WorldWideScience

Sample records for growth law analysis

  1. Law, Economic Growth and Human Development: Evidence from Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Asongu Simplice

    2011-01-01

    This paper cuts adrift the mainstream approach to the legal-origins debate on the law-growth nexus by integrating both overall economic and human components in our understanding of how regulation quality and the rule of law lie at the heart of economic and inequality adjusted human developments. Findings summarily reveal that legal-origin does not explain economic growth and human development beyond the mechanisms of law. Our results support the current consensus that, English common-law coun...

  2. Grain-growth law during Stage 1 sintering of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Zeming; Ma, J.

    2002-01-01

    This work investigates the grain-growth behaviour of powder compact during Stage 1 sintering (<90{%} theoretical density). It is widely accepted that grain size is an important state variable in the constitutive modelling in material sintering. However, it is noted that all the existing grain-growth laws proposed in the literature do not incorporate the effect of externally applied stress independently. In this work, a grain-growth law with externally applied stress as a variable was proposed. Alumina powders were forge-sintered at different applied stresses to examine the proposed grain-growth relationship. The proposed grain-growth law was then applied to model the grain-growth process on the sinter forging of tool steel. It is shown that the present proposed grain-growth law provides a good description on the experimental results. (author)

  3. The Delinquencies of Juvenile Law: A Natural Law Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellis Washington

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is a substantive analysis tracing the legal, philosophical, social, historical, jurisprudence and political backgrounds of juvenile law, which is an outgrowth of the so-calledProgressive movement - a popular social and political movement of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. I also trace how this socio-political cause célèbre became a fixture in Americanculture and society due to existential child labor abuses which progressive intellectuals used as a pretext to codify juvenile law in federal law and in statutory law in all 50 states by 1925. Moreover the dubious social science and Machiavellian political efforts that created the juvenile justice system out of whole cloth has done much more harm to the Constitution and to the children it was mandated to protect than any of the Progressive ideas initially envisioned rooted in Positive Law (separation of law and morals. Finally, I present am impassioned argument for congressional repeal of all juvenile case law and statutes because they are rooted in Positive Law, contrary to Natural Law (integration of law and morals, the original intent of the constitutional Framers and are therefore patently unconstitutional.

  4. Government expenditure and economic growth nexus: Wagner's law ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Granger causality test was performed within vector error correction model and the results revealed strong support for both Wagner's law and Keynesian hypothesis when ... Wagner's law was only supported in one instance where causality runs from economic growth to development expenditure from domestic sources.

  5. Growth Law For Peritectic Phases Formation In The Zinc Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guzik E.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Some experiments dealing with the isothermal hot dip galvanizing were carried out. The (Zn – coating settled on the Armco-iron substrate were examined after arresting the solidification for different periods of time. The measurement of the thickness of each sub-layer in the coating were performed due to the SEM – analysis. The zinc segregation on the cross-section of the studied sub-layers were also determined by the EDS technique. The growth laws are formulated mathematically for each of the observed sub-layer. The mechanism of the sub-layer formation is also analysed due to the observation of the birth/nucleation of the phases in the sub-layers and the effect of flux onto the sub-layers morphology formation. The appearance of each phase is referred to the Fe-Zn diagram for stable equilibrium according to which these phases are the products of the adequate peritectic transformation.

  6. Power-law and runaway growth in conserved aggregation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Ohtsuki, Toshiya; Fujihara, Akihiro; Tanimoto, Satoshi

    2006-01-01

    The z-transform technique is used to analyze the Smoluchowski coagulation equation for conserved aggregation systems. A universal power law with the exponent -5/2 appears when a total 'mass' has a certain critical value. Below the threshold, ordinary scaling relations hold and the system exhibits a behavior like usual critical phenomena. Above the threshold, in contrast, the excess amount of mass coagulates into a runaway member, and remaining members follow the power law. Here the runaway growth coexists with the power law. It is argued that these behaviors are observed universally in conserved aggregation processes

  7. Bacterial growth laws reflect the evolutionary importance of energy efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitra, Arijit; Dill, Ken A

    2015-01-13

    We are interested in the balance of energy and protein synthesis in bacterial growth. How has evolution optimized this balance? We describe an analytical model that leverages extensive literature data on growth laws to infer the underlying fitness landscape and to draw inferences about what evolution has optimized in Escherichia coli. Is E. coli optimized for growth speed, energy efficiency, or some other property? Experimental data show that at its replication speed limit, E. coli produces about four mass equivalents of nonribosomal proteins for every mass equivalent of ribosomes. This ratio can be explained if the cell's fitness function is the the energy efficiency of cells under fast growth conditions, indicating a tradeoff between the high energy costs of ribosomes under fast growth and the high energy costs of turning over nonribosomal proteins under slow growth. This model gives insight into some of the complex nonlinear relationships between energy utilization and ribosomal and nonribosomal production as a function of cell growth conditions.

  8. Analysis of Environmental Law Enforcement Mechanism Based on Economic Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hongjun; Shao, Haohao; Cai, Xuesen

    2017-11-01

    Strengthening and improving the environmental law enforcement mechanism is an important way to protect the ecological environment. This paper is based on economical principles, we did analysis of the marginal management costs by using Pigou means and the marginal transaction costs by using Coase means vary with the quantity growth of pollutant discharge Enterprises. We analyzed all this information, then we got the conclusion as follows. In the process of strengthening the environmental law enforcement mechanism, firstly, we should fully mobilize all aspects of environmental law enforcement, such as legislative bodies and law enforcement agencies, public welfare organizations, television, newspapers, enterprises, people and so on, they need to form a reasonable and organic structure system; then we should use various management means, such as government regulation, legal sanctions, fines, persuasion and denounce, they also need to form an organic structural system.

  9. Scaling laws for particle growth in plasma reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemons, D.S.; Keinigs, R.K.; Winske, D.; Jones, M.E.

    1996-01-01

    We quantify a model which incorporates observed features of contaminant particle growth in plasma processing reactors. According to the model, large open-quote open-quote predator close-quote close-quote particles grow by adsorbing smaller, typically neutral, open-quote open-quote prey close-quote close-quote protoparticles. The latter are supplied by an assumed constant mass injection of contaminant material. Scaling laws and quantitative predictions compare favorably with published experimental results. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  10. On the growth and dissemination laws in a mathematical model of metastatic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benzekry Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis represents one of the main clinical challenge in cancer treatment since it is associated with the majority of deaths. Recent technological advances allow quantification of the dynamics of the process by means of noninvasive techniques such as longitudinal tracking of bioluminescent cells. The metastatic process was simplified here into two essential components – dissemination and colonization – which were mathematically formalized in terms of simple quantitative laws. The resulting mathematical model was confronted to in vivo experimental data of spontaneous metastasis after primary tumor resection. We discuss how much information can be inferred from confrontation of theories to the data with emphasis on identifiability issues. It is shown that two mutually exclusive assumptions for the secondary growth law (namely same or different from the primary tumor growth law could fit equally well the data. Similarly, the fractal dimension coeffcient in the dissemination law could not be uniquely determined from data on total metastatic burden only. Together, these results delimitate the range of information that can be recovered from fitting data of metastatic growth to already simplified mathematical models.

  11. A proposal for unification of fatigue crack growth law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobelev, V.

    2017-05-01

    In the present paper, the new fractional-differential dependences of cycles to failure for a given initial crack length upon the stress amplitude in the linear fracture approach are proposed. The anticipated unified propagation function describes the infinitesimal crack length growths per increasing number of load cycles, supposing that the load ratio remains constant over the load history. Two unification fractional-differential functions with different number of fitting parameters are proposed. An alternative, threshold formulations for the fractional-differential propagation functions are suggested. The mean stress dependence is the immediate consequence from the considered laws. The corresponding formulas for crack length over the number of cycles are derived in closed form.

  12. The law on energy transition for a green growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signoret, Stephane

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the main issues addressed by the French law on energy transition for a green growth. Thus, it evokes its main objectives and how they can be reached (notably through a control of energy demand, a wider carbon share in taxes), gives an overview of measures related to building renovation, to the development of clean transports (priority to less polluting transport modes, energy efficiency and renewable energy in transports, reduction of greenhouse gas and pollutant emissions, plan for air quality), to the struggle against wastage and to the promotion of circular economy, to the promotion of renewable energies, to the reinforcement of nuclear safety and citizen information, to the simplification and clarification of procedures, to making citizens, enterprises and State able to act together (through governance tools, the steering of electricity production, energy transition in territories, specific measures for non-interconnected areas)

  13. The Fundamental Concept of Crime in International Criminal Law: A Comparative Law Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchuk, Iryna

    This book examines the rapid development of the fundamental concept of a crime in international criminal law from a comparative law perspective in light of the catalyzing impact of the criminal law theory developed in major world legal systems on the crystallization of the substantive part...... of international criminal law. This study offers a critical overview of international and domestic jurisprudence in regards to the construal of the concept of a crime (actus reus, mens rea, defences, modes of liability) and exposes roots of confusion in international criminal law through a comprehensive...... comparative analysis of substantive criminal laws in selected legal jurisdictions....

  14. A comparative policy analysis of seat belt laws : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-24

    This analysis examined data from a variety of sources to estimate the benefit of enhancing Iowas current law to require all : passengers to use seat belts. In addition to assessing Iowans opinions about changing the law, a literature review, a ...

  15. Law Schools and the Continuing Growth of the Legal Profesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert Kritzer

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In most countries for which data are available, the size of the legal profession has continued to grow over the last 40 plus years. This continued growth reflects the perceived attractiveness of a career as a legal professional (i.e., the demand and the incentives of the institutions that provide legal education, and hence serve as primary gatekeepers, to maintain or increase the number of students they enroll. In some countries, perhaps most prominently the United States, structural changes in the opportunities for careers in the legal profession are likely to put pressure on law schools that could result in changes in the supply of opportunities to obtain the legal education required to become a lawyer. En la mayoría de los países de los que se dispone de datos, el número de abogados no ha dejado de crecer desde hace más de 40 años. Este crecimiento constante, refleja el atractivo que se percibe en una profesión como la abogacía (esto es, la demanda, y los incentivos de las instituciones que imparten estos estudios, y constituyen la primera barrera para mantener o aumentar el número de estudiantes que aceptan. En algunos países, tal vez de forma más destacada en Estados Unidos, es probable que los cambios estructurales en las oportunidades de trabajar como abogado obliguen a las facultades de derecho a modificar la oferta para acceder a la carrera de derecho.

  16. Equation of short fatigue crack growth law of 1Cr18Ni9Ti weld metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yongxiang; Yang Bing; Gao Qing

    2005-01-01

    The method is investigated for characterizing the short fatigue crack (SFC) behaviour of 1Cr18Ni9Ti weld metal by the 'effective short fatigue crack criterion'. Three considerations are given. Firstly, the dominant effective short fatigue crack (DESFC) behaviour is a result of the interaction and evolution of the collective SFCs and, therefore, it is deemed suitable to describe their collective behaviour. Secondly, the significant character of microstructural short crack (MSC) regime and physical short crack (PSC) regime for the behaviour of SFCs indicates that it should be well exhibited in the characterization. Thirdly, the stronger irregular behaviour of SFCs indicates the single parameter of cyclic stress or strain amplitude for representing driving force of DESFC growth may be not appropriated. A new growth law for the collective SFCs is derived from a consideration of the local cyclic strain energy density driving the DESFC initiation in the initial zone and, then, driving the DESFC growth in the zones around its tips. The final form of this law is relative to the total cyclic strain energy density of remote fields, which circle the initial zone and, then, the zones around the DESFC tips. Availability has been indicated by an analysis of the test data of present material. (authors)

  17. A study of intergranular cavity growth controlled by the coupling of diffusion and power law creep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.S.; Martinez, L.; Nix, W.D.

    1983-01-01

    A technique based on pre-creeping and sintering is used to create large, widely spaced cavities at grain boundaries in copper. The size and spacing of the cavities is such that cavity growth is expected to be controlled by the coupling of diffusion and power law creep. The rupture properties of these pre-cavitated samples are studied over a range of stresses and temperatures and the results are compared with the predictions of various theoretical treatments of cavity growth. The stress and temperature dependence of rupture can be described using an analysis of the type suggested by Chen and Argon, provided that the diffusional length is based on the ligament stress rather than the applied stress

  18. Law enforcement suicide: a national analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violanti, John M; Robinson, Cynthia F; Shen, Rui

    2013-01-01

    Previous research suggests that there is an elevated risk of suicide among workers within law enforcement occupations. The present study examined the proportionate mortality for suicide in law enforcement in comparison to the US working population during 1999, 2003-2004, and 2007, based on Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health National Occupational Mortality Surveillance data. We analyzed data for all law enforcement occupations and focused on two specific law enforcement occupational categories-detectives/criminal investigators/ police and corrections officers. Suicides were also explored by race, gender and ethnicity. The results of the study showed proportionate mortality ratios (PMRs) for suicide were significantly high for all races and sexes combined (all law enforcement--PMR = 169, 95% CI = 150-191, p law enforcement combined category, and a similarly high PMR was found among Hispanic detectives/criminal investigators/police (PMR = 388, p < 0.01, 95% CI = 168-765). There were small numbers of deaths among female and African American officers. The results included significantly increased risk for suicide among detectives/criminal investigators/police and corrections officers, which suggests that additional study could provide better data to inform us for preventive action.

  19. An Analysis of the Massachusetts Healthcare Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, James H; Ledlow, Gerald R; Sach, Michael V; Reagan, Julie K

    2017-01-01

    Healthcare in the United States has been one topic of the debates and discussion in the country for many years. The challenge for affordable, accessible, and quality healthcare for most Americans has been on the agenda of federal and state legislatures. There is probably no other state that has drawn as much individual attention regarding this challenge as the state of Massachusetts. While researching the topic for this article, it was discovered that financial and political perspectives on the success or failure of the healthcare model in Massachusetts vary depending on the aspect of the system being discussed. In this article the authors give a brief history and description of the Massachusetts Healthcare Law, explanation of how the law is financed, identification of the targeted populations in Massachusetts for which the law provides coverage, demonstration of the actual benefit coverage provided by the law, and review of the impact of the law on healthcare providers such as physicians and hospitals. In addition, there are explanations about the impact of the law on health insurance companies, discussion of changes in healthcare premiums, explanation of costs to the state for the new program, reviews of the impact on the health of the insured, and finally, projections on the changes that healthcare facilities will need to make to maintain fiscal viability as a result of this program.

  20. Note on french law on the energy transition and green growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denolle, Anne-Sophie

    2016-01-01

    The French law on the energy transition and green growth (TECV law) seems in some ways limited in scope, restricted to set vague goals and formulate simple incentives to act. But this law can not be reduced to this. Composed of 215 articles, it necessarily refers to prescriptive and technical measures meant to realize the energy transition. The TECV law has, moreover, the merit of addressing the energy issue in its entirety, evoking not only renewable energies, but also the insulation of buildings, the challenge of developing clean transport, the need to promote a circular economy that consumes less energy

  1. Contribution of services to economic growth: Kaldor’s fifth law?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Giovanini

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study questions whether there is a Kaldor’s fifth law and tests whether the size of the intermediate services sector contributes to the growth of the industrial sector. Originality/Value: The laws proposed by Kaldor consider that the industrial sector contributes to economic growth and affirm that the growth of this sector depends on the existing demand for industrial products. If this new law is corroborated we have the initial evidences that the growth of the service sector contributes to the growth of the industry. Design/methodological/approach: The existence of this new law is tested through the estimation of panel VAR models for eight developed countries in the period 1980-2009. Findings: The growth of the service sector causes Granger to increase industrial productivity, industrial density and economic complexity. The causality test shows that there is a bidirectional causal relationship between the growth of the service sector and the industrial density and between the growth of the service sector and the Economic Complexity Index.

  2. Power law analysis of the human microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhanshan Sam

    2015-11-01

    Taylor's (1961, Nature, 189:732) power law, a power function (V = am(b) ) describing the scaling relationship between the mean and variance of population abundances of organisms, has been found to govern the population abundance distributions of single species in both space and time in macroecology. It is regarded as one of few generalities in ecology, and its parameter b has been widely applied to characterize spatial aggregation (i.e. heterogeneity) and temporal stability of single-species populations. Here, we test its applicability to bacterial populations in the human microbiome using extensive data sets generated by the US-NIH Human Microbiome Project (HMP). We further propose extending Taylor's power law from the population to the community level, and accordingly introduce four types of power-law extensions (PLEs): type I PLE for community spatial aggregation (heterogeneity), type II PLE for community temporal aggregation (stability), type III PLE for mixed-species population spatial aggregation (heterogeneity) and type IV PLE for mixed-species population temporal aggregation (stability). Our results show that fittings to the four PLEs with HMP data were statistically extremely significant and their parameters are ecologically sound, hence confirming the validity of the power law at both the population and community levels. These findings not only provide a powerful tool to characterize the aggregations of population and community in both time and space, offering important insights into community heterogeneity in space and/or stability in time, but also underscore the three general properties of power laws (scale invariance, no average and universality) and their specific manifestations in our four PLEs. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The Jumping Ring and Lenz's Law--An Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostock-Smith, J. M.

    2008-01-01

    Lenz's law is sometimes invoked to explain the behaviour of the jumping, or levitating, ring. This is shown to be incomplete, and an alternative explanation using Faraday's laws and circuit analysis is offered. This leads to the choice of optimum material and dimensions for the ring. (Contains 1 table and 4 figures.)

  4. Prediction of Accurate Mixed Mode Fatigue Crack Growth Curves using the Paris' Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajith, S.; Krishna Murthy, K. S. R.; Robi, P. S.

    2017-12-01

    Accurate information regarding crack growth times and structural strength as a function of the crack size is mandatory in damage tolerance analysis. Various equivalent stress intensity factor (SIF) models are available for prediction of mixed mode fatigue life using the Paris' law. In the present investigation these models have been compared to assess their efficacy in prediction of the life close to the experimental findings as there are no guidelines/suggestions available on selection of these models for accurate and/or conservative predictions of fatigue life. Within the limitations of availability of experimental data and currently available numerical simulation techniques, the results of present study attempts to outline models that would provide accurate and conservative life predictions.

  5. Influence of the growth process on some laws deduced from percolation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hachi, M.; Olivier, G.

    1985-09-01

    A brutal application of the percolation theory to some physical problems can lead to erroneous interpretation of the experimental results. Among these problems, the influence of the growth process on the percolation laws is studied. The behaviour of nsub(s)(t), the number of clusters of size s, at time t, is analyzed and linked to a macroscopic property of the system for a comparison to experimental laws. (author)

  6. A nonlinear CDM based damage growth law for ductile materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Abhinav; Priya Ajit, K.; Sarkar, Prabir Kumar

    2018-02-01

    A nonlinear ductile damage growth criterion is proposed based on continuum damage mechanics (CDM) approach. The model is derived in the framework of thermodynamically consistent CDM assuming damage to be isotropic. In this study, the damage dissipation potential is also derived to be a function of varying strain hardening exponent in addition to damage strain energy release rate density. Uniaxial tensile tests and load-unload-cyclic tensile tests for AISI 1020 steel, AISI 1030 steel and Al 2024 aluminum alloy are considered for the determination of their respective damage variable D and other parameters required for the model(s). The experimental results are very closely predicted, with a deviation of 0%-3%, by the proposed model for each of the materials. The model is also tested with predictabilities of damage growth by other models in the literature. Present model detects the state of damage quantitatively at any level of plastic strain and uses simpler material tests to find the parameters of the model. So, it should be useful in metal forming industries to assess the damage growth for the desired deformation level a priori. The superiority of the new model is clarified by the deviations in the predictability of test results by other models.

  7. Emergence of robust growth laws from optimal regulation of ribosome synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Matthew; Klumpp, Stefan; Mateescu, Eduard M; Hwa, Terence

    2014-08-22

    Bacteria must constantly adapt their growth to changes in nutrient availability; yet despite large-scale changes in protein expression associated with sensing, adaptation, and processing different environmental nutrients, simple growth laws connect the ribosome abundance and the growth rate. Here, we investigate the origin of these growth laws by analyzing the features of ribosomal regulation that coordinate proteome-wide expression changes with cell growth in a variety of nutrient conditions in the model organism Escherichia coli. We identify supply-driven feedforward activation of ribosomal protein synthesis as the key regulatory motif maximizing amino acid flux, and autonomously guiding a cell to achieve optimal growth in different environments. The growth laws emerge naturally from the robust regulatory strategy underlying growth rate control, irrespective of the details of the molecular implementation. The study highlights the interplay between phenomenological modeling and molecular mechanisms in uncovering fundamental operating constraints, with implications for endogenous and synthetic design of microorganisms. © 2014 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  8. High temperature cracking of steels: effect of geometry on creep crack growth laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabiri, M.R.

    2003-12-01

    This study was performed at Centre des Materiaux de l'Ecole des Mines de Paris. It deals with identification and transferability of high temperature creep cracking laws of steels. A global approach, based on C * and J non-linear fracture mechanics parameters has been used to characterize creep crack initiation and propagation. The studied materials are: the ferritic steels 1Cr-1Mo-1/4V (hot and cold parts working at 540 and 250 C) used in the thermal power stations and the austenitic stainless steel 316 L(N) used in the nuclear power stations. During this thesis a data base was setting up, it regroups several tests of fatigue, creep, creep-fatigue, and relaxation. Its particularity is to contain several creep tests (27 tests), achieved at various temperatures (550 to 650 C) and using three different geometries. The relevance of the C * parameter to describe the creep crack propagation was analysed by a means of systematic study of elasto-viscoplastic stress singularities under several conditions (different stress triaxiality). It has been shown that, besides the C * parameter, a second non singular term, denoted here as Q * , is necessary to describe the local variables in the vicinity of the crack tip. Values of this constraint parameter are always negative. Consequently, application of typical creep crack growth laws linking the creep crack growth rate to the C * parameter (da/dt - C * ), will be conservative for industrial applications. Furthermore, we showed that for ferritic steels, crack incubation period is important, therefore a correlation of Ti - C * type has been kept to predict crack initiation time Ti. For the austenitic stainless steel, the relevant stage is the one of the crack propagation, so that a master curve (da/dt - C * ), using a new data analysis method, was established. Finally, the propagation of cracks has been simulated numerically using the node release technique, allowing to validate analytical expressions utilised for the experimental

  9. Regulating food law : risk analysis and the precautionary principle as general principles of EU food law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szajkowska, A.

    2012-01-01

    In food law scientific evidence occupies a central position. This study offers a legal insight into risk analysis and the precautionary principle, positioned in the EU as general principles applicable to all food safety measures, both national and EU. It develops a new method of looking at these

  10. Hyperbolic Conservation Laws and Related Analysis with Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Holden, Helge; Karlsen, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    This book presents thirteen papers, representing the most significant advances and current trends in nonlinear hyperbolic conservation laws and related analysis with applications. Topics covered include a survey on multidimensional systems of conservation laws as well as novel results  on liquid crystals, conservation laws with discontinuous flux functions, and applications to sedimentation.  Also included are articles on recent advances in the Euler equations and the Navier-Stokes-Fourier-Poisson system, in addition to new results on collective phenomena described by the Cucker-Smale model.    The Workshop on Hyperbolic Conservation Laws and Related Analysis with Applications at the International Centre for Mathematical Sciences (Edinburgh, UK) held in Edinburgh, September 2011, produced this fine collection of original research and survey articles. Many leading mathematicians attended the event and submitted their contributions for this volume. It is addressed to researchers and graduate students inter...

  11. Analysis of self-similar solutions of multidimensional conservation laws

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyfitz, Barbara Lee [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2014-02-15

    This project focused on analysis of multidimensional conservation laws, specifically on extensions to the study of self-siminar solutions, a project initiated by the PI. In addition, progress was made on an approach to studying conservation laws of very low regularity; in this research, the context was a novel problem in chromatography. Two graduate students in mathematics were supported during the grant period, and have almost completed their thesis research.

  12. Irreversible thermodynamics, parabolic law and self-similar state in grain growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rios, P.R.

    2004-01-01

    The formalism of the thermodynamic theory of irreversible processes is applied to grain growth to investigate the nature of the self-similar state and its corresponding parabolic law. Grain growth does not reach a steady state in the sense that the entropy production remains constant. However, the entropy production can be written as a product of two factors: a scale factor that tends to zero for long times and a scaled entropy production. It is suggested that the parabolic law and the self-similar state may be associated with the minimum of this scaled entropy production. This result implies that the parabolic law and the self-similar state have a sound irreversible thermodynamical basis

  13. Gibrat's Law and the Firm Size / Firm Growth Relationship in Italian Services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Piergiovanni; E. Santarelli (Enrico); L. Klomp (Luuk); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractSeveral surveys on intra-industry dynamics have recently reached the conclusion from a large body of evidence that Gibrat's Law does not hold, i.e., the main finding is that firm growth decreases with firm size. However, almost all of these studies have been based on manufacturing. In

  14. Growth laws for delta crevasses in the Mississippi River Delta: observations and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yocum, T. A.; Georgiou, I. Y.

    2016-02-01

    River deltas are accumulations of sedimentary deposits delivered by rivers via a network of distributary channels. Worldwide they are threatened by environmental changes, including subsidence, global sea level rise and a suite of other local factors. In the Mississippi River Delta (MRD) these impacts are exemplified, and have led to proposed solutions to build land that include sediment diversions, thereby reinitiating the delta cycle. While economically efficient, there are too few analogs of small deltas aside from laboratory studies, numerical modeling studies, theoretical approaches, and limited field driven observations. Anthropogenic crevasses in the modern delta are large enough to overcome limitations of laboratory deltas, and small enough to allow for "rapid" channel and wetland development, providing an ideal setting to investigate delta development mechanics. Crevasse metrics were obtained using a combination of geospatial tools, extracting key parameters (bifurcation length and width, channel order and depth) that were non-dimensionalized and compared to river-dominated delta networks previously studied. Analysis showed that most crevasses in the MRD appear to obey delta growth laws and delta allometry relationships, suggesting that crevasses do exhibit similar planform metrics to larger Deltas; the distance to mouth bar versus bifurcation order demonstrated to be a very reasonable first order estimate of delta-top footprint. However, some crevasses exhibited different growth metrics. To better understand the hydrodynamic and geomorphic controls governing crevasse evolution in the MRD, we assess delta dynamics via a suite of field observations and numerical modeling in both well-established and newly constructed crevasses. Our analysis suggests that delta development is affected by the relative influence of external (upstream and downstream) and internal controls on the hydrodynamic and sediment transport patterns in these systems.

  15. Psychology and evolutionary biology; Causal analysis, evidence, and nomothetic laws

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hezewijk, René

    2008-01-01

    Published as a chapter in Van Hezewijk, R. (2003). Psychology and evolutionary biology; Causal analysis, evidence, and nomothetic laws. In N. Stephenson, L. Radtke, R. Jorna & H. J. Stam (Eds.), Theoretical psychology; Critical contributions (pp. 405-415). Concord, Ontario: Captus Press.

  16. Economic Analysis of Criminal Law and Liberal Criminal Law: Confluences and Forks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego H. Goldman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Not all economic analysis necessarily lead to a maximalist criminal law that threatens the fundamental rights, but on the contrary, can be found in economic science approaches perfectly compatible with the most liberal thought currents. This paper aims to make a critical study of economic theory usually associated with the Criminal EAL, its practical implications and its teleological budgets. Criticism will leave an openly liberal view, which defends the ideas and values that over the centuries have expressed such diverse thinkers as Adam Smith, Friedrich von Hayek, Robert Nozick or Juan Bautista Alberdi.

  17. Power-law Growth and Punctuated Equilibrium Dynamics in Water Resources Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parolari, A.; Katul, G. G.; Porporato, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    The global rise in population-driven water scarcity and recent appreciation of strong dynamic coupling between human and natural systems has called for new approaches to predict the future sustainability of regional and global water resources systems. The dynamics of coupled human-water systems are driven by a complex set of social, environmental, and technological factors. Present projections of water resources systems range from a finite carrying capacity regulated by accessible freshwater, or `peak renewable water,' to punctuated evolution with new supplied and improved efficiency gained from technological and social innovation. However, these projections have yet to be quantified from observations or in a comprehensive theoretical framework. Using data on global water withdrawals and storage capacity of regional water supply systems, non-trivial dynamics are identified in water resources systems development over time, including power-law growth and punctuated equilibria. Two models are introduced to explain this behavior: (1) a delay differential equation and (2) a power-law with log-periodic oscillations, both of which rely on past conditions (or system memory) to describe the present rate of growth in the system. In addition, extension of the first model demonstrates how system delays and punctuated equilibria can emerge from coupling between human population growth and associated resource demands. Lastly, anecdotal evidence is used to demonstrate the likelihood of power-law growth in global water use from the agricultural revolution 3000 BC to the present. In a practical sense, the presence of these patterns in models with delayed oscillations suggests that current decision-making related to water resources development results from the historical accumulation of resource use decisions, technological and social changes, and their consequences.

  18. Scaling laws of free dendritic growth in a forced Oseen flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurnatowski, M von; Kassner, K

    2014-01-01

    We use the method presented in M von Kurnatowski et al (2013 Phys. Rev. E 87 042405) to solve the nonlinear problem of free dendritic growth in an Oseen flow. The growth process is assumed to be limited by thermal transport via diffusion and convection. A singular perturbation expansion is treated to lowest nontrivial order in the framework of asymptotic decomposition. The resulting complex integro-differential equation is solved using an elaborate numerical method. The approximate scaling laws V∝U 2/3 and ρ∝U −1/3 for the growth velocity and the tip radius of curvature of the dendrite, respectively, are found as a function of the forced flow velocity. The results are compared to those by Pelcé and Bouissou, constituting the only other attempt so far to treat the problem analytically. (paper)

  19. Analysis of Rainfall Infiltration Law in Unsaturated Soil Slope

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Gui-rong; Qian, Ya-jun; Wang, Zhang-chun; Zhao, Bo

    2014-01-01

    In the study of unsaturated soil slope stability under rainfall infiltration, it is worth continuing to explore how much rainfall infiltrates into the slope in a rain process, and the amount of rainfall infiltrating into slope is the important factor influencing the stability. Therefore, rainfall infiltration capacity is an important issue of unsaturated seepage analysis for slope. On the basis of previous studies, rainfall infiltration law of unsaturated soil slope is analyzed. Considering t...

  20. Painleve analysis, conservation laws, and symmetry of perturbed nonlinear equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basak, S.; Chowdhury, A.R.

    1987-01-01

    The authors consider the Lie-Backlund symmetries and conservation laws of a perturbed KdV equation and NLS equation. The arbitrary coefficients of the perturbing terms can be related to the condition of existence of nontrivial LB symmetry generators. When the perturbed KdV equation is subjected to Painleve analysis a la Weiss, it is found that the resonance position changes compared to the unperturbed one. They prove the compatibility of the overdetermined set of equations obtained at the different stages of recursion relations, at least for one branch. All other branches are also indicated and difficulties associated them are discussed considering the perturbation parameter epsilon to be small. They determine the Lax pair for the aforesaid branch through the use of Schwarzian derivative. For the perturbed NLS equation they determine the conservation laws following the approach of Chen and Liu. From the recurrence of these conservation laws a Lax pair is constructed. But the Painleve analysis does not produce a positive answer for the perturbed NLS equation. So here they have two contrasting examples of perturbed nonlinear equations: one passes the Painleve test and its Lax pair can be found from the analysis itself, but the other equation does not meet the criterion of the Painleve test, though its Lax pair is found in another way

  1. Dynamic analysis on magnetic fluid interface validated by physical laws

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizuta, Yo, E-mail: yomizuta@eng.hokudai.ac.jp

    2017-06-01

    Numerical analyses of magnetic fluid especially for fast phenomena such as the transition among interface profiles require rigorous as well as efficient method under arbitrary interface profiles and applied magnetic field distributions. Preceded by the magnetic analysis for this purpose, the present research has attempted to investigate interface dynamic phenomena. As an example of these phenomena, this paper shows the wavenumber spectrum of the interface profile and the sum of interface stresses changing in time, since the change of the balance among the interface stresses causing the transition can be observed conveniently. As time advances, wavenumber components increase due to the nonlinear interaction of waves. It is further argued that such analyses should be validated by the law of conservation of energy, the relation between the interface energy density and the interface stress, and the magnetic laws. - Highlights: • Numerical analysis for dynamic interface phenomena of magnetic fluid is attempted. • This analysis intends fast processes during transition of interface profile. • Wavenumber spectra of interface elevation and sum of stresses are shown. • Under magnetic field close to transition, components increase drastically in time. • Validation rules by physical laws of energy and magnetic field are shown.

  2. The French Energy Transition Law for Green Growth: At the limits of governance by objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruedinger, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this article is threefold: firstly, it briefly retraces the policy process that led to the adoption of the French Energy Transition Law over the last three years (2012-2015). Secondly, it provides a summary of the law's contents, including the main targets and measures. Eventually, it puts this overview into perspective, through an analysis of the key challenges for implementation, with a special focus on the new governance framework for the energy transition. After 3 years of extensive debates, the French energy transition law was adopted in July 2015. Through its 215 articles, it provides a comprehensive and ambitious roadmap for the transformation of the energy system and introduces various policy instruments. The transition builds on strong objectives for GHG reduction (-40% until 2030, -75% by 2050), energy efficiency (reducing demand by 20% until 2030 and 50% until 2050), and the diversification of energy supply through reduced nuclear and fossil fuels and an accelerated deployment of renewables. The law introduces a clear trajectory for the carbon price signal introduced in 2014, which should reach up to euro 56/ton by 2022 and euro 100/ton by 2030, applying to the final consumption of transport and heating fuels. Other key measures include new obligations to massively deploy building retrofits and the evolution of renewable support mechanisms towards a market premium scheme. While the adoption of the law represented a lengthy process, its implementation over the coming years will be even more challenging: the law essentially introduces a framework of governance by objectives, including a profusion of new targets and planning instruments. However, it might very well become an empty shell if this framework is not backed with equally strong measures to provide an effective implementation strategy

  3. DOES THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GOVERNMENT EXPENDITURE AND ECONOMIC GROWTH FOLLOW WAGNER’S LAW IN NIGERIA?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLEMENT A.U. IGHODARO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available While previous studies to test Wagner’s hypothesis for Nigeria usedtotal government expenditure, this paper in addition to total government expenditure used adisaggregated government expenditure data from 1961 - 2007, specifically; expenditure ongeneral administration and that of community and social services to determine the specificgovernment expenditure that economic growth may have significant impact on. Economicconditions and policies change implying that it is not only economic growth that can affectgovernment expenditure hence the inclusion of other fiscal policy variable and politicalfreedom to augment the functional form of Wagner’s law. All the variables used were found tobe I(1 and long run relationship exist between the dependent and the independent variablesexcept in the case where only GDP was used as the independent variable. Wagner’s hypothesisdoes not hold in all the estimations rather Keynesian hypothesis was validated in all theestimation. Elasticity estimates and Granger causality results are in agreement.

  4. Growth laws for sub-delta crevasses in the Mississippi River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yocum, T. A.; Georgiou, I. Y.; Straub, K. M.

    2017-12-01

    River deltas are threatened by environmental change, including subsidence, global sea level rise, reduced sediment inputs and other local factors. In the Mississippi River Delta (MRD) these impacts are exemplified, and have led to proposed solutions to build land that include sediment diversions to reinitiate the delta cycle. Deltas were studied extensively using numerical models, theoretical and conceptual frameworks, empirical scaling relationships, laboratory models and field observations. But predicting the future of deltas relies on field observations where for most deltas data are still lacking. Moreover, empirical and theoretical scaling laws may be influenced by the data used to develop them, while laboratory deltas may be influenced by scaling issues. Anthropogenic crevasses in the MRD are large enough to overcome limitations of laboratory deltas, and small enough to allow for rapid channel and wetland development, providing an ideal setting to investigate delta development mechanics. Here we assessed growth laws of sub-delta crevasses (SDC) in the MRD, in two experimental laboratory deltas (LD - weakly and strongly cohesive) and compared them to river dominated deltas worldwide. Channel and delta geometry metrics for each system were obtained using geospatial tools, bathymetric datasets, sediment size, and hydrodynamic observations. Results show that SDC follow growth laws similar to large river dominated deltas, with the exception of some that exhibit anomalous behavior with respect to the frequency and distance to a bifurcation and the fraction of wetted delta shoreline (allometry metrics). Most SDC exhibit a systematic decrease of non-dimensional channel geometries with increased bifurcation order, indicating that channels are adjusting to decreased flow after bifurcations occur, and exhibit linear trends for land allometry and width-depth ratio, although geometries decrease more rapidly per bifurcation order. Measured distance to bifurcations in SDC

  5. Quantum Law of Motion: Analysis and Extension to Higher Dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Bouda, A.; Gharbi, A.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we review the recently formulated quantum laws of motion and provide new observations. We also extend these laws to higher dimensions. By applying in two dimensions the obtained relations to charge submitted to an electric central potential, we decide between these laws. Furthermore, we extend the selected law to the relativistic case in higher dimensions.

  6. Error estimation in plant growth analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Gregorczyk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The scheme is presented for calculation of errors of dry matter values which occur during approximation of data with growth curves, determined by the analytical method (logistic function and by the numerical method (Richards function. Further formulae are shown, which describe absolute errors of growth characteristics: Growth rate (GR, Relative growth rate (RGR, Unit leaf rate (ULR and Leaf area ratio (LAR. Calculation examples concerning the growth course of oats and maize plants are given. The critical analysis of the estimation of obtained results has been done. The purposefulness of joint application of statistical methods and error calculus in plant growth analysis has been ascertained.

  7. Second law analysis of the transcritical CO2 refrigeration cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fartaj, Amir; Ting, David S.-K.; Yang, Wendy W.

    2004-01-01

    Because of the global warming impact of HFCs, the use of natural refrigerants has received worldwide attention. Efficient use of refrigerants is of pressing concern to the present automotive and HVAC industries. The natural refrigerant, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), exhibits promise for use in automotive air conditioning systems, in particular the transcritical CO 2 refrigeration cycle. The objective of this work is to identify the main factors that affect CO 2 system performance. A second law of thermodynamic analysis on the entire CO 2 refrigeration cycle is conducted so that the effectiveness of the components of the system can be deduced and ranked, allowing future efforts to focus on improving the components that have the highest potential for advancement. The analysis reveals that the compressor and the gas cooler exhibit the largest non-idealities within the system, and hence, efforts should be focused on improving these components

  8. Doctors, apologies, and the law: an analysis and critique of apology laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Marlynn

    2007-01-01

    This Article analyzes and critiques apology laws, their potential use, and effectiveness, both legally and ethically, in light of the strong professional norms that shape physicians' reaction to medical errors. Physicians are largely reluctant to disclose medical errors to patients, patients' families, and even other physicians. Some states have passed so-called apology laws in order to encourage physicians to disclose medical errors to patients. Apology laws allow defendants to exclude statements of sympathy made after accidents from evidence in a liability lawsuit. This Article examines potential barriers to physicians' disclosure of medical mistakes and demonstrates how the underlying problem may actually be rooted in professional norms-norms that will remain outside the scope of law's influence. The Article also considers other legal and policy changes that could help to encourage disclosure.

  9. Subcritical crack growth law and its consequences for lifetime statistics and size effect of quasibrittle structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, Jia-Liang; Bazant, Zdenek P; Bazant, Martin Z

    2009-01-01

    For brittle failures, the probability distribution of structural strength and lifetime are known to be Weibullian, in which case the knowledge of the mean and standard deviation suffices to determine the loading or time corresponding to a tolerable failure probability such as 10 -6 . Unfortunately, this is not so for quasibrittle structures, characterized by material inhomogeneities that are not negligible compared with the structure size (as is typical, e.g. for concrete, fibre composites, tough ceramics, rocks and sea ice). For such structures, the distribution of structural strength was shown to vary from almost Gaussian to Weibullian as a function of structure size (and also shape). Here we predict the size dependence of the distribution type for the lifetime of quasibrittle structures. To derive the lifetime statistics from the strength statistics, the subcritical crack growth law is requisite. This empirical law is shown to be justified by fracture mechanics of random crack jumps in the atomic lattice and the condition of equality of the energy dissipation rates calculated on the nano-scale and the macro-scale. The size effect on the lifetime is found to be much stronger than that on the structural strength. The theory is shown to match the experimentally observed systematic deviations of lifetime histograms from the Weibull distribution.

  10. Crater ejecta scaling laws: fundamental forms based on dimensional analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Housen, K.R.; Schmidt, R.M.; Holsapple, K.A.

    1983-01-01

    A model of crater ejecta is constructed using dimensional analysis and a recently developed theory of energy and momentum coupling in cratering events. General relations are derived that provide a rationale for scaling laboratory measurements of ejecta to larger events. Specific expressions are presented for ejection velocities and ejecta blanket profiles in two limiting regimes of crater formation: the so-called gravity and strength regimes. In the gravity regime, ejectra velocities at geometrically similar launch points within craters vary as the square root of the product of crater radius and gravity. This relation implies geometric similarity of ejecta blankets. That is, the thickness of an ejecta blanket as a function of distance from the crater center is the same for all sizes of craters if the thickness and range are expressed in terms of crater radii. In the strength regime, ejecta velocities are independent of crater size. Consequently, ejecta blankets are not geometrically similar in this regime. For points away from the crater rim the expressions for ejecta velocities and thickness take the form of power laws. The exponents in these power laws are functions of an exponent, α, that appears in crater radius scaling relations. Thus experimental studies of the dependence of crater radius on impact conditions determine scaling relations for ejecta. Predicted ejection velocities and ejecta-blanket profiles, based on measured values of α, are compared to existing measurements of velocities and debris profiles

  11. Analysis of friction autofluctuations of a drilling string with exponential resistance law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belokobyl' skiy, S.V.; Prokopov, V.K.

    1981-01-01

    An analysis is made of the friction autofluctuations of a drilling string with exponential resistance law. A spasmodic resistance law is obtained from it as a particular case. It is demonstrated that for definite parameters, the amplitude of autofluctuations with the exponential resistance law exceeds the scope of fluctuations with the spasmodic law. Dependences are constructed for the period of autofluctuations and movement time on the parameters. Dangerous regimes of autofluctuations are defined.

  12. Analysis of rainfall infiltration law in unsaturated soil slope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gui-rong; Qian, Ya-jun; Wang, Zhang-chun; Zhao, Bo

    2014-01-01

    In the study of unsaturated soil slope stability under rainfall infiltration, it is worth continuing to explore how much rainfall infiltrates into the slope in a rain process, and the amount of rainfall infiltrating into slope is the important factor influencing the stability. Therefore, rainfall infiltration capacity is an important issue of unsaturated seepage analysis for slope. On the basis of previous studies, rainfall infiltration law of unsaturated soil slope is analyzed. Considering the characteristics of slope and rainfall, the key factors affecting rainfall infiltration of slope, including hydraulic properties, water storage capacity (θs - θr), soil types, rainfall intensities, and antecedent and subsequent infiltration rates on unsaturated soil slope, are discussed by using theory analysis and numerical simulation technology. Based on critical factors changing, this paper presents three calculation models of rainfall infiltrability for unsaturated slope, including (1) infiltration model considering rainfall intensity; (2) effective rainfall model considering antecedent rainfall; (3) infiltration model considering comprehensive factors. Based on the technology of system response, the relationship of rainfall and infiltration is described, and the prototype of regression model of rainfall infiltration is given, in order to determine the amount of rain penetration during a rain process.

  13. Transitions in state public health law: comparative analysis of state public health law reform following the Turning Point Model State Public Health Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Benjamin Mason; Hodge, James G; Gebbie, Kristine M

    2009-03-01

    Given the public health importance of law modernization, we undertook a comparative analysis of policy efforts in 4 states (Alaska, South Carolina, Wisconsin, and Nebraska) that have considered public health law reform based on the Turning Point Model State Public Health Act. Through national legislative tracking and state case studies, we investigated how the Turning Point Act's model legal language has been considered for incorporation into state law and analyzed key facilitating and inhibiting factors for public health law reform. Our findings provide the practice community with a research base to facilitate further law reform and inform future scholarship on the role of law as a determinant of the public's health.

  14. Foreign Nationals and Data Protection Law: A Transatlantic Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuner, Christopher Barth

    2014-01-01

    The application of data protection and privacy law based on nationality is currently a matter of great controversy. This contribution examines the topic in a comparative sense based on the law of the EU and the US. It finds a number of difference, but also similarities, between the approaches used...

  15. Bragg's Law diffraction simulations for electron backscatter diffraction analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kacher, Josh; Landon, Colin; Adams, Brent L.; Fullwood, David

    2009-01-01

    In 2006, Angus Wilkinson introduced a cross-correlation-based electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) texture analysis system capable of measuring lattice rotations and elastic strains to high resolution. A variation of the cross-correlation method is introduced using Bragg's Law-based simulated EBSD patterns as strain free reference patterns that facilitates the use of the cross-correlation method with polycrystalline materials. The lattice state is found by comparing simulated patterns to collected patterns at a number of regions on the pattern using the cross-correlation function and calculating the deformation from the measured shifts of each region. A new pattern can be simulated at the deformed state, and the process can be iterated a number of times to converge on the absolute lattice state. By analyzing an iteratively rotated single crystal silicon sample and recovering the rotation, this method is shown to have an angular resolution of ∼0.04 o and an elastic strain resolution of ∼7e-4. As an example of applications, elastic strain and curvature measurements are used to estimate the dislocation density in a single grain of a compressed polycrystalline Mg-based AZ91 alloy.

  16. Second Law Of Thermodynamics Analysis Of Triple Cycle Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus M. Dwinanto

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Triple cycle power plant with methane as a fuel has been analyzed on the basis of second law of thermodynamics.In this model, ideal Brayton cycle is selected as a topping cycle as it gives higher efficiency at lower pressure ratio comparedintercooler and reheat cycle. In trilple cycle the bottoming cycles are steam Rankine and organic Rankine cycle. Ammoniahas suitable working properties like critical temperature, boiling temperature, etc. Steam cycle consists of a deaerator andreheater. The bottoming ammonia cycle is a ideal Rankine cycle. Single pressure heat recovery steam and ammoniagenerators are selected for simplification of the analysis. The effects of pressure ratio and maximum temperature which aretaken as important parameters regarding the triple cycle are discussed on performance and exergetic losses. On the otherhand, the efficiency of the triple cycle can be raised, especially in the application of recovering low enthalpy content wasteheat. Therefore, by properly combining with a steam Rankine cycle, the ammonia Rankine cycle is expected to efficientlyutilize residual yet available energy to an optimal extent. The arrangement of multiple cycles is compared with combinedcycle having the same sink conditions. The parallel type of arrangement of bottoming cycle is selected due to increasedperformance.

  17. Thermal fatigue crack growth analysis in a nozzle corner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blauel, J.G.; Hodulak, L.

    1983-01-01

    Calculations of the crack growth under local thermal shock fatigue are performed. Estimates of crack growth are based on stress distributions obtained by a finite element analysis for thermal transients in the structure without crack. Stress intensity factors are calculated using interpolation formulae derived from known basic solutions for part-through cracks under constant and linearly varying load. The crack propagation at selected parts of the crack front is calculated stepwise by integration of the Paris law with material constants C and n interpolated from test results on compact specimens at constant temperatures. Experimental results for the model vessel test MB1 at an internal pressure of 14 N/mm 2 and a temperature of 320 0 C exposed to a repeated local spraying with cold water are presented and compared to predictions

  18. The United Kingdom's First Woman Law Professor: An Archerian Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Cownie, FC

    2015-01-01

    In 1970, at Queen's University Belfast, Claire Palley became the first woman to hold a Chair in Law at a United Kingdom university. However, little is known about the circumstances surrounding this event, or Claire Palley herself. This article (part of an extended project exploring her life history) seeks to address the question ‘Was there something about Claire Palley herself that made it more likely she would become the United Kingdom's first female law professor?’ Initially focusing on met...

  19. 21 CFR 201.125 - Drugs for use in teaching, law enforcement, research, and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drugs for use in teaching, law enforcement, research, and analysis. 201.125 Section 201.125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 201.125 Drugs for use in teaching, law enforcement, research, and analysis. A drug subject to § 201...

  20. 21 CFR 801.125 - Medical devices for use in teaching, law enforcement, research, and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical devices for use in teaching, law enforcement, research, and analysis. 801.125 Section 801.125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Directions for Use § 801.125 Medical devices for use in teaching, law enforcement, research, and analysis. A...

  1. Towards establishing a combined rate law of nucleation and crystal growth - The case study of gypsum precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendel, Pedro M.; Gavrieli, Ittai; Wolff-Boenisch, Domenik; Ganor, Jiwchar

    2018-03-01

    The main obstacle in the formulation of a quantitative rate-model for mineral precipitation is the absence of a rigorous method for coupling nucleation and growth processes. In order to link both processes, we conducted a series of batch experiments in which gypsum nucleation was followed by crystal growth. Experiments were carried out using various stirring methods in several batch vessels made of different materials. In the experiments, the initial degree of supersaturation of the solution with respect to gypsum (Ωgyp) was set between 1.58 and 1.82. Under these conditions, heterogeneous nucleation is the dominant nucleation mode. Based on changes in SO42- concentration with time, the induction time of gypsum nucleation and the following rate of crystal growth were calculated for each experiment. The induction time (6-104 h) was found to be a function of the vessel material, while the rates of crystal growth, which varied over three orders of magnitude, were strongly affected by the stirring speed and its mode (i.e. rocking, shaking, magnetic stirrer, and magnetic impeller). The SO42- concentration data were then used to formulate a forward model that couples the simple rate laws for nucleation and crystal growth of gypsum into a single kinetic model. Accordingly, the obtained rate law is based on classical nucleation theory and heterogeneous crystal growth.

  2. An Analysis of the Death Penalty in Indonesia Criminal Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddy Rifai

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This research uses normative juridical approach to study on the analysis of the death penalty executions and the legal policy of death executions in Indonesia. There are delays on death executions for the convicted person since they entitled to using rights namely filing a judicial review (PK/Peninjauan Kembali. Furthermore, the legal loophole in the execution of the death penalty by the publication of the Constitutional Court Number 107 / PUU-XIII / 2015 which assert that the Attorney as the executor can ask the convicted person or his family whether to use their rights or not if the convict clearly does not want to use his rights, the executions will be carried out. Legal policy on threats and the implementation of the death penalty in the draft of criminal code was agreed by draftsman of the bill with the solutions. The draftsman of the bill agrees that the death penalty will be an alternative punishment sentenced as a last resort to protect the society. The bill also regulates that the execution among others include that the execution can be delayed by ten years probations. If the public reaction on the convict is not too large or convict has regret and could fix it or the role in the crime is not very important and there is a reason to reduce punishment, the death penalty may be changed. For pregnant women and the mentally ill convicts the execution can only be carried after the birth and the person has recovered from mental illness. The existence of this solutions is still kept putting the death penalty in criminal law, whereas the effectiveness of the death penalty is scientifically still in doubt to solve crimes and to prevent crimes by the death penalty punishment.

  3. Universal principles governing multiple random searchers on complex networks: The logarithmic growth pattern and the harmonic law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Tongfeng; Zhang, Jie; Small, Michael; Harandizadeh, Bahareh; Hui, Pan

    2018-03-01

    We propose a unified framework to evaluate and quantify the search time of multiple random searchers traversing independently and concurrently on complex networks. We find that the intriguing behaviors of multiple random searchers are governed by two basic principles—the logarithmic growth pattern and the harmonic law. Specifically, the logarithmic growth pattern characterizes how the search time increases with the number of targets, while the harmonic law explores how the search time of multiple random searchers varies relative to that needed by individual searchers. Numerical and theoretical results demonstrate these two universal principles established across a broad range of random search processes, including generic random walks, maximal entropy random walks, intermittent strategies, and persistent random walks. Our results reveal two fundamental principles governing the search time of multiple random searchers, which are expected to facilitate investigation of diverse dynamical processes like synchronization and spreading.

  4. Invariance analysis and conservation laws of the wave equation on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    in [7], the more interesting case being the latter since these lead to conservation laws via ... obtained and, hence, more conservation laws are classified. .... −2r2 sin θurt − 2r sin θut + 2r sin θ. (. 1 −. 2t r. ) ur + 2t sin θur. +r2 sin θ. (. 1 −. 2t r. ) urr + cos θuθ + sin θuθθ = 0,. (15) and then ¯X2 = u∂u + t∂t + r∂r leads to dt t. = dr.

  5. Glass-crystal transformation under non-isothermal conditions: Kinetic analysis of the Ag{sub 0.16}As{sub 0.38}Se{sub 0.46} glassy alloy by using a new theoretical method based on nucleation and growth processes, which depend on time as a power law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez, J., E-mail: jose.vazquez@uca.e [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cadiz, Apartado 40, 11510, Puerto Real (Cadiz) (Spain); Cardenas-Leal, J.L.; Garcia-G Barreda, D.; Gonzalez-Palma, R.; Lopez-Alemany, P.L.; Villares, P. [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cadiz, Apartado 40, 11510, Puerto Real (Cadiz) (Spain)

    2010-11-01

    A theoretical method, which we have published in two previous works, has been applied to the study of the glass-crystal transformation of the Ag{sub 0.16}As{sub 0.38}Se{sub 0.46} semiconductor glass under non-isothermal conditions. This method allows one to obtain an evolution equation with temperature for the actual volume fraction, to calculate the kinetic parameters of the quoted transformation, to establish the thermal process type, to determine the dimensionality of the crystal growth and to evaluate the exponents of the power laws of the time-dependence both for the nucleation frequency and for the crystal growth rate in non-isothermal transformations. The quoted method assumes the concept of extended volume of the transformed material, the condition of randomly located nuclei and the supposition of mutual interference of regions growing from separated nuclei, considering moreover the case presented in the practice of a kinetic exponent with a value larger than 4. To study the quoted case it is proposed that both the nucleation frequency and the crystal growth rate depend on time as a power law. The above-mentioned Ag{sub 0.16}As{sub 0.38}Se{sub 0.46} glassy alloy presents two exothermic peaks. The second peak gives for the kinetic exponent a value large enough than 4 and it is necessary to resort to the hypotheses of the considered method to justify the unexpectedly high value of the kinetic exponent. Following the quoted method it has been found that the thermal process type is continuous nucleation with three-dimensional growth for the two peaks of crystallization of the studied alloy. Moreover, the experimental curve of the transformed fraction shows a satisfactory agreement with the theoretical curve corresponding to the considered method, confirming the reliability of the quoted method in order to analyze the transformation kinetics of the above-mentioned alloy.

  6. Risk analysis and the law: international law, the World Trade Organization, Codex Alimentarius and national legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, L R

    2001-12-01

    This paper discusses the place of risk analysis in international trade from a US perspective, through looking at the activities of the World Trade Organization and the Codex Alimentarius Commission. After examining what the trade agreements say about risk analysis and how international bodies are advancing and using risk analysis, the paper goes on to assess how risk analysis is used at a national level. Finally, recommendations are made for strengthening international food safety initiatives.

  7. Subcritical crack growth and power law exponent of Y-Si-Al-O (-N) glasses in aqueous environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, de D.; Hintzen, H.T.J.M.; With, de G.

    2006-01-01

    The subcritical crack growth resistance in water of a Y–Si–Al–O and Y–Si–Al–O–N glasses has been investigated with three point bending experiments. It has been shown that the SCG behaviour of the Y–Si–Al–O–N glass is superior to that of the Y–Si–Al–O glass. This is reflected by the power law

  8. An economic analysis of leniency programs in antitrust law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinloopen, J.

    2003-01-01

    Within a dynamic market environment the forces that drive the effectiveness of leniency programs in antitrust law are analyzed. This effectiveness unambigously is enhanced by (i) increasing the reduction in fine payments in return for reporting a cartel, and (ii) increasing the expected per-period

  9. A Content Analysis of Protective Factors within States' Antibullying Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Lori M.; Brown, James R.; Weddle, Daniel B.; Aalsma, Matthew C.

    2013-01-01

    State lawmakers have responded to school bullying by crafting antibullying legislation. By July 2011, 47 states enacted such laws, though varied widely in content and scope. This study systematically evaluated each state's antibullying legislation by focusing on the inclusion of individual, parental, and systemic protective factors through…

  10. Law Enforcement and Emergency Medicine: An Ethical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Eileen F; Moskop, John C; Geiderman, Joel M; Iserson, Kenneth V; Marco, Catherine A; Derse, Arthur R

    2016-11-01

    Emergency physicians frequently interact with law enforcement officers and patients in their custody. As always, the emergency physician's primary professional responsibility is to promote patient welfare, and his or her first duty is to the patient. Emergency physicians should treat criminals, suspects, and prisoners with the same respect and attention they afford other patients while ensuring the safety of staff, visitors, and other patients. Respect for patient privacy and protection of confidentiality are of paramount importance to the patient-physician relationship. Simultaneously, emergency physicians should attempt to accommodate law enforcement personnel in a professional manner, enlisting their aid when necessary. Often this relates to the emergency physician's socially imposed duties, governed by state laws, to report infectious diseases, suspicion of abuse or neglect, and threats of harm. It is the emergency physician's duty to maintain patient confidentiality while complying with Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act regulations and state law. Copyright © 2016 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Analysis of friction self-oscillations of a drilling string with the exponential law of resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belokobylskiy, S.V.; Prokopov, V.K.

    1982-01-01

    An analysis of the friction self-oscillations in the drilling string based on the exponential law of resistance with. A spasmodic law of resistance was obtained from it as a particular case. It is indicated that for definite parameters, the amplitude of self-oscillations with expoential law of resistance exceeds the scope of oscillations with spasmodic law. Dependences were constructed for the period of self-oscillations and time for motion from these parameters. Dangerous modes of friction self-oscillations were defined.

  12. Medical malpractice and hernia repair: an analysis of case law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Amanda L; Dacey, Kristian T; Zemlyak, Alla Y; Lincourt, Amy E; Heniford, B Todd

    2013-04-01

    Litigation analysis and clinician education are essential to reduce the number and cost of malpractice claims. This study evaluates the clinical characteristics and legal outcomes of medical malpractice litigation initiated by patients having undergone a hernia repair operation. Published civil suits were obtained from a legal database for state and federal decisions constituting case law. The published material includes information on defendants, plaintiffs, allegations, outcomes, and a variety of legal issues. A retrospective review of 44 published cases from 25 states was performed. Complications were present in 20 of 44 (45%) suits, four (9%) of which were because of infection. Death occurred in five (11%) cases, and failure to obtain informed consent was alleged in seven (16%) of the suits. Retained foreign bodies were present in 7 of the 44 (16%) suits. Other allegations included incorrect surgical technique, insufficient need for surgery, and emotional distress. Most (64%) patients initiating malpractice litigation were male, and inguinal, hiatal, and ventral hernia repairs account for 39%, 27%, and 14% of cases, respectively. Most suits (40%) were initiated in Southern states. Surgical mesh was indicated in 5 of 44 (11%) suits but four of five were unrelated to the suit. One patient initiated litigation because of the fact that the surgeon did not use mesh during surgery, which was discussed preoperatively during the informed consent. The court ruled in favor of the plaintiff in 12 of 44 (27%) suits, with compensation ranging from roughly $19,000 to $8,000,000. Louisiana and New York had six and seven suits each, which appears disproportionate given their respective populations. Complications and death resulting from alleged clinical negligence play a significant role in both the initiation and the outcome of malpractice litigation. Retained foreign bodies and lack of informed consent account for roughly one-third of malpractice litigation associated with

  13. Discovery of Power-Law Growth in the Self-Renewal of Heterogeneous Glioma Stem Cell Populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiya Sugimori

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence indicates that cancer stem cells (CSCs drive tumorigenesis. This suggests that CSCs should make ideal therapeutic targets. However, because CSC populations in tumors appear heterogeneous, it remains unclear how CSCs might be effectively targeted. To investigate the mechanisms by which CSC populations maintain heterogeneity during self-renewal, we established a glioma sphere (GS forming model, to generate a population in which glioma stem cells (GSCs become enriched. We hypothesized, based on the clonal evolution concept, that with each passage in culture, heterogeneous clonal sublines of GSs are generated that progressively show increased proliferative ability.To test this hypothesis, we determined whether, with each passage, glioma neurosphere culture generated from four different glioma cell lines become progressively proliferative (i.e., enriched in large spheres. Rather than monitoring self-renewal, we measured heterogeneity based on neurosphere clone sizes (#cells/clone. Log-log plots of distributions of clone sizes yielded a good fit (r>0.90 to a straight line (log(% total clones = k*log(#cells/clone indicating that the system follows a power-law (y = xk with a specific degree exponent (k = -1.42. Repeated passaging of the total GS population showed that the same power-law was maintained over six passages (CV = -1.01 to -1.17. Surprisingly, passage of either isolated small or large subclones generated fully heterogeneous populations that retained the original power-law-dependent heterogeneity. The anti-GSC agent Temozolomide, which is well known as a standard therapy for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM, suppressed the self-renewal of clones, but it never disrupted the power-law behavior of a GS population.Although the data above did not support the stated hypothesis, they did strongly suggest a novel mechanism that underlies CSC heterogeneity. They indicate that power-law growth governs the self-renewal of heterogeneous

  14. Environmental laws in Pakistan with case la w analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.S.

    2005-01-01

    Laws of Nature should be respected in the interest of the human race. It is very hard to go against them. Doing so will only result in the subsequent devastation of this earth and its inhabitants. The literal meaning of environment is 'life around us in which we all exist'. The word environment caught world attention after various protest and demonstrations by environmentalists' during the early 70s. Issues like Deforestation, Industrialization and Pollution in the urban cities of Pakistan are constantly increasing and are affecting the quality of life significantly. Increasing drudgeries regarding environmental issues have forced governing bodies and jurists to take some pragmatic action in the form of environmental laws. The legislature, executive and judiciary of Pakistan have yet not adequately and effectively realized this hard fact. It is also aggravating that the courts of law are reluctant to take a stand on this hard-core issue of environmental protection and preservation. The era from 1983 to 1997 appears to be the period of heightened environmental awareness in Pakistan. The very first Environmental Protection Ordinance 1983 was promulgated in this period, which laid the foundation stone of a new environmental legal system for Pakistan. A campaign started which worked hard for the enactment of Environmental Protection Act, 1997. This Act is not the last step but the best prevailing and available remedy for environment control in Pakistan. This research paper aims to analyze the development of environmental laws in Pakistan, important environmental statutes enacted in Pakistan, implementation and enforcement mechanisms contained in the Pakistan Environmental Protection Act, 1997, environmental treaties effective for Pakistan, public interest litigation, judicial activism, conclusions and suggestions. Specific emphasis will be on case law and the interpretation of environmental issues by the Pakistani Courts. In the end the repercussions of environment

  15. A First Law Thermodynamic Analysis of Biodiesel Production from Soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patzek, Tad W.

    2009-01-01

    A proper First Law energy balance of the soybean biodiesel cycle shows that the overall efficiency of biodiesel production is 0.18, i.e., only 1 in 5 parts of the solar energy sequestered as soya beans, plus the fossil energy inputs, becomes biodiesel. Soybean meal is produced with an overall energetic efficiency of 0.38, but it is not a fossil…

  16. Growth models and analysis of development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathur, G

    1979-10-01

    This paper deals with remnants of neoclassical elements in Keynesian and post-Keynesian thought, and attempts to demonstrate that the elimination of these elements from our modes of thinking would not impoverish economic analysis as a means of solving real problems. In the Keynesian analysis the causation from investment to savings is exhibited in terms of income determination. When put in terms of a capital-theory model, the vector of savings is represented in two ways: real savings and counterpart real savings. The former coincides with the investment vector and the latter with the vector of consumption goods foregone for diverting resources towards equipment making. Thus the Keynesian causation in capital theory terms makes the concept of national savings as an independent variable redudant. The Robinsonian causation in a golden age with full employment and its reversal of direction in a steady state with non-employment are then considered. But in each of these, variables like rate of savings and output/capital ratio are found to be dormant variables. They are termed as null variables which, being of no account in both full-employment and unemployment situations, could, without loss, be deleted from the repertory of analytical tools. The Harrod formula of warranted rate of growth, when put in causal form, thus becomes a redundant portion of economics of growth. The real determinants of the growth rate and real wage rate on which the analysis of growth or of development should be based, are also depicted.

  17. International law

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, Malcolm N

    2017-01-01

    International Law is the definitive and authoritative text on the subject, offering Shaw's unbeatable combination of clarity of expression and academic rigour and ensuring both understanding and critical analysis in an engaging and authoritative style. Encompassing the leading principles, practice and cases, and retaining and developing the detailed references which encourage and assist the reader in further study, this new edition motivates and challenges students and professionals while remaining accessible and engaging. Fully updated to reflect recent case law and treaty developments, this edition contains an expanded treatment of the relationship between international and domestic law, the principles of international humanitarian law, and international criminal law alongside additional material on international economic law.

  18. Regional Growth and Unemployment: The Validity of Okun's Law for the Finnish Regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kangasharju, A.; Tavera, C.; Nijkamp, P.

    2012-01-01

    This paper offers a concise critical overview of Okun's Law, with particular attention for its relevance in open economic systems of regions. Based on an extensive set of economic data for Finnish regions, the existence of cointegration is tested using alternative statistical methods, viz. the

  19. Roentgen stereophotogrammetry for analysis of cranial growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvik, G.; Alberius, P.; Fahlman, M.

    1986-01-01

    A system of roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA) has been developed and its value in studies of cranial growth in both man and the experimental animal (rabbit) has been delineated. This method is based on measurements from metal bone marker images on roentgenograms. Two roentgen tubes simultaneously expose the object, which is placed in one of two types of calibration cages. The object position does not need to be identical from one examination to the next. The cage, holding indicators of predetermined internal positions (in two or four planes), defines a laboratory coordinate system. Two-dimensional image coordinates are obtained by means of a highly accurate cartographic instrument. By computer reconstruction of the x-ray beams through the markers, 3-D object coordinates are calculated. For subsequent analysis of growth processes, extensive software is necessary. To control intrasegmental stability (routinely performed at each examination), a minimum of two markers is required, whereas three markers are needed in each skeletal segment for kinematic analysis using the rigid-body concept. Careful planning of marker placement before implantation minimizes implant loss and instability that otherwise might be a problem. Complications other than bone marker loosening have been nonexistent. The technical accuracy is high. Consequently, roentgen stereophotogrammetry, with the aid of metallic implants, is a superior means to obtain biometric information on cranial growth with relative ease

  20. Modeling and analysis of linear hyperbolic systems of balance laws

    CERN Document Server

    Bartecki, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    This monograph focuses on the mathematical modeling of distributed parameter systems in which mass/energy transport or wave propagation phenomena occur and which are described by partial differential equations of hyperbolic type. The case of linear (or linearized) 2 x 2 hyperbolic systems of balance laws is considered, i.e., systems described by two coupled linear partial differential equations with two variables representing physical quantities, depending on both time and one-dimensional spatial variable. Based on practical examples of a double-pipe heat exchanger and a transportation pipeline, two typical configurations of boundary input signals are analyzed: collocated, wherein both signals affect the system at the same spatial point, and anti-collocated, in which the input signals are applied to the two different end points of the system. The results of this book emerge from the practical experience of the author gained during his studies conducted in the experimental installation of a heat exchange cente...

  1. Statistical analysis of Brazilian electoral campaigns via Benford's law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamermann, Daniel; Antunes, Felipe Leite

    2018-04-01

    The principle of democracy is that the people govern through elected representatives. Therefore, a democracy is healthy as long as the elected politicians do represent the people. We have analyzed data from the Brazilian electoral court (Tribunal Superior Eleitoral, TSE) concerning money donations for the electoral campaigns and the election results. Our work points to two conclusions that combined may be in conflict with the democratic principle: money is the determining factor on whether a candidate is elected or not (opposed to representativeness); secondly, the use of Benford's Law to analyze the declared donations received by the parties and electoral campaigns shows either possible manipulations in the declarations or a significant number of donations that might not have been spontaneous from the donors. The better term that describes Brazil's government system is plutocracy (govern by the wealthy).

  2. Data planning and analysis for synthesis of multidimensional laws (nonlinear multifactor analysis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mordashev, V. M.

    2010-01-01

    The methodology of data planning and analysis for synthesis of multidimensional laws using visualization is described along with the ensuing method of numerical data approximation by functions with “separable” variables. The method is developed for the cases of source data presented as (a) a table where all cells are filled, (b) an orthogonal table where quite certain cells are filled, and (c) a table where, generally speaking, arbitrary cells are not filled. The method was successfully applied for different problems of nuclear science and technology.

  3. Second law analysis of reverse osmosis desalination plants: An alternative design using pressure retarded osmosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharqawy, Mostafa H.; Zubair, Syed M.; Lienhard, John H.

    2011-01-01

    A second law analysis of a reverse osmosis desalination plant is carried out using reliable seawater exergy formulation instead of a common model in literature that represents seawater as an ideal mixture of liquid water and solid sodium chloride. The analysis is performed using reverse osmosis desalination plant data and compared with results previously published using the ideal mixture model. It is demonstrated that the previous model has serious shortcomings, particularly with regard to calculation of the seawater flow exergy, the minimum work of separation, and the second law efficiency. The most up-to-date thermodynamic properties of seawater, as needed to conduct an exergy analysis, are given as correlations in this paper. From this new analysis, it is found that the studied reverse osmosis desalination plant has very low second law efficiency (<2%) even when using the available energy recovery systems. Therefore, an energy recovery system is proposed using the (PRO) pressure retarded osmotic method. The proposed alternative design has a second law efficiency of 20%, and the input power is reduced by 38% relative to original reverse osmosis system. -- Highlights: ► A previously proposed model for the calculation of seawater flow exergy gives incorrect values. ► Reverse osmosis desalination plants have very low second law efficiency (<2%) even when using the available energy recovery systems. ► A PRO energy recovery device increases the RO plant’s second law efficiency to 20% and reduces the input power.

  4. Economic analysis of pre-emptive right in the Serbian Law on property restitution and compensation

    OpenAIRE

    Baturan Luka O.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is application of cost-benefit analysis on a pre-emptive rights, which is established by the Serbian Law on Property Restitution and Compensation. The basic hypothesis is that this law institute disturbs efficiency of resource allocation, and decreases social welfare. There are a few better and more efficient institutes which can be used for gaining of goods in public ownership. To prove this hypothesis, we used neo-institutional economy method and normative method. In the first pa...

  5. Second law analysis of an infinitely segmented magnetohydrodynamic generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arash, Ardeshir [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Saidi, Mohammad Hassan [Center of Excellence in Energy Conversion (CEEC), School of Mechanical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11155-9567, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Najafi, Mohammad [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    The performance of an infinitely segmented magnetohydrodynamic generator is analyzed using the second law of thermodynamics entropy generation criterion. The exact analytical solution of the velocity and temperature fields are provided by applying the modified Hartmann flow model, taking into account the occurrence of the Hall effect in the considered generator. Contributions of heat transfer, fluid friction, and ohmic dissipation to the destruction of useful available work are found, and the nature of irreversibilities in the considered generator is determined. In addition, the electrical isotropic efficiency scheme is used to evaluate the generator performance. Finally, the implication of the Hall parameter, Hartmann number, and load factor for the entropy generation and the generator performance are studied and the optimal operating conditions are determined. The results show that the heat transfer has the smallest contribution to the entropy generation compared to that of the friction and ohmic dissipation. The application of the Hall effect on the system showed an appreciable augmentation of entropy generation rate which is along with what the logic implies. A parametric study is conducted and its results provide the generated entropy and also efficiency diagrams which show the influence of the Hall effect on the considered generator. - Highlights: • The modified Hartmann flow in a segmented MHD generator has been analyzed. • Heat transfer has the smallest contribution to the entropy generation. • The optimum working conditions of the generator are discussed. • The significant adverse effect of taking into account the Hall effect is discussed. • The entropy generation increases while implementing modified Hartmann model.

  6. The power law and dynamic rheology in food analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protein networks impart functional and structural characteristics to food, and should be examined to gain an understanding of properties of the product. Food matrices are investigated nondestructively by small amplitude oscillatory shear analysis, which provides information on viscoelasticity, incl...

  7. Operational modal analysis modeling, Bayesian inference, uncertainty laws

    CERN Document Server

    Au, Siu-Kui

    2017-01-01

    This book presents operational modal analysis (OMA), employing a coherent and comprehensive Bayesian framework for modal identification and covering stochastic modeling, theoretical formulations, computational algorithms, and practical applications. Mathematical similarities and philosophical differences between Bayesian and classical statistical approaches to system identification are discussed, allowing their mathematical tools to be shared and their results correctly interpreted. Many chapters can be used as lecture notes for the general topic they cover beyond the OMA context. After an introductory chapter (1), Chapters 2–7 present the general theory of stochastic modeling and analysis of ambient vibrations. Readers are first introduced to the spectral analysis of deterministic time series (2) and structural dynamics (3), which do not require the use of probability concepts. The concepts and techniques in these chapters are subsequently extended to a probabilistic context in Chapter 4 (on stochastic pro...

  8. Individuality and universality in the growth-division laws of single E. coli cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennard, Andrew S.; Osella, Matteo; Javer, Avelino; Grilli, Jacopo; Nghe, Philippe; Tans, Sander J.; Cicuta, Pietro; Cosentino Lagomarsino, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The mean size of exponentially dividing Escherichia coli cells in different nutrient conditions is known to depend on the mean growth rate only. However, the joint fluctuations relating cell size, doubling time, and individual growth rate are only starting to be characterized. Recent studies in bacteria reported a universal trend where the spread in both size and doubling times is a linear function of the population means of these variables. Here we combine experiments and theory and use scaling concepts to elucidate the constraints posed by the second observation on the division control mechanism and on the joint fluctuations of sizes and doubling times. We found that scaling relations based on the means collapse both size and doubling-time distributions across different conditions and explain how the shape of their joint fluctuations deviates from the means. Our data on these joint fluctuations highlight the importance of cell individuality: Single cells do not follow the dependence observed for the means between size and either growth rate or inverse doubling time. Our calculations show that these results emerge from a broad class of division control mechanisms requiring a certain scaling form of the "division hazard rate function," which defines the probability rate of dividing as a function of measurable parameters. This "model free" approach gives a rationale for the universal body-size distributions observed in microbial ecosystems across many microbial species, presumably dividing with multiple mechanisms. Additionally, our experiments show a crossover between fast and slow growth in the relation between individual-cell growth rate and division time, which can be understood in terms of different regimes of genome replication control.

  9. Meta-analysis of graduated driver licensing laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the effectiveness of GDL programs for reducing total, injury, and fatal crashes among drivers 15 to 20 years old by conducting a meta-analysis of GDL research since 2001 that evaluated the effectivenes...

  10. The impact of the ECHR on private international law: An analysis of Strasbourg and selected national case law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiestra, L.R.

    2013-01-01

    In this research the interaction between the rights guaranteed in the European Convention of Human Rights (ECHR) and private international law has been analyzed by examining the case law of the European Court of Human Rights (the Court) in Strasbourg and selected national courts. In doing so the

  11. Autism Spectrum Disorder and New Jersey Administrative Law Decisions: An Analysis of Case Law Involving Public School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcadepone, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to investigate existing New Jersey case law for the special education population classified as Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and analyze New Jersey Administrative Law Judge (ALJ) decisions to identify why districts win or lose cases, adding to the limited body of research in New Jersey. In addition, the purpose…

  12. THE ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF LAW - WILL THE ROMANIAN DOCTRINE FINALLY CATCH UP WITH IT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MONICA-FLORENTINA POPA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Although a well-established presence on the international legal scene, the economic analysis of law is still an unfamiliar concept to most Romanian scholars. While worldwide, prestigious universities offer special courses on this topic and an impressive body of legal studies continues to add up, only scant traces of this important legal school can be detected in some recent Romanian doctoral thesis and papers. This article explores the main concepts of the economic analysis of law, the recent spin-offs of this theory, especially in the area of comparative law, as well as some of the critiques addressed in the legal doctrine, concerning the consequences on law of overemphasizing “efficiency” to the expense of less quantifiable, moral and social considerations. Some explanations on why the Romanian doctrine is lagging behind with respect to the economic analysis of law will also be attempted, together with a tentative answer to whether this major legal theory will ever make an impact on local doctrinal developments in the near future.

  13. Second Law Analysis of Super CritIcal Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    I.Satyanarayana, A.V.S.S.K.S. Gupta , K.Govinda Rajulu

    2010-01-01

    Coal is the key fuel for power generation in the Supercritical Rankine cycle. Exergy, auniversal measure has the work potential or quality of different forms of energy ofenergy in relation to a given environment. In this paper, an exergy analysis has carriedout to the supercritical power plant tells us how much useful work potential or exergy,supplied to the input to the system under consideration has been consumed by theprocess. A computer code has developed for exergy to analyses the superc...

  14. Assessment of the application of the law on energy transition for a green growth, and application strategies. Council of Ministers, Wednesday 19 April 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royal, Segolene

    2017-01-01

    After having outlined that France is a leader in the action for climate thanks to the law on energy transition, this ministerial contribution proposes an assessment of the application of this law at the urban and territory levels: 554 territories are committed under the 'Territory with positive energy for a green growth' label, numerous decrees have been published, and measures for the struggle against the use of pesticides are warmly supported. Various aspects of the application of the law on energy transition at the national level are addressed: the main planning tools are defined, France is a pioneer for green finance, results of law application are huge, and significant advances have been achieved in the field of circular economy and struggle against any kind of wastage. The consequences at the international level are discussed: the law is an application of the Paris agreement, contributes to accomplish European commitments and to mobilisation of civil society

  15. Economic analysis of pre-emptive right in the Serbian Law on property restitution and compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baturan Luka O.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is application of cost-benefit analysis on a pre-emptive rights, which is established by the Serbian Law on Property Restitution and Compensation. The basic hypothesis is that this law institute disturbs efficiency of resource allocation, and decreases social welfare. There are a few better and more efficient institutes which can be used for gaining of goods in public ownership. To prove this hypothesis, we used neo-institutional economy method and normative method. In the first part of the paper, we presented the law of pre-emptive rights in the legal system of Serbia. After that, we analyzed effects of pre-emptive rights on a deviation from resource allocation. The third part represents an analysis of institutional frame for optimal resource allocation. There is a special view on imprecise definition of property rights, as well as the increased transaction costs due to the existence of the right of pre-emption.

  16. Second law analysis of double effect vapour absorption cooler system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomri, Rabah; Hakimi, Riad

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, exergy analysis of double effect lithium bromide/water absorption refrigeration system is presented. The system consists of a second effect generator between the generator and condenser of the single effect absorption refrigeration system, including two solution heat exchangers between the absorber and the two generators. In order to simulate the refrigeration system by using a computer, a new set of computationally efficient formulations of thermodynamic properties of lithium bromide/water solution developed is used. The exergy analysis is carried out for each component of the system. All exergy losses that exist in double effect lithium bromide/water absorption system are calculated. In addition to the coefficient of performance and the exergetic efficiency of the system, the number of exergy of each component of the system is also estimated. This study suggests the component of the absorption refrigeration system that should be developed. The results show that the performance of the system increases with increasing low pressure generator (LPG) temperature, but decreases with increasing high pressure generator (HPG) temperature. The highest exergy loss occurs in the absorber and in the HPG, which therefore makes the absorber and HPG the most important components of the double effect refrigeration system

  17. A Comparative Analysis of the Ethos, Role and Function of Implied Obligations in Shipping Law and General Law of Contract

    OpenAIRE

    Ndi, George; Alawneh, Tariq

    2015-01-01

    The law governing the international carriage of goods by sea is deeply rooted in the doctrine of freedom of contract. The historical origins of the shipping industry itself can be traced to the era of 'laissez faire' in which contractual practice, based on negotiated terms and conditions, was free from the regulatory constraints of the state. It is for this reason that to this day modern shipping law is still rooted in the common law and customary trade usages with very limited statutory infl...

  18. Operator Hydrodynamics, OTOCs, and Entanglement Growth in Systems without Conservation Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Keyserlingk, C. W.; Rakovszky, Tibor; Pollmann, Frank; Sondhi, S. L.

    2018-04-01

    Thermalization and scrambling are the subject of much recent study from the perspective of many-body quantum systems with locally bounded Hilbert spaces ("spin chains"), quantum field theory, and holography. We tackle this problem in 1D spin chains evolving under random local unitary circuits and prove a number of exact results on the behavior of out-of-time-ordered commutators (OTOCs) and entanglement growth in this setting. These results follow from the observation that the spreading of operators in random circuits is described by a "hydrodynamical" equation of motion, despite the fact that random unitary circuits do not have locally conserved quantities (e.g., no conserved energy). In this hydrodynamic picture, quantum information travels in a front with a "butterfly velocity" vB that is smaller than the light-cone velocity of the system, while the front itself broadens diffusively in time. The OTOC increases sharply after the arrival of the light cone, but we do not observe a prolonged exponential regime of the form ˜eλL(t -x /v ) for a fixed Lyapunov exponent λL. We find that the diffusive broadening of the front has important consequences for entanglement growth, leading to an entanglement velocity that can be significantly smaller than the butterfly velocity. We conjecture that the hydrodynamical description applies to more generic Floquet ergodic systems, and we support this idea by verifying numerically that the diffusive broadening of the operator wavefront also holds in a more traditional nonrandom Floquet spin chain. We also compare our results to Clifford circuits, which have less rich hydrodynamics and consequently trivial OTOC behavior, but which can nevertheless exhibit linear entanglement growth and thermalization.

  19. Dynamic analysis of savings and economic growth in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dynamic analysis of savings and economic growth in Nigeria. ... a trivariate dynamic Granger causality model with savings, economic growth and foreign ... It is recommended that in the short run, policies in Nigeria should be geared towards ...

  20. Lie symmetry analysis and conservation laws for the time fractional fourth-order evolution equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study Lie symmetry analysis and conservation laws for the time fractional nonlinear fourth-order evolution equation. Using the method of Lie point symmetry, we provide the associated vector fields, and derive the similarity reductions of the equation, respectively. The method can be applied wisely and efficiently to get the reduced fractional ordinary differential equations based on the similarity reductions. Finally, by using the nonlinear self-adjointness method and Riemann-Liouville time-fractional derivative operator as well as Euler-Lagrange operator, the conservation laws of the equation are obtained.

  1. What is a Leading Case in EU law? An empirical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadl, Urska; Panagis, Yannis

    2015-01-01

    Lawyers generally explain legal development by looking at explicit amendments to statutory law and modifications in judicial practice. As far as the latter are concerned, leading cases occupy a special place. This article empirically studies the process in which certain cases become leading cases....... Our analysis focuses on Les Verts, a case of considerable fame in EU law, closely scrutinising whether it contains inherent leading case material. We show how the legal relevance of a case can become “embedded” in a long process of reinterpretation by legal actors, and we demonstrate that the actual...

  2. Quantitation and gompertzian analysis of tumor growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rygaard, K; Spang-Thomsen, M

    1998-01-01

    to transform the experimental data into useful growth curves. A transformed Gompertz function is used as the basis for calculating relevant parameters pertaining to tumor growth and response to therapy. The calculations are facilitated by use of a computer program which performs the necessary calculations...... and presents the growth data in graphic form....

  3. Analysis of the Uniform Accident And Sickness Policy Provision Law: lessons for social work practice, policy, and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    The Uniform Accident and Sickness Policy Provision Law (UPPL) is a state statute that allows insurance companies in 26 states to deny claims for accidents and injuries incurred by persons under the influence of drugs or alcohol. Serious repercussions can result for patients and health care professionals as states enforce this law. To examine differences within the laws that might facilitate amendments or reduce insurance companies' ability to deny claims, a content analysis was carried out of each state's UPPL law. Results showed no meaningful differences between each state's laws. These results indicate patients and health professionals share similar risk related to the UPPL regardless of state.

  4. Legal analysis at the Law for Civil liabilities by nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez G, A.

    2000-01-01

    The present work has the objective to analyse in specific terms the legal regime of the Civil liability by nuclear damage. It has been the intention of that this compilation is the initiation of a large way which awake the interests of jurists and specialists dedicated to study the aspects as the liability by nuclear damage, compensation guarantee, risk and nuclear damage among others. The peaceful applications of the nuclear energy require the necessity of a legal ordinance that it is updated according to the nuclear technology development that the regulations of the common law do not cover. This work is initiated mentioning some antecedents of the nuclear energy law in Mexico. Also is realized the study of the elemental concepts and definitions about the subject as the evolution of the legal figure in the National law frame where the jurist must do an incursion in the nuclear field and make use of scientific and technical terminology. It was analysed and it was made the reflection of the legal figure of liability, its exoneration cases, about the concepts of risk and nuclear damage overcoming the conceptual error among them. It is talked about the study of nuclear damage and its repairing as financial guarantee to compensate to the people injured by a nuclear accident. Finally, it was treated about the legal analysis and proposals of additions and reforms for updating the Nuclear damage liability Law, concluding with general contributions to the Law resulting products of this work. (Author)

  5. Professionals and tax companies: analysis of Article 9 , § 3 doDecreto Law No. 406/68 against Complementary Law No. 116/03

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Portugal

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Analyzes the repeal of Article 9, paragraph 3 of Decree-Law No. 406/68, the qualinstituiu fixed taxation for companies that provide professional services, after the advent of Complementary Law No. 116 of 31 July 2003. presenteestudo we used the inductive method, performed by means of analysis of search bibliográficae regards the matter law. Points out the impossibility of manutençãodo the lump-sum taxation for professional service providers queestejam constituted as a company under the fence in right darepristinação Brazilian Positivo, as the Decree-Law No. 834/69 eposteriormente Complementary Law o 56/87, replaced in writing dosupracitado device, the number of services reached by fixed datributação benefit in order to make it compatible with their lists of serviçoinicialmente proposed by Decree-law 406/68. However, these diplomas legaisforam expressly repealed by Article 10 of Complementary Law No. 116 / 03.Aponta that the fact be made in the form of society is not aptoa criteria trigger disparities in the taxation of professional service providers, under penalty breach of the principle of equality. The research aims to contribute to aaplicação of Complementary Law No. 116/03, particularly as regards àtributação of professional societies, proposing some reflections on daspeculiaridades surrounding the issue, urging the debate on fixed datributação revocation, in order to seek to improve the interpretation that is damatéria now analyzed.

  6. A Revision of Clausius Work on the Second Law. 1. On the Lack of Inner Consistency of Clausius Analysis Leading to the Law of Increasing Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José C. Iñiguez

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper, the first in a series of four, will expose the lack of inner consistency of the analysis through which Clausius re-expressed the second law of thermodynamics: "Heat cannot, of itself, pass from a colder to a hotter body", as the law of increasing entropy: "The entropy of the universe tends to a maximum". In the two following papers the flaw in Clausius analysis producing the said lack of consistency will be located, corrected and some of its consequences, discussed. Among them the one stating that the identification of the two above written statements of the second law is valid only under certain circumstances. In the fourth and final

  7. Is tax avoidance the theory of everything in tax Law? A terminological analysis of EU legislation and case law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Öner, Cihat

    The primary goal of this article is to analyze the use of the term ‘tax avoidance’ in the legislative framework and case law of the European Union to point out the absence of a common linguistic approach. The consequences derived from the terminological chaos will also be discussed; thus, the study

  8. Laws' masks descriptors applied to bone texture analysis: an innovative and discriminant tool in osteoporosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rachidi, M.; Marchadier, A.; Gadois, C.; Lespessailles, E.; Chappard, C.; Benhamou, C.L.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore Laws' masks analysis to describe structural variations of trabecular bone due to osteoporosis on high-resolution digital radiographs and to check its dependence on the spatial resolution. Laws' masks are well established as one of the best methods for texture analysis in image processing and are used in various applications, but not in bone tissue characterisation. This method is based on masks that aim to filter the images. From each mask, five classical statistical parameters can be calculated. The study was performed on 182 healthy postmenopausal women with no fractures and 114 age-matched women with fractures [26 hip fractures (HFs), 29 vertebrae fractures (VFs), 29 wrist fractures (WFs) and 30 other fractures (OFs)]. For all subjects radiographs were obtained of the calcaneus with a new high-resolution X-ray device with direct digitisation (BMA, D3A, France). The lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total hip bone mineral density (BMD) were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. In terms of reproducibility, the best results were obtained with the TR E5E5 mask, especially for three parameters: ''mean'', ''standard deviation'' and ''entropy'' with, respectively, in vivo mid-term root mean square average coefficient of variation (RMSCV)%=1.79, 4.24 and 2.05. The ''mean'' and ''entropy'' parameters had a better reproducibility but ''standard deviation'' showed a better discriminant power. Thus, for univariate analysis, the difference between subjects with fractures and controls was significant (P -3 ) and significant for each fracture group independently (P -4 for HF, P=0.025 for VF and P -3 for OF). After multivariate analysis with adjustment for age and total hip BMD, the difference concerning the ''standard deviation'' parameter remained statistically significant between the control group and the HF and VF groups (P -5 , and P=0.04, respectively). No significant correlation between these Laws' masks parameters and

  9. Analysis of investment factors which are influencing the growth of the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milojević Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this research is empirical analysis of the factors which have influence on economic growth, whereas the main aim is to suggest adequate ways to overcome problems. We have analyzed the influence of budget deficit, personal consumption, inflation, real exchange rate, foreign trade balance and foreign direct investments (FDI on economic growth. Furthermore, we measured the influence factors on the presence and movement of the budget deficit. Research paper uses the data obtained from the Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia, World Bank and the IMF for the time period 2001-2011 and has been applied regression analysis method. Research results indicate that the real exchange rate, personal consumption and foreign trade balance are statistically significant for anticipating economic growth developments. Contrary to our expectations, the empirical analysis showed that FDI have a negative influence on the economic growth. The coefficient 'public debt' is statistically significant and has a positive influence on the increase of budget deficit, whereas the increase of SDI and trade openness triggers a decrease in budget deficit. This research starts from the hypothesis that financing deficit limits economic growth and the inflow of FDI can't provide long-term economic growth. In the coming period Serbia needs to take advantage of the available resources and managing public finances, obeying laws and regulations and continuing with reforms are fundamental for achieving a stable business environment.

  10. Process analysis transit of municipal waste. Part II - Domestic provisions of law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Starkowski Dariusz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2013, the Polish legal system referring to municipal waste management was restructured in a revolutionary way. The analysis of new provisions of law described in the article requires particular attention, taking into account their place in the entire system of dealing with waste and connections with the remaining elements of this system. At present, Polish regulations lay down the rules of conduct with all types of waste, diversifying a subjective area of responsibility. These assumptions are determined by the provisions of law that are in force in the Republic of Poland. At present, the system of legal provisions is quite complex; however, the provisions of law of the EU constitute its base (the first article. At the level of Polish law, the goals and tasks concerned with dealing with waste were set forth, which leads to tightening of the system. All actions in this respect - from propagating the selective accumulation and collection of municipal waste, keeping the established levels of recycling and recycling of packaging wastes, and limiting the mass of biodegradable waste directed at the storage - is only a beginning of the road to reduction of environmental risks. In this case, permanent monitoring of proper waste dealing in the commune, the province as well as the entire country is essential. Third part of the article will present characterization, division, classification and identification of waste, together with the aspects of logistic process of municipal waste collection and transport.

  11. The making of nursing practice law in Lebanon: a policy analysis case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Jardali, Fadi; Hammoud, Rawan; Younan, Lina; Nuwayhid, Helen Samaha; Abdallah, Nadine; Alameddine, Mohammad; Bou-Karroum, Lama; Salman, Lana

    2014-09-05

    Evidence-informed decisions can strengthen health systems, improve health, and reduce health inequities. Despite the Beijing, Montreux, and Bamako calls for action, literature shows that research evidence is underemployed in policymaking, especially in the East Mediterranean region (EMR). Selecting the draft nursing practice law as a case study, this policy analysis exercise aims at generating in-depth insights on the public policymaking process, identifying the factors that influence policymaking and assessing to what extent evidence is used in this process. This study utilized a qualitative research design using a case study approach and was conducted in two phases: data collection and analysis, and validation. In the first phase, data was collected through key informant interviews that covered 17 stakeholders. In the second phase, a panel discussion was organized to validate the findings, identify any gaps, and gain insights and feedback of the panelists. Thematic analysis was conducted and guided by the Walt & Gilson's "Policy Triangle Framework" as themes were categorized into content, actors, process, and context. Findings shed light on the complex nature of health policymaking and the unstructured approach of decision making. This study uncovered the barriers that hindered the progress of the draft nursing law and the main barriers against the use of evidence in policymaking. Findings also uncovered the risk involved in the use of international recommendations without the involvement of stakeholders and without accounting for contextual factors and implementation barriers. Findings were interpreted within the context of the Lebanese political environment and the power play between stakeholders, taking into account equity considerations. This policy analysis exercise presents findings that are helpful for policymakers and all other stakeholders and can feed into revising the draft nursing law to reach an effective alternative that is feasible in Lebanon. Our

  12. Error Analysis of Explicit Partitioned Runge–Kutta Schemes for Conservation Laws

    KAUST Repository

    Hundsdorfer, Willem

    2014-08-27

    An error analysis is presented for explicit partitioned Runge–Kutta methods and multirate methods applied to conservation laws. The interfaces, across which different methods or time steps are used, lead to order reduction of the schemes. Along with cell-based decompositions, also flux-based decompositions are studied. In the latter case mass conservation is guaranteed, but it will be seen that the accuracy may deteriorate.

  13. Error Analysis of Explicit Partitioned Runge–Kutta Schemes for Conservation Laws

    KAUST Repository

    Hundsdorfer, Willem; Ketcheson, David I.; Savostianov, Igor

    2014-01-01

    An error analysis is presented for explicit partitioned Runge–Kutta methods and multirate methods applied to conservation laws. The interfaces, across which different methods or time steps are used, lead to order reduction of the schemes. Along with cell-based decompositions, also flux-based decompositions are studied. In the latter case mass conservation is guaranteed, but it will be seen that the accuracy may deteriorate.

  14. Growth And Export Expansion In Mauritius - A Time Series Analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth And Export Expansion In Mauritius - A Time Series Analysis. ... RV Sannassee, R Pearce ... Using Granger Causality tests, the short-run analysis results revealed that there is significant reciprocal causality between real export earnings ...

  15. Intellectual property law and competition law in China - Analysis of the current framework and comparison with the EU approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeung Nga Man

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper Yeung Nga Man looks at the question of protection of intellectual property rights in the Chinese legal system with comparative reference to policy and practice in the European Union. What is the best way to stimulate competition but yet also protect innovation? Part I of the essay examines the present IPRs protection in China. In Part II, contrary to the myth that competition and IP law conflict with one another, the author argues that both foster innovation and development, and enhance consumer welfare. Part III discusses the competition law regime in China with a specific focus on AML and evaluation of the enforcement of the regime. Part IV outlines the European Union approach, which China might consider adopting. Part V discusses the Block Exemptions approach from the E.U. on horizontal agreements.

  16. Developing Law Students' Communicative-Linguistic Competence: Analysis of Eight Spanish Legal Textbooks from a Sociopragmatic Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Joseba Ezeiza

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a study carried out on eight Spanish legal textbooks in order to draw up an inventory of educational resources available to support the development of law students' communicative competence, taking into account the law degree curricula at Spanish universities (Ezeiza Ramos forthcoming a, forthcoming b). The analysis was…

  17. Occupational and Cost Risk : Critical Analysis of Monetization Policy Risk Approach to the Spanish Law Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antônio César Villatore

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem that surrounds the issue of occupational risk is a phenomenon that plagues every society, because the work is a central element and gives force to the economy. In this sense, the exposure of workers to harmful activities that may cause damage to your health and physical and mental integrity, based on the monetization policy of risk adopted by the Brazilian legal system, can import costs to the workers, employers, the state and society. Thus, the present study seeks, from the labor law analysis and the use of concepts of Economic Analysis of Law, attest that the social costs caused by worker exposure to risk is, fallaciously shown, in a short-term smaller than that of prevention, but in the long run can import the burden on all parties of the employment relationship as well as the State and society, being necessary to use economic and legal measures for changing the monetization of risk policy, as in alien systems, as the Spanish Law analyzed.

  18. Parametric analysis of fatigue crack growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carden, A.E.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of temperature and frequency on fatigue crack growth were empirically observed and treated as a coefficient on a stress intensity factor term. The stress intensity factor term is a function of Ksub(max), Ksub(min) (or stress ratio) and a threshold K term. The apparent threshold values were selected in order to linearize the data. At 1000 0 F a constant da/dt (creep crack growth rate) is approached for cycle periods approaching 2000 s indicating a limiting and linear-inverse frequency effect. (author)

  19. Footprint analysis during the growth period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpon, J B

    1994-01-01

    Static footprints were obtained from 672 healthy white subjects ranging in age from newborn to 15 years. The length of the footprint was measured and the medial longitudinal arch was evaluated. The findings showed that the feet grew most rapidly up to 3 years of age. From age 3 onward, the feet maintained an almost constant growth rate, which was the same for both sexes until age 12 years, when girls' feet stopped growing, but boys' feet exhibited further growth. From birth up to 2 years of age, there was a higher incidence of flat feet. Rapid progression of plantar arch development was observed between 2 and 6 years of age.

  20. Economic Efficiencyo on Limited Liability Companies: some Considerations on Economic Analysis of Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinho Martins Botelho

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents briefly a theoretical approach about limited efficiency from the perspective Economic Analysis of Law (EAL of the limited liability company by examining initially the question of limited liability, under the scrutiny of the pro-rata theory and model manager-investor.  It approaches the liability of directors of corporations incorporated in the form of a limited company. Subsequently, its theoretical approaches are about the analysis of the first generation of agency theory (contract manager-investor incentives, the hypothesis of Modigliani-Miller irrelevance, and structures of great property.

  1. Ultimate load analysis of prestressed concrete reactor pressure vessels considering a general material law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schimmelpfennig, K.

    1975-01-01

    A method of analysis is presented, by which progressive fracture processes in axisymmetric prestressed concrete pressure vessels during increasing internal pressure can be evaulated by means of a continuum calculation considering a general material law. Formulations used in the analysis concerning material behaviour are derived on one hand from appropriate results of testing small concrete specimens, and are on the other hand gained by parametric studies in order to solve questions still existing by recalulating fracture tests on concrete bodies with more complex states of stress. Due attention is focussed on investigating the behaviour of construction members subjected to high shear forces (end slabs.). (Auth.)

  2. [Asylum Law and Mental Health: An Interdisciplinary Analysis of the Coaction of Medical and Legal Aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanewald, Bernd; Gieseking, Janina; Vogelbusch, Oliver; Markus, Inessa; Gallhofer, Bernd; Knipper, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Interdisciplinary analysis of the consequences of laws and legal practice for mental health conditions of asylum seekers and psychiatric care. Based on the case study of a Kurdish woman with complex trauma-related psychiatric disorder, who had been in psychiatric hospital care for 25 months, the legal and medical facts are exposed, followed by a discussion referring to theoretical approaches from medical anthropology. Immigration laws and legal practice can have harmful consequences, which can be interpreted as "structural violence". In case of traumatized refugees, the coaction of legal and medical aspects has to be acknowledged seriously by the medical, legal and political parts involved. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. [Pitfalls in informed consent: a statistical analysis of malpractice law suits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echigo, Junko

    2014-05-01

    In medical malpractice law suits, the notion of informed consent is often relevant in assessing whether negligence can be attributed to the medical practitioner who has caused injury to a patient. Furthermore, it is not rare that courts award damages for a lack of appropriate informed consent alone. In this study, two results were arrived at from a statistical analysis of medical malpractice law suits. One, unexpectedly, was that the severity of a patient's illness made no significant difference to whether damages were awarded. The other was that cases of typical medical treatment that national medical insurance does not cover were involved significantly more often than insured treatment cases. In cases where damages were awarded, the courts required more disclosure and written documents of information by medical practitioners, especially about complications and adverse effects that the patient might suffer.

  4. Cohesive Laws and Progressive Damage Analysis of Composite Bonded Joints, a Combined Numerical/Experimental Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girolamo, Donato; Davila, Carlos G.; Leone, Frank A.; Lin, Shih-Yung

    2015-01-01

    The results of an experimental/numerical campaign aimed to develop progressive damage analysis (PDA) tools for predicting the strength of a composite bonded joint under tensile loads are presented. The PDA is based on continuum damage mechanics (CDM) to account for intralaminar damage, and cohesive laws to account for interlaminar and adhesive damage. The adhesive response is characterized using standard fracture specimens and digital image correlation (DIC). The displacement fields measured by DIC are used to calculate the J-integrals, from which the associated cohesive laws of the structural adhesive can be derived. A finite element model of a sandwich conventional splice joint (CSJ) under tensile loads was developed. The simulations, in agreement with experimental tests, indicate that the model is capable of predicting the interactions of damage modes that lead to the failure of the joint.

  5. Nuclear Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascal, Maurice.

    1979-01-01

    This book on nuclear law is the first of a series of analytical studies to be published by the French Energy Commission (CEA) concerning all the various nuclear activities. It describes national and international legislation applicable in France covering the following main sectors: the licensing procedure for nuclear installations, the law of the sea and nuclear law, the legal system governing radioisotopes, the transport of radioactive materials, third party liability and insurance and radiation protection. In each chapter, the overall analysis is supplemented by the relevant regulatory texts and by organisation charts in annex. (NEA) [fr

  6. Economic analysis of crystal growth in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, D. R.; Chung, A. M.; Yan, C. S.; Mccreight, L. R.

    1972-01-01

    Many advanced electronic technologies and devices for the 1980's are based on sophisticated compound single crystals, i.e. ceramic oxides and compound semiconductors. Space processing of these electronic crystals with maximum perfection, purity, and size is suggested. No ecomonic or technical justification was found for the growth of silicon single crystals for solid state electronic devices in space.

  7. Growth and Inequality: A Meta-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, H.L.F.; de Dominicis, L.; Florax, R.J.G.M.

    2008-01-01

    In recent years there is a growing interest in determining the impact of inequality on economic growth. Theoretical papers as well as empirical applications have, however, produced controversial results. Although there is a considerable part of the literature that considers inequality detrimental to

  8. Analysis, numerics, and optimization of algae growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, K.; Pisarenco, M.; Rudnaya, M.; Savcenco, V.

    2010-01-01

    We extend the mathematical model for algae growth as described in [11] to include new effects. The roles of light, nutrients and acidity of the water body are taken into account. Important properties of the model such as existence and uniqueness of solution, as well as boundedness and positivity are

  9. SECTORAL ANALYSIS: GROWTH ACCOUNTING OF TERTIARY INDUSTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Z. ALSHEHHI

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The tertiary sector is one of the modern styles of economic systems in view of the share it occupies in the field of production as well as employment occupied share. Hence, just like other lands, the UAE, witnessed an economic structural change similar to developed and developing nations, where the tertiary industries contributed 55.4% in 2015 to total country’s income. The empirical study aimed to analyze the contribution portion of growth in the tertiary industries through using the growth accounting framework in time-series from 1990 to 2015. The empirical study found that most of the industries contributed significantly to the growth of the tertiary sector. The contribution shares of growth due to labor and capital varied among industries. The main observed results show that there was a vice versa relationship between TFP performance and the size of labor, where the TFP positively corresponded with the decline in the size of labor specifically from 2010-2015.

  10. Automatic analysis of online image data for law enforcement agencies by concept detection and instance search

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Maaike H. T.; Bouma, Henri; Kruithof, Maarten C.; ter Haar, Frank B.; Fischer, Noëlle M.; Hagendoorn, Laurens K.; Joosten, Bart; Raaijmakers, Stephan

    2017-10-01

    The information available on-line and off-line, from open as well as from private sources, is growing at an exponential rate and places an increasing demand on the limited resources of Law Enforcement Agencies (LEAs). The absence of appropriate tools and techniques to collect, process, and analyze the volumes of complex and heterogeneous data has created a severe information overload. If a solution is not found, the impact on law enforcement will be dramatic, e.g. because important evidence is missed or the investigation time is too long. Furthermore, there is an uneven level of capabilities to deal with the large volumes of complex and heterogeneous data that come from multiple open and private sources at national level across the EU, which hinders cooperation and information sharing. Consequently, there is a pertinent need to develop tools, systems and processes which expedite online investigations. In this paper, we describe a suite of analysis tools to identify and localize generic concepts, instances of objects and logos in images, which constitutes a significant portion of everyday law enforcement data. We describe how incremental learning based on only a few examples and large-scale indexing are addressed in both concept detection and instance search. Our search technology allows querying of the database by visual examples and by keywords. Our tools are packaged in a Docker container to guarantee easy deployment on a system and our tools exploit possibilities provided by open source toolboxes, contributing to the technical autonomy of LEAs.

  11. Accuracy analysis of measurements on a stable power-law distributed series of events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, J O; Hopcraft, K I; Jakeman, E; Siviour, G B

    2006-01-01

    We investigate how finite measurement time limits the accuracy with which the parameters of a stably distributed random series of events can be determined. The model process is generated by timing the emigration of individuals from a population that is subject to deaths and a particular choice of multiple immigration events. This leads to a scale-free discrete random process where customary measures, such as mean value and variance, do not exist. However, converting the number of events occurring in fixed time intervals to a 1-bit 'clipped' process allows the construction of well-behaved statistics that still retain vestiges of the original power-law and fluctuation properties. These statistics include the clipped mean and correlation function, from measurements of which both the power-law index of the distribution of events and the time constant of its fluctuations can be deduced. We report here a theoretical analysis of the accuracy of measurements of the mean of the clipped process. This indicates that, for a fixed experiment time, the error on measurements of the sample mean is minimized by an optimum choice of the number of samples. It is shown furthermore that this choice is sensitive to the power-law index and that the approach to Poisson statistics is dominated by rare events or 'outliers'. Our results are supported by numerical simulation

  12. Investigating the "inverse care law" in dental care: A comparative analysis of Canadian jurisdictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehmoobadsharifabadi, Armita; Singhal, Sonica; Quiñonez, Carlos

    2017-03-01

    To compare physician and dentist visits nationally and at the provincial/territorial level and to assess the extent of the "inverse care law" in dental care among different age groups in the same way. Publicly available data from the 2007 to 2008 Canadian Community Health Survey were utilized to investigate physician and dentist visits in the past 12 months in relation to self-perceived general and oral health by performing descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression, controlling for age, sex, education, income, and physician/dentist population ratios. Analysis was conducted for all participants and stratified by age groups - children (12-17 years), adults (18-64 years) and seniors (65 years and over). Nationally and provincially/territorially, it appears that the "inverse care law" persists for dental care but is not present for physician care. Specifically, when comparing to those with excellent general/oral health, individuals with poor general health were 2.71 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.70-2.72) times more likely to visit physicians, and individuals with poor oral health were 2.16 (95% CI: 2.16-2.17) times less likely to visit dentists. Stratified analyses by age showed more variability in the extent of the "inverse care law" in children and seniors compared to adults. The "inverse care law" in dental care exists both nationally and provincially/territorially among different age groups. Given this, it is important to assess the government's role in improving access to, and utilization of, dental care in Canada.

  13. A Study on the Effect of Cohesive Laws on Finite Element Analysis of Crack Propagation Using Cohesive Elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Hyeongseok; Baek, Hyungchan; Kim, Hyungyu [Seoul Nat' l Univ. of Sci. and Tech., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    In this paper, the effect of cohesive laws on the finite element analysis of crack propagation using cohesive elements is investigated through three-point bending and double cantilever beam problems. The cohesive elements are implemented into ABAQUS/Standard user subroutines(UEL), and the shape of cohesive law is varied by changing parameters in polynomial functions of cohesive traction-separation relations. In particular, crack propagation behaviors are studied by comparing load-displacement curves of the analysis models which have different shapes of cohesive laws with the same values of fracture energy and cohesive strength. Furthermore, the influence of the element size on crack propagation is discussed in this study.

  14. Morphometric Analysis of Mandibular Growth in Skeletal Class III Malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Zwei-Chieng Chang

    2006-01-01

    Conclusion: We conclude that thin-plate spline analysis and the finite element morphometric method are efficient for the localization and quantification of size and shape changes that occur during mandibular growth. Plots of maximum and minimum principal directions can provide useful information about the trends of growth changes.

  15. Separating Batterers and Guns: A Review and Analysis of Gun Removal Laws in 50 States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frattaroli, Shannon; Vernick, Jon S.

    2006-01-01

    Firearms play an important role in lethal domestic violence incidents. The authors review state laws regarding two policies to separate batterers from firearms: laws authorizing police to remove firearms when responding to a domestic violence complaint ("police gun removal laws") and laws authorizing courts to order guns removed from batterers…

  16. Has the sanctity of life law 'gone too far'?: analysis of the sanctity of life doctrine and English case law shows that the sanctity of life law has not 'gone too far'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabiu, Abdul-Rasheed; Sugand, Kapil

    2014-02-22

    The medical profession consistently strives to uphold patient empowerment, equality and safety. It is ironic that now, at a time where advances in technology and knowledge have given us an increased capacity to preserve and prolong life, we find ourselves increasingly asking questions about the value of the lives we are saving. A recent editorial by Professor Raanan Gillon questions the emphasis that English law places on the sanctity of life doctrine. In what was described by Reverend Nick Donnelly as a "manifesto for killing patients", Professor Gillon argues that the sanctity of life law has gone too far because of its disregard for distributive justice and an incompetent person's previously declared autonomy. This review begins by outlining the stance of the sanctity of life doctrine on decisions about administering, withholding and withdrawing life-prolonging treatment. Using this as a foundation for a rebuttal, a proposal is made that Professor Gillon's assertions do not take the following into account:1) A sanctity of life law does not exist since English Common Law infringes the sanctity doctrine by tolerating quality of life judgements and a doctor's intention to hasten death when withdrawing life-prolonging treatment.2) Even if a true sanctity of life law did exist:a) The sanctity of life doctrine allows for resource considerations in the wider analysis of benefits and burdens.b) The sanctity of life doctrine yields to a competent person's autonomous decision.This review attempts to demonstrate that at present, and with the legal precedent that restricts it, a sanctity of life law cannot go too far.

  17. A Short Integrated Presentation of Valuation, Profitability and Growth Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pettersson, Kim; Sørensen, Ole

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate how the valuation models used in finance theory and the profitability and growth analysis taught in financial statement analysis are related. Traditional textbooks on finance and financial statement analysis are often very comprehensive, comprising a vast number of chapters. However......, the learning cost associated to this seems to be that many students are unable to understand either the interrelations between the chapters in a financial statement analysis textbook, or the origins of financial information (i.e., financial statements) in applied finance. Thus, the underlying motivation...... of this teaching note is to highlight the purpose of profitability and growth analysis in financial statement analysis by incorporating the point of value relevance in applied finance. We hope this reduced presentation of valuation and profitability and growth analysis will help students to understand...

  18. Second Law Analysis of the Optimal Fin by Minimum Entropy Generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Based on the entropy generation concept of thermodynamics, this paper established a general theoretical model for the analysis of entropy generation to optimize fms, in which the minimum entropy generation was selected as the object to be studied. The irreversibility due to heat transfer and friction was taken into account so that the minimum entropygeneration number has been analyzed with respect to second law of thermodynamics in the forced cross-flow. The optimum dimensions of cylinder pins were discussed. It's found that the minimum entropy generation number depends on parameters related to the fluid and fin physical parameters. Variations of the minimum entropy generation number with different parameters were analyzed.

  19. Mathematical analysis of the dimensional scaling technique for the Schroedinger equation with power-law potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Zhonghai; Chen, Goong; Lin, Chang-Shou

    2010-01-01

    The dimensional scaling (D-scaling) technique is an innovative asymptotic expansion approach to study the multiparticle systems in molecular quantum mechanics. It enables the calculation of ground and excited state energies of quantum systems without having to solve the Schroedinger equation. In this paper, we present a mathematical analysis of the D-scaling technique for the Schroedinger equation with power-law potentials. By casting the D-scaling technique in an appropriate variational setting and studying the corresponding minimization problem, the D-scaling technique is justified rigorously. A new asymptotic dimensional expansion scheme is introduced to compute asymptotic expansions for ground state energies.

  20. An analytic solution of projectile motion with the quadratic resistance law using the homotopy analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yabushita, Kazuki; Yamashita, Mariko; Tsuboi, Kazuhiro

    2007-01-01

    We consider the problem of two-dimensional projectile motion in which the resistance acting on an object moving in air is proportional to the square of the velocity of the object (quadratic resistance law). It is well known that the quadratic resistance law is valid in the range of the Reynolds number: 1 x 10 3 ∼ 2 x 10 5 (for instance, a sphere) for practical situations, such as throwing a ball. It has been considered that the equations of motion of this case are unsolvable for a general projectile angle, although some solutions have been obtained for a small projectile angle using perturbation techniques. To obtain a general analytic solution, we apply Liao's homotopy analysis method to this problem. The homotopy analysis method, which is different from a perturbation technique, can be applied to a problem which does not include small parameters. We apply the homotopy analysis method for not only governing differential equations, but also an algebraic equation of a velocity vector to extend the radius of convergence. Ultimately, we obtain the analytic solution to this problem and investigate the validation of the solution

  1. Cyclic inelastic deformation aspects of fatigue-crack-growth analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leis, B.N.; Zahoor, A.

    1980-01-01

    This paper concentrates on a J-integral analysis of fatigue crack growth. Data on cyclic plasticity are analyzed showing that there are limitations to the usefulness of the deformation theory in applications to cyclic plasticity. 56 refs.

  2. Policy Analysis on Growth and Employment - PAGE II | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Policy Analysis on Growth and Employment - PAGE II. This project by the Partnership for Economic Policy (PEP) will support quality ... The project is supported by the UK's Department for International Development, and additional funding is ...

  3. By Law Established

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Lisbet

    2017-01-01

    An analysis of the degree and content of statutory law regulation of Nordic Lutheran majority churches in 2017......An analysis of the degree and content of statutory law regulation of Nordic Lutheran majority churches in 2017...

  4. Environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, B.; Sparwasser, R.

    1988-01-01

    Environmental law is discussed exhaustively in this book. Legal and scientific fundamentals are taken into account, a systematic orientation is given, and hints for further information are presented. The book covers general environmental law, plan approval procedures, protection against nuisances, atomic law and radiation protection law, water protection law, waste management law, laws on chemical substances, conservation law. (HSCH) [de

  5. Growth of cortical neuronal network in vitro: Modeling and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, P.-Y.; Jia, L. C.; Chan, C. K.

    2006-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis and theoretical growth models to account for recent experimental data on the growth of cortical neuronal networks in vitro [Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 088101 (2004)]. The experimentally observed synchronized firing frequency of a well-connected neuronal network is shown to be proportional to the mean network connectivity. The growth of the network is consistent with the model of an early enhanced growth of connection, but followed by a retarded growth once the synchronized cluster is formed. Microscopic models with dominant excluded volume interactions are consistent with the observed exponential decay of the mean connection probability as a function of the mean network connectivity. The biological implications of the growth model are also discussed

  6. Appetite and growth: a longitudinal sibling analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Jaarsveld, Cornelia H M; Boniface, David; Llewellyn, Clare H; Wardle, Jane

    2014-04-01

    Identifying early markers of future obesity risk can help target preventive interventions. Several studies have shown that a heartier appetite in infancy is a risk factor for more rapid weight gain, but to date no investigations have been able to rule out familial confounding. To use a sibling design (data from same-sex, dizygotic twin pairs) to test the hypothesis that sibling differences in infant appetite predicted differential weight gain during childhood. Gemini is a population-based twin cohort among the general United Kingdom population born between March 1, 2007, and December 15, 2007. Growth trajectories were analyzed from birth to age 15 months. Appetite-discordant pairs were selected from 800 nonidentical, same-sex twin pairs. Appetite during the first 3 months of life was assessed with the food responsiveness (FR) and satiety responsiveness (SR) subscales from the Baby Eating Behaviour Questionnaire. Discordance was defined as a within-pair difference of at least 1 SD. A mean of 11.5 weight measurements per child were available between birth and age 15 months. Multilevel models, adjusted for sex and birth weight, compared growth curves for the higher-appetite vs lower-appetite twins. In total, 172 pairs were discordant for SR and 121 pairs for FR. Within-pair analyses showed that those with higher FR and those with lower SR grew faster than their sibling. At age 6 months, those with higher FR were 654 (95% CI, 395-913) g heavier and at age 15 months were 991 (95% CI, 484-1498) g heavier. For sibling pairs discordant for SR, the weight differences between siblings were 637 (95% CI, 438-836) g at age 6 months and 918 (95% CI, 569-1267) g at age 15 months. A heartier appetite (indexed with higher FR or lower SR) in early infancy is prospectively associated with more rapid growth up to age 15 months in a design controlling for potential familial confounding, supporting a causal role for appetite in childhood weight gain. Appetite could be an early marker

  7. Urban Growth Areas, Priority Funding Area (PFA) - Vector Database. PFAs are geographic growth areas defined under State law and designated by local jurisdictions to provide a map for targeting State investment in infrastructure., Published in 1998, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Maryland Department of Planning.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Urban Growth Areas dataset current as of 1998. Priority Funding Area (PFA) - Vector Database. PFAs are geographic growth areas defined under State law and designated...

  8. A Descriptive Analysis of Care Provided by Law Enforcement Prior to EMS Arrival in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, Aaron B; Core, S Brent; Lohse, Christine M; Sztajnkrycer, Matthew D

    2018-04-01

    Study Objectives Law enforcement is increasingly viewed as a key component in the out-of-hospital chain of survival, with expanded roles in cardiac arrest, narcotic overdose, and traumatic bleeding. Little is known about the nature of care provided by law enforcement prior to the arrival of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) assets. The purpose of the current study was to perform a descriptive analysis of events reported to a national EMS database. This study was a descriptive analysis of the 2014 National Emergency Medical Services Information System (NEMSIS) public release research data set, containing EMS emergency response data from 41 states. Code E09_02 1200 specifically identifies care provided by law enforcement prior to EMS arrival. A total of 25,835,729 unique events were reported. Of events in which pre-arrival care was documented, 2.0% received prior aid by law enforcement. Patients receiving law enforcement care prior to EMS arrival were more likely to be younger (52.8 [SD=23.3] years versus 58.7 [SD=23.3] years), male (54.8% versus 46.7%), and white (80.3% versus 77.5%). Basic Life Support (BLS) EMS response was twice as likely in patients receiving prior aid by law enforcement. Multiple-casualty incidents were five times more likely with prior aid by law enforcement. Compared with prior aid by other services, law enforcement pre-arrival care was more likely with motor vehicle accidents, firearm assaults, knife assaults, blunt assaults, and drug overdoses, and less likely at falls and childbirths. Cardiac arrest was significantly more common in patients receiving prior aid by law enforcement (16.5% versus 2.6%). Tourniquet application and naloxone administration were more common in the law enforcement prior aid group. Where noted, law enforcement pre-arrival care occurs in 2.0% of EMS patient encounters. The majority of cases involve cardiac arrest, motor vehicle accidents, and assaults. Better understanding of the nature of law enforcement care is

  9. LAWS AND PRINCIPLES OF UNIVERSAL VALUE IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT INDICATORS ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea CONSTANTINESCU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Each extension of the scope of laws and principles that allow both mathematical and statistical remodeling as well as reaffirming the appropriateness of proven methods, stirs up a special study interest. The ever-expanding computational power of laws of power offers to the scientific universe possibility of new approach to the crucial relationship between quantity and quality, between micro and macro dimensions. Boosting broadening the use of quasi-universal value theories in research in order to deepen the analysis of sustainable development indicators can lead to a greater understanding of all aspects of this area and to facilitate understanding of the arguments which underlie any responsible decision making. This assumption underlies the logical conclusion that sustainability becomes even stronger as it benefits from scientific arguments support resulting from research. Although we have confined ourselves in drafting some coordinates for application of each method presented to particular issues of sustainable development, this research theme will be strengthened and pursued through appropriate extensive analysis.

  10. Active Shape Analysis of Mandibular Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilger, Klaus Baggesen; Larsen, Rasmus; Kreiborg, Sven

    2003-01-01

    This work contains a clinical validation using biological landmarks of a Geometry Constrained Diffusion registration of mandibular surfaces. Canonical Correlations Analysis is extended to analyse 3D landmarks and the correlations are used as similarity measures for landmark clustering. A novel Ac...

  11. Basic chemically recuperated gas turbines--power plant optimization and thermodynamics second law analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Lourenco Gobira; Nebra, Silvia Azucena

    2004-01-01

    One of the proposals to increase the performance of the gas turbines is to improve chemical recuperated cycle. In this cycle, the heat in the turbine exhaust gases is used to heat and modify the chemical characteristics of the fuel. One mixture of natural gas and steam receives heat from the exhaust turbine gases; the mixture components react among themselves producing hot synthesis gas. In this work, an analysis and nonlinear optimization of the cycle were made in order to investigate the temperature and pressure influence on the global cycle performance. The chemical composition in the reformer was assumed according to chemical equilibrium equations, which presents good agreement with data from literature. The mixture of hot gases was treated like ideal gases. The maximum net profit was achieved and a thermodynamic second law analysis was made in order to detect the greatest sources of irreversibility

  12. Statistical analysis of fatigue crack growth behavior for grade B cast steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, W.; Sakai, T.; Li, Q.; Wang, P.

    2011-01-01

    Tests for fatigue crack growth rate (FCGR) and crack-tip opening displacement (CTOD) were performed to clarify the fatigue crack growth behavior of a railway grade B cast steel. The threshold values of this steel with specific survival probabilities are evaluated, in which the mean value is 8.3516 MPa m 1/2 , very similar to the experimental value, about 8.7279 MPa m 1/2 . Under the conditions of plane strain and small-scale yielding, the values of fracture toughness for this steel with specific survival probabilities are converted from the corresponding critical CTOD values, in which the mean value is about 138.4256 MPa m 1/2 . In consideration of the inherent variability of crack growth rates, six statistical models are proposed to represent the probabilistic FCGR curves of this steel in entire crack propagation region from the viewpoints of statistical evaluation on the number of cycles at a given crack size and the crack growth rate at a given stress intensity factor range, stochastic characteristic of crack growth as well as statistical analysis of coefficient and exponent in FCGR power law equation. Based on the model adequacy checking, result shows that all models are basically in good agreement with test data. Although the probabilistic damage-tolerant design based on some models may involve a certain amount of risk in stable crack propagation region, they just accord with the fact that the dispersion degree of test data in this region is relatively smaller.

  13. EU Labour Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ruth

    The focus in this book is upon EU labour law and its interaction with national and international labour law. The book provides an analysis of the framework and sources of European labour law. It covers a number of substantive topics, notably collective labour law, individual employment contracts......, discrimination on grounds of sex and on other grounds, free movement of persons, restructuring of enterprises, working environment and enforcement of rights derived from EU labour law....

  14. Financial liberalization and economic growth : A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bumann, Silke; Hermes, Niels; Lensink, Robert

    This study provides a systematic analysis of the empirical literature on the relationship between financial liberalization and economic growth by conducting a meta-analysis, based on 441 t-statistics reported in 60 empirical studies. We focus on explaining the heterogeneity of results in our sample

  15. A numerical analysis to evaluate Betz's Law for vertical axis wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thönnißen, F.; Marnett, M.; Roidl, B.; Schröder, W.

    2016-09-01

    The upper limit for the energy conversion rate of horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWT) is known as the Betz limit. Often this limit is also applied to vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT). However, a literature review reveals that early analytical and recent numerical approaches predicted values for the maximum power output of VAWTs close to or even higher than the Betz limit. Thus, it can be questioned whether the application of Betz's Law to VAWTs is justified. To answer this question, the current approach combines a free vortex model with a 2D inviscid panel code to represent the flow field of a generic VAWT. To ensure the validity of the model, an active blade pitch control system is used to avoid flow separation. An optimal pitch curve avoiding flow separation is determined for one specific turbine configuration by applying an evolutionary algorithm. The analysis yields a net power output that is slightly (≈6%) above the Betz limit. Besides the numerical result of an increased energy conversion rate, especially the identification of two physical power increasing mechanisms shows, that the application of Betz's Law to VAWTs is not justified.

  16. Fractal and multifractal approaches for the analysis of crack-size dependent scaling laws in fatigue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paggi, Marco [Politecnico di Torino, Department of Structural Engineering and Geotechnics, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy)], E-mail: marco.paggi@polito.it; Carpinteri, Alberto [Politecnico di Torino, Department of Structural Engineering and Geotechnics, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy)

    2009-05-15

    The enhanced ability to detect and measure very short cracks, along with a great interest in applying fracture mechanics formulae to smaller and smaller crack sizes, has pointed out the so-called anomalous behavior of short cracks with respect to their longer counterparts. The crack-size dependencies of both the fatigue threshold and the Paris' constant C are only two notable examples of these anomalous scaling laws. In this framework, a unified theoretical model seems to be missing and the behavior of short cracks can still be considered as an open problem. In this paper, we propose a critical reexamination of the fractal models for the analysis of crack-size effects in fatigue. The limitations of each model are put into evidence and removed. At the end, a new generalized theory based on fractal geometry is proposed, which permits to consistently interpret the short crack-related anomalous scaling laws within a unified theoretical formulation. Finally, this approach is herein used to interpret relevant experimental data related to the crack-size dependence of the fatigue threshold in metals.

  17. Fractal and multifractal approaches for the analysis of crack-size dependent scaling laws in fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paggi, Marco; Carpinteri, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    The enhanced ability to detect and measure very short cracks, along with a great interest in applying fracture mechanics formulae to smaller and smaller crack sizes, has pointed out the so-called anomalous behavior of short cracks with respect to their longer counterparts. The crack-size dependencies of both the fatigue threshold and the Paris' constant C are only two notable examples of these anomalous scaling laws. In this framework, a unified theoretical model seems to be missing and the behavior of short cracks can still be considered as an open problem. In this paper, we propose a critical reexamination of the fractal models for the analysis of crack-size effects in fatigue. The limitations of each model are put into evidence and removed. At the end, a new generalized theory based on fractal geometry is proposed, which permits to consistently interpret the short crack-related anomalous scaling laws within a unified theoretical formulation. Finally, this approach is herein used to interpret relevant experimental data related to the crack-size dependence of the fatigue threshold in metals.

  18. Creating a cultural analysis tool for the implementation of Ontario's civil mental health laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhand, Ruby

    2016-01-01

    Ethno-racial people with mental health disabilities experience multiple inequities and differential outcomes when interacting with Ontario's civil mental health laws. Given the increasing multi-racial population in Ontario, there is a need to develop mechanisms to address these intersecting issues. Other countries that have created evaluative tools for mental health legislation include the United Kingdom and Australia. Australia's Rights Analysis Tool, the United Kingdom's Race Equality Impact Assessment, the Scottish Recovery Tool, and the World Health Organization's Mental Health and Human Rights checklist are examples of evaluative tools developed for mental health legislation. Such a tool does not exist in Canada, let alone in Ontario specifically. Thus, this study developed a Cultural Analysis Tool (CAT) consisting of specific and meaningful thematic questions that can be used by practitioners when addressing issues of culture and equity for ethno-racial people with mental health disabilities interacting with Ontario's civil mental health laws. It is hoped that the CAT, and the research underlying its development, will enable practitioners to critically question whether cultural and intersecting concerns are being appropriately addressed within an ethno-racial client's case and, furthermore, how equitable outcomes can be achieved. This article describes and analyzes the methodology, research and qualitative data used to develop the CAT. It then presents and examines the CAT itself. The qualitative data was drawn from thirty-five semi-structured interviews with seven members of each of the following groups: (1) ethno-racial people with mental health disabilities including in-patients and ex-patients, (2) lawyers who practice in the area of mental health law, (3) health care professionals including psychiatrists, nurses and social workers, (4) service providers such as front-line case workers at mental health agencies and (5) adjudicators, government advisors

  19. A smart growth evaluation model based on data envelopment analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaokun; Guan, Yongyi

    2018-04-01

    With the rapid spread of urbanization, smart growth (SG) has attracted plenty of attention from all over the world. In this paper, by the establishment of index system for smart growth, data envelopment analysis (DEA) model was suggested to evaluate the SG level of the current growth situation in cities. In order to further improve the information of both radial direction and non-radial detection, we introduced the non-Archimedean infinitesimal to form C2GS2 control model. Finally, we evaluated the SG level in Canberra and identified a series of problems, which can verify the applicability of the model and provide us more improvement information.

  20. Business Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Föh, Kennet Fischer; Mandøe, Lene; Tinten, Bjarke

    Business Law is a translation of the 2nd edition of Erhvervsjura - videregående uddannelser. It is an educational textbook for the subject of business law. The textbook covers all important topic?s within business law such as the Legal System, Private International Law, Insolvency Law, Contract law......, Instruments of debt and other claims, Sale of Goods and real estate, Charges, mortgages and pledges, Guarantees, Credit agreements, Tort Law, Product liability and Insurance, Company law, Market law, Labour Law, Family Law and Law of Inheritance....

  1. Start small, think big: Growth monitoring, genetic analysis, treatment and quality of life in children with growth disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stalman, S.E.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to focus on issues that arise when dealing with children with growth disorders – from growth monitoring and genetic analysis to treatment effects on growth and quality of life. The first part of this thesis focuses on guidelines for diagnostic workup of children with growth

  2. Thin-plate spline analysis of mandibular growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchi, L; Baccetti, T; McNamara, J A

    2001-04-01

    The analysis of mandibular growth changes around the pubertal spurt in humans has several important implications for the diagnosis and orthopedic correction of skeletal disharmonies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate mandibular shape and size growth changes around the pubertal spurt in a longitudinal sample of subjects with normal occlusion by means of an appropriate morphometric technique (thin-plate spline analysis). Ten mandibular landmarks were identified on lateral cephalograms of 29 subjects at 6 different developmental phases. The 6 phases corresponded to 6 different maturational stages in cervical vertebrae during accelerative and decelerative phases of the pubertal growth curve of the mandible. Differences in shape between average mandibular configurations at the 6 developmental stages were visualized by means of thin-plate spline analysis and subjected to permutation test. Centroid size was used as the measure of the geometric size of each mandibular specimen. Differences in size at the 6 developmental phases were tested statistically. The results of graphical analysis indicated a statistically significant change in mandibular shape only for the growth interval from stage 3 to stage 4 in cervical vertebral maturation. Significant increases in centroid size were found at all developmental phases, with evidence of a prepubertal minimum and of a pubertal maximum. The existence of a pubertal peak in human mandibular growth, therefore, is confirmed by thin-plate spline analysis. Significant morphological changes in the mandible during the growth interval from stage 3 to stage 4 in cervical vertebral maturation may be described as an upward-forward direction of condylar growth determining an overall "shrinkage" of the mandibular configuration along the measurement of total mandibular length. This biological mechanism is particularly efficient in compensating for major increments in mandibular size at the adolescent spurt.

  3. Lagrange and Noether analysis of polarization laws of conservation for electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivskij, I.Yu.; Simulik, V.M.

    1988-01-01

    Both well-known Bessel-Hagen conservation laws and conservation laws of polarized character are derived for electromagnetic field in the Lagrange approach to electrodynamics in terms of intensities (without using the A μ potentials as variation variables). The laws mentioned are derived according to Noether theorem because symmetry to which such concervation laws correspond is lost during the transition from intensities to potentials. Based on Noether theorem (and its generalization for Naeik's symmetries) and Lagrange function scalar in relation to complete Poincare group in terms of intensity tensor, a convenient formula for calculating and values conserved for electromagnetic field is derived which sets up a physically adequate symmetry operator -conservation law correlation and thus links the presence of conservation laws of polarized character with symmetry properties of Maxwell equations. Adiabaticity of conservation laws of polarized character under the presence of interaction with currents and charges is indicated

  4. First and second law analysis applied to building envelope: A theoretical approach on the potentiality of Bejan’s theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesare Biserni

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Especially in the last decade, efforts have been made in developing the sustainable building assessment tools, which are usually performed based on fundamentals of the First Law of Thermodynamics. However, this approach does not provide a faithful thermodynamic evaluation of the overall energy conversion processes that occur in buildings, and a more robust approach should be followed. The relevance of Second Law analysis has been here highlighted: in addition to the calculation of energy balances, the concept of exergy is used to evaluate the quality of energy sources, resulting in a higher flexibility of strategies to optimize a building design. Reviews of the progress being made with the constructal law show that diverse phenomena can be considered manifestations of the tendency towards optimization captured by the constructal law. The studies based on First and Second Principle of Thermodynamics results to be affected by the extreme generality of the two laws, which is consequent of the fact that in thermodynamics the “any system” is a black box with no information about design, organization and evolution. In this context, an exploratory analysis on the potentiality of constructal theory, that can be considered a law of thermodynamics, has been finally outlined in order to assess the energy performance in building design.

  5. Hegemons and their law in the time of the Polish communism. An attempt at a constitutional, legal and philosophical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawid Bunikowski

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The author, developing his theory of hegemony, interprets legal and real actions taken by the Secretaries of the Polish United Workers’ Party: Bierut, Gomułka, Gierek, General Jaruzelski, and by the Party itself. According to the constitutional and legal analysis, the Polish communist Secretaries did not often obey the law which was valid at the time. There are many examples of such actions: from illegal judicial processes „on demand of the authority”, through criminal sanctions as well as civic and real restrictions for members of the political opposition, to unofficial officials’ appointments or political directives/unofficial law of the Party, and marginalization of the due constitutional powers. The most controversial case of the realization of the hegemony law by the Party seems to be the enforcement of the martial law by General Jaruzelski in December 1981.

  6. From mutual recognition to mutual scientific opinion? Constitutional framework for risk analysis in EU food safety law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szajkowska, A.

    2009-01-01

    Regulation 178/2002 (the so-called General Food Law – GFL) codifies risk analysis as the core principle of the modern food safety policy. This article places the GFL in EU multi-level food safety governance and analyses the impact of risk analysis, the precautionary principle and mechanisms of

  7. Health: Policy or Law? A Population-Based Analysis of the Supreme Court's ACA Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmet, Wendy E

    2016-12-01

    This essay argues that it matters for the fate of health policies challenged in court whether courts consider health merely as a policy goal that must be subordinate to law, or as a legal norm warranting legal weight and consideration. Applying population-based legal analysis, this article demonstrates that courts have traditionally treated health as a legal norm. However, this norm appears to have weakened in recent years, a trend evident in the Supreme Court's first two decisions concerning the Affordable Care Act, NFIB v. Sebelius and Burwell v. Hobby Lobby However, in its more recent Affordable Care Act decision, King v. Burwell , the health legal norm is once again evident. Whether the Court will continue to treat health as a legal norm will prove critical to the deference and weight it grants health policies in the future. Copyright © 2016 by Duke University Press.

  8. The significance of the probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) in administrative procedures under nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, H.P.

    1994-01-01

    The probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) is a useful tool for safety relevant evaluation of nuclear power plant designed on the basis of deterministic specifications. The PSA yields data identifying reliable or less reliable systems, or frequent or less frequent failure modes to be taken into account for safety engineering. Performance of a PSA in administrative procedures under nuclear law, e.g. licensing, is an obligation laid down in a footnote to criterion 1.1 of the BMI safety criteria catalogue, which has been in force unaltered since 1977. The paper explains the application and achievements of PSA in the phase of reactor development concerned with the conceptual design basis and design features, using as an example the novel PWR. (orig./HP) [de

  9. How to Determine Losses in a Flow Field: A Paradigm Shifttowards the Second Law Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz Herwig

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Assuming that CFD solutions will be more and more used to characterizelosses in terms of drag for external flows and head loss for internal flows, we suggest toreplace single-valued data, like the drag force or a pressure drop, by field information aboutthe losses. These information are gained when the entropy generation in the flow field isanalyzed, an approach that often is called second law analysis (SLA, referring to the secondlaw of thermodynamics. We show that this SLA approach is straight-forward, systematicand helpful when it comes to the physical interpretation of the losses in a flow field. Variousexamples are given, including external and internal flows, two phase flow, compressible flowand unsteady flow. Finally, we show that an energy transfer within a certain process can beput into a broader perspective by introducing the entropic potential of an energy.

  10. Legal Analysis of EPC Contract of the Nuclear Reactor in the aspect of Nuclear Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D. S.; Chung, W. S.; Yun, S. W.; Yang, M. H.

    2010-01-01

    Recently, Korea Nuclear Industry and R and D Institute obtained order of Nuclear Reactor construction from the UAE and the Jordan. Though the UAE's nuclear power plant and the Jordan's Research Reactor were different each other legal issues raised in EPC contract between employer and contractor had very close characters and similar suggestions. New nuclear country have not established all necessary entities regarding regulation and control and enacted laws yet. However, nuclear technology shall be transferred to the country that is ready to or have equipped all mandatory safeguard and safety. From the reality, nuclear specific issues such as the Nuclear Indemnity, Ownership of Intellectual property, Training program for operating technicians, and nuclear licensing are emerging in the EPC contract and finding consensus to the issues between both parties were time consuming work. Our studies will analysis the issues and try to find impartial guideline

  11. Entransy analysis of irreversible heat pump using Newton and Dulong–Petit heat transfer laws and relations with its performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Açıkkalp, Emin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Entransy analysis was made for irreversible heat pump. • Newton and Dulong–Petit heat transfer laws were used. • Entransy dissipations were defined and determined. • Relations between entransy and other thermodynamic parameters were determined. - Abstract: An irreversible heat pump was investigated via entransy analysis and performance criteria. In the analyses, two different convective heat transfer laws were applied to the considered system: the Newton and Dulong–Petit heat transfer laws. The irreversibilities in the system are the result of a finite heat transfer rate, a heat leak and internal irreversibilities, including friction, turbulence etc. In this study, a thermodynamic analysis was performed in detail, and the numerical solutions were used for the conducted analysis. The maximum entransy dissipation (critical points) ranges from 18436.7 kW K to 18855.3 kW K according to y for Newton’s law; however, there is no maximum point for the Dulon–Petit law. It can be concluded from this study that entransy should be used among the basic thermodynamic criteria

  12. PMAnalyzer: a new web interface for bacterial growth curve analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Daniel A; Edwards, Robert A

    2017-06-15

    Bacterial growth curves are essential representations for characterizing bacteria metabolism within a variety of media compositions. Using high-throughput, spectrophotometers capable of processing tens of 96-well plates, quantitative phenotypic information can be easily integrated into the current data structures that describe a bacterial organism. The PMAnalyzer pipeline performs a growth curve analysis to parameterize the unique features occurring within microtiter wells containing specific growth media sources. We have expanded the pipeline capabilities and provide a user-friendly, online implementation of this automated pipeline. PMAnalyzer version 2.0 provides fast automatic growth curve parameter analysis, growth identification and high resolution figures of sample-replicate growth curves and several statistical analyses. PMAnalyzer v2.0 can be found at https://edwards.sdsu.edu/pmanalyzer/ . Source code for the pipeline can be found on GitHub at https://github.com/dacuevas/PMAnalyzer . Source code for the online implementation can be found on GitHub at https://github.com/dacuevas/PMAnalyzerWeb . dcuevas08@gmail.com. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  13. Functional complexity of the axonal growth cone: a proteomic analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Estrada-Bernal

    Full Text Available The growth cone, the tip of the emerging neurite, plays a crucial role in establishing the wiring of the developing nervous system. We performed an extensive proteomic analysis of axonal growth cones isolated from the brains of fetal Sprague-Dawley rats. Approximately 2000 proteins were identified at ≥ 99% confidence level. Using informatics, including functional annotation cluster and KEGG pathway analysis, we found great diversity of proteins involved in axonal pathfinding, cytoskeletal remodeling, vesicular traffic and carbohydrate metabolism, as expected. We also found a large and complex array of proteins involved in translation, protein folding, posttranslational processing, and proteasome/ubiquitination-dependent degradation. Immunofluorescence studies performed on hippocampal neurons in culture confirmed the presence in the axonal growth cone of proteins representative of these processes. These analyses also provide evidence for rough endoplasmic reticulum and reveal a reticular structure equipped with Golgi-like functions in the axonal growth cone. Furthermore, Western blot revealed the growth cone enrichment, relative to fetal brain homogenate, of some of the proteins involved in protein synthesis, folding and catabolism. Our study provides a resource for further research and amplifies the relatively recently developed concept that the axonal growth cone is equipped with proteins capable of performing a highly diverse range of functions.

  14. Financing Human Development for Sectorial Growth: A Time Series Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shobande Abdul Olatunji

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The role which financing human development plays in fostering the sectorial growth of an economy cannot be undermined. It is a key instrument which can be utilized to alleviate poverty, create employment and ensure the sustenance of economic growth and development. Thus financing human development for sectorial growth has taken the center stage of economic growth and development strategies in most countries. In a constructive effort to examine the in-depth relationship between the variables in the Nigerian space, this paper provides evidence on the impact of financing human development and sectorial growth in Nigeria between 1982 and 2016, using the Johansen co-integration techniques to test for co-integration among the variables and the Vector Error Correction Model (VECM to ascertain the speed of adjustment of the variables to their long run equilibrium position. The analysis shows that a long and short run relationship exists between financing human capital development and sectorial growth during the period reviewed. Therefore, the paper argues that for an active foundation for sustainable sectorial growth and development, financing human capital development across each unit is urgently required through increased budgetary allocation for both health and educational sectors since they are key components of human capital development in a nation.

  15. Financial Development and Inclusive Growth in Nigeria: A Threshold Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taofeek Olusola Ayinde

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the relationship between financial development and inclusive growth in Nigeria for the period 1980 – 2013. The technique of analysis is the quantile regression; which is to obtain a threshold for which the former impacts on the latter. The result shows a threshold level of 90th percentile. Interestingly, the study also found that the impact of financial development on inclusive growth depends on the measure of the former up to the threshold level and not beyond. Through a granger causality test, the direction of causality is through the inclusive growth rather than through financial development; through the financial deepening measure. While the study found that either a low level or high level of openness on trade and capital investment are desirable for inclusive growth in Nigeria, the results also reveal that government involvement in the workings of the Nigeria economy and financial openness are sensitive to the pattern of financial development. With financial deepening, both are negatively related to inclusive growth but positively related to inclusive growth when financial widening is considered. This suggests that government intervention in the activities of the private sector is detrimental when the latter are to drive financial development process. However, the involvement of government in ensuring the appropriate level of financial widening, through the central bank operations, produces a positive impact on growth.

  16. Financial Development and Inclusive Growth in Nigeria: A Threshold Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taofeek Olusola Ayinde

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the relationship between financial development and inclusive growth in Nigeria for the period 1980 – 2013. The technique of analysis is the quantile regression; which is to obtain a threshold for which the former impacts on the latter. The result shows a threshold level of 90th percentile. Interestingly, the study also found that the impact of financial development on inclusive growth depends on the measure of the former up to the threshold level and not beyond. Through a granger causality test, the direction of causality is through the inclusive growth rather than through financial development; through the financial deepening measure. While the study found that either a low level or high level of openness on trade and capital investment are desirable for inclusive growth in Nigeria, the results also reveal that government involvement in the workings of the Nigeria economy and financial openness are sensitive to the pattern of financial development. With financial deepening, both are negatively related to inclusive growth but positively related to inclusive growth when financial widening is considered. This suggests that government intervention in the activities of the private sector is detrimental when the latter are to drive financial development process. However, the involvement of government in ensuring the appropriate level of financial widening, through the central bank operations, produces a positive impact on growth.

  17. LA NECESIDAD DE REACTIVACIÓN DEL CRECIMIENTO DE LAS SOCIEDADES LABORALES Y LA REFORMA DE SU LEGISLACIÓN: ANÁLISIS ECONÓMICO-FINANCIERO DE SUS PRINCIPALES IMPLICACIONES / THE NECESSITY OF REACTIVATION OF THE GROWTH OF THE LABOR MANAGED FIRMS AND THE LAW REFORM: ANALYSIS OF ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL MAIN IMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia MARTÍN LÓPEZ

    2010-04-01

    proposals made by CONFESAL (Enterprise Confederation of Labour Managed Firms in Spain about the next law reform.

  18. On the tautology of the matching law in consumer behavior analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Bruce; Foxall, Gordon R; Sigurdsson, Valdimar

    2010-05-01

    Matching analysis has often attracted the criticism that it is formally tautological and hence empirically unfalsifiable, a problem that particularly affects translational attempts to extend behavior analysis into new areas. An example is consumer behavior analysis where application of matching in natural settings requires the inference of ratio-based relationships between amount purchased and amount spent. This gives rise to the argument that matching is an artifact of the way in which the alleged independent and dependent variables are defined and measured. We argue that the amount matching law would be tautological only in extreme circumstances (those in which prices or quantities move strictly in proportion); this is because of the presence of an error term in the matching function which arises from aggregation, particularly aggregation over brands. Cost matching is a viable complement of amount matching which avoids this tautology but a complete explanation of consumer choice requires a viable measure of amount matching also. This necessitates a more general solution to the problem of tautology in matching. In general, the fact that there remain doubts about the functional form of the matching equation itself implies the absence of a tautology. In proposing a general solution to the problem of assumed tautology in matching, the paper notes the experiences of matching researchers in another translation field, sports behavior. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The Relationship Between Domestic Law and International Law : The Impacts on the Legal Daily Brazilian under the Perspective of Constitutionality Block Expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Klein Vieira

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between domestic law and international law, carried out by court decisions, is a recurring theme of both international human rights law and constitutional law. This article aims to portray the interactions between domestic law and international law, with emphasis on Brazil, taking into account the internal rules and judicial practice. Therefore, we will use the dogmatic method, which involves analyzing the rules on the subject in the international and domestic front, with empirical perspective, with a view to analysis of cases in which the issue was raised, in particular the possible existence constitu- tionality block and its growth because human rights treaties ratified by Brazil.

  20. Effects of Growth Hormone Replacement Therapy on Bone Mineral Density in Growth Hormone Deficient Adults: A Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Xue, Peng; Wang, Yan; Yang, Jie; Li, Yukun

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Growth hormone deficiency patients exhibited reduced bone mineral density compared with healthy controls, but previous researches demonstrated uncertainty about the effect of growth hormone replacement therapy on bone in growth hormone deficient adults. The aim of this study was to determine whether the growth hormone replacement therapy could elevate bone mineral density in growth hormone deficient adults. Methods. In this meta-analysis, searches of Medline, Embase, and The Cochr...

  1. An Analysis of Missile Systems Cost Growth and Implementation of Acquisition Reform Initiatives Using a Hybrid Adjusted Cost Growth Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abate, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    ...) data with a hybrid adjusted cost growth (ACG) model. In addition, an analysis of acquisition reform initiatives during the treatment period was conducted to determine if reform efforts impacted missile system cost growth. A pre-reform...

  2. Bacterial growth on surfaces: Automated image analysis for quantification of growth rate-related parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, S.; Sternberg, Claus; Poulsen, L. K.

    1995-01-01

    species-specific hybridizations with fluorescence-labelled ribosomal probes to estimate the single-cell concentration of RNA. By automated analysis of digitized images of stained cells, we determined four independent growth rate-related parameters: cellular RNA and DNA contents, cell volume......, and the frequency of dividing cells in a cell population. These parameters were used to compare physiological states of liquid-suspended and surfacegrowing Pseudomonas putida KT2442 in chemostat cultures. The major finding is that the correlation between substrate availability and cellular growth rate found...

  3. Analysis of the Symmetries and Conservation Laws of the Nonlinear Jaulent-Miodek Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Nadjafikhah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lie symmetry method is performed for the nonlinear Jaulent-Miodek equation. We will find the symmetry group and optimal systems of Lie subalgebras. The Lie invariants associated with the symmetry generators as well as the corresponding similarity reduced equations are also pointed out. And conservation laws of the J-M equation are presented with two steps: firstly, finding multipliers for computation of conservation laws and, secondly, symbolic computation of conservation laws will be applied.

  4. Safeguarding the Dignity of Women under the Criminal Law Amendment Act 2013-A Critical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    R C Borpatragohain

    2013-01-01

    This viewpoint aims to analyse the Criminal Law Amendment Act 2013 from a legal perspective. In doing so, it discusses the statutory safeguards of rights to a dignified life of a woman by analysing the various existing laws, which have been significantly amended to build the Criminal Act, 2013. These laws are: Indian Penal Code (IPC) 1860; Indian Evidence Act 1872, Code of Criminal Procedure as amended in 1973, Immoral Trafficking Prevention Act 1956, Information Technology Act 2000, The Juve...

  5. Statistical analysis of joint toxicity in biological growth experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spliid, Henrik; Tørslev, J.

    1994-01-01

    The authors formulate a model for the analysis of designed biological growth experiments where a mixture of toxicants is applied to biological target organisms. The purpose of such experiments is to assess the toxicity of the mixture in comparison with the toxicity observed when the toxicants are...... is applied on data from an experiment where inhibition of the growth of the bacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens caused by different mixtures of pentachlorophenol and aniline was studied.......The authors formulate a model for the analysis of designed biological growth experiments where a mixture of toxicants is applied to biological target organisms. The purpose of such experiments is to assess the toxicity of the mixture in comparison with the toxicity observed when the toxicants...

  6. Residue analysis of veterinary drugs and growth-promoting agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolker, A.A.M.; Zuidema, T.; Nielen, M.W.F.

    2007-01-01

    Two major trends are observed in the analysis of veterinary drugs and growth-promoting agents. First is the selection of sample material for monitoring the use of registered veterinary drugs. Traditionally meat, kidney and liver were analyzed but, due to the food scandals in which meat was very

  7. Natural disasters and economic growth: A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, J.G.; Valckx, K.

    2014-01-01

    Using more than 750 estimates, we perform a meta-regression analysis of studies examining the relationship between economic growth per capita and natural disasters. The studies considered are very different with respect to the type of disasters considered, the sample of countries and time periods

  8. An analysis on the issues of the rights of spouses in the Islamic Family Law in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Zawawi Bin Abu Bakar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to analyze problems regarding mutual rights of Muslims married couple in Malaysia. It has drawn the attention of many researchers to carry out studies on this issue since there have been accusations and complaints on the implementation of the Islamic Family Law (IFL by the Syariah Court, which is said to have discriminated the wife/women of their rights. The qualitative approach research employed interviews and content analysis as method of study on the Islamic Family Law as well as on the documented cases. The results of the research showed that among the most disputable cases were matters related to polygamy, fasakh, jointly acquired property and children custodian. Conversely, all data were analyzed by using the qualitative data analysis, concluded that the Islamic Family Law in Malaysia has infact implemented the concept of equality.

  9. A Strategic Analysis of Canada Post's Parcel Ecommerce Growth Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Brock, Kerry

    2012-01-01

    Canada Post is a market leader in the business to consumer residential delivery of parcels in Canada. There is an increasing demand for residential delivery due to the worldwide growth in ecommerce sales. This paper presents a strategic analysis of the opportunity for Canada Post to increase its breadth and depth in the parcel delivery industry in Canada. The analysis will review the parcel industry, the ecommerce opportunity, an internal review of Canada Post, develop and evaluate four strat...

  10. Analysis of federal options to support photovoltaic industry growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennington, G.; Cherdak, A.; Williams, F.

    1979-05-01

    This report presents the methodology and results of an analysis to determine the impact and leverage of federal options for supporting the growth of the photovoltaic industry. Results were projected for combinations of the following: an aggressive federal research and development program, achievement of a technological breakthrough, and immediate or breakthrough-dependent incentives including direct price reductions, keyed-to-breakeven subsidies, and federal puchases. The modeling methodology and market assumptions were also tested to determine their effect on analysis results.

  11. Analysis of Network Topologies Underlying Ethylene Growth Response Kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Aaron M; McCollough, Forest W; Eldreth, Bryan L; Binder, Brad M; Abel, Steven M

    2016-01-01

    Most models for ethylene signaling involve a linear pathway. However, measurements of seedling growth kinetics when ethylene is applied and removed have resulted in more complex network models that include coherent feedforward, negative feedback, and positive feedback motifs. The dynamical responses of the proposed networks have not been explored in a quantitative manner. Here, we explore (i) whether any of the proposed models are capable of producing growth-response behaviors consistent with experimental observations and (ii) what mechanistic roles various parts of the network topologies play in ethylene signaling. To address this, we used computational methods to explore two general network topologies: The first contains a coherent feedforward loop that inhibits growth and a negative feedback from growth onto itself (CFF/NFB). In the second, ethylene promotes the cleavage of EIN2, with the product of the cleavage inhibiting growth and promoting the production of EIN2 through a positive feedback loop (PFB). Since few network parameters for ethylene signaling are known in detail, we used an evolutionary algorithm to explore sets of parameters that produce behaviors similar to experimental growth response kinetics of both wildtype and mutant seedlings. We generated a library of parameter sets by independently running the evolutionary algorithm many times. Both network topologies produce behavior consistent with experimental observations, and analysis of the parameter sets allows us to identify important network interactions and parameter constraints. We additionally screened these parameter sets for growth recovery in the presence of sub-saturating ethylene doses, which is an experimentally-observed property that emerges in some of the evolved parameter sets. Finally, we probed simplified networks maintaining key features of the CFF/NFB and PFB topologies. From this, we verified observations drawn from the larger networks about mechanisms underlying ethylene

  12. Analysis of Network Topologies Underlying Ethylene Growth Response Kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron M. Prescott

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Most models for ethylene signaling involve a linear pathway. However, measurements of seedling growth kinetics when ethylene is applied and removed have resulted in more complex network models that include coherent feedforward, negative feedback, and positive feedback motifs. However, the dynamical responses of the proposed networks have not been explored in a quantitative manner. Here, we explore (i whether any of the proposed models are capable of producing growth-response behaviors consistent with experimental observations and (ii what mechanistic roles various parts of the network topologies play in ethylene signaling. To address this, we used computational methods to explore two general network topologies: The first contains a coherent feedforward loop that inhibits growth and a negative feedback from growth onto itself (CFF/NFB. In the second, ethylene promotes the cleavage of EIN2, with the product of the cleavage inhibiting growth and promoting the production of EIN2 through a positive feedback loop (PFB. Since few network parameters for ethylene signaling are known in detail, we used an evolutionary algorithm to explore sets of parameters that produce behaviors similar to experimental growth response kinetics of both wildtype and mutant seedlings. We generated a library of parameter sets by independently running the evolutionary algorithm many times. Both network topologies produce behavior consistent with experimental observations and analysis of the parameter sets allows us to identify important network interactions and parameter constraints. We additionally screened these parameter sets for growth recovery in the presence of sub-saturating ethylene doses, which is an experimentally-observed property that emerges in some of the evolved parameter sets. Finally, we probed simplified networks maintaining key features of the CFF/NFB and PFB topologies. From this, we verified observations drawn from the larger networks about mechanisms

  13. Better parks through law and policy: a legal analysis of authorities governing public parks and open spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Ana; Fry, Christine R

    2011-01-01

    Improving parks in low income and minority neighborhoods may be a key way to increase physical activity and decrease overweight and obesity prevalence among children at the greatest risk. To advocate effectively for improved recreation infrastructure, public health advocates must understand the legal and policy landscape in which public recreation decisions are made. In this descriptive legal analysis, we reviewed federal, state, and local laws to determine the authority of each level of government over parks. We then examined current practices and state laws regarding park administration in urban California and rural Texas. We identified several themes through the analysis: (1) multiple levels of governments are often involved in parks offerings in a municipality, (2) state laws governing parks vary, (3) local authority may vary substantially within a state, and (4) state law may offer greater authority than local jurisdictions use. Public health advocates who want to improve parks need to (1) think strategically about which levels of government to engage; (2) identify parks law and funding from all levels of government, including those not typically associated with local parks; and (3) partner with advocates with similar interests, including those from active living and school communities.

  14. The old and new faces of morphology: the legacy of D'Arcy Thompson's 'theory of transformations' and 'laws of growth'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abzhanov, Arhat

    2017-12-01

    In 1917, the publication of On Growth and Form by D'Arcy Wentworth Thompson challenged both mathematicians and naturalists to think about biological shapes and diversity as more than a confusion of chaotic forms generated at random, but rather as geometric shapes that could be described by principles of physics and mathematics. Thompson's work was based on the ideas of Galileo and Goethe on morphology and of Russell on functionalism, but he was first to postulate that physical forces and internal growth parameters regulate biological forms and could be revealed via geometric transformations in morphological space. Such precise mathematical structure suggested a unifying generative process, as reflected in the title of the book. To Thompson it was growth that could explain the generation of any particular biological form, and changes in ontogeny, rather than natural selection, could then explain the diversity of biological shapes. Whereas adaptationism, widely accepted in evolutionary biology, gives primacy to extrinsic factors in producing morphological variation, Thompson's 'laws of growth' provide intrinsic directives and constraints for the generation of individual shapes, helping to explain the 'profusion of forms, colours, and other modifications' observed in the living world. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. A plea for rigorous conceptual analysis as central method in transnational law design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijgersberg, R.; van der Kaaij, H.

    2013-01-01

    Although shared problems are generally easily identified in transnational law design, it is considerably more difficult to design frameworks that transcend the peculiarities of local law in a univocal fashion. The following exposition is a plea for giving more prominence to rigorous conceptual

  16. Research & development and growth: A Bayesian model averaging analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horváth, Roman

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 6 (2011), s. 2669-2673 ISSN 0264-9993. [Society for Non-linear Dynamics and Econometrics Annual Conferencen. Washington DC, 16.03.2011-18.03.2011] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/09/0965 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Research and development * Growth * Bayesian model averaging Subject RIV: AH - Economic s Impact factor: 0.701, year: 2011 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2011/E/horvath-research & development and growth a bayesian model averaging analysis.pdf

  17. Child Molesters: A Behavioral Analysis. For Law-Enforcement Officers Investigating Cases of Child Sexual Exploitation. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanning, Kenneth V.

    This booklet provides a behavioral analysis of child molesters. The terms child molesters and pedophiles are defined and distinctions are drawn between the two. The second section develops a law enforcement typology differing from those of mental health professionals, focusing on pre-arrest behavior or pre-identification behavior of child…

  18. Measurement of Henry's Law Constants Using Internal Standards: A Quantitative GC Experiment for the Instrumental Analysis or Environmental Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Chang; Boisvert, Susanne M.; Arida, Ann-Marie C.; Day, Shannon E.

    2008-01-01

    An internal standard method applicable to undergraduate instrumental analysis or environmental chemistry laboratory has been designed and tested to determine the Henry's law constants for a series of alkyl nitriles. In this method, a mixture of the analytes and an internal standard is prepared and used to make a standard solution (organic solvent)…

  19. ANALYSIS OF FACTORS WHICH AFFECTING THE ECONOMIC GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suparna Wijaya

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available High economic growth and sustainable process are main conditions for sustainability of economic country development. They are also become measures of the success of the country's economy. Factors which tested in this study are economic and non-economic factors which impacting economic development. This study has a goal to explain the factors that influence on macroeconomic Indonesia. It used linear regression modeling approach. The analysis result showed that Tax Amnesty, Exchange Rate, Inflation, and interest rate, they jointly can bring effect which amounted to 77.6% on economic growth whereas the remaining 22.4% is the influenced by other variables which not observed in this study. Keywords: tax amnesty, exchange rates, inflation, SBI and economic growth

  20. Economic Growth and Budget Constraints: EU Countries Panel Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimčík Petr

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to identify the impacts of different taxes and expenditures on economic growth. The research is focused on 20 selected European Union Member States. These countries are equally divided into four groups based on their average tax burden as presented in the World Tax Index. A comparison of fiscal attributes among these groups is important for the analysis. Annual government finance data from the years 1995 to 2012 are used for an empirical study. The indicators observed are real GDP change, the composition and volume of total government expenditures, tax quotas of individual taxes and total budget balance. These indicators are used within an endogenous growth model together with capital stock and an approximation of human capital. A panel regression with fixed effects is used as an analytic tool. The main results are that an increase in social contributions, property, production and personal income tax quotas has an adverse effect on economic growth.

  1. Environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketteler, G.; Kippels, K.

    1988-01-01

    In section I 'Basic principles' the following topics are considered: Constitutional-legal aspects of environmental protection, e.g. nuclear hazards and the remaining risk; European environmental law; international environmental law; administrative law, private law and criminal law relating to the environment; basic principles of environmental law, the instruments of public environmental law. Section II 'Special areas of law' is concerned with the law on water and waste, prevention of air pollution, nature conservation and care of the countryside. Legal decisions and literature up to June 1988 have been taken into consideration. (orig./RST) [de

  2. Civil law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.; Gibbons, M.T.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of civil law has two distinct meanings. that is, disputes between private parties (individuals, corporations), as opposed to other branches of the law, such as administrative law or criminal law, which relate to disputes between individuals and the state. Second, the term civil law is

  3. Thermoelectric generator performance analysis: Influence of pin tapering on the first and second law efficiencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilbas, B.S.; Ali, H.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Double tapering of thermoelectric elements improves first and second law efficiency. • Pin geometric feature maximizing device output work does not maximize thermal efficiency. • Pin geometric feature maximizing first law efficiency slight alters for maximum second law efficiency. • External resistance and operating temperature ratios influence design configuration of thermoelectric generator. - Abstract: Thermoelectric generators are the important candidates for clean energy conversion from the waste heat; however, their low efficiency limits the practical applications of the devices. Tailoring the geometric configuration of the device in line with the operating conditions can improve the device performance. Consequently; in the present study, the influence of the pin geometric configuration on the thermoelectric generator performance is investigated. The dimensionless tapering parameter is introduced and its effect on the first and second law efficiencies is examined for various operating conditions including the external load resistance and the temperature ratio. It is found that the first and second law efficiencies are significantly influenced by the pin geometry. The dimensionless tapering parameter (a), increasing tapering of the thermoelectric pins, within the range of 2 ⩽ a ⩽ 4 results in improved first and second law efficiencies. However, the dimensionless tapering parameter maximizing the first and second law efficiencies does not maximize the device output power. This behavior is associated with the external load resistance which has a considerable influence on the device output power such that increasing external load resistance lowers the device output power

  4. Numerical analysis of the transient conjugated heat transfer in a circular duct with a power-law fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luna, N. [Secretaria de Energia, Direccion de Operacion Petrolera, Mexico DF (Mexico); Mendez, F. [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Mexico DF (Mexico); Bautista, O. [ITESM, Division de Ingenieria y Arquitectura, Mexico DF (Mexico)

    2005-05-01

    We treat numerically in this paper, the transient analysis of a conjugated heat transfer process in the thermal entrance region of a circular tube with a fully developed laminar power-law fluid flow. We apply the quasi-steady approximation for the power-law fluid, identifying the suitable time scales of the process. Thus, the energy equation in the fluids is solved analytically using the well-known integral boundary layer technique. This solution is coupled to the transient energy equation for the solid where the transverse and longitudinal heat conduction effects are taken into account. The numerical results for the temporal evolution of the average temperature of the tube wall, {theta}{sub av,} is plotted for different nondimensional parameters such as conduction parameter, {alpha}, the aspect ratios of the tube, {epsilon} and {epsilon}{sub 0} and the index of power-law fluid, n. (orig.)

  5. Bragg's Law diffraction simulations for electron backscatter diffraction analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kacher, Josh, E-mail: jkacherbyu@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Brigham Young University, 455B Crabtree Technology Building, Provo, UT 84602 (United States); Landon, Colin; Adams, Brent L.; Fullwood, David [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Brigham Young University, 455B Crabtree Technology Building, Provo, UT 84602 (United States)

    2009-08-15

    In 2006, Angus Wilkinson introduced a cross-correlation-based electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) texture analysis system capable of measuring lattice rotations and elastic strains to high resolution. A variation of the cross-correlation method is introduced using Bragg's Law-based simulated EBSD patterns as strain free reference patterns that facilitates the use of the cross-correlation method with polycrystalline materials. The lattice state is found by comparing simulated patterns to collected patterns at a number of regions on the pattern using the cross-correlation function and calculating the deformation from the measured shifts of each region. A new pattern can be simulated at the deformed state, and the process can be iterated a number of times to converge on the absolute lattice state. By analyzing an iteratively rotated single crystal silicon sample and recovering the rotation, this method is shown to have an angular resolution of {approx}0.04{sup o} and an elastic strain resolution of {approx}7e-4. As an example of applications, elastic strain and curvature measurements are used to estimate the dislocation density in a single grain of a compressed polycrystalline Mg-based AZ91 alloy.

  6. Second law analysis of coupled conduction-radiation heat transfer with phase change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhanlall, D.; Liu, L.H.

    2010-01-01

    This work considers an exergy-based analysis of two-dimensional solid-liquid phase change processes in a square cavity enclosure. The phase change material (PCM) concerns a semi-transparent absorbing, emitting and anisotropically scattering medium with constant thermodynamic properties. The enthalpy-based energy equation is solved numerically using computational fluid dynamics. Once the energy equation is solved, local exergy loss due to heat conduction and radiative heat transfer during the phase change process is calculated by post processing procedures. In this work, the radiation exergy loss in the medium and at the enclosure boundary is taken into consideration. It is found that radiation exergy loss is significant in the high-temperature phase change process. Parametric investigation is also carried out to study the effects of Stefan number, Biot number, Planck number, single scattering albedo and wall emissivity on exergy loss. The results show that the total exergy loss increases with Biot number, single scattering albedo and wall emissivity. The second law effects of the conduction-radiation coupling in the energy equation are also shown in this work. (authors)

  7. An Application of the Acoustic Similarity Law to the Numerical Analysis of Centrifugal Fan Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Wan-Ho; Lee, Duck-Joo; Rhee, Huinam

    Centrifugal fans, which are frequently used in our daily lives and various industries, usually make severe noise problems. Generally, the centrifugal fan noise consists of tones at the blade passing frequency and its higher harmonics. These tonal sounds come from the interaction between the flow discharged from the impeller and the cutoff in the casing. Prediction of the noise from a centrifugal fan becomes more necessary to optimize the design to meet both the performance and noise criteria. However, only some limited studies on noise prediction method exist because there are difficulties in obtaining detailed information about the flow field and casing effect on noise radiation. This paper aims to investigate the noise generation mechanism of a centrifugal fan and to develop a prediction method for the unsteady flow and acoustic pressure fields. In order to do this, a numerical analysis method using acoustic similarity law is proposed, and it is verified that the method can predict the noise generation mechanism very well by comparing the predicted results with available experimental results.

  8. The Energy transition for green growth. The green growth revolution is picking up pace with the help of the energy transition law and its associated actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-04-01

    This document briefly summarizes the main objectives of the French law on energy transition: make buildings and housing energy efficient, give priority to clean means of transport, aim for zero waste make tomorrow's materials out of today's waste, increase the use of renewable energies, combat fuel poverty. The goal is: to reach 40% less greenhouse gas emissions in 2030 compared to 1990, to Reduce final energy consumption by 50% in 2050 compared to 2012, to reach 30% less fossil fuel consumption in 2030 compared to 2012, to dispose 50% less waste in landfill by 2025, to increase the share of renewable energies to 32% of final energy consumption by 2030 and to 40% of electricity production, to diversify electricity production and reduce the share of nuclear energy to 50% by 2025

  9. Graph of growth data - The Rice Growth Monitoring for The Phenotypic Functional Analysis | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us The Rice Growth Monitoring for The Phenotypic Functional Analysis Graph of growth data Data ...detail Data name Graph of growth data DOI 10.18908/lsdba.nbdc00945-003 Description of data contents The grap...h of chronological changes in root, coleoptile, the first leaf, and the second leaf. Data file File name: growth..._data_graph.zip File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/agritogo-rice-phenome/LATEST/data/growth...e Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Graph of growth data -

  10. Growth characteristics and Otolith analysis on Age-0 American Shad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauter, Sally T.; Wetzel, Lisa A.

    2011-01-01

    Otolith microstructure analysis provides useful information on the growth history of fish (Campana and Jones 1992, Bang and Gronkjaer 2005). Microstructure analysis can be used to construct the size-at-age growth trajectory of fish, determine daily growth rates, and estimate hatch date and other ecologically important life history events (Campana and Jones 1992, Tonkin et al. 2008). This kind of information can be incorporated into bioenergetics modeling, providing necessary data for estimating prey consumption, and guiding the development of empirically-based modeling scenarios for hypothesis testing. For example, age-0 American shad co-occur with emigrating juvenile fall Chinook salmon originating from Hanford Reach and the Snake River in the lower Columbia River reservoirs during the summer and early fall. The diet of age-0 American shad appears to overlap with that of juvenile fall Chinook salmon (Chapter 1, this report), but juvenile fall Chinook salmon are also known to feed on age-0 American shad in the reservoirs (USGS unpublished data). Abundant, energy-dense age-0 American shad may provide juvenile fall Chinook salmon opportunities for rapid growth during the time period when large numbers of age-0 American shad are available. Otolith analysis of hatch dates and the growth curve of age-0 American shad could be used to identify when eggs, larvae, and juveniles of specific size classes are temporally available as food for fall Chinook salmon in the lower Columbia River reservoirs. This kind of temporally and spatially explicit life history information is important to include in bioenergetics modeling scenarios. Quantitative estimates of prey consumption could be used with spatially-explicit estimates of prey abundance to construct a quantitative assessment of the age-0 American shad impact on a reservoir food web.

  11. Legal culture in contemporary Serbia: Structural analysis of attitudes towards the rule of law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuković Danilo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the support for the rule of law among Serbian citizens. The research data show that support for the rule of law depends on the structural socio-economic position of respondents and their position on the transition winners and losers scale i.e., the level of fulfillment of their interests in the new system. There is differentiation among better educated respondents. Those who benefited from the new system recognize the importance of the rule of law. Others, due to their knowledge and understanding of the functioning of the system, are more disappointed and more critical towards it.

  12. Analysis of crack initiation and growth in the high level vibration test at Tadotsu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassir, M.K.; Park, Y.J.; Hofmayer, C.H.; Bandyopadhyay, K.K.; Shteyngart, S.

    1993-08-01

    The High Level Vibration Test data are used to assess the accuracy and usefulness of current engineering methodologies for predicting crack initiation and growth in a cast stainless steel pipe elbow under complex, large amplitude loading. The data were obtained by testing at room temperature a large scale modified model of one loop of a PWR primary coolant system at the Tadotsu Engineering Laboratory in Japan. Fatigue crack initiation time is reasonably predicted by applying a modified local strain approach (Coffin-Mason-Goodman equation) in conjunction with Miner's rule of cumulative damage. Three fracture mechanics methodologies are applied to investigate the crack growth behavior observed in the hot leg of the model. These are: the ΔK methodology (Paris law), ΔJ concepts and a recently developed limit load stress-range criterion. The report includes a discussion on the pros and cons of the analysis involved in each of the methods, the role played by the key parameters influencing the formulation and a comparison of the results with the actual crack growth behavior observed in the vibration test program. Some conclusions and recommendations for improvement of the methodologies are also provided

  13. Sensitivity Analysis of a Riparian Vegetation Growth Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Nones

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a sensitivity analysis of two main parameters used in a mathematic model able to evaluate the effects of changing hydrology on the growth of riparian vegetation along rivers and its effects on the cross-section width. Due to a lack of data in existing literature, in a past study the schematization proposed here was applied only to two large rivers, assuming steady conditions for the vegetational carrying capacity and coupling the vegetal model with a 1D description of the river morphology. In this paper, the limitation set by steady conditions is overcome, imposing the vegetational evolution dependent upon the initial plant population and the growth rate, which represents the potential growth of the overall vegetation along the watercourse. The sensitivity analysis shows that, regardless of the initial population density, the growth rate can be considered the main parameter defining the development of riparian vegetation, but it results site-specific effects, with significant differences for large and small rivers. Despite the numerous simplifications adopted and the small database analyzed, the comparison between measured and computed river widths shows a quite good capability of the model in representing the typical interactions between riparian vegetation and water flow occurring along watercourses. After a thorough calibration, the relatively simple structure of the code permits further developments and applications to a wide range of alluvial rivers.

  14. Growth Analysis of Cancer Biology Research, 2000-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshava,

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Methods and Material: The PubMed database was used for retrieving data on 'cancer biology.' Articles were downloaded from the years 2000 to 2011. The articles were classified chronologically and transferred to a spreadsheet application for analysis of the data as per the objectives of the study. Statistical Method: To investigate the nature of growth of articles via exponential, linear, and logistics tests. Result: The year wise analysis of the growth of articles output shows that for the years 2000 to 2005 and later there is a sudden increase in output, during the years 2006 to 2007 and 2008 to 2011. The high productivity of articles during these years may be due to their significance in cancer biology literature, having received prominence in research. Conclusion: There is an obvious need for better compilations of statistics on numbers of publications in the years from 2000 to 2011 on various disciplines on a worldwide scale, for informed critical assessments of the amount of new knowledge contributed by these publications, and for enhancements and refinements of present Scientometric techniques (citation and publication counts, so that valid measures of knowledge growth may be obtained. Only then will Scientometrics be able to provide accurate, useful descriptions and predictions of knowledge growth.

  15. Business ethics and economic growth: An empirical analysis for Turkish economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekrem Erdem

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The roots of the science of modern economics are originated from the ideas of Adam Smith who is not a pure economist but a moralist-philosopher. Basic concepts in the Wealth of Nations which is perceived as the hand book of economics depend on the arguments that Adam Smith suggests in his Theory of Moral Sentiments. In this theory, business ethics as a part of the Law of Sympathy appears as one of the factors that provide the invisible hand to operate properly. In light of this property, it is possible to assume business ethics as one of the components of the market mechanism. In this context, this study aims to analyse the link between business ethics and economic growth in the Turkish economy. Design/methodology/approach – The study employs bounced cheques and protested bonds for representing the degradation of business ethics and tries to show how this degradation affects economic growth in the Turkish economy for the period 1988-2013. Findings – Either illustrative or empirical results show that business ethics is an important determinant of economic growth in the Turkish economy and damaging it negatively effects the growth rate of the economy. Research limitations/implications – One of the most restrictive things conducting the present empirical analysis is the lack of various and longer data sets. Using different indicators in terms of business ethics with longer time span will definitely increase the reliability of the study. However, in the current form, results imply a policy that is capable of limiting the failures of business ethics may boost the Turkish economy up. Originality/value – The results tend to support the close link between business ethics and economic growth.

  16. Analysis of Rules for Islamic Inheritance Law in Indonesia Using Hybrid Rule Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosyi'ah, S.; Irfan, M.; Maylawati, D. S.; Mukhlas, O. S.

    2018-01-01

    Along with the development of human civilization in Indonesia, the changes and reform of Islamic inheritance law so as to conform to the conditions and culture cannot be denied. The distribution of inheritance in Indonesia can be done automatically by storing the rule of Islamic inheritance law in the expert system. In this study, we analyze the knowledge of experts in Islamic inheritance in Indonesia and represent it in the form of rules using rule-based Forward Chaining (FC) and Davis-Putman-Logemann-Loveland (DPLL) algorithms. By hybridizing FC and DPLL algorithms, the rules of Islamic inheritance law in Indonesia are clearly defined and measured. The rules were conceptually validated by some experts in Islamic laws and informatics. The results revealed that generally all rules were ready for use in an expert system.

  17. Tax Revenue and Macroeconomic Growth in Nigeria: A Contextual Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Miftahu Idris; Tunku Salhabinti Tunku Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims at evaluating the influence of tax revenue on the macroeconomic management of the Nigerian economy using a conceptual approach. By so doing, a comprehensive review of the literature as well as in-depth analysis of tax structure are critically conducted. Undeniably, an insight that shows a precise influence or relationship between tax revenue and the nation’s growth can be regarded as a working tool for policymakers particularly in developing countries. In view of that, this pa...

  18. A Computable OLG Model for Gender and Growth Policy Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Pierre-Richard Agénor

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops a computable Overlapping Generations (OLG) model for gender and growth policy analysis. The model accounts for human and physical capital accumulation (both public and private), intra- and inter-generational health persistence, fertility choices, and women's time allocation between market work, child rearing, and home production. Bargaining between spouses and gender bias, in the form of discrimination in the work place and mothers' time allocation between daughters and so...

  19. Analysis of Hanford Cast Stone Supplemental LAW using Composition Adjusted SRS Tank 50 Salt Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Cozzi, A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hill, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Ramsey, A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-04-25

    Vitrification is the primary disposition path for Low Activity Waste (LAW) at the Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. A cementitious waste form is one of the alternatives being considered for the supplemental immobilization of the LAW that will not be treated by the primary vitrification facility. Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) has been directed to generate and collect data on cementitious or pozzolanic waste forms such as Cast Stone.

  20. ANALYSIS OF MARANGONI CONVECTION OF NON-NEWTONIAN POWER LAW FLUIDS WITH LINEAR TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of steady, laminar, thermal Marangoni convection flow of non-Newtonian power law fluid along a horizontal surface with variable surface temperature is studied. The partial differential equations are transformed into ordinary differential equations by using a suitable similarity transformation and analytical approximate solutions are obtained by an efficient transformation, asymptotic expansion and Padé approximants technique. The effects of power law index and Marangoni number on velocity and temperature profiles are examined and discussed.

  1. Criminal Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langsted, Lars Bo; Garde, Peter; Greve, Vagn

    <> book contains a thorough description of Danish substantive criminal law, criminal procedure and execution of sanctions. The book was originally published as a monograph in the International Encyclopaedia of Laws/Criminal Law....... book contains a thorough description of Danish substantive criminal law, criminal procedure and execution of sanctions. The book was originally published as a monograph in the International Encyclopaedia of Laws/Criminal Law....

  2. Menzerath-Altmann law for distinct word distribution analysis in a large text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eroglu, Sertac

    2013-06-01

    The empirical law uncovered by Menzerath and formulated by Altmann, known as the Menzerath-Altmann law (henceforth the MA law), reveals the statistical distribution behavior of human language in various organizational levels. Building on previous studies relating organizational regularities in a language, we propose that the distribution of distinct (or different) words in a large text can effectively be described by the MA law. The validity of the proposition is demonstrated by examining two text corpora written in different languages not belonging to the same language family (English and Turkish). The results show not only that distinct word distribution behavior can accurately be predicted by the MA law, but that this result appears to be language-independent. This result is important not only for quantitative linguistic studies, but also may have significance for other naturally occurring organizations that display analogous organizational behavior. We also deliberately demonstrate that the MA law is a special case of the probability function of the generalized gamma distribution.

  3. Does certificate of need law enhance competition in inpatient care market? An empirical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Jomon A; Ni, Huan; Bagchi, Aniruddha

    2017-06-29

    This article investigates the impact of Certificate of Need (CON) laws on competition in the inpatient care market. One of the major criticisms of these laws is that it may hinder competition in the health care market, which can lead to higher prices. However, from a theoretical standpoint, CON laws could also promote competition by limiting excessive expansion from incumbents. Our main conclusion is that CON laws by and large enhanced competition in the inpatient market during the period of our study. This indicates that the effects of CON laws to hinder predatory behavior could dominate its effects of preventing new entrants into the inpatient care market. We do not find statistically significant evidence to reject the exogeneity assumption of either CON laws or their stringency in our study. We also find factors such as proportion of population aged 18-44, proportion of Asian American population, obesity rate, political environment, etc., in a state significantly impact competition. Our findings could shed some light to public policy makers when deciding the appropriate health programs or legislative framework to promote health care market competition and thereby facilitate quality health care.

  4. Hoarding disorder and the legal system: A comparative analysis of South African and Dutch law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Richard; Vols, Michel

    Hoarding is an internationally recognised disability. Those who suffer from hoarding behaviour can be comfortably brought within the definition of disability found in the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and should be provided with "reasonable accommodation" where doing so does not place an unjustified burden on others. However, hoarding also poses a threat to public health, and hoarders' behaviour may infringe on the rights of their neighbours and landlords. Thus, through their behaviour, hoarders may ultimately come into conflict with various areas of law, including neighbour law, housing law as well as administrative law. This article examines how hoarding may be addressed by the law in both South Africa and the Netherlands. It seeks to answer to what extent hoarders are provided with "reasonable accommodation" when their behaviour brings them into conflict of the law in these two jurisdictions. It also takes cognisance of the need to balance the provision of "reasonable accommodation" with the rights of neighbours and landlords. Finally, it seeks to assess which of the two jurisdictions provides the most balanced approach to handling hoarding, in light of the need for therapeutic jurisprudence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. World law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold J. Berman

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In the third millennium of the Christian era, which is characterised by the emergence of a world economy and eventually a world society, the concept of world law is needed to embrace not only the traditional disciplines of public international law, and comparative law, but also the common underlying legal principles applicable in world trade, world finance, transnational transfer of technology and other fields of world economic law, as well as in such emerging fields as the protection of the world's environment and the protection of universal human rights. World law combines inter-state law with the common law of humanity and the customary law of various world communities.

  6. A critical review of vapor generation laws used for the analysis of two-phase flows in pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berne, P.

    1983-05-01

    Some vapor generation laws are reviewed and discussed. They are divided into empirical and analytical laws. Analytical laws are first examined. These laws result from analytical solutions of the local instantaneous equations applied to elementary cases. Empirical laws, i.e. laws that are determined by correlations with experimental data, are then discussed [fr

  7. Improvement of Lactobacillus plantarum aerobic growth as directed by comprehensive transcriptome analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, Marc J. A.; Wiersma, Anne; de Vos, Willern M.; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Smid, Eddy J.; Molenaar, Douwe; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Vos, Willem M. de

    An aerobic Lactobacillus plantarum culture displayed growth stagnation during early growth. Transcriptome analysis revealed that resumption of growth after stagnation correlated with activation of CO(2)-producing pathways, suggesting that a limiting CO(2) concentration induced the stagnation.

  8. Developmental trajectories of adolescent popularity: a growth curve modelling analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cillessen, Antonius H N; Borch, Casey

    2006-12-01

    Growth curve modelling was used to examine developmental trajectories of sociometric and perceived popularity across eight years in adolescence, and the effects of gender, overt aggression, and relational aggression on these trajectories. Participants were 303 initially popular students (167 girls, 136 boys) for whom sociometric data were available in Grades 5-12. The popularity and aggression constructs were stable but non-overlapping developmental dimensions. Growth curve models were run with SAS MIXED in the framework of the multilevel model for change [Singer, J. D., & Willett, J. B. (2003). Applied longitudinal data analysis. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press]. Sociometric popularity showed a linear change trajectory; perceived popularity showed nonlinear change. Overt aggression predicted low sociometric popularity but an increase in perceived popularity in the second half of the study. Relational aggression predicted a decrease in sociometric popularity, especially for girls, and continued high-perceived popularity for both genders. The effect of relational aggression on perceived popularity was the strongest around the transition from middle to high school. The importance of growth curve models for understanding adolescent social development was discussed, as well as specific issues and challenges of growth curve analyses with sociometric data.

  9. Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Jones; George A. Schier

    1985-01-01

    This chapter considers aspen growth as a process, and discusses some characteristics of the growth and development of trees and stands. For the most part, factors affecting growth are discussed elsewhere, particularly in the GENETICS AND VARIATION chapter and in chapters in PART 11. ECOLOGY. Aspen growth as it relates to wood production is examined in the WOOD RESOURCE...

  10. Net energy analysis in a Ramsey–Hotelling growth model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macías, Arturo; Matilla-García, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a dynamic growth model with energy as an input in the production function. The available stock of energy resources is ordered by a quality parameter based on energy accounting: the “Energy Return on Energy Invested” (EROI). In our knowledge this is the first paper where EROI fits in a neoclassical growth model (with individual utility maximization and market equilibrium), establishing the economic use of “net energy analysis” on a firmer theoretical ground. All necessary concepts to link neoclassical economics and EROI are discussed before their use in the model, and a comparative static analysis of the steady states of a simplified version of the model is presented. - Highlights: • A neoclassical growth model with EROI (“Energy Return on Energy Invested”) is shown • All concepts linking neoclassical economics and net energy analysis are discussed • Any EROI decline can be compensated increasing gross activity in the energy sector. • The economic impact of EROI depends on some non-energy cost in the energy sector. • Comparative steady-state statics for different EROI levels is performed and discussed. • Policy implications are suggested.

  11. Managing crime through migration law in Australia and the United States: a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Khanh; Reich, Sudrishti

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the intertwining of migration law and criminal law - termed 'crimmigration' by scholars - in Australia and the United States of America, and its implications for non-citizens who engage in criminal conduct. Our comparison of the two systems demonstrates that the laws and policies in both jurisdictions are similar to a significant degree. Both have strong exclusionary policies characterised by sweeping visa cancellation/removal powers, a heavy focus on enforcement, and limited review rights. In Australia, legislative amendments in 2014 have given the executive greater powers to cancel visas and remove non-citizens on character grounds as a means of ensuring national security and public safety. This has coincided with a new law enforcement body created within the Australian Department of Immigration. These changes reflect a repurposing of migration law as a tool for managing criminal threats based on the concept of 'risk management'. Drawing on the experience of the United States - where such a 'risk management' approach is entrenched - we query the utility of this shift and highlight the potential pitfalls of pursuing such a policy for Australia.

  12. Retrospective Analysis of the Effect of Hering's Law on Outcomes of Surgical Correction of Ptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Er; Yu, Jiangang; Zhang, Shengchang; Nie, Yunfei; Li, Qin

    2018-03-01

    Several factors may influence aesthetic outcomes of ptosis surgery, especially in patients with asymmetrical ptosis. We retrospectively assessed the effect of Hering's law on surgical outcomes of patients with asymmetrical ptosis. Patients with mild to moderate asymmetrical ptosis (N = 300) who underwent advancement or plication of upper eyelid aponeurosis between January 2014 and July 2016 were enrolled. Fifty patients (group A) underwent surgery without taking into consideration the impact of Hering's law. Of these, 35 patients with unilateral ptosis (subgroup A1) underwent standard surgery on the contralateral side, whereas 15 patients with bilateral ptosis (subgroup A2) were first operated on the milder side followed by the more severely affected side.In 250 patients (group B), surgery was performed taking cognizance of the implications of Hering's law. These included 100 patients with unilateral ptosis (B1) and 150 with bilateral ptosis (B2). Difference in bilateral palpebral fissure symmetry by less than 0.5 mm was considered as satisfactory outcome. Duration of postoperative follow-up ranged from 3 to 24 months. Satisfactory outcomes were achieved over 60% of patients in group A (A1, 60.6%; A2, 66.67%) and in 96% of patients in group B (B1, 95%; B2, 96.67%). Patients with unsatisfactory outcomes underwent repair according to Hering's law after 3 months and obtained good results. Application of Hering's law may improve outcomes of corrective surgery in patients with asymmetric ptosis.

  13. Video Bioinformatics Analysis of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Colony Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sabrina; Fonteno, Shawn; Satish, Shruthi; Bhanu, Bir; Talbot, Prue

    2010-01-01

    Because video data are complex and are comprised of many images, mining information from video material is difficult to do without the aid of computer software. Video bioinformatics is a powerful quantitative approach for extracting spatio-temporal data from video images using computer software to perform dating mining and analysis. In this article, we introduce a video bioinformatics method for quantifying the growth of human embryonic stem cells (hESC) by analyzing time-lapse videos collected in a Nikon BioStation CT incubator equipped with a camera for video imaging. In our experiments, hESC colonies that were attached to Matrigel were filmed for 48 hours in the BioStation CT. To determine the rate of growth of these colonies, recipes were developed using CL-Quant software which enables users to extract various types of data from video images. To accurately evaluate colony growth, three recipes were created. The first segmented the image into the colony and background, the second enhanced the image to define colonies throughout the video sequence accurately, and the third measured the number of pixels in the colony over time. The three recipes were run in sequence on video data collected in a BioStation CT to analyze the rate of growth of individual hESC colonies over 48 hours. To verify the truthfulness of the CL-Quant recipes, the same data were analyzed manually using Adobe Photoshop software. When the data obtained using the CL-Quant recipes and Photoshop were compared, results were virtually identical, indicating the CL-Quant recipes were truthful. The method described here could be applied to any video data to measure growth rates of hESC or other cells that grow in colonies. In addition, other video bioinformatics recipes can be developed in the future for other cell processes such as migration, apoptosis, and cell adhesion. PMID:20495527

  14. Economic growth and energy consumption in Algeria: a causality analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherfi, S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to review the causal link in the Granger sense, between energy consumption and economic growth in Algeria, to determine its implications for economic policy. The analysis was done based on Granger static and causality tests using statistical data on per capita primary energy consumption and gross domestic product per inhabitant in Algeria, over the 1965-2008 period. The results of the survey show that there is, in Algeria, a strong link between energy consumption per inhabitant and GDP per inhabitant. The results also suggest the lack of a long term impetus (no co-integration) between energy consumption and economic growth. In addition, there is a one-way causal link between GDP and energy consumption, i.e. the prior GDP data provides a better forecast of energy consumption level, but not the contrary. In other words, GDP explains consumption, not the contrary. (author)

  15. Tradition and diversification in the uses and definitions of the Law: A proposed analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Engelmann

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to carry out a sociological survey of the Brazilian legal field in the 1990s. To this end, the relationship between the diversification of the legal sphere and the legitimisation of definitions of the Law in Brazil over the course of the 1990s were investigated. The close match between the differentiation of the teaching of the Law, as a place for producing definitions of legal problems, and the mobilization of certain uses of the legal profession and of the careers of State during this period was analysed. This relationship allows one to gather the emer- gence of the academic career as a space for the production of specific conceptions and uses of the Law. This process is intimately linked to the repositioning of ju- rists in the sphere of power in Brazil, after the changes in the country’s political landscape that have their institutional expression in the promulgation of the 1988 Constitution.

  16. Teaching practice and experiences of verifying the three laws of genetics based on the SSLP marker analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xue-Ying; Fan, Kai; Ye, Yan-Fang; Wang, Bin; Wu, Wei-Ren; Lan, Tao

    2017-09-20

    We explored the practical effect of the genetic analysis of simple sequence length polymorphism (SSLP) molecular markers in rice in the genetics lab course. Two parents and their F 2 population were analyzed and detected with three SSLP molecular markers that located on two chromosomes of the rice genome. The markers' genotype data were used to verify the three laws of genetics, including segregation, independent assortment and linkage and crossing-over. Our practice has proved not only beneficial to deepen students' understandings about the three laws of genetics, but also conducive to cultivate students' interests in research and innovation and improve their skills and comprehensive analysis abilities. At the same time, the application scope of the experiment was discussed. This comprehensive experiment is also useful for the transformation of scientific research achievements into undergraduate experimental teaching.

  17. A study on creep-fatigue life analysis using a unified constitutive equation and a continuous damage law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiroe, Tetsuyuki; Igari, Toshihide; Nakajima, Keiichi

    1986-01-01

    A newly developed type of life analysis is introduced using a unified constitutive equation and a continuous damage law on 2 1/4Cr - 1Mo steel at 600 deg C. the viscoplasticity theory based on total strain and overstress used for the rate effect at room temperature is extended for application to the inelastic analysis at elevated temperature, and the extended uniaxial model is shown to reproduce the inelastic stress and strain behavior with a strain rate change observed in the experiment. The incremental life prediction law is employed and its coupling with the viscoplasticity model produces both an inelastic stress-strain response and the damage accumulation, simultaneously and continuously. The life prediction for creep, fatigue and creep-fatigue loading shows good correspondence with the experimental data. (author)

  18. A qualitative analysis of student-written law and ethics cases: A snapshot of PY2 student experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karwaki, Tanya E; Hazlet, Thomas K

    2017-05-01

    This study was designed to better understand pharmacy students' experiences and recognition of legal and ethical tensions existing in pharmacy practice as demonstrated in student-written law and ethics cases. A qualitative analysis of 132 student-written cases representing the team efforts of 1053 students over a 12-year time period was conducted. Student-written cases were coded and analyzed thematically. Our results demonstrate the types of ethical and legal issues our students have experienced in pharmacy practice during the first five quarters of their professional education. Our data highlight three themes: 1) ethical dilemmas presented when the law is misapplied; 2) ethical dilemmas presented when an institutional policy or law was viewed as insufficient; and 3) ethical dilemmas presented as provider distress. The third theme was further subdivided into five subthemes. The themes that emerged from this study represent some of the ethical dilemmas that second professional year students have encountered and how these dilemmas may intersect with legal boundaries. Educators can use cases demonstrating these themes to reinforce law and ethics education in the curriculum, thus helping prepare students for pharmacy practice. This article recommends how and when to use case examples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Analysis of the Second Law of Thermodynamics applied to GS process in the primary production of heavy water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavez, Rosa Hilda

    1991-01-01

    An evaluation of the entropic change, through the analysis of the Second Law of Thermodynamic of GS process, with the aim of determine the sections where the majors irreversibilities of the process are located, is presented in this work. This process consist in the first enrichment stage of GS, which operates bithermally at 305 D and 403 Kelvin degree and a pressure of 2 MPa, participating four chemical compounds: H 2 O, HDO, H 2 S and HDS (Author)

  20. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE CAUSES OF ABSOLUTE NULLITY OF THE CONTRACT IN THE ROMANIAN AND THE SPANISH CIVIL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Alexandra ANGHELESCU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is aimed to present a comparative analysis of the causes of absolute nullity of the contract in the Romanian and the Spanish civil law. Thus, the study focuses on the presentation of both similarities and differences between the provisions of the Romanian Civil Code and the Spanish Civil Code that regulate the legal institution of the nullity of contracts, outlining the practical consequences of the conclusion.

  1. Right to decide and self-determination in the Catalan case. Analysis and reflection according to the Spanish Constitutional Law

    OpenAIRE

    Gina Marietta OLCESE SCHENONE

    2015-01-01

    The paper analyzes the issue of the right to decide and self-determination in the current case of Catalonia from a legal point of view and within the Spanish constitutional framework. In particular, this analysis explores three aspects: a) The right to self-determination, general aspects and the Spanish Constitution; b) The right to decide as a regional consultation or referendum under Spanish law; c) Initiative of constitutional reform as a possible way to deal with the separatist aspiration...

  2. Effects of Growth Hormone Replacement Therapy on Bone Mineral Density in Growth Hormone Deficient Adults: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Xue

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Growth hormone deficiency patients exhibited reduced bone mineral density compared with healthy controls, but previous researches demonstrated uncertainty about the effect of growth hormone replacement therapy on bone in growth hormone deficient adults. The aim of this study was to determine whether the growth hormone replacement therapy could elevate bone mineral density in growth hormone deficient adults. Methods. In this meta-analysis, searches of Medline, Embase, and The Cochrane Library were undertaken to identify studies in humans of the association between growth hormone treatment and bone mineral density in growth hormone deficient adults. Random effects model was used for this meta-analysis. Results. A total of 20 studies (including one outlier study with 936 subjects were included in our research. We detected significant overall association of growth hormone treatment with increased bone mineral density of spine, femoral neck, and total body, but some results of subgroup analyses were not consistent with the overall analyses. Conclusions. Our meta-analysis suggested that growth hormone replacement therapy could have beneficial influence on bone mineral density in growth hormone deficient adults, but, in some subject populations, the influence was not evident.

  3. Fatigue crack growth analysis of a 450 PWR - lateral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taupin, P.; Flamand, F.

    1988-01-01

    Fatigue Crack Growth analysis of a 5 mm deep surface crack in the crotch region of a 45 0 Lateral (12 inch diameter) was performed on a 3-Loop 900 MWe PWR Plant under Normal and upset loading conditions. Stress Intensity factors were computed using the weight-function technique. The latter were obtained for a polynomial stress distribution at the corner of the lateral under contract with the Pressure Vessel Research Committee of the WRC. The study shows that after 40 years of normal operation the size of the end of life crack is limited to about 25 mm for the chosen lateral with a thickness of 300 mm

  4. Comparative power law analysis of structured breast phantom and patient images in digital mammography and breast tomosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockmartin, L; Bosmans, H; Marshall, N W

    2013-08-01

    This work characterizes three candidate mammography phantoms with structured background in terms of power law analysis in the low frequency region of the power spectrum for 2D (planar) mammography and digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). The study was performed using three phantoms (spheres in water, Voxmam, and BR3D CIRS phantoms) on two DBT systems from two different vendors (Siemens Inspiration and Hologic Selenia Dimensions). Power spectra (PS) were calculated for planar projection, DBT projection, and reconstructed images and curve fitted in the low frequency region from 0.2 to 0.7 mm(-1) with a power law function characterized by an exponent β and magnitude κ. The influence of acquisition dose and tube voltage on the power law parameters was first explored. Then power law parameters were calculated from images acquired with the same anode∕filter combination and tube voltage for the three test objects, and compared with each other. Finally, PS curves for automatic exposure controlled acquisitions (anode∕filter combination and tube voltages selected by the systems based on the breast equivalent thickness of the test objects) were compared against PS analysis performed on patient data (for Siemens 80 and for Hologic 48 mammograms and DBT series). Dosimetric aspects of the three test objects were also examined. The power law exponent (β) was found to be independent of acquisition dose for planar mammography but varied more for DBT projections of the sphere-phantom. Systematic increase of tube voltage did not affect β but decreased κ, both in planar and DBT projection phantom images. Power spectra of the BR3D phantom were closer to those of the patients than these of the Voxmam phantom; the Voxmam phantom gave high values of κ compared to the other phantoms and the patient series. The magnitude of the PS curves of the BR3D phantom was within the patient range but β was lower than the average patient value. Finally, PS magnitude for the sphere

  5. Law Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Tolstopiatenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available At the origin of the International Law Department were such eminent scientists, diplomats and teachers as V.N. Durdenevsky, S.B. Krylov and F.I. Kozhevnikov. International law studies in USSR and Russia during the second half of the XX century was largely shaped by the lawyers of MGIMO. They had a large influence on the education in the international law in the whole USSR, and since 1990s in Russia and other CIS countries. The prominence of the research of MGIMO international lawyers was due to the close connections with the international practice, involving international negotiations in the United Nations and other international fora, diplomatic conferences and international scientific conferences. This experience is represented in the MGIMO handbooks on international law, which are still in demand. The Faculty of International Law at MGIMO consists of seven departments: Department of International Law, Department of Private International and Comparative Law; Department of European Law; Department of Comparative Constitutional Law; Department of Administrative and Financial Law; Department of Criminal Law, Department Criminal Procedure and Criminalistics. Many Russian lawyers famous at home and abroad work at the Faculty, contributing to domestic and international law studies. In 1947 the Academy of Sciences of the USSR published "International Law" textbook which was the first textbook on the subject in USSR. S.B. Krylov and V.N. Durdenevsky were the authors and editors of the textbook. First generations of MGIMO students studied international law according to this textbook. All subsequent books on international law, published in the USSR, were based on the approach to the teaching of international law, developed in the textbook by S.B. Krylov and V.N. Durdenevsky. The first textbook of international law with the stamp of MGIMO, edited by F.I. Kozhevnikov, was published in 1964. This textbook later went through five editions in 1966, 1972

  6. On the Law of Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichten, William

    2004-01-01

    The law of intelligence is presented in test independent form. Mental abilities, physical brain size, and infant motor capacity follow the same law of growth from birth to adolescence. Mental growth is independent of race, "SES" or the Flynn effect. The vitality of the mental age scale calls for a reexamination of Wechsler's deviation IQ. This…

  7. Islamic and Jewish Law of Ḥalal&Ḥaram: Analysis of Similarities & Differences (Urdu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Muhammad Ikramullah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The world Semitic religions like Judaism, Christianity and Islam have given comprehensive regulations and code of life. Therefore; there has been a complete system and directions about “ḥalal” and “ḥaram” (kosher non-kosher means legal and illegal (treif’ in Jewish law.As Islam gives clear cut directives in beliefs, worships, ethics, economy and ways of life to guide the men in life; similarly the Judaism has also given clear regulations in these fields to guide its followers.Islam has taught its followers to eat and drink ‘ḥalal’ (Tayyib, so Judaism has also stressed on eating only ‘kosher’ (food that can be consumed according to Jewish law. For example in animals; meat of cow, bull, sheep and goat etc are legitimizing for eating in both the religions. Similarly the meat of pig is not allowed for men. Many things are similar in both these religions regarding dietary law.This article describes about ‘ḥalal’ and ‘kosher’ things in detail and tells what the similarities and dissimilarities regarding dietary laws are found in their religious literatures.

  8. Mathematical analysis of the global dynamics of a power law model ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We analyze a mathematical power law model that describes HIV infection of CD4+ T cells. We report that the number of critical points depends on , where is a positive integer. We show that for any positive integer the infection – free equilibrium is asymptotically stable if the reproduction number R0 1.

  9. Analysis of the Implementation of Child Rights Law in Nigeria | Udoh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to analyse the implementation of Child Rights Law in Nigeria so far. To accomplish this: three research questions and three hypotheses were formulated to guide the investigation. Descriptive survey research was employed carrying out the study. Stratified random sampling technique was used to ...

  10. A State-by-State Analysis of Laws Dealing With Driving Under the Influence of Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This study reviewed each State statute regarding drug-impaired driving as of December 2008. There : is a high degree of variability across the States in the ways they approach drug-impaired driving. : Current laws in many States contain provisions ma...

  11. Racial and Religious Discrimination in Charitable Trusts: A Current Analysis of Constitutional and Trust Law Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Roy M.

    1976-01-01

    The process by which constitutional and trust law have blended together in the charitable trust field is examined. Focus is on whether a settlor can expect racial and religious restrictions in a charitable trust to be allowed, how to deal with them if they are, and what happens to the trust property if they are not. (LBH)

  12. Individual Autonomy, Law, and Technology: Should Soft Determinism Guide Legal Analysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockfield, Arthur J.

    2010-01-01

    How one thinks about the relationship between individual autonomy (sometimes referred to as individual willpower or human agency) and technology can influence the way legal thinkers develop policy at the intersection of law and technology. Perspectives that fall toward the "machines control us" end of the spectrum may support more interventionist…

  13. Debt and Equity in Domestic and International Tax Law : A Comparative Policy Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Martin; Schön, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    The demarcation between debt and equity is a long-standing core constituent of company and taxation law the world over. However, its sustainability for national and international taxation regimes is increasingly the subject of doubt. Domestic and international proposals for reform are directed

  14. Automatic analysis of online image data for law enforcement agencies by concept detection and instance search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, M.H.T. de; Bouma, H.; Kruithof, M.C.; Haar, F.B. ter; Fischer, N.M.; Hagendoorn, L.K.; Joosten, B.; Raaijmakers, S.

    2017-01-01

    The information available on-line and off-line, from open as well as from private sources, is growing at an exponential rate and places an increasing demand on the limited resources of Law Enforcement Agencies (LEAs). The absence of appropriate tools and techniques to collect, process, and analyze

  15. Safeguarding the Dignity of Women under the Criminal Law Amendment Act 2013-A Critical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R C Borpatragohain

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This viewpoint aims to analyse the Criminal Law Amendment Act 2013 from a legal perspective. In doing so, it discusses the statutory safeguards of rights to a dignified life of a woman by analysing the various existing laws, which have been significantly amended to build the Criminal Act, 2013. These laws are: Indian Penal Code (IPC 1860; Indian Evidence Act 1872, Code of Criminal Procedure as amended in 1973, Immoral Trafficking Prevention Act 1956, Information Technology Act 2000, The Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children Act 2000, The Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act 2005, The Protection of Children from Sexual Offences Act, 2012, The Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace (Prevention, Prohibition and Redressal Act 2013. In the conclusion, I urge that although efficient laws are in operation in India towards protecting the right to live with dignity of women, however, incidents of violence against women are on the rise. Hence, a concerted effort in bringing appropriate attitudinal change is the task ahead for all Indians.

  16. Sensitivity analysis of 1−d steady forced scalar conservation laws

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ersoy, M.; Feireisl, Eduard; Zuazua, E.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 254, č. 9 (2013), s. 3817-3834 ISSN 0022-0396 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/09/0917 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : sensitivity * scalar conservation law * control Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.570, year: 2013 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022039613000892#

  17. Review and Analysis of Laws Related to Strangulation in 50 States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughon, Kathryn; Glass, Nancy; Worrell, Claude

    2009-01-01

    Nonlethal strangulation of intimate partners has substantial direct health effects and is associated with an increased risk of later lethal violence by a partner or ex-intimate partner but can be difficult to prosecute under felony assault statutes. After review of state laws regarding assault, the authors identified 10 states with specific…

  18. The Contextual Embedding of Genocide: A Casuistic Analysis of the Interplay between Law and Facts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cupido, M.

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the contextual embedding of genocide in the case law of the ad hoc tribunals and the International Criminal Court. In particular, it seeks to clarify to what extent the courts require that an individual génocidaire acted in the context of a collective act. The article shows

  19. The Process of Constitution-Making : a Law and Economics Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Michel (Stephan)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractThis dissertation analyzes the overarching question of how the process of constitution-making affects the written constitution from a law & economics perspective. To shed more light on this issue from a broad perspective, positive and normative research questions are dealt with.

  20. Luxury in ancient Rome: an economic analysis of the scope, timing and enforcement of sumptuary laws

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dari-Mattiacci, G.; Plisecka, A.E.

    2012-01-01

    Between 182 BC and 18 BC, Roman lawmakers enacted a series of sumptuary laws regulating banquets (including the number of guests and the consumption of specific foods). Enforcement was hardly successful and these regulations had to be reiterated over time. Traditional explanations based on morals,

  1. An Analysis of the Applicability of Federal Law Regarding Hash-Based Searches of Digital Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    similarity matching, Fourth Amend- ment, federal law, search and seizure, warrant search, consent search, border search. 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 107 16. PRICE ...containing a white powdery substance labeled flour [53]. 3.3.17 United States v Heckenkamp 482 F.3d 1142 (9th Circuit 2007) People have a reasonable

  2. Growth modeling of Cryptomeria japonica by partial trunk analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Morais Coutinho

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the growth pattern of Cryptomeria japonica increment (L. F. D. Don. and to describe the probability distribution in stands stablished at the municipality of Rio Negro, Paraná State. Twenty trees were sampled in a 34 years-old stand, with 3 m x 2 m spacing. Wood disks were taken from each tree at 1.3 m above the ground (DBH to perform partial stem analysis. Diameter growth series without bark were used to generate the average cumulative growth curves for DBH (cm, mean annual increment (MAI and current annual increment (CAI. From the increment data, the frequency distribution was evaluated by means of probability density functions (pdfs. The mean annual increment for DBH was 0.78 cm year-1 and the age of intersection of CAI and MAI curves was between the 7th and 8th years. It was found that near 43% of the species increments are concentrated bellow 0.5 cm. The results are useful to define appropriate management strategies for the species for sites similar to the studying regions, defining for example ages of silvicultural intervention, such as thinning.

  3. AN ANALYSIS OF THE SHAPES OF INTERSTELLAR EXTINCTION CURVES. VI. THE NEAR-IR EXTINCTION LAW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzpatrick, E. L.; Massa, D.

    2009-01-01

    We combine new observations from the Hubble Space Telescope's Advanced Camera of Survey with existing data to investigate the wavelength dependence of near-IR (NIR) extinction. Previous studies suggest a power law form for NIR extinction, with a 'universal' value of the exponent, although some recent observations indicate that significant sight line-to-sight line variability may exist. We show that a power-law model for the NIR extinction provides an excellent fit to most extinction curves, but that the value of the power, β, varies significantly from sight line to sight line. Therefore, it seems that a 'universal NIR extinction law' is not possible. Instead, we find that as β decreases, R(V) ≡ A(V)/E(B - V) tends to increase, suggesting that NIR extinction curves which have been considered 'peculiar' may, in fact, be typical for different R(V) values. We show that the power-law parameters can depend on the wavelength interval used to derive them, with the β increasing as longer wavelengths are included. This result implies that extrapolating power-law fits to determine R(V) is unreliable. To avoid this problem, we adopt a different functional form for NIR extinction. This new form mimics a power law whose exponent increases with wavelength, has only two free parameters, can fit all of our curves over a longer wavelength baseline and to higher precision, and produces R(V) values which are consistent with independent estimates and commonly used methods for estimating R(V). Furthermore, unlike the power-law model, it gives R(V)s that are independent of the wavelength interval used to derive them. It also suggests that the relation R(V) = -1.36 E(K-V)/(E(B-V)) - 0.79 can estimate R(V) to ±0.12. Finally, we use model extinction curves to show that our extinction curves are in accord with theoretical expectations, and demonstrate how large samples of observational quantities can provide useful constraints on the grain properties.

  4. Analysis of Power Laws, Shape Collapses, and Neural Complexity: New Techniques and MATLAB Support via the NCC Toolbox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Najja; Timme, Nicholas M; Bennett, Nicholas; Ripp, Monica; Lautzenhiser, Edward; Beggs, John M

    2016-01-01

    Neural systems include interactions that occur across many scales. Two divergent methods for characterizing such interactions have drawn on the physical analysis of critical phenomena and the mathematical study of information. Inferring criticality in neural systems has traditionally rested on fitting power laws to the property distributions of "neural avalanches" (contiguous bursts of activity), but the fractal nature of avalanche shapes has recently emerged as another signature of criticality. On the other hand, neural complexity, an information theoretic measure, has been used to capture the interplay between the functional localization of brain regions and their integration for higher cognitive functions. Unfortunately, treatments of all three methods-power-law fitting, avalanche shape collapse, and neural complexity-have suffered from shortcomings. Empirical data often contain biases that introduce deviations from true power law in the tail and head of the distribution, but deviations in the tail have often been unconsidered; avalanche shape collapse has required manual parameter tuning; and the estimation of neural complexity has relied on small data sets or statistical assumptions for the sake of computational efficiency. In this paper we present technical advancements in the analysis of criticality and complexity in neural systems. We use maximum-likelihood estimation to automatically fit power laws with left and right cutoffs, present the first automated shape collapse algorithm, and describe new techniques to account for large numbers of neural variables and small data sets in the calculation of neural complexity. In order to facilitate future research in criticality and complexity, we have made the software utilized in this analysis freely available online in the MATLAB NCC (Neural Complexity and Criticality) Toolbox.

  5. Second law analysis of novel working fluid pairs for waste heat recovery by the Kalina cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eller, Tim; Heberle, Florian; Brüggemann, Dieter

    2017-01-01

    The organic Rankine cycle (ORC) and the Kalina cycle (KC) are potential thermodynamic concepts for decentralized power generation from industrial waste heat at a temperature level below 500 °C. The aim of this work is to investigate in detail novel zeotropic mixtures as working fluid for the KC and compare to sub- and supercritical ORC based on second law efficiency. Heat source temperature is varied between 200 °C and 400 °C. The results show that second law efficiency of KC can be increased by applying alcohol/alcohol mixtures as working fluid instead of ammonia/water mixtures; especially for heat source temperatures above 250 °C. Efficiency increase is in the range of 16% and 75%. Despite this efficiency improvements, ORC with zeotropic mixtures in sub- and supercritical operation mode proves to be superior to KC in the examined temperature range. Second law efficiency is up to 13% higher than for KC. A maximum second law efficiency of 59.2% is obtained for supercritical ORC with benzene/toluene 36/64 at 400 °C heat source temperature. The higher level of efficiency and the lower complexity of ORC in comparison to KC indicate that ORC with zeotropic mixtures offers the greater potential for waste heat recovery. - Highlights: • Kalina Cycle with novel alcohol mixtures as working fluid is investigated. • Results are compared to ammonia/water-Kalina Cycle and ORC. • Second law efficiency of Kalina Cycle can be increased by novel alcohol mixtures. • Efficiency increase is in the range of 16% and 75%. • ORC with zeotropic mixtures proves to be superior to Kalina Cycle.

  6. Growth promoting antibiotics in food animal production: an economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jay P; Boland, John J; Silbergeld, Ellen

    2007-01-01

    Considerable controversy persists regarding the use of human antibiotics to promote growth in animals raised for food. The authors examined the economic effect of removing antibiotics used for growth promotion in commercial broiler chickens. The authors utilized data published by the Perdue company, the fourth largest poultry producer in the United States, in which a non-randomized controlled trial of growth-promoting antibiotic (GPA) use was conducted with seven million broiler chickens to evaluate the impact of removing GPAs on production. Positive production changes were associated with GPA use, but were insufficient to offset the cost of the antibiotics. The net effect of using GPAs was a lost value of 0.0093 dollars per chicken (about 0.45% of total cost). Based upon these data, the authors found no basis for the claim that the use of GPAs lowers the cost of production. Note that this study does not include veterinary cost changes or changes in performance variability associated with the removal of GPAs. This economic analysis is the first study to the authors' knowledge utilizing large-scale empirical data collected by U.S. industry, in which it is demonstrated that the use of GPAs in poultry production is associated with economic losses to the producers. These data are of considerable importance in the ongoing national debate concerning the continued use of antibiotics for growth promotion of food animals. Based on the industry study and the resulting economic impact, the use of GPAs in U.S. poultry production should be reconsidered.

  7. Transportation impact analysis gets a failing grade when it comes to climate change and smart growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Transportation impact analysis performed to comply with environmental impact laws (i.e., the : California Environmental Quality Act or the National Environmental Policy Act) often focuses : on only one perspective about potential impacts. That perspe...

  8. Growth Curve Analysis and Change-Points Detection in Extremes

    KAUST Repository

    Meng, Rui

    2016-05-15

    The thesis consists of two coherent projects. The first project presents the results of evaluating salinity tolerance in barley using growth curve analysis where different growth trajectories are observed within barley families. The study of salinity tolerance in plants is crucial to understanding plant growth and productivity. Because fully-automated smarthouses with conveyor systems allow non-destructive and high-throughput phenotyping of large number of plants, it is now possible to apply advanced statistical tools to analyze daily measurements and to study salinity tolerance. To compare different growth patterns of barley variates, we use functional data analysis techniques to analyze the daily projected shoot areas. In particular, we apply the curve registration method to align all the curves from the same barley family in order to summarize the family-wise features. We also illustrate how to use statistical modeling to account for spatial variation in microclimate in smarthouses and for temporal variation across runs, which is crucial for identifying traits of the barley variates. In our analysis, we show that the concentrations of sodium and potassium in leaves are negatively correlated, and their interactions are associated with the degree of salinity tolerance. The second project studies change-points detection methods in extremes when multiple time series data are available. Motived by the scientific question of whether the chances to experience extreme weather are different in different seasons of a year, we develop a change-points detection model to study changes in extremes or in the tail of a distribution. Most of existing models identify seasons from multiple yearly time series assuming a season or a change-point location remains exactly the same across years. In this work, we propose a random effect model that allows the change-point to vary from year to year, following a given distribution. Both parametric and nonparametric methods are developed

  9. Environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    This pocketbook contains major federal regulations on environmental protection. They serve to protect and cultivate mankind's natural foundations of life, to preserve the environment. The environmental law is devided as follows: Constitutional law on the environment, common administrative law on the environment, special administrative law on the environment including conservation of nature and preservation of rural amenities, protection of waters, waste management, protection against nuisances, nuclear energy and radiation protection, energy conservation, protection against dangerous substances, private law relating to the environment, criminal law relating to the environment. (HSCH) [de

  10. Lie symmetry analysis, conservation laws and exact solutions of the seventh-order time fractional Sawada–Kotera–Ito equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emrullah Yaşar

    Full Text Available In this paper Lie symmetry analysis of the seventh-order time fractional Sawada–Kotera–Ito (FSKI equation with Riemann–Liouville derivative is performed. Using the Lie point symmetries of FSKI equation, it is shown that it can be transformed into a nonlinear ordinary differential equation of fractional order with a new dependent variable. In the reduced equation the derivative is in Erdelyi–Kober sense. Furthermore, adapting the Ibragimov’s nonlocal conservation method to time fractional partial differential equations, we obtain conservation laws of the underlying equation. In addition, we construct some exact travelling wave solutions for the FSKI equation using the sub-equation method. Keywords: Fractional Sawada–Kotera–Ito equation, Lie symmetry, Riemann–Liouville fractional derivative, Conservation laws, Exact solutions

  11. The LAW Library -- A multigroup cross-section library for use in radioactive waste analysis calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, N.M.; Arwood, J.W.; Wright, R.Q.; Parks, C.V.

    1994-08-01

    The 238-group LAW Library is a new multigroup neutron cross-section library based on ENDF/B-V data, with five sets of data taken from ENDF/B-VI ( 14 N 7 , 15 N 7 , 16 O 8 , 154Eu 63 , and 155 Eu 63 ). These five nuclides are included because the new evaluations are thought to be superior to those in Version 5. The LAW Library contains data for over 300 materials and will be distributed by the Radiation Shielding Information Center, located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It was generated for use in neutronics calculations required in radioactive waste analyses, although it has equal utility in any study requiring multigroup neutron cross sections

  12. Boundary Asymptotic Analysis for an Incompressible Viscous Flow: Navier Wall Laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Jarroudi, M.; Brillard, A.

    2008-01-01

    We consider a new way of establishing Navier wall laws. Considering a bounded domain Ω of R N , N=2,3, surrounded by a thin layer Σ ε , along a part Γ 2 of its boundary ∂Ω, we consider a Navier-Stokes flow in Ω union ∂Ω union Σ ε with Reynolds' number of order 1/ε in Σ ε . Using Γ-convergence arguments, we describe the asymptotic behaviour of the solution of this problem and get a general Navier law involving a matrix of Borel measures having the same support contained in the interface Γ 2 . We then consider two special cases where we characterize this matrix of measures. As a further application, we consider an optimal control problem within this context

  13. Triblex thematic analysis of the case law of the ILO Administrative Tribunal

    CERN Document Server

    International Labour Organization. Geneva

    Triblex is a thematic database on the case law of the Administrative Tribunal of the International Labour Organization, which hears complaints from serving and former officials of the ILO, or of one of the thirty-odd international organizations that recognise its jurisdiction, about breach of the terms of their appointment or staff rules or regulations. Relevant passages of the Tribunal's reasoning can be located in the Triblex database in various ways, mainly using terms (descriptors) from the Triblex Thesaurus. The database is in English and French and can be searched in either language. It is intended for litigants, counsel, staff representatives, personnel managers and anyone with an interest in the law of the international civil service. Triblex est une base de données thématique sur la jurisprudence du Tribunal administratif de l'Organisation internationale du Travail. La saisine du Tribunal est ouverte aux fonctionnaires ou anciens fonctionnaires du Bureau international du ou des normes statutaires o...

  14. Revealing Originality of Song Works: An Analysis to the Copyright Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derezka Gunti Larasati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The topic of this paper is to describe the defining criteria of originality of song works. The aspect of originality is important to make such work be protected by Copyright Law. In this research, the criteria to define originality are based on certain doctrines and/or theories of originality that may vary case by case. The use of such doctrines and/or theories are necessary, since the stipulations regarding originality in the Indonesian Copyright Act has not been considered suffice. With regard to the song works, the criteria of originality may be different from other works. Therefore, a comprehensive research on the characteristics of song as a work is also important. This research is a qualitative research with prescriptive design. The research depicts the use of certain doctrines and/or theories as supplementary provisions to the Copyright Law in defining the originality of songs, which have specific characteristics resulted from their author’s creations and intellectuals.

  15. Nonlinear Analysis and Scaling Laws for Noncircular Composite Structures Subjected to Combined Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilburger, Mark W.; Rose, Cheryl A.; Starnes, James H., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    Results from an analytical study of the response of a built-up, multi-cell noncircular composite structure subjected to combined internal pressure and mechanical loads are presented. Nondimensional parameters and scaling laws based on a first-order shear-deformation plate theory are derived for this noncircular composite structure. The scaling laws are used to design sub-scale structural models for predicting the structural response of a full-scale structure representative of a portion of a blended-wing-body transport aircraft. Because of the complexity of the full-scale structure, some of the similitude conditions are relaxed for the sub-scale structural models. Results from a systematic parametric study are used to determine the effects of relaxing selected similitude conditions on the sensitivity of the effectiveness of using the sub-scale structural model response characteristics for predicting the full-scale structure response characteristics.

  16. Violent victimization in cyberspace: an analysis of place, conduct, perception, and law.

    OpenAIRE

    Morden, Hilary Kim

    2012-01-01

    The anonymity, affordability, and accessibility of the Internet can shelter individuals who perpetrate violent acts online. In Canada, some of these acts are prosecuted under existing criminal law statutes (e.g., cyber-stalking, under harassment, s. 264, and cyber-bullying, under intimidation, s. 423[1]). However, it is unclear whether victims of other online behaviours such as cyber-rape and organized griefing have any established legal recourse. Examples of virtual violence in social net...

  17. Responding to Catastrophe via Law Enforcement Deployment Teams: A Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    emergency medicine, canine -handling, firefighting, law enforcement, hazardous material handling, communications and logistics.128 The team’s purpose...were unavailable due to vacation, injury or other reasons. Maintenance of records, training and availability of canines were also problems.153 The...federalism is maintained under this approach, debate has raged as to its continued effectiveness. Kettl points out that while Arlington and New York

  18. Thermodynamic analysis of absorption refrigeration cycles using the second law of thermodynamics method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aphornratana, S; Eames, I W [Sheffield Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mechanical and Process Engineering

    1995-05-01

    The paper provides an easy to follow description of the second law (of thermodynamics) method as applied to a single-effect absorption refrigerator cycle. Results are presented in a novel graphical format, which aids insight and understanding of those factors that most affect the performance of absorption refrigerators, and which in turn provides strong indicators for the direction of future research. A novel method of calculating the entropy of lithium bromide solutions is offered. (author)

  19. The Relationship between Youth Unemployment and Economic Growth in Central and Eastern European Countries: An Empirical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leman ERDAL

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study has analyzed the relationship between youth unemployment and economic growth, in the context of Okun law, by using new generation panel data analysis and cointegration tests. In this study, 18 Central and Eastern European country have been selected as subject matter whose youth unemployment rate is above the EU-28 average (25 % for the period 2006-2012. The results show that, if youth unemployment is quite severe; even an exclusive economic growth will not be enough to reduce the youth unemployment rate in the country. It is recommended that the global and country-specific policies which are effective, result-driven on youth (Un employment and labour market issues, should be developed. This study is expected to make a significant contribution to the literature on unemployment and social conflict.

  20. Integrated environmental protection obligations under European law, survey analysis of Austrian legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthaler, W.

    2001-05-01

    This work focuses on legal instruments serving integrated environmental protection, especially with respect to administrative procedures concerning plant permits, and their inhorent limits. Initially, the legal and scientific approach pursued under the notion of 'integrated environmental protection' and 'environmental impact assessment' is examined and clarified in chapter A. Based thereon, chapter B deals with the obligations resulting from the EIA-Directive and - compared therewith - from the IPPC-Directive with regard to procedures for plant permits. Further, Austria's delay in fully transposing these directives is examined. When dealing with the constitutional basis for transposing the EIA- and IPPC-D into Austrian administrative law (chapter C), the inherent limits of some competence of legislation are discovered to be too narrow to ensure full compliance with EC law; only with regard to EIA, legistation is based on sound constitutional ground. The second part of the work is devoted to three areas of discussion on EIA- and IPPC-procedures under Austrian law: the scope of their applicability (chapter D), the problems of integrated evaluation and the limits of ecological expertise (chapter E) and aspects of public participation (chapter F). The study is concluded by a summary of the main results (chapter G). (author)

  1. [Body, rights and comprehensive health: Analysis of the parliamentary debates on the Gender Identity and Assisted Fertilization Laws (Argentina, 2011-2013)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farji Neer, Anahí

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we present an analysis of the parliamentary debates of the Gender Identity Law (No. 26743) and the Assisted Fertilization Law (No. 26862) carried out in the Argentine National Congress between 2011 and 2013. Using a qualitative content analysis technique, the stenographic records of the debates were analyzed to explore the following questions: How was the public problem to which each law responds characterized? How was the mission of each law conceptualized? To what extent did those definitions call into question ideas of health and illness, in including in the public health system coverage for certain medical treatments of body optimization or modification? In the process of sanctioning both laws, the concepts of health and disease were put into dispute as moral categories. In this context, an expanded concept of comprehensive health arose, in which desires regarding reproduction and the body were included.

  2. Micromechanical analysis of volumetric growth in the context of open systems thermodynamics and configurational mechanics. Application to tumor growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganghoffer, J. F.; Boubaker, M. B.

    2017-03-01

    We adopt in this paper the physically and micromechanically motivated point of view that growth (resp. resorption) occurs as the expansion (resp. contraction) of initially small tissue elements distributed within a host surrounding matrix, due to the interfacial motion of their boundary. The interface motion is controlled by the availability of nutrients and mechanical driving forces resulting from the internal stresses that built in during the growth. A general extremum principle of the zero potential for open systems witnessing a change of their mass due to the diffusion of nutrients is constructed, considering the framework of open systems thermodynamics. We postulate that the shape of the tissue element evolves in such a way as to minimize the zero potential among all possible admissible shapes of the growing tissue elements. The resulting driving force for the motion of the interface sets a surface growth models at the scale of the growing tissue elements, and is conjugated to a driving force identified as the interfacial jump of the normal component of an energy momentum tensor, in line with Hadamard's structure theorem. The balance laws associated with volumetric growth at the mesoscopic level result as the averaging of surface growth mechanisms occurring at the microscopic scale of the growing tissue elements. The average kinematics has been formulated in terms of the effective growth velocity gradient and elastic rate of deformation tensor, both functions of time. This formalism is exemplified by the simulation of the avascular growth of multicell spheroids in the presence of diffusion of nutrients, showing the respective influence of mechanical and chemical driving forces in relation to generation of internal stresses.

  3. Mandeville on Corruption and Law

    OpenAIRE

    Simonazzi, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    This essay makes a distinction between two different meanings of the word «corruption»: moral corruption and legal corruption. The thesis is that in Mandeville's thought vice can be useful, while crime is always damaging. In this perspective, law is fundamental to tell vice from crime. Three points are examined: 1) the relationships between law and human nature, law and ethics, law and society; 2) the analysis of Mandeville's theory of law, in particular its nature and development; 3) the the...

  4. Italy’s “Industry 4.0” Plan: A labour law analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Tiraboschi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available New technologies and productive models lie at the heart of so-called Indus-try 4.0, a concept which has recently entered socio-economic and political discourse in a number of countries. Lately, Italy too has presented an action plan on Industry 4.0 and some operational measures on this issue have al-ready been envisaged in the Budget Law for 2017. Consequently, the aim of this paper is to look at Italy’s Industry 4.0 plan, focusing on consequences arising from labour law. The labour law perspective has been given scant consideration in the public debate, seeing that so far the latter has given pri-ority on technological aspects and on economic resources needed to imple-ment the plan. An approach of this kind enables us to appreciate the major changes that the Industry 4.0 paradigm will bring about in labour markets – either inside or outside companies – and in industrial relations. The idea of labour and that of doing business will also be questioned, leading to the conclusion that labour rules and active policies can also be factors enabling new productive processes. Examining the major challenges posed by Indus-try 4.0 to workers and employers (e.g. the crisis of subordination, the new roles of skills, the risk of technological unemployment, new decentralized and participatory forms of collective bargaining, this paper sets out to iden-tify actions and perspectives to manage current changes, focusing on work-ers rather than on those technologies that will be used to work in the years to come. In the authors’ opinion, this perspective might help raise awareness that labour law is not only tasked with providing protection and resources and with favouring production, but it has important functions in historical and political terms. Therefore, this branch of law is not doomed to be set aside following the demise of Fordism, but it will innovate over time to ena-ble and balance the new productive model underlying Industry 4.0., particu

  5. Renewable electricity policies an analysis of quotas, feed-in laws and a proposal for EU harmonization of feed-in laws : tesis doctoral /

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz Cabré, Miquel

    2008-01-01

    A portada: Departament de Física ; Departament d'Economia i Història Consultable des del TDX Títol obtingut de la portada digitalitzada Les dues principals contribucions d'aquesta tesis son: 1. una comparació entre els dos instruments per a la promoció de l'electricitat renovable, és a dir, feed-in laws I quotes. 2. una proposta per a l'harmonització de feed-in laws a la Unió europea La tesis està estructurada en cinc parts. La Part I explica el sector elèctric liberalitzat, així com...

  6. Renewable electricity policies: an analysis of quotas, feeds-in laws and a proposal for EU harmonization of feeds-in laws

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz Cabré, Miquel

    2007-01-01

    Les dues principals contribucions d'aquesta tesis son:1. una comparació entre els dos instruments per a la promoció de l'electricitat renovable, és a dir, feed-in laws I quotes.2. una proposta per a l'harmonització de feed-in laws a la Unió europeaLa tesis està estructurada en cinc parts.La Part I explica el sector elèctric liberalitzat, així com les tecnologies existents per electricitat renovable. D'aquestes tecnologies, les que tenen ritmes de creixement majors Durant la última dècada son ...

  7. [Analysis of Medication Laws for Chinese Medicine Treating Hypertension Patients with Yin Defi- ciency Yang Hyperactivity Syndrome Based on Literatures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning; Hou, Ya-zhu; Wang, Xian-liang; Mao, Jing-yuan

    2016-04-01

    To analyze medication laws of Chinese medicine (CM) treatment in hypertension patients with yin deficiency yang hyperactivity syndrome. China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI, Jan. 1979-Dec 2014), Chinese Scientific Journals Database (VIP, Jan 1989-Dec2014), Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM, Jan.1978-Dec.2014), Wanfang Database (Jan 1990-Dec 2014) were retrieved by using "hypertension", "CM", "Chinese herbs", "syndrome" as keywords. Totally 149 literatures concerning CM treatment for hypertension patients with yin deficiency yanghyperactivity syndrome were included in this study. The herbs database was established by SPSS20.0,and correlation laws were analyzed by SAS9.3. With the Pajek3.1, results were presented visually withcomplex networks. There were 149 literatures including 131 kinds of herbs with 1,598 frequencies. The conventional compatibility program of herbs for asthenic yin and predominant yang syndrome of hypertension were two toothed achyranthes root, tall gastrodia rhizome, Cassia obtusifolia L., eucommiabark, baikal skullcap root, and so on, about 29 kinds. Of them, core herbs were two toothed achyranthes root, tall gastrodia rhizome, Cassia obtusifolia L., poria, prepared rhizome of rehmannia, oriental water-plantain tuber, asiatic cornelian cherry fruit, Uncariae Rhynchophylla, common yam rhizome, the rootbark of the peony tree, and so on. Medication laws of CM treatment in hypertension patientswith yin deficiency yang hyperactivity syndrome obtained by analysis of complex networks reflected thetherapeutics of nourishing yin to suppress yang, which could further provide reference for clinical studies.

  8. Music Education in the School Curriculum: An Analysis of the Impact of Law 11.769/08

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Luiz Ferreira de Figueiredo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents part of the results of a research study on the regulation and practice of Law 11.769/08, which established music as a compulsory curricular content in Brazilian schools. The objective is to analyze the impact of this law on education systems across all regions of Brazil. This text, specifically, analyzes documents of the states in the Southeast region of Brazil. The study adopts a qualitative orientation, considering data available online through state department of education websites and websites specialized in competitive public examinations for teachers. The methodological procedures include collection, selection, description and analysis of official documents, notices and public calls for teacher recruitment. This text, specifically, analyzes documents of the states in the Southeast region of Brazil. The results show an impact of Law 11.769/08 in different educational systems, mainly the existence of specific places for music teachers in public calls, which implies that certain educational systems are attentive to including music as a required curriculum component.

  9. Structural analysis of Ag growth on Ni(111)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Axel; Flege, Jan Ingo; Falta, Jens [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Bremen, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Senanayake, Sanjaya [Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Alamgir, Faisal [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0245 (United States)

    2010-07-01

    The growth structure and morphology of ultra-thin metal films on metallic substrates strongly influence the physical and chemical properties of the resulting bimetallic system. Therefore, a particular knowledge of these properties is crucial for creating functional materials with novel characteristics. In this contribution, a detailed study of the growth of ultra-thin silver films on the Ni(111) surface employing in-situ low-energy electron microscopy and diffraction (LEEM/LEED) is presented. In the entire temperature range from 470 K to 850 K, silver is observed to grow in a Stranski-Krastanov mode with a wetting layer exhibiting a critical thickness of two atomic layers. For lower temperatures, the Ag films take on a collinear (7 x 7) structure or a 1 {sup circle} tilted ({radical}(57) x {radical}(57))R6.59 {sup circle} structure, respectively, the latter as predicted by Chambon et al. (Phys. Rev. B 79 125412 (2009)). Elevated temperatures over 675 K lead to a ({radical}(52) x {radical}(52))R13.9 {sup circle} reconstruction with extended rotational domains on the Ni(111) surface, while Ag/Ni intermixing is not observed throughout the whole temperature range. Furthermore, by quantitative intensity-voltage analysis of the specular beam, layer-dependent surface relaxations were determined.

  10. Determinants of renewable energy growth: A global sample analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguirre, Mariana; Ibikunle, Gbenga

    2014-01-01

    We investigate factors influencing country-level renewable energy growth by applying FEVD and PCSE estimation methods in a unique sample analysis. With a longer time series (1990–2010) and a broader sample size of countries (including Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) than previous studies, our results reveal new insights. The results suggest that certain government-backed energy policies impede renewable energy investments, thus implying significant failures in policy design. These policies may be failing mainly because of uncertainty and the likelihood of discontinuity. Weak voluntary approaches are introduced in order to satisfy public demand for more sustainable investments and programmes; we find that these may have negative influences on the growth of renewables as well. The insight gained is consistent over the estimation methods employed. - Highlights: • Some public energy policies are shown to impede renewable energy investments; this implies failure in policy design. • Environmental concern is shown to drive renewables investment but energy security concerns do not seem to influence renewables investment. • Results suggest that countries are likely to reduce renewables commitments when under pressure to ensure energy supply. • Results seem to underscore the policy lobbying strength of the traditional energy mix industries

  11. 129 Analysis of the Implementation of Child Rights Law in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    2011-01-18

    Jan 18, 2011 ... Cronbach Alpha reliability coefficient was determined using 50 Civil. Servant ... the position of agreement in the four- point scale (SA, A, D, and SD) .... hence cutting off educational opportunity and chances of personal growth.

  12. Can Laws Be a Potential PET Image Texture Analysis Approach for Evaluation of Tumor Heterogeneity and Histopathological Characteristics in NSCLC?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karacavus, Seyhan; Yılmaz, Bülent; Tasdemir, Arzu; Kayaaltı, Ömer; Kaya, Eser; İçer, Semra; Ayyıldız, Oguzhan

    2018-04-01

    We investigated the association between the textural features obtained from 18 F-FDG images, metabolic parameters (SUVmax , SUVmean, MTV, TLG), and tumor histopathological characteristics (stage and Ki-67 proliferation index) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The FDG-PET images of 67 patients with NSCLC were evaluated. MATLAB technical computing language was employed in the extraction of 137 features by using first order statistics (FOS), gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM), gray-level run length matrix (GLRLM), and Laws' texture filters. Textural features and metabolic parameters were statistically analyzed in terms of good discrimination power between tumor stages, and selected features/parameters were used in the automatic classification by k-nearest neighbors (k-NN) and support vector machines (SVM). We showed that one textural feature (gray-level nonuniformity, GLN) obtained using GLRLM approach and nine textural features using Laws' approach were successful in discriminating all tumor stages, unlike metabolic parameters. There were significant correlations between Ki-67 index and some of the textural features computed using Laws' method (r = 0.6, p = 0.013). In terms of automatic classification of tumor stage, the accuracy was approximately 84% with k-NN classifier (k = 3) and SVM, using selected five features. Texture analysis of FDG-PET images has a potential to be an objective tool to assess tumor histopathological characteristics. The textural features obtained using Laws' approach could be useful in the discrimination of tumor stage.

  13. Fundamental rights, contract law and the protection of the weaker party: a comparative analysis of the constitutionalisation of contract Law, with emphasis on risky financial transactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cherednychenko, O.O.

    2007-01-01

    Originally, contract law was considered to be immune from the effect of fundamental rights, the function of which was limited to being individual defences against the vigilant eye of the State. This traditional view, however, has recently been put under pressure as a result of fundamental rights

  14. Web Accessibility for Older Adults: A Comparative Analysis of Disability Laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y Tony; Chen, Brian

    2015-10-01

    Access to the Internet is increasingly critical for health information retrieval, access to certain government benefits and services, connectivity to friends and family members, and an array of commercial and social services that directly affect health. Yet older adults, particularly those with disabilities, are at risk of being left behind in this growing age- and disability-based digital divide. The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) was designed to guarantee older adults and persons with disabilities equal access to employment, retail, and other places of public accommodation. Yet older Internet users sometimes face challenges when they try to access the Internet because of disabilities associated with age. Current legal interpretations of the ADA, however, do not consider the Internet to be an entity covered by law. In this article, we examine the current state of Internet accessibility protection in the United States through the lens of the ADA, sections 504 and 508 of the Rehabilitation Act, state laws and industry guidelines. We then compare U.S. rules to those of OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development) countries, notably in the European Union, Canada, Japan, Australia, and the Nordic countries. Our policy recommendations follow from our analyses of these laws and guidelines, and we conclude that the biggest challenge in bridging the age- and disability-based digital divide is the need to extend accessibility requirements to private, not just governmental, entities and organizations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. International Law Studies. The War in Iraq: A Legal Analysis. Violume 86

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ment in the Security Council debates concerning Iraq on a "strict constructionist " approach to thejus ad bellum. That is, the strict limits on the use...discrimination solely on the ground of race, colour, sex, language, religion or social origin. 73. DlNSTEIN, supra note 41, at 72. 74. Thomas Buergenthal, To...Bacteriological Methods ofWarfare, June 17, 1925, 26 U.S.T. 571, T.I.A.S. 8061, reprinted in DOCUMENTS ON THE LAWS OF WAR, supra, at 158 (Iraq made statements

  16. Analysis of diodes used as precision power detectors above the square law region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldbrandsen, Tom

    1990-01-01

    The deviation from square law found in diode power detectors at moderate power levels has been modeled for a general system consisting of a number of diode detectors connected to a common arbitrary linear passive network, containing an approximately sinusoidal source. This situation covers the case...... if an extra-set of measurements is made in situ. For precision measurements the maximum power level can be increased by about 10 dB. The dynamic range can thus be increased sufficiently to enable fast measurements to be made with an accuracy of 10-3 dB...

  17. Rape Crime, Law and Victim’s Right an Analysis from Indian Penal System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sindhu VIJAYA KUMAR

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available God endowed man and women with same sense of emotion, passion, pain and pleasure, yet both differ from each other. Her gentle tenderness and tolerance make her different from her fellow partner. Indeed women are given place of pride in almost all the religion. Her importance, rights and privileges are recognized by almost all religious scripture. Even then she is subjected to several socialprejudices. Causing carnal catastrophe is one of the most demeaning devices adopted to subjugate women. Today the greater challenging before her is to protect her dignity chastity and virginity.Women are sexually exploited in almost all sphere of life. This crime has neither face of its own nor any territorial boundary but with the fact that women are to greater extent its victim, the degree of thiscrime and the victims’ status aftermath the crime differ. In India the incident of rape seems to be less when compared with the foreign country. Numerically, among all crime rape is relatively in frequentphenomenon (0.3 % of total crime in India but among the crime against the women the rape constitute the highest percentage. Case study reveals that there has been a strong increase in offenceof rape in past decade. There has been almost 2,487 rape cases reported between 1971 to 1978, which had increased to 4,621 cases in the same year. According to the official statistic produce by theNational Human right commission Delhi in the year 1991, one woman is molested every 26 minute. These are statistic reported cases, which if include unreported cases the matter would have been ofevery second rather than minute. In response to this government of India approached Law commission with a request to suggest substantive and procedural reformation of criminal law. In spite of amendment made to the criminal law in 1983, the legal system could hardy control the crime, perhaps there is a necessity of awaking calls from the victims’ side on one hand and rapid

  18. Penrose's Law in Ireland: an ecological analysis of psychiatric inpatients and prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, B D

    2007-02-01

    Penrose's Law states that as the number of psychiatric inpatients declines, the number of prisoners increases. We studied data from the annual census of psychiatric inpatients and prison statistics in Ireland. Between 1963 and 2003, the number of psychiatric inpatients decreased by 81.5% (a five-fold decrease) and the average number of prisoners increased by 494.8% (a five-fold increase) (Spearman's rho=-0.992, PIreland compared to England; this may relate to ecological study designs or differences in prison, health or re-institutionalisation practices.

  19. Basic conservation laws in the electromagnetic theory of cyclotron radiation: further analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lieu, R.; Leahy, D.A.

    1984-01-01

    The conflict of basic conservation laws in cyclotron radiation is considered in more general terms, taking into account relativistic effects of the electron. Also investigated are the effects due to the most important approximation in cyclotron theory, viz the omission of radiation back reaction. The conclusions are (i) the disagreement is of a magnitude considerably larger than any errors introduced by the approximation; (ii) the 'degree of conflict' attains its maximum in relativistic velocities, when the energy loss to radiation can approach the total energy of the electron. (author)

  20. Vibration analysis of FG cylindrical shells with power-law index using discrete singular convolution technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercan, Kadir; Demir, Çiǧdem; Civalek, Ömer

    2016-01-01

    In the present manuscript, free vibration response of circular cylindrical shells with functionally graded material (FGM) is investigated. The method of discrete singular convolution (DSC) is used for numerical solution of the related governing equation of motion of FGM cylindrical shell. The constitutive relations are based on the Love's first approximation shell theory. The material properties are graded in the thickness direction according to a volume fraction power law indexes. Frequency values are calculated for different types of boundary conditions, material and geometric parameters. In general, close agreement between the obtained results and those of other researchers has been found.

  1. FASTRAN II - FATIGUE CRACK GROWTH STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS (UNIX VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, J. C.

    1994-01-01

    Predictions of fatigue crack growth behavior can be made with the Fatigue Crack Growth Structural Analysis (FASTRAN II) computer program. As cyclic loads are applied to a selected crack configuration with an initial crack size, FASTRAN II predicts crack growth as a function of cyclic load history until either a desired crack size is reached or failure occurs. FASTRAN II is based on plasticity-induced crack-closure behavior of cracks in metallic materials and accounts for load-interaction effects, such as retardation and acceleration, under variable-amplitude loading. The closure model is based on the Dugdale model with modifications to allow plastically deformed material to be left along the crack surfaces as the crack grows. Plane stress and plane strain conditions, as well as conditions between these two, can be simulated in FASTRAN II by using a constraint factor on tensile yielding at the crack front to approximately account for three-dimensional stress states. FASTRAN II contains seventeen predefined crack configurations (standard laboratory fatigue crack growth rate specimens and many common crack configurations found in structures); and the user can define one additional crack configuration. The baseline crack growth rate properties (effective stress-intensity factor against crack growth rate) may be given in either equation or tabular form. For three-dimensional crack configurations, such as surface cracks or corner cracks at holes or notches, the fatigue crack growth rate properties may be different in the crack depth and crack length directions. Final failure of the cracked structure can be modelled with fracture toughness properties using either linear-elastic fracture mechanics (brittle materials), a two-parameter fracture criterion (brittle to ductile materials), or plastic collapse (extremely ductile materials). The crack configurations in FASTRAN II can be subjected to either constant-amplitude, variable-amplitude or spectrum loading. The applied

  2. FASTRAN II - FATIGUE CRACK GROWTH STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS (IBM PC VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, J. C.

    1994-01-01

    Predictions of fatigue crack growth behavior can be made with the Fatigue Crack Growth Structural Analysis (FASTRAN II) computer program. As cyclic loads are applied to a selected crack configuration with an initial crack size, FASTRAN II predicts crack growth as a function of cyclic load history until either a desired crack size is reached or failure occurs. FASTRAN II is based on plasticity-induced crack-closure behavior of cracks in metallic materials and accounts for load-interaction effects, such as retardation and acceleration, under variable-amplitude loading. The closure model is based on the Dugdale model with modifications to allow plastically deformed material to be left along the crack surfaces as the crack grows. Plane stress and plane strain conditions, as well as conditions between these two, can be simulated in FASTRAN II by using a constraint factor on tensile yielding at the crack front to approximately account for three-dimensional stress states. FASTRAN II contains seventeen predefined crack configurations (standard laboratory fatigue crack growth rate specimens and many common crack configurations found in structures); and the user can define one additional crack configuration. The baseline crack growth rate properties (effective stress-intensity factor against crack growth rate) may be given in either equation or tabular form. For three-dimensional crack configurations, such as surface cracks or corner cracks at holes or notches, the fatigue crack growth rate properties may be different in the crack depth and crack length directions. Final failure of the cracked structure can be modelled with fracture toughness properties using either linear-elastic fracture mechanics (brittle materials), a two-parameter fracture criterion (brittle to ductile materials), or plastic collapse (extremely ductile materials). The crack configurations in FASTRAN II can be subjected to either constant-amplitude, variable-amplitude or spectrum loading. The applied

  3. Analysis of the growth poles in esthetic dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Dana Tudose

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Growth poles are considered dynamic elements of economic growth, responsible for economical technogical, ideological, spiritual and moral integration.Bioeconomy is currently an area of great and mighty power development. High complexity of this field is to combine the use of technologies that use biological resources in the range of human values involved. This study requires that objective SWOT analysis applied in dental esthetics with strict reference to the quality of work in relation to aesthetic and functional effectiveness of the treatment, the life, the method of reconstruction, working technique, the degree of invasiveness of treatment in relation to conservation dental tissues ,execution costs, costs of resources used in dental anterior segment reconstruction and economic analysis of the modalities of treatment techniques reported the need and level of understanding of patients on treatment aesthetic-functional complexity. As material and method took into account the interaction of four factors: Strenghts-Weaknesses-Opportunities -Hazards. In group “Strengths” we have included successful treatment aesthetic-functional execution moderate cost, short time working on the seat, which shows limited use of natural resources. In group “Weaknesses” I included invasiveness of biological treatment, increased during execution of the work, aesthetic-functional failure , lack of training practitioners in dental aesthetics, lack of existant cabinets to promote interest in aesthetic dental medicine. “Opportunities” referred to the minimally invasive treatment of dental tissue in existing clinical context with predictable results, as higher interest of patients for dental esthetics, raising the standard of care internationally. In group “Risks” (threats I listed: low resistance while works (weak predictability, decreasing purchasing power, changing customer preferences, increase service quality standards. In the second chapter we

  4. Lie symmetry analysis, exact solutions and conservation laws for the time fractional Caudrey-Dodd-Gibbon-Sawada-Kotera equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baleanu, Dumitru; Inc, Mustafa; Yusuf, Abdullahi; Aliyu, Aliyu Isa

    2018-06-01

    In this work, we investigate the Lie symmetry analysis, exact solutions and conservation laws (Cls) to the time fractional Caudrey-Dodd-Gibbon-Sawada-Kotera (CDGDK) equation with Riemann-Liouville (RL) derivative. The time fractional CDGDK is reduced to nonlinear ordinary differential equation (ODE) of fractional order. New exact traveling wave solutions for the time fractional CDGDK are obtained by fractional sub-equation method. In the reduced equation, the derivative is in Erdelyi-Kober (EK) sense. Ibragimov's nonlocal conservation method is applied to construct Cls for time fractional CDGDK.

  5. Right to decide and self-determination in the Catalan case. Analysis and reflection according to the Spanish Constitutional Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Marietta OLCESE SCHENONE

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the issue of the right to decide and self-determination in the current case of Catalonia from a legal point of view and within the Spanish constitutional framework. In particular, this analysis explores three aspects: a The right to self-determination, general aspects and the Spanish Constitution; b The right to decide as a regional consultation or referendum under Spanish law; c Initiative of constitutional reform as a possible way to deal with the separatist aspirations of Catalonia. 

  6. Italian law on the vehicular homicide: medical legal issues and comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanari Vergallo, G; Marinelli, E; di Luca, N M; Masotti, V; Cecchi, R; Zaami, S

    2017-01-01

    Law no. 41/2016, enacted after a parliamentary debate characterized by a strong media pressure, intends to give a strong response to the growing social alarm caused by road accidents causing deaths. In this perspective, it introduced the categories of road homicide and road injuries within the Penal Code and the new hypotheses of mandatory and facultative arrest in flagrante delicto. This paper aims at comparing the rules by which the United Kingdom, France, Spain, Germany and Italy protect people's lives and safety of vehicular traffic in order to highlight strengths and weaknesses with a view to future reforms. A survey on the European legislature highlights that, while other countries tend to criminally sanction several dangerous driving conducts, Italy has preferred, on the one hand, to punish only with administrative sanctions some violations related to reckless driving (with the exception of driving under the influence of alcohol and drugs) and, on the other, to provide for particularly harsh prison sentences in the case of vehicular homicide. The authors criticize this approach and other aspects of the new law. Moreover, it seems that the legislator's aim has not been achieved because traffic accidents have not decreased. They also believe that better results could be obtained by increasing controls on the roads and developing a policy of economical investments which improves road safety.

  7. The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: Analysis of Program Administration and Food Law Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L; Chriqui, Jamie F

    2015-09-01

    Under the current version of the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), participants can purchase virtually any food or beverage (collectively, food). Research indicates that SNAP recipients may have worse dietary quality than income-eligible nonparticipants. Policymakers have urged the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) to pilot SNAP purchasing restrictions intended to support a healthier diet, and state legislators have proposed similar bills. The USDA rejected these invitations, stating that it would be administratively and logistically difficult to differentiate among products, amid other concerns. However, the USDA's Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) do just that. Further, state governments define and differentiate among foods and beverages for tax purposes. This paper reviews several factors intended to inform future policy decisions: the science indicating that SNAP recipients have poorer diet quality than income-eligible nonparticipants; the public's support for revising the SNAP program; federal, state, and city legislators' formal proposals to amend SNAP based on nutrition criteria and the USDA's public position in opposition to these proposals; state bills to amend eligible foods purchasable with SNAP benefits; state retail food tax laws; and the retail administration and program requirements for both WIC and SNAP. The paper finds that the government has a clear ability to align SNAP benefits with nutrition science and operationalize this into law. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Empirical analysis of the types of destructiveness of law enforcement officers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlokazov K.V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The variety of existing scientific concepts of the problem of personality destructiveness is shown. The character of such general conclusions does not facilitate the cognition and prediction of destructive phenomena. The author proves the necessity to develop psychological theory of destructiveness which methodologically unites well-known but separate phenomena of psychological life of an individual. The fundamental propositions of this theory are argued: destructiveness is an active behaviour; it is aimed at perceived goal and formed on the basis of need perceived by an individual. The following features of destructiveness are distinguished: individual typological, regulatory, value characteristics of personality; peculiarities of person’s attitude to significant aspects of life – to the self, society and professional activity. The author proposes his own method of destructiveness diagnostics aimed at describing destructive and constructive components of social and professional activity of a person. Diagnostics indicators are the following: typological preconditions of destructiveness; features of regulation of activity and relations; value characteristics of individuals related to destructiveness. Indicators, describing the level of personal disadaptation, are provided. Personality destructiveness indicators of 211 law enforcement officers (93 % – males, mean age – 34 were analyzed, which allowed to group and describe psychological characteristics of 4 types of destructiveness. They are: socially alienated – 31 % of respondents, socially destructive – 29 %, asocially destructive – 23 %, asocially alienated – 17 %. This typology allows to generalize psychological preconditions of destructive and constructive behaviour of law enforcement officers. The author proposes further analyzing the provisions of conception of personality destructiveness.

  9. [The Lambert-Beer's law characterization of formal analysis in Terahertz spectrum quantitative testing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hai-Xia; Zhang, Zhao-Hui; Zhao, Xiao-Yan; Li, Zhi; Yan, Fang; Zhang, Han

    2013-12-01

    The present paper discusses the Lambert-Beer' s law application in the terahertz spectrum, studies the single amino acid tablet sample (glutamine) and two kinds of amino acids mixture tablet (threonine and cystine) under the condition of different concentrations. Absorbance and absorption coefficient was analyzed in the description of the terahertz optical properties of matter. By comparing absorption coefficient and absorbance value of the single component in the vicinity of 1. 72 THz, we verified the material under two kinds of absorption characterization of quantity of THz wave absorption along with the change in the concentration. Using the index of goodness of fit R , it studied the stand or fall of linear relationship between the terahertz absorption quantity of material and concentration under two kinds of representation. This paper analyzes the two components mixture under two kinds of absorption characterization of quantity of terahertz absorption in 0. 3-2. 6 THz. Using the similarity co- efficient and the estimate concentration error as evaluation index, it has been clear that the absorbance of additivity instead of the absorption coefficient should be used during the terahertz spectrum quantitative test, and the Lambert-Beer's law application in the terahertz wave band was further clarified.

  10. Legal instruments for groundwater protection. A systematic analysis of EU law and German federal law and state law; Rechtliche Instrumente des Grundwasserschutzes. Eine systematische Analyse des EG-, Bundes- und Landesrechts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotulla, M.

    1999-07-01

    In Germany, the groundwater quality is endangered by a great variety of anthropogenic activities. Although it is widely accepted that the situation calls for quick action and implementation of legal provisions for efficient, nationwide protection of this essential natural resource, the legislature so far remained disappointingly inactive. This is why the author of the study presented in this book examines existing German federal and state law as well as EU law in order to reveal the possibilities offered by those bodies of law. The author analyses the many, splintered legal provisions under public law that are applicable today in Germany in absence of a proper code of environmental law, for their capability of being applied for protection of the groundwater. The legal instruments are identified and evaluated for the given purpose, and approaches for harmonisation or maybe optimisation are elaborated. (orig./CB) [German] Das Grundwasser in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland ist von einer Vielzahl zivilisatorischer Aktivitaeten bedroht. Strategien fuer einen prinzipiell flaechendeckend wirksamen Schutz dieser Naturressource werden zwar mittlerweile allenthalben gefordert, zeigen bislang aber nicht die erhoffte Wirkung. Vor diesem Hintergrund untersucht der Autor in dieser Studie die rechtlichen Moeglichkeiten, welche die bundesdeutsche Rechtsordnung unter Einbeziehung des einschlaegigen EG-Rechts zum Schutz des Grundwassers bereithaelt. Er analysiert primaer das in den letzten dreieinhalb Jahrzehnten zu einem unueberschaubaren Konglomerat angewachsene oeffentlich-rechtliche Umweltschutzregelwerk auf seine grundwasserschuetzende Eignung. Es gilt insbesondere, die diffus und querschnittartig ueber die verschiedensten Rechtsbereiche vertreuten Instrumentarien zu ermitteln und zu bewerten sowie - wo erforderlich - zu harmonisieren oder gar zu optimieren. (orig.)

  11. Causes analysis on the serious defect of enterprise environmental responsibility—Based on the perspective of law and economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fa, L. N.

    2017-11-01

    As the important Environmental Interests of Subjects, enterprises behoove to undertake the corresponding responsibility of Pollution Control and Environmental Protection. The current situations in our country, however, appear as the serious lack of enterprise environmental responsibility. Based on the analysis of law and economics, this article reaches the conclusion through game analysis and cost-benefit analysis that the prisoners dilemma of environmental interest game between enterprises is the inherent causes for the serious defect of enterprise environmental responsibility. Meanwhile, at the point of cost-benefit, the externality of environment illegal act results in the imbalanced cost-benefit, lacking of the motivation to control pollution and protect environment in an active way.

  12. Analysis of domestic debt: implication for economic growth in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper principally analysed the importance of domestic debt on economic growth of Nigeria. The objective of the study is to investigate the relationship between government domestic debt and economic growth and policy that is likely to improve private sector investment and break growth resistance problem.

  13. Analysis of growth characteristics in short-term divergently selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    weeks of age body weight in divergent lines of Japanese quail. Growth curves for both sexes within each selection group resembled the general sigmoid shape of a typical growth curve. Gompertz model curves and the observed growth curves were ...

  14. Health care law versus constitutional law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Mark A

    2013-04-01

    National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius, the Supreme Court's ruling on the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, is a landmark decision - both for constitutional law and for health care law and policy. Others will study its implications for constitutional limits on a range of federal powers beyond health care. This article considers to what extent the decision is also about health care law, properly conceived. Under one view, health care law is the subdiscipline that inquires how courts and government actors take account of the special features of medicine that make legal or policy issues especially problematic - rather than regarding health care delivery and finance more generically, like most any other economic or social enterprise. Viewed this way, the opinions from the Court's conservative justices are mainly about general constitutional law principles. In contrast, Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg's dissenting opinion for the four more liberal justices is just as much about health care law as it is about constitutional law. Her opinion gives detailed attention to the unique features of health care finance and delivery in order to inform her analysis of constitutional precedents and principles. Thus, the Court's multiple opinions give a vivid depiction of the compelling contrasts between communal versus individualistic conceptions of caring for those in need, and between health care and health insurance as ordinary commodities versus ones that merit special economic, social, and legal status.

  15. Environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloepfer, M.

    1989-01-01

    This comprehensive reference book on environmental law and practice also is a valuable textbook for students specializing in the field. The entire law on pollution control and environmental protection is presented in an intelligent system, covering the latest developments in the Federal and Land legislation, public environmental law, and the related provisions in the fields of civil law and criminal law. The national survey is rounded up by information concerning the international environmental law, environmental law of the European Communities, and of other foreign countries as e.g. Austria and Switzerland. The author also reviews conditions in neighbouring fields such as technology and labour law, environmental economy, environmental policy. Special attention is given to current topics, as e.g. relating to genetic engineering, disused landfills or industrial sites, soil protection, transport of hazardous goods, liability for damage to forests, atomic energy law, and radiation protection law. The latest publishing dates of literature and court decisions considered in the book are in the first months of 1989. (RST) [de

  16. Analysis of Fatigue Crack Growth in Ship Structural Details

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leheta Heba W.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue failure avoidance is a goal that can be achieved only if the fatigue design is an integral part of the original design program. The purpose of fatigue design is to ensure that the structure has adequate fatigue life. Calculated fatigue life can form the basis for meaningful and efficient inspection programs during fabrication and throughout the life of the ship. The main objective of this paper is to develop an add-on program for the analysis of fatigue crack growth in ship structural details. The developed program will be an add-on script in a pre-existing package. A crack propagation in a tanker side connection is analyzed by using the developed program based on linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM and finite element method (FEM. The basic idea of the developed application is that a finite element model of this side connection will be first analyzed by using ABAQUS and from the results of this analysis the location of the highest stresses will be revealed. At this location, an initial crack will be introduced to the finite element model and from the results of the new crack model the direction of the crack propagation and the values of the stress intensity factors, will be known. By using the calculated direction of propagation a new segment will be added to the crack and then the model is analyzed again. The last step will be repeated until the calculated stress intensity factors reach the critical value.

  17. Metabolic flux analysis of heterotrophic growth in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanette R Boyle

    Full Text Available Despite the wealth of knowledge available for C. reinhardtii, the central metabolic fluxes of growth on acetate have not yet been determined. In this study, 13C-metabolic flux analysis (13C-MFA was used to determine and quantify the metabolic pathways of primary metabolism in C. reinhardtii cells grown under heterotrophic conditions with acetate as the sole carbon source. Isotopic labeling patterns of compartment specific biomass derived metabolites were used to calculate the fluxes. It was found that acetate is ligated with coenzyme A in the three subcellular compartments (cytosol, mitochondria and plastid included in the model. Two citrate synthases were found to potentially be involved in acetyl-coA metabolism; one localized in the mitochondria and the other acting outside the mitochondria. Labeling patterns demonstrate that Acetyl-coA synthesized in the plastid is directly incorporated in synthesis of fatty acids. Despite having a complete TCA cycle in the mitochondria, it was also found that a majority of the malate flux is shuttled to the cytosol and plastid where it is converted to oxaloacetate providing reducing equivalents to these compartments. When compared to predictions by flux balance analysis, fluxes measured with 13C-MFA were found to be suboptimal with respect to biomass yield; C. reinhardtii sacrifices biomass yield to produce ATP and reducing equivalents.

  18. The list of strains and growth conditions - The Rice Growth Monitoring for The Phenotypic Functional Analysis | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us The Rice Growth Monitoring for The Phenotypic Functional Analysis The list of strains and growth... conditions Data detail Data name The list of strains and growth conditions DOI 10.18908/lsdba.nbdc00945...-001 Description of data contents The list of strains and growth conditions for respective samples. Data fil...servation Intervals of imaging Intervals of imaging Growth data Graph of chronological changes in growth Ima...History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us The list of strains and growth conditions - The Rice Growth Monitoring for The Phenotypic Functional Analysis | LSDB Archive ...

  19. Qualitative analysis and traveling wave solutions for the perturbed nonlinear Schroedinger's equation with Kerr law nonlinearity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zaiyun; Liu Zhenhai; Miao Xiujin; Chen Yuezhong

    2011-01-01

    In this Letter, we investigate the perturbed nonlinear Schroedinger's equation (NLSE) with Kerr law nonlinearity. All explicit expressions of the bounded traveling wave solutions for the equation are obtained by using the bifurcation method and qualitative theory of dynamical systems. These solutions contain bell-shaped solitary wave solutions, kink-shaped solitary wave solutions and Jacobi elliptic function periodic solutions. Moreover, we point out the region which these periodic wave solutions lie in. We present the relation between the bounded traveling wave solution and the energy level h. We find that these periodic wave solutions tend to the corresponding solitary wave solutions as h increases or decreases. Finally, for some special selections of the energy level h, it is shown that the exact periodic solutions evolute into solitary wave solution.

  20. The law of one price in global natural gas markets. A threshold cointegration analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nick, Sebastian; Tischler, Benjamin

    2014-11-15

    The US and UK markets for natural gas are connected by arbitrage activity in the form of shifting trade volumes of liquefied natural gas (LNG). We empirically investigate the degree of integration between the US and the UK gas markets by using a threshold cointegration approach that is in accordance with the law of one price and explicitly accounts for transaction costs. Our empirical results reveal a high degree of market integration for the period 2000-2008. Although US and UK gas prices seemed to have decoupled between 2009 and 2012, we still find a certain degree of integration pointing towards significant regional price arbitrage. However, high threshold estimates in the latter period indicate impediments to arbitrage that are by far surpassing the LNG transport costs difference between the US and UK gas market.

  1. Analysis of Scaling Law and Figure of Merit of Fiber-Based Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Teng Lin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a normalized transmitted signal (NTS of a fiber-based sensor using gold nanorods as the plasmon excitation medium of the evanescent wave. The NTS and the refractive index (RI sensitivity is calculated as a function of the gold aspect ratio (R, the RI of the sensing medium, and a scaling parameter given by the ratio of the fiber length and its diameter. Finally, the optimal value of gold aspect ratio is calculated to be R = (3.0–4.0 for maximum figure of merits (FOMs defined by the ratio of the refractive index sensitivity and the full width at half maximum. The scaling laws and the FOM presented in this paper may serve as the guidelines for optimal designs in fiber-based nanosensors.

  2. A Critical Analysis of the Occurrence of Preventive Detention in Maria da Penha Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora de Lima Ferreira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Feminist movements, aimed to "empowerment", reached greater criminal stiffening, which resulted in the creation of the Maria da Penha Law. The recrudescence of fixed abstract penalties legitimizes the goal of the legal system, but this rule is inappropriate for domestic and family problems, manifesting criminal symbolism. This study aims to demonstrate, under the aegis of Critical Criminology, the inadequacy of the amount of preventive detention applied that has been determined under the cloak of effective solutions for domestic conflicts. To this end, it investigates the real functions of this legislation on fighting domestic genre crime by analyzing sentenced criminal cases of the 2014 on I Court of Domestic and Family Violence of Recife.

  3. Analysis on Domestic Law and Management Trend Related to Small-Quantity Nuclear Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jae Beom; Lee, Kyong Woo; Shim, Hye Won; Min, Gyung Sik [National Nuclear Management and Control Agency, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has requested Korea to establish and manage the law ruling all nuclear materials through the INFCIRC/153. Now, it has been 30 years since Korea made the agreement, INFCIRC/153, with IAEA. Korea has tried their best to accomplish the international standard in nuclear control field and it is a fact that Korea finally produced some results in the nuclear control field. Related to nuclear material control, Korea is above the common level appropriately ranked 6th in the world in terms of nuclear power. Before 2000, Korea was making the foundation secure in the nuclear control. IAEA did not urge to establish the law supervising the small-quantity nuclear material and depleted uranium (DU). In a turnaround from early IAEA moderate line to Korea, the situation was changed. Since IAEA brought up the agenda to 2000 Joint Review Meeting between Korea-IAEA, IAEA has asked Korea to establish the control system for smallquantity nuclear material and DU. In 2003, the Korean government set up a project establishing the control system about all nuclear material including small-quantity nuclear material and DU. National Nuclear Management and Control Agency (NNCA), delegating the business relating to international controlling materials from government, developed some modules in nuclear material control system and operated it. The system includes a controlling system for small-quantity nuclear material. NNCA on behalf of government has collected the information and Korea Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) has reported the information to the IAEA. This paper introduces you the background of controlling the small-quantity nuclear material and the system of controlling nuclear material in Korea. And it will suggest the improvement of the management method in the system for small-quantity nuclear material.

  4. Analysis on Domestic Law and Management Trend Related to Small-Quantity Nuclear Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jae Beom; Lee, Kyong Woo; Shim, Hye Won; Min, Gyung Sik

    2005-01-01

    International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has requested Korea to establish and manage the law ruling all nuclear materials through the INFCIRC/153. Now, it has been 30 years since Korea made the agreement, INFCIRC/153, with IAEA. Korea has tried their best to accomplish the international standard in nuclear control field and it is a fact that Korea finally produced some results in the nuclear control field. Related to nuclear material control, Korea is above the common level appropriately ranked 6th in the world in terms of nuclear power. Before 2000, Korea was making the foundation secure in the nuclear control. IAEA did not urge to establish the law supervising the small-quantity nuclear material and depleted uranium (DU). In a turnaround from early IAEA moderate line to Korea, the situation was changed. Since IAEA brought up the agenda to 2000 Joint Review Meeting between Korea-IAEA, IAEA has asked Korea to establish the control system for smallquantity nuclear material and DU. In 2003, the Korean government set up a project establishing the control system about all nuclear material including small-quantity nuclear material and DU. National Nuclear Management and Control Agency (NNCA), delegating the business relating to international controlling materials from government, developed some modules in nuclear material control system and operated it. The system includes a controlling system for small-quantity nuclear material. NNCA on behalf of government has collected the information and Korea Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) has reported the information to the IAEA. This paper introduces you the background of controlling the small-quantity nuclear material and the system of controlling nuclear material in Korea. And it will suggest the improvement of the management method in the system for small-quantity nuclear material

  5. Multiple timescale analysis and factor analysis of energy ecological footprint growth in China 1953-2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Chengzhong; Lin Zhenshan

    2008-01-01

    Scientific analysis of energy consumption and its influencing factors is of great importance for energy strategy and policy planning. The energy consumption in China 1953-2006 is estimated by applying the energy ecological footprint (EEF) method, and the fluctuation periods of annual China's per capita EEF (EEF cpc ) growth rate are analyzed with the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) method in this paper. EEF intensity is analyzed to depict energy efficiency in China. The main timescales of the 37 factors that affect the annual growth rate of EEF cpc are also discussed based on EMD and factor analysis methods. Results show three obvious undulation cycles of the annual growth rate of EEF cpc , i.e., 4.6, 14.4 and 34.2 years over the last 53 years. The analysis findings from the common synthesized factors of IMF1, IMF2 and IMF3 timescales of the 37 factors suggest that China's energy policy-makers should attach more importance to stabilizing economic growth, optimizing industrial structure, regulating domestic petroleum exploitation and improving transportation efficiency

  6. Growth hormone treatment in aarskog syndrome: analysis of the KIGS (Pharmacia International Growth Database) data.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darendeliler, F.; Larsson, P.; Neyzi, O.; Price, A.D.; Hagenas, L.; Sipila, I.; Lindgren, A.; Otten, B.J.; Bakker, B.

    2003-01-01

    Aarskog syndrome is an X-linked disorder characterized by faciogenital dysplasia and short stature. The present study set out to determine the effect of growth hormone (GH) therapy in patients with Aarskog syndrome enrolled in KIGS--the Pharmacia International Growth Database. Twenty-one patients

  7. Pollution law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triffterer, O.

    1980-01-01

    In the draft proposed by the legal advisory board the law for the controlling of environmental criminality was promulgated on 28th March 1980. The present commentary therefore - as seen from the results - corresponds in essential to the original assessment of the governmental draft. However, an introduction into the problems of environmental law precedes this commentary for the better unterstanding of all those not acquainted with pollution law and the whole legal matter. (orig./HP) [de

  8. Resolving nanoparticle growth mechanisms from size- and time-dependent growth rate analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichelstorfer, Lukas; Stolzenburg, Dominik; Ortega, John; Karl, Thomas; Kokkola, Harri; Laakso, Anton; Lehtinen, Kari E. J.; Smith, James N.; McMurry, Peter H.; Winkler, Paul M.

    2018-01-01

    Atmospheric new particle formation occurs frequently in the global atmosphere and may play a crucial role in climate by affecting cloud properties. The relevance of newly formed nanoparticles depends largely on the dynamics governing their initial formation and growth to sizes where they become important for cloud microphysics. One key to the proper understanding of nanoparticle effects on climate is therefore hidden in the growth mechanisms. In this study we have developed and successfully tested two independent methods based on the aerosol general dynamics equation, allowing detailed retrieval of time- and size-dependent nanoparticle growth rates. Both methods were used to analyze particle formation from two different biogenic precursor vapors in controlled chamber experiments. Our results suggest that growth rates below 10 nm show much more variation than is currently thought and pin down the decisive size range of growth at around 5 nm where in-depth studies of physical and chemical particle properties are needed.

  9. HSIP Law Enforcement Locations in New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Law Enforcement Locations Any location where sworn officers of a law enforcement agency are regularly based or stationed. Law Enforcement agencies "are publicly...

  10. High temperature cracking of steels: effect of geometry on creep crack growth laws; Fissuration des aciers a haute temperature: effet de la geometrie sur la transferabilite des lois de propagation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabiri, M.R

    2003-12-01

    This study was performed at Centre des Materiaux de l'Ecole des Mines de Paris. It deals with identification and transferability of high temperature creep cracking laws of steels. A global approach, based on C{sup *} and J non-linear fracture mechanics parameters has been used to characterize creep crack initiation and propagation. The studied materials are: the ferritic steels 1Cr-1Mo-1/4V (hot and cold parts working at 540 and 250 C) used in the thermal power stations and the austenitic stainless steel 316 L(N) used in the nuclear power stations. During this thesis a data base was setting up, it regroups several tests of fatigue, creep, creep-fatigue, and relaxation. Its particularity is to contain several creep tests (27 tests), achieved at various temperatures (550 to 650 C) and using three different geometries. The relevance of the C{sup *} parameter to describe the creep crack propagation was analysed by a means of systematic study of elasto-viscoplastic stress singularities under several conditions (different stress triaxiality). It has been shown that, besides the C{sup *} parameter, a second non singular term, denoted here as Q{sup *}, is necessary to describe the local variables in the vicinity of the crack tip. Values of this constraint parameter are always negative. Consequently, application of typical creep crack growth laws linking the creep crack growth rate to the C{sup *} parameter (da/dt - C{sup *}), will be conservative for industrial applications. Furthermore, we showed that for ferritic steels, crack incubation period is important, therefore a correlation of Ti - C{sup *} type has been kept to predict crack initiation time Ti. For the austenitic stainless steel, the relevant stage is the one of the crack propagation, so that a master curve (da/dt - C{sup *}), using a new data analysis method, was established. Finally, the propagation of cracks has been simulated numerically using the node release technique, allowing to validate analytical

  11. Lindy's Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2017-11-01

    Aging means that as things grow old their remaining expected lifetimes lessen. Either faster or slower, most of the things we encounter in our everyday lives age with time. However, there are things that do quite the opposite - they anti-age: as they grow old their remaining expected lifetimes increase rather than decrease. A quantitative formulation of anti-aging is given by the so-called ;Lindy's Law;. In this paper we explore Lindy's Law and its connections to Pareto's Law, to Zipf's Law, and to socioeconomic inequality.

  12. Stability analysis of WONDY (a hydrocode based on the artifical viscosity method of von Neumann and Richtmyer) for a special case of Maxwell's Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, D.L.

    1978-01-01

    The artification viscosity method of von Neumann and Richtmyer was originally designed and analyzed for stability in the case when the material was an ideal gas. Recently a hydrocode (WONDY) based on the von Neumann-Richymyer scheme was used in calculating wave progagation problems in materials obeying a form of Maxwell's material law; signs of an unstable difference scheme appeared. A stability analysis shows that the timestep restrictions required for stability in certain cases can be more stringent for material laws of the Maxwell type than they are for material laws of the ideal gas type

  13. [The flexibilization of the Brazilian legislation on pesticides and the risks to human health: analysis of Bill of Law 3,200/2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Mirella Dias; Cavendish, Thais Araújo; Bueno, Priscila Campos; Ervilha, Iara Campos; Gregório, Luisa De Sordi; Kanashiro, Natiela Beatriz de Oliveira; Rohlfs, Daniela Buosi; Carmo, Thenille Faria Machado do

    2017-07-27

    This article aims to contribute to a reflection on pesticides, based on the Brazilian legal framework, from the perspective of protecting human health and the environment. This initiative is due to successive attempts to flexibilize the regulation of pesticides in Brazil, through bills of law in progress in the Brazilian National Congress. An analysis of Bill of Law 3,200/2015 was carried out. This bill of law represents a major setback to the legislative achievements for the regulation of pesticides, in order to alert to the risks to human health from exposure to these products and aggravated by other similar proposals.

  14. Coupling analysis on the soft ground settlement laws in Qinshan nuclear power phase I sea wall project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Feng; Pan Rong; Zhu Xiuyun; Zhang Dingli

    2011-01-01

    Qinshan Nuclear Power Phase I sea wall project is a barrier engineering in defending the design basis flooding, which is of importance to the safety of NPP. The geological condition has the feature of high compressibility and low penetration, such as the soft ground of 1 + 450 section of Qinshan Nuclear Power Phase I sea wall. Based on parameters acquired from the site experiment, 3-D finite difference analysis is put forward to study the feature of consolidation settlement laws, which can embody the fluid-solid coupling interaction. The conclusions of numerical analysis agree well with the in-site measured data, and it, can contribute to the design and construction of raising sea wall project. (authors)

  15. The Association Between Law Enforcement Encounters and Syringe Sharing Among IDUs on Skid Row: A Mixed Methods Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon-Freeman, Rebecca; Bluthenthal, Ricky N.

    2013-01-01

    The legal environment is one factor that influences injection drug users' (IDUs) risk for HIV and other bloodborne pathogens such as hepatitis C virus (HCV). We examined the association between law enforcement encounters (i.e., arrests and citations) and receptive syringe sharing among IDUs in the context of an intensified policing effort. We conducted a mixed methods analysis of 30 qualitative and 187 quantitative interviews with IDUs accessing services at a Los Angeles, CA syringe exchange program from 2008 to 2009. Qualitative findings illustrate concerns related to visibility, drug withdrawal, and previous history of arrest/incarceration. In quantitative analysis, the number of citations received, current homelessness, and perceiving that being arrested would be a “big problem” were independently associated with recent syringe sharing. Findings illustrate some of the unintended public health consequences associated with intensified street-level policing, including risk for HIV and HCV transmission. PMID:23620243

  16. An analysis of how electromagnetic induction and Faraday's law are presented in general physics textbooks, focusing on learning difficulties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guisasola, Jenaro; Zuza, Kristina; Almudi, José-Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Textbooks are a very important tool in the teaching–learning process and influence important aspects of the process. This paper presents an analysis of the chapter on electromagnetic induction and Faraday's law in 19 textbooks on general physics for first-year university courses for scientists and engineers. This analysis was based on criteria formulated from the theoretical framework of electromagnetic induction in classical physics and students' learning difficulties concerning these concepts. The aim of the work presented here is not to compare a textbook against the ideal book, but rather to try and find a series of explanations, examples, questions, etc that provide evidence on how the topic is presented in relation to the criteria above. It concludes that despite many aspects being covered properly, there are others that deserve greater attention. (paper)

  17. Lie symmetry analysis, explicit solutions and conservation laws for the space-time fractional nonlinear evolution equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inc, Mustafa; Yusuf, Abdullahi; Aliyu, Aliyu Isa; Baleanu, Dumitru

    2018-04-01

    This paper studies the symmetry analysis, explicit solutions, convergence analysis, and conservation laws (Cls) for two different space-time fractional nonlinear evolution equations with Riemann-Liouville (RL) derivative. The governing equations are reduced to nonlinear ordinary differential equation (ODE) of fractional order using their Lie point symmetries. In the reduced equations, the derivative is in Erdelyi-Kober (EK) sense, power series technique is applied to derive an explicit solutions for the reduced fractional ODEs. The convergence of the obtained power series solutions is also presented. Moreover, the new conservation theorem and the generalization of the Noether operators are developed to construct the nonlocal Cls for the equations . Some interesting figures for the obtained explicit solutions are presented.

  18. Causes analysis on the failure of government environmental responsibility—Based on the perspective of law and economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fa, L. N.

    2017-11-01

    As the important Environmental Interests of Subjects, government behooves to undertake the corresponding responsibility of Pollution Control and Environmental Protection. The current situations in our country, however, appear as government environmental responsibility failure. Based on the analysis of law and economics, this article reaches the conclusion through game analysis, principle-agency relationship and utility theory that the prisoners dilemma of environmental interest game between government and enterprise, and the inherent defect of the principal-agency relationship between central government and local government are the inherent causes of government environmental responsibility failure. Many officials tends to graft and corrupt to maximum their own benefit, thus leading to the government failure among environmental pollution treatment and the environmental responsibility to undertake.

  19. NASGRO(registered trademark): Fracture Mechanics and Fatigue Crack Growth Analysis Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Royce; Shivakumar, V.; Mettu, Sambi; Beek, Joachim; Williams, Leonard; Yeh, Feng; McClung, Craig; Cardinal, Joe

    2004-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes NASGRO, which is a fracture mechanics and fatigue crack growth analysis software package that is used to reduce risk of fracture in Space Shuttles. The contents include: 1) Consequences of Fracture; 2) NASA Fracture Control Requirements; 3) NASGRO Reduces Risk; 4) NASGRO Use Inside NASA; 5) NASGRO Components: Crack Growth Module; 6) NASGRO Components:Material Property Module; 7) Typical NASGRO analysis: Crack growth or component life calculation; and 8) NASGRO Sample Application: Orbiter feedline flowliner crack analysis.

  20. Case Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2009-01-01

    Different case law are presented in this part: By decision dated 17 july 2009, the Ontario Court of Appeal (Canada) has ruled on the scope of solicitor-client privilege and the protections that may be afforded to privileged investigations reports. The decision reaffirms the canadian court system view of the importance of the protection of solicitor-client privilege to the administration of justice; For United states here is a judgment of a U.S. court of Appeals on the design basis threat security rule (2009), this case concerns a challenge to the U.S. Nuclear regulatory commission (N.R.C.) revised design basis threat rule, which was adopted in 2007 (nuclear bulletin law no. 80). The petitioners public citizen, Inc., San Luis Obispo Mothers for Peace and the State of New York filed a lawsuit in the U.S. court of appeals for the Ninth circuit alleging that the N.R.C. acted arbitrarily and capriciously and in violation of law by refusing to include the treat of air attacks in its final revised design basis rule. On the 24. july 2009, a panel of three ninth circuit judges rules 2-1 that the N.R.C. acted reasonably in not including an air treat in its design basis rule. Secondly, judgment of a U.S. court of appeals on consideration of the environmental impact of terrorist attacks on nuclear facilities (2009), this case concerns the scope of the U.S. Nuclear regulatory commission environmental analysis during its review of applications to re-licence commercial nuclear power plants. New Jersey urged the N.R.C. to consider the environmental impact of an airborne terrorist attack on the power plant, arguing that such analysis was required by the national environmental policy act (N.E.P.A.). On 31. march 2009, a panel of three circuit judges declined to follow the ninth circuit opinion and affirmed NRC decision 3-0 ruling that NRC was not required to consider terrorism in its N.E.P.A. analysis because NRC re-licensing would not be a reasonably close cause of terrorism

  1. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This section treats of the following case laws: 1 - Case Law France: Conseil d'etat decision, 22 February 2016, EDF v. Republic and Canton of Geneva relative to the Bugey nuclear power plant (No. 373516); United States: Brodsky v. US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 650 Fed. Appx. 804 (2. Cir. 2016)

  2. Law 302.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    This publication outlines a law course intended as part of a business education program in the secondary schools of Manitoba, Canada. The one credit course of study should be taught over a period of 110-120 hours of instruction. It provides students with an introduction to the principles, practices, and consequences of law with regard to torts,…

  3. Second law-based thermodynamic analysis of water-lithium bromide absorption refrigeration system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilic, Muhsin [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Uludag University, TR 16059, Bursa (Turkey)]. E-mail: mkilic@uludag.edu.tr; Kaynakli, Omer [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Uludag University, TR 16059, Bursa (Turkey)

    2007-08-15

    In this study, the first and the second law of thermodynamics are used to analyze the performance of a single-stage water-lithium bromide absorption refrigeration system (ARS) when some working parameters are varied. A mathematical model based on the exergy method is introduced to evaluate the system performance, exergy loss of each component and total exergy loss of all the system components. Parameters connected with performance of the cycle-circulation ratio (CR), coefficient of performance (COP), Carnot coefficient of performance (COP{sub c} ), exergetic efficiency ({xi}) and efficiency ratio ({tau})-are calculated from the thermodynamic properties of the working fluids at various operating conditions. Using the developed model, the effect of main system temperatures on the performance parameters of the system, irreversibilities in the thermal process and non-dimensional exergy loss of each component are analyzed in detail. The results show that the performance of the ARS increases with increasing generator and evaporator temperatures, but decreases with increasing condenser and absorber temperatures. Exergy losses in the expansion valves, pump and heat exchangers, especially refrigerant heat exchanger, are small compared to other components. The highest exergy loss occurs in the generator regardless of operating conditions, which therefore makes the generator the most important component of the cycle.

  4. Second law-based thermodynamic analysis of water-lithium bromide absorption refrigeration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilic, Muhsin; Kaynakli, Omer

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the first and the second law of thermodynamics are used to analyze the performance of a single-stage water-lithium bromide absorption refrigeration system (ARS) when some working parameters are varied. A mathematical model based on the exergy method is introduced to evaluate the system performance, exergy loss of each component and total exergy loss of all the system components. Parameters connected with performance of the cycle-circulation ratio (CR), coefficient of performance (COP), Carnot coefficient of performance (COP c ), exergetic efficiency (ξ) and efficiency ratio (τ)-are calculated from the thermodynamic properties of the working fluids at various operating conditions. Using the developed model, the effect of main system temperatures on the performance parameters of the system, irreversibilities in the thermal process and non-dimensional exergy loss of each component are analyzed in detail. The results show that the performance of the ARS increases with increasing generator and evaporator temperatures, but decreases with increasing condenser and absorber temperatures. Exergy losses in the expansion valves, pump and heat exchangers, especially refrigerant heat exchanger, are small compared to other components. The highest exergy loss occurs in the generator regardless of operating conditions, which therefore makes the generator the most important component of the cycle

  5. Analysis on traditional fishing grounds in Indonesia`s Natuna waters under International Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniaty, R.; Ikaningtyas; Ruslijanto, P. A.

    2018-04-01

    This paper examines the boundary tension between Indonesia and China regarding traditional fishing ground in Natuna. Indonesia`s Natuna island is claimed by the China government as its traditional fishing zone/ground. The inclusion of Natuna territory into China`s traditional fishing zone brings new problems to Indonesia, especially with the Chinese ships docked and entered Indonesia`s exclusive economic zone, as well as several cases of illegal fishing over the territorial waters of Indonesia. Claims on traditional fishing zones have the potential to threaten the sovereignty of the Indonesian territory. This study aims to analyze the claims of the traditional fishing rights of China over the waters of the Natuna Islands under international law, especially UNCLOS 1982. This study revealed that the china`s argument of traditional fishing ground in Natuna to the nine dash line map is a unilateral claim, there is no international legal norm that can be used as the legal basis. Indonesia and some ASEAN countries have Internationally validated bilateral agreement on the continental shelf (i.e. Indonesia-Vietnam and Indonesia-Malaysia) thus the inclusion of Natuna into China`s nine dash line map rejects the legal status of Indonesian water under UNCLOS 1982.

  6. Social Status in Norway and the Law of Jante: An Analysis of ISSP Social Inequality Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R. PALAMARA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines International Social Survey Programme data from the 1999 social inequality module for evidence of Janteloven (‘the law of Jante’ in Norway – a widely known though often disputed description for aspects of Norwegian (and Scandinavian society relating to equality, norming and envy. Income equality and social status were examined using survey data across 26 countries. Norwegian respondents did not show a marked preference for income equality when asked to consider the actual and deserved income of high- versus low-status occupations. However, they did stand out in reporting a distinctly and significantly smaller mean difference in social status between a high-status occupation (the chairman of a large national corporation and a low-status occupation (an unskilled factory worker. Linear regression shows that the attitude towards social status is affected by the respondent’s level of education, but not by other personal factors. These attitudes could potentially be attributed to Janteloven, and are considered alongside the results of a small (n=30 online survey as well as popular media and academic portrayals.

  7. Breaking the Carnot limit without violating the second law: A thermodynamic analysis of off-resonant quantum light generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukobza, E.; Ritsch, H.

    2013-06-01

    The Carnot limit, formulated in 1824, represents the maximal efficiency of a classical heat engine. In this work we present a thermodynamical analysis of a light amplifier based on a three-level atom coupled off-resonantly to a single quantized cavity mode and to two heat reservoirs with positive temperatures. Based on standard work and heat flow equilibrium, we show that for a cavity blue-detuned with respect to the atomic resonance, the system can surpass the Carnot limit. Nevertheless, the second law of thermodynamics is still obeyed, as the total entropy always increases. By analyzing a semiclassical version of the model, we derive a formula for the critical frequency for which the Carnot limit is broken and a formula for the amplifier efficiency which agrees with its quantum counterpart. In the semiclassical regime, however, the second law is not satisfied and hence it does not offer a physically acceptable description of the system. Finally, we show that breaking the Carnot limit occurs also in a blue-detuned quantum amplifier with output coupling, which represents a realistic model of a laser or maser.

  8. The Existence Of Leading Islands Securing And The Border Areas Unitary State Of Indonesia An Analysis In Law Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazali

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The research was carried with the aim to discover the existence of securing the foremost islands and state border region of the Republic of Indonesia reviewed from a legal perspective which is directly related to the existence of security and dispute resolution methods as well as the governance of the foremost islands and border region in Kalimantan which bordering Malaysia. This study was conducted in Nunukan district and the surrounding provinces of Kalimantan in this research method that used is normative legal analysis data with juridical and qualitative descriptive approach. The results showed that the security of foremost islands and border region of law perspective in accordance with the Law No. 34 of 2004 regarding the Indonesian National Army has not been implemented to the fullest to realize the security of foremost islands and border region as the frontline of the Republic of Indonesia. The existence of leading islands securing and the border region of the Republic of Indonesia still contain many weaknesses in terms of both governance and security.

  9. Uncertainty, financial development and economic growth : an empirical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lensink, Robert

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines whether financial sector development may partly undo growth-reducing effects of policy uncertainty. By performing a cross-country growth regression for the 1970-1995 period I find evidence that countries with a more developed financial sector are better able to nullify the

  10. Computer-aided analysis of grain growth in metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klimanek, P.; May, C.; Richter, H.

    1993-01-01

    Isothermal grain growth in aluminium, copper and alpha-iron was investigated experimentally at elevated temperatures and quantitatively interpreted by computer simulation on the base of a statistical model described in [4,5,6]. As it is demonstrated for the grain growth kinetics, the experimental...... data can be fitted satisfactorly....

  11. Site and stand analysis for growth prediction of Eucalyptus grandis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The integration of site information with that of tree growth is of special importance in Zululand, where sustainable supply of timber is essential for local processing and export commitments. Site prediction growth models need to be based on easily attainable input variables that are suitable for operational implementation by ...

  12. Three-dimensional analysis of mandibular growth and tooth eruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, S.; Darvann, Tron Andre; Larsen, Per

    2005-01-01

    Normal and abnormal jaw growth and tooth eruption are topics of great importance for several dental and medical disciplines. Thus far, clinical studies on these topics have used two-dimensional (2D) radiographic techniques. The purpose of the present study was to analyse normal mandibular growth...

  13. Networks and informal contract law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjong Tjin Tai, Eric; Brownsword, Roger; van Gestel, Rob A.J.; Micklitz, Hans-W.

    2017-01-01

    It is often argued that formal contract law cannot treat networks correctly. An analysis of networks in an informal contract law system shows that informal contract law is no panacea. Remaining problems require a different approach to legal regulation and contract practice.

  14. Economic Growth and the Environment. An empirical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Bruyn, S.M.

    1999-12-21

    A number of economists have claimed that economic growth benefits environmental quality as it raises political support and financial means for environmental policy measures. Since the early 1990s this view has increasingly been supported by empirical evidence that has challenged the traditional belief held by environmentalists that economic growth degrades the environment. This study investigates the relationship between economic growth and environmental quality and elaborates the question whether economic growth can be combined with a reduced demand for natural resources. Various hypotheses on this relationship are described and empirically tested for a number of indicators of environmental pressure. The outcome of the tests advocates the use of alternative models for estimation that alter conclusions about the relationship between economic growth and the environment and give insight into the driving forces of emission reduction in developed economies. refs.

  15. Analysis of a diffuse interface model of multispecies tumor growth

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dai, M.; Feireisl, Eduard; Rocca, E.; Schimperna, G.; Schonbek, M.E.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 4 (2017), s. 1639-1658 ISSN 0951-7715 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 320078 - MATHEF Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Cahn-Hilliard equation * Darcy law * diffuse interface model Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 1.767, year: 2016 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1361-6544/aa6063/meta

  16. Size of government and economic growth: A nonlinear analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herath Shanaka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The new growth theory establishes, among other things, that government expenditure can manipulate the economic growth of a country. This study attempts to explain whether government expenditure increases or decreases economic growth in the context of Sri Lanka. Results obtained employing a productive output series and applying an analytical framework based on second degree polynomial regression are generally consistent with previous findings: government expenditure and economic growth are positively correlated; excessive government expenditure is negatively correlated with economic growth; and investment promotes growth. In a separate section, the article examines Armey’s idea of a quadratic curve that explains the level of government expenditure in an economy and the corresponding level of economic growth [Armey, D. (1995. The Freedom Revolution. Washington, D.C.: Regnery Publishing Co.]. The findings confirm the possibility of constructing the Armey curve for Sri Lanka, and it estimates the optimal level of government expenditure to be approximately 27%. This article adds to the literature indicating that the Armey curve is a reality not only for developed economies, but also for developing economies.

  17. Case - Case-Law - Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadl, Urska

    2013-01-01

    Reasoning of the Court of Justice of the European Union – Constr uction of arguments in the case-law of the Court – Citation technique – The use of formulas to transform case-law into ‘law’ – ‘Formulaic style’ – European citizenship as a fundamental status – Ruiz Zambrano – Reasoning from...

  18. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    This article reviews the judgements and law decisions concerning nuclear activities throughout the world during the end of 1999 and the first semester 2000. In Belgium a judgement has allowed the return of nuclear waste from France. In France the Council of State confirmed the repeal of an authorization order of an installation dedicated to the storage of uranium sesquioxide, on the basis of an insufficient risk analysis. In France too, the criminal chamber of the French Supreme Court ruled that the production in excess of that authorized in the licence can be compared to carrying out operations without a licence. In Japan the Fukui district court rejected a lawsuit filed by local residents calling for the permanent closure, on safety grounds, of the Monju reactor. In the Netherlands, the Council of State ruled that the Dutch government had no legal basis for limiting in time the operating licence of the Borssele plant. In Usa a district court has rejected a request to ban MOX fuel shipment. (A.C.)

  19. Reproducible Analysis and Blindness in a Null Test of Newton's Gravitational Inverse Square Law At Sub-millimeter Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedorn, Charles; Venkateswara, Krishna; Gundlach, Jens

    2016-03-01

    Proper execution of an experiment is independent of its result. Physicists who test fundamental physical law face the reality that signals for new physics receive more attention and scrutiny than null results. Yet, null results may have greater impact upon the direction of both experiment and theory. Blind experiments and result-blind review are bulwarks against systematic human bias for both experimenters and referees. I'll describe the method that made possible an irreversible public unblinding of our torsion-balance parallel-plate test of gravity at submillimeter scales in 2015. One publicly-available computer procedure generated from blind raw data the analysis, the final result, and the complete documenting thesis. The experiment included an optical ``foil monitor'' to constrain a systematic effect intrinsic to all short-range parallel-plate gravity experiments. I'll describe the experiment, successes, lessons learned, and result. Supported by NSF (PHY-1305726) and DOE support for CENPA.

  20. ANALYSIS OF DIGITAL SIGNATURE RULE IN THE ELECTRONIC COMMERCE LAW OF INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irna Nurhayati

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Indonesian legislature has enacted the Information and Electronic Transaction Bill (the Bill in 2003, in which digital signature as a technology specific electronic (e commerce has been promoted. The promotion of digital signature is still problematic, since there is an uncertainty whether Indonesia can develop well a required viable technology of digital signature. Moreover, there is a gap between the actual use of digital signature and the projections of future utilization of digital signature by interested parties on e-commerce. This paper will discuss the reason of the Indonesian legislature promotes digital signature. It will then analyse the gap between the actual use of digital signature and the projections of future utilization of digital signature by interested parties on e-commerce. This paper will finally argue whether the promotion of digital signature of the Bill is useful for the growth of e-commerce in Indonesia.

  1. Injuries sustained during contact with law enforcement: An analysis from US trauma centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberg, Morgan; Inaba, Kenji; Cho, Jayun; Tatum, James M; Barmparas, Galinos; Strumwasser, Aaron; Grabo, Daniel; Bir, Cynthia; Eastman, Alexander; Demetriades, Demetrios

    2017-12-01

    Injuries sustained by civilians from interaction with police are a polarizing contemporary sociopolitical issue. Few comprehensive studies have been published using national hospital-based data. The aim of this study was to examine the epidemiology of these injuries to better understand this mechanism of injury. Patients entered into the National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB) (January 2007 to December 2012) with E-codes E970.0 to E976.0 (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification), identifying injuries associated with law enforcement in the course of legal action, were enrolled. Patients' demographics, injury characteristics, procedures, and outcomes were collected and analyzed. Patients injured by other civilians (E960.0-E968.0) were used for comparison. Of 4,146,428 patients in the NTDB, 7,203 (0.17%) were injured during interaction with police. The numbers of patients in consecutive study years were 858, 1,103, 1,148, 1,274, 1,316, and 1,504. The incidence of these injuries was stable over time (0.17-0.18%) (p = 0.129). Patients had a median age of 31 years (range, 0-108), and 94.3% were male. Median injury severity score was 9 (interquartile range [IQR], 4-17). The most common mechanism of injury was gunshot wound (44%).Patients were white, 43%; black, 30%; Hispanic, 17%; Asian, 1%; and Other, 9%. As a proportion of the total race-specific NTDB trauma population, there was an average of 1.13 white patients, 2.71 Hispanic patients, and 3.83 black patients per 1,000. Mechanism, injury severity score, and outcomes did not vary by race. Compared to patients injured by civilians, patients injured by police are more likely to be white (43% vs 25%, p < 0.001) and injured by gunshot wounds (44% vs 32%, p < 0.001). Based on data from trauma centers across the United States, the rate of injuries sustained during interactions with police has been stable over time. Gunshot wounds are the most common mechanism of injury. Proportionally, black

  2. Engineered nanomaterials for plant growth and development: A perspective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Sandeep Kumar; Das, Ashok Kumar; Patel, Manoj Kumar; Shah, Ashish; Kumar, Vinay; Gantait, Saikat

    2018-07-15

    With the overwhelmingly rapid advancement in the field of nanotechnology, the engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) have been extensively used in various areas of the plant system, including quality improvement, growth and nutritional value enhancement, gene preservation etc. There are several recent reports on the ENMs' influence on growth enhancements, growth inhibition as well as certain toxic impacts on plant. However, translocation, growth responses and stress modulation mechanisms of ENMs in the plant systems call for better and in-depth understanding. Herein, we are presenting a comprehensive and critical account of different types of ENMs, their applications and their positive, negative and null impacts on physiological and molecular aspects of plant growth, development and stress responses. Recent reports revealed mixed effects on plants, ranging from enhanced crop yield, epi/genetic alterations, and phytotoxicity, resulting from the ENMs' exposure. Creditable research in recent years has revealed that the effects of ENMs on plants are species specific and are variable among plant species. ENM exposures are reported to trigger free radical formation, responsive scavenging, and antioxidant armories in the exposed plants. The ENMs are also reported to induce aberrant expressions of microRNAs, the key post-transcriptional regulators of plant growth, development and stress-responses of plants. However, these modulations, if judiciously done, may lead to improved plant growth and yield. A better understanding of the interactions between ENMs and plant responses, including their uptake transport, internalization, and activity, could revolutionize crop production through increased disease resistance, nutrient utilization, and crop yield. Therefore, in this review, we are presenting a critical account of the different selected ENMs, their uptake by the plants, their positive/negative impacts on plant growth and development, along with the resultant ENM-responsive post

  3. Causality analysis of diesel consumption and economic growth in Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamba, Jean Gaston; Njomo, Donatien; Limanond, Thirayoot; Ntsafack, Borel

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the causal relationship between diesel consumption and economic growth in Cameroon by using a three-step modern time-series technique. Tests for unit roots, cointegration, and Granger-causality based on error correction model are employed on annual data covering the period 1975–2008. Empirical results of the study confirm the presence of a long-run equilibrium relationship between diesel consumption and economic growth. The error correction model shows that an estimated 1% increase in economic growth causes a rise in diesel consumption of 1.30% in the long-run. The overall results show that there exists bidirectional causality in the long-run relationship and no causality in the short-run relationship between diesel consumption and economic growth at the 5% level of significance. Thus, the energy policies in Cameroon should place priority on the discovery of new oil field and building capacity additions of the refinery to increase production of petroleum products, as this would propel the economic growth of the country. - Highlights: ► We examine the causal relationship between diesel consumption and GDP in Cameroon. ► we analyze the petroleum products sector in Cameroon. ► 1% increase in economic growth causes a rise in diesel consumption of 1.30%. ► The policy aimed at improving diesel supply have a positive impact on economics.

  4. Economic growth and military expenditure linkages: a panel data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Shahid

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper has made an attempt to examine relationship between military expenditure and economic growth using 56 country panel data spanning over 1995—2011. Panel fixed effect model has been estimated for all 56 countries and sub-groups classified on the basis of World Bank income criteria. The results of this study indicate a positive effect of military expenditure on economic growth but this positive effect is negligible compared to the alternative uses of scare resources on non-military expenditure. Thus, the effect of military expenditure on economic growth is very low compared to the effect of expenditure on capital formation, hence military expenditure as a sub-optimal means of increasing economic growth compared to alternative uses of government spending on formation of fixed capital. This study raises an important argument of huge opportunity cost of military expenditure. The present study concludes that the boosting of economic growth through higher military expenditure is neither effective nor efficient way of achieving higher growth in the economy.

  5. Regression analysis of growth responses to water depth in three wetland plant species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorrell, Brian K; Tanner, Chris C; Brix, Hans

    2012-01-01

    depths from 0 – 0.5 m. Morphological and growth responses to depth were followed for 54 days before harvest, and then analysed by repeated measures analysis of covariance, and non-linear and quantile regression analysis (QRA), to compare flooding tolerances. Principal results Growth responses to depth...

  6. Changes in environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer-Tasch, P.C.

    1978-01-01

    In this study the changing process of environmental law is depicted which is marked by the ecological crisis and the increasing pressure of the ecological movement. Main emphasis is laid on the analysis of the reform of the ecological licensing and voidance procedures which is in the centre of the discussion about (environmental) law policy as well as on the jurisprudential enforcement of the basic environmental right on life and physical integrity. The volume ends with a study on 'Nuclear Energy, Law and Judiciary Power' - a subject which is of immediate interest and special significance with its far-reaching political consequences for ecology, energy, and economics. (orig.) [de

  7. First and second law analysis of diesel engine powered cogeneration systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abusoglu, Aysegul; Kanoglu, Mehmet

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the thermodynamic analysis of the existing diesel engine cogeneration system is performed. All necessary data are obtained from the actual diesel engine cogeneration plant located at Gaziantep, Turkey. The exergy analysis is aimed to evaluate the exergy destruction in each component as well as the exergetic efficiencies. The thermodynamic performance of a 25.32 MW electricity and 8.1 tons/h steam capacity diesel engine cogeneration system at full load conditions is analyzed. The thermal efficiency of the overall plant is found to be 44.2% and the exergetic efficiency is 40.7%. The exergy balance equations developed in this paper may also be utilized in the exergoeconomic analysis to estimate the production costs depending on various input costs in a diesel cogeneration system

  8. A second law analysis and entropy generation minimization of an absorption chiller

    KAUST Repository

    Myat, Aung; Thu, Kyaw; Kim, Youngdeuk; Chakraborty, Anutosh; Chun, Wongee; Ng, K. C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents performance analysis of absorption refrigeration system (ARS) using an entropy generation analysis. A numerical model predicts the performance of absorption cycle operating under transient conditions along with the entropy generation computation at assorted heat source temperatures, and it captures also the dynamic changes of lithium bromide solution properties such as concentration, density, vapor pressure and overall heat transfer coefficients. An optimization tool, namely the genetic algorithm (GA), is used as to locate the system minima for all defined domain of heat source and cooling water temperatures. The analysis shows that minimization of entropy generation the in absorption cycle leads to the maximization of the COP. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A second law analysis and entropy generation minimization of an absorption chiller

    KAUST Repository

    Myat, Aung

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents performance analysis of absorption refrigeration system (ARS) using an entropy generation analysis. A numerical model predicts the performance of absorption cycle operating under transient conditions along with the entropy generation computation at assorted heat source temperatures, and it captures also the dynamic changes of lithium bromide solution properties such as concentration, density, vapor pressure and overall heat transfer coefficients. An optimization tool, namely the genetic algorithm (GA), is used as to locate the system minima for all defined domain of heat source and cooling water temperatures. The analysis shows that minimization of entropy generation the in absorption cycle leads to the maximization of the COP. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Sensitivity analysis techniques applied to a system of hyperbolic conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weirs, V. Gregory; Kamm, James R.; Swiler, Laura P.; Tarantola, Stefano; Ratto, Marco; Adams, Brian M.; Rider, William J.; Eldred, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Sensitivity analysis is comprised of techniques to quantify the effects of the input variables on a set of outputs. In particular, sensitivity indices can be used to infer which input parameters most significantly affect the results of a computational model. With continually increasing computing power, sensitivity analysis has become an important technique by which to understand the behavior of large-scale computer simulations. Many sensitivity analysis methods rely on sampling from distributions of the inputs. Such sampling-based methods can be computationally expensive, requiring many evaluations of the simulation; in this case, the Sobol' method provides an easy and accurate way to compute variance-based measures, provided a sufficient number of model evaluations are available. As an alternative, meta-modeling approaches have been devised to approximate the response surface and estimate various measures of sensitivity. In this work, we consider a variety of sensitivity analysis methods, including different sampling strategies, different meta-models, and different ways of evaluating variance-based sensitivity indices. The problem we consider is the 1-D Riemann problem. By a careful choice of inputs, discontinuous solutions are obtained, leading to discontinuous response surfaces; such surfaces can be particularly problematic for meta-modeling approaches. The goal of this study is to compare the estimated sensitivity indices with exact values and to evaluate the convergence of these estimates with increasing samples sizes and under an increasing number of meta-model evaluations. - Highlights: ► Sensitivity analysis techniques for a model shock physics problem are compared. ► The model problem and the sensitivity analysis problem have exact solutions. ► Subtle details of the method for computing sensitivity indices can affect the results.

  11. Islamic Law

    OpenAIRE

    Doranda Maracineanu

    2009-01-01

    The law system of a State represents the body of rules passed or recognized by that State inorder to regulate the social relationships, rules that must be freely obeyed by their recipients, otherwisethe State intervening with its coercive power. Throughout the development of the society, pedants havebeen particularly interested in the issue of law systems, each supporting various classifications; theclassification that has remained is the one distinguishing between the Anglo-Saxon, the Roman-...

  12. 'Debating' nature conservation : policy, law and practice in Indonesia : a discourse analysis of history and present

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnscheidt, Julia

    2009-01-01

    This book is about the politics of nature conservation in late New Order and early Reformasi Indonesia. It approaches the subject through discourse analysis. Understanding politics as a struggle for discourse hegemony it analyses both processes of policy- and lawmaking in Jakarta and of

  13. Analysis of the psychometric characteristics of the experimental psychological methods for examination of the law enforcement officers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaliy Omelyanovich

    2016-09-01

    factor analysis conduction. The factor loadings equal to or greater than 0,3 were considered to be sufficient, provided that the other factor loadings per item tend to zero; the criterion validity was investigated by calculating the dichotomous correlation coefficient φ, and the statistical significance of the coefficient was determined by the distribution tables χ2 with one degree of freedom. The data achieved makes it possible to assert that law enforcement officers contingent discriminative level (δ-Ferguson = 0,88 ± 0,1 and the criterion validity (φ≥0,225; r≤3E-05 of all the techniques of scales are high enough. Reliability of «Aggressive behavior» methodology is estimated as high only in relation to the general level of diagnosis of incontinence (α-Cronbach = 0,78; Guttman split-half = 0,763, whereas the reliability and construct validity of its individual scales are insufficient. Taking into account the high level of criteria validity and discriminative level of this test, it is possible to talk about whether it should be used only as an indicator of the overall level of incontinence of internal affairs body employees. «MS PTSD» has revealed a high level of reliability, and discriminative validity (α-Cronbach = 0,67; Guttman split-half = 0,63; δ-Ferguson = 0,984, which allows to recommend its use in the process of psycho-diagnostic survey of law enforcement officers. The level of reliability and construct validity of methods «IPC-Fragebogen» and «ARE» was insufficient (α-Kronbaha≤0,5; Guttman split-half≤0,5, indicating that they cannot be used in the process of psychological examinations of law enforcement officers. Conclusion. Notwithstanding that several diagnostic instruments have proven themselves in long use in other professional contingents, an important conclusion has been obtained as a result of the work that the existing practice of these practices introduction into the activity of departmental psychological and psychiatric

  14. Compliance Parameters through Risk Analysis Methodology for Strict Liability Mitigation According to the Law Anti- Corruption (12.846 / 2013 Regarding Public Business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Miranda Batisti

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Law 12,846 / 2013 has the scope to fight it and enable companies to become active agents in this intent. The repressive aspect of the legislation can be mitigated if the company adopts strategies of prevention through compliance programs. The preventive effectiveness of this law will depend on the analysis of legal aspects and business management topics. The risk analysis methodology and the adoption of objective parameters for the management of anti-corruption risks, allows companies to build an integrity program that puts in focus the ethical actions necessary for companies willing to negotiate with the government.

  15. Trend analysis of the power law process using Expectation-Maximization algorithm for data censored by inspection intervals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taghipour, Sharareh; Banjevic, Dragan

    2011-01-01

    Trend analysis is a common statistical method used to investigate the operation and changes of a repairable system over time. This method takes historical failure data of a system or a group of similar systems and determines whether the recurrent failures exhibit an increasing or decreasing trend. Most trend analysis methods proposed in the literature assume that the failure times are known, so the failure data is statistically complete; however, in many situations, such as hidden failures, failure times are subject to censoring. In this paper we assume that the failure process of a group of similar independent repairable units follows a non-homogenous Poisson process with a power law intensity function. Moreover, the failure data are subject to left, interval and right censoring. The paper proposes using the likelihood ratio test to check for trends in the failure data. It uses the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm to find the parameters, which maximize the data likelihood in the case of null and alternative hypotheses. A recursive procedure is used to solve the main technical problem of calculating the expected values in the Expectation step. The proposed method is applied to a hospital's maintenance data for trend analysis of the components of a general infusion pump.

  16. Experimental Characterization and Cohesive Laws for Delamination of Off-Axis GFRP Laminates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgaard, Esben; Bak, Brian Lau Verndal

    2015-01-01

    This work experimentally characterizes mixed mode delamination in glass fibre reinforced polymer laminates taking into account the influence of the off-axis angle between the lamina orientation and the crack growth direction on the fracture properties. Thus, providing a cohesive law that enables...... analysis of 3D models in which mixed mode crack growth within laminates having anisotropic fracture properties takes place....

  17. The rice growth image files - The Rice Growth Monitoring for The Phenotypic Functional Analysis | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us The Rice Growth Monitoring for The Phenotypic Functional Analysis The rice growth image file...s Data detail Data name The rice growth image files DOI 10.18908/lsdba.nbdc00945-004 Description of data contents The rice growth ima...ge files categorized based on file size. Data file File name: image files (director...y) File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/agritogo-rice-phenome/LATEST/image...ite Policy | Contact Us The rice growth image files - The Rice Growth Monitoring for The Phenotypic Functional Analysis | LSDB Archive ...

  18. Gender-associated analysis of high-risk groups for mental health problems in law-enforcement officers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaliy Omelyanovich

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. Mental disorders prevention in specific professional groups is impossible without scientifically substantiated allocation of groups with increased neuropsychiatric and psychosomatic disorders risk. This fact indicates the need to study the gender, age and professional characteristics in law enforcement workers who already have problems with psychological adaptation. Methods and materials. The study involved 1630 law enforcement officers (1,301 men and 329 women who were evaluated with the Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R. As the statistical methods were used the partial regression calculation coefficient η2, cohort calculation risk measures, φ*-total Fischer transformation method, and single-factor dispersion Fisher's analysis. Results. According to gender characteristics, the problems with psychological adaptation in men were significantly less pronounced than in women (φ*=1.79; p=0.37. These data were confirmed by the cohort calculation and risk measures results: men – 0.261, women – 0.349 (the psychological disadaptation risk in women was 1.3 times higher than men. There weren’t any statistically significant age differences between the representatives of both gender groups with psychological adaptation disturbances and healthy ones (φ* ≤1.19; p≥0.1. Among patients who suffered from psychosomatic diseases, were men over the age of 35 (φ* ≥2.28; p≤0.0001 and women over 26 years old (φ*= 2.16; p=0.014 prevailed. There were significantly fewer people among men with psychosomatic illnesses with 4-9 years of professional working experience than in a healthy group. On the contrary, there were significantly more patients in a law enforcement workers group with 10-15 years working experience than in the healthy one (φ*>1.73; p<0.0001. Conclusion. The risk of mental health problems in female police officers is much higher than in men. Disadaptation development is not related to the age and length of working

  19. Investigation on Law and Economics Based on Complex Network and Time Series Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian; Qu, Zhao; Chang, Hui

    2015-01-01

    The research focuses on the cooperative relationship and the strategy tendency among three mutually interactive parties in financing: small enterprises, commercial banks and micro-credit companies. Complex network theory and time series analysis were applied to figure out the quantitative evidence. Moreover, this paper built up a fundamental model describing the particular interaction among them through evolutionary game. Combining the results of data analysis and current situation, it is justifiable to put forward reasonable legislative recommendations for regulations on lending activities among small enterprises, commercial banks and micro-credit companies. The approach in this research provides a framework for constructing mathematical models and applying econometrics and evolutionary game in the issue of corporation financing. PMID:26076460

  20. Technical conditions for sustainable growth in economic theory. An analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granda C, Catalina

    2008-01-01

    Economic theory and its models point out returns to scale, substitution among productive factors and technological progress as conditions for sustainable growth. This work aims at a critical appraisal of these conditions, particularly the ones related to substitution between natural resources and manmade capital and technical change, by recognizing the inevitable physical scarcity of resources concomitant to the human actions in a world governed by hemodynamic restrictions. To do so, the role that the mentioned conditions play in the theories of economic growth with resources is analyzed, and its limitations and objections from a biophysical perspective are indicated as well. Finally, a brief consideration as to how inappropriate the theoretical representations of economic activities are to take account of growth in spite of resource exhaustion or degradation is carried out

  1. Robust Stability Clearance of Flight Control Law Based on Global Sensitivity Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ou, Liuli; Liu, Lei; Dong, Shuai; Wang, Yongji

    2014-01-01

    To validate the robust stability of the flight control system of hypersonic flight vehicle, which suffers from a large number of parametrical uncertainties, a new clearance framework based on structural singular value ( $\\mu $ ) theory and global uncertainty sensitivity analysis (SA) is proposed. In this framework, SA serves as the preprocess of uncertain model to be analysed to help engineers to determine which uncertainties affect the stability of the closed loop system more slightly. By ig...

  2. Schur Complement Reduction in the Mixed-Hybrid Approximation of Darcy's Law: Rounding Error Analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maryška, Jiří; Rozložník, Miroslav; Tůma, Miroslav

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 117, - (2000), s. 159-173 ISSN 0377-0427 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA2030706; GA ČR GA201/98/P108 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : potential fluid flow problem * symmetric indefinite linear systems * Schur complement reduction * iterative methods * rounding error analysis Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.455, year: 2000

  3. Robust Stability Clearance of Flight Control Law Based on Global Sensitivity Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liuli Ou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To validate the robust stability of the flight control system of hypersonic flight vehicle, which suffers from a large number of parametrical uncertainties, a new clearance framework based on structural singular value (μ theory and global uncertainty sensitivity analysis (SA is proposed. In this framework, SA serves as the preprocess of uncertain model to be analysed to help engineers to determine which uncertainties affect the stability of the closed loop system more slightly. By ignoring these unimportant uncertainties, the calculation of μ can be simplified. Instead of analysing the effect of uncertainties on μ which involves solving optimal problems repeatedly, a simpler stability analysis function which represents the effect of uncertainties on closed loop poles is proposed. Based on this stability analysis function, Sobol’s method, the most widely used global SA method, is extended and applied to the new clearance framework due to its suitability for system with strong nonlinearity and input factors varying in large interval, as well as input factors subjecting to random distributions. In this method, the sensitive indices can be estimated via Monte Carlo simulation conveniently. An example is given to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed method.

  4. A Law of Physics in the Classroom: The Case of Ohm's Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipnis, Nahum

    2009-01-01

    Difficulties in learning Ohm's Law suggest a need to refocus it from the law for a part of the circuit to the law for the whole circuit. Such a revision may improve understanding of Ohm's Law and its practical applications. This suggestion comes from an analysis of the history of the law's discovery and its teaching. The historical materials this…

  5. Economic Analysis of Asian Growth Triangles : The Johor-Singapore-Riau Growth Triangle

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, Glenn G.

    2000-01-01

    In looking at the Asian economy, particularly the Growth Triangle which includes Singapore, Malaysia and Indonesia, one can infer a great deal. With the Asian monetary crisis affecting the world, and certainly the Asian region in particular, some economists believe it is a mistake to evaluate such matters based on tradition. Rather, a school of thought dubbed the New Institutional Economics has come into being and while not everyone considers it to be a truly new approach, the bottom line is ...

  6. Drosophila growth cones: a genetically tractable platform for the analysis of axonal growth dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Soriano, Natalia; Gonçalves-Pimentel, Catarina; Beaven, Robin; Haessler, Ulrike; Ofner-Ziegenfuss, Lisa; Ballestrem, Christoph; Prokop, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    The formation of neuronal networks, during development and regeneration, requires outgrowth of axons along reproducible paths toward their appropriate postsynaptic target cells. Axonal extension occurs at growth cones (GCs) at the tips of axons. GC advance and navigation requires the activity of their cytoskeletal networks, comprising filamentous actin (F-actin) in lamellipodia and filopodia as well as dynamic microtubules (MTs) emanating from bundles of the axonal core. The molecular mechanisms governing these two cytoskeletal networks, their cross-talk, and their response to extracellular signaling cues are only partially understood, hindering our conceptual understanding of how regulated changes in GC behavior are controlled. Here, we introduce Drosophila GCs as a suitable model to address these mechanisms. Morphological and cytoskeletal readouts of Drosophila GCs are similar to those of other models, including mammals, as demonstrated here for MT and F-actin dynamics, axonal growth rates, filopodial structure and motility, organizational principles of MT networks, and subcellular marker localization. Therefore, we expect fundamental insights gained in Drosophila to be translatable into vertebrate biology. The advantage of the Drosophila model over others is its enormous amenability to combinatorial genetics as a powerful strategy to address the complexity of regulatory networks governing axonal growth. Thus, using pharmacological and genetic manipulations, we demonstrate a role of the actin cytoskeleton in a specific form of MT organization (loop formation), known to regulate GC pausing behavior. We demonstrate these events to be mediated by the actin-MT linking factor Short stop, thus identifying an essential molecular player in this context.

  7. Law, Marxism and Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul O'Connell

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Law is crucial to the maintenance and reproduction of capitalism. While Marx never produced a comprehensive theory of law, state and rights, there is much in his work, and in the broader Marxist tradition, that can help us understand the nature and role of law in contemporary capitalism. This paper sketches out some of the key resources from within the Marxist tradition that can assist us in developing Marxist understandings of law, state and rights today. Specifically, the focus is on the question of method, drawing out three key strands from Marx's own work: (i the importance of dialectical materialist analysis; (ii the historically specific and transitory nature of capitalism and (iii the centrality of class antagonism and class struggle. The argument advanced here, in sum, is that Marxist explanations of law, state and rights should foreground these analytical reference points, in order to make the role of law intelligible, and to begin to sketch how movements for fundamental social change might understand and engage with the law.

  8. First and second law multidimensional analysis of a triple absorption heat transformer (TAHT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnellan, Philip; Byrne, Edmond; Oliveira, Jorge; Cronin, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A full factorial analysis is conducted upon a triple absorption heat transformer. • The most influential variable settings are determined. • Condensation temperature and pinch heat transfer gradient have the greatest influence. • Points of optimum exist for the temperatures of the two absorber evaporators. • The generator causes the most irreversibility. - Abstract: In this paper, a rigorous multi-dimensional analysis is conducted upon a triple absorption heat transformer (TAHT) using the working fluids water and lithium bromide (LiBr). A full factorial design is created which determines the most influential factors affecting the system’s coefficient of performance (COP), exergetic coefficient of performance (ECOP), flow ratio (FR) and total exergy destruction (E D ). The aim is to draw general conclusions which may be adopted into any such TAHT cycle and not simply be specific to any one scenario. Accordingly the paper analyses the position of each variable across its thermodynamically available range instead of the traditional selection of arbitrary temperatures. It is found that in general the condensation temperature and the pinch heat transfer gradient selected have the greatest effect, and that these should be minimised in all situations. There exist points of optimum for the temperatures of the two absorber–evaporators within the cycle, however the evaporation temperature has conflicting effects for different dependent variables, and must therefore be selected based on an economic analysis. The results of this study also show that the generator is the source of the largest exergy destruction in the cycle, followed by the two absorber–evaporators

  9. An analysis of employment intensity of sectoral output growth in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study explores the employment intensity of sectoral output growth in Botswana with a view to identifying key sectors of the Botswana economy that are employment intensive. To achieve this objective, the study used both simple elasticities and econometric procedures to provide empirical evidence concerning the extent ...

  10. Mediation Analysis in a Latent Growth Curve Modeling Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Soest, Tilmann; Hagtvet, Knut A.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents several longitudinal mediation models in the framework of latent growth curve modeling and provides a detailed account of how such models can be constructed. Logical and statistical challenges that might arise when such analyses are conducted are also discussed. Specifically, we discuss how the initial status (intercept) and…

  11. An analysis of tourism contribution to economic growth in SADC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study how the tourism sector can be an engine of economic growth in SADC member countries. The paper found the contribution of tourism to GDP, employment, export receipts and investment is significant. Although this sector's contribution to the economy varies among SADC countries, the the study found that ...

  12. Variational formulation based analysis on growth of yield front in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study investigates the growth of elastic-plastic front in rotating solid disks of non-uniform thickness having exponential and parabolic geometry variation. The problem is solved through an extension of a variational method in elastoplastic regime. The formulation is based on von-Mises yield criterion and linear ...

  13. Growth Curve Analysis and Change-Points Detection in Extremes

    KAUST Repository

    Meng, Rui

    2016-01-01

    of salinity tolerance in plants is crucial to understanding plant growth and productivity. Because fully-automated smarthouses with conveyor systems allow non-destructive and high-throughput phenotyping of large number of plants, it is now possible to apply

  14. Analysis of hygral induced crack growth in multiphase materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadouki, H.; Van Mier, J.G.M.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper a numerical model for simulating crack growth processes caused by moisture movement in a porous multiphase material like concrete is proposed. In the model, the material is schematized as a regular triangular network of beam elements. The meso-material structure of the material is

  15. Correlation Analysis of some Growth, Yield, Yield Components and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    three critical growth stages which was imposed by withholding water (at ... November, 5th December, 19th December and 2nd January) laid out in a split ... Simple correlation coefficient ® of different crop parameters and grain yield ... The husk bran and germ are rich sources of ..... heat in 2009/2010 dry season at Fadam a ...

  16. An Analysis of Regional Employment Growth, 1973-85.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rones, Philip L.

    1986-01-01

    This article describes some of the changes in regional employment over the past decade or so, with particular emphasis on the industrial components of those changes; then it examines some of the reasons for dramatically uneven regional employment growth, focusing on such aspects as population and business migration, regional income inequality, and…

  17. Comparative analysis of quality control tests on computed tomography in accordance with national and international laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Fernando S.; Vasconcelos, Rebeca S.; Goncalves, Marcel S.; Oliveira, Marcus V.L. de

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to perform a comparative analysis between the Brazilian legislation and internationals protocols, with respect to the quality control tests for computerized tomography. We used 07 references, published from 1998-2012: the Protocolo Brasileiro - Portaria 453/98 SVS/MS and the Guia de Radiodiagnostico Medico da ANVISA; Quality Assurance Programme for Computed Tomography: Diagnostic and Therapy Applications of the IAEA; European Protocol - European Guidelines on Quality Criteria for Computed Tomography of the EUR No. 16262 EN; Radiation Protection No. 162 - Criteria for Acceptability of Medical Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy of the European Commission; the Protocols of Control de Calidad en Radiodiagnostico IAEA / ARCAL XLIX; and the Protocolo Espanol de Control de Calidad en Radiodignostico. The comparative analysis of these legislations was based on aspects of tolerance / limit, frequency and objectives of the recommended tests. Were found 18 tests in the Brazilian legislation. The tests were grouped according to their nature (dosimetric tests / exposure and geometric tests and image quality tests). Among the evaluated protocols was identified divergence between tests contained in the documents and the criteria of assessment set out in this work. It is clear, moreover, that for certain documents are not observed tolerances, well-defined methodologies and even frequency of testing. We conclude that the current legislation in Brazil differs in certain respects from international protocols analyzed, although this has a great numbers of quality control tests. However, it is necessary that the Brazilian legislation takes into account technological advances presented to time

  18. PROBABILISTIC ANALYSIS OF DEPRESSIVE EPISODES: APPLICATION OF RENEWAL THEORY UNDER UNIFORM PROBABILITY LAW.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runjun Phookun

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The renewal process has been formulated on the basis of hazard rate of time between two consecutive occurrences of depressive episodes. The probabilistic analysis of depressive episodes can be performed under various forms of hazard rate viz. constant, linear etc. In this paper we are considering a particular form of hazard rate which is h(x=(b-x^- where b is a constant, x is the time between two consecutive episodes of depression. As a result time between two consecutive occurrences of depressive episodes follows uniform distribution in (a,b The distribution of range i.e. the difference between the longest and the shortest occurrence time to a depressive episode, and the expected number of depressive episodes in a random interval of time are obtained for the distribution under consideration. If the closed form of expression for the waiting time distribution is not available, then the Laplace transformation is used for the study of probabilistic analysis. Hazard rate of occurrence and expected number of depressive episodes have been presented graphically

  19. Evolution of Law: Interplay Between Private and Public Rule-Making - A New Institutional Economics-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Kirchner (Christian)

    2012-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Whereas the New Institutional Economics (NIE) is interested in the process of institution-building and the evolution of institutions, legal scholars study law-making processes and their variations. The evolution of institutions and law-making are thus overlapping, but

  20. Grasping Legal Time : A Legal and Philosophical Analysis of the Role of Time in European Migration Law.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stronks, Martijn

    2017-01-01

    This book is about time, law and migrants. It consists of a legal and philosophical scrutiny into the question: why do migrants receive stronger rights over the course of time in European migration law? That migrants receive stronger rights over time is easily proven, much more difficult is the

  1. The opinions and practices of police officers with respect to drinking and driving laws : a secondary analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gundy, C.M.

    1988-01-01

    While a great deal of research has been done on the drinking and driving problem and the enforcement of drinking and driving laws, much less attention has been paid to the opinions and practices of the enforcers of those laws. Noting that the identification of factors hampering the application of

  2. Private law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    working and researching in the key areas of law, security and privacy in IT, international trade and private law. Now, in 2010 and some seven conferences later, the event moves to Barcelona and embraces for the first time the three conference tracks just described. The papers in this work have all been...... blind reviewed and edited for quality. They represent the contributions of leading academics, early career researchers and others from an increasing number of countries, universities and institutions around the world. They set a benchmark for discussion of the current issues arising in the subject area...... and continue to offer an informed and relevant contribution to the policy making agenda. As Chair of the Conference Committee, I am once more very proud to endorse this work "Private Law: Rights, Duties & Conflicts" to all those seeking an up to date and informed evaluation of the leading issues. This work...

  3. Second-law analysis of a two-phase self-pumping solar water heater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, H.A.; Davidson, J.H.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper entropy generated by operation of a two-phase self-pumping solar water heater under Solar Rating and Certification Corporation rating conditions is computed numerically in a methodology based on an exergy cascade. An order of magnitude analysis shows that entropy generation is dominated by heat transfer across temperature differences. Conversion of radiant solar energy incident on the collector to thermal energy within the collector accounts for 87.1 percent of total entropy generation. Thermal losses are responsible for 9.9 percent of total entropy generation, and heat transfer across the condenser accounts for 2.4 percent of the total entropy generation. Mixing in the tempering valve is responsible for 0.7 percent of the total entropy generation. Approximately one half of the entropy generated by thermal losses is attributable to the self-pumping process. The procedure to determine total entropy generation can be used in a parametric study to evaluate the performance of two-phase hot water heating systems relative to other solar water heating options

  4. The goal(s of corporate rescue in company law: A comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony O. Nwafor

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The concept of corporate rescue lays emphasis on corporate sustainability than liquidation. This trend in corporate legislation which featured in the United Kingdom Insolvency Act of 1986, Australian Corporations Act 2001, Indian Sick Industrial Companies (Special Provisions Act of 1985 (as replaced by Companies Act, 2013 and supplanted by the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016 has been adopted in the South African Companies Act of 2008. The goal(s of corporate rescue in some of these jurisdictions are not clearly defined. The paper examines, through a comparative analysis, the relevant statutory provisions in the United Kingdom, India, Australia and South Africa and the attendant judicial interpretations of those provisions with a view to discovering the goal(s of corporate rescue in those jurisdictions. It is argued that while under the United Kingdom and Australian statutory provisions, the administrator could pursue alternative goals of either rescuing the company or achieving better results for the creditors; the South African and Indian statutory provisions do not provide such alternatives. The seeming ancillary purpose of crafting a fair deal for the stakeholders under the South African Companies Act’s provision is not sustainable if the company as an entity cannot be rescued

  5. How to determine control of growth rate in a chemostat. Using metabolic control analysis to resolve the paradox

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snoep, Jacky L.; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal; Groeneveld, Philip

    1994-01-01

    how, paradoxically, one can determine control of growth rate, of growth yield and of other fluxes in a chemostat. We develop metabolic control analysis for the chemostat. this analysis does not depend on the particular way in which specific growth rate varies with the concentration of the growth...

  6. Analysis of steady-state ductile crack growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niordson, Christian

    1999-01-01

    The fracture strength under quasi-static steady-state crack growth in an elastic-plastic material joined by a laser weld is analyzed. Laser welding gives high mismatch between the yield stress within the weld and the yield stress in the base material. This is due to the fast termic cycle, which...... the finite element mesh remains fixed relative to the tip of the growing crack. Fracture is modelled using two different local crack growth criteria. One is a crack opening displacement criterion, while the other is a model in which a cohesive zone is imposed in front of the crack tip along the fracture zone....... Both models predict that in general a thinner laser weld gives higher interface strength. Furthermore, both fracture criteria show, that the preferred path of the crack is close outside the weld material; a phenomenon also observed in experiments....

  7. Energy consumption and economic growth: A causality analysis for Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsani, Stela Z.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the causal relationship between aggregated and disaggregated levels of energy consumption and economic growth for Greece for the period 1960-2006 through the application of a later development in the methodology of time series proposed by Toda and Yamamoto (1995). At aggregated levels of energy consumption empirical findings suggest the presence of a uni-directional causal relationship running from total energy consumption to real GDP. At disaggregated levels empirical evidence suggests that there is a bi-directional causal relationship between industrial and residential energy consumption to real GDP but this is not the case for the transport energy consumption with causal relationship being identified in neither direction. The importance of these findings lies on their policy implications and their adoption on structural policies affecting energy consumption in Greece suggesting that in order to address energy import dependence and environmental concerns without hindering economic growth emphasis should be put on the demand side and energy efficiency improvements.

  8. Bifurcation analysis of a delayed mathematical model for tumor growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khajanchi, Subhas

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we present a modified mathematical model of tumor growth by introducing discrete time delay in interaction terms. The model describes the interaction between tumor cells, healthy tissue cells (host cells) and immune effector cells. The goal of this study is to obtain a better compatibility with reality for which we introduced the discrete time delay in the interaction between tumor cells and host cells. We investigate the local stability of the non-negative equilibria and the existence of Hopf-bifurcation by considering the discrete time delay as a bifurcation parameter. We estimate the length of delay to preserve the stability of bifurcating periodic solutions, which gives an idea about the mode of action for controlling oscillations in the tumor growth. Numerical simulations of the model confirm the analytical findings

  9. Finance and growth: New evidence from Meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Asongu Simplice

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – In a meta-study, we have bridged the gap between the pros and cons of a questionable finance-growth nexus. Design/methodology/approach – Over 20 fundamental characteristics that have influenced the debate over the last decades have been examined. The empirical evidence is based on 196 outcomes from 20 studies. We assess the degree of heterogeneity and identify causes of the observed differentiation. Findings – Our findings also show evidence of publication bias. Overall, a g...

  10. Enhanced Phosphoproteomic Profiling Workflow For Growth Factor Signaling Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sylvester, Marc; Burbridge, Mike; Leclerc, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    Background Our understanding of complex signaling networks is still fragmentary. Isolated processes have been studied extensively but cross-talk is omnipresent and precludes intuitive predictions of signaling outcomes. The need for quantitative data on dynamic systems is apparent especially for our...... understanding of pathological processes. In our study we create and integrate data on phosphorylations that are initiated by several growth factor receptors. We present an approach for quantitative, time-resolved phosphoproteomic profiling that integrates the important contributions by phosphotyrosines. Methods...

  11. Power-Law Scaling of the Impact Crater Size-Frequency Distribution on Pluto: A Preliminary Analysis Based on First Images from New Horizons' Flyby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scholkmann F.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent (14 th July 2015 flyby of NASA’s New Horizons spacecraft of the dwarf planet Pluto resulted in the first high-resolution images of the geological surface- features of Pluto. Since previous studies showed that the impact crater size-frequency distribution (SFD of different celestial objects of our solar system follows power-laws, the aim of the present analysis was to determine, for the first time, the power-law scaling behavior for Pluto’s crater SFD based on the first images available in mid-September 2015. The analysis was based on a high-resolution image covering parts of Pluto’s re- gions Sputnik Planum , Al-Idrisi Montes and Voyager Terra . 83 impact craters could be identified in these regions and their diameter ( D was determined. The analysis re- vealed that the crater diameter SFD shows a statistically significant power-law scaling ( α = 2.4926±0.3309 in the interval of D values ranging from 3.75±1.14 km to the largest determined D value in this data set of 37.77 km. The value obtained for the scaling coefficient α is similar to the coefficient determined for the power-law scaling of the crater SFDs from the other celestial objects in our solar system. Further analysis of Pluto’s crater SFD is warranted as soon as new images are received from the spacecraft.

  12. Comparative analysis of conceptions of human rights, democracy and the rule of law in selected third countries, FRAME Deliverable 3.3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sosa, L.P.A.; Timmer, A.S.H.

    2015-01-01

    This report presents a comparative analysis of the different understandings and perspectives on human rights, democracy and rule of law in third countries with which EU has established strategic partnerships: China, India, Peru and South Africa. This explorative report focuses on theoretical

  13. Exploring the Ideal Gas Law through a Quantitative Gasometric Analysis of Nitrogen Produced by the Reaction of Sodium Nitrite with Sulfamic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Anne

    2010-01-01

    The gasometric analysis of nitrogen produced in a reaction between sodium nitrite, NaNO[superscript 2], and sulfamic acid, H(NH[superscript 2])SO[superscript 3], provides an alternative to more common general chemistry experiments used to study the ideal gas law, such as the experiment in which magnesium is reacted with hydrochloric acid. This…

  14. Analysis of the Deployed Military Health Information System and Its Ability to Satisfy Requirements of Public Law 105-85, Section 765

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brown, David

    2005-01-01

    .... The information obtained in this analysis will be used to further identify the strengths and weaknesses of the deployed medical information systems in the MRS and determine the ability of the MRS to meet the requirements of Public Law 105-85.

  15. Genetic analysis of ectopic growth suppression during planar growth of integuments mediated by the Arabidopsis AGC protein kinase UNICORN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enugutti, Balaji; Schneitz, Kay

    2013-01-02

    The coordination of growth within a tissue layer is of critical importance for tissue morphogenesis. For example, cells within the epidermis undergo stereotypic cell divisions that are oriented along the plane of the layer (planar growth), thereby propagating the layered epidermal structure. Little is known about the developmental control that regulates such planar growth in plants. Recent evidence suggested that the Arabidopsis AGC VIII protein kinase UNICORN (UCN) maintains planar growth by suppressing the formation of ectopic multicellular protrusions in several floral tissues including integuments. In the current model UCN controls this process during integument development by directly interacting with the ABERRANT TESTA SHAPE (ATS) protein, a member of the KANADI (KAN) family of transcription factors, thereby repressing its activity. Here we report on the further characterization of the UCN mechanism. Phenotypic analysis of flowers of ucn-1 plants impaired in floral homeotic gene activity revealed that any of the four floral whorls could produce organs carrying ucn-1 protrusions. The ectopic outgrowths of ucn integuments did not accumulate detectable signals of the auxin and cytokinin reporters DR5rev::GFP and ARR5::GUS, respectively. Furthermore, wild-type and ucn-1 seedlings showed similarly strong callus formation upon in vitro culture on callus-inducing medium. We also show that ovules of ucn-1 plants carrying the dominant ats allele sk21-D exhibited more pronounced protrusion formation. Finally ovules of ucn-1 ett-1 double mutants and ucn-1 ett-1 arf4-1 triple mutants displayed an additive phenotype. These data deepen the molecular insight into the UCN-mediated control of planar growth during integument development. The presented evidence indicates that UCN downstream signaling does not involve the control of auxin or cytokinin homeostasis. The results also reveal that UCN interacts with ATS independently of an ATS/ETT complex required for integument

  16. Electricity consumption and economic growth: A cross-country analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Seung-Hoon; Lee, Joo-Suk

    2010-01-01

    Electricity has been the foundation of economic growth, and constitutes one of the vital infra-structural inputs in socio-economic development. The world faces a surge in demand for electricity that is driven by such powerful forces as population growth, extensive urbanization, industrialization, and the rise in the standard of living. This paper attempts to ascertain whether there is a systematic relationship between electricity consumption and economic growth. To this end, we use a large set of data that spans 88 countries during the period, 1975-2004. A statistically significant inverted-U-shaped relationship between per-capita consumption of electricity and per-capita income is detected. Nevertheless, by using a purchasing power parity that is much higher than the per-capita income of all the countries in the world, the level of per-capita income is estimated at the peak point of per-capita electricity consumption to be $61,379 in 2000 constant international dollars. Moreover, we segment the sample into Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries and non-OECD countries, and separately analyze the developed and developing countries. The separate estimation shows that even though the peak income is higher than the average per-capita income, a statistically significant inverted-U-shaped relationship is found in OECD and developed countries but not in non-OECD and developing countries.

  17. Electricity consumption and economic growth: A cross-country analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Seung-Hoon, E-mail: shyoo@hoseo.ed [Department of International Area Studies, Hoseo University, 268 Anseo-Dong, Cheonan, Chungnam 330-713 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Joo-Suk, E-mail: leejoosuk@hoseo.ed [Department of International Area Studies, Hoseo University, 268 Anseo-Dong, Cheonan, Chungnam 330-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-01-15

    Electricity has been the foundation of economic growth, and constitutes one of the vital infra-structural inputs in socio-economic development. The world faces a surge in demand for electricity that is driven by such powerful forces as population growth, extensive urbanization, industrialization, and the rise in the standard of living. This paper attempts to ascertain whether there is a systematic relationship between electricity consumption and economic growth. To this end, we use a large set of data that spans 88 countries during the period, 1975-2004. A statistically significant inverted-U-shaped relationship between per-capita consumption of electricity and per-capita income is detected. Nevertheless, by using a purchasing power parity that is much higher than the per-capita income of all the countries in the world, the level of per-capita income is estimated at the peak point of per-capita electricity consumption to be $61,379 in 2000 constant international dollars. Moreover, we segment the sample into Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries and non-OECD countries, and separately analyze the developed and developing countries. The separate estimation shows that even though the peak income is higher than the average per-capita income, a statistically significant inverted-U-shaped relationship is found in OECD and developed countries but not in non-OECD and developing countries.

  18. Electricity consumption and economic growth. A cross-country analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Seung-Hoon; Lee, Joo-Suk [Department of International Area Studies, Hoseo University, 268 Anseo-Dong, Cheonan, Chungnam 330-713 (Korea)

    2010-01-15

    Electricity has been the foundation of economic growth, and constitutes one of the vital infra-structural inputs in socio-economic development. The world faces a surge in demand for electricity that is driven by such powerful forces as population growth, extensive urbanization, industrialization, and the rise in the standard of living. This paper attempts to ascertain whether there is a systematic relationship between electricity consumption and economic growth. To this end, we use a large set of data that spans 88 countries during the period, 1975-2004. A statistically significant inverted-U-shaped relationship between per-capita consumption of electricity and per-capita income is detected. Nevertheless, by using a purchasing power parity that is much higher than the per-capita income of all the countries in the world, the level of per-capita income is estimated at the peak point of per-capita electricity consumption to be $61,379 in 2000 constant international dollars. Moreover, we segment the sample into Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries and non-OECD countries, and separately analyze the developed and developing countries. The separate estimation shows that even though the peak income is higher than the average per-capita income, a statistically significant inverted-U-shaped relationship is found in OECD and developed countries but not in non-OECD and developing countries. (author)

  19. A numerical analysis of crack growth in brittle microcracking composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biner, S.B.

    1993-01-01

    A set of numerical analyses of crack growth was performed to elucidate the mechanism of microcracking on the observed fracture behavior of brittle solids and composites. The random nucleation, orientation and size effects of discrete microcracks and resulting interactions are fully accounted for in a hybrid finite element model. The results indicate that the energy expenditure due the microcrack nucleation seems not to contribute significantly to the resistance to crack growth. The main controlling parameter appears to be elastic interaction of the microcracks with the main crack in the absence of a reinforcing phase; therefore, the microcrack density plays an important role. In the case of the composites, the interaction of the main crack with the stress fields of the reinforcing phase, rather than interaction of microcracks, is the controlling parameter for the resistance to the crack growth even in the presence of a large population of microcracks. It will be also shown that the crack branching and crack kinking can readily develop as a result of microcracking

  20. Parent involvement and science achievement: A latent growth curve analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ursula Yvette

    This study examined science achievement growth across elementary and middle school and parent school involvement using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study - Kindergarten Class of 1998--1999 (ECLS-K). The ECLS-K is a nationally representative kindergarten cohort of students from public and private schools who attended full-day or half-day kindergarten class in 1998--1999. The present study's sample (N = 8,070) was based on students that had a sampling weight available from the public-use data file. Students were assessed in science achievement at third, fifth, and eighth grades and parents of the students were surveyed at the same time points. Analyses using latent growth curve modeling with time invariant and varying covariates in an SEM framework revealed a positive relationship between science achievement and parent involvement at eighth grade. Furthermore, there were gender and racial/ethnic differences in parents' school involvement as a predictor of science achievement. Findings indicated that students with lower initial science achievement scores had a faster rate of growth across time. The achievement gap between low and high achievers in earth, space and life sciences lessened from elementary to middle school. Parents' involvement with school usually tapers off after elementary school, but due to parent school involvement being a significant predictor of eighth grade science achievement, later school involvement may need to be supported and better implemented in secondary schooling.

  1. A health app developer's guide to law and policy: a multi-sector policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lisa; Karliychuk, Tanya; Gillies, Donna; Mintzes, Barbara; Raven, Melissa; Grundy, Quinn

    2017-10-02

    Apps targeted at health and wellbeing sit in a rapidly growing industry associated with widespread optimism about their potential to deliver accessible and cost-effective healthcare. App developers might not be aware of all the regulatory requirements and best practice principles are emergent. Health apps are regulated in order to minimise their potential for harm due to, for example, loss of personal health privacy, financial costs, and health harms from delayed or unnecessary diagnosis, monitoring and treatment. We aimed to produce a comprehensive guide to assist app developers in producing health apps that are legally compliant and in keeping with high professional standards of user protection. We conducted a case study analysis of the Australian and related international policy environment for mental health apps to identify relevant sectors, policy actors, and policy solutions. We identified 29 policies produced by governments and non-government organisations that provide oversight of health apps. In consultation with stakeholders, we developed an interactive tool targeted at app developers, summarising key features of the policy environment and highlighting legislative, industry and professional standards around seven relevant domains: privacy, security, content, promotion and advertising, consumer finances, medical device efficacy and safety, and professional ethics. We annotated this developer guidance tool with information about: the relevance of each domain; existing legislative and non-legislative guidance; critiques of existing policy; recommendations for developers; and suggestions for other key stakeholders. We anticipate that mental health apps developed in accordance with this tool will be more likely to conform to regulatory requirements, protect consumer privacy, protect consumer finances, and deliver health benefit; and less likely to attract regulatory penalties, offend consumers and communities, mislead consumers, or deliver health harms. We

  2. A Descriptive Analysis of Tactical Casualty Care Interventions Performed by Law Enforcement Personnel in the State of Wisconsin, 2010-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiles, Chad M; Cook, Christopher; Sztajnkrycer, Matthew D

    2017-06-01

    Introduction Based upon military experience, law enforcement has developed guidelines for medical care during high-threat conditions. The purpose of the current study was to provide a descriptive analysis of reported outcomes of law enforcement medical interventions. This was a descriptive analysis of a convenience sample of cases submitted to the Wisconsin Tactical Medicine Initiative (Wisconsin USA), after the provision of successful patient care, between January 2010 and December 2015. The study was reviewed by the Mayo Foundation Institutional Review Board (Rochester, Minnesota USA) and deemed exempt. Nineteen agencies submitted information during the study period. Of the 56 episodes of care reported, four (7.1%) cases involved care provided to injured officers while 52 (92.9%) involved care to injured civilians, including suspects. In at least two cases, on-going threats existed during the provision of medical care to an injured civilian. Law enforcement rendered care prior to Emergency Medical Services (EMS) arrival in all but two cases. The current case series demonstrates the life-saving potential for law enforcement personnel trained and equipped under current Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC)/ Committee on Tactical Emergency Casualty Care (C-TECC) tactical casualty care guidelines. Although originally developed to save the lives of wounded combat personnel, in the civilian sector, the training appears more likely to save victims rather than law enforcement personnel. Stiles CM , Cook C , Sztajnkrycer MD . A descriptive analysis of tactical casualty care interventions performed by law enforcement personnel in the State of Wisconsin, 2010-2015. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(3):284-288.

  3. Effect Sizes for Growth-Modeling Analysis for Controlled Clinical Trials in the Same Metric as for Classical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feingold, Alan

    2009-01-01

    The use of growth-modeling analysis (GMA)--including hierarchical linear models, latent growth models, and general estimating equations--to evaluate interventions in psychology, psychiatry, and prevention science has grown rapidly over the last decade. However, an effect size associated with the difference between the trajectories of the…

  4. Population, internal migration, and economic growth: an empirical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreland, R S

    1982-01-01

    The role of population growth in the development process has received increasing attention during the last 15 years, as manifested in the literature in 3 broad categories. In the 1st category, the effects of rapid population growth on the growth of income have been studied with the use of simulation models, which sometimes include endogenous population growth. The 2nd category of the literature is concerned with theoretical and empirical studies of the economic determinants of various demographic rates--most usually fertility. Internal migration and dualism is the 3rd population development category to recieve attention. An attempt is made to synthesize developments in these 3 categories by estimating from a consistent set of data a 2 sector economic demographic model in which the major demographic rates are endogenous. Due to the fact that the interactions between economic and demographic variables are nonlinear and complex, the indirect effects of changes in a particular variable may depend upon the balance of numerical coefficients. For this reason it was felt that the model should be empirically grounded. A brief overview of the model is provided, and the model is compared to some similar existing models. Estimation of the model's 9 behavior equations is discussed, followed by a "base run" simulation of a developing country "stereotype" and a report of a number of policy experiments. The relatively new field of economic determinants of demographic variables was drawn upon in estimating equations to endogenize demographic phenomena that are frequently left exogenous in simulation models. The fertility and labor force participation rate functions are fairly standard, but a step beyong existing literature was taken in the life expectancy and intersectorial migration equations. On the economic side, sectoral savings functions were estimated, and it was found that the marginal propensity to save is lower in agriculture than in nonagriculture. Testing to see the

  5. Finite-size effects in transcript sequencing count distribution: its power-law correction necessarily precedes downstream normalization and comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wing-Cheong; Ng, Hong-Kiat; Tantoso, Erwin; Soong, Richie; Eisenhaber, Frank

    2018-02-12

    Though earlier works on modelling transcript abundance from vertebrates to lower eukaroytes have specifically singled out the Zip's law, the observed distributions often deviate from a single power-law slope. In hindsight, while power-laws of critical phenomena are derived asymptotically under the conditions of infinite observations, real world observations are finite where the finite-size effects will set in to force a power-law distribution into an exponential decay and consequently, manifests as a curvature (i.e., varying exponent values) in a log-log plot. If transcript abundance is truly power-law distributed, the varying exponent signifies changing mathematical moments (e.g., mean, variance) and creates heteroskedasticity which compromises statistical rigor in analysis. The impact of this deviation from the asymptotic power-law on sequencing count data has never truly been examined and quantified. The anecdotal description of transcript abundance being almost Zipf's law-like distributed can be conceptualized as the imperfect mathematical rendition of the Pareto power-law distribution when subjected to the finite-size effects in the real world; This is regardless of the advancement in sequencing technology since sampling is finite in practice. Our conceptualization agrees well with our empirical analysis of two modern day NGS (Next-generation sequencing) datasets: an in-house generated dilution miRNA study of two gastric cancer cell lines (NUGC3 and AGS) and a publicly available spike-in miRNA data; Firstly, the finite-size effects causes the deviations of sequencing count data from Zipf's law and issues of reproducibility in sequencing experiments. Secondly, it manifests as heteroskedasticity among experimental replicates to bring about statistical woes. Surprisingly, a straightforward power-law correction that restores the distribution distortion to a single exponent value can dramatically reduce data heteroskedasticity to invoke an instant increase in

  6. Analysis of first and second law of an engine operating with Bio diesel from palm oil. Part 2: global exergy balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agudelo, John R; Agudelo, Andres F; Cuadrado, Ilba G

    2006-01-01

    An exergy analysis of a diesel engine operating with palm oil bio diesel and its blends with diesel fuel is presented. Measurements were carried out in a test bench under stationary conditions varying engine load at constant speed and vice versa. The variation in exergy distribution and second law efficiency were obtained under several operating points. It was found that fuel type do not affect exergy distribution but it does affect the second law efficiency, which is slightly higher for diesel fuel. In contrast with energy balance results, exergy flows of exhaust and coolant streams are low, specially for the latter. This result is relevant for the implementation of cogeneration systems.

  7. Thoughts on the Law, Gatekeepers, and Rerooting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevock, Daniel J.

    2017-01-01

    This essay extends an open philosophy with a philosophy of music education on soil. An open philosophy emerges from analysis of Kafka's parable "Before the Law." I explore what "the law" might be, what it could mean for how people relate to "the law," and how critiquing "the law" allows music teachers and…

  8. Gender Differences in Self-Reported Posttraumatic Growth: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnevsky, Tanya; Cann, Arnie; Calhoun, Lawrence G.; Tedeschi, Richard G.; Demakis, George J.

    2010-01-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to examine the direction and magnitude of gender differences in self-reported posttraumatic growth. Results from 70 studies (N = 16,076) revealed a small to moderate gender difference (g = 0.27, 95% CI = 0.21 -0.32), with women reporting more posttraumatic growth than men. Moderator analyses were then conducted to…

  9. Factors of Economic growth in KSA An empirical analysis from 2000:2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanaa Abdelaty Hasan Esmail

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to conduct analysis of the impact of Oil Revenue and its relationship with all factors that affect growth in domestic product and also focuses on investment opportunity and economic growth in Saudi Arabia which has made the country an increasingly attractive destination of investment for foreign investors.

  10. Factors of Economic growth in KSA An empirical analysis from 2000:2014

    OpenAIRE

    Hanaa Abdelaty Hasan Esmail

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to conduct analysis of the impact of Oil Revenue and its relationship with all factors that affect growth in domestic product and also focuses on investment opportunity and economic growth in Saudi Arabia which has made the country an increasingly attractive destination of investment for foreign investors.

  11. Analysis of the Impact of External Debt on Economic Growth in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of the Impact of External Debt on Economic Growth in an Emerging Economy: Evidence from Nigeria. ... African Research Review ... Findings reveal that debt service payment has negative and insignificant impact on Nigeria's economic growth while external debt stock has positive and significant effect on Nigeria's ...

  12. Big-data reflection high energy electron diffraction analysis for understanding epitaxial film growth processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, Rama K; Tselev, Alexander; Baddorf, Arthur P; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2014-10-28

    Reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) has by now become a standard tool for in situ monitoring of film growth by pulsed laser deposition and molecular beam epitaxy. Yet despite the widespread adoption and wealth of information in RHEED images, most applications are limited to observing intensity oscillations of the specular spot, and much additional information on growth is discarded. With ease of data acquisition and increased computation speeds, statistical methods to rapidly mine the data set are now feasible. Here, we develop such an approach to the analysis of the fundamental growth processes through multivariate statistical analysis of a RHEED image sequence. This approach is illustrated for growth of La(x)Ca(1-x)MnO(3) films grown on etched (001) SrTiO(3) substrates, but is universal. The multivariate methods including principal component analysis and k-means clustering provide insight into the relevant behaviors, the timing and nature of a disordered to ordered growth change, and highlight statistically significant patterns. Fourier analysis yields the harmonic components of the signal and allows separation of the relevant components and baselines, isolating the asymmetric nature of the step density function and the transmission spots from the imperfect layer-by-layer (LBL) growth. These studies show the promise of big data approaches to obtaining more insight into film properties during and after epitaxial film growth. Furthermore, these studies open the pathway to use forward prediction methods to potentially allow significantly more control over growth process and hence final film quality.

  13. Effect of emodin on Candida albicans growth investigated by microcalorimetry combined with chemometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, W J; Wang, J B; Jin, C; Zhao, Y L; Dai, C M; Xiao, X H; Li, Z L

    2009-07-01

    Using the 3114/3115 thermal activity monitor (TAM) air isothermal microcalorimeter, ampoule mode, the heat output of Candida albicans growth at 37 degrees C was measured, and the effect of emodin on C. albicans growth was evaluated by microcalorimetry coupled with chemometric methods. The similarities between the heat flow power (HFP)-time curves of C. albicans growth affected by different concentrations of emodin were calculated by similarity analysis (SA). In the correspondence analysis (CA) diagram of eight quantitative parameters taken from the HFP-time curves, it could be deduced that emodin had definite dose-effect relationship as the distance between different concentrations of it increased along with the dosage and the effect. From the principal component analysis (PCA) on eight quantitative parameters, the action of emodin on C. albicans growth could be easily evaluated by analyzing the change of values of the main two parameters, growth rate constant k (2) and maximum power output P(2)(m). The coherent results of SA, CA, and PCA showed that emodin at different concentrations had different effects on C. albicans growth metabolism: A low concentration (0-10 microg ml(-1)) poorly inhibited the growth of C. albicans, and a high concentration (15-35 microg ml(-1)) could notably inhibit growth of this fungus. This work provided a useful idea of the combination of microcalorimetry and chemometric analysis for investigating the effect of drug and other compounds on microbes.

  14. Recent publications on environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohse, S.

    1991-01-01

    The bibliography contains references to publications covering the following subject fields: General environmental law; environmental law in relation to constitutional law, administrative law, procedural law, revenue law, criminal law, private law, industrial law; law of regional development; nature conservation law; law on water protection; waste management law; law on protection against harmful effects on the environment; atomic energy law and radiation protection law; law of the power industry and the mining industry; laws and regulations on hazardous material and environmental hygiene. (orig.) [de

  15. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    This paper gives and analyses three examples of case law: decision rejecting application to close down Tomari nuclear power plant (Japan); judgement by the Supreme Administrative Court on the closing of Barsebaeck (Sweden); litigation relating to the Department of Energy's obligations under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to accept spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste (United States). (A.L.B.)

  16. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This section treats of the two following case laws: Slovak Republic: Further developments in cases related to the challenge by Greenpeace Slovakia to the Mochovce nuclear power plant; United States: Judgment of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission denying requests from petitioners to suspend final reactor licensing decisions pending the issuance of a final determination of reasonable assurance of permanent disposal of spent fuel

  17. Business Law

    OpenAIRE

    Marson, James; Ferris, Katy

    2016-01-01

    Marson & Ferris provide a thorough account of the subject for students. Essential topics are introduced by exploring current and pertinent examples and the relevance of the law in a business environment is considered throughout. This pack includes a supplement which considers the effects of the Consumer Rights Act 2015.

  18. The Judge’s Progressive Decisions in Civil Law Cases (An Analysis on “the Case of Mango Tree”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwito

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The idea of a progressive law arbitrate by placing the concept of law as an instrument in achieving social goals. This idea also emphasizes the discovery of the laws in each judge’s decision as an attempt to explore the values that live in the community. This progressive legal thought has been applied in several decisions of judges in Indonesia. One is in the civil case, known as “The Case of Mango Tree” which occurred in the jurisdiction of the Jayapura District Court. The aim in this study was intended to examine the normative juridical one court decision in a civil case based progressive law. The method used is a normative approach to the court decision as a primary legal materials. The results showed that there is a judicial consideration of progressive law judge based on the decision of the court, where the judge has successfully completed the legal issues, including complicated and abstract categories. The conclusion of this cases shows that every legal issue can be resolved without having to override the rules by sticking fast to the rules to achieve a sense of justice, expediency and the rule of law as a hallmark of progressive laws.

  19. Numerical analysis of scaling laws for capillary rise in soils; Lois d'echelle pour l'ascension capillaire dans les sols: analyse numerique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezzoug, A.; Konig, D.; Triantafyllidis, Th. [Ruhr Bochum Univ. (Germany); Coumoulos, H.; Soga, K. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom)

    2000-07-01

    The capillary movement of water through soils is of interest in many practical environmental engineering problems, especially problems concerning pollutant transport in soils. The potential use of the geotechnical centrifuge to study the capillary phenomena in soils has been proposed and some results have been reported. The main issue in relation is the verification of the scaling laws for the capillary phenomena in soils. However, the theoretical aspect of the capillary rise in relation to the accelerated gravity effect is still poorly understood; further investigation is required on the gravity effect on the capillary pressure, the meniscus form, the scaling of the capillary height and the scaling of the time. A theoretical analysis of the movement in capillary tube, representing soil, is presented. Scaling laws for the capillary height and the time are proposed. The effect of the contact angle changes on the scaling laws is also considered. (authors)

  20. Van der Vyver’s analysis of rights: a case study drawn from thirteenth-century canon law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles J. Reid, Jr.

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In an important article published in 1988, Johan Van der Vyver challenged the prevailing reliance on Wesley Hohfeld’s taxonomy of rights. Hohfeld's division of rights into claims, powers, privileges and immunities, Van der Vyver stresses, is excessively concerned with "inter-individual legal relations” at the expense of the right-holder's relationship to the object of the right. Van der Vyver proposes instead that an assertion of right involves three distinct juridic aspects:• legal capacity, which is "the competence to occupy the offices of legal subject;• legal claim, which "comprises claims of a legal subject as against other persons to a legal object";• legal entitlement, which specifies the boundaries of the right-holder's ability to use, enjoy, consume, destroy or alienate the right in question.This article applies Van der Vyver’s taxonomy to the operations of thirteenthcentury canon law, and demonstrates that Van der Vyver’s analysis provides greater depth than Hohfeld's, in that it considers both the relationship of the person claiming a particular right and the object of that right.

  1. Analysis of Biot-Savart’s law in comparison with Ampère’s force between current elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Shigueo Tanaka dos Santos

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, we use Biot-Savart’s Law and Grassmann’s force to study the magnetic fields effects. We can observe that this force apparently do not always satisfy the principle of action and reaction. In contrast, Ampère’s force always satisfies this principle explicitly and always along the straight line connecting the two currents elements. The present work presents a historic analysis of the development of these two forces, which have been developed based on interpretations of the Ørsted’s experiment. We also compare these two forces in order to verify if both have the same result. We show that the Grassmann’s expression, in fact, does not satisfy to the principle of action and reaction. Ampère’s force not only follows the principle of action and reaction in the strongest way, but it also explains the phenomena based action at a distance, which is easier to be observed and has many other powerful results, not only in the electromagnetism. In order to compare these two approaches, we calculate the force that an infinite rectilinear wire exerts on a loop of conductive material, both with current.

  2. Legal analysis at the Law for Civil liabilities by nuclear damage; Analisis juridico a la Ley de responsabilidad civil por danos nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez G, A

    2000-07-01

    The present work has the objective to analyse in specific terms the legal regime of the Civil liability by nuclear damage. It has been the intention of that this compilation is the initiation of a large way which awake the interests of jurists and specialists dedicated to study the aspects as the liability by nuclear damage, compensation guarantee, risk and nuclear damage among others. The peaceful applications of the nuclear energy require the necessity of a legal ordinance that it is updated according to the nuclear technology development that the regulations of the common law do not cover. This work is initiated mentioning some antecedents of the nuclear energy law in Mexico. Also is realized the study of the elemental concepts and definitions about the subject as the evolution of the legal figure in the National law frame where the jurist must do an incursion in the nuclear field and make use of scientific and technical terminology. It was analysed and it was made the reflection of the legal figure of liability, its exoneration cases, about the concepts of risk and nuclear damage overcoming the conceptual error among them. It is talked about the study of nuclear damage and its repairing as financial guarantee to compensate to the people injured by a nuclear accident. Finally, it was treated about the legal analysis and proposals of additions and reforms for updating the Nuclear damage liability Law, concluding with general contributions to the Law resulting products of this work. (Author)

  3. Economic Growth and Transboundary Pollution in Europe. An Empirical Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansuategi, A. [Ekonomi Analisiaren Oinarriak I Saila, Ekonomi Zientzien Fakultatea, Lehendakari Agirre Etorbidea, 83, 48015 Bilbao (Spain)

    2003-10-01

    The existing empirical evidence suggests that environmental Kuznets curves only exist for pollutants with semi-local and medium term impacts. Ansuategi and Perrings (2000) have considered the behavioral basis for the correlation observed between different spatial incidence of environmental degradation and the relation between economic growth and environmental quality. They show that self-interested planners following a Nash-type strategy tend to address environmental effects sequentially: addressing those with the most immediate costs first, and those whose costs are displaced in space later. This paper tests such behavioral basis in the context of sulphur dioxide emissions in Europe.

  4. Economic Growth and Transboundary Pollution in Europe. An Empirical Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansuategi, A.

    2003-01-01

    The existing empirical evidence suggests that environmental Kuznets curves only exist for pollutants with semi-local and medium term impacts. Ansuategi and Perrings (2000) have considered the behavioral basis for the correlation observed between different spatial incidence of environmental degradation and the relation between economic growth and environmental quality. They show that self-interested planners following a Nash-type strategy tend to address environmental effects sequentially: addressing those with the most immediate costs first, and those whose costs are displaced in space later. This paper tests such behavioral basis in the context of sulphur dioxide emissions in Europe

  5. Growth analysis of pulmonary metastases from salivary gland tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twardzik, F G; Sklaroff, D M

    1976-03-01

    Three cases of primary salivary gland tumors with lung metastasis are presented with extremely long survival (six, ten, and twelve years). The tumor doubling time was calculated and the growth rate of the pulmonary metastasis was found to be slow and erratic. A simplified table was devised, which permits rapid calculation of the tumor doubling time without the use of graphs. The presence of lung metastasis from some primary malignant salivary tumor is not necessarily an ominous sign: a long survival without symtoms is possible.

  6. An Analysis of the Invariance and Conservation Laws of Some Classes of Nonlinear Ostrovsky Equations and Related Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fakhar, K.; Kara, A. H.

    2011-01-01

    A large class of partial differential equations in the modelling of ocean waves are due to Ostrovsky. We determine the invariance properties (through the Lie point symmetry generators) and construct classes of conservation laws for some of the models. In the latter case, the method involves finding the ‘multipliers’ associated with the conservation laws with a stronger emphasis on the ‘higher-order’ ones. The relationship between the symmetries and conservation laws is investigated by considering the invariance properties of the multipliers. (general)

  7. Molecular-beam epitaxial growth and ion-beam analysis systems for functional materials research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeshita, H.; Aoki, Y.; Yamamoto, S.; Naramoto, H.

    1992-01-01

    Experimental systems for molecular beam epitaxial growth and ion beam analysis have been designed and constructed for the research of inorganic functional materials such as thin films and superlattices. (author)

  8. The Impact of the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA): An Empirical Analysis of Sub-Saharan African Agricultural Exports

    OpenAIRE

    Zenebe, Addisalem; Peterson, Wesley; Wamisho, Kassu

    2014-01-01

    The African Growth and Opportunities Act (AGOA) which was signed into law in 2000 as part of U.S. trade legislation has the objectives of increasing trade and investment between the U.S. and eligible Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries, by reducing or eliminating tariffs applied to African exports of different products. This Act represents a promising approach to economic growth and development in SSA through international trade. This research paper examines the impact of AGOA on African agri...

  9. Nuclear Energy Law and Arbo Law/Safety Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eijnde, J.G. van den

    1986-01-01

    The legal aspects of radiation protection in the Netherlands are described. Radiation protection is regulated mainly in the Nuclear Energy Law. The Arbo Law also has some sections about radiation protection. The interaction between both laws is discussed. (Auth.)

  10. The Essential Elements of Corporate Law. What is Corporate Law?

    OpenAIRE

    Armour, John; Hansmann, Henry; Kraakman, Reinier

    2017-01-01

    This article is the first chapter of the second edition of “The Anatomy of Corporate Law: A Comparative and Functional Approach”, by Reinier Kraakman, John Armour, Paul Davies, Luca Enriques, Henry Hansmann, Gerard Hertig, Klaus Hopt, HidekiKanda and Edward Rock (Oxford University Press, 2009). The book as a whole provides a functional analysis of Corporate (or Company) Law in Europe, the U.S., and Japan. Its organization reflects the structure of Corporate Law throughout all jurisdictions, w...

  11. Trade Liberalisation, Growth and Poverty in Senegal: a Dynamic Microsimulation CGE Model Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Nabil Annabi; Fatou Cissé; John Cockburn; Bernard Decaluwé

    2005-01-01

    Much current debate focuses on the role of growth in alleviating poverty. However, the majority of computable general equilibrium (CGE) models used in poverty and inequality analysis are static in nature. The inability of this kind of model to account for growth (accumulation) effects makes them inadequate for long run analysis of the poverty and inequality impacts of economic policies. They exclude accumulation effects and do not allow the study of the transition path of the economy where sh...

  12. Measurement and characterization of slippage and slip-law using a rigorous analysis in dynamics of oscillating rheometer: Newtonian fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azese, Martin Ndi

    2018-02-01

    This article presents a rigorous calculation involving velocity slip of Newtonian fluid where we analyze and solve the unsteady Navier-Stokes equation with emphasis on its rheological implication. The goal of which is to model a simple yet effective non-invasive way of quantifying and characterizing slippage. Indeed this contrasts with previous techniques that exhibit inherent limitations whereby injecting foreign objects usually alter the flow. This problem is built on the Couette rheological flow system such that μ-Newton force and μ-stress are captured and processed to obtain wall slip. Our model leads to a linear partial differential equation and upon enforcing linear-Navier slip boundary conditions (BC) yields inhomogeneous and unsteady "Robin-type" BC. A dimensional analysis reveals salient dimensionless parameters: Roshko, Strouhal, and Reynolds while highlighting slip-numbers from BC. We also solve the slip-free case to corroborate and validate our results. Several graphs are generated showing slip effects, particularly, studying how slip-numbers, a key input, differentiate themselves to the outputs. We also confirm this in a graphical fashion by presenting the flow profile across channel width, velocity, and stress at both walls. A perturbation scheme is introduced to calculate long-time behavior when the system seats for long. More importantly, in the end, we justify the existence of a reverse mechanism, where an inverse transformation like Fourier transform uses the output data to retrieve slip-numbers and slip law, thus quantifying and characterizing slip. Therefore, we not only substantiate our analysis, but we also justify our claim, measurement and characterization, and theorize realizability of our proposition.

  13. Space Law and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronchetti, Fabio

    2017-08-01

    Over the past few years, China has made remarkable achievements in the space sector and become one of the most relevant players in the outer space domain. Highlights of this process have been the deployment in orbit of the first Chinese space station, Tiangong-1, on September 29, 2011; and the landing of the Yutu rover on the lunar surface on December 14, 2013. While technological developments have occurred at such a rapid pace, the same cannot be said of the regulatory framework governing Chinese space activities, which still lays at its infant stage. Indeed, unlike other major space-faring countries, China lacks comprehensive and uniform national space legislation; as of now, China has enacted two low-level administrative regulations addressing the issues of launching and registration of space objects. With the growth of the Chinese space program, such a lack of a structured national space law is beginning to show its limits and to create concerns about its negative impact on business opportunities and the ability of China to fully comply with international obligations. One should keep in mind that the international space treaties (China is part to four international space law treaties) are not self-executing, thus requiring States to adopt domestic measures to ensure their effective implementation. Importantly, Chinese authorities appear to be aware of these issues; as stated by the secretary-general of the Chinese National Space Administration (CNSA) in 2014, national space law has been listed in the national legislation plan and the CNSA is directly engaged in such a process. However, questions remain as to how this drafting process will be conducted and what legal form and content the law will have. For example, China could either decide to proceed with a gradual approach, consisting in the adoption of laws addressing selected issues to be eventually assembled into one single law; or to directly move to the adoption of one comprehensive law. In any case, if

  14. Decoupling Economic Growth and Energy Use. An Empirical Cross-Country Analysis for 10 Manufacturing Sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulder, P. [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg (Austria); De Groot, H.L.F. [Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2004-07-01

    This paper provides an empirical analysis of decoupling economic growth and energy use and its various determinants by exploring trends in energy- and labour productivity across 10 manufacturing sectors and 14 OECD countries for the period 1970-1997. We explicitly aim to trace back aggregate developments in the manufacturing sector to developments at the level of individual subsectors. A cross-country decomposition analysis reveals that in some countries structural changes contributed considerably to aggregate manufacturing energy-productivity growth and, hence, to decoupling, while in other countries they partly offset energy-efficiency improvements. In contrast, structural changes only play a minor role in explaining aggregate manufacturing labour-productivity developments. Furthermore, we find labour-productivity growth to be higher on average than energy-productivity growth. Over time, this bias towards labour-productivity growth is increasing in the aggregate manufacturing sector, while it is decreasing in most manufacturing subsectors.

  15. Total pubertal growth in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis treated with growth hormone: analysis of a single center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtold, S; Beyerlein, A; Ripperger, P; Roeb, J; Dalla Pozza, R; Häfner, R; Haas, J P; Schmidt, H

    2012-10-01

    Growth failure is a permanent sequelae in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). The aim of the study was to compare pubertal growth in control and growth hormone (GH) treated JIA subjects. 64 children with JIA at a mean age of 10.38 ± 2.80 years were enrolled and followed until final height (measured in standard deviation (SD) scores). 39 children (20 m) received GH therapy and 24 (9 m) served as controls. GH dose was 0.33 mg/kg/week. Linear regression analysis was performed to identify factors influencing total pubertal growth. Mean total pubertal growth was 21.1 ± 1.3 cm (mean ± SD) in GH treated JIA patients and 13.8 ± 1.5 cm in controls. Final height was significantly higher with GH treatment (-1.67 ± 1.20 SD) compared to controls (-3.20 ± 1.84 SD). Linear regression model identified age at onset of puberty (ß=-4.2,CI: -5.9, -2.6 in controls and ß=-2.3,CI: -3.6, -1.1 in GH treated) as the main factor for total pubertal growth. Final height SDS was determined by the difference to target height at onset of puberty (ß=-0.59;CI: -0.80, -0.37 in controls and ß=-0.30,CI: -0.52, -0.08 in GH treated), age at onset of puberty (ß=0.47;CI:0.02,0.93 in controls and 0.23;CI: -0.00,0.46 in GH treated) and height gain during puberty (ß=0.13;CI:0.05,0.21 in controls and ß=0.11;CI:0.07,0.16 in GH treated). Total pubertal growth in JIA patients treated with GH was increased by a factor of 1.5 greater in comparison to controls leading to a significantly better final height. To maximize final height GH treatment should be initiated early to reduce the height deficit at onset of puberty. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Analysis of Asset Growth Anomaly on Cross-Section Stock Returns: Evidence from Indonesia Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Iqbal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Assorted types of market anomalies occur when stock prices deviate from the prediction of classical asset pricing theories. This study aims to examine asset growth anomaly where stocks with high asset growth will be followed by low returns in the subsequent periods. This study, using Indonesia Stock Exchanges data, finds that an equally-weighted low-growth portfolio outperforms high-growth portfolio by average 0.75% per month (9% per annum, confirming existence of asset growth anomaly. The analysis is extended at individual stock-level using fixed-effect panel regression in which asset growth effect remains significant even with controlling other variables of stock return determinants. This study also explores further whether asset growth can be included as risk factor. Employing two-stage cross-section regression in Fama and Macbeth (1973, the result aligns with some prior studies that asset growth is not a new risk factor; instead the anomaly is driven by mispricing due to investors’ overreaction and psychological bias. This result imply that asset growth anomaly is general phenomenon that can be found at mostly all stock market but in Indonesia market asset growth anomaly rise from investors’ overreaction, instead of  playing as a factor of risk.

  17. Analysis of Asset Growth Anomaly on Cross-Section Stock Returns: Evidence from Indonesia Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Iqbal

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Assorted types of market anomalies occur when stock prices deviate from the prediction of classical asset pricing theories. This study aims to examine asset growth anomaly where stocks with high asset growth will be followed by low returns in the subsequent periods. This study, using Indonesia Stock Exchanges data, finds that an equally-weighted low-growth portfolio outperforms high-growth portfolio by average 0.75% per month (9% per annum, confirming existence of asset growth anomaly. The analysis is extended at individual stock-level using fixed-effect panel regression in which asset growth effect remains significant even with controlling other variables of stock return determinants. This study also explores further whether asset growth can be included as risk factor. Employing two-stage cross-section regression in Fama and Macbeth (1973, the result aligns with some prior studies that asset growth is not a new risk factor; instead the anomaly is driven by mispricing due to investors’ overreaction and psychological bias. This result imply that asset growth anomaly is general phenomenon that can be found at mostly all stock market but in Indonesia market asset growth anomaly rise from investors’ overreaction, instead of  playing as a factor of risk.

  18. Phytoplankton growth and herbivory in the subarctic Pacific: A chemotaxonomic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welschmeyer, N.; Goericke, R.; Strom, S.; Peterson, W.

    1991-01-01

    Chlorophyll crops in the subarctic Pacific are low and relatively constant throughout the year; however, net growth of phytoplankton occurs when natural water is enclosed in incubation containers and exposed to adequate irradiance. Pigment-based measurements of taxon-specific growth rates and taxon-specific grazing pressure were made in an attempt to understand the dynamic processes leading to the net growth of phytoplankton in bottles. Specific growth rates, determined from 14 C labeling of chromatographically separated pigments showed that fucoxanthin-containing cells (diatoms) were the fastest growing microalgae; a rapid net accumulation of fucoxanthin also occurred. Independent measurements of specific growth rates, determined from chromatographic analysis of microzooplankton dilution experiments, also showed that fucoxanthin-containing cells had the highest specific growth rates. Importantly, microzooplankton grazing rates on fucoxanthin-containing cells were only about half the specific growth rate; hence, the resultant bloom of fucoxanthin. The authors speculate that the lag in chlorophyll growth that has been reported previously is an artifact of subculturing; fast-growing, but dilute, fucoxanthin-containing cells do not become a significant portion of the total chlorophyll signal until late in the experiment. Other diagnostic carotenoids, such as 19'-hexanoyloxyfucoxanthin and 19'-butanoyloxyfucoxanthin, remained nearly constant through long-term incubations. However, they became actively 14 C labeled and showed positive specific rates of growth. Dilution experiments showed that their specific growth rate was compensated by microzooplankton grazing

  19. The Full Employment and Balanced Growth Act of 1976: An Analysis and Evaluation. Discussion Paper 346-76.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Michael C.

    The Full Employment and Balanced Growth Act of l976, S-50, the Humphrey-Hawkins bill, is an attempt to focus the nation's attention and energy on the problem of attaining full employment. As a matter of law the nation would be committed to achieving an adult unemployment rate of 3% within four years. If those charged with the development and…

  20. Cross-sectional study of road accidents and related law enforcement efficiency for 10 countries: A gap coherence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urie, Yohan; Velaga, Nagendra R; Maji, Avijit

    2016-10-02

    Road crashes are considered as the eighth leading causes of death. There is a wide disparity in crash severity and law enforcement efficiency among low-, medium-, and high-income countries. It would be helpful to review the crash severity trends in these countries, identify the vulnerable road users, and understand the law enforcement effectiveness in devising efficient road safety improvement strategies. The crash severity, fatality rate among various age groups, and law enforcement strategies of 10 countries representing low-income (i.e., India and Morocco), medium-income (i.e. Argentina, South Korea, and Greece), and high-income (i.e., Australia, Canada, France, the UK, and the United States) are studied and compared for a period of 5 years (i.e., 2008 to 2012). The critical parameters affecting road safety are identified and correlated with education, culture, and basic compliance with traffic safety laws. In the process, possible road safety improvement strategies are identified for low-income countries. The number of registered vehicles shows an increasing trend for low-income countries as do the crash rate and crash severity. Compliance related to seat belt and helmet laws is high in high-income countries. In addition, recent seat belt- and helmet-related safety programs in middle-income countries helped to curb fatalities. Noncompliance with safety laws in low-income countries is attributed to education, culture, and inefficient law enforcement. Efficient law enforcement and effective safety education taking into account cultural diversity are the key aspects to reduce traffic-related injuries and fatalities in low-income countries like India.

  1. Analysis and prediction of Multiple-Site Damage (MSD) fatigue crack growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawicke, D. S.; Newman, J. C., Jr.

    1992-08-01

    A technique was developed to calculate the stress intensity factor for multiple interacting cracks. The analysis was verified through comparison with accepted methods of calculating stress intensity factors. The technique was incorporated into a fatigue crack growth prediction model and used to predict the fatigue crack growth life for multiple-site damage (MSD). The analysis was verified through comparison with experiments conducted on uniaxially loaded flat panels with multiple cracks. Configuration with nearly equal and unequal crack distribution were examined. The fatigue crack growth predictions agreed within 20 percent of the experimental lives for all crack configurations considered.

  2. Analysis and prediction of Multiple-Site Damage (MSD) fatigue crack growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawicke, D. S.; Newman, J. C., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    A technique was developed to calculate the stress intensity factor for multiple interacting cracks. The analysis was verified through comparison with accepted methods of calculating stress intensity factors. The technique was incorporated into a fatigue crack growth prediction model and used to predict the fatigue crack growth life for multiple-site damage (MSD). The analysis was verified through comparison with experiments conducted on uniaxially loaded flat panels with multiple cracks. Configuration with nearly equal and unequal crack distribution were examined. The fatigue crack growth predictions agreed within 20 percent of the experimental lives for all crack configurations considered.

  3. Islamic Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doranda Maracineanu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The law system of a State represents the body of rules passed or recognized by that State inorder to regulate the social relationships, rules that must be freely obeyed by their recipients, otherwisethe State intervening with its coercive power. Throughout the development of the society, pedants havebeen particularly interested in the issue of law systems, each supporting various classifications; theclassification that has remained is the one distinguishing between the Anglo-Saxon, the Roman-German,the religious and respectively the communist law systems. The third main international law system is theMuslim one, founded on the Muslim religion – the Islam. The Islam promotes the idea that Allah createdthe law and therefore it must be preserved and observed as such. Etymologically, the Arabian word“Islam” means “to be wanted, to obey” implying the fact that this law system promotes total andunconditioned submission to Allah. The Islamic law is not built on somebody of laws or leading cases,but has as source. The Islam is meant as a universal religion, the Koran promoting the idea of the unityof mankind; thus, one of the precepts in the Koran asserts that “all men are equal (…, there is nodifference between a white man and a black man, between one who is Arabian and one who is not,except for the measure in which they fear God.” The Koran is founded mainly on the Talmud, Hebrewsource of inspiration, and only on very few Christian sources. The Islam does not forward ideas whichcannot be materialized; on the contrary its ideas are purely practical, easy to be observed by the commonman, ideas subordinated to the principle of monotheism. The uncertainties and gaps of the Koran, whichhave been felt along the years, imposed the need for another set of rules, meant to supplement it – that isSunna. Sunna represents a body of laws and, consequently, the second source of the Koran. Sunnanarrates the life of the prophet Mohamed, the model to

  4. HEALTHCARE QUALITY AND ITS EFFECTS ON GROWTH. A REGIONAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Iolanda VODA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our paper is to analyse the relation between the inequalities of the healthcare system and economic growth. With respect to methodology, we focus on the eight development regions of Romania which group counties with different development levels and complementary economies. By using descriptive and comparative analyses, we aim at highlighting the discrepancies of the Romanian system considering the following indicators: life expectancy at birth (years, standardised death rate, all causes of death per 100 000 inhabitants, infant mortality, physicians or doctors (per 100000 inhabitants, dentists (per 100000 inhabitants, number of nurses (per 100000 inhabitants, available beds in hospitals, number of hospitals available in the regions and family care units.

  5. Molecular analysis of the nerve growth factor receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hempstead, B.; Patil, N.; Olson, K.; Chao, M.

    1988-01-01

    An essential molecule in the translocation of information by nerve growth factor (NGF) to responsive cells is the cell-surface receptor for NGF. This paper presents information on the genomic structure of the NGF receptor gene, NGF receptor models, and transfection of NGF receptors. Equilibrium binding of [ 125 I]NGF to cells reveals two distinct affinity states for the NGF receptor. The human NGF receptor gene is a single-copy gene, consisting of six exons that span 23 kb. The receptor gene is capable of being transferred to fibroblast cells from human genomic DNA and expressed at high levels. The constitutive nature of the receptor promoter sequence is a partial explanation of why this tissue-specific gene is expressed efficiently in a variety of nonneuronal cells after genomic gene transfer. The two kinetic forms of the NGF receptor appear to be encoded by the same protein, which is the product of a single gene

  6. Ethnicity and skeletal Class III morphology: a pubertal growth analysis using thin-plate spline analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhamrah, B; Terada, K; Yamaki, M; Ali, I M; Hanada, K

    2001-01-01

    A longitudinal retrospective study using thin-plate spline analysis was used to investigate skeletal Class III etiology in Japanese female adolescents. Headfilms of 40 subjects were chosen from the archives of the Orthodontic department at Niigata University Dental Hospital, and were traced at IIIB and IVA Hellman dental ages. Twenty-eight homologous landmarks, representing hard and soft tissue, were digitized. These were used to reproduce a consensus for the profilogram, craniomaxillary complex, mandible, and soft tissue for each age and skeletal group. Generalized least-square analysis revealed a significant shape difference between age-matched groups (P spline and partial warps (PW)3 and 2 showed a maxillary retrusion at stage IIIB opposite an acute cranial base at stage IVA. Mandibular total spline and PW4, 5 showed changes affecting most landmarks and their spatial interrelationship, especially a stretch along the articulare-pogonion axis. In soft tissue analysis, PW8 showed large and local changes which paralleled the underlying hard tissue components. Allometry of the mandible and anisotropy of the cranial base, the maxilla, and the mandible asserted the complexity of craniofacial growth and the difficulty of predicting its outcome.

  7. A longitudinal analysis of the effect of nonmedical exemption law and vaccine uptake on vaccine-targeted disease rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y Tony; Debold, Vicky

    2014-02-01

    We assessed how nonmedical exemption (NME) laws and annual uptake of vaccines required for school or daycare entry affect annual incidence rates for 5 vaccine-targeted diseases: pertussis, measles, mumps, Haemophilus influenzae type B, and hepatitis B. We employed longitudinal mixed-effects models to examine 2001-2008 vaccine-targeted disease data obtained from the National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System. Key explanatory variables were state-level vaccine-specific uptake rates from the National Immunization Survey and a state NME law restrictiveness level. NME law restrictiveness and vaccine uptake were not associated with disease incidence rate for hepatitis B, Haemophilus influenzae type B, measles, or mumps. Pertussis incidence rate, however, was negatively associated with NME law restrictiveness (b = -0.20; P = .03) and diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus vaccine uptake (b = -0.01; P = .05). State NME laws and vaccine uptake rates did not appear to influence lower-incidence diseases but may influence reported disease rates for higher-incidence diseases. If all states increased their NME law restrictiveness by 1 level and diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus uptake by 1%, national annual pertussis cases could decrease by 1.14% (171 cases) and 0.04% (5 cases), respectively.

  8. Analysis of Water Hammer with Different Closing Valve Laws on Transient Flow of Hydrogen-Natural Gas Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norazlina Subani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Water hammer on transient flow of hydrogen-natural gas mixture in a horizontal pipeline is analysed to determine the relationship between pressure waves and different modes of closing and opening of valves. Four types of laws applicable to closing valve, namely, instantaneous, linear, concave, and convex laws, are considered. These closure laws describe the speed variation of the hydrogen-natural gas mixture as the valve is closing. The numerical solution is obtained using the reduced order modelling technique. The results show that changes in the pressure wave profile and amplitude depend on the type of closing laws, valve closure times, and the number of polygonal segments in the closing function. The pressure wave profile varies from square to triangular and trapezoidal shape depending on the type of closing laws, while the amplitude of pressure waves reduces as the closing time is reduced and the numbers of polygonal segments are increased. The instantaneous and convex closing laws give rise to minimum and maximum pressure, respectively.

  9. Biplot Analysis of Silicon Dioxide on Early Growth of Sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabaghnia Naser

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Research into nanotechnology has advanced in almost all fields of technology and the aim of this study was to evaluate the role of nano-silicon dioxide (nano-SiO2 in germination performance sunflower. Germination and seedling growth are the most important stage of plant development and are critical factors to crop production and are essential to achieve optimum performance. The effects of pre-germination hydration in solutions of nano-SiO2 (0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1 and 1.2 mM for 8 h on germination characteristics of sunflower were investigated. The trait by treatment (TT biplot explained 93% of the total variation of the standardized data (77% and 16% for the first and second principal components, respectively. According to polygon-view of TT biplot, T2 (0.2 mM had the highest values for all of the measured traits except mean germination time and the time to 50% germination. The germination percentage was determined as the best trait and showed the high association with promptness index, energy of germination and germination rate traits. The results of the present study indicated that pre-sowing seed treatments with low concentration of nano-SiO2 had favorable effect sunflower seed germination and seedling early growth. Such a similar outcome could be applied in the future to outline other crops in response to nano-particles as well as to help define tolerance tools for recommendations in stressful conditions in the world.

  10. Variational formulation based analysis on growth of yield front in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The analysis of rotating disk behavior has been of great interest to many ... strain hardening using Tresca's yield condition and its associated flow rule ...... Determination of Stresses in Gas-Turbine Disks Subjected to Plastic Flow and Creep.

  11. Gender inequality and economic growth in Spain: an exploratory analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Domínguez Martín, Rafael; Guijarro Garvi, Marta

    2009-01-01

    This paper compares the geometric variant of the Gender-Related Development Index with that of the Human Development Index for Spanish provinces (EUROSTAT Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics-3, NUTS-3) in 1959, 1981, and 1999. The main objective is to carry out an exploratory analysis of the relationship between these indices and two alternative indices of gender inequality--the Relative Status of Women and the Gender Inequality Index. An analysis of the relationship between thes...

  12. Criminal law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, J.M. da.

    1979-01-01

    Facts concerning the application of atomic energy are presented and those aspects which should be under tutelage, the nature and guilt of the nuclear offenses and the agent's peril are presented. The need of a specific chapter in criminal law with adequate legislation concerning the principles of atomic energy is inferred. The basis for the future elaboration this legislation are fixed. (A.L.S.L.) [pt

  13. Essential Elements of Corporate Law

    OpenAIRE

    Kraakman, Reinier H.; Armour, John; Hansmann, Henry

    2009-01-01

    This article is the first chapter of the second edition of The Anatomy of Corporate Law: A Comparative and Functional Approach, by Reinier Kraakman, John Armour, Paul Davies, Luca Enriques, Henry Hansmann, Gerard Hertig, Klaus Hopt, Hideki Kanda and Edward Rock (Oxford University Press, 2009). The book as a whole provides a functional analysis of corporate (or company) law in Europe, the U.S., and Japan. Its organization reflects the structure of corporate law across all jurisdictions, while ...

  14. The law of radioactive decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouyrie, G

    2004-01-01

    This article deals with the law of radioactive decay (Rutherford-Sody's law) and the way to explain it to high-school or grammar-school students. The mathematical content of the law is recalled and its experimental validation is proposed through the study of the decay of a population of radon-220 atoms. The analysis of the experimental data is made easier by using software such as Generis, Regressi or even Excel

  15. Second-law-based analysis of vapor-compression refrigeration cycles: Analytical equations for COP and new insights into features of refrigerants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Weiwu; Fang, Song; Su, Bo; Xue, Xinpei; Li, Min

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Second-law analysis leads to analytical COP formulas for refrigeration cycles. • Relative errors of the analytical equations are smaller than ±5.0%. • The analytical expressions characterize the influence of refrigerants. • Global entropy analysis elucidates the impact of cycle processes on COP. - Abstract: This article reports a second-law-based analysis of the vapor-compression refrigeration cycle, which leads to a set of explicit theoretical formulas for the coefficient of performance (COP). These analytical expressions provide a fast and accurate approach to computer simulations of the vapor-compression cycle without recourse to thermodynamic diagrams or equations of state. The second-law-based analysis yields specific expressions for the entropy generations of irreversible processes, enabling us to evaluate the thermodynamic features of the refrigerant and to elucidate the thermodynamic mechanisms behind the effects of the cycle processes, including superheat, subcooling, and throttling processes. In particular, these processes can interact, therefore this paper presents a global entropy generation analysis for evaluating the impact of the interacted processes on COP.

  16. Molecular analysis of expansion, differentiation, and growth factor treatment of human chondrocytes identifies differentiation markers and growth-related genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, Karin; Breit, Stephen; Lukoschek, Martin; Mau, Hans; Richter, Wiltrud

    2002-04-26

    This study is intended to optimise expansion and differentiation of cultured human chondrocytes by growth factor application and to identify molecular markers to monitor their differentiation state. We dissected the molecular consequences of matrix release, monolayer, and 3D-alginate culture, growth factor optimised expansion, and re-differentiation protocols by gene expression analysis. Among 19 common cartilage molecules assessed by cDNA array, six proved best to monitor differentiation. Instant down-regulation at release of cells from the matrix was strongest for COL 2A1, fibromodulin, and PRELP while LUM, CHI3L1, and CHI3L2 were expansion-related. Both gene sets reflected the physiologic effects of the most potent growth-inducing (PDGF-BB) and proteoglycan-inducing (BMP-4) factors. Only CRTAC1 expression correlated with 2D/3D switches while the molecular phenotype of native chondrocytes was not restored. The markers and optimised protocols we suggest can help to improve cell therapy of cartilage defects and chondrocyte differentiation from stem cell sources.

  17. International institutional law

    CERN Document Server

    Schermers, Henry G

    1972-01-01

    In several respects the present study is an enlargement of a former analysis about the specialized agencies of the United Nations to more organisations and into further detail. In particular the creation of the European Communities, adding new aspects to international institutional law, have received attention.

  18. Analysis of the Erosion Law of Karst Groundwater Using Hydrogeochemical Theory in Liulin Spring Area, North China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuqing Zheng

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The comprehensive geological, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical model of the Liulin karstic spring area in the eastern limb of the Ordos syncline was established by a combination of chemical thermodynamics, chemical kinetics and hydrogeology. The study area was divided into four zones based on the saturation indices of calcite, dolomite and gypsum, which were computed by the groundwater-chemical simulation software PHREEQC (a computer program for speciation, batch-reaction, one-dimensional transport, and inverse geochemical calculations, with consideration of the geological and hydrogeological conditions and hydro-geochemical reactions. The weight and volume modulus of carbonate rocks and sulphate rocks in each zone were calculated by the method of correlation analysis to evaluate the dissolution law of karst groundwater. The results showed that in the zone I (saturation index of calcite βc ≤ 1 the dissolution of calcite was the major geochemical reaction, the weight modulus of calcite was higher than that of dolomite and gypsum, and the pore space generated by the dissolution of calcite was one order of magnitude larger than that of dolomite and gypsum. In zone II (saturation index of calcite βc > 1 to saturation index of dolomite βd ≤ 1 the corrosion moduli were all smaller than that in zone I, the solubility of dolomite and gypsum increased, and calcite reached saturation. The space occupied by the calcite sediment was less than that dissolved by dolomite and gypsum. In zone III (saturation index of dolomite βd > 1 to saturation index of gypsum βg ≤ 1, calcite and dolomite had reached saturation, accompanied by dedolomitization, and the amount of gypsum dissolution increased obviously. The conclusions indicate that the hydrogeochemical environment plays an important role in mineral dissolution.

  19. The reciprocity law concerning light dose relationships applied to BisGMA/TEGDMA photopolymers: theoretical analysis and experimental characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wydra, James W; Cramer, Neil B; Stansbury, Jeffrey W; Bowman, Christopher N

    2014-06-01

    A model BisGMA/TEGDMA unfilled resin was utilized to investigate the effect of varied irradiation intensity on the photopolymerization kinetics and shrinkage stress evolution, as a means for evaluation of the reciprocity relationship. Functional group conversion was determined by FTIR spectroscopy and polymerization shrinkage stress was obtained by a tensometer. Samples were polymerized with UV light from an EXFO Acticure with 0.1wt% photoinitiator. A one-dimensional kinetic model was utilized to predict the conversion-dose relationship. As irradiation intensity increased, conversion decreased at a constant irradiation dose and the overall dose required to achieve full conversion increased. Methacrylate conversion ranged from 64±2% at 3mW/cm(2) to 78±1% at 24mW/cm(2) while the final shrinkage stress varied from 2.4±0.1MPa to 3.0±0.1MPa. The ultimate conversion and shrinkage stress levels achieved were dependent not only upon dose but also the irradiation intensity, in contrast to an idealized reciprocity relationship. A kinetic model was utilized to analyze this behavior and provide theoretical conversion profiles versus irradiation time and dose. Analysis of the experimental and modeling results demonstrated that the polymerization kinetics do not and should not be expected to follow the reciprocity law behavior. As irradiation intensity is increased, the overall dose required to achieve full conversion also increased. Further, the ultimate conversion and shrinkage stress that are achieved are not dependent only upon dose but rather upon the irradiation intensity and corresponding polymerization rate. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Genetic analysis of ectopic growth suppression during planar growth of integuments mediated by the Arabidopsis AGC protein kinase UNICORN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enugutti Balaji

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The coordination of growth within a tissue layer is of critical importance for tissue morphogenesis. For example, cells within the epidermis undergo stereotypic cell divisions that are oriented along the plane of the layer (planar growth, thereby propagating the layered epidermal structure. Little is known about the developmental control that regulates such planar growth in plants. Recent evidence suggested that the Arabidopsis AGC VIII protein kinase UNICORN (UCN maintains planar growth by suppressing the formation of ectopic multicellular protrusions in several floral tissues including integuments. In the current model UCN controls this process during integument development by directly interacting with the ABERRANT TESTA SHAPE (ATS protein, a member of the KANADI (KAN family of transcription factors, thereby repressing its activity. Here we report on the further characterization of the UCN mechanism. Results Phenotypic analysis of flowers of ucn-1 plants impaired in floral homeotic gene activity revealed that any of the four floral whorls could produce organs carrying ucn-1 protrusions. The ectopic outgrowths of ucn integuments did not accumulate detectable signals of the auxin and cytokinin reporters DR5rev::GFP and ARR5::GUS, respectively. Furthermore, wild-type and ucn-1 seedlings showed similarly strong callus formation upon in vitro culture on callus-inducing medium. We also show that ovules of ucn-1 plants carrying the dominant ats allele sk21-D exhibited more pronounced protrusion formation. Finally ovules of ucn-1 ett-1 double mutants and ucn-1 ett-1 arf4-1 triple mutants displayed an additive phenotype. Conclusions These data deepen the molecular insight into the UCN-mediated control of planar growth during integument development. The presented evidence indicates that UCN downstream signaling does not involve the control of auxin or cytokinin homeostasis. The results also reveal that UCN interacts with ATS

  1. Genetic and environmental influences on infant growth: prospective analysis of the Gemini twin birth cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Johnson

    Full Text Available Infancy is a critical period during which rapid growth potentially programs future disease risk. Identifying the modifiable determinants of growth is therefore important. To capture the complexity of infant growth, we modeled growth trajectories from birth to six months in order to compare the genetic and environmental influences on growth trajectory parameters with single time-point measures at birth, three and six months of age.Data were from Gemini, a population sample of 2402 UK families with twins. An average 10 weight measurements per child made by health professionals were available over the first six months. Weights at birth, three and six months were identified. Longitudinal growth trajectories were modeled using SITAR utilizing all available weight measures for each child. SITAR generates three parameters: size (characterizing mean weight throughout infancy, tempo (indicating age at peak weight velocity (PWV, and velocity (reflecting the size of PWV. Genetic and environmental influences were estimated using quantitative genetic analysis.In line with previous studies, heritability of weight at birth and three months was low (38%, but it was higher at six months (62%. Heritability of the growth trajectory parameters was high for size (69% and velocity (57%, but low (35% for tempo. Common environmental influences predominated for tempo (42%.Modeled growth parameters using SITAR indicated that size and velocity were primarily under genetic influence but tempo was predominantly environmentally determined. These results emphasize the importance of identifying specific modifiable environmental determinants of the timing of peak infant growth.

  2. [Analysis of grey correlation between energy consumption and economic growth in Liaoning Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Xi, Feng Ming; Wang, Jiao Yue

    2016-03-01

    The contradiction between energy consumption and economic growth is increasingly prominent in China. Liaoning Province as one of Chinese heavy industrial bases, consumes a large amount of energy. Its economic development has a strong dependence on energy consumption, but the energy in short supply become more apparent. In order to further understand the relationship between energy consumption and economic growth and put forward scientific suggestions on low carbon development, we used the grey correlation analysis method to separately examine the relevance of economic growth with energy consumption industries and energy consumption varieties through analy sis of energy consumption and economic growth data in Liaoning Province from 2000 to 2012. The results showed that the wholesale and retail sector and hotel and restaurant sector were in the minimum energy consumption in all kinds of sectors, but they presented the closest connection with the economic growth. Although industry energy consumption was the maximum, the degree of connection between industry energy consumption and economic growth was weak. In all types of energy consumption, oil and hydro-power consumption had a significant connection with economic growth. However, the degree of connection of coal consumption with economic growth was not significant, which meant that coal utilization efficiency was low. In order to achieve low carbon and sustainable development, Liaoning Province should transform the economic growth mode, adjust industry structure, optimize energy structure, and improve energy utilization efficiency, especially promote producer services and develop clean and renewable energy.

  3. AN ANALYSIS OF THE RAPID GROWTH FACTORS PRESENTED IN THE LITERATURE OF THE FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALB MARIA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the main rapid growth factors, as encountered in literature and discusses the importance and contribution of these factors in achieving the rapid growth, respectively if this growth phenomenon may be achieved in the absence of the aforesaid factors. The paper examines the factors and subfactors considered or found by scholars to have an effect on or be in connection with the rapid growth. A comparative analysis was performed on several studies concerning the rapid growth companies. Among the main factors influencing the rapid growth are those related to the human resources management, the entrepreneur characteritics and the characteristics of the business. The paper also discusses several issues related to the will of the manager or the entrepreneur, repectively the need to understand the role of the factors that intervene when the growth is not wanted and still obtained or when the growth is targeted but not achieved. The conclusion is in agreement with other scholars’ findings reported in the literature. Certain factors correlated with the appropriate actions may lead to the rapid growth. The paper represents a starting point for the study of those management related aspects enabling companies to grow rapidly in the Romanian business environment.

  4. Operational Law Handbook,2007

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    ...), human rights, rules of engagement, emergency essential civilians supporting military operations, contingency contractor personnel, foreign and deployment, criminal law, environmental law, fiscal law...

  5. Pan-Tropical Analysis of Climate Effects on Seasonal Tree Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Fabien; Rossi, Vivien; Aubry-Kientz, Mélaine; Bonal, Damien; Dalitz, Helmut; Gliniars, Robert; Stahl, Clément; Trabucco, Antonio; Hérault, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Climate models predict a range of changes in tropical forest regions, including increased average temperatures, decreased total precipitation, reduced soil moisture and alterations in seasonal climate variations. These changes are directly related to the increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations, primarily CO2. Assessing seasonal forest growth responses to climate is of utmost importance because woody tissues, produced by photosynthesis from atmospheric CO2, water and light, constitute the main component of carbon sequestration in the forest ecosystem. In this paper, we combine intra-annual tree growth measurements from published tree growth data and the corresponding monthly climate data for 25 pan-tropical forest sites. This meta-analysis is designed to find the shared climate drivers of tree growth and their relative importance across pan-tropical forests in order to improve carbon uptake models in a global change context. Tree growth reveals significant intra-annual seasonality at seasonally dry sites or in wet tropical forests. Of the overall variation in tree growth, 28.7% was explained by the site effect, i.e. the tree growth average per site. The best predictive model included four climate variables: precipitation, solar radiation (estimated with extrasolar radiation reaching the atmosphere), temperature amplitude and relative soil water content. This model explained more than 50% of the tree growth variations across tropical forests. Precipitation and solar radiation are the main seasonal drivers of tree growth, causing 19.8% and 16.3% of the tree growth variations. Both have a significant positive association with tree growth. These findings suggest that forest productivity due to tropical tree growth will be reduced in the future if climate extremes, such as droughts, become more frequent. PMID:24670981

  6. European Corporate Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorresteijn, Adriaan; Teichmann, Christoph; Werlauff, Erik

    , and the United Kingdom are taken into account; Italy is now included in this new edition. As in earlier editions, the authors demonstrate that analysis and comparison of national corporate laws yield highly valuable general principles and observations, not least because business organizations, wherever located...... initiatives in such aspects of the corporate environment as regulation of financial institutions and non-financial reporting obligations with a view to sustainability and other social responsibility concerns. The authors, all leading experts in European corporate law, describe current and emerging trends...

  7. Analysis of growth hormone and lactogenic binding sites cross-linked to iodinated human growth hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, J.P.; Simpson, J.S.; Friesen, H.G.

    1983-01-01

    GH (GHR) and lactogenic receptors were analyzed after use of the cross-linking reagent ethylene glycol bis-(succinimidyl succinate) to attach covalently iodinated human GH (hGH) to binding proteins 1) on intact IM-9 lymphocytes, 2) in a partially purified GHR preparation from rabbit liver, and 3) in crude microsomal fractions from rabbit liver, rabbit mammary gland, and rat liver. The latter two microsomal preparations contain primarily lactogenic receptors, whereas in IM-9 lymphocytes and the rabbit liver preparations, GHR predominate. Cross-linked [125I]hGH-receptor complexes were solubilized, reduced, and separated on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Analysis of proteins cross-linked to [125I]hGH in the microsomal fraction from rabbit liver showed a specifically labeled complex with an estimated molecular weight (mol wt) of 75K. A slightly lower mol wt (71K) was determined for the complex labeled in the purified GHR preparation. In contrast to the relatively low mol wt complexes in rabbit liver, a complex that migrated with an apparent mol wt of 130K was identified in IM-9 lymphocytes. Labeled complexes were identified at 66K from rat liver and 61K from rabbit mammary gland. If it is assumed that hGH contributes 21K to the mol wt of the radiolabeled complexes, then the approximate mol wts of hGH-binding sites are 50-54K from rabbit liver, 109K from IM-9 lymphocytes, 45K from rat liver, and 40K from rabbit mammary gland

  8. Criminal Law in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langsted, Lars Bo; Garde, Peter; Greve, Vagn

    Derived from the renowned multi-volume International Encyclopaedia of Laws, this book provides a practical analysis of criminal law in Denmark. An introduction presents the necessary background information about the framework and sources of the criminal justice system, and then proceeds......-trial proceedings, trial stage, and legal remedies. A final part describes the execution of sentences and orders, the prison system, and the extinction of custodial sanctions or sentences. Its succinct yet scholarly nature, as well as the practical quality of the information it provides, make this book a valuable...... resource for criminal lawyers, prosecutors, law enforcement officers, and criminal court judges handling cases connected with Denmark. Academics and researchers, as well as the various international organizations in the field, will welcome this very useful guide, and will appreciate its value in the study...

  9. Nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bringuier, P.

    2009-01-01

    The object of this report is to present the evolution of the nuclear law during the period from 2006 to 2008, period that was characterized in France by a real rewriting from the implementation of a control authority. The prescriptive backing of nuclear activities has been deeply changed by numerous texts. In this first part are presented: (1) the institutional aspects, (2) openness and public information, (7) radioactive wastes and (9) liability and insurance. In a next publication will be treated: (3) safety and radiation protection; (4) nuclear matter, inspection, physical protection; (5) transports; (6) trade, non-proliferation; (8) radiological accidents. (N.C.)

  10. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This section treats of the following case laws: 1 - Canada: Decision of the Canadian Federal Court of Appeal dismissing an appeal related to an environmental assessment of a project to refurbish and extend the life of an Ontario nuclear power plant; 2 - Poland: Decision of the Masovian Voivod of 28 December 2015 concerning the legality of the resolution on holding a local referendum in the Commune of Rozan regarding a new radioactive waste repository (2015); 3 - United States: Commission authorises issuance of construction permit for the Shine Medical Isotope Facility in Janesville, Wisconsin; 4 - United States: Commission authorises issuance of combined licences for the South Texas Project site in Matagorda County, Texas

  11. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This section gathers the following case laws: 1 - Canada: Judicial review of Darlington new nuclear power plant project; Appeal decision upholding criminal convictions related to attempt to export nuclear-related dual-use items to Iran: Her Majesty the Queen V. Yadegari; 2 - European Commission: Greenland cases; 3 - France: Chernobyl accident - decision of dismissal of the Court of Appeal of Paris; 4 - Slovak Republic: Aarhus Convention compliance update; 5 - United States: Judgement of a US court of appeals upholding the NRC's dismissal of challenges to the renewal of the operating licence for Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station; reexamination of the project of high-level waste disposal site at Yucca Mountain

  12. Critical Introduction To Natural Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Javier Mosquera Cabrera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This review provides a comparison between the different editions of the famous work of Hervada, discussed here. The outcome of this analysis arise five new hermeneutical rules that analyze how to interpret positive law or agreement that eventually undermine the natural law. It is also evident that the principles proposed by Hervada are a good basis for general legal hermeneutics.

  13. Student difficulties with Gauss' law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanim, Stephen

    2000-09-01

    Many students in introductory courses have difficulty solving Gauss' law problems. Through interviews with students and analysis of solutions to homework and examination questions we have identified some specific conceptual difficulties that often contribute to students' inability to solve quantitative Gauss' law problems. We give examples of common difficulties and discuss instructional implications.

  14. Trend Analysis of Cassava Price and Growth Rate in Nigeria | Igwe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trend Analysis of Cassava Price and Growth Rate in Nigeria. ... Abstract. The research work was on trend analysis of cassava output and price. The period ... There is need to encourage private sector investment on the industries to expand existing market on the price offer for cassava and encourage large scale production.

  15. International Space Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lits

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the modern day technologies that drive our global society are highly dependent on the use of outer space. For example, daily activities such as sending emails, making phone calls and carrying out bank transactions cannot be done unless satellite technologies are involved. When you catch a plane, the air traffic control is dependent on GPS. Even natural disaster management is dependent on satellite imaging. Taking into account the importance of this, it becomes increasingly necessary to be knowledgeable in the field of international law as it is the only sphere of law that reaches beyond the physical boundaries of the Earth, goes deep into space and provides protection for today’s society. With new steps being taken to exploit further the potentials of outer space, and with increasing talk of new space missions and new discoveries, current international space law is being placed under scrutiny, for it should be remembered that the major international legal documents in this field were adopted in the middle of the 20th century, and thus there are fears that the law may have become obsolete, irrelevant in the face of new challenges in the use of outer space. This paper delivers an analysis of existing international space law and attempts to raise several crucial issues pertinent in the area.

  16. The Structure of European Food Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der B.M.J.

    2013-01-01

    This contribution lays bare the structure of EU food law as it appears from scholarly analysis at Wageningen University in the Netherlands. The structure of EU food law can be used as a framework for teaching, application, further analysis and comparison to food law approaches in other parts of the

  17. MEDICAL LAW AND ETHICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunčica Ivanović

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The subject of interest in this article is the importance of knowing and connecting medical ethics and medical law for the category of health workers. The author believes that knowledge of bioethics which as a discipline deals with the study of ethical issues and health care law as a legal discipline, as well as medical activity in general, result in the awareness of health professionals of human rights, and since the performance of activities of health workers is almost always linked to the question of life and death, then the lack of knowledge of basic legal acts would not be justified at all. The aim of the paper was to present the importance of medical ethics and medical law among the medical staff. A retrospective analysis of the medical literature available on the indexed base KOBSON for the period 2005-2010 was applied. Analysis of all work leads to the conclusion that the balance between ethical principles and knowledge of medical law, trust and cooperation between the two sides that appear over health care can be considered a goal that every health care worker should strive for. This study supports the attitude that lack of knowledge and non-compliance with the ethical principles and medical law when put together can only harm the health care worker. In a way, this is the message to health care professionals that there is a need for the adoption of ethical principles and knowledge of medical law, because the most important position of all health workers is their dedication to the patient as a primary objective and the starting point of ethics.

  18. Atmosphere influence on in situ ion beam analysis of thin film growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Yuping; Krauss, A.R.; Gruen, D.M.; Chang, R.P.H.; Auciello, O.H.; Schultz, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    In situ, nondestructive surface characterization of thin-film growth processes in an environment of chemically active gas at pressures of several mTorr is required both for the understanding of growth processes in multicomponent films and layered heterostructures and for the improvement of process reproducibility and device reliability. The authors have developed a differentially pumped pulsed ion beam surface analysis system that includes ion scattering spectroscopy (ISS) and direct recoil spectroscopy (DRS), coupled to an automated ion beam sputter-deposition system (IBSD), to study film growth processes in an environment of chemically active gas, such as required for the growth of oxide, nitride, or diamond thin films. The influence of gas-phase scattering and gas-surface interactions on the ISS and DRS signal intensity and peak shape have been studied. From the intensity variation as a function of ambient gas pressure, the authors have calculated the mean free path and the scattering cross-section for a given combination of primary ion species and ambient gas. Depending on the system geometry and the combination of primary beam and background, it is shown that surface-specific data can be obtained during thin-film growth at pressures ranging from a few mtorr to approximately 1 Torr. Detailed information such as surface composition, structure, and film growth mechanism may be obtained in real-time, making ion beam analysis an ideal nondestructive, in situ probe of thin-film growth processes

  19. Analysis of the Yeast Kinome Reveals a Network of Regulated Protein Localization during Filamentous Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Bharucha, Nikë; Ma, Jun; Dobry, Craig J.; Lawson, Sarah K.; Yang, Zhifen; Kumar, Anuj

    2008-01-01

    The subcellular distribution of kinases and other signaling proteins is regulated in response to cellular cues; however, the extent of this regulation has not been investigated for any gene set in any organism. Here, we present a systematic analysis of protein kinases in the budding yeast, screening for differential localization during filamentous growth. Filamentous growth is an important stress response involving mitogen-activated protein kinase and cAMP-dependent protein kinase signaling m...

  20. The Impact of Financial Development on Economic Growth in Nigeria: An ARDL Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Iheanacho

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study empirically examines the relationship between financial intermediary development and economic growth in Nigeria over the period 1981–2011 using the auto-regressive distributed lag (ARDL approach to co-integration analysis. The results show that the relationship between financial development and economic growth in Nigeria is not significantly different from what has been observed generally in oil-dependent economies. The relationship between financial intermediary development and economic growth in Nigeria is found to be insignificantly negative in the long-run and significantly negative in the short-run. The results highlight the dominant role of the oil sector in economic activities in Nigeria.