((-b-c*xi. The inflection points of the Gompertz and Logistic models were calculated and the goodness of fit was quantified using the adjusted coefficient of determination, Akaike information criterion, standard deviation of residuals, mean absolute deviation, mean absolute percentage error, and mean prediction error. Differences were observed between the Gompertz and Logistic models and between the experimental periods in the parameter estimate for all morphological traits measured. Satisfactory growth curve fittings were achieved for plant height, number of leaves, and stem diameter in both models using the evaluation criteria: coefficient of determination (R², Akaike information criterion (AIC, standard deviation of residuals (SDR, mean absolute deviation (MAD, mean absolute percentage error (MAPE, and mean prediction error (MPE.

  10. Metabolomic Profiling of 13 Diatom Cultures and Their Adaptation to Nitrate-Limited Growth Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz A Bromke

    Full Text Available Diatoms are very efficient in their use of available nutrients. Changes in nutrient availability influence the metabolism and the composition of the cell constituents. Since diatoms are valuable candidates to search for oil producing algae, measurements of diatom-produced compounds can be very useful for biotechnology. In order to explore the diversity of lipophilic compounds produced by diatoms, we describe the results from an analysis of 13 diatom strains. With the help of a lipidomics platform, which combines an UPLC separation with a high resolution/high mass accuracy mass spectrometer, we were able to measure and annotate 142 lipid species. Out of these, 32 were present in all 13 cultures. The annotated lipid features belong to six classes of glycerolipids. The data obtained from the measurements were used to create lipidomic profiles. The metabolomic overview of analysed cultures is amended by the measurement of 96 polar compounds. To further increase the lipid diversity and gain insight into metabolomic adaptation to nitrogen limitation, diatoms were cultured in media with high and low concentrations of nitrate. The growth in nitrogen-deplete or nitrogen-replete conditions affects metabolite accumulation but has no major influence on the species-specific metabolomic profile. Thus, the genetic component is stronger in determining metabolic patterns than nitrogen levels. Therefore, lipid profiling is powerful enough to be used as a molecular fingerprint for diatom cultures. Furthermore, an increase of triacylglycerol (TAG accumulation was observed in low nitrogen samples, although this trend was not consistent across all 13 diatom strains. Overall, our results expand the current understanding of metabolomics diversity in diatoms and confirm their potential value for producing lipids for either bioenergy or as feed stock.

  11. Metabolomic Profiling of 13 Diatom Cultures and Their Adaptation to Nitrate-Limited Growth Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromke, Mariusz A.; Sabir, Jamal S.; Alfassi, Fahad A.; Hajarah, Nahid H.; Kabli, Saleh A.; Al-Malki, Abdulrahman L.; Ashworth, Matt P.; Méret, Michaël; Jansen, Robert K.; Willmitzer, Lothar

    2015-01-01

    Diatoms are very efficient in their use of available nutrients. Changes in nutrient availability influence the metabolism and the composition of the cell constituents. Since diatoms are valuable candidates to search for oil producing algae, measurements of diatom-produced compounds can be very useful for biotechnology. In order to explore the diversity of lipophilic compounds produced by diatoms, we describe the results from an analysis of 13 diatom strains. With the help of a lipidomics platform, which combines an UPLC separation with a high resolution/high mass accuracy mass spectrometer, we were able to measure and annotate 142 lipid species. Out of these, 32 were present in all 13 cultures. The annotated lipid features belong to six classes of glycerolipids. The data obtained from the measurements were used to create lipidomic profiles. The metabolomic overview of analysed cultures is amended by the measurement of 96 polar compounds. To further increase the lipid diversity and gain insight into metabolomic adaptation to nitrogen limitation, diatoms were cultured in media with high and low concentrations of nitrate. The growth in nitrogen-deplete or nitrogen-replete conditions affects metabolite accumulation but has no major influence on the species-specific metabolomic profile. Thus, the genetic component is stronger in determining metabolic patterns than nitrogen levels. Therefore, lipid profiling is powerful enough to be used as a molecular fingerprint for diatom cultures. Furthermore, an increase of triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation was observed in low nitrogen samples, although this trend was not consistent across all 13 diatom strains. Overall, our results expand the current understanding of metabolomics diversity in diatoms and confirm their potential value for producing lipids for either bioenergy or as feed stock. PMID:26440112

  12. Growth and morphology of thermophilic dairy starters in alginate beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamboley, Laurence; St-Gelais, Daniel; Champagne, Claude P; Lamoureux, Maryse

    2003-06-01

    The aim of this research was to produce concentrated biomasses of thermophilic lactic starters using immobilized cell technology (ICT). Fermentations were carried out in milk using pH control with cells microentrapped in alginate beads. In the ICT fermentations, beads represented 17% of the weight. Some assays were carried out with free cells without pH control, in order to compare the ICT populations with those of classical starters. With Streptococcus thermophilus, overall populations in the fermentor were similar, but maximum bead population for (8.2 x 10(9) cfu/g beads) was 13 times higher than that obtained in a traditional starter (4.9 x 10(8) cfu/ml). For both Lactobacillus helveticus strains studied, immobilized-cell populations were about 3 x 10(9) cfu/g beads. Production of immobilized Lb. bulgaricus 210R strain was not possible, since no increases in viable counts occurred in beads. Therefore, production of concentrated cell suspension in alginate beads was more effective for S. thermophilus. Photomicrographs of cells in alginate beads demonstrated that, while the morphology of S. thermophilus remained unchanged during the ICT fermentation, immobilized cells of Lb. helveticus appeared wider. In addition, cells of Lb. bulgaricus were curved and elongated. These morphological changes would also impair the growth of immobilized lactobacilli.

  13. Effect of Nitrogen Level on Growth, and Relationships between Petiole Nitrate Level, Leaf Chlorophyll Index, and Hypocotyl Nitrate Level of Radish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Harfi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was measuring nitrate and leaf chlorophyll content in aerial parts of plant, from which we can predict the hypocotyl nitrate content of radish. A factorial experiment in a completely randomized design with five replicates was carried out on two varieties of radish (Cherry Belle and Sparker. Plants were grown in perlite containing pots and were treated with five levels of N (0, 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/l. Vegetative traits including leaf area, leaf and hypocotyl fresh and dry weight, hypocotyl length and diameter, and hypocotyl and petiole nitrate levels in fresh and dry matter, soluble solids in hypocotyl and petioles, and leaf chlorophyll index were measured. A positive correlation between leaf chlorophyll index and nitrate level in hypocotyl dry matter was observed at harvest time (r2 sparkler = 0.841, r2 cherry belle = 0.869. Significant positive correlations were also found between hypocotyl and petiole nitrate level in fresh matter, and between leaf and nitrate level in hypocotyl dry matter. Based on equations obtained from this study, we can claim that increase per unit in petiole nitrate content could result in the increase of 0.212 and 0.266 units in hypocotyl nitrate content, respectively, in Cherry belle and Sparkler varieties. Results showed that petiole sap test is a rapid and valid technique for describing nitrate status of radish plants.

  14. Effect of NaCI and supplemental calcium on growth parameters and nitrate reductase activity in maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Sacała

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, investigated were the effects of NaCl (60 mmol/dm-3 and NaCl supplemented with different salts (5 mmol/dm-3 CaCl2, CaSO4, CaCO3, KCl, on growth of two maize varieties (Cyrkon and Limko. After 7 days of cultivation in nutrient solution the growth response to salinity of both maize varieties was similar. NaCl led to a dramatic decrease in growth of plants (approx. 50% reduction in fresh and dry weight of root, and 70% reduction in fresh weight of shoot. Addition of extra Ca2+ or K+ to nutrient solution containing NaCl did not definitely improve the growth parameters of maize. However, among the tested salts, CaCl2 had a beneficial visual effect on maize seedlings. In other cases the plants showed noticeable symptoms of salt damage. In long term exposure to salinity (two weeks growth of Cyrkon was more inhibited than Limko. Comparison of growth responses in short-term exposure to salinity (7 days with long-term (14 days showed that in Cyrkon variety the negative effects of NaCl were intensified and addition of CaCl2 to salinized solution had not positive effects on growth. On the contrary, in Limko variety, there was a significant improvement in growth (especially in root dry weight. This fact indicates that during longer exposure to salinity Limko was able to adapt to those conditions. Salinity caused a significant decrease in leaf nitrate reductase activity (60% and 30% reduction respectively in Limko and Cyrkon. Addition of CaCl2 to salinized nutrient solution resulted in greater enzyme inhibition in Cyrkon (50% decline in relation to plants grown under sole NaCl, and 30% increase in Limko. Inhibition of nitrate reductase activity did not cause a decrease in concentration of soluble protein in maize leaves.

  15. Differential nitrate accumulation, nitrate reduction, nitrate reductase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For most of the cultivated crops, nitrate is the major source of nitrogen. Most steps in the nitrate assimilatory pathway are nitrate inducible. In this study, Cucurbita pepo were grown in washed sand per pot at three potassium and sodium nitrate supplies (25, 50 and 100 mM) to investigate the effects of nitrate salts supply on ...

  16. Sustainable nitrogen fertilisation in sweet pepper: assessing growth and fruit quality and the potential nitrate pollution from different organic manures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-López, María D; del Amor, Francisco M

    2013-03-30

    The use of organic cultivation with manures does not avoid the risk of high nitrate concentrations if nutrient management is inefficient. So we studied the influence of three organic manures combined or not with additional chemical fertilisers on growth and yield of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), and on the soil and plant N concentrations. After 3 years of organic cultivation, poultry manure caused the highest soil pollution. The evolution of nitrate and organic matter in soil showed a pattern close to that of plant growth. The addition of mineral fertiliser increased vegetative growth and yield, and a cumulative season effect was observed. In treatments with no additional mineral fertiliser N translocation from leaves to fruits happened. A cumulative effect of seasons on fruit quality and a reduction near to 30% was observed in the first fruit quality category after 3 years. The fruit vitamin C content was reduced by increasing N fertilisation. The effects of organic fertiliser on soil and plant growth and yield depended on the type of manure used, its rate, and consecutive crop seasons. Horse manure gave the best combination of agricultural and environmental characteristics and could be used without additional fertigation. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Experimental and theoretical aspects of the growth and equilibrium morphology of NaNO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benages Vilau, R.; Cuevas-Diarte, M.A.; Calvet i Pallas, T. [Dept. Cristallografia, Mineralogia i Diposits Minerals, Facultat de Geologia, Universitat de Barcelona (Spain); Costa, E.; Bruno, M.; Aquilano, D. [Dipartimento di Scienze Mineralogiche e Petrologiche, Torino Univ. (Italy)

    2011-08-15

    Sodium nitrate (mineral nitratine, NaNO{sub 3}, space group R anti 3c at room temperature) is a material used in a great variety of fields, such as the molten salt technology. It is also of very interest from a crystallographic point of view, being iso-structural with calcite (CaCO{sub 3}). We performed several growth experiments in aqueous solution, near-equilibrium, with the aim of finding the ideal conditions for investigating both face-by-face growth kinetics and surface characterization, as well as the influence of K{sup +} and Li{sup +} ions on the growth morphology. Single {l_brace}10.4{r_brace} rhombohedral crystals have been systematically grown from pure aqueous solution, while {l_brace}00.1{r_brace} truncated rhombohedra were obtained in the presence of K{sup +} and Li{sup +} ions in the mother solution. When determining the theoretical equilibrium morphology of NaNO{sub 3} crystals, the {l_brace}00.1{r_brace} and {l_brace}10.4{r_brace} surfaces were studied by using the 2D-slab model and relaxed and athermal surface energies (surfaces energies at T = 0 K) were evaluated at DFT level (B3LYP Hamiltonian) by using the CRYSTAL06 package. The {l_brace}00.1{r_brace} dipolar surfaces were reconstructed by the octopolar Hartman-Lacmann's model, already proposed for NaCl-like lattices. This type of reconstruction is the only one which respects the bulk symmetry of the crystal. The octopolar Na{sup +} terminated {l_brace}00.1{r_brace} form resulted to be more stable than the NO{sub 3}{sup -} terminated one. However, the {l_brace}00.1{r_brace} form does not enter the theoretical athermal equilibrium shape of nitratine crystals, being {gamma}{sub (10.4)Na}=160, {gamma}{sub (00.1)Na}= 695 and {gamma}{sub (00.1)NO3}=1535 erg/cm{sup 2}. Finally, a simple 2D-epitaxy model is proposed to explain the appearance of NaNO{sub 3}{l_brace}00.1{r_brace} truncated rhombohedra in the presence of K{sup +} and Li{sup +} ions. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGa

  18. Effects of encapsulated nitrate on growth performance, carcass characteristics, nitrate residues in tissues, and enteric methane emissions in beef steers: Finishing phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C; Araujo, R C; Koenig, K M; Beauchemin, K A

    2017-08-01

    A finishing feedlot study was conducted with beef steers to determine effects of encapsulated nitrate (EN) on growth performance, carcass characteristics, methane production, and nitrate (NO) residues in tissues. The 132 crossbred steers were backgrounded in a feedlot for 91 d and transitioned for 28 days to the high-concentrate diets evaluated in the present study, maintaining the treatment and pen assignments designated at the start of the backgrounding period. The steers were initially assigned to 22 pens (6 animals per pen) in a randomized complete block design with BW (18 pens) and animals designated for methane measurement (4 pens) as blocking factors. Five animals in each pen designated for methane measurement (total of 20 animals) were monitored for methane emissions in respiratory chambers twice during the experiment. Pens received 3 dietary treatments (7 pens each): Control, a finishing diet supplemented with urea; 1.25% EN, control diet supplemented with 1.25% encapsulated NO in dietary DM that partially replaced urea; and 2.5% EN, control diet supplemented with 2.5% EN (DM basis) fully replacing urea. The final pen designated only for methane measurement received a fourth dietary treatment, 2.3% UEN, the control diet supplemented with unencapsulated NO (UEN) fully replacing urea. The cattle weighed 449 ± SD 32 kg at the start of the 150-d finishing period. The 2.5% EN diet decreased ( methane production (g/d) and yield (g/kg DMI) were observed among treatments. Inclusion of EN in the diets increased ( ≤ 0.03) sorting in favor of large and medium particles and against small and fine particles. Plasma NO and NO concentrations were elevated ( < 0.01) with EN in a dose-response manner, but total blood methemoglobin levels for all treatments were low, below the detection limit. Feeding EN increased ( < 0.01) NO concentrations of samples from muscle, fat, liver, and kidney; NO concentrations of these tissues were similar between 1.25% EN and 2.3% UEN. In

  19. Interfacial morphologies and growth modes of F.C.C. metallic crystals from liquid alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camel, Denis

    1980-01-01

    Equilibrium and growth morphologies of f.c.c. metallic crystals in contact with liquid alloys have been observed in-situ using transmission electron microscopy. These morphologies have been discussed in terms of atomic interfacial structure and growth mechanisms with the help of a statistical thermodynamic model which takes into account the effects of chemical interactions and interfacial adsorption. (author) [fr

  20. Misorientation characteristics of penetrating morphologies at the growth front of abnormally growing grains in aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chang-Soo; Na, Tae-Wook; Park, Hyung-Ki; Kim, Dong-Kyun; Han, Chan-Hee; Hwang, Nong-Moon

    2012-07-01

    The initial stage of abnormal grain growth of the aluminum alloy 5052 has been investigated using electron back-scattered diffraction to analyze the characteristic of misorientations of the penetrating morphology at the growth front. Among the 84 penetrating morphologies examined, none of the penetrated grain boundaries has low angles or coincidence site lattice (CSL) relations, whereas 66 penetrating grain boundaries have low angles or CSL relations. These results strongly suggest that the penetrating morphologies should result from triple-junction wetting.

  1. Novel multiform morphologies of hydroxyapatite: Synthesis and growth mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary, I. Reeta; Sonia, S.; Viji, S.; Mangalaraj, D.; Viswanathan, C.; Ponpandian, N.

    2016-01-01

    Morphological evolution of materials becomes a prodigious challenge due to their key role in defining their functional properties and desired applications. Herein, we report the synthesis of hydroxyapatite (HAp) microstructures with multiform morphologies, such as spheres, cubes, hexagonal rods and nested bundles constructed from their respective nanoscale building blocks via a simple cost effective hydro/solvothermal method. A possible formation mechanism of diverse morphologies of HAp has been presented. Structural analysis based on X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy confirms the purity of the HAp microstructures. The multiform morphologies of HAp were corroborated by using Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM).

  2. Differential nitrate accumulation, nitrate reduction, nitrate reductase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-07

    Dec 7, 2011 ... nitrate salts supply on nitrate accumulation, amino acid biosynthesis, total protein production, nitrate reductase activity and carbohydrate biosynthesis in the roots and leaves of the plants. The results indicate that both sodium and potassium nitrate supplementation had stimulatory effects on all of the.

  3. Systematic study of influence of growth parameters on island morphology during molecular beam epitaxy growth: A Monte Carlo study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shankar Prasad Shrestha; Park, C.-Y.

    2006-05-01

    We have made a systematic study of influence of diffusion flux ratio (D/F), diffusional anisotropy (DA) and sticking anisotropy (SA) on island morphology to show the influence of each growth parameter on island morphology in presence of the other growth parameters. Our results show that the influence of D/F ratio and DA on island morphology depends on the sticking anisotropy of the adatoms. At the intermediate anisotropic case, increase in D/F ratio results in transition of the island morphology from 1d nature to 2 d nature. In anisotropic diffusion case, D/F ratio can change the growth direction of the island morphology. We also find that only sticking anisotropy is not sufficient to produce elongated islands, low D/F ratio is also essential. (author)

  4. EFFECT OF SODIUM DODECYLBENZENESULFONIC ACID (SDBS ON THE GROWTH RATE AND MORPHOLOGY OF BORAX CRYSTAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suharso Suharso

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of the effect of sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (SDBS on both growth rate and morphology of borax crystal has been carried out.  This experiment was carried out at temperature of 25 °C and relative supersaturation of 0.21 and 0.74 under in situ cell optical microscopy method.  The result shows that SDBS inhibits the growth rate and changes the morphology of borax crystal.   Keywords: Borax; growth rate; crystallization, SDBS

  5. Fertilization with urea, ammonium and nitrate produce different effects on growth, hydraulic traits and drought tolerance in Pinus taeda seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faustino, Laura I; Moretti, Ana P; Graciano, Corina

    2015-10-01

    Urea fertilization decreases Pinus taeda L. growth in clay soils of subtropical areas. The negative effect of urea is related to changes in some hydraulic traits, similar to those observed in plants growing under drought. The aims of this work were (i) to determine whether different sources of nitrogen applied as fertilizers produce similar changes in growth and hydraulic traits to those observed by urea fertilization and (ii) to analyze the impact of those changes in plant drought tolerance. Plants fertilized with urea, nitrate [Formula: see text] or ammonium [Formula: see text] were grown well watered or with reduced water supply. Urea and [Formula: see text] fertilization reduced plant growth and increased root hydraulic conductance scaled by root dry weight (DW). [Formula: see text] fertilization did not reduce plant growth and increased shoot hydraulic conductance and stem hydraulic conductivity. We conclude that [Formula: see text] is the ion involved in the changes linked to the negative effect of urea fertilization on P. taeda growth. [Formula: see text] fertilization does not change drought susceptibility and it produces changes in shoot hydraulic traits, therefore plants avoid the depressive effect of fertilization. Urea and [Formula: see text] fertilizers induce changes in DW and root hydraulic conductance and consequently plants are less affected by drought. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Silver Nitrate and Different Culture Vessels Influence High Frequency Microrhizome Induction In Vitro and Enhancement Growth of Turmeric Plantlet During Ex Vitro Acclimatization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dikash Singh THINGBAIJAM

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Eleven cultivars of C. longa var. Lakadong were collected from Manipur having different topography. Curcumin content in different cultivars has been analyzed by using UV-Visible Spectrophotometer (100 Bio-Carry Spectrophotometer. The curcuminoids content were analyzed and quantified for identification of best quality cultivar. Thoubal Cultivar with highest curcumin content (9.44% was subjected for tissue culture technique using different culture vessels and silver nitrate for rapid multiplication and scaling up of microrhizome production. High multiplication rate of 27.400.47 were obtained in Murashige and Skoogs medium supplemented with 3% sucrose + 1 mg L-1 ?-napthalene acetic acid, 4 mg L-1 6-benzyl-amino-purine and 11 ?M silver nitrate. Effect of different culture vessels and silver nitrate were studied for microrhizome and multiple shoots formation. Relatively higher rate of shoots along with microrhizome (17.50.32 can be seen in Growtek which was grown without any plant growth regulator. Growtek was used for scaling up of microrhizome production in vitro and utmost microrhizome was produced in liquid Murashige and Skoogs medium supplemented with 8% sucrose, 1 mg L-1 ?-napthalene acetic acid, 4 mg L-1 6-benzyl-amino-purine and 11 ?M silver nitrate (36.250.27. Addition of silver nitrate in the medium resulted in improvement of microrhizome induction in vitro. Higher concentration of silver nitrate (33, 44, 66, 88 ?M negatively affected the microrhizome and shoot multiplication and shows inhibition of tissue response completely. Analysis of in vitro derived plantlets during acclimatization shows that the exogenous applied of silver nitrate shows superior growth as compared to control. 90-95% of plantlets with and 75-80% plantlets without silver nitrate treatment were successfully established under ex vitro acclimatization. The protocol could be utilized for large scale production of true-to-type plantlets and as alternative method to step

  7. Iron availability, nitrate uptake, and exportable new production in the subarctic Pacific. [phytoplankton population growth support and atmospheric CO2 removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banse, Karl

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a critique of experimental data and papers by Martin et al. (1989, 1990), who suggested that the phytoplankton growth is iron-limited and that, small additions of iron to large subarctic ocean areas might be a way of removing significant amounts of atmospheric CO2 by increasing phytoplancton growth. Data are presented to show that, in the summer of 1987, the phytoplankton assemblage as a whole was not iron limited, as measured by the bulk removal of nitrate or by the increase of chlorophyll. It is suggested that grazing normally prevents the phytoplankton from reaching concentrations that reduce the iron (and nitrate) to levels that depress division rates drastically.

  8. Effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on root morphology of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-03

    Oct 3, 2011 ... morphology etc, and are also useful in cutting down the cost of chemical fertilizers. The present investigation was ... flavoring agent, as a source of vegetable oils and also for preparing textile dye in the Far East, ... technique and comparison among mean values of treatments was made by Duncan's Multiple ...

  9. Crystal growth and morphology of calcium oxalates and carbonates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijnen, W.M.M.

    1986-01-01

    The main purpose of the research described in this thesis is to establish a relationship between the crystal structure and morphology of calcium oxalate and calcium carbonate crystals grown from aqueous solutions. Starting point is the PBC (Periodic Bond Chain) theory formulated by Hartman and

  10. Growth requirement for N as a criterion to assess the effects of physical manipulation on nitrate uptake fluxes in spinach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Steege, MW; Stulen, [No Value; Wiersema, PK; Paans, AJM; Vaalburg, W; Kuiper, PJC; Clarkson, DT

    The effects of physical manipulation of hydroponically grown plants of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L., cvs Subito and Glares) on nitrate uptake fluxes were studied in a long-term experiment (3 days), and in short-term label experiments (2 h) with N-13-nitrate and N-15-nitrate. In the long-term

  11. Cellular Automaton Simulation of Tumour Growth – Equivocal Relationships between Simulation Parameters and Morphologic Pattern Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Smolle

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To develop an interpretation procedure which estimates simulation parameters (tumour cell motility, tumour cell adhesion, autocrine and paracrine growth control, stroma destruction of simulated patterns solely based on morphometric features of the morphologic pattern.

  12. Modeling of crystal morphology : growth simulation on facets in arbitrary orientations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerrigter, Stephan Xander Mattheus

    2003-01-01

    Many aspects of crystal morphology modeling are studied in this thesis. Most important of all, is the dependence of crystal growth on supersaturation--the driving force for crystallization--which not only influences the crystal morphology, but also polymorphism and nucleation. It is shown that an

  13. Cellular Automaton Simulation of Tumour Growth ? Equivocal Relationships between Simulation Parameters and Morphologic Pattern Features

    OpenAIRE

    Smolle, Josef

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To develop an interpretation procedure which estimates simulation parameters (tumour cell motility, tumour cell adhesion, autocrine and paracrine growth control, stroma destruction) of simulated patterns solely based on morphometric features of the morphologic pattern. Methods: A cellular automaton computer simulation program was developed which produces morphologic patterns by growth of a seed of tumour cells. At the beginning of each simulation run certain simulation parameters a...

  14. Differential nitrate accumulation, nitrate reduction, nitrate reductase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-07

    Dec 7, 2011 ... reductase activity and nitrite accumulation depend on the exogenous nitrate. Nitrite itself is reduced to ammonium by palstidic nitrite reductase. Nitrite reductase is activated by both nitrate and nitrite ions by positive feed forward, whereas nitrate metabolites, most likely ammonium and glutamine; down.

  15. Skin morphological changes in growth hormone deficiency and acromegaly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Merete Wolder; Thulesen, J; Feldt-Rasmussen, U

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the histomorphology of skin and its appendages, especially eccrine sweat glands, in patients with GH disorders, because reduced sweating ability in patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is associated with increased risk of hyperthermia under stressed conditions....

  16. Influence of growth parameters on the surface morphology and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Kumagawa M, Witt A F, Lichtensteiger M and Gatos H C 1973. J. Electrochem. Soc. 130 583. Kuphal E 1991 Appl. Phys. A52 380. Mattes B L and Route R K 1974 J. Cryst. Growth 27 133. McConville C F, Whitehouse C R, Williams G M, Cullis A G,. Ashley T, Skonick M S, Brown G T and Courtney S J 1989. J. Cryst. Growth ...

  17. Skin morphological changes in growth hormone deficiency and acromegaly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Merete Wolder; Thulesen, J; Feldt-Rasmussen, U

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the histomorphology of skin and its appendages, especially eccrine sweat glands, in patients with GH disorders, because reduced sweating ability in patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is associated with increased risk of hyperthermia under stressed conditions.......To evaluate the histomorphology of skin and its appendages, especially eccrine sweat glands, in patients with GH disorders, because reduced sweating ability in patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is associated with increased risk of hyperthermia under stressed conditions....

  18. African Jobless Growth Morphology:Vulnerabilities and Policy Responses

    OpenAIRE

    NWAOBI, GODWIN

    2013-01-01

    As by product of economic growth, jobs are indeed transformational. In other words, efficiency increases as workers get better at what they do (as more productive jobs appear and less productive one disappear). In fact societies flourish as jobs bring together people from different ethnic and social backgrounds while providing alternatives to conflict. Unfortunately, in many African countries, unemployment rates are low and growth is seldom jobless. Regrettably, most of the poor work long ho...

  19. [Morphological character of growth cycle for Epimedium acuminatim and icariin content analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tao; Xiong, Hou-Xi; Lin, Ge; Jiang, Wei-Ke; Guo, Lan-Ping; Lei, Min; Chen, Chuan-Yi; Zhang, Xiao-Bo

    2014-01-01

    To study the relationship between morphological characteristics of growth cycle for Epimedium acuminatium and accumulation level of secondary metabolites. After making habitat clear, methods of morphology observation, specimen preparation, organism charting were applied to record morphological characteristics of E. acuminatium at different stages. HPLC was employed to detect icariin content of different parts of the plant at the stage of vegetative growth and sexual reproduction. The growth cycle of E. acuminatium was divided into vegetative growth stage and sexual and asexual reproduction coexistence stage. Seven to eight years were needed for the plants flowering and seeding of E. acuminatimcan in open land of forest edge, but within good nutrition conditions, growth cycle is shortened into three to four years. The difference of icariin content in two growth stages was not significant. Morphological change of lower and foliar organ can be utilized to estimate growth age. But after applying sexual propagation for both root and stem of grown plants, it's been difficult to determine their growth year. If individual biomass or yield is economical, plants can be harvested in both vegetative growth and sexual reproduction stages.

  20. The Effect of Potassium Nitrate on the Reduction of Phytophthora Stem Rot Disease of Soybeans, the Growth Rate and Zoospore Release of Phytophthora Sojae

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of potassium nitrate (KNO3) application on Phytophthora stem rot disease reduction of Glycine max (L.) Merr. cvs. Chusei-Hikarikuro and Sachiyutaka, and fungal growth and zoospore release of a Phytophthora sojae isolate were investigated under laboratory conditions. The application of 4-...

  1. Effects of NaCl salinity on nitrate uptake and partitioning of N and C in Festuca rubra L. in relation to growth rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rubinigg, M; Elzenga, JTM; Stulen, G

    2002-01-01

    The effect of salinity on nitrate net uptake rate was studied in the moderately salt tolerant halophyte Festuca rubra L., in relation to changes in relative growth rate, root weight ratio and nitrogen and carbon partitioning. Plants were grown for 21 days on nutrient solution containing 50, 100 and

  2. Effects of ammonium to nitrate ratio on growth, nitrogen metabolism, photosynthetic efficiency and bioactive phytochemical production of Prunella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zai-Biao; Yu, Man-Man; Chen, Yu-Hang; Guo, Qiao-Sheng; Zhang, Li-Xia; Shi, Hong-Zhuan; Liu, Li

    2014-12-01

    Prunella vulgaris L (Labiatae) is commonly used as a traditional medicinal herb in some Asian and Europe countries. To date, few studies have been conducted to determine the influence of [Formula: see text] - N/[Formula: see text] - N ratio on growth, physiological development, and bioactive phytochemical accumulation in hydroponically grown P. vulgaris. The current study was conducted to evaluate the effect of five [Formula: see text] - N/[Formula: see text] - N ratios on growth, nitrogen metabolism, photosynthetic efficiency, and bioactive phytochemical production in P. vulgaris. Hydroponically cultivated P. vulgaris were fertilized with five [Formula: see text] - N/[Formula: see text] - N ratios in a greenhouse for 85 d. Dried weight of root, stem, leaf and spica, leaf area, photosynthetic efficiency, activities of nitrate reductase (NR), glutamine synthetase (GS), and the concentrations of N, soluble protein, and free amino acids in the leaves, as well as the contents of rosmarinic acid (RA), ursolic acid (UA), and oleanolic acid (OA) in the spicas were measured. Both [Formula: see text] - N and [Formula: see text] - N as the sole source of nitrogen had inhibitory effects on P. vulgaris growth. P. vulgaris fertilized with the 25/75 ([Formula: see text] - N/NO3 - N) ratio had the highest leaf area, photosynthetic rate, and chlorophyll content. The 25/75 ([Formula: see text]/[Formula: see text]) ratio increased the spica biomass by 1828%, nitrate-reductase (NR) activity by 98%, and soluble protein concentration by 29.45% compared with the 100/0 ([Formula: see text]/[Formula: see text]) treatment. Additionally, 25 [Formula: see text] - N/75 NO3 - N resulted in the highest contents of RA and total flavonoids as well as relatively high contents of UA and OA; therefore, this ratio had the highest yield of RA, UA, OA, and total flavonoids in spicas. The use of 25 [Formula: see text] - N/75 [Formula: see text

  3. Evolution effects of the copper surface morphology on the nucleation density and growth of graphene domains at different growth pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedayat, Seyed Mahdi [Transport Phenomena & Nanotechnology Lab., School of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Karimi-Sabet, Javad, E-mail: j_karimi@alum.sharif.edu [NFCRS, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shariaty-Niassar, Mojtaba, E-mail: mshariat@ut.ac.ir [Transport Phenomena & Nanotechnology Lab., School of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-03-31

    Highlights: • Manipulation of the Cu surface morphology in a wide range by electropolishing treatment. • Comparison of the nucleation density of graphene at low pressure and atmospheric pressure CVD processes. • Controlling the evolution of the Cu surface morphology inside a novel confined space. • Growth of large-size graphene domains. - Abstract: In this work, we study the influence of the surface morphology of the catalytic copper substrate on the nucleation density and the growth rate of graphene domains at low and atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD and APCVD) processes. In order to obtain a wide range of initial surface morphology, precisely controlled electropolishing methods were developed to manipulate the roughntreess value of the as-received Cu substrate (RMS = 30 nm) to ultra-rough (RMS = 130 nm) and ultra-smooth (RMS = 2 nm) surfaces. The nucleation and growth of graphene domains show obviously different trends at LPCVD and APCVD conditions. In contrast to APCVD condition, the nucleation density of graphene domains is almost equal in substrates with different initial roughness values at LPCVD condition. We show that this is due to the evolution of the surface morphology of the Cu substrate during the graphene growth steps. By stopping the surface sublimation of copper substrate in a confined space saturated with Cu atoms, the evolution of the Cu surface was impeded. This results in the reduction of the nucleation density of graphene domains up to 24 times in the pre-smoothed Cu substrates at LPCVD condition.

  4. Effect of catalyst nanoparticle size on growth direction and morphology of InN nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Ji

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Au-assisted growth of InN nanowires (NWs was accomplished by a simple chemical vapor deposition system. The as-prepared InN NWs exhibit two morphologies with different growth directions: periodic NWs (PNWs and smooth NWs (SNWs along and , respectively. The PNWs with crinoids morphology resulted when larger Au particles (∼40 nm in diameter were used, while the SNWs with smooth sidewalls were obtained when smaller Au particles (∼10 nm in diameter served as the collector. Furthermore, the mechanism of this growth behavior was discussed in terms of the effect of catalyst nanoparticle size.

  5. PREMATURE BIRTH, MORPHOLOGY OF PLACENTA AND INTRAUTERINE GROWTH RETARDATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Vasilenko

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Retrospectively studied following and outcome of pregnancy, women with non carrying of pregnancy, women that give birth to children with development delay (1 group and women that give birth in proper time (2 group. Premature birth arranged 4,4% of 2962 delivery. Fetus development delay was established by 38,1% of premature babies and by 10,5% of borne in proper time. Non carrying of pregnancy stipulated by motherґs urogenital infection, high expressed gestosis and others obsterical and extra genital complications. Each third of women that give birth to premature babies with development delay, have inflammatory overpatching in placenta, each fifth have morphological proved FPI. Realized researches allowed to conclude, that for decreasing frequencies of premature births and fetus development delay is necessary doing opportunely urogenital tract sonation, pre-clinical diagnostics of gestosis Noncarryng of pregnancy and treat this disease preventive.

  6. Altering the expression of two chitin synthase genes differentially affects the growth and morphology of Aspergillus oryzae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Christian; Hjort, C.M.; Hansen, K.

    2002-01-01

    was induced in the strain containing the p(niiA)-chsB construct, the strain displayed wild-type morphology on solid medium and at sub-maximum growth rates but the wild-type morphology was not fully restored during rapid growth in batch cultivation. The csmA disruption strain displayed morphological...

  7. Dancing with Hormones: A Current Perspective of Nitrate Signaling and Regulation in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peizhu Guan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In nature and agriculture, nitrate availability is a main environmental cue for plant growth, development and stress responses. Nitrate signaling and regulation are hence at the center of communications between plant intrinsic programs and the environment. It is also well known that endogenous phytohormones play numerous critical roles in integrating extrinsic cues and intrinsic responses, regulating and refining almost all aspects of plant growth, development and stress responses. Therefore, interaction between nitrate and phytohormones, such as auxins, cytokinins, abscisic acid, gibberellins, and ethylene, is prevalent. The growing evidence indicates that biosynthesis, de-conjugation, transport, and signaling of hormones are partly controlled by nitrate signaling. Recent advances with nitrate signaling and transcriptional regulation in Arabidopsis give rise to new paradigms. Given the comprehensive nitrate transport, sensing, signaling and regulations at the level of the cell and organism, nitrate itself is a local and long-distance signal molecule, conveying N status at the whole-plant level. A direct molecular link between nitrate signaling and cell cycle progression was revealed with TEOSINTE BRANCHED1/CYCLOIDEA/PROLIFERATING CELL FACTOR1-20 (TCP20 – NIN-LIKE PROTEIN 6/7 (NLP6/7 regulatory nexus. NLPs are key regulators of nitrogen responses in plants. TCPs function as the main regulators of plant morphology and architecture, with the emerging role as integrators of plant developmental responses to the environment. By analogy with auxin being proposed as a plant morphogen, nitrate may be an environmental morphogen. The morphogen-gradient-dependent and cell-autonomous mechanisms of nitrate signaling and regulation are an integral part of cell growth and cell identification. This is especially true in root meristem growth that is regulated by intertwined nitrate, phytohormones, and glucose-TOR signaling pathways. Furthermore, the nitrate

  8. Dancing with Hormones: A Current Perspective of Nitrate Signaling and Regulation inArabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Peizhu

    2017-01-01

    In nature and agriculture, nitrate availability is a main environmental cue for plant growth, development and stress responses. Nitrate signaling and regulation are hence at the center of communications between plant intrinsic programs and the environment. It is also well known that endogenous phytohormones play numerous critical roles in integrating extrinsic cues and intrinsic responses, regulating and refining almost all aspects of plant growth, development and stress responses. Therefore, interaction between nitrate and phytohormones, such as auxins, cytokinins, abscisic acid, gibberellins, and ethylene, is prevalent. The growing evidence indicates that biosynthesis, de-conjugation, transport, and signaling of hormones are partly controlled by nitrate signaling. Recent advances with nitrate signaling and transcriptional regulation in Arabidopsis give rise to new paradigms. Given the comprehensive nitrate transport, sensing, signaling and regulations at the level of the cell and organism, nitrate itself is a local and long-distance signal molecule, conveying N status at the whole-plant level. A direct molecular link between nitrate signaling and cell cycle progression was revealed with TEOSINTE BRANCHED1/CYCLOIDEA/PROLIFERATING CELL FACTOR1-20 (TCP20) - NIN-LIKE PROTEIN 6/7 (NLP6/7) regulatory nexus. NLPs are key regulators of nitrogen responses in plants. TCPs function as the main regulators of plant morphology and architecture, with the emerging role as integrators of plant developmental responses to the environment. By analogy with auxin being proposed as a plant morphogen, nitrate may be an environmental morphogen. The morphogen-gradient-dependent and cell-autonomous mechanisms of nitrate signaling and regulation are an integral part of cell growth and cell identification. This is especially true in root meristem growth that is regulated by intertwined nitrate, phytohormones, and glucose-TOR signaling pathways. Furthermore, the nitrate transcriptional

  9. The effects of ultraviolet radiation on the growth and gross morphology of Zea mays, Linn. seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Ann Kristine Joy T.; Mendiola, Carlo Paulo T.

    2000-03-01

    The study was conducted with a descriptive experimental design in order to determine the effects of broad spectrum ultraviolet radiation on growth factors, seedling height, root length, chlorophyll content, organic weights, and percentage survival, as well as gross morphological factors, leaf, stem, and root appearance, of native sweet corn seedlings. The study was limited to the seedling stage of the plant and observations were taken after 20 days of treatment. The results gathered show that there was a visible manifestation of the detrimental effects of UV on the irradiated seedlings. There were observed decreases in the growth parameters while the gross morphological parameters exhibited signs of wilting and stress. It was therefore concluded that based on the observed results, UV had a detrimental effect on the studied growth and gross morphological parameters. (Author)

  10. Early Craniofacial Morphology and Growth in Children With Nonsyndromic Robin Sequence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, N. V.; Kreiborg, S.; Darvann, Tron Andre

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: Craniofacial morphology and growth comparisons in children with untreated nonsyndromic Robin Sequence (RS) and a control group with unilateral incomplete cleft lip (UICL) in which the lip was surgically closed at 2 months of age. Material: The 52 children (7 RS and 45 UICL) included...... in the study were drawn from a group representing all Danish cleft children born 1976 through 1981. The ages of the children were 2 and 22 months at the time of examination 1 and 2, respectively. Method: The method of investigation was three-projection cephalometry. Craniofacial morphology was analyzed...... toward a more vertical growth direction was observed in the RS group. Conclusion: Facial morphology in children with RS differed significantly from that of children with UICL at both 2 and 22 months of age. The magnitude of facial growth was similar in the two groups, whereas a tendency toward a more...

  11. 2'-Deoxymugineic acid promotes growth of rice (Oryza sativa L.) by orchestrating iron and nitrate uptake processes under high pH conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Ryoichi; Kousaka, Kayoko; Namba, Kosuke; Murata, Yoshiko; Murata, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Poaceae plants release 2'-deoxymugineic acid (DMA) and related phytosiderophores to chelate iron (Fe), which often exists as insoluble Fe(III) in the rhizosphere, especially under high pH conditions. Although the molecular mechanisms behind the biosynthesis and secretion of DMA have been studied extensively, little information is known about whether DMA has biological roles other than chelating Fe in vivo. Here, we demonstrate that hydroponic cultures of rice (Oryza sativa) seedlings show almost complete restoration in shoot height and soil-plant analysis development (SPAD) values after treatment with 3-30 μm DMA at high pH (pH 8.0), compared with untreated control seedlings at normal pH (pH 5.8). These changes were accompanied by selective accumulation of Fe over other metals. While this enhanced growth was evident under high pH conditions, DMA application also enhanced seedling growth under normal pH conditions in which Fe was fairly accessible. Microarray and qRT-PCR analyses revealed that exogenous DMA application attenuated the increased expression levels of various genes related to Fe transport and accumulation. Surprisingly, despite the preferential utilization of ammonium over nitrate as a nitrogen source by rice, DMA application also increased nitrate reductase activity and the expression of genes encoding high-affinity nitrate transporters and nitrate reductases, all of which were otherwise considerably lower under high pH conditions. These data suggest that exogenous DMA not only plays an important role in facilitating the uptake of environmental Fe, but also orchestrates Fe and nitrate assimilation for optimal growth under high pH conditions. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Silver Nitrate and Different Culture Vessels Influence High Frequency Microrhizome Induction In Vitro and Enhancement Growth of Turmeric Plantlet During Ex Vitro Acclimatization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dikash Singh THINGBAIJAM

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Eleven cultivars of C. longa var. Lakadong were collected from Manipur having different topography. Curcumin content in different cultivars has been analyzed by using UV-Visible Spectrophotometer (100 Bio-Carry Spectrophotometer. The curcuminoids content were analyzed and quantified for identification of best quality cultivar. Thoubal Cultivar with highest curcumin content (9.44% was subjected for tissue culture technique using different culture vessels and silver nitrate for rapid multiplication and scaling up of microrhizome production. High multiplication rate of 27.40�0.47 were obtained in Murashige and Skoog�s medium supplemented with 3% sucrose + 1 mg L-1 ?-napthalene acetic acid, 4 mg L-1 6-benzyl-amino-purine and 11 ?M silver nitrate. Effect of different culture vessels and silver nitrate were studied for microrhizome and multiple shoots formation. Relatively higher rate of shoots along with microrhizome (17.5�0.32 can be seen in Growtek which was grown without any plant growth regulator. Growtek was used for scaling up of microrhizome production in vitro and utmost microrhizome was produced in liquid Murashige and Skoog�s medium supplemented with 8% sucrose, 1 mg L-1 ?-napthalene acetic acid, 4 mg L-1 6-benzyl-amino-purine and 11 ?M silver nitrate (36.25�0.27. Addition of silver nitrate in the medium resulted in improvement of microrhizome induction in vitro. Higher concentration of silver nitrate (33, 44, 66, 88 ?M negatively affected the microrhizome and shoot multiplication and shows inhibition of tissue response completely. Analysis of in vitro derived plantlets during acclimatization shows that the exogenous applied of silver nitrate shows superior growth as compared to control. 90-95% of plantlets with and 75-80% plantlets without silver nitrate treatment were successfully established under ex vitro acclimatization. The protocol could be utilized for large scale production of true-to-type plantlets and as alternative

  13. Growth, morphology, spectral and thermal studies of gel grown diclofenac acid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, E.; Ramukutty, S.

    2014-03-01

    The crystal growth of diclofenac acid in silica gel is the first to be reported in literature. The growth parameters were varied to optimize the suitable growth condition. Single crystal X-ray diffraction method was used for the conformation of the crystal structure. Morphology studies showed that the growth is prominent along the b-axis and the prominent face is {002}. Fourier transform infrared spectral study was performed to identify the functional groups present in the crystal. Thermal stability and decomposition of the material were analyzed using thermo calorimetry in the temperature range 30-500 °C.

  14. Morphology and physiology of the dimorphic fungus Mucor circinelloides (syn. M. racemosus) during anaerobic growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lübbehüsen, Tina Louise; Nielsen, Jens; Mcintyre, Mhairi

    2003-01-01

    The dimorphic Mucor circinelloides requires an anaerobic atmosphere and the presence of 30% CO2 to grow as a multipolar budding yeast, otherwise hyphal growth predominates. Establishing other means to control the morphology would be a distinct advantage in the development of a fermentation process...... for this organism for the production of heterologous proteins. Thus, conditions suppressing polarised growth while at the same time abolishing the CO2 requirement were investigated in submerged cultivations. It was found that supplementing cultures with mixtures of ergosterol and Tween 80 resulted in yeast...... on supporting yeast growth by influencing the fluidity of the plasma membrane or affecting polarised growth are discussed....

  15. Growth and nitrate reduction of Beggiatoa filaments studied in enrichment cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamp, Anja

    at the same point at which the tip of a forming loop of the filament had been observed before. As it is known that filament breakage is accomplished by the formation of a sacrificial cell, it was hypothesised that sacrificial cells interrupt the communication between two parts of one filament...... in oxygen-sulphide gradient tubes, and observed with a camera system. Growth mode, breakage, and movement directions of Beggiatoa filaments were documented via time-lapse video recording. The initial doubling time of cells was 15.7 ±1.3 h (mean ±SD; room temperature). Filaments grew up to an average length....... As a consequence, the two parts of one filament can move towards each other forming the tip of a loop at the sacrificial cell. The second part of this thesis focused on the physiology of Beggiatoa. The sulphur bacteria Beggiatoa can reach high biomass in many aquatic habitats, e.g. in and on freshwater and marine...

  16. Root growth and 14C-translocation into the roots of maize (Zea mays L.) as influenced by local nitrate supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattelmacher, B.; Thoms, K.

    1989-01-01

    A local nitrate supply to roots of maize causes increasing growth of the first order and the formation of higher order laterals. Number of first order laterals, however, remains unchanged. Labelling plants with 14 CO 2 demonstrates a specific phloem unloading in the supply zone. It is suggested that phloem mobile phytohormones, especially auxins, lead to an endogeneous shift in the phytohormone balance responsible for the morphogenetic effect of a local NO - 3 supply. (orig.) [de

  17. Growth, Water Use, and Nitrate-15N Uptake of Greenhouse Tomato as Influenced by Different Irrigation Patterns, 15N Labeled Depths, and Transplant Times

    OpenAIRE

    Hou, Maomao; Jin, Qiu; Lu, Xinyu; Li, Jiyu; Zhong, Huizhen; Gao, Yue

    2017-01-01

    Increasing water use efficiency and reducing nitrogen pollutant discharge are important tasks for modern agriculture. To evaluate the effect of alternate partial root-zone irrigation (APRI) on tomato plant growth, water use efficiency and nitrate-15N uptake, an experiment was conducted from June to December in 2014 under greenhouse condition in northern China. The experiment contained two irrigation patterns [APRI and conventional irrigation (CI)], two 15N labeled depths in soil (10 and 50 cm...

  18. Effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields on growth rate and morphology of bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhan-Garip, Ayse; Aksu, Burak; Akan, Zafer; Akakin, Dilek; Ozaydin, A Nilufer; San, Tangul

    2011-12-01

    To determine the effect of extremely low frequency (electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) on the growth rate of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and to determine any morphological changes that might have been caused by ELF-EMF. Six bacterial strains, three Gram-negative and three Gram-positive were subjected to 50 Hz, 0.5 mT ELF-EMF for 6 h. To determine growth rate after ELF-EMF application, bacteria exposed to ELF-EMF for 3 h were collected, transferred to fresh medium and cultured without field application for another 4 h. Growth-rate was determined by optical density (OD) measurements made every hour. Morphological changes were determined with Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for two gram-negative and two gram-positive strains collected after 3 h of field application. A decrease in growth rate with respect to control samples was observed for all strains during ELF-EMF application. The decrease in growth-rate continued when exposed bacteria were cultured without field application. Significant ultrastructural changes were observed in all bacterial strains, which were seen to resemble the alterations caused by cationic peptides. This study shows that ELF-EMF induces a decrease in growth rate and morphological changes for both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria.

  19. Root morphology and growth of bare-root seedlings of Oregon white oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Gould; Constance A. Harrington

    2009-01-01

    Root morphology and stem size were evaluated as predictors of height and basal-area growth (measured at groundline) of 1-1 Oregon white oak (Quercus garryana Dougl. ex Hook.) seedlings planted in raised beds with or without an additional irrigation treatment. Seedlings were classified into three root classes based on a visual assessment of the...

  20. Effect of RF power and gas flow ratio on the growth and morphology ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It was observed that both the RF power (with the mixed frequency condition) and flow ratio of SiH4/CH4 can control the growth rate, surface roughness and morphology of the PECVD SiC thin films. Higher the carbon content in the thin films the surface became more smoother, whereas the surface became for rougher by ...

  1. Effect of RF power and gas flow ratio on the growth and morphology ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (RF) power with mixed frequency condition and flow ratio of silane to methane were varied by keeping the temper- ature and pressure constant to investigate the influence of these parameters on the growth rate, surface roughness and morphology of SiC thin films. It was observed that both the RF power (with the mixed ...

  2. The effect of salinity on the growth, morphology and physiology of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The salinity of water and soil decreases the growth and yield of agricultural products. Salinity affects many physiological and morphological processes of plant by influencing soil solution osmotic potential and ion absorption and accumulation of minerals. To evaluate the effect of salinity on some physiological and ...

  3. Changes in morphology and growth of the mudskipper (Periophthalmus argentilineatus) associated with coastal pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruitwagen, G.; Hecht, T.; Pratap, H.B.; Wendelaar Bonga, S.E.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a comparison is made between the growth and morphology of barred mudskippers (Periophthalmus argentilineatus) from six mangrove forests along the coast of Tanzania. The fish populations from unpolluted sites consisted of different size classes, whereas only small sized fish were

  4. Sagittal synostosis: II. Cranial morphology and growth after the modified pi-plasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guimaraes-Ferreira, J.; Gewalli, F.; David, L.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise the postoperative cranial growth and morphology after a modified pi-plasty for sagittal synostosis. The shape of the skull of 82 patients with isolated premature synostosis of the sagittal suture ( SS group) operated on with a modified pi-plasty was studi...

  5. Note on the effect of high nitrate concentration and light intensity on the growth and uptake rates of Phaeovactylum tricornutum (Bohlin culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilda Schmidt

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of high nitrate concentration and light intensity on chlorophyll-a synthesis, cell number and nitrate assimilation on P. tJt¿coh,nuutum culture, was determined. Growth and uptake rates were determined as a function of nitrate concentration ranging from 0.40 to 35.40 µg/l. The Ks showed high values, when compared with those obtained with lower nitrate concentration. The percentual variation of Ks was greater than that of Vmax.Foi determinado o efeito dc ama alta concentração de nitrato e alta incensidade luminosa na síntese de clorofila-α, número de células e assimilação nitrato em uma cultura de P. triconotum. As velocidade de crescimento e de assimilação foram determinados em função de concentrações de nitrato variando de 0,40 a 35,40 µg-at/l e intensidade luminosa de 12 KLUX. A Ks e a Vmax apresentaram valores altos, comparativamente com valores obtidos em concentrações mais baixas de nitrato e menor intensidade luminosa. A variação porcentual da Ks foi maior que a variação porcentual da Vmax.

  6. Effect of droplet morphology on growth dynamics and heat transfer during condensation on superhydrophobic nanostructured surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miljkovic, Nenad; Enright, Ryan; Wang, Evelyn N

    2012-02-28

    Condensation on superhydrophobic nanostructured surfaces offers new opportunities for enhanced energy conversion, efficient water harvesting, and high performance thermal management. These surfaces are designed to be Cassie stable and favor the formation of suspended droplets on top of the nanostructures as compared to partially wetting droplets which locally wet the base of the nanostructures. These suspended droplets promise minimal contact line pinning and promote passive droplet shedding at sizes smaller than the characteristic capillary length. However, the gas films underneath such droplets may significantly hinder the overall heat and mass transfer performance. We investigated droplet growth dynamics on superhydrophobic nanostructured surfaces to elucidate the importance of droplet morphology on heat and mass transfer. By taking advantage of well-controlled functionalized silicon nanopillars, we observed the growth and shedding behavior of suspended and partially wetting droplets on the same surface during condensation. Environmental scanning electron microscopy was used to demonstrate that initial droplet growth rates of partially wetting droplets were 6× larger than that of suspended droplets. We subsequently developed a droplet growth model to explain the experimental results and showed that partially wetting droplets had 4-6× higher heat transfer rates than that of suspended droplets. On the basis of these findings, the overall performance enhancement created by surface nanostructuring was examined in comparison to a flat hydrophobic surface. We showed these nanostructured surfaces had 56% heat flux enhancement for partially wetting droplet morphologies and 71% heat flux degradation for suspended morphologies in comparison to flat hydrophobic surfaces. This study provides insights into the previously unidentified role of droplet wetting morphology on growth rate, as well as the need to design Cassie stable nanostructured surfaces with tailored droplet

  7. The effects of some polyamine biosynthetic inhibitors on growth and morphology of phytopathogenic fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajam, M. V.; Galston, A. W.

    1985-01-01

    We have studied the effects of two polyamine biosynthetic inhibitors, alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) and alpha-difluoromethylarginine (DFMA), and of polyamines (PAs), alone and in combination, on mycelial growth and morphology of four phytopathogenic fungi: Botrytis sp, B. cinerea, Rhizoctonia solani and Monilinia fructicola. The inhibitors were added to a Czapek agar medium to get final concentrations of 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mM. DFMO and DFMA, suicide inhibitors of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and arginine decarboxylase (ADC) respectively, inhibited mycelial growth strongly; the effect was generally more pronounced with DFMA than with DFMO, but each fungus had its own response pattern. The addition of the PAs putrescine (Put) and spermidine (Spd) to the culture medium resulted in a promotion of growth. In Botrytis sp and Monilinia fructicola exposed to inhibitors plus PAs, mycelial growth was actually increased above control values. Mycelial morphology was altered and cell size dramatically reduced in plates containing inhibitors alone, whereas with PAs alone, or in combination with inhibitors, morphology was normal, but cell length and diameters increased considerably. These results suggest that PAs are essential for growth in fungal mycelia. The inhibition caused by DFMA may be due to its arginase-mediated conversion to DFMO.

  8. Growth in phonological, orthographic, and morphological awareness in grades 1 to 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berninger, Virginia W; Abbott, Robert D; Nagy, William; Carlisle, Joanne

    2010-04-01

    Growth curve analyses showed that (a) word-level phonological and orthographic awareness show greatest growth during the primary grades but some additional growth thereafter, and (b) three kinds of morphological awareness show greatest growth in the first three or four grades but one-derivation-continues to show substantial growth after fourth grade. Implications of the findings for the role of three kinds of linguistic awareness-phonological, orthographic, and morphological-in learning to read and spell words are discussed. A case is made that phonological awareness, while necessary, is not sufficient for learning to read English-all three kinds of linguistic awareness that are growing during the primary grades need to be coordinated and applied to literacy learning. This finding and a review of the research on linguistic awareness support the conclusion that the recommendations of the National Reading Panel need to be amended so that the research evidence supporting the importance of both orthographic and morphological awareness, and not only phonological awareness, is acknowledged. Moreover, evidence-based strategies for teaching each of these kinds of linguistic awareness and their interrelationships need to be disseminated to educational practitioners.

  9. Evaluation of the Growth Dynamics and Morphological Characteristics of Genetic Sources of Silybum marianum (L. Gaertn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavla Koláčková

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the growth dynamics and selected morphological characteristics of genetic sources of milk thistle (Silybum marianum L. Gaertn. for the further development of the minimal set of descriptors. Milk thistle is grown in the Czech Republic for its achenes; however, the quality of achenes can be reduced by many factors, by the occurrence of fungal pathogens mainly. The growth dynamics and morphological characteristics of milk thistle during the vegetation period in the years 2010–2013 at two localities were evaluated. The cluster analysis of the data showed the similarity for some of the accessions and confirmed the dependence of the data value to the climatic conditions. Source from Serbia, Slovakia, Romanian variety ’De Prahova’, German accessions SIL 2 and SIL 8, Hungarian accesion RCAT 040360 DDR and Czech variety ’Silyb’ seem to be promising genetic sources from the viewpoint of growth and development in the Czech Republic.

  10. Growth mechanisms and morphology of NaCl monocrystals obtained by the Czochralski method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goujon, Gilles G.

    1969-01-01

    In its first part, this research thesis describes the various aspects of the theory of crystal growth in melt bath by drawing with growth being limited either by heat transfer phenomena or by mechanisms of molecule transport through the interface. The second part addresses the quality of the obtained monocrystals (dislocations, dislocation density) while discussing the impact of external growth parameters (germ choice and orientation, drawing speed, rotating speed, atmosphere, impurities, crystal diameter). Then, the author presents an experimental study (equipment, experimental conditions) and discusses its results (influence of temperature on crystal geometry, morphology of side surface, study of crystal plane faces by chemical attack). The next part proposes an interpretation of the morphology change of a crystal drawn by the Czochralski method

  11. Evolution effects of the copper surface morphology on the nucleation density and growth of graphene domains at different growth pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayat, Seyed Mahdi; Karimi-Sabet, Javad; Shariaty-Niassar, Mojtaba

    2017-03-01

    In this work, we study the influence of the surface morphology of the catalytic copper substrate on the nucleation density and the growth rate of graphene domains at low and atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD and APCVD) processes. In order to obtain a wide range of initial surface morphology, precisely controlled electropolishing methods were developed to manipulate the roughntreess value of the as-received Cu substrate (RMS = 30 nm) to ultra-rough (RMS = 130 nm) and ultra-smooth (RMS = 2 nm) surfaces. The nucleation and growth of graphene domains show obviously different trends at LPCVD and APCVD conditions. In contrast to APCVD condition, the nucleation density of graphene domains is almost equal in substrates with different initial roughness values at LPCVD condition. We show that this is due to the evolution of the surface morphology of the Cu substrate during the graphene growth steps. By stopping the surface sublimation of copper substrate in a confined space saturated with Cu atoms, the evolution of the Cu surface was impeded. This results in the reduction of the nucleation density of graphene domains up to 24 times in the pre-smoothed Cu substrates at LPCVD condition.

  12. Locomotor activity influences muscle architecture and bone growth but not muscle attachment site morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabey, Karyne N.; Green, David J.; Taylor, Andrea B.; Begun, David R.; Richmond, Brian G.; McFarlin, Shannon C.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to make behavioural inferences from skeletal remains is critical to understanding the lifestyles and activities of past human populations and extinct animals. Muscle attachment site (enthesis) morphology has long been assumed to reflect muscle strength and activity during life, but little experimental evidence exists to directly link activity patterns with muscle development and the morphology of their attachments to the skeleton. We used a mouse model to experimentally test how the level and type of activity influences forelimb muscle architecture of spinodeltoideus, acromiodeltoideus, and superficial pectoralis, bone growth rate and gross morphology of their insertion sites. Over an 11-week period, we collected data on activity levels in one control group and two experimental activity groups (running, climbing) of female wild-type mice. Our results show that both activity type and level increased bone growth rates influenced muscle architecture, including differences in potential muscular excursion (fibre length) and potential force production (physiological cross-sectional area). However, despite significant influences on muscle architecture and bone development, activity had no observable effect on enthesis morphology. These results suggest that the gross morphology of entheses is less reliable than internal bone structure for making inferences about an individual’s past behaviour. PMID:25467113

  13. Predicting growth in English and French vocabulary: The facilitating effects of morphological and cognate awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Nadia; Hipfner-Boucher, Kathleen; Chen, Xi

    2017-07-01

    The present study investigated the contribution of morphological and cognate awareness to the development of English and French vocabulary knowledge among young minority and majority language children who were enrolled in a French immersion program. Participating children (n = 75) were assessed in English and French on measures of morphological awareness, cognate awareness, and vocabulary knowledge from Grades 1 to 3. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to investigate linear trends in English and French vocabulary growth for minority and majority language children and to identify metalinguistic contributions to Grade 1 and Grade 3 English and French vocabulary performance and rate of growth. Results demonstrated a similar pattern of prediction for both groups of children. English and French morphological awareness and French-English cognate awareness significantly predicted concurrent and longitudinal vocabulary development after controlling for nonverbal reasoning, phonological awareness, and word identification. The contributions of morphological awareness to English vocabulary and cognate awareness to French vocabulary strengthened between Grades 1 and 2. These findings highlight the emerging importance of morphological and cognate awareness in children's vocabulary development and suggest that these metalinguistic factors can serve to broaden the vocabulary repertoire of children who enter school with limited language proficiency. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Biological and morphological aspects of the growth of equine abortion virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlington, R W; James, C

    1966-07-01

    Darlington, R. W. (St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tenn.), and C. James. Biological and morphological aspects of the growth of equine abortion virus. J. Bacteriol. 92:250-257. 1966.-The growth of equine abortion virus (EAV) was studied by bioassay and electron microscopy in L-cell monolayer and suspension cultures, and in HeLa and BHK 21/13 cell monolayers. Results of virus assay (plaque-forming units) indicated that production of cell-associated virus (CAV) began at 6 to 9 hr after infection in all of the cell strains used. Virus release occurred 1 to 2 hr later. By 15 to 20 hr after infection, the amount of released virus (RV) equaled or surpassed that of CAV in all cells other than the HeLa cells, where the amount of RV did not equal CAV until 48 hr after infection. Electron microscopy of infected cells revealed no differences in the morphology of virus development in any of the cells used. Developing virus particles were first detected in cell nuclei at 9 hr after infection. At 12 hr, virus particles could be seen budding from the inner nuclear envelope. Budding into cytoplasmic vacuoles was not seen. Budding virus, virus in cytoplasmic vacuoles, and extracellular virus were all approximately 145 mmu in diameter, and were indistinguishable morphologically. These results indicated that EAV is quite similar to herpes simplex virus with respect to growth and morphology, and that the inner nuclear membrane is the principal site of virus envelopment.

  15. Compost and vermicompost as nursery pot components: effects on tomato plant growth and morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazcano, C.; Arnold, J.; Tato, A.; Zaller, J. G.; Dominguez, J.

    2009-07-01

    Abstract Post transplant success after nursery stage is strongly influenced by plant morphology. Cultural practices strongly shape plant morphology, and substrate choice is one of the most determining factors. Peat is the most often used amendment in commercial potting substrates, involving the exploitation of non-renewable resources and the degradation of highly valuable peatland ecosystems and therefore alternative substrates are required. Here the feasibility of replacing peat by compost or vermicompost for the production of tomato plants in nurseries was investigated through the study of the effect of increasing proportions of these substrates (0%, 10%, 20%, 50%, 75% and 100%) in target plant growth and morphological features, indicators of adequate post-transplant growth and yield. Compost and vermicompost showed to be adequate substrates for tomato plant growth. Total replacement of peat by vermicompost was possible while doses of compost higher than 50% caused plant mortality. Low doses of compost (10 and 20%) and high doses of vermicompost produced significant increases in aerial and root biomass of the tomato plants. In addition these treatments improved significantly plant morphology (higher number of leaves and leaf area, and increased root volume and branching). The use of compost and vermicompost constitute an attractive alternative to the use of peat in plant nurseries due to the environmental benefits involved but also due to the observed improvement in plant quality. Additional key words: peat moss, plant nursery, soil-less substrate, Solanum lycopersicum L. (Author) 37 refs.

  16. Protein kinase A is involved in the control of morphology and branching during aerobic growth of Mucor circinelloides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lübbehüsen, Tina Louise; Polo, V.G.; Rossi, S.

    2004-01-01

    and colony morphology suggested a role for PKAR in the control of morphology and branching. Here strain KFA121, which overexpresses the M. circinelloides pkaR gene, was used to quantify growth and branching under different aerobic growth conditions in a flow-through cell by computerized image analysis...

  17. Carbon Nanofibers Grown on Large Woven Cloths: Morphology and Properties of Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly Koissin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The morphology and chemical composition of carbon nanofibers in situ grown on a large carbon-fiber woven fabric are studied using SEM measurements, X-ray Diffraction, X-ray Flourescence, and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. Results show that nanofibers can have a density and a morphology potentially advantageous for application in polymer-matrix composites. The fiber surface functional groups significantly change after the growth and this also potentially provides a better interfacial adhesion. These advantages can be controlled, e.g., by the catalyst loading and the type of solvent used for its deposition.

  18. NO signaling is a key component of the root growth response to nitrate in Zea mays L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, Sara; Manoli, Alessandro; Quaggiotti, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Roots are considered to be a vital organ system of plants due to their involvement in water and nutrient uptake, anchorage, propagation, storage functions, secondary metabolite (including hormones) biosynthesis, and accumulation. Crops are strongly dependent on the availability of nitrogen in soil and on the efficiency of nitrogen utilization for biomass production and yield. However, knowledge about molecular responses to nitrogen fluctuations mainly derives from the study of model species. Nitric oxide (NO) has been proposed to be implicated in plant adaptation to environment, but its exact role in the response of plants to nutritional stress is still under evaluation. Recently a novel role for NO production and scavenging, thanks to the coordinate spatio-temporal expression of nitrate reductase and non-symbiotic hemoglobins, in the maize root response to nitrate has been postulated. This control of NO homeostasis is preferentially accomplished by the cells of the root transition zone (TZ) which seem to represent the most nitrate responsive portion of maize root. The TZ is already known to function as a sensory center able to gather information from the external environment and to re-elaborate them in an adequate response. These results indicate that it could play a central role also for nitrate sensing by roots. A lot of work is still needed to identify and characterize other upstream and downstream signals involved in the "nitrate-NO" pathway, leading to root architecture adjustments and finally to stress adaptation.

  19. Growth, Morphology and Growth Related Hormone Level in Kappaphycus alvarezii Produced by Mass Selection in Gorontalo Waters, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Fadilah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of high quality seed can support the success of the seaweed cultivation. This study was conducted to evaluate the growth performance, morphology and growth related hormone level of brown strain seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii seed produced by mass selection. Selection was performed in the Tomini Gulf, Gorontalo, based on mass selection of seaweed seed protocol with a slight modification in cut-off 10% of the highest daily growth rate. Selection was carried out for four generations. The selected 4th generation of seed was then used in cultivation performance test in the Celebes Sea, North Gorontalo, for three production cycles. The results showed that the selected K. alvarezii has higher clump weight and daily growth rate, longer thallus, more number of branches, and shorter internodes compared to the unselected control and seaweed from the farmer as external control. Furthermore, total sugar content, levels of kinetin hormone and kinetin:indole-3-acetic acid ratio were higher in selected seaweeds than that of unselected control and external control. Thus, mass selection method could be used to produce high growth of seed, and kinetin and indole-3-acetic acid play an important role in growth of K. alvarezii.

  20. Ovarian morphology and function during growth hormone therapy of short girls born small for gestational age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tinggaard, Jeanette; Jensen, Rikke; Sundberg, Karin

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of growth hormone (GH) treatment on ovarian and uterine morphology and function in short, prepubertal small-for-gestational-age (SGA) girls.DESIGN: A multinational, randomized controlled trial on safety and efficacy of GH therapy in short, prepubertal children born...... multicystic ovaries.CONCLUSION(S): GH treatment was associated with statistically significant growth of the internal genitalia, but remained within the normal range. As altered pubertal development and ovarian morphology were found in 2 of 18 girls, monitoring of puberty and ovarian function during GH therapy......(S): Data on anthropometrics, reproductive hormones, and ultrasonographic examination of the internal genitalia were collected during 36 months of GH treatment.RESULT(S): Uterine and ovarian volume increased significantly during 3 years of treatment (64% and 110%, respectively) but remained low within...

  1. Characterization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae natural populations for pseudohyphal growth and colony morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casalone, Enrico; Barberio, Claudia; Cappellini, Lorenzo; Polsinelli, Mario

    2005-03-01

    In this work we have analyzed the colony and cellular morphologies of natural populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains in response to different environmental stimuli. Among one thousand strains grown on YPD medium, 2.5% exhibited a rough (R) colony phenotype versus a smooth (S) phenotype. When grown on the ammonium-deficient medium SLAD, 56% of the strains showed a filamentous phenotype, often associated (43.8%) with an invasive phenotype, while 4.7% of the strains exhibited only an invasive phenotype. The rough phenotype on YPD was always associated with the filamentous phenotype on SLAD. A subset of 52 strains was further characterized for the growth phenotype under different stimuli (nitrogen deprivation, addition of alcohols, growth on proline as sole nitrogen source). On 27 strains, genetic analysis of the spore products was also performed. The entire set of data showed a wide distribution of dimorphism in the yeast population and great variability with respect to the dimorphic switch capability. Some strains grew with peculiar colony morphologies under different environmental stimuli and some showed colony morphology variations. Ecological implications of the wide spreading of dimorphic behavior and the occurrence of peculiar colony morphologies in natural yeasts are discussed.

  2. Hydrothermal growth of beryl single crystals and morphology of their singular faces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dem'yanets, L.N.; Ivanov-Shits, A.K.; Gajnutdinov, R.V.

    2006-01-01

    The surface morphology of the best developed faces of emerald and red beryl monocrystals grown from high-temperature hydrothermal solutions has been studied by atomic force microscopy. The results attest to dislocation-mediated layer-by-layer growth of the faces. Using experimentally determined growth front profiles, the fractal dimensions D Fp and D Fa of the faces are evaluated to be 1.1-1.4. These values indicate that the surfaces studied have a fractal character and can be investigated using elements of fractal theory [ru

  3. Characterization of Stachybotrys from water-damaged buildings based on morphology, growth, and metabolite production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Birgitte; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Jarvis, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    was a Macrocyclic trichothecene-producer. The second undescribed taxon produced atranones and could be differentiated from S. chartarum by its growth characteristics arid pigment production. Our results correlate with different inflammatory and toxicological properties reported for these same isolates and show......, but inconsistent toxicity results arid taxonomic confusion prompted the present study. In this study, 122 Stachybotrys isolates, mainly from,water-damaged buildings, were characterized arid identified by combining three different approaches: morphology. colony characteristics, arid metabolite production. Two...

  4. In vitro development of endangered Laelia marginata Lindl. in growth media containing different nitrate/ammonium ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas junior bertoncelli

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In vitro cultivation is a very important method for the conservation of germplasm and the multiplication of endangered plants; however, studies on the adequacy of the nutrients used for a good development of each species are needed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro development of Laelia marginata Lindl. in culture media containing different nitrate/ ammonium ratios. Seedlings were obtained from seeds germinated in vitro. The treatments consisted of different nitrate/ ammonium ratios, with five proportions of NO3 - and NH4 + : T1-0/100; T2-25/75; T3-50/50; T4-75/25 and T5-100/0. At 200 days after seedling transplanting, height of the aerial part, root length, number of leaves, number of shoots, leaf length, leaf width, aerial and root dry mass and contents of chlorophyll a, b and carotenoids were evaluated. A completely randomized design was used, with five treatments and ten replicates. The combination of 50/50 nitrate/ammonium resulted in the highest values of aerial part and root length, dry mass of the aerial part and root, as well as leaf length and width. The proportion of 50/50 nitrate/ammonium resulted in the best initial development of L. marginata seedlings.

  5. Effect of dietary addition of nitrate on growth, salivary and gastric function, immune response, and excretion of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, in weaning pigs challenged with this microbe strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mazzoni

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Two dietary additions of nitrate (15 mg/kg or 150 mg/kg, supplied by potassium salt were tested in a total 96 weaning pigs challenged or not with Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium (ST. The oral challenge was done on d 5 and pigs were sacrificed on d 7 or d 25. The effect of challenge never interacted significantly with the dietary treatment. Feed intake, growth, body temperature, salivary excretion, and faecal excretion of ST and gastric function were not affected by the nitrate supplementation. With nitrate additions, total IgA in blood serum tended to be higher before and after the challenge (P<0.10. Nitrite in saliva – but not nitrate – increased with the increasing supplementation at d 5, but not at d 19. The nitrate additions did not negatively affect the weaning performance, but also did not contrast the effect of ST infection.

  6. Effect of Substrate Morphology on Growth and Field Emission Properties of Carbon Nanotube Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Vikram

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractCarbon nanotube (CNT films were grown by microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition process on four types of Si substrates: (i mirror polished, (ii catalyst patterned, (iii mechanically polished having pits of varying size and shape, and (iv electrochemically etched. Iron thin film was used as catalytic material and acetylene and ammonia as the precursors. Morphological and structural characteristics of the films were investigated by scanning and transmission electron microscopes, respectively. CNT films of different morphology such as vertically aligned, randomly oriented flowers, or honey-comb like, depending on the morphology of the Si substrates, were obtained. CNTs had sharp tip and bamboo-like internal structure irrespective of growth morphology of the films. Comparative field emission measurements showed that patterned CNT films and that with randomly oriented morphology had superior emission characteristics with threshold field as low as ~2.0 V/μm. The defective (bamboo-structure structures of CNTs have been suggested for the enhanced emission performance of randomly oriented nanotube samples.

  7. Transforming growth factor-β2 induces morphological alteration of human corneal endothelial cells in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the morphological altering effect of transforming growth factor-β2 (TGF-β2 on untransfected human corneal endothelial cells (HCECs in vitro.METHODS: After untransfected HCECs were treated with TGF-β2 at different concentrations, the morphology, cytoskeleton distribution, and type IV collagen expression of the cells were examined with inverted contrast light microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, immunofluorescence or Western Blot.RESULTS:TGF-β2 at the concentration of 3-15 μg/L had obviously alterative effects on HCECs morphology in dose and time-dependent manner, and 9 μg/L was the peak concentration. TGF-β2 (9 μg/L altered HCE cell morphology after treatment for 36h, increased the mean optical density (P<0.01 and the length of F-actin, reduced the mean optical density (P<0.01 of the collagen type IV in extracellular matrix (ECM and induced the rearrangement of F-actin, microtubule in cytoplasm and collagen type IV in ECM after treatment for 72h. CONCLUTION:TGF-β2 has obviously alterative effect on the morphology of HCECs from polygonal phenotype to enlarged spindle-shaped phenotype, in dose and time-dependence manner by inducing more, elongation and alignment of F-actin, rearrangement of microtubule and larger spread area of collagen type IV.

  8. Correlating growth mechanism and morphology in Cu-TCNQ organometallic complex: A microscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadu, Gopala R; Chaudhari, Jayesh C; Rebary, Babulal; Patidar, Rajesh; Srivastava, Divesh N

    2018-04-01

    The structure-property correlation in the Cu-TCNQ organometallic complex is very important for explaining its unusual electrical, optical and magnetic properties. Consequently several morphological studies and their correlation with the properties of these materials can be found in the literature, although no systematic study of various morphologies with growth conditions and their correlation has been reported to the best of our knowledge. Therefore in this manuscript the interconversion of various morphologies is reported using electron and probe microscopies. A conventional Cu TEM grid acted as the copper source to form a Cu-TCNQ complex and the complex, which formed at the surface of the TEM grid. The complex thus prepared was characterized by FTIR and Raman spectroscopic techniques. The shifting of ̵-CN from 2221 cm -1 (TCNQ) to 2201 cm -1 indicates formation of a complex and the identical nature of IR spectra in two phases indicates that they are polymorphs. The morphologies of Cu-TCNQ were followed through FE-SEM and TEM studies. Various morphologies such as needle, square tube, platelet etc. were observed as a function of time. A distinct transition from needle to platelet morphology was observed as the complex grew. The conductance of various morphologies in phase-I as well as phase-II were also measured and compared by Spreading Resistance Imaging (SRI) at different bias voltage i.e. 1 V, 3 V and 5 V. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Morphological models of radiate accretive growth and the influence of hydrodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaandorp, J A; Sloot, P M

    2001-04-07

    In many marine sessile organisms (for example sponges and stony corals) the skeleton is formed by an accretive growth process, where layers of material are secreted on top of each other in a surface normal deposition process. In many of these organisms the growth process exhibits a strong morphological plasticity due to differences in exposure to water movement. In general, many of these organisms tend to form thin-branching growth forms under sheltered conditions, while the growth form gradually transforms into a more compact shape when the exposure of water movement increases. In this paper, we investigate this phenomenon by combining a three-dimensional simulation model of radiate accretive growth driven by the local availability of simulated food particles and a model, based on the lattice Boltzmann method, for simulating food particle distributions caused by a combination of flow and diffusion. In the simulations two different models of a suspension feeder with accretive growth were compared. In the first model, the deposition process is exclusively driven by the local availability of food particles, in the second model the deposition process was determined by the combination of local amount of contact to the environment and availability of food particles. In the simulations it was found that hydrodynamics has a strong impact on the overall morphologies which develop in the accretive growth process. In the model exclusively driven by the local availability of food particles, column-shaped objects emerged under diffusion conditions, while more spherical and lobed object were found for the flow-dominated case. In the simulations, the Péclet number was varied independently from the Reynolds number, which was kept at a relatively low constant value. In a range of increasing Péclet numbers, indicating an increasing influence of hydrodynamics, the simulated morphologies gradually transformed from thin-branching ones into more spherical and compact morphologies in

  10. nfluences of ammonium-nitrate, food waste compost and bacterial fertilizer on soluble soil nitrogen forms and on the growth of carrot (Daucus Carota L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Balla Kovács

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a greenhouse study to compare the effects of food waste compost, bacterial fertilizer and their combination with the effect of mineral fertilizer on yield of carrot and the available nutrient content of soils. The study was conducted on calcareous chernozem and acidic sandy soils and consisted of 8 treatments in a randomized complete block design with four replications. The NH4NO3 resulted in reduced growing of carrot plant in sandy soil, and the treatment effect of mineral fertilizer was not observed significantly in chernozem soil. Sandy soil showed higher response of growth of carrot to food waste compost fertilization than chernozem soil. Sole application of EM-1 bacterial fertilizer did not have marked effect on yield parameters and sizes of roots. When EM-1 bacterial fertilizer was applied together with ammonium-nitrate or with compost in chernozem soil, the weights of roots and the sizes of roots in some cases became higher compared to the values of appropriate treatments without inoculation. In sandy soil the diameter of roots slightly increased when EM-1 bacterial fertilizer was applied with ammonium-nitrate and with ammonium-nitrate+compost combination compared to appropriate treatment without inoculation. In chernozem soil the maximum weights and sizes of roots were achieved with the combined treatment of ammonium-nitrate+compost+EM-1 bacterial fertilizer and in sandy soil with compost treatment. Our results of soluble nitrogen content of soils are in good agreement with yield parameters of carrot. Results suggest that food waste compost could be a good substitute for mineral fertilizer application in carrot production mainly in sandy soil. EM-1 bacterial fertilizer did not cause marked effect on yield and yield parameters of carrot plant, but its combination with other fertilizers promises a little bit higher yield or plant available nutrient in the soil. These effects do not clear exactly, so further studies are

  11. Morphology and mycelial growth rate of Pleurotus spp. strains from the Mexican mixtec region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C. Guadarrama-Mendoza

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Two native Pleurotus spp. strains (white LB-050 and pale pink LB-051 were isolated from rotten tree trunks of cazahuate (Ipomoea murucoides from the Mexican Mixtec Region. Both strains were chemically dedikaryotized to obtain their symmetrical monokaryotic components (neohaplonts. This was achieved employing homogenization time periods from 60 to 65 s, and 3 day incubation at 28 °C in a peptone-glucose solution (PGS. Pairing of compatible neohaplonts resulted in 56 hybrid strains which were classified into the four following hybrid types: (R1-n xB1-n, R1-n xB2-1, R2-n xB1-n and R2-n xB2-1. The mycelial growth of Pleurotus spp. monokaryotic and dikaryotic strains showed differences in texture (cottony or floccose, growth (scarce, regular or abundant, density (high, regular or low, and pigmentation (off-white, white or pale pink. To determine the rate and the amount of mycelium growth in malt extract agar at 28 °C, the diameter of the colony was measured every 24 h until the Petri dish was completely colonized. A linear model had the best fit to the mycelial growth kinetics. A direct relationship between mycelial morphology and growth rate was observed. Cottony mycelium presented significantly higher growth rates (p < 0.01 in comparison with floccose mycelium. Thus, mycelial morphology can be used as criterion to select which pairs must be used for optimizing compatible-mating studies. Hybrids resulting from cottony neohaplonts maintained the characteristically high growth rates of their parental strains with the hybrid R1-n xB1-n being faster than the latter.

  12. Tailoring the nanoscale morphology of HKUST-1 thin films via codeposition and seeded growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brower, Landon J; Gentry, Lauren K; Napier, Amanda L; Anderson, Mary E

    2017-01-01

    Integration of surface-anchored metal-organic frameworks (surMOFs) within hierarchical architectures is necessary for potential sensing, electronic, optical, or separation applications. It is important to understand the fundamentals of film formation for these surMOFs in order to develop strategies for their incorporation with nanoscale control over lateral and vertical dimensions. This research identified processing parameters to control the film morphology for surMOFs of HKUST-1 fabricated by codeposition and seeded deposition. Time and temperature were investigated to observe film formation, to control film thickness, and to tune morphology. Film thickness was investigated by ellipsometry, while film structure and film roughness were characterized by atomic force microscopy. Films formed via codeposition resulted in nanocrystallites anchored to the gold substrate. A dynamic process at the interface was observed with a low density of large particulates (above 100 nm) initially forming on the substrate; and over time these particulates were slowly replaced by the prevalence of smaller crystallites (ca. 10 nm) covering the substrate at a high density. Elevated temperature was found to expedite the growth process to obtain the full range of surface morphologies with reasonable processing times. Seed crystals formed by the codeposition method were stable and nucleated growth throughout a subsequent layer-by-layer deposition process. These seed crystals templated the final film structure and tailor the features in lateral and vertical directions. Using codeposition and seeded growth, different surface morphologies with controllable nanoscale dimensions can be designed and fabricated for integration of MOF systems directly into device architectures and sensor platforms.

  13. Tailoring the nanoscale morphology of HKUST-1 thin films via codeposition and seeded growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landon J. Brower

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Integration of surface-anchored metal-organic frameworks (surMOFs within hierarchical architectures is necessary for potential sensing, electronic, optical, or separation applications. It is important to understand the fundamentals of film formation for these surMOFs in order to develop strategies for their incorporation with nanoscale control over lateral and vertical dimensions. This research identified processing parameters to control the film morphology for surMOFs of HKUST-1 fabricated by codeposition and seeded deposition. Time and temperature were investigated to observe film formation, to control film thickness, and to tune morphology. Film thickness was investigated by ellipsometry, while film structure and film roughness were characterized by atomic force microscopy. Films formed via codeposition resulted in nanocrystallites anchored to the gold substrate. A dynamic process at the interface was observed with a low density of large particulates (above 100 nm initially forming on the substrate; and over time these particulates were slowly replaced by the prevalence of smaller crystallites (ca. 10 nm covering the substrate at a high density. Elevated temperature was found to expedite the growth process to obtain the full range of surface morphologies with reasonable processing times. Seed crystals formed by the codeposition method were stable and nucleated growth throughout a subsequent layer-by-layer deposition process. These seed crystals templated the final film structure and tailor the features in lateral and vertical directions. Using codeposition and seeded growth, different surface morphologies with controllable nanoscale dimensions can be designed and fabricated for integration of MOF systems directly into device architectures and sensor platforms.

  14. Tuning calcite morphology and growth acceleration by a rational design of highly stable protein-mimetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Long; Qi, Jiahui; Tao, Jinhui; Zuckermann, Ronald N.; DeYoreo, James J.

    2014-01-01

    In nature, proteins play a significant role in biomineral formation. One of the ultimate goals of bioinspired materials science is to develop highly stable synthetic molecules that mimic the function of these natural proteins by controlling crystal formation. Here, we demonstrate that both the morphology and the degree of acceleration or inhibition observed during growth of calcite in the presence of peptoids can be rationally tuned by balancing the electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions, with hydrophobic interactions playing the dominant role. While either strong electrostatic or hydrophobic interactions inhibit growth and reduces expression of the {104} faces, correlations between peptoid-crystal binding energies and observed changes in calcite growth indicate moderate electrostatic interactions allow peptoids to weakly adsorb while moderate hydrophobic interactions cause disruption of surface-adsorbed water layers, leading to growth acceleration with retained expression of the {104} faces. This study provides fundamental principles for designing peptoids as crystallization promoters, and offers a straightforward screening method based on macroscopic crystal morphology. Because peptoids are sequence-specific, highly stable, and easily synthesized, peptoid-enhanced crystallization offers a broad range of potential applications. PMID:25189418

  15. Morphological development and allometric growth patterns of Acipenser persicus Borodin, 1897 (Actinopterygii, Acipenseridae during early development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Eagderi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Morphological development and allometric growth patterns of reared Persian sturgeon, Acipenser persicus, were studied from hatching to 50 days post-hatching (dph. The larvae were sampled, their left sides photographed and seven morphometric characters, including total length, head length, tail length, trunk length, snout length, caudal peduncle and predorsal length were measured. Allometric growth patterns were calculated as a power function of total length and described using the growth coefficient to find important steps in early life history. The total length of the newly hatched larvae and fry were 10.59±0.8 and 38.8±2.9 mm at 1 and 50 dph, respectively. Morphogenesis and differentiation were the highest rates during the first 11 days of early development, i.e. endogenous feeding period. There were higher growth rate of head, snout and tail regions compared with those of other organs from the hatch up to yolk sac absorption, followed by positive or almost isometric patterns, after the begin of exogenous feeding, showing priority to enhance the feeding and swimming capabilities. This study confirmed that most of morphological changes of this species are occurred from hatching until the onset of exogenous feeding i.e. during the lecithotrophic phase.

  16. Effects of probiotic on the intestinal morphology with special reference to the growth of broilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutfullah, G.; Ahmad, I.

    2011-01-01

    The probiotic (Protexin) increases the growth rate in broilers. It must interfere with the intestinal cell morphology and absorption. The intestinal epithelium is one of the most rapidly renewed tissues in the body and is renewed by a process of continuous cell division. This study was carried out with an aim to establish a link between the use of probiotic doses, growth rate, and intestinal cell proliferation by measuring the length and weight of the intestine and intestinal crypt cell proliferation (CCP) of broiler chicks. The results revealed significant increase in intestinal CCP but no effect was observed on the intestinal weight and length. The increase in CCP has also no significant influence towards growth factor. The increased weight gain in this study is associated with more feed consumption which is observed with Protexin dose 1.0 g / 10 kg of feed. Furthermore, feed consumption reduced beyond this dose may lead to reduced weight gain. (author)

  17. Abnormal bone collagen morphology and decreased bone strength in growth hormone-deficient rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Martin; Qvortrup, Klaus; Svendsen, Ole Lander

    2004-01-01

    Patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) have an increased risk of bone fractures. In these patients, the well-described decrease in bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC) may, however, not alone explain the increase in fracture rate. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to evaluate......% and growth rate to approximately 40-50% when compared to normal control rats. Five male Dw-4 rats were examined at age 12 weeks and five healthy Lewis rats served as age-matched controls. The animals were examined for (1) bone mineral status by dual energy X-ray absorptometry (DXA) and ash weight/bone volume......, (2) biomechanical properties, (3) serum insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3), and (4) collagen morphology of cortical bone from the right femurs was examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. A significant decrease was found in serum IGF-I, IGFBP-3...

  18. Role of Morphological Growth State and Gene Expression in Desulfovibrio africanus strain Walvis Bay Mercury Methylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moberly, James G [ORNL; Miller, Carrie L [ORNL; Brown, Steven D [ORNL; Biswas, Abir [ORNL; Brandt, Craig C [ORNL; Palumbo, Anthony Vito [ORNL; Elias, Dwayne A [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    The biogeochemical transformations of mercury are a complex process, with the production of methylmercury, a potent human neurotoxin, repeatedly demonstrated in sulfate- and Fe(III)- reducing as well as methanogenic bacteria. However, little is known regarding the morphology, genes or proteins involved in methylmercury generation. Desulfovibrio africanus strain Walvis Bay is a Hg-methylating -proteobacterium with a sequenced genome and has unusual pleomorphic forms. In this study, a relationship between the pleomorphism and Hg methylation was investigated. Proportional increases in the sigmoidal (regular) cell form corresponded with increased net MeHg production, but decreased when the pinched cocci (persister) form became the major morphotype. D. africanus microarrays indicated that the ferrous iron transport genes (feoAB), as well as ribosomal genes and several genes whose products are predicted to have metal binding domains (CxxC), were up-regulated during exposure to Hg in the exponential phase. While no specific methylation pathways were identified, the finding that Hg may interfere with iron transport and the correlation of growth-phase dependent morphology with MeHg production are notable. The identification of these relationships between differential gene expression, morphology, and the growth phase dependence of Hg transformations suggests that actively growing cells are primarily responsible for methylation, and so areas with ample carbon and electron-acceptor concentrations may also generate a higher proportion of methylmercury than more oligotrophic environments. The observation of increased iron transporter expression also suggests that Hg methylation may interfere with iron biogeochemical cycles.

  19. Growth and morphology of sputtered aluminum thin films on P3HT surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaune, Gunar; Metwalli, Ezzeldin; Meier, Robert; Körstgens, Volker; Schlage, Kai; Couet, Sebastien; Röhlsberger, Ralf; Roth, Stephan V; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter

    2011-04-01

    Growth and morphology of an aluminum (Al) contact on a poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) thin film are investigated with X-ray methods and related to the interactions at the Al:P3HT interface. Grazing incidence small-angle scattering (GISAXS) is applied in situ during Al sputter deposition to monitor the growth of the layer. A growth mode is found, in which the polymer surface is wetted and rapidly covered with a continuous layer. This growth type results in a homogeneous film without voids and is explained by the strong chemical interaction between Al and P3HT, which suppresses the formation of three-dimensional cluster structures. A corresponding three stage growth model (surface bonding, agglomeration, and layer growth) is derived. X-ray reflectivity shows the penetration of Al atoms into the P3HT film during deposition and the presence of a 2 nm thick intermixing layer at the Al:P3HT interface. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  20. A lysimeter study of nitrate leaching, optimum fertilisation rate and growth responses of corn (Zea mays L.) following soil amendment with water-saving super-absorbent polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M Robiul; Mao, Sishuai; Xue, Xuzhang; Eneji, A Egrinya; Zhao, Xingbao; Hu, Yuegao

    2011-08-30

    Nitrate leaching and the resulting groundwater contamination from intensive cereal production has become a major concern for long-term farmland efficiency and environmental sustainability in northern China. The aim of this study was to evaluate a water-saving super-absorbent polymer (SAP) for minimising NO(3)(-) leaching from soil and optimising corn growth and yield. Thirty-six undisturbed soil lysimeters were installed in a field lysimeter facility in drought-affected northern China to study the growth and yield characteristics of summer corn (Zea mays L.) as well as the amount of NO(3)-leaching losses under different fertiliser (standard, medium or 75% and low, or 50% of conventional fertilisation rate) and SAP (control, 0; level-1, 15 kg ha(-1) and level-2, 30 kg ha(-1)) treatments. Corn yield fell by 19.7% under medium and 37.7% under low fertilisation; the application of SAP increased yield significantly by 44.4% on level-1 and 80.3% on level-2. Similarly, plant height, leaf area, number of grains as well as protein, soluble sugar and starch contents in the grain also increased with SAP treatment. Application of SAP at 30 kg ha(-1) plus half of conventional fertilisation can reduce maximum (64.1%) nitrate leaching losses from soil. Application of SAP at 30 kg ha(-1) plus only half the amount of conventional fertiliser rate (150 kg urea, and 50 kg each of superphosphate and potassium sulfate) would be a more appropriate practice both for minimising nitrate leaching and sustainable corn production under the arid and semiarid conditions of northern China. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Growth, Water Use, and Nitrate-15N Uptake of Greenhouse Tomato as Influenced by Different Irrigation Patterns,15N Labeled Depths, and Transplant Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Maomao; Jin, Qiu; Lu, Xinyu; Li, Jiyu; Zhong, Huizhen; Gao, Yue

    2017-01-01

    Increasing water use efficiency and reducing nitrogen pollutant discharge are important tasks for modern agriculture. To evaluate the effect of alternate partial root-zone irrigation (APRI) on tomato plant growth, water use efficiency and nitrate- 15 N uptake, an experiment was conducted from June to December in 2014 under greenhouse condition in northern China. The experiment contained two irrigation patterns [APRI and conventional irrigation (CI)], two 15 N labeled depths in soil (10 and 50 cm) and two transplant time (early and late summer). Results showed that, compared to CI, APRI did not significantly ( p > 0.05) impact the growth and biomass accumulation in aboveground part of tomato, while it enhanced the root, reflecting by greater length density, and more dry mass. APRI produced marginally lower yields, but saved 34.9% of irrigation water, and gave a 37.6-49.9% higher water use efficiency relative to CI. In addition, APRI improved fruit quality, mainly through increasing the contents of soluble solid (by 12.8-21.6%), and vitamin C (2.8-12.7%), and the sugar/acid ratio (3.5-8.5%). The 15 N utilization efficiency ( 15 NUE) in APRI was higher than that in CI, which was more evident when 15 N was labeled at 50 cm depth. Significant ( p greenhouse could benefit the nitrate-N recovery and increase the water use efficiency in tomato.

  2. Growth kinetics and morphology of a ballistic deposition model that incorporates surface diffusion for two species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Nashar, H.F.; Cerdeira, H.A.

    1998-08-01

    We introduce a ballistic deposition model for two kinds of particles (active and inactive) in (2+1) dimensions upon introducing the surface diffusion for the inactive particles. A morphological structural transition is found as the probability of being the inactive particle increases. This transition is well defined by the change in the behavior of the surface width when it is plotted versus time and probability. The exponents α and β calculated for different values of probability show the same behavior. The presence of both types of particles issues three different processes that control the growing surface: overhanging, nonlocal growth and diffusion. It finally leads to a morphological structural transition where the universality changes away from that of Kardar-Parisi-Zhang, in (2+1) dimensions, but not into Edwards-Wilkinson's. (author)

  3. The impact of nanoclay on the crystal growth kinetics and morphology of biodegradable poly(ethylene succinate) composite

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bandyopadhyay, J

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The impact of nanoclay on the isothermal crystal growth kinetics and morphology of biodegradable poly(ethylene succinate) (PES) is reported. A PES composite (PESNC) containing 5 wt% organically modified montmorillonite, was prepared via solvent...

  4. Human neural progenitors express functional lysophospholipid receptors that regulate cell growth and morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Callihan Phillip

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lysophospholipids regulate the morphology and growth of neurons, neural cell lines, and neural progenitors. A stable human neural progenitor cell line is not currently available in which to study the role of lysophospholipids in human neural development. We recently established a stable, adherent human embryonic stem cell-derived neuroepithelial (hES-NEP cell line which recapitulates morphological and phenotypic features of neural progenitor cells isolated from fetal tissue. The goal of this study was to determine if hES-NEP cells express functional lysophospholipid receptors, and if activation of these receptors mediates cellular responses critical for neural development. Results Our results demonstrate that Lysophosphatidic Acid (LPA and Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P receptors are functionally expressed in hES-NEP cells and are coupled to multiple cellular signaling pathways. We have shown that transcript levels for S1P1 receptor increased significantly in the transition from embryonic stem cell to hES-NEP. hES-NEP cells express LPA and S1P receptors coupled to Gi/o G-proteins that inhibit adenylyl cyclase and to Gq-like phospholipase C activity. LPA and S1P also induce p44/42 ERK MAP kinase phosphorylation in these cells and stimulate cell proliferation via Gi/o coupled receptors in an Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR- and ERK-dependent pathway. In contrast, LPA and S1P stimulate transient cell rounding and aggregation that is independent of EGFR and ERK, but dependent on the Rho effector p160 ROCK. Conclusion Thus, lysophospholipids regulate neural progenitor growth and morphology through distinct mechanisms. These findings establish human ES cell-derived NEP cells as a model system for studying the role of lysophospholipids in neural progenitors.

  5. Cellular automaton simulation of tumour growth -- equivocal relationships between simulation parameters and morphologic pattern features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolle, J

    1998-01-01

    To develop an interpretation procedure which estimates simulation parameters (tumour cell motility, tumour cell adhesion, autocrine and paracrine growth control, stroma destruction) of simulated patterns solely based on morphometric features of the morphologic pattern. A cellular automaton computer simulation program was developed which produces morphologic patterns by growth of a seed of tumour cells. At the beginning of each simulation run certain simulation parameters are assigned to the tumour cells. After the run has been completed, the resulting pattern is evaluated by a set of morphometric features. Simulation parameters and resulting morphometric features of 27,800 simulations were stored in a database and were used for the evaluation of potential relationships. Correlation analysis showed highly significant correlations between morphometric features on the one hand and the preset simulation parameters (tumour cell motility, tumour cell adhesion, autocrine and paracrine growth control, stroma destruction) on the other. Correlation coefficients, however, varied from 0.72 to 0.99. When only one simulation parameter varied while all others were kept constant, morphometric features yielded a highly reliable estimate of the particular simulation parameter. When variability was extended to 4 simulation parameters, morphometric features were less effective in estimating the setting of the parameters. Though in all patterns tested several possible simulation parameter constellations could be ruled out, morphometric features were usually compatible with more than one set of simulation parameters thus preventing a straightforward interpretation. Though simulation parameters significantly and reproducibly influence the resulting morphologic pattern as characterized by morphometric features, estimates of the simulation parameters based on morphometric features yield equivocal results.

  6. Cellular Automaton Simulation of Tumour Growth – Equivocal Relationships between Simulation Parameters and Morphologic Pattern Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolle, Josef

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To develop an interpretation procedure which estimates simulation parameters (tumour cell motility, tumour cell adhesion, autocrine and paracrine growth control, stroma destruction) of simulated patterns solely based on morphometric features of the morphologic pattern. Methods: A cellular automaton computer simulation program was developed which produces morphologic patterns by growth of a seed of tumour cells. At the beginning of each simulation run certain simulation parameters are assigned to the tumour cells. After the run has been completed, the resulting pattern is evaluated by a set of morphometric features. Simulation parameters and resulting morphometric features of 27,800 simulations were stored in a database and were used for the evaluation of potential relationships. Results: Correlation analysis showed highly significant correlations between morphometric features on the one hand and the preset simulation parameters (tumour cell motility, tumour cell adhesion, autocrine and paracrine growth control, stroma destruction) on the other. Correlation coefficients, however, varied from 0.72 to 0.99. When only one simulation parameter varied while all others were kept constant, morphometric features yielded a highly reliable estimate of the particular simulation parameter. When variability was extended to 4 simulation parameters, morphometric features were less effective in estimating the setting of the parameters. Though in all patterns tested several possible simulation parameter constellations could be ruled out, morphometric features were usually compatible with more than one set of simulation parameters thus preventing a straightforward interpretation. Conclusions: Though simulation parameters significantly and reproducibly influence the resulting morphologic pattern as characterized by morphometric features, estimates of the simulation parameters based on morphometric features yield equivocal results. PMID:10052631

  7. Hydrothermal synthesis of highly crystalline ZnO nanorod arrays: Dependence of morphology and alignment on growth conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azzez, Shrook A., E-mail: shurouq44@yahoo.com [Institutes of Nano-Optoelectronic Research and Technology Laboratory (INOR), Ministry of Science and Technology, Baghdad (Iraq); Hassan, Z.; Alimanesh, M.; Rasheed, Hiba S.; Sabah, Fayroz A.; Abdulateef, Sinan A. [Institutes of Nano-Optoelectronic Research and Technology Laboratory (INOR), Ministry of Science and Technology, Baghdad (Iraq); Hassan, J. J. [Department of Physics, College of Science, University of Basrah, Basrah (Iraq)

    2016-07-06

    Highly oriented zinc oxide nanorod were successfully grown on seeded p-type silicon substrate by hydrothermal methode. The morphology and the crystallinty of ZnO c-axis (002) arrays were systematically studied using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) methods. The effect of seed layer pre-annealing on nanorods properties was explained according to the nucleation site of ZnO nanoparticles on silicon substrate. In addition, the variation of the equal molarity of zinc nitrate hexahydrate and hexamine concentrations in the reaction vessel play a crucial role related to the ZnO nanorods.

  8. Improvement in surface morphology of GaSb buffer layer by two-step high and low temperature growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Shigekazu; Tomabechi, Shuichi; Suzuki, Ryo; Matsukura, Yusuke; Tsunoda, Koji; Kon, Jun-ichi; Nishino, Hironori

    2017-11-01

    The surface morphology of GaSb was investigated by changing growth conditions such as thermal oxide desorption temperature, growth temperature, and growth step by solid source molecular beam epitaxy. At high temperature growth, the pits caused by the thermal oxide desorption remained in the GaSb buffer layer surface, while the surface was sufficiently flattened. At low temperature growth, the pits disappeared, while the surface was not enough flattened even in the case of step-flow mode growth. Since the pits disappeared at lower growth temperature regardless of the growth mode, this behavior might be explained by the Ga migration length depending on the growth temperature. By applying two-step high/low temperature growth, where both growth steps proceed in step-flow mode, flat, a pit-free GaSb buffer surface could be obtained.

  9. The Effect of Growth Temperature and V/III Flux Ratio of MOCVD Antimony Based Semiconductors on Growth Rate and Surface Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramelan Ari Handono

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Epitaxial Alx Ga1-x Sb layers on GaSb and GaAs substrates have been grown by atmospheric pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition using TMAl, TMGa and TMSb. Nomarski microscope and a profiler were employed to examine the surface morphology and growth rate of the samples. We report the effect of growth temperature and V/III flux ratio on growth rate and surface morphology. Growth temperatures in the range of 520°C and 680°C and V/III ratios from 1 to 5 have been investigated. A growth rate activation energy of 0.73 eV was found. At low growth temperatures between 520 and 540°C, the surface morphology is poor due to antimonide precipitates associated with incomplete decomposition of the TMSb. For layers grown on GaAs at 580°C and 600°C with a V/III ratio of 3 a high quality surface morphology is typical, with a mirror-like surface and good composition control. It was found that a suitable growth temperature and V/III flux ratio was beneficial for producing good AlGaSb layers. Undoped AlGaSb grown at 580°C with a V/III flux ratio of 3 at the rate of 3.5 μm/hour shows p-type conductivity with smooth surface morphology

  10. In situ–Directed Growth of Organic Nanofibers and Nanoflakes: Electrical and Morphological Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Oliveira Hansen Roana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Organic nanostructures made from organic molecules such as para-hexaphenylene (p-6P could form nanoscale components in future electronic and optoelectronic devices. However, the integration of such fragile nanostructures with the necessary interface circuitry such as metal electrodes for electrical connection continues to be a significant hindrance toward their large-scale implementation. Here, we demonstrate in situ–directed growth of such organic nanostructures between pre-fabricated contacts, which are source–drain gold electrodes on a transistor platform (bottom-gate on silicon dioxide patterned by a combination of optical lithography and electron beam lithography. The dimensions of the gold electrodes strongly influence the morphology of the resulting structures leading to notably different electrical properties. The ability to control such nanofiber or nanoflake growth opens the possibility for large-scale optoelectronic device fabrication.

  11. Unruptured intracranial aneurysms conservatively followed with serial CT angiography: could morphology and growth predict rupture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehan, William A; Romero, Javier M; Hirsch, Joshua A; Sabbag, David J; Gonzalez, Ramon G; Heit, Jeremy J; Schaefer, Pamela W

    2014-12-01

    Despite several landmark studies, the natural history of unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIA) remains uncertain. Our aim was to identify or confirm factors predictive of rupture of UIA being observed conservatively with serial CT angiography (CTA) in a North American patient population. We performed a retrospective review of patients with UIA being followed with serial CTA studies from 1999 to 2010. The following features for each aneurysm were cataloged from the official radiologic reports and CTA images: maximum diameter, growth between follow-up studies, location, multiplicity, wall calcification, intraluminal thrombus and morphology. Univariate logistic regression analysis of the potential independent risk factors for aneurysm rupture was performed. Statistically significant risk factors from the univariate analysis were then entered into a multivariate logistic regression analysis. 152 patients with a total of 180 UIA had at least two CTA studies. Six aneurysms in six different patients ruptured during the CTA follow-up period for an overall rupture rate of 3.3% and an annual rupture rate of 0.97%. All ruptured aneurysms were ≥9 mm. In the univariate analysis, the statistically significant predictors of aneurysm rupture were aneurysm size (p=0.003), aneurysm growth (p<0.0001) and aneurysm multilobulation (p=0.001). The risk factors that remained significant following the multivariate analysis were growth (OR 55.9; 95% CI 4.47 to 700.08; p=0.002) and multilobulation (OR 17.4; 95% CI 1.52 to 198.4; p=0.022). Aneurysm morphology and interval growth are characteristics predictive of a higher risk of subsequent rupture during conservative CTA follow-up. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. Solvent effects on the crystal growth structure and morphology of the pharmaceutical dirithromycin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan; Liang, Zuozhong

    2017-12-01

    Solvent effects on the crystal structure and morphology of pharmaceutical dirithromycin molecules were systematically investigated using both experimental crystallization and theoretical simulation. Dirithromycin is one of the new generation of macrolide antibiotics with two polymorphic forms (Form I and Form II) and many solvate forms. Herein, six solvates of the dirithromycin, including acetonitrile, acetonitrile/water, acetone, 1-propanol, N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) and cyclohexane, were studied. Experimentally, we crystallized the dirithromycin molecules in different solvents by the solvent evaporating method and measured the crystal structures with the X-ray diffraction (XRD). We compared these crystal structures of dirithromycin solvates and analyzed the solvent property-determined structure evolution. The solvents have a strong interaction with the dirithromycin molecule due to the formation of inter-molecular interactions (such as the hydrogen bonding and close contacts (sum of vdW radii)). Theoretically, we calculated the ideal crystal habit based on the solvated structures with the attachment growth (AE) model. The predicted morphologies and aspect ratios of dirithromycin solvates agree well with the experimental results. This work could be helpful to better understand the structure and morphology evolution of solvates controlled by solvents and guide the crystallization of active pharmaceutical ingredients in the pharmaceutical industry.

  13. Growth curves and morphology of three Treponema subtypes isolated from digital dermatitis in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döpfer, D; Anklam, K; Mikheil, D; Ladell, P

    2012-09-01

    Digital dermatitis (DD) is an infectious claw disease of cattle that causes painful lesions, principally along the coronary band of the claws. In the US alone, the estimated economic impact of DD is estimated to be $190 million. The etiology of DD remains unclear and there is no reliable laboratory test, so DD is most often diagnosed clinically. Spirochetal bacteria of the genera Treponema have been implicated in DD infections following their isolation using culture techniques, serological detection of bovine antibodies against treponemes, and amplification of treponemal 16s DNA sequences by PCR. During in vitro growth of spirochetes and treponemes isolated from DD, morphological changes have been observed indicating the presence of a spiral form and an encysted form. It is not known why encysted forms appear or what role they have in the progression of DD. The current study established growth curves for three subtypes of treponemes, Treponema denticola-like, Treponema phagedenis-like, and Treponema medium-like, while photographically monitoring changes in morphology. In addition to observing spiral and encysted forms, two intermediate forms were also observed. These appeared as either spiral forms with spherical bodies or as enveloped clusters of granules. The observation of encysted forms adds further support to the theory that treponemes causing recurrent infections deep in bovine skin have mechanisms to facilitate persistence and the chronic character of DD. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Cortical and trabecular morphology is altered in the limb bones of mice artificially selected for faster skeletal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Saira; Leussink, Shannon; Sparrow, Leah M; Marchini, Marta; Britz, Hayley M; Manske, Sarah L; Rolian, Campbell

    2017-09-05

    Bone strength is influenced by mineral density and macro- and microstructure. Research into factors that contribute to bone morphology and strength has focused on genetic, environmental and morphological factors (e.g., body mass index), but little is known regarding the impact of rates of skeletal elongation on adult skeletal morphology and strength. Using micro-CT, we examined the impact of rates of skeletal elongation on bone cortical and trabecular morphology, and on rates of estrogen-dependent bone loss in the tibia in CD-1 mice, and in mice with accelerated skeletal growth (Longshanks). Groups of adult mice (n = 7/group) were subjected to ovariectomy or sham surgeries, scanned for 6 weeks, and indices of bone morphology were collected. Results show that Longshanks mice had significantly less trabecular bone at skeletal maturity, characterized by fewer, thinner trabeculae, and furthermore lost trabecular bone more slowly in response to ovariectomy. Artificial selection for rapid skeletal growth relative to somatic growth thus had a significant impact on trabecular bone morphology in Longshanks. Our data do not unequivocally demonstrate a causal relationship between rapid bone growth and reduced trabecular bone quality, but suggest that rapid linear bone growth may influence the risk of cancellous bone fragility.

  15. Morphological acclimation and growth of ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh.) advance regeneration following overstory harvesting in a Mississippi River floodplain forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander Sinz; Emmile S. Gardiner; Brian R. Lockhart; Ray A. Souter

    2011-01-01

    Stand-level growth responses and plant-level patterns of biomass accumulation and distribution were examined to learn how stand structure influences morphological acclimation and growth of green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh.) advance regeneration following overstory harvesting. Nine, 20-ha plots that received clearcut harvesting (100% basal area removal), partial...

  16. Morphological variation in Plantago lanceolata L.: effects of light quality and growth regulators on sun and shade populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hinsberg, A.

    1997-01-01

    The effects of different ratios of red io far-red light (R/FR- ratio) and of exogenously applied growth regulators on the morphology of plants from sun and shade populations were studied. Large differences in growth form were found between populations adapted to either sun or shaded habitats. Low

  17. Effects of fluoride on morphology, growth, development, and thyroid hormone of Chinese toad (Bufo gargarizans) embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuhui; Xie, Lei; Li, Xinyi; Chai, Lihong; Chen, Mengxing; Kong, Xiaojing; Wang, Qingqing; Liu, Jingfei; Zhi, Lijuan; Yang, Chang; Wang, Hongyuan

    2018-03-01

    Excessive fluoride in natural water ecosystem has the potential to detrimentally affect amphibians, but little is known of such effects or underlying mechanisms in Bufo gargarizans embryos. In the present study, the effects of fluoride exposure on B. gargarizans embryos were investigated. First, fluoride teratogenic experiment showed that the 9 days EC 50 of fluoride on B. gargarizans embryos was 177.62 mg/L. Then, we studied the sublethal effects of fluoride on B. gargarizans embryos at control, 0.7, 4.1, 19.6, 41.9, and 62.7 mg/L fluoride concentration. Malformation, growth, and development of embryos were monitored, and type 2 and 3 iodothyronine deiodinase (Dio2 and Dio3), thyroid hormone receptors (TRα and TRβ) mRNA levels were measured. Our results showed the morphological malformations, such as tail curvature (lordosis), edema, cuticularized ciliated cells, and hyperplasia were occurred during fluoride exposure. Growth and development were all inhibited at 19.5, 41.9, and 62.7 mg/L fluoride-treated groups after 9 days' exposure. According to real-time PCR results, exposure to fluoride upregulated Dio3 and TRβ mRNA expression and downregulated Dio2 and TRα mRNA level. All above indicated that excessive fluoride could induce morphology malformations, inhibit embryonic growth and development, and disrupt the normal function of maternal thyroid hormone in B. gargarizans embryos. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 59:123-133, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Effects of nitrogen on the growth and nitrogenous compounds of Ceratophyllum demersum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Best, E.P.H.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of high concentrations of nitrogen on Ceratophyllum demersum L. were studied. Nitrogen was added in the form of nitrate or ammonia. Growth and morphology were not affected by nitrate up to a concentration of 105 mg l−1. Ammonia, supplied in low concentration during a short period,

  19. Morphology and grain structure evolution during epitaxial growth of Ag films on native-oxide-covered Si surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hur, Tae-Bong; Kim, Hong Koo; Perello, David; Yun, Minhee; Kulovits, Andreas; Wiezorek, Joerg

    2008-01-01

    Epitaxial nanocrystalline Ag films were grown on initially native-oxide-covered Si(001) substrates using radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. Mechanisms of grain growth and morphology evolution were investigated. An epitaxially oriented Ag layer (∼5 nm thick) formed on the oxide-desorbed Si surface during the initial growth phase. After a period of growth instability, characterized as kinetic roughening, grain growth stagnation, and increase of step-edge density, a layer of nanocrystalline Ag grains with a uniform size distribution appeared on the quasi-two-dimensional layer. This hierarchical process of film formation is attributed to the dynamic interplay between incoming energetic Ag particles and native oxide. The cyclic interaction (desorption and migration) of the oxide with the growing Ag film is found to play a crucial role in the characteristic evolution of grain growth and morphology change involving an interval of grain growth stagnation

  20. Effects of silicon-limitation on growth and morphology of Triparma laevis NIES-2565 (Parmales, Heterokontophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Kazumasa; Yoshikawa, Shinya; Ichinomiya, Mutsuo; Kuwata, Akira; Kamiya, Mitsunobu; Ohki, Kaori

    2014-01-01

    The order Parmales (Heterokontophyta) is a group of small-sized unicellular marine phytoplankton, which is distributed widely from tropical to polar waters. The cells of Parmales are surrounded by a distinctive cell wall, which consists of several siliceous plates fitting edge to edge. Phylogenetic and morphological analyses suggest that Parmales is one of the key organisms for elucidating the evolutionary origin of Bacillariophyceae (diatoms), the most successful heterokontophyta. The effects of silicon-limitation on growth and morphogenesis of plates were studied using a strain of Triparma laevis NIES-2565, which was cultured for the first time in artificial sea water. The cells of T. laevis were surrounded by eight plates when grown with sufficient silicon. However, plate formation became incomplete when cells were cultured in a medium containing low silicate (ca. silicon-limitation did not affect growth rate; cells continued to divide without changing their growth rate, even after all plates were lost. Loss of plates was reversible; when cells without plates were transferred to a medium containing sufficient silicate, regeneration of shield and ventral plates was followed by the formation of girdle and triradiate plates. The results indicate that the response to silicon-limitation of T. laevis is different from that of diatoms, where cell division becomes inhibited under such conditions.

  1. Effects of Silicon-Limitation on Growth and Morphology of Triparma laevis NIES-2565 (Parmales, Heterokontophyta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Kazumasa; Yoshikawa, Shinya; Ichinomiya, Mutsuo; Kuwata, Akira; Kamiya, Mitsunobu; Ohki, Kaori

    2014-01-01

    The order Parmales (Heterokontophyta) is a group of small-sized unicellular marine phytoplankton, which is distributed widely from tropical to polar waters. The cells of Parmales are surrounded by a distinctive cell wall, which consists of several siliceous plates fitting edge to edge. Phylogenetic and morphological analyses suggest that Parmales is one of the key organisms for elucidating the evolutionary origin of Bacillariophyceae (diatoms), the most successful heterokontophyta. The effects of silicon-limitation on growth and morphogenesis of plates were studied using a strain of Triparma laevis NIES-2565, which was cultured for the first time in artificial sea water. The cells of T. laevis were surrounded by eight plates when grown with sufficient silicon. However, plate formation became incomplete when cells were cultured in a medium containing low silicate (ca. silicon-limitation did not affect growth rate; cells continued to divide without changing their growth rate, even after all plates were lost. Loss of plates was reversible; when cells without plates were transferred to a medium containing sufficient silicate, regeneration of shield and ventral plates was followed by the formation of girdle and triradiate plates. The results indicate that the response to silicon-limitation of T. laevis is different from that of diatoms, where cell division becomes inhibited under such conditions. PMID:25054645

  2. The homeobox BcHOX8 gene in Botrytis cinerea regulates vegetative growth and morphology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsuzsanna Antal

    Full Text Available Filamentous growth and the capacity at producing conidia are two critical aspects of most fungal life cycles, including that of many plant or animal pathogens. Here, we report on the identification of a homeobox transcription factor encoding gene that plays a role in these two particular aspects of the development of the phytopathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea. Deletion of the BcHOX8 gene in both the B. cinerea B05-10 and T4 strains causes similar phenotypes, among which a curved, arabesque-like, hyphal growth on hydrophobic surfaces; the mutants were hence named Arabesque. Expression of the BcHOX8 gene is higher in conidia and infection cushions than in developing appressorium or mycelium. In the Arabesque mutants, colony growth rate is reduced and abnormal infection cushions are produced. Asexual reproduction is also affected with abnormal conidiophore being formed, strongly reduced conidia production and dramatic changes in conidial morphology. Finally, the mutation affects the fungus ability to efficiently colonize different host plants. Analysis of the B. cinerea genome shows that BcHOX8 is one member of a nine putative homeobox genes family. Available gene expression data suggest that these genes are functional and sequence comparisons indicate that two of them would be specific to B. cinerea and its close relative Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

  3. The Homeobox BcHOX8 Gene in Botrytis Cinerea Regulates Vegetative Growth and Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antal, Zsuzsanna; Rascle, Christine; Cimerman, Agnès; Viaud, Muriel; Billon-Grand, Geneviève; Choquer, Mathias; Bruel, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Filamentous growth and the capacity at producing conidia are two critical aspects of most fungal life cycles, including that of many plant or animal pathogens. Here, we report on the identification of a homeobox transcription factor encoding gene that plays a role in these two particular aspects of the development of the phytopathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea. Deletion of the BcHOX8 gene in both the B. cinerea B05-10 and T4 strains causes similar phenotypes, among which a curved, arabesque-like, hyphal growth on hydrophobic surfaces; the mutants were hence named Arabesque. Expression of the BcHOX8 gene is higher in conidia and infection cushions than in developing appressorium or mycelium. In the Arabesque mutants, colony growth rate is reduced and abnormal infection cushions are produced. Asexual reproduction is also affected with abnormal conidiophore being formed, strongly reduced conidia production and dramatic changes in conidial morphology. Finally, the mutation affects the fungus ability to efficiently colonize different host plants. Analysis of the B. cinerea genome shows that BcHOX8 is one member of a nine putative homeobox genes family. Available gene expression data suggest that these genes are functional and sequence comparisons indicate that two of them would be specific to B. cinerea and its close relative Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. PMID:23133556

  4. Impact of trace metal concentrations on coccolithophore growth and morphology: laboratory simulations of Cretaceous stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucher, Giulia; Hoffmann, Linn; Bach, Lennart T.; Bottini, Cinzia; Erba, Elisabetta; Riebesell, Ulf

    2017-07-01

    The Cretaceous ocean witnessed intervals of profound perturbations such as volcanic input of large amounts of CO2, anoxia, eutrophication and introduction of biologically relevant metals. Some of these extreme events were characterized by size reduction and/or morphological changes of a few calcareous nannofossil species. The correspondence between intervals of high trace metal concentrations and coccolith dwarfism suggests a negative effect of these elements on nannoplankton biocalcification processes in past oceans. In order to test this hypothesis, we explored the potential effect of a mixture of trace metals on growth and morphology of four living coccolithophore species, namely Emiliania huxleyi, Gephyrocapsa oceanica, Pleurochrysis carterae and Coccolithus pelagicus. The phylogenetic history of coccolithophores shows that the selected living species are linked to Mesozoic species showing dwarfism under excess metal concentrations. The trace metals tested were chosen to simulate the environmental stress identified in the geological record and upon known trace metal interactions with living coccolithophore algae.Our laboratory experiments demonstrated that elevated trace metal concentrations, similarly to the fossil record, affect coccolithophore algae size and/or weight. Smaller coccoliths were detected in E. huxleyi and C. pelagicus, while coccoliths of G. oceanica showed a decrease in size only at the highest trace metal concentrations. P. carterae coccolith size was unresponsive to changing trace metal concentrations. These differences among species allow discriminating the most- (P. carterae), intermediate- (E. huxleyi and G. oceanica) and least-tolerant (C. pelagicus) taxa. The fossil record and the experimental results converge on a selective response of coccolithophores to metal availability.These species-specific differences must be considered before morphological features of coccoliths are used to reconstruct paleo-chemical conditions.

  5. Sagittal synostosis: II. Cranial morphology and growth after the modified pi-plasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guimaraes-Ferreira, J.; Gewalli, F.; David, L.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise the postoperative cranial growth and morphology after a modified pi-plasty for sagittal synostosis. The shape of the skull of 82 patients with isolated premature synostosis of the sagittal suture ( SS group) operated on with a modified pi-plasty was studied...... developed by Kreiborg, which included the digitisation of 89 landmarks of the calvaria, cranial base, and orbit ( 43 in the lateral and 46 in the frontal projections), the production of mean shape plots for each group, and the intergroup comparison of a series of 78 variables ( linear distance between...... selected landmarks, and angles defined by groups of three landmarks). Paired and unpaired t tests were used to assess the differences between the variables studied. These were accepted as significant for values of p...

  6. Air-dictated bottom spray process: impact of fluid dynamics on granule growth and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Celine V; Er, Dawn Z L; Heng, Paul W S

    2009-07-01

    Growing interest in the use of the less-explored bottom spray technique for fluidized bed granulation provided impetus for this study. The impact of fluid dynamics (air accelerator insert diameter; partition gap) and wetting (binder spray rate) on granule properties were investigated. In this 3(3) full factorial study, the results were fitted to a quadratic model using response surface methodology. The air velocity at the spray granulation zone for the investigated conditions was measured using a pitot tube. Air accelerator insert diameter correlated to measured air velocity at the spray granulation zone and was found to not only dictate growth but also influence granule morphology. The partition gap was found to play important roles in regulating particle movement into the spray granulation zone and optimizing process yields, whereas binder spray rate significantly affected granule morphology but not granule size. Unlike conventional fluidized bed granulation, ease of modulation of fluid dynamics and insensitivity of the bottom spray process to wetting allow flexible control of granule size, shape, and flow. Its good drying ability also indicated potential use in granulating moisture-sensitive materials.

  7. The GOGREEN Survey: The Relationship between Quenching, Morphological Transformation and Size Growth of Satellite Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Gillian

    2017-08-01

    Despite a dramatic build-up in the number of quenched galaxies at z 1000 members of 12 Coma- and Virgo-mass progenitor clusters at 1 600 field galaxies). Here, we propose for WFC3/F160W imaging of the GOGREEN sample to 1) measure the relative timing of star-formation quenching and morphological transformation, 2) make the first high-z measurement of satellite quenching by controlling for intrinsic quenching, and 3) constrain the dominant driver of size growth in the early-type population. Our team has the modeling framework to interpret the trends and to place unrivaled constraints on the physical processes that underlie environmental quenching and morphological transformation from late- to early-type galaxies. Because of Gemini Observatory's huge investment in the GOGREEN program, this survey will return the premier high-redshift cluster spectroscopic dataset for the foreseeable future. All reduced images, spectra and catalogs will be made publicly available, including catalogs from the F160W observations proposed here.

  8. Ovarian morphology and function during growth hormone therapy of short girls born small for gestational age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinggaard, Jeanette; Jensen, Rikke Beck; Sundberg, Karin; Birkebæk, Niels; Christiansen, Peter; Ellermann, Annie; Holm, Kirsten; Jeppesen, Eva Mosfeldt; Kremke, Britta; Marcinski, Pawel; Pedersen, Carsten; Saurbrey, Nina; Thisted, Ebbe; Main, Katharina M; Juul, Anders

    2014-12-01

    To study the effect of growth hormone (GH) treatment on ovarian and uterine morphology and function in short, prepubertal small-for-gestational-age (SGA) girls. A multinational, randomized controlled trial on safety and efficacy of GH therapy in short, prepubertal children born SGA. Not applicable. A subgroup of 18 Danish girls born SGA included in North European SGA Study (NESGAS). One year of GH treatment (67 μg/kg/day) followed by 2 years of randomized GH treatment (67 μg/kg/day, 35 μg/kg/day, or IGF-I titrated). Data on anthropometrics, reproductive hormones, and ultrasonographic examination of the internal genitalia were collected during 36 months of GH treatment. Uterine and ovarian volume increased significantly during 3 years of treatment (64% and 110%, respectively) but remained low within normal reference ranges. Ovarian follicles became visible in 58% after 1 year compared with 28% before GH therapy. Anti-Müllerian hormone increased significantly during the 3 years of GH therapy but remained within the normal range. Precocious puberty was observed in one girl; another girl developed multicystic ovaries. GH treatment was associated with statistically significant growth of the internal genitalia, but remained within the normal range. As altered pubertal development and ovarian morphology were found in 2 of 18 girls, monitoring of puberty and ovarian function during GH therapy in SGA girls is prudent. Altogether, the findings are reassuring. However, long-term effects of GH treatment on adult reproductive function remain unknown. EudraCT 2005-001507-19. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Physiological and cell morphology adaptation of Bacillus subtilis at near-zero specific growth rates: a transcriptome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overkamp, Wout; Ercan, Onur; Herber, Martijn; van Maris, Antonius J A; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Kuipers, Oscar P

    2015-02-01

    Nutrient scarcity is a common condition in nature, but the resulting extremely low growth rates (below 0.025 h(-1) ) are an unexplored research area in Bacillus subtilis. To understand microbial life in natural environments, studying the adaptation of B. subtilis to near-zero growth conditions is relevant. To this end, a chemostat modified for culturing an asporogenous B. subtilis sigF mutant strain at extremely low growth rates (also named a retentostat) was set up, and biomass accumulation, culture viability, metabolite production and cell morphology were analysed. During retentostat culturing, the specific growth rate decreased to a minimum of 0.00006 h(-1) , corresponding to a doubling time of 470 days. The energy distribution between growth and maintenance-related processes showed that a state of near-zero growth was reached. Remarkably, a filamentous cell morphology emerged, suggesting that cell separation is impaired under near-zero growth conditions. To evaluate the corresponding molecular adaptations to extremely low specific growth, transcriptome changes were analysed. These revealed that cellular responses to near-zero growth conditions share several similarities with those of cells during the stationary phase of batch growth. However, fundamental differences between these two non-growing states are apparent by their high viability and absence of stationary phase mutagenesis under near-zero growth conditions. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Growth morphology of CL-20/HMX cocrystal explosive: insights from solvent behavior under different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Gang; Li, Qi-Fa; Gou, Rui-Jun; Zhang, Shu-Hai; Ren, Fu-de; Wang, Li; Guan, Rong

    2017-11-28

    A 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20) /1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazacyclooctane (HMX)-isopropanol (IPA) interfacial model was constructed to investigate the effect of temperature on cocrystal morphology. A constant volume and temperature molecular dynamics (NVT-MD) simulation was performed on the interfacial model at various temperatures (295-355 K, 20 K intervals). The surface electrostatic potential (ESP) of the CL-20/HMX cocrystal structure and IPA molecule were studied by the B3LYP method at 6-311++G (d, p) level. The surface energies, polarities, adsorption energy, mass density distribution, radial distribution function (RDF), mean square displacement (MSD) and relative changes of attachment energy were analyzed. The results show that polarities of (1 0 0) and (0 1 1) cocrystal surfaces may be more negative and affected by IPA solvent. The adsorption energy per area indicates that growth of the (1 0-2) face in IPA conditions may be more limited, while the (1 0 0) face tends to grow more freely. MSD and diffusion coefficient (D) analyses demonstrated that IPA molecules gather more easily on the cocrystal surface at lower temperatures, and hence have a larger effect on the growth of cocrystal faces. RDF analysis shows that, with the increasing of temperature, the strength of hydrogen bond interactions between cocrystal and solvent becomes stronger, being highest at 335 K for the (1 0 0) and (0 1 1) interfacial models. Results of relative changes of modified attachment energy show that (1 0 0) and (0 1 1) faces tends to be larger than other faces. Moreover, the predicted morphologies at 295 and 355 K are consistent with experimental values, proving that the CL-20/HMX-IPA interfacial model is a reasonable one for this study. Graphical Abstract Construction of 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20) /1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazacyclooctane (HMX)-isopropanol (IPA) interfacial model, analysis

  11. Morphology and Kinetics of Growth of CaCO3 Precipitates Formed in Saline Water at 30°C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Xin; Wang, Baohui; Wu, Haiming

    2018-02-01

    The crystallization kinetics and morphology of CaCO3 crystals precipitated from the high salinity oilfield water were studied. The crystallization kinetics measurements show that nucleation and nuclei growth obey the first order reaction kinetics. The induction period of precipitation is extended in the high salinity solutions. Morphological studies show that impurity ions remain mostly in the solution phase instead of filling the CaCO3 crystal lattice. The morphology of CaCO3 precipitates can be changed from a smooth surface (calcite) to rough spheres (vaterite), and spindle rod bundles, or spherical, ellipsoid, flowers, plates and other shapes (aragonite).

  12. Experimental Investigation of Nascent Soot Physical Properties and The Influence on Particle Morphology and Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieb, Sydnie Marie

    Soot released to the atmosphere is a dangerous pollutant for human health and the environment. Understanding the physical properties and surface properties of these particles is important to properly explaining the growth of soot particles in flames as well as their interactions with other particles and gases in the environment. Particles below 15 nm in diameter, nascent soot particles, dominate the early growth stages of soot formation; previously these particles were characterized as hard graphitic spheres. New evidence derived from the current dissertation work, to a large extent, challenges this prior characterization. This dissertation study begins by revisiting the use of atomic force microscope (AFM) as a tool to investigate the structural properties of nascent soot. The impact of tip artifacts, which are known to complicate measurements of features below 10 nm in diameter, are carefully considered so as to provide a concise interpretation of the morphology of nascent soot as seen by AFM. The results of the AFM morphology collaborate with earlier photo- and thermal-fragmentation particle mass spectrometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy that nascent soot is not a graphitized carbon material and that they are not spherical. Furthermore, phase mode imaging is introduced as a method to investigate the physical properties of nascent soot particles in a greater detail and finer resolution. The helium ion microscope (HIM) has been identified as a useful technique for the imaging of nascent soot. Using this imaging method nascent soot particles were imaged with a high resolution that had not been obtained by prior techniques. The increased contrast provides a closer look at the nascent soot particles and further suggested that these particles are not as structurally homogeneous as previously thought. Geometric shape analysis was performed to characterize the particles in terms of sphericity, circularity, and fractal dimension. The geometric analysis

  13. Growth morphology of {1 1 0} faces of manganese mercury thiocyanate crystals investigated by atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng, Y.L.; Xu, D.; Wang, X.Q.; Du, W.; Liu, H.Y.; Zhang, G.H.

    2006-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy is employed to investigate the surface morphology of the {1 1 0} faces of MMTC crystals grown at 40 deg. C at a supersaturation of σ = 0.5. Growth hillocks generated by dislocation sources often appear in groups, which leads to faster growth of the local area and forming layers with large height difference up to 30 nm. Growth centers operate nearly equally during the growth process. Serried and sparse monolayer steps dominate alternately on the surface, which is thought to be distinct phenomenon of the two-metal-centered complex compounds family

  14. GROWTH AND COMPOSITION OF Arthrospira (Spirulina platensis IN A TUBULAR PHOTOBIOREACTOR USING AMMONIUM NITRATE AS THE NITROGEN SOURCE IN A FED-BATCH PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Cruz-Martínez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractNH4NO3 simultaneously provides a readily assimilable nitrogen source (ammonia and a reserve of nitrogen (nitrate, allowing for an increase in Arthrospira platensis biomass production while reducing the cost of the cultivation medium. In this study, a 22plus star central composite experimental design combined with response surface methodology was employed to analyze the influence of light intensity (I and the total amount of added NH4NO3 (Mt on a bench-scale tubular photobioreactor for fed-batch cultures. The maximum cell concentration (Xm, cell productivity (PX and biomass yield on nitrogen (YX/N were evaluated, as were the protein and lipid contents. Under optimized conditions (I = 148 μmol·photons·m-2·s-1 and Mt = 9.7 mM NH4NO3, Xm = 4710 ±34.4 mg·L-1, PX = 478.9 ±3.8 mg·L-1·d-1 and YX/N = 15.87 ±0.13 mg·mg-1 were obtained. The best conditions for protein content in the biomass (63.2% were not the same as those that maximized cell growth (I = 180 μmol·photons·m-2·s-1 and Mt = 22.5 mM NH4NO3. Based on these results, it is possible to conclude that ammonium nitrate is an interesting alternate nitrogen source for the cultivation of A. platensisin a fed-batch process and could be used for other photosynthetic microorganisms.

  15. Ammonium nitrate, urea, and biuret fertilizers increase volume growth of 57-year-old douglas-fir trees within a gradient of nitrogen deficiency. Forest Service research paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.E.; Reukema, D.L.; Hazard, J.W.

    1996-03-01

    In a nitrogen-deficient plantation in southwest Washington, the authors (1) compared effects of 224 kg N/ha as ammonium nitrate, urea, and biuret on volume growth of dominant and codominant Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco); (2) determined how 8-year response of these trees to fertilization was related to their distance from a strip of the plantation interplanted with nitrogen-fixing red alder (alnus rubra Bong.); and (3) observed effects of biuret on understory vegetation. On both sides of the strip centerline, the authors grouped subject trees into 30 plots of 4 trees each, based on slope position and distance from alder. The authors randomly assigned three fertilizers and a control within each plot. They analyzed separately data from east and west of the mixed stand certerline. Initial volume differed greatly among the 120 trees on each side, so they used covariance analysis to adjust observed treatment means. Adjusted mean volume growth was increased (p equal to or less than 0.10) by 22 to 28 percent on the east side and by 11 to 14 percent on the west side, with no significant difference in response to the three fertilizers.

  16. Insights into embryo defenses of the invasive apple snail Pomacea canaliculata: egg mass ingestion affects rat intestine morphology and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreon, Marcos S; Fernández, Patricia E; Gimeno, Eduardo J; Heras, Horacio

    2014-06-01

    The spread of the invasive snail Pomacea canaliculata is expanding the rat lungworm disease beyond its native range. Their toxic eggs have virtually no predators and unusual defenses including a neurotoxic lectin and a proteinase inhibitor, presumably advertised by a warning coloration. We explored the effect of egg perivitellin fluid (PVF) ingestion on the rat small intestine morphology and physiology. Through a combination of biochemical, histochemical, histopathological, scanning electron microscopy, cell culture and feeding experiments, we analyzed intestinal morphology, growth rate, hemaglutinating activity, cytotoxicity and cell proliferation after oral administration of PVF to rats. PVF adversely affects small intestine metabolism and morphology and consequently the standard growth rate, presumably by lectin-like proteins, as suggested by PVF hemaglutinating activity and its cytotoxic effect on Caco-2 cell culture. Short-term effects of ingested PVF were studied in growing rats. PVF-supplemented diet induced the appearance of shorter and wider villi as well as fused villi. This was associated with changes in glycoconjugate expression, increased cell proliferation at crypt base, and hypertrophic mucosal growth. This resulted in a decreased absorptive surface after 3 days of treatment and a diminished rat growth rate that reverted to normal after the fourth day of treatment. Longer exposure to PVF induced a time-dependent lengthening of the small intestine while switching to a control diet restored intestine length and morphology after 4 days. Ingestion of PVF rapidly limits the ability of potential predators to absorb nutrients by inducing large, reversible changes in intestinal morphology and growth rate. The occurrence of toxins that affect intestinal morphology and absorption is a strategy against predation not recognized among animals before. Remarkably, this defense is rather similar to the toxic effect of plant antipredator strategies. This defense

  17. Insights into embryo defenses of the invasive apple snail Pomacea canaliculata: egg mass ingestion affects rat intestine morphology and growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos S Dreon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The spread of the invasive snail Pomacea canaliculata is expanding the rat lungworm disease beyond its native range. Their toxic eggs have virtually no predators and unusual defenses including a neurotoxic lectin and a proteinase inhibitor, presumably advertised by a warning coloration. We explored the effect of egg perivitellin fluid (PVF ingestion on the rat small intestine morphology and physiology.Through a combination of biochemical, histochemical, histopathological, scanning electron microscopy, cell culture and feeding experiments, we analyzed intestinal morphology, growth rate, hemaglutinating activity, cytotoxicity and cell proliferation after oral administration of PVF to rats. PVF adversely affects small intestine metabolism and morphology and consequently the standard growth rate, presumably by lectin-like proteins, as suggested by PVF hemaglutinating activity and its cytotoxic effect on Caco-2 cell culture. Short-term effects of ingested PVF were studied in growing rats. PVF-supplemented diet induced the appearance of shorter and wider villi as well as fused villi. This was associated with changes in glycoconjugate expression, increased cell proliferation at crypt base, and hypertrophic mucosal growth. This resulted in a decreased absorptive surface after 3 days of treatment and a diminished rat growth rate that reverted to normal after the fourth day of treatment. Longer exposure to PVF induced a time-dependent lengthening of the small intestine while switching to a control diet restored intestine length and morphology after 4 days.Ingestion of PVF rapidly limits the ability of potential predators to absorb nutrients by inducing large, reversible changes in intestinal morphology and growth rate. The occurrence of toxins that affect intestinal morphology and absorption is a strategy against predation not recognized among animals before. Remarkably, this defense is rather similar to the toxic effect of plant antipredator strategies

  18. Effect of indigenous Pseudomonas chlororaphis strains on morphological and main chemical growth parameters of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojković-Sebić Aleksandra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of two indigenous plant growth promoting rhizobacterial strains of P. chlororaphis (Q16 and B25 on morphological (plant height; root length; number of leaves, buds and lateral branches and main chemical (contents of N, P, K, Ca, Mg growth parameters of two basil cultivars (Italiano classico and SRX 1920. The experiment was conducted in pots under glasshouse conditions from March to July 2014. Phosphorus was determined by spectrophotometer, potassium by flame emission photometry, nitrogen by using elemental CNS analyzer Vario EL III, while calcium and magnesium were determined by AAS. The obtained results showed that the treatment of basil cultivars with both P. chlororaphis strains had positive effect on all studied growth basil parameters in relation to the control, whereby the strain B25 was more effective than Q16. Concluding, tested P. chlororaphis strains have high potential in promoting the morphological and main chemical growth parameters of basil.

  19. The complex morphology of reactive astrocytes controlled by fibroblast growth factor signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kyungjoon; Lee, Sung-Woong; Han, Jeong Eun; Choi, Ji Woong; Song, Mi-Ryoung

    2014-08-01

    Astrocytes are the most abundant cell-type of the human brain and play a variety of roles in brain homeostasis and synaptic maturation, under normal conditions. However, astrocytes undergo dramatic pathological changes in response to brain injury, such as reactive gliosis and glial scar formation. Although abnormal hypertrophy and massive proliferation of astrocytes are obvious, the molecular identity and cues that dictate the structural changes in reactive astrocytes remain unclear. This study proposes that fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling is responsible for making astrocyte morphology more complex and hypertrophic in response to an inflammatory stimulus such as lipopolysaccharide. Primary astrocytes isolated from perinatal brains developed more branches in the presence of FGF8 or lesser branches in the presence of FGF2. Introduction of the constitutively active form of the FGF receptor 3 (caFGFR3) into the brain increases the structural complexity, with greater glial fibrillary acidic protein level in astrocytes, while overexpression of a dominant-negative form of FGFR3 (dnFGFR3) reduces it. Treatment of FGF8 facilitated the wound-healing process of primary astrocytes in vitro by changing their morphology, indicating that the FGF signal may control the responsiveness of astrocytes in injury conditions. Finally, the blockade of FGF signaling by introducing dnFGFR3 at the site of reactive gliosis reduces astrocyte branch formation and minimizes hypertrophic responses during reactive gliosis. Taken together, these results indicate that FGF8-FGFR3 signaling controls structural changes in astrocytes during reactive gliosis, under pathogenic conditions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Effect of elevated CO2 concentration and nitrate: ammonium ratios on gas exchange and growth of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluated how different nitrogen forms affect growth and photosynthetic responses of cassava to CO2 concentration. Cassava was grown in 12-L pots in a greenhouse (30/25o C day / night) at 390 or 750 ppm of CO2. Three nitrogen treatments were applied: (a) 12 mM NO3-, (b) 6 mM NO3- + 6 mM N...

  1. Influence of Synthesis Temperature on the Growth and Surface Morphology of Co3O4 Nanocubes for Supercapacitor Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samal, Rashmirekha; Dash, Barsha; Sarangi, Chinmaya Kumar; Subbaiah, Tondepu; Senanayake, Gamini; Minakshi, Manickam

    2017-01-01

    A facile hydrothermal route to control the crystal growth on the synthesis of Co3O4 nanostructures with cube-like morphologies has been reported and tested its suitability for supercapacitor applications. The chemical composition and morphologies of the as-prepared Co3O4 nanoparticles were extensively characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Varying the temperature caused considerable changes in the morphology, the electrochemical performance increased with rising temperature, and the redox reactions become more reversible. The results showed that the Co3O4 synthesized at a higher temperature (180 °C) demonstrated a high specific capacitance of 833 F/g. This is attributed to the optimal temperature and the controlled growth of nanocubes. PMID:29088061

  2. Influence of growth morphology on the Neel temperature of CrRu thin films and heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prinsloo, A.R.E., E-mail: alettap@uj.ac.z [Department of Physics, University of Johannesburg, P.O. Box 524, Auckland Park, Johannesburg 2006 (South Africa); Derrett, H.A. [Department of Physics, University of Johannesburg, P.O. Box 524, Auckland Park, Johannesburg 2006 (South Africa); Hellwig, O. [San Jose Research Center, Hitachi Global Storage Technologies, 3403 Yerba Buena Road, San Jose, CA 95135 (United States); Fullerton, E.E. [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Alberts, H.L. [Department of Physics, University of Johannesburg, P.O. Box 524, Auckland Park, Johannesburg 2006 (South Africa); Berg, N. van den [Department of Physics, University of Pretoria, Lynwood road, Pretoria (South Africa)

    2010-05-15

    Dimensionality effects on epitaxial and polycrystalline Cr{sub 1-x}Ru{sub x} alloy thin films and in Cr/Cr-Ru heterostructures are reported. X-ray analysis on Cr{sub 0.9965}Ru{sub 0.0035} epitaxial films indicates an increase in the coherence length in growth directions (1 0 0) and (1 1 0) with increasing thickness (d), in the range 20<=d<=300 nm. Atomic force microscopy studies on these films shows pronounced vertical growth for d>50 nm, resulting in the formation of columnar structures. The Neel temperatures (T{sub N}) of the Cr{sub 0.9965}Ru{sub 0.0035} films show anomalous behaviour as a function of d at thickness dapprox50 nm. It is interesting to note that this thickness corresponds to that for which a change in film morphology occurs. Experiments on epitaxial Cr{sub 1-x}Ru{sub x} thin films, with 0<=x<=0.013 and d=50 nm, give T{sub N}-x curves that correspond well with that of bulk Cr{sub 1-x}Ru{sub x} alloys. Studies on Cr/Cr{sub 0.9965}Ru{sub 0.0035} superlattices prepared on MgO(1 0 0), with the Cr layer thickness varied between 10 and 50 nm, keeping the Cr{sub 0.9965}Ru{sub 0.0035} thickness constant at 10 nm, indicate a sharp decrease in T{sub N} as the Cr separation layers reaches a thickness of 30 nm; ascribed to spin density wave pinning in the Cr layers for d<30 nm by the adjacent CrRu layers.

  3. Crystal growth mechanisms and morphological control of the prototypical metal-organic framework MOF-5 revealed by atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubillas, Pablo; Anderson, Michael W; Attfield, Martin P

    2012-11-26

    Crystal growth of the metal-organic framework MOF-5 was studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM) for the first time. Growth under low supersaturation conditions was found to occur by a two-dimensional or spiral crystal growth mechanism. Observation of developing nuclei during the former reveals growth occurs through a process of nucleation and spreading of metastable and stable sub-layers revealing that MOFs may be considered as dense phase structures in terms of crystal growth, even though they contain sub-layers consisting of ordered framework and disordered non-framework components. These results also support the notion this may be a general mechanism of surface crystal growth at low supersaturation applicable to crystalline nanoporous materials. The crystal growth mechanism at the atomistic level was also seen to vary as a function of the growth solution Zn/H(2)bdc ratio producing square terraces with steps parallel to the direction or rhombus-shaped terraces with steps parallel to the direction when the Zn/H(2)bdc ratio was >1 or about 1, respectively. The change in relative growth rates can be explained in terms of changes in the solution species concentrations and their influence on growth at different terrace growth sites. These results were successfully applied to the growth of as-synthesized cube-shaped crystals to increase expression of the {111} faces and to grow octahedral crystals of suitable quality to image using AFM. This modulator-free route to control the crystal morphology of MOF-5 crystals should be applicable to a wide variety of MOFs to achieve the desired morphological control for performance enhancement in applications. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Natural genetic variation for morphological and molecular determinants of plant growth and yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Nascimento, Vitor de Laia; de Oliveira Silva, Franklin Magnum; Zsögön, Agustin; Araújo, Wagner L; Sulpice, Ronan

    2016-05-01

    The rates of increase in yield of the main commercial crops have been steadily falling in many areas worldwide. This generates concerns because there is a growing demand for plant biomass due to the increasing population. Plant yield should thus be improved in the context of climate change and decreasing natural resources. It is a major challenge which could be tackled by improving and/or altering light-use efficiency, CO2 uptake and fixation, primary metabolism, plant architecture and leaf morphology, and developmental plant processes. In this review, we discuss some of the traits which could lead to yield increase, with a focus on how natural genetic variation could be harnessed. Moreover, we provide insights for advancing our understanding of the molecular aspects governing plant growth and yield, and propose future avenues for improvement of crop yield. We also suggest that knowledge accumulated over the last decade in the field of molecular physiology should be integrated into new ideotypes. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. The effects of 5-bromodeoxyuridine on the growth and morphology of transformed rat liver cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avdalovic, N; Weibel, J; Diamond, L

    1980-07-01

    The effects of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd) on the growth, morphology, and tumorigenicity of the spontaneously transformed rat liver cell line R72/3 were studied. These cells grow either in suspension or in a monolayer and are tumorigenic. In monolayer cultures, cells treated with low concentrations (2.5 micrograms/ml) of BrdUrd were larger, more spread out, and more firmly attached to the substratum than were untreated controls. Treated cells failed to grow in suspension or on confluent monolayers of 3T3 cells and did not form colonies in soft agar. Scanning electron microscopy revealed extensive flattening of treated cells and a dramatic reduction in the number of microvilli on the cell surface. Transmission electron microscopy showed an increase in polyribosomes and rough endoplasmic reticulum, as well as an enlargement of endoplasmic reticulum cisternae and a complete absence of the bundles of intermediate size filaments that were conspicuous in untreated cells. The persistence of these changes required the continuous presence of BrdUrd in the medium. The effects of BrdUrd were readily reversed by withdrawal of BrdUrd and were not expressed in the presence of excess thymidine.

  6. Protein kinase A is involved in the control of morphology and branching during aerobic growth of Mucor circinelloides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lübbehüsen, Tina Louise; Polo, V.G.; Rossi, S.

    2004-01-01

    The cAMP signal transduction pathway controls many processes in fungi. The Mucor circinelloides pkaR and pkaC genes, encoding the regulatory (PKAR) and catalytic (PKAC) subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA), have been cloned recently. Expression analysis during the dimorphic shift...... and colony morphology suggested a role for PKAR in the control of morphology and branching. Here strain KFA121, which overexpresses the M. circinelloides pkaR gene, was used to quantify growth and branching under different aerobic growth conditions in a flow-through cell by computerized image analysis....... An inverse relationship between the pkaR expression level in KFA121 and the hyphal growth unit length was observed in KFA121, suggesting a central role for PKAR in branching. A biochemical analysis of PKAR using antibodies and enzyme assay demonstrated that the level of PKAR is higher in KFA121 under...

  7. Growth, morphology, and conductivity in semimetallic/metallic films on Si(001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jnawali, Giriraj

    2009-06-09

    This dissertation deals with the study of epitaxial growth of semimetallic (Bi) and metallic (Ag) films on Si(001) as well as in situ electrical transport study of those films via surface manipulation. The focus of the transport measurements is to study the influence of the surface morphology or structure on the resistance of the film. In spite of the large lattice mismatch and different lattice geometry, it is possible to grow epitaxial Bi(111) films on Si(001) substrates, which are surprisingly smooth, relaxed and almost free of defects. Due to the two-fold symmetry of the substrates, the Bi(111) film is composed of crystallites rotated by 90 with respect to each other. Annealing of 6 nm film from 150 K to 450 K enables the formation of a periodic interfacial misfit dislocations, which accommodates a remaining lattice mismatch of 2.3 %. The surface/interface roughness and the bulk defect density of the film found to be extremely low, indicating the high crystalline quality of the film with atomically smooth surface and abrupt interface. Similar to the Bi films, Ag grows in a (111) orientation on Si(001) with two 90 rotated domains. The remaining strain of 2.2 % (tensile) is accommodated by the formation of an ordered network of dislocations. The Ag film exhibits atomically smooth surface. Those Bi films and Ag films were used as model systems to study the influence of the surface morphology on the electrical resistance. Surprisingly, all the Bi films (3-170 nm thicknesses) have shown an anomalous behavior of conductance with temperature and thickness. As in the case of doped semiconductor, the conductance increases exponentially from 150 K to 300 K and saturates at 350 K before finally decreasing with temperature. In situ measurements of the resistance during additional Bi deposition on the smooth Bi(111) films exhibit a square root dependent with coverage after a linear increase at very low coverage (1 % of a BL). During additional deposition of Bi, carriers are

  8. Physiological levels of nitrate support anoxic growth by denitrification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa at growth rates reported in cystic fibrosis lungs and sputum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Line, Laura; Alhede, Morten; Kolpen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection is the most severe complication in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). The infection is characterized by the formation of biofilm surrounded by numerous polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and strong O2 depletion in the endobronchial mucus. We have...... reported that O2 is mainly consumed by the activated PMNs, while O2 consumption by aerobic respiration is diminutive and nitrous oxide (N2O) is produced in infected CF sputum. This suggests that the reported growth rates of P. aeruginosa in lungs and sputum may result from anaerobic respiration using...... comparable to our reported growth rates in the majority of P. aeruginosa cells in CF lungs and sputum. Thus, we have demonstrated that denitrification is required for P. aeruginosa growth in infected endobronchial CF mucus....

  9. Nitrate removal from eutrophic wetlands polluted by metal-mine wastes: effects of liming and plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Alcaraz, María Nazaret; Conesa, Héctor Miguel; Álvarez-Rogel, José

    2013-10-15

    Wetlands are highly effective systems in removing large amounts of N from waters, preventing eutrophication processes. However, when wetlands are polluted by metal-mine wastes their capacity to act as green filters may be diminished. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of liming and plants (Sarcocornia fruticosa and Phragmites australis) on the removal of NO3(-) from eutrophic water in slightly acidic, wetland soils polluted by metal-mine wastes. Simulated soil profiles were constructed and six treatments were assayed: (1) no liming + no plant, (2) no liming + S. fruticosa, (3) no liming + P. australis, (4) liming + no plant, (5) liming + S. fruticosa and (6) liming + P. australis. Three horizons were differentiated: A (never under water), C1 (alternating flooding-drying conditions) and C2 (always under water). The eutrophic water used to flood the soil profiles was enriched in N and organic carbon (pH ~ 7.5, electrical conductivity ~ 11 dS m(-1), NO3(-) ~ 234 mg L(-1) and dissolved organic carbon ~ 106 mg L(-1)). The pH, Eh and concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), N-NO3(-) and N-NH4(+) were measured regularly for 18 weeks. Liming stimulated the growth of plants, especially for S. fruticosa (20-fold more plant biomass than without liming), increased the soil pH and favoured the decline of the Eh values, enhancing the removal of NO3(-) via denitrification. Of all the treatments assayed, liming + S. fruticosa was the only treatment that removed almost completely the high concentration of NO3(-) from the eutrophic flooding water, reaching ~1 mg L(-1) N-NO3(-) at the end of the experiment, at all depths. The higher content of DOC in the pore water of this treatment could explain this behaviour, since more labile carbon was available to the soil microorganisms in the rhizosphere, favouring NO3(-) removal through denitrification processes. However, the treatment liming + P. australis (2-fold more plant biomass that without liming) did not

  10. Craniofacial Morphology and Growth Comparisons in Children With Robin Sequence, Isolated Cleft Palate, and Unilateral Complete Cleft Lip and Palate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, N. V.; Kreiborg, S.; Darvann, Tron Andre

    2003-01-01

    Objective: Comparison of early craniofacial morphology and growth in children with nonsyndromic Robin Sequence (RS), isolated cleft palate (ICP), and unilateral complete cleft lip and palate (UCCLP). Subjects: One hundred eight children with cleft: 7 with RS, 53 with ICP, and 48 with UCCLP were...... included in the study. The children were drawn from the group of all Danish children with cleft born 1976 through 1981. Method: Three-projection infant cephalometry. Results: The craniofacial morphology in the RS, ICP, and UCCLP groups had some common characteristics: a wide maxilla with decreased length...

  11. Maize maintains growth in response to decreased nitrate supply through a highly dynamic and developmental stage-specific transcriptional response

    KAUST Repository

    Plett, Darren

    2015-06-02

    Elucidation of the gene networks underlying the response to N supply and demand will facilitate the improvement of the N uptake efficiency of plants. We undertook a transcriptomic analysis of maize to identify genes responding to both a non-growth-limiting decrease in NO3- provision and to development-based N demand changes at seven representative points across the life cycle. Gene co-expression networks were derived by cluster analysis of the transcript profiles. The majority of NO3--responsive transcription occurred at 11 (D11), 18 (D18) and 29 (D29) days after emergence, with differential expression predominating in the root at D11 and D29 and in the leaf at D18. A cluster of 98 probe sets was identified, the expression pattern of which is similar to that of the high-affinity NO3- transporter (NRT2) genes across the life cycle. The cluster is enriched with genes encoding enzymes and proteins of lipid metabolism and transport, respectively. These are candidate genes for the response of maize to N supply and demand. Only a few patterns of differential gene expression were observed over the entire life cycle; however, the composition of the classes of the genes differentially regulated at individual time points was unique, suggesting tightly controlled regulation of NO3--responsive gene expression. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Cobalt epitaxial nanoparticles on CaF2/Si(111): Growth process, morphology, crystal structure, and magnetic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, N. S.; Suturin, S. M.; Krichevtsov, B. B.; Dubrovskii, V. G.; Gastev, S. V.; Sibirev, N. V.; Baranov, D. A.; Fedorov, V. V.; Sitnikova, A. A.; Nashchekin, A. V.; Sakharov, V. I.; Serenkov, I. T.; Shimada, T.; Yanase, T.; Tabuchi, M.

    2013-03-01

    We study molecular beam epitaxy growth, morphology, crystal structure, and magnetic properties of Co nanoislands on CaF2/Si(111) surface. In order to have a full appreciation of complex growth kinetics at different stages, a comprehensive study of Co growth on CaF2 is carried out by atomic force, scanning electron, and transmission electron microscopies in the direct space, as well as by x-ray and electron diffraction in the reciprocal space. These experimental data are complemented by theoretical modeling. Magnetic properties are characterized by magneto-optical Kerr effect and superconducting quantum interference device magnetometries. Key effects influencing the Co growth on fluorite are addressed, including the sticking probability, the preferential nucleation sites, the size and shape time evolution, the dependence of Co morphology on temperature and Co exposure, and the coalescence mechanism. The two-stage deposition technique is developed, whereby the low-temperature seeding stage is used to facilitate Co nucleation, and the follow-up high-temperature deposition yields Co particles with high crystalline quality. Our results enable precise control over the resulting morphology, spatial ordering, and crystal structure affecting the magnetic properties. In particular, it is demonstrated that the transformation from dense to isolated Co nanoparticles leads to the change of the in-plane and out-of-plane magnetic anisotropy and also the sign of polar and longitudinal magneto-optical Kerr effects.

  13. PLATINUM SENSITIVE 2 LIKE impacts growth, root morphology, seed set, and stress responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr R A Kataya

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic protein phosphatase 4 (PP4 is a PP2A-type protein phosphatase that is part of a conserved complex with regulatory factors PSY2 and PP4R2. Various lines of Arabidopsis thaliana with mutated PP4 subunit genes were constructed to study the so far completely unknown functions of PP4 in plants. Mutants with knocked out putative functional homolog of the PSY2 LIKE (PSY2L gene were dwarf and bushy, while plants with knocked out PP4R2 LIKE (PP4R2L looked very similar to WT. The psy2l seedlings had short roots with disorganized morphology and impaired meristem. Seedling growth was sensitive to the genotoxin cisplatin. Global transcript analysis (RNA-seq of seedlings and rosette leaves revealed several groups of genes, shared between both types of tissues, strongly influenced by knocked out PSY2L. Receptor kinases, CRINKLY3 and WAG1, important for growth and development, were down-regulated 3-7 times. EUKARYOTIC ELONGATION FACTOR5A1 was down-regulated 4-6 fold. Analysis of hormone sensitive genes indicated that abscisic acid levels were high, while auxin, cytokinin and gibberellic acid levels were low in psy2l. Expression of specific transcription factors involved in regulation of anthocyanin synthesis were strongly elevated, e.g. the master regulator PAP1, and intriguingly TT8, which is otherwise mainly expressed in seeds. The psy2l mutants accumulated anthocyanins under conditions where WT did not, pointing to PSY2L as a possible upstream negative regulator of PAP1 and TT8. Expression of the sugar-phosphate transporter GPT2, important for cellular sugar and phosphate homeostasis, was enhanced 7-8 times. Several DNA damage response genes, including the cell cycle inhibitor gene WEE1, were up-regulated in psy2l. The activation of DNA repair signaling genes, in combination with phenotypic traits showing aberrant root meristem and sensitivity to the genotoxic cisplatin, substantiate the involvement of Arabidopsis PSY2L in maintenance of genome

  14. PLATINUM SENSITIVE 2 LIKE impacts growth, root morphology, seed set, and stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataya, Amr R A; Creighton, Maria T; Napitupulu, Toga P; Sætre, Christine; Heidari, Behzad; Ruoff, Peter; Lillo, Cathrine

    2017-01-01

    Eukaryotic protein phosphatase 4 (PP4) is a PP2A-type protein phosphatase that is part of a conserved complex with regulatory factors PSY2 and PP4R2. Various lines of Arabidopsis thaliana with mutated PP4 subunit genes were constructed to study the so far completely unknown functions of PP4 in plants. Mutants with knocked out putative functional homolog of the PSY2 LIKE (PSY2L) gene were dwarf and bushy, while plants with knocked out PP4R2 LIKE (PP4R2L) looked very similar to WT. The psy2l seedlings had short roots with disorganized morphology and impaired meristem. Seedling growth was sensitive to the genotoxin cisplatin. Global transcript analysis (RNA-seq) of seedlings and rosette leaves revealed several groups of genes, shared between both types of tissues, strongly influenced by knocked out PSY2L. Receptor kinases, CRINKLY3 and WAG1, important for growth and development, were down-regulated 3-7 times. EUKARYOTIC ELONGATION FACTOR5A1 was down-regulated 4-6 fold. Analysis of hormone sensitive genes indicated that abscisic acid levels were high, while auxin, cytokinin and gibberellic acid levels were low in psy2l. Expression of specific transcription factors involved in regulation of anthocyanin synthesis were strongly elevated, e.g. the master regulator PAP1, and intriguingly TT8, which is otherwise mainly expressed in seeds. The psy2l mutants accumulated anthocyanins under conditions where WT did not, pointing to PSY2L as a possible upstream negative regulator of PAP1 and TT8. Expression of the sugar-phosphate transporter GPT2, important for cellular sugar and phosphate homeostasis, was enhanced 7-8 times. Several DNA damage response genes, including the cell cycle inhibitor gene WEE1, were up-regulated in psy2l. The activation of DNA repair signaling genes, in combination with phenotypic traits showing aberrant root meristem and sensitivity to the genotoxic cisplatin, substantiate the involvement of Arabidopsis PSY2L in maintenance of genome integrity.

  15. Growth and morphology of 0.80 eV photoemitting indium nitride nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, M.C.; Lee, C.J.; Bourret-Courchesne, E.D.; Konsek, S.L.; Aloni, S.; Han, W.Q.; Zettl, A.

    2004-08-13

    InN nanowires with high efficiency photoluminescence emission at 0.80 eV are reported for the first time. InN nanowires were synthesized via a vapor solid growth mechanism from high purity indium metal and ammonia. The products consist of only hexagonal wurtzite phase InN. Scanning electron microscopy showed wires with diameters of 50-100nm and having fairly smooth morphologies. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed high quality, single crystal InN nanowires which grew in the <0001> direction. The group-III nitrides have become an extremely important technological material over the past decade. They are commonly used in optoelectronic devices, such as high brightness light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and low wavelength laser diodes (LDs), as well as high power/high frequency electronic devices. Recently InN thin films grown by MOCVD and MBE were found to have a bandgap energy in the range of 0.7-0.9 eV, much lower than the value of {approx}1.9 eV found for InN films grown by sputtering. This large decrease in the direct bandgap transition energy and the ability to form ternary (InGaN) and quaternary (AlInGaN) alloys increases the versatility of group-III nitride optoelectronic devices, ranging from the near IR to the UV. Additionally, InN has some promising transport and electronic properties. It has the smallest effective electron mass of all the group-III nitrides which leads to high mobility and high saturation velocity10 and a large drift velocity at room temperature. As a result of these unique properties, there has been a large increase in interest in InN for potential use in optoelectronic devices, such as LDs and high efficiency solar cells, as well as high frequency/high power electronic devices.

  16. Lysozyme as an alternative to antibiotics improves growth performance and small intestinal morphology in nursery pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, W T; Wells, J E

    2013-07-01

    Lysozyme is a 1,4-β-N-acetylmuramidase that has antimicrobial properties. The objective of this experiment was to determine if lysozyme in nursery diets improved growth performance and gastrointestinal health of pigs weaned from the sow at 24 d of age. Two replicates of 96 pigs (192 total; 96 males, 96 females) were weaned from the sow at 24 d of age, blocked by BW and gender, and then assigned to 1 of 24 pens (4 pigs/pen). Each block was randomly assigned 1 of 3 dietary treatments for 28 d: control (two 14-d phases), control + antibiotics (carbadox/copper sulfate), or control + lysozyme (100 mg/kg diet). Pigs were weighed and blood sampled on d 0, 14, and 28 of treatment. Blood was analyzed for plasma urea nitrogen (PUN) and IgA. At 28 d, pigs were killed, and samples of jejunum and ileum were collected and fixed for intestinal morphology measurements. An additional jejunum sample was taken from the 12 pigs with the median BW per treatment to determine transepithelial electrical resistance (TER). Pigs consuming antibiotics or lysozyme grew at a faster rate than control pigs (0.433 ± 0.009 and 0.421 ± 0.008 vs. 0.398 ± 0.008 kg/d, respectively; P 0.48), but G:F was improved in pigs consuming antibiotics or lysozyme (0.756 ± 0.014, 0.750 ± 0.021, and 0.695 ± 0.019 kg/kg; P 0.48). Dietary treatment did not affect TER (P > 0.37), but gilts had lower TER compared with barrows (P 0.53). However, jejunum villi height was increased and crypt depth was decreased in pigs consuming antibiotics or lysozyme (P pigs weaned from the sow at 24 d of age.

  17. In-situ study of morphology and growth of primary α-Al(FeMnCr)Si intermetallics in an Al-Si alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjurenstedt, Anton; Casari, Daniele; Seifeddine, Salem; Mathiesen, Ragnvald H.; Dahle, Arne K.

    2017-01-01

    Morphology and growth of primary α-Al(FeMnCr)Si intermetallics have been studied in-situ during solidification of a commercial secondary aluminum alloy employing X-radiographic imaging combined with deep-etching. The α-Al(FeMnCr)Si intermetallics were found to nucleate primarily on surface oxides, and the continued growth yielded both rhombic dodecahedrons and elongated rod-like morphologies. Both morphologies were observed as hopper and massive types, where the hopper intermetallics had the higher growth rates. The growth rate, which determines the type, appears to be linked to nucleation frequency; higher nucleation frequency promoted massive types and lower nucleation frequency promoted hopper intermetallics.

  18. Nitrate contamination of groundwater and its countermeasures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitamura, Hisayoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2003-03-01

    The inevitable increases of food production and energy consumption with an increase in world population become main causes of an increase of nitrate load to the environment. Although nitrogen is essential for the growth of animal and plant as a constituent element of protein, excessive nitrate load to the environment contaminates groundwater resources used as drinking water and leads to seriously adverse effects on the health of man and livestock. In order to clarify the problem of nitrate contamination of groundwater and search a new trend of technology development from the viewpoint of environment remediation and protection, the present paper has reviewed adverse effects of nitrate on human health, the actual state of nitrogen cycle, several kinds of nitrate sources, measures for reducing nitrate level, etc. (author)

  19. Effects of nitrate and phosphate availabilities on growth, photosynthesis and pigment and protein contents in colour strains of Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen in Jacqu. J.V. Lamour. (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline P. Martins

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, Hypnea musciformis is the main raw material for carrageenan production and the knowledge of nitrogen and phosphorus metabolism in algae is critical for the success of cultivation because these elements can limit seaweed productivity. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of nitrate (zero to 100 μM and nitrate plus phosphate (zero to 25 μM availabilities on the growth, the contents of photosynthetic pigments (phycobiliproteins and chlorophyll a and proteins, and the photosynthesis and respiration of the brown (BR and light green (LG strains of H. musciformis. The results revealed metabolic differences between the colour strains of H. musciformis for nitrogen metabolism: upon nitrate addition, the LG strain stored nitrogen mainly as proteins, while the BR strain stored it as proteins and pigments. Moreover, the respiration of the LG strain and the photosynthesis of the BR strain increased with nitrate concentrations, indicating that the BR strain fixed more photosynthetic carbon than the LG strain.

  20. Effects of nitrate and phosphate availabilities on growth, photosynthesis and pigment and protein contents in colour strains of Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen in Jacqu. J.V. Lamour. (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline P. Martins

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, Hypnea musciformis is the main raw material for carrageenan production and the knowledge of nitrogen and phosphorus metabolism in algae is critical for the success of cultivation because these elements can limit seaweed productivity. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of nitrate (zero to 100 μM and nitrate plus phosphate (zero to 25 μM availabilities on the growth, the contents of photosynthetic pigments (phycobiliproteins and chlorophyll a and proteins, and the photosynthesis and respiration of the brown (BR and light green (LG strains of H. musciformis. The results revealed metabolic differences between the colour strains of H. musciformis for nitrogen metabolism: upon nitrate addition, the LG strain stored nitrogen mainly as proteins, while the BR strain stored it as proteins and pigments. Moreover, the respiration of the LG strain and the photosynthesis of the BR strain increased with nitrate concentrations, indicating that the BR strain fixed more photosynthetic carbon than the LG strain.

  1. Crystal growth of barium nitrate on thiol-terminated self-assembled monolayers and a Raman spectroscopic investigation of the crystal facets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Fei; Zhao, Bing; Li, Ran; Ruan, Weidong

    2015-09-01

    Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of (3-mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane (MPTS) were used as templates to induce the nucleation and growth of Ba(NO3)2 microcrystals. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and optical microscopy images were employed to investigate the crystallinity and morphology of the microcrystals. It is interesting that the soaking direction of the templates plays an important role in the crystal growth process. When the MPTS-modified substrates were soaked in a vertical manner, square-like microcrystals with the (100) orientation were synthesized; however, when the substrates were soaked in a horizontal manner, triangular-like microcrystals with the (111) orientation were obtained. These differences may be due to the different regulatory mechanisms involved in the modulation of the crystal growth by the SAMs. These mechanistic discoveries pave a new way to control and design new crystals. Another interesting phenomenon is that the Raman intensity of the (111) facet of the triangular Ba(NO3)2 microcrystals is five times that of the (100) facet. By using this difference, the crystal facet index can be rapidly determined.

  2. Effect of Ni and Urea on Growth, Nitrate and Nutrients Concentration in Lettuce (Lactuca sativa Grown in Hydroponics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosein Nazari Mamaqani

    2017-02-01

    and each separate simultaneous freshweight wasmeasured. Dry weight of organs wasmeasured afterit was oven-dried at 80ºCfor 72h. Leavesoven-dried andthenpowdered, and weredigested(usingacid tomeasure theelements. Extracts from thedigestionmethodwere used for determination ofnickelusingDimethylglyoximemethod.Spectrophotometer used to cover the wavelength at 530nm. Potassium was measured by Flame Photometer410.Totalnitrogenwas measuredbyKjeldahlmethod.Thehomogeneouspowders of dried leaves with hot water were extractedwithnitratemeter(Horiba, Japanand they were used to measuretheirnitrate content. Analysis was performed usingthe Software Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS v. 16.0. Individual treatment means were compared with a Duncan’s test to determine whether they were significantly different at the 0.05 probability. Results and Discussion: U50treatedwith 1.8 fold increasecompared with thecontrol groupshowed thehighestfresh weight. The yield increased with increasing concentration to 50 mg/l urea, butat higher urea concentrations, 50 mg/l,yieldsignificantlydecreased, althoughitwas significantlyhighercompared to control. .Enhanced growth and yield in two levels of U25 and U50were coerced. It was duo tohydrolysis urea with the help nickel stored in seed endosperm and also contamination application of nickel fertilizers in nutrient solutionsthat led to release of urea nitrogen.The highestandthelowest concentration ofnickelinleaveswith11-fold increase,were observedatconcentrations ofU50andU100, respectively. Dilution phenomenon occurred with increasingurea concentrationmore than U50.Nickelconcentration inleaveswassignificantlyincreased that this is theopposite offresh weightanddry weight. In U50 treated K concentration was 1.6-fold higher compared to control. With increasing urea concentration more than U50,K concentration decreased. Applyingthe Ni, 8 percent decreased K concentration in leaf tissues. With increasing urea innutrientsolution

  3. Percentage of different aluminum doping influence the morphological and optical properties of ZnO nanostructured growth for sensor application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, R., E-mail: ruziana12@gmail.com [NANO-ElecTronic Centre, Faculty of Electrical engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); NANO-SciTech Centre, Institue of Science, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA Pahang, 26400 Bandar Tun Razak Jengka, Pahang (Malaysia); Ismail, A. S., E-mail: kyrin-samaxi@yahoo.com [NANO-ElecTronic Centre, Faculty of Electrical engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Khusaimi, Z., E-mail: Zurai142@salam.uitm.edu.my [NANO-SciTech Centre, Institue of Science, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Mamat, M. H., E-mail: hafiz-030@yahoo.com [NANO-ElecTronic Centre, Faculty of Electrical engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); NANO-SciTech Centre, Institue of Science, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Alrokayan, Salman A. H., E-mail: dr.salman@alrokayan.com; Khan, Haseeb A., E-mail: khan-haseeb@yahoo.com [Department of Biochemistry, College of Science, King Saud University (KSU), Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Rusop, M., E-mail: nanouitm@gmail.com [NANO-SciTech Centre, Institue of Science, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA Pahang, 26400 Bandar Tun Razak Jengka, Pahang (Malaysia)

    2016-07-06

    In this work, Zinc Oxide (ZnO) with different aluminum (Al) doping percentage was synthesis by sol gel immersion method. Al doped ZnO at various doping percentage from 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5. It was found that with different Al percentage influence the morphological and optical properties of ZnO growth. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) image showed the use of different Al doping causes the difference in geometry and size of ZnO nanorods growth. Based on UV-Vis spectroscopy, the transmittance at 1% Al doping has the highest spectrum.

  4. Percentage of different aluminum doping influence the morphological and optical properties of ZnO nanostructured growth for sensor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, R.; Ismail, A. S.; Khusaimi, Z.; Mamat, M. H.; Alrokayan, Salman A. H.; Khan, Haseeb A.; Rusop, M.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, Zinc Oxide (ZnO) with different aluminum (Al) doping percentage was synthesis by sol gel immersion method. Al doped ZnO at various doping percentage from 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5. It was found that with different Al percentage influence the morphological and optical properties of ZnO growth. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) image showed the use of different Al doping causes the difference in geometry and size of ZnO nanorods growth. Based on UV-Vis spectroscopy, the transmittance at 1% Al doping has the highest spectrum.

  5. Growth Temperature Dependence of Morphology of GaN Single Crystals in the Na-Li-Ca Flux Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xi; Hao, Hangfei; Li, Zhenrong; Fan, Shiji; Xu, Zhuo

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, the effect of growth temperature on the morphology and transparency of the GaN crystals obtained by the Li-Ca-added Na Flux method was studied. Addition of Li-Ca was attempted to control the growth habit and further improve transparency of GaN crystals. The samples with wurtzite structure of GaN were confirmed by the x-ray powder diffraction analysis. GaN single crystal with maximum size of about 6 mm was grown at 750°C. As the growth temperature was increased from 700°C to 850°C, the morphology of the crystals changed from pyramid to prism, and their surfaces became smooth. It was found that high growth temperature was beneficial to obtain a transparent crystal, but the evaporation of sodium would suppress its further growth. The E 2 (high) mode in the Raman spectra was at 568 cm-1, and the full-width at half-maximum values of this peak for the crystals obtained at 700°C, 750°C, 800°C, and 850°C were 7.5 cm-1, 10.3 cm-1, 4.4 cm-1, and 4.0 cm-1, respectively. It indicates that all the crystals are stress free and the transparent crystal grown at high temperature has high structural quality or low impurity concentrations.

  6. Retention capacities of several bryophytes for Hg(II) with special reference to the elevation and morphology of moss growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shou-Qin; Wang, Ding-Yong; He, Ming; Li, Xian-Yuan; Zhang, Cheng

    2007-10-01

    Hg(II) Retention capacities of nine bryophyte species, collected from Jinfo Mountains (JFM) in Chongqing, China, had been investigated with special reference to the effect of morphology and elevation of moss growth. Results indicated that adsorption capacities of bryophytes for Hg(II) became stronger with the increase of multi-branches and leafy-shoots, as well as the elevation of moss growth, which was observed both in adsorption isotherm and adsorption kinetics experiments. Contrarily, the desorption kinetics showed a decrease tendency with the increase of multi-branches and leafy-shoots and the elevation of moss growth. The results demonstrated that bryophytes with higher multi-branches and leafy-shoots and higher growth elevation had a stronger adsorption capacity and a weaker desorption tendency, and therefore had a stronger retention capacity to Hg(II). The results disclosed the different relative sensitivity and retention capacity of mosses to pollution resulting from heavy metals, due to the differences in growth elevation and morphology. These should be considered when bryophytes were chosen as a tool for biomonitoring materials to environmental pollution, especially caused by Hg(II).

  7. Growth and Morphology of Supercritical Fluids, a Fluid Physics Experiment Conducted on Mir, Complete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, R. Allen

    2001-01-01

    The Growth and Morphology of Supercritical Fluids (GMSF) is an international experiment facilitated by the NASA Glenn Research Center and under the guidance of U.S. principal investor Professor Hegseth of the University of New Orleans and three French coinvestigators: Daniel Beysens, Yves Garrabos, and Carole Chabot. The GMSF experiments were concluded in early 1999 on the Russian space station Mir. The experiments spanned the three science themes of near-critical phase separation rates, interface dynamics in near-critical boiling, and measurement of the spectrum of density fluctuation length scales very close to the critical point. The fluids used were pure CO2 or SF6. Three of the five thermostats used could adjust the sample volume with the scheduled crew time. Such a volume adjustment enabled variable sample densities around the critical density as well as pressure steps (as distinct from the usual temperature steps) applied to the sample. The French-built ALICE II facility was used for these experiments. It allows tightly thermostated (left photograph) samples (right photograph) to be controlled and viewed/measured. Its diagnostics include interferometry, shadowgraph, high-speed pressure measurements, and microscopy. Data were logged on DAT tapes, and PCMCIA cards and were returned to Earth only after the mission was over. The ground-breaking near critical boiling experiment has yielded the most results with a paper published in Physical Review Letters (ref. 1). The boiling work also received press in Science Magazine (ref. 2). This work showed that, in very compressible near-critical two-phase pure fluids, a vapor bubble was induced to temporarily overheat during a rapid heating of the sample wall. The temperature rise in the vapor was 23-percent higher than the rise in the driving container wall. The effect is due to adiabatic compression of the vapor bubble by the rapid expansion of fluid near the boundary during heatup. Thermal diffusivity is low near the

  8. Alterations on growth and gill morphology of Danio rerio (Pisces, Ciprinidae exposed to the toxic sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Fracácio

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to assess the toxicity of sediment samples from six cascade reservoirs in Tietê river system, in São Paulo State, Brazil, through chronic-partial toxicity bioassays with Danio rerio larvae as test-organisms. Histology of gills and biometric measurements were used to determine the existence of toxicity problems. The alterations on gill morphology here detected were considered of first stage (hyperplasia, lamellar junction and excess of mucous cells in the first reservoirs and very slight in the last ones. The biometric analysis pointed to inadequate conditions for the growth of the test-organisms when exposed to the sediment of the rivers and upstream reservoirs and also indicated an improvement of environmental conditions along the system.Os bioensaios de toxicidade com amostras ambientais avaliam as respostas dos organismos teste frente a possíveis poluentes. Ocorrem em complementação às análises limnológicas da água e sedimento, uma vez que estas apenas identificam e quantificam as diferentes substâncias nestes compartimentos aquáticos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a toxicidade das amostras de sedimentos dos seis reservatórios em cascata do sistema Tietê (SP - Brasil, através de bioensaios de toxicidade crônico-parciais utilizando como organismos-teste larvas de Danio rerio. A histologia das brânquias e as medidas biométricas foram as ferramentas utilizadas para averiguar o problema ambiental. As alterações branquiais detectadas foram de primeiro grau (hiperplasia, junção lamelar e excesso de células mucosas e pouco acentuadas nos últimos reservatórios. As análises biométricas demonstraram condições inadequadas ao desenvolvimento dos organismos testes frente a possíveis poluentes biodisponíveis nos sedimentos dos rios e primeiros reservatórios, confirmando a melhoria das condições ambientais ao longo da cascata. Isto também pode ser confirmado através das análises qu

  9. Characterization of indigenous Aseel chicken breed for morphological, growth, production, and meat composition traits from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, U; Haunshi, S; Paswan, C; Raju, M V L N; Rama Rao, S V; Chatterjee, R N

    2017-07-01

    Aseel is an important native chicken breed of India, known for its martial qualities (aggressive fighting abilities), pugnacity, and majestic gait. The aim of the study is to conserve and characterize the Aseel germplasm, which is considered to be endangered. The birds were maintained on deep litter under a simulated backyard type of housing having night shelter and a free-range area. A total of 313 chicks produced in the second generation from the flock collected from native tract in Andhra Pradesh was characterized for morphological, growth, production, and meat quality parameters. Aseel birds were characterized by multicolored plumage (predominantly dark brown, black, golden, etc.) with solid feather patterns and normal distribution. Ear lobes were red (92%) and small in size, while 98% of the birds had red colored pea combs with variations in intensity of color. The shank color was yellow in the majority (65%) of the birds. The skin color was white (98%) with pinkish red coloration on exposed body parts, especially on the breast. The fertility and hatchability on total eggs were 67.2 and 41.4%, respectively. Cocks were heavier (P ≤ 0.05) with distinct sexual dimorphism in Aseel. The body weight of hens and cocks was 1,704.4 ± 23.2 and 2,702.5 ± 28.1 g at 40 wk and 2,333.7 ± 26.1 and 3,793.7 ± 20.8 g at 72 wk of age, respectively. The age at sexual maturity was 214.0 ± 6.0 days. The egg production up to 40, 52, and 64 wk of age was 18.0 ± 1, 30.0 ± 2.0, and 47 ± 3 eggs, respectively. The annual egg production (72 wk) was 64 ± 6 eggs. The proximate composition of breast muscle was; protein 21.5 ± 0.5%, fat 3.4 ± 0.1%, ash 2.0 ± 0.1%, and moisture 73.3 ± 0.5%. The pH of breast muscle was 6.0 ± 0.03 and the cholesterol content was 72.5 ± 6.7 mg/100 g. Efforts are on for improving the productivity in the flock without compromising the original breed characteristics. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  10. Hierarchically nanostructured hydroxyapatite: hydrothermal synthesis, morphology control, growth mechanism, and biological activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ming-Guo

    2012-01-01

    Hierarchically nanosized hydroxyapatite (HA) with flower-like structure assembled from nanosheets consisting of nanorod building blocks was successfully synthesized by using CaCl2, NaH2PO4, and potassium sodium tartrate via a hydrothermal method at 200°C for 24 hours. The effects of heating time and heating temperature on the products were investigated. As a chelating ligand and template molecule, the potassium sodium tartrate plays a key role in the formation of hierarchically nanostructured HA. On the basis of experimental results, a possible mechanism based on soft-template and self-assembly was proposed for the formation and growth of the hierarchically nanostructured HA. Cytotoxicity experiments indicated that the hierarchically nanostructured HA had good biocompatibility. It was shown by in-vitro experiments that mesenchymal stem cells could attach to the hierarchically nanostructured HA after being cultured for 48 hours. Objective The purpose of this study was to develop facile and effective methods for the synthesis of novel hydroxyapatite (HA) with hierarchical nanostructures assembled from independent and discrete nanobuilding blocks. Methods A simple hydrothermal approach was applied to synthesize HA by using CaCl2, NaH2PO4, and potassium sodium tartrate at 200°C for 24 hours. The cell cytotoxicity of the hierarchically nanostructured HA was tested by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. Results HA displayed the flower-like structure assembled from nanosheets consisting of nanorod building blocks. The potassium sodium tartrate was used as a chelating ligand, inducing the formation and self-assembly of HA nanorods. The heating time and heating temperature influenced the aggregation and morphology of HA. The cell viability did not decrease with the increasing concentration of hierarchically nanostructured HA added. Conclusion A novel, simple and reliable hydrothermal route had been developed for the synthesis of

  11. Irrigation and Nitrogen Regimes Promote the Use of Soil Water and Nitrate Nitrogen from Deep Soil Layers by Regulating Root Growth in Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weixing; Ma, Geng; Wang, Chenyang; Wang, Jiarui; Lu, Hongfang; Li, Shasha; Feng, Wei; Xie, Yingxin; Ma, Dongyun; Kang, Guozhang

    2018-01-01

    Unreasonably high irrigation levels and excessive nitrogen (N) supplementation are common occurrences in the North China Plain that affect winter wheat production. Therefore, a 6-yr-long stationary field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of irrigation and N regimes on root development and their relationship with soil water and N use in different soil layers. Compared to the non-irrigated treatment (W0), a single irrigation at jointing (W1) significantly increased yield by 3.6–45.6%. With increases in water (W2, a second irrigation at flowering), grain yield was significantly improved by 14.1–45.3% compared to the W1 treatments during the drier growing seasons (2010–2011, 2012–2013, and 2015–2016). However, under sufficient pre-sowing soil moisture conditions, grain yield was not increased, and water use efficiency (WUE) decreased significantly in the W2 treatments during normal precipitation seasons (2011–2012, 2013–2014, and 2014–2015). Irrigating the soil twice inhibited root growth into the deeper soil depth profiles and thus weakened the utilization of soil water and NO3-N from the deep soil layers. N applications increased yield by 19.1–64.5%, with a corresponding increase in WUE of 66.9–83.9% compared to the no-N treatment (N0). However, there was no further increase in grain yield and the WUE response when N rates exceeded 240 and 180 kg N ha−1, respectively. A N application rate of 240 kg ha−1 facilitated root growth in the deep soil layers, which was conducive to utilization of soil water and NO3-N and also in reducing the residual NO3-N. Correlation analysis indicated that the grain yield was significantly positively correlated with soil water storage (SWS) and nitrate nitrogen accumulation (SNA) prior to sowing. Therefore, N rates of 180–240 kg ha−1 with two irrigations can reduce the risk of yield loss that occurs due to reduced precipitation during the wheat growing seasons, while under better soil moisture

  12. Irrigation and Nitrogen Regimes Promote the Use of Soil Water and Nitrate Nitrogen from Deep Soil Layers by Regulating Root Growth in Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weixing; Ma, Geng; Wang, Chenyang; Wang, Jiarui; Lu, Hongfang; Li, Shasha; Feng, Wei; Xie, Yingxin; Ma, Dongyun; Kang, Guozhang

    2018-01-01

    Unreasonably high irrigation levels and excessive nitrogen (N) supplementation are common occurrences in the North China Plain that affect winter wheat production. Therefore, a 6-yr-long stationary field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of irrigation and N regimes on root development and their relationship with soil water and N use in different soil layers. Compared to the non-irrigated treatment (W0), a single irrigation at jointing (W1) significantly increased yield by 3.6-45.6%. With increases in water (W2, a second irrigation at flowering), grain yield was significantly improved by 14.1-45.3% compared to the W1 treatments during the drier growing seasons (2010-2011, 2012-2013, and 2015-2016). However, under sufficient pre-sowing soil moisture conditions, grain yield was not increased, and water use efficiency (WUE) decreased significantly in the W2 treatments during normal precipitation seasons (2011-2012, 2013-2014, and 2014-2015). Irrigating the soil twice inhibited root growth into the deeper soil depth profiles and thus weakened the utilization of soil water and NO 3 -N from the deep soil layers. N applications increased yield by 19.1-64.5%, with a corresponding increase in WUE of 66.9-83.9% compared to the no-N treatment (N0). However, there was no further increase in grain yield and the WUE response when N rates exceeded 240 and 180 kg N ha -1 , respectively. A N application rate of 240 kg ha -1 facilitated root growth in the deep soil layers, which was conducive to utilization of soil water and NO 3 -N and also in reducing the residual NO 3 -N. Correlation analysis indicated that the grain yield was significantly positively correlated with soil water storage (SWS) and nitrate nitrogen accumulation (SNA) prior to sowing. Therefore, N rates of 180-240 kg ha -1 with two irrigations can reduce the risk of yield loss that occurs due to reduced precipitation during the wheat growing seasons, while under better soil moisture conditions, a

  13. Effects of growth reducer and nitrogen fertilization on morphological variables, SPAD index, interception of radiation and productivity of wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvis Felipe Elli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of growth reducer and nitrogen fertilization on morphological variables, SPAD index, radiation interception, and grain yield of three cultivars of wheat. The experimental design was a randomized block in factorial scheme 3x5x2, with three cultivars (Mestre, Iguaçú and Itaipú, five nitrogen doses (0, 40, 80, 120, 160 Kg ha-1, and application or no application of a growth reducer, with three replications. The following characteristics were evaluated: plant height, SPAD index, leaf area index (LAI, Global Radiation Interception (GRI and grain yield. The Tukey test (p < 0.05 was used for the comparison between the means of cultivar and growth reducer factors, and for a regression analysis to evaluate N levels. Increasing the dose of nitrogen promotes an increase in LAI of plants of wheat crops differently among cultivars, which leads to a greater degree of global radiation interception. At doses higher or equal to 120 Kg ha-1 of nitrogen, there are significant differences in grain yield between treatments with and without the application of the growth reducer. The significant interaction between growth reducer and nitrogen dose, showed that applications of growth reducer increase the GRI at doses above and below 80 Kg ha-1 of nitrogen. Nitrogen rates of 138 and 109 Kg ha-1 are responsible for maximum grain yields of wheat, which is 4235 and 3787 Kg ha-1 with and without the use of growth reducer, respectively.

  14. Morphological Characteristics, Anatomical Structure, and Gene Expression: Novel Insights into Cytokinin Accumulation during Carrot Growth and Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Long Wang

    Full Text Available Cytokinins have been implicated in normal plant growth and development. These bioactive molecules are essential for cell production and expansion in higher plants. Carrot is an Apiaceae vegetable with great value and undergoes significant size changes over the process of plant growth. However, cytokinin accumulation and its potential roles in carrot growth have not been elucidated. To address this problem, carrot plants at five stages were collected, and morphological and anatomical characteristics and expression profiles of cytokinin-related genes were determined. During carrot growth and development, cytokinin levels were the highest at the second stage in the roots, whereas relatively stable levels were observed in the petioles and leaves. DcCYP735A2 showed high expression at stage 2 in the roots, which may contribute largely to the higher cytokinin level at this stage. However, expression of most metabolic genes did not follow a pattern similar to that of cytokinin accumulation, indicating that cytokinin biosynthesis was regulated through a complex network. Genes involved in cytokinin signal perception and transduction were also integrated to normal plant growth and development. The results from the present work suggested that cytokinins may regulate plant growth in a stage-dependent manner. Our work would shed novel insights into cytokinin accumulation and its potential roles during carrot growth. Further studies regarding carrot cytokinins may be achieved by modification of the genes involved in cytokinin biosynthesis, inactivation, and perception.

  15. A cell shrinkage artefact in growth plate chondrocytes with common fixative solutions: importance of fixative osmolarity for maintaining morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MY Loqman

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The remarkable increase in chondrocyte volume is a major determinant in the longitudinal growth of mammalian bones. To permit a detailed morphological study of hypertrophic chondrocytes using standard histological techniques, the preservation of normal chondrocyte morphology is essential. We noticed that during fixation of growth plates with conventional fixative solutions, there was a marked morphological (shrinkage artifact, and we postulated that this arose from the hyper-osmotic nature of these solutions. To test this, we fixed proximal tibia growth plates of 7-day-old rat bones in either (a paraformaldehyde (PFA; 4%, (b glutaraldehyde (GA; 2% with PFA (2% with ruthenium hexamine trichloride (RHT; 0.7%, (c GA (2% with RHT (0.7%, or (d GA (1.3% with RHT (0.5% and osmolarity adjusted to a ‘physiological’ level of ~280mOsm. Using conventional histological methods, confocal microscopy, and image analysis on fluorescently-labelled fixed and living chondrocytes, we then quantified the extent of cell shrinkage and volume change. Our data showed that the high osmolarity of conventional fixatives caused a shrinkage artefact to chondrocytes. This was particularly evident when whole bones were fixed, but could be markedly reduced if bones were sagittally bisected prior to fixation. The shrinkage artefact could be avoided by adjusting the osmolarity of the fixatives to the osmotic pressure of normal extracellular fluids (~280mOsm. These results emphasize the importance of fixative osmolarity, in order to accurately preserve the normal volume/morphology of cells within tissues.

  16. Post-Traumatic Caspase-3 Expression in the Adjacent Areas of Growth Plate Injury Site: A Morphological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musumeci, Giuseppe; Castrogiovanni, Paola; Loreto, Carla; Castorina, Sergio; Pichler, Karin; Weinberg, Annelie Martina

    2013-01-01

    The epiphyseal plate is a hyaline cartilage plate that sits between the diaphysis and the epiphysis. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of an injury in the growth plate chondrocytes through the study of histological morphology, immunohistochemistry, histomorphometry and Western Blot analyses of the caspase-3 and cleaved PARP-1, and levels of the inflammatory cytokines, Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-α), in order to acquire more information about post-injury reactions of physeal cell turnover. In our results, morphological analysis showed that in experimental bones, neo-formed bone trabeculae—resulting from bone formation repair—invaded the growth plate and reached the metaphyseal bone tissue (bone bridge), and this could result in some growth arrest. We demonstrated, by ELISA, increased expression levels of the inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α. Immunohistochemistry, histomorphometry and Western Blot analyses of the caspase-3 and cleaved PARP-1 showed that the physeal apoptosis rate of the experimental bones was significantly higher than that of the control ones. In conclusion, we could assume that the inflammation process causes stress to chondrocytes that will die as a biological defense mechanism, and will also increase the survival of new chondrocytes for maintaining cell homeostasis. Nevertheless, the exact stimulus leading to the increased apoptosis rate, observed after injury, needs additional research to understand the possible contribution of chondrocyte apoptosis to growth disturbance. PMID:23899790

  17. Post-Traumatic Caspase-3 Expression in the Adjacent Areas of Growth Plate Injury Site: A Morphological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Pichler

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The epiphyseal plate is a hyaline cartilage plate that sits between the diaphysis and the epiphysis. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of an injury in the growth plate chondrocytes through the study of histological morphology, immunohistochemistry, histomorphometry and Western Blot analyses of the caspase-3 and cleaved PARP-1, and levels of the inflammatory cytokines, Interleukin-6 (IL-6 and Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-α, in order to acquire more information about post-injury reactions of physeal cell turnover. In our results, morphological analysis showed that in experimental bones, neo-formed bone trabeculae—resulting from bone formation repair—invaded the growth plate and reached the metaphyseal bone tissue (bone bridge, and this could result in some growth arrest. We demonstrated, by ELISA, increased expression levels of the inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α. Immunohistochemistry, histomorphometry and Western Blot analyses of the caspase-3 and cleaved PARP-1 showed that the physeal apoptosis rate of the experimental bones was significantly higher than that of the control ones. In conclusion, we could assume that the inflammation process causes stress to chondrocytes that will die as a biological defense mechanism, and will also increase the survival of new chondrocytes for maintaining cell homeostasis. Nevertheless, the exact stimulus leading to the increased apoptosis rate, observed after injury, needs additional research to understand the possible contribution of chondrocyte apoptosis to growth disturbance.

  18. Subcloning the MAC-T bovine mammary epithelial cell line: morphology, growth properties, and cytogenetic analysis of clonal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavizion, B; Gorewit, R C; Politis, I

    1995-03-01

    The objectives of the present study were 1) to determine the heterogeneity of the MAC-T cell line; 2) to examine whether homogeneous clones could be derived from MAC-T cells; and 3) to examine cell morphology, cytoskeletal characteristics, size, colony-forming ability, growth characteristics, beta-casein production, response to oxytocin, and cytogenetic properties of the clones. Three clonal cells, designated CU-1, CU-2, and CU-3, were derived from MAC-T cells. CU-1 and CU-2 cells were morphologically homogeneous. CU-3 cells were heterogeneous and contained two distinct subtypes. All clones contained cytokeratin 14 and 18. CU-2 and CU-3 cells were 30 and 18% larger, respectively, than CU-1 cells. CU-1 cells did not grow in serum-free medium. Doubling times for MAC-T, CU-2, and CU-3 were 46, 48, and 78 h, respectively, in serum-free medium. MAC-T cells and clones constitutively expressed beta-casein in culture ranging from .1 to .3 micrograms/ml per 24 h. Cytogenetic analyses revealed Robertsonian translocations and isochromosomes in the clonal lines. We conclude that parental MAC-T cells are heterogeneous in morphology, growth, and cytogenetic characteristics.

  19. Growth mode, morphology, and reducibility of CeO{sub 2}(111) thin films on Cu(111)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dvorak, Filip; Stetsovych, Oleksandr; Matolinova, Iva; Tsud, Natalya; Skoda, Michal; Myslivecek, Josef; Matolin, Vladimir [Charles University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, V Holesovickach 2, Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Steger, Michael; Cherradi, El Miloudi [Heinrich-Heine-Universitaet, Institut fuer Experimentelle Physik der Kondensierten Materie, Universitaetsstrasse 1, Duesseldorf (Germany); Skala, Tomas [Sincrotrone Trieste SCpA, Strada Statale 14, km 163.5, Basovizza-Trieste (Italy)

    2011-07-01

    We investigate morphology and degree of reduction in model oxide system CeO{sub 2} (ceria) on Cu(111) using scanning tunneling microscopy and photoelectron spectroscopy. We identify growth mechanisms of ceria on Cu(111) - formation of incomplete oxide interfacial layer and formation of three-dimensional ceria pyramids by stacking of monolayer-high islands. Using these mechanisms we control the coverage, the number of open monolayers, and the step density of ceria thin films on Cu(111). Annealing in vacuum allows us to control besides the morphology also the degree of ceria surface reduction. We find a correlation between surface reduction and morphological stability in annealed ceria layers. Oriented and stoichiometric thin films of ceria on Cu(111) can be prepared at temperatures as low as 150 C and 250 C. Both the morphology and the degree of reduction of these films readily change with increasing temperature, which must be accounted for in evaluating temperature-programmed experiments with ceria on Cu(111).

  20. The Influence of the Ratio of Nitrate to Ammonium Nitrogen on Nitrogen Removal in the Economical Growth of Vegetation in Hybrid Constructed Wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haq Nawaz Abbasi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Growing vegetables economically in the use of constructed wetland for wastewater treatment can play a role in overcoming water and food scarcity. Allium porrum L., Solanum melongena L., Ipomoea aquatica Forsk., and Capsicum annuum L. plants were selected to grow in hybrid constructed wetland (CW under natural conditions. The impact of the ratio of nitrate to ammonium nitrogen on ammonium and nitrate nitrogen removal and on total nitrogen were studied in wastewater. Constructed wetland planted with Ipomoea aquatica Forsk. and Solanum melongena L. showed higher removal efficiency for ammonium nitrogen under higher ammonium concentration, whereas Allium porrum L.-planted CW showed higher nitrate nitrogen removal when NO3–N concentration was high in wastewater. Capsicum annuum L.-planted CW showed little efficiency for both nitrogen sources compared to other vegetables.

  1. Different zinc sensitivity of Brassica organs is accompanied by distinct responses in protein nitration level and pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigl, Gábor; Kolbert, Zsuzsanna; Lehotai, Nóra; Molnár, Árpád; Ördög, Attila; Bordé, Ádám; Laskay, Gábor; Erdei, László

    2016-03-01

    Zinc is an essential microelement, but its excess exerts toxic effects in plants. Heavy metal stress can alter the metabolism of reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen species (RNS) leading to oxidative and nitrosative damages; although the participation of these processes in Zn toxicity and tolerance is not yet known. Therefore this study aimed to evaluate the zinc tolerance of Brassica organs and the putative correspondence of it with protein nitration as a relevant marker for nitrosative stress. Both examined Brassica species (B. juncea and B. napus) proved to be moderate Zn accumulators; however B. napus accumulated more from this metal in its organs. The zinc-induced damages (growth diminution, altered morphology, necrosis, chlorosis, and the decrease of photosynthetic activity) were slighter in the shoot system of B. napus than in B. juncea. The relative zinc tolerance of B. napus shoot was accompanied by moderate changes of the nitration pattern. In contrast, the root system of B. napus suffered more severe damages (growth reduction, altered morphology, viability loss) and slighter increase in nitration level compared to B. juncea. Based on these, the organs of Brassica species reacted differentially to excess zinc, since in the shoot system modification of the nitration pattern occurred (with newly appeared nitrated protein bands), while in the roots, a general increment in the nitroproteome could be observed (the intensification of the same protein bands being present in the control samples). It can be assumed that the significant alteration of nitration pattern is coupled with enhanced zinc sensitivity of the Brassica shoot system and the general intensification of protein nitration in the roots is attached to relative zinc endurance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Predicting Growth in English and French Vocabulary: The Facilitating Effects of Morphological and Cognate Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Nadia; Hipfner-Boucher, Kathleen; Chen, Xi

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the contribution of morphological and cognate awareness to the development of English and French vocabulary knowledge among young minority and majority language children who were enrolled in a French immersion program. Participating children (n = 75) were assessed in English and French on measures of morphological…

  3. Modeled Wet Nitrate Deposition

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Modeled data on nitrate wet deposition was obtained from Dr. Jeff Grimm at Penn State Univ. Nitrate wet depostion causes acidification and eutrophication of surface...

  4. The Inhibitory Effects of Curcuma longa L. Essential Oil and Curcumin on Aspergillus flavus Link Growth and Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossini, Simone Aparecida Galerani; Ferreira, Francine Maery Dias; Arrotéia, Carla Cristina; da Costa, Christiane Luciana; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Machinski Junior, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    The essential oil from Curcuma longa L. was analysed by GC/MS. The major components of the oil were ar-turmerone (33.2%), α-turmerone (23.5%) and β-turmerone (22.7%). The antifungal activities of the oil were studied with regard to Aspergillus flavus growth inhibition and altered morphology, as preliminary studies indicated that the essential oil from C. longa inhibited Aspergillus flavus Link aflatoxin production. The concentration of essential oil in the culture media ranged from 0.01% to 5.0% v/v, and the concentration of curcumin was 0.01–0.5% v/v. The effects on sporulation, spore viability, and fungal morphology were determined. The essential oil exhibited stronger antifungal activity than curcumin on A. flavus. The essential oil reduced the fungal growth in a concentration-dependent manner. A. flavus growth rate was reduced by C. longa essential oil at 0.10%, and this inhibition effect was more efficient in concentrations above 0.50%. Germination and sporulation were 100% inhibited in 0.5% oil. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of A. flavus exposed to oil showed damage to hyphae membranes and conidiophores. Because the fungus is a plant pathogen and aflatoxin producer, C. longa essential oil may be used in the management of host plants. PMID:24367241

  5. The inhibitory effects of Curcuma longa L. essential oil and curcumin on Aspergillus flavus link growth and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias Ferreira, Flávio; Mossini, Simone Aparecida Galerani; Dias Ferreira, Francine Maery; Arrotéia, Carla Cristina; da Costa, Christiane Luciana; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Machinski, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    The essential oil from Curcuma longa L. was analysed by GC/MS. The major components of the oil were ar-turmerone (33.2%), α -turmerone (23.5%) and β -turmerone (22.7%). The antifungal activities of the oil were studied with regard to Aspergillus flavus growth inhibition and altered morphology, as preliminary studies indicated that the essential oil from C. longa inhibited Aspergillus flavus Link aflatoxin production. The concentration of essential oil in the culture media ranged from 0.01% to 5.0% v/v, and the concentration of curcumin was 0.01-0.5% v/v. The effects on sporulation, spore viability, and fungal morphology were determined. The essential oil exhibited stronger antifungal activity than curcumin on A. flavus. The essential oil reduced the fungal growth in a concentration-dependent manner. A. flavus growth rate was reduced by C. longa essential oil at 0.10%, and this inhibition effect was more efficient in concentrations above 0.50%. Germination and sporulation were 100% inhibited in 0.5% oil. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of A. flavus exposed to oil showed damage to hyphae membranes and conidiophores. Because the fungus is a plant pathogen and aflatoxin producer, C. longa essential oil may be used in the management of host plants.

  6. The Inhibitory Effects of Curcuma longa L. Essential Oil and Curcumin on Aspergillus flavus Link Growth and Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Dias Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil from Curcuma longa L. was analysed by GC/MS. The major components of the oil were ar-turmerone (33.2%, α-turmerone (23.5% and β-turmerone (22.7%. The antifungal activities of the oil were studied with regard to Aspergillus flavus growth inhibition and altered morphology, as preliminary studies indicated that the essential oil from C. longa inhibited Aspergillus flavus Link aflatoxin production. The concentration of essential oil in the culture media ranged from 0.01% to 5.0% v/v, and the concentration of curcumin was 0.01–0.5% v/v. The effects on sporulation, spore viability, and fungal morphology were determined. The essential oil exhibited stronger antifungal activity than curcumin on A. flavus. The essential oil reduced the fungal growth in a concentration-dependent manner. A. flavus growth rate was reduced by C. longa essential oil at 0.10%, and this inhibition effect was more efficient in concentrations above 0.50%. Germination and sporulation were 100% inhibited in 0.5% oil. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM of A. flavus exposed to oil showed damage to hyphae membranes and conidiophores. Because the fungus is a plant pathogen and aflatoxin producer, C. longa essential oil may be used in the management of host plants.

  7. The Growth Form of Croton pullei (Euphorbiaceae) - Functional Morphology and Biomechanics of a Neotropical Liana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallenmüller, F.; Müller, U.; Rowe, N.; Speck, T.

    2001-01-01

    Croton pullei (Euphorbiaceae) is a woody climber of the lowland rainforest in French Guyana and Surinam. During ontogeny, a shift from a juvenile free-standing growth phase to an older supported growth phase is observed. The following biomechanical parameters were studied: structural Young's

  8. The morphological growth patterns of colorectal liver metastases are prognostic for overall survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kåre; Rolff, Hans C; Eefsen, Rikke L

    2014-01-01

    by a semi-quantitative method. The prevalence of the pushing-type, the desmoplastic-type, and the replacement-type was 33%, 32%, and 11%, respectively; 24% of the metastases displayed a mixed pattern. Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression demonstrated a prognostic significance of the growth patterns (P=0.......0006, log-rank test), as the replacement pattern appeared as an independent predictor of poor overall survival. For patients with replacement growth, the hazard of death was 2-2.5 times higher than for patients with pushing growth (P=0.004, cox regression) or mixed growth (P=0.01), and nearly four times......Colorectal metastases in the liver grow according to three histological patterns: a pushing pattern, a replacement pattern, and a desmoplastic pattern. The objective of the current study was to explore the prognostic significance of these three growth patterns for survival. The study included 217...

  9. Luminal epithelium in endometrial fragments affects their vascularization, growth and morphological development into endometriosis-like lesions in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilu Feng

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In endometriosis research, endometriosis-like lesions are usually induced in rodents by transplantation of isolated endometrial tissue fragments to ectopic sites. In the present study, we investigated whether this approach is affected by the cellular composition of the grafts. For this purpose, endometrial tissue fragments covered with luminal epithelium (LE+ and without luminal epithelium (LE− were transplanted from transgenic green-fluorescent-protein-positive (GFP+ donor mice into the dorsal skinfold chamber of GFP− wild-type recipient animals to analyze their vascularization, growth and morphology by means of repetitive intravital fluorescence microscopy, histology and immunohistochemistry during a 14-day observation period. LE− fragments developed into typical endometriosis-like lesions with cyst-like dilated endometrial glands and a well-vascularized endometrial stroma. In contrast, LE+ fragments exhibited a polypoid morphology and a significantly reduced blood perfusion after engraftment, because the luminal epithelium prevented the vascular interconnection with the microvasculature of the surrounding host tissue. This was associated with a markedly decreased growth rate of LE+ lesions compared with LE− lesions. In addition, we found that many GFP+ microvessels grew outside the LE− lesions and developed interconnections to the host microvasculature, indicating that inosculation is an important mechanism in the vascularization process of endometriosis-like lesions. Our findings demonstrate that the luminal epithelium crucially affects the vascularization, growth and morphology of endometriosis-like lesions. Therefore, it is of major importance to standardize the cellular composition of endometrial grafts in order to increase the validity and reliability of pre-clinical rodent studies in endometriosis research.

  10. 21 CFR 181.33 - Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. 181.33...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.33 Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate are subject to prior sanctions issued by the U.S. Department of Agriculture for use as sources of...

  11. Nitrate accumulation in spinach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steingröver, Eveliene Geertruda

    1986-01-01

    Leafy vegetables, like spinach, may contain high concentrations of nitrate. In the Netherlands, about 75% of mean daily intake of nitrate orginates from the consumption of vegatables. Hazards to human health are associated with the reduction of nitrate to nitrite. Acute nitrite poisoning causes

  12. Changes in growth, rRNA content, and cell morphology of Listeria monocytogenes induced by CO2 up- and downshift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jydegaard-Axelsen, A.M.; Aaes-Jorgensen, A.; Koch, A.G.

    2005-01-01

    Cell morphology, rRNA content, and growth were examined for Listeria monocytogenes LO28 and EGD, respectively, grown in brain-heart infusion (BHI) and on slices of sausage at 10degreesC in 100% CO2, 100% N-2, and air. In CO2, filamentous cells were formed by both strains on sausage slices and by L...... unchanged. On sausage slices, the number of colony forming units also increased rapidly for both strains in response to CO2 downshift. Large variations in rRNA content of individual cells were observed in the tested scenarios. The results demonstrate the risk of underestimating the number of infectious...

  13. Study on effect of process parameters and mixing on morphology of ammonium diuranate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subhankar Manna; Chandrabhanu Basak; Thakkar, U.R.; Shital Thakur; Roy, S.B.; Joshi, J.B.; Institute of Chemical Technology, Matunga, Mumbai

    2016-01-01

    Ammonium diuranate (ADU) is an important intermediate for the production of uranium base fuel. Controlling morphology of crystalline ADU powders is very important as it is retained by its subsequent products. Because of the high level of supersaturation, the involved mechanisms of precipitation like primary nucleation, crystal growth, aggregation and breakage occur simultaneously and they control the morphology. Effects of concentration of uranyl nitrate solution, temperature and the mixing intensity have been investigated on the morphology, crystal structure and the other physical properties of ADU. Effect of temperature is found to be more dominant for controlling morphology. (author)

  14. Morphology and growth control of griseofulvin recrystallized by compressed carbon dioxide as antisolvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gioannis, Barbara; Jestin, Patrick; Subra, Pascale

    2004-02-01

    Griseofulvin has been crystallized from acetone solutions using compressed carbon dioxide as antisolvent. Crystallization was performed in a batch stirred vessel at a temperature of 40°C and a final pressure of 100 bar. The effects of the antisolvent addition rate and of the stirring rate upon the morphology and size of the precipitated crystals were particularly investigated. Parameters were varied between 1.3-5.6 bar/min and 33-1000 rpm, respectively. Over the whole set of conditions, the product was obtained as tetragonal crystals with mean sizes from 40 μm to 20 mm. For a given CO 2 addition rate, the crystal morphology switched from a long needle to a bipyramid form as the stirring rate increased. For a given stirring rate and a given morphology, size of crystals decreased as the CO 2 addition rate increased. The rates also influenced the particle size distribution. The smallest size and narrowest particle size distribution were obtained at the highest stirring rate and antisolvent introduction rate, i.e. 1000 rpm and 5.6 bar/min, respectively.

  15. Denitrification of nitrate waste solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaels, S.L.; Michel, R.C.; Terpandjian, P.D.; Vora, J.N.

    1976-01-01

    Bacterial denitrification by Pseudomonas Stutzeri has been chosen as the method for removing nitrate from the effluent stream of the Y-12 uranium purification process. A model was developed to predict bacterial growth and carbon and nitrate depletion during the induction period and steady state operation. Modification of analytical procedures and automatic control of the pH in the reactor are recommended to improve agreement between the prediction of the model and experimental data. An initial carbon-to-nitrogen (C/N) mass ratio of 1.4-1.5 insures adequate population growth during the induction period. Further experiments in batch reactors and in steady state flow reactors are recommended to obtain more reliable kinetic rate constants

  16. Tabebuia avellanedae Lor. ex Griseb. (Bignoniaceae) submitted at the flooding and the "Ethrel" and silver nitrate application

    OpenAIRE

    Davanso,Viviane M.; Medri,Moacyr E.; Souza,Luiz A. de; Colli,Sandra

    2003-01-01

    Three-month-old Tabebuia avellanedae Lor. ex Griseb. (Bignoniaceae) plants cultivated in the greenhouse were submitted to 56 days of flooding and to "Ethrel" and silver nitrate applications to find out it’s capacity for morphological and physiological modifications to survive under flooding conditions and at which degree such responses were correlated with alterations in the ethylene level. Flooding and the "Ethrel" application caused growth reduction and epinasty in T. avellanedae and the ap...

  17. Influence of boron on the morphological and physiological growth parameters of bean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, S.A. de

    1982-01-01

    Effect of boron on Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Cacahuate was studied in nutrient solutions containing 0.000; 0.005; 0.050 and 0.500 ppm of the element. The deficiency of boron affected root growth, leaf development and plant growth. Lower values of net assimilation rate (NAR) indicated reduced photosynthetic activity in the case of boron deficiency. (M.A.C.) [pt

  18. From the regulation of peptidoglycan synthesis to bacterial growth and morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Typas, Athanasios; Banzhaf, Manuel; Gross, Carol A.; Vollmer, Waldemar

    2011-01-01

    How bacteria grow and divide while retaining a defined shape is a fundamental question in microbiology, but technological advances are now driving a new understanding of how the shape-maintaining bacterial peptidoglycan sacculus grows. In this Review, we highlight the relationship between peptidoglycan synthesis complexes and cytoskeletal elements, as well as recent evidence that peptidoglycan growth is regulated from outside the sacculus in Gram-negative bacteria. We also discuss how growth ...

  19. Seeded Growth of Highly Luminescent CdSe/CdS Nano-Heterostructures with Rod and Tetrapod Morphologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talapin, Dmitri; Talapin, Dmitri V.; Nelson, James H.; Shevchenko, Elena V.; Aloni, Shaul; Sadtler, Bryce; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2007-08-09

    We have demonstrated that seeded growth of nanocrystals offers a convenient way to design nanoheterostructures with complex shapes and morphologies by changing the crystalline structure of the seed. By using Use nanocrystals with wurtzite and zinc blende structure as seeds for growth of US nanorods, we synthesized CdSe/CdS heterostructure nanorods and nanotetrapods, respectively. Both of these structures showed excellent luminescentproperties, combining high photoluminescence efficiency (similar to 80 and similar to 50percent for nanorods and nanotetrapods, correspondingly), giant extinction coefficients (similar to 2 x 10(7) and similar to 1.5 x 10(8) M-1 cm (-1) at 350 nm for nanorods and nanotetrapods, correspondingly), and efficient energy transfer from the US arms into the emitting CdSe Core.

  20. MORPHOLOGICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF PLANTS IN HIGH SALINITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Vasilyuk

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of increasing salinity to the morpho-metric parameters of Salix alba L., which dominated in the coastal areas on rivers of Steppe Dnieper, is investigated. We added Mg as salt MgSO4 * 3H2O in the range of concentration: 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 g/l in a solution of willow cuttings. In the solution was added and plant growth regulator "Kornevin" the synthetic origin. The negative effect of salt at a concentration from 1.0 g/l to 2.5 g/l in the dynamics of growth and development was found. The correlation between the size and salinity in dynamics of growth and development of plant were demonstrated: in the growth of shoots (R = 0.83, 0.91 and 0.95, in the growth of roots (R = 0.92, 0.68 and 0.84 respectively depended from salt concentration. The length of the leaf blade was from 4% to 8%, from 7% to 43%, from 333% to 11% (R = 0,68, 0,93, 0,61, depending on the concentration of salt and during observing compared with control (distilled water. "Kornevin" and combined effect of salt increased the length of the leaf blade growth by 4-5, 2-4, 3-5 times, the roots by7 and 3-14 times, the shoots by 3-4, 6-7 and 5-7 times in the dynamics of growth compared with control (MgSO4, 2,5 g/l. The recommendations regarding for the advisability of using the plant growth regulator "Kornevin", as very effective plant growth preparation that promoted rooting and activated physiological processes of plant organism, expressed protective effect in conditions of excessive salinity, were provided. Key words: the morpho-metric index, the plant growth regulators, abiotic factors, salinity factor, the adaptation.

  1. Ammonium nitrate explosion hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negovanović Milanka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ammonium nitrate (AN primarily is used as a fertilizer but it is also very important compound in the production of industrial explosives. The application of ammonium nitrate in the production of industrial explosives was related with the early era of Nobel dynamite and widely increased with the appearance of blasting agents such as ANFO and Slurry, in the middle of the last Century. Throughout the world millions of tons of ammonium nitrate are produced annually and handled without incident. Although ammonium nitrate generally is used safely, accidental explosions involving AN have high impact resulting in loss of lives and destruction of property. The paper presents the basic properties of ammonium nitrate as well as hazards in handling of ammonium nitrate in order to prevent accidents. Several accidents with explosions of ammonium nitrate resulted in catastrophic consequences are listed in the paper as examples of non-compliance with prescribed procedures.

  2. Effects of dietary grape proanthocyanidins on the growth performance, jejunum morphology and plasma biochemical indices of broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J Y; Zhang, H J; Wang, J; Wu, S G; Yue, H Y; Jiang, X R; Qi, G H

    2017-05-01

    Grape proanthocyanidins (GPCs) are a family of naturally derived polyphenols that have aroused interest in the poultry industry due to their versatile role in animal health. This study was conducted to investigate the potential benefits and appropriate dosages of GPCs on growth performance, jejunum morphology, plasma antioxidant capacity and the biochemical indices of broiler chicks. A total of 280 newly hatched male Cobb 500 broiler chicks were randomly allocated into four treatments of seven replicates each, and were fed a wheat-soybean meal-type diet with or without (control group), 7.5, 15 or 30 mg/kg of GPCs. Results show that dietary GPCs decrease the feed conversion ratio and average daily gain from day 21 to day 42, increase breast muscle yield by day 42 and improve jejunum morphology between day 21 and day 42. Chicks fed 7.5 and 15 mg/kg of GPCs show increased breast muscle yield and exhibit improved jejunum morphologies than birds in the control group. Dietary GPCs fed at a level of 15 mg/kg markedly increased total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) activity between day 21 and day 42, whereas a supplement of GPCs at 7.5 mg/kg significantly increased T-SOD activity and decreased lipid peroxidation malondialdehyde content by day 42. A supplement of 30 mg/kg of GPCs has no effect on antioxidant status but adversely affects the blood biochemical indices, as evidenced by increased creatinine content, increased alkaline phosphatase by day 21 and increased alanine aminotransferase by day 42 in plasma. GPC levels caused quadratic effect on growth, jejunum morphology and plasma antioxidant capacity. The predicted optimal GPC levels for best plasma antioxidant capacity at 42 days was 13 to 15 mg/kg, for best feed efficiency during grower phase was 16 mg/kg, for best jejunum morphology at 42 days was 17 mg/kg. In conclusion, GPCs (fed at a level of 13 to 17 mg/kg) have the potential to be a promising feed additive for broiler chicks.

  3. Morphological analysis of the growth stages of in-vivo mouse hair follicles by using optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Rakesh Kumar; Kim, Kanghae; Jeon, Mansik; Kim, Jeehyun; Kang, Minyoung; Han, Insook; Kim, Moonkyu

    2016-09-01

    Swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT), a bio-photonic imaging modality, was used to demonstrate an initial feasibility experiment for detecting morphological variations of in-vivo mouse hair follicles for the anagen and the telogen growth stages. Two C57BL/6 adult male mice, one undergoing the anagen stage and the other undergoing the telogen stage of the hair follicle growth cycle, were selected for the experiment. The OCT cross-sectional images of mice skin were acquired in-vivo within an interval of 15 days, and the observed morphological changes were analyzed. The micro-structural features of mice skin on the 15th experimental day were further compared with corresponding histological observations. The preliminary result of this study provides clear insights into the structural details of mouse skin, confirming the resemblance of the OCT images with the corresponding histological measurements, and ensures the suitability of SS-OCT for non-invasive analysis of hair follicle conditions.

  4. Effect of substrate morphology slope distributions on light scattering, nc-Si:H film growth, and solar cell performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do Yun; Santbergen, Rudi; Jäger, Klaus; Sever, Martin; Krč, Janez; Topič, Marko; Hänni, Simon; Zhang, Chao; Heidt, Anna; Meier, Matthias; van Swaaij, René A C M M; Zeman, Miro

    2014-12-24

    Thin-film silicon solar cells are often deposited on textured ZnO substrates. The solar-cell performance is strongly correlated to the substrate morphology, as this morphology determines light scattering, defective-region formation, and crystalline growth of hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si:H). Our objective is to gain deeper insight in these correlations using the slope distribution, rms roughness (σ(rms)) and correlation length (lc) of textured substrates. A wide range of surface morphologies was obtained by Ar plasma treatment and wet etching of textured and flat-as-deposited ZnO substrates. The σ(rms), lc and slope distribution were deduced from AFM scans. Especially, the slope distribution of substrates was represented in an efficient way that light scattering and film growth direction can be more directly estimated at the same time. We observed that besides a high σ(rms), a high slope angle is beneficial to obtain high haze and scattering of light at larger angles, resulting in higher short-circuit current density of nc-Si:H solar cells. However, a high slope angle can also promote the creation of defective regions in nc-Si:H films grown on the substrate. It is also found that the crystalline fraction of nc-Si:H solar cells has a stronger correlation with the slope distributions than with σ(rms) of substrates. In this study, we successfully correlate all these observations with the solar-cell performance by using the slope distribution of substrates.

  5. Photo acoustic study of plants exposed to varying light intensity growth conditions: Spectral and morphological changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, R. C.; Barja, P. R.; da Silva, E. C.; Mansanares, A. M.

    2005-06-01

    In this paper we describe results of photo acoustic (PA) measurements carried out on various plants exposed to varying light intensity conditions. Depending on the species and light intensity conditions, the PA absorption spectra show differences in peaks associated with pigments and the cuticle. These differences are related to the spatial distribution of the pigments that differs from plant to plant. We have also performed systematic study of oxygen evolution at different wavelengths. The obtained oxygen spectra are equivalent to the action spectra usually acquired by determining the CO2 uptake and energy storage. The intensities of oxygen spectra exhibit differences depending on distinct morphology of plant.

  6. Expression of basement membrane components through morphological changes in the hair growth cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R; Gibson, W T

    1985-01-01

    The amount and distribution of fibronectin associated with hair follicles was found to vary during the hair growth cycle in the rat. Immunocytochemical staining of follicles in mid-late anagen (the growth stage) revealed the presence of fibronectin in the dermal papilla matrix, in the basement...... membrane separating this from the epithelial cells of the hair bulb, and in the basement membrane and connective tissue sheath which underly the cells of the outer root sheath. Early in catagen, the transitional stage, staining of the dermal papilla matrix disappeared. Fibronectin persisted in the basement...... of anagen, involving cell division and follicle elongation, was associated with a great increase in the amount of fibronectin in this zone and in and around the dermal papilla. Analysis of entry into anagen by [3H]thymidine incorporation and autoradiography revealed that growth could be detected before...

  7. Growth Mechanism of Strain-Dependent Morphological Change in PEDOT:PSS Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoo-Yong; Choi, Gwang Mook; Lim, Seung-Min; Cho, Ju-Young; Choi, In-Suk; Nam, Ki Tae; Joo, Young-Chang

    2016-04-29

    Understanding the mechanism of the strain-dependent conductivity change in polymers in stretched conditions is important. We observed a strain-induced growth of the conductive regions of PSS films, induced by a coalescence of conductive PEDOT-rich cores. This growth due to coalescence leads to a gradual decrease in the electrical resistivity up to 95%, independent of the thickness of the PSS films. The primary mechanism for the evolution of the PEDOT-rich cores proceeds by the cores growing larger as they consuming relatively smaller cores. This process is caused by a strain-induced local rearrangement of PEDOT segments in the vicinity of PSS shells around the cores and also changes the chemical environment in PEDOT, induced by the electron-withdrawing effects around the PEDOT chains. The strain-induced growth mechanism is beneficial to understanding the phenomenon of polymeric chain rearrangement in mechanical deformation and to modulating the electrical conductivity for practical applications.

  8. Resposta do arroz irrigado ao suprimento de amônio e nitrato Rice growth as affected by combined ammonium and nitrate supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marquel Jonas Holzschuh

    2009-10-01

    supply for IRGA 417, but for cultivar Sasanishiki no differences were verified. It was concluded that NH4+ is toxic to rice plants, and is not the main available source of nitrogen. Nitrate is indispensable to increase the N uptake, normal plant growth and total cation absorption.

  9. Comparison of the pathogenicity, growth, sporulation and morphology of Pezicula alba Guthrie (Gloeosporium album Osterw.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Borecka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen isolates of Pezicula alba Guthr. were examined. The intensity of growth on various media, pathogenicity to apple fruits and twigs, colour of cultures and size of conidia were measured. Some isolates are pathogenic to fruits, some others to twigs; one isolate (only no. 19 is pathogenic to both twigs and fruits; many isolates are not - pathogenic at all. Culture growth, sporulation and size of conidia are not correlated with the pathogenicity of the isolate. The mean size of conidia is 21.29µm x 3.48µm.

  10. Expression of basement membrane components through morphological changes in the hair growth cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R; Gibson, W T

    1985-01-01

    The amount and distribution of fibronectin associated with hair follicles was found to vary during the hair growth cycle in the rat. Immunocytochemical staining of follicles in mid-late anagen (the growth stage) revealed the presence of fibronectin in the dermal papilla matrix, in the basement...... membrane separating this from the epithelial cells of the hair bulb, and in the basement membrane and connective tissue sheath which underly the cells of the outer root sheath. Early in catagen, the transitional stage, staining of the dermal papilla matrix disappeared. Fibronectin persisted in the basement...

  11. The effect of ionic and non-ionic surfactants on the growth, nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase activities of Spirodela polyrrhiza (L. Schleiden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Buczek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inclusion into the medium of 5 mg•dm-3 of non-ionic (ENF or ionic (DBST surfactant caused 50-60% inhibition of nitrite reductase MR activity in S. polyrrhiza. At the same time, increased accumulation of NO2- in the plant tissues and lowering of the total and soluble protein contents were found. DBST also lowered the nitrate reductase (NR activity and the dry mass of the plants.

  12. Analysis of nitrate reductase mRNA expression and nitrate reductase activity in response to nitrogen supply

    OpenAIRE

    Gholamreza Kavoosi; Sadegh Balotf; Homeira Eshghi; Hasan Hasani

    2014-01-01

    Nitrate is one of the major sources of nitrogen for the growth of plants. It is taken up by plant roots and transported to the leaves where it is reduced to nitrite in the. The main objective of this research was to investigate stimulatory effects of sodium nitrate, potassium nitrate, ammonia and urea on the production/generation of the nitrate reductase mRNA in Triticum aestivum plants. The plants were grown in standard nutrient solution for 21 days and then starved in a media without nitrat...

  13. ASSESSMENT OF PC12 CELL DIFFERENTIATION AND NEURITE GROWTH: A COMPARISON OF MORPHOLOGICAL AND NEUROCHEMICAL MEASURES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to screen large numbers of chemicals for their potential to produce developmental neurotoxicity new, in vitro methods are needed. One approach is to develop methods based on the biologic processes which underlie brain development including the growth and maturation of ce...

  14. Surface hydrophobicity and roughness influences the morphology and biochemistry of streptomycetes during attached growth and differentiation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petráčková, Denisa; Buriánková, Karolína; Tesařová, E.; Bobková, Šárka; Bezoušková, Silvia; Benada, Oldřich; Kofroňová, Olga; Janeček, Jiří; Halada, Petr; Weiser, Jaroslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 342, č. 2 (2013), s. 147-156 ISSN 0378-1097 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500200913 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : streptomycetes * attached growth * glass beads Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.046, year: 2013

  15. Growth morphology and structure of bismuth thin films on GaSb(110)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gemmeren, T. van; Lottermoser, L.; Falkenberg, G.

    1998-01-01

    Photoelectron spectroscopy, low-energy electron diffraction, scanning tunneling microscopy and surface X-ray diffraction were used to investigate the growth of thin layers of bismuth on GaSb(110). At submonolayer coverages, growth of two-dimensional islands occurs. A uniform (1 x I)-reconstructio......Photoelectron spectroscopy, low-energy electron diffraction, scanning tunneling microscopy and surface X-ray diffraction were used to investigate the growth of thin layers of bismuth on GaSb(110). At submonolayer coverages, growth of two-dimensional islands occurs. A uniform (1 x I......)-reconstruction is formed at a coverage of one monolayer. A structural model derived from X-ray diffraction data is presented for this phase. The (1 x I)-phase consists of zigzag chains of bismuth atoms bonded alternately to the surface cations and anions of the bulk-terminated unrelaxed (110) surface. We propose...... that the (1 x 1)-phases formed by antimony and bismuth adsorbates on (110) surfaces of other III-V compound semiconductors are also described by the epitaxial continued layer model. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  16. Effect of waterlogging at different growth stages on some morphological traits of wheat varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghobadi, Mohammad Eghbal; Ghobadi, Mokhtar; Zebarjadi, Alireza

    2017-04-01

    Excess rainfalls may be the cause of waterlogging in soil, which affects the growth and development of wheat. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to examine the effects of waterlogging on shoot and root growth and physiological characteristics of wheat. Three experiments were conducted: experiment 1 (E1): evaluation of seedling growth on ten Iranian winter wheat varieties with waterlogging periods (1-4, 4-8, 8-12, and 12-16 days starting from seed germination). Seminal roots and plumule were investigated at seedling. The others are E2: pretreatment of waterlogging (15 days) at tillering and stem elongation stages and its effects on shoot and root growth at anthesis stage and experiment 3 (E3): pretreatment of waterlogging (15 days) at tillering and jointing stages and its effects on yield and yield components and also evaluation of stress tolerance indexes. The results of the seedling growth test (E1) showed that 1-4- and 4-8-day waterlogging severity reduced seminal root length (94.5 to 93.7 %) and plumule length (86.2 to 50.0 %) compared to control. Results of E2 indicated that waterlogging stress decreased shoot dry weight, root dry weight, total secondary root length, and chlorophyll a + b content of flag leaf by 28-31, 44-35, 20-31, and 28-35 %, respectively. Also, result of E3 showed that the grain yields of wheat varieties at two conditions of stress were different in base tolerance indexes. In general, the responses of wheat varieties to waterlogging were different at the three experiments. The varieties that had the most of dry weight and length of the root were tolerant. Thus, it is possible to use these characteristics as an index for selecting the varieties with tolerance to waterlogging.

  17. Bioaccumulation of Pb2+ and its effects on growth, morphology and pigment contents of Spirulina ( Arthrospira) platensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunakumara, K. K. I. U.; Zhang, Xuecheng; Song, Xiaojin

    2008-11-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to assess the bioaccumulation of Pb2+ and its effects on growth, morphology and pigment contents of Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis. The specimen cultured in Zarrouk liquid medium was treated with various initial metal concentrations (0, 5, 10, 30, 50 and 100 μg mL-1). The growth of S. platensis was adversely affected by Pb2+ at high concentrations (30, 50 and 100 μg mL-1). However, at low concentrations (5 μg mL-1), Pb2+ could stimulate its growth slightly. The pigment contents (chlorophyll α and β carotene) were decreased in a dose-dependent manner. The highest reductions (67% and 53% respectively in chlorophyll α and β carotene) were observed in 100 μg mL-1 treatment group. The LC50 (96 h) of Pb2+ was measured as 75.34 μg mL-1. Apart from a few cases of filament breakages at elevated concentrations (50 and 100 μg mL-1), morphological abnormalities are not specific. Metal bioaccumulation increased with Pb2+ concentrations, but decreased with exposure time. The maximum accumulated amount was 188 mg g-1 dry weight. The bioconcentration factor (BCF) reached to a peak at day 2, followed by a gradual reduction for all the exposure concentrations. S. platensis is able to tolerate considerably high Pb2+ concentrations. Consequently it can be used as a potential species to remove heavy metal from contaminated waters.

  18. Response of morphological and physiological growth attributes to foliar application of plant growth regulators in gladiolus 'white prosperity'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajjad, Y.; Jaskani, M. J.; Qasim, M.

    2014-01-01

    Gladiolus is very popular among ornamental bulbous plants mainly used as cut flower and greatly demanded in the world floral market. Production of inferior quality spikes is one of the major hurdles for their export. The research was conducted under Faisalabad conditions to evaluate the use of plant growth regulators in order to improve the vegetative, floral and physiological attributes. Gladiolus plants were sprayed thrice with different concentrations (0.1, 0.4, 0.7 and 1mM) of gibberellic acid, benzylaminopurine and salicylic acid at three leaf stage, five leaf stage and slipping stage. Foliar application of 1mM gibberellic acid increased the plant height (122.14cm), spike length (58.41cm), florets spike-1 (13.49), corm diameter (4.43cm), corm weight (25.34g) and total cormel weight (20.45g) compared to benzylaminopurine and salicylic acid. Gibberellic acid at 1mM concentration also increased the total chlorophyll content to 7.72mg/g, total carotenoids (1.61mg/g), total soluble sugars (3.68mg/g) followed by application of benzylaminopurine. Salicylic acid application at 1mM concentration decreased the number of days to flower (64.93) compared to 76.12 days in non treated plants. (author)

  19. Factors controlling growth and morphology of early Miocene stromatolites from Montaigu-le-Blin, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontognali, Tomaso R. R.; Barilaro, Federica; McKenzie, Judith A.; Vasconcelos, Crisogono

    2015-04-01

    A large variety of stromatolite morphotypes are present in the early Miocene sedimentary sequence that outcrops in the region of Montaigu-le-Blin, France. Thanks to its good degree of preservation, this formation is an ideal place to evaluate the key factors controlling the occurrence and morphology of the stromatolites, as well as to study the diagenetic processes that transform a soft, slimy lithifying microbialite into a solid, laminated sedimentary rock. Facies analysis suggests that the Montaigu-le-Blin stromatolites formed in shallow waters, in a restricted, laterally heterogeneous basin. Various evidence suggests a biological origin for the stromatolites, whose formation cannot be explained through abiotic background precipitation driven by evaporation, temperature changes, or migration of metamorphic fluids. Microscopic observations revealed that the Montaigu-le-Blin stromatolites are mainly comprised of authigenic calcite that precipitated directly from the basin waters (no evidence for trapping and binding) in close association with algae, microbial cells, and exopolymeric substances. Well-preserved microfossils of photosynthetic organisms are widespread within the thin sections. The calcite constituting the stromatolites is characterized by positive δ13C values (1.7 to 4.4 o), suggesting that microbial mediation of calcite was mainly related to the metabolic activity of photosynthetic organisms or anoxygenic phototrophs, and not to metabolisms in which organic material is degraded (e.g. sulfate reduction). The laminated habit of the stromatolites results from alternating layers of porous, digit-like sparite and more compacted organic-rich micrite. No correlation was identified, through isotopic analysis, between these two types of laminae and external environmental factors (i.e. temperature, salinity, eutrophication state). Rather, we hypothesize that periodic fluctuations in the dominant microbial/algal species within the mat influenced the morphology

  20. Comparative Study of Mandibular Morphology in Patients with Hypodivergent and Hyperdivergent Growth Patterns: A Cephalometric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roopa Sidde Gowda

    2013-01-01

    Materials and methods: As sample of 60 subjects in the age group of 12 to 18 years were selected, out of them 20 subjects were average growing patients, 20 subjects were hypodivergent patterns and 20 subjects were hyperdivergent patterns. Bjork′s signs of mandibular rotation were used to differentiate between them. Mandibular morphological differences were exhibited by the hypodivergent and hyperdivergent groups. Results and conclusion: According to the results, condylar head is inclined more backwardly in hyperdivergent patterns and more forwardly in hypodivergent pattern. Inferior border of mandible has a notched appearance in hyperdivergent and is almost flat in hypodivergent patterns. Anterior lower facial height is increased in hyperdivergent and decreased in hypodivergent patterns. Interincisal and intermolar angles are more mesially inclined in hyperdivergent than hypodivergent patterns. Symphysis is more forwardly inclined in case of hypodivergent and backwardly inclined in hyperdivergent patterns.

  1. The influence of the combined effects of acute gamma-radiation, sodium bromate and sodium nitrate on lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seedling root growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pryakhin, E.; Osipov, D. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine - URCRM (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Among special industrial reservoirs used for the storage of liquid radioactive waste of Mayak PA, Russia, one of the most radioactively contaminated is the R-17 reservoir, so-called 'Staroye Boloto' (the total β-activity of water ranged in the observation period from 0.4 MBq/l to 4.5 MBq/l, the total a-activity ranged from 43 to 420 Bq/l). Also this reservoir is characterized by high level of chemical contamination, in particular, the concentration of nitrates in water is 2.5-4,4 g/l, sodium bromate - up to 35 mg/l. One of the interesting questions is interaction of radiation and chemical contamination in their effect on living organisms in this reservoir. In laboratory experiments seeds of Lactuca sativa were used; the effect of the studied factor on the length of the sprout's root was estimated. To assess the effect of chemical toxicants the solutions of each salt in 7 different concentrations were used, distilled water was used as a control. For evaluation of acute effects of external gamma irradiation the seeds after exposure for 24 hours in distilled water, were irradiated at 7 different doses using gamma-unit on the basis of Cs-137 with the dose rate of 0.62 Gy/min. To assess the combined effects of acute external gamma irradiation, of nitrates and bromates, seeds after 24 hour exposure at each test concentration of the salts solutions were irradiated using gamma-unit. To calculate the effective concentrations or doses was used drc package for R software. To calculate the dose rate to aquatic organisms in the R-17 was used ERICA Assessment Tool 2012. It was found out that the EC50 of sodium nitrate for lettuce was 2.69 g/l, which is comparable to the concentration of nitrates in the 'Staroye Boloto'. This indicates that nitrate can have significant toxic effect on aquatic higher plants of the reservoir. The EC50 of sodium bromate was 14.6 mg/l. This is less than the maximum concentration of the substance in the R-17, which suggests

  2. Growth of the microalgae Tetraselmis tetrathele and nitrate depletion in culture medium Guillard f/2 and Conway - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v35i2.13971

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wladimir Ronald Lobo Farias

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of nutrient depletion during the cultivation of the microalgae Tetraselmis tetrathele, and to verify the algal growth and productivity in different culture media (Guillard f/2 and Conway. The experiment was conducted in nine-liter containers, with working volume of eight liters, salinity 35 ± 2‰, temperature 28 ± 1°C, with constant light and aeration, around 200 μE cm-2 s-1 and 3 L air min.-1. Results showed that microalgae development caused nutrient depletion, since we observed an inversely proportional relationship between nitrate concentration and algal biomass during the cultivation. Regarding the culture media, a higher algal productivity was observed in the cultivation developed in Conway medium (p < 0.05, obtaining at the end of the cultivation, biomass of 3.38 ± 0.02 g L-1. In the Guillard medium, only 2.47 ± 0.05 g L-1 was obtained. The cultivation in Conway medium presented better results concerning microalgae growth, with a more pronounced exponential phase. This was due to the higher nitrate availability, which was reduced more rapidly in the culture medium Guillard f/2.

  3. Hydrothermal Atomic Force Microscopy Investigation of Barite Growth: Role of Spectator Ions in Elementary Step Edge Growth Kinetics and Hillock Morphology [Supporting Information Only

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jindra, Sarah A. [Wright State Univ., Dayton, OH (United States); Bertagni, Angela L. [Wright State Univ., Dayton, OH (United States); Bracco, Jacquelyn N. [Wright State Univ., Dayton, OH (United States); Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Higgins, Steven R. [Wright State Univ., Dayton, OH (United States)

    2017-09-25

    Here, to better understand the role of spectator ions in barite growth, the kinetics of step edge growth on barite (001) surfaces were studied under various salt solutions. Hydrothermal atomic force microscopy (HAFM) was used to investigate the effect of background electrolytes (NaCl, NaBr, and NaNO3) as a function of saturation index and ionic strength (I) on barite growth sourced at dislocations at 108 °C. Results demonstrate that hillock morphology is affected by I, as well as type of anion, where the prevalence of steps aligned on the [010] direction is highest under Cl. There is a modest increase in kinetic coefficient of 55–130% with a 10-fold increase in I for each salt. In comparing the kinetic coefficients of the salts at low ionic strength (0.01 M), there is a moderate difference, suggesting that the anion may play a role in barium attachment.

  4. The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Responsive miR-125a Represses Mesenchymal Morphology in Ovarian Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen D. Cowden Dahl

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT that occurs during embryonic development is recapitulated during tumor metastasis. Important regulators of this process include growth factors, transcription factors, and adhesion molecules. New evidence suggests that microRNA (miRNA activity contributes to metastatic progression and EMT; however, the mechanisms leading to altered miRNA expression during cancer progression remain poorly understood. Importantly, overexpression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR in ovarian cancer correlates with poor disease outcome and induces EMT in ovarian cancer cells. We report that EGFR signaling leads to transcriptional repression of the miRNA miR-125a through the ETS family transcription factor PEA3. Overexpression of miR-125a induces conversion of highly invasive ovarian cancer cells from a mesenchymal to an epithelial morphology, suggesting miR-125a is a negative regulator of EMT. We identify AT-rich interactive domain 3B (ARID3B as a target of miR-125a and demonstrate that ARID3B is overexpressed in human ovarian cancer. Repression of miR-125a through growth factor signaling represents a novel mechanism for regulating ovarian cancer invasive behavior.

  5. Screening for eri silkworm (Samia ricini Donovan ecoraces using morphological characters, growth, yields, and ISSR marker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duanpen Wongsorn

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The selection of eri silkworm ecoraces with high yield and distinct morphological characters is necessary for variety improvement. The five ecoraces SaKKU1, SaKKU2, SaKKU3, SaKKU4 and SaKKU5 were derived mostly by international academic cooperation. They were cultured using castor leaves of TCO 101 cultivar as food plant at 25±2°C, 80±5% R.H. Based on morphological characters, they are similar, except the body of the 5th instar larva of SaKKU1 is clearly covered with more creamy white powder and the mature larva has a shiny dominant yellow color. The duration of the life cycle among ecoraces was also similar; 46-53 days (SaKKU1, 42-53 days (SaKKU2, 42-52 days (SaKKU3, 40-56 days (SaKKU4 and 41-52 days (SaKKU5. SaKKU1 had the highest survival rate at larval stage (1st – 5th instar (100.00% and larva (1st – 5th instar - adult (88.89%, including the predominant heaviest average larva weight of all instars, 0.0317 g (2nd instar, 0.2206 g (3rd instar, 1.0788 g (4th instar, 4.0102 g (5th instar, and 8.9940 g (5 days of 5th instar, which was significantly different (P<0.05 to other ecoraces. Moreover, this ecorace gave the highest average yields: fresh cocoon weight (3.8016 g, pupa weight (3.2532 g, shell weight (0.5287 g, shell ratio (14.01%, fresh cocoon weight/10,000 larvae (38.01 kg, eggs/moth (531.13 eggs, total eggs (6,375.27 eggs and total hatching eggs (6,006.13 eggs, which was also significantly different (P<0.05 than other ecoraces. Of those properties, especially survival rates and yields, this ecorace (SaKKU1 is favored for further varietal improvement program. In parallel, genetic relationship analysis of eri silkworm ecoraces using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR technique was also carried out. The result revealed from dendrogram analysis that SaKKU1 was the farthest distance than other ecoraces, especially against SaKKU3. Based on all above results, the SaKKU1 ecorace was considered to be the most suitable for heat tolerant

  6. Study of the island morphology at the early stages of Fe/Mo(110) MBE growth

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Goykolov, D.; Kotrla, Miroslav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 2 (2009), s. 220-226 ISSN 1895-1082. [International Conference on Solid State Surfaces and Interfaces /6./. Smolenice Castle, 24.11.2008-27.11.2008] EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 16447 - MAGDOT Grant - others:NSF DMR(DE) 0502737 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : iron on molybdenum * sub-monolayer growth * island shape * solid-on-solid model * KMC simulation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.728, year: 2009

  7. Selective growth of ZnO thin film nanostructures: Structure, morphology and tunable optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnakanth, Katturi Naga; Sunandana, C. S. [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad-50046 (India); Rajesh, Desapogu, E-mail: rajesh.esapogu@gmail.com, E-mail: mperd@nus.edu.sg [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad-50046 (India); Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore)

    2016-05-23

    The ZnO nanostructures (spherical, rod shape) have been successfully fabricated via a thermal evaporation followed by dip coating method. The pure, doped ZnO thin films were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and UV-Vis spectroscopy, respectively. A possible growth mechanism of the spherical, rod shape ZnO nanostructures are discussed. XRD patterns revealed that all films consist of pure ZnO phase and were well crystallized with preferential orientation towards (002) direction. Doping by PVA, PVA+Cu has effective role in the enhancement of the crystalline quality and increases in the band gap.

  8. Non-classical kinetics processes and morphologies in QSE driven growth in Pb/Si(111

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuntová, Zdeňka; Hupalo, M.; Chvoj, Zdeněk; Tringides, M. C.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 600, - (2006), s. 4765-4770 ISSN 0039-6028 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1010207; GA MŠk ME 655 Grant - others:US department of Energy by Iowa State University(US) 7405-Eng-82; MCT(US) NSF-INT-0308505 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : quantum size effects * self - organized growth * magic thickness * interlayer diffusion nucleation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.880, year: 2006

  9. Surface Morphology and Growth of Anodic Titania Nanotubes Films: Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin Wei Lai

    2015-01-01

    become the most studied material as they exhibit promising functional properties. In the present study, anodic TiO2 films with different surface morphologies can be synthesized in an organic electrolyte of ethylene glycol (EG by controlling an optimum content of ammonium fluoride (NH4F using electrochemical anodization technique. Based on the results obtained, well-aligned and bundle-free TiO2 nanotube arrays with diameter of 100 nm and length of 8 µm were successfully synthesized in EG electrolyte containing ≈5 wt% of NH4F for 1 h at 60 V. However, formation of nanoporous structure and compact oxide layer would be favored if the content of NH4F was less than 5 wt%. In the photoelectrochemical (PEC water splitting studies, well-aligned TiO2 nanotubular structure exhibited higher photocurrent density of ≈1 mA/cm2 with photoconversion efficiency of ≈2% as compared to the nanoporous and compact oxide layer due to the higher active surface area for the photon absorption to generate more photo-induced electrons during photoexcitation stage.

  10. Neuronal Survival, Morphology and Outgrowth of Spiral Ganglion Neurons Using a Defined Growth Factor Combination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Schwieger

    Full Text Available The functionality of cochlear implants (CI depends, among others, on the number and excitability of surviving spiral ganglion neurons (SGN. The spatial separation between the SGN, located in the bony axis of the inner ear, and the CI, which is inserted in the scala tympani, results in suboptimal performance of CI patients and may be decreased by attracting the SGN neurites towards the electrode contacts. Neurotrophic factors (NTFs can support neuronal survival and neurite outgrowth.Since brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF is well known for its neuroprotective effect and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF increases neurite outgrowth, we evaluated if the combination of BDNF and CNTF leads to an enhanced neuronal survival with extended neurite outgrowth. Both NTFs were added in effective high concentrations (BDNF 50 ng/ml, CNTF 100 ng/ml, alone and in combination, to cultured dissociated SGN of neonatal rats for 48 hours.The neuronal survival and neurite outgrowth were significantly higher in SGN treated with the combination of the two NTFs compared to treatment with each factor alone. Additionally, with respect to the morphology, the combination of BDNF and CNTF leads to a significantly higher number of bipolar neurons and a decreased number of neurons without neurites in culture.The combination of BDNF and CNTF shows a great potential to increase the neuronal survival and the number of bipolar neurons in vitro and to regenerate retracted nerve fibers.

  11. MeCP2 Affects Skeletal Muscle Growth and Morphology through Non Cell-Autonomous Mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Conti

    Full Text Available Rett syndrome (RTT is an autism spectrum disorder mainly caused by mutations in the X-linked MECP2 gene and affecting roughly 1 out of 10.000 born girls. Symptoms range in severity and include stereotypical movement, lack of spoken language, seizures, ataxia and severe intellectual disability. Notably, muscle tone is generally abnormal in RTT girls and women and the Mecp2-null mouse model constitutively reflects this disease feature. We hypothesized that MeCP2 in muscle might physiologically contribute to its development and/or homeostasis, and conversely its defects in RTT might alter the tissue integrity or function. We show here that a disorganized architecture, with hypotrophic fibres and tissue fibrosis, characterizes skeletal muscles retrieved from Mecp2-null mice. Alterations of the IGF-1/Akt/mTOR pathway accompany the muscle phenotype. A conditional mouse model selectively depleted of Mecp2 in skeletal muscles is characterized by healthy muscles that are morphologically and molecularly indistinguishable from those of wild-type mice raising the possibility that hypotonia in RTT is mainly, if not exclusively, mediated by non-cell autonomous effects. Our results suggest that defects in paracrine/endocrine signaling and, in particular, in the GH/IGF axis appear as the major cause of the observed muscular defects. Remarkably, this is the first study describing the selective deletion of Mecp2 outside the brain. Similar future studies will permit to unambiguously define the direct impact of MeCP2 on tissue dysfunctions.

  12. Effects of growth hormone on morphology of cardiac muscle and skeletal muscle and hormone levels in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Ping; Liu Cong; Meng Fanbo; Zhu Jinming; Ni Jinsong; Zhou Hong; Tang Yubo

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of growth hormone (GH) on morphology of cardiac muscle and skeletal muscle and hormone levels in Wistar rats. Methods: The GH was given with subcutaneous injection for 15 days, the level of serum GH was determined by radiation-immune method; the body weight and the ratio of organ weight to body weight were determined; the cell appearances of cardiac muscle and skeletal muscle were observed under microscope. the control group was set up. Results; The level of serum GH and rat body weight in experimental group were obviously higher than that in the control group, but the ratio of organ weight to body weight was not obviously different in two groups; musculature hypertrophy and cell nucleolus increasing were observed under microscopy, there were no capillary vessel hyperplasia and inflammatory soakage. Conclusion: GH can induce hypertrophy of cardiac muscle cells and skeletal muscle cells but not interstitial proliferation. (authors)

  13. Controlling the size and morphology of Au@Pd core-shell nanocrystals by manipulating the kinetics of seeded growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Zheng, Yiqun; Zeng, Jie; Xia, Younan

    2012-06-25

    This article reports a systematic study of the seed-mediated growth of Au@Pd core-shell nanocrystals with a variety of controlled sizes and morphologies. The key to the success of this synthesis is to manipulate the reaction kinetics by tuning a set of reaction parameters, including the type and concentration of capping agent, the amount of ascorbic acid used as the reducing agent, and the injection rate used for the precursor solution. Starting from Au nanospheres of 11 nm in diameter as the seeds, Au@Pd core-shell nanocrystals with a number of morphologies, including octahedra, concave octahedra, rectangular bars, cubes, concave cubes, and dendrites, could all be obtained by simply altering the reaction rate. For the first time, it was possible to generate Au@Pd nanocrystals with concave structures on the surfaces while their sizes were kept below 20 nm. In addition, the as-prepared Au@Pd nanocubes can be used as seeds to generate Au@Pd@Au and Au@Pd@Au@Pd nanocrystals with multishelled structures. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Catalyst-free growth and tailoring morphology of zinc oxide nanostructures by plasma-enhanced deposition at low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, W. Z. [Quanzhou Normal University, Key Laboratory of Information Functional Material for Fujian Higher Education, College of Physics & Information Engineering (China); Wang, B. B. [Chongqing University of Technology, College of Chemical Engineering (China); Qu, Y. Z.; Huang, X. [Xiamen University, College of Energy, Xiang’an Campus (China); Ostrikov, K. [Queensland University of Technology, School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering (Australia); Levchenko, I.; Xu, S. [Nanyang Technological University, Plasma Sources and Applications Centre, National Institute of Education (Singapore); Cheng, Q. J., E-mail: qijin.cheng@xmu.edu.cn [Xiamen University, College of Energy, Xiang’an Campus (China)

    2017-03-15

    ZnO nanostructures were grown under different deposition conditions from Zn films pre-deposited onto Si substrates in O{sub 2}-Ar plasma, ignited in an advanced custom-designed plasma-enhanced horizontal tube furnace deposition system. The morphology and structure of the synthesized ZnO nanostructures were systematically and extensively investigated by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy. It is shown that the morphology of ZnO nanostructures changes from the hybrid ZnO/nanoparticle and nanorod system to the mixture of ZnO nanosheets and nanorods when the growth temperature increases, and the density of ZnO nanorods increases with the increase of oxygen flow rate. The formation of ZnO nanostructures was explained in terms of motion of Zn atoms on the Zn nanoparticle surfaces, and to the local melting of Zn nanoparticles or nanosheets. Moreover, the photoluminescence properties of ZnO nanostructures were studied, and it was revealed that the photoluminescence spectrum features two strong ultraviolet bands at about 378 and 399 nm and a series of weak blue bands within a range of 440–484 nm, related to the emissions of free excitons, near-band edge, and defects of ZnO nanostructures. The obtained results enrich our knowledge on the synthesis of ZnO-based nanostructures and contribute to the development of ZnO-based optoelectronic devices.

  15. Catalyst-free growth and tailoring morphology of zinc oxide nanostructures by plasma-enhanced deposition at low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, W. Z.; Wang, B. B.; Qu, Y. Z.; Huang, X.; Ostrikov, K.; Levchenko, I.; Xu, S.; Cheng, Q. J.

    2017-01-01

    ZnO nanostructures were grown under different deposition conditions from Zn films pre-deposited onto Si substrates in O 2 -Ar plasma, ignited in an advanced custom-designed plasma-enhanced horizontal tube furnace deposition system. The morphology and structure of the synthesized ZnO nanostructures were systematically and extensively investigated by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy. It is shown that the morphology of ZnO nanostructures changes from the hybrid ZnO/nanoparticle and nanorod system to the mixture of ZnO nanosheets and nanorods when the growth temperature increases, and the density of ZnO nanorods increases with the increase of oxygen flow rate. The formation of ZnO nanostructures was explained in terms of motion of Zn atoms on the Zn nanoparticle surfaces, and to the local melting of Zn nanoparticles or nanosheets. Moreover, the photoluminescence properties of ZnO nanostructures were studied, and it was revealed that the photoluminescence spectrum features two strong ultraviolet bands at about 378 and 399 nm and a series of weak blue bands within a range of 440–484 nm, related to the emissions of free excitons, near-band edge, and defects of ZnO nanostructures. The obtained results enrich our knowledge on the synthesis of ZnO-based nanostructures and contribute to the development of ZnO-based optoelectronic devices.

  16. Colonization of Greek olive cultivars' root system by arbuscular mycorrhiza fungus: root morphology, growth, and mineral nutrition of olive plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theocharis Chatzistathis

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Rooted leafy cuttings of three Greek olive (Olea europaea L. cultivars (Koroneiki, Kothreiki and Chondrolia Chalkidikis were grown for six months in three soil types, in an experimental greenhouse, in order to investigate: i if their root system was colonized by arbuscular mycorrhiza fungus (AMF genus and, ii if genotypic differences concerning growth and mineral nutrition of olive plants existed. Gigaspora sp. colonized the root system of the three cultivars studied, while Glomus sp. colonized only the root system of 'Koroneiki'. Furthermore, in most cases root colonization by AMF differed among cultivars and soil types. The maximum root colonization, in all soils, was found in 'Chondrolia Chalkidikis'. In the three soils studied, the ratio shoot dry weight (SDW/ root dry weight (RDW was higher in 'Chondrolia Chalkidikis' than in the other two cultivars. Furthermore, root system morphology of the three olive cultivars was completely different, irrespectively of soil type. Leaf Mn, Fe, Zn, Ca, Mg, K and P concentrations, as well as total per plant nutrient content and nutrient use efficiency, differed among cultivars under the same soil conditions. These differences concerning root morphology, SDW/RDW, as well as nutrient uptake and use efficiency, could be possibly ascribed to the differential AMF colonization by Glomus sp. and Gigaspora sp.

  17. Effect of some plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and nitrogen fertilizer on morphological characteristics of german chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dastborhan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available .In order to investigate the effects of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and nitrogen fertilizer on morphological traits of german chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L., a field experiment was carried out as factorial based on randomized complete block design with three replications in Research Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Iran, during 2007-2008. Factors were inoculation with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (B0: no-inoculation, B1: inoculation with Azotobacter chroocuccum, B2: inoculation with Azospirillum lipoferum and B3: inoculation with a mixture of two bacteria and nitrogen fertilizer (N0:0, N1:50, N2:100 and N3:150 kgN.ha-1. Results showed that inoculation with bacteria significantly improved plant height, stem diameter, number of lateral branches, number of flowers per plant, dry weight of flowers, stems, leaves and total dry weight per plant. These traits were significantly similar for inoculation with Azotobacter, inoculation with Azospirillum and inoculation with a mixture of two bacteria. Effect of nitrogen fertilizer on all traits (except number of lateral branches was positive, but there were no significant differences among 50, 100 and 150 kg.ha-1 nitrogen. The highest and the lowest number and weight of flowers per plant were recorded for inoculation + 50 kg.ha-1 nitrogen application and no-inoculation + no-fertilizer, respectively. In general, application of biofertilizers had positive and significant effects on morphological traits of german chamomile. In addition, with adding 50 kg N.ha-1 the performance of bacteria increased and the highest flower yield were produced.

  18. Plasticity in relative growth rate after a reduction in nitrogen availability is related to root morphological and physiological responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Useche, Antonio; Shipley, Bill

    2010-10-01

    To maximize growth and fitness a plant must adjust its phenotype by an amount and speed that matches changes in nitrogen availability. To determine how plastic ontogenetic changes in root physiological and morphological traits interact and whether or not these responses are likely to maximize growth, ontogenetic changes in relative growth rate (RGR, proportional rate of change of plant dry mass), unit root rate (URR, rate of change of plant dry mass per unit root length or area), specific root length (SRL, root length per dry root mass), specific root area (SRA, root area per dry root mass), and other root traits before and after a decrease in nitrogen supply, were studied in ten herbaceous species. Plants of each species were grown in hydroponic culture under controlled conditions in a control treatment where the supply of nitrogen remained constant at 1 mm, and in a stress treatment where the nitrogen supply was abruptly reduced from 1 to 0·01 mm during the growth period. In the treatment series the number of bifurcations per root area and per root length, specific root area (SRA) and length (SRL), areal (URR(area)) and length-based (URR(mass)) unit root rate and RGR decreased, and root tissue density increased relative to the control. Species having greater plasticity in the percentage decrease in SRA at the end of the experiment also had smaller reductions in RGR; plasticity in SRA is therefore adaptive. In contrast, species which showed a greater reduction in URR(area) and in the number of bifurcations per root area and per root length, showed stronger reductions in RGR; plasticity in URR(area) and in the number of bifurcations per root area and per root length is therefore not adaptive. The plastic responses observed in SRA, SRL and in root tissue density constitute a set of plastic adjustments that would lead to resource conservation in response nutrient stress.

  19. Time development of a perturbed-spherical nucleus in a pure supercooled liquid. I - Power-law growth of morphological instabilities. II - Nonlinear development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pines, V.; Zlatkowski, M.; Chait, A.

    1990-01-01

    The linear growth stage of the morphological instabilities developing at the liquid-solid interface during crystal growth from an axisymmetric spherical nucleus is analyzed. The corresponding growth rate parameters are calculated numerically, and it is shown that morphological instabilities for free growth evolve according to a power law in agreement with WKB results and contrary to an exponential law found in a quasi-stationary approximation. The time evolution of an arbitrary perturbed liquid-solid interface from a linear into the nonlinear stage is studied. The initial perturbations include the eigenfunctions for the linear problem, localized perturbations of the grain-boundary type, and a stochastic noise. It is shown that the perturbations grow and spread in a wavelike manner. The formation of a predendritic growth stage is characterized by establishment of constant values of tip radius and velocity.

  20. Growth kinetics and morphology of plasma electrolytic oxidation coating on aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erfanifar, Eliyas; Aliofkhazraei, Mahmood; Fakhr Nabavi, Houman; Sharifi, Hossein; Rouhaghdam, Alireza Sabour

    2017-01-01

    Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) was carried out on AA1190 aluminum alloy in mixed silicate-phosphate-based electrolyte in order to fabricate ceramic coating under constant current density. The variations of PEO coating duration with kinetics, surface roughness, amount and size of discharge channels were studied with respect to PEO processing time. The growth mechanism of the ceramic coating was described considering a variation of volume and diameters of discharge channels and pancakes during the PEO. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM), and roughness tester were used to study the plasma discharge channels of the PEO coatings. In addition, the effect of alumina nanoparticles in the electrolyte as the suspension was studied on the geometric parameters of discharge channels. It seems that the nanoparticles are adsorbed to the locations of erupted molten oxide, where the dielectric breakdown occurs. Nanoparticles were embedded in the dense oxide layer and were adsorbed at the walls of voids and coatings surface. As a result, they caused significant changes in roughness parameters of the samples containing nanoparticles compared to those without nanoparticles. The obtained results showed that growth kinetics followed a linear trend with respect to PEO coating duration. It was also observed that in the absence of alumina nanoparticles, the average volume of the pancakes is 150% greater than the ones fabricated in the suspension of nanoparticles. Besides, increasing the PEO coating duration leads to adsorbing more nanoparticles on the coating surface, filling the voids, and flattening the surface, and alterations in R v , R sk , and R lo parameters. Correlation between the diameter of discharge channel (d c ) and thickness of the pancake (h) also showed a linear relation. - Highlights: • Precise calculation of thickness of pancake with AFM. • Study of different roughness parameters for PEO coating. • Calculation the amount of

  1. Growth kinetics and morphology of plasma electrolytic oxidation coating on aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erfanifar, Eliyas; Aliofkhazraei, Mahmood, E-mail: maliofkh@gmail.com; Fakhr Nabavi, Houman; Sharifi, Hossein; Rouhaghdam, Alireza Sabour

    2017-01-01

    Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) was carried out on AA1190 aluminum alloy in mixed silicate-phosphate-based electrolyte in order to fabricate ceramic coating under constant current density. The variations of PEO coating duration with kinetics, surface roughness, amount and size of discharge channels were studied with respect to PEO processing time. The growth mechanism of the ceramic coating was described considering a variation of volume and diameters of discharge channels and pancakes during the PEO. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM), and roughness tester were used to study the plasma discharge channels of the PEO coatings. In addition, the effect of alumina nanoparticles in the electrolyte as the suspension was studied on the geometric parameters of discharge channels. It seems that the nanoparticles are adsorbed to the locations of erupted molten oxide, where the dielectric breakdown occurs. Nanoparticles were embedded in the dense oxide layer and were adsorbed at the walls of voids and coatings surface. As a result, they caused significant changes in roughness parameters of the samples containing nanoparticles compared to those without nanoparticles. The obtained results showed that growth kinetics followed a linear trend with respect to PEO coating duration. It was also observed that in the absence of alumina nanoparticles, the average volume of the pancakes is 150% greater than the ones fabricated in the suspension of nanoparticles. Besides, increasing the PEO coating duration leads to adsorbing more nanoparticles on the coating surface, filling the voids, and flattening the surface, and alterations in R{sub v}, R{sub sk}, and R{sub lo} parameters. Correlation between the diameter of discharge channel (d{sub c}) and thickness of the pancake (h) also showed a linear relation. - Highlights: • Precise calculation of thickness of pancake with AFM. • Study of different roughness parameters for PEO coating. • Calculation

  2. Impact of trace metal concentrations on coccolithophore growth and morphology: species-specific responses in past and present ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucher, Giulia; Hoffmann, Linn; Bach, Lennart Thomas; Bottini, Cinzia; Erba, Elisabetta; Riebesell, Ulf

    2017-04-01

    The Cretaceous witnessed intervals of profound perturbation named "Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAEs)" characterized by volcanic injection of large amounts of CO2, ocean anoxia, eutrophication, and introduction of biologically relevant metals. Some of these extreme events were characterized by size reduction and/or morphological changes of a number of nannofossil species. To detect the cause/s of such changes in the fossil record is challenging. Evidence of a correspondence between intervals of high trace metals concentrations and nannofossil dwarfism may be suggestive for a negative effect of these elements on nannoplankton biocalcification process. In order to verify the hypothesis that anomalously high quantities of essential and/or toxic metals were the cause of coccolith dwarfism, we explored the toxicities of a mixture of trace metals on four living coccolithophores species, namely Emiliania huxleyi, Gephyrocapsa oceanica, Pleurochrysis carterae and Coccolithus pelagicus. The trace metals tested were chosen based upon concentration peaks identified in the geological record and upon known trace metal interaction with living coccolithophores algae. Our results demonstrate a species-specific response to trace metal enrichment in living coccolithophores: E. huxleyi, G. oceanica and C. pelagicus showed a decrease in their growth rate with progressively and exponentially increased trace metal concentrations, while P. carterae is unresponsive to trace metal content. Furthermore, E. huxleyi, G. oceanica and C. pelagicus evidenced a decrease in the cell diameter. Smaller coccoliths were detected in E. huxleyi and C. pelagicus, while coccolith of G. oceanica showed a decrease in size only at the highest trace metal concentrations tested. P. carterae size was unresponsive for changing trace metal concentration. Our results on living coccolithophore algae, demonstrate that elevated trace metal concentrations not only affect growth but also coccolith size and/or weight and that

  3. Effects of medium-chain triglycerides on intestinal morphology and energy metabolism of intrauterine growth retarded weanling piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Li; Zhang, Hao; Li, Yue; Wang, Tian

    2017-06-01

    It has been shown that there is a relationship between intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and postnatal intestinal damage involved in energy deficits. Therefore, the present study was conducted to investigate the effect of medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) on the intestinal morphology, intestinal function and energy metabolism of piglets with IUGR. At weaning (21 ± 1.1 d of age), 24 IUGR piglets and 24 normal birth weight (NBW) piglets were selected according to their birth weights (BW) (IUGR: 0.95 ± 0.04 kg BW; NBW: 1.58 ± 0.04 kg BW) and their weights at the time of weaning (IUGR: 5.26 ± 0.15 kg BW; NBW: 6.98 ± 0.19 kg BW). The piglets were fed a diet of either long-chain triglycerides (LCT) (containing 5% LCT) or MCT (containing 1% LCT and 4% MCT) for 28 d. Then, the piglets' intestinal morphology, biochemical parameters and mRNA abundance related to intestinal damage and energy metabolism were determined. IUGR was found to impair intestinal morphology, with evidence of decreased villus height and increased crypt depth; however, these negative effects of IUGR were ameliorated by MCT treatment. IUGR piglets showed compromised intestinal digestion and absorption functions when compared with NBW piglets. However, feeding MCT increased the maltase activity in the jejunum and alleviated IUGR-induced reductions in plasma d-xylose concentrations and jejunal sucrase activity. IUGR decreased the efficiency of the piglets' intestinal energy metabolism; however, piglets fed an MCT diet exhibited increased adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentrations and ATP synthase F1 complex beta polypeptide expression, as well as decreased adenosine monophosphate-activated kinase alpha 1 expression in the jejunum of piglets. In addition, up-regulation of the piglets' citrate synthase and succinate dehydrogenase levels was found to occur following MCT treatment at both the activity and the transcriptional levels of the jejunum. Therefore, it can be postulated that

  4. Root-type-specific plasticity in response to localized high nitrate supply in maize (Zea mays).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Peng; Hochholdinger, Frank; Li, Chunjian

    2015-10-01

    Shoot-borne roots contribute to most of the nutrient uptake throughout the life cycle of maize (Zea mays). Compared with numerous studies with embryonic roots, detailed information on the phenotypic plasticity of shoot-borne roots in response to a heterogeneous nitrogen supply is scarce. The present study therefore provides a comprehensive profile of fine-scale plastic responses of distinct root types to localized high nitrate supply. Seedlings of the maize inbred line B73 were grown in split-root systems. The anatomy and morphological plasticity of the primary root and the roots initiated from the 2nd, 5th and 7th shoot nodes, and their lateral roots, were studied in response to local high nitrate supply to one side of the root system. In contrast to the insensitivity of axial roots, local high nitrate supply increased the length of 1st-order lateral roots on the primary root and the three whorls of shoot-borne roots at different growth stages, and increased the density of 1st-order lateral roots on the 7th shoot-borne root after silking. The length and density of 2nd-order lateral roots on the three whorls of shoot-borne roots displayed a more flexible response to local high nitrate than 1st-order lateral roots. Root diameter and number, and total area and diameter of metaxylem vessels increased from the primary root to early and then later developed shoot-borne roots, which showed a positive relationship with shoot growth and N accumulation. Maize axial roots and lateral roots responded differently to local high nitrate, and this was related to their function. The extent of morphological plasticity of lateral roots in response to local high nitrate depended on the initiation time of the shoot-borne roots on which the lateral roots developed. Morphological plasticity was higher on 2nd-order than on 1st-order lateral roots. The results suggest that higher order lateral root branching might be a potential target for genetic improvement in future maize breeding.

  5. Nitrate leaching index

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Nitrate Leaching Index is a rapid assessment tool that evaluates nitrate (NO3) leaching potential based on basic soil and climate information. It is the basis for many nutrient management planning efforts, but it has considerable limitations because of : 1) an oversimplification of the processes...

  6. Agricultural nitrate pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anker, Helle Tegner

    2015-01-01

    Despite the passing of almost 25 years since the adoption of the EU Nitrates Directive, agricultural nitrate pollution remains a major concern in most EU Member States. This is also the case in Denmark, although a fairly strict regulatory regime has resulted in almost a 50 per cent reduction...

  7. Presymbiotic growth and sporal morphology are affected in the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Gigaspora margarita cured of its endobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumini, Erica; Bianciotto, Valeria; Jargeat, Patricia; Novero, Mara; Salvioli, Alessandra; Faccio, Antonella; Bécard, Guillaume; Bonfante, Paola

    2007-07-01

    Some arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi contain endocellular bacteria. In Gigaspora margarita BEG 34, a homogenous population of beta-Proteobacteria is hosted inside the fungal spore. The bacteria, named Candidatus Glomeribacter gigasporarum, are vertically transmitted through fungal spore generations. Here we report how a protocol based on repeated passages through single-spore inocula caused dilution of the initial bacterial population eventually leading to cured spores. Spores of this line had a distinct phenotype regarding cytoplasm organization, vacuole morphology, cell wall organization, lipid bodies and pigment granules. The absence of bacteria severely affected presymbiotic fungal growth such as hyphal elongation and branching after root exudate treatment, suggesting that Ca. Glomeribacter gigasporarum is important for optimal development of its fungal host. Under laboratory conditions, the cured fungus could be propagated, i.e. could form mycorrhizae and sporulate, and can therefore be considered as a stable variant of the wild type. The results demonstrated that - at least for the G. margarita BEG 34 isolate - the absence of endobacteria affects the spore phenotype of the fungal host, and causes delays in the growth of germinating mycelium, possibly affecting its ecological fitness. This cured line is the first manipulated and stable isolate of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus.

  8. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Is Associated with the Morphologic and Functional Parameters in Patients with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Pudil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM is mostly autosomal dominant disease of the myocardium, which is characterized by myocardial hypertrophy. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF is involved in myocyte function, growth, and survival. The aim of study was to analyze the clinical significance of VEGF in structural and functional changes in patient with HCM. Methods. In a group of 21 patients with nonobstructive HCM, we assessed serum VEGF and analyzed its association with morphological and functional parameters. Compared to healthy controls, serum VEGF was increased: 199 (IQR: 120.4–260.8 ng/L versus 20 (IQR: 14.8–37.7 ng/L, P<0.001. VEGF levels were associated with left atrium diameter (r=0.51, P=0.01, left ventricle ejection fraction (r=-0.56, P=0.01, fractional shortening (r=-0.54, P=0.02, left ventricular mass (r=0.61, P=0.03, LV mass index (r=0.46, P=0.04, vena cava inferior diameter (r=0.65, P=0.01, and peak gradient of tricuspid regurgitation (r=0.46, P=0.03. Conclusions. Increased VEGF level is associated with structural and functional parameters in patients with HCM and serves as a potential tool for diagnostic process of these patients.

  9. Green revolution trees: semidwarfism transgenes modify gibberellins, promote root growth, enhance morphological diversity, and reduce competitiveness in hybrid poplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Ani A; Busov, Victor B; Kosola, Kevin R; Ma, Cathleen; Etherington, Elizabeth; Shevchenko, Olga; Gandhi, Harish; Pearce, David W; Rood, Stewart B; Strauss, Steven H

    2012-10-01

    Semidwarfism has been used extensively in row crops and horticulture to promote yield, reduce lodging, and improve harvest index, and it might have similar benefits for trees for short-rotation forestry or energy plantations, reclamation, phytoremediation, or other applications. We studied the effects of the dominant semidwarfism transgenes GA Insensitive (GAI) and Repressor of GAI-Like, which affect gibberellin (GA) action, and the GA catabolic gene, GA 2-oxidase, in nursery beds and in 2-year-old high-density stands of hybrid poplar (Populus tremula × Populus alba). Twenty-nine traits were analyzed, including measures of growth, morphology, and physiology. Endogenous GA levels were modified in most transgenic events; GA(20) and GA(8), in particular, had strong inverse associations with tree height. Nearly all measured traits varied significantly among genotypes, and several traits interacted with planting density, including aboveground biomass, root-shoot ratio, root fraction, branch angle, and crown depth. Semidwarfism promoted biomass allocation to roots over shoots and substantially increased rooting efficiency with most genes tested. The increased root proportion and increased leaf chlorophyll levels were associated with changes in leaf carbon isotope discrimination, indicating altered water use efficiency. Semidwarf trees had dramatically reduced growth when in direct competition with wild-type trees, supporting the hypothesis that semidwarfism genes could be effective tools to mitigate the spread of exotic, hybrid, and transgenic plants in wild and feral populations.

  10. Effects of β-conglycinin on growth performance, immunoglobulins and intestinal mucosal morphology in piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xichun; Geng, Fangfang; Wu, Jinjie; Kou, Yanan; Xu, Shuliang; Sun, Zhikuo; Feng, Shibin; Ma, Liangyou; Luo, Ying

    2014-01-01

    One of the main causes of allergic reactions in young animals is β-conglycinin, an antigenic glycoprotein found in soya beans. Therefore, the objective of the study was to investigate the effects of a prior immunisation with β-conglycinin on growth performance, serum immunoglobulin levels and intestinal histology in piglets. Forty piglets (7 d of age) were randomly divided into four groups of ten piglets each. Piglets of Groups Im and Im+S were immunised twice by hypodermic injection with β-conglycinin at 500 μg/kg body weight (BW) at day 7 and 21 of age. At day 23, Groups Im+S and S were intramuscularly injected with 5000 μg β-conglycinin per kg BW. The piglets of Group C received a physiological saline solution by hypodermic injection. All piglets were weaned at the age of 23 d and blood samples were taken on days 7, 21 and 35. At the end of the trial, five piglets per group were slaughtered and the intestine was collected for evaluating mucosal histology. Compared to Group C, in Group S the average daily gain (ADG), feed intake and gain:feed ratio were decreased (p < 0.01), and serum levels of IgG and IgE were increased (p < 0.01). Furthermore, in this group the structure of duodenal and jejunal mucosa was severely damaged. But in Groups Im and Im+S the ADG was increased (p < 0.05), serum IgE levels were decreased (p < 0.01) and the intestinal mucosa was not damaged. The results suggest that prior immunisation with β-conglycinin can increase ADG and serum IgG levels and decrease serum IgE levels. Therefore, this method is also potentially able to protect the structural integrity of the intestinal mucosal epithelia and alleviate allergic reactions in piglets.

  11. Effects of Antiseptic Solutions Commonly Used in Dentistry on Bone Viability, Bone Morphology, and Release of Growth Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Kosaku; Fujioka-Kobayashi, Masako; Kobayashi, Eizaburo; Schaller, Benoit; Miron, Richard J

    2016-02-01

    Antiseptic solutions are commonly used in dentistry for a number of sterilization procedures, including harvesting of bone chips, irrigation of extraction sockets, and sterilization of osteonecrotic bone. Despite its widespread use, little information is available regarding the effects of various antiseptic solutions on bone cell viability, morphology, and the release of growth factors. The antiseptic solutions included 1) 0.5% povidone iodine (PI), 2) 0.2% chlorhexidine diguluconate (CHX), 3) 1% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and 4) 0.25% sodium hypochlorite (HYP). Bone samples collected from porcine mandibular cortical bone were rinsed in the antiseptic solutions for 10 minutes and assessed for cell viability using an MTS assay and protein release of transforming growth factor (TGF-β1), bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin (IL)-1β, and receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay at 15 minutes and 4 hours after rinsing. After antiseptic rinsing, changes to the surface protein content showed marked alterations, with an abundant protein layer remaining on CHX-rinsed bone samples. The amount of surface protein content gradually decreased in the following order: CHX, H2O2, PI, and HYP. A similar trend was also observed for the relative cell viability from within bone samples after rinsing, with up to 6 times more viable cells found in the CHX-rinsed bone samples than in the HYP- and PI-rinsed samples. An analysis of the growth factors found that both HYP and PI had significantly lower VEGF and TGF-β1 protein release from bone samples at 15 minutes and 4 hours after rinsing compared with CHX and H2O2. A similar trend was observed for RANKL and IL-1β protein release, although no change was observed for BMP2. The results from the present study have demonstrated that antiseptic solutions present with very different effects on bone samples after 10 minutes of

  12. Effect of annealing on the growth dynamics of ZnPc LB thin film and its surface morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Dhrubojyoti, E-mail: dhrubojyoti27@gmail.com; Das, Nayan Mani; Gupta, P. S. [Nanoscience and Thin Film Laboratory, Department of Applied Physics, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad 826004, India. (India)

    2014-07-15

    The ZnPc molecules in the thin film prepared by Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) process in asdeposited state has been found to have an edge on orientation with average tilt angle of 64.3 ° as confirmed from the Pressure-Area (π-A) isotherm and X-ray diffraction (XRD) study. The ZnPc LB thin film has been observed to have abnormal growth mode at higher annealing temperature and it is mainly driven by minimization of surface free energy which lead to large increase in crystallinity of the film. Kinetically favored orientational and structural transitions of ZnPc thin film during annealing and their effect on the surface morphology of the thin film has been studied using scaling concepts. The scaling exponents 1) root mean square (RMS) roughness σ, 2) roughness exponent α and, 3) in plane correlation length ξ are calculated from the HDCF g(r) and ACF C(r). The RMS surface roughness σ is found to be dependent on the as defined short wavelength undulations (ρ) and long wavelength undulations (χ). Both ρ and χ are the function of all the three scaling exponents. σ has been observed to be maximum for the ZnPc thin film annealed at 290 °C, since the χ shoot to maximum value at this temperature due to the formation of small domains of ZnPc nanorods. The self affinity of the ZnPc thin film is found to decrease on annealing as obtained from both power spectral density (PSD) and HDCF g(R) and ACF C(R) study, which confirms that the dimension of surface morphology of the ZnPc LB thin film transform towards 2D with increase in annealing temperature.

  13. Effect of annealing on the growth dynamics of ZnPc LB thin film and its surface morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhrubojyoti Roy

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The ZnPc molecules in the thin film prepared by Langmuir-Blodgett (LB process in asdeposited state has been found to have an edge on orientation with average tilt angle of 64.3 ° as confirmed from the Pressure-Area (π-A isotherm and X-ray diffraction (XRD study. The ZnPc LB thin film has been observed to have abnormal growth mode at higher annealing temperature and it is mainly driven by minimization of surface free energy which lead to large increase in crystallinity of the film. Kinetically favored orientational and structural transitions of ZnPc thin film during annealing and their effect on the surface morphology of the thin film has been studied using scaling concepts. The scaling exponents 1 root mean square (RMS roughness σ, 2 roughness exponent α and, 3 in plane correlation length ξ are calculated from the HDCF g(r and ACF C(r. The RMS surface roughness σ is found to be dependent on the as defined short wavelength undulations (ρ and long wavelength undulations (χ. Both ρ and χ are the function of all the three scaling exponents. σ has been observed to be maximum for the ZnPc thin film annealed at 290 °C, since the χ shoot to maximum value at this temperature due to the formation of small domains of ZnPc nanorods. The self affinity of the ZnPc thin film is found to decrease on annealing as obtained from both power spectral density (PSD and HDCF g(R & ACF C(R study, which confirms that the dimension of surface morphology of the ZnPc LB thin film transform towards 2D with increase in annealing temperature.

  14. Morphological stability of 4H-SiC crystals in solution growth on {0001} and {1 1 ̅0m } surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitani, Takeshi; Komatsu, Naoyoshi; Hayashi, Yuichiro; Kato, Tomohisa; Okumura, Hajime

    2017-06-01

    For solution growth of 4H-SiC, the surface morphology of the crystals grown on {0001 } and {1 1 ̅0m } (m=0‒4, 10 and 20) surfaces was systematically investigated. For short-term growth for 30 min on {0001 } and {1 1 ̅0m } (m=0 and 2) seeds, the height of the macrosteps was less than 400 nm, and terraces having the same crystallographic orientation as the seeds were formed. In contrast, the growth surfaces on {1 1 ̅0m } (m=4, 10 and 20) seeds became rough owing to the surface reconstruction with the {1 1 ̅02 } and {0001} planes, suggesting the morphological stability of the {1 1 ̅0m } (m=0 and 2) planes. Long-term morphological stability was examined by bulk growth experiments for 24 h. A smooth growth surface was obtained on both (1 ̅10 1 ̅) and (1 ̅10 2 ̅) seeds. Surface roughening owing to the macrostep faceting was observed for the long-term growth on (000 1 ̅) and (1 1 ̅00) seeds, whereas smooth step-terrace surfaces were obtained for the short-term growth on these planes. We also found that surface roughening tended to increase in the step-flow directions in which the angle formed by the original growth surface and a faceted slope of large macrosteps is large. Among the (1 ̅10 m ̅) (m=1 and 2) planes, growth on a (1 ̅10 1 ̅) plane exhibited the smoothest surface even after long-term growth with several millimeters in thickness.

  15. Effect of ammonium and nitrate on ferric chelate reductase and nitrate reductase in Vaccinium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poonnachit, U; Darnell, R

    2004-04-01

    Most Vaccinium species have strict soil requirements for optimal growth, requiring low pH, high iron availability and nitrogen primarily in the ammonium form. These soils are limited and are often located near wetlands. Vaccinium arboreum is a wild species adapted to a wide range of soils, including high pH, low iron, and nitrate-containing soils. This broader soil adaptation in V. arboreum may be related to increased efficiency of iron or nitrate uptake compared with the cultivated Vaccinium species. Nitrate, ammonium and iron uptake, and nitrate reductase (NR) and ferric chelate reductase (FCR) activities were compared in two Vaccinium species grown hydroponically in either nitrate or ammonia, with or without iron. The species studied were the wild V. arboreum and the cultivated V. corymbosum interspecific hybrid, which exhibits the strict soil requirements of most Vaccinium species. Ammonium uptake was significantly greater than nitrate uptake in both species, while nitrate uptake was greater in the wild species, V. arboreum, compared with the cultivated species, V. corymbosum. The increased nitrate uptake in V. arboreum was correlated with increased root NR activity compared with V. corymbosum. The lower nitrate uptake in V. corymbosum was reflected in decreased plant dry weight in this species compared with V. arboreum. Root FCR activity increased significantly in V. corymbosum grown under iron-deficient conditions, compared with the same species grown under iron-sufficient conditions or with V. arboreum grown under either iron condition. V. arboreum appears to be more efficient in acquiring nitrate compared with V. corymbosum, possibly due to increased NR activity and this may partially explain the wider soil adaptation of V. arboreum.

  16. Effects of as fucoidan-rich algae on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, intestinal morphology and caecal microflora in weanling pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohan Choi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective In the present study, role of increasing levels of Ecklonia cava (seaweed supplementation in diets was investigated on growth performance, coefficient of total tract apparent digestibility (CTTAD of nutrients, serum immunoglobulins, cecal microflora and intestinal morphology of weanling pigs. Methods A total of 200 weaned pigs (Landrace×Yorkshire×Duroc; initial body weight 7.08±0.15 kg were randomly allotted to 4 treatments on the basis of body weight. There were 5 replicate pens in each treatment including 10 pigs of each. Treatments were divided by dietary Ecklonia cava supplementation levels (0%, 0.05%, 0.1%, or 0.15% in growing-finishing diets. There were 2 diet formulation phases throughout the experiment. The pigs were offered the diets ad libitum for the entire period of experiment in meal form. Results The pigs fed with increasing dietary concentrations of Ecklonia cava had linear increase (p<0.05 in the overall average daily gain, however, there were no significant differences in gain to feed ratio, CTTAD of dry matter and crude protein at both phase I and phase II. Digestibility of gross energy was linearly improved (p<0.05 in phase II. At day 28, pigs fed Ecklonia cava had greater (linear, p<0.05 Lactobacillus spp., fewer Escherichia coli (E. coli spp. (linear, p<0.05 and a tendency to have fewer cecal Clostridium spp. (p = 0.077. The total anaerobic bacteria were not affected with supplementation of Ecklonia cava in diets. Polynomial contrasts analysis revealed that villus height of the ileum exhibited a linear increase (p<0.05 in response with the increase in the level of dietary Ecklonia cava. However, villus height of duodenum and jejunum, crypt depth, villus height to crypt depth ratio of different segments of the intestine were not affected. Conclusion The results suggest that Ecklonia cava had beneficial effects on the growth performance, cecal microflora, and intestinal morphology of weanling pigs.

  17. Role of organoclay in controlling the morphology and crystal-growth behavior of biodegradable polymer-blend thin films studied using atomic force microscopy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Malwela, T

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the effect of organically modified nanoclay on the morphology and crystal growth behavior of biodegradable polylactide/poly[(butylene succinate)-co-adipate] (PLA/PBSA) blend thin films with the average thickness of 280 nm...

  18. Development of Morphological Awareness and Vocabulary Knowledge in Spanish-Speaking Language Minority Learners: A Parallel Process Latent Growth Curve Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, Michael J.; Lesaux, Nonie K.

    2012-01-01

    Despite acknowledgement of the limited English vocabularies demonstrated by many language minority (LM) learners, few studies have identified skills that relate to variation in vocabulary growth in this population. This study investigated the concurrent development of morphological awareness (i.e., students' understanding of complex words as…

  19. Morphological peculiarities, age structure and growth rate of rudd (Scardinius erythrophthalmus L., 1758 of the Dnieper-Bug estuary system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Heina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To analyze basic biological characteristics of the commercial stock of rudd. Scardinius erythrophthalmus (Linnaeus, 1758 of the Dnieper-Bug estuary system in the conditions of the regulated flow of the Dnieper River. Methodology. Morphological peculiarities were determined based on the analysis of meristic and plastic features. When assessing the biological state of the commercial stock rudd, the main attention was given to the age, sex structure, fecundity, characteristics of length-weight growth and condition factor. The ichthyological material was collected during the work of monitoring stations of the Institute of Fisheries NAAS of Ukraine, the operation of which was regulated by protocol decisions of the Scientific and Commercial Council of the State Agency of Fisheries. Field and laboratory processing of collected data was carried out using conventional ichthyological methods and guidelines. Findings. The analysis of meristic features of rudd of the Dnieper-Bug estuary system showed that fin formulas were as follow: D – III 7-9 (10 (М=8.19±0.14; A - III 10-12 (М=10.81±0.17; P - I (12 13-15 (16 (М=14.26±0.18; V - II 7-8 (М=7.78±0.08. The lateral line had from 38 to 47 scales (М=42.63±0.65. 7-8 (М=7.67±0.09 transverse rows of scales were located above lateral line, while 5-6 (М=5.6±0.9 under it. A peculiarity of the current biological state of rudd stock is stable age structure with the domination of young age groups. An increase in the ratio of the maximum age groups against the background of an insignificant trend for the decrease of the ratio of age-5 fish indicates on an increased pressure (both commercial and recreational on rudd recruitment. A confirmation of it is an increase of the mean weighed age of the commercial stock from 4.16-4.17 to 4.26-4.31 years. The sex structure is typical for cyprinids. A trend of the domination of males in younger age groups and females in older age groups is observed. In total

  20. Morphological plasticity of root growth under mild water stress increases water use efficiency without reducing yield in maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qian; Zhang, Yulong; Sun, Zhanxiang; Zheng, Jiaming; Bai, Wei; Zhang, Yue; Liu, Yang; Feng, Liangshan; Feng, Chen; Zhang, Zhe; Yang, Ning; Evers, Jochem B.; Zhang, Lizhen

    2017-08-01

    A large yield gap exists in rain-fed maize (Zea mays L.) production in semi-arid regions, mainly caused by frequent droughts halfway through the crop-growing period due to uneven distribution of rainfall. It is questionable whether irrigation systems are economically required in such a region since the total amount of rainfall does generally meet crop requirements. This study aimed to quantitatively determine the effects of water stress from jointing to grain filling on root and shoot growth and the consequences for maize grain yield, above- and below-ground dry matter, water uptake (WU) and water use efficiency (WUE). Pot experiments were conducted in 2014 and 2015 with a mobile rain shelter to achieve conditions of no, mild or severe water stress. Maize yield was not affected by mild water stress over 2 years, while severe stress reduced yield by 56 %. Both water stress levels decreased root biomass slightly but shoot biomass substantially. Mild water stress decreased root length but increased root diameter, resulting in no effect on root surface area. Due to the morphological plasticity in root growth and the increase in root / shoot ratio, WU under water stress was decreased, and overall WUE for both above-ground dry matter and grain yield increased. Our results demonstrate that an irrigation system might be not economically and ecologically necessary because the frequently occurring mild water stress did not reduce crop yield much. The study helps us to understand crop responses to water stress during a critical water-sensitive period (middle of the crop-growing season) and to mitigate drought risk in dry-land agriculture.

  1. Comparative growth performance in different Japanese quail lines: the effect of muscle DNA content and fiber morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Y M; Sarah, D; Shin, S; Wick, M P; Kim, B C; Lee, K

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the DNA content and morphological characteristics of muscle fibers, and their relation to the growth performance in random bred control (RBC) and heavy weight (HW) Japanese quail lines. The 2 lines were of similar embryo size at 6 and 8 d of incubation; however, HW quail were significantly larger than their counterparts after 10 d of incubation (P quail line was approximately 1.3-fold higher than the RBC quail line (P quail lines. The RBC line showed a faster rate of increase in PMW (2.7- vs. 2.1-fold) and total DNA mass (2.2- vs. 1.6-fold) between 0 and 4 d posthatch. The HW line exhibited a greater rate of the PMW (33.0- vs. 12.9-fold) and total DNA mass (10.3- vs. 4.0-fold) between 4 and 15 d posthatch than the RBC line. Moreover, the greatest increase in total DNA mass occurred between 0 and 8 d posthatch for the RBC line and 4 to 15 d posthatch for the HW line. These differences in the DNA content indicate a difference in the hypertrophic potential of muscle fibers between the 2 quail lines. The cross-sectional area of muscle fibers was 1.3-fold greater in the HW line compared with the RBC line at 8 d posthatch (158.5 vs. 97.11 μm(2), P quail lines are between 0 to 8 d and 4 to 15 d posthatch, respectively. Rapid muscle growth rate and a greater muscle mass in the HW quail line may be partially due to the hypertrophic potential of muscle fibers, which is characterized by larger fiber size.

  2. VT Nitrate Leaching Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) Nitrate Leaching Index data for the state of Vermont. This is a derivative product based on the SSURGO soils data for all counties except Essex...

  3. Constitutive Activation of Transforming Growth Factor Beta Receptor 1 in the Mouse Uterus Impairs Uterine Morphology and Function1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Duran, Samantha; Lydon, John P.; DeMayo, Francesco J.; Burghardt, Robert C.; Bayless, Kayla J.; Bartholin, Laurent; Li, Qinglei

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Despite increasing evidence pointing to the essential involvement of the transforming growth factor beta (TGFB) superfamily in reproduction, a definitive role of TGFB signaling in the uterus remains to be unveiled. In this study, we generated a gain-of-function mouse model harboring a constitutively active (CA) TGFB receptor 1 (TGFBR1), the expression of which was conditionally induced by the progesterone receptor (Pgr)-Cre recombinase. Overactivation of TGFB signaling was verified by enhanced phosphorylation of SMAD2 and increased expression of TGFB target genes in the uterus. TGFBR1 Pgr-Cre CA mice were sterile. Histological, cellular, and molecular analyses demonstrated that constitutive activation of TGFBR1 in the mouse uterus promoted formation of hypermuscled uteri. Accompanying this phenotype was the upregulation of a battery of smooth muscle genes in the uterus. Furthermore, TGFB ligands activated SMAD2/3 and stimulated the expression of a smooth muscle maker gene, alpha smooth muscle actin (ACTA2), in human uterine smooth muscle cells. Immunofluorescence microscopy identified a marked reduction of uterine glands in TGFBR1 Pgr-Cre CA mice within the endometrial compartment that contained myofibroblast-like cells. Thus, constitutive activation of TGFBR1 in the mouse uterus caused defects in uterine morphology and function, as evidenced by abnormal myometrial structure, dramatically reduced uterine glands, and impaired uterine decidualization. These results underscore the importance of a precisely controlled TGFB signaling system in establishing a uterine microenvironment conducive to normal development and function. PMID:25505200

  4. Morphology of β-BaB2O4 (BBO) in relation to its crystal structure and growth conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolt, R.J.; Bennema, P.

    1993-01-01

    A periodic-bond-chain (PBC) analysis has been made of the structure of β-BaB 2 O 4 (BBO) and related to crystal growth conditions, in order to explain the sometimes tangerine-shaped, sometimes needle-shaped crystals that are observed when BBO is grown experimentally. The periodic bond chains generate eight-connected nets in BBO. The order of morphological importance (MI) of these F faces is determined by comparing the nearest-neighbour interaction ionic bond energies. The results are compared with experimental data. Six faces, sometimes observed parallel to the c axis of BBO, were identified as the hexagonal prism {11 anti 20}. Two other forms are either the trigonal pyramids {01 anti 12} and {01 anti 1 anti 2} or the trigonal pyramids {10 anti 12} and {01 anti 1 anti 2}. {0001} is an important cleavage plane. The tangerine habit is a result of the strong temperature gradient, which is often used when growing BBO. The isotherms of the furnace impose their habit on the growing crystal. (orig.)

  5. Mathematical Relationships between Neuron Morphology and Neurite Growth Dynamics in Drosophila melanogaster Larva Class IV Sensory Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Sujoy; Liang, Xin; Grace, Michael; Lee, Daniel; Howard, Jonathon

    The morphology of neurons is diverse and reflects the diversity of neuronal functions, yet the principles that govern neuronal morphogenesis are unclear. In an effort to better understand neuronal morphogenesis we will be focusing on the development of the dendrites of class IV sensory neuron in Drosophila melanogaster. In particular we attempt to determine how the the total length, and the number of branches of dendrites are mathematically related to the dynamics of neurite growth and branching. By imaging class IV neurons during early embryogenesis we are able to measure the change in neurite length l (t) as a function of time v (t) = dl / dt . We found that the distribution of v (t) is well characterized by a hyperbolic secant distribution, and that the addition of new branches per unit time is well described by a Poisson process. Combining these measurements with the assumption that branching occurs with equal probability anywhere along the dendrite we were able to construct a mathematical model that provides reasonable agreement with the observed number of branches, and total length of the dendrites of the class IV sensory neuron.

  6. Physicochemical, morphological and therapeutic evaluation of agarose hydrogel particles as a reservoir for basic fibroblast growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moribe, Kunikazu; Nomizu, Natsuko; Izukura, Shunsuke; Yamamoto, Keiji; Tozuka, Yuichi; Sakurai, Manabu; Ishida, Atsushi; Nishida, Hirofumi; Miyazaki, Masaru

    2008-01-01

    Micron-sized agarose hydrogel particles were prepared using an emulsification/gelation method as a controlled release reservoir for basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Mean particle size of agarose hydrogel particles decreased with an increase in stirring speed and also with an increasing temperature of the oil phase, as measured before cooling. Morphologies of agarose particles before and after dispersing into water were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and cryogenic SEM, respectively. Freeze-dried agarose particles were spherical with rough surface. Porous polymer matrix structure was observed in the hydrogel particles by cryo-SEM. More than 99% of bFGF was encapsulated and the release from the agarose hydrogel particles was less than 3% during the incubation in phosphate buffered saline. bFGF molecules were not only adsorbed on the particle surface but also permeated and retained within the matrix. The therapeutic efficacy of bFGF retained in agarose hydrogel particles was significantly higher than that dissolved in saline. Agarose hydrogel particle seems to be a potential candidate for a bFGF reservoir.

  7. Influence of MKP medium stored for prolonged periods on growth and morphology of Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia garinii, and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veinović, Gorana; Cerar, Tjaša; Strle, Franc; Ružić-Sabljić, Eva

    2014-03-01

    Modified Kelly-Pettenkofer (MKP) medium is one of the several media used for isolation and cultivation of Borrelia. The aim of the study was to assess whether particular Borrelia species (B. afzelii, B. garinii, and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto) have the ability to grow in MKP medium stored at +4 °C for periods for 1 month up to 1 year, and how prolonged storage may influences Borrelia growth and morphology. The growth of Borrelia was evaluated after 5 days of incubation at 33 °C: cell count per mL, morphology, and motility were assessed. The results of this study showed that the duration of storage of MKP medium had statistically significant influence on growth of B. afzelii (p = 0.021) and B. garinii (p = 0.004), but not on growth of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (p = 0.204), whereas duration of storage of the medium had no impact on Borrelia morphology and motility. The results of the study indicate that medium stored for more than 1 and up to 12 months supports Borrelia growth. © 2013 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Seed-mediated growth of gold nanocrystals: changes to the crystallinity or morphology as induced by the treatment of seeds with a sulfur species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yiqun; Luo, Ming; Tao, Jing; Peng, Hsin-Chieh; Wan, Dehui; Zhu, Yimei; Xia, Younan

    2014-12-11

    We report our observation of changes to the crystallinity or morphology during seed-mediated growth of Au nanocrystals. When single-crystal Au seeds with a spherical or rod-like shape were treated with a chemical species such as S2O3(2-) ions, twin defects were developed during the growth process to generate multiply twinned nanostructures. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis indicated that the S2O3(2-) ions were chemisorbed on the surfaces of the seeds during the treatment. The chemisorbed S2O3(2-) ions somehow influenced the crystallization of Au atoms added onto the surface during a growth process, leading to the formation of twin defects. In contrast to the spherical and rod-like Au seeds, the single-crystal structure was retained to generate a concave morphology when single-crystal Au seeds with a cubic or octahedral shape were used for a similar treatment and then seed-mediated growth. The different outcomes are likely related to the difference in spatial distribution of S2O3(2-) ions chemisorbed on the surface of a seed. This approach based on surface modification is potentially extendable to other noble metals for engineering the crystallinity and morphology of nanocrystals formed via seed-mediated growth.

  9. Effect of NaCl salinity on nitrate uptake in Plantago maritima L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rubinigg, Michael; Posthumus, F.S; Elzenga, J.T.M.; Stulen, I.

    2005-01-01

    Exposure of plants to NaCl salinity reduces the rate of nitrate net uptake by the roots. Previous studies showed that this effect was due to a reduced nitrate influx, which could only partially be explained by a lower demand of nitrate for growth. In the present work we tested the hypothesis that

  10. The effect of farmyard manure and calcium ammonium nitrate on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of farmyard manure and calcium ammonium nitrate on vegetative growth, leaf yield and nutritive quality of Cleome gynadra (Cat Whiskers) in Keiyo District, Rift Valley Province. MJ Hutchinson, LK Kipkosgei, E Obudho, LSM Akundabweni ...

  11. Bulk crystal growth, optical, mechanical and ferroelectric properties of new semiorganic nonlinear optical and piezoelectric Lithium nitrate monohydrate oxalate single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalal, Jyoti; Kumar, Binay

    2016-01-01

    New semiorganic nonlinear optical single crystals of Lithium nitrate oxalate monohydrate (LNO) were grown by slow evaporation solution technique. Single crystal X-ray diffraction study indicated that LNO crystal belongs to the triclinic system with space group P1. Various functional groups present in the material were identified by FTIR and Raman analysis. UV-vis study showed the high transparency of crystals with a wide band gap 5.01 eV. Various Optical constants i.e. Urbach energy (Eu), extinction coefficient (K), refractive index, optical conductivity, electric susceptibility with real and imaginary parts of dielectric constant were calculated using the transmittance data which have applications in optoelectronic devices. A sharp emission peak was found at 438 nm in photoluminescence measurement, which revealed suitability of crystal for fabricating violet lasers. In dielectric studies, a peak has been observed at 33 °C which is due to ferroelectric to paraelectric phase transition. Piezoelectric charge coefficients (d33 = 9.2 pC/N and g33) have been calculated, which make it a suitable for piezoelectric devices applications. In ferroelectric studies, a saturated loop was found in which the values of coercive field and remnant polarization were found to be 2.18 kV/cm and 0.39 μC/cm2, respectively. Thermal behavior was studied by TGA and DSC studies. The relative SHG efficiency of LNO was found to be 1.2 times that of KDP crystal. In microhardness study, Meyer's index value was found to be 1.78 which revealed its soft nature. These optical, dielectric, piezoelectric, ferroelectric, mechanical and non-linear optical properties of grown crystal establish the usefulness of this material for optoelectronics, non-volatile memory and piezoelectric devices applications.

  12. Inhibition of platelet-derived growth factor actions in the embryonic testis influences normal cord development and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzumcu, Mehmet; Dirks, Kristen A; Skinner, Michael K

    2002-03-01

    Platelet-derived growth factors (PDGFs) are paracrine factors with roles in mesenchymal-epithelial interactions during normal and pathologic processes. Previously, PDGF and its receptor (PDGFR) have been shown to be present in perinatal, peripubertal, and adult rat testes. The role of PDGF in embryonic testicular cord formation is not known. The hypothesis tested is that PDGFs and PDGFRs are expressed during cord formation and that inhibition of their action influences normal cord formation during embryonic testis development. Embryonic Day (E) 13 gonadal organ cultures were used. Organs were cultured for 3 days and treated daily with vehicle or a PDGFR-specific tyrosine phosphorylation inhibitor (i.e., the tyrphostin AG1295 or AG1296). Vehicle-treated testes formed normal cords, whereas tyrphostin-treated testes formed "swollen cords," a phenomenon characterized by a significant decrease in the number of cords per testis area and increased cord diameter due to fusion of cords. Expression of PDGF and PDGFR in E13, E14, E16, Postnatal Day (P) 0, and P20 testes was examined. Messenger RNAs for PDGF-A and -B and PDGF alpha- and beta-receptors were expressed in isolated testes during all developmental periods examined. Immunoreactivity for PDGF was present throughout the testicular compartment at E14, restricted primarily to testicular cords at E16, and present in cells of the testicular cords with a stronger immunoreactivity in certain interstitial cell types of P0 testis. PDGFR beta-receptor immunoreactivity was primarily localized to the mesonephros of E14 organs and the testicular interstitium of E16 and P0 testes. Tyrphostins did not affect apoptotic cell number in the testis. PDGF had no effect on cell growth in P0 testis cultures. The results show that PDGFs and PDGFRs are expressed in embryonic testis during cord formation in a tissue-specific manner. Inhibition of PDGF actions does not inhibit cord formation but does alter normal cord development and

  13. Constitutive activation of transforming growth factor Beta receptor 1 in the mouse uterus impairs uterine morphology and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Duran, Samantha; Lydon, John P; DeMayo, Francesco J; Burghardt, Robert C; Bayless, Kayla J; Bartholin, Laurent; Li, Qinglei

    2015-02-01

    Despite increasing evidence pointing to the essential involvement of the transforming growth factor beta (TGFB) superfamily in reproduction, a definitive role of TGFB signaling in the uterus remains to be unveiled. In this study, we generated a gain-of-function mouse model harboring a constitutively active (CA) TGFB receptor 1 (TGFBR1), the expression of which was conditionally induced by the progesterone receptor (Pgr)-Cre recombinase. Overactivation of TGFB signaling was verified by enhanced phosphorylation of SMAD2 and increased expression of TGFB target genes in the uterus. TGFBR1 Pgr-Cre CA mice were sterile. Histological, cellular, and molecular analyses demonstrated that constitutive activation of TGFBR1 in the mouse uterus promoted formation of hypermuscled uteri. Accompanying this phenotype was the upregulation of a battery of smooth muscle genes in the uterus. Furthermore, TGFB ligands activated SMAD2/3 and stimulated the expression of a smooth muscle maker gene, alpha smooth muscle actin (ACTA2), in human uterine smooth muscle cells. Immunofluorescence microscopy identified a marked reduction of uterine glands in TGFBR1 Pgr-Cre CA mice within the endometrial compartment that contained myofibroblast-like cells. Thus, constitutive activation of TGFBR1 in the mouse uterus caused defects in uterine morphology and function, as evidenced by abnormal myometrial structure, dramatically reduced uterine glands, and impaired uterine decidualization. These results underscore the importance of a precisely controlled TGFB signaling system in establishing a uterine microenvironment conducive to normal development and function. © 2015 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  14. Effects of above-optimum growth temperature and cell morphology on thermotolerance of Listeria monocytogenes cells suspended in bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, N J; Anderson, J G

    1998-06-01

    The thermotolerances of two different cell forms of Listeria monocytogenes (serotype 4b) grown at 37 and 42.8 degrees C in commercially pasteurized and laboratory-tyndallized whole milk (WM) were investigated. Test strains, after growth at 37 or 42.8 degreesC, were suspended in WM at concentrations of approximately 1.5 x 10(8) to 3.0 x 10(8) cells/ml and were then heated at 56, 60, and 63 degrees C for various exposure times. Survival was determined by enumeration on tryptone-soya-yeast extract agar and Listeria selective agar, and D values (decimal reduction times) and Z values (numbers of degrees Celsius required to cause a 10-fold change in the D value) were calculated. Higher average recovery and higher D values (i.e., seen as a 2.5- to 3-fold increase in thermotolerance) were obtained when cells were grown at 42.8 degrees C prior to heat treatment. A relationship was observed between thermotolerance and cell morphology of L. monocytogenes. Atypical Listeria cell types (consisting predominantly of long cell chains measuring up to 60 micron in length) associated with rough (R) culture variants were shown to be 1.2-fold more thermotolerant than the typical dispersed cell form associated with normal smooth (S) cultures (P death-time (TDT) curves of R-cell forms contained a tail section in addition to the shoulder section characteristic of TDT curves of normal single to paired cells (i.e., S form). The factors shown to influence the thermoresistance of suspended Listeria cells (P pasteurization process when freely suspended and heated in WM.

  15. Effects of lysolecithin supplementation in low-energy diets on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, viscosity and intestinal morphology of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, G A; Poutahidis, T; Chalvatzi, S; Di Benedetto, M; Hardas, A; Tsiouris, V; Georgopoulou, I; Arsenos, G; Fortomaris, P D

    2018-01-16

    1. The study aimed to investigate the effect of lysolecithin supplementation in low-energy diets on growth, nutrient digestibility and intestinal mucosa characteristics of broilers. 2. A total of 800 one-d-old Ross 308 broiler chickens were assigned to 4 dietary treatments consisting of 10 replicates of 20 broilers each. Broilers were fed with 4 different diets: (i) HE: positive control group broilers received a diet with unaltered energy; (ii) LE: negative control group broilers received a diet with lower energy of about 0.27 MJ/kg; (iii) LElys500: broilers received a diet similar to LE supplemented with 500 g/tn lysolecithin product (Lysoforte Booster Dry TM ); and (iv) LElys300: broilers received a diet similar to LE supplemented with 300 g/tn lysolecithin product. The experimental period was 42 d. 3. Body weight gain in treatments HE was higher than LE during the overall experimental period, while LElys500 and LElys300 had intermediate values. Feed conversion ratio was lower in HE and LElys500 than LE group, while the LElys300 had intermediate values. Fat digestibility was improved in both LElys 500 and LElys300 compared to the HE group. Apparent metabolisable energy (AMEn) was higher in HE, LElys500 and LElys300 than LE. Ileum viscosity at 42 d was also affected, being higher in LE group compared to HE. At 28 d mucosal thickness was lower both in LElys500 and LElys300 compared to HE and LE, while no difference occurred between treatment proliferation patterns of duodenal epithelial cells. 4. These findings indicated that lysolecithin supplementation at 500 g/tn of feed in low-energy diets maintained broiler performance. Supplementation of reformulated low-energy diets induced an increase in digesta viscosity. Lysolecithin supplementation resulted in variable alterations in the duodenum mucosal morphology.

  16. The proportion of nitrate in leaf nitrogen, but not changes in root growth, are associated with decreased grain protein in wheat under elevated [CO2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bahrami, Helale; De Kok, Luit J.; Amstrong, Roger; Fitzgerald, Glenn J.; Bourgault, Maryse; Henty, Samuel; Tausz, Michael; Tausz-Posch, Sabine

    The atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) is increasing and predicted to reach similar to 550 ppm by 2050. Increasing [CO2] typically stimulates crop growth and yield, but decreases concentrations of nutrients, such as nitrogen ([N]), and therefore protein, in plant tissues and grains. Such changes

  17. Gamma-irradiation activates biochemical systems: induction of nitrate reductase activity in plant callus.

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, K N; Sabharwal, P S

    1982-01-01

    Gamma-irradiation induced high levels of nitrate reductase activity (NADH:nitrate oxidoreductase, EC 1.6.6.1) in callus of Haworthia mirabilis Haworth. Subcultures of gamma-irradiated tissues showed autonomous growth on minimal medium. We were able to mimic the effects of gamma-irradiation by inducing nitrate reductase activity in unirradiated callus with exogenous auxin and kinetin. These results revealed that induction of nitrate reductase activity by gamma-irradiation is mediated through i...

  18. Impact of ammonium nitrate and sodium nitrate on tadpoles of Alytes obstetricans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garriga, Núria; Montori, A; Llorente, G A

    2017-07-01

    The presence of pesticides, herbicides and fertilisers negatively affect aquatic communities in general, and particularly amphibians in their larval phase, even though sensitivity to pollutants is highly variable among species. The Llobregat Delta (Barcelona, Spain) has experienced a decline of amphibian populations, possibly related to the reduction in water quality due to the high levels of farming activity, but also to habitat loss and alteration. We studied the effects of increasing ammonium nitrate and sodium nitrate levels on the survival and growth rate of Alytes obstetricans tadpoles under experimental conditions. We exposed larvae to increasing concentrations of nitrate and ammonium for 14 days and then exposed them to water without pollutants for a further 14 days. Only the higher concentrations of ammonium (>33.75 mg/L) caused larval mortality. The growth rate of larvae was reduced at ≥22.5 mg/L NH 4 + , although individuals recovered and even increased their growth rate once exposure to the pollutant ended. The effect of nitrate on growth rate was detected at ≥80 mg/L concentrations, and the growth rate reduction in tadpoles was even observed during the post-exposure phase. The concentrations of ammonium with adverse effects on larvae are within the range levels found in the study area, while the nitrate concentrations with some adverse effect are close to the upper range limit of current concentrations in the study area. Therefore, only the presence of ammonium in the study area is likely to be considered of concern for the population of this species, even though the presence of nitrate could cause some sublethal effects. These negative effects could have an impact on population dynamics, which in this species is highly sensitive to larval mortality due to its small clutch size and prolonged larval period compared to other anuran amphibians.

  19. Significant accumulation of nitrate in Chinese semi-humid croplands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Junyu; Gu, Baojing; Schlesinger, William H.; Ju, Xiaotang

    2016-04-01

    Soil nitrate is important for crop growth, but it can also leach to groundwater causing nitrate contamination, a threat to human health. Here, we report a significant accumulation of soil nitrate in Chinese semi-humid croplands based upon more than 7000 samples from 141 sites collected from 1994 to 2015. In the 0-4 meters depth of soil, total nitrate accumulation reaches 453 ± 39, 749 ± 75, 1191 ± 89, 1269 ± 114, 2155 ± 330 kg N ha-1 on average in wheat, maize, open-field vegetables (OFV), solar plastic-roofed greenhouse vegetables (GHV) and orchard fields, respectively. Surprisingly, there is also a comparable amount of nitrate accumulated in the vadose-zone deeper than 4 meters. Over-use of N fertilizer (and/or manure) and a declining groundwater table are the major causes for this huge nitrate reservoir in the vadose-zone of semi-humid croplands, where the nitrate cannot be denitrified due to the presence of oxygen and lack of carbon sources. Future climatic change with more extreme rainfall events would increase the risk of accumulated nitrate moving downwards and threatening groundwater nitrate contamination.

  20. HemoHIM improves ovarian morphology and decreases expression of nerve growth factor in rats with steroid-induced polycystic ovaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Ho; Lee, Hae June; Kim, Joong Sun; Moon, Changjong; Kim, Jong Choon; Bae, Chun Sik; Park, Hae Ran; Jung, Uhee; Jo, Sung Kee

    2009-12-01

    Estradiol valerate (EV)-induced polycystic ovaries (PCOs) in rats cause the anovulation and cystic ovarian morphology. We investigated whether treatment with HemoHIM influences the ovarian morphology and the expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) in an EV-induced PCO rat model. PCO was induced by a single intramuscular injection of EV (4 mg, dissolved in sesame oil) in adult cycling rats. HemoHIM was either administered orally (100 mg/kg of body weight/day) for 35 consecutive days or injected intraperitoneally (50 mg/kg of body weight) every other day after EV injection. Ovarian morphology was almost normalized, and NGF was normalized in the PCO + HemoHIM group. HemoHIM lowered the high numbers of antral follicles and increased the number of corpora lutea in PCOs. The results are consistent with a beneficial effect of HemoHIM in the prevention and treatment of PCO syndrome.

  1. Understanding nitrate uptake, signaling and remobilisation for improving plant nitrogen use efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Surya

    2018-02-01

    The majority of terrestrial plants use nitrate as their main source of nitrogen. Nitrate also acts as an important signalling molecule in vital physiological processes required for optimum plant growth and development. Improving nitrate uptake and transport, through activation by nitrate sensing, signalling and regulatory processes, would enhance plant growth, resulting in improved crop yields. The increased remobilisation of nitrate, and assimilated nitrogenous compounds, from source to sink tissues further ensures higher yields and quality. An updated knowledge of various transporters, genes, activators, and microRNAs, involved in nitrate uptake, transport, remobilisation, and nitrate-mediated root growth, is presented. An enhanced understanding of these components will allow for their orchestrated fine tuning in efforts to improving nitrogen use efficiency in plants. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Effect of Nitrate Levels and Harvest Times on Fe, Zn, Cu, and K, Concentrations and Nitrate Reductase Activity in Lettuce and Spinach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Gheshlaghi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Leafy vegetables are considered as the main sources of nitrate in the human diet. In order to investigate the effect of nitrate levels and harvest times on nitrate accumulation, nitrate reductase activity, concentrations of Fe, Zn, Cu and K in Lettuce and Spinach and their relation to nitrate accumulation in these leafy vegetables, two harvest times (29 and 46 days after transplanting, two vegetable species of lettuce and spinach and two concentrations of nitrate (10 and 20 mM were used in a hydroponics greenhouse experiment with a completely randomized design and 3 replications. Modified Hoagland and Arnon nutrient solutions were used for the experiment. The results indicated that by increasing nitrate concentration of solution, nitrate accumulation in roots and shoots of lettuce and spinach increased significantly (P ≤ 0.05, and the same trend was observed for the nitrate reductase activity in the shoots of the two species. Increasing the nitrate concentrations of solution, reduced the shoot dry weight and the concentration of Fe and Cu in both species, where as it increased the K and Zn concentrations in the shoots of the two species in each both harvest times, the nitrate accumulation increased, but the nitrate reductase activity decreased in the shoots of the two species over the course of the growth. The Concentration of Fe, Cu and K decreased in the shoots of lettuce and the spinach with the time, despite the increase in Zn concentration in the shoots. The results also indicated that increasing nitrate concentrations of solution to the levels greater than the plant capacity for reduction and net uptake of nitrate, leads to the nitrate accumulation in the plants. Nitrate accumulation in plant tissue led to decreases in fresh shoot yield and Fe and Cu concentrations and nitrate reductase activities in both lettuce and spinach.

  3. Yttrium Nitrate mediated Nitration of Phenols at room temperature in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rapid nitration of electron rich phenols using Y(NO₃)₃.6H₂O in glacial acetic acid at room temperature was observed with good yield. The method allows nitration of phenols without oxidation, and isolation of nitration product in a rapid and simple way. The described method is selective for phenols.

  4. Yttrium Nitrate mediated Nitration of Phenols at room temperature in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    which resulted in many neurological disorders.1 Thus, the mechanism of nitration in biological system explains how environment and genetic factors induce neurological disorder. Conventional nitration involves use of concentrated H2SO4 and HNO3 mixture as the nitrating agent. Such a method suffers from drawbacks.

  5. Impact of moderate and extreme climate change scenarios on growth, morphological features, photosynthesis, and fruit production of hot pepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Gyu; Kim, Sung Kyeom; Lee, Hee Ju; Lee, Hee Su; Lee, Jin Hyoung

    2018-01-01

    Horticultural crop production and changes in physiological aspects during the growing season may be affected by climate change factors (CC), which include increased temperature and the associated doubling or tripling of atmospheric CO 2 concentrations. However, the potential effects are complex and many parameters might impact on the observed effects. To evaluate the effects of CC, the growth, yield, fruit characteristics, photosynthetic traits, and morphological characteristics of hot peppers were investigated. The hot peppers were grown under two CC scenarios, with the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) of 4.5 (Temp.; +3.4°C, CO 2 conc.; 540 μmol/mol, Precipitation +17.3%) and RCP 8.5 (Temp.; +6.0°C and CO 2 conc.; 940 μmol/mol, Precipitation +20.3%), respectively, using extreme weather simulators. This was compared with existing weather conditions occurring in Jeonju, South Korea in terms of air temperature, relative humidity, radiation, and precipitation. Overall, the plant height showed the highest under moderate CC conditions (RCP 4.5) among all the treatments tested. The number of leaves in the RCP 8.5 condition showed 7,739/plants, which was 2.2 times higher than that of the control. In addition, fruit shape was shortened and percentage dry matter was also the highest. The yield of hot pepper in the CC RCP 4.5 and 8.5 conditions were decreased by 21.5% and 89.2% when compared with that of the control, respectively. The days to harvest in the condition of CC scenarios were shortened from 5 to 13 compared with that of control, predominantly due to the increased air temperature. The results indicated that the severe RCP CC scenarios made reduction in the yields and negative affection on the fruit qualities. Overall, hot pepper was tolerant of mild CC scenarios of temperature × CO 2 but was significantly affected by more extreme CC interacting parameter concentrations (or similar).

  6. Nitrate Leaching Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrate (NO3) leaching is a significant nitrogen (N) loss process for agriculture that must be managed to minimize NO3 enrichment of groundwater and surface waters. Managing NO3 leaching should involve the application of basic principles of understanding the site’s hydrologic cycle, avoiding excess ...

  7. Chemical preparation of PLZT powders from nitrate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Yoshio

    1992-01-01

    PLZT powders were prepared from an aqueous nitrate solution by three methods. They were fine, chemically homogeneous and amorphous. The particle morphologies, however, were very different due to the different physico-chemical coprecipitation conditions. Traditional method provided fine hydroxide coprecipitates, but they agglomerated strongly during drying. When a small amount of hydrogen peroxide was added prior to hydrolysis it converted the hydroxide coprecipitates into hydrate oxides and/or hydrate peroxides and seems to reduce bridge and non-ridging hydroxo groups in coprecipitates. The effect of shape size and the state of agglomeration are qualitatively explained by the chemistry that the more the linkage of bridge hydroxo group develops in the precipitate, the rigider precipitate becomes and that interparticle surface condensation involving non-bridging hydroxo groups is associated with the aggregation of particles during drying. Particle morphologies and related physical characteristics -'drop' density, 'tap' density, and adsorption-desorption isotherm were quite different between method(2) and (3). The process of precipitation (nucleation, growth and agglomeration in the solution) markedly affected the state of the agglomeration of coprecipitates. Method(3) involving the additive and liquid-gas interface reaction provided the most weakly agglomerated powder. The behavior of crystallization and the development of microstructure during calcination were examined as characterization criteria obtaining sinterable powder. 14 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs

  8. Evaluation of the Effects of Various Fertilizers (N, P, K Application on Morphological and Growth Characteristics of Salvia leriifolia Benth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Amini

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Salvia leriifolia Benth. (Nowruzak is a herbal plant from Lamiaceae family, which is exclusively native of Iran and Afghanistan. Existence of this species is reported in Khorasan and Semnan provinces of Iran. As extreme pressure of grazing and harvesting the nature has put this species at risk of extinction, and on the other hand this plant has numerous herbal values and its cultivation can produce the market needs as well as preserve it from extinction. Therefore its domestication is now a priority and optimized nutrition for cultivated plants is one of the important factors in quality and quantity enhancement of the product. The aim of this research was to study the effect of three main nutrient: nitrogen, Phosphor, and potassium (NPK on growth of Nowruzak and measure its morphological reactions to these elements in the poor soil of its habitat. Materials and methods To study the effect of different nutritious elements on quantitative properties of Nowruzak, a factorial experiment was conducted as randomized complete block design with three replications in the Research Field of Islamic Azad University of Gonabad in March 2014. In this experiment, nitrogen fertilizers in three levels (N1= control, N2=100 kg.ha-1 and N3=200 kg.ha-1 based on net nitrogen, Phosphor in three levels (0, 50 and100 kg.ha-1 based on P2O5 and potassium fertilizers in two levels (0- and 50 kg.ha-1 based on K2O were applied of farm to specify the effect of each elements and their reactions on quantitative growth properties of Nowruzak. Results and discussion Results show that the effect of different levels of nitrogen fertilizer on plant height, harvest index, cover crown diameter and number of fertile branches are significant at 1% level. In a way that levels of nitrogen fertilizer are placed in first, second and third group of Duncan multiple range test, respectively. The highest plant height with average of 41.97 cm is assigned to 200 kg net nitrogen

  9. Sulfate and nitrate levels in aqueous, atmospheric aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, T.W.; Seinfeld, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    The formation of sulfates and nitrates in marine aerosol particles is investigated. A simulation of the growth and chemical reactions of an aerosol particle composed initially of an equilibrium mixture of NaCl and MgCl 2 and exposed to SO 2 , NO, NO 2 , NH 3 and H 2 SO 4 vapor is used to predict the relative compositions of sulfates, nitrates and ammonium, assuming gas-phase sulfur dioxide oxidation and liquid-phase nitrate formation. Results indicate an increase in nitrate concentration and a decrease in sulfate and ammonium concentrations with increasing particle radius and a near-stoichiometric ratio of nitrate and sulfate to ammonium. The noted deviations of this ratio from those observed experimentally are considered to indicate the relative importances of liquid-phase sulfur dioxide oxidation at various locations

  10. Effect of Nutrient Dilution and Glutamine Supplementation on Growth Performance, Small Intestine Morphology and Immune Response of Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    majid gheshlagh olyayee

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Glutamine (Gln, a semi-essential or conditionally essential amino acid, is an abundant amino acid in plasma and skeletal muscle. It is the main energy substrate for cells that undergo intense replication, such as enterocytes, lymphocytes, macrophages, neutrophils and kidney cells and plays an important role in their function and homeostasis. Apart from providing nitrogen for protein synthesis, Gln is a precursor for nucleic acids, nucleotides, hexose amines, the nitric oxide precursor arginine (Arg, and the major antioxidant-glutathione. It plays a central role in nitrogen transport between tissues, specifically from muscle to gut, kidney, and liver. In addition to its role as a gluconeogenic substrate in the liver, kidney, and intestine, Gln is involved in the renal handling of ammonia, serving as a regulator of acid base homeostasis. So the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of nutrient dilution and L- glutamine (Gln supplementation on growth performance, intestine morphology and immune response of broilers during starter (0 to 10 days, growth (11 to 24 days and finisher (25 to 42 days periods. Materials and methods A total of 320 one-day-old male Ross 308 broiler chicks were randomly assigned to eight treatments with 4 replicates and 10 chicks per each. In this study two levels of nutrient dilution (Ross 308 broiler nutrition recommendation and 5% diluted and 4 levels of Gln supplementation (0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5% were used in a completely randomized design as factorial arrangement 2×4. Growth performance was measured periodically. In order to investigate jejenual histomorphology such as villus height, depth of crypt, villus height to depth of crypt ratio, villus width, muscle layer thickness and epithelium thickness, on day 42 after 4 h fasting, one bird per each replicate was randomly selected, slaughtered and 1 cm of middle section of jejenum was cut. Cellular immune response was assessed in 40-d-old chick using the in

  11. Negative Effect of Proton-pump Inhibitors (PPIs) on Helicobacter pylori Growth, Morphology, and Urease Test and Recovery after PPI Removal--An In vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saniee, Parastoo; Shahreza, Somayeh; Siavoshi, Farideh

    2016-04-01

    Proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) consumption does lead to false-negative results of Helicobacter pylori diagnostic tests such as biopsy culture and rapid urease test (RUT). Helicobacter pylori isolates from 112 dyspeptic patients with (56.5%) or without (43.5%) PPI consumption were recruited for examining the negative effects of omeprazole (OMP), lansoprazole (LPZ), and pantoprazole (PAN) on H. pylori viability, morphology, and urease, in vitro. The effect of a sublethal concentration of OMP on bacterial features and their recovery after removal of OMP was also assessed. Of 112 culture-positive gastric biopsies, 87.5% were RUT positive and 12.5% RUT negative. There was a significant correlation between negative RUT results and PPI consumption (p pylori isolates. OMP and LPZ inhibited urease of 90.3% of isolates between 0 and 40 minutes and 54.4% between 20 and 40 minutes, respectively. PAN did not inhibit H. pylori growth and urease. Three 3-day (9 days) consecutive subcultures of H. pylori on brucella blood agar (BBA) supplemented with OMP resulted in reduced bacterial viability (1+), compared with control (4+), change of spiral morphology to coccoid, and reduction in pink color intensity in urea agar. Bacterial growth (1+), morphology, and urease test did not improve after the first 3-day and second 3-day (6 days) subcultures on BBA. However, relative recovery occurred after the third 3-day (9 days) subculture and complete recovery was observed after the fourth 3-day (12 days) subculture, as confluent growth (4+), 100% spiral cells, and strong urease test. Proton-pump Inhibitors exert transient negative effects on H. pylori viability, morphology, and urease test. Accordingly, cessation of PPI consumption at least 12 days before endoscopy could help avoiding false-negative results of H. pylori diagnostic tests. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Effect of Tree Spacing on Tree Level Volume Growth, Morphology, and Wood Properties in a 25-Year-Old Pinus banksiana Plantation in the Boreal Forest of Quebec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Hébert

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The number of planted trees per hectare influences individual volume growth, which in turn can affect wood properties. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of six different plantation spacings of jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb. 25 years following planting on tree growth, morphology, and wood properties. Stem analyses were performed to calculate annual and cumulative diameter, height, and volume growth. For morphological and wood property measurements several parameters were analyzed: diameter of the largest branch, live crown ratio, wood density, and the moduli of elasticity and rupture on small clear samples. The highest volume growth for individual trees was obtained in the 1111 trees/ha plantation, while the lowest was in the 4444 trees/ha plantation. Wood density and the moduli of elasticity and rupture did not change significantly between the six plantation spacings, but the largest branch diameter was significantly higher in the 1111 trees/ha (3.26 cm mean diameter compared with the 4444 trees/ha spacing (2.03 cm mean diameter. Based on this study, a wide range of spacing induced little negative effect on the measured wood properties, except for the size of knots. Increasing the initial spacing of jack pine plantations appears to be a good choice if producing large, fast-growing stems is the primary goal, but lumber mechanical and visual properties could be decreased due to the larger branch diameter.

  13. Refining method for bismuth nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Shigeyuki.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention concerns a method of separating and removing α ray emitting nuclides present in an aqueous solution of bismuth nitrate by an industrially convenient method. A nitric acid concentration in the aqueous solution of bismuth nitrate in which α ray emitting nuclides are dissolved is lowered to coprecipitate the bismuth oxynitrate and the α ray emitting nuclides. The coprecipitation materials are separated from the aqueous solution of bismuth nitrate to separate the α ray emitting nuclides dissolved in the aqueous solution of bismuth nitrate thereby refining the aqueous solution of bismuth nitrate. (T.M.)

  14. Study of Morphological, Phenological and Variation of Fruit Traits During Berry Growth Phases of QzlouzumGrapevine Cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Doulati Baneh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Before a new vineyard construction, in addition to collecting detailed data on climate, soil and planting area, some other considerations like selection and understanding the principles of quality and quantity in terms of agronomic traits and physiological characteristics of the product should be made. Among grape varieties grown in anorchard, some self-fertile and male sterile cultivars (female physiological are present. Without suitable pollinating, varieties in the vineyard, is not accessible for semi-fertile or sterile ones with high quality and quantity and will notbe sufficient.Therefore the identification of sterile varieties, the best pollinizers and fruit growth and phenological stages is essential. Qzlouzum is one of commercial seeded cultivars in West Azerbaijan province whichis suitable for storage and delivering to domestic and foreign markets forout of season because of nice red color and thick skin and late ripening.These favorable properties for sale with high prices is also one of the otherbenefits that have led to the interest of the farmers every year to increase the acreage of the cultivation. Preliminary studies showed that Qzlouzum cultivar is a physiological female and needs cross pollination for fruitset. This study aimed to investigate the complete botanical characteristics, flower sexuality, pollen germination and determine the phenological stages (especially fruit growth stages. Materials and methods: Based on grape descriptor, morphological characters of 10 vines of Qzlouzum grape cultivar at different stages from bud break to dormancy was studied in Horticultural Research Station in 1390 in Urmia(Kahriz. To calculate the growing degree days (GDD, daily temperature above 10 ° C was obtained from the meteorological station of Agriculture faculty in Kahriz-Urmia. Pollen germination rate was tested in both liquid and solid growth medium. In order to study the changes in a number of qualitative and

  15. Nitrate in drinking water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schullehner, Jörg

    Annual nationwide exposure maps for nitrate in drinking water in Denmark from the 1970s until today will be presented based on the findings in Schullehner & Hansen (2014) and additional work on addressing the issue of private well users and estimating missing data. Drinking water supply in Denmark...... is highly decentralized and fully relying on simple treated groundwater. At the same time, Denmark has an intensive agriculture, making groundwater resources prone to nitrate pollution. Drinking water quality data covering the entire country for over 35 years are registered in the public database Jupiter....... In order to create annual maps of drinking water quality, these data had to be linked to 2,852 water supply areas, which were for the first time digitized, collected in one dataset and connected to the Jupiter database. Analyses of the drinking water quality maps showed that public water supplies...

  16. Nitrate in drinking water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schullehner, Jörg; Hansen, Birgitte; Sigsgaard, Torben

    is highly decentralized and fully relying on simple treated groundwater. At the same time, Denmark has an intensive agriculture, making groundwater resources prone to nitrate pollution. Drinking water quality data covering the entire country for over 35 years are registered in the public database Jupiter......Annual nationwide exposure maps for nitrate in drinking water in Denmark from the 1970s until today will be presented based on the findings in Schullehner & Hansen (2014) and additional work on addressing the issue of private well users and estimating missing data. Drinking water supply in Denmark....... In order to create annual maps of drinking water quality, these data had to be linked to 2,852 water supply areas, which were for the first time digitized, collected in one dataset and connected to the Jupiter database. Analyses of the drinking water quality maps showed that public water supplies...

  17. Evaluation of Epicoccum nigrum for growth, morphology and production of natural colorants in liquid media and on a solid rice medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mapari, Sameer Shamsuddin; Meyer, Anne S.; Thrane, Ulf

    2008-01-01

    in M1 medium (unoptimized) containing 5 g/l yeast autolysate. The color hue of the crude pigment extracts ranged from 74 to 102 exhibiting dark orange to green-yellow color. Pelleted morphology was shown to have a positive influence on the pigment production by E. nigrum strain IBT 41028 in the liquid......Four nonpathogenic and nontoxigenic Epicoccum nigrum strains were evaluated for their growth, morphology and pigment producing ability in three complex and one defined liquid media. Epicoccum nigrum IBT 41028 produced pigments in all the four media tested with a maximum pigment of 3.68 AU at 410 nm...... media, and the use of Bis-tris buffer was found to diminish or reduce the pellet formation. Since Monascus is a well known pigment producer on rice. Pigment producing ability of E. nigrum IBT 41028 was tested on rice and compared to liquid media with Monascus ruber IBT 7904 as control. Though, both...

  18. A combined phytohemagglutinin and a-ketoglutarate pharmacology study of gut morphology and growth in older adult rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filip, R.; Harrison, Adrian Paul; Pierzynowski, S.G.

    2008-01-01

    This study has evaluated the effect of phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) in combination with alpha-ketoglutaric acid (AKG), on GI-tract morphology and N balance in adult rats. Rats, aged approx. 15 months, were assigned to one of four experimental groups, (1) Control group, (2) AKG group, (3) AKG+PHA 100...

  19. Morphological structure and water status in tulip bulbs from dormancy to active growth : visualization by NMR imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toorn, van der A.; Zemah, H.; As, van H.; Bendel, P.; Kamenetsky, R.

    2000-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to follow time-dependent morphological changes and changes in water status of tulip bulbs (Tulipa gesneriana L., cv. ‘Apeldoorn’) during bulb storage for 12 weeks at 20 °C (non-chilled) or 4 °C (chilled) and

  20. Morphology and optical properties of ternary Zn-Sn-O semiconductor nanowires with catalyst-free growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Yuan-Chang, E-mail: yuanvictory@gmail.com [Institute of Materials Engineering, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung 20224, Taiwan (China); Huang, Chiem-Lum; Hu, Chia-Yen; Deng, Xian-Shi; Zhong, Hua [Institute of Materials Engineering, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung 20224, Taiwan (China)

    2012-10-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zn{sub 2}SnO{sub 4} nanowires with various morphologies were successfully synthesized by thermal evaporation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The as-synthesized Zn{sub 2}SnO{sub 4} nanowires have a face-centered cubic crystal structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal annealing of Zn{sub 2}SnO{sub 4} nanowires changes the properties of the visible emission band. - Abstract: This study reports the synthesis of Zn{sub 2}SnO{sub 4} (ZTO) nanowires with various morphologies using thermal evaporation without a metal catalyst. X-ray diffraction patterns show that the structure of the as-synthesized ZTO nanowires is a face-centered cubic spinel phase. Scanning electron microscopy images exhibit that the as-synthesized nanowires have various morphologies, and homogeneously cover the area of interest. High-resolution transmittance electron microscopy reveals that these ZTO nanowires have single crystalline microstructures with four morphologies. The results of low-temperature cathodoluminescence (CL) measurements show the crystal defects of oxygen vacancies and interstitials may contribute to blue-green and yellow-orange emissions, respectively, for the as-synthesized single nanowire. This study also discusses the effects of thermal annealing under oxygen-rich and reducing ambient on the CL properties of the single ZTO nanowire.

  1. The effects of sower and bed density on bareroot loblolly pine seedling morphology and early height growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hans M. Williams; Tim Stewart

    2006-01-01

    Precision sowing is commonly used at forest tree nurseries in order to improve the growing space uniformity of seedlings in the beds. Temple-Inland Forest Products Corporation recently purchased a vacuum sower and requested a study be conducted comparing their new sower with a drill sower on the morphological characteristics of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda...

  2. Effects of dietary raffinose on growth, non-specific immunity, intestinal morphology and microbiome of juvenile hybrid sturgeon (Acipenser baeri Brandt ♀ × A. schrenckii Brandt ♂).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guanling; Xing, Wei; Li, Tieliang; Ma, Zhihong; Liu, Caixia; Jiang, Na; Luo, Lin

    2018-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the efficacy of raffinose on the growth, non-specific immunity, intestinal morphology and microbiota of juvenile hybrid sturgeon, (Acipenser baeri Brandt ♀ × A. schrenckii Brandt ♂). Hybrid sturgeons were divided into 2 groups and each group was fed with diets supplemented with or without raffinose for 56 days. Hybrid sturgeon fed diet supplemented with raffinose had significantly higher final body weight (FBW), specific growth rate (SGR), and weight gain ratio (WGR) than fish fed the control diet (P  0.05). Compared with the control diet, the myeloperoxidase (MPO) and respiratory burst (NBT) activitives were significantly higher in sturgeon fed the raffinose supplemented diet (P < 0.05). The increasing of intestinal villi area and mucosal folds were observed in intestinal tract of sturgeon when they fed the raffinose supplemented diet. Meanwhile, the residual bait of intestinal tract was relatively lower in sturgeon with raffinose treatment. High-throughput sequencing revealed that majority of reads derived from the sturgeon digesta were constituted by members of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Fusobacteria and Actinobacteria. Shannon's diversity index existed significant difference among dietary treatments indicating that the overall microbial community was modified to a large extent by dietary raffinose. In conclusion, supplementation of the diet with raffinose is capable of improving hybrid sturgeon growth performances and intestinal morphology, modifying the intestinal microbial composition. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Growth Rate and Morphology of a Single Calcium Carbonate Crystal on Polysulfone Film Measured with Time Lapse Raman Micro Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liszka, B.; Lenferink, Aufrid T.M.; Otto, Cornelis

    2016-01-01

    The growth of single, self- nucleated calcium carbonate crystals on a polysulfone (PSU) film was investigated with high resolution, time lapse Raman imaging. The Raman images were acquired on the interface of the polymer with the crystal. The growth of crystals could thus be followed in time. PSU is

  4. Carbonate fabrics in the modern microbialites of Pavilion Lake: two suites of microfabrics that reflect variation in microbial community morphology, growth habit, and lithification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theisen, C Harwood; Sumner, D Y; Mackey, T J; Lim, D S S; Brady, A L; Slater, G F

    2015-07-01

    Modern microbialites in Pavilion Lake, BC, provide an analog for ancient non-stromatolitic microbialites that formed from in situ mineralization. Because Pavilion microbialites are mineralizing under the influence of microbial communities, they provide insights into how biological processes influence microbialite microfabrics and mesostructures. Hemispherical nodules and micrite-microbial crusts are two mesostructures within Pavilion microbialites that are directly associated with photosynthetic communities. Both filamentous cyanobacteria in hemispherical nodules and branching filamentous green algae in micrite-microbial crusts were associated with calcite precipitation at microbialite surfaces and with characteristic microfabrics in the lithified microbialite. Hemispherical nodules formed at microbialite surfaces when calcite precipitated around filamentous cyanobacteria with a radial growth habit. The radial filament pattern was preserved within the microbialite to varying degrees. Some subsurface nodules contained well-defined filaments, whereas others contained only dispersed organic inclusions. Variation in filament preservation is interpreted to reflect differences in timing and amount of carbonate precipitation relative to heterotrophic decay, with more defined filaments reflecting greater lithification prior to degradation than more diffuse filaments. Micrite-microbial crusts produce the second suite of microfabrics and form in association with filamentous green algae oriented perpendicular to the microbialite surface. Some crusts include calcified filaments, whereas others contained voids that reflect the filamentous community in shape, size, and distribution. Pavilion microbialites demonstrate that microfabric variation can reflect differences in lithification processes and microbial metabolisms as well as microbial community morphology and organization. Even when the morphology of individual filaments or cells is not well preserved, the microbial growth

  5. Postnatal administration of 2-oxoglutaric acid improves articular and growth plate cartilages and bone tissue morphology in pigs prenatally treated with dexamethasone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewska, E; Dobrowolski, P; Wydrych, J

    2012-10-01

    The potential effects of prenatal administration of dexamethasone (DEX) and postnatal treatment with 2-oxoglutaric acid (2-Ox) on postnatal development of connective tissue of farm animals were not examined experimentally. The aim of this study was to establish changes in morphological parameters of bone and articular and growth plate cartilages damaged by the prenatal action of DEX in piglets supplemented with 2-Ox. The 3 mg of DEX was administered by intramuscular route every second day from day 70 of pregnancy to parturition and then piglets were supplemented with 2-Ox during 35 days of postnatal life (0.4 g/kg body weight). The mechanical properties, BMD and BMC of bones, and histomorphometry of articular and growth plate cartilages were determined. Maternal treatment with DEX decreased the weight by 48%, BMD by 50% and BMC by 61% of the tibia in male piglets while such action of DEX in female piglets was not observed. DEX led to thinning of articular and growth plate cartilages and trabeculae thickness and reduced the serum GH concentration in male piglets. The administration of 2-Ox prevented the reduction of trabeculae thickness, the width of articular and growth plate cartilages in male piglets connected with higher growth hormone concentration compared with non-supplemented male piglets. The result showed that the presence of 2-Ox in the diet had a positive effect on the development of connective tissue in pigs during suckling and induced a complete recovery from bone and cartilage damage caused by prenatal DEX action.

  6. Nitrate biosensors and biological methods for nitrate determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohail, Manzar; Adeloju, Samuel B

    2016-06-01

    The inorganic nitrate (NO3‾) anion is present under a variety of both natural and artificial environmental conditions. Nitrate is ubiquitous within the environment, food, industrial and physiological systems and is mostly present as hydrated anion of a corresponding dissolved salt. Due to the significant environmental and toxicological effects of nitrate, its determination and monitoring in environmental and industrial waters are often necessary. A wide range of analytical techniques are available for nitrate determination in various sample matrices. This review discusses biosensors available for nitrate determination using the enzyme nitrate reductase (NaR). We conclude that nitrate determination using biosensors is an excellent non-toxic alternative to all other available analytical methods. Over the last fifteen years biosensing technology for nitrate analysis has progressed very well, however, there is a need to expedite the development of nitrate biosensors as a suitable alternative to non-enzymatic techniques through the use of different polymers, nanostructures, mediators and strategies to overcome oxygen interference. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Continuous cultivations of a Penicillium chrysogenum strain expressing the expandase gene from Streptomyces clavuligerus: Growth yields and morphological characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robin, Jarno Jacky Christian; Lettier, G.; Mcintyre, Mhairi

    2003-01-01

    The growth stoichiometry of a Penicillium chrysogenum strain expressing the expandase gene from Streptomyces clavuligerus was determined in glucose-limited chemostat cultivations using a chemically defined medium. This strain produces adipoyl-7-aminocleacetoxycephalosporanic acid (ad-7-ADCA) when...

  8. Direct transcriptional activation of BT genes by NLP transcription factors is a key component of the nitrate response in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takeo; Maekawa, Shugo; Konishi, Mineko; Yoshioka, Nozomi; Sasaki, Yuki; Maeda, Haruna; Ishida, Tetsuya; Kato, Yuki; Yamaguchi, Junji; Yanagisawa, Shuichi

    2017-01-29

    Nitrate modulates growth and development, functioning as a nutrient signal in plants. Although many changes in physiological processes in response to nitrate have been well characterized as nitrate responses, the molecular mechanisms underlying the nitrate response are not yet fully understood. Here, we show that NLP transcription factors, which are key regulators of the nitrate response, directly activate the nitrate-inducible expression of BT1 and BT2 encoding putative scaffold proteins with a plant-specific domain structure in Arabidopsis. Interestingly, the 35S promoter-driven expression of BT2 partially rescued growth inhibition caused by reductions in NLP activity in Arabidopsis. Furthermore, simultaneous disruption of BT1 and BT2 affected nitrate-dependent lateral root development. These results suggest that direct activation of BT1 and BT2 by NLP transcriptional activators is a key component of the molecular mechanism underlying the nitrate response in Arabidopsis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Formation of complex wedding-cake morphologies during homoepitaxial film growth of Ag on Ag(111): atomistic, step-dynamics, and continuum modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Maozhi; Han, Yong; Thiel, P. A.; Evans, J. W.

    2009-02-01

    An atomistic lattice-gas model is developed which successfully describes all key features of the complex mounded morphologies which develop during deposition of Ag films on Ag(111) surfaces. We focus on this homoepitaxial thin film growth process below 200 K. The unstable multilayer growth mode derives from the presence of a large Ehrlich-Schwoebel step-edge barrier, for which we characterize both the step-orientation dependence and the magnitude. Step-dynamics modeling is applied to further characterize and elucidate the evolution of the vertical profiles of these wedding-cake-like mounds. Suitable coarse-graining of these step-dynamics equations leads to instructive continuum formulations for mound evolution.

  10. Formation of complex wedding-cake morphologies during homoepitaxial film growth of Ag on Ag(111): atomistic, step-dynamics, and continuum modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Maozhi [Department of Physics, Renmin University of China, Beijing 100872 (China); Han, Yong [Institute of Physical Research and Technology, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Thiel, P A [Departments of Chemistry and Materials Science and Engineering and Ames Laboratory-USDOE, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Evans, J W [Department of Mathematics and Ames Laboratory-USDOE, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50010 (United States)

    2009-02-25

    An atomistic lattice-gas model is developed which successfully describes all key features of the complex mounded morphologies which develop during deposition of Ag films on Ag(111) surfaces. We focus on this homoepitaxial thin film growth process below 200 K. The unstable multilayer growth mode derives from the presence of a large Ehrlich-Schwoebel step-edge barrier, for which we characterize both the step-orientation dependence and the magnitude. Step-dynamics modeling is applied to further characterize and elucidate the evolution of the vertical profiles of these wedding-cake-like mounds. Suitable coarse-graining of these step-dynamics equations leads to instructive continuum formulations for mound evolution.

  11. Formation of complex wedding-cake morphologies during homoepitaxial film growth of Ag on Ag(111): atomistic, step-dynamics, and continuum modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Maozhi; Han, Yong; Thiel, P A; Evans, J W

    2009-01-01

    An atomistic lattice-gas model is developed which successfully describes all key features of the complex mounded morphologies which develop during deposition of Ag films on Ag(111) surfaces. We focus on this homoepitaxial thin film growth process below 200 K. The unstable multilayer growth mode derives from the presence of a large Ehrlich-Schwoebel step-edge barrier, for which we characterize both the step-orientation dependence and the magnitude. Step-dynamics modeling is applied to further characterize and elucidate the evolution of the vertical profiles of these wedding-cake-like mounds. Suitable coarse-graining of these step-dynamics equations leads to instructive continuum formulations for mound evolution.

  12. Understanding the Vapor-Liquid-Solid and Vapor-Solid-Solid Mechanisms of Si Nanowire Growth to Synthetically Encode Precise Nanoscale Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinion, Christopher William

    Precise patterning of semiconductor materials utilizing top-down lithographic techniques is integral to the advanced electronics we use on a daily basis. However, continuing development of these lithographic technologies often results in the trade-off of either high cost or low throughput, and three-dimensional (3D) patterning can be difficult to achieve. Bottom-up, chemical methods to control the 3D nanoscale morphology of semiconductor nanostructures have received significant attention as a complementary technique. Semiconductor nanowires, nanoscale filaments of semiconductor material 10-500 nm in diameter and 1-50 microns in length, are an especially promising platform because the wire composition can be modulated during growth and the high aspect ratio, one-dimensional structure enables integration in a range of devices. In this thesis, we first report a bottom-up method to break the conventional "wire" symmetry and synthetically encode a high-resolution array of arbitrary shapes along the nanowire growth axis. Rapid modulation of phosphorus doping combined with selective wet-chemical etching enables morphological features as small as 10 nm to be patterned over wires more than 50 ?m in length. Next, our focus shifts to more fundamental studies of the nanowire synthetic mechanisms. We presented comprehensive experimental measurements on the growth rate of Au catalyzed Si nanowires and developed a kinetic model of vapor-liquid-solid growth. Our analysis revealed an abrupt transition from a diameter-independent growth rate that is limited by incorporation to a diameter-dependent growth rate that is limited by crystallization. While investigating the vapor-liquid-solid mechanism, we noticed instances of unique catalyst behavior. Upon further study, we showed that it is possible to instantaneously and reversibly switch the phase of the catalyst between a liquid and superheated solid state under isothermal conditions above the eutectic temperature. The solid catalyst

  13. Developmental Axon Stretch Stimulates Neuron Growth While Maintaining Normal Electrical Activity, Intracellular Calcium Flux, and Somatic Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph R Loverde

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Elongation of nerve fibers intuitively occurs throughout mammalian development, and is synchronized with expansion of the growing body. While most tissue systems enlarge through mitosis and differentiation, elongation of nerve fibers is remarkably unique. The emerging paradigm suggests that axons undergo stretch as contiguous tissues enlarge between the proximal and distal segments of spanning nerve fibers. While stretch is distinct from growth, tension is a known stimulus which regulates the growth of axons. Here, we hypothesized that the axon stretch-growth process may be a natural form of injury, whereby regenerative processes fortify elongating axons in order to prevent disconnection. Harnessing the live imaging capability of our axon stretch-growth bioreactors, we assessed neurons both during and following stretch for biomarkers associated with injury. Utilizing whole-cell patch clamp recording, we found no evidence of changes in spontaneous action potential activity or degradation of elicited action potentials during real-time axon stretch at strains of up to 18 % applied over 5 minutes. Unlike traumatic axonal injury, functional calcium imaging of the soma revealed no shifts in free intracellular calcium during axon stretch. Finally, the cross-sectional areas of nuclei and cytoplasms were normal, with no evidence of chromatolysis following week-long stretch-growth limited to the lower of 25 % strain or 3 mm total daily stretch. The neuronal growth cascade coupled to stretch was concluded to be independent of the changes in membrane potential, action potential generation, or calcium flux associated with traumatic injury. While axon stretch-growth is likely to share overlap with regenerative processes, we conclude that developmental stretch is a distinct stimulus from traumatic axon injury.

  14. Developmental axon stretch stimulates neuron growth while maintaining normal electrical activity, intracellular calcium flux, and somatic morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loverde, Joseph R; Pfister, Bryan J

    2015-01-01

    Elongation of nerve fibers intuitively occurs throughout mammalian development, and is synchronized with expansion of the growing body. While most tissue systems enlarge through mitosis and differentiation, elongation of nerve fibers is remarkably unique. The emerging paradigm suggests that axons undergo stretch as contiguous tissues enlarge between the proximal and distal segments of spanning nerve fibers. While stretch is distinct from growth, tension is a known stimulus which regulates the growth of axons. Here, we hypothesized that the axon stretch-growth process may be a natural form of injury, whereby regenerative processes fortify elongating axons in order to prevent disconnection. Harnessing the live imaging capability of our axon stretch-growth bioreactors, we assessed neurons both during and following stretch for biomarkers associated with injury. Utilizing whole-cell patch clamp recording, we found no evidence of changes in spontaneous action potential activity or degradation of elicited action potentials during real-time axon stretch at strains of up to 18% applied over 5 min. Unlike traumatic axonal injury, functional calcium imaging of the soma revealed no shifts in free intracellular calcium during axon stretch. Finally, the cross-sectional areas of nuclei and cytoplasms were normal, with no evidence of chromatolysis following week-long stretch-growth limited to the lower of 25% strain or 3 mm total daily stretch. The neuronal growth cascade coupled to stretch was concluded to be independent of the changes in membrane potential, action potential generation, or calcium flux associated with traumatic injury. While axon stretch-growth is likely to share overlap with regenerative processes, we conclude that developmental stretch is a distinct stimulus from traumatic axon injury.

  15. Kinetic exploration of nitrate-accumulating microalgae for nutrient recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppens, Joeri; Decostere, Bjorge; Van Hulle, Stijn; Nopens, Ingmar; Vlaeminck, Siegfried E; De Gelder, Leen; Boon, Nico

    2014-10-01

    Within sustainable resource management, the recovery of nitrogen and phosphorus nutrients from waste streams is becoming increasingly important. Although the use of microalgae has been described extensively in environmental biotechnology, the potential of nitrate-accumulating microalgae for nutrient recovery has not been investigated yet. The ability of these marine microorganisms to concentrate environmental nitrate within their biomass is remarkable. The aim of this study was to investigate the application potential of nitrate-accumulating diatoms for nutrient recovery from marine wastewaters. The intracellular nitrate storage capacity was quantified for six marine diatom strains in synthetic wastewater. Amphora coffeaeformis and Phaeodactylum tricornutum stored the highest amount of nitrate with respectively 3.15 and 2.10 g N L(-1) of cell volume, which accounted for 17.3 and 4.6 %, respectively, of the total nitrogen content. The growth and nitrate and phosphate uptake of both diatoms were further analyzed and based on these features P. tricornutum showed the highest potential for nutrient recovery. A mathematical model was developed which included intracellular nitrate storage and the kinetic parameters were derived for P. tricornutum. Furthermore, a simulation study was performed to compare the performance of a proposed microalgal nutrient recovery unit with a conventional denitrification system for marine wastewater treatment. Overall, this study demonstrates the potential application of P. tricornutum for saline wastewater treatment with concurrent nitrogen and phosphorus recycling.

  16. An 15N study of the effects of nitrate, ammonium, and nitrate + ammonium nutrition on nitrogen assimilation in Zea mays L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, A.T.

    1984-10-01

    A brief review of the literature on the effects of nitrate and ammonium nitrogen sources on plant growth, and the assimilation of those nitrogen sources, has been presented. It was concluded that ammonium nutrition produces optimum growth, with nitrate + ammonium being a better nitrogen source than only nitrate. Leaf blade nitrate reductase activity exceeded that of the root in nitrate-fed plants, suggesting that the shoot is the major region of nitrate assimilation. This is further supported by the results of xylem exudate analysis, where 93% of the newly-absorbed nitrogen exported by the roots was detected as nitrate. Evidence in support of this hypothesis was also obtained by studying the distribution of 15 N in the various nitrogenous compounds. The effects of nitrogen source on plant growth, organic nitrogen and inorganic nitrogen contents, and the rates of incorporation into nitrogenous compounds were studied. The observed differences were explained with reference to the effects of the various nitrogen sources on the physiology of the plants. The experimental techniques included assays of the enzymes nitrate reductase and glutamine synthetase, whole plant growth studies, and the analysis of nitrogenous compounds of xylem exudate and those extracted from the leaf blade, leaf base, and root regions of maize plants after feeding with a nutrient solution containing nitrogen as 15 N

  17. Effect of transforming growth factor-beta1 on decorin expression and muscle morphology during chicken embryonic and posthatch growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X; Velleman, S G

    2009-02-01

    During skeletal muscle development, transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) is a potent inhibitor of muscle cell proliferation and differentiation, as well as a regulator of extracellular matrix (ECM) production. Decorin, a member of the small leucine-rich ECM proteoglycans, binds to TGF-beta1 and modulates TGF-beta1-dependent cell growth stimulation or inhibition. The expression of decorin can be regulated by TGF-beta1 during muscle proliferation and differentiation. How TGF-beta1 affects decorin and muscle growth, however, has not been well documented in vivo. The present study investigated the effect of TGF-beta1 on decorin expression and intracellular connective tissue development during skeletal muscle growth. Exogenous TGF-beta1 significantly decreased the number of myofibers in a given area at both 1 d and 6 wk posthatch. The TGF-beta1-treated muscle had a significant decrease in decorin mRNA expression at embryonic day (ED) 10, whereas protein amounts decreased at 17 ED and 1 d posthatch compared to the control muscle. Decorin was localized in both the endomysium and perimysium in the control pectoralis major muscle. Transforming growth factor-beta1 reduced decorin in both the endomysium and perimysium from 17 ED to 6 wk posthatch. Compared to the control muscle, the perimysium space in the pectoralis major muscle was dramatically decreased by TGF-beta1 during embryonic development through posthatch growth. Because decorin regulates collagen fibrillogenesis, a major component of the ECM, the reduction of decorin by TGF-beta1 treatment may cause the irregular formation of collagen fibrils, leading to the decrease in endomysium and perimysium space. The results from the current study suggest that the effect of TGF-beta1 on decorin expression and localization was likely associated with altered development of the perimysium and the regulation of muscle fiber development.

  18. The Effects of Agave fourcroydes Powder as a Dietary Supplement on Growth Performance, Gut Morphology, Concentration of IgG, and Hematology Parameters in Broiler Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iser, Maidelys; Martínez, Yordan; Ni, Hengjia; Jiang, Hongmei; Valdivié Navarro, Manuel; Wu, Xiaosong; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Rosales, Manuel; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu; Fang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of Agave fourcroydes powder as a dietary supplement on the growth performance, gut morphology, serum concentration of IgG, and the hematology parameters of broiler rabbits. A total of 32 rabbits [New Zealand × Californian] were weaned at 35 days. They were randomly selected for two dietary treatments (eight repetitions per treatment), which consisted of a basal diet and a basal diet supplemented with 1.5% dried-stem powder of A. fourcroydes . On day 60 from the initiation of treatment, gut histomorphology (duodenum and cecum), serum concentration of IgG, and hematology parameters were all measured. The results showed that A. fourcroydes powder supplementation improved ( P < 0.05) the ADFI, ADG, and final BW. Correspondingly, this treatment increased ( P < 0.05) the muscle and mucosa thickness and height and width of villi. However, duodenum crypts depth was lower ( P < 0.05) when rabbits were fed with this natural product, compared with the basal diet treatment. Results also indicated that the A. fourcroydes powder increased ( P < 0.05) the serum concentration of IgG but did not change the hematology parameters. This data indicates that A. fourcroydes powder, as a supplement, had beneficial effects on increasing the growth performance and serum concentration of IgG, as well as improving the gut morphology without affecting the hematology parameters in broiler rabbits.

  19. Effect of dietary organic zinc sources on growth performance, incidence of diarrhoea, serum and tissue zinc concentrations, and intestinal morphology in growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.Y. Yan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary organic zinc (Zn sources on growth performance, the incidence of diarrhoea, serum and tissue Zn concentration, and intestinal morphology in growing rabbits. A total of 120 New Zealand White rabbits aged 35 d and with an initial body weight of 755±15 g, were randomly divided into 4 treatment groups for a 49 d feeding trial. Dietary treatments were designed with different Zn supplements as follows: (1 Control group: 80 mg/kg Zn as ZnSO4; (2 ZnLA group: 80 mg/kg Zn as Zn lactate; (3 ZnMet group: 80 mg/kg Zn as Zn methionine; (4 ZnGly group: 80 mg/kg Zn as Zn glycine. The results showed that, when compared with rabbits fed ZnSO4, supplementation with ZnLA improved (P4. Supplementing with ZnLA increased duodenum villi height (681.63 vs. 587.14 μm, P4, except that feeding ZnMet led to higher (P4. The results indicated that supplementation with 80 mg/kg Zn as ZnLA could improve growth performance, increase liver Zn concentration and enhance duodenum morphology, while reducing the incidence of diarrhoea in growing rabbits.

  20. The Effects of Agave fourcroydes Powder as a Dietary Supplement on Growth Performance, Gut Morphology, Concentration of IgG, and Hematology Parameters in Broiler Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maidelys Iser

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effects of Agave fourcroydes powder as a dietary supplement on the growth performance, gut morphology, serum concentration of IgG, and the hematology parameters of broiler rabbits. A total of 32 rabbits [New Zealand × Californian] were weaned at 35 days. They were randomly selected for two dietary treatments (eight repetitions per treatment, which consisted of a basal diet and a basal diet supplemented with 1.5% dried-stem powder of A. fourcroydes. On day 60 from the initiation of treatment, gut histomorphology (duodenum and cecum, serum concentration of IgG, and hematology parameters were all measured. The results showed that A. fourcroydes powder supplementation improved (P<0.05 the ADFI, ADG, and final BW. Correspondingly, this treatment increased (P<0.05 the muscle and mucosa thickness and height and width of villi. However, duodenum crypts depth was lower (P<0.05 when rabbits were fed with this natural product, compared with the basal diet treatment. Results also indicated that the A. fourcroydes powder increased (P<0.05 the serum concentration of IgG but did not change the hematology parameters. This data indicates that A. fourcroydes powder, as a supplement, had beneficial effects on increasing the growth performance and serum concentration of IgG, as well as improving the gut morphology without affecting the hematology parameters in broiler rabbits.

  1. On-line study of fungal morphology during submerged growth in a small flow-through cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spohr, Anders Bendsen; Dam Mikkelsen, C.; Carlsen, Morten

    1998-01-01

    A flow-through cell is designed to measure the growth kinetics of hyphae of Aspergillus oryzae grown submerged in a well controlled environment. The different stages of the growth process are characterized, from the spore to the fully developed hyphal element with up to 60 branches and a total...... is determined. After about 10 h growth at a glucose concentration of 250 mg L-1, 6-7 branches have been set, and both the total hyphal length l(t) and the number of tips increase exponentially with time. The specific growth rate of the hyphae is 0.33 h(-1) while the average rate of the extension of the growing...... tips approaches 55 mu m h(-1). The growth kinetics for all the branches on the main hypha have also been found. The main hypha and all the branches grow at a rate which can be modeled by saturation kinetics with respect to the branch length and with nearly equal final tip speeds (160 mu m h(-1...

  2. Aromatic Amino Acid-Derived Compounds Induce Morphological Changes and Modulate the Cell Growth of Wine Yeast Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Beatriz; Vázquez, Jennifer; Cullen, Paul J; Mas, Albert; Beltran, Gemma; Torija, María-Jesús

    2018-01-01

    Yeasts secrete a large diversity of compounds during alcoholic fermentation, which affect growth rates and developmental processes, like filamentous growth. Several compounds are produced during aromatic amino acid metabolism, including aromatic alcohols, serotonin, melatonin, and tryptamine. We evaluated the effects of these compounds on growth parameters in 16 different wine yeasts, including non- Saccharomyces wine strains, for which the effects of these compounds have not been well-defined. Serotonin, tryptamine, and tryptophol negatively influenced yeast growth, whereas phenylethanol and tyrosol specifically affected non- Saccharomyces strains. The effects of the aromatic alcohols were observed at concentrations commonly found in wines, suggesting a possible role in microbial interaction during wine fermentation. Additionally, we demonstrated that aromatic alcohols and ethanol are able to affect invasive and pseudohyphal growth in a manner dependent on nutrient availability. Some of these compounds showed strain-specific effects. These findings add to the understanding of the fermentation process and illustrate the diversity of metabolic communication that may occur among related species during metabolic processes.

  3. Aromatic Amino Acid-Derived Compounds Induce Morphological Changes and Modulate the Cell Growth of Wine Yeast Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz González

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Yeasts secrete a large diversity of compounds during alcoholic fermentation, which affect growth rates and developmental processes, like filamentous growth. Several compounds are produced during aromatic amino acid metabolism, including aromatic alcohols, serotonin, melatonin, and tryptamine. We evaluated the effects of these compounds on growth parameters in 16 different wine yeasts, including non-Saccharomyces wine strains, for which the effects of these compounds have not been well-defined. Serotonin, tryptamine, and tryptophol negatively influenced yeast growth, whereas phenylethanol and tyrosol specifically affected non-Saccharomyces strains. The effects of the aromatic alcohols were observed at concentrations commonly found in wines, suggesting a possible role in microbial interaction during wine fermentation. Additionally, we demonstrated that aromatic alcohols and ethanol are able to affect invasive and pseudohyphal growth in a manner dependent on nutrient availability. Some of these compounds showed strain-specific effects. These findings add to the understanding of the fermentation process and illustrate the diversity of metabolic communication that may occur among related species during metabolic processes.

  4. Mps1 (Monopolar Spindle 1) Protein Inhibition Affects Cellular Growth and Pro-Embryogenic Masses Morphology in Embryogenic Cultures of Araucaria angustifolia (Araucariaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douétts-Peres, Jackellinne C; Cruz, Marco Antônio L; Reis, Ricardo S; Heringer, Angelo S; de Oliveira, Eduardo A G; Elbl, Paula M; Floh, Eny I S; Silveira, Vanildo; Santa-Catarina, Claudete

    2016-01-01

    Somatic embryogenesis has been shown to be an efficient tool for studying processes based on cell growth and development. The fine regulation of the cell cycle is essential for proper embryo formation during the process of somatic embryogenesis. The aims of the present work were to identify and perform a structural and functional characterization of Mps1 and to analyze the effects of the inhibition of this protein on cellular growth and pro-embryogenic mass (PEM) morphology in embryogenic cultures of A. angustifolia. A single-copy Mps1 gene named AaMps1 was retrieved from the A. angustifolia transcriptome database, and through a mass spectrometry approach, AaMps1 was identified and quantified in embryogenic cultures. The Mps1 inhibitor SP600125 (10 μM) inhibited cellular growth and changed PEMs, and these effects were accompanied by a reduction in AaMps1 protein levels in embryogenic cultures. Our work has identified the Mps1 protein in a gymnosperm species for the first time, and we have shown that inhibiting Mps1 affects cellular growth and PEM differentiation during A. angustifolia somatic embryogenesis. These data will be useful for better understanding cell cycle control during somatic embryogenesis in plants.

  5. Effects of mixed saline and alkaline stress on the morphology and anatomy of Pisum sativum L.: The role of peroxidase and ascorbate oxidase in growth regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kukavica Biljana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of hyperalkaline, thermo-mineral water from Slatina on the morphology and anatomy of pea plants (Pisum sativum L., were examined after eleven days of treatment with a mixture of tap water and Slatina water in 3:1 (T1 and 1:1 ratios (T2. Complete growth arrest of seedlings was observed in the Slatina water (T3. The alkalinity of external media was recovered to pH 8 within four days only in T1 and T2. Analysis of morphological parameters (the length of the main root, root application zone, number of lateral roots indicated that the thermo-mineral water either promoted (T1 or inhibited (T2 the formation of lateral roots and plant growth. Comparative histological and anatomical analyses showed that inhibition of lateral roots was accompanied by an increase in the xylem and phloem. These changes in root morphology were accompanied by an increase in the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD: E.C. 1.15.1.1 and peroxidase (POD: E.C 1.1.1.17 in the soluble fraction, whereas the activities of ascorbate oxidase (AAO: E.C. 1.10.3.3 bound to the cell wall and ionic POD decreased. The lower ratio of Slatina water in the hydroponic solution contributed to a more developed mesophyll with significantly higher AAO activity in the leaves and the induction of ionic POD isoforms. Besides alkalinity and excess NaCl, we suggest that a specific combination of metals (e.g. Ca and Mg might be responsible for subtle changes in the cell area and xylem development, leading to dramatic changes in root anatomy.

  6. Growth and product formation of Aspergillus oryzae during submerged cultivations: Verification of a morphologically structured model using fluorescent probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Teit; Spohr, Anders Bendsen; Carlsen, Morten

    1998-01-01

    branching and inactivation are included in the model, and the kinetics of branching and tip extension are based on known experimentally verified models of fungal microscopic morphology. To verify the structure of the model a double-staining method, based on a combination of fluorescence microscopy...... and automated image analysis, has been developed for measuring the fraction of active cells. The method employs the fluorescent dye 3,3'-dihexyloxocarbocyanin to stain organelles inside the hyphae and Calcoflour White to stain the cell wall. The ratio between the projected areas of the organelles...

  7. A combined phytohemagglutinin and a-ketoglutarate pharmacology study of gut morphology and growth in older adult rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filip, R.; Harrison, Adrian Paul; Pierzynowski, S.G.

    2008-01-01

    This study has evaluated the effect of phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) in combination with alpha-ketoglutaric acid (AKG), on GI-tract morphology and N balance in adult rats. Rats, aged approx. 15 months, were assigned to one of four experimental groups, (1) Control group, (2) AKG group, (3) AKG+PHA 100......% group and (4) AKG+PHA 1% group. AKG and AKG+PHA were administered via a stomach tube. Rats were treated for a period of 7 days before being killed humanely. Lighter GI-tract weights were found in the AKG and AKG+PHA 1% groups (6.8%, p

  8. dl-Asparaginium nitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabila Moussa Slimane

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C4H9N2O3+·NO3−, alternatively called (1RS-2-carbamoyl-1-carboxyethanaminium nitrate, the asymmetric unit comprises one asparaginium cation and one nitrate anion. The strongest cation–cation O—H...O hydrogen bond in the structure, together with other strong cation–cation N—H...O hydrogen bonds, generates a succession of infinite chains of R22(8 rings along the b axis. Additional cation–cation C—H...O hydrogen bonds link these chains into two-dimensional layers formed by alternating R44(24 and R42(12 rings. Connections between these layers are provided by the strong cation–anion N—H...O hydrogen bonds, as well as by one weak C—H...O interaction, thus forming a three-dimensional network. Some of the cation–anion N—H...O hydrogen bonds are bifurcated of the type D—H...(A1,A2.

  9. A “Do-It-Yourself” phenotyping system: measuring growth and morphology throughout the diel cycle in rosette shaped plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Dobrescu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improvements in high-throughput phenotyping technologies are rapidly expanding the scope and capacity of plant biology studies to measure growth traits. Nevertheless, the costs of commercial phenotyping equipment and infrastructure remain prohibitively expensive for wide-scale uptake, while academic solutions can require significant local expertise. Here we present a low-cost methodology for plant biologists to build their own phenotyping system for quantifying growth rates and phenotypic characteristics of Arabidopsis thaliana rosettes throughout the diel cycle. Results We constructed an image capture system consisting of a near infra-red (NIR, 940 nm LED panel with a mounted Raspberry Pi NoIR camera and developed a MatLab-based software module (iDIEL Plant to characterise rosette expansion. Our software was able to accurately segment and characterise multiple rosettes within an image, regardless of plant arrangement or genotype, and batch process image sets. To further validate our system, wild-type Arabidopsis plants (Col-0 and two mutant lines with reduced Rubisco contents, pale leaves and slow growth phenotypes (1a3b and 1a2b were grown on a single plant tray. Plants were imaged from 9 to 24 days after germination every 20 min throughout the 24 h light–dark growth cycle (i.e. the diel cycle. The resulting dataset provided a dynamic and uninterrupted characterisation of differences in rosette growth and expansion rates over time for the three lines tested. Conclusion Our methodology offers a straightforward solution for setting up automated, scalable and low-cost phenotyping facilities in a wide range of lab environments that could greatly increase the processing power and scalability of Arabidopsis soil growth experiments.

  10. Temperature and radiation as factors controlling growth and morphology of Tabellaria flocculosa var. asterionelloides (Diatoms) in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kofler, S.

    1986-01-01

    Increasing eutrophication recently led to big population maxima of Tabellaria flocculosa var. asterionelloides (Diatoms) in Mondsee (Upper Austria). Controlling factors, other than nutrients, for this developement remained unclear. This work should elucidate the growth and photosynthetic response of unialgal Tabellaria cultures exposed to cross gradients of temperature (5 - 25degC)and light intensity (10 - 250 μE m -2 sec -1 , 14:10 L:D). 20degC/250 μE gave maximum growth rates (0.6 d -1 ). Light saturation onset concerning growth started at 50 μE for 5, 10 and 25degC, 80 μE for 15degC and 100 μE for 20degC. Growth continued down to 10 μE for all temperatures examined. Net production rates, found with oxygen electrodes, were reduced by high respiration rates (32 - 154 % of gross photosynthesis) to -1.5 to 13.0 pg O 2 (cell.h) -1 . Carbon uptake ( 14 C technique) was 8.4 pg C (cell.h) -1 or 4.4 mg C (mg chl a-bar) -1 (l.h) -1 at 20degC and saturating light intensity. Pigment content varied due to adaptation to different light intensities from 1.5 to 9.5 pg chl a-bar+phaeo a-bar mm -3 . Exposure to different light qualities showed best growth in blue-green light, while red light reduced growth rate and cell number per colony. Furthermore light quality influenced the carotenoid content qualitatively and quantitatively. Mucilage sheets surrounding various proportions of individuals in a population were observed, but could not be fully explained by the factors tested. In conclusion, population dynamics of Tabellaria in Mondsee depend on physical factors from autumn to spring and on nutrient availability in summer. (Author)

  11. Endometrial glands as a source of nutrients, growth factors and cytokines during the first trimester of human pregnancy: A morphological and immunohistochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jauniaux Eric

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The maternal circulation to the human placenta is not fully established until 10–12 weeks of pregnancy. During the first trimester the intervillous space is filled by a clear fluid, in part derived from secretions from the endometrial glands via openings in the basal plate. The aim was to determine the activity of the glands throughout the first trimester, and to identify components of the secretions. Methods Samples of human decidua basalis from 5–14 weeks gestational age were examined by transmission electron microscopy and immunohistochemically. An archival collection of placenta-in-situ samples was also reviewed. Results The thickness of the endometrium beneath the implantation site reduced from approximately 5 mm at 6 weeks to 1 mm at 14 weeks of gestation. The glandular epithelium also transformed from tall columnar cells, packed with secretory organelles, to a low cuboidal layer over this period. The lumens of the glands were always filled with precipitated secretions, and communications with the intervillous space could be traced until at least 10 weeks. The glandular epithelium reacted strongly for leukaemia inhibitory factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, epidermal growth factor, transforming growth factor beta, alpha tocopherol transfer protein, MUC-1 and glycodelin, and weakly for lactoferrin. As gestation advanced uterine natural killer cells became closely approximated to the basal surface of the epithelium. These cells were also immunopositive for epidermal growth factor. Conclusions Morphologically the endometrial glands are best developed and most active during early human pregnancy. The glands gradually regress over the first trimester, but still communicate with the intervillous space until at least 10 weeks. Hence, they could provide an important source of nutrients, growth factors and cytokines for the feto-placental unit. The endometrium may therefore play a greater role in regulating placental

  12. Effects of inorganic nitrogen form on growth, morphology, N uptake, and nutrient allocation in hybrid Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum × Pennisetum americanum cv. Pakchong1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jampeetong, Arunothai; Brix, Hans; Kantawanichkul, Suwasa

    2014-01-01

    in such systems. We studied the effects of inorganic nitrogen form (NH4 +, NH4NO3 or NO3 -) on growth, morphology, N uptake, water content and mineral allocation in this species under hydroponic conditions at equimolar concentrations (500μmolNL-1). Generally, the N-form significantly affected growth, biomass...

  13. Effect of Pentacene-dielectric Affinity on Pentacene Thin Film Growth Morphology in Organic Field-effect Transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S Kim; M Jang; H Yang; C Park

    2011-12-31

    Organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) are fabricated by depositing a thin film of semiconductor on the functionalized surface of a SiO{sub 2} dielectric. The chemical and morphological structures of the interface between the semiconductor and the functionalized dielectric are critical for OFET performance. We have characterized the effect of the affinity between semiconductor and functionalized dielectric on the properties of the semiconductor-dielectric interface. The crystalline microstructure/nanostructure of the pentacene semiconductor layers, grown on a dielectric substrate that had been functionalized with either poly(4-vinyl pyridine) or polystyrene (to control hydrophobicity), and grown under a series of substrate temperatures and deposition rates, were characterized by X-ray diffraction, photoemission spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy. By comparing the morphological features of the semiconductor thin films with the device characteristics (field-effect mobility, threshold voltage, and hysteresis) of the OFET devices, the effect of affinity-driven properties on charge modulation, charge trapping, and charge carrier transport could be described.

  14. Nitrate storage and dissimilatory nitrate reduction by eukaryotic microbes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamp, Anja; Høgslund, Signe; Risgaard-Petersen, Nils

    2015-01-01

    The microbial nitrogen cycle is one of the most complex and environmentally important element cycles on Earth and has long been thought to be mediated exclusively by prokaryotic microbes. Rather recently, it was discovered that certain eukaryotic microbes are able to store nitrate intracellularly...... and use it for dissimilatory nitrate reduction in the absence of oxygen. The paradigm shift that this entailed is ecologically significant because the eukaryotes in question comprise global players like diatoms, foraminifers, and fungi. This review article provides an unprecedented overview of nitrate...... storage and dissimilatory nitrate reduction by diverse marine eukaryotes placed into an eco-physiological context. The advantage of intracellular nitrate storage for anaerobic energy conservation in oxygen-depleted habitats is explained and the life style enabled by this metabolic trait is described...

  15. Driving mechanism and sources of groundwater nitrate contamination in the rapidly urbanized region of south China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qianqian; Sun, Jichao; Liu, Jingtao; Huang, Guanxing; Lu, Chuan; Zhang, Yuxi

    2015-11-01

    Nitrate contamination of groundwater has become an environmental problem of widespread concern in China. We collected 899 groundwater samples from a rapidly urbanized area, in order to identify the main sources and driving mechanisms of groundwater nitrate contamination. The results showed that the land use has a significant effect on groundwater nitrate concentration (P population growth. This study revealed that domestic wastewater and industrial wastewater were the main sources of groundwater nitrate pollution. Therefore, the priority method for relieving groundwater nitrate contamination is to control the random discharge of domestic and industrial wastewater in regions undergoing rapid urbanization. Capsule abstract. The main driving mechanism of groundwater nitrate contamination was determined to be urban construction and the secondary and tertiary industrial development, and population growth.

  16. 33 CFR 126.28 - Ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., combustible liquids, corrosive liquids, chlorates, permanganates, finely divided metals, caustic soda... molten ammonium nitrate if a fire occurred (and thus become potential detonators for the storage piles...

  17. Continuous cultivations of a Penicillium chrysogenum strain expressing the expandase gene from Streptomyces clavuligerus: Growth yields and morphological characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robin, Jarno Jacky Christian; Lettier, G.; Mcintyre, Mhairi

    2003-01-01

    it is fed with adipic acid. The biomass yield and maintenance coefficients for the strain were similar to those found for penicillin-producing strains of Penicillium chrysogenum. The maximum specific growth rate in the chemostat was found to be 0.11 h(-1). Metabolic degradation of adipate was found to take...

  18. Altering the expression of two chitin synthase genes differentially affects the growth and morphology of Aspergillus oryzae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Christian; Hjort, C.M.; Hansen, K.

    2002-01-01

    obtained for csmA indicated that it had high similarity to class V chitin synthases. chsB and csmA disruption strains and a strain in which chsB transcription was controlled were constructed using the nitrite reductase (niiA) promoter. The strains were examined during hyphal growth by Northern analysis...

  19. Effects of adhesion layer on Ag nanorod growth mode and morphology using glancing angle physical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Matthew P.; McKinney, Casey S.; Serrano, Joel M.; Mullen, Thomas J.; Stagon, Stephen P.

    2017-01-01

    This letter reports on the transition from a non-wetting to an effectively wetting growth mode of silver (Ag) nanorods when an adhesion layer is used during glancing angle physical vapor deposition growth. When deposited onto a silicon substrate without an adhesion layer, Ag nanorods grow from partially interconnected non-wetting islands with diameters of ˜100 nm, although many connect with their neighbors due to small rod-to-rod spacing. When a 1 nm thick Cr adhesion layer is used, which is shown not to completely coat the substrate, the growth mode becomes effectively wetting through the coalescence of closely spaced nuclei, and both Ag nanorod diameter and spacing increase. Alternatively, when a thicker 10 nm Cr adhesion layer is used, the growth mode becomes mixed, as both small effective wetting regions and film gaps exist. For the cases of no adhesion layer and 1 nm Cr adhesion layer, the nanorods are oriented at ˜23° from the substrate but lay down onto the substrate when a 10 nm thick Cr adhesion layer is used. Thin film adhesion tests demonstrate that both 1 nm and 10 nm Cr adhesion layers offer an enhanced performance over no adhesion layer or a glancing angle adhesion layer.

  20. Needlelike morphology of aspartame

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuppen, H.M.; van Eerd, A.R.T.; Meekes, H.L.M.

    2004-01-01

    The needlelike morphology of aspartame form II-A is studied by means of Monte Carlo simulations. Growth simulations for all F faces show merely three faces with a nucleation barrier for growth: two side faces and one top face. Calculations of the energies involved in the growth for a few

  1. Rhodobacter capsulatus gains a competitive advantage from respiratory nitrate reduction during light-dark transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellington, M J K; Richardson, D J; Ferguson, S J

    2003-04-01

    Rhodobacter capsulatus N22DNAR(+) possesses a periplasmic nitrate reductase and is capable of reducing nitrate to nitrite under anaerobic conditions. In the absence of light this ability cannot support chemoheterotrophic growth in batch cultures. This study investigated the effect of nitrate reduction on the growth of R. capsulatus N22DNAR(+) during multiple light-dark cycles of anaerobic photoheterotrophic/dark chemoheterotrophic growth conditions in carbon-limited continuous cultures. The reduction of nitrate did not affect the photoheterotrophic growth yield of R. capsulatus N22DNAR(+). After a transition from photoheterotrophic to dark chemoheterotrophic growth conditions, the reduction of nitrate slowed the initial washout of a R. capsulatus N22DNAR(+) culture. Towards the end of a period of darkness nitrate-reducing cultures maintained higher viable cell counts than non-nitrate-reducing cultures. During light-dark cycling of a mixed culture, the strain able to reduce nitrate (N22DNAR(+)) outcompeted the strain which was unable to reduce nitrate (N22). The evidence indicates that the periplasmic nitrate reductase activity supports slow growth that retards the washout of a culture during anaerobic chemoheterotrophic conditions, and provides a protonmotive force for cell maintenance during the dark period before reillumination. This translates into a selective advantage during repeated light-dark cycles, such that in mixed culture N22DNAR(+) outcompetes N22. Exposure to light-dark cycles will be a common feature for R. capsulatus in its natural habitats, and this study shows that nitrate respiration may provide a selective advantage under such conditions.

  2. Decomposition of metal nitrate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, P.A.; Stines, W.B.

    1982-01-01

    Oxides in powder form are obtained from aqueous solutions of one or more heavy metal nitrates (e.g. U, Pu, Th, Ce) by thermal decomposition at 300 to 800 deg C in the presence of about 50 to 500% molar concentration of ammonium nitrate to total metal. (author)

  3. Evaluation of nitrate destruction methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, P.A.; Kurath, D.E.; Guenther, R.

    1993-01-01

    A wide variety of high nitrate-concentration aqueous mixed [radioactive and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous] wastes are stored at various US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. These wastes will ultimately be solidified for final disposal, although the waste acceptance criteria for the final waste form is still being determined. Because the nitrates in the wastes will normally increase the volume or reduce the integrity of all of the waste forms under consideration for final disposal, nitrate destruction before solidification of the waste will generally be beneficial. This report describes and evaluates various technologies that could be used to destroy the nitrates in the stored wastes. This work was funded by the Department of Energy's Office of Technology Development, through the Chemical/Physical Technology Support Group of the Mixed Waste Integrated Program. All the nitrate destruction technologies will require further development work before a facility could be designed and built to treat the majority of the stored wastes. Several of the technologies have particularly attractive features: the nitrate to ammonia and ceramic (NAC) process produces an insoluble waste form with a significant volume reduction, electrochemical reduction destroys nitrates without any chemical addition, and the hydrothermal process can simultaneously treat nitrates and organics in both acidic and alkaline wastes. These three technologies have been tested using lab-scale equipment and surrogate solutions. At their current state of development, it is not possible to predict which process will be the most beneficial for a particular waste stream

  4. Hygroscopic behavior of atmospheric aerosols containing nitrate salts and water-soluble organic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Jing

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available While nitrate salts have critical impacts on environmental effects of atmospheric aerosols, the effects of coexisting species on hygroscopicity of nitrate salts remain uncertain. The hygroscopic behaviors of nitrate salt aerosols (NH4NO3, NaNO3, Ca(NO32 and their internal mixtures with water-soluble organic acids were determined using a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA. The nitrate salt ∕ organic acid mixed aerosols exhibit varying phase behavior and hygroscopic growth depending upon the type of components in the particles. Whereas pure nitrate salt particles show continuous water uptake with increasing relative humidity (RH, the deliquescence transition is still observed for ammonium nitrate particles internally mixed with organic acids such as oxalic acid and succinic acid with a high deliquescence point. The hygroscopicity of submicron aerosols containing sodium nitrate and an organic acid is also characterized by continuous growth, indicating that sodium nitrate tends to exist in a liquid-like state under dry conditions. It is observed that in contrast to the pure components, the water uptake is hindered at low and moderate RH for calcium nitrate particles containing malonic acid or phthalic acid, suggesting the potential effects of mass transfer limitation in highly viscous mixed systems. Our findings improve fundamental understanding of the phase behavior and water uptake of nitrate-salt-containing aerosols in the atmospheric environment.

  5. Phthalimido-thiazoles as building blocks and their effects on the growth and morphology of Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Paulo André Teixeira de Moraes; Oliveira, Arsênio Rodrigues; Cardoso, Marcos Veríssimo de Oliveira; Santiago, Edna de Farias; Barbosa, Miria de Oliveira; de Siqueira, Lucianna Rabelo Pessoa; Moreira, Diogo Rodrigo Magalhães; Bastos, Tanira Matutino; Brayner, Fábio André; Soares, Milena Botelho Pereira; Mendes, Andresa Pereira de Oliveira; de Castro, Maria Carolina Accioly Brelaz; Pereira, Valéria Rego Alves; Leite, Ana Cristina Lima

    2016-03-23

    Chagas disease is a parasitic infection caused by protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi that affects approximately 6-7 million people worldwide. Benznidazole is the only drug approved for treatment during the acute and asymptomatic chronic phases; however, its efficacy during the symptomatic chronic phase is controversial. The present work reports the synthesis and anti-T. cruzi activities of a novel series of phthalimido-thiazoles. Some of these compounds showed potent inhibition of the trypomastigote form of the parasite at low cytotoxicity concentrations in spleen cells, and the resulting structure-activity relationships are discussed. We also showed that phthalimido-thiazoles induced ultrastructural alterations on morphology, flagellum shortening, chromatin condensation, mitochondria swelling, reservosomes alterations and endoplasmic reticulum dilation. Together, these data revealed, for the first time, a novel series of phthalimido-thiazoles-structure-based compounds with potential effects against T. cruzi and lead-like characteristics against Chagas disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Growth inhibition and morphological alterations of Trichophyton rubrum induced by essential oil from Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt ex Bor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fillipe de Oliveira Pereira

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Trichophyton rubrum is one of the most common fungi causer of dermatophytosis, mycosis that affect humans and animals around the world. Researches aiming new products with antifungal activity become necessary to overcome difficulties on treatment of these infections. Accordingly, this study aimed to investigate the antifungal activity of essential oil from Cymbopogon winterianus against the dermatophyte T. rubrum. The antifungal screening was performed by solid medium diffusion method with 16 T. rubrum strains, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum fungicide concentration (MFC were determined using the microdilution method. The effects on mycelial dry weight and morphology were also observed. Screening showed essential oil in natura inhibited all the tested strains, with inhibition zones between 24-28 mm diameter. MIC50 and MIC90 values of the essential oil were 312 µg/mL for nearly all the essayed strains (93.75 % while the MFC50 and MFC90 values were about eight times higher than MIC for all tested strains. All tested essential oil concentrations managed to inhibit strongly the mycelium development. Main morphological changes on the fungal strains observed under light microscopy, which were provided by the essential oil include loss of conidiation, alterations concerning form and pigmentation of hyphae. In the oil presence, colonies showed folds, cream color and slightly darker than the control, pigment production was absent on the reverse and with evident folds. It is concluded that C. winterianus essential oil showed activity against T. rubrum. Therefore, it could be known as potential antifungal compound especially for protection against dermatophytosis.

  7. Growth Inhibition and Morphological Alterations of Trichophyton Rubrum Induced by Essential oil from Cymbopogon Winterianus Jowitt Ex Bor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Pereira, Fillipe; Alves Wanderley, Paulo; Cavalcanti Viana, Fernando Antônio; Baltazar de Lima, Rita; Barbosa de Sousa, Frederico; de Oliveira Lima, Edeltrudes

    2011-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum is one of the most common fungi causer of dermatophytosis, mycosis that affect humans and animals around the world. Researches aiming new products with antifungal activity become necessary to overcome difficulties on treatment of these infections. Accordingly, this study aimed to investigate the antifungal activity of essential oil from Cymbopogon winterianus against the dermatophyte T. rubrum. The antifungal screening was performed by solid medium diffusion method with 16 T. rubrum strains, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicide concentration (MFC) were determined using the microdilution method. The effects on mycelial dry weight and morphology were also observed. Screening showed essential oil in natura inhibited all the tested strains, with inhibition zones between 24-28 mm diameter. MIC50 and MIC90 values of the essential oil were 312 μg/mL for nearly all the essayed strains (93.75 %) while the MFC50 and MFC90 values were about eight times higher than MIC for all tested strains. All tested essential oil concentrations managed to inhibit strongly the mycelium development. Main morphological changes on the fungal strains observed under light microscopy, which were provided by the essential oil include loss of conidiation, alterations concerning form and pigmentation of hyphae. In the oil presence, colonies showed folds, cream color and slightly darker than the control, pigment production was absent on the reverse and with evident folds. It is concluded that C. winterianus essential oil showed activity against T. rubrum. Therefore, it could be known as potential antifungal compound especially for protection against dermatophytosis.

  8. Growth Inhibition and Morphological Alterations of Trichophyton Rubrum Induced by Essential oil from Cymbopogon Winterianus Jowitt Ex Bor

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Pereira, Fillipe; Alves Wanderley, Paulo; Cavalcanti Viana, Fernando Antônio; Baltazar de Lima, Rita; Barbosa de Sousa, Frederico; de Oliveira Lima, Edeltrudes

    2011-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum is one of the most common fungi causer of dermatophytosis, mycosis that affect humans and animals around the world. Researches aiming new products with antifungal activity become necessary to overcome difficulties on treatment of these infections. Accordingly, this study aimed to investigate the antifungal activity of essential oil from Cymbopogon winterianus against the dermatophyte T. rubrum. The antifungal screening was performed by solid medium diffusion method with 16 T. rubrum strains, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicide concentration (MFC) were determined using the microdilution method. The effects on mycelial dry weight and morphology were also observed. Screening showed essential oil in natura inhibited all the tested strains, with inhibition zones between 24-28 mm diameter. MIC50 and MIC90 values of the essential oil were 312 μg/mL for nearly all the essayed strains (93.75 %) while the MFC50 and MFC90 values were about eight times higher than MIC for all tested strains. All tested essential oil concentrations managed to inhibit strongly the mycelium development. Main morphological changes on the fungal strains observed under light microscopy, which were provided by the essential oil include loss of conidiation, alterations concerning form and pigmentation of hyphae. In the oil presence, colonies showed folds, cream color and slightly darker than the control, pigment production was absent on the reverse and with evident folds. It is concluded that C. winterianus essential oil showed activity against T. rubrum. Therefore, it could be known as potential antifungal compound especially for protection against dermatophytosis. PMID:24031626

  9. Influência de fitorreguladores e nitrato de potássio na germinação de sementes e no crescimento de porta-enxerto de Citrus amblycarpa Influence of growth regulators and potassium nitrate on Citrus amblycarpa seed germination and growth of rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Leonel

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados os efeitos de fitorreguladores (giberelinas e citocininas e nitrato de potássio (KNO3, na germinação de sementes e na promoção do crescimento de "seedlings" do porta-enxerto 'Nasnaran' (Citrus amblycarpa Ochese. Realizou-se primeiramente o experimento em germinador, contendo papel de filtro umedecido com água destilada e gerbox, como meio para a germinação das sementes. Os tratamentos foram realizados mediante imersão das sementes, em soluções preparadas com os fítorreguladores e KNO3, durante 24 horas. Através dos resultados obtidos, concluiu-se que o tratamento com 100 mg/1 de GA4 + GA7 + fenilmetilaminopurina, apresentou a maior porcentagem de germinação (88%, num tempo médio de 21 dias. Tomando como base o resultado do germinador, sementes de Citrus amblycarpa foram semeadas em canteiros e quando as plantas atingiram a altura de 6,0 cm receberam 2 pulverizações com 0; 50; 100 e 150 mg/1 de GA4 + GA7 + fenilmetilami-nopurina, com intervalo de 21 dias. Avaliou-se a matéria seca total, caule e folhas, área foliar e altura das plantas, sendo que a análise desses parâmetros mostrou que o GA4 + GA7 + fenilmetUaminopurina na concentração de 50 mg/1 foi o tratamento que apresentou os melhores resultados.The effects of growth regulators (gibberellins and cytokmins and potassium nitrate were evaluated for Citrus amblycarpa seed germination and rootstock growth. First an experiment was performed in a germinator, using as a medium for seed germination filter paper wetted with distiled water. Seeds were treated with growth regulators and potassium nitrate during 24 hours. The results obtained indicate that the treatment of 100 mg/1 of GA4 + GA7 + phenylmethylaminepurine was the best, with a percentage of germination of 88% at 21 days. Based on the results obtained in the germinator, seeds of Citrus amblycarpa were seeded in soil and when the seedlings were 6 cm high they were sprayed with 50 mg/1 of GA4 + GA7

  10. The effect of probiotics on broiler growth and intestinal morphology when used to prevent Campylobacter jejuni colonization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Ştef

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to establish the effect of probiotic microorganisms on growth performance and intestinal changes caused by Campylobacter jejuni colonization.In this respect, we used four probiotic microorganisms, namely: Lactobacillus paracasei JR, L. rhamnosus 15b, Y L. lactis and L. lactis FOA.The administration of probiotic microorganisms in different combinations and in different periods of growth does not significantly influence the bioproductive indices of broilers,that is,the total gain, feed intake and FCR (p>0.05. After studying the intestinal mucosa, it was concluded that the four microorganisms administered in broilers’s food determineschanges in the mucosa, inhibiting the development of Campylobacter jejuni,by the presence of smaller caliciform cells and the presence ofreduced leukocyte infiltration in the chorion of the mucosal.

  11. MORPHOLOGICAL CHANGES DURING GERMINATION AND GROWTH OF RAPESEED SAMPLES (Brassica napus EXPOSED TO NON-IONIZING RADIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana Mihaela Lazăr

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The UV-A radiation acts on cellular constituents indirectly through oxidative mechanisms involving the radicals’ formation. These species have a relatively short lifespan, but are highly reactive, reacts with most cellular constituents: nucleic acids, proteins, lipids, polysaccharides. The rapeseed samples provided by Agricultural Research Center Secuieni, Neamţ (Romania were irradiated with a wide band source (UV-B, UV-A, visible with different non-radiation doses, equivalent to several hours of sun exposure. The exposure to UV radiation determines changes in the metabolism, within the growth and development processes, having positive or negative influences on plant health and vitality. The purpose of this study is to analyze different rapeseed samples in order to identify the differences according to non-radiation effect. Regarding the growth and development of height stems it has been observed that roots length and stem height of rape samples are highest at irradiation time around 280 minutes.

  12. Prey-specific growth responses of freshwater flagellate communities induced by morphologically distinct bacteria from the genus Limnohabitans

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grujčič, Vesna; Kasalický, Vojtěch; Šimek, Karel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 81, č. 15 (2015), s. 4993-5002 ISSN 0099-2240 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-00243S; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : freshwater reservoir * heterotrophic flagellate bacterivory * Limnohabitans * bacterial food quality * growth responses of flagellates Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.823, year: 2015

  13. Initial kinetics of 15N-nitrate labelling of root and shoot N fractions of barley cultured at different relative addition rates of nitrate-N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrell, D.; Larsson, C.M.; Larsson, M.; MacKown, C.T.; Rufty, T.W.

    1997-01-01

    The reduction of absorbed nitrate in the root and N transport to the shoot were studied in young barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) plants growing at low external nitrate levels. Plants were grown at three relative addition rates (RA) of nitrate: 0.04, 0.09, and 0.14 d -1 , which represent different degrees of growth limiting nitrate supply. Root nitrate reduction and N transport in situ were estimated using 15 N labelled nitrate exposures ranging from 5 to 60 min. With increasing RA, nitrate uptake in absolute terms increased, but the proportion of absorbed 15 N-nitrate that was reduced in the root decreased markedly. After 10-20 min of exposure to the label, 75, 49 and 27 % of the 15 N taken up was recovered as reduced 15 N in the root at RAs 0.04, 0.09, and 0.14 d -1 , respectively. The response pattern was supported by root nitrate reductase activities and xylem sap nitrate measurements. The decreasing proportion of reduced 15 N in the root with higher nitrate supply rates was matched by a relative increase in 15 N-nitrate storage and, to some extent, an increase in N transport to the shoot. Although small amounts of 15 N were rapidly transported to the shoot, the accumulation of label in the shoot at the end of the 60 min period remained a relatively small proportion of total 15 N uptake, which indicates delayed movement of 15 N out of the root. The results clearly indicate that differing degrees of adjustment occur in important nitrate assimilation processes throughout the N deficiency range. (author)

  14. PENGARUH PENAMBAHAN UREA TERHADAP PENINGKATAN PENCEMARAN NITRIT DAN NITRAT DALAM TANAH (Influence of Addition of Urea to Increased Pollution of Nitrite and Nitrate in The Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Mawaddah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Nitrat dan nitrit merupakan sumber nitrogen bagi tanaman. Nitrogen sangat diperlukan tanaman untuk pertumbuhan dan perkembangan. Bentuk-bentuk nitrogen di lingkungan mengalami transformasi sebagai bagian dari siklus nitrogen seperti nitrifikasi dan denitrifikasi. Apabila kadar nitrogen dalam tanah rendah, maka urea digunakan sebagai sumber nitrogen. Perubahan urea menjadi nitrit atau nitrat pada beberapa sampel tanah perlu diketahui. Kadar nitrit dan nitrat yang tinggi dapat meningkatkan pencemaran di dalam tanah. Sampel tanah yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah tanah pasir, tanah sawah, tanah pupuk kompos dan tanah pupuk kandang. Analisis nitrit dan nitrat dilakukan dengan menggunakan pereaksi asam p-amino benzoat (PABA yang dikopling dengan N-naftiletilendiamin (NEDA dan reduktor spongy cadmium. Sebelum digunakan untuk analisis nitrit dan nitrat, metode divalidasi terlebih dahulu. Hasil validasi metode analisis nitrit dan nitrat dengan pereaksi PABA/NEDA menunjukkan persentase perolehan kembali masing-masing antara 87,15–100,8% untuk nitrit dan 88,16–105,7% untuk nitrat. Setelah ditambah urea sebesar 0,66 g.kg-1 ke dalam tanah, konsentrasi nitrit dan nitrat pada semua sampel tanah mengalami peningkatan. Dari penelitian ini diketahui bahwa peningkatan kadar nitrit dan nitrat setelah ditambahkan urea sangat dipengaruhi oleh kondisi tanah.   ABSTRACT Nitrate and nitrite were sources of nitrogen for plants. Nitrogen is indispensable for the growth and development of plants. The forms of nitrogen in the environment undergoes a transformation as part of the nitrogen cycle like nitrification and denitrification. If nitrogen level in the soil is low, urea is used as a source of nitrogen. Changes of urea into nitrite or nitrate in some of soil samples need to be known. The levels of nitrite and nitrate are high can increase pollution in the soil. Some of soil samples which is used in this research were sandy soil, paddy soil

  15. Studying solubility of praseodymium(3) nitrate with nitrates of aniline, guanidine in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsova, L.S.; Zhuravlev, E.F.

    1977-01-01

    The solubility in the systems praseodymium nitrate-aniline nitrate-water(1) and praseodymium nitrate-guanidine nitrate-water(2) has been studied at 20 and 40 deg C. In the given temperature range the state diagrams of the systems correspond to the isotherms of the simple eutonic type. Aniline nitrate and hexahydrate of praseodymium nitrate in the first system and guanidine nitrate and hexahydrate of praseodymium nitrate in the second system are equilibrium solid phases. The most developed crystallization fields are those of amine nitrates; eutonics are enriched with praseodymium nitrate

  16. Controlled growth of Ni/NiO core–shell nanoparticles: Structure, morphology and tuning of magnetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D’Addato, S., E-mail: sergio.daddato@unimore.it [CNR-NANO, S3, via G. Campi 213/a, Modena (Italy); Dipartimento FIM, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, via G. Campi 213/a, Modena (Italy); Spadaro, M.C. [CNR-NANO, S3, via G. Campi 213/a, Modena (Italy); Dipartimento FIM, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, via G. Campi 213/a, Modena (Italy); Luches, P. [CNR-NANO, S3, via G. Campi 213/a, Modena (Italy); Grillo, V. [CNR-NANO, S3, via G. Campi 213/a, Modena (Italy); CNR-IMEM, Parco Area delle Scienze 37/A, 43100 Parma (Italy); Frabboni, S.; Valeri, S. [CNR-NANO, S3, via G. Campi 213/a, Modena (Italy); Dipartimento FIM, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, via G. Campi 213/a, Modena (Italy); Ferretti, A.M.; Capetti, E.; Ponti, A. [CNR-ISTM, Laboratorio di Nanotecnologie, via G. Fantoli 16/15, 20138 Milano (Italy)

    2014-07-01

    We performed a detailed study of Ni/NiO core–shell nanoparticles (NP) obtained with a gas aggregation source. The NP oxide shells were produced by oxidizing the NP with different procedures: deposition in oxygen atmosphere, post-annealing in air, sequential deposition of (a) first NiO layer, (b) Ni NP and (c) third NiO Layer. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy from Ni 2p core-level gave information about the chemical state of Ni in the core and in the oxide shell, while scanning electron microscopy was used for investigation of the NP morphology. High quality scanning transmission electron microscopy in high angle annular dark field mode data demonstrated core–shell structure also for NiO/Ni NP/NiO samples. Field-cooled/zero-field-cooled magnetization curves and field-cooled isothermal hysteresis cycles at T = 5 K were recorded by a SQUID magnetometer. In this way, the relation between magnetic properties and oxide shell structure was assessed, showing the role played by the control of the formation of oxide on the exchange bias and interparticle magnetic interaction.

  17. Growth of NBT-BT single crystals by flux method and their structural, morphological and electrical characterizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanuru, Sreenadha Rao; Baskar, K.; Dhanasekaran, R.; Kumar, Binay

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, one of the important, eco-friendly polycrystalline material, (1-x)(Na0.5Bi0.5)TiO3 (NBT) - xBaTiO3 (BT) of different compositions (x=0.07, 0.06 and 0.05 wt%) around the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) were synthesized by solid state reaction technique. And the single crystals with 13×7×7 mm3, 12×12×7 mm3 and 10×7×4 mm3 dimensions were grown by self flux method. The morphology, crystal structure and unit-cell parameters have been studied and the monoclinic phase has been identified for 0.07 wt% of BT. Higher BT concentration changes the crystal habit and the mechanism has been studied clearly. Raman spectroscopy at room-temperature confirms the presence of functional groups. The quality of the as grown single crystals was examined by high resolution x-ray diffraction analysis. The dielectric properties of the as grown crystals were investigated in the frequency range of 20 Hz-2 MHz from room temperature to 450 °C. The broad dielectric peak and frequency dispersion demonstrates the relaxor behavior of grown crystals. The dielectric constant (εr), transition temperature (Tm), and depolarization temperature (Td) of the grown crystals are found to be comparatively good. The diffusive factor (γ) from Curie-Weiss law confirms the as grown NBT-BT single crystals are relaxor in nature.

  18. Controlled growth of Ni/NiO core–shell nanoparticles: Structure, morphology and tuning of magnetic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D’Addato, S.; Spadaro, M.C.; Luches, P.; Grillo, V.; Frabboni, S.; Valeri, S.; Ferretti, A.M.; Capetti, E.; Ponti, A.

    2014-01-01

    We performed a detailed study of Ni/NiO core–shell nanoparticles (NP) obtained with a gas aggregation source. The NP oxide shells were produced by oxidizing the NP with different procedures: deposition in oxygen atmosphere, post-annealing in air, sequential deposition of (a) first NiO layer, (b) Ni NP and (c) third NiO Layer. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy from Ni 2p core-level gave information about the chemical state of Ni in the core and in the oxide shell, while scanning electron microscopy was used for investigation of the NP morphology. High quality scanning transmission electron microscopy in high angle annular dark field mode data demonstrated core–shell structure also for NiO/Ni NP/NiO samples. Field-cooled/zero-field-cooled magnetization curves and field-cooled isothermal hysteresis cycles at T = 5 K were recorded by a SQUID magnetometer. In this way, the relation between magnetic properties and oxide shell structure was assessed, showing the role played by the control of the formation of oxide on the exchange bias and interparticle magnetic interaction.

  19. Surface Evolution of Nano-Textured 4H–SiC Homoepitaxial Layers after High Temperature Treatments: Morphology Characterization and Graphene Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingfang Liu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Nano-textured 4H–SiC homoepitaxial layers (NSiCLs were grown on 4H–SiC(0001 substrates using a low pressure chemical vapor deposition technique (LPCVD, and subsequently were subjected to high temperature treatments (HTTs for investigation of their surface morphology evolution and graphene growth. It was found that continuously distributed nano-scale patterns formed on NSiCLs which were about submicrons in-plane and about 100 nanometers out-of-plane in size. After HTTs under vacuum, pattern sizes reduced, and the sizes of the remains were inversely proportional to the treatment time. Referring to Raman spectra, the establishment of multi-layer graphene (MLG on NSiCL surfaces was observed. MLG with sp2 disorders was obtained from NSiCLs after a high temperature treatment under vacuum at 1700 K for two hours, while MLG without sp2 disorders was obtained under Ar atmosphere at 1900 K.

  20. Surface Evolution of Nano-Textured 4H–SiC Homoepitaxial Layers after High Temperature Treatments: Morphology Characterization and Graphene Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingfang; Chen, Yu; Sun, Changzheng; Guan, Min; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Feng; Sun, Guosheng; Zeng, Yiping

    2015-01-01

    Nano-textured 4H–SiC homoepitaxial layers (NSiCLs) were grown on 4H–SiC(0001) substrates using a low pressure chemical vapor deposition technique (LPCVD), and subsequently were subjected to high temperature treatments (HTTs) for investigation of their surface morphology evolution and graphene growth. It was found that continuously distributed nano-scale patterns formed on NSiCLs which were about submicrons in-plane and about 100 nanometers out-of-plane in size. After HTTs under vacuum, pattern sizes reduced, and the sizes of the remains were inversely proportional to the treatment time. Referring to Raman spectra, the establishment of multi-layer graphene (MLG) on NSiCL surfaces was observed. MLG with sp2 disorders was obtained from NSiCLs after a high temperature treatment under vacuum at 1700 K for two hours, while MLG without sp2 disorders was obtained under Ar atmosphere at 1900 K. PMID:28347079

  1. Combined effects of low light and water stress on Jatropha curcas L. promotes shoot growth and morphological adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Christina Silveira Carneiro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas (physic nut is a plant with economic and pharmaceutical uses. Basic studies on the influence of environmental factors on the early development of J. curcas are important for improving farming techniques and increasing productivity. This study investigated the adjustments of J. curcas to the environmental factors of drought and light stress in order to determine which factors most strongly affect the allocation of biomass during early growth. Leaves, stems, and roots of young plants were sampled and leaf area was measured during January and June in 2011. Plants of J. curcas that were grown in shade and subjected to water stress showed higher biomass allocation to aerial parts (mainly stems, which can be explained as a strategy for maximizing carbon assimilation. The pattern of biomass allocation between aerial components and the root system changed in plants grown in shade. During June 2011, biomass in shade-grown J. curcas was preferentially allocated to stems, indicating long-term adjustment. The lower biomass allocation to the root system suggests reduced exploitation of soil water even when this resource is scarce. Thus, over the long term, growth of J. curcas may be compromised by the combined effects of light stress and water deficit.

  2. Toxic effects of Cu2+ on growth, nutrition, root morphology, and distribution of Cu in roots of Sabi grass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopittke, P.M.; Asher, C.J.; Blamey, F.P.C.; Menzies, N.W.

    2009-01-01

    Sabi grass (Urochloa mosambicensis (Hack.) Dandy) (a C4 species of Poaceae) is commonly used to revegetate disturbed sites in low-rainfall environments, but comparatively little is known regarding copper (Cu) toxicity in this species. A dilute nutrient solution culture experiment was conducted for 10 d to examine the effects of elevated Cu 2+ activities ({Cu 2+ }) on the growth of Sabi grass. Growth was inhibited by high Cu in solution, with a 50% reduction in the relative fresh mass occurring at 1.0 μM {Cu 2+ } for the roots and 1.2 μM {Cu 2+ } for the shoots. In solutions containing 1.2-1.9 μM {Cu 2+ }, many of the roots ruptured due to the tearing and separation of the rhizodermis and outer cortex from the underlying tissues. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that Cu-rich deposits were found to accumulate predominantly within vacuoles. Due to limited translocation of Cu from the roots to the shoots, phytotoxicity is likely to be more of a problem in remediation of Cu-toxic sites than is Cu toxicity of fauna consuming the above-ground biomass.

  3. IGF-1 induces growth, survival and morphological change of primary hepatocytes on a galactose-bared polymer through both MAPK and beta-catenin pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Anup Kumer; Nagaoka, Masato; Chowdhury, Ezharul Hoque; Hirose, Shinichi; Sasagawa, Tadashi; Akaike, Toshihiro

    2003-08-01

    PVLA poly-(N-p-vinylbenzyl-O-beta-D-galactopyranosyl-D-gluconamide) is a glycopolymer composed of hydrophilic carbohydrate side chain and hydrophobic styrene polymer. The hydrophilic carbohydrate residue of PVLA can be recognized as a ligand for hepatocytes asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGP-R), which is abundant on the hepatocyte cell surface. Adhering to the PVLA coated dishes, hepatocytes try to form aggregates that have a long time survival and also cells in these aggregates exhibit better maintenance of specific hepatocyte functions. Stimulation of the cells with IGF-1 in this culture condition results in the formation of lower aggregates. In addition to the morphological influences of IGF-1 to these cells, we have also found that IGF-1 transmits growth stimulatory responses to hepatocytes on PVLA through both mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway and beta-catenin pathways. The phosphorylation of MAPK can take place within 5 min of stimulation with IGF-1 and within at least 10 ng/ml of IGF-1 concentration. Inhibition of MAPK activation by MEK-1 inhibitor PD98059 reduces IGF-1 induced MAPK phosphorylation, and also IGF-1 stimulated DNA synthesis. Similarly, the use of PI3-K inhibitor LY294002 also inhibits IGF-1 stimulated DNA synthesis. IGF-1 stimulation enhances the migration of beta-catenin from the cytoskeleton and cell membrane to the cytoplasm which also is the reason behind formation of spheroids and lower aggregates. IGF-1 stimulation also shows increased translocalization of beta-catenin to the nucleus that is essentially important to produce beta-catenin responsive effects to the cells. These studies thus suggest that IGF-1 can stimulate the growth and survival of hepatocytes on PVLA through both MAPK and beta-catenin signaling pathways, and that the activation of beta-catenin signaling pathway produces the morphological changes of IGF-1 induced cells.

  4. Effect of Lactobacillus salivarius on growth performance, diarrhea incidence, fecal bacterial population and intestinal morphology of suckling pigs challenged with F4+ enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayan, Harutai; Assavacheep, Pornchalit; Angkanaporn, Kris; Assavacheep, Anongnart

    2018-04-12

    Gut health improvements were monitored with respect to growth performance, diarrhea incidence, fecal bacterial population and intestinal morphology of suckling pigs orally supplemented with live Lactobacillus salivarius oral suspensions and challenged with F4+ enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). Two groups of newborn pigs from 18 multiparous sows were randomly designated as non-supplemented (control: n=114 piglets) and L. salivarius supplemented groups (treatment: n=87 piglets). Treatment pigs were orally administered with 2 ml of 109 CFU/ml L. salivarius on days 1 - 3, then they were orally administered with 5 ml of 109 CFU/ml L. salivarius on days 4 - 10, while those in control group received an equal amount of phosphate buffered saline solution (PBS). On day 24 (2 weeks post supplementation), one pig per replicate of both groups was orally administered with 108 CFU/ml F4+ ETEC, then they were euthanized on day 29 of experiment. Results revealed that pigs in treatment group had statistically significant in average daily gain (ADG), body weight and weight gain, and tended to lower diarrhea throughout the study. Numbers of Lactobacillus population in feces of treatment pigs were higher than control pigs, especially on day 10 of study. Numbers of total bacteria in intestinal contents of control pigs were also increased, but not Coliform and Lactobacillus populations. Histological examination revealed statistically significant improvement of villous height and villous/crypt ratio of duodenum, proximal jejunum and distal jejunum parts of treatment pigs better than control. Duodenal pH of treatment group was significantly decreased. Oral supplementation of live L. salivarius during the first 10 days of suckling pig promoted growth performance and guts health, reduced diarrhea incidence, and increased fecal Lactobacillus populations, and improved intestinal morphology.

  5. Reducing cell wall feruloylation by expression of a fungal ferulic acid esterase in Festuca arundinacea modifies plant growth, leaf morphology and the turnover of cell wall arabinoxylans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Prashanti R.; Buanafina, M. Fernanda; Shearer, Erica A.

    2017-01-01

    A feature of cell wall arabinoxylan in grasses is the presence of ferulic acid which upon oxidative coupling by the action of peroxidases forms diferuloyl bridges between formerly separated arabinoxylans. Ferulate cross-linking is suspected of playing various roles in different plant processes. Here we investigate the role of cell wall feruloyaltion in two major processes, that of leaf growth and the turnover of cell wall arabinoxylans on leaf senescence in tall fescue using plants in which the level of cell wall ferulates has been reduced by targeted expression of the Aspergillus niger ferulic acid esterase A (FAEA) to the apoplast or Golgi. Analysis of FAE expressing plants showed that all the lines had shorter and narrower leaves compared to control, which may be a consequence of the overall growth rate being lower and occurring earlier in FAE expressing leaves than in controls. Furthermore, the final length of epidermal cells was shorter than controls, indicating that their expansion was curtailed earlier than in control leaves. This may be due to the observations that the deposition of both ether and ester linked monomeric hydroxycinnamic acids and ferulate dimerization stopped earlier in FAE expressing leaves but at a lower level than controls, and hydroxycinnamic acid deposition started to slow down when peroxidase levels increased. It would appear therefore that one of the possible mechanisms for controlling overall leaf morphology such as leaf length and width in grasses, where leaf morphology is highly variable between species, may be the timing of hydroxycinnamic acid deposition in the expanding cell walls as they emerge from cell division into the elongation zone, controlled partially by the onset of peroxidase activity in this region. PMID:28934356

  6. Supplementation of a Blend of Beneficial Bacteria and Antibodies on Growth Performance, Intestinal Mucosa Morphology and Right Heart Failure of Japanese Quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hasan Mehraei Hamzekolaei

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early nutrition of chicks with beneficial bacteria might help in occupying the inner surface of the intestinal tract. Interference of pathogens in intestinal microbiota is well known as barrier effect, bacterial interference, and competitive exclusion. Objectives: It was hypothesized that competitive exclusion in Japanese quails with a blend of beneficial bacteria (Aquablend Avian® probiotic would enhance quails’ growth performance and intestinal mucosal morphology. Furthermore, the study was performed at 2100 m above sea level at Shahrekord University, so another hypothesis was the capability of the probiotic for inhibiting right heart failure. Materials and Methods: One hundred fifty-six Japanese quails were divided into 4 groups: 2 groups (Aquablend and control at standard environmental temperature and 2 (Aqua-stress and Cont-stress at cold-hypoxic environmental situation. Aquablend groups received the probiotic in the first 3 days of life in drinking water (0.5 g/100 birds/day. Results: Feed conversion ratio (FCR was significantly reduced at the end of the experiment (day 35 in both Aquablend and aqua-stress groups compared to control and cont-stress groups, respectively (P 0.05. Cont-stress group had higher RV: TV ratio (0.28 and heterophil: lymphocyte (H: L ratio (1.22 than aqua-stress group: (0.25 and (1.20, respectively (P > 0.05. Data regarding to intestinal mucosa morphology was controversial but the probiotic was able to elevate duodenum villi surface (P < 0.05 and also jejunum and ileum lamina propria thickness. Conclusion: Obtained data suggests that addition of Aquablend Avian® probiotic in the first 3 days of life may improve growth performance and some intestinal mucosa characteristics of Japanese quails. Moreover, the probiotic might reduce right heart failure and stress induced by cold-hypoxic situation.

  7. Investigation of Combination Effect of Magnesium Oxide and Iron Oxide Nanoparticles on the Growth And Morphology of the Bacteria Staphylococcus Aureus and Escherichia Coli in Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mahdi torabi zarchi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nanoparticles (NPs are one of the antibacterial substances, among them nanoparticles type MgO and Fe2O3 are less toxic to mammalian cells. So, the aim of this study was investigation of combination effects of iron oxide and magnesium oxide nanoparticles on the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli (E.coli to achieve the optimum combination of nanoparticles inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in food (juice. Methods: In this experimental research, the effect of MgO and Fe2O3 Nanoparticles compound on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli bacteria in liquid environment was investigated, and then their effect was investigated separately in juices of carrot, pomegranate and apple via colony count approach. Also, scanning electron microscopy was used to characterize the morphological changes of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli after antimicrobial treatments. The results of the research were analyzed using one way ANNOVA. Results: The results of the research indicated that in liquid medium, these nanoparticles lead to reduce the growth of both bacteria. compound of 1.5Mg+0.5Fe2O3 was introduced as the most appropriate antibacterial compounds; Staphylococcus aureus sensitivity to Escherichia coli was higher against nanoparticles. The findings of research about the juices revealed that the combined effect of nanoparticles reduced the growth of both bacteria. the combined effect of Fe2o3 and MgO nanoparticles treatments distorted and damaged the cell membrane, resulting in a leakage of intracellular contents and eventually the death of bacterial cells. Conclusion: Nanoparticles in the allowed concentrations have significant effect on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli bacteria.

  8. The Emerging Pathogen Candida auris: Growth Phenotype, Virulence Factors, Activity of Antifungals, and Effect of SCY-078, a Novel Glucan Synthesis Inhibitor, on Growth Morphology and Biofilm Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Emily; Hager, Christopher; Chandra, Jyotsna; Mukherjee, Pranab K; Retuerto, Mauricio; Salem, Iman; Long, Lisa; Isham, Nancy; Kovanda, Laura; Borroto-Esoda, Katyna; Wring, Steve; Angulo, David; Ghannoum, Mahmoud

    2017-05-01

    Candida auris , a new multidrug-resistant Candida spp. which is associated with invasive infection and high rates of mortality, has recently emerged. Here, we determined the virulence factors (germination, adherence, biofilm formation, phospholipase and proteinase production) of 16 C. auris isolates and their susceptibilities to 11 drugs belonging to different antifungal classes, including a novel orally bioavailable 1,3-β-d-glucan synthesis inhibitor (SCY-078). We also examined the effect of SCY-078 on the growth, ultrastructure, and biofilm-forming abilities of C. auris Our data showed that while the tested strains did not germinate, they did produce phospholipase and proteinase in a strain-dependent manner and had a significantly reduced ability to adhere and form biofilms compared to that of Candida albicans ( P = 0.01). C. auris isolates demonstrated reduced susceptibility to fluconazole and amphotericin B, while, in general, they were susceptible to the remaining drugs tested. SCY-078 had an MIC 90 of 1 mg/liter against C. auris and caused complete inhibition of the growth of C. auris and C. albicans Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that SCY-078 interrupted C. auris cell division, with the organism forming abnormal fused fungal cells. Additionally, SCY-078 possessed potent antibiofilm activity, wherein treated biofilms demonstrated significantly reduced metabolic activity and a significantly reduced thickness compared to the untreated control ( P < 0.05 for both comparisons). Our study shows that C. auris expresses several virulence determinants (albeit to a lesser extent than C. albicans ) and is resistant to fluconazole and amphotericin B. SCY-078, the new orally bioavailable antifungal, had potent antifungal/antibiofilm activity against C. auris , indicating that further evaluation of this antifungal is warranted. Copyright © 2017 Larkin et al.

  9. Isolation of a nitrate-reducing bacteria strain from oil field brine and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB) strain with vigorous growth, strong nitrate reduction ability, strain B9 2-1, was isolated from Suizhong36-1 oilfield, its routine identification and analysis of 16S rRNA and also the competitive inhibition experiments with the enrichment of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) were carried out.

  10. A Review of Nitrate and Nitrite Toxicity in Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir-Jamal Hosseini

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural advancement and population growth have prompted increases in food supplies, and higher crop yields have been made possible through the application of fertilizers. Large quantities of livestock and poultry on farms, along with the accumulation of biomass and agricultural residues, can cause contamination of ground water resources and other water sanitation concerns in both developing and developed countries. Nitrate is mainly used as a fertilizer in agriculture, and because of its high solubility in water, it can create biological problems in the environment. High usage of nitrite in the food industry as a preservative, flavor enhancer, antioxidant, and color stabilizing agent can cause human exposure to this toxic compound. Nitrite is 10 times as toxic as nitrate in humans. Nitrate is converted to nitrite and nitrosamine compounds in the human stomach, which can lead to bladder cancer. In this review, sources of nitrate and nitrite exposure were investigated. Furthermore, the review evaluates standard levels of nitrate and nitrite in different foods, and acceptable daily doses of these compounds in various countries. Finally, we discuss valid methods of nitrate and nitrite identification and removal in foods.

  11. Variability of nitrate and phosphate

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sardessai, S.; Sundar, D.

    and the high-nitrate waters farther upstream led to a sharp increase in nitrates in the first few kilometres from the mouth of the Mandovi. Thus, at the end of the summer monsoon, the channels of the Mandovi and Zuari have nitrate concentrations of the order... in June. Throughout this period, the properties of the waters at the mouth migrate upstream owing to horizontal mixing. One consequence of this mixing is a steady rise in salinity in the channels of the Mandovi and Zuari. Since the concentration June 13...

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging of sugar beet taproots in soil reveals growth reduction and morphological changes during foliar Cercospora beticola infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmittgen, Simone; Metzner, Ralf; Van Dusschoten, Dagmar; Jansen, Marcus; Fiorani, Fabio; Jahnke, Siegfried; Rascher, Uwe; Schurr, Ulrich

    2015-09-01

    Cercospora leaf spot (CLS) infection can cause severe yield loss in sugar beet. Introduction of Cercospora-resistant varieties in breeding programmes is important for plant protection to reduce both fungicide applications and the risk of the development of fungal resistance. However, in vivo monitoring of the sugar-containing taproots at early stages of foliar symptoms and the characterization of the temporal development of disease progression has proven difficult. Non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements were conducted to quantify taproot development of genotypes with high (HS) and low (LS) levels of susceptibility after foliar Cercospora inoculation. Fourteen days post-inoculation (dpi) the ratio of infected leaf area was still low (~7%) in both the HS and LS genotypes. However, during this period, the volumetric growth of the taproot had already started to decrease. Additionally, inoculated plants showed a reduction of the increase in width of inner cambial rings while the width of outer rings increased slightly compared with non-inoculated plants. This response partly compensated for the reduced development of inner rings that had a vascular connection with Cercospora-inoculated leaves. Hence, alterations in taproot anatomical features such as volume and cambial ring development can be non-invasively detected already at 14 dpi, providing information on the early impact of the infection on whole-plant performance. All these findings show that MRI is a suitable tool to identify promising candidate parent lines with improved resistance to Cercospora, for example with comparatively lower taproot growth reduction at early stages of canopy infection, for future introduction into breeing programmes. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  13. Scandium extraction by methyltrialkylammonium nitrate from nitrate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanov, S.I.; Kiyatkina, N.G.; Fedotov, O.N.

    1987-01-01

    Chemistry of scandium extraction by methyltrialkylammonium (MTAA) nitrate in toluene from nitrate solutions is studied. Methods of saturation, equilibrium shift, physicochemical analysis, isomolar series and UV-spectroscopy are used to determine the composition of extracted complexes. It is shown that with low saturation degrees of extractant (R 4 N) 6 Sc(NO 3 ) 9 complex is formed in organic phase and with saturation - (R 4 N) 3 xSc(NO 3 ) 6 complex

  14. Rare earth(3) nitrates extraction with trialkylmethylammonium nitrate in toluene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyartman, A.K.; Kovalev, S.V.; Keskinov, V.A.; Khokhlova, N.V.

    1997-01-01

    Extraction of rare earth(3) nitrates [praseodymium(3)-lutetium(3)] with trialkylmethylammonium nitrate in toluene at T = 298.15 K and pH 2 is studied. Extraction isotherms are described with regard to formation of compounds of (R 4 N) i [Ln(NO 3 ) 3+i ] composition (i = 2, 3) in organic phase. Values of extraction constants are calculated, they are decreasing in the praseodymium(3) - lutetium(3) series

  15. Real-time continuous nitrate monitoring in Illinois in 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Kelly L.; Terrio, Paul J.; Straub, Timothy D.; Roseboom, Donald; Johnson, Gary P.

    2013-01-01

    Many sources contribute to the nitrogen found in surface water in Illinois. Illinois is located in the most productive agricultural area in the country, and nitrogen fertilizer is commonly used to maximize corn production in this area. Additionally, septic/wastewater systems, industrial emissions, and lawn fertilizer are common sources of nitrogen in urban areas of Illinois. In agricultural areas, the use of fertilizer has increased grain production to meet the needs of a growing population, but also has resulted in increases in nitrogen concentrations in many streams and aquifers (Dubrovsky and others, 2010). The urban sources can increase nitrogen concentrations, too. The Federal limit for nitrate nitrogen in water that is safe to drink is 10 milligrams per liter (mg/L) (http://water.epa.gov/drink/contaminants/basicinformation/nitrate.cfm, accessed on May 24, 2013). In addition to the concern with nitrate nitrogen in drinking water, nitrogen, along with phosphorus, is an aquatic concern because it feeds the intensive growth of algae that are responsible for the hypoxic zone in the Gulf of Mexico. The largest nitrogen flux to the waters feeding the Gulf of Mexico is from Illinois (Alexander and others, 2008). Most studies of nitrogen in surface water and groundwater include samples for nitrate nitrogen collected weekly or monthly, but nitrate concentrations can change rapidly and these discrete samples may not capture rapid changes in nitrate concentrations that can affect human and aquatic health. Continuous monitoring for nitrate could inform scientists and water-resource managers of these changes and provide information on the transport of nitrate in surface water and groundwater.

  16. Occurrence of nitrate in Tanzanian groundwater aquifers: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elisante, Eliapenda; Muzuka, Alfred N. N.

    2017-03-01

    More than 25 % of Tanzanian depends on groundwater as the main source of water for drinking, irrigation and industrial activities. The current trend of land use may lead to groundwater contamination and thus increasing risks associated with the usage of contaminated water. Nitrate is one of the contaminants resulting largely from anthropogenic activities that may find its way to the aquifers and thus threatening the quality of groundwater. Elevated levels of nitrate in groundwater may lead to human health and environmental problems. The current trend of land use in Tanzania associated with high population growth, poor sanitation facilities and fertilizer usage may lead to nitrate contamination of groundwater. This paper therefore aimed at providing an overview of to what extent human activities have altered the concentration of nitrate in groundwater aquifers in Tanzania. The concentration of nitrate in Tanzanian groundwater is variable with highest values observable in Dar es Salaam (up to 477.6 mg/l), Dodoma (up to 441.1 mg/l), Tanga (above 100 mg/l) and Manyara (180 mg/l). Such high values can be attributed to various human activities including onsite sanitation in urban centres and agricultural activities in rural areas. Furthermore, there are some signs of increasing concentration of nitrate in groundwater with time in some areas in response to increased human activities. However, reports on levels and trends of nitrate in groundwater in many regions of the country are lacking. For Tanzania to appropriately address the issue of groundwater contamination, a deliberate move to determine nitrate concentration in groundwater is required, as well as protection of recharge basins and improvement of onsite sanitation systems.

  17. Pattern transition between periodic Liesegang pattern and crystal growth regime in reaction-diffusion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagzi, István; Ueyama, Daishin

    2009-01-01

    The pattern transition between periodic precipitation pattern formation (Liesegang phenomenon) and pure crystal growth regimes is investigated in silver nitrate and potassium dichromate system in mixed agarose-gelatin gel. Morphologically different patterns were found depending on the quality of the gel, and transition between these typical patterns can be controlled by the concentration of gelatin in mixed gel. Effect of temperature and hydrodynamic force on precipitation pattern structure was also investigated.

  18. Experimental investigation on the effect of surface electric field in the growth of tungsten nano-tendril morphology due to low energy helium irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woller, K.B.; Whyte, D.G.; Wright, G.M.; Brunner, D.

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms responsible for and controlling the growth of tungsten nano-tendrils (or “fuzz”) under low-energy helium plasma exposure remain unclear. For the first time in nano-tendril experiments, the plasma sheath-produced electric field and the helium (He) ion energy have been decoupled, showing that the sheath electric field has little impact on nano-tendril growth, eliminating a possible cause for tendril growth. The well-established necessary growth conditions for W fuzz were maintained with He ion flux density Γ He  > 10 21  He m −2  s −1 , surface temperature T s  = 1273 K, He ion energy E He  = 64 eV, and He ion fluence Φ He  > 10 24  He m −2 . A grid is situated between the tungsten sample and plasma, with the grid and sample potentials independently controlled in order to control the electric field at the surface of the sample while maintaining the same incident He ion energy to the surface. A calculation of the potential profile in the drift space between the grid and sample was used to account for space charge and calculate the electric field at the surface of the sample. Tungsten fuzz formed at all electric fields tested, even near zero electric field. Also, the depth of the resulting W fuzz layer was unaltered by the electric field when compared to the calculated depth determined from an empirical growth model. The conclusion is that the sheath electric field is not necessary to cause the changes in surface morphology. - Highlights: • Surface electric field is proposed as a possible driver of tungsten fuzz growth. • A method that decouples plasma sheath electric field and ion energy is described. • Tungsten fuzz is shown to grow even without direct exposure to plasma. • Tungsten fuzz grows to the same depth with and without the plasma sheath.

  19. A comparison of the effect of epidermal growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, and fibroblast growth factor on rat periodontal ligament fibroblast-like cells' DNA synthesis and morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blom, S; Holmstrup, P; Dabelsteen, Erik

    1994-01-01

    in the wound-healing process. We have therefore investigated the mitogenic and morphogenic effects of recombinant epidermal growth factor (rEGF), natural platelet-derived growth factor (nPDGF), and natural fibroblast growth factor (nFGF) on periodontal ligament fibroblast-like cells. A cell line...

  20. Effects of a protected inclusion of organic acids and essential oils as antibiotic growth promoter alternative on growth performance, intestinal morphology and gut microflora in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanli; Yang, Xin; Xin, Hongliang; Chen, Si; Yang, Chengbo; Duan, Yulan; Yang, Xiaojun

    2017-09-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of protected essential oils and organic acids mixture on poultry feeding. A total of 450 1-day-old Cobb 500 chicks were randomly allotted into three treatments with six replicates. Birds were offered a basal diet (C), basal diet with 0.15 g/kg enramycin premix (A) and basal diet with 0.30 g/kg protected essential oils and organic acids mixture product (P). The results showed that protected essential oils and organic acids mixture supplementation reduced average daily feed intake and ratio of feed to gain (F/G) at 22-42 days of age, and F/G during 1-42 days of age also declined (P essential oils and organic acids mixture supplementation changed gut microflora mainly in Lactobacillus. These data suggested that dietary mixture of organic acids and essential oils addition could be used in the poultry industry as an antibiotic growth promoter alternative. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  1. Effect of supplementation of Bacillus subtilis LS 1-2 to broiler diets on growth performance, nutrient retention, caecal microbiology and small intestinal morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Sinol; Ingale, S L; Kim, Y W; Kim, J S; Kim, K H; Lohakare, J D; Kim, E K; Kim, H S; Ryu, M H; Kwon, I K; Chae, B J

    2012-08-01

    Present study investigated the effect of dietary supplementation of Bacillus subtilis LS 1-2 on growth performance, apparent nutrient retention, caecal microbial population and intestinal morphology in broilers. Three hundred and twenty day-old Ross broiler chicks were randomly allotted to four treatments on the basis of BW in a randomized complete block design. Experimental diets were fed in two phases: starter (d 0-21) and finisher (d 22-35). Dietary treatments were basal diet supplemented with 0% (control), 0.15%, 0.30% and 0.45% B. subtilis LS 1-2. Supplementation of increasing levels of B. subtilis LS 1-2 showed linear improvement (PLS 1-2 showed decrease in caecal Clostridium and Coliform count (linear, PLS 1-2 increased (linear, PLS 1-2 can be used as a growth promoter in broiler diets and can improve intestinal microbial balance and gut health of broilers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Impacts of Vegetation Growth on Reach-scale Flood Hydraulics in a Sand-bed River and the Implications for Vegetation-morphology Coevolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Box, S.; Wilcox, A. C.

    2017-12-01

    Vegetation alters flood hydraulics and geomorphic response, yet quantifying and predicting such responses across spatial and temporal scales remains challenging. Plant- and patch-scale studies consistently show that vegetation increases local hydraulic variability, yet reach-scale hydrodynamic models often assume vegetation has a spatially homogeneous effect on hydraulics. Using Nays2DH in iRIC (International River Interface Cooperative), we model the effect of spatially heterogeneous vegetation on a series of floods with varying antecedent vegetation conditions in a sand-bed river in western Arizona, taking advantage of over a decade of data on a system that experienced substantial geomorphic, hydrologic, and ecosystem changes. We show that pioneer woody seedlings (Tamarix, Populus, Salix) and cattail (Typha) increase local hydraulic variability, including velocity and bed shear stress, along individual cross sections, predominantly by decreasing velocity in zones of vegetation establishment and growth and increasing velocity in unvegetated areas, with analogous effects on shear stress. This was especially prominent in a study reach where vegetation growth contributed to thalweg incision relative to a vegetated bar. Evaluation of these results in the context of observed geomorphic response to floods elucidates mechanisms by which vegetation and channel morphology coevolve at a reach scale. By quantifying the influence of spatially heterogeneous vegetation on reach-scale hydraulics, we demonstrate that plant- and patch-scale research on vegetation hydraulics is applicable to ecogeomorphology at the reach scale.

  3. Experimental studies of Micro- and Nano-grained UO2: Grain Growth Behavior, Sufrace Morphology, and Fracture Toughness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Yinbin [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mo, Kun [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Jamison, Laura M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Lian, Jie [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States); Yao, Tiankai [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States); Bhattacharya, Sumit [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This activity is supported by the US Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Fuels Product Line (FPL) and aims at providing experimental data for the validation of the mesoscale simulation code MARMOT. MARMOT is a mesoscale multiphysics code that predicts the coevolution of microstructure and properties within reactor fuel during its lifetime in the reactor. It is an important component of the Moose-Bison-Marmot (MBM) code suite that has been developed by Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to enable next generation fuel performance modeling capability as part of the NEAMS Program FPL. In order to ensure the accuracy of the microstructure-based materials models being developed within the MARMOT code, extensive validation efforts must be carried out. In this report, we summarize the experimental efforts in FY16 including the following important experiments: (1) in-situ grain growth measurement of nano-grained UO2; (2) investigation of surface morphology in micrograined UO2; (3) Nano-indentation experiments on nano- and micro-grained UO2. The highlight of this year is: we have successfully demonstrated our capability to in-situ measure grain size development while maintaining the stoichiometry of nano-grained UO2 materials; the experiment is, for the first time, using synchrotron X-ray diffraction to in-situ measure grain growth behavior of UO2.

  4. Effect of elevated Al and pH on the growth and root morphology of Al-tolerant and Al-sensitive wheat seedlings in an acid soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Toufiq Iqbal

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium ion (Al3+ toxicity and hydrogen ion (H+ activity are the major constraints for plant growth in acid soil. This study was undertaken to determine the effect of pH and Al on the growth response and changes in root morphology of Al-tolerant (ET8 and Al-sensitive (ES8 wheat seedlings. Different levels of AlCl3 and CaCO3 were added to the soils to manipulate soil pH and extractable Al. The results showed that the bulk soil pH remained constant at pH 4.1 with further applications of AlCl3, and that the seedlings died at the 200 mg AlCl3/kg treatments. The ET8 seedlings responded better than the ES8 seedlings in both low and high Al and pH. The ET8 seedlings had higher root surface areas and root tip numbers than the ES8 seedlings in the Al treatment. In contrast, the ES8 had higher root diameters than the ET8 seedlings due to the elevated Al supply. Apoplast Al increased with the increase of soil available extractable Al, and declined with the decrease of soil extractable Al. The ET8 seedlings accumulated more Al in their apoplast than the ES8 seedlings. This study concluded that accumulation of Al in the apoplast is also involved in Al tolerance mechanism with the addition of organic acid exudation.

  5. Growth of manganese sulfide (α-MnS) thin films by thermal vacuum evaporation: Structural, morphological and optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannachi, Amira, E-mail: amira.hannachi88@gmail.com [MALTA-Consolider Team, Institut de Ciència dels Materials – Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, University of Valencia, E-46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Université de Tunis El-Manar, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique et Electrochimie, LR99ES15, 2092 Tunis (Tunisia); Segura, Alfredo [MALTA-Consolider Team, Institut de Ciència dels Materials – Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, University of Valencia, E-46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Maghraoui-Meherzi, Hager [Université de Tunis El-Manar, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique et Electrochimie, LR99ES15, 2092 Tunis (Tunisia)

    2016-09-15

    MnS thin films have been successfully prepared by thermal evaporation method at different substrate temperatures using different masses of MnS powder. The prepared films were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and UV–visible spectrophotometry. The XRD measurements show that the films crystallized in the pure α-MnS for substrate temperatures above 100 °C. The optical bandgap of thin films is found to be in the range of 3.2–3.3 eV. A factorial experimental design was used for determining the influence of the two experimental parameters on the films growth. - Highlights: • α-MnS films were deposited on glass and quartz substrates using the thermal evaporation technique. • The effect of substrate temperature on the properties of the MnS films has been studied. • The factorial design was used to determine the most influence parameters.

  6. Phytophthora capsici homologue of the cell cycle regulator SDA1 is required for sporangial morphology, mycelial growth and plant infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chunyuan; Yang, Xiaoyan; Lv, Rongfei; Li, Zhuang; Ding, Xiaomeng; Tyler, Brett M; Zhang, Xiuguo

    2016-04-01

    SDA1 encodes a highly conserved protein that is widely distributed in eukaryotic organisms. SDA1 is essential for cell cycle progression and organization of the actin cytoskeleton in yeasts and humans. In this study, we identified a Phytophthora capsici orthologue of yeast SDA1, named PcSDA1. In P. capsici, PcSDA1 is strongly expressed in three asexual developmental states (mycelium, sporangia and germinating cysts), as well as late in infection. Silencing or overexpression of PcSDA1 in P. capsici transformants affected the growth of hyphae and sporangiophores, sporangial development, cyst germination and zoospore release. Phalloidin staining confirmed that PcSDA1 is required for organization of the actin cytoskeleton. Moreover, 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining and PcSDA1-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusions revealed that PcSDA1 is involved in the regulation of nuclear distribution in hyphae and sporangia. Both silenced and overexpression transformants showed severely diminished virulence. Thus, our results suggest that PcSDA1 plays a similar role in the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton and nuclear division in this filamentous organism as in non-filamentous yeasts and human cells. © 2015 BSPP and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Diet structure, butyric acid, and fermentable carbohydrates influence growth performance, gut morphology, and cecal fermentation characteristics in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qaisrani, S N; van Krimpen, M M; Kwakkel, R P; Verstegen, M W A; Hendriks, W H

    2015-09-01

    An experiment with 288 male (Ross 308) 1-d-old broilers was conducted to test the hypothesis that a coarse diet supplemented with butyric acid (BA) and fermentable carbohydrates (FC) improves performance of broilers with a poorly digestible protein source. The interaction effects of diet structure (fine or coarse), FC supplementation (with or without), and BA supplementation (with or without) in a poorly digestible diet based on rapeseed meal (RSM) were tested in a factorial arrangement of 8 (2×2×2) dietary treatments. The coarseness of the diet affected feed intake (FI) (PFermentable carbohydrate supplementation did not influence growth performance, gut development, or contents of total BCFA and total biogenic amines in the cecal digesta (P>0.05). Supplementation with FC, however, decreased the cecal concentration of spermine by approximately 31% compared with broilers fed diets without FC (P=0.002). In conclusion, feeding a coarse diet supplemented with BA improved performance of broilers fed a diet containing a poorly digestible protein source. The negative effects of a poorly digestible protein source can thus be partly counterbalanced by coarse grinding and BA supplementation in the diet. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Poultry Science Association.

  8. The influence of nitrate and ammonia nitrogen on the photosynthetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study has been made on the influence of nitrate and ammonia nitrogen on the carbon dioxide compensation point (T), carboxylating enzymes and growth of highveld grasses found at the primary, secondary and climax successional stages. The results obtained are discussed in relation to the influence of nitrogen on ...

  9. Effect of nitrates on embryo induction efficiency in cotton ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cv Coker-312 callus culture was assessed in terms of its usefulness as a system for investigating the effect of nitrates from different chemical compounds of nitrogen on embryo induction percentage in calli as the plant growth and cell differentiation mainly based on nitrogen. Both sources and ...

  10. Effect of nitrates on embryo induction efficiency in cotton (Gossypium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fred

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cv Coker-312 callus culture was assessed in terms of its usefulness as a system for investigating the effect of nitrates from different chemical compounds of nitrogen on embryo induction percentage in calli as the plant growth and cell differentiation mainly based on nitrogen. Both sources and ...

  11. Nitrate augmented myocardial viability assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadhwa, S.; Mansberb, R.; Fernandes, V.B.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: 24 hour 201 TI reinjection imaging improves myocardial viability detection when compared to standard 3-4 hour redistribution imaging, however, it is a time-consuming approach and some images do not provide adequate quality due to high background activity on the delayed scan. We tested whether sensitivity of redistribution and same day reinjection imaging could be improved by giving short-acting nitrates immediately prior to redistribution and reinjection imaging. Eighteen patients underwent a stress test (exercise or pharmacological) and 4 hour redistribution 201 TI SPECT study. Immediately after redistribution imaging, each patient was given 600 μg of sublingual glyceryl trinitrate and reimaged 15-20 minutes later (nitrate augmented image). Immediately following nitrate augmentation imaging, each patient was reinjected with 30 MBq of 201 TI and reimaged 20 minutes later (nitrate augmented reinjection images). Each patient returned 24 hours later and was reinjected with 40 MBq of 201 TI and imaged 20 minutes later (24 hour reinjection images). In all, each patient had five SPECT images as follows: stress/redistribution/ nitrate augmented redistribution/nitrate augmented same day reinjection/ 24 hour reinjection. The myocardium was divided into 11 segments and perfusion to each segment was scored by consensus method (2 blinded assessors) on a 4 point graded scale (0 = no perfusion, 1 = minimal perfusion, 2 = moderate perfusion, 3 = normal perfusion). Perfusion scores were analysed on a segment by segment basis; as well, each patient was given an overall perfusion score equal to the sum of the perfusion score for each segment. 150 segments with reduced perfusion were identified, of these 23 (15.3%) showed improvement in the redistribution images, 60 (40%) segments improved in the nitrate augmented images, 49 (32.7%) improved in the nitrate augmented reinjection images and 52 (34.7%) improved in the 24 hour reinjection images. To assess overall cardiac

  12. Ammonium nitrate and iron nutrition effects on some nitrogen assimilation enzymes and metabolites in Spirulina platensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esen, Merve; Ozturk Urek, Raziye

    2015-01-01

    The effect of various concentrations of ammonium nitrate (5-60 mM), an economical nitrogen source, on the growth, nitrate-ammonium uptake rates, production of some pigments and metabolites, and some nitrogen assimilation enzymes such as nitrate reductase (NR), nitrite reductase (NiR), glutamine synthetase (GS), and glutamate synthase (GOGAT) in Spirulina platensis (Gamont) Geitler was investigated. Ten millimolars of ammonium nitrate stimulated the growth, production of pigments and the other metabolites, and enzyme activities, whereas 30 and 60 mM ammonium nitrate caused inhibition. In the presence of 10 mM ammonium nitrate, different concentrations of iron were tried in the growth media of S. platensis. After achieving the best growth, levels of metabolite and pigment production, and enzyme activities in the presence of 10 mM ammonium nitrate as a nitrogen source, different iron concentrations (10-100 µM) were tried in the growth medium of S. platensis. The highest growth, pigment and metabolite levels, and enzyme activities were determined in the medium containing 50 µM iron and 10 mM ammonium nitrate. In this optimum condition, the highest dry biomass level, chlorophyll a, and pyruvate contents were obtained as 55.42 ± 3.8 mg mL(-1) , 93.114 ± 7.9 µg g(-1) , and 212.5 ± 18.7 µg g(-1) , respectively. The highest NR, NiR, GS, and GOGAT activities were 67.16 ± 5.1, 777.92 ± 52, 0.141 ± 0.01, and 44.45 ± 3.6, respectively. Additionally, 10 mM ammonium nitrate is an economical and efficient nitrogen source for nitrogen assimilation of S. platensis, and 50 µM iron is optimum for the growth of S. platensis. © 2014 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Influence of source and micronization of soya bean meal on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and ileal mucosal morphology of Iberian piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrocoso, J D; Cámara, L; Rebollar, P G; Guzmán, P; Mateos, G G

    2014-04-01

    The effects of inclusion in the diet of different sources of soya bean meal (SBM) on growth performance, total tract apparent digestibility (TTAD) and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of major dietary components and mucosal ileum morphology were studied in Iberian pigs weaned at 30 days of age. From 30 to 51 days of age (phase I), there was a control diet based on regular soya bean meal (R-SBM; 44% CP) of Argentina (ARG) origin and five extra diets in which a high-protein soya bean meal (HP-SBM; 49% CP) of the USA or ARG origin, either ground (990 μm) or micronized (60 μm), or a soya protein concentrate (SPC; 65% CP) substituted the R-SBM. From 51 to 61 days of age (phase II), all pigs were fed a common commercial diet in mash form. The following pre-planned orthogonal contrasts were conducted: (1) R-SBM v. all the other diets, (2) SPC v. all the HP-SBM diets, (3) micronized HP-SBM v. ground HP-SBM, (4) HP-SBM of ARG origin v. HP-SBM of US origin and (5) interaction between source and the degree of grinding of the HP-SBM. Dietary treatment did not affect growth performance of the pigs at any age but from 30 to 51 days of age, post weaning diarrhoea (PWD) was higher (Psoya products (micronized SBM or SPC) in substitution of the R-SBM increased the TTAD of all nutrients and reduced PWD but had no advantage in terms of growth performance over the use of ground HP-SBM.

  14. Inhibition of vimentin or B1 integrin reverts morphology of prostate tumor cells grown in laminin-rich extracellular matrix gels and reduces tumor growth in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xueping; Fournier, Marcia V; Ware, Joy L; Bissell, Mina J; Yacoub, Adly; Zehner, Zendra E

    2008-06-12

    Prostate epithelial cells grown embedded in laminin-rich extracellular matrix (lrECM) undergo morphologic changes that closely resemble their architecture in vivo. In this study, growth characteristics of three human prostate epithelial sublines derived from the same cellular lineage, but displaying different tumorigenic and metastatic properties in vivo, were assessed in three-dimensional lrECM gels. M12, a highly tumorigenic and metastatic subline, was derived from the immortalized, prostate epithelial P69 cell line by selection in athymic, nude mice and found to contain a deletion of 19p-q13.1. The stable reintroduction of an intact human chromosome 19 into M12 resulted in a poorly tumorigenic subline, designated F6. When embedded in lrECM gels, the parental, nontumorigenic P69 line produced acini with clearly defined lumena. Immunostaining with antibodies to {beta}-catenin, E-cadherin, or {alpha}6 and {beta}1 integrins showed polarization typical of glandular epithelium. In contrast, the metastatic M12 subline produced highly disorganized cells with no evidence of polarization. The F6 subline reverted to acini-like structures exhibiting basal polarity marked with integrins. Reducing either vimentin levels via small interfering RNA interference or the expression of {alpha}6 and {beta}1 integrins by the addition of blocking antibodies, reorganized the M12 subline into forming polarized acini. The loss of vimentin significantly reduced M12-Vim tumor growth when assessed by s.c. injection in athymic mice. Thus, tumorigenicity in vivo correlated with disorganized growth in three-dimensional lrECM gels. These studies suggest that the levels of vimentin and {beta}1 integrin play a key role in the homeostasis of the normal acinus in prostate and that their dysregulation may lead to tumorigenesis. [Mol Cancer Ther 2009;8(3):499-508].

  15. Effects of dietary Bacillus licheniformis on growth performance, immunological parameters, intestinal morphology and resistance of juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) to challenge infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Biao; Long, Wei-Qing; He, Ju-Yun; Liu, Yong-Jian; Si, Yu-Qi; Tian, Li-Xia

    2015-10-01

    The effects of oral administration of Bacillus licheniformis on growth performance, immunity, intestinal morphology and disease resistance of juvenile tilapia were investigated. Six experimental diets supplemented with different concentrations of B. licheniformis (0%, 0.02%, 0.04%, 0.06%, 0.08% and 0.1% of AlCare(®), containing live germ 2 × 10(10) CFU/g) were formulated, viz. control, T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5. Each diet was randomly assigned to triplicate groups of 30 fishes (3.83 ± 0.03 g). After 10 weeks of feeding trial, weight gain (WG), final body wet weight (FBW) and specific growth rate (SGR) increased significantly in groups T2, T3, T4 and T5 compared with control and T1 (p 0.05). Compared with control, dietary B. licheniformis supplementation increased the content of complement C3 in serum significantly (P licheniformis supplementation (P > 0.05). When tilapia were challenged against Streptococcus iniae, survival rate improved significantly when tilapia fed with T2, T3, T4 and T5 (P licheniformis (T2, T3, T4, T5) tended to be regularly arranged and exhibited less exfoliation, twist and fusion. These results indicated that dietary supplementation of B. licheniformis not only increased the growth, immune response and disease resistance of juvenile tilapia, but also influenced anterior intestinal development and integrity. Furthermore, in our study, the optimal concentration of B. licheniformis in diets for tilapia was greater than or equal to 4.4 × 10(6) CFU/g. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Longitudinal growth and morphology of the hippocampus through childhood: Impact of prematurity and implications for memory and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Deanne K; Omizzolo, Cristina; Adamson, Christopher; Lee, Katherine J; Stargatt, Robyn; Egan, Gary F; Doyle, Lex W; Inder, Terrie E; Anderson, Peter J

    2014-08-01

    The effects of prematurity on hippocampal development through early childhood are largely unknown. The aims of this study were to (1) compare the shape of the very preterm (VPT) hippocampus to that of full-term (FT) children at 7 years of age, and determine if hippocampal shape is associated with memory and learning impairment in VPT children, (2) compare change in shape and volume of the hippocampi from term-equivalent to 7 years of age between VPT and FT children, and determine if development of the hippocampi over time predicts memory and learning impairment in VPT children. T1 and T2 magnetic resonance images were acquired at both term equivalent and 7 years of age in 125 VPT and 25 FT children. Hippocampi were manually segmented and shape was characterized by boundary point distribution models at both time-points. Memory and learning outcomes were measured at 7 years of age. The VPT group demonstrated less hippocampal infolding than the FT group at 7 years. Hippocampal growth between infancy and 7 years was less in the VPT compared with the FT group, but the change in shape was similar between groups. There was little evidence that the measures of hippocampal development were related to memory and learning impairments in the VPT group. This study suggests that the developmental trajectory of the human hippocampus is altered in VPT children, but this does not predict memory and learning impairment. Further research is required to elucidate the mechanisms for memory and learning difficulties in VPT children. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Insulin-like growth factor-I gene therapy reverses morphologic changes and reduces hyperprolactinemia in experimental rat prolactinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bracamonte Maria I

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The implementation of gene therapy for the treatment of pituitary tumors emerges as a promising complement to surgery and may have distinct advantages over radiotherapy for this type of tumors. Up to now, suicide gene therapy has been the main experimental approach explored to treat experimental pituitary tumors. In the present study we assessed the effectiveness of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I gene therapy for the treatment of estrogen-induced prolactinomas in rats. Results Female Sprague Dawley rats were subcutaneously implanted with silastic capsules filled with 17-β estradiol (E2 in order to induce pituitary prolactinomas. Blood samples were taken at regular intervals in order to measure serum prolactin (PRL. As expected, serum PRL increased progressively and 23 days after implanting the E2 capsules (Experimental day 0, circulating PRL had undergone a 3–4 fold increase. On Experimental day 0 part of the E2-implanted animals received a bilateral intrapituitary injection of either an adenoviral vector expressing the gene for rat IGF-I (RAd-IGFI, or a vector (RAd-GFP expressing the gene for green fluorescent protein (GFP. Seven days post vector injection all animals were sacrificed and their pituitaries morphometrically analyzed to evaluate changes in the lactotroph population. RAd-IGFI but not RAd-GFP, induced a significant fall in serum PRL. Furthermore, RAd-IGFI but not RAd-GFP significantly reversed the increase in lactotroph size (CS and volume density (VD induced by E2 treatment. Conclusion We conclude that IGF-I gene therapy constitutes a potentially useful intervention for the treatment of prolactinomas and that bioactive peptide gene delivery may open novel therapeutic avenues for the treatment of pituitary tumors.

  18. Impact of elevated nitrate on sulfate-reducing bacteria: A comparative study of Desulfovibrio vulgaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Q.; He, Z.; Joyner, D.C.; Joachimiak, M.; Price, M.N.; Yang, Z.K.; Yen, H.-C. B.; Hemme, C. L.; Chen, W.; Fields, M.; Stahl, D. A.; Keasling, J. D.; Keller, M.; Arkin, A. P.; Hazen, T. C.; Wall, J. D.; Zhou, J.

    2010-07-15

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria have been extensively studied for their potential in heavy-metal bioremediation. However, the occurrence of elevated nitrate in contaminated environments has been shown to inhibit sulfate reduction activity. Although the inhibition has been suggested to result from the competition with nitrate-reducing bacteria, the possibility of direct inhibition of sulfate reducers by elevated nitrate needs to be explored. Using Desulfovibrio vulgaris as a model sulfate-reducing bacterium, functional genomics analysis reveals that osmotic stress contributed to growth inhibition by nitrate as shown by the upregulation of the glycine/betaine transporter genes and the relief of nitrate inhibition by osmoprotectants. The observation that significant growth inhibition was effected by 70 mM NaNO{sub 3} but not by 70 mM NaCl suggests the presence of inhibitory mechanisms in addition to osmotic stress. The differential expression of genes characteristic of nitrite stress responses, such as the hybrid cluster protein gene, under nitrate stress condition further indicates that nitrate stress response by D. vulgaris was linked to components of both osmotic and nitrite stress responses. The involvement of the oxidative stress response pathway, however, might be the result of a more general stress response. Given the low similarities between the response profiles to nitrate and other stresses, less-defined stress response pathways could also be important in nitrate stress, which might involve the shift in energy metabolism. The involvement of nitrite stress response upon exposure to nitrate may provide detoxification mechanisms for nitrite, which is inhibitory to sulfate-reducing bacteria, produced by microbial nitrate reduction as a metabolic intermediate and may enhance the survival of sulfate-reducing bacteria in environments with elevated nitrate level.

  19. Morphology targets: What do seedling morphological attributes tell us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremiah R. Pinto

    2011-01-01

    Morphology is classically defined as the form and structure of individual organisms, as distinct from their anatomy or physiology. We use morphological targets in the nursery because they are easy to measure, and because we can often quantitatively link seedling morphological traits with survival and growth performance in the field. In the 20 years since the Target...

  20. EXTRACTION OF URANYL NITRATE FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, N.H.; Mundy, R.J.

    1957-12-10

    An improvement in the process is described for extracting aqueous uranyl nitrate solutions with an organic solvent such as ether. It has been found that the organic phase will extract a larger quantity of uranyl nitrate if the aqueous phase contains in addition to the uranyl nitrate, a quantity of some other soluble nitrate to act as a salting out agent. Mentioned as suitable are the nitrates of lithium, calcium, zinc, bivalent copper, and trivalent iron.

  1. Sodium nitrate ingestion increases skeletal muscle nitrate content in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyakayiru, Jean; Kouw, Imre W K; Cermak, Naomi M; Senden, Joan M; van Loon, Luc J C; Verdijk, Lex B

    2017-09-01

    Nitrate ([Formula: see text]) ingestion has been shown to have vasoactive and ergogenic effects that have been attributed to increased nitric oxide (NO) production. Recent observations in rodents suggest that skeletal muscle tissue serves as an endogenous [Formula: see text] "reservoir." The present study determined [Formula: see text] contents in human skeletal muscle tissue in a postabsorptive state and following ingestion of a sodium nitrate bolus (NaNO 3 ). Seventeen male, type 2 diabetes patients (age 72 ± 1 yr; body mass index 26.5 ± 0.5 kg/m 2 ; means ± SE) were randomized to ingest a dose of NaNO 3 (NIT; 9.3 mg [Formula: see text]/kg body wt) or placebo (PLA; 8.8 mg NaCl/kg body wt). Blood and muscle biopsy samples were taken before and up to 7 h following [Formula: see text] or placebo ingestion to assess [Formula: see text] [and plasma nitrite ([Formula: see text])] concentrations. Additionally, basal plasma and muscle [Formula: see text] concentrations were assessed in 10 healthy young (CON-Y; age 21 ± 1 yr) and 10 healthy older (CON-O; age 75 ± 1 yr) control subjects. In all groups, baseline [Formula: see text] concentrations were higher in muscle (NIT, 57 ± 7; PLA, 61 ± 7; CON-Y, 80 ± 10; CON-O, 54 ± 6 µmol/l) than in plasma (NIT, 35 ± 3; PLA, 32 ± 3; CON-Y, 38 ± 3; CON-O, 33 ± 3 µmol/l; P ≤ 0.011). Ingestion of NaNO 3 resulted in a sustained increase in plasma [Formula: see text], plasma [Formula: see text], and muscle [Formula: see text] concentrations (up to 185 ± 25 µmol/l) in the NIT group (time effect P nitrate ingestion is usually limited to the changes observed in plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations. The present investigation assessed the skeletal muscle nitrate content in humans during the postabsorptive state, as well as following dietary nitrate ingestion. We show that basal nitrate content is higher in skeletal muscle tissue than in plasma and that ingestion of a dietary nitrate bolus strongly increases both plasma

  2. A new route to copper nitrate hydroxide microcrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu Haixia; Yang Qing; Tang Kaibin

    2006-01-01

    A solution evaporation route has been successfully developed for the growth of copper nitrate hydroxide microcrystals using copper nitrate solution as the starting material in the absence of any surfactants or templates. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared (IR) spectrum, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric (TG) analysis measurements. Controlled experiments suggested that the reaction temperature and solution concentration played an important role on the formation of the products. A possible formation mechanism of the products was also proposed

  3. Nitrate levels and stages of growth in hypernodulating mutants of Lupinus albus. II. Enzymatic activity and transport of N in the xylem sap Diferentes níveis de nitrato e estágio de crescimento em mutantes hipernodulantes de Lupinus albus II. Atividade enzimática e transporte de N na seiva do xilema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio Almeida Burity

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available The enzymatic study and transport of N in the xylem sap was carried out with a view to observing the influence of different nitrate levels and growth stages of the plant in chemically treated mutants of Lupinus albus. Several stresses induce a reduction in plant growth, resulting in the accumulation of free amino acids, amides or ureides, not only in the shoot, but also in the roots and nodules. Although enzyme activity is decisive in avoiding products that inhibit nitrogenase by ammonium, little is known about the mechanism by which the xylem carries these products. However, this process may be the key to the function of avoiding the accumulation of amino acids in the cells of infected nodules. The behaviour of the enzymes nitrate reductase (NR, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC, glutamine synthetase (GS and nitrogen compounds derived from fixation, such as N-a-amino, N-ureides and N-amide in mutant genotypes were observed. The NR enzyme activity was highly influenced by the application of nitrate showing much higher values than those in the non-application of nitrate, independently of genotype, being that the NR, the best evaluation period was in the tenth week. The L-62 genotype characterized with nitrate- resistance, clearly showed that the enzyme PEPC is inhibited by presence of nitrate. The L-135 genotype (nod- fix- showed GS activity extremely low, thus demonstrating that GS is an enzyme highly correlated with fixation. With regard to the best growth stage for GS, Lupinus albus should be evaluated in the seventh week.O estudo enzimático e o transporte de N na seiva do xilema foi realizado visando observar a influência de diferentes níveis de nitrato e estágios de crescimento da planta em mutantes tratadas quimicamente. Vários estresses induzem a redução no crescimento da planta da qual resulta na acumulação de aminoácidos livres, amidas ou ureídos, tanto na parte aérea como nas raízes e nódulos. A atividade de enzimas

  4. Effects of dietary supplementation of lipid-coated zinc oxide on intestinal mucosal morphology and expression of the genes associated with growth and immune function in weanling pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Min Song

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of a lipid-coated zinc oxide (ZnO supplement Shield Zn (SZ at the sub-pharmacological concentration on intestinal morphology and gene expression in weanling pigs, with an aim to gain insights into the mechanism of actions for SZ. Methods Forty 22-day-old weanling pigs were fed a nursery diet supplemented with 100 or 2,500 mg Zn/kg with uncoated ZnO (negative control [NC] or positive control [PC], respectively, 100, 200, or 400 mg Zn/kg with SZ for 14 days and their intestinal tissues were taken for histological and molecular biological examinations. The villus height (VH and crypt depth (CD of the intestinal mucosa were measured microscopically following preparation of the tissue specimen; expression of the genes associated with growth and immune function was determined using the real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Results There was no difference in daily gain, gain:feed, and diarrhea score between the SZ group and either of NC and PC. The VH and VH:CD ratio were less for the SZ group vs NC in the jejunum and duodenum, respectively (p<0.05. The jejunal mucosal mRNA levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I and interleukin (IL-10 regressed and tended to regress (p = 0.053 on the SZ concentration with a positive coefficient, respectively, whereas the IL-6 mRNA level regressed on the SZ concentration with a negative coefficient. The mRNA levels of IGF-I, zonula occludens protein-1, tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-6, and IL-10 did not differ between the SZ group and either of NC and PC; the occludin and transforming growth factor-β1 mRNA levels were lower for the SZ group than for PC. Conclusion The present results are interpreted to suggest that dietary ZnO provided by SZ may play a role in intestinal mucosal growth and immune function by modulating the expression of IGF-I, IL-6, and IL-10 genes.

  5. Radiation chemistry of nitrate ices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishore, K.; Moorthy, P.N.; Rao, K.N.

    1978-01-01

    The yields of various products formed in γ-irradiated nitrate ices, viz NO 2 - , H 2 O 2 , O 2 and H 2 , have been measured at different nitrate concentrations. Daniel's method of partition of yields has been employed to evaluate the direct and indirect effect contributions to the yields of the first three products. G(H 2 ) is close to zero at all nitrate concentrations above approximately 0.5 mol dm -3 . The mechanism of product formation has been discussed in the light of various reactions put forth to explain the radiolysis of fluid aqueous nitrate solutions. The effect of various scavengers for the primary species on the product yields has also been investigated. From this it is inferred that nitrate is able to scavenge both the reducing species, viz. H and e - sub(m) giving nitrite and possibly also the holes (h + sub(m)) giving O 2 , and excited water molecules (H 2 O*) giving H 2 O 2 and additional nitrite. (author)

  6. Effect of selenization time on the structural and morphological properties of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films absorber layers using two step growth process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korir, Peter C.; Dejene, Francis B.

    2018-04-01

    In this work two step growth process was used to prepare Cu(In, Ga)Se2 thin film for solar cell applications. The first step involves deposition of Cu-In-Ga precursor films followed by the selenization process under vacuum using elemental selenium vapor to form Cu(In,Ga)Se2 film. The growth process was done at a fixed temperature of 515 °C for 45, 60 and 90 min to control film thickness and gallium incorporation into the absorber layer film. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern confirms single-phase Cu(In,Ga)Se2 film for all the three samples and no secondary phases were observed. A shift in the diffraction peaks to higher 2θ (2 theta) values is observed for the thin films compared to that of pure CuInSe2. The surface morphology of the resulting film grown for 60 min was characterized by the presence of uniform large grain size particles, which are typical for device quality material. Photoluminescence spectra show the shifting of emission peaks to higher energies for longer duration of selenization attributed to the incorporation of more gallium into the CuInSe2 crystal structure. Electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) revealed a uniform distribution of the elements through the surface of the film. The elemental ratio of Cu/(In + Ga) and Se/Cu + In + Ga strongly depends on the selenization time. The Cu/In + Ga ratio for the 60 min film is 0.88 which is in the range of the values (0.75-0.98) for best solar cell device performances.

  7. Overexpression of the KdpF membrane peptide in Mycobacterium bovis BCG results in reduced intramacrophage growth and altered cording morphology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila Gannoun-Zaki

    Full Text Available Membrane peptides appear as an emerging class of regulatory molecules in bacteria, which can interact with membrane proteins, such as sensor kinases. To date, regulatory membrane peptides have been completely overlooked in mycobacteria. The 30 amino-acid-long KdpF peptide, which is co-transcribed with kdpABC genes and regulated by the KdpDE two-component system, is supposed to stabilize the KdpABC potassium transporter complex but may also exhibit unsuspected regulatory function(s towards the KdpD sensor kinase. Herein, we showed by quantitative RT-PCR that the Mycobacterium bovis BCG kdpAB and kdpDE genes clusters are differentially induced in potassium-deprived broth medium or within infected macrophages. We have overexpressed the kdpF gene in M. bovis BCG to investigate its possible regulatory role and effect on mycobacterial virulence. Our results indicate that KdpF does not play a critical regulatory role on kdp genes expression despite the fact that KdpF interacts with the KdpD sensor kinase in a bacterial two-hybrid assay. However, overexpression of kdpF results in a significant reduction of M. bovis BCG growth in both murine and human primary macrophages, and is associated with a strong alteration of colonial morphology and impaired cording formation. To identify novel KdpF interactants, a mycobacterial library was screened using KdpF as bait in the bacterial two-hybrid system. This allowed us to identify members of the MmpL family of membrane proteins, known to participate in the biosynthesis/transport of various cell wall lipids, thus highlighting a possible link between KdpF and cell wall lipid metabolism. Taken together, these data suggest that KdpF overexpression reduces intramacrophage growth which may result from alteration of the mycobacterial cell wall.

  8. The effects of varying concentrations of growth regulators benzyladenine and naphthalene acetic acid and gamma irradiation on the gross plantlet morphology of Garcinia mangostana L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonsol, Ma. Fatima Nona M.; Lasiste, Jade Marie Edenvirg F.; Quinio, Ma. Franchesca S.

    2004-02-01

    Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) is regarded as one of the best flavored fruits in the world. Though this fruit yields high income and has great potential as an export, productivity in the Philippines is still limited due to its slow and difficult conventional propagation. To increase the plants' productivity, growth regulators can be added, the seeds can be exposed to irradiation to cause genetic mutations, and micropropagation techniques can be used. This study seeks to determine the effects of these three variables on the general morphological characteristics of the plantlets grown both in vitro and in vivo. The first set of mangosteen seeds was inoculated and grown in Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal culture medium with different treatment combinations of growth regulators, naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and benzyladenine (BA). Treatment concentrations ranged from 0 parts per million (ppm) to 6 ppm. The treatment that best induced stem, leaf and root formation, and produced plantlets with long stems and roots was MS with 6 ppm NAA combined with 6 ppm BA. A second set of seeds was then exposed to varying levels of gamma radiation and propagated in vivo and in vitro. For in vivo, it was observed that the length of stem of the plantlet decreases with increasing radiation dose; length of leaves of the mangosteen plantlets was best noted in seeds exposed to 10 Gy gamma rays. In in vitro, the two treatment concentrations that best helped seeds to develop callus, which were 0 ppm BA with 4 pmm NAA and 4 ppm BA with 6 ppm NAA, were added to MS basal medium. Seeds exposed to 5 Gy and grown in basal medium with 0 ppm BA and 4 ppm NAA were observed to have developed the most callus. (Author)

  9. Growth of floating-leaved and submerged plants in artificial co-cultured microcosms: morphological responses to various water fluctuation regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Q.J.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrocharis dubia can alternate between a rooted floating-leaved and a free-floating form, so given increasingly frequent precipitation extremes, it is not expected to be more negatively impacted by rapid water fluctuations than by gradual ones and may adapt water fluctuations by alteration of life forms. However, the opposite may be true for Nymphoides peltata, with only a rooted floating-leaved form. We designed an experiment combining six water depth treatments (constant shallow, constant deep, and two rapidly and two gradually fluctuating treatments) with three speciescombinations (N. peltata H. dubia, N. peltata Ceratophyllum demersum, and H. dubia C. demersum) to investigate plant responses to depth fluctuations and their co-cultured species. The total mass of N. peltata was considerably lower in the rapidly- than in the gradually-fluctuating treatments. However, total mass of H. dubia in the rapidly-fluctuating treatments was similar to or higher than in the gradually-fluctuating ones. Rapid fluctuations had a negative impact on the growth of C. demersum than gradual fluctuating. The floating-leaved species demonstrated divergent adaptive strategies to different water fluctuation patterns. In addition to expanding leaf blades, H. dubia can adapt to changing water depths by changing its life form. However, N. peltata, which mainly relies on morphological plasticity, such as petiole elongation, to adapt to water rise may reduce its abundance in communities subjected to increasingly frequent floods. The growth of submerged C. demersum, either co-occurring with H. dubia or with N. peltata, may be repressed by high flooding rates. (author)

  10. A comparison of the effect of epidermal growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, and fibroblast growth factor on rat periodontal ligament fibroblast-like cells' DNA synthesis and morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blom, S; Holmstrup, P; Dabelsteen, Erik

    1994-01-01

    of observations were assessed by the Student t-test. The morphogenic effects of growth factors were described with respect to growth pattern, cell orientation, and cell and nucleus form after a random photographic recording. The fibroblast-like cell type and the non-transformed phenotype of the cell line have...... nuclei. Incorporation of [3H]-thymidine was increased in a dose-dependent manner by all growth factors. Maximal effect on the DNA synthesis was: rEGF, 131%; nPDGF, 274%; and nFGF, 182%.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)...

  11. [Acidic fibroblast growth factor for preventing motor endplate degeneration and muscular atrophy after motor nerve injury: a morphological and electrophysiological study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shao-an; Jin, An-min; Zou, Xiao-ying; Xiao, Xiao-tao; Xiao, Sha

    2006-03-01

    To explore measures to prevent motor endplate degeneration and muscular atrophy after motor nerve injury. Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into 3 equal groups. In two of the groups, the right common peroneal nerves of the rats were transected and immediately sutured with implantation of collagen gel carrier of acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) or the empty carrier into the denervated tibialis anterior muscles. In the control group, the transected nerves were sutured without implantation. Six weeks after the operation, morphological and electrophysiological examinations were performed. In the control rats and those with empty collagen gel carrier implantation, obvious motor endplate degeneration and muscular atrophy occurred, which were not obvious in rats receiving aFGF carrier implantation. The decrement of repetitive nerve stimulation was significantly greater in the former two groups than in the latter. Implantation of collagen gel carrier of aFGF may prevent motor endplate degeneration and facilitate functional recovery of the neuromuscular junction after motor nerve injury.

  12. Yellow mealworm larvae (Tenebrio molitor) inclusion in diets for male broiler chickens: effects on growth performance, gut morphology, and histological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasato, I; Gasco, L; De Marco, M; Renna, M; Rotolo, L; Dabbou, S; Capucchio, M T; Biasibetti, E; Tarantola, M; Sterpone, L; Cavallarin, L; Gai, F; Pozzo, L; Bergagna, S; Dezzutto, D; Zoccarato, I; Schiavone, A

    2018-02-01

    This study evaluated the effects of Tenebrio molitor (TM) larvae meal inclusion in diets for broilers. A total of 160 male broiler chicks (Ross 708) at one-day of age were randomly allotted to four dietary treatments: a control (C) group and three TM groups, in which TM meal was included at 50 (TM5), 100 (TM10), and 150 (TM15) g/kg, respectively. The experimental diets were isonitrogenous and isoenergetic. Each group consisted of five pens as replicates (8 chicks/pen). After the evaluation of growth performance and haematochemical parameters, the animals were slaughtered at 53 days and carcass traits were recorded. Morphometric investigations were performed on duodenum, jejunum, and ileum and histopathological alterations were assessed for liver, spleen, thymus, bursa of Fabricius, kidney, and heart. The live weight (LW) showed a linear (12 and 25 days, P 0.05). TM15 birds showed lower villus height (P < 0.05), higher crypt depth (P < 0.05), and lower villus height to crypt depth ratio (P = 0.001) compared with C and TM5. In conclusion, increasing levels of dietary TM meal inclusion in male broiler chickens may improve body weight and feed intake, but negatively affect feed efficiency and intestinal morphology, thus suggesting that low levels may be more suitable. However, no effect on haematochemical parameters, carcass traits, and histological findings were observed in relation to TM meal utilization. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  13. Crystal growth, morphology, thermal and spectral studies of an organosulfur nonlinear optical bis(guanidinium) 5-sulfosalicylate (BG5SS) single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhavamurthy, M.; Peramaiyan, G.; Babu, K. Syed Suresh; Mohan, R.

    2015-04-01

    Organosulfur nonlinear optical single crystals of orthorhombic bis(guanidinium) 5-sulfosalicylate (2CH6N3 +·C7H4O6S2-·H2O) with dimension 14 mm × 4 mm × 5 mm have been grown from methanol and water solvents in 1:1 ratio by the slow evaporation growth technique. The crystal structure and morphology of the crystals have been studied by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. FTIR spectroscopic studies were carried out to identify the functional groups and vibrational modes present in the grown crystals. The UV-Vis spectrum was studied to analyze the linear optical properties of the grown crystals. The thermal gravimetric analysis was conducted on the grown crystals, and the result revealed that the grown crystal is thermally stable up to 65 °C. The dielectric tensor components ɛ 11, ɛ 22 and ɛ 33 of BG5SS crystal were evaluated as a function of frequency at 40 °C. The surface laser damage threshold for the grown crystal was measured using Nd:YAG laser. Further, Vickers micro-hardness study was carried out to analyze the mechanical strength of the grown crystals for various loads.

  14. Systems analysis of transcriptome data provides new hypotheses about Arabidopsis root response to nitrate treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier eCanales

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N is an essential macronutrient for plant growth and development. Plants adapt to changes in N availability partly by changes in global gene expression. We integrated publicly available root microarray data under contrasting nitrate conditions to identify new genes and functions important for adaptive nitrate responses in Arabidopsis thaliana roots. Overall, more than two thousand genes exhibited changes in expression in response to nitrate treatments in Arabidopsis thaliana root organs. Global regulation of gene expression by nitrate depends largely on the experimental context. However, despite significant differences from experiment to experiment in the identity of regulated genes, there is a robust nitrate response of specific biological functions. Integrative gene network analysis uncovered relationships between nitrate-responsive genes and eleven highly co-expressed gene clusters (modules. Four of these gene network modules have robust nitrate responsive functions such as transport, signaling and metabolism. Network analysis hypothesized G2-like transcription factors are key regulatory factors controlling transport and signaling functions. Our meta-analysis highlights the role of biological processes not studied before in the context of the nitrate response such as root hair development and provides testable hypothesis to advance our understanding of nitrate responses in plants.

  15. Nitrate reduction to nitrite, nitric oxide and ammonia by gut bacteria under physiological conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Tiso

    Full Text Available The biological nitrogen cycle involves step-wise reduction of nitrogen oxides to ammonium salts and oxidation of ammonia back to nitrites and nitrates by plants and bacteria. Neither process has been thought to have relevance to mammalian physiology; however in recent years the salivary bacterial reduction of nitrate to nitrite has been recognized as an important metabolic conversion in humans. Several enteric bacteria have also shown the ability of catalytic reduction of nitrate to ammonia via nitrite during dissimilatory respiration; however, the importance of this pathway in bacterial species colonizing the human intestine has been little studied. We measured nitrite, nitric oxide (NO and ammonia formation in cultures of Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species grown at different sodium nitrate concentrations and oxygen levels. We found that the presence of 5 mM nitrate provided a growth benefit and induced both nitrite and ammonia generation in E.coli and L.plantarum bacteria grown at oxygen concentrations compatible with the content in the gastrointestinal tract. Nitrite and ammonia accumulated in the growth medium when at least 2.5 mM nitrate was present. Time-course curves suggest that nitrate is first converted to nitrite and subsequently to ammonia. Strains of L.rhamnosus, L.acidophilus and B.longum infantis grown with nitrate produced minor changes in nitrite or ammonia levels in the cultures. However, when supplied with exogenous nitrite, NO gas was readily produced independently of added nitrate. Bacterial production of lactic acid causes medium acidification that in turn generates NO by non-enzymatic nitrite reduction. In contrast, nitrite was converted to NO by E.coli cultures even at neutral pH. We suggest that the bacterial nitrate reduction to ammonia, as well as the related NO formation in the gut, could be an important aspect of the overall mammalian nitrate/nitrite/NO metabolism and is yet another way in

  16. Overexpression of the Maize ZmNLP6 and ZmNLP8 Can Complement the Arabidopsis Nitrate Regulatory Mutant nlp7 by Restoring Nitrate Signaling and Assimilation

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Huairong; Qi, Shengdong; Sun, Mengwei; Li, Zehui; Yang, Yi; Crawford, Nigel M.; Wang, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Nitrate is a key nutrient that affects maize growth and yield, and much has yet to be learned about nitrate regulatory genes and mechanisms in maize. Here, we identified nine ZmNLP genes in maize and analyzed the functions of two ZmNLP members in nitrate signaling. qPCR results revealed a broad pattern of expression for ZmNLP genes in different stages and organs with the highest levels of transcript expression of ZmNLP6 and ZmNLP8. When ZmNLP6 and ZmNLP8 were overexpressed in the Arabidopsis ...

  17. Interpretation of the vacancy-ordering controlled growth morphology of Hg5In2Te8 precipitates in Hg3In2Te6 single crystals by TEM observation and crystallographic calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Jie; Fu, Li; Liu, Hongwei; Ringer, S.P.; Liu, Zongwen

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The growth morphology and detailed crystallography of Hg 5 In 2 Te 8 precipitates in Hg 3 In 2 Te 6 matrix to has been interpreted by means of transmission electron microscopy and invariant element deformation model. Three crystallographic equivalent variants of Hg 5 In 2 Te 8 precipitates in Hg 3 In 2 Te 6 matrix were found to have different growth directions and habit planes. Such growth morphology is fully attributed to the lattice shrinkage induced by vacancy ordering under high temperature in Hg 5 In 2 Te 8 . Through near coincident site lattice and invariant strain calculation, the morphology and crystallographic features of the precipitate has been successfully interpreted. - Highlights: • The growth morphology of Hg 5 In 2 Te 8 precipitates in Hg 3 In 2 Te 6 was observed by TEM. • Near-CSL calculation show 0.7577% lattice shrinkage of Hg 5 In 2 Te 8 at high temperature. • All the involved factors have inverse relationship with the move speed of interface. • The calculated crystallography features of Hg 5 In 2 Te 8 agree well with the TEM results. - Abstract: Generally, the crystal growth morphology in liquid or vapor was controlled by chemical potential, while that in solid solute was restricted by 3D strain matching between matrix and secondary phase. It is already known that the growth and evolution of the morphology of secondary phase during the solid phase transformation are highly determined by the variation of interface energy induced by lattice mismatch. In this work, the growth morphology and crystallography of Hg 5 In 2 Te 8 precipitates in Hg 3 In 2 Te 6 matrix were investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was found that the growth of Hg 5 In 2 Te 8 precipitates displayed an unusual growth morphology which contain three crystallographically equivalent variants with different growth directions in Hg 3 In 2 Te 6 matrix, suggesting a slight lattice constant variation of Hg 5 In 2 Te 8 precipitate

  18. Effect of Ammonium and Nitrate on Ferric Chelate Reductase and Nitrate Reductase in Vaccinium Species

    OpenAIRE

    POONNACHIT, U.; DARNELL, R.

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Most Vaccinium species have strict soil requirements for optimal growth, requiring low pH, high iron availability and nitrogen primarily in the ammonium form. These soils are limited and are often located near wetlands. Vaccinium arboreum is a wild species adapted to a wide range of soils, including high pH, low iron, and nitrate‐containing soils. This broader soil adaptation in V. arboreum may be related to increased efficiency of iron or nitrate uptake compared with th...

  19. The relationship between the nitrogen and nitrate content and nitrate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The interrelationships between the nitrate-N and nitrogen content and dry matter yield of Midmar ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum cv. Midmar) were investigated. Data were collected from N fertility trials, from two seasons (1985 and 1987) on four soil sites (Metz, Griffin, Clovelly and Katspruit) with N fertilizer rates ranging from 0 ...

  20. Nitrate and phosphate removal by Spirulina platensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodi, A; Binaghi, L; Solisio, C; Converti, A; Del Borghi, M

    2003-11-01

    The cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis was used to verify the possibility of employing microalgal biomass to reduce the contents of nitrate and phosphate in wastewaters. Batch tests were carried out in 0.5 dm3 Erlenmeyer flasks under conditions of light limitation (40 micromol quanta m(-2) s(-1)) at a starting biomass level of 0.50 g/dm3 and varying temperature in the range 23-40 degrees C. In this way, the best temperature for the growth of this microalga (30 degrees C) was determined and the related thermodynamic parameters were estimated. All removed nitrate was used for biomass growth (biotic removal), whereas phosphate appeared to be removed mainly by chemical precipitation (abiotic removal). The best results in terms of specific and volumetric growth rates (mu=0.044 day(-1), Qx=33.2 mg dm(-3) day(-1)) as well as volumetric rate and final yield of nitrogen removal (Q(N-NO3-)=3.26 mg dm(-3) day(-1), Y(N-NO3-)=0.739) were obtained at 30 degrees C, whereas phosphorus was more effectively removed at a lower temperature. In order to simulate full-scale studies, batch tests of nitrate and phosphate removal were also performed in 5.0 dm3 vessels (mini-ponds) at the optimum temperature (30 degrees C) but increasing the photon fluence rate to 80 micromol quanta m(-2) s(-1) and varying the initial biomass concentration from 0.25 to 0.86 g/dm3. These additional tests demonstrated that an increase in the inoculum level up to 0.75 g/dm3 enhanced both NO3- and PO4(3-) removal, confirming a strict dependence of these processes on biomass activity. In addition, the larger surface area of the ponds and the higher light intensity improved removal yields and kinetics compared to the flasks, particularly concerning phosphorus removal (mu=0.032-0.050 day(-1), Qx=34.7-42.4 mg dm(-3) day(-1), Q(N-NO3-)=3.24-4.06 mg dm(-3) day(-1), Y(N-NO3-)=0.750-0.879, Q(P-PO4(3-))=0.312-0.623 mg dm(-3) day(-1), and Y(P-PO4(3-))=0.224-0.440).

  1. Growth performance, duodenal morphology and the caecal microbial population in female broiler chickens fed glycine-fortified low protein diets under heat stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, E A; Idrus, Z; Soleimani Farjam, A; Bello, A U; Jahromi, M F

    2018-03-09

    1. This study was undertaken to examine the effect of feeding glycine (Gly)-fortified low protein (LP) diets on the growth performance, duodenal morphology and caecal microbial populations of broiler chickens raised under unheated, cyclic or constant heat stress environmental conditions. 2. From d 1 to 21 (starter phase), an equivalent number of birds were fed either a normal protein (NP) diet or a LP diet fortified with Gly. From d 22 to 42 (grower phase), an equivalent number of birds from each starter diet were distributed to one of the following dietary groups: (i) an NP diet during the starter and grower phases (NPNP), (ii) an NP diet during the starter phase and a LP diet during the grower phase (NPLP), (iii) an LP diet during the starter phase and an NP diet during the grower phase (LPNP) or (iv) LP diets during both phases (LPLP). 3. Commencing from d 22, an equivalent number of birds from each dietary group were exposed to (i) 23 ± 1°C throughout (unheated), (ii) 34 ± 1°C for 7 h each day from 10:00 to 17:00 (cyclic heat) or (iii) 34 ± 1°C throughout (constant heat). 4. Feeding the LP diet during the starter phase resulted in feed intake (FI), weight gain (WG), feed conversion ratios (FCR) and energy efficiency ratios (EER) similar to those for the NP diet. The birds fed the LP diet had a significantly higher protein efficiency ratio (PER) compared with the birds fed the NP diet. 5. During the grower phase, there were significant diet × temperature interactions for F, WG, FCR, PER, EER, villus height, crypt depth and caecal Clostridia. The birds fed the NPLP and LPLP diets had lower FI, WG and EER, higher FCR, shorter villus height and crypt depth and higher caecal Clostridia compared with the birds fed LPNP and NPNP diets under constant heat stress. However, feeding birds the NPLP and LPLP diets resulted in FI, WG, EER, FCR, morphology parameters and caecal Clostridia equivalent to the birds fed LPNP and NPNP diets, as well as improved PER

  2. Nitrate and bicarbonate selective CHEMFETs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonisse, M.M.G.; Engbersen, Johannes F.J.; Reinhoudt, David

    1995-01-01

    The development of durable anion selective CHEMFET micro sensors is described. Selectivity in these sensors is either obtained from differences in hydration energy of the anions (the Hlofmeister series, giving nitrate selectivity) or by introduction of a new class of uranyl salophene ionophores

  3. Nitrate levels and stages of growth in hypernodulating mutants of Lupinus albus. I. N2 fixation potential Influência dos diferentes níveis de nitrato e estágio de crescimento em mutantes hipernodulantes de Lupinus albus I. potencial de fixação de N2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio Almeida Burity

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate physiological parameters, nodulation response and N2 fixation rate in mutants of Lupinus albus in comparison with the standard Multolupa cultivar. Two nitrate levels (0 and 5mM and two evaluation periods (7 and 10 weeks were used. Significant differences were observed among genotypes, in relation to fresh nodule weight, nitrate levels and growth stages. The overall average for nitrate level differed between them where 5mM severely inhibited the number of nodules, reaching a 49.5% reduction in relation to treatment without nitrate. There were no behaviour differences among genotypes, nor among evaluation periods. Although the level of nitrate did not influence the production of shoot dry matter in relation to the average among levels applied, the L-135 genotype, being an inefficient mutant, reached very low values. There were no significant differences in electron allocation coefficient (EAC among nitrate levels, nor among genotypes studied. However, the evaluation periods revealed differences, where the EAC for the seventh week had a higher value than that for the tenth week, when a 5mM aplication was evaluated. The N2 fixation rate (N2 FIX showed the existence of the nitrate interference in fixation, given that the application of 5mM severely reduced. However, there were no differences among the genotypes and it was noted that the fixation rate was much higher in those that received nitrate. The L-88 and L-62 genotypes were the ones that have shown best adaptability in this experiment, thus being able to be recommended for new studies with higher nitrate levels and different evaluation periods. The nitrate (5mM interferes in the nitrogen fixation rate, given that all the genotypes were affected by the level applied.Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar parâmetros fisiológicos, resposta da nodulação e a taxa de fixação de N2 em mutantes de Lupinus albus comparando com a cultivar padrão Multolupa. Foram

  4. Comprehensive growth performance, immune function, plasma biochemistry, gene expressions and cell death morphology responses to a daily corticosterone injection course in broiler chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal M K Mehaisen

    Full Text Available The massive meat production of broiler chickens make them continuously exposed to potential stressors that stimulate releasing of stress-related hormones like corticosterone (CORT which is responsible for specific pathways in biological mechanisms and physiological activities. Therefore, this research was conducted to evaluate a wide range of responses related to broiler performance, immune function, plasma biochemistry, related gene expressions and cell death morphology during and after a 7-day course of CORT injection. A total number of 200 one-day-old commercial Cobb broiler chicks were used in this study. From 21 to 28 d of age, broilers were randomly assigned to one of 2 groups with 5 replicates of 20 birds each; the first group received a daily intramuscular injection of 5 mg/kg BW corticosterone dissolved in 0.5 ml ethanol:saline solution (CORT group, while the second group received a daily intramuscular injection of 0.5 ml ethanol:saline only (CONT group. Growth performance, including body weight (BW, daily weight gain (DG, feed intake (FI and feed conversion ratio (FC, were calculated at 0, 3 and 7 d after the start of the CORT injections. At the same times, blood samples were collected in each group for hematological (TWBC's and H/L ratio, T- and B-lymphocytes proliferation and plasma biochemical assays (total protein, TP; free triiodothyronine hormone, fT3; aspartate amino transaminase, AST; and alanine amino transaminase, ALT. The liver, thymus, bursa of Fabricius and spleen were dissected and weighed, and the mRNA expression of insulin-like growth factor 1 gene (IGF-1 in liver and cell-death-program gene (caspase-9 in bursa were analyzed for each group and time; while the apoptotic/necrotic cells were morphologically detected in the spleen. From 28 to 35 d of age, broilers were kept for recovery period without CORT injection and the same sampling and parameters were repeated at the end (at 14 d after initiation of the CORT injection

  5. Genetics of nitrate accumulation in lettuce

    OpenAIRE

    Reinink, K.

    1993-01-01

    This study evaluated the prospects of breeding for low nitrate content in lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L.). A lettuce collection was screened and accessions with low nitrate content were identified. These were used to study the genetics of nitrate accumulation. Nitrate accumulation inherited quantitatively, in a mainly additive fashion with only minor effects of dominance. No important maternal effects were detected. Estimates of the additive genotypic variance and t...

  6. Nitrate reductase assay using sodium nitrate for rapid detection of multidrug resistant tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Macedo, Ma?ra Bidart; Groll, Andrea Von; Fissette, Krista; Palomino, Juan Carlos; da Silva, Pedro Eduardo Almeida; Martin, Anandi

    2012-01-01

    We validated the nitrate reductase assay (NRA) for the detection of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MDR-TB) using sodium nitrate (NaNO3) in replacement of potassium nitrate (KNO3) as nitrate source. NaNO3 is cheaper than KNO3 and has no restriction on use which facilitates the implementation of NRA to detect MDR-TB.

  7. Nitrate tolerance impairs nitric oxide-mediated vasodilation in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Jørn Bech; Boesgaard, Søren; Poulsen, Henrik E.

    1996-01-01

    Nitrates, Nitrate tolerence, Nitric oxide, acetylcholine, N-acetylcholine, N-acetylcysteine, L-NAME, Rat, Anesthetized......Nitrates, Nitrate tolerence, Nitric oxide, acetylcholine, N-acetylcholine, N-acetylcysteine, L-NAME, Rat, Anesthetized...

  8. 21 CFR 172.160 - Potassium nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Preservatives § 172.160 Potassium nitrate. The food additive potassium nitrate may be safely used as a curing... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium nitrate. 172.160 Section 172.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN...

  9. 21 CFR 172.170 - Sodium nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Preservatives § 172.170 Sodium nitrate. The food additive sodium nitrate may be safely used in or on specified... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium nitrate. 172.170 Section 172.170 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN...

  10. 76 FR 47238 - Ammonium Nitrate From Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... COMMISSION Ammonium Nitrate From Russia Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject... order on ammonium nitrate from Russia would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material... Commission are contained in USITC Publication 4249 (August 2011), entitled Ammonium Nitrate from Russia...

  11. Method of producing thin cellulose nitrate film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupica, S.B.

    1975-01-01

    An improved method for forming a thin nitrocellulose film of reproducible thickness is described. The film is a cellulose nitrate film, 10 to 20 microns in thickness, cast from a solution of cellulose nitrate in tetrahydrofuran, said solution containing from 7 to 15 percent, by weight, of dioctyl phthalate, said cellulose nitrate having a nitrogen content of from 10 to 13 percent

  12. Nitrate Removal from Aqueous Solutions Using Almond Charcoal Activated with Zinc Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Arbabi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Nitrate is one of the most important contaminants in aquatic environments that can leached to water resources from various sources such as sewage, fertilizers and decomposition of organic waste. Reduction of nitrate to nitrite in infant’s blood stream can cause “blue baby” disease in infants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nitrate removal from aqueous solutions using modified almond charcoal with zinc chloride. Materials &Methods: This study is an experimental survey. At the first charcoal almond skins were prepared in 5500C and then modified with ZnCl2. Morphologies and characterization of almond shell charcoal were evaluated by using FTIR, EDX, BET and FESEM. Adsorption experiments were conducted with 500 ml sample in Becker. The nitrate concentration removal, contact time, pH and charcoal dosage were investigated. The central composite design method was used to optimizing the nitrate removal process. The results analyzed with ANOVA test. Results: The best condition founded in 48 min, 1250 ppm, 125 mg/l and 3 for retention time, primary nitrate concentration, charcoal dosage and pH respectively. The results showed that the nitrate removal decreases with increasing pH. Modification of skin charcoal is show increasing of nitrate removal from aquatic solution. Conclusion: In this study, the maximum nitrate removal efficiency for raw charcoal and modified charcoal was determined 15.47% and 62.78%, respectively. The results showed that this method can be used as an effective method for removing nitrate from aqueous solutions.

  13. High temperature interaction studies on equimolar nitrate mixture of uranyl nitrate hexahydrate and gadolinium nitrate hexahydrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalekar, Bhupesh B.; Raje, Naina; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2015-01-01

    Rare earths including gadolinium form a sizeable fraction of the fission products in the nuclear fission of fissile material in the reactor. These fission products can interact with uranium dioxide fuel and can form various compounds which can alter the thermal behavior of the fuel. The mixed oxide formed due to the high temperature interactions of mixture of uranyl nitrate hexahydrate (UNH) and gadolinium nitrate hexahydrate (GdNH) has been studied using thermal and X- ray diffraction techniques. The equimolar mixture of UNH and GdNH was prepared by mixing the weighed amount of individual nitrates and grinding gently with mortar and pestle. Thermogravimetry (TG) measurements were carried out by separately heating 100 mg of mixture and individual nitrates at heating rate of 10°C min -1 using Netzsch thermal analyzer (Model No.: STA 409 PC Luxx) in high purity nitrogen atmosphere with a flow rate of 120 mL min -1 . The XRD measurement was carried out on a Philips X-ray diffractometer (Model PW1710) using nickel-filtered Cu-Kα radiation

  14. Livestock and elk grazing effects on stream morphology, brown trout population dynamics, movement, and growth rate, Valles Caldera National Preserve, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael C. Anderson

    2009-01-01

    Ungulate grazing in riparian areas has been shown to detrimentally impact stream morphology and fish populations. Goals of this research were to assess changes in stream morphology and responses of a brown trout (Salmo trutta) population to exclusion of cattle (Bos taurus) and elk (Cervus elaphus) from riparian...

  15. Yttrium Nitrate mediated Nitration of Phenols at room temperature in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    chromatographic purification. 2.1 Procedure for Nitration of Phenol. Phenol (94 mg, 1 mmol) dissolved in 3 mL glacial acetic acid in a 50 mL test tube was treated with solid Y(NO3)3.6H2O. (383 mg, 1 mmol) with constant shaking at RT for 10 min. The reaction was monitored by TLC at 10% EtOAc in. Petroleum benzene.

  16. Nitration of naphthalene and remarks on the mechanism of electrophilic aromatic nitration*

    OpenAIRE

    Olah, George A.; Narang, Subhash C.; Olah, Judith A.

    1981-01-01

    Naphthalene was nitrated with a variety of nitrating agents. Comparison of data with Perrin's electrochemical nitration [Perrin, C. L. (1977) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 99, 5516-5518] shows that nitration of naphthalene gives an α-nitronaphthalene to β-nitronaphthalene ratio that varies between 9 and 29 and is thus not constant. Perrin's data, therefore, are considered to be inconclusive evidence for the proposed one-electron transfer mechanism for the nitration of naphthalene and other reactive aroma...

  17. Nitrate Sensing and Metabolism Modulate Motility, Biofilm Formation, and Virulence in Pseudomonas aeruginosa▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Alst, Nadine E.; Picardo, Kristin F.; Iglewski, Barbara H.; Haidaris, Constantine G.

    2007-01-01

    Infection by the bacterial opportunist Pseudomonas aeruginosa frequently assumes the form of a biofilm, requiring motility for biofilm formation and dispersal and an ability to grow in nutrient- and oxygen-limited environments. Anaerobic growth by P. aeruginosa is accomplished through the denitrification enzyme pathway that catalyzes the sequential reduction of nitrate to nitrogen gas. Mutants mutated in the two-component nitrate sensor-response regulator and in membrane nitrate reductase displayed altered motility and biofilm formation compared to wild-type P. aeruginosa PAO1. Analysis of additional nitrate dissimilation mutants demonstrated a second level of regulation in P. aeruginosa motility that is independent of nitrate sensor-response regulator function and is associated with nitric oxide production. Because motility and biofilm formation are important for P. aeruginosa pathogenicity, we examined the virulence of selected regulatory and structural gene mutants in the surrogate model host Caenorhabditis elegans. Interestingly, the membrane nitrate reductase mutant was avirulent in C. elegans, while nitrate sensor-response regulator mutants were fully virulent. The data demonstrate that nitrate sensing, response regulation, and metabolism are linked directly to factors important in P. aeruginosa pathogenesis. PMID:17526746

  18. Nitrate Removal from Ground Water: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrate contamination of ground water resources has increased in Asia, Europe, United States, and various other parts of the world. This trend has raised concern as nitrates cause methemoglobinemia and cancer. Several treatment processes can remove nitrates from water with varying degrees of efficiency, cost, and ease of operation. Available technical data, experience, and economics indicate that biological denitrification is more acceptable for nitrate removal than reverse osmosis and ion exchange. This paper reviews the developments in the field of nitrate removal processes which can be effectively used for denitrifying ground water as well as industrial water.

  19. Effects of over-winter green cover on soil solution nitrate concentrations beneath tillage land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premrov, Alina; Coxon, Catherine E; Hackett, Richard; Kirwan, Laura; Richards, Karl G

    2014-02-01

    There is a growing need to reduce nitrogen losses from agricultural systems to increase food production while reducing negative environmental impacts. The efficacy of vegetation cover for reducing nitrate leaching in tillage systems during fallow periods has been widely investigated. Nitrate leaching reductions by natural regeneration (i.e. growth of weeds and crop volunteers) have been investigated to a lesser extent than reductions by planted cover crops. This study compares the efficacy of natural regeneration and a sown cover crop (mustard) relative to no vegetative cover under both a reduced tillage system and conventional plough-based system as potential mitigation measures for reducing over-winter soil solution nitrate concentrations. The study was conducted over three winter fallow seasons on well drained soil, highly susceptible to leaching, under temperate maritime climatic conditions. Mustard cover crop under both reduced tillage and conventional ploughing was observed to be an effective measure for significantly reducing nitrate concentrations. Natural regeneration under reduced tillage was found to significantly reduce the soil solution nitrate concentrations. This was not the case for the natural regeneration under conventional ploughing. The improved efficacy of natural regeneration under reduced tillage could be a consequence of potential stimulation of seedling germination by the autumn reduced tillage practices and improved over-winter plant growth. There was no significant effect of tillage practices on nitrate concentrations. This study shows that over winter covers of mustard and natural regeneration, under reduced tillage, are effective measures for reducing nitrate concentrations in free draining temperate soils. © 2013.

  20. Microbial and biogeochemical responses to projected future nitrate enrichment in the California upwelling system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Rose Marie Mackey

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Coastal California is a dynamic upwelling region where nitrogen (N and iron (Fe can both limit productivity and influence biogeochemistry over different spatial and temporal scales. With global change, the flux of nitrate from upwelling is expected to increase over the next century, potentially driving additional oceanic regions toward Fe limitation. In this study we explored the effect of changes in Fe/N ratio on native phytoplankton from five currently Fe-replete sites near the major California upwelling centers at Bodega Bay and Monterey Bay using nutrient addition incubation experiments. Despite the high nitrate levels (13-30 M in the upwelled water, phytoplankton at three of the five sites showed increased growth when 10 M nitrate was added. None of the sites showed enhanced growth following addition of 10 nM Fe. Nitrate additions favored slow sinking single-celled diatoms over faster sinking chain-forming diatoms, suggesting that future increases in nitrate flux could affect carbon and silicate export and alter grazer populations. In particular, solitary cells of Cylindrotheca were more abundant than the toxin-producing genus Pseudonitzschia following nitrate addition. These responses suggest the biogeochemistry of coastal California could change in response to future increases in nitrate, and multiple stressors like ocean acidification and hypoxia may further result in ecosystem shifts.

  1. Nitrate metabolism in the gromiid microbial universe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgslund, Signe; Risgaard-Petersen, Nils; Cedhagen, Tomas

    Eukaryotic nitrate respiration supported by intracellular nitrate storages contributes substantially to the nitrogen cycle. Research focus is currently directed towards two phyla: Foraminifera and diatoms, but the widespread Gromia in the Rhizaria may be another key organism. These giant protists...... enclose and regulate a small biogeochemical universe within their cell. Their transparent proteinaceous cell wall surrounds a complex matrix consisting of sediment, bacteria and nitrate which is concentrated to hundreds of mM in the gromiid cell. The nitrate is respired to dinitrogen, but in contrast...... to the findings of eukaryotic mediated nitrate reduction in some foraminifera and diatoms, nitrate respiration in gromiids seems to be mediated by bacterial endosymbionts. The role of endobionts in nitrate accumulating eukaryotes is of fundamental importance for understanding the evolutionary path...

  2. 2-Amino-5-chloropyridinium nitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donia Zaouali Zgolli

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The title structure, C5H6ClN2+·NO3−, is held together by extensive hydrogen bonding between the NO3− ions and 2-amino-5-chloropyridinium H atoms. The cation–anion N—H...O hydrogen bonds link the ions into a zigzag- chain which develops parallel to the b axis. The structure may be compared with that of the related 2-amino-5-cyanopyridinium nitrate.

  3. Evolution of morphological allometry

    OpenAIRE

    Pelabon, Christophe; Firmat, Cyril Joel Patrick; Bolstad, Geir Hysing; Voje, Kjetil L.; Houle, David; Cassara, Jason; Le Rouzic, Arnaud; Hansen, Thomas F

    2014-01-01

    Morphological allometry refers to patterns of covariance between body parts resulting from variation in body size. Whether measured during growth (ontogenetic allometry), among individuals at similar developmental stage (static allometry), or among populations or species (evolutionary allometry), allometric relationships are often tight and relatively invariant. Consequently, it has been suggested that allometries have low evolvability and could constrain phenotypic evolution by forcing evolv...

  4. Photochemical reduction of uranyl nitrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duerksen, W.K.

    1993-10-20

    The photochemical reduction of uranyl nitrate solutions to tetravalent uranium was investigated as a means of producing uranium dioxide feed for the saltless direct oxide reduction (SDOR) process. At high uranium concentrations, reoxidation of U{sup +4} occurs rapidly. The kinetics of the nitric oxidation of tetravalent uranium depend on the concentrations of hydrogen ion, nitrate ion, nitrous acid, and tetravalent uranium in the same manner as was reported elsewhere for the nitrate oxidation of PU{sup +3}. Reaction rate data were successfully correlated with a mechanism in which nitrogen dioxide is the reactive intermediate. Addition of a nitrous acid scavenger suppresses the reoxidation reaction. An immersion reactor employing a mercury vapor lamp gave reduction times fast enough for routine production usage. Precipitation techniques for conversion of aqueous U(NO{sub 3}){sub 4} to hydrous UO{sub 2} were evaluated. Prolonged dewatering times tended to make the process time consuming. Use of 3- to 4-M aqueous NaOH gave the best dewatering times observed. Reoxidation of the UO{sub 2} by water of hydration was encountered, which required the drying process to be carried out under a reducing atmosphere.

  5. Investigation into common solubility of dysprosium nitrate with nitrates of aniline, pyridine in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katamanov, V.L.; Zhuravlev, E.F.

    1976-01-01

    Data are given on solubility at 20 and 40 deg C in the systems: dysprosium nitrate - aniline nitrate -water and dysprosium nitrate - pyridine nitrate - water. Solubilities are determined by the method of sections. It is found that isotherms of the first system are of eutonic type, equilibrium solid phases of dysprosium hexahydrate nitrate and aniline nitrate correspond to non-variant points of intersection of lines of saturated solutions. The solubility of aniline nitrate is much lower than that of dysprosium hexahydrate nitrate. An increase in the concentration of Dy 3+ ions in a binary solution results in salting-out of aniline nitrate and in absence of any interaction in the system. The compound Dy(NO 3 ) 3 x2PyxHNO 3 is formed in a congruent way in the second system considered

  6. Effects of acute and sub-chronic ammonium nitrate exposure on rat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    2006-05-02

    May 2, 2006 ... nitrates as well as a hepatic cytotoxicity indicated by an increase in bilirubin and transaminases levels were observed. Key words: Ammonium toxicity, Blood tissues, Methemoglobin, Bilirubin, Rat liver, Fertilizers. INTRODUCTION. Mineral fertilisers .... visualizing red blood cells morphology. We observe that.

  7. Mechanisms of nitrate capture in biochar: Are they related to biochar properties, post-treatment and soil environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimo, Giulia; Haller, Andreas; Spokas, Kurt; Novak, Jeff; Ippolito, Jim; Löhnertz, Otmar; Kammann, Claudia

    2017-04-01

    Biochar use in soils is assumed to increase soil fertility and the efficiency of nutrient use, particularly nitrogen. It was demonstrated recently that biochar is able to capture considerable amounts of the mobile anion nitrate which was observed in co-composted as well as field aged biochar1,2. Moreover the nitrate was not sufficiently extractable with standard methods from biochar particles; extractions had to be repeated to effectively remove the nitrate1. Subsequently the co-composted nitrate-enriched biochar stimulated plant growth due to N supply to the plants2. However, in a field study in sandy soil in Germany, a different biochar also captured nitrate, increasing the topsoil nitrate concentration and likely reducing nitrate leaching to subsoils1. This was particularly seen after a dry year in the re-picked and analysed particles. However, in the field experiment this aged, nitrate-enriched biochar did not improve crop yields3. To better understand the way biochar interacts with nitrate we undertook several laboratory experiments with 13 well characterized biochars produced from cypress, pine and grapewood at 350, 500, 700 and 900 °C including one Kon-Tiki produced grapewood biochar (600-700°C). Our results showed that (1) pure, pristine (not post-treated) biochar captured more nitrate when they were air-moist and not totally dry; that (2) letting biochar particles dry in nitrate solution forces more nitrate into biochar particles than incubating them in the solution, but (3) that shaking during drying nevertheless caused a higher nitrate uptake into biochar particles; that(4) the counter ion K+ in nitrate solution was more effective than Na+ for N-loading of biochar; (5)that drying a soil-biochar mix in nitrate solution produced a higher nitrate loading of the mixture (i.e. the biochar) than drying both components separately in the same solution; (6)that a higher biochar production temperature caused higher nitrate capture up to 700-900°C. Furthermore

  8. Templated growth of PFO-DBT nanorod bundles by spin coating: effect of spin coating rate on the morphological, structural, and optical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakir, Muhamad Saipul; Supangat, Azzuliani; Sulaiman, Khaulah

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the spin coating of template-assisted method is used to synthesize poly[2,7-(9,9-dioctylfluorene)-alt-4,7-bis(thiophen-2-yl)benzo-2,1,3-thiadiazole] (PFO-DBT) nanorod bundles. The morphological, structural, and optical properties of PFO-DBT nanorod bundles are enhanced by varying the spin coating rate (100, 500, and 1,000 rpm) of the common spin coater. The denser morphological distributions of PFO-DBT nanorod bundles are favorably yielded at the low spin coating rate of 100 rpm, while at high spin coating rate, it is shown otherwise. The auspicious morphologies of highly dense PFO-DBT nanorod bundles are supported by the augmented absorption and photoluminescence.

  9. Alpha autoradiography by cellulose nitrate layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonovic, J.; Vukovic, J.; Antanasijevic, R.

    1977-01-01

    From domestic cellulose nitrate bulk material thin layers for α-particle autoradiography were prepared. An artificial test specimen of a uniformly alpha labelled grid source was used. The efficiency of autoradiography by cellulose nitrate was calculated comparing with data from an Ilford K2 nuclear emulsion exposed under the same conditions as the cellulose nitrate film. The resolution was determined as the distance from grid pitch edge at which the track density fell considerably. (Auth.)

  10. Alpha autoradiography by cellulose nitrate layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonovic, J.; Vukovic, J.; Antanasijevic, R.

    1976-01-01

    From domestic cellulose nitrate bulk material thin layers for α-particle autoradiography were prepared. An artifical test specimen of a uniformly alpha labelled grid source was used. The efficiency of autoradiographs by cellulose nitrate was calculated comparing with data from an Ilford K2 nuclear emulsion exposed under the same conditions as the cellulose nitrate film. The resolution was determined as the distance from grid pitch edge at which the track density fell considerably. (orig.) [de

  11. Nitrat i drikkevandet og vores sundhed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Birgitte; Schullehner, Jörg; Sigsgaard, Torben

    2014-01-01

    Nitrat i drikkevandet er uønsket, da det kan påvirke vores sundhed negativt. Den øvre grænse for hvor meget nitrat der tillades i drikkevandet er fastsat i forhold til risikoen for akut forgiftning med nitrit og blå børn-syndromet. Men nitrat i drikkevandet mistænkes også for at være medvirkende...

  12. Growth rate and surface morphology of 4H-SiC crystals grown from Si-Cr-C and Si-Cr-Al-C solutions under various temperature gradient conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitani, Takeshi; Komatsu, Naoyoshi; Takahashi, Tetsuo; Kato, Tomohisa; Fujii, Kuniharu; Ujihara, Toru; Matsumoto, Yuji; Kurashige, Kazuhisa; Okumura, Hajime

    2014-09-01

    The growth rate and surface morphology of 4H-SiC crystals prepared by solution growth with Si1-xCrx and Si1-x-yCrxAly (x=0.4, 0.5 and 0.6; y=0.04) solvents were investigated under various temperature conditions. The growth rate was examined as functions of the temperature difference between the growth surface and C source, the amount of supersaturated C and supersaturation at the growth surface. We found that generation of trench-like surface defects in 4H-SiC crystals was suppressed using Si1-x-yCrxAly solvents even under highly supersaturated conditions where the growth rate exceeded 760 μm/h. Conversely, trench-like defects were observed in crystals grown with Si1-xCrx solvents under all experimental conditions. Statistical observation of the macrostep structure showed that the macrostep height in crystals grown with Si1-x-yCrxAly solvents was maintained at lower levels than that obtained using Si1-xCrx solvents. Addition of Al prevents the macrosteps from developing into large steps, which are responsible for the generation of trench-like surface defects.

  13. Nitrate Enhanced Microbial Cr(VI) Reduction-Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John F. Stolz

    2011-06-15

    A major challenge for the bioremediation of radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium) and metals (i.e., Cr(VI), Hg) is the co-occurrence of nitrate as it can inhibit metal transformation. Denitrification (nitrate reduction to dinitrogen gas) is considered the most important ecological process. For many metal and metalloid reducing bacteria, however, ammonia is the end product through respiratory nitrate reduction (RNRA). The focus of this work was to determine how RNRA impacts Cr(VI) transformation. The goal was to elucidate the specific mechanism(s) that limits Cr(VI) reduction in the presence of nitrate and to use this information to develop strategies that enhance Cr(VI) reduction (and thus detoxification). Our central hypothesis is that nitrate impacts the biotransformation of metals and metalloids in three ways 1) as a competitive alternative electron acceptor (inhibiting transformation), 2) as a co-metabolite (i.e., concomitant reduction, stimulating transformation), and 3) as an inducer of specific proteins and pathways involved in oxidation/reduction reactions (stimulating transformation). We have identified three model organisms, Geobacter metallireducens (mechanism 1), Sulfurospirillum barnesii, (mechasism 2), and Desulfovibrio desulfuricans (mechanisms 3). Our specific aims were to 1) investigate the role of Cr(VI) concentration on the kinetics of both growth and reduction of nitrate, nitrite, and Cr(VI) in these three organisms; 2) develop a profile of bacterial enzymes involved in nitrate transformation (e.g., oxidoreductases) using a proteomic approach; 3) investigate the function of periplasmic nitrite reductase (Nrf) as a chromate reductase; and 4) develop a strategy to maximize microbial chromium reduction in the presence of nitrate. We found that growth on nitrate by G. metallireducens was inhibited by Cr(VI). Over 240 proteins were identified by LC/MS-MS. Redox active proteins, outer membrane heavy metal efflux proteins, and chemotaxis sensory

  14. Templated growth of PFO-DBT nanorod bundles by spin coating: effect of spin coating rate on the morphological, structural, and optical properties

    OpenAIRE

    Fakir, Muhamad Saipul; Supangat, Azzuliani; Sulaiman, Khaulah

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the spin coating of template-assisted method is used to synthesize poly[2,7-(9,9-dioctylfluorene)-alt-4,7-bis(thiophen-2-yl)benzo-2,1,3-thiadiazole] (PFO-DBT) nanorod bundles. The morphological, structural, and optical properties of PFO-DBT nanorod bundles are enhanced by varying the spin coating rate (100, 500, and 1,000 rpm) of the common spin coater. The denser morphological distributions of PFO-DBT nanorod bundles are favorably yielded at the low spin coating rate of 100 rp...

  15. Synthesis of cerous ammonium nitrate using ceric ammonium nitrate and anhydrous ammonia as a reducing agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourleaux, G.; Colombet, P.; Rouxel, J.; Gradeff, P.S.; Mauermann, H.

    1988-01-01

    The reduction of ceric ammonium nitrate by anhydrous ammonia has been studied. The reaction yields cerous ammonium nitrate complex. This is an easy method to prepare an anhydrous Ce (III) salt, suitable for synthesis of organo cerium (III) derivatives [fr

  16. Identifying nitrate sources and transformations in surface water by combining dual isotopes of