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Sample records for growth biochemical components

  1. Effect of maltose and trehalose on growth, yield and some biochemical components of wheat plant under water stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemmat A. Ibrahim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the greenhouse experiment, wheat plants (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Giza 168 were treated with 10 mM of maltose and trehalose as foliar spray using Tween 20 as wetting agent at 15, 30 and 45 days post sowing with two times of irrigation at 10 and 20 days intervals. Two samples were taken after 45 and 120 days from planting. At the first sample date, plant height, shoot fresh and dry weights and leaf area were recorded. At harvesting time (the second sample no. of spikes/plant, no. of spikelets/plant and weight of 1000 grains were taken. Chemical analyses were conducted in leaves at the first sample date for determination of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, amino acids, reducing sugars, total soluble sugars, protein, proline, PAL, POD, ascorbate peroxidase, catalase, PPO and MDA. The obtained results indicated that maltose and trehalose had significant and positive effect on most growth parameters. Opposite trend was found in plant height, no. of spike/plant and weight of 1000 grains by drought treatment. Maltose and trehalose treatments enhanced in the most biochemical components whereas they decreased PAL and catalase activity. Variable trends in amino acids and ascorbate peroxidase were observed by drought. However, the drought has more stimulative effect in most cases than the first time period of irrigation. The results concluded that foliar applications with maltose or trehalose induced water stress tolerance in wheat plants. Maltose treatment gave the best results in most morphological parameters, grains yield and biochemical components than trehalose treatment.

  2. Effects of feeding system on growth performance, plasma biochemical components and hormones, and carcass characteristics in Hanwoo steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Sung Chung

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study was conducted to compare growth performance, blood components and carcass traits by two feeding systems (concentrate with roughage separately [CON] vs total mixed ration [TMR] in Hanwoo steers, and to learn the relationship between blood components during fattening or finishing phases and carcass traits in Hanwoo steers. Methods Sixty steers aged 8 months were allotted to two feeding systems and fed similar amounts of average dry matter and total digestible nutrient throughout whole experimental period according to each feeding program. Steers were weighed monthly, taken blood at the end of growing, fattening and finishing periods, and slaughtered at 30 month of age. Results Growing performance was higher (p<0.05 in the CON group compared to the TMR group during fattening and finishing periods. The CON group was lower (p<0.05 in blood aspartic acid transaminase, blood urea nitrogen and retinol levels during growing period, but higher in triglyceride and cholesterol levels during fattening and finishing periods compared to the TMR group. The CON group was greater (p<0.05 in rib-eye area, and lighter (p<0.05 red in meat color compared to the TMR group. In the correlation coefficients between blood components of steers and carcass traits, retinol had a negative (p<0.05 correlation with marbling score and rib-eye area. Leptin had a positive (p<0.05 correlation with back fat thickness. Blood cholesterol and triglyceride were positively (p<0.05 correlated with carcass weight and rib-eye area. Conclusion Growth performance, carcass ribeye area and meat color showed a more desirable result in the CON compared to the TMR in Hanwoo steers. Assessing the accumulated data of carcass traits with blood components including hormones—particularly retinol, cholesterol, triglyceride, and leptin—during the fattening or finishing phases, it may be possible to find a biomarker for determining beef quality in living animals.

  3. Biochemical assessment of growth factors and circulation of blood components contained in the different fractions obtained by centrifugation of venous blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corigiano, M; Ciobanu, G; Baldoni, E; Pompa, G

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a biochemical marker with different elements of a normal blood serum and centrifuged blood serum after a different rotation system. For this technique, we used five fractions of a blood Concentrated Growth Factors system (bCGF) and a particular device for the different rotation program. Blood samples were collected from 10 volunteers aged between 35 and 55 in the Operative Unit of the “Sapienza” University of Rome with only a fraction of different biochemical elements. Through an individual blood phase separator tube of venous blood, active factions of serum and 4 fractions of red buffy coat were taken. The biochemical markers with 14 elements were examined at times: P1-11 minutes, P2-12minutes, P3-15 minutes. Exclusively biological materials which are normally applied in the regeneration techniques for different defects and lesions were used with this technique. After specific rotation programs, a different result was obtained for each cycle: P1, P2, P3. In test tubes obtained by separated blood, we observed a higher concentration of proteins, ions, and other antigens compared to normal blood plasma. Examining the biochemical results of different elements, we observed an increase (P≤0,01). Since each person’s DNA is different, we could not have the same results in 5 fractions of blood concentration, we did, however, find a good increase in only a fraction of proteins, immunoglobulin and different ions. We obtained five fractions after centrifugation, and we had an increase in different biochemical elements compared to normal blood (P≤0,01) which is significant at different times. These biochemical elements were stimulated by different growth factors, which are used by the immune system, and they induced the formation of hard and soft tissues and good regeneration.

  4. Growth and Biochemical performance of Cassava-Manihot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    the crude oil polluted soil improved the growth and biochemical performance of cassava. For the qualitative .... delay in the rate of soil recovery and a decrease in crop yield ... enhances biodegradation of polluted soil presumably by removing ...

  5. Growth performance, haematological and biochemical study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A significant difference (P<0.05) was established in the growth parameters determined in the C. gariepinus fingerlings fed with the four frog formulations, namely, final weight, total weight, and mean feed gain, mean weight gain and feed conversion ratio The 40% R. galamensis ration elicited higher growth values than all ...

  6. Responses of physiological and biochemical components in Gossypium hirsutum L. to mutagens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muthusamy, A.; Vasanth, K.; Jayabalan, N.

    2003-01-01

    The two tetraploid varieties of cotton were exposed to gamma rays, EMS and SA. Chlorophyll, carotenoids, sugar, starch, free amino acids, protein, lipids, DNA and RNA were estimated quantitatively. All the physiological and biochemical components were increased in lower dose/concentration of the mutagenic treatments and they were decreased in higher dose/concentrations. The stimulation of the biochemical contents was a dose/concentration dependent response. Among the two varieties, MCU 11 was found to be responsive to mutagens than MCU 5. Based on the study the lower dose/concentration of the mutagenic treatments could enhance the biochemical components which is used for improved economic characters of cotton. (author)

  7. Effect of gamma radiation on biochemical components in rapeseed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Khawas, K.H.A.

    1988-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study possibility of using safe doses of gamma rays (up to 10 KGy), dry heat treatments (roasting), humid heat treatments (autoclaving) as well as various soaking treatments to inactivate or minimize the antiqualities factors of rape seed (glucosinolate compounds and myrosinase enzyme) and detect the effects of these treatments on chemical composition of oil and residual meal Attention was focused on the effect of these treatments on the chemical composition, fatty acids constituents and unsaponifiable matter components of rape seed oil. Besides, the changes occurred in the chemical composition, total glucosinolate compounds and myrosinase activity of residual meal of rape seed were also studied

  8. Componentes bioquímicos de los tejidos de Perna perna y P. viridis (Lineo, 1758 (Bivalvia: Mytilidae, en relación al crecimiento en condiciones de cultivo suspendido Biochemical components of the tissues of Perna perna and P. viridis (Lineo, 1758 (Bivalvia: Mytilidae, in relation to the growth under conditions of suspended cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Acosta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó los cambios ocurridos en carbohidratos, proteínas y lípidos de la glándula digestiva, músculo y lóbulos gonadales de los mejillones Perna perna y P. viridis bajo condiciones de cultivo suspendido en el Golfo de Cariaco, Venezuela. Paralelamente, se llevaron registros de la condición reproductiva de ambas especies y de temperatura, clorofila a y seston. Los resultados muestraron que en los tejidos analizados de ambas especies, los lóbulos gonadales presentaron las mayores variaciones de los sustratos energéticos estudiados. La variación de los sustratos energéticos se explicó en ambos mejillones mediante desarrollo gonádico y la disponibilidad de alimento, particularmente clorofila a para P. perna y seston total para P. viridis. La temperatura fue un factor que afectó negativamente a P. viridis. Los contenidos de los diferentes sustratos energéticos observados en P. perna fueron más altos que en P. viridis, a lo largo de casi todo el periodo experimental, lo que indicó que esta especie mostró una mayor capacidad para explotar de manera más eficiente los recursos alimenticios presentes en las condiciones de cultivo suspendido.In the organisms, the variations of the biochemical composition of reproductive and somatic tissues in the growth permit to infer about its adaptative to environment. In the present study, we evaluate the changes observed in carbohydrates, lipids and proteins of digestive gland, muscle and gonad tissues of Perna perna and P. viridis, growing in suspended culture at Cariaco Gulf , Venezuela. The reproductive condition of both mussels and environmental factors (temperature, chlorophyll a and of the seston were determinate. The results show that, in both species, the gonadic lobes showed the highest variations in the biochemical component. The variations in the biochemical components were direct explained by the variations in the gonad development and the food availability, particularly chlorophyll a

  9. Biochemical component identification by plasmonic improved whispering gallery mode optical resonance based sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saetchnikov, Vladimir A.; Tcherniavskaia, Elina A.; Saetchnikov, Anton V.; Schweiger, Gustav; Ostendorf, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Experimental data on detection and identification of variety of biochemical agents, such as proteins, microelements, antibiotic of different generation etc. in both single and multi component solutions under varied in wide range concentration analyzed on the light scattering parameters of whispering gallery mode optical resonance based sensor are represented. Multiplexing on parameters and components has been realized using developed fluidic sensor cell with fixed in adhesive layer dielectric microspheres and data processing. Biochemical component identification has been performed by developed network analysis techniques. Developed approach is demonstrated to be applicable both for single agent and for multi component biochemical analysis. Novel technique based on optical resonance on microring structures, plasmon resonance and identification tools has been developed. To improve a sensitivity of microring structures microspheres fixed by adhesive had been treated previously by gold nanoparticle solution. Another technique used thin film gold layers deposited on the substrate below adhesive. Both biomolecule and nanoparticle injections caused considerable changes of optical resonance spectra. Plasmonic gold layers under optimized thickness also improve parameters of optical resonance spectra. Biochemical component identification has been also performed by developed network analysis techniques both for single and for multi component solution. So advantages of plasmon enhancing optical microcavity resonance with multiparameter identification tools is used for development of a new platform for ultra sensitive label-free biomedical sensor.

  10. Crack growth determination on laboratory components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurst, R.C.

    1993-01-01

    In order to aid design and support remanent life assessment of plant components operating at elevated temperatures, the reliability of the analytical methods, which translate materials data procured from the laboratory to the behaviour of actual components, requires validation. Such a validation can of course be interpreted from operating plant, however the potential risks involved encourage the development of out of plant techniques for the validation of representative components. For meaningful validation, these techniques need careful control and high accuracy which can best be achieved in a laboratory environment. As the laboratory component test should be designed to simulate actual plant conditions as closely as possible, the direct extension of the results to the plant component case requires scaling up. Consequently the successful development of such a test may even lead to the advantageous situation where it could form an alternative to the conventional route where, for example, it may not be possible to obtain the plant component's metallurgical structure in a conventional specimen or, alternatively, when too many assumptions are required in the analysis when translating to different geometries and stress systems. Under these conditions, in spite of the more sophisticated test requirements, it may prove more reasonable to opt for the more representative laboratory component data for use in design or lifetime prediction. The present work describes the application of the component validation test philosophy to the problem of crack growth under two rather different loading conditions. In both cases, crack growth is measured using the direct current potential drop (PD) technique on tubular metallic components containing artificial defects, however the plant conditions to be simulated lead to either creep or thermal fatigue. The creep studies on Alloy 800H support heat exchanger design for nuclear plant, solar towers and chemical plant, whereas the work on the

  11. Decoupling of Growth from Production of Biochemicals and Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Songyuan

    With increasing awareness of sustainability in our current society, alternative approaches to produce fuels and petro-derived chemicals are required. Biofuels and biochemicals produced from microbial cell factories provide an alternative to current fossil based chemicals. Meanwhile, microbial cell...

  12. Principal component analysis of tomato genotypes based on some morphological and biochemical quality indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glogovac Svetlana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates variability of tomato genotypes based on morphological and biochemical fruit traits. Experimental material is a part of tomato genetic collection from Institute of Filed and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad, Serbia. Genotypes were analyzed for fruit mass, locule number, index of fruit shape, fruit colour, dry matter content, total sugars, total acidity, lycopene and vitamin C. Minimum, maximum and average values and main indicators of variability (CV and σ were calculated. Principal component analysis was performed to determinate variability source structure. Four principal components, which contribute 93.75% of the total variability, were selected for analysis. The first principal component is defined by vitamin C, locule number and index of fruit shape. The second component is determined by dry matter content, and total acidity, the third by lycopene, fruit mass and fruit colour. Total sugars had the greatest part in the fourth component.

  13. Effect of natural growth promoters on immunity, and biochemical and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    biochemical and haematological parameters of broiler chickens. Syed Muddassar ... acids, phytobiotics, and their combinations) as feed additives in poultry feed. Methods: Different feed ... by nutrition, season, climate change, age, sex, type of birds and ... glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein (HDL), low ...

  14. Enhanced protein and biochemical production using CRISPRi-based growth switches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Songyuan; Jendresen, Christian Bille; Grünberger, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    functionality of the growth switches. Decoupling of growth from production of biochemicals was demonstrated for mevalonate, a precursor for isoprenoid compounds. Mass yield of mevalonate was increased by 41%, and production was maintained for more than 45 h after activation of the pyrF-based growth switch...

  15. Growth and biochemical composition of Chlorella vulgaris in different growth media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MATHIAS A. CHIA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The need for clean and low-cost algae production demands for investigations on algal physiological response under different growth conditions. In this research, we investigated the growth, biomass production and biochemical composition of Chlorella vulgaris using semi-continuous cultures employing three growth media (LC Oligo, Chu 10 and WC media. The highest cell density was obtained in LC Oligo, while the lowest in Chu medium. Chlorophyll a, carbohydrate and protein concentrations and yield were highest in Chu and LC Oligo media. Lipid class analysis showed that hydrocarbons (HC, sterol esthers (SE, free fatty acids (FFA, aliphatic alcohols (ALC, acetone mobile polar lipids (AMPL and phospholipids (PL concentrations and yields were highest in the Chu medium. Triglyceride (TAG and sterol (ST concentrations were highest in the LC Oligo medium. The results suggested that for cost effective cultivation, LC Oligo medium is the best choice among those studied, as it saved the cost of buying vitamins and EDTA associated with the other growth media, while at the same time resulted in the best growth performance and biomass production.

  16. [Effects of different trophic modes on growth characteristics, metabolism and cellular components of Chlorella vulgaris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Weibao; Wang, Yang; Yang, Hong; Xi, Yuqin; Han, Rui; Niu, Shiquan

    2015-03-04

    We studied the effects of trophic modes related to glucose and light (photoautotrophy, mixotrophy and heterotrophy) on growth, cellular components and carbon metabolic pathway of Chlorella vulgaris. The parameters about growth of algal cells were investigated by using spectroscopy and chromatography techniques. When trophic mode changed from photoautotrophy to mixotrophy and to heterotrophy successively, the concentrations of soluble sugar, lipid and saturated C16/C18 fatty acids in C. vulgaris increased, whereas the concentrations of unsaturated C16, C18 fatty acids, proteins, photosynthetic pigments and 18 relative amino acids decreased. Light and glucose affect the growth, metabolism and the biochemical components biosynthesis of C. vulgaris. Addition of glucose can promote algal biomass accumulation, stimulate the synthesis of carbonaceous components, but inhibit nitrogenous components. Under illumination cultivation, concentration and consumption level of glucose decided the main trophic modes of C. vulgaris. Mixotrophic and heterotrophic cultivation could promote the growth of algal cells.

  17. Biochemical components and dry matter of lemon and mandarin hybrids under salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco V. da S. Sá

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective was to study the biochemical changes and dry matter content in lemon and mandarin hybrids under salt stress during rootstock formation. For this, a study was conducted in randomized complete block, using a 2 x 5 factorial scheme, with two salinity levels (0.3 and 4.0 dS m-1 applied in five citrus rootstock genotypes (1. TSKC x CTARG - 019; 2. LRF; 3. TSKC x (LCR x TR - 040; 4. LCRSTC and 5. LVK, with three replicates and four plants per plot. At 90 days after sowing, saline treatments started to be applied and continued until 120 days after sowing, the moment in which the plants were collected for evaluation of biochemical characteristics and phytomass accumulation. The increase in water salinity negatively affected the biochemical components and dry matter accumulation of citrus genotypes. The genotypes TSKC x (LCR x TR - 040, LCRSTC and LVK were the least affected by salt stress, standing out as the materials most tolerant to salinity.

  18. Influence of salicylic acid on growth and some biochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-10

    Jan 10, 2012 ... Our results show that in plants not sprayed with salicylic acid but treated with NaCl, shoot length, wet weight of shoot and root, ... Photosynthesis and cell growth can be affected by ..... Protection of plasma membrane of onion.

  19. Protein-solvent preferential interactions, protein hydration, and the modulation of biochemical reactions by solvent components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timasheff, Serge N

    2002-07-23

    Solvent additives (cosolvents, osmolytes) modulate biochemical reactions if, during the course of the reaction, there is a change in preferential interactions of solvent components with the reacting system. Preferential interactions can be expressed in terms of preferential binding of the cosolvent or its preferential exclusion (preferential hydration). The driving force is the perturbation by the protein of the chemical potential of the cosolvent. It is shown that the measured change of the amount of water in contact with protein during the course of the reaction modulated by an osmolyte is a change in preferential hydration that is strictly a measure of the cosolvent chemical potential perturbation by the protein in the ternary water-protein-cosolvent system. It is not equal to the change in water of hydration, because water of hydration is a reflection strictly of protein-water forces in a binary system. There is no direct relation between water of preferential hydration and water of hydration.

  20. BIOCHEMICAL HOMEOSTASIS AND BODY GROWTH ARE RELIABLE END POINTS IN CLINICAL NUTRITION TRIALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies of biochemical homeostasis and/or body growth have been included as outcome variables in most nutrition trials in paediatric patients. Moreover, these outcome variables have provided important insights into the nutrient requirements of infants and children, and continue to do so. Examples ...

  1. Contributions of cell growth and biochemical reactions to nongenetic variability of cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwabe, A.; Bruggeman, F.J.

    2014-01-01

    Cell-to-cell variability in the molecular composition of isogenic, steady-state growing cells arises spontaneously from the inherent stochasticity of intracellular biochemical reactions and cell growth. Here, we present a general decomposition of the total variance in the copy number per cell of a

  2. Reflectance spectroscopy of biochemical components as indicators of tea, Camellia Sinensis, quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bian, B.M.; Skidmore, A.K.; Schlerf, M.; Fei, T.; Liu, Y.F.; Wang, T.

    2010-01-01

    The potential of reflectance spectroscopy to estimate the concentration of biochemical compounds related to tea (Camellia sinensis (L.)) quality (total tea polyphenols and free amino acids) is demonstrated. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) was performed to establish the relationship between

  3. Biofertilizing efficiency of Sargassum polycystum extract on growth and biochemical composition of Vigna radiata and Vigna mungo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Bharath

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effect of marine brown alga Sargassum polycystum extract on growth and biochemical parameters of Vigna radiata and Vigna mungo.Methods: Different concentrations of algal extracts (0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0%, 3.0%, 4.0%, and 5.0% were prepared and applied to the crops at every 10-day intervals under natural conditions. After 30 d, the plants were harvested to evaluate the growth and biochemical parameters.Results: Seaweed liquid fertilizers treated seedlings showed maximum growth in 3.0% concentration when compared to the untreated seedlings. Similarly, biochemical parameters such as photosynthetic pigments, protein, reducing sugar, total sugar and amino acids exhibited increases in 3.0% concentration seaweed extract. Decreases in growth and biochemical parameters were noticed in concentrations higher than 3.0%.Conclusions: Presence of micronutrients and growth regulating substances in the liquid extract help healthier and faster productivity of the crop.

  4. Salt Stress Responses of Pigeon Pea (Cajanus Cajan) on Growth, Yield and Some Biochemical Attributes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tayyab, A.; Azeem, M.; Ahmad, N; Ahmad, R.; Qasim, M.

    2016-01-01

    Growth responses of leguminous plants to salinity vary considerably among species. Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.) is a sub-tropical crop, grown worldwide particularly in South Asia for edible and fodder purposes, while little is known about its salinity tolerance. In order to investigate the effect of salinity, plants were established at six different levels of sea salt concentrations i.e. 0.5, 1.6, 2.8, 3.5, 3.8 and 4.3 (EC/sub e/ dS.m/sup -1/). Plant growth was measured using vegetative (height, fresh and dry biomass, moisture, relative growth rate (RGR) and specific shoot length (SSL)), reproductive (number of flowers, pods, seeds and seed weight) and some biochemical parameters (chlorophylls, carotenoids, sugars and proteins). Pigeon pea showed a salt sensitive growth response, however, it survived up to 3.5 (EC/sub e/ dS.m/sup -1/) sea salt salinity. Plant height, biomass, SSL and RGR linearly decreased under saline conditions. Leaf pigments increased (chlorophylls) or maintained (carotenoids) at 1.6 dS.m/sup -1/ and subsequently decreased in higher salinity. Low moisture content and succulence along with more accumulation of soluble sugars and proteins may be attributed to leaf osmotic adjustments at low salinity. Salinity adversely affect reproductive growth of C. cajan where production of flowers, pods, number of seeds and seed weight were significantly reduced. Present study provides basic information related to plant growth, seed yield and some biochemical attributes, which suggest C. cajan as a salt sensitive leguminous crop. However, detailed information is required to understand the eco-physiological responses of this plant under field and green house conditions. (author)

  5. Zener solutions for particle growth in multi-component alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermolen, F.J.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the Zener theory on precipitate growth in supersaturated alloys for planar, cylindrical and spherical geometries is extended to multi-component alloys. The obtained solutions can be used to check the results from numerical simulations under simplified conditions. Further, the

  6. Biochemical components of seminal plasma and their correlation to the fresh seminal characteristics in Marwari stallions and Poitou jacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thirumala Rao Talluri

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate various biochemical components of seminal plasma in Marwari stallions and Poitou Jacks and to find out their correlation with that of the seminal characteristics. Materials and Methods: In this study, semen was collected from six Marwari stallions and six Poitou jacks aged from 4 to 6 years and with known fertility status. The semen collection from the stallions were collected during the breeding season, i.e., between the months of April and June. From the collected semen ejaculates, we estimated the values of some biochemical components, viz., total protein content, total lipid content, and enzymes such as glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, acid phosphatase (ACP, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH as well as concentrations of glucose, cholesterol, total calcium (Ca, and phosphorus (P and correlations among different seminal parameters were statistically examined using the Pearson correlation coefficient. Results: In this study, we found positive correlations between semen volume as well as sperm concentration and GOT, GPT, ALP and ACP for both the group stallions. Significant correlation between motility and glucose, GOT and GPT could be an indication for their role metabolism and protection against free radicals to the spermatozoa. Conclusion: Based on the results, it is concluded that there is a positive correlation between some biochemical values such as glucose, Ca, ALP, and LDH and seminal parameters which play a key role in capacitation and onward movement of the spermatozoa.

  7. Naphthalene induced activities on growth, respiratory metabolism and biochemical composition in juveniles of Metapenaeus affinis (H.Milne Edward, 1837)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansari, Z.A.; Farshchi, P.; Faniband, M.

    Toxicity of naphthalene was carried out on Metapenaeus affinis (H. Milne Edward, 1837) to investigate its effects on growth, metabolic index and biochemical constituents. Growth rate in terms of weight gain was 32.13% in control, 12.12% in 0.125 ppm...

  8. Effect of salinity on growth, biochemical parameters and fatty acid composition in safflower (carthamus tinctorius l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javed, S.; Bukhari, S.A.; Mahmood, S.; Iftikhar, T.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present project is to investigate the effect of salinity on growth, biochemical parameters and fatty acid composition in six varieties of safflower as well as identification of stress tolerant variety under saline (8 d Sm-1) condition. It was observed that salinity significantly decreased the dry weight and fresh weight of safflower varieties. Nitrate reductase (NRA) and nitrite reductase (NiRA) activities were also reduced in response to salinity in all safflower genotypes but Thori-78 and PI-387820 showed less reduction which could be a useful marker for selecting salt tolerant varieties. Under salinity stress, total free amino acids, reducing, non reducing sugars and total sugars increased in all varieties. Accumulation of sugars and total free amino acids might reflect a salt protective mechanism and could be a useful criterion for selecting salt tolerant variety. Comparison among safflower genotypes indicated that Thori-78 and PI-387820 performed better than the others and successful in maintaining higher NRA, NiRA and other metabolites thus were tolerant to salinity. Differential effect upon fatty acid synthesis was observed by different varieties under salinity stress but PI-170274 and PI-387821 varieties better maintained their fatty acid composition. It can be concluded from present studies that biochemical markers can be used to select salinity tolerant safflower varieties. (author)

  9. Growth hormone dose regimens in adult GH deficiency: effects on biochemical growth markers and metabolic parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jens; Jørgensen, Jens Otto Lunde; Laursen, Torben

    1993-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE: We examined the effects of different doses of GH on insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3), body composition, energy expenditure, and various metabolites in GH deficient adults, in order to approach a metabolically appropriate GH dosage in young GH......-I in an age and sex matched control group was 248 +/- 25 micrograms/l. Corresponding serum IGFBP-3 levels also increased from 1860 +/- 239 to 3261 +/- 379, 3762 +/- 434 and 4384 +/- 652 micrograms/l (P = 0.01) respectively. Significant increases in diurnal serum insulin levels after 4 IU/m2 were recorded......, whereas plasma glucose levels remained unchanged. Lipid intermediates increased dose independently during GH administration. GH caused a significant increase in resting energy expenditure, whereas the respiratory exchange ratio was unaltered. Fat mass was increased without GH therapy and decreased during...

  10. Nickel accumulation and its effect on growth, physiological and biochemical parameters in millets and oats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vibha; Jatav, Pradeep Kumar; Verma, Raini; Kothari, Shanker Lal; Kachhwaha, Sumita

    2017-10-01

    With the boom in industrialization, there is an increase in the level of heavy metals in the soil which drastically affect the growth and development of plants. Nickel is an essential micronutrient for plant growth and development, but elevated level of Ni causes stunted growth, chlorosis, nutrient imbalance, and alterations in the defense mechanism of plants in terms of accumulation of osmolytes or change in enzyme activities like guiacol peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Ni-induced toxic response was studied in seedlings of finger millet, pearl millet, and oats in terms of seedling growth, lipid peroxidation, total chlorophyll, proline content, and enzymatic activities. On the basis of germination and growth parameters of the seedling, finger millet was found to be the most tolerant. Nickel accumulation was markedly lower in the shoots as compared to the roots, which was the highest in finger millet and the lowest in shoots of oats. Plants treated with a high concentration of Ni showed significant reduction in chlorophyll and increase in proline content. Considerable difference in level of malondialdehyde (MDA) content and activity of antioxidative enzymes indicates generation of redox imbalance in plants due to Ni-induced stress. Elevated activities of POD and SOD were observed with high concentrations of Ni while CAT activity was found to be reduced. It was observed that finger millet has higher capability to maintain homeostasis by keeping the balance between accumulation and ROS scavenging system than pearl millet and oats. The data provide insight into the physiological and biochemical changes in plants adapted to survive in Ni-rich environment. This study will help in selecting the more suitable crop species to be grown on Ni-rich soils.

  11. Lemna minor exposed to fluoranthene: growth, biochemical, physiological and histochemical changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zezulka, Stěpán; Kummerová, Marie; Babula, Petr; Váňová, Lucie

    2013-09-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) represent one of the major groups of organic contaminants in the aquatic environment. Duckweed (Lemna minor L.) is a common aquatic plant widely used in phytotoxicity tests for xenobiotic substances. The goal of this study was to assess the growth and the physiological, biochemical and histochemical changes in duckweed exposed for 4 and 10 days to fluoranthene (FLT, 0.1 and 1 mgL(-1)). Nonsignificant changes in number of plants, biomass production, leaf area size, content of chlorophylls a and b and carotenoids and parameters of chlorophyll fluorescence recorded after 4 and 10 days of exposure to FLT were in contrast with considerable changes at biochemical and histochemical levels. Higher occurrence of reactive oxygen species (ROS) caused by an exposure to FLT after 10 days as compared to control (hydrogen peroxide elevated by 13% in the 0.1 mgL(-1) and by 41% in the 1 mgL(-1) FLT; superoxide anion radical by 52% and 115% respectively) reflected in an increase in the activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase by 3% in both treatments, catalase by 9% and 1% respectively, ascorbate peroxidase by 21% and 5% respectively, guaiacol peroxidase by 12% in the 0.1 mgL(-1) FLT). Even the content of antioxidant compounds like ascorbate (by 20% in the 1 mgL(-1) FLT) or total thiols (reduced forms by 15% in the 0.1 mgL(-1) and 8% in the 1 mgL(-1) FLT, oxidized forms by 36% in the 0.1 mgL(-1) FLT) increased. Increased amount of ROS was followed by an increase in malondialdehyde content (by 33% in the 0.1 mgL(-1) and 79% in the 1 mgL(-1) FLT). Whereas in plants treated by the 0.1 mgL(-1) FLT the contents of total proteins and phenols increased by 15% and 25%, respectively, the 1 mgL(-1) FLT caused decrease of their contents by 32% and 7%. Microscopic observations of duckweed roots also confirmed the presence of ROS and related histochemical changes at the cellular and tissue levels. The assessment of phytotoxicity of organic

  12. Somatic cell count and biochemical components of milk related to udder health in buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.T. Singh

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The 399 clinically healthy quarters from 101 Murrah buffaloes were analyzed for somatic cell count (SCC; DCC and microscope methods and biochemical composition of milk in relation to udder health. The udder health revealed specific subclinical mastitis (SSM in 7% and non-specific mastitis (NSM in 49% of quarters. Latent infections comprised 1%. Staphylococci (43%, streptococci (39% and corynebacteria (18% constituted chief etiological agents in SSM. Electrical conductivity increased significantly both in SSM and NSM compared to healthy quarters. Significant effects for SNF and density were seen in SSM only. DCC and microscope depicted similar cell counts with a correlation coefficient of 0.89. The correlations of DCC with CMT and EC were 0.85 and 0.51, respectively. Quarters with negative CMT reactions had DCC values of < 3 × 105 cells/ml. The DCC means for negative, trace, and +1 to 2 CMT scores were 122, 238, and 593 (× 103 cells/ml, respectively. Lactose with discrimination ability of 83.76% was found better indicator of udder inflammation in buffaloes. Buffaloes unlike cows have low numbers of quarter infections, respond similarly as cows to udder inflammation but at different levels, and DCC may be effectively employed for expressing milk cell count in this species.

  13. Antioxidant Activity of Three Honey Samples in relation with Their Biochemical Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Suan Chua

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activities based on the free radical scavenging, reducing power, and bleaching inhibition were investigated for the three commonly used honeys in Malaysia, namely, tualang, gelam, and acacia honey. The antioxidant capacity of the honey samples was correlated with their biochemical constituents such as total phenol, total flavonoid content, and total water-soluble vitamins (vitamin B1, B2, B3, B9, B12, and vitamin C. The total flavonoid content of honey samples was strongly correlated with the three antioxidative processes (–0.9910. In contrast, the total water-soluble vitamins was found to be well correlated with the free radical scavenging activity (. Vitamin B3 was likely to be in the highest concentration, which covered for 69–80% of the total vitamin content. A number of five phenolic acids, three flavonoids, and two organic acids had also been detected from the honey samples using UPLC-MS/MS, without sugar-removal procedure.

  14. Changes in growth, photosynthetic activities, biochemical parameters and amino acid profile of Thompson Seedless grapes (Vitis vinifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somkuwar, R G; Bahetwar, Anita; Khan, I; Satisha, J; Ramteke, S D; Itroutwar, Prerna; Bhongale, Aarti; Oulkar, Dashrath

    2014-11-01

    The study on photosynthetic activity and biochemical parameters in Thompson Seedless grapes grafted on Dog Ridge rootstock and its impact on growth, yield and amino acid profile at various stages of berry development was conducted during the year 2012-2013. Leaf and berry samples from ten year old vines of Thompson Seedless were collected at different growth and berry developmental stages. The analysis showed difference in photosynthetic activity, biochemical parameters and amino acid status with the changes in berry development stage. Higher photosynthetic rate of 17.39 umol cm(-2) s(-1) was recorded during 3-4mm berry size and the lowest (10.08 umol cm(-2) s(-1)) was recorded during the veraison stage. The photosynthetic activity showed gradual decrease with the onset of harvest while the different biochemical parameters showed increase and decrease from one stage to another in both berry and leaves. Changes in photosynthetic activity and biochemical parameters thereby affected the growth, yield and amino acid content of the berry. Positive correlation of leaf area and photosynthetic rate was recorded during the period of study. Reducing sugar (352.25 mg g(-1)) and total carbohydrate (132.52 mg g(-1)) was more in berries as compared to leaf. Amino acid profile showed variations in different stages of berry development. Marked variations in photosynthetic as well as biochemical and amino acid content at various berry development stages was recorded and thereby its cumulative effect on the development of fruit quality.

  15. Effect of Different Growth Conditions on Certain Biochemical Parameters of Different Cyanobacterial Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammouda, O. E.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Variation in the traditional growth medium conditions to enhance the production of lipids, carbohydrates, protein and the free amino acids content of three cyanobacterial species. Methodology and Results: Three species of cyanobacteria (Anabaena laxa, Anabaena fertilissima and Nostoc muscorum were collected from the culture collection of Soils, Water and Environment Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Giza, Egypt, to investigate their biochemical composition under different growth conditions, using BG110 (nitrogen free as growth medium. These conditions were represented by control medium, static glucose medium with (1%, w/v, aerated medium (aerated by bubbling technique depending on CO2 normally existed in air with a concentration of 0.03%, molasses medium (0.7%, v/v and aerated medium enriched with glucose (1%, w/v. Lipid content, total carbohydrates, soluble proteins and free amino acids were determined at the previous conditions. Glucose at 0.7% (w/v was the most favorable for lipid production in A. laxa, where it exhibited the highest lipid content (427 μg/g fresh wt.. Increasing molasses concentration up to 0.7% (v/v produced an increase in lipid contents of the tested cyanobacterial strains. The highest lipid content of both N. muscorum (366.2 μg/g fresh wt. and A. laxa (357.4 μg/g fresh wt. were recorded at molasses concentrations of 0.1 and 0.7% (v/v, respectively. A. laxa expressed high significant values for both proteins (31.6 μg/mL and free amino acids (40.5 mg/g dry wt. after 6 days of incubation period under aerated enriched glucose condition (1%, w/v. Also, at the same growth conditions, A. fertilissima exhibited high significant values for carbohydrates at 4th day (876.8 mg/g dry wt.. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: Aerated enriched glucose medium (1%, w/v was the best growth medium condition used in the present study.

  16. The biochemical effects of nano tamoxifen and some bioactive components in experimental breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzat, Afaf; Abdelhamid, Abdou Osman; El Awady, Mostafa K; Abd El Azeem, Amal S; Mohammed, Dina Mostafa

    2017-11-01

    The effect of nano tamoxifen and some bioactive components such as yeast, isoflavone, and silymarin on the level of resistance and prevention of breast cancer progression in experimental animals is the target of this study. Thirty female Sprague-Dawley rats received a single medication dosage of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) intragastrically. After fourteen days of DMBA admission, the procedure protocol started out. Finally, all the experimental results evaluated, tabulated and statistically analyzed. The results demonstrated a highly significant elevation in the 8-OHdG level in group 1 (nano yeast) and 3 (nano silymarin) while the results demonstrated a highly significant reduction in group 2 (nano tamoxifen). The apoptosis results demonstrated a significant elevation in group 3 (nano silymarin) where appeared significant reduction in group 4 (nano isoflavone). ErbB-2 results demonstrated a significant elevation in group 2 (nano tamoxifen) and a significant reduction in each of group 3 (nano silymarin) and 4 (nano isoflavone). The lipid peroxide level demonstrated an extremely significant reduction in group 4 (nano isoflavone). And a significant reduction of total antioxidant was observed in group 3 (nano silymarin) in comparison to injected animals control. This may be considered a new vision and strategy to resist breast cancer disease or prevent progression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Mixotrophic growth and biochemical analysis of Chlorella vulgaris cultivated with diluted monosodium glutamate wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yan; Hu, Wenrong; Li, Xiuqing; Ma, Guixia; Song, Mingming; Pei, Haiyan

    2014-01-01

    Monosodium glutamate wastewater (MSGW) is a potential medium for microbial cultivation because of containing abundant organic nutrient. This paper seeks to evaluate the feasibility of growing Chlorella vulgaris with MSGW and assess the influence of MSGW concentration on the biomass productivity and biochemical compositions. The MSGW diluted in different concentrations was prepared for microalga cultivation. C. vulgaris growth was greatly promoted with MSGW compared with the inorganic BG11 medium. C. vulgaris obtained the maximum biomass concentration (1.02 g/L) and biomass productivity (61.47 mg/Ld) with 100-time diluted MSGW. The harvested biomass was rich in protein (36.01-50.64%) and low in lipid (13.47-25.4%) and carbohydrate (8.94-20.1%). The protein nutritional quality and unsaturated fatty acids content of algal increased significantly with diluted MSGW. These results indicated that the MSGW is a feasible alternative for mass cultivation of C. vulgaris. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Growth hormone receptor deficiency in Ecuador: clinical and biochemical phenotype in two populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara-Aguirre, J; Rosenbloom, A L; Fielder, P J; Diamond, F B; Rosenfeld, R G

    1993-02-01

    We have identified 56 patients with GH receptor deficiency (Laron syndrome) from two provinces in southern Ecuador, one group of 26 (Loja province) with a 4:1 female predominance and 30 patients from neighboring El Oro province with a normal sex ratio. There were no significant differences between the Loja and El Oro populations in stature (-5.3 to -11.5 standard deviation score), other auxologic measures, or in biochemical measures. GH binding protein, the circulating extracellular domain of the GH receptor, was measured by ligand immunofunction assay and found to be comparably low in children and adults. Levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and -II and the GH-dependent IGF binding protein-3 (measured by RIA) were significantly greater, and GH and IGF binding protein-2 levels significantly lower in adults than children. Levels of IGF-I (adults) and IGF binding protein-3 (children and adults) correlated inversely with statural deviation from normal (P < 0.01). School performance was at an exceptionally high level, 41 out of 47 who had attended school being in the top 3 in classes of 15-50 persons.

  19. Murine FATP alleviates growth and biochemical deficiencies of yeast fat1Delta strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirusso, C C; Connell, E J; Færgeman, Nils J.

    2000-01-01

    following incubation of the cells with exogenous oleate. Expression of either Fat1p or murine FATP from a plasmid in a fat1Delta strain restored these phenotypic and biochemical deficiencies. Fat1p and FATP restored growth of fat1Delta cells in the presence of cerulenin and under hypoxic conditions....... Furthermore, fatty-acid transport was restored and was found to be chain length specific: octanoate, a medium-chain fatty acid was transported in a Fat1p- and FATP-independent manner while the long-chain fatty acids myristate, palmitate, and oleate required either Fat1p or FATP for maximal levels of transport....... Lignoceryl CoA synthetase activities were restored to wild-type levels in fat1Delta strains expressing either Fat1p or FATP. Fat1p or FATP also restored wild-type levels of beta-oxidation of exogenous long-chain fatty acids. These data show that Fat1p and FATP are functionally equivalent when expressed...

  20. Serum IGF-1, IGFBP-3 and their ratio: Potential biochemical growth maturity indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Nimisha; Tripathi, Tulika; Gupta, S K; Rai, Priyank; Kanase, Anup; Kalra, Shilpa

    2017-12-01

    Determination of skeletal maturation and remaining growth potential is an essential part of treatment planning in orthodontics. The aim of our study was to determine the relationship between IGF-1 levels, IGFBP-3 levels with CVM staging to track the pre pubertal and pubertal growth spurts in female patients in North Indian population. This cross-sectional study was conducted on ninety female subjects in the age group of 8-20 years. Blood samples were collected and centrifuged and serum samples were then analysed by Human IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits, specific for IGF-1 and IGFBP-3, respectively. CVM staging on lateral cephalometric radiograph was determined for all patients. Analysis of variance test followed by a post hoc test was used to compare mean IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 corresponding to six stages of cervical vertebrae maturation stages. Linear Pearson's correlations were performed to determine the trends of IGF-1, IGFBP-3, and its ratio relating to CVM stage. The kappa statistic was used to measure inter and intra examiner reliability. P value IGF-1 levels were found to be highest (403.3 ± 12.3 ng/ml) at CVMI3 stage of CVMI. The post-hoc test revealed a significant difference in IGF-1 levels between all stages of CVMI, thereby indicating a specific range of IGF-1 levels for a specific skeletal stage. Mean serum IGFBP-3 levels were found to be highest (5186.8 ± 1384.2 ng/ml) at CVMI4 stage of CVMI. The mean serum IGFBP-3 levels at CVMI4 were found to be significantly higher than the levels at all other CVMI stages except CVMI3 stage. IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 can serve as a potential biochemical indicator for assessment of skeletal maturity.

  1. Effects of fluoride on growth, body composition, and serum biochemical profile in a freshwater teleost, Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianjie; Cao, Jinling; Wang, Jundong; Jia, Ruhui; Xue, Wenjuan; Li, Yundong; Luo, Yongju; Xie, Lingtian

    2013-10-01

    Fluoride is ubiquitously distributed in natural waters. Elevated fluoride may cause histopathological changes and induce oxidative stress in the gills of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio). The present study further evaluates the effects of fluoride on growth performance, body composition, and biochemical measurements of C. carpio. The results showed that food intake, growth, serum osmolality, body composition, and biochemical measures in the blood were affected by fluoride. Weight gain rate and specific growth rate in the exposed fish decreased compared with those of the control fish. Levels of crude protein and crude lipids were reduced in the fluoride-exposed fish. The major ion levels in the sera of fluoride-exposed fish were severely disturbed, resulting in a lower osmolality. All the biochemical parameters measured in the blood were affected by the exposure to fluoride. Total protein, albumin, globulin, and glucose in fish exposed to 63.6 mg/L, 77.7 mg/L, and 124.4 mg/L were lower than those in the control fish. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were markedly increased in exposed fish compared with control. Taken together, the data showed that exposure to fluoride caused a suite of detrimental effects in C. carpio, which might lead to a decrease in growth and food utilization efficiency. The results of the present study indicated that high levels of fluoride could pose a threat to carp in the field. © 2013 SETAC.

  2. Isolation, purification and studies on radiation induced biochemical and physiological changes of bovine growth hormone in animal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Salam, H.M.S.

    1997-01-01

    Growth hormone has a great importance in the field of animal physiology. Bovine growth hormone was extracted by alteration of the hydrogen ion concentration of phosphate buffer extract of frozen pituitary glands. The extracted bovine growth hormone has similar absorption peaks at UV and infrared spectra, bands of the same location on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis plate and had a molecular weight exactly as the standard bovine growth hormone and equal to 20.9 KD. Labelling of bovine growth hormone with 131 I was carried out with fast and least expensive method. The biological and physiological effects of labelled and non labelled bovine growth hormone were studied on rabbits. The labelled bovine growth hormone decreased the biological and physiological effects of the hormone. Bovine growth hormone (unlabelled) and different effects on growth performance traits, body chemical composition (water, fat,protein and ash), and also on the serum biochemical parameters. We conclude that the bovine growth hormone affects on the biological and physiological properties but this depends on the dose, type of delivery of hormone, time of treatment, and the diet content of the animal. 6 tabs., 13.2 figs., 110 refs

  3. Effects of organic fertilizers on growth and biochemical characteristics of Fenugreek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saadatian

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L. is an annual herb used as organic (green manure and has medicinal applications. Organic fertilizers are used in sustainable agriculture of vegetables. Sources of organic manure and their effects on growth and yield characteristics of plants need to be determined. Effects of vermicompost and vermiwash were determined on qualitative and quantitative factors of chemical content, development and yield of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-gaecum L. from May to July 2012 at Agriculture College of University Guilan. A completely randomized block design with 3 replications was used. Treatments included 7 t/ha of cow manure, vermicompost, vermiwash (obtained from 7 t/ha vermicompost; 7 t/ha of leachate vermicompost + vermiwash and a control (no fertilization. Use of organic fertilizers beneficially affected plant height, pod length, pod fresh and dry mass, 1000-seed mass, plant fresh and dry mass, internode length and percents of leaves protein and nitrogen. Use of organic fertilizers may increase yield and yield components of fenugreek and its yield efficiency.

  4. Effect of CO2 Concentration on Growth and Biochemical Composition of Newly Isolated Indigenous Microalga Scenedesmus bajacalifornicus BBKLP-07.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Lakkanagouda; Kaliwal, Basappa

    2017-05-01

    Photosynthetic mitigation of CO 2 through microalgae is gaining great importance due to its higher photosynthetic ability compared to plants, and the biomass can be commercially exploited for various applications. CO 2 fixation capability of the newly isolated freshwater microalgae Scenedesmus bajacalifornicus BBKLP-07 was investigated using a 1-l photobioreactor. The cultivation was carried at varying concentration of CO 2 ranging from 5 to 25%, and the temperature and light intensities were kept constant. A maximum CO 2 fixation rate was observed at 15% CO 2 concentration. Characteristic growth parameters such as biomass productivity, specific growth rate, and maximum biomass yield, and biochemical parameters such as carbohydrate, protein, lipid, chlorophyll, and carotenoid were determined and discussed. It was observed that the effect of CO 2 concentration on growth and biochemical composition was quite significant. The maximum biomass productivity was 0.061 ± 0.0007 g/l/day, and the rate of CO 2 fixation was 0.12 ± 0.002 g/l/day at 15% CO 2 concentration. The carbohydrate and lipid content were maximum at 25% CO 2 with 26.19 and 25.81% dry cell weight whereas protein, chlorophyll, and carotenoid contents were 32.89% dry cell weight, 25.07 μg/ml and 6.15 μg/ml respectively at 15% CO 2 concentration.

  5. Effects of pulsed magnetic field treatment of soybean seeds on calli growth, cell damage, and biochemical changes under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam; Leelapriya, Thasari; Kumari, Bollipo Diana Ranjitha

    2012-12-01

    The effects of magnetic field (MF) treatments of soybean seeds on calli growth, cell damage, and biochemical changes under salt stress were investigated under controlled conditions. Soybean seeds were exposed to a 1.0 Hz sinusoidal uniform pulsed magnetic field (PMF) of 1.5 µT for 5 h/day for 20 days. Non-treated seeds were considered as controls. For callus regeneration, the embryonic axis explants were taken from seeds and inoculated in a saline medium with a concentration of 10 mM NaCl for calli growth analysis and biochemical changes. The combined treatment of MF and salt stress was found to significantly increase calli fresh weight, total soluble sugar, total protein, and total phenol contents, but it decreased the ascorbic acid, lipid peroxidation, and catalase activity of calli from magnetically exposed seeds compared to the control calli. PMF treatment significantly improved calli tolerance to salt stress in terms of an increase in flavonoid, flavone, flavonole, alkaloid, saponin, total polyphenol, genistein, and daidzein contents under salt stress. The results suggest that PMF treatment of soybean seeds has the potential to counteract the adverse effects of salt stress on calli growth by improving primary and secondary metabolites under salt stress conditions. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Synergetic effect of pH and biochemical components on bacterial diversity during mesophilic anaerobic fermentation of biomass-origin waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, F; Shao, L M; Bru, V; Godon, J J; He, P J

    2009-02-01

    To investigate the synergetic effect of pH and biochemical components on bacterial community structure during mesophilic anaerobic degradation of solid wastes with different origins, and under acidic or neutral conditions. The bacterial community in 16 samples of solid wastes with different biochemical compositions and origins was evaluated during mesophilic anaerobic degradation at acidic and neutral pH. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) were used to compare the communities. Multivariate analysis of the DGGE and SSCP results revealed that most of the dominant microbes were dependent on the content of easily degradable carbohydrates in the samples. Furthermore, the dominant microbes were divided into two types, those that preferred an acid environment and those that preferred a neutral environment. A shift in pH was found to change their preference for medium substrates. Although most of the substrates with similar origin and biochemical composition had similar microbial diversity during fermentation, some microbes were found only in substrates with specific origins. For example, two microbes were only found in substrate that contained lignocellulose and animal protein without starch. These microbes were related to micro-organisms that are found in swine manure, as well as in other intestinal or oral niches. In addition, the distribution of fermentation products was less sensitive to the changes in pH and biochemical components than the microbial community. Bacterial diversity during anaerobic degradation of organic wastes was affected by both pH and biochemical components; however, pH exerted a greater effect. The results of this study reveal that control of pH may be an effective method to produce a stable bacterial community and relatively similar product distribution during anaerobic digestion of waste, regardless of variation in the waste feedstocks.

  7. Effects of dietary administration of yarrow extract on growth performance and blood biochemical parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Nafisi Bahabadi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the clinical effects and possible side effects of yarrow extract (Achillea millefolium L. as feed additive on biochemical blood parameters and growth performance of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss. Fishes were treated with 0 (control, 0.1, 0.5 and 1% of yarrow extract for 30 days. Plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, creatine kinase (CK, peroxidase activity, total complement and lysozyme activity, glucose, total protein, triglyceride and cholesterol were measured after 15 and 30 days of yarrow treatment. There were no significant changes in the lysozyme activity and glucose levels. Total protein and globulin levels were significantly higher in the fish fed with diets enriched with 1% yarrow extract on day 30. Triglyceride and cholesterol levels was significantly decreased in the fish fed with diets containing 0.5% and 1% yarrow extract on day 30 (P<0.05. LDH, CK and peroxidase activities in the fish fed with diets having 1% yarrow extract were significantly decreased at the end of the experiment (P<0.05. In contrast, a significant increase in AST, ALP and total complement activity was observed in the fish fed with 1% yarrow extract diet, on day 15 (P<0.05. The weight gain and specific growth rate increased and food conversion ratio decreased in in the fish fed 1% yarrow extract on day 30. Condition factor in the fish fed with yarrow extract was significantly higher than control group on 30 day. In conclusion, on the basis of these results, oral administration of yarrow extract up to 0.5% have not side effect on blood biochemical and clinical parameters of fishes. However, oral administration of 1% of yarrow extract caused cytotoxicity and modifications in blood biochemical parameters of fish.

  8. Growth and biochemical responses of juvenile cod to acute and chronic exposure to production water from the Hibernia oil rig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burridge, L.; Lyons, M.; Blair, T.; Haya, K.; Lee, K. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Dartmouth, NS (Canada). Maritimes Region, Ocean Sciences Division

    2007-07-01

    A study was conducted in which the chemical characteristics of production water collected from the Hibernia oil production platform in June, 2006 were determined. Bioassays were also performed on juvenile cod in order to determine acute responses after 48 hour exposure to concentrations of production water ranging from 0.06 to 5 per cent. Of the 70 juvenile cod that were exposed continuously for 45 days to 0.05 per cent Hibernia production water, 8 were sacrificed and liver, gill muscle and plasma was collected for biochemical analysis at day 3, 14, 28 and 45 during the exposure. Length and weight data were also collected to compare growth rates of exposed fish with unexposed fish. Results did not reveal any difference in growth rate in cod exposed for 45 days to Hibernia production water compared to those held in untreated water under the same conditions. Tissues for mixed function oxygenase (MFO) induction are undergoing analysis.

  9. Development of a low cost medium for Tetraselmis sp. growth and biochemical profile improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Rosado Correia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In aquaculture, food quality improvement – especially microalgae – is mandatory. Despite having many applications in this industry, few genera of microalgae are actively used and exploited, mainly because of its lack of requirements, such as digestibility, size and lack of toxicity. Tetraselmis sp. is one of the most commonly used microalgae on aquaculture. Despite their nutritional profile, this is a highly demanding industry that requires constant improvement concerning cost production and productivity, and a biochemical profile for end usage. Improvements can be achieved through culture condition manipulation, changing, for instance, culture media’s composition. In order to achieve better biochemical profiles, productivity and lower production costs, three mediums were tested – NutriBloom [NB] (commercial medium used at Necton’s facilities, Simplex [S] (no addition of iron or any micronutrient and Sea Mineral Solution [SMS], and Tetraselmis’s level of protein, carbohydrates, total lipid and PUFA’s profile were controlled at logarithmic and stationary phase, using classical techniques, according to Lowry (1951, Dubois (1956, Bligh and Dyer (1959 and Lepage & Roy (1986. SMS revealed better results than the others, achieving higher cell numbers, productivity and less duplication time. In logarithmic phase, this medium also had the higher lipid and PUFAs percentage. S medium showed higher protein content. In stationary phase, NB medium presented more proteins, lipid and sugars. S medium had better PUFAs percentage. Differences between micronutrient concentrations explain the verified variations in microalgae’s biochemical profile, developing a low-cost medium for Tetraselmis sp. culture.

  10. [Growth and biochemical composition of thalassiosira pseudonana (Thalassiosirales: Thalassiosiraceae) cultivated in semicontinuous system at different culture media and irradiances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez-Suárez, Aleikar; Guevara, Miguel; González, Mayelys; Cortez, Roraysi; Arredondo-Vega, Bertha

    2013-09-01

    Thalassiosira pseudonana is a marine Bacillariophyta commonly used as live feed in mariculture. The growth rate and biochemical composition of microalgae are highly influenced by environmental factors such as, irradiance and nutrient availability. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of three irradiances (60, 120 and 180 microE/m2.s) and two culture media (Algal and Humus) on growth and biochemical composition of this diatom. The microalga was grown semicontinuously at a daily renewal rate of fresh media of 30%, 37 per thousand salinity, 25 +/- 1 degree C and constant aeration (200 mL/min). The cell densities (cel/mL) and contents of protein, lipid, carbohydrate, chlorophyll a, total carotenoids, and fatty acids, showed significant differences (p media, the fatty acids unsaturation degree was lower with increasing irradiance, being eicosapentaenoic acid, 20:5 n-3 (EPA) most represented (6.20%) in Algal medium at 60 microE/m2.s. This strain of T. pseudonana showed multiple physiological responses to changes in culture conditions, and may be cultivated with an alternative medium, which reduced the operating costs and allowed a high nutritional biomass production value for animals under culture.

  11. Growth and Yield Components of Tomato as Influenced by Nitrogen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    yield of tomato, and later application in the growing stages favours fruit development, thus nitrogen has a dramatic effect on tomato growth and development ..... CRBD design in factorial experiment using SAS analytical Software. ..... with relatively fertile soil experimental conditions there is no existence of joint factor.

  12. Impact of Qualitative Components on Economic Growth of Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romuald I. Zalewski

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available According to theory, innovative activity gives a chance to increase a competitiveness and economic growth of nation. The purpose of this paper is validation of that assumption using the latest data available for EU countries. Data set of indicators include: global innovation index, (GII, European Summary Innovative Index (SII, Ranking of Competitiveness of Nations (in a form of summary as well as subsidiary data and set of macro economy data (GDP, labor productivity, export, export of high-tech, R&D expenditure as [as % of GDP] etc as measures of economic growth. Various regression models: liner, curvilinear, planar or spatial with one or two dependent variables will be calculated and explained. In addition the appropriate 2 D and 3 D-graphs will be used and presented to strengthen verbal arguments and explanation. The main result of this paper is relationship between innovative activity, competitive ability and growth measured as GDP per capita. Such relationship is shown as fairy good linear span of countries. Only two of them: Luxemburg and Norway due to higher than average growth value are outliers. The valuable outcome of this paper is classification of nation into groups: highly innovative- highly competitive, highly competitive-non innovative, highly innovative- non competitive and non innovative – non competitive. The last group of nations fall into trap of low competitiveness.

  13. Correlation Analysis of some Growth, Yield, Yield Components and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    three critical growth stages which was imposed by withholding water (at ... November, 5th December, 19th December and 2nd January) laid out in a split ... Simple correlation coefficient ® of different crop parameters and grain yield ... The husk bran and germ are rich sources of ..... heat in 2009/2010 dry season at Fadam a ...

  14. Biochemical and growth performance of the aquatic macrophyte Azolla filiculoides to sub-chronic exposure to cylindrospermopsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Catarina; Azevedo, Joana; Campos, Alexandre; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Pereira, Ana L

    2015-11-01

    Physiological and biochemical effects of cylindrospermopsin (CYN), a cyanobacterial toxin that inhibits protein synthesis and released during a harmful cyanobacterial bloom, has been overlooked in plants. Therefore, at the present research, the toxic effects (physiological and biochemical) of a crude extract containing CYN were assessed in the aquatic fern Azolla filiculoides exposed to three concentrations (0.05, 0.5 and 5 μg CYN mL(-1)). At 5 μg CYN mL(-1), fern growth rate has showed a drastic decrease (0.001 g g(-1) day(-1)) corresponding to a 99.8% inhibition, but at the concentrations of 0.05 and 0.5 μg CYN mL(-1) the growth rate was similar to the control plants. Growth rate also indicated a IC50 of 2.9 μg CYN mL(-1). Those data point to the presence of other compounds in the crude extract may stimulate the fern growth and/or the fern is tolerant to CYN. Chlorophyll (a and b), carotenoids and protein content as well as the activities of glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) has increased at 5 μg CYN mL(-1) which may indicate that photosynthesis and protein synthesis are not affected by CYN and the probable activation of defense and detoxifying mechanisms to overcome the effects induced by the presence of CYN. Low uptake of cylindrospermopsin (1.314 μg CYN g(-1) FW) and low bioconcentration factor (0.401) point towards to a safe use of A. filiculoides as biofertilizer and as food source, but also indicate that the fern is not suitable for CYN phytoremediation.

  15. Linking genes to microbial growth kinetics: an integrated biochemical systems engineering approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koutinas, M.; Kiparissides, A.; Silva-Rocha, R.; Lam, M.C.; Martins Dos Santos, V.A.P.; Lorenzo, de V.; Pistikopoulos, E.N.; Mantalaris, A.

    2011-01-01

    The majority of models describing the kinetic properties of a microorganism for a given substrate are unstructured and empirical. They are formulated in this manner so that the complex mechanism of cell growth is simplified. Herein, a novel approach for modelling microbial growth kinetics is

  16. Low power continuous wave-laser seed irradiation effect on Moringa oleifera germination, seedling growth and biochemical attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urva; Shafique, Hina; Jamil, Yasir; Haq, Zia Ul; Mujahid, Tamveel; Khan, Aman Ullah; Iqbal, Munawar; Abbas, Mazhar

    2017-05-01

    Recently, laser application in agriculture has gained much attention since plant characteristics were improved significantly in response of pre-sowing seed treatment. Pre-sowing laser seed treatment effects on germination, seedling growth and mineral profile were studied in Moringa olifera. M. olifera healthy seeds were exposed to 25, 50, 75mJ low power continuous wave laser light and grown under greenhouse conditions. The seedling growth and biochemical attributes were evaluated from 10-day-old seedlings. The germination parameters (percentage, mean germination time), vigor index, seedling growth (root length, seedling length, shoot fresh weight, root fresh weight, shoot dry weight, root dry weight) enhanced considerably. The laser energy levels used for seed irradiation showed variable effects on germination, seedling growth and mineral profile. The mineral contents were recorded to be higher in seedling raised from laser treated seeds, which were higher in roots versus shoots and leaves. The effect of laser treatment on seedling fat, nitrogen and protein content was insignificant and at higher energy level both nitrogen and protein contents decreased versus control. Results revealed that M. olifera germination, seedling growth and mineral contents were enhanced and optimum laser energy level has more acceleratory effect since at three laser energy levels the responses were significantly different. Overall the laser energy levels effect on germination and seedling growth was found in following order; 75mJ>50mJ>25mJ, where as in case of fat, protein and nitrogen contents the trend was as; 25mJ>50mJ and 75mJ. However, this technique could possibly be used to improve the M. olifera germination, seedling growth, and minerals contents where germination is low due to unfavorable conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of Borax and cysteamine compound on finishing sheep growth performance, nitrogen retention, serum biochemical indices and body protein motabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Xinyao' Xie Hongbing; Wei Gangcai; Wang Hong

    2009-01-01

    Experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of borax, cysteamine and the mixture of two compounds on growth performance, serum biochemical indices, protein turn-over and nitrogen aggradation of sheep by using isotope ( 15 N-Gly) technique, nitrogen balance trial and serum testing. The results showed that both borax and cysteamine could increase the growth performance of sheep, especially the cysteamine and its mixture with borax, which increased average daily feed intake (P 3 ) and levothyroxine (T 4 ) of mixture were higher than that of control group (P<0.05), and the concentrations of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factors (IGF-1) were also significantly higher than those of control group (P<0.01). There was no significant difference of insulin (INS) between experiment groups and control group (P<0.05). Both mixture and borax contributed to increasing nitrogen retention, net nitrogen utilization, digestibility and biological value. Both borax and cysteamine accelerated protein degradation rate, apparent amino acid utilization rate and net amino acid utilization rate as well as biological value, body protein and oxidation rate, but the former was greater than the later. (authors)

  18. Effect of fermented biogas residue on growth performance, serum biochemical parameters, and meat quality in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Xu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study investigated the effect of fermented biogas residue (FBR of wheat on the performance, serum biochemical parameters, and meat quality in pigs. Methods We selected 128 pigs (the mean initial body weight was 40.24±3.08 kg and randomly allocated them to 4 groups (1 control group and 3 treatment groups with 4 replicates per group and 8 pigs per pen in a randomized complete block design based on initial body weight and sex. The control group received a corn-soybean meal-based diet, the treatment group fed diets containing 5%, 10%, and 15% FBR, respectively (abbreviated as FBR5, FBR10, and FBR15, respectively. Every group received equivalent-energy and nitrogen diets. The test lasted 60 days and was divided into early and late stages. Blood and carcass samples were obtained on 60 d. Meat quality was collected from two pigs per pen. Results During the late stage, the average daily feed intake and average daily gain of the treatment groups was greater than that of the control group (p<0.05. During the entire experiment, the average daily gain of the treatment groups was higher than that of the control group (p<0.05. Fermented biomass residue did not significantly affect serum biochemical parameters or meat quality, but did affect amino acid profiles in pork. The contents of Asp, Arg, Tyr, Phe, Leu, Thr, Ser, Lys, Pro, Ala, essential amino acids, non-essential amino acids, and total amino acids in pork of FBR5 and FBR10 were greater than those of the control group (p<0.05. Conclusion These combined results suggest that feeding FBR could increase the average daily gain and average daily feed intake in pigs and the content of several flavor-promoting amino acids.

  19. Predicting refeeding hypophosphataemia: insulin growth factor 1 (IGF-1) as a diagnostic biochemical marker for clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyale, Atul; Ashley, Sarah L; Taylor, David R; Elnenaei, Manal O; Alaghband-Zadeh, Jamshid; Sherwood, Roy A; le Roux, Carel W; Vincent, Royce P

    2015-01-01

    Refeeding syndrome (RS) is a potentially fatal condition that can occur following the re-introduction of nutrition after a period of starvation. Hypophosphataemia following the reintroduction of nutrition is often the only reliable biochemical marker of RS. Refeeding index (RI) generated from baseline insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and leptin has been proposed as a useful biochemical marker for the identification of patients at risk of developing refeeding hypophosphataemia (RH). A prospective study included 52 patients referred for parenteral nutrition (PN). The sensitivity and specificity of IGF-1 measured using a sensitive assay was compared to the RI in predicting the development of RH (a ≥ 30% drop in PO4 during the first 36-h of PN administration). Leptin and IGF-1 were analysed on baseline samples using a quantitative enzyme-linked immunoassay. Daily blood samples were collected from all patients for routine biochemistry for the full duration of PN administration. High sensitivity IGF-1 measurement alone was comparable with the RI, using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, with areas under the curve being 0.79 and 0.80, respectively, and superior to leptin alone (0.72) for predicting ≥ 30% drop in PO4. The cut-off value for IGF-1 that gave best sensitivity (91% [95% CI 75-98%]) and specificity (65% [95% CI 41-85%]) was 63.7 µg/L, with a likelihood ratio of 2.59. Baseline IGF-1 is an objective, sensitive and specific biochemical marker in identifying patients who are at high risk of developing RH prior to PN administration and therefore may have a role in clinical practice. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  20. Smoke produced from plants waste material elicits growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. by improving morphological, physiological and biochemical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Iqbal

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The experimental work presented in this study was carried out with the hypothesis that plant derived smoke enhanced the morphological, physiological and biochemical attributes of a cereal crop, wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. Furthermore, this study supported the hypothesis that plant derived smoke acts as vegetative growth promoter, inexpensive, rapid and most appropriate eco-friendly bio-fertilizer for sustainable agriculture. Plant derived smoke was generated by burning of plant material (leaf, straws etc in a specially designed furnace, and seeds were treated with this smoke for different time duration. Four level of plant derived smoke (1 h, 2 h, 3 h and 4 h along with control were tested on four wheat cultivars in CRD repeated pot experiment. The smoke-related treatments modified number of morphological, physiological and biochemical features of wheat. Compared with the control, aerosol smoke treatment of the seeds significantly improved root length (2.6%, shoot length (7.7%, RFW (0.04%, SFW (0.7%, SDW (0.1% and leaf area (63.9%. All the smoke-related treatments significantly promoted RWC (17.3%, water potential (1.5%, osmotic potential (1.4% and MSI (14.6% whereas a pronounced increase in chlorophyll a (24.9%, chlorophyll b (21.7% and total chlorophyll contents (15.5% were recorded in response to aerosol-smoke treatments. Plant derived smoke exposure applied for short time i.e. 1 h & 2 h induced significant results as compared to prolonged PDS exposure (3 h and 4 h. The best results were observed in Pak-13 and Glaxy-13 wheat cultivars. These findings indicated that the plant-derived smoke treatment has a great potential to improve morphological, physiological and biochemical features of wheat crop.

  1. Kinetic and biochemical studies on tumor growth. Comprehensive progress report, October 1, 1967--April 1, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dethlefsen, L.A.

    1975-01-01

    The growth kinetics of four lines of the C3H mammary tumor have been studied by standard autoradiographic procedures in combination with volumetric growth curve analysis. Thus, such parameters as volumetric doubling time, mean cell generation time, growth fraction, and cell loss have been measured. Two of these lines (Slow and S102F) are currently being used for studying hormone responsiveness both in vivo and in vitro and the perturbed kinetics following insults with therapeutic agents. The respective values for the above parameters are: Slow; 21.0 days, 34 hours, 0.20, 9 percent per day, and S102F; 2.5 days, 17 hours, 0.60, 27 percent per day. A direct method ( 125 I-IUdR Method) for measuring cell loss has also been developed. This method consists of injecting mice with 125 I-IUdR and then measuring the loss of 125 I-activity from the tumor. The antigenic status of these tumors has been studied as one possible factor underlying the different growth kinetics. The mouse's immunological system was either suppressed (thymectomy and whole-body x-irradiation) or stimulated (previous exposure to tumor cells) and the percent takes, latent period, and growth rates measured. There was no evidence for a strong antigenic factor in any of these tumors. Hydroxyurea is being used as a tool for studying the perturbed cellular kinetics of the duodenum and the Slow and S102F tumors. The methods used are autoradiography, volumetric growth curve analysis, and measurements of the rates of DNA synthesis. Hormone effects on growth have been studied. Insulin had no effect but large doses of corticosterone (20 μg/ml and greater) were inhibitory and prolactin appeared to partially reverse these effects in the Slow line. (U.S.)

  2. Effect of Azolla feeding on the growth, feed conversion ratio, blood biochemical attributes and immune competence traits of growing turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Mayank; Bhattacharyya, Amitav; Shukla, Pankaj Kumar; Roy, Debashis; Yadav, Brijesh; Sirohi, Rajneesh

    2018-04-01

    In the recent past,few studies have been carried out in chicken to assess the effect of Azolla meal and raw Azolla feeding on the performance of chicken. If turkeys effectively use unconventional feedstuffs like Azolla without reducing the performance, it will increase the profitability of turkey business. Hence, a study was carried out to evaluate the effect of dried Azolla pinnata vis-a-vis raw Azolla as choice feeding on the growth, feed conversion ratio (FCR), blood biochemical attributes, and immune competence traits of growing turkeys under intensive system. A total of 72, 8-week-old grower turkey poults of black variety were randomly distributed into three dietary treatments having three replicates each with eight birds. The birds of the control group (T1) were fed a basal diet (CP - 19.71% and ME - 2789.79 Kcal/kg), while the other group (T2) and choice-feeding group (T3) were fed 5% of basal diet replaced by dry Azolla powder on DM basis and ad libitumAzolla along with basal diet, respectively. There was no significant difference among the different groups in the average weekly weight gain during the entire experiment. FCR was significantly better (pdiet may improve FCR without any adverse effect on blood biochemical attributes and immune competence traits.

  3. Suppressing Lithium Dendrite Growth with a Single-Component Coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haodong; Zhou, Hongyao; Lee, Byoung-Sun; Xing, Xing; Gonzalez, Matthew; Liu, Ping

    2017-09-13

    A single-component coating was formed on lithium (Li) metal in a lithium iodide/organic carbonate [dimethyl carbonate (DMC) and ethylene carbonate (EC)] electrolyte. LiI chemically reacts with DMC to form lithium methyl carbonate (LMC), which precipitates and forms the chemically homogeneous coating layer on the Li surface. This coating layer is shown to enable dendrite-free Li cycling in a symmetric Li∥Li cell even at a current density of 3 mA cm -2 . Adding EC to DMC modulates the formation of LMC, resulting in a stable coating layer that is essential for long-term Li cycling stability. Furthermore, the coating can enable dendrite-free cycling after being transferred to common LiPF 6 /carbonate electrolytes, which are compatible with metal oxide cathodes.

  4. Performance of weed Extracts on Growth Characteristics and Biochemical Activities in Salt Stressed Soybean Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moussa, H.R.; Khodary, S.E.A.

    2004-01-01

    The changes induced in the growth parameters and certain metabolic activities in response to both salt (NaCI) shock treatments and foliar spray of weed extracts (jungle rice, cocklebur and purslane) plus salinity were studied, using soybean seedlings grown in Hoagland's nutrient solution supplemented with various concentrations of NaCI. When seedlings were subjected to high salinity (100 and 200 mM NaCI), their growth criteria, the photosynthetic capacity, pigment contents and carbohydrate metabolism were significantly decreased. Under salinized conditions and weed extract treatments, the growth pattern,''1''4CO 2 -fixation rate, pigment as well as carbohydrate contents of soybean plants were significantly increased comparable to NaCI-treated samples. It was suggested that weed extract and in particular jungle rice might oppose the harsh effect of salinity in soybean plants

  5. Linking genes to microbial growth kinetics: an integrated biochemical systems engineering approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutinas, Michalis; Kiparissides, Alexandros; Silva-Rocha, Rafael; Lam, Ming-Chi; Martins Dos Santos, Vitor A P; de Lorenzo, Victor; Pistikopoulos, Efstratios N; Mantalaris, Athanasios

    2011-07-01

    The majority of models describing the kinetic properties of a microorganism for a given substrate are unstructured and empirical. They are formulated in this manner so that the complex mechanism of cell growth is simplified. Herein, a novel approach for modelling microbial growth kinetics is proposed, linking biomass growth and substrate consumption rates to the gene regulatory programmes that control these processes. A dynamic model of the TOL (pWW0) plasmid of Pseudomonas putida mt-2 has been developed, describing the molecular interactions that lead to the transcription of the upper and meta operons, known to produce the enzymes for the oxidative catabolism of m-xylene. The genetic circuit model was combined with a growth kinetic model decoupling biomass growth and substrate consumption rates, which are expressed as independent functions of the rate-limiting enzymes produced by the operons. Estimation of model parameters and validation of the model's predictive capability were successfully performed in batch cultures of mt-2 fed with different concentrations of m-xylene, as confirmed by relative mRNA concentration measurements of the promoters encoded in TOL. The growth formation and substrate utilisation patterns could not be accurately described by traditional Monod-type models for a wide range of conditions, demonstrating the critical importance of gene regulation for the development of advanced models closely predicting complex bioprocesses. In contrast, the proposed strategy, which utilises quantitative information pertaining to upstream molecular events that control the production of rate-limiting enzymes, predicts the catabolism of a substrate and biomass formation and could be of central importance for the design of optimal bioprocesses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of fish silage on growth and biochemical characteristics of fresh water microalga Scenedesmus sp. MB 23

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmin Kaippilliparambil Abdulsamad

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Scenedesmus sp. MB 23 was cultivated in fish silage to study the effects of different concentrations on the growth and biochemical characteristics, particularly the protein, carbohydrate and lipid properties. Fish silage with 12% concentration was most effective for the growth and biomass production of Scenedesmus sp. The microalga reached maximum cell density (2433.89 × 104 cells/mL, chlorophyll-a concentration (2.766 μg/mL, specific growth rate (0.48/d and biomass (2.73 g/L on this medium. In mass culture, enhanced production of protein (123.87 mg/g dry weight of alga, carbohydrate (44.904 mg/g dry weight of alga and lipid (84.21 mg/g dry weight of alga was found using 9% fish silage. The effective reduction (up to 90% in the concentrations of nitrate, phosphorus and ammonia in the final fish silage medium proved the removal efficiency of Scenedesmus sp. The enhanced production of Scenedesmus sp. MB 23 indicated that effective bioremediation of fish waste can be conducted using algal mass production in fish silage. The study also proved that microalgae grown in fish silage have great industrial potential and can be used as a source of feed and biofuel.

  7. Osteocalcin and serum insulin-like growth factor-1 as biochemical skeletal maturity indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulika Tripathi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With change in concepts of growth determination methods, there is a surge in the measurement of biomarkers for appraisal of growth status. Osteocalcin is a bone-specific protein and was observed to parallel the normal growth curve. Hence, the present study was intended to assess the levels of serum osteocalcin and serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 and compare them with cervical vertebral maturation index (CVMI stages. Methods The cross-sectional study was performed on 150 subjects (75 males and 75 females in the age group of 8–20 years and segregated into six CVMI stages. Serum osteocalcin and IGF-1 were estimated by ELISA. Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the mean ranks of serum osteocalcin and serum IGF-1 with different CVMI stages. Spearman correlation was performed to find association between serum osteocalcin and serum IGF-1 across six CVMI stages. Results Peak serum IGF-1 levels were obtained at CVMI stages 4 and 3 for males and females, respectively, with insignificant difference between stages 3 and 4 in females. Peak serum osteocalcin levels were found at stage 5 and 3 for males and females with insignificant difference from other stages except stages 5 and 6 in males. A statistically significant correlation was seen between serum IGF-1 and serum osteocalcin across six CVMI stages (P < 0.01. Conclusions Osteocalcin followed IGF-1 across all CVMI stages but showed insignificant interstage differences.

  8. Effects of Dietary Electrolyte Balance on Growth Performance, Nitrogen Metabolism and Some Blood Biochemical Parameters of Growing Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Li

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different dietary electrolyte balance (DEB on growth performance, nitrogen (N metabolism and some blood biochemical parameters were investigated in 2 to 3 months old growing rabbits. A total of 150 growing rabbits of 2 months age were randomly divided into five groups according to average body weight, with 30 rabbits in each group. The DEB levels of the five experimental diets were −154, −3.16, +201, +347, and +500 meq/kg of dry matter (DM, respectively. There was a 7-d adaptation period and a 23-d experimental period. The results showed that the DEB levels had a quadratic affect on the average daily feed intake (ADFI (p<0.001. The greatest ADFI was achieved when the DEB level was +201 meq/kg DM. Fecal N (FN content linearly decreased (0.047, while digestible N (DN, retained N (RN, efficiency of intake N converted into digestible N (DN/IN and the efficiency of intake N converted into retained N (RN/IN linearly increased with the DEB increase (0.020, 0.004, 0.021, and 0.049, respectively. Serum phosphorus (P ion content linearly increased with the DEB increase (p = 0.036. The DEB had a quadratic relationship with serum anion gap (AG (p = 0.002 and serum parathyroid hormone (PTH content (p = 0.016. The DEB levels quadratically affected base excess (BE in the plasma (p<0.001. In conclusion, the DEB unaffected growth performance but affected feed intake, N metabolism and some blood biochemical parameters of growing rabbits.

  9. Soluble vascular endothelial growth factor in various blood transfusion components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Werther, K; Mynster, T

    1999-01-01

    of sVEGF was determined in nonfiltered and prestorage white cell-reduced whole blood (WB), buffy coat-depleted saline-adenine-glucose-mannitol (SAGM) blood, platelet-rich plasma (PRP), and buffy coat-derived platelet (BCP) pools obtained from volunteer, healthy blood donors. As a control, total content......-123) ng per mL in lysed cells. In SAGM blood, the median total sVEGF content was 25.3 (3.3-48.4) ng per unit in nonfiltered units and undetectable in white cell-reduced units. Median total sVEGF content was 29.2 (24.8-124.9) ng per unit in nonfiltered PRP and 28.7 (24.5-118.6) ng per unit in white cell......-reduced PRP. The sVEGF accumulated significantly in WB, SAGM blood, and BCP pools, depending on the storage time. CONCLUSION: The sVEGF (isotype 165) appears to be present in various blood transfusion components, depending on storage time....

  10. Growth, physiological and biochemical responses of Camptotheca acuminata seedlings to different light environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua eMa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Light intensity critically affects plant growth. Camptotheca acuminata is a light-demanding species, but its optimum light intensity is not known. To investigate the response of C. acuminata seedlings to different light intensities, specifically 100% irradiance (PAR, 1500±30 μmol m-2 s-1, 75% irradiance, 50% irradiance, and 25% irradiance, a pot experiment was conducted to analyze growth parameters, photosynthetic pigments, gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, stomatal structure and density, chloroplast ultrastructure, ROS concentrations, and antioxidant activities. Plants grown under 75% irradiance had significantly higher total biomass, seedling height, ground diameter, photosynthetic capacity, photochemical efficiency and photochemical quenching than those grown under 100%, 25%, and 50% irradiance. Malondialdehyde (MDA content, relative electrolyte conductivity (REC, superoxide anion (O2.- production, and peroxide (H2O2 content were lower under 75% irradiance. The less pronounced plant growth under 100% and 25% irradiance was associated with a decline in photosynthetic capacity and photochemical efficiency, with increases in the activity of specific antioxidants (i.e., superoxidase dismutase, peroxidase, and catalase, and with increases in MDA content and REC. Lower levels of irradiance were associated with significantly higher concentrations of chlorophyll (Chl a and b and lower Chla/b ratios. Stomatal development was most pronounced under 75% irradiance. Modification of chloroplast development was found to be an important mechanism of responding to different light intensities in C. acuminata. The results indicated that 75% irradiance is optimal for the growth of C. acuminata seedlings. The improvement in C. acuminata growth under 75% irradiance was attributable to increased photosynthesis, less accumulation of ROS, and the maintenance of the stomatal and chloroplast structure.

  11. Growth performance and biochemical composition of nineteen microalgae collected from different Moroccan reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EL. A. IDRISSI ABDELKHALEK

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Macro- and microalgae have recently received much attention due to their valuable chemical constituents. In order to increase existing data, the authors studied nineteen microalgae species isolated from different reservoirs in the Fez region (northern Morocco, undertaking experiments to determine for each species the specific growth rate, their total amounts of proteins, carbohydrates and lipids and the influence of the growth phase on these chemical constituents. Conditions of cultivation were as follows: light intensity equal to 300 μmol photons m-2 s-1, with a temperature regime of 25/20°C (day/night and a 16/8 (light/dark photoperiod cycle. The growth rates of the nineteen studied species of microalgae showed a wide variation between species, ranging from 0.27 g l-1 d-1 for Chlamydomonas ovalis to 3.64 g l-1 d-1 for Chlorococcum wemmeri. Protein, carbohydrate and lipid contents varied greatly between taxa and within genera. Ankistrodesmus falcatus, Chlamydomonas ovalis, Chlorococcum sp., Hyaloraphidium contortum, Scenedesmus protuberans, and Synechocystis aquatilis tended to synthesize proteins, the concentrations exceeding 20% dry weight (DW. Ankistrodesmus falcatus, Ankistrodesmus sp., Chlorococcum wemmeri, Coenocystis sp., Isocystis sp., Lyngbya bergei, Oscillatoria amphibia, Polytoma papillatum, Scenedesmus protuberans, Scenedesmus sp. and Synechocystis aquatilis showed a high capacity for lipid storage, greater than 20% DW. For carbohydrate contents, only Scenedesmus protuberans and Scenedesmus quadricauda showed an excessive level compared to other scanned species with 29.21% and 24.76% DW, respectively.

  12. [Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1: a new biochemical marker of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graffigna, Mabel Nora; Belli, Susana H; de Larrañaga, Gabriela; Fainboim, Hugo; Estepo, Claudio; Peres, Silvia; García, Natalia; Levalle, Oscar

    2009-03-01

    to assess the presence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in patients with risk factors for this pathology (obesity, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome and diabetes type 2) and to determine the role of insulin, HOMA index, insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1, sex hormone-binding globulin and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1, as biochemical markers. Ninety-one patients with risk factors for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease were evaluated. Serum transaminases, insulin, sex hormone-binding globulin, insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1 and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 were measured. The diagnosis of fatty liver was performed by ultrasonography and liver biopsies were performed to 31 subjects who had steatosis by ultrasonography and high alanine aminotransferase. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease was present in 65 out of 91 patients (71,4%). Liver biopsy performed to 31 subjects confirmed nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Twenty-five patients had different degrees of fibrosis. Those individuals with fatty liver had higher waist circumference, serum levels of triglycerides, insulin and HOMA index, and lower serum insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1 concentration. The degree ofhepatic steatosis by ultrasonography was positively correlated to waist circumference, triglycerides, insulin and HOMA index (p<0,003; p<0,003; p<0,002 and p<0,001, respectively), and was negatively correlated to HDL-cholesterol and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1 (p<0,025 and p<0,018, respectively). We found a high prevalence of NAFLD in patients with risk factors, most of them overweight or obese. Although SHBG and PAI-1 have a closely relationship to insulin resistance, they did not show to be markers of NAFLD. Regardless of low IGFBP-1 levels associated with NAFLD, serum IGFBP-1 measure is less accessible than insulin and triglycerides levels, HOMA index and waist circumference. Moreover, it is not a better marker for NAFLD than the above

  13. EFFECT OF EXOGENOUS ABSCISIC ACID ON GROWTH AND BIOCHEMICAL CHANGES IN THE HALOPHYTE SUAEDA MARITIMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anbarasi G.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Different types of phytohormones are being extensively used to alleviate the adverse effect of salinity stress on plant growth. Among those, Abscisic acid (ABA is a plant stress hormone and one of the most important signaling molecules in plants. Drought and salinity activate De-novo abscisic acid synthesis prevent further water loss by evaporation through stomata, mediated by changes in the guard cell turgor pressure. Under osmotic stress abscisic acid induce the accumulation of protein involved in the biosynthesis of osmolites which increasing the stress tolerance of plant. In addition, exogenous application of ABA enhances the tolerance of plants or plant cells to cold, heat, drought, anoxia and heavy metal stresses. This study was carried out to study the exogenous abscisic (ABA acid induced regulatory role on the growth, water content, protein content, chlorophyll content, osmolyte accumulation and protein profiling through SDS PAGE in a halophyte, Suaeda maritima. The osmolyte accumulation of proline and glycine betaine was found to be more in 50 µM ABA concentrations. The protein profiling through SDS PAGE revealed that ̴ 66KDa proteins was not expressed in the control plant and in 10μM ABA treated plants. Interestingly, the ABA treatment induced a new protein of 14.2KDa in 10μM concentration. The ABA treated plants with concentrations 50μM, 100μM and 150μM showed changes in the expression of protein in abundance than the control and 10μM ABA treated plants. The findings in this study indicate that among all the concentrations, 50μM ABA concentration treated plants exhibited higher growth rate.

  14. Physiological and biochemical characterization of Azospirillum brasilense strains commonly used as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Salvo, Luciana P; Silva, Esdras; Teixeira, Kátia R S; Cote, Rosalba Esquivel; Pereyra, M Alejandra; García de Salamone, Inés E

    2014-12-01

    Azospirillum is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) genus vastly studied and utilized as agriculture inoculants. Isolation of new strains under different environmental conditions allows the access to the genetic diversity and improves the success of inoculation procedures. Historically, the isolation of this genus has been performed by the use of some traditional culture media. In this work we characterized the physiology and biochemistry of five different A. brasilense strains, commonly used as cereal inoculants. The aim of this work is to contribute to pose into revision some concepts concerning the most used protocols to isolate and characterize this bacterium. We characterized their growth in different traditional and non-traditional culture media, evaluated some PGPR mechanisms and characterized their profiles of fatty acid methyl esters and carbon-source utilization. This work shows, for the first time, differences in both profiles, and ACC deaminase activity of A. brasilense strains. Also, we show unexpected results obtained in some of the evaluated culture media. Results obtained here and an exhaustive knowledge revision revealed that it is not appropriate to conclude about bacterial species without analyzing several strains. Also, it is necessary to continue developing studies and laboratory techniques to improve the isolation and characterization protocols. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Effect of sea salt irrigation on plant growth, yield potential and some biochemical attributes of carissa carandas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tayyab, A.

    2016-01-01

    Carissa carandas (varn. Karonda) is an edible and medicinal plant having ability to grow in saline and water deficit conditions, however, little is known about its salinity tolerance. Therefore, the effect of salinity on vegetative (height and volume), reproductive (number of flowers and number, size and weight of fruits) and some biochemical parameters (leaf pigments, ions, soluble sugars, proteins, and phenols) of C. carandas were studied. Plants were grown in drum pot culture and irrigated with non-saline or saline water of 0.6% and 0.8% sea salt concentrations, for a period of 30 months. Results showed that, plant height, and canopy volume decreased with increasing salinity. The chlorophyll contents and chlorophyll a/b ratio followed the similar trend as for growth, however, carotenoids increased at 0.6% sea salt and subsequently decreased in higher salinity. Unchanged soluble sugar and protein content at 0.6% sea salt, as compared to control, could be attributed to leaf osmotic adjustments which decreased with further increase in salinity. Linear increase in soluble phenols and carotenoid/chlorophyll ratio indicating a protective strategy of C. carandas to minimize photo-damage. Besides increasing Na+ and decreasing K+ contents, plant seemed to maintain K+/Na+ ratio (above 1), especially at 0.6 sea salt, which disturbed at higher salinity. Salinity adversely affected reproductive growth of C. carandas where, production of flowers, and fruits were significantly reduced. In addition, fresh and dry weights of fruits decreased with increasing salinity, but salinity did not affect fruit length and diameter. Present study provides basic information related to plant growth, fruit yield and some biochemical attributes, which suggest that C. carandas is moderately salt tolerant plant. This plant showed potential to grow on saline marginal lands using brackish water irrigation and provide biomass for edible and medicinal purposes. However, in-depth analysis of field and

  16. Effect of Azolla feeding on the growth, feed conversion ratio, blood biochemical attributes and immune competence traits of growing turkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayank Shukla

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: In the recent past, few studies have been carried out in chicken to assess the effect of Azolla meal and raw Azolla feeding on the performance of chicken. If turkeys effectively use unconventional feedstuffs like Azolla without reducing the performance, it will increase the profitability of turkey business. Hence, a study was carried out to evaluate the effect of dried Azolla pinnata vis-a-vis raw Azolla as choice feeding on the growth, feed conversion ratio (FCR, blood biochemical attributes, and immune competence traits of growing turkeys under intensive system. Materials and Methods: A total of 72, 8-week-old grower turkey poults of black variety were randomly distributed into three dietary treatments having three replicates each with eight birds. The birds of the control group (T1 were fed a basal diet (CP - 19.71% and ME - 2789.79 Kcal/kg, while the other group (T2 and choice-feeding group (T3 were fed 5% of basal diet replaced by dry Azolla powder on DM basis and ad libitum Azolla along with basal diet, respectively. Results: There was no significant difference among the different groups in the average weekly weight gain during the entire experiment. FCR was significantly better (p<0.05 in the choice-feeding group compared to the other two experimental groups during 8-16 weeks of age. There was no significant difference among the treatment groups in any of the blood biochemical indices except plasma uric acid, which was significantly decreased (p<0.01 in T2 compared to T1 at 16 weeks of age. HA and IgM response to 1% sheep red blood cells (log2 titer were numerically better in T2 and T3 compared to the T1. Conclusion: Thus, it may be inferred that choice feeding with Azolla, and basal diet may improve FCR without any adverse effect on blood biochemical attributes and immune competence traits.

  17. Effect of humic acids on the growth and the biochemical composition of Arthrospira platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massiel Vanessa Rivera Gonzalez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effect of three concentrations of humic acids (HA 1, 10, 100 mg/L against a concentration of indole acetic acid (IAA on production of biomass, pigments, proteins, carbohydrates and lipids of A. platensis.  Cultures discontinuous in Zarrouk 25% medium supplemented with HA and IAA under conditions of aeration constant and photoperiod from 12:12 hours, during 30 days were made. It was found that the maximum biomass production was higher in the culture supplemented with 10 mg / L of AH, compared to the control and cultures supplemented with AIA. In the same way the highest production of pigments, proteins and carbohydrates were observed in this treatment. Therefore, the growth and production of metabolites of A. platensis was increased, which makes it possible to observe the potential use of these substances as organic biological stimulants.

  18. Effect of Lactobacillus sporogenes on survival, growth, biochemical constituents and energy utilization of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii post larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Seenivasan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the optimization of probiotic, Lactobacillus sporogenes on survival, growth, biochemical constituents and energy utilization of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii post larvae (PL. Experimental diets were the same in all, except for the variation in probiotic levels. The probiotic L. sporogenes was used at 0%, 1%, 2%, 3% and 4% inclusion in the experimental diets. These diets were fed to M. rosenbergii PL for a period of 90 days. The food index parameters, such as SR, WG, SGR, FCE and PER were significantly (P < 0.05 higher in 4% L. sporogenes incorporated diet fed PL, whereas the FCR was significantly (P < 0.05 lower in 4% L. sporogenes incorporated diet fed PL. This indicates the fact that this feed produced higher growth rate than that of other experimental diets. Similarly the proximate composition of the total protein, total free amino acid, total carbohydrate, and total lipid content was significantly (P < 0.05 higher in 4% L. sporogenes incorporated diet fed PL. However, insignificant differences were recorded in ash and moisture contents between control and experimental groups. Energy utilization parameters, such as feeding rate, absorption rate, conversion rate and excretory rate were significantly (P < 0.05 higher in 4% L. sporogenes incorporated diet fed PL. Statistically insignificant differences were recorded in metabolic rate between control and experimental groups. This indicates that there were no differences in energy loss between control and experimental groups. However, L. sporogenes incorporated diet fed PL produced better growth performance.

  19. Creep crack growth verification testing in alloy 800H tubular components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, C.P.; Hurst, R.C.

    1992-01-01

    A method for determining the creep crack growth, CCG, and stress rupture behaviour of Alloy 800H tubular components containing longitudinal notches at 800deg C is described. The presence of the notch is found to systematically weaken the tube, the degree of weaking dependent upon the notch length and depth. The creep crack growth rates, determined from a specially adapted potential drop technique are compared with those obtained from conventional compact tension type specimens. Using the stress intensity factor, K 1 , and the C * parameter as the basis of comparison it is found that the latter gives excellent correlation between the specimen and component behaviour. Finally attention is drawn to the potential dangers of predicting the component creep crack growth behaviour from the data obtained using conventional specimens for a structure sensitive material such as Alloy 800H and conversely to the advantages of the component type CCG tests developed in the present work. (orig.)

  20. Growth, Physiological, Biochemical, and Ionic Responses of Morus alba L. Seedlings to Various Salinity Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Lu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Mulberry (Morus alba L., a moderately salt-tolerant tree species, is considered to be economically important. In this study, 1-year-old mulberry seedlings cultivated in soil under greenhouse conditions were treated with five concentrations of sodium chloride (NaCl; 0%, 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%, and 0.5% for 3 and 21 days. Plant growth parameters were not affected by 0.1% NaCl, but significant reductions were observed after treatment with 0.2%, 0.3%, and 0.5% NaCl. The malondialdehyde content and cell membrane stability of mulberry seedlings exposed to 0.1% NaCl did not change, indicating that mulberry is not significantly affected by low-salinity conditions. The Na contents of various organs did not increase significantly in response to 0.1% NaCl, but the K:Na, Mg:Na, and Ca:Na ratios of various organs were affected by NaCl. Marked changes in the levels of major compatible solutes (proline, soluble sugars, and soluble proteins occurred in both the leaves and roots of NaCl-treated seedlings relative to control seedlings. Under severe saline conditions (0.5% NaCl, the ability of mulberry to synthesize enzymatic antioxidants may be impaired.

  1. Quantitative changes in the biochemical composition of lignocellulosic residues during the vegetative growth of Lentinula edodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rigoberto Gaitán-Hernández

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The chemical changes in barley-straw (BS, wheat-straw (WS and vineyard-pruning (VP substrates were determined during colonization of Lentinula edodes mycelia (during primordium development in solid state fermentation. Primordia appeared 39-50 days after inoculation. VP appeared to promote early sporophore initiation. The concentration of hemicellulose in BS and VP decreased gradually from 25.5% to 15.6% and from 15.8% to 12.3%, respectively. However in WS, hemicellulose decreased from 27.2% to 9.5%. Lignin broke down continuously in BS and WS, with 31.8% and 34.4% degradation, respectively; higher than that of cellulose. During the pinning stage, the C:N ratio decreased in VP and BS, but not in WS. On all substrates the phenols decreased notably throughout the first week of mycelial growth. The time elapsed (days to pinning was positively correlated with cellulose content (r=0.89, total sugar (r=0.85 and inversely correlated to lignin (r=-1.00 and phenol content (r=-0.55.

  2. Markov and semi-Markov switching linear mixed models used to identify forest tree growth components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaubert-Pereira, Florence; Guédon, Yann; Lavergne, Christian; Trottier, Catherine

    2010-09-01

    Tree growth is assumed to be mainly the result of three components: (i) an endogenous component assumed to be structured as a succession of roughly stationary phases separated by marked change points that are asynchronous among individuals, (ii) a time-varying environmental component assumed to take the form of synchronous fluctuations among individuals, and (iii) an individual component corresponding mainly to the local environment of each tree. To identify and characterize these three components, we propose to use semi-Markov switching linear mixed models, i.e., models that combine linear mixed models in a semi-Markovian manner. The underlying semi-Markov chain represents the succession of growth phases and their lengths (endogenous component) whereas the linear mixed models attached to each state of the underlying semi-Markov chain represent-in the corresponding growth phase-both the influence of time-varying climatic covariates (environmental component) as fixed effects, and interindividual heterogeneity (individual component) as random effects. In this article, we address the estimation of Markov and semi-Markov switching linear mixed models in a general framework. We propose a Monte Carlo expectation-maximization like algorithm whose iterations decompose into three steps: (i) sampling of state sequences given random effects, (ii) prediction of random effects given state sequences, and (iii) maximization. The proposed statistical modeling approach is illustrated by the analysis of successive annual shoots along Corsican pine trunks influenced by climatic covariates. © 2009, The International Biometric Society.

  3. Proteomic and biochemical basis for enhanced growth yield of Enterobacter sp. LCR1 on insoluble phosphate medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arvind; Rai, Lal Chand

    2015-01-01

    Proteomics and biochemical analyses were used to unravel the basis for higher growth yield of Enterobacter sp. LCR1 on insoluble phosphate medium compared to soluble. Proteomic analysis using 2-DE, MALDI-TOF/MS and LC-MS revealed the involvement of nine proteins. Down-regulation of fructose bisphosphate aldolase with decreased concentrations of glucose-6-phosphate and fructose-6-phosphate indicated diminished glycolysis. However, up-regulation of phosphoglycerate mutase, increase in the activities of 6-phosphogluconate dehydratase, 2-keto-3-deoxy-6-phosphogluconate aldolase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase suggested induction of Entner-Doudoroff and pentose phosphate pathways. These pathways generate sufficient energy from gluconic acid, which is also used for biosynthesis as indicated by up-regulation of elongation factor Tu, elongation factor G and protein disulfide isomerase. Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation resulting from organic acid oxidation leads to overexpressed manganese superoxide dismutase and increased activities of catalase and ascorbate peroxidase. Thus the organism uses gluconate instead of glucose for energy, while alleviating extra ROS formation by oxidative defense enzymes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Graded levels of sugar syrup in broiler rations and its effect on growth performance and blood biochemical parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed S. Hussein

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Dietary energy for chickens normally includes cereal grains and fat. This innovative study investigated the effect of replacing part of the corn and fat in broiler chicken rations with graded levels of sugar syrup on growth performance and biochemical parameters. Experimental treatments consisted of feeding a corn-soy basal diet alone, or with graded levels of sugar syrup in increments of 5%, 10% and 15%. All starter diets were isonitrogenous and isocaloric. Body weight gain and efficiency of feed utilization of chicks fed the control diet alone were not significantly (P < 0.05 different from chicks fed diets supplemented with either 5% or 15% sugar syrup. Supplementation of sugar syrup to broiler diets had no significant effect on blood glucose, creatinine, total protein, or liver enzymes. Adding 5% sugar syrup to broiler rations significantly decreased blood cholesterol and triglycerides in chickens fed the sugar syrup diet compared with birds fed the control diet. In conclusion, the results shows sugar syrup can be used in poultry ration to replace part of the corn as a source of energy. These results allowed the authors to recommend the safe usage of sugar syrup in broiler rations.

  5. Quantitative Raman spectral changes of the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into islet-like cells by biochemical component analysis and multiple peak fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xin; Fang, Shaoyin; Zhang, Daosen; Zhang, Qinnan; He, Yingtian; Lu, Xiaoxu; Liu, Shengde; Zhong, Liyun

    2015-12-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) differentiate into islet-like cells, providing a possible solution for type I diabetes treatment. To search for the precise molecular mechanism of the directional differentiation of MSC-derived islet-like cells, biomolecular composition, and structural conformation information during MSC differentiation, is required. Because islet-like cells lack specific surface markers, the commonly employed immunostaining technique is not suitable for their identification, physical separation, and enrichment. Combining Raman spectroscopic data, a fitting accuracy-improved biochemical component analysis, and multiple peaks fitting approach, we identified the quantitative biochemical and intensity change of Raman peaks that show the differentiation of MSCs into islet-like cells. Along with increases in protein and glycogen content, and decreases in deoxyribonucleic acid and ribonucleic acid content, in islet-like cells relative to MSCs, it was found that a characteristic peak of insulin (665 cm-1) has twice the intensity in islet-like cells relative to MSCs, indicating differentiation of MSCs into islet-like cells was successful. Importantly, these Raman signatures provide useful information on the structural and pathological states during MSC differentiation and help to develop noninvasive and label-free Raman sorting methods for stem cells and their lineages.

  6. Theoretical and Numerical Study of Growth in Multi-Component Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiri, Arka; Abinandanan, T. A.; Choudhury, Abhik

    2017-10-01

    In multi-component systems, during diffusion-controlled growth of a precipitate from a supersaturated matrix, differential diffusivities lead to a selection of tie-line compositions different from the thermodynamic tie-line containing the alloy composition. In this paper, we address the multi-component version of the growth problem by extending Zener's theory, and derive analytical expressions for predicting tie-lines and composition profiles in the matrix during growth of planar, cylindrical, and spherical precipitates for independent as well as coupled diffusion of solutes in the scaling regime. We confirm our calculations by sharp interface and phase-field simulations in a ternary setting, in which we also extend the tie-line and growth constant predictions for two well-known limiting cases, namely partition and negligible partition under local equilibrium (PLE and NPLE).

  7. Importance of Adding Wheat Germ in Diets of Growing Goats to Improve Some Components of Blood and Growth Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Tarabany, A.A.; Teama, F.E.I.

    2013-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to study the importance of supplementing wheat germ to the diet of growing local goats in Egypt for improving their some blood biochemical components as well as growth performance. Forty goats with 4 months age and average initial body weight 5 ± 0.5 kg were used in the present study which lasted 5 months. The animals were divided randomly into two equal groups; the 1st group fed basic diet without supplement (control) and the 2nd group of animals fed on the same basic diet with supplemented wheat germ at the rate of 5 g/head/day. The body weight was recorded at the beginning and the end of the experiment to calculate the daily gain of body weight for each animal. Blood samples were withdrawn at the end of experiment to estimate some blood parameters concentrations including total protein, albumin, globulin, urea, creatinine, total cholesterol, Ca, P, Mg, Zn, immunoglobulin G (IgG), total antioxidants and triiodothyronine (T3). The results showed that the addition of wheat germ by the rate of 5 gm/ head/ day to the diet of growing goats significantly increased the concentrations of total proteins, globulin, phosphorus, magnesium and zinc and led to significant decrease in the levels of total cholesterol. Significant improvement in levels of IgG, total antioxidants and T3 hormone in the blood were also observed. In addition, there was significant improvement in the feed efficiency of growing goats although total and daily gains of treated animals were affected by the diet supplement. It could be concluded that addition of wheat germ (5 g/head/day) led to modification of all studied blood components and led to improved feed efficiency in growing local goats, therefore, it could be recommended to use the wheat germ in growth stages because the economic return to this addition is preferable.

  8. The fate of glyphosate in water hyacinth and its physiological and biochemical influences on growth of algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Baolong.

    1989-01-01

    Absorption, translocation, distribution, exudation, and guttation of 14 C-glyphosate in water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) were studied. Glyphosphate entered the plant by foliage and solution treatment. Plants were harvested and separated into the following parts: treated leaf blade, treated leaf petiole, young leaf blade, young leaf petiole, old leak blade, old leaf petiole, and root. Each part was extracted with methanol. Treated leaves, which exist only in foliage treatment, were washed with water and chloroform to remove the glyphosate residues. All 14 C counting was made by liquid scintillation spectrometry. Autoradiography was used to locate 14 C-glyphosate after foliage treatment. Results indicated that glyphosate can be absorbed from the leaf surface and translocated rapidly through phloem tissues into the whole plant body. The roots of water hyacinth absorbed glyphosate without vertical transport. Guttation of glyphosate occurred in treated leaf tips. Exudation of glyphosate from roots of water hyacinth occurred within 8 hr after foliage treatment. Chlorella vulgaris, Chlamydomonas reihardii, Anabaena cylindrica, and Chroococcus turgidus were used to explore the physiological and biochemical effects of glyphosate on algae. Spectrophotometric assays were performed for algal growth, chlorophyll, carotenoids, phycobiliprotein, carbohydrate, and protein. TLC procedures and an image analyzer were used to detect the metabolites of glyphosate inside algal cells. The common visible symptom of glyphosate toxicity in all algal cells were bleaching effect and reduction of contents of carbohydrate, protein, and pigments. The results highly suggested that glyphosate injured the algal cells by destruction of photosynthetic pigments and resulted in lowering the contents of carbohydrate and protein in algal cells

  9. Growth of equilibrium structures built from a large number of distinct component types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedges, Lester O; Mannige, Ranjan V; Whitelam, Stephen

    2014-09-14

    We use simple analytic arguments and lattice-based computer simulations to study the growth of structures made from a large number of distinct component types. Components possess 'designed' interactions, chosen to stabilize an equilibrium target structure in which each component type has a defined spatial position, as well as 'undesigned' interactions that allow components to bind in a compositionally-disordered way. We find that high-fidelity growth of the equilibrium target structure can happen in the presence of substantial attractive undesigned interactions, as long as the energy scale of the set of designed interactions is chosen appropriately. This observation may help explain why equilibrium DNA 'brick' structures self-assemble even if undesigned interactions are not suppressed [Ke et al. Science, 338, 1177, (2012)]. We also find that high-fidelity growth of the target structure is most probable when designed interactions are drawn from a distribution that is as narrow as possible. We use this result to suggest how to choose complementary DNA sequences in order to maximize the fidelity of multicomponent self-assembly mediated by DNA. We also comment on the prospect of growing macroscopic structures in this manner.

  10. Efficacy of transsphenoidal surgery in achieving biochemical cure of growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas among patients with cavernous sinus invasion: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briceno, Vanessa; Zaidi, Hasan A; Doucette, Joanne A; Onomichi, Kaho B; Alreshidi, Amer; Mekary, Rania A; Smith, Timothy R

    2017-05-01

    Growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas in adults can result in severe craniofacial disfigurement and potentially fatal medical complications. Surgical resection leading to remission of the disease is dependent on complete surgical resection of the tumor. Lesions that invade the cavernous sinus may not be safely accessible via an endonasal transsphenoidal surgery (TSS), and the rates of biochemical remission of patients with residual disease vary widely in the literature. We conducted a meta-analysis to examine the prevalence of biochemical remission after TSS among patients with growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas with and without cavernous sinus invasion. Embase, PubMed, and Cochrane Library databases were searched for relevant publications. Fourteen studies with 972 patients with biochemically confirmed growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas were included in the meta-analysis. The overall remission prevalence under a fixed-effect model was 47.6% (95% CI = 40.8-54.4%) for patients with invasive macroadenomas (I 2  = 74.6%, p < 0.01); 76.4% (95% CI = 72.2-80.1%) for patients with non-invasive macroadenomas (I 2  = 59.6%, p = 0.03); and 74.2% (95% CI = 66.3-80.7%) for patients with non-invasive microadenomas (I 2  = 36.4, p = 0.10). The significant difference among the three groups resulted from the difference between patients with or without cavernous sinus invasion (p = 0.01) and not from the size of adenomas among those without cavernous sinus invasion (p = 0.66). The prevalence of biochemical remission in patients with cavernous sinus invasion was lower than in patients without cavernous sinus invasion after TSS for acromegaly.

  11. Protection of ash (Fraxinus excelsior) trees from ozone injury by ethylenediurea (EDU): Roles of biochemical changes and decreased stomatal conductance in enhancement of growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paoletti, Elena; Contran, Nicla; Manning, William J.; Castagna, Antonella; Ranieri, Annamaria; Tagliaferro, Francesco

    2008-01-01

    Treatments with ethylenediurea (EDU) protect plants from ozone foliar injury, but the processes underlying this protection are poorly understood. Adult ash trees (Fraxinus excelsior), with or without foliar ozone symptoms in previous years, were treated with EDU at 450 ppm by gravitational trunk infusion in May-September 2005 (32.5 ppm h AOT40). At 30-day intervals, shoot growth, gas exchange, chlorophyll a fluorescence, and water potential were determined. In September, several biochemical parameters were measured. The protective influence of EDU was supported by enhancement in the number of leaflets. EDU did not contribute its nitrogen to leaf tissue as a fertiliser, as determined from lack of difference in foliar N between treatments. Both biochemical (increase in ascorbate-peroxidase and ascorbic acid, and decrease in apoplastic hydrogen peroxide) and biophysical (decrease in stomatal conductance) processes regulated EDU action. As total ascorbic acid increased only in the asymptomatic trees, its role in alleviating O 3 effects on leaf growth and visible injury is controversial. - Both biochemical and biophysical processes may regulate EDU action

  12. The use of oxidative stress biomarkers in live animals (in vivo) to predict meat quality deterioration postmortem (in vitro) caused by changes in muscle biochemical components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnampalam, E N; Hopkins, D L; Giri, K; Jacobs, J L; Plozza, T; Lewandowski, P; Bekhit, A

    2017-07-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether circulating concentrations of blood isoprostanes can be used as an effective biomarker in lambs to predict degradation of color and/or lipid stability in meat. Lambs ( = 84) were fed diets of either lucerne pasture, annual ryegrass pasture, a commercial feedlot pellet, or a combination of annual ryegrass and feedlot pellet for 8 wk, including a 2-wk adaptation period. Blood isoprostane concentration at wk 0, 4, 6 or 8 of feeding was determined. Blood isoprostane concentration for each animal was then correlated with muscle biochemical components that impact color and/or lipid oxidative status during retail display. This included lipid oxidation levels in muscle assessed by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and meat redness determined by a HunterLab colorimetric spectrometer. Lambs that consumed the commercial feedlot pellet had a lower muscle vitamin E level (meat displayed for 72 h in simulated retail conditions ( meat were influenced by muscle vitamin E and -6 PUFA but not by -3 PUFA. There was no significant relationship observed between blood isoprostane concentration at 0, 4, 6 or 8 wk feeding vs. overall meat color (redness of meat) at 0 and 72 h of display, stored under simulated retail conditions. The results indicate that circulating blood isoprostane concentration can be a useful tool to predict the oxidative status of postmortem meat. Future work will examine the impact of this relationship on meat flavor/aroma deterioration post farm.

  13. Influence of Research Components and Knowledge on GDP Growth in the European Union Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branimir Skoko

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available It is often much more complex to explore economic growth at a regional level than at a national level due to regional differences, specialization and concentration of certain activities. Therefore, specific economic policy measures and instruments applied in one region will not produce the same effects in another region or at a national level. Consequently, research components and knowledge have become widely accepted indicators of efforts invested in technological advancement that enables higher economic growth rate and creates overall social well-being. In view of that, this paper aims to look into the interdependence between research components and knowledge on the one hand and economic growth rates at the regional level in the European Union on the other. Because of statistical determination, the research has been carried out in the second-level EU regions. Since the data were not coordinated with other research components in terms of time and geography, it was not possible to break down financial support by regional, national and supra-national affiliation.

  14. Early plant growth and biochemical responses induced by Azospirillum brasilense Sp245 lipopolysaccharides in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings are attenuated by procyanidin B2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo-Ochoa, Juan; López-Marmolejo, Mariel; Hernández-Esquivel, Alma Alejandra; Méndez-Gómez, Manuel; Suárez-Soria, Laura Nicolasa; Castro-Mercado, Elda; García-Pineda, Ernesto

    2018-03-01

    This study analyzes the effects of procyanidin B2 on early wheat plant growth and plant biochemical responses promoted by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) derived from the rhizobacteria Azospirillum brasilense Sp245. Measurements of leaf, root length, fresh weight, and dry weight showed in vitro plant growth stimulation 4 days after treatment with A. brasilense as well as LPS. Superoxide anion (O 2 ·- ) and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) levels increased in seedling roots treated with LPS (100 μg mL -1 ). The chlorophyll content in leaf decreased while the starch content increased 24 h after treatment in seedling roots. The LPS treatment induced a high increase in total peroxidase (POX) (EC 1.11.1.7) activity and ionically bound cell wall POX content in roots, when compared to respective controls. Early plant growth and biochemical responses observed in wheat seedlings treated with LPS were inhibited by the addition of procyanidin B2 (5 μg mL -1 ), a B type proanthocyanidin (PAC), plant-derived polyphenolic compound with binding properties of LPS. All results suggest first that the ionically bound cell wall POX enzymes could be a molecular target of A. brasilense LPS, and second that the recognition or association of LPS by plant cells is required to activate plant responses. This last event could play a critical role during plant growth regulation by A. brasilense LPS.

  15. Study on fatigue life evaluation of structural component based on crack growth criterion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Katsuyuki

    1984-07-01

    As one of the practical application of fracture mechanics, fatigue life evaluation method based on crack growth criterion has been diffusing in various field of technology in order to determine the rational and reliable life of structural components. The fatigue life by this method is evaluated based on the fatigue crack growth analysis from defects, while many problems, such as the influence of residual stress on the crack growth behavior, the effect of overloading, and evaluation method for multiple surface cracks, are not sufficiently solved yet. In this paper, the above problems are treated, and based on some exprimental data some simple mehtods for fatigue life evaluation are proposed regarding the above problems. Verification of the proposed methods are shown in the paper by comparing with some experimental results, and the applicability of the proposed method is also examined by the fatigue test of pipes with cracks in the inner surface. (author)

  16. Dynamics of biochemical components, lipid classes and energy values on gonadal development of R. philippinarum associated with the temperature and ingestion rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Reiriz, M J; Pérez-Camacho, A; Delgado, M; Labarta, U

    2007-08-01

    This study evaluates the effect of temperature, coupled with ingestion rate, on the dynamics of biochemical components and lipid classes in R. philippinarum. The data are discussed with regard to sexual development and energy balance. Experimental protocol developed in the present study used two groups of the clam R. philippinarum: L (temperatures of 14 degrees C and 18 degrees C) and H (temperatures of 18 degrees C and 22 degrees C). The intra-group ingestion level was similar, although the ingestion level of the clams in the group H was 2.4 times higher than group L. We observed that R. philippinarum conditioned at 18 degrees C (18L) shows higher protein content, furthermore an important loss of organic weight was observed after 48 days. In such a situation, the clams use their own reserves (carbohydrates and glycogen) for sexual development while in situations without food stress (positive energy balance) and low temperature (14 degrees C) an accumulation of reserves is produced. Strikingly dissimilar behaviour in biochemical composition was observed for the 18H and 22H treatments, both with a positive energy balance. Despite similar protein content, the highest levels of carbohydrates were observed at the lower temperature (18 degrees C). Glycogen was also higher for the 18 degrees C treatment, although the differences were significant only in the males. Although the total lipids in R. philippinarum showed no significant differences in any treatment, they became apparent and related to sex when considering the individual lipid classes. There was no variation in lipid classes in the males between the 14L and 22H treatments despite the large disparity in the degree of sexual development. However, in the females significant differences in lipid classes (phospholipids, triglycerides) were observed. The results of this study show that a positive energy balance permits R. philippinarum gonadal development and accumulation of reserves both in low and high temperature

  17. Interactions among spectral components of radiation in the growth responses of rice, tomato and strawberry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inada, K.; Matsuno, A.

    1985-01-01

    Effects of spectral components and their ratios of radiation on simultaneous growth responses were investigated with rice, tomato and strawberry plants exposed to lights with a high fluence rate (350 or 408 μmol m -2 s -1 , 400-700 nm) during every daytime. Both elongation growth and Ieaf area development in rice and strawberry were promoted by red (R) but inhibited by blue (B) component depending on the each fluence rate. However, leaf area in tomato responded in opposite direction to these. The elongation growth was remarkably increased with the fluence rate of far-red (FR) in tomato and strawberry, but not in rice. These responses were lineary increased, except FR and UV effects, with logarithmic R/B ratio in rice and strawberry but not in tomato. A very low R/FR ratio caused a strong promotion of both elongation and leaf area in tomato, while it promoted petiole elengation but inhibited leaf area development in strawberry. The elongation and leaf area development responded to R/FR in reverse way between rice and strawberry. Chlorophyll content of leaves was generally decreased with the increase of logarithmic R/B ratio in all the species. Areal weight of leaf and dry weight increment/leaf area were more or less increased with R/B and R/ FR ratios, Dry weight increment varied with the spectral ratios in almost the same way as leaf area, suggesting that spectral dependence of photosynthetic production was not much different between the species. Some discussions were made on the photoreceptor pigments involved in the elongation growth and leaf area development, and on the selection of light quantity to ensure a normal growth of each plant species

  18. Laser light and magnetic field stimulation effect on biochemical, enzymes activities and chlorophyll contents in soybean seeds and seedlings during early growth stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghar, Tehseen; Jamil, Yasir; Iqbal, Munawar; Zia-Ul-Haq; Abbas, Mazhar

    2016-12-01

    Laser and magnetic field bio-stimulation attracted the keen interest of scientific community in view of their potential to enhance seed germination, seedling growth, physiological, biochemical and yield attributes of plants, cereal crops and vegetables. Present study was conducted to appraise the laser and magnetic field pre-sowing seed treatment effects on soybean sugar, protein, nitrogen, hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) ascorbic acid (AsA), proline, phenolic and malondialdehyde (MDA) along with chlorophyll contents (Chl "a" "b" and total chlorophyll contents). Specific activities of enzymes such as protease (PRT), amylase (AMY), catalyst (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxides (POD) were also assayed. The specific activity of enzymes (during germination and early growth), biochemical and chlorophyll contents were enhanced significantly under the effect of both laser and magnetic pre-sowing treatments. Magnetic field treatment effect was slightly higher than laser treatment except PRT, AMY and ascorbic acid contents. However, both treatments (laser and magnetic field) effects were significantly higher versus control (un-treated seeds). Results revealed that laser and magnetic field pre-sowing seed treatments have potential to enhance soybean biological moieties, chlorophyll contents and metabolically important enzymes (degrade stored food and scavenge reactive oxygen species). Future study should be focused on growth characteristics at later stages and yield attributes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Carbon dioxide diffusion across stomata and mesophyll and photo-biochemical processes as affected by growth CO2 and phosphorus nutrition in cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shardendu K; Badgujar, Girish; Reddy, Vangimalla R; Fleisher, David H; Bunce, James A

    2013-06-15

    Nutrients such as phosphorus may exert a major control over plant response to rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration (CO2), which is projected to double by the end of the 21st century. Elevated CO2 may overcome the diffusional limitations to photosynthesis posed by stomata and mesophyll and alter the photo-biochemical limitations resulting from phosphorus deficiency. To evaluate these ideas, cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) was grown in controlled environment growth chambers with three levels of phosphate (Pi) supply (0.2, 0.05 and 0.01mM) and two levels of CO2 concentration (ambient 400 and elevated 800μmolmol(-1)) under optimum temperature and irrigation. Phosphate deficiency drastically inhibited photosynthetic characteristics and decreased cotton growth for both CO2 treatments. Under Pi stress, an apparent limitation to the photosynthetic potential was evident by CO2 diffusion through stomata and mesophyll, impairment of photosystem functioning and inhibition of biochemical process including the carboxylation efficiency of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxyganase and the rate of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate regeneration. The diffusional limitation posed by mesophyll was up to 58% greater than the limitation due to stomatal conductance (gs) under Pi stress. As expected, elevated CO2 reduced these diffusional limitations to photosynthesis across Pi levels; however, it failed to reduce the photo-biochemical limitations to photosynthesis in phosphorus deficient plants. Acclimation/down regulation of photosynthetic capacity was evident under elevated CO2 across Pi treatments. Despite a decrease in phosphorus, nitrogen and chlorophyll concentrations in leaf tissue and reduced stomatal conductance at elevated CO2, the rate of photosynthesis per unit leaf area when measured at the growth CO2 concentration tended to be higher for all except the lowest Pi treatment. Nevertheless, plant biomass increased at elevated CO2 across Pi nutrition with taller plants

  20. Improvement of fetus growth restriction diagnostics in pregnant women by means of biochemical markers that characterize the disorder of stress-adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Kolokot

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Object of the work. Regulatory and adaptive processes of the system “mother –placenta – fetus” state determination and detection of pregnant women adaptive capabilities specific features in case of fetus growth restriction based on a number of the blood plasma biochemical indicators. Materials and methods. Markers of oxidative stress were detected spectrophotometrically in the blood plasma according to generally accepted methods: oxidative modification of proteins, stable metabolites of nitrogen oxide, L-arginine, malondialdehyde, thiol compounds and reduced glutathione. Statistical processing of data was made by methods of variational statistics with Microsoft Office Excel 2010, Statistica 6.0. Results. The use applicability of the number of biochemical markers which are predictors of perinatal complications has been scientifically substantiated. Using biochemical diagnostic technique it has been shown that fetus growth restriction syndrome is accompanied by disorders of regulatory and adaptive processes of the system “mother –placenta – fetus”. In particular, the level of proteins and lipids oxidative modification increases, nitric oxide synthase activity decreases and reserves of L-arginine and thiol compounds decrease in the blood plasma. Conclusions. Comparative analysis of a number of biochemical markers determination results of stress-realizing system activity in pregnant women with fetus growth restriction and in women with a physiological pregnancy has revealed a significant (P ≤ 0.05 increase in markers of protein oxidative modification blood levels (the level of dinitrophenylhydrazones of aliphatic aldehyd of basic amino acid residues and dinitrophenylhydrazones of carbonyl compounds of basic amino acid residues in the spontaneous sample increased by 14.2 % and 16.3 %, respectively, and in the stimulated sample by 46.6 % and 43.0 %, the level of malondialdehyde increased by 42.9 %. Reduction of the stress

  1. Salinity-induced inhibition of growth in the aquatic pteridophyte Azolla microphylla primarily involves inhibition of photosynthetic components and signaling molecules as revealed by proteome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thagela, Preeti; Yadav, Ravindra Kumar; Mishra, Vagish; Dahuja, Anil; Ahmad, Altaf; Singh, Pawan Kumar; Tiwari, Budhi Sagar; Abraham, Gerard

    2017-01-01

    Salinity stress causes adverse physiological and biochemical changes in the growth and productivity of a plant. Azolla, a symbiotic pteridophyte and potent candidate for biofertilizer due to its nitrogen fixation ability, shows reduced growth and nitrogen fixation during saline stress. To better understand regulatory components involved in salinity-induced physiological changes, in the present study, Azolla microphylla plants were exposed to NaCl (6.74 and 8.61 ds/m) and growth, photochemical reactions of photosynthesis, ion accumulation, and changes in cellular proteome were studied. Maximum dry weight was accumulated in control and untreated plant while a substantial decrease in dry weight was observed in the plants exposed to salinity. Exposure of the organism to different concentrations of salt in hydroponic conditions resulted in differential level of Na + and K + ion accumulation. Comparative analysis of salinity-induced proteome changes in A. microphylla revealed 58 salt responsive proteins which were differentially expressed during the salt exposure. Moreover, 42 % spots among differentially expressed proteins were involved in different signaling events. The identified proteins are involved in photosynthesis, energy metabolism, amino acid biosynthesis, protein synthesis, and defense. Downregulation of these key metabolic proteins appears to inhibit the growth of A. microphylla in response to salinity. Altogether, the study revealed that in Azolla, increased salinity primarily affected signaling and photosynthesis that in turn leads to reduced biomass.

  2. Termitarium-Inhabiting Bacillus spp. Enhanced Plant Growth and Bioactive Component in Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Ankit Kumar; Maheshwari, Dinesh Kumar; Dheeman, Shrivardhan; Bajpai, Vivek K

    2017-02-01

    Curcumin (diferuloyl methane) is the main bioactive component of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) having remarkable multipotent medicinal and therapeutic applications. Two Bacilli isolated from termitarium soil and identified as Bacillus endophyticus TSH42 and Bacillus cereus TSH77 were used for bacterization of rhizome for raising C. longa ver. suguna for growth and enhancement. Both the strains showed remarkable PGP activities and also chemotactic in nature with high chemotactic index. Turmeric plants bacterized with strains B. endophyticus TSH42 and B. cereus TSH77 individually and in combination increased plant growth and turmeric production up to 18% in field trial in comparison to non-bacterized plants. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis was performed to determine the content of curcumin, which showed concentration of curcumin in un-inoculated turmeric as 3.66 g which increased by 13.6% (4.16 g) when combination of TSH42 and TSH77 was used.

  3. Laser-Induced Damage Growth on Larger-Aperture Fused Silica Optical Components at 351 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan-Qing, Huang; Wei, Han; Fang, Wang; Yong, Xiang; Fu-Quan, Li; Bin, Feng; Feng, Jing; Xiao-Feng, Wei; Wan-Guo, Zheng; Xiao-Min, Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Laser-induced damage is a key lifetime limiter for optics in high-power laser facility. Damage initiation and growth under 351 nm high-fluence laser irradiation are observed on larger-aperture fused silica optics. The input surface of one fused silica component is damaged most severely and an explanation is presented. Obscurations and the area of a scratch on it are found to grow exponentially with the shot number. The area of damage site grows linearly. Micrographs of damage sites support the micro-explosion damage model which could be used to qualitatively explain the phenomena

  4. Effect of foliar application of α-tocopherol on vegetative growth and some biochemical constituents of two soybean genotypes under salt stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmawati, N.; Damanik, R. I. M.

    2018-02-01

    Foliar spray of plant growth regulating compounds including antioxidants is an effective strategy to overcome the adverse effects of environmental constraints on different plants. A field experiment was conducted on May - July 2017 at the experimental farm in Paluh Merbau Village Deli Serdang (EC 6 - 7 dS/m). The aim was to study the effects of foliar spray of α-tocopherol (0, 250, 500, 500 ppm) on vegetative growth and some chemical constituents of 2 soybean genotypes (Grobogan x Grobogan and Grobogan x Anjasmoro) under salt stress (EC 6 - 7 dS/m). Most of morphological and biochemical parameters were significantly affected by application of α-tocopherol. The α-tocopherol at 500 ppm recorded the best value of root fresh weight, shoot and root dry weight, number of leaves, chlorophyll b, and soluble protein content. There was significant difference found between plants treated with α-tocopherol in terms of number of branch, shoot fresh weight, and chlorophyll a. Soybean genotypes showed diverse morphology and physiological responses to salt stress. Grobogan x Anjasmoro genotype was salt-sensitive based on all variable, while Grobogan x Grobogan genotype was more tolerant based on morphological and biochemical characters.

  5. Growth and biochemical characteristics of an indigenous freshwater microalga, Scenedesmus obtusus, cultivated in an airlift photobioreactor: effect of reactor hydrodynamics, light intensity, and photoperiod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarat Chandra, T; Aditi, S; Maneesh Kumar, M; Mukherji, S; Modak, J; Chauhan, V S; Sarada, R; Mudliar, S N

    2017-07-01

    The freshwater green algae, Scenedesmus obtusus, was cultivated in a 3.4 L airlift photobioreactor. The hydrodynamic parameters were estimated at different inlet gas flow rates (1, 2, 3, and 4 LPM) and their subsequent impact on the growth and biochemical characteristics of microalgae was studied. The biomass concentration and productivity increased with an increase in flow rates from 1 to 4 LPM. A maximum of 0.07 g L -1  day -1 productivity of biomass was attained at 3 LPM. An increase of total carbohydrate content from 19.6 to 26.4% was noticed with increment in the inlet flow rate of gas from 1 to 4 LPM. Major variations in total fatty acid content were not observed. The impact of light irradiance on growth and biochemical characteristics of S. obtusus was also evaluated. A maximum biomass productivity of 0.103 g L -1  day -1 was attained at an illumination of 150 μmol m -2  s -1 under continuous light. The major fatty acids reported were palmitic acid (C16:0), α-linolenic acid (C18:3), linoleic acid (C18:2), and oleic acid (C18:1). Biodiesel properties of the microalgae were estimated under various culture conditions. The light profile inside the airlift reactor was experimentally measured and the predictive modelling of light profile was also attempted.

  6. Seasonality influence on biochemical and hematological indicators of stress and growth of pirarucu (Arapaima gigas), an Amazonian air-breathing fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Rosiely Felix; Soares, Maria do Carmo Figueiredo; Santos, Athiê Jorge Guerra; Carvalho, Elba Verônica Matoso Maciel; Coelho, Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso

    2014-01-01

    Environmental factors such as seasonal cycles are the main chronic stress cause in fish increasing incidence of disease and mortality and affecting productive performance. Arapaima gigas (pirarucu) is an Amazonian air-breathing and largest freshwater fish with scales in the world. The captivity development of pirarucu is expanding since it can fatten up over 1 kg per month reaching 10 kg body mass in the first year of fattening. This work was conducted in three periods (April to July 2010, August to November 2010, and December 2010 to March 2011) defined according to rainfall and medium temperatures. Seasonality effect analysis was performed on biochemical (lectin activity, lactate dehydrogenase, and alkaline phosphatase activities) and hematological (total count of red blood cells, hematocrit, hemoglobin, and hematimetric Wintrobe indexes) stress indicators, as well as on growth and wellbeing degree expressed by pirarucu condition factor developed in captivity. All biochemical and hematological stress indicators showed seasonal variations. However, the fish growth was allometrically positive; condition factor high values indicated good state of healthiness in cultivation. These results reinforce the robust feature of pirarucu and represent a starting point for understanding stress physiology and environmental changes during cultivation enabling identification and prevention of fish adverse health conditions.

  7. Seasonality Influence on Biochemical and Hematological Indicators of Stress and Growth of Pirarucu (Arapaima gigas, an Amazonian Air-Breathing Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosiely Felix Bezerra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental factors such as seasonal cycles are the main chronic stress cause in fish increasing incidence of disease and mortality and affecting productive performance. Arapaima gigas (pirarucu is an Amazonian air-breathing and largest freshwater fish with scales in the world. The captivity development of pirarucu is expanding since it can fatten up over 1 kg per month reaching 10 kg body mass in the first year of fattening. This work was conducted in three periods (April to July 2010, August to November 2010, and December 2010 to March 2011 defined according to rainfall and medium temperatures. Seasonality effect analysis was performed on biochemical (lectin activity, lactate dehydrogenase, and alkaline phosphatase activities and hematological (total count of red blood cells, hematocrit, hemoglobin, and hematimetric Wintrobe indexes stress indicators, as well as on growth and wellbeing degree expressed by pirarucu condition factor developed in captivity. All biochemical and hematological stress indicators showed seasonal variations. However, the fish growth was allometrically positive; condition factor high values indicated good state of healthiness in cultivation. These results reinforce the robust feature of pirarucu and represent a starting point for understanding stress physiology and environmental changes during cultivation enabling identification and prevention of fish adverse health conditions.

  8. Effect Of Dried Whey Milk Supplement On Some Blood Biochemical And Immunological Indices In Relation To Growth Performance Of Heat Stressed Bovine baladi Calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ABDALLA, E.B.; EL-MASRY, K.A.; TEAMA, F.E.; EMARA, S.S.

    2009-01-01

    This experiment was carried out under hot environmental conditions, where temperature-humidity index was equivalent to 86 - 90 and 78 - 80 during day and night, respectively. Twelve bovine Baladi calves of 8 - 10 months old and 112 kg average initial live body weight were used in this study. The calves were divided into two groups of 6 animals each to study the effect of supplementation of dried whey milk on some blood biochemical and immunological indices and growth performance of calves under hot weather conditions of Egypt. The results showed that supplementation of dried whey milk to the diet of heat-stressed calves at the level of 150 g / calf / day reduced significantly each of respiration rate and rectal temperature as well as serum lipid concentrations and their fractions e.g. total cholesterol and phospholipids. Also, dried whey milk supplement caused a significant decline in both AST and ALT activities and reduced significantly alpha globulin concentration, while non-significant changes were observed in each of beta globulin, gamma globulin and immunoglobulin G. However, supplementing dried whey milk to growing calves increased significantly serum concentrations of total protein, albumin, calcium, phosphorous, T 3 and T 4 . Moreover, dried whey milk improved significantly both feed efficiency and daily gain of growing calves. It could be concluded that addition of dried whey milk to the diet reduced rectal temperature and respiration rate and induced an improvement in most blood biochemical parameters and growth performance of heat-stressed bovine Baladi calves.

  9. Dietary Aloe vera supplementation on growth performance, some haemato-biochemical parameters and disease resistance against Streptococcus iniae in tilapia (GIFT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Ndakalimwe Naftal; Qiang, Jun; He, Jie; Ma, Xin Yu; Kpundeh, Mathew D; Xu, Pao

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated effects of dietary Aloe vera on growth performance, some haemato-biochemical parameters and disease resistance against Streptococcus iniae in tilapia (GIFT). Five groups were designed including a basal diet (control) and 100% A. vera powder incorporated in fish feed at 0.5% 1%, 2%, and 4%/kg feed, which were administered for 8 weeks. Fish fed 0.5%, 1%, and 2% A. vera supplemented diet significantly improved (p vera diet at 1% and 2%/kg feed. Feed efficiency ratio, feed conversion ratio, and hepatosomatic index were significantly enhanced in 4% A. vera supplemented fish over unsupplemented ones (p vera supplemented fish showed a significant increase (p vera supplemented fish showed a decrease (p vera diet at 2% and 4% A. vera/kg feed than those fed unsupplemented diet. Unchallenged fish fed 0.5%, 1%, and 2% A. vera showed significantly higher values (p vera supplemented diet. There was a significant increase (p vera unsupplemented fish and those supplemented with A. vera diet at 1%/kg feed increased significantly (p vera supplemented diet maintained higher values at all experimental stages among groups. There was a significant correlation (p Aloe had no significant effect (p > 0.05) on the survival of the fish when compared to the control; no mortality was recorded in challenge trial. Overall, our results indicated that dietary aloe supplementation could improve growth, feed utilization, and haemato-biochemical parameters of cultured tilapia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Soil biochemical properties and microbial resilience in agroforestry systems: effects on wheat growth under controlled drought and flooding conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivest, David; Lorente, Miren; Olivier, Alain; Messier, Christian

    2013-10-01

    Agroforestry is increasingly viewed as an effective means of maintaining or even increasing crop and tree productivity under climate change while promoting other ecosystem functions and services. This study focused on soil biochemical properties and resilience following disturbance within agroforestry and conventional agricultural systems and aimed to determine whether soil differences in terms of these biochemical properties and resilience would subsequently affect crop productivity under extreme soil water conditions. Two research sites that had been established on agricultural land were selected for this study. The first site included an 18-year-old windbreak, while the second site consisted in an 8-year-old tree-based intercropping system. In each site, soil samples were used for the determination of soil nutrient availability, microbial dynamics and microbial resilience to different wetting-drying perturbations and for a greenhouse pot experiment with wheat. Drying and flooding were selected as water stress treatments and compared to a control. These treatments were initiated at the beginning of the wheat anthesis period and maintained over 10 days. Trees contributed to increase soil nutrient pools, as evidenced by the higher extractable-P (both sites), and the higher total N and mineralizable N (tree-based intercropping site) found in the agroforestry compared to the conventional agricultural system. Metabolic quotient (qCO2) was lower in the agroforestry than in the conventional agricultural system, suggesting higher microbial substrate use efficiency in agroforestry systems. Microbial resilience was higher in the agroforestry soils compared to soils from the conventional agricultural system (windbreak site only). At the windbreak site, wheat growing in soils from agroforestry system exhibited higher aboveground biomass and number of grains per spike than in conventional agricultural system soils in the three water stress treatments. At the tree

  11. Evaluation of indigenous fresh water microalga Scenedesmus obtusus for feed and fuel applications: Effect of carbon dioxide, light and nutrient sources on growth and biochemical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarat Chandra, T; Deepak, R S; Maneesh Kumar, M; Mukherji, S; Chauhan, V S; Sarada, R; Mudliar, S N

    2016-05-01

    Scenedesmus obtusus, a freshwater microalga, was evaluated for its growth and biochemical characteristics under various culture conditions. S. obtusus was tolerant at all tested CO2 concentrations up to 20%. Among the different nitrogen sources, urea showed enhanced biomass productivities up to 2-fold compared to control, where the nitrogen source was sodium nitrate. Light intensity and photoperiod had a significant effect on growth rate and biomass productivity. The growth rate was observed maximum under continuous light exposure at the light intensities, 30μmolm(-2)sec(-1) and 60μmolm(-2)sec(-1) The species was able to tolerate the salinity levels up to 25mM NaCl, where, the increase in the concentration of NaCl suppressed the growth. Ammonium acetate and glycine showed better growth rate and biomass productivity indicating mixotrophic ability of S. obtusus. Supplementation of acetate and bicarbonate significantly enhanced the biomass productivity. Biodiesel properties of S. obtusus cultivated at various culture conditions were estimated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Ductile crack growth resistance of PWR components. Application for structural integrity assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bethmont, M.; Eripret, C.; Le Delliou, P.; Frund, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    Structural integrity assessment of PWR components, as pressure vessel and piping, needs to evaluate the ductile crack growth resistance which is generally characterized by J resistance curves (or J-R curves) based on the path-independent J Integral. These curves are more often obtained from laboratory tests with small specimens as CT-specimens and their application to large component safety analysis could be questionable Indeed, it is well known that J-R curves could depend on the specimen size and on the loading mode (i.e. bending stress versus tensile stress) but this dependency could be different from one material to another. This means that it would depend not only on the stress-strain state but also on the actual local fracture mechanisms (i. e. the damage) occurring before the crack initiation or during the crack propagation. The purpose of this paper is to gather some results of crack growth resistance measurement studied at EDF with different materials in order to show how the effect of the parameters, as specimen geometry and mode of loading, is directly related to the local fracture mechanisms or the microstructure of the materials. For that a number of results are analysed by means of the local approach of fracture which is a very useful tool to predict quantitatively the J-R curve dependency, related to fracture mechanisms (authors). 12 refs., 9 figs

  13. Plant immune and growth receptors share common signalling components but localise to distinct plasma membrane nanodomains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bücherl, Christoph A; Jarsch, Iris K; Schudoma, Christian; Segonzac, Cécile; Mbengue, Malick; Robatzek, Silke; MacLean, Daniel; Ott, Thomas; Zipfel, Cyril

    2017-03-06

    Cell surface receptors govern a multitude of signalling pathways in multicellular organisms. In plants, prominent examples are the receptor kinases FLS2 and BRI1, which activate immunity and steroid-mediated growth, respectively. Intriguingly, despite inducing distinct signalling outputs, both receptors employ common downstream signalling components, which exist in plasma membrane (PM)-localised protein complexes. An important question is thus how these receptor complexes maintain signalling specificity. Live-cell imaging revealed that FLS2 and BRI1 form PM nanoclusters. Using single-particle tracking we could discriminate both cluster populations and we observed spatiotemporal separation between immune and growth signalling platforms. This finding was confirmed by visualising FLS2 and BRI1 within distinct PM nanodomains marked by specific remorin proteins and differential co-localisation with the cytoskeleton. Our results thus suggest that signalling specificity between these pathways may be explained by the spatial separation of FLS2 and BRI1 with their associated signalling components within dedicated PM nanodomains.

  14. Influence of PEG induced drought stress on molecular and biochemical constituents and seedling growth of Egyptian barley cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.A. Hellal

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effects of drought stress on germination components of barley cultivars, a laboratory experiment was conducted in a factorial randomized complete design with four replications. The controlled experiment included ten of Egyptian barley cultivars namely; (Giza 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 129, 130, 134, 135 and 2000 as first factor. The second factor included 4 levels of drought stress inducer by applying 0, 5, 10 and 20% of polyethylene glycol-6000 (PEG which is equivalent to four osmotic potential levels including −0.001, −0.27, −0.54 and −1.09 MPa, respectively. The results showed that, the highest reduction was related to the drought level of 20% PEG among the barley cultivars. The best cultivars in terms of germination traits were Giza 134, Giza 127, and Giza 126 this indicate their tolerance to drought stress and Giza 130, 135, 2000 cultivars was moderately tolerance and remaining is less tolerance. The protein band 27 kDa and 78 kDa showed high intensity after stress in almost all cultivars. Those two protein bands their exciting was very clear in treated barley leaf tissue. It could be related to dehydrine and oxygen evolving enhancer protein 2 (OEE2 which involved in drought stress tolerance response. Cultivars Giza 127, 130 and 134 showed highest tolerance response under drought stress. The antioxidant enzymes PAGE pattern of Peroxidase (POX, Sodium dismutase (SOD and Ascorbate peroxidase (APX for Barley cultivars under drought stress revealed a high activities for Giza 126, 127, 134, 136 and 2000 under −0.5 MPa osmotic stress by PEG in most of their isoforms. Based on similarity coefficient values the highest values were 1.0 with 100% similarly between tolerant cultivars Giza 130 and Giza 127. Similarly between the susceptible cultivars 125 and Giza 129 was 60%.These data confirmed by the growth parameters which we ranked as tolerant to drought stress. Keywords: Barley, Drought stress, Seed germination

  15. Effect of Light Intensity and Photoperiod on Growth and Biochemical Composition of a Local Isolate of Nostoc calcicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khajepour, Fateme; Hosseini, Seyed Abbas; Ghorbani Nasrabadi, Rasoul; Markou, Giorgos

    2015-08-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effect of light intensity (21, 42, and 63 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1)) and photoperiod (8:16, 12:12, and 16:8 h light/dark) on the biomass production and its biochemical composition (total carotenoids, chlorophyll a, phycoerythrin (PE), phycocyanin (PC) and allophycocyanin (APC), total protein, and carbohydrates) of a local isolate of Nostoc calcicola. The results revealed that N. calcicola prefers dim light; however, the most of the levels of light intensity and photoperiod investigated did not have a significant impact on biomass production. Increasing light intensity biomass content of chlorophyll a, PE, PC, APC, and total protein decreased, while total carotenoids and carbohydrate increased. The same behavior was observed also when light duration (photoperiod) increased. The interaction effect of increasing light intensity and photoperiod resulted in an increase of carbohydrate and total carotenoids, and to the decrease of chlorophyll a, PE, PC, APC, and total protein content. The results indicate that varying the light regime, it is capable to manipulate the biochemical composition of the local isolate of N. calcicola, producing either valuable phycobiliproteins or proteins under low light intensity and shorter photoperiods, or producing carbohydrates and carotenoids under higher light intensities and longer photoperiods.

  16. Effect of Salicylic acid on some Growth and Biochemical Parameters of Wheat and Maize Plants under Salt Stress in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Dashagha

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the difference between the resistance of wheat plants (c3 and maize (c4 the salinity was investigated. Research on environmental stresses (Hakimi, 2008 show thatstresses are considered as Limiting factors in crop production.and some phenolic compounds such as salicylic acid are used to improve or alleviate the negative effects of stress. In this study, plants were grown in plastic pots and the plants treated with salicylic acid, after two weeks and seven days later salinity was exerted.The effect of salinity treatmenton both plants, for some morphological and biochemical characteristics were studied. In biochemical tests, lipid peroxidation under salinity and salicylic acid treatments has increased for weat which represents the effect of salinity on the plant and the activetion of the defense mechanism, Howweverthese factors have reduced formaize. Moreover, the increase in total chlorophyll and flavonoids in wheatchlorophyll in wheat and maize shows the role of these pigments in quenching hydrogen peroxide and other active Oxygen types. This increases has not been concideralle in maize. The effect of treatment on the weight of … and root of both plants differed under the investigated concentration.

  17. Potential of liquid extracts of Sargassum wightii on growth, biochemical and yield parameters of cluster bean plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Vijayanand

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: The presence of micro and macro nutrients, vitamins, growth hormones and other constituents in the seaweed extract might be very much useful to the crops but their level should be appropriate to enhance growth and productivity. It may be concluded that liquid seaweed extracts could serve as cost effective eco-friendly product for sustainable agriculture.

  18. INFLUENCE OF SURFACE-ACTIVE RHAMNOLIPID BIOCOMPLEX AND ETHYLTHIOSULFANILATE ON GROWTH AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF PLANTS IN THE OIL CONTAMINATED SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Banya

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was to study the influence of rhamnolipid biocomplex and ethylthiosulfanilate on field pea and sorghum plants when growing in petroleum contaminated soil. Plant seeds were treated with solutions of rhamnolipid biocomplex or ethylthiosulfanilate (0.01 g/l before planting and grown in containers with soil artificially contaminated with petroleum (5, 8 and 10%. Effect of rhamnolipid biocomplex and ethylthiosulfanilate was determined by the determination of growth (weight, length plants and biochemical parameters (content of photosynthetic pigments, hydrogen peroxide, malondialdehyde. The stimulating effect of rhamnolipid biocomplex and ethylthiosulfanilate on growth parameters of field pea was shown: the shoot mass has significantly increased on 39%, root mass – on 26% if compared with the control. For sorghum somewhat smaller increase of growth parameters was observed. Under the influence of rhamnolipid biocomplex and ethylthiosulfanilate the content of photosynthetic pigments in field pea and sorghum has also increased. It was determined that the action rhamnolipid biocomplex and ethylthiosulfanilate promoted the decrease of indicators of plant oxidative reactions if compared with control: the content of hydrogen peroxide – in average on 15% and 16%, malondialdehyde – on 13.5% and 16% respectively. The results of the study testify to the effectiveness of rhamnolipid biocomplex and ethylthiosulfanilate as growth stimulators for field pea and sorghum, as well as improvement of adaptive capability of plants to unfavorable conditions. It creates the prospects of their application as effective and ecologically safe substances for the intensification of contaminated soil phytoremediation.

  19. Fatigue-crack growth correlations for design and analysis of stainless steel components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, L.A.

    1981-10-01

    A relatively large collection of fatigue-crack growth results for annealed Types 304 and 316 stainless steels over a wide range of temperature was processed and analyzed in a consistent way. Only data that satisfied the criteria of ASTM E647-82 was retained and used in the statistical treatments that followed. Linear least-squares regression equations and 95% confidence intervals were fitted through the results for each material/temperature set. The regression results (and their associated limits of validity) provide useful equations for the analysis of structural components. Overlap (or the lack of overlap) of the confidence intervals was employed as a criterion as to whether the results for Types 304 and 316 should be separated into discrete sets, and on this basis it was concluded that the two alloys should be treated separately. 38 references, 16 figures, 1 table

  20. Regulation of expression and biochemical characterization of a beta-class carbonic anhydrase from the plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium, Azospirillum brasilense Sp7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Simarjot; Mishra, Mukti Nath; Tripathi, Anil K

    2009-10-01

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA; [EC 4.2.1.1]) is a ubiquitous enzyme catalysing the reversible hydration of CO(2) to bicarbonate, a reaction that supports various biochemical and physiological functions. Genome analysis of Azospirillum brasilense, a nonphotosynthetic, nitrogen-fixing, rhizobacterium, revealed an ORF with homology to beta-class carbonic anhydrases (CAs). Biochemical characteristics of the beta-class CA of A. brasilense, analysed after cloning the gene (designated as bca), overexpressing in Escherichia coli and purifying the protein by affinity purification, revealed that the native recombinant enzyme is a homotetramer, inhibited by the known CA inhibitors. CA activity in A. brasilense cell extracts, reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR and Western blot analyses showed that bca was constitutively expressed under aerobic conditions. Lower beta-galactosidase activity in A. brasilense cells harbouring bca promoter: lacZ fusion during the stationary phase or during growth on 3% CO(2) enriched air or at acidic pH indicated that the transcription of bca was downregulated by the stationary phase, elevated CO(2) levels and acidic pH conditions. These observations were also supported by RT-PCR analysis. Thus, beta-CA in A. brasilense seems to be required for scavenging CO(2) from the ambient air and the requirement of CO(2) hydration seems to be higher for the cultures growing exponentially at neutral to alkaline pH.

  1. Effects of Chemical Components on the Growth of Azotobacter vinelandii Mutant and PHB Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur Izzah Mohd Razak; Safiyyah Zainuddin; Ying, P.L.W.; Chyan, J.B.; Elly Ellyna Rashid

    2016-01-01

    Polyhydroxy butyrate (PHB) is a non-toxic biodegradable polymer produced by some bacteria and can be applied in medical, pharmacology and food industry. Eight types of chemical components acting as supplements were added to culture medium as nutrient pulses. The growth of bacteria was monitored by recording the absorbance value at 600 nm for every 24 hours of cultivation. PHB was extracted using chloroform. Reading at 235 nm was recorded to determine the PHB concentration. By observing the dry cell weight, we observed the addition of sucrose increased the biomass of Azotobacter vinelandii mutant from 1.5 mg/ mL to 5.6 mg/ mL and 8.4 mg/ mL after 3, 4 and 7 days of cultivation, respectively. The highest PHB concentration of 859.27 μg/ mL was obtained after seven days of cultivation in the medium which was supplied with urea sequentially, With sucrose, the PHB concentration increased from 25.45 μg/ ml to 99.59 μg/ ml and 655.56 μg/ ml after 3, 4 and 7 days of cultivation, respectively. The PHB concentrations obtained with sucrose-pulses were the second highest after urea. As a conclusion, sucrose and urea are the two major factors in the growth and PHB production by A. vinelandii mutant. (author)

  2. Dietary rice bran component γ-oryzanol inhibits tumor growth in tumor-bearing mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Phil; Kang, Mi Young; Nam, Seok Hyun; Friedman, Mendel

    2012-06-01

    We investigated the effects of rice bran and components on tumor growth in mice. Mice fed standard diets supplemented with rice bran, γ-oryzanol, Ricetrienol®, ferulic acid, or phytic acid for 2 weeks were inoculated with CT-26 colon cancer cells and fed the same diet for two additional weeks. Tumor mass was significantly lower in the γ-oryzanol and less so in the phytic acid group. Tumor inhibition was associated with the following biomarkers: increases in cytolytic activity of splenic natural killer (NK) cells; partial restoration of nitric oxide production and phagocytosis in peritoneal macrophages increases in released the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 from macrophages; and reductions in the number of blood vessels inside the tumor. Pro-angiogenic biomarkers vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and 5-lipoxygenase-5 (5-LOX) were also significantly reduced in mRNA and protein expression by tumor genes. ELISA of tumor cells confirmed reduced expression of COX-2 and 5-LOX up to 30%. Reduced COX-2 and 5-LOX expression downregulated VEGF and inhibited neoangiogenesis inside the tumors. Induction of NK activity, activation of macrophages, and inhibition of angiogenesis seem to contribute to the inhibitory mechanism of tumor regression by γ-oryzanol. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Basic characteristics of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF): blood cell components and biological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Kazuhiko; Okudera, Toshimitsu; Watanabe, Taisuke; Isobe, Kazushige; Suzuki, Masashi; Masuki, Hideo; Okudera, Hajime; Uematsu, Kohya; Nakata, Koh; Kawase, Tomoyuki

    2016-11-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is widely used in regenerative medicine because of its high concentrations of various growth factors and platelets. However, the distribution of blood cell components has not been investigated in either PRP or other PRP derivatives. In this study, we focused on plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF), a PRP derivative, and analyzed the distributions of platelets and white blood cells (WBCs). Peripheral blood samples were collected from healthy volunteers ( N  = 14) and centrifuged to prepare PRGF and PRP. Blood cells were counted using an automated hematology analyzer. The effects of PRP and PRGF preparations on cell proliferation were determined using human periosteal cells. In the PRGF preparations, both red blood cells and WBCs were almost completely eliminated, and platelets were concentrated by 2.84-fold, whereas in the PRP preparations, both platelets and WBCs were similarly concentrated by 8.79- and 5.51-fold, respectively. Platelet counts in the PRGF preparations were positively correlated with platelet counts in the whole blood samples, while the platelet concentration rate was negatively correlated with red blood cell counts in the whole blood samples. In contrast, platelet counts and concentration rates in the PRP preparations were significantly influenced by WBC counts in whole blood samples. The PRP preparations, but not the PRGF preparations, significantly suppressed cell growth at higher doses in vitro. Therefore, these results suggest that PRGF preparations can clearly be distinguished from PRP preparations by both inclusion of WBCs and dose-dependent stimulation of periosteal cell proliferation in vitro.

  4. Potential of plant growth regulator and chlormequat chloride on alfalfa seed components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J. S.; Lin, H.; Han, W.

    2016-01-01

    The use of plant growth regulators (PGRs) has opened new prospects for increased seed production in grasses and legumes, but little information is available on the effects of PGRs combination with chlormequat chloride (CCC) on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) seed yield components. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of applying chlormequat chloride in combination with three PGRs (Naphthylacetic acid (NAA), gibberellic acid 3 (GA), and brassinolide (BR)) on seed yield, aboveground biomass, plant height, lodging, yield components. CCC was applied annually at the stooling stage while three PGRs were applied twice each year at the stages of flower bud formation and peak flowering. Results provides evidence that: (i) each PGR consistently increased seed yields, and the numbers of seeds per stem compared to untreated plants; (ii) CCC treatment reduced plant height and lodging, but also significantly decreased seed yield and did not affect aboveground biomass. (iii) effectiveness of CCC application depends on climatic conditions, especially in North-east China. (iiii) the optimum combination of CCC with a PGR to increase alfalfa seed production was failed to identify. (iiiii) no interactions between PGRs and CCC on seed yield were observed and neither the PGRs nor the CCC. But alfalfa seed yield could be improved by combining a PGR such as NAA. Our Results suggest that these PGRs could be used in alfalfa breeding to increase seed yield while maintaining high seed quality. (author)

  5. Physiological and Biochemical Characteristics in Flag Leaves of the C Liangyou Series of Hybrid Rice Combinations at Late Growth Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-bang TANG

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The contents of chlorophyll, soluble sugars, soluble proteins and thiobarbituric acid reaction substance (TBARS, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, net photosynthetic rate as well as the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD and peroxidase (POD of flag leaves at the late growth stages were studied by using C Liangyou series of hybrid rice combinitions as material and Shanyou 63 as control. The C Liangyou series of hybrid rice combinations used in the experiment included C Liangyou 396, C Liangyou 87, C Liangyou 755 and C Liangyou 34, which all used C815S as male sterile line. The contents of chlorophyll, soluble sugars and soluble proteins in flag leaves of the C Liangyou series combinations at the late growth stages were higher than those of the control, whereas the TBARS content was lower than that of the control. The activities of SOD and POD were significantly higher than those of the control on the 7th day after heading, and then decreased slowly. FPSII value and qP value of flag leaves decreased at the late growth stages, and these two parameters in flag leaves of the C Liangyou series combinations were higher than those of the control, while the qN value increased at the late growth stages and was lower than that of the control. The net photosynthetic rate of flag leaves at the late growth stage was higher compared with the control. These results suggest that slow senescence and strong photosynthetic capability in flag leaves at the late growth stages are the physiological basis of the C Liangyou series combinations.

  6. Growth stage-based modulation in physiological and biochemical attributes of two genetically diverse wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars grown in salinized hydroponic culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Muhammad Arslan; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2016-04-01

    Hydroponic experiment was conducted to appraise variation in the salt tolerance potential of two wheat cultivars (salt tolerant, S-24, and moderately salt sensitive, MH-97) at different growth stages. These two wheat cultivars are not genetically related as evident from randomized polymorphic DNA analysis (random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)) which revealed 28% genetic diversity. Salinity stress caused a marked reduction in grain yield of both wheat cultivars. However, cv. S-24 was superior to cv. MH-97 in maintaining grain yield under saline stress. Furthermore, salinity caused a significant variation in different physiological attributes measured at different growth stages. Salt stress caused considerable reduction in different water relation attributes of wheat plants. A significant reduction in leaf water, osmotic, and turgor potentials was recorded in both wheat cultivars at different growth stages. Maximal reduction in leaf water potential was recorded at the reproductive stage in both wheat cultivars. In contrast, maximal turgor potential was observed at the boot stage. Salt-induced adverse effects of salinity on different water relation attributes were more prominent in cv. MH-97 as compared to those in cv. S-24. Salt stress caused a substantial decrease in glycine betaine and alpha tocopherols. These biochemical attributes exhibited significant salt-induced variation at different growth stages in both wheat cultivars. For example, maximal accumulation of glycine betaine was evident at the early growth stages (vegetative and boot). However, cv. S-24 showed higher accumulation of this organic osmolyte, and this could be the reason for maintenance of higher turgor than that of cv. MH-97 under stress conditions. Salt stress significantly increased the endogenous levels of toxic ions (Na(+) and Cl(-)) and decreased essential cations (K(+) and Ca(2+)) in both wheat cultivars at different growth stages. Furthermore, K(+)/Na(+) and Ca(2+)/Na(+) ratios

  7. Effects of dietary dandelion extracts on growth performance, body composition, plasma biochemical parameters, immune responses and disease resistance of juvenile golden pompano Trachinotus ovatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiaohong; Sun, Zhenzhu; Chen, Shu; Chen, Silin; Huang, Zhong; Zhou, Chuanpeng; Zou, Cuiyun; Liu, Qingying; Ye, Huaqun; Lin, Heizhao; Ye, Chaoxia; Wang, Anli

    2017-07-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary dandelion extracts (DE) supplementation on growth performance, feed utilization, body composition, plasma biochemical indices, immune responses, hepatic antioxidant abilities, and resistance to the pathogen Vibrio harveyi in Trachinotus ovatus. A basal diet supplemented with DE at 0, 0.50, 1.00, 2.00, 4.00 and 10.00 g kg -1 were fed to golden pompano for 8 weeks. The study indicated that dietary supplementation with DE could significantly improve final body weight (FBW), weight gain rate (WGR), specific growth rate (SGR), feed efficiency ratio (FER), feed intake (FI), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and protein deposit rate (PDR) (P Vibrio harveyi, significant higher post-challenge survival was observed in fish fed DE supplement (P growth performance, feed utilization, body protein deposit, immune ability, hepatic and plasma antioxidative enzyme activities and improve its resistance to infection by Vibrio harveyi. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Effects of different rearing systems on growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality and serum biochemical parameters of Chaohu ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng; Ah Kan Razafindrabe, Richard-Hermann; Chen, Kaikai; Zhao, Xiaohui; Yang, Lei; Wang, Li; Chen, Xingyong; Jin, Sihua; Geng, Zhaoyu

    2018-04-01

    This study was conducted using a total of 360 22-day-old Chaohu ducks to evaluate the effect of rearing system on growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality and serum parameters of male and female Chaohu ducks. The birds were divided and raised in separate pens according to sex and rearing system, with three replicate pens of 30 male or 30 female ducks per pen for each rearing system. The rearing systems consisted of a floor rearing system (FRS) and a net rearing system (NRS). Results showed that ducks raised in NRS had better growth performance, whereas, ducks raised in FRS exhibited better carcass traits and meat color, and lower intramuscular fat. For the serum parameters, NRS significantly decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol content, and enhanced total protein and triacylglycerol contents. Male ducks had lower abdominal fat percentage, and higher growth performance and shear force, but there were no other significant differences between sexes. No rearing system × sex interaction was observed in the present study, revealing that rearing system had the same effect on both sexes. In conclusion, NRS was beneficial to the growth performance of Chaohu ducks, whereas this system had some negative effects on carcass traits, meat quality and serum profiles. © 2018 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  9. Effect of salinity on survival, growth and biochemical parameters in juvenile Lebranch mullet Mugil liza (Perciformes: Mugilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Lisboa

    Full Text Available Teleost fish growth may be improved under isosmotic condition. Growth and metabolic performance of juvenile Mugil liza (isosmotic point: 12‰ were evaluated after 40 days in different salinities (0, 6, 12 and 24‰. Tests were performed in quadruplicate (30 fish/tank; 0.48 ± 0.1 g body weight; 3.27 ± 0.1 cm total length under controlled water temperature (28.2 ± 0.1ºC and oxygen content (>90% saturation. Fish were fed on artificial diet (50% crude protein four times a day until apparent satiation. Results showed that salinity influenced juvenile mullet growth. Fish reared at salinity 24‰ grew better than those maintained in freshwater (salinity 0‰. Gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity and whole body oxygen consumption showed an U-shape-type response over the range of salinities tested, with the lower values being observed at the intermediate salinities. Although no significant difference was observed in liver glycogen content at different salinities, it tended to augment with increasing salinity. These findings indicate that energy demand for osmorregulation in juvenile M. liza can be minimized under isosmotic condition. However, the amount of energy spared is not enough to improve fish growth. Results also suggest that M. liza is able to alternate between different energy-rich substrates during acclimation to environmental salinity.

  10. Short-term biochemical ill effects of insect growth regulator (IGR) pesticides in Cyphoderus javanus Borner (Collembola: Insecta) as potential biomarkers of soil pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Ipsita; Joy, V C

    2016-02-01

    The insect growth regulator (IGR) chemicals are considered as safe alternatives to synthetic organic pesticides, but only scant information are available on their possible impact on non-target and ecologically important soil insect fauna of croplands. Previous studies by the authors showed that recommended agricultural doses of IGRs buprofezin (Applaud 25SC at 250 g a.i. ha(-1)), flubendiamide (Takumi 20WG at 50 g a.i. ha(-1)) and novaluron (Rimon 10EC at 100 g a.i. ha(-1)) produced less mortality of adults of a non-target soil insect Cyphoderus javanus Borner (Collembola) but decreased major life history parameters namely moulting, fecundity and egg hatching success. This detritivorous microarthropod is very sensitive to soil characteristics and is ecologically relevant to the tropical soils. Present microcosm study showed strong biochemical impact of the above doses of IGRs on tissue nutrient levels and digestive enzyme activities in C. javanus within 7 days of exposure to treated sandy loam soil. The levels of tissue proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and free amino acids declined significantly and persistently in the specimens reared in IGR-treated soils than in the specimens of untreated soil. Similarly, α-amylase, cellulase and protease activities declined significantly in the specimens of IGR-treated soil. These nutritional scarcities would reduce metabolism, growth and reproduction in the affected insects. Therefore, the observed biochemical responses, especially the levels of tissue proteins, carbohydrates and α-amylase activity in C. javanus are early warning indices and potential biomarkers of soil pollution in croplands.

  11. Ameliorative Effects of Neutral Electrolyzed Water on Growth Performance, Biochemical Constituents, and Histopathological Changes in Turkey Poults during Aflatoxicosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Gómez-Espinosa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Different in vitro and in silico approaches from our research group have demonstrated that neutral electrolyzed water (NEW can be used to detoxify aflatoxins. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the ability of NEW to detoxify B-aflatoxins (AFB1 and AFB2 in contaminated maize and to confirm detoxification in an in vivo experimental model. Batches of aflatoxin-contaminated maize were detoxified with NEW and mixed in commercial feed. A total of 240 6-day-old female large white Nicholas-700 turkey poults were randomly divided into four treatments of six replicates each (10 turkeys per replicate, which were fed ad libitum for two weeks with the following dietary treatments: (1 control feed containing aflatoxin-free maize (CONTROL; (2 feed containing the aflatoxin-contaminated maize (AF; (3 feed containing the aflatoxin-contaminated maize detoxified with NEW (AF + NEW; and (4 control feed containing aflatoxin-free maize treated with NEW (NEW. Compared to the control groups, turkey poults of the AF group significantly reduced body weight gain and increased feed conversion ratio and mortality rate; whereas turkey poults of the AF + NEW group did not present significant differences on productive parameters. In addition, alterations in serum biochemical constituents, enzyme activities, relative organ weight, gross morphological changes and histopathological studies were significantly mitigated by the aflatoxin-detoxification procedure. From these results, it is concluded that the treatment of aflatoxin-contaminated maize with NEW provided reasonable protection against the effects caused by aflatoxins in young turkey poults.

  12. Hatch ability, growth and some blood biochemical parameters in hatching quails following the exposure of incubated eggs to red laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu Taleb, A.M.

    2003-01-01

    A total number of 600 Japanese quail eggs were used this study. The eggs were divided into three groups then incubated. Eggs of groups one (G1) and two (G2) were exposed to 30 and 60 minutes, respectively, to the red laser rays (Laser Pointer LD-300) at 0, 7 and 14 days of embryogenesis,while group three (G3) was not treated and served as control. Hatch ability body weight and mortality were recorded weekly for each group. Furthermore, five blood samples were collected from one day old chicks at hatching and at six weeks of age from each group to determine some hematological parameters including RBCs, WBCs, PCV and Hb. Liver enzyme activities (GPT and GOT), kidney function (uric acid and creatinine), cholesterol and total lipids were determined for the 6 weeks old chicks only. The present results indicated that exposure to red to significant increase in hatch ability percentage and promoted early hatch ability and decreased embryonic mortality in treated groups (G1) and (G2) than control (G3). Significant decreases in RBCs counts, cholesterol and total lipids were found in G1 and G2. Exposure of developing embryos to red laser radiation had no significant effect on PCV in one day old hatching chicks, or RBCs and WBCs counts, PCV, GOT, uric acid creatinine in six weeks old birds. At the same time, significant increases in Hb and WBCs counts were occurred in one day old chicks and Hb and GPT in six weeks old birds. It could be concluded from the reported findings that exposure to red laser radiation may affect some factors that accelerate hatch ability and cause changes in some biochemical parameters in Japanese quails

  13. Components and public health impact of population growth in the Arab world.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asharaf Abdul Salam

    Full Text Available The Arab world, which consists of the 22 member states of the Arab League, is undergoing a rapid transition in demographics, including fertility, mortality, and migration. Comprising a distinctive geographic region spread across West Asia and North East Africa and unified by the Arabic language, these states share common values and characteristics despite having diverse economic and political conditions. The demographic lag (high fertility and low mortality that characterizes the Arab world is unique, but the present trend of declining fertility, combined with the relatively low mortality, brings about significant changes in its population size. This research aimed to: (i assess the population growth in the Arab world over 3 time periods, (ii explore its components, and (iii understand its public health impact. Data from the International Data Base (IDB of the U.S. Census Bureau for 3 time periods (1992, 2002, and 2012 in 21 countries of the Arab world were analyzed by dividing them into four geographic sectors, namely, the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC, West Asia, Maghreb, and the Nile Valley African Horn. The population of the Arab world has grown considerably due to both natural growth and migration. The immigration is pronounced, especially into resource-intensive GCC nations, not only from East Asian and Central African countries but also from resource-thrifty (limited-resource Arab nations. The migrations within, as well as outside, the Arab world reveal an interesting demographic phenomenon that requires further research: migration flows and trends. However, the transformations in public health statistics related to mortality-the impact of demographic changes-depict a new era in the Arab world.

  14. Components and public health impact of population growth in the Arab world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Salam, Asharaf; Elsegaey, Ibrahim; Khraif, Rshood; AlMutairi, Abdullah; Aldosari, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The Arab world, which consists of the 22 member states of the Arab League, is undergoing a rapid transition in demographics, including fertility, mortality, and migration. Comprising a distinctive geographic region spread across West Asia and North East Africa and unified by the Arabic language, these states share common values and characteristics despite having diverse economic and political conditions. The demographic lag (high fertility and low mortality) that characterizes the Arab world is unique, but the present trend of declining fertility, combined with the relatively low mortality, brings about significant changes in its population size. This research aimed to: (i) assess the population growth in the Arab world over 3 time periods, (ii) explore its components, and (iii) understand its public health impact. Data from the International Data Base (IDB) of the U.S. Census Bureau for 3 time periods (1992, 2002, and 2012) in 21 countries of the Arab world were analyzed by dividing them into four geographic sectors, namely, the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), West Asia, Maghreb, and the Nile Valley African Horn. The population of the Arab world has grown considerably due to both natural growth and migration. The immigration is pronounced, especially into resource-intensive GCC nations, not only from East Asian and Central African countries but also from resource-thrifty (limited-resource) Arab nations. The migrations within, as well as outside, the Arab world reveal an interesting demographic phenomenon that requires further research: migration flows and trends. However, the transformations in public health statistics related to mortality-the impact of demographic changes-depict a new era in the Arab world.

  15. Influence of dietary slow-release urea on growth performance, organ development and serum biochemical parameters of mutton sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, S K; Zhang, F; Sun, Y K; Deng, K D; Wang, B; Tu, Y; Zhang, N F; Jiang, C G; Wang, S Q; Diao, Q Y

    2017-10-01

    Eighty Dorper × thin-tailed Han cross-bred non-castrated male lambs [mean body weight (BW), 25.87 ± 1.06 kg] were randomly allocated to one of five different concentrations of slow-release urea (urea phosphate, UP). The feed consisted of an equal amount of concentrate diet and roughage; the concentrate feed was formulated to be isoenergetic and isonitrogenic and contained 0%, 1%, 2%, 4% and 8% UP (UP0.0, UP1.0, UP2.0, UP4.0 and UP8.0, respectively) as a replacement for soya bean meal. Feed intake, BW, average daily gain (ADG), feed utilisation efficiency (FUE), absolute and relative organ weights and biochemical and histopathological parameters were measured. Feed intake, BW, ADG and FUE significantly decreased in the group receiving UP8.0 (p  0.05). Quadratic equations were developed between the UP dosage in the concentrate feed and ADG or FUE (r 2  = 0.973 for ADG and r 2  = 0.761 for FUE) to determine the appropriate dosage of UP given the desire to maximise either ADG or FUE, the appropriate dosage (feed concentration) was calculated as 2.01% UP to achieve the greatest ADG or 2.13% UP to achieve the best FUE. The relative weight of the liver (% BW) in the UP2.0 groups was significantly greater than that of UP0.0 (p  0.05). The UP8.0 treatment significantly increased serum phosphorus levels (p < 0.05) and decreased the levels of alkaline phosphatase, glucose and calcium (Ca) compared with the lower UP dosage (p < 0.05). No histopathological differences were found in either hepatic tissues or renal tissues among treatments. Dietary UP as a replacement for soya bean in concentrate feeds for mutton sheep should not exceed 4%, as higher dosing may cause malnutrition and mineral disorders. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Impact of biogas slurry fertilizer on growth, quality and biochemical characteristics of ornamental lettuce 'Biscia Rossa'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiaxiang, J.; Khalid, M.; Hong, Z.; Leqi, Y.; Dongqin, T.; Danfeng, H.

    2018-01-01

    Biogas slurry is a good source of plant nutrients and substituting chemical fertilizers with biogas slurry not only achieve resource utilization of slurry, but also reduce the amount of fertilizer. The present study investigated the influence of different ratios of biogas slurry fertilizer (BSF) on the growth, yield and quality characteristics of ornamental lettuce 'Biscia Rossa'. Results revealed that BSF significantly (p<0.05) improved the growth of ornamental lettuce on treatment with Z1 fertilizer; the plant height was increased by 12.66% and 16.75%, while leaf area was improved by 19.97% and 42.03%, in comparison with control group. The improvement in yield of ornamental lettuce was noted in varying degrees by BSF. The highest dry and fresh weights were observed in case of Z1 treated lettuce plants. The fresh weight was 33.52%, 44.77%, 43.96% and 49.04% higher than that of other 2 fertilizers and 2 control groups, respectively. Whereas the dry weight was 2.7 and 3.17-times greater than that of two control groups. The biogas slurry irrigation also considerably improved the quality of ornamental lettuce. Moreover, it was observed that vitamin C, anthocyanin, soluble sugar and protein were higher than that of control groups. Contrarily, the BSF led to decrease in nitrate-nitrogen content in ornamental lettuce. (author)

  17. Characterizing components of the Saw Palmetto Berry Extract (SPBE) on prostate cancer cell growth and traction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholtysek, Carina; Krukiewicz, Aleksandra A.; Alonso, Jose-Luis; Sharma, Karan P.; Sharma, Pal C.; Goldmann, Wolfgang H.

    2009-01-01

    Saw Palmetto Berry Extract (SPBE) is applied for prostate health and treatment of urinary tract infections, nonbacterial prostitis and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) in man. An assumption is that SPBE affects tumor cell progression and migration in breast and prostate tissue. In this work, DU-145 cells were used to demonstrate that SPBE and its sterol components, β-sitosterol and stigmasterol, inhibit prostate cancer growth by increasing p53 protein expression and also inhibit carcinoma development by decreasing p21 and p27 protein expression. In the presence of cholesterol, these features are not only reversed but increased significantly. The results show for the first time the potential of SPBE, β-sitosterol and stigmasterol as potential anti-tumor agents. Since the protein p53 is also regarded as nuclear matrix protein facilitating actin cytoskeletal binding, 2D tractions were measured. The cell adhesion strength in the presence of SPBE, β-sitosterol and cholesterol and the observation was that the increase in p53 expression triggered an increase in the intracellular force generation. The results suggest a dual function of p53 in cells.

  18. Characterizing components of the Saw Palmetto Berry Extract (SPBE) on prostate cancer cell growth and traction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholtysek, Carina; Krukiewicz, Aleksandra A; Alonso, José-Luis; Sharma, Karan P; Sharma, Pal C; Goldmann, Wolfgang H

    2009-02-13

    Saw Palmetto Berry Extract (SPBE) is applied for prostate health and treatment of urinary tract infections, nonbacterial prostitis and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) in man. An assumption is that SPBE affects tumor cell progression and migration in breast and prostate tissue. In this work, DU-145 cells were used to demonstrate that SPBE and its sterol components, beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol, inhibit prostate cancer growth by increasing p53 protein expression and also inhibit carcinoma development by decreasing p21 and p27 protein expression. In the presence of cholesterol, these features are not only reversed but increased significantly. The results show for the first time the potential of SPBE, beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol as potential anti-tumor agents. Since the protein p53 is also regarded as nuclear matrix protein facilitating actin cytoskeletal binding, 2D tractions were measured. The cell adhesion strength in the presence of SPBE, beta-sitosterol and cholesterol and the observation was that the increase in p53 expression triggered an increase in the intracellular force generation. The results suggest a dual function of p53 in cells.

  19. Analysis and evaluation of tasty components in the pileus and stipe of Lentinula edodes at different growth stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wanchao; Li, Wen; Yang, Yan; Yu, Hailong; Zhou, Shuai; Feng, Jie; Li, Xiaobei; Liu, Yanfang

    2015-01-28

    Tasty components in Lentinula edodes pileus and stipe at different growth stages were studied. Mannitol, trehalose, arabitol, and glucose were the main soluble polyols and sugars, whereas succinic acid, malic acid, and citric acid were the main organic acids. Mannitol contents were the highest in the pileus and increased at mature growth stages, although arabitol contents were the highest in the stipe and peaked at stage 5. Succinic acid contents peaked at stage 5 in the pileus and stipe during mature growth stages. Threonine (sweet taste) values were the highest among all the detected amino acids, followed by glutamic acid (MSG-like taste). MSG-like 5'-nucleotide contents could account for nearly 50% of the total 5'-nucleotides. Equivalent umami concentration (EUC) values of stage 5 exhibited higher levels during mature growth stages. Tasty components in the stipe were rich and EUC values were high, which might be useful for further processing and byproduct development of L. edodes.

  20. Biochemical and ultrastructural processing of [125I]epidermal growth factor in rat epidermis and hair follicles: accumulation of nuclear label

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.R.; Mycock, C.; Smith, C.G.; Couchman, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    Although the intracellular ultrastructural processing of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and its receptor have been described in cell culture systems, very few studies have examined this phenomenon in intact tissues. We have examined the ultrastructural and biochemical handling of [ 125 I]EGF in the epidermis and hair follicle bulb of intact, viable, 3- to 5-day-old rat skin the EGF receptor distribution of which has already been documented and in which EGF has been shown to be biologically active. After incubation of explants with 10 nM [ 125 I]EGF for 2.5 h at 25 degrees or 37 degrees C, radiolabel was detected over the basal cells of the epidermis and hair follicle outer root sheath, confirming previous light microscope observations. More specifically, silver grains were observed near coated and uncoated plasma membrane and coated membrane invaginations, Golgi apparatus, lysosomal structures, and nuclei. Sodium azide inhibited internalization of label, whereas a series of lysosomal inhibitors (chloroquine, monensin, and iodoacetamide) caused a slight increase in silver grains associated with lysosomal vesicles and a decrease in nuclear label. Biochemical analysis indicated that greater than 35% of radioactivity following incubation at 37 degrees C was in the form of degraded [ 125 I]EGF fragments and that inclusion of chloroquine, monensin, and iodoacetamide reduced this value to 20.8%, 8.6%, and 4.0%, respectively. In addition, chloramine T-prepared [ 125 I]EGF was found to be covalently cross-linked with low efficiency to a protein having the molecular weight of the EGF receptor. These data are discussed in the light of the effects of EGF on epithelial cell proliferation in skin

  1. Associations of Milk Consumption and Vitamin B2 and Β12 Derived from Milk with Fitness, Anthropometric and Biochemical Indices in Children. The Healthy Growth Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Moschonis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The benefits of dairy consumption seem to extend beyond its significant contribution to ensuring nutrient intake adequacy as indicated by the favourable associations with several health outcomes reported by different studies. The aims of the present study were to examine the associations of milk consumption with fitness, anthropometric and biochemical indices in children and further explore whether the observed associations are attributed to vitamins B2 and B12 derived from milk. A representative subsample of 600 children aged 9–13 years participating in the Healthy Growth Study was examined. Data were collected on children’s dietary intake, using 24 h recalls, as well as on fitness, anthropometric and biochemical indices. Regression analyses were performed for investigating the research hypothesis, adjusting for potential confounders and for B-vitamin status indices (i.e., plasma riboflavin, methylmalonic acid and total homocysteine concentrations, dietary calcium intake and plasma zinc concentrations that could possibly act as effect modifiers. Milk consumption was positively associated with the number of stages performed in the endurance run test (ERT (β = 0.10; p = 0.017 and negatively with body mass index (BMI (β = −0.10; p = 0.014, after adjusting for several potential confounders and effect modifiers. Dietary intakes of vitamin B2 and B12 derived from milk were also positively associated with the number of ERT stages (β = 0.10; p = 0.015 and β = 0.10; p = 0.014 respectively. In conclusion, higher intake of milk as well as vitamin B2 and B12 derived from milk were independently associated with higher cardiorespiratory fitness in Greek preadolescents. The key roles of these B-vitamins in substrate oxidation, energy production, haemoglobin synthesis and erythropoiesis could provide a basis for interpreting these associations. However, further research is needed to confirm this potential interpretation.

  2. Effect of Vermicompost and Nitroxin on Vegetative Growth and some Biochemical Properties of Rosemary Herb (Rosmarinus officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Nourbakhsh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L. is a perennial, ever green and fragrant plant belongs to Lamiaceae family. Vegetative parts of this plant have essential oil and compounds with anti oxidant and antibacterial properties which are used extensively in pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic industries. The use of biofertilizers such as vermicompost and Nitroxin could have beneficial effect on production of rosemary by increasing the production of plant growth hormones and the availability of macro and micro nutrients in growing media. Materials and Methods: The effect of vermicompost and Nitroxin biofertilizers was investigated on growth, yield, the amounts of photosynthetic pigments, flavonoid, essential oil percentage and yield of rosemary. The experiment was based on a randomized complete block design with two factors, including vermicompost (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% w/w and Nitroxin (inoculated and non-inoculated with Nitroxin with four replications. This research was done at Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Sari, Iran, in 2012-2013. Uniform one-year old rooted rosemary cuttings were selected for this experiment. Before planting, rooted cuttings were treated in diluted Nitroxin solution in water (1:10 for 10 minutes. After planting, rosemary plants were fertilized twice by Nitroxin for every 45 days according to the producing company recommendation. During growth period, irrigation was done according to plants requirement. At the end of experiment, parameters such as plant height, shoot fresh and dry weight, root dry weight, chlorophyll a, total chlorophyll, leaf flavonoid and essential oil yield were measured. Data was analyzed using standard analysis of variance (ANOVA using the general linear models procedure of SAS, (version 9.1; SAS Institute, Cary, N.C.. Differences among means were tested by least significant difference (LSD (p ≤ 0.05. Results and Discussion: Obtained results showed that the

  3. Fatigue test results of flat plate specimens with surface cracks and evaluation of crack growth in structural components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Katsuyuki; Yokoyama, Norio; Ohba, Toshihiro; Kawamura, Takaichi; Miyazono, Shohachiro

    1982-12-01

    Part-through surface cracks are most frequently observed in the inspection of structural components, and it is one of the important subjects in the assessment of safety to evaluate appropriately the growth of such cracks during the service life of structural components. Due to the complexity of the stress at the front free surface, the crack growth at the surface shows a different behavior from the other part. Besides, an effect of interaction is caused in the growth of multiple surface cracks. These effects should be included in the growth analysis of surface part-through cracks. Authors have carried out a series of fatigue tests on some kinds of pipes with multiple cracks in the inner surface, and subsequently the fatigue test of flat plate specimens, made of Type 304L stainless steel, with a single or double surface cracks was carried out to study the basic characteristics in the growth of multiple surface cracks. Based on the results of the flat plate test. the correction factors for the front free surface (Cs) and interaction (Ci) of surface cracks were derived quantitatively by the following empirical expressions; Cs = 0.824. Ci = (0.227(a/b) 2 (sec(PI X/2) - 1) + 1)sup(1/m). Using these two correction factors, a procedure to predict the growth of surface cracks was developed by applying the crack growth formula to both the thickness and surface directions. Besides, the crack growth predictions based on the procedure of ASME Code Sex. XI, and the above procedure without the correction of the free surface and interactions on the crack growth behaviors were compared with the test results of flat plate specimens. The crack growth behavior predicted by the procedure described in this report showed the best agreement with the test results in respects of the crack growth life and the change in the crack shape. The criteria of the ASME Code did not agree with the test results. (author)

  4. Combined effects of Psoralens and ultraviolet-B on growth, pigmentation and biochemical parameters of Abelmoschus esculentus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Rima; Singh, Suruchi; Agrawal, S B

    2009-05-01

    The effects of pre-treatment of Psoralens (furocoumarin compounds) and supplemental ultraviolet-B (sUV-B) were studied on plant growth, photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic pigments, protein, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity and antioxidative defense potential as well as their ultimate effects on biomass production in Abelmoschus esculentus L. (Okra) plants. Psoralens are capable of absorbing radiant energy and stimulating the pigmentation of human skin when photo-activated in presence of UV-A or UV-B making them beneficial in the treatment of vitilago. Pre-treatment of Psoralens against sUV-B (pUV-B), stimulates higher production of UV-B protective pigments (flavonoids and carotenoids) and helps in maintaining its biomass against UV-B stress. Antioxidative defense system in the test plant was activated by combined treatment of Psoralens and sUV-B as evidenced by the enhanced activity of enzymatic (ascorbate peroxidase-APX, superoxide dismutase-SOD, POX) and non-enzymatic (ascorbic acid and phenol) antioxidants. Individual treatments of Psoralens and sUV-B showed inhibitory effect on various morphological traits i.e. reduction in plant height, leaf area and ultimately on biomass production. Our results clearly indicated that adverse effect of sUV-B on biomass production was ameliorated by pre- treatment with Psoralens.

  5. Effect of graphene oxide on copper stress in Lemna minor L.: evaluating growth, biochemical responses, and nutrient uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Changwei; Liu, Lei; Li, Xiuling; Xu, Yundi; Ge, Zhigang; Zhao, Yongjun

    2018-01-05

    The wide application and unique properties of graphene oxide (GO) make it to interact with other pollutants and subsequently alter their behavior and toxicity. We evaluated the influences of GO at different concentrations (1 and 5mg/L) on copper (Cu) stress in duckweed (Lemna minor L.) GO below a concentration of 5mg/L showed no adverse effects on L. minor. The addition of Cu above 10μM represented a stress condition, which was evidenced by various parameters such as frond number, percent inhibition of growth rate (I r ), total chlorophyll content, dry weight, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD). When L. minor was simultaneously exposed to GO and Cu, especially at a GO concentration of 5mg/L and a Cu level above 10μM, the increase of I r and decrease of chlorophyll content were inhibited, suggesting that the Cu stress was diminished in the presence of GO. The addition of Cu alone, ranging between 5 and 20μM, increased Cu, B, Mn, Fe, Co, and Zn uptake, but decreased P uptake. Our results suggest that GO can lessen Cu stress in L. minor via Cu adsorption, thereby protecting the plants from the damaging effects of high Cu concentrations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of Foliar Application of Chitosan on Growth and Biochemical Characteristics of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. under Water Deficit Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    batool mahdavi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of water deficit stress and foliar application of chitosan in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L., a pot experiment was conducted in 2009. Experimental design was a randomized complete block in factorial arrangement with three replications. Experimental factors were water deficit levels (unstressed (control and 70% available water depletion from soil (water deficit stress, chitosan concentrations (0, 0.05, 0.1%, all dissolved in 1% acetic acid along with an additional treatment of distilled water and foliar application times (before and during stem elongation. The results showed that water deficit stress reduced plant height, leaf area, shoot and root dry weight, root height and volume. Whereas, foliar application of chitosan increased mentioned traits. In addition, water deficit stress decreased chlorophyll fluorescence, chlorophyll concentration and relative water content. Carotenoid, proline and malondialdehyde (MDA content were increased in response to stress. Foliar application of chitosan increased chlorophyll fluorescence, relative water content (68.77% and chlorophyll b in the water deficit stressed plants, whereas decreased MDA content. The results of the present study indicate that application of chitosan can reduce the harmful effects of water deficit and improve plant growth.

  7. Effects of CO(2) enrichment on photosynthesis, growth, and biochemical composition of seagrass Thalassia hemprichii (Ehrenb.) Aschers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhi Jian; Huang, Xiao-Pin; Zhang, Jing-Ping

    2010-10-01

    The effects of CO₂ enrichment on various ecophysiological parameters of tropical seagrass Thalassia hemprichii (Ehrenb.) Aschers were tested. T. hemprichii, collected from a seagrass bed in Xincun Bay, Hainan island of Southern China, was cultured at 4 CO₂ (aq) concentrations in flow-through seawater aquaria bubbled with CO₂ . CO₂ enrichment considerably enhanced the relative maximum electron transport rate (RETR(max) ) and minimum saturating irradiance (E(k) ) of T. hemprichii. Leaf growth rate of CO₂ -enriched plants was significantly higher than that in unenriched treatment. Nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC) of T. hemprichii, especially in belowground tissues, increased strongly with elevated CO₂ (aq), suggesting a translocation of photosynthate from aboveground to belowground tissues. Carbon content in belowground tissues showed a similar response with NSC, while in aboveground tissues, carbon content was not affected by CO₂ treatments. In contrast, with increasing CO₂ (aq), nitrogen content in aboveground tissues markedly decreased, but nitrogen content in belowground was nearly constant. Carbon: nitrogen ratio in both tissues were obviously enhanced by increasing CO₂ (aq). Thus, these results indicate that T. hemprichii may respond positively to CO₂ -induced acidification of the coastal ocean. Moreover, the CO₂ -stimulated improvement of photosynthesis and NSC content may partially offset negative effects of severe environmental disturbance such as underwater light reduction. © 2010 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  8. Multi-Trait analysis of growth traits: fitting reduced rank models using principal components for Simmental beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Reis Mota

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aim of this research was to evaluate the dimensional reduction of additive direct genetic covariance matrices in genetic evaluations of growth traits (range 100-730 days in Simmental cattle using principal components, as well as to estimate (covariance components and genetic parameters. Principal component analyses were conducted for five different models-one full and four reduced-rank models. Models were compared using Akaike information (AIC and Bayesian information (BIC criteria. Variance components and genetic parameters were estimated by restricted maximum likelihood (REML. The AIC and BIC values were similar among models. This indicated that parsimonious models could be used in genetic evaluations in Simmental cattle. The first principal component explained more than 96% of total variance in both models. Heritability estimates were higher for advanced ages and varied from 0.05 (100 days to 0.30 (730 days. Genetic correlation estimates were similar in both models regardless of magnitude and number of principal components. The first principal component was sufficient to explain almost all genetic variance. Furthermore, genetic parameter similarities and lower computational requirements allowed for parsimonious models in genetic evaluations of growth traits in Simmental cattle.

  9. Expression of insulin-like growth factor system components in colorectal tissue and its relation with serum IGF levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, A.; Voskuil, D.W.; Bosma, A.; Majoor, D.M.; Doorn, van J.; Cats, A.; Depla, A.; Timmer, R.; Witteman, B.J.M.; Wesseling, J.; Kampman, E.; van't Veer, L.J.

    2009-01-01

    Context: The insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-system has been implicated in colorectal tumor carcinogenesis. Although both tumor expression levels and serum concentrations of IGF-system components are related to colorectal cancer risk, it is unknown whether IGF levels in tissue and serum are

  10. Expression of insulin-like growth factor system components in colorectal tissue and its relation with serum IGF levels.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, A.; Voskuil, D.W.; Bosma, A.; Majoor, D.M.; Doorn, J. van; Cats, A.; Depla, A.C.; Timmer, R.; Witteman, B.J.; Wesseling, J.; Kampman, E.; Veer, L.J. van 't

    2009-01-01

    CONTEXT: The insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-system has been implicated in colorectal tumor carcinogenesis. Although both tumor expression levels and serum concentrations of IGF-system components are related to colorectal cancer risk, it is unknown whether IGF levels in tissue and serum are

  11. Effects of progressive soil water deficit on growth, and physiological and biochemical responses of populus euphratica in arid area: a case study in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Y.; Chen, Y.; Li, W.; Zhu, C.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the responses of Populus euphratica seedlings under a short-term soil water deficit. To mimic natural conditions in which drought stress develops gradually, stress was imposed by subjecting plants to a gradual decrease of soil water content for a period of 21 d. We studied growth, physiological and biochemical responses to progressive soil water deficit of potted Populus euphratica seedlings at outdoors. Results showed that, in 6 d of water withholding, the soil moisture content decreased to a slight drought stress level, and it reached a severe drought stress level after 15 d of water withholding in July. In the process of soil water declining from saturated to severe drought levels, the increasing soil water deficit resulted in decreases in the height, stem base diameter, number of lateral branches. Leaf predawn water potential decreased after 15 d of withholding irrigation. After 21 d of withholding irrigation, actual photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) in light-adapted leaves and photochemical quenching coefficient decreased, respectively; the peroxidase activity, the content of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b decreased. There were no significant changes in proline, malondialdehyde content, chlorophyll a/b value and superoxide dismutase activity. (author)

  12. Effect of supplementation of lysine and methionine on growth performance, nutrients digestibility and serum biochemical indices for growing sika deer (Cervus Nippon fed protein deficient diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Huang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effect of supplementation of lysine (Lys and methionine (Met on growth performance, nutrients digestibility and serum biochemical indices for growing sika deer fed crude protein (CP deficient diet. Sixteen 5-month-old growing male sika deer were randomly assigned to 4 groups receiving diets (n=4: i CP-adequate (16.63% diet; ii CP-deficient (13.77% diet with 3 g/kg Lys; iii CP-deficient with 3 g/kg Lys and 1 g/kg Met; iv CP-deficient diet with 3 g/kg Lys and 2 g/kg Met. The digestibility of dry matter P<0.01, organic matter (P<0.01, CP (P<0.01, serum albumin (P<0.01, and total protein (P<0.01 concentrations of groups receiving CP-adequate or Met supplementation were improved. The average daily gain (P=0.10, gain to feed ratio (P=0.07, the digestibility of acid (P=0.07 and neutral detergent fibre (P=0.09, and the serum globulin (P=0.08 concentrations had a tendency to increase as the Met or CP level increased. Meanwhile, blood urea nitrogen (P<0.01 and alanine aminotransferase (P<0.01 were decreased for CP-deficient, but no response to Met-added diets; aspartate aminotransferase (P=0.04 depressed for both CP-deficient and Met-added diets. Therefore, amino acids added to CP-deficient diets show high efficiency: they remain among the simplest ways for growth performance, while cutting down environmental waste and economic consumption.

  13. Evaluation of the effects of gamma radiation about the physicochemical, chemical and biochemical components of beverages based in soy milk and grape juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, Erica A.; Broetto, Fernando; Bressan, Dayanne F.; Coscolin, Renata B.; Costa, Vladimir E.

    2013-01-01

    The beverages based of soy milk and grape juice contains bioactive compounds that help in maintaining the health of the individual, attributing functional characteristics to the beverage. The gamma irradiation technique of is used to reduce and / or eliminate the microbial count of foods extending shelf life. However, it has been demonstrated that certain dosages of gamma irradiation are capable of inducing changes in the structure of molecules in food. Thus, the aim of this study was to observe the effect of different doses of gamma irradiation about the physicochemical, chemical and biochemical in beverages based in smokily and grape juice. For the tests, were obtained soy milk in the ratio 1:6, to which were added integral grape juices (red and white). The beverages were treated with increasing doses of gamma radiation to be analyzed. The doses of irradiation may have induced inversion of sucrose to fructose and glucose. Phenolic compounds of the beverage with white grape juice didn't differ significantly between treatments. The antioxidant capacity was higher for the beverage with red grape juice regardless of irradiation dose. It was concluded that beverages based soy milk and grape juice (red and white) differ from each other for most of the analyzes conducted. However, the average results of the control samples were not far from the results obtained for treatments. (author)

  14. Evaluation of the effects of gamma radiation about the physicochemical, chemical and biochemical components of beverages based in soy milk and grape juice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Erica A.; Broetto, Fernando; Bressan, Dayanne F.; Coscolin, Renata B.; Costa, Vladimir E., E-mail: ericabarros@fca.unesp.br, E-mail: broetto@ibb.unesp.br, E-mail: daybressan@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: renata.coscolin@gmail.com, E-mail: vladimir@ibb.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica e Bioquimica

    2013-07-01

    The beverages based of soy milk and grape juice contains bioactive compounds that help in maintaining the health of the individual, attributing functional characteristics to the beverage. The gamma irradiation technique of is used to reduce and / or eliminate the microbial count of foods extending shelf life. However, it has been demonstrated that certain dosages of gamma irradiation are capable of inducing changes in the structure of molecules in food. Thus, the aim of this study was to observe the effect of different doses of gamma irradiation about the physicochemical, chemical and biochemical in beverages based in smokily and grape juice. For the tests, were obtained soy milk in the ratio 1:6, to which were added integral grape juices (red and white). The beverages were treated with increasing doses of gamma radiation to be analyzed. The doses of irradiation may have induced inversion of sucrose to fructose and glucose. Phenolic compounds of the beverage with white grape juice didn't differ significantly between treatments. The antioxidant capacity was higher for the beverage with red grape juice regardless of irradiation dose. It was concluded that beverages based soy milk and grape juice (red and white) differ from each other for most of the analyzes conducted. However, the average results of the control samples were not far from the results obtained for treatments. (author)

  15. Effect of Component Population on the Growth and Yield of Maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field experiment to determine the optimum component populations of maize (Zea mays L.) and egusi melon Colocynthis citrullus L. Schrad) component crops in intercrop were conducted in 2004 and 2005 cropping seasons. There were three maize populations (17,780; 26,670 and 53,330 plants/ha), three egusi melon ...

  16. Crack Growth-Based Predictive Methodology for the Maintenance of the Structural Integrity of Repaired and Nonrepaired Aging Engine Stationary Components

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barron, Michael

    1999-01-01

    .... Specifically, the FAA's goal was to develop "Crack Growth-Based Predictive Methodologies for the Maintenance of the Structural Integrity of Repaired and Nonrepaired Aging Engine Stationary Components...

  17. PWSCC Growth Assessment Model Considering Stress Triaxiality Factor for Primary Alloy 600 Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Sung Kim

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We propose a primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC initiation model of Alloy 600 that considers the stress triaxiality factor to apply to finite element analysis. We investigated the correlation between stress triaxiality effects and PWSCC growth behavior in cold-worked Alloy 600 stream generator tubes, and identified an additional stress triaxiality factor that can be added to Garud's PWSCC initiation model. By applying the proposed PWSCC initiation model considering the stress triaxiality factor, PWSCC growth simulations based on the macroscopic phenomenological damage mechanics approach were carried out on the PWSCC growth tests of various cold-worked Alloy 600 steam generator tubes and compact tension specimens. As a result, PWSCC growth behavior results from the finite element prediction are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  18. SU-E-T-751: Three-Component Kinetic Model of Tumor Growth and Radiation Response for Stereotactic Radiosurgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Y; Dahlman, E; Leder, K; Hui, S [University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop and study a kinetic model of tumor growth and its response to stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) by assuming that the cells in irradiated tumor volume were made of three types. Methods: A set of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) were derived for three types of cells and a tumor growth rate. It is assumed that the cells were composed of actively proliferating cells, lethally damaged-dividing cells, and non-dividing cells. We modeled the tumor volume growth with a time-dependent growth rate to simulate the saturation of growth. After SRS, the proliferating cells were permanently damaged and converted to the lethally damaged cells. The amount of damaged cells were estimated by the LQ-model. The damaged cells gradually stopped dividing/proliferating and died with a constant rate. The dead cells were cleared from their original location with a constant rate. The total tumor volume was the sum of the three components. The ODEs were numerically solved with appropriate initial conditions for a given dosage. The proposed model was used to model an animal experiment, for which the temporal change of a rhabdomyosarcoma tumor volume grown in a rat was measured with time resolution sufficient to test the model. Results: To fit the model to the experimental data, the following characteristics were needed with the model parameters. The α-value in the LQ-model was smaller than the commonly used value; furthermore, it decreased with increasing dose. At the same time, the tumor growth rate after SRS had to increase. Conclusions: The new 3-component model of tumor could simulate the experimental data very well. The current study suggested that the radiation sensitivity and the growth rate of the proliferating tumor cells may change after irradiation and it depended on the dosage used for SRS. These preliminary observations must be confirmed by future animal experiments.

  19. Ameliorative Effects of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract on Growth Performance, Immune Function, Antioxidant Capacity, Biochemical Constituents, Liver Histopathology and Aflatoxin Residues in Broilers Exposed to Aflatoxin B₁.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali Rajput, Shahid; Sun, Lvhui; Zhang, Niya; Mohamed Khalil, Mahmoud; Gao, Xin; Ling, Zhao; Zhu, Luoyi; Khan, Farhan Anwar; Zhang, Jiacai; Qi, Desheng

    2017-11-15

    Aflatoxicosis is a grave threat to the poultry industry. Dietary supplementation with antioxidants showed a great potential in enhancing the immune system; hence, protecting animals against aflatoxin B₁-induced toxicity. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) one of the most well-known and powerful antioxidants. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to investigate the effectiveness of GSPE in the detoxification of AFB₁ in broilers. A total of 300 one-day-old Cobb chicks were randomly allocated into five treatments of six replicates (10 birds per replicate), fed ad libitum for four weeks with the following dietary treatments: 1. Basal diet (control); 2. Basal diet + 1 mg/kg AFB₁ contaminated corn (AFB₁); 3. Basal diet + GSPE 250 mg/kg; (GSPE 250 mg/kg) 4. Basal diet + AFB₁ (1 mg/kg) + GSPE 250 mg/kg; (AFB₁ + GSPE 250 mg/kg) 5. Basal diet + AFB₁ (1mg/kg) + GSPE 500 mg/kg, (AFB₁ + GSPE 500 mg/kg). When compared with the control group, feeding broilers with AFB₁ alone significantly reduced growth performance, serum immunoglobulin contents, negatively altered serum biochemical contents, and enzyme activities, and induced histopathological lesion in the liver. In addition, AFB₁ significantly increased malondialdehyde content and decreased total superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxide, glutathione-S transferase, glutathione reductase activities, and glutathione concentration within the liver and serum. The supplementation of GSPE (250 and 500 mg/kg) to AFB₁ contaminated diet reduced AFB₁ residue in the liver and significantly mitigated AFB₁ negative effects. From these results, it can be concluded that dietary supplementation of GSPE has protective effects against aflatoxicosis caused by AFB₁ in broiler chickens.

  20. Ameliorative Effects of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract on Growth Performance, Immune Function, Antioxidant Capacity, Biochemical Constituents, Liver Histopathology and Aflatoxin Residues in Broilers Exposed to Aflatoxin B1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lvhui; Zhang, Niya; Ling, Zhao; Zhu, Luoyi; Khan, Farhan Anwar; Zhang, Jiacai; Qi, Desheng

    2017-01-01

    Aflatoxicosis is a grave threat to the poultry industry. Dietary supplementation with antioxidants showed a great potential in enhancing the immune system; hence, protecting animals against aflatoxin B1-induced toxicity. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) one of the most well-known and powerful antioxidants. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to investigate the effectiveness of GSPE in the detoxification of AFB1 in broilers. A total of 300 one-day-old Cobb chicks were randomly allocated into five treatments of six replicates (10 birds per replicate), fed ad libitum for four weeks with the following dietary treatments: 1. Basal diet (control); 2. Basal diet + 1 mg/kg AFB1 contaminated corn (AFB1); 3. Basal diet + GSPE 250 mg/kg; (GSPE 250 mg/kg) 4. Basal diet + AFB1 (1 mg/kg) + GSPE 250 mg/kg; (AFB1 + GSPE 250 mg/kg) 5. Basal diet + AFB1 (1mg/kg) + GSPE 500 mg/kg, (AFB1 + GSPE 500 mg/kg). When compared with the control group, feeding broilers with AFB1 alone significantly reduced growth performance, serum immunoglobulin contents, negatively altered serum biochemical contents, and enzyme activities, and induced histopathological lesion in the liver. In addition, AFB1 significantly increased malondialdehyde content and decreased total superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxide, glutathione-S transferase, glutathione reductase activities, and glutathione concentration within the liver and serum. The supplementation of GSPE (250 and 500 mg/kg) to AFB1 contaminated diet reduced AFB1 residue in the liver and significantly mitigated AFB1 negative effects. From these results, it can be concluded that dietary supplementation of GSPE has protective effects against aflatoxicosis caused by AFB1 in broiler chickens. PMID:29140290

  1. Resin acids as the potential growth-affecting component of pine oleoresin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Wodzicki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The nonvolatile fraction of the oleoresin of Pinus sihestris L. was found to contain substances which inhibit growth of wheat ceoleoptile and oat mesocotyl sections in standard bioassays. The inhibition is mainly confined to the fraction of resin acids. Among the seven authentic resin acids tested, the effects of dehydroabietic and abietic acids were most sifgnificant. Palustric, pimaric and isopimaric acids were not effective in the wheat coleoptile section straight growth test. None of the substances, in the amounts tested, except for extremely high concentration, exerted an inhibitory effect on natural or IAA-induced elongation of pine hypocotyl sections. Neither was an inhibitory effect discovered in the microbiological test with the Aspergillus niger van Tiegh. The results obtained with pine hypocotyl sections, allow the conclusion that resin acids interfering with the results of standard bioassays are probably not effective as inhibitory factors in the regulation of pine tissue growth.

  2. Expression of basement membrane components through morphological changes in the hair growth cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R; Gibson, W T

    1985-01-01

    The amount and distribution of fibronectin associated with hair follicles was found to vary during the hair growth cycle in the rat. Immunocytochemical staining of follicles in mid-late anagen (the growth stage) revealed the presence of fibronectin in the dermal papilla matrix, in the basement...... membrane separating this from the epithelial cells of the hair bulb, and in the basement membrane and connective tissue sheath which underly the cells of the outer root sheath. Early in catagen, the transitional stage, staining of the dermal papilla matrix disappeared. Fibronectin persisted in the basement...

  3. Chemotaxis-growth under the influence of lateral inhibition in a three-component reaction–diffusion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaguchi, Satoshi

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we consider the effects of chemotaxis and lateral inhibition on an activator in a three-component reaction–diffusion system. Simulation results show that spot, planar and travelling front solutions in two dimensions are destabilized to form multibranch patterns. In order to analyse the stability of stationary solutions, a singular perturbation method is employed. The bifurcation diagrams suggest that chemotaxis and lateral inhibition cooperatively result in the destabilization of the stationary solutions. Our three-component model is compared with the two-component chemotaxis-growth model. Furthermore, the conditions for observing the cooperative effects of chemotaxis and lateral inhibition on an activator in experiments are inferred from the model

  4. Effect of different component ratio of Astragalus total saponins and Verbena total glycosides on the cerebral infarction area and serum biochemical indicators in the focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erping Xu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Our purpose is to study the effect of different component ratio of Astragalus Total Saponins (ATS and Verbena Total Glycosides (VTG on the cerebral infarction area and the serum biochemical indicators in the focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion rat model. Compared with the model group, different component ratio of ATS and VTG could significantly improve the neurological deficit scores to the focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion rat model, and the group of 7:3, 6:4, 5:5 got the best results; it could reduce the mortality of rat model to a certain extent, and the group of 5:5 group got the best results; it can significantly reduce the cerebral infarction area, and the group of 7:3, 5:5, 4:6 got the best results; it could significantly reduce the content of TNF-α, and the group of 8:2, 6:4 got the best results; it could significantly reduce the content of NO, and the group of 7:3, 5:5 got the best results; it could significantly increase the content of SOD, and the group of 6:4, 5:5 got the best results. This indicates that different component ratio of ATS and VTG may protect the damage of focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion rat model to a certain extent, which are compared using the comprehensive weight method and the ratio of 5:5 was proved to be the optimal active ratio.

  5. Yield and growth components of potato and wheat under organic nitrogen management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delden, van A.

    2001-01-01

    In order to optimize N management in organic farming systems, knowledge of crop growth processes in relation to N limitation is necessary. The present paper examines the response of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to N with respect to intercepted photosynthetically

  6. The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Is a Regulator of Epidermal Complement Component Expression and Complement Activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abu-Humaidan, Anas H A; Ananthoju, Nageshwar; Mohanty, Tirthankar

    2014-01-01

    The complement system is activated in response to tissue injury. During wound healing, complement activation seems beneficial in acute wounds but may be detrimental in chronic wounds. We found that the epidermal expression of many complement components was only increased to a minor extent in skin...

  7. Acclimation of biochemical and diffusive components of photosynthesis in rice, wheat and maize to heat and water deficit: implications for modeling photosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Alejandro Perdomo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the combined effects of heat stress, increased vapor pressure deficit (VPD and water deficit on the physiology of major crops needs to be better understood to help identifying the expected negative consequences of climate change and heat waves on global agricultural productivity. To address this issue, rice, wheat and maize plants were grown under control temperature (CT, 25°C, VPD 1.8 kPa, and a high temperature (HT, 38°C, VPD 3.5 kPa, both under well-watered (WW and water deficit (WD conditions. Gas-exchange measurements showed that, in general, WD conditions affected the leaf conductance to CO2, while growth at HT had a more marked effect on the biochemistry of photosynthesis. When combined, HT and WD had an additive effect in limiting photosynthesis. The negative impacts of the imposed treatments on the processes governing leaf gas-exchange were species-dependent. Wheat presented a higher sensitivity while rice and maize showed a higher acclimation potential to increased temperature. Rubisco and PEPC kinetic constants determined in vitro at 25°C and 38°C were used to estimate Vcmax, Jmax and Vpmax in the modeling of C3 and C4 photosynthesis. The results here obtained reiterate the need to use species-specific and temperature-specific values for Rubisco and PEPC kinetic constants for a precise parameterization of the photosynthetic response to changing environmental conditions in different crop species.

  8. Chemical composition analysis of the essential oil of Solanumn nigrum L. by HS/SPME method and calculation of the biochemical coefficients of the components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avat (Arman Taherpour

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The volatile constituents of the essential oil of wild Solanumn nigrum L. obtained from the Kurdistan of Iraq were extracted by head-space/solid-phase micro-extraction (HS/SPME and were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS. Of a total of twenty compounds in the oil, all of them were identified. The main components were as follows: Dillapiole (22.22%, α-Cadinol (16.47%, para-Cymene (10.01%, (E-1-(2,6,6-Trimethyl-1,3-cyclohexadien-1-yl-2-buten-1-one or β-damascenone (9.08%, α-Phellandrene (8.48%, β-Pinene (5.93%, α-Bisabolol acetate (4.53%, (Z,E-4,6,8-Megastigmatriene (4.09%, Phytol (2.49%, Linalyl butanoate (2.13%, 8-methylene-tricyclo[3.2.1.0(2,4]octane (2.60% and Limonene (2.03%. Some physicochemical properties, such as the logarithm of calculated octanol–water partitioning coefficients (logKow and total biodegradation (TBd in mol/h were calculated for compounds 1–20 from S. nigrum L.

  9. Key steps in unconventional secretion of fibroblast growth factor 2 reconstituted with purified components

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Steringer, J. P.; Lange, S.; Čujová, Sabína; Šachl, Radek; Poojari, C.; Lolicato, F.; Beutel, O.; Müller, H.-M.; Unger, S.; Coskun, U.; Honigmann, A.; Vattulainen, I.; Hof, Martin; Freund, Ch.; Nickel, W.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 2017 (2017), č. článku e28985. ISSN 2050-084X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GC14-03141J Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Unconventional protein secretion * Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 * Protein translocation across membranes Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 7.725, year: 2016

  10. Compost and vermicompost as nursery pot components: effects on tomato plant growth and morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazcano, C.; Arnold, J.; Tato, A.; Zaller, J. G.; Dominguez, J.

    2009-07-01

    Abstract Post transplant success after nursery stage is strongly influenced by plant morphology. Cultural practices strongly shape plant morphology, and substrate choice is one of the most determining factors. Peat is the most often used amendment in commercial potting substrates, involving the exploitation of non-renewable resources and the degradation of highly valuable peatland ecosystems and therefore alternative substrates are required. Here the feasibility of replacing peat by compost or vermicompost for the production of tomato plants in nurseries was investigated through the study of the effect of increasing proportions of these substrates (0%, 10%, 20%, 50%, 75% and 100%) in target plant growth and morphological features, indicators of adequate post-transplant growth and yield. Compost and vermicompost showed to be adequate substrates for tomato plant growth. Total replacement of peat by vermicompost was possible while doses of compost higher than 50% caused plant mortality. Low doses of compost (10 and 20%) and high doses of vermicompost produced significant increases in aerial and root biomass of the tomato plants. In addition these treatments improved significantly plant morphology (higher number of leaves and leaf area, and increased root volume and branching). The use of compost and vermicompost constitute an attractive alternative to the use of peat in plant nurseries due to the environmental benefits involved but also due to the observed improvement in plant quality. Additional key words: peat moss, plant nursery, soil-less substrate, Solanum lycopersicum L. (Author) 37 refs.

  11. REGIONAL COMPONENTS OF GROWTH THE QUALITY OF LIFE OF THE POPULATION (FOR EXAMPLE, VORONEZH REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Serebryakova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available At the present stage of development of economy there is a transformation of main objectives of the state from ensuring growth of welfare of citizens to ensuring continuous growth of quality of life. Ensuring growth of quality of life of the population is carried out not only on state, but also on regional levels. At the state level key tasks are formed, the state assumes a considerable share of functions on achievement of the designated purpose. In the real research the attention to consideration of the program documents directed on improvement of quality of life of the population on the example of the Voronezh region is paid. The program documents of a social orientation existing in the region are for this purpose studied. It is revealed that in the region a number of the programs and subprogrammes aimed at improvement of a demographic situation, improvement of a regional budgetary and tax policy, social support of citizens in general works. As tools which use regional authorities, are noted: social standards, address social help, social contracts. It is established that introduction of system of social contracts allows to save budget funds and, at the same time, to motivate the persons which are in a difficult life situation on change of the situation to the best, joint efforts with social security authorities. It is noted that as the leading principles of rendering the social help paramount value has detailed definition of degree of need of the help and a condition of granting. The last often generate dependant moods which are important for leveling, using levers of social interaction. The analysis of the contents of the realized programs for improvement of quality of life of the population allowed to reveal advantages and defects in these programs, and also to define reserves of growth of quality of life. So, it is specified that program documents of regional level in the prevailing majority have a narrow focus on ensuring the help and

  12. Antifungal activity of components used for decontamination of dental prostheses on the growth of Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Lima Gouveia

    Full Text Available Introduction: The effectiveness of antimicrobial solutions employed in dental prosthesis decontamination is still uncertain. Aim: To evaluate the antifungal activity of cleaners used in the decontamination of dental prostheses on the growth of Candida albicans. Material and method: The evaluated products were: Corega Tabs(r (S1, Sodium Hypochlorite 1% (S2, Sodium Bicarbonate 1% (S3, Hydrogen Peroxide 1% (S4, Chlorhexidine Digluconate 0.12% - Periogard (r (S5, Mouthrinse based on essential oils - Listerine(r (S6, essential oil from Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary at concentrations of 1% (S7 and 2% (S8. The antifungal activity of the products was evaluated by agar diffusion technique and the determination of microbial death curve of samples of C. albicans (ATCC 90028 in concentration 1.5 × 106 CFU/mL. The tests were performed in triplicate and statistical analysis was made by ANOVA Two-Way and Tukey tests, with the confidence level of 95%. Result: The average of the zones of inhibition growth, in millimeters, obtained for the products were: 0.0 (S1, 44.7 (S2, 0.0 (S3, 21.6 (S4, 10.0 (S5, 6.1 (S6, 0.0 (S7 and 2.4 (S8. Considering the determination of microbial death curve, all products showed a statistical difference (p<0.01 from control (0.85% sodium chloride and S3 groups. Fungal growth less than 2×104 CFU/mL and an accentuation of the microbial death curve were observed after 30 minutes, with exception for S3 and control groups. Conclusion: The studied compounds, with the exception of Sodium Bicarbonate, have antifungal effect against C. albicans, which contribute for dental prostheses hygiene.

  13. Influence of the silica growth on the radiation damages in MOS components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarrabayrouse, G.; Buxo, J.

    1974-01-01

    The dependence of the radiation sensitivity of M.O.S. components on some of the technological parameters involved in M.O.S. fabrication was studied. The parameters considered are the nature of the metallic electrode and water content of the oxide film. Effects of thermal post-oxidation treatments are also considered. Results obtained show that in the case of wet oxides without post-oxidation treatments the extent of the degradation effect is controlled by the conditions of humidity under which the oxide is obtained and the chemical reactivity of the metallic electrode. The role of ionic phenomena in these experiments is discussed [fr

  14. Effect of pre-sowing gamma irradiated lupin seeds on growth characters and yield components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragab, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    Selected seeds of lupin were exposed to Co 60 -source to achieve doses of 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80, 160, or 320 Grey, beside the control treatment, irradiated and unirradiated seeds were sown and the raised plants were grown under field condition at Agric. Dept. of Soil and Water Res. A.E.A. Representative plant samples were taken at early growth stage 15-days-old seedling at flowering and at harvest. The gained results could be summarized as follows: Plant growth parameters: Plant height, particularly at early stages and at flowering and the produced dry matter were statistically affected by the treatments. Leaf pigment content was intensified by almost 14-28% over control treatment. Total carbohydrates and soluble protein in plant leaves were statistically influenced by the applied irradiation doses. Number of pods was materially affected by the treatments while no remarkable effect was noted as far as a number of seeds/plant and dry weight of seeds/plant were considered: consequently: seed index was not materially affected

  15. Tenascin-Y, a component of distinctive connective tissues, supports muscle cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagios, C; Brown-Luedi, M; Chiquet-Ehrismann, R

    1999-12-15

    Chicken tenascin-Y is an extracellular matrix protein most closely related to the mammalian tenascin-X. It is highly expressed in the connective tissue of skeletal muscle (C. Hagios, M. Koch, J. Spring, M. Chiquet, and R. Chiquet-Ehrismann, 1996, J. Cell Biol. 134, 1499-1512). Here we demonstrate the presence of tenascin-Y in specific areas of the connective tissues in developing lung, kidney, and skin. In skin tenascin-Y shows a complementary expression pattern to tenascin-C, whereas in the lung and kidney the sites of expression are partly overlapping. Tenascin-Y is also present in embryonic skeletal muscle where it is expressed in the developing connective tissue in between the muscle fibers. This connective tissue is also the major site of alpha5 integrin expression. We purified recombinantly expressed tenascin-Y and tested its effect on cell adhesion and its influence on muscle cell growth and differentiation. C2C12 myoblasts were able to adhere to tenascin-Y and showed extensive formation of actin-rich processes without generation of stress fibers. Furthermore, we found that tenascin-Y influenced cell morphology of chick embryo fibroblasts over prolonged times in culture and that it supports primary muscle cell growth and restricts muscle cell differentiation. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  16. Thermo-elastic-plastic analysis for elastic component under high temperature fatigue crack growth rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammed Ali Nasser

    The research project presents a fundamental understanding of the fatigue crack growth mechanisms of AISI 420 martensitic stainless steel, based on the comparison analysis between the theoretical and numerical modelling, incorporating research findings under isothermal fatigue loading for solid cylindrical specimen and the theoretical modelling with the numerical simulation for tubular specimen when subjected to cyclic mechanical loading superimposed by cyclic thermal shock.The experimental part of this research programme studied the fatigue stress-life data for three types of surface conditions specimen and the isothermal stress-controlled fatigue testing at 300 °C - 600 °C temperature range. It is observed that the highest strength is obtained for the polished specimen, while the machined specimen shows lower strength, and the lowest strength is the notched specimen due to the high effect of the stress concentration. The material behaviour at room and high temperatures shows an initial hardening, followed by slow extension until fully plastic saturation then followed by crack initiation and growth eventually reaching the failure of the specimen, resulting from the dynamic strain ageing occurred from the transformation of austenitic microstructure to martensite and also, the nucleation of precipitation at grain boundaries and the incremental temperature increase the fatigue crack growth rate with stress intensity factor however, the crack growth rate at 600 °C test temperature is less than 500 °C because of the creep-fatigue taking place.The theoretical modelling presents the crack growth analysis and stress and strain intensity factor approaches analysed in two case studies based on the addition of thermo-elastic-plastic stresses to the experimental fatigue applied loading. Case study one estimates the thermal stresses superimposed sinusoidal cyclic mechanical stress results in solid cylinder under isothermal fatigue simulation. Case study two estimates the

  17. Crack growth behaviour of low alloy steels for pressure boundary components under transient light water reactor operating conditions (CASTOC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foehl, J.; Weissenberg, T.; Gomez-Briceno, D.; Lapena, J.; Ernestova, M.; Zamboch, M.; Seifert, H.P.; Ritter, S.; Roth, A.; Devrient, B.; Ehrnsten, U.

    2004-01-01

    The CASTOC project addresses environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) phenomena in low alloy steels used for pressure boundary components in both Western type boiling water reactors (BWR) and Russian type pressurised water reactors (VVER). It comprises the four work packages (WP): inter-laboratory comparison test (WP1); EAC behaviour under static load (WP2), EAC behaviour under cyclic load and load transients (WP3); evaluation of the results with regard to their relevance for components in practice (WP4). The use of sophisticated test facilities and measurement techniques for the on-line detection of crack advances have provided a more detailed understanding of the mechanisms of environmentally assisted cracking and provided quantitative data of crack growth rates as a function of loading events and time, respectively. The effect of several major parameters controlling EAC was investigated with particular emphasis on the transferability of the results to components in service. The obtained crack growth rate data were reflected on literature data and on commonly applied prediction curves as presented in the appropriate Code. At relevant stress intensity factors it could be shown that immediate cessation of growing cracks occurs after changing from cyclic to static load in high purity oxygenated BWR water and oxygen-free VVER water corresponding to steady state operation conditions. Susceptibility to environmentally assisted cracking under static load was observed for a heat affected zone material in oxygenated high purity water and also in base materials during a chloride transient representing BWR water condition below Action Level 1 of the EPRI Water Chemistry Guidelines according to the lectrical conductivity of the water but in the range of Action Level 2 according to the content of chlorides. Time based crack growth was also observed in one Russian type base material in oxygenated VVER water and in one Western type base material in oxygenated high purity BWR

  18. Growth in Total Height and Its Components and Cardiometabolic Health in Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Line Klingen; Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Perng, Wei

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Short stature or short legs is associated with cardiometabolic disease. Few studies have addressed this issue in children, incorporated repeated measures, or studied modern cohorts. METHODS: We examined if change in total height, leg length and trunk length between two time points from...... was a cardiometabolic risk score based on sex-specific internal z-scores for systolic blood pressure, waist circumference, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. RESULTS: Mean (SD) total height was 97.9 (4.5) cm in boys and 97.1 (4.7) cm in girls...... in early childhood and 129.1 (7.2) cm in boys and 128.3 (7.9) cm in girls in mid-childhood. Trunk length constituted about half of total height. In linear regression models adjusted for parental anthropometry and socio-demographics, faster growth in total height, leg length and particularly trunk length...

  19. [Effects of endophytic fungi from Dendrobium officinale on host growth and components metabolism of tissue culture seedlings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bo; Liu, Jing-Jing; Si, Jin-Ping; Qin, Lu-Ping; Han, Ting; Zhao, Li; Wu, Ling-Shang

    2016-05-01

    The paper aims to study the effects of endophytic fungi from D. officinale cultivated on living trees on growth and components metabolism of tissue culture seedlings. Morphological characteristics and agronomic characters of tissue culture seedlings infected and uninfected by endophytic fungus were observed and measured. Polysaccharides and alcohol-soluble extracts contents were determined by phenol-sulfuric acid method and hot-dipmethod, respectively. Monosacchride composition of polysaccharides and alcohol-soluble extracts components were analyzed by pre-column derivatives HPLC and HPLC method, respectively. It showed that effects of turning to purple of stem nodes could be changed by endophytic fungus. Besides, the endophytic fungus could affect the contents and constitutions of polysaccharides and alcohol-soluble extracts. The strains tested, expect DO34, could promote growth and polysaccharides content of tissue culture seedlings. The strains tested, expect DO12, could promote the accumulation of mannose. Furthermore, DO18, DO19 and DO120 could increase alcohol-soluble extracts. On the basis, four superior strains were selected for mechanism research between endophytic fungus and their hosts and microbiology engineering. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  20. Fundamental Understanding of Crack Growth in Structural Components of Generation IV Supercritical Light Water Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iouri I. Balachov; Takao Kobayashi; Francis Tanzella; Indira Jayaweera; Palitha Jayaweera; Petri Kinnunen; Martin Bojinov; Timo Saario

    2004-11-17

    This work contributes to the design of safe and economical Generation-IV Super-Critical Water Reactors (SCWRs) by providing a basis for selecting structural materials to ensure the functionality of in-vessel components during the entire service life. During the second year of the project, we completed electrochemical characterization of the oxide film properties and investigation of crack initiation and propagation for candidate structural materials steels under supercritical conditions. We ranked candidate alloys against their susceptibility to environmentally assisted degradation based on the in situ data measure with an SRI-designed controlled distance electrochemistry (CDE) arrangement. A correlation between measurable oxide film properties and susceptibility of austenitic steels to environmentally assisted degradation was observed experimentally. One of the major practical results of the present work is the experimentally proven ability of the economical CDE technique to supply in situ data for ranking candidate structural materials for Generation-IV SCRs. A potential use of the CDE arrangement developed ar SRI for building in situ sensors monitoring water chemistry in the heat transport circuit of Generation-IV SCWRs was evaluated and proved to be feasible.

  1. Response of maize varieties to nitrogen application for leaf area profile, crop growth, yield and yield components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akmal, M.; Hameed-urRehman; Farhatullah; Asim, M.; Akbar, H.

    2010-01-01

    An experiment was conducted at NWFP Agricultural University, Peshawar, to study maize varieties and Nitrogen (N) rates for growth, yield and yield components. Three varieties (Azam, Jalal and Sarhad white) and three N rates (90, 120, 150, kg N ha/sup -1/) were compared. Experiment was conducted in a Randomized Complete Block design; split plot arrangement with 4 replications. Uniform and recommended cultural practices were applied during the crop growth. The results revealed that maize variety 'Jalal' performed relatively better crop growth rate (CGR) and leaf area profile (LAP) at nodal position one to six as compared to the other two varieties (Sarhad white and Azam). This resulted higher radiation use efficiency by the crop canopy at vegetative stage of development and hence contributed higher assimilates towards biomass production. Heavier grains in number and weight were due to higher LAP and taller plants of Jalal which yielded higher in the climate. Nitrogen applications have shown that maize seed yield increase in quadratic fashion with increased N to a plateau level. Considering soil fertility status and cropping system, the 150 kg ha/sup -1/ N application to maize variety Jalal in Peshawar is required for maximum biological and seed production. (author)

  2. Effects of irradiated Ergosan on the growth performance and mucus biological components of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhzadeh, Najmeh; Chehrara, Fatemeh; Heidarieh, Marzieh; Nofouzi, Katayoon; Baradaran, Behzad

    2016-01-01

    Effects of irradiated and non-irradiated Ergosan extract (alginic acid) on rainbow trout growth performance and skin mucosal immunity were compared. Ergosan was irradiated at 30 kGy in a cobalt-60 irradiator. A total of 252 fish (128.03±9.4 g) were randomly divided into four equal groups, given the basal diet either unsupplemented with Ergosan (control group) or supplemented with crude Ergosan (5 g/kg), ethanol-extracted Ergosan (0.33 g/kg) or irradiated Ergosan (0.33 g/kg) according to this protocol: basal diet for 15 days, treatment diet for 15 days, basal diet for 10 days and treatment diet for 15 days. Highest growth performance was observed in fish fed irradiated Ergosan ( P <0.05). Dietary administration of different Ergosan types did not cause any changes in mucus protein level, but improved alkaline phosphatase level and hemagglutination titer compared with the control (basal diet without Ergosan) on day 55 of feeding trial ( P <0.05). Furthermore, the highest value of lysozyme activity was observed in gamma-irradiated Ergosan on day 55. In conclusion, gamma-irradiated Ergosan at 0.33 g/kg was found to improve growth performance and mucus biological components significantly in comparison with the control group (basal diet without Ergosan).

  3. Role of nitric oxide in cadmium-induced stress on growth, photosynthetic components and yield of Brassica napus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhanji, Shalini; Setia, R C; Kaur, Navjyot; Kaur, Parminder; Setia, Neelam

    2012-11-01

    Experiments were carried out to study the effect of cadmium (Cd) and exogenous nitric oxide (NO) on growth, photosynthetic attributes, yield components and structural features of Brassica napus L. (cv. GSL 1). Cadmium in the growth medium at different levels (1, 2 and 4 Mm) retarded plant growth viz. shoot (27%) and root (51%) length as compared to control. The accumulation of total dry matter and its partitioning to different plant parts was also reduced by 31% due to Cd toxicity. Photosynthetic parameters viz., leaf area plant(-1) (51%), total Chl (27%), Chl a / Chl b ratio (22%) and Hill reaction activity of chloroplasts (42%) were greatly reduced in Cd-treated plants. Cd treatments adversely affected various yield parameters viz., number of branches (23) and siliquae plant(-1) (246), seed number siliqua(-1) (10.3), 1000-seed weight (2.30g) and seed yield plant(-1) (7.09g). Different Cd treatments also suppressed the differentiation of various tissues like vessels in the root with a maximum inhibition caused by 4mM Cd. Exogenous application of nitric oxide (NO) improved the various morpho-physiological and photosynthetic parameters in control as well as Cd-treated plants.

  4. Changes During Growth in Cell Wall Components of Berseem Clover Under Different Cutting Treatments in a Mediterranean Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuditta De Santis

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Forage digestibility of berseem clover (Trifolium Alexandrinum L. is influenced by plant cell wall composition. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different cutting treatments on cell-wall components of the herbage and plant fractions in two Mediterranean berseem genotypes during growth and to examine the relationship between digestibility and cell wall components in these plant fractions. Cutting treatments were initiated at sixth internode elongation (A and early flowering (B and there was an uncut control treatment (C. Spring growth of genotypes of Egyptian (cv. Giza 10 and Italian (cv. Sacromonte origins was harvested in each of two years beginning 196 days after sowing and thereafter every 6 days (twelve harvests in total to measure cell wall components. Neutral detergent fibre (NDF, acid detergent fibre (ADF and acid detergent lignin (ADL concentrations were determined for leaf, stem, and total forage of each cultivar at each harvest. Without defoliation, NDF, ADF and ADL concentrations of herbage increased linearly to a maximum of 528, 375 and 84 g kg-1 DM, respectively, by 220 days after planting, when plant height reached maximum values, then plateaued until 257 days after planting. Plant parts differed in cell-wall concentration, with stems being of higher fibre components than leaves, in the two cutting treatments. Herbage and plant fraction fibre concentrations were negatively correlated with digestibility for all cutting treatments. Defoliation induced a reduction in fibre concentrations and plant height, although a rapid regrowth was observed after cutting, in both treatments A and B. However, delaying defoliation to the early flowering stage (B increased fibre components concentrations both at cutting time and during the growing season and significantly reduced the regrowth height. Conversely, plants cut at the sixth internode elongation (treatment A showed lower concentrations of fibre fractions than initiating

  5. Effects of dietary administration of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) on the growth performance, biochemical, hematological and immunological parameters in juvenile and adult Victoria Labeo (Labeo victorianus) challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngugi, Charles C; Oyoo-Okoth, Elijah; Mugo-Bundi, James; Orina, Paul Sagwe; Chemoiwa, Emily Jepyegon; Aloo, Peninah A

    2015-06-01

    We investigated effects of dietary administration of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) on growth performance, biochemical, hematological and immunological parameters in juvenile and adult Victoria Labeo (Labeo victorianus) against Aeromonas hydrophila. Fish were divided into 4 groups and fed for 4 and 16 weeks with 0%, 1%, 2% and 5% of U. dioica incorporated into the diet. Use of U. dioica in the diet resulted in improved biochemical, hematological and immunological parameters. Among the biochemical parameters; plasma cortisol, glucose, triglyceride and cholesterol decreased while total protein and albumin in fish increased with increasing dietary inclusion of U. dioica. Among the haematology parameters: red blood cell (RBC), white blood cell (WBC) counts, haematocrit (Htc), mean cell haemoglobin (MCH), mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and netrophiles increased with increasing dietary inclusion levels of U. dioica, some depending on the fish age. Serum immunoglobulins, lysozyme activity and respiratory burst were the main immunological parameters in the adult and juvenile L. victorianus measured and they all increased with increasing herbal inclusion of U. dioica in the diet. Dietary incorporation of U. dioica at 5% showed significantly higher relative percentage survival (up to 95%) against A. hydrophila. The current results demonstrate that using U. dioica can stimulate fish immunity and make L. victorianus more resistant to bacterial infection (A. hydrophila). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Stand-level growth and yield component models for red oak-sweetgum forests on Mid-South minor stream bottoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emily B. Schultz; J. Clint Iles; Thomas G. Matney; Andrew W. Ezell; James S. Meadows; Theodor D. Leininger; al. et.

    2010-01-01

    Greater emphasis is being placed on Southern bottomland hardwood management, but relatively few growth and yield prediction systems exist that are based on sufficient measurements. We present the aggregate stand-level expected yield and structural component equations for a red oak (Quercus section Lobatae)-sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) growth and yield model....

  7. Sewage sludge used as organic manure in Moroccan sunflower culture: Effects on certain soil properties, growth and yield components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Bourioug; Mounia, Krouna; Aziz, Abouabdillah; Ahmed, Harraq; Rachid, Bouabid; Lotfi, Aleya

    2018-06-15

    The wastewater treatment and sludge production sectors in Morocco are recent. Considered as waste, no management strategy for sewage sludge (SS) has been implemented. Thus, its disposal definitely represents a major environmental problem since sludge is either incinerated, used as landfill or simply deposited near wastewater treatment plants. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of dehydrated SS on certain soil properties (pH, electrical conductivity (EC), Mineral nitrogen, available phosphate P 2 O 5 , and soluble potassium K 2 O), and also on growth and yield components of the sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). An experiment was conducted using six treatment rates (0; 0 + NPK; 15; 30; 60 and 120 t ha -1 ). The results showed that soil pH was significantly affected by SS, becoming less alkaline compared to the control, while electrical conductivity increased significantly when the applied doses were above 30 t ha -1 . Also, a significant enrichment in mineral N and available phosphorus was detected in amended soil. However, no differences were found between pots having received the mineral fertilization and the SS at 15 t ha -1 . Stem height growth of the sunflower seedlings receiving SS increased significantly compared to the two controls. For both the aerial and root parts, significant increases in dry biomass accumulation were observed compared to the unamended plants. Net CO 2 assimilation (A n ) increased, while stomatal conductance (g sw ) and transpiration rates (T r ) decreased with increasing SS rates. SS application at 15 t ha -1 presented similar values of the yield components compared to plants fertilized chemically. However, grain yield (in quintals ha -1 ) was noted to be 2.4, 5 and 8 times higher in treatments receiving SS respectively at the rate of 30, 60 and 120 t ha -1 . Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Biochemical Hypermedia: Galactose Metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Sugai

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Animations of biochemical processes and virtual laboratory environments lead to true molecular simulations. The use of interactive software’s in education can improve cognitive capacity, better learning and, mainly, it makes information acquisition easier. Material and Methods: This work presents the development of a biochemical hypermedia to understanding of the galactose metabolism. It was developed with the help of concept maps, ISIS Draw, ADOBE Photoshop and FLASH MX Program. Results and Discussion: A step by step animation process shows the enzymatic reactions of galactose conversion to glucose-1-phosphate (to glycogen synthesis, glucose-6-phosphate (glycolysis intermediary, UDP-galactose (substrate to mucopolysaccharides synthesis and collagen’s glycosylation. There are navigation guide that allow scrolling the mouse over the names of the components of enzymatic reactions of via the metabolism of galactose. Thus, explanatory text box, chemical structures and animation of the actions of enzymes appear to navigator. Upon completion of the module, the user’s response to the proposed exercise can be checked immediately through text box with interactive content of the answer. Conclusion: This hypermedia was presented for undergraduate students (UFSC who revealed that it was extremely effective in promoting the understanding of the theme.

  9. Effects of Moringa oleifera leaves as a substitute for alfalfa meal on nutrient digestibility, growth performance, carcass trait, meat quality, antioxidant capacity and biochemical parameters of rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, B; Zhang, Y; Ding, M; Xi, Q; Liu, G; Li, Y; Liu, D; Chen, X

    2018-02-01

    This contribution reports the effects of Moringa oleifera leaves (MOLs) meal on the growth performances, nutrient digestibility, carcass trait, meat quality, antioxidant capacity and biochemical parameters of growing New Zealand white rabbits. The MOL was substituted for alfalfa meal at levels of 0, 10%, 20% and 30% to obtain respective diets MOL0, MOL10, MOL20 and MOL30. Each treatment was replicated five times with 10 rabbits per replicate. Results showed the average daily weight gain (ADWG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of rabbits fed MOL20 diet were significantly better (p oleifera leaves (MOL0, MOL10). The meat drip loss of rabbits fed with diet MOL10 was significantly lower (p oleifera leaves. No significant differences were found in the digestibility of crude fibre (CF), crude fat (EE), ash, crude protein (CP) and nitrogen-free extract (NFE) among the dietary groups. Moringa oleifera leaves also have a significant impact on serum albumin (ALB), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC), triiodothyroxine (T 3 ) and tetraiodothyroxine (T 4 ) values and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in serum and liver. The results indicated that M. oleifera leaves could be developed as a good feed source, and it not only could substitute for alfalfa meal well but also has a significant effect on growth performance, meat quality, antioxidant and biochemical parameters of rabbits. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Effect of Nitrogen Fertilizer on Weeds Growth and Emergence and Yield and Yield Components of Corn (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gholamshahi

    2017-01-01

    components of corn and weeds growth and emergence, a field study was conducted in research Station of Natural Resources Research Centre, Kerman province. Materials and Methods: This experiment was conducted using a randomized complete block design with three replications. The treatments consisted of different levels of nitrogen in four levels (0, 80, 160, 240 kg ha-1 urea fertilizer (46%. In addition, for assessment the effect of experimental treatments, each plot separated into two parts (complete control and non-control of weeds. Preparing the field was done with autumn plowing and spring disc. Corn seeds (single cross 704 were planted on rows in the spring with hand and with the density of 71000 plants per hectare with row spacing of 70 cm and 20cm. Irrigation was performed on average every7 days. Weeds in the control treatment were weeding by hand twice during the growing season. Results and Discussion: The results showed that nitrogen application in combination with weeds control increased yield and yield components of corn and the other growth traits, significantly. The maximum corn yield observed 12/8 kg under high nitrogen treatment (240 kg ha-1 with 88/82% increase compare with non-fertilizer treatment. Moreover, increase in nitrogen imposed a significant positive affect on height, yield and yield components including (Length and ear diameter and ear dry matter, the number of grains in row and the number of rows in ear, hundred grain weight. Nitrogen is one of the factors affecting the development of leaf area per plant and therefore, the development of the corn canopy. It seems that the increase of nitrogen during the tassel stage and seed formation which are the most sensitive stages to nitrogen absorption and photosynthesis, increased the length of ear. In addition, results of the experiment indicated that control of weeds had significant effect on different growth factors. Furthermore, the increase nitrogen rate caused to weeds emergence rate and dry weight

  11. BISEN: Biochemical simulation environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanlier, J.; Wu, F.; Qi, F.; Vinnakota, K.C.; Han, Y.; Dash, R.K.; Yang, F.; Beard, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    The Biochemical Simulation Environment (BISEN) is a suite of tools for generating equations and associated computer programs for simulating biochemical systems in the MATLAB® computing environment. This is the first package that can generate appropriate systems of differential equations for

  12. Enhancement of growth, photosynthetic performance and yield by exclusion of ambient UV components in C3 and C4 plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataria, Sunita; Guruprasad, K N; Ahuja, Sumedha; Singh, Bupinder

    2013-10-05

    A field experiment was conducted under tropical climate for assessing the effect of ambient UV-B and UV-A by exclusion of UV components on the growth, photosynthetic performance and yield of C3 (cotton, wheat) and C4 (amaranthus, sorghum) plants. The plants were grown in specially designed UV exclusion chambers, wrapped with filters that excluded UV-B (plant species responded to UV exclusion by a significant increase in plant height, leaf area, leaf biomass, total biomass accumulation and yield. Measurements of the chlorophyll, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, gas exchange parameters and the activity of Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco) by fixation of (14)CO2 indicated a direct relationship between enhanced rate of photosynthesis and yield of the plants. Quantum yield of electron transport was enhanced by the exclusion of UV indicating better utilization of PAR assimilation and enhancement in reducing power in all the four plant species. Exclusion of UV-B in particular significantly enhanced the net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and activity of Rubisco. Additional fixation of carbon due to exclusion of ambient UV-B was channeled towards yield as there was a decrease in the level of UV-B absorbing substances and an increase in soluble proteins in all the four plant species. The magnitude of the promotion in all the parameters studied was higher in dicots (cotton, amaranthus) compared to monocots (wheat, sorghum) after UV exclusion. The results indicated a suppressive action of ambient UV-B on growth and photosynthesis; dicots were more sensitive than monocots in this suppression while no great difference in sensitivity was found between C3 and C4 plants. Experiments indicated the suppressive action of ambient UV on carbon fixation and yield of C3 and C4 plants. Exclusion of solar UV-B will have agricultural benefits in both C3 and C4 plants under tropical climate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Investigation of Tolerance, Yield and Yield Components of Wheat Cultivars to Salinity of Irrigation Water at Sensitive Stages of Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Saadatian

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This research in order to study of tolerance ability of wheat cultivates yield and yield components to salinity of irrigation water at sensitive stages of growth, was carried out as a factorial based on a randomized complete block design with 3 replications at greenhouse of Agricultural Faculty of Bu-Ali Sina University, in 2009. Treatments were included wheat cultivars of Alvand, Tous, Sayson and Navid and salinity of irrigation water induced by sodium chloride at five levels of 0, 4, 8, 12 and 16 dS m-1. The results showed that percentage and rate of emergence, plant height, 1000-grain weight, number of seed per spike, number of spike per pot, biological and grain yield reduced by increasing salinity level. At all stress levels Navid cv. had highest emergence percentage. In non-stress and 4 dS m-1, Alvand cv. and at higher levels of stress, Tous cv. had high height in reproductive phase. At control and 4 dS m-1, Sayson cv. and at 8, 12 and 16 dS m-1, Tous cv. in majority of yield and yield components traits had significant superior than other cultivars. Tolerance index of Sayson cv. at 4 and 8 dS m-1 was more than other cultivars but at 12 and 16 dS m-1, maximum value of this index was belonged to Tous cv. At all salinity levels, Alvand cv. had least tolerance index to stress. Number of spike per pot had maximum direct effect on grain yield of wheat cultivars in stress condition. Also indirect effect of biological yield via number of spike per pot than other its indirect effects, had maximum share in wheat seed yield.

  14. Electrophoretic analysis of different human growth hormone preparations:characterization and molecular weight estimation of isohormones and other proteic components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, I.

    1979-01-01

    Twelve human growth hormone (hGH) preparations were studied on analytical polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis with the purpose of evaluating degree of homogeneity of the extracts, the geometric mean radius (R) sup(-) and the molecular weight (MW) of the protein hormone. A standard curve was used for ten proteins of known molecular weight, where the square root of the retardation coefficient (K sub(R)) was plotted against R sup(-). Five isohormones were identified and defined as charge isomers, based on their different relative free mobility and on their similar R sup(-)(1.81-1.97 nm) and MW (20300-26000 d) values. The heterogeneity of all preparations was due to the presence in general of three isohormones. In five preparations, isohormones B, C 1 and C 2 , were predominant. In recent hGH (IEA) preparations by the method of ROOS, the isohormones C 2 , D and E were identified while in an older one, isohormones E and E 1 were detected. From two to five minor components were found in all samples. Moreover the same type of analysis was carried out on several fractions from protein peaks II and III eluting from Sephadex G 100 purification of three hGH (IEA) extracts. The isohormones start to appear in peak II and their relative concentration is in agreement with the peak III profile read at 280 nm. Practically all secondary components were present in peak II and in most of peak III, showing a type of heterogeneity due to hGH polymeric forms and a relatively small presence of contaminants. (Author) [pt

  15. Heterogeneity of variance components for preweaning growth in Romane sheep due to the number of lambs reared

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poivey Jean-Paul

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pre-weaning growth rate of lambs, an important component of meat market production, is affected by maternal and direct genetic effects. The French genetic evaluation model takes into account the number of lambs suckled by applying a multiplicative factor (1 for a lamb reared as a single, 0.7 for twin-reared lambs to the maternal genetic effect, in addition to including the birth*rearing type combination as a fixed effect, which acts on the mean. However, little evidence has been provided to justify the use of this multiplicative model. The two main objectives of the present study were to determine, by comparing models of analysis, 1 whether pre-weaning growth is the same trait in single- and twin-reared lambs and 2 whether the multiplicative coefficient represents a good approach for taking this possible difference into account. Methods Data on the pre-weaning growth rate, defined as the average daily gain from birth to 45 days of age on 29,612 Romane lambs born between 1987 and 2009 at the experimental farm of La Sapinière (INRA-France were used to compare eight models that account for the number of lambs per dam reared in various ways. Models were compared using the Akaike information criteria. Results The model that best fitted the data assumed that 1 direct (maternal effects correspond to the same trait regardless of the number of lambs reared, 2 the permanent environmental effects and variances associated with the dam depend on the number of lambs reared and 3 the residual variance depends on the number of lambs reared. Even though this model fitted the data better than a model that included a multiplicative coefficient, little difference was found between EBV from the different models (the correlation between EBV varied from 0.979 to 0.999. Conclusions Based on experimental data, the current genetic evaluation model can be improved to better take into account the number of lambs reared. Thus, it would be of

  16. Crystal growth and scintillation properties of multi-component oxide single crystals: Ce:GGAG and Ce:La-GPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, A., E-mail: yoshikawa@imr.tohoku.ac.jp [Institute for Materials Research (IMR), Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); New Industry Creation Hatchery Center (NICHe), Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); C& A Corporation, 6-6-40 Aramaki Aza Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Kamada, K. [New Industry Creation Hatchery Center (NICHe), Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); C& A Corporation, 6-6-40 Aramaki Aza Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Kurosawa, S. [Institute for Materials Research (IMR), Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); New Industry Creation Hatchery Center (NICHe), Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Shoji, Y. [Institute for Materials Research (IMR), Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); C& A Corporation, 6-6-40 Aramaki Aza Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Yokota, Y. [New Industry Creation Hatchery Center (NICHe), Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Chani, V.I. [Institute for Materials Research (IMR), Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Nikl, M. [Institute of Physics, AS CR, Cukrovarnická 10, 162 53 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2016-01-15

    Crystal growth by micro-pulling-down, Czochralski, and floating zone methods and scintillation properties of Ce:Gd{sub 3}(Ga,Al){sub 5}O{sub 12} (Ce:GGAG) multi-component oxide garnets, and Ce:Gd{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} (Ce:GPS) or Ce:(La,Gd){sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} (Ce:La-GPS) pyro-silicates are reviewed. GGAG crystals demonstrated practically linear dependences of some of the parameters including lattice constant, emission wavelength, and band gap on Ga content. However, emission intensity, light yield and energy resolution showed maxima for intermediate compositions. GGAG crystals had the highest light yield of 56,000 photon/MeV for Ga content of 2.7 atoms per garnet formula unit. Similarly the light yield and energy resolution of La-GPS showed the highest values of 40,000 photon/MeV and 4.4%@662 keV, respectively, for La-GPS containing 10% of La. Moreover, La-GPS demonstrated stable scintillation performance up to 200 °C.

  17. Evaluation of Yield, Yield Components and Growth Indices of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. in Conventional and Organic Farming Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh Hajghani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Application of organic fertilizers in sustainable agriculture systems improves yield sustainability of field crop. Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. is native to Middle East and belongs to the Asteraceae family. It is resistant to saline conditions, water stress, and can reach the deep-lying water of soil. The humic acid (HA mentioned as an environmentally friendly, organic matter with low levels of hormonal-like compounds is useful in improving agriculture production (Samavat and Malakuti 2006. The HA influence on plant growth depends on the source, concentration and molecular weight of the substance. Vermicompost is produced by earthworms, mainly Eisenia foetida, it has higher levels of available nutrients compared to the original materials of composts produced by other methods. Recent evidences suggest that using different amounts of vermicompost increased vegetative traits and concentration of minerals in sunflower. However, there has been little discussion about organic farming of safflower. The main objectives of the present study were to determine the effect of organic treatments on yield, yield components, and growth indices of safflower and to compare it with conventional agriculture. Materials and methods This research was conducted in Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Station in Kerman, Iran during 2012–2013. It was carried out in a randomized complete block (RCB design and had three replications. The current research has been performed to investigate the effects of two different sources of organic fertilizer on spring safflower. Four levels of vermicompost (V: 0, 3, 6 and 9 t ha-1 were considered in the main plots. Liquid humic acid at four different concentrations (HA: 0, 1000, 2000 and 3000 ppm were examined and kept in the subplots. Humic acid as a foliar treatment on leaf surface was applied twice at the beginning of stem elongation and at flowering times. In this study, aimed to compare organic farming

  18. Vinegar residue compost as a growth substrate enhances cucumber resistance against the Fusarium wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum by regulating physiological and biochemical responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lu; Du, Nanshan; Yuan, Yinghui; Shu, Sheng; Sun, Jin; Guo, Shirong

    2016-09-01

    Fusarium wilt caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC) is the most severe soil-borne disease attacking cucumber. To assess the positive effects of vinegar residue substrate (VRS) on the growth and incidence of Fusarium wilt on cucumber, we determined the cucumber growth parameters, disease severity, defense-related enzyme and pathogenesis-related (PR) protein activities, and stress-related gene expression levels. In in vitro and pot experiments, we demonstrated the following results: (i) the VRS extract exhibited a higher biocontrol activity than that of peat against FOC, and significantly improved the growth inhibition of FOC, with values of 48.3 %; (ii) in response to a FOC challenge, antioxidant enzymes and the key enzymes of phenylpropanoid metabolic activities, as well as the PR protein activities in the roots of cucumber, were significantly increased. Moreover, the activities of these proteins were higher in VRS than in peat; (iii) the expression levels of stress-related genes (including glu, pal, and ethylene receptor) elicited responses to the pathogens inoculated in cucumber leaves; and (iv) the FOC treatment significantly inhibited the growth of cucumber seedlings. Moreover, all of the growth indices of plants grown in VRS were significantly higher than those grown in peat. These results offer a new strategy to control cucumber Fusarium wilt, by upregulating the activity levels of defense-related enzymes and PR proteins and adjusting gene expression levels. They also provide a theoretical basis for VRS applications.

  19. Effects of Coenzyme Q10 and Vitamin C on Growth Performance and Blood Components in Broiler Chickens under Heat Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raeisi-Zeydabad S

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out to study the effects of Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 and vitamin C (VC on growth performance and blood biochemistry in broiler chickens under heat stress conditions. One of three levels of CoQ10 (0, 20, and 40 mg/kg of diet and one of two levels of VC (0 and 250 mg/kg of diet were supplemented to diets of chicks (from 1-42 d of age in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement. Each dietary treatment had four replicate pens (10 chicks/pen. In order to create chronic heat stress, the house temperature was set at an ambient temperature of 35±2°C for 8 hrs daily (09:00 to 17:00 between 25-42 d of age. Feed intake, body weight gain (BWG, and feed to gain ratio (F:G were recorded at d 10, 25 and 42. At the end of experiment, two chicks/pen were randomly selected to assess blood components. CoQ10 supplementation improved BWG and F:G during 11-25 days, 26-42 days, and the whole period of the experiment (P < 0.05, while VC supplementation improved BWG and F:G only during 11-25 d of age. Blood glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations were reduced (P < 0.05 by addition of CoQ10 to the diet. Both Supplementation of CoQ10 and VC together lowered heterophil (H count but increased lymphocyte (L count, thereby reducing H/L ratio (P < 0.05. Serum concentrations of corticosterone and T4 were positively affected by dietary supplementation of CoQ10 (P < 0.05, but no differences were obtained with addition of VC to the diet. In conclusion, our observations demonstrated that dietary supplementation of 40 mg/kg CoQ10 or 250 mg/kg VC improves the growth performance of broiler chickens under the heat stress.

  20. Growth, photosynthesis and nitrogen metabolism in soybean varieties after exclusion of the UV-B and UV-A/B components of solar radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjay Singh Baroniya; Sunita Kataria; Govind Prakash Pandey; Kadur N. Guruprasad

    2014-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the impact of the exclusion of the solar UV components on growth, photosynthesis and nitrogen metabolism in soybean (Glycine max) varieties PK-472, Pusa-24, JS 71-05, JS-335, NRC-7 and Kalitur. The plants were grown in specially designed UV exclusion chambers wrapped with filters to exclude UV-B or UV-A/B and transmitted all UV. Exclusion of UV significantly enhanced the growth of the aerial parts as well as the growth of the below ground parts in all...

  1. Exercise and the platelet activator calcium chloride both influence the growth factor content of platelet-rich plasma (PRP): overlooked biochemical factors that could influence PRP treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamilton, Bruce; Tol, Johannes L.; Knez, Wade; Chalabi, Hakim

    2015-01-01

    There is strong evidence that exercise affects platelet haemostasis factors, but this potential effect on growth factor concentrations in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has never been studied. In addition, there is a paucity of studies focusing on the effects of activating agents used in conjunction

  2. Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Jones; George A. Schier

    1985-01-01

    This chapter considers aspen growth as a process, and discusses some characteristics of the growth and development of trees and stands. For the most part, factors affecting growth are discussed elsewhere, particularly in the GENETICS AND VARIATION chapter and in chapters in PART 11. ECOLOGY. Aspen growth as it relates to wood production is examined in the WOOD RESOURCE...

  3. Metabolic growth rate control in Escherichia coli may be a consequence of subsaturation of the macromolecular biosynthetic apparatus with substrates and catalytic components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kaj Frank; Pedersen, Steen

    1990-01-01

    In this paper, the Escherichia coli cell is considered as a system designed for rapid growth, but limited by the medium. We propose that this very design causes the cell to become subsaturated with precursors and catalytic components at all levels of macromolecular biosynthesis and leads to a mol...

  4. WHO multicentre study for the development of growth standards from fetal life to childhood: the fetal component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merialdi, Mario; Widmer, Mariana; Gülmezoglu, Ahmet Metin; Abdel-Aleem, Hany; Bega, George; Benachi, Alexandra; Carroli, Guillermo; Cecatti, Jose Guilherme; Diemert, Anke; Gonzalez, Rogelio; Hecher, Kurt; Jensen, Lisa N; Johnsen, Synnøve L; Kiserud, Torvid; Kriplani, Alka; Lumbiganon, Pisake; Tabor, Ann; Talegawkar, Sameera A; Tshefu, Antoinette; Wojdyla, Daniel; Platt, Lawrence

    2014-05-02

    In 2006 WHO presented the infant and child growth charts suggested for universal application. However, major determinants for perinatal outcomes and postnatal growth are laid down during antenatal development. Accordingly, monitoring fetal growth in utero by ultrasonography is important both for clinical and scientific reasons. The currently used fetal growth references are derived mainly from North American and European population and may be inappropriate for international use, given possible variances in the growth rates of fetuses from different ethnic population groups. WHO has, therefore, made it a high priority to establish charts of optimal fetal growth that can be recommended worldwide. This is a multi-national study for the development of fetal growth standards for international application by assessing fetal growth in populations of different ethnic and geographic backgrounds. The study will select pregnant women of high-middle socioeconomic status with no obvious environmental constraints on growth (adequate nutritional status, non-smoking), and normal pregnancy history with no complications likely to affect fetal growth. The study will be conducted in centres from ten developing and industrialized countries: Argentina, Brazil, Democratic Republic of Congo, Denmark, Egypt, France, Germany, India, Norway, and Thailand. At each centre, 140 pregnant women will be recruited between 8 + 0 and 12 + 6 weeks of gestation. Subsequently, visits for fetal biometry will be scheduled at 14, 18, 24, 28, 32, 36, and 40 weeks (+/- 1 week) to be performed by trained ultrasonographers.The main outcome of the proposed study will be the development of fetal growth standards (either global or population specific) for international applications. The data from this study will be incorporated into obstetric practice and national health policies at country level in coordination with the activities presently conducted by WHO to implement the use of the Child Growth Standards.

  5. Biochemical characterization of individual human glycosylated pro-insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-II and big-IGF-II isoforms associated with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenall, Sameer A; Bentley, John D; Pearce, Lesley A; Scoble, Judith A; Sparrow, Lindsay G; Bartone, Nicola A; Xiao, Xiaowen; Baxter, Robert C; Cosgrove, Leah J; Adams, Timothy E

    2013-01-04

    Insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) is a major embryonic growth factor belonging to the insulin-like growth factor family, which includes insulin and IGF-I. Its expression in humans is tightly controlled by maternal imprinting, a genetic restraint that is lost in many cancers, resulting in up-regulation of both mature IGF-II mRNA and protein expression. Additionally, increased expression of several longer isoforms of IGF-II, termed "pro" and "big" IGF-II, has been observed. To date, it is ambiguous as to what role these IGF-II isoforms have in initiating and sustaining tumorigenesis and whether they are bioavailable. We have expressed each individual IGF-II isoform in their proper O-glycosylated format and established that all bind to the IGF-I receptor and both insulin receptors A and B, resulting in their activation and subsequent stimulation of fibroblast proliferation. We also confirmed that all isoforms are able to be sequestered into binary complexes with several IGF-binding proteins (IGFBP-2, IGFBP-3, and IGFBP-5). In contrast to this, ternary complex formation with IGFBP-3 or IGFBP-5 and the auxillary protein, acid labile subunit, was severely diminished. Furthermore, big-IGF-II isoforms bound much more weakly to purified ectodomain of the natural IGF-II scavenging receptor, IGF-IIR. IGF-II isoforms thus possess unique biological properties that may enable them to escape normal sequestration avenues and remain bioavailable in vivo to sustain oncogenic signaling.

  6. Biochemical Characterization of Individual Human Glycosylated pro-Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF)-II and big-IGF-II Isoforms Associated with Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenall, Sameer A.; Bentley, John D.; Pearce, Lesley A.; Scoble, Judith A.; Sparrow, Lindsay G.; Bartone, Nicola A.; Xiao, Xiaowen; Baxter, Robert C.; Cosgrove, Leah J.; Adams, Timothy E.

    2013-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) is a major embryonic growth factor belonging to the insulin-like growth factor family, which includes insulin and IGF-I. Its expression in humans is tightly controlled by maternal imprinting, a genetic restraint that is lost in many cancers, resulting in up-regulation of both mature IGF-II mRNA and protein expression. Additionally, increased expression of several longer isoforms of IGF-II, termed “pro” and “big” IGF-II, has been observed. To date, it is ambiguous as to what role these IGF-II isoforms have in initiating and sustaining tumorigenesis and whether they are bioavailable. We have expressed each individual IGF-II isoform in their proper O-glycosylated format and established that all bind to the IGF-I receptor and both insulin receptors A and B, resulting in their activation and subsequent stimulation of fibroblast proliferation. We also confirmed that all isoforms are able to be sequestered into binary complexes with several IGF-binding proteins (IGFBP-2, IGFBP-3, and IGFBP-5). In contrast to this, ternary complex formation with IGFBP-3 or IGFBP-5 and the auxillary protein, acid labile subunit, was severely diminished. Furthermore, big-IGF-II isoforms bound much more weakly to purified ectodomain of the natural IGF-II scavenging receptor, IGF-IIR. IGF-II isoforms thus possess unique biological properties that may enable them to escape normal sequestration avenues and remain bioavailable in vivo to sustain oncogenic signaling. PMID:23166326

  7. Effects of dietary grape seed proanthocyanidins on growth performance, some serum biochemical parameters and body composition of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao Wei Zhai

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was performed with tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus to evaluate the effects of diet supplementation with grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs on fish growth performance, some serum parameters and body composition. Three hundred tilapia fingerlings with the initial average body weight of 9.50±1.25 g were randomly divided into five treatment groups with four replicates in each group and 15 fish in each replicate. The dietary GSPs levels of five treatment groups were 0 (control group, 200, 400, 600, and 800 mg/kg, respectively. The trial period was 49 days. Growth performance parameters were significantly improved by GSPs supplementation (P<0.05, while survival rates were similar among all groups (P>0.05. Serum parameter results showed that activities of aminotransferase aspartate in 200 and 400 mg/kg GSPs groups and alanine aminotransferase in 400 mg/kg GSPs group were lowered significantly (P<0.05. Levels of triglyceride and total cholesterol (except 200 mg/kg GSPs group were significantly lowered, while lysozyme activity and albumin level were significantly higher in fish of GSPs supplemented groups, independently from the level of supplementation. The highest crude protein level and lowest crude lipid level were found in fish of all GSPs supplemented groups, while levels of moisture and ash in fish of all groups were similar (P>0.05. The results indicated that dietary 200 mg/kg GSPs could exert beneficial effects on growth and body composition of tilapia fingerlings, and ameliorate serum biochemistry parameters related to health status.

  8. Effect of graded levels of dietary seaweed (Ulva sp. on growth, hematological and serum biochemical parameters in dusky kob, Argyrosomus japonicus, sciaenidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molatelo Junior Madibana

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to assess the effect of incorporating graded levels of green macroalgae seaweed (Ulva sp. into diets of juvenile dusky kob (Argyrosomus japonicus on growth performance, hematology and serum biochemistry. Five experimental diets were formulated to contain 0 (Ulva0, 50 (Ulva50, 100 (Ulva100, 150 (Ulva150 and 200 (Ulva200 g seaweed meal/kg commercial kob feed on a dry matter basis. Seventy-seven dusky kob fingerlings (mean body mass 9.14 ± 0.30 g were distributed into each of 20 experimental tanks and offered diets at 2.8% body mass. Weight and length of fish were measured weekly for 9 weeks. At the end of the feeding trial, fish fed Ulva50 had higher body mass (38.20 ± 1.38 g compared to those fed the other three Ulva-based diets. Fish offered Ulva200 had significantly (P  .05 by dietary treatments. However, the levels of both blood cholesterol and alkaline phosphatase tended to decrease as dietary Ulva inclusion levels increased. These results indicate that Ulva could be incorporated at the rate of 50 g kg−1 in future commercial dusky kob diets without any negative effects on feed utilizationa and growth performance. Hematology and serum biochemistry results indicate that dietary inclusion of Ulva had no adverse effects on physiological status of the fish. Keywords: Ulva sp., Haematology, Dusky kob, Feed conversion efficiency, Specific growth rate

  9. Biochemical and molecular characterization of potential phosphate-solubilizing bacteria in acid sulfate soils and their beneficial effects on rice growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qurban Ali Panhwar

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the total microbial population, the occurrence of growth promoting bacteria and their beneficial traits in acid sulfate soils. The mechanisms by which the bacteria enhance rice seedlings grown under high Al and low pH stress were investigated. Soils and rice root samples were randomly collected from four sites in the study area (Kelantan, Malaysia. The topsoil pH and exchangeable Al ranged from 3.3 to 4.7 and 1.24 to 4.25 cmol(c kg(-1, respectively, which are considered unsuitable for rice production. Total bacterial and actinomycetes population in the acidic soils were found to be higher than fungal populations. A total of 21 phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB including 19 N2-fixing strains were isolated from the acid sulfate soil. Using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, three potential PSB strains based on their beneficial characteristics were identified (Burkholderia thailandensis, Sphingomonas pituitosa and Burkholderia seminalis. The isolated strains were capable of producing indoleacetic acid (IAA and organic acids that were able to reduce Al availability via a chelation process. These PSB isolates solubilized P (43.65% existing in the growth media within 72 hours of incubation. Seedling of rice variety, MR 219, grown at pH 4, and with different concentrations of Al (0, 50 and 100 µM was inoculated with these PSB strains. Results showed that the bacteria increased the pH with a concomitant reduction in Al concentration, which translated into better rice growth. The improved root volume and seedling dry weight of the inoculated plants indicated the potential of these isolates to be used in a bio-fertilizer formulation for rice cultivation on acid sulfate soils.

  10. Effect of graded levels of dietary seaweed (Ulva sp.) on growth, hematological and serum biochemical parameters in dusky kob, Argyrosomus japonicus, sciaenidae

    OpenAIRE

    Molatelo Junior Madibana; Victor Mlambo; Brett Lewis; Chris Fouché

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the effect of incorporating graded levels of green macroalgae seaweed (Ulva sp.) into diets of juvenile dusky kob (Argyrosomus japonicus) on growth performance, hematology and serum biochemistry. Five experimental diets were formulated to contain 0 (Ulva0), 50 (Ulva50), 100 (Ulva100), 150 (Ulva150) and 200 (Ulva200) g seaweed meal/kg commercial kob feed on a dry matter basis. Seventy-seven dusky kob fingerlings (mean body mass 9.14â¯Â±â¯0.30â¯g) were distribu...

  11. Ideotype population exploration: growth, photosynthesis, and yield components at different planting densities in winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ni; Yuan, Jinzhan; Li, Ming; Li, Jun; Zhang, Liyan; Liu, Lixin; Naeem, Muhammad Shahbaz; Zhang, Chunlei

    2014-01-01

    Rapeseed is one of the most important edible oil crops in the world and the seed yield has lagged behind the increasing demand driven by population growth. Winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) is widely cultivated with relatively low yield in China, so it is necessary to find the strategies to improve the expression of yield potential. Planting density has great effects on seed yield of crops. Hence, field experiments were conducted in Wuhan in the Yangtze River basin with one conventional variety (Zhongshuang 11, ZS11) and one hybrid variety (Huayouza 9, HYZ9) at five planting densities (27.0×10(4), 37.5×10(4), 48.0×10(4), 58.5×10(4), 69.0×10(4) plants ha(-1)) during 2010-2012 to investigate the yield components. The physiological traits for high-yield and normal-yield populations were measured during 2011-2013. Our results indicated that planting densities of 58.5×10(4) plants ha(-1) in ZS11 and 48.0×10(4) plants ha(-1) in HYZ9 have significantly higher yield compared with the density of 27.0×10(4) plants ha(-1) for both varieties. The ideal silique numbers for ZS11 and HYZ9 were ∼0.9×10(4) (n m(-2)) and ∼1×10(4) (n m(-2)), respectively, and ideal primary branches for ZS11 and HYZ9 were ∼250 (n m(-2)) and ∼300 (n m(-2)), respectively. The highest leaf area index (LAI) and silique wall area index (SAI) was ∼5.0 and 7.0, respectively. Moreover, higher leaf net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and water use efficiency (WUE) were observed in the high-yield populations. A significantly higher level of silique wall photosynthesis and rapid dry matter accumulation were supposed to result in the maximum seed yield. Our results suggest that increasing the planting density within certain range is a feasible approach for higher seed yield in winter rapeseed in China.

  12. Evaluation of growth, biochemical and bioaccumulation parameters in Pelophylax perezi tadpoles, following an in-situ acute exposure to three different effluent ponds from a uranium mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, Sérgio M., E-mail: s.reis.marques@gmail.com [Departamento de Biologia da Universidade de Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); CESAM (Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar), Universidade de Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Chaves, Sandra [Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, Centro de Biodiversidade, Genómica Integrativa e Funcional (BioFIG), Edifício ICAT, Campus da FCUL Campo Grande, Lisboa (Portugal); Gonçalves, Fernando [Departamento de Biologia da Universidade de Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); CESAM (Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar), Universidade de Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Pereira, Ruth [CESAM (Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar), Universidade de Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Departamento de Biologia da Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal)

    2013-02-15

    Mining activities invariably produce metal contaminated effluents. Depending on factors such as pH and metal concentration the toxicity of the effluent may vary. To assess the effects of three characteristically different effluent ponds from a deactivated uranium mine, with toxicologically relevant data, an in situ exposure with Pelophylax perezi tadpoles, was conducted. Tadpoles were exposed to the three effluent ponds, ranked by increasing order of metals concentrations (REF, M1, M2). Survival, growth, metal accumulation, antioxidant enzymes (catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were determined in tadpoles. As well, physical and chemical variables of the effluents were measured. Death percentage in the effluents was 3.17 (REF), 9.84 (M1) and 42.86% (M2) and was not coincident with metal accumulation which was highest in tadpoles exposed to M1, while metal contents in M2 tadpoles were quite similar to those recorded in REF tadpoles. However, high mortality in M2 was attributed to the extremely low pH (≈ 3.77). From the three effluents M2 tadpoles had the lowest growth and the antioxidant enzymatic activity was only affected in the case glutathione peroxidase (GPx) with significantly higher activity in M1, being in accordance with the highest accumulation of metals. LPO, usually associated with metal accumulation, had the following pattern M1 > REF > M2. Overall, effluent toxicity in tadpoles exposed to M2 effluent seems to be primarily an effect of pH while in M1 toxicity is mainly owed to high metal concentrations. The effluent acidity seems to reduce metal accumulation probably due to damage in the integument, affecting ion uptake. The results obtained bring a better understanding of the toxicological processes that local P. perezi population is subjected to, mainly in the early life stages. Furthermore this study highlights the influence of pH in the toxicity of metal rich effluents. - Highlights:

  13. Evaluation of growth, biochemical and bioaccumulation parameters in Pelophylax perezi tadpoles, following an in-situ acute exposure to three different effluent ponds from a uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, Sérgio M.; Chaves, Sandra; Gonçalves, Fernando; Pereira, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Mining activities invariably produce metal contaminated effluents. Depending on factors such as pH and metal concentration the toxicity of the effluent may vary. To assess the effects of three characteristically different effluent ponds from a deactivated uranium mine, with toxicologically relevant data, an in situ exposure with Pelophylax perezi tadpoles, was conducted. Tadpoles were exposed to the three effluent ponds, ranked by increasing order of metals concentrations (REF, M1, M2). Survival, growth, metal accumulation, antioxidant enzymes (catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were determined in tadpoles. As well, physical and chemical variables of the effluents were measured. Death percentage in the effluents was 3.17 (REF), 9.84 (M1) and 42.86% (M2) and was not coincident with metal accumulation which was highest in tadpoles exposed to M1, while metal contents in M2 tadpoles were quite similar to those recorded in REF tadpoles. However, high mortality in M2 was attributed to the extremely low pH (≈ 3.77). From the three effluents M2 tadpoles had the lowest growth and the antioxidant enzymatic activity was only affected in the case glutathione peroxidase (GPx) with significantly higher activity in M1, being in accordance with the highest accumulation of metals. LPO, usually associated with metal accumulation, had the following pattern M1 > REF > M2. Overall, effluent toxicity in tadpoles exposed to M2 effluent seems to be primarily an effect of pH while in M1 toxicity is mainly owed to high metal concentrations. The effluent acidity seems to reduce metal accumulation probably due to damage in the integument, affecting ion uptake. The results obtained bring a better understanding of the toxicological processes that local P. perezi population is subjected to, mainly in the early life stages. Furthermore this study highlights the influence of pH in the toxicity of metal rich effluents. - Highlights:

  14. Influence of Growth Stage and Leaf Age on Expression of the Components of Partial Resistance of Faba Bean to Botrytis fabae Sard.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bouhassan

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In detached leaf tests on faba bean (Vicia faba L., genotypes partially resistant and susceptible to Botrytis fabae were examined. Expression of four components of partial resistance to a virulent isolate of B. fabae differed depending on the plant age and the leaf age of the genotypes. The incubation period of resistant genotypes at the podding stage was longer than that of susceptible genotypes at the same stage. The area under disease progress curve (AUDPC of the lesion size increased from the seedling to the flowering stage but declined at the podding stage in all genotypes. Differences between resistant and susceptible genotypes for lesion size were significant except on old leaves from plants at the podding stage. The latent period decreased, and spore production increased with increasing growth and leaf age but there was significant interaction with the genotype. These last two components of partial resistance were more clearly expressed at all growth stages on FRY167 (highly resistant but were expressed only at the seedling and podding stages on FRY7 (resistant. The resistant line BPL710 was not significantly different from the susceptible genotypes for the latent period at any growth stage, and for spore production at the seedling and flowering stages. Leaf age affected all genotypes, but with a significant interaction between leaf age and growth stage. Components of partial resistance were more strongly expressed on young leaves from plants at the seedling or flowering stage.

  15. Significant differences in gene expression and key genetic components associated with high growth vigor in populus section tacamahaca as revealed by comparative transcriptome analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, S.; Chen, M.; Li, Y.; Wang, J.; Sun, X.; Wang, J.

    2017-01-01

    To identify genetic components involved in high growth vigor in F1 Populus section Tacamahaca hybrid plants, high and low vigor plants showing significant differences in apical dominance during a rapid growth period were selected. Apical bud transcriptomes of high and low-growth-vigor hybrids and their parents were analyzed using high-throughput RNA sequencing on an Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. A total of 5,542 genes were differently expressed between high growth vigor hybrid and its parents, the genes were significantly enriched in pathways related to processes such as photosynthesis, pyrimidine ribonucleotide biosynthetic processes and nucleoside metabolic processes. There were 1410 differentially expressed genes between high and low growth vigor hybrid, the genes were mainly involved in photosynthesis, chlorophyll biosynthetic process, carbon fixation in photosynthetic organisms, porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism and nitrogen metabolism. Moreover, a k-core of a gene co-expression network analysis was performed to identify the potential functions of genes related to high growth vigor. The functions of 8 selected candidate genes were associated mainly with circadian rhythm, water transport, cellulose catabolic processes, sucrose biosynthesis, pyrimidine ribonucleotide biosynthesis, purine nucleotide biosynthesis, meristem maintenance, and carbohydrate metabolism. Our results may contribute to a better understanding of the molecular basis of high growth vigor in hybrids and its regulation. (author)

  16. The influence of specimen size on creep crack growth rate in cross-weld CT specimens cut out from a welded component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Peder; Segle, Peter; Samuelson, Lars Aa.

    1999-04-01

    A 3D finite element study of creep crack growth in cross-weld CT specimens with material properties of 2.25Cr1Mo at 550 deg C is carried out, where large strain and displacement theory is used. The creep crack growth rate is calculated using a creep ductility based damage model, in which the creep strain rate perpendicular to the crack plane ahead of the crack tip is integrated, considering the multiaxial stress state. The influence of specimen size on creep crack growth rate under constant load is given special attention, but the possibility to transfer results from cross-weld CT specimens to welded high temperature components is also investigated. The creep crack growth rate of a crack in a circumferentially welded pipe is compared with the creep crack growth rate of cross-weld CT specimens of three different sizes, cut out from the pipe. Although the constraint ahead of the crack tip is higher for a larger CT specimen, the creep crack growth rate is higher for a smaller specimen than for a larger one if they are loaded to attain the same stress intensity factor. If the specimens are loaded to the same C* value, however, a more complicated pattern occurs; depending on the material properties of the weldment constituents, the CT specimen with the intermediate size will either yield the highest or the lowest creep crack growth rate

  17. [Effects of Three Industrial Organic Wastes as Amendments on Plant Growth and the Biochemical Properties of a Pb/Zn Mine Tailings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xi-zhu; Yang, Sheng-xiang; Li, Feng-mei; Cao, Jian-bing; Peng, Qing-jing

    2016-01-15

    A field trial was conducted in an abandoned Pb/Zn mine tailings to evaluate the effectiveness of three industrial wastes [sweet sorghum vinasse (SSV), medicinal herb residues (MHR) and spent mushroom compost (SMC)] as organic amendments on plant growth, soil nutrients and enzyme activities, and heavy metal concentrations in plant tissues and the mine tailings. (1) The main findings were as follows: (1) The mean concentrations of diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in SSV, MHR and SMC treatments decreased by 24.2%-27.3%, 45.7%-48.3%, 18.0%-20.9% and 10.1%-14.2% as compared to the control tailings. When compared to the control tailings, the mean values of organic matter, ammonium-N and available P in SSV, MHR and SMC treatments increased by 2.27-2.32, 12.4-12.8 and 4.04-4.74 times, respectively. Similarly, the addition of SSV, MHR and SMC significantly enhanced soil enzyme activities (dehydrogenase, beta-glucosidase, urease and phosphatase), being 5.51-6.37, 1.72-1.96, 6.32-6.62 and 2.35-2.62 times higher than those in the control tailings. (2) The application of these wastes promoted seed germination and seedling growth. The vegetation cover reached 84%, 79% and 86% at SSV, MHR and SMC subplots. For Lolium perenne and Cynodon dactylon, the addition of SSV, MHR and SMC led to significant increases in the shoot biomass yields with 4.2-5.6 and 15.7-17.3 times greater than those in the tailings. Moreover, the addition of SSV, MHR and SMC significantly reduced the concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in the shoots of L. perenne and C. dactylon in comparison with the control tailings. (3) Pearson's correlation coefficients showed that the vegetation cover and biomass were positively correlated with soil nutrient elements and enzyme activities. Significant negative correlations were observed between DTPA-extractable metal concentrations and vegetation cover and biomass. The metal concentrations in plants were positively correlated with

  18. Effect of priming on growth, biochemical parameters and mineral composition of different cultivars of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L. under salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Fredj Meriem

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available At Higher Institute of Agriculture of Chott Mariem, Sousse, Tunisia, this study was conducted to evaluate the interactive effect of salinity and seed priming on coriander. The experiment was carried out in completely randomized design with three replications consisting of four coriander genotypes (Tunisian cv, Algerian cv, Syrian cv and Egyptian cv at two seed conditions (seed priming with 4 g/l NaCl for 12h or no seed priming. Results revealed that seed priming and salinity had significantly (p≤0.05 affected all the parameters under study. On the first hand, salinity stress had adversely affected growth, chlorophyll content, mineral composition (K+ and Ca2+ of coriander in all genotypes. Also, it activated Na+ accumulation and synthesis of proline, soluble sugars and proteins. However, seed priming with NaCl had diminished the negative impact of salt stress in all cultivars and primed plants showed better response to salinity compared to unprimed plants. Maximum values were recorded in tolerant cultivar which is Tunisian one whereas minimum values were noted in sensitive cultivar (Algerian cv.

  19. Components in aqueous Hibiscus rosa-sinensis flower extract inhibit in vitro melanoma cell growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina H. Goldberg

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Skin cancer is extremely common, and melanoma causes about 80% of skin cancer deaths. In fact, melanoma kills over 50 thousand people around the world each year, and these numbers are rising. Clearly, standard treatments are not effectively treating melanoma, and alternative therapies are needed to address this problem. Hibiscus tea has been noted to have medicinal properties, including anticancer effects. Extracts from Hibiscus have been shown to inhibit the growth of a variety of cancer cells. In particular, recent studies found that polyphenols extracted from Hibiscus sabdariffa by organic solvents can inhibit melanoma cell growth. However, effects of aqueous extracts from Hibiscus rosa-sinesis flowers, which are commonly used to make traditional medicinal beverages, have not been examined on melanoma cells. Here, we report that aqueous H. rosa-sinesis flower extract contains compounds that inhibit melanoma cell growth in a dose dependent manner at concentrations that did not affect the growth of nontransformed cells. In addition, these extracts contain low molecular weight growth inhibitory compounds below 3 kD in size that combine with larger compounds to more effectively inhibit melanoma cell growth. Future work should identify these compounds, and evaluate their potential to prevent and treat melanoma and other cancers.

  20. Raman spectroscopic biochemical mapping of tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Nicholas; Hart Prieto, Maria C.; Kendall, Catherine A.; Shetty, Geeta; Barr, Hugh

    2006-02-01

    Advances in technologies have brought us closer to routine spectroscopic diagnosis of early malignant disease. However, there is still a poor understanding of the carcinogenesis process. For example it is not known whether many cancers follow a logical sequence from dysplasia, to carcinoma in situ, to invasion. Biochemical tissue changes, triggered by genetic mutations, precede morphological and structural changes. These can be probed using Raman or FTIR microspectroscopy and the spectra analysed for biochemical constituents. Local microscopic distribution of various constituents can then be visualised. Raman mapping has been performed on a number of tissues including oesophagus, breast, bladder and prostate. The biochemical constituents have been calculated at each point using basis spectra and least squares analysis. The residual of the least squares fit indicates any unfit spectral components. The biochemical distribution will be compared with the defined histopathological boundaries. The distribution of nucleic acids, glycogen, actin, collagen I, III, IV, lipids and others appear to follow expected patterns.

  1. Effect of synbiotics between Bacillus licheniformis and yeast extract on growth, hematological and biochemical indices of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Hassaan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Twelve practical diets were formulated to contain four levels of Bacillus licheniformis (0.0, 0.24 × 106, 0.48 × 106 and 0.96 × 106 CFU g−1, respectively, with three yeast extract levels (0%, 0.5% and 1%, respectively. Each diet was randomly assigned to duplicate groups of 50 Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus (5.99 ± 0.03 g in 24 concrete ponds (0.5 m3 and 1.25 m depth for 12 weeks. Increasing dietary B. licheniformis levels in O. niloticus and yeast extract levels significantly (P < 0.01 improved growth performance and nutrient utilization. Supplementation of the experimental diets with, 0.48 × 106 CFU/g−1 and 1.0% yeast extract showed the best nutrient utilization compared to other treatments. All probiotic levels significantly (P < 0.01 increased chemical composition (P < 0.05 compared to the control group, while increasing yeast extract did not significantly alter chemical composition. Hematological indices, total protein and albumin of O. niloticus significantly increased while aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase significantly (P < 0.01 decreased with an increase in B. licheniformis level up to 0.48 × 106 CFU g−1. Increasing levels of yeast extract had no effect on hematological parameters and the diets supplemented with 0.48 × 106 CFU g−1 and 0.5% yeast extract showed the highest hematological values.

  2. Effects of Chemical and Organic Fertilizers on Growth, Yield and Yield Component of Tomato (Lycopersicon sculentum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Mirzaei Talarposhti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Although using animal manures and crop residues as a traditional method for increasing soil fertility and crop yield has a long history but Conventional agricultural systems rely on the use of chemical fertilizer due to its immediate availability of nutrients. In many of modern agricultural systems using chemical fertilizers as a fast and easiest way to reduce nutrient deficiency and increasing soil fertility is considered. Intensive and continuous use of chemical fertilizers leads to decreasing the stability and sustainability of agricultural systems and also poses major threat to environment and human health. Organic fertilizers have positive effects on physiochemical and biological attributes of soil and could be classified in three different groups (i.e. Animal manures, green manure and composts.Using animal manure not only increase soil fertility but also could result in increasing infiltration, aeration and water holding capacity of soil. The main role of these fertilizers is related to physical change in soil. Different types of composts such as municipal waste compost and vermicompost also have similar positive effects, but usually the farmers observe the main effect of these organic fertilizers in long term. In order to investigate the effects of different types of organic fertilizers on growth indexes, yield and yield component of tomato (Lycopersicon sculentum L. current experiment was conducted. Materials and Methods The experiment was conducted based on randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications and six treatments in the research station of Shahid Beheshti University. The experimental treatments were: Control or no fertilizer (NF, chemical fertilizer (CF, cow manure (CM, poultry manure (PM, vermicompost (VC and municipal waste compost (MC. Considering nitrogen concentration in all of the treatments different amounts of these fertilizers were used based on nitrogen recommendation for the field, so in

  3. Effect of pH Upper Control Limit on Nutrient Solution Component and Water Spinach Growth under Hydroponics

    OpenAIRE

    Xuzhang Xue; Yinkun Li; Feng Li; Fang Zhang; Wenzhong Guo

    2015-01-01

    In this study, experiment with four levels of nutrient solution pH control upper limit was conducted to explore the optimal nutrient solution pH management scheme under hydroponics by evaluating the nutrient solution characters i.e., pH, Electric Conductivity (EC), nitrate, soluble phosphorus (soluble-P), water spinach growth and quality. The results showed that the nutrient solution pH was 8.2 and unsuitable for water spinach growth under the treatment with no pH regulation during the experi...

  4. Viscous Growth in Spinodal Decomposition of the Two-component Lennard-Jones Model in Two Dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laradji, M.; Toxvaerd, S.; Mouritsen, Ole G.

    1997-01-01

    The dynamics of phase separation of a two-component Lennard-Jones model in three dimensions is investigated by means of large scale molecular dynamics simulation. A systematic study over a wide range of quench temperatures within the coexistence region shows that the binary system reaches...

  5. Water-soluble carbohydrates of root components and activity rhythms at vegetative growth stage of Artemisia scoparia in northeastern grassland of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiyu; Yang, Yunfei; Zhi, Heng

    2017-01-01

    The root system of perennials is composed of the roots of different growth years. The nutrient storage capacities and activities of roots are an important basis for judging root components and plant senescence. In this research, changes in the contents of water-soluble carbohydrate (WSC) were used as indicators of the nutrient storage and activity of roots of different life years. From the early resprouting stage to the rapid growth stage, Artemisia scoparia L. plants of 1-3 age classes were sampled and measured once every 18 days. The nutrient storage capacities and activity rhythms of plant root components of the three age classes were analysed quantitatively. Among the A. scoparia population in northeast China, the nutrient storage capacities of 1a/2a plant root collars and 2-year old roots were generally large, whereas those of 3a plant root collars and 3-year old roots were significantly reduced. As for changes in the WSC content in the root system at the 18 day resprouting stage, the decline rates in the root collars of the 1a and 2a plants were 102 and 109 times those of the 3a plants, respectively. The decline rate in the 2-year old roots of the 1a plants was 1.8 times that of the 2a plants and 29.6 times that of the 3a plants. When nutrients were most active, all root components of the 1a plants entered into the resprouting stage, but the 2/3-year old roots of the 2a plants lagged behind. All the root components of the 3a plants generally lagged. At the vegetative growth stage, the WSC contents in all root components of the 1a plants declined logarithmically. For the 3a plants, the content in the root collars decreased linearly with that in the 3-year old roots. The older root components (3-year old roots) of the 2a plants and all root components of the 3a plants exhibited signs of aging.

  6. Biochemical studies on some zooplankton off the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Goswami, S.C.; Rao, T.S.S.; Matondkar, S.G.P.

    Proximate biochemical analyses on twelve zooplankton species showed that protein was the predominant biochemical component followed by lipid. Carbohydrate content was very low especially in species with high water content or calcareous shell...

  7. Local biochemical and morphological differences in human Achilles tendinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pingel, Jessica; Fredberg, U.; Qvortrup, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of Achilles tendinopathy is high and underlying etiology as well as biochemical and morphological pathology associated with the disease is largely unknown. The aim of the present study was to describe biochemical and morphological differences in chronic Achilles tendinopathy....... The expressions of growth factors, inflammatory mediators and tendon morphology were determined in both chronically diseased and healthy tendon parts....

  8. Influence of dietary component manipulation and feed management strategies on growth and rumen development of weaned dairy heifers

    OpenAIRE

    Dennis, Tana Shea

    2016-01-01

    Well-developed replacement heifers provide a central foundation for the continued success of the dairy industry. Emphasis on improving pre-weaned calf nutrition has predominated in the industry, but opportunities exist to improve post-weaning heifer nutrition and management. We aimed to evaluate common feed management strategies seen in the industry and their effects on growth, feed efficiency (G:F), and rumen development of calves from birth to 8 mo of age using pen- and individually-fed ani...

  9. Effect of Drought Stress at Different Growth Stages on Yield and Yield Components of Six Rice (Oryza sativa L. Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharifunnessa Moonmoon

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress affects plant growth and development and ultimately, reduced grain yield of rice. But stress at different growth stages may respond differently which is still unclear. Therefore, a pot experiment was carried out with six rice genotypes to determine the critical growth stage where drought stress effect on yield reduction and to find stress tolerance mechanism in rice genotypes. Drought stress (control i.e. no stress and 40% field capacity, FC was imposed on Binadhan-13, Kalizira, BRRI dhan34, Ukunimodhu, RM-100-16 and NERICA mutant rice genotypes at maximum tillering, panicle initiation and grain filling stages and discontinued when the specific stage was over. The experiment was laid out in a complete randomized design with three replications. Drought stress affected number of effective tiller hill-1, number of spikelets panicle-1, filled grains hill-1, 1000-grain weight and grain yield. Binadhan-13 produced the highest grain yield and the lowest sterility under drought stress at grain filling stage. Percentage of spikelet sterility increased under drought stress (40% FC especially at the panicle initiation stage resulting low grain yield. Among the tested genotypes Binadhan-13 performed well by reducing spikelet sterility under drought stress condition. For 1000-grain weight and grain yield, grain filling stage was found more crucial. From the current research, drought tolerance mechanism was found in genotypes Binadhan-13 and NERICA mutant. [Fundam Appl Agric 2017; 2(3.000: 285-289

  10. Examination of influencing factors on cyclic crack growth behaviour of cracked components. Final report; Untersuchung von Einflussfaktoren auf das zyklische Risswachstum angerissener Bauteile. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soppa, Ewa Anna; Silcher, Horst

    2015-01-31

    Fatigue crack growth of short and long cracks was investigated for both materials: the Nb-stabilized austenitic stainless steel X6 CrNiNb 18-10 and the ferritic-bainitic steel 22 NiMoCr 3-7. These both steels belong to the materials in the primary circuit of german power plants. For a reliable estimation of the lifetime of components subject to cyclic fatigue a detailed knowledge of the phenomena accompanying fatigue processes and which cause both - initiation and growth of fatigue cracks is essential. The deformation induced transformation of austenite into α'-martensite at room temperature is thus very important in the initiation and growth of fatigue cracks. Because these processes are manifest at first at the microlevel, the use of methods which reveal information at high resolution is of significant importance. In order to study the initiation and growth of short cracks, cylindrical smooth specimens, compact tension C(T)- and modified C(T)-specimens have been used. Cyclic crack propagation of long cracks was investigated on compact tension C(T)-specimens with W=50 mm and B=10 mm. The SEM, TEM and EBSD technique are powerful methods for determining crystallographic orientation, for the identification of individual phases and for recealing plastic deformation. They were used for analyses of microcracks in combination with interrupted cyclic tests. The impact of crack closure on the threshold parameter ΔK{sub th} and the crack growth rate da/dN was investigated experimentally for the growth of long cracks under cyclic loading for different R-values at room temperature. Additional tests were performed at T=288 C in order to investigate the role of temperature on crack growth rates. The effect of overloads in tension and compression as another factor influencing the crack growth was also studied. Measured crack growth curves were fitted using Paris and Erdogan-Ratwani law as well as the NASGRO-equation. Fracture surfaces of selected specimens for both steels

  11. Effect of low gamma-ray doses and seeding rates on growth, yield and its components as well as seed quality of lentils (lens Culinaries, med.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dprgham, E.A.

    1999-01-01

    To study the effect of low doses gamma-rays and seeding rates on growth, yield and its components as well as seed quality, two experiments were conducted during 1993/1994 and 1994/1995 seasons. Each experiment included treatments which were the combinations of three levels of seeding rates (45,60 and 75kg/fed.) and four doses of gamma-rays (15, 25,35 and 45(Gy). The effect of interaction between seeding rates and gamma doses on growth characters was not significant whereas there was a tendency for improvement of growth characters by increasing gamma doses up to 45 Gy. Different gamma doses caused marked increase for lintil's yield components except the number of seeds/plant while high seeding rates (60 and 75 Kg/fed) reduced significantly the number of pods/plant and number of seeds/plant. For yield, various gamma doses showed significant increase for seed straw yield as compared to the control. However, seeding rates of 60 and 75 kg/fed increased significantly seed and straw yield as compared with the seeding rate of 45 kg/fed (control)

  12. Effect of SPL (Spent Pot Liner) and its main components on root growth, mitotic activity and phosphorylation of Histone H3 in Lactuca sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Aline Silva; Fontes Cunha, Isabela Martinez; Andrade-Vieira, Larissa Fonseca; Techio, Vânia Helena

    2016-02-01

    Spent Pot Liner (SPL) is a solid waste from the aluminum industry frequently disposed of in industrial landfills; it can be leached and contaminate the soil, sources of drinking water and plantations, and thus may pose a risk to human health and to ecosystems. Its composition is high variable, including cyanide, fluoride and aluminum salts, which are highly toxic and environmental pollutants. This study evaluated the effect of SPL and its main components on root growth and the mitosis of Lactuca sativa, by investigating the mechanisms of cellular and chromosomal alterations with the aid of immunolocalization. To this end, newly emerged roots of L. sativa were exposed to SPL and its main components (solutions of cyanide, fluoride and aluminum) and to calcium chloride (control) for 48h. After this, root length was measured and cell cycle was examined by means of conventional cytogenetics and immunolocalization. Root growth was inhibited in the treatments with SPL and aluminum; chromosomal and nuclear alterations were observed in all treatments. The immunolocalization evidenced normal dividing cells with regular temporal and spatial distribution of histone H3 phosphorylation at serine 10 (H3S10ph). However, SPL and its main components inhibited the phosphorylation of histone H3 at serine 10, inactivated pericentromeric regions and affected the cohesion of sister chromatids, thus affecting the arrangement of chromosomes in the metaphase plate and separation of chromatids in anaphase. In addition, these substances induced breaks in pericentromeric regions, characterized as fragile sites. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Expression of extracellular matrix components and related growth factors in human tendon and muscle after acute exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinemeier, K M; Bjerrum, S S; Schjerling, P

    2013-01-01

    Acute kicking exercise induces collagen synthesis in both tendon and muscle in humans, but it is not known if this relates to increased collagen transcription and if other matrix genes are regulated. Young men performed 1 h of one-leg kicking at 67% of max workload. Biopsies were taken from...... the patellar tendon and vastus lateralis muscle of each leg at 2 (n = 10), 6 (n = 11), or 26 h (n = 10) after exercise. Levels of messenger ribonucleic acid mRNA for collagens, noncollagenous matrix proteins, and growth factors were measured with real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction...

  14. Growth, haematological and biochemical responses of growing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    Abstract. Physiological and productive responses to recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) injection and calcium soap of fatty acids (CSFA) supplementation were studied in post-weaning male Rahmani lambs. Male lambs (n = 20) of similar initial body weight (27.9 kg) and age (162 d) were divided randomly into four.

  15. Growth, ectomycorrhization and biochemical parameters of Quercus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drought conditions are the major constraint to the early establishment of Quercus suber species. However, drought responses of this species depend on provenances. The objective of this study was to obtain more comprehensive knowledge on the influence of drought conditions on the response of Q. suber L. seedlings ...

  16. Growth, ectomycorrhization and biochemical parameters of Quercus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    daoudi

    2016-09-21

    Sep 21, 2016 ... Summer drought in the Mediterranean region is characterized by 4 months dry period with little or no precipitations, high temperatures and high irradiance, considering the major constraints for vegetation. (Aussenac, 2000; Faria et al., 1999). Mediterranean species are thus, often exposed to water stress ...

  17. Influence of reference stress formulae on creep and creep-fatigue crack initiation and growth prediction in plate components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasmer, K., E-mail: kilian.wasmer@empa.c [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing, Feuerwerkerstrasse 39, 3602 Thun (Switzerland); Nikbin, K.M.; Webster, G.A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2BX (United Kingdom)

    2010-08-15

    Creep and creep-fatigue crack growth in pre-cracked plates of 316L(N) austenitic stainless steel, containing a semi-elliptical surface defect and tested at 650 {sup o}C under combined axial and bending loading, are investigated. The results have been interpreted in terms of the creep fracture mechanics parameter C* and compared with data obtained on standard compact tension (CT) specimens of the same material and batch. In making the assessments, the reference stress method has been used to determine C*. Several formulae exist for calculating the reference stress depending on whether it is based on a 'global' or a 'local' collapse mechanism and the assessment procedure adopted. When using this approach, it has been found that the most satisfactory comparison of crack growth rates with standard CT specimen data is obtained when the 'global' reference stress solution is used in conjunction with mean uniaxial creep properties. It has been found that the main effect of changing the fatigue cycle range from 0.1 to -1.0 is to cause an acceleration in the early stage of cracking.

  18. Influence of reference stress formulae on creep and creep-fatigue crack initiation and growth prediction in plate components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasmer, K.; Nikbin, K.M.; Webster, G.A.

    2010-01-01

    Creep and creep-fatigue crack growth in pre-cracked plates of 316L(N) austenitic stainless steel, containing a semi-elliptical surface defect and tested at 650 o C under combined axial and bending loading, are investigated. The results have been interpreted in terms of the creep fracture mechanics parameter C* and compared with data obtained on standard compact tension (CT) specimens of the same material and batch. In making the assessments, the reference stress method has been used to determine C*. Several formulae exist for calculating the reference stress depending on whether it is based on a 'global' or a 'local' collapse mechanism and the assessment procedure adopted. When using this approach, it has been found that the most satisfactory comparison of crack growth rates with standard CT specimen data is obtained when the 'global' reference stress solution is used in conjunction with mean uniaxial creep properties. It has been found that the main effect of changing the fatigue cycle range from 0.1 to -1.0 is to cause an acceleration in the early stage of cracking.

  19. Antitumor action of 3-bromopyruvate implicates reorganized tumor growth regulatory components of tumor milieu, cell cycle arrest and induction of mitochondria-dependent tumor cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Saveg; Kujur, Praveen Kumar; Pandey, Shrish Kumar; Goel, Yugal; Maurya, Babu Nandan; Verma, Ashish; Kumar, Ajay; Singh, Rana Pratap; Singh, Sukh Mahendra

    2018-01-15

    Evidences demonstrate that metabolic inhibitor 3-bromopyruvate (3-BP) exerts a potent antitumor action against a wide range of malignancies. However, the effect of 3-BP on progression of the tumors of thymic origin remains unexplored. Although, constituents of tumor microenvironment (TME) plays a pivotal role in regulation of tumor progression, it remains unclear if 3-BP can alter the composition of the crucial tumor growth regulatory components of the external surrounding of tumor cells. Thus, the present investigation attempts to understand the effect of 3-BP administration to a host bearing a progressively growing tumor of thymic origin on tumor growth regulatory soluble, cellular and biophysical components of tumor milieu vis-à-vis understanding its association with tumor progression, accompanying cell cycle events and mode of cell death. Further, the expression of cell survival regulatory molecules and hemodynamic characteristics of the tumor milieu were analysed to decipher mechanisms underlying the antitumor action of 3-BP. Administration of 3-BP to tumor-bearing hosts retarded tumor progression accompanied by induction of tumor cell death, cell cycle arrest, declined metabolism, inhibited mitochondrial membrane potential, elevated release of cytochrome c and altered hemodynamics. Moreover, 3-BP reconstituted the external milieu, in concurrence with deregulated glucose and pH homeostasis and increased tumor infiltration by NK cells, macrophages, and T lymphocytes. Further, 3-BP administration altered the expression of key regulatory molecules involved in glucose uptake, intracellular pH and tumor cell survival. The outcomes of this study will help in optimizing the therapeutic application of 3-BP by targeting crucial tumor growth regulatory components of tumor milieu. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Classification of images of wheat, ryegrass and brome grass species at early growth stages using principal component analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golzarian Mahmood R

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Wheat is one of the most important crops in Australia, and the identification of young plants is an important step towards developing an automated system for monitoring crop establishment and also for differentiating crop from weeds. In this paper, a framework to differentiate early narrow-leaf wheat from two common weeds from their digital images is developed. A combination of colour, texture and shape features is used. These features are reduced to three descriptors using Principal Component Analysis. The three components provide an effective and significant means for distinguishing the three grasses. Further analysis enables threshold levels to be set for the discrimination of the plant species. The PCA model was evaluated on an independent data set of plants and the results show accuracy of 88% and 85% in the differentiation of ryegrass and brome grass from wheat, respectively. The outcomes of this study can be integrated into new knowledge in developing computer vision systems used in automated weed management.

  1. Effects of palm kernel cake (PKC on growth performance, blood components and liver histopathology of sex reversed red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukasem, N.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Effects of Palm Kernel Cake (PKC on growth performance, blood components and liver histopathology of sex- reversed red tilapia Oreochromis niloticus were studied using seven isocaloric diets (3400 kCal/ kg containing different levels of protein and PKC. Diet 1, 2 and 3 contained 20% protein with the supplementation of 15, 30 and 45% PKC, respectively. Diets 4, 5 and 6 contained 24% protein in combinationwith the same PKC supplemention levels mentioned above, and diet 7 was commercial feed containing 20% protein as a control diet. Experimental diets were fed to experimental fish of 48.65 g initial average body weight cultured in floating cages (3 cages/diet for 10 weeks. Fish fed diets containing higher protein (24%; diets 4, 5 and 6 had significantly better growth performance (p<0.05 than those fed lower protein (20%; diets 1, 2 and 3. Considering the effect of PKC, fish fed diet 5 (Prot. 24%, PKC 30% gave the greatest growth performance (p<0.05 and all the PKC-fed groups had significantly higher growth than fish fed control diet. There was evidence that supplementation of PKC in fish feed ranging from 15 to 45% had no effect to the survival rate, blood components, or hepatocytic cells of tilapia. However, liver tissue showed higher numbers of lipid droplets in fish fed diet contained 45% PKC (diets 3 and 6. For the production cost, all test diets with PKC supplementation had significantly higher price (p<0.05 than commercial feed. However, when considering the feeding cost per unit of fish production, fish reared with PKC supplemented diets had significantly lower cost (p<0.05 than fish fed commercial feed.

  2. Heritability and variance components estimates for growth traits in Saudi Ardi goat and Damascus goat and their crosses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K M Mohammed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the genetic and non-genetic factors and their interactions affecting growth rate and body weights at birth, weaning and at 6 months of age in Saudi Ardi, Damascus goats and their crosses.Methods: Crossbreeding program between Saudi Ardi(A goats with Damascus(D was carried out to improve the meat productivity of Ardi goats through crossbreeding. The pedigree records of the body weights were obtained from 754 kids (397 males and 357 females produced from 46 Sires and 279 Dams. Birth weight, weaning weigh and 6 months weight as well as average daily gain during different growth stages from birth to weaning (D1, weaning to 6 months (D2 and from birth to 6 months of age (D3 were recorded during winter/autumn and summer/spring. Data were classified according to breed, generation, sex, season, year, and type of birth. Data were analyzed using GLM procedure for the least-squares means of the fixed factors. Heritability and genetic parameters were estimated with derivative-free restricted maximum likelihood procedures using the MTDFREML program.Results: The percentages of variations were moderate for body weights and high for daily gains. Genetic groups had a highly significant (P<0.01 effect on the body weights traits. Damascus goats had higher (P<0.01 birth and weaning weights, but ½D½A group kids had a higher (P<0.01 body weight at 6 months. The genetic groups had a significant effects on the daily weight gains for D1 (P<0.01 and D3 (P<0.05 periods, whereas, it had no effects on D2 period. The fixed effects of sex, season, year and type of birth were significant differences for body weights. Male kids were heavier (P<0.01 than females for different growth stages. Body weights and daily gains during winter/autumn were significantly higher (P<0.01 than summer/ spring. Kids born and raised as singles were significantly (P<0.01 heavier than those were born as twins or triplets. The genetic and phenotypic correlations between birth

  3. On the road to quantitative genetic/genomic analyses of root growth and development components underlying root architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draye, X.; Dorlodot, S. de; Lavigne, T.

    2006-01-01

    The quantitative genetic and functional genomic analyses of root development, growth and plasticity will be instrumental in revealing the major regulatory pathways of root architecture. Such knowledge, combined with in-depth consideration of root physiology (e.g. uptake, exsudation), form (space-time dynamics of soil exploration) and ecology (including root environment), will settle the bases for designing root ideotypes for specific environments, for low-input agriculture or for successful agricultural production with minimal impact on the environment. This report summarizes root research initiated in our lab between 2000 and 2004 in the following areas: quantitative analysis of root branching in bananas, high throughput characterisation of root morphology, image analysis, QTL mapping of detailed features of root architecture in rice, and attempts to settle a Crop Root Research Consortium. (author)

  4. Growth and physiological responses of canola (Brassica napus) to three components of global climate change: temperature, carbon dioxide and drought

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qaderi, M.M.; Kurepin, L.V.; Reid, D.M. [Univ. of Calgary, Dept. of Biological Sciences, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    2006-12-15

    Elevated CO{sub 2} appears to be a significant factor in global warming, which will likely lead to drought conditions in many areas. Few studies have considered the interactive effects of higher CO{sub 2}, temperature and drought on plant growth and physiology. We grew canola (Brassica napus cv. 45H72) plants under lower (22/18 deg. C) and higher (28/24 deg. C) temperature regimes in controlled-environment chambers at ambient (370 {mu}mol mol-1) and elevated (740 {mu}mol mol-1) CO{sub 2} levels. One half of the plants were watered to field capacity and the other half at wilting point. In three separate experiments, we determined growth, various physiological parameters and content of abscisic acid (ABA), indole-3-acetic acid and ethylene. Drought-stressed plants grown under higher temperature at ambient CO{sub 2} had decreased stem height and diameter, leaf number and area, dry matter, leaf area ratio, shoot/root weight ratio, net CO{sub 2} assimilation and chlorophyll fluorescence. However, these plants had increased specific leaf weight, leaf weight ratio and chlorophyll concentration. Elevated CO{sub 2} generally had the opposite effect. and partially reversed the inhibitory effects of higher temperature and drought on leaf dry weight accumulation. This study showed that higher temperature and drought inhibit many processes but elevated CO{sub 2} partially mitigate some adverse effects. As expected, drought stress increased ABA but higher temperature inhibited the ability of plants to produce ABA in response to drought. (au)

  5. Evaluation of biochemical changes in unstimulated salivary, calcium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TORNADO

    2012-01-26

    Jan 26, 2012 ... salivary, calcium, phosphorous and total protein during ... teins in saliva are important components and any chan- ... Sialochemical analysis .... quantities of protein utilizing the principal of protein-dye binding. Anal biochem.

  6. Measures of Biochemical Sociology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Joel; Marsh, Mitchell

    2008-01-01

    In a previous article, the authors introduced a new sub field in sociology that we labeled "biochemical sociology." We introduced the definition of a sociology that encompasses sociological measures, psychological measures, and biological indicators Snell & Marsh (2003). In this article, we want to demonstrate a research strategy that would assess…

  7. Growth, photosynthesis and nitrogen metabolism in soybean varieties after exclusion of the UV-B and UV-A/B components of solar radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Singh Baroniya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted to study the impact of the exclusion of the solar UV components on growth, photosynthesis and nitrogen metabolism in soybean (Glycine max varieties PK-472, Pusa-24, JS 71-05, JS-335, NRC-7 and Kalitur. The plants were grown in specially designed UV exclusion chambers wrapped with filters to exclude UV-B or UV-A/B and transmitted all UV. Exclusion of UV significantly enhanced the growth of the aerial parts as well as the growth of the below ground parts in all of the six soybean varieties. Nitrate reductase activity (NRA was significantly reduced, whereas leghemoglobin (Lb content, total soluble protein, net photosynthesis (Pn and α-tocopherol content were enhanced after UV exclusion. The exclusion of solar UV-A/B enhanced all parameters to a larger extent than the exclusion of solar UV-B in four of the six varieties of soybean except for NRC-7 and Kalitur. These two varieties responded more to UV-B exclusion compared to UV-A/B exclusion. A significant inverse correlation between the NRA and the number of nodules per plant was observed. The extent of response in all parameters was greater in PK-472 and JS71-05 than that in Kalitur and JS-335 after UV exclusion. The exclusion of UV augmented the growth of nodules, Lb content and α-tocopherol levels and conferred higher rates of Pn to support better growth of nodules. Control plants (+ UV-A/B seemed to fulfill their N demand through the assimilation of NO3− resulting in lower symbiotic nitrogen fixation and higher NR activity.

  8. Crack growth behaviour of low-alloy steels for pressure boundary components under transient light water reactor operating conditions - CASTOC, Part II: WWER conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernestova, M.; Zamboch, M. [Nuclear Research Institute, NRI, Rez (Czech Republic); Devrient, B.; Roth, A. [Framatome ANP GmbH, Erlangen (Germany); Ehrnsten, U. [VTT Industrial Systems, Espoo (Finland); Foehl, J.; Weissenberg, T. [Staatliche Materialpruefungsanstalt, MPA, Stuttgart (Germany); Gomez-Briceno, D.; Lapena, J. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Ritter, S.; Seifert, H.P. [Paul Scherrer Institute, PSI, Villigen (Switzerland)

    2004-07-01

    One of the ageing phenomena of pressure boundary components of light water reactors (LWRs) is environmentally-assisted cracking (EAC). The project CASTOC (5. Framework Programme of the EU) was launched September 2000 with six European partners and terminated August 2003. It focused in particular on the EAC behaviour of low-alloy steels (LAS) and to some extent to weld metal, heat affected zone and the influence of an austenitic cladding. The main objective was directed to the clarification of crack growth behavior of LAS in high-temperature water due to EAC under constant load (steady-state power operation), to study the effect of transient conditions (during operation or start-up/shut-down of a plant) using their impact on time-based and cycle-based crack growth rates and to a more detailed understanding of the acting mechanisms. Autoclave tests were performed with Western and Russian type reactor pressure vessel steels under simulated boiling water reactor (BWR)/normal water chemistry (NWC) and pressurized water reactor (WWER) conditions. The investigations were performed with fracture mechanics specimens of different sizes and geometries. The applied loading comprised cyclic loads, static loads and load spectra where the static load was periodically interrupted by partial unloading. With regard to water chemistry, the oxygen content (WWER) and impurities of sulphate and chlorides (BWR) were varied beyond allowable limits for continuous operation. The current paper summarizes the most important crack growth results obtained under simulated WWER conditions. The influence of oxygen content and the effect of specimen size (C(T)25 versus C(T)50 specimens) on the crack growth rates are shown. The results are discussed in the context of the current crack growth rate curves in the corresponding nuclear codes. (authors)

  9. Crack growth behaviour of low-alloy steels for pressure boundary components under transient light water reactor operating conditions - CASTOC, Part II: WWER conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernestova, M.; Zamboch, M.; Devrient, B.; Roth, A.; Ehrnsten, U.; Foehl, J.; Weissenberg, T.; Gomez-Briceno, D.; Lapena, J.; Ritter, S.; Seifert, H.P.

    2004-01-01

    One of the ageing phenomena of pressure boundary components of light water reactors (LWRs) is environmentally-assisted cracking (EAC). The project CASTOC (5. Framework Programme of the EU) was launched September 2000 with six European partners and terminated August 2003. It focused in particular on the EAC behaviour of low-alloy steels (LAS) and to some extent to weld metal, heat affected zone and the influence of an austenitic cladding. The main objective was directed to the clarification of crack growth behavior of LAS in high-temperature water due to EAC under constant load (steady-state power operation), to study the effect of transient conditions (during operation or start-up/shut-down of a plant) using their impact on time-based and cycle-based crack growth rates and to a more detailed understanding of the acting mechanisms. Autoclave tests were performed with Western and Russian type reactor pressure vessel steels under simulated boiling water reactor (BWR)/normal water chemistry (NWC) and pressurized water reactor (WWER) conditions. The investigations were performed with fracture mechanics specimens of different sizes and geometries. The applied loading comprised cyclic loads, static loads and load spectra where the static load was periodically interrupted by partial unloading. With regard to water chemistry, the oxygen content (WWER) and impurities of sulphate and chlorides (BWR) were varied beyond allowable limits for continuous operation. The current paper summarizes the most important crack growth results obtained under simulated WWER conditions. The influence of oxygen content and the effect of specimen size (C(T)25 versus C(T)50 specimens) on the crack growth rates are shown. The results are discussed in the context of the current crack growth rate curves in the corresponding nuclear codes. (authors)

  10. Evaluation of growth, metabolism and production of potentially bioactive components during fermentation of barley with Lactobacillus reuteri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallin, Anton; Agback, Peter; Jonsson, Hans; Roos, Stefan

    2016-08-01

    Eighteen bacterial isolates from millet, buckwheat and rye flour were identified as Lactobacillus reuteri. Genomic fingerprinting (rep-PCR) revealed that they represented five strains and phylogenetic analyses using multi locus sequence analysis (MLSA) showed that all clustered with strains of rodent origin. Two strains (SU12-3 and SU18-3) from different phylogenetic clades were used in fermentations of six varieties of barley, both untreated and heat-treated (with inactivated indigenous enzymes) flour. They were compared with two probiotic strains of human origin (DSM 17938 and ATCC PTA 6475), one previously isolated sourdough strain (LTH 5531) and one strain of Lactobacillus plantarum (36E). Analyses of growth (CFU) and metabolism (1H-NMR) revealed differences at species level, with L. plantarum showing a higher capacity to assimilate nutrients without help of the cereal enzymes. Similarities were observed between L. reuteri strains isolated from sourdough, while the greatest differences between L. reuteri strains were observed between strains 6475 and 17938. Multivariate analysis of the metabolic profiles revealed clear clustering according to flour treatment, species of bacteria and barley variety and to some extent also bacterial strain. Possible bioactive compounds such as γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), 1,3- propanediol (sign of reuterin production) and histamine were identified and quantified. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Optimisation of potassium chloride nutrition for proper growth, physiological development and bioactive component production in Prunella vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhang Chen

    Full Text Available Prunella vulgaris L. is an important medicinal plant with a variety of pharmacological activities, but limited information is available about its response to potassium chloride (KCl supplementation. P. vulgaris seedlings were cultured in media with four different KCl levels (0, 1.00, 6.00 and 40.00 mM. Characteristics relating to the growth, foliar potassium, water and chlorophyll content, photosynthesis, transpiration, nitrogen metabolism, bioactive constituent concentrations and yield were determined after three months. The appropriate KCl concentration was 6.00 mM to result in the highest values for dry weight, shoot height, spica and root weight, spica length and number in P. vulgaris. The optimum KCl concentration resulted in a maximum net photosynthetic rate (Pn that could be associated with the highest chlorophyll content and fully open stomata conductance. A supply of surplus KCl resulted in a higher concentration of foliar potassium and negatively correlated with the biomass. Plants that were treated with the appropriate KCl level showed a greater capacity for nitrate assimilation. The Pn was significantly and positively correlated with nitrate reductase (NR and glutamine synthetase (GS activities and was positively correlated with leaf-soluble protein and free amino acid (FAA contents. Both KCl starvation (0 mM and high KCl (40.00 mM led to water loss through a high transpiration rate and low water absorption, respectively, and resulted in increased concentrations of ursolic acid (UA, oleanolic acid (OA and flavonoids, with the exception of rosmarinic acid (RA. Moreover, the optimum concentration of KCl significantly increased the yields of RA, UA, OA and flavonoids. Our findings suggested that significantly higher plant biomass; chlorophyll content; Pn; stronger nitrogen anabolism; lower RA, UA, OA and flavonoid accumulation; and greater RA, UA, OA and flavonoid yields in P. vulgaris could be expected in the presence of the

  12. The urokinase plasminogen activator system components are regulated by vascular endothelial growth factor D in bovine oviduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Daniela C; Russo-Maenza, Agostina; Miceli, Dora C; Valdecantos, Pablo A; Roldán-Olarte, Mariela

    2018-06-08

    SummaryThe mammalian oviduct plays a pivotal role in the success of early reproductive events. The urokinase plasminogen activator system (uPAS) is present in the bovine oviduct and is involved in extracellular matrix remodelling through plasmin generation. This system can be regulated by several members of the vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF) and their receptors. In this study, the VEGF-D effect on the regulation of uPAS was evaluated. First, RT-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses were used to evidence the expression of VEGF-D and its receptors in oviductal epithelial cells (BOEC). VEGF-D, VEGFR2 and VEGFR3 transcripts were found in ex vivo and in vitro BOEC, while only VEGFR2 mRNA was present after in vitro conditions. VEGF-D showed a regulatory effect on uPAS gene expression in a dose-dependent manner, inducing an increase in the expression of both uPA and its receptor (uPAR) at 24 h post-induction and decreases in the expression of its inhibitor (PAI-1). In addition, the regulation of cell migration induced by VEGF-D and uPA in BOEC monolayer cultures was analyzed. The wound areas of monolayer cultures incubated with VEGF-D 10 ng/ml or uPA 10 nM were modified and significant differences were found at 24 h for both stimulations. These results indicated that uPAS and VEGF-D systems can modify the arrangement of the bovine oviductal epithelium and contribute to the correct maintenance of the oviductal microenvironment.

  13. Growth enhancement of soybean (Glycine max) upon exclusion of UV-B and UV-B/A components of solar radiation: characterization of photosynthetic parameters in leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guruprasad, Kadur; Kadur, Guruprasad; Bhattacharjee, Swapan; Swapan, Bhattacharjee; Kataria, Sunita; Sunita, Kataria; Yadav, Sanjeev; Sanjeev, Yadav; Tiwari, Arjun; Arjun, Tiwari; Baroniya, Sanjay; Sanjay, Baroniya; Rajiv, Abhinav; Abhinav, Rajiv; Mohanty, Prasanna

    2007-01-01

    Exclusion of UV (280-380 nm) radiation from the solar spectrum can be an important tool to assess the impact of ambient UV radiation on plant growth and performance of crop plants. The effect of exclusion of UV-B and UV-A from solar radiation on the growth and photosynthetic components in soybean (Glycine max) leaves were investigated. Exclusion of solar UV-B and UV-B/A radiation, enhanced the fresh weight, dry weight, leaf area as well as induced a dramatic increase in plant height, which reflected a net increase in biomass. Dry weight increase per unit leaf area was quite significant upon both UV-B and UV-B/A exclusion from the solar spectrum. However, no changes in chlorophyll a and b contents were observed by exclusion of solar UV radiation but the content of carotenoids was significantly (34-46%) lowered. Analysis of chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence transient parameters of leaf segments suggested no change in the F v/F m value due to UV-B or UV-B/A exclusion. Only a small reduction in photo-oxidized signal I (P700+)/unit Chl was noted. Interestingly the total soluble protein content per unit leaf area increased by 18% in UV-B/A and 40% in UV-B excluded samples, suggesting a unique upregulation of biosynthesis and accumulation of biomass. Solar UV radiation thus seems to primarily affect the photomorphogenic regulatory system that leads to an enhanced growth of leaves and an enhanced rate of net photosynthesis in soybean, a crop plant of economic importance. The presence of ultra-violet components in sunlight seems to arrest carbon sequestration in plants.

  14. Survival and growth of salmonella in high-moisture pecan nutmeats, in-shell pecans, inedible nut components, and orchard soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuchat, Larry R; Mann, David A

    2010-11-01

    Outbreaks of salmonellosis associated with almonds have raised interest in better understanding the behavior of Salmonella on other tree nuts. We undertook a study to determine the survival and growth characteristics of Salmonella on high-moisture (water activity of 0.96 to 0.99) pecan nutmeats, in-shell pecans, and inedible components (shuck, shell, and middle septum tissue) of in-shell pecans. Salmonella did not grow on high-moisture nutmeat halves, pieces, or granules stored at 4°C for up to 48 h. Growth did occur, however, at 21, 30, and 37°C. Increases of 1.77 to 5.87 log CFU/g of nutmeats occurred within 48 h at 37°C; the order in which nutmeats supported growth was granules > pieces > halves. Populations of Salmonella on and in high-moisture in-shell pecans (kernel water activity of 0.94) stored at 4, 21, 30, and 37°C for 8 days decreased by 0.52 to 1.19 log CFU/g. The pathogen grew on the surface of high-moisture (water activity of 0.99) pecan shucks and shells but died on middle septum tissue stored at 21, 30, and 37°C for up to 6 days. Salmonella died in water extracts of shucks and in pecan orchard soil saturated with water or shuck extract, but survived well for at least 18 weeks in dry soil. The ability of the pathogen to grow on high-moisture nutmeats and some of the inedible components of pecans emphasizes the importance of controlling or limiting the time pecans are exposed to water in preharvest and postharvest environments.

  15. Crack growth behaviour of low-alloy steels for pressure boundary components under transient light water reactor operating conditions - CASTOC, Part I: BWR/NWC conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, S.; Seifert, H.P.; Devrient, B.; Roth, A.; Ehrnsten, U.; Ernestova, M.; Zamboch, M.; Foehl, J.; Weissenberg, T.; Gomez-Briceno, D.; Lapena, J.

    2004-01-01

    One of the ageing phenomena of pressure boundary components of light water reactors (LWR) is environmentally-assisted cracking (EAC). The project CASTOC (5. Framework Programme of the EU) was launched September 2000 with six European partners and terminated August 2003. It was focused in particular on the EAC behaviour of low-alloy steels (LAS) and to some extent to weld metal, heat affected zone and the influence of an austenitic cladding. The main objective was directed to the clarification of EAC crack growth behaviour/mechanism of LAS in high-temperature water under steady-state power operation (constant load) and transient operating conditions (e.g., start-up/shut-down, transients in water chemistry and load). Autoclave tests were performed with Western and Russian type reactor pressure vessel steels under simulated boiling water reactor (BWR)/normal water chemistry (NWC) and pressurised water reactor (VVER) conditions. The investigations were performed with fracture mechanics specimens of different sizes and geometries. The applied loading comprised cyclic loads, static loads and load spectra where the static load was periodically interrupted by partial unloading. With regard to water chemistry, the oxygen content (VVER) and impurities of sulphate and chlorides (BWR) were varied beyond allowable limits for continuous operation. The current paper summarises the most important crack growth results obtained under simulated BWR/NWC conditions. The results are discussed in the context of the current crack growth rate curves in the corresponding nuclear codes. (authors)

  16. Crack growth behaviour of low-alloy steels for pressure boundary components under transient light water reactor operating conditions - CASTOC, Part I: BWR/NWC conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritter, S.; Seifert, H.P. [Paul Scherrer Institute, PSI, Villigen (Switzerland); Devrient, B.; Roth, A. [Framatome ANP GmbH, Erlangen (Germany); Ehrnsten, U. [VTT Industrial Systems, Espoo (Finland); Ernestova, M.; Zamboch, M. [Nuclear Research Institute, NRI, Rez (Czech Republic); Foehl, J.; Weissenberg, T. [Staatliche Materialpruefungsanstalt, MPA, Stuttgart (Germany); Gomez-Briceno, D.; Lapena, J. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    One of the ageing phenomena of pressure boundary components of light water reactors (LWR) is environmentally-assisted cracking (EAC). The project CASTOC (5. Framework Programme of the EU) was launched September 2000 with six European partners and terminated August 2003. It was focused in particular on the EAC behaviour of low-alloy steels (LAS) and to some extent to weld metal, heat affected zone and the influence of an austenitic cladding. The main objective was directed to the clarification of EAC crack growth behaviour/mechanism of LAS in high-temperature water under steady-state power operation (constant load) and transient operating conditions (e.g., start-up/shut-down, transients in water chemistry and load). Autoclave tests were performed with Western and Russian type reactor pressure vessel steels under simulated boiling water reactor (BWR)/normal water chemistry (NWC) and pressurised water reactor (VVER) conditions. The investigations were performed with fracture mechanics specimens of different sizes and geometries. The applied loading comprised cyclic loads, static loads and load spectra where the static load was periodically interrupted by partial unloading. With regard to water chemistry, the oxygen content (VVER) and impurities of sulphate and chlorides (BWR) were varied beyond allowable limits for continuous operation. The current paper summarises the most important crack growth results obtained under simulated BWR/NWC conditions. The results are discussed in the context of the current crack growth rate curves in the corresponding nuclear codes. (authors)

  17. The PP2A Regulatory Subunit Tap46, a Component of the TOR Signaling Pathway, Modulates Growth and Metabolism in Plants[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Chang Sook; Han, Jeong-A; Lee, Ho-Seok; Lee, Semi; Pai, Hyun-Sook

    2011-01-01

    Tap42/α4, a regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase 2A, is a downstream effector of the target of rapamycin (TOR) protein kinase, which regulates cell growth in coordination with nutrient and environmental conditions in yeast and mammals. In this study, we characterized the functions and phosphatase regulation of plant Tap46. Depletion of Tap46 resulted in growth arrest and acute plant death with morphological markers of programmed cell death. Tap46 interacted with PP2A and PP2A-like phosphatases PP4 and PP6. Tap46 silencing modulated cellular PP2A activities in a time-dependent fashion similar to TOR silencing. Immunoprecipitated full-length and deletion forms of Arabidopsis thaliana TOR phosphorylated recombinant Tap46 protein in vitro, supporting a functional link between Tap46 and TOR. Tap46 depletion reproduced the signature phenotypes of TOR inactivation, such as dramatic repression of global translation and activation of autophagy and nitrogen mobilization, indicating that Tap46 may act as a positive effector of TOR signaling in controlling those processes. Additionally, Tap46 silencing in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) BY-2 cells caused chromatin bridge formation at anaphase, indicating its role in sister chromatid segregation. These findings suggest that Tap46, in conjunction with associated phosphatases, plays an essential role in plant growth and development as a component of the TOR signaling pathway. PMID:21216945

  18. Biochemical characterization of cholesterol-reducing Eubacterium.

    OpenAIRE

    Mott, G E; Brinkley, A W; Mersinger, C L

    1980-01-01

    We characterized two isolates of cholesterol-reducing Eubacterium by conducting conventional biochemical tests and by testing various sterols and glycerolipids as potential growth factors. In media containing cholesterol and plasmenylethanolamine, the tests for nitrate reduction, indole production, and gelatin and starch hydrolyses were negative, and no acid was produced from any of 22 carbohydrates. Both isolates hydrolyzed esculin to esculetin, indicating beta-glycosidase activity. In addit...

  19. Effects of Nano-Zinc oxide and Seed Inoculation by Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR on Yield, Yield Components and Grain Filling Period of Soybean (Glycine max L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Seyed Sharifi

    2016-02-01

    promoting rhizobacteria application on yield, yield components and grain filling period of soybean. Materials and Methods In order to study the effects of Nano-Zinc oxide and seed inoculation with Brady rhizobium and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on yield and some agronomic characteristics of soybean, a factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications was conducted in 2013 at the research farm of the Islamic Azad University, Ardabil Branch. Factors were included foliar application of Nano-Zinc oxide at four levels (Zero as control, 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 g l-1 and seed inoculation with Brady rhizobium and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria at five levels (without inoculation as control, seed inoculation with Brady rhizobium japanicum, seed inoculation with Brady rhizobium japanicum+Azosprillum lipoferum strain OF, seed inoculation with Brady rhizobium japanicum+Psedomonas putida, seed inoculation with Brady rhizobium japanicum+ Azosprillum lipoferum strain OF+ Psedomonas putida. Results and Discussion The results of growth indices showed that the maximum total dry matter (530 g m-2, crop growth rate (9.48 g.m-2.day-1 and relative growth rate (0.1 g.g-1.day-1 were obtained at foliar application of 0.9 g l-1 Nano-Zinc oxide×seed inoculation with rhizobium+Azosprillum+ Psedomonas and the least of these indices were obtained without of foliar application Nano-Zinc oxide × seed inoculation. The results showed that plant height, the number of nodules per plant, the number of pod per plant, grain yield and grain 100 weight were significantly affected by Nano-Zinc oxide, seed inoculation and interaction of Nano-Zinc oxide×seed inoculation. Maximum of plant height, grain 100 weight, the number of nodules per plant and grain yield were obtained at foliar application of 0.9 g l-1 of Nano-Zinc oxide×seed inoculation with rhizobium and PGPR. Dry weight of nodules per plant, the number of pod per plant and the number of grains per plant

  20. Physiological and biochemical constituents as predictive appreciation for selection of drought tolerant cultivars in wheat (triticum aestivum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalal-ud-Din; Khan, S.U.; Gurmani, A.R.

    2012-01-01

    A pot study was undertaken to assess the effect of drought stress imposed at various growth stages on growth, physiological and biochemical attributes of wheat. Five commercial wheat cultivars viz. Chakwal-97, Inqalab-91, Margalla-99, NR-234 and Wafaq-2001 were grown in pots. The plants were subjected to three consecutive drought cycles at tillering, pre-anthesis and milky growth stages. Measurements pertaining to various physiological and biochemical parameters such as relative water content (RWC), proline, superoxide dismutase (SOD), membrane stability index (MSI), yield and yield components were made. Significant reduction in grain yield was observed in all the test varieties when drought was imposed at any growth stage. The reduction was highest (39-64%) when stress was imposed at pre-anthesis followed by tillering growth stage. The wheat variety Wafaq-2001 and Inqalab-91 performed better by giving higher yield and produced greater numbers of filled seeds per spike compared to other varieties. Under water stress proline contents were higher in the drought-tolerant cultivar Wafaq-2001. The same variety showed higher membrane stability index and antioxidant enzymes (SOD) activity under drought stress conditions. The results suggest that pre-anthesis growth stage is the most sensitive towards drought stress. Wheat cultivars: Wafaq-2001 and Inqalab-91 showed best tolerance response against drought stress. Higher proline, RWC and SOD activity under drought stress seems to be the most reliable parameters enabling the discrimination of varieties for drought tolerance. (author)

  1. Effect of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR on Phenological Traits, Grain Yield and Yield Components of Three Maize (Zea mays L. Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Soleimani Fard

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of bio-fertilize on yield and its components in maize cultivars, an split plot experiment based on randomized complete bock design with three replications in was conducted in Payam-noor University of Ilam, Iran, in 2009-2010. Treatments were cultivar (SC604, SC704 and SC807 assigned to main plots and bio-fertilizer (non- inoculation, inoculation with Azetobacter, Azospirillum and dual inoculation ofAzotobacterand Azospirillum to subplots. The effect of cultivar on days to maturity, plant height, dry matter, ear length, stem diameter, number of grain per ear row, 1000-grain weight, grain yield, biological yield and protein content was significant cultivar. SC 704 had the highest dry matter (259.5 g.m-2, plant height (201.1 cm, number of grain per ear row (42.8 grain, grain yield (10850 kg.m-2, and biological yield (22040 kg.m-2. The effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on all traits expect harvest index was significant. Dual inoculation ofAzotobacterand Azospirillum had the longest days to ear initiation (71.2 days, days to maturity (115.4 day, number of leaves above ear (5.6 ear, dry matter (240.4 g.m-2, ear length (24.3 cm, plant height (212.4 cm, seed number of rows per ear (14.5 row, number of grains per row (44.2 grain, grain yield (10190 kg.m-2, biological yield (21320 kg.m-2 and protein content (10.7%. Interaction effect of cultivar× plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on grain yield was significant. The highest and lowest grain yield was obtained from SC 704 and application of dual inoculation ofAzotobacterand Azospirillum (12320 kg.ha-1 and lowest from SC 604 when inoculation treatments were not used 7570 kg.ha-1 respectively.

  2. Evaluation of Effect of Chemical and Organic Fertilizers on Growth Characteristics, Yield and Yield components of three Sesame Ecotypes (Sesamum indicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Goldani

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Using organic fertilizers is cause increase soil fertility, improving crop growth and production. For this purpose a greenhouse experiment was carried out in factorial arrangement based on a completely randomized design with three replications during 2011 year. First factor included: three sesame ecotype (MSC3, MSC6, MSC7 and second factor was 6 fertilizer treatments that included: Incorporation manure and chemical fertilizer (216 g manure and 1 gram chemical fertilizer NPK, Chemical fertilizer (2 g NPK, Vermicompost (192 g, Manure ( 228 g, Compost Sulfur granules (192 g per vase and Control (without any manure or fertilizer. Results indicated that different manure treatments had significant effect on morphological and yield components traits, as the most number and length branch per plant was obtained from incorporation manure and chemical fertilizer treatment. Appling incorporation manure and chemical fertilizer treatment had the most biomass in MSC3 ecotype that in comparison of control treatment was increased almost 73 percent. Consuming incorporation manure and chemical fertilizer treatment in MSC3 ecotype was also obtained the most capsule per plant (21.2, number seed per capsule (54.4, 100-seed weight (0.257 g and seed per plant with (1.95 g. The least seed weight per plant with 0.450 g was observed in MSC7 ecotype from application of control treatment. Response of three sesame ecotype (MSC3, MSC6, MSC7 to applied vermin-compost manure was similar; as the amount of seed weight per plant was increased more than 1 g per plant in all these ecotypes and in others fertilizer treatments was not observed this trend. There was significant positive correlation between seed weight per plant and number of capsule per plant (r=0.83**, height (r=0.68** and biomass (r=0.51**. The results showed that incorporation manure and chemical fertilizer was improved on growth and yield characteristics of sesame plant.

  3. Implantable biochemical fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, G; Rao, J R

    1978-01-05

    Implantable biochemical fuel cells for the operation of heart pacemakers or artificial hearts convert oxidisable body substances such as glucose on the anode side and reduce the oxygen contained in body fluids at the cathode. The anode and cathode are separated by membranes which are impermeable to albumen and blood corpuscles in body fluids. A chemical shortcircuit cannot occur in practice if, according to the invention, one or more selective oxygen electrodes with carbon as catalyst are arranged so that the mixture which diffuses into the cell from body fluids during operation reaches the fuel cell electrode through the porous oxygen electrode. The membranes used must be permeable to water. Cellulose, polymerised polyvinyl alcohol or an ion exchanger with a buffering capacity between pH5 and 8 act as permeable materials.

  4. Reconstructing biochemical pathways from time course data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srividhya, Jeyaraman; Crampin, Edmund J; McSharry, Patrick E; Schnell, Santiago

    2007-03-01

    Time series data on biochemical reactions reveal transient behavior, away from chemical equilibrium, and contain information on the dynamic interactions among reacting components. However, this information can be difficult to extract using conventional analysis techniques. We present a new method to infer biochemical pathway mechanisms from time course data using a global nonlinear modeling technique to identify the elementary reaction steps which constitute the pathway. The method involves the generation of a complete dictionary of polynomial basis functions based on the law of mass action. Using these basis functions, there are two approaches to model construction, namely the general to specific and the specific to general approach. We demonstrate that our new methodology reconstructs the chemical reaction steps and connectivity of the glycolytic pathway of Lactococcus lactis from time course experimental data.

  5. Optical Slot-Waveguide Based Biochemical Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Angulo Barrios

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Slot-waveguides allow light to be guided and strongly confined inside a nanometer-scale region of low refractive index. Thus stronger light-analyte interaction can be obtained as compared to that achievable by a conventional waveguide, in which the propagating beam is confined to the high-refractive-index core of the waveguide. In addition, slot-waveguides can be fabricated by employing CMOS compatible materials and technology, enabling miniaturization, integration with electronic, photonic and fluidic components in a chip, and mass production. These advantages have made the use of slot-waveguides for highly sensitive biochemical optical integrated sensors an emerging field. In this paper, recent achievements in slot-waveguide based biochemical sensing will be reviewed. These include slot-waveguide ring resonator based refractometric label-free biosensors, label-based optical sensing, and nano-opto-mechanical sensors.

  6. Changes in hormone profiles, growth factors, and mRNA expression of the related receptors in crop tissue, relative organ weight, and serum biochemical parameters in the domestic pigeon (Columba livia) during incubation and chick-rearing periods under artificial farming conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, P; Wan, X P; Bu, Z; Diao, E J; Gong, D Q; Zou, X T

    2018-06-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the changes in concentrations of hormones and growth factors and their related receptor gene expressions in crop tissue, relative organ weight, and serum biochemical parameters in male and female pigeons during incubation and chick-rearing periods under artificial farming conditions. Seventy-eight pairs of 60-week-old White King pigeons with 2 fertile eggs per pair were randomly divided into 13 groups by different breeding stages. Serum prolactin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) concentrations in crop tissue homogenates were the highest in both male and female pigeons at 1 d of chick-rearing (R1), while epidermal growth factor (EGF) in female pigeons peaked at d 17 of incubation (I17) (P < 0.05). mRNA expression of the prolactin and EGF receptors in the crop tissue increased at the end of incubation and the early chick-rearing stage in both sexes. However, estrogen, progesterone, and growth hormone receptor expression each decreased during the early chick-rearing stage (P < 0.05). In male pigeons, IGF-1 receptor gene expression reached its peak at R7, while in female pigeons, it increased at the end of incubation. The relative weight of breast and abdominal fat in both sexes and thighs in the males was lowest at R7, and then gradually increased to the incubation period level. Serum total protein, albumin, and globulin concentrations increased to the highest levels at I17 (P < 0.05). Total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein reached their highest values at I17 in male pigeons and R25 in female pigeons (P < 0.05). In conclusion, hormones, growth factors, and their receptors potentially underlie pigeon crop tissue development. Changes in organs and serum biochemical profiles suggested their different breeding-cycle patterns with sexual effects.

  7. Comparison of the biochemical components and characteristic of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nutrient composition, enzyme activities, the profile of free amino acids (FAAs) and protein compositions in Tibetan sheep milk were assayed and compared with those in Chengdu Ma goat. The results showed that the total solids, milk fat and activity of alkaline phosphatase (AKP) in Tibetan sheep milk were significantly ...

  8. Comparison of the biochemical components and characteristic of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-03-14

    Mar 14, 2011 ... characteristic of milk between Tibetan sheep and goat ... 1Sichuan Key Laboratory for Conservation and Exploitation of Animal Genetic Resources in Tibetan Plateau, Chengdu,. Sichuan 610041 .... general linear model.

  9. Biochemical Network Stochastic Simulator (BioNetS: software for stochastic modeling of biochemical networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elston Timothy C

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intrinsic fluctuations due to the stochastic nature of biochemical reactions can have large effects on the response of biochemical networks. This is particularly true for pathways that involve transcriptional regulation, where generally there are two copies of each gene and the number of messenger RNA (mRNA molecules can be small. Therefore, there is a need for computational tools for developing and investigating stochastic models of biochemical networks. Results We have developed the software package Biochemical Network Stochastic Simulator (BioNetS for efficientlyand accurately simulating stochastic models of biochemical networks. BioNetS has a graphical user interface that allows models to be entered in a straightforward manner, and allows the user to specify the type of random variable (discrete or continuous for each chemical species in the network. The discrete variables are simulated using an efficient implementation of the Gillespie algorithm. For the continuous random variables, BioNetS constructs and numerically solvesthe appropriate chemical Langevin equations. The software package has been developed to scale efficiently with network size, thereby allowing large systems to be studied. BioNetS runs as a BioSpice agent and can be downloaded from http://www.biospice.org. BioNetS also can be run as a stand alone package. All the required files are accessible from http://x.amath.unc.edu/BioNetS. Conclusions We have developed BioNetS to be a reliable tool for studying the stochastic dynamics of large biochemical networks. Important features of BioNetS are its ability to handle hybrid models that consist of both continuous and discrete random variables and its ability to model cell growth and division. We have verified the accuracy and efficiency of the numerical methods by considering several test systems.

  10. The Arabidopsis KH-Domain RNA-Binding Protein ESR1 Functions in Components of Jasmonate Signalling, Unlinking Growth Restraint and Resistance to Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise F Thatcher

    Full Text Available Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs play important roles in the protection of cells against toxins and oxidative damage where one Arabidopsis member, GSTF8, has become a commonly used marker gene for early stress and defense responses. A GSTF8 promoter fragment fused to the luciferase reporter gene was used in a forward genetic screen for Arabidopsis mutants with up-regulated GSTF8 promoter activity. This identified the esr1-1 (enhanced stress response 1 mutant which also conferred increased resistance to the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum. Through positional cloning, the ESR1 gene was found to encode a KH-domain containing RNA-binding protein (At5g53060. Whole transcriptome sequencing of esr1-1 identified altered expression of genes involved in responses to biotic and abiotic stimuli, hormone signaling pathways and developmental processes. In particular was an overall significant enrichment for jasmonic acid (JA mediated processes in the esr1-1 down-regulated dataset. A subset of these genes were tested for MeJA inducibility and we found the expression of some but not all were reduced in esr1-1. The esr1-1 mutant was not impaired in other aspects of JA-signalling such as JA- sensitivity or development, suggesting ESR1 functions in specific components of the JA-signaling pathway. Examination of salicylic acid (SA regulated marker genes in esr1-1 showed no increase in basal or SA induced expression suggesting repression of JA-regulated genes is not due to antagonistic SA-JA crosstalk. These results define new roles for KH-domain containing proteins with ESR1 unlinking JA-mediated growth and defense responses.

  11. Streptococcus mutans Extracellular DNA Is Upregulated during Growth in Biofilms, Actively Released via Membrane Vesicles, and Influenced by Components of the Protein Secretion Machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Sumei; Klein, Marlise I.; Heim, Kyle P.; Fan, Yuwei; Bitoun, Jacob P.; Ahn, San-Joon; Burne, Robert A.; Koo, Hyun; Brady, L. Jeannine

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans, a major etiological agent of human dental caries, lives primarily on the tooth surface in biofilms. Limited information is available concerning the extracellular DNA (eDNA) as a scaffolding matrix in S. mutans biofilms. This study demonstrates that S. mutans produces eDNA by multiple avenues, including lysis-independent membrane vesicles. Unlike eDNAs from cell lysis that were abundant and mainly concentrated around broken cells or cell debris with floating open ends, eDNAs produced via the lysis-independent pathway appeared scattered but in a structured network under scanning electron microscopy. Compared to eDNA production of planktonic cultures, eDNA production in 5- and 24-h biofilms was increased by >3- and >1.6-fold, respectively. The addition of DNase I to growth medium significantly reduced biofilm formation. In an in vitro adherence assay, added chromosomal DNA alone had a limited effect on S. mutans adherence to saliva-coated hydroxylapatite beads, but in conjunction with glucans synthesized using purified glucosyltransferase B, the adherence was significantly enhanced. Deletion of sortase A, the transpeptidase that covalently couples multiple surface-associated proteins to the cell wall peptidoglycan, significantly reduced eDNA in both planktonic and biofilm cultures. Sortase A deficiency did not have a significant effect on membrane vesicle production; however, the protein profile of the mutant membrane vesicles was significantly altered, including reduction of adhesin P1 and glucan-binding proteins B and C. Relative to the wild type, deficiency of protein secretion and membrane protein insertion machinery components, including Ffh, YidC1, and YidC2, also caused significant reductions in eDNA. PMID:24748612

  12. Effect of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR on Yield and Yield Components of Sesame (Sesamum indicum l. with Emphasize on Environmental Friendly Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Rezvani Moghaddam

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effects of different plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR on yield and yield components of sesame, an experiment was conducted in the form of Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications at Research Station, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in year 2009. Treatments were: 1 Nitragin (containing of Azotobacter sp., Azospirillum sp. and Pseudomonas sp., 2 Nitroxin (containing of Azotobacter sp. and Azospirillum sp., 3 Super nitro plus (containing of Azospirillum sp., Bacillus sp. and Pseudomonas sp., 4 Phosphate suloblizing bacteria (containing of Bacillus sp. and Pseudomonas sp., 5 Bio Phosphate (containing of Bacillus sp. and Pseudomonas sp., 6 Nitroxin + Phosphate suloblizing bacteria, 7 Nitroxin + Bio Phosphate and control. The results showed that seed yield affected by PGPR and Nitroxin + Phosphate suloblizing bacteria treatment had superior effect on seed yield compared to other treatments. Superior effect of Nitroxin + Phosphate suloblizing bacteria treatment also was shown on plant seed weight and harvest index. Nitragin, Nitroxin + Bio Phosphate, Nitroxin + Phosphate suloblizing bacteria, Bio Phosphate, Phosphate suloblizing bacteria, Nitroxin treatments increased dry weight of capsules per plant of 62, 53, 51, 36 and 30 percent compared to control, respectively. Although, the effect of PGPR was not significant on sesame seed oil content but Bio Phosphate and Nitragin treatments increased seed oil content by 1 and 1.5 percent, respectively. In general, results showed utilization of PGPR can improve seed yield and seed oil content, which can decrease dependence of sesame seed production to chemical fertilizer, decrease negative environmental impacts and as an ecofriendly inputs can help to produce crops and sustainable agriculture guidlines.

  13. Ouroboros - Playing A Biochemical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. T. Rodrigues

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ouroboros: Playing A Biochemical RODRIGUES,D.T.1,2;GAYER, M.C.1,2; ESCOTO, D.F.1; DENARDIN, E.L.G.2, ROEHRS, R.1,2 1Interdisciplinary Research Group on Teaching Practice, Graduate Program in Biochemistry, Unipampa, RS, Brazil 2Laboratory of Physicochemical Studies and Natural Products, Post Graduate Program in Biochemistry, Unipampa, RS, Brazil Introduction: Currently, teachers seek different alternatives to enhance the teaching-learning process. Innovative teaching methodologies are increasingly common tools in educational routine. The use of games, electronic or conventional, is an effective tool to assist in learning and also to raise the social interaction between students. Objective: In this sense our work aims to evaluate the card game and "Ouroboros" board as a teaching and learning tool in biochemistry for a graduating class in Natural Sciences. Materials and methods: The class gathered 22 students of BSc in Natural Sciences. Each letter contained a question across the board that was drawn to a group to answer within the allotted time. The questions related concepts of metabolism, organic and inorganic chemical reactions, bioenergetics, etc.. Before the game application, students underwent a pre-test with four issues involving the content that was being developed. Soon after, the game was applied. Then again questions were asked. Data analysis was performed from the ratio of the number of correct pre-test and post-test answers. Results and discussion: In the pre-test 18.1% of the students knew all issues, 18.1% got 3 correct answers, 40.9% answered only 2 questions correctly and 22.7% did not hit any. In post-test 45.4% answered all the questions right, 31.8% got 3 questions and 22.7% got 2 correct answers. The results show a significant improvement of the students about the field of content taught through the game. Conclusion: Generally, traditional approaches of chemistry and biochemistry are abstract and complex. Thus, through games

  14. A Sensitive Method for Examining Whole Cell Biochemical Composition in Single Cells of Filamentous Fungi using Synchrotron FTIR Spectromicroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstantin, J.; Gough, K.; Julian, R.; Kaminskyj, S.

    2008-01-01

    Cell function is related to cell composition. The asexual state of filamentous fungi (molds and mildews) has two main life cycle stages: vegetative hyphae for substrate colonization and nutrient acquisition, and asexual spores for survival and dispersal. Hyphal composition changes over a few tens of microns during growth and maturation; spores are different from hyphae. Most biochemical analyses are restricted to studying a few components at high spatial resolution (e.g. histochemistry) or many compounds at low spatial resolution (e.g. GC-MS). Synchrotron FTIR spectromicroscopy can be used to study fungal cell biology by fingerprinting varieties of carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids at about 6 microm spatial resolution. FTIR can distinguish fungal species and changes during hyphal growth, and reveals that even fungi grown under optimal vs mildly stressed conditions exhibit dramatic biochemical changes without obvious morphological effects. Here we compare hypha and spore composition of two fungi, Neurospora and Rhizopus. There are clear biochemical changes when Neurospora hyphae commit to spore development, during spore maturation and following germination, many of which are consistent with results from molecular genetics, but have not been shown before at high spatial resolution. Rhizopus spores develop within a fluid-containing sporangium that becomes dry at maturity. Rhizopus spores had similar protein content and significantly more carbohydrate than the sporangial fluid, both of which are novel findings.

  15. Enzyme and biochemical producing fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lübeck, Peter Stephensen; Lübeck, Mette; Nilsson, Lena

    2010-01-01

    factories for sustainable production of important molecules. For developing fungi into efficient cell factories, the project includes identification of important factors that control the flux through the pathways using metabolic flux analysis and metabolic engineering of biochemical pathways....

  16. Evidence of seasonal variation in longitudinal growth of height in a sample of boys from Stuttgart Carlsschule, 1771-1793, using combined principal component analysis and maximum likelihood principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, A; Scheffler, Ch; Hermanussen, M

    2010-02-01

    Recent progress in modelling individual growth has been achieved by combining the principal component analysis and the maximum likelihood principle. This combination models growth even in incomplete sets of data and in data obtained at irregular intervals. We re-analysed late 18th century longitudinal growth of German boys from the boarding school Carlsschule in Stuttgart. The boys, aged 6-23 years, were measured at irregular 3-12 monthly intervals during the period 1771-1793. At the age of 18 years, mean height was 1652 mm, but height variation was large. The shortest boy reached 1474 mm, the tallest 1826 mm. Measured height closely paralleled modelled height, with mean difference of 4 mm, SD 7 mm. Seasonal height variation was found. Low growth rates occurred in spring and high growth rates in summer and autumn. The present study demonstrates that combining the principal component analysis and the maximum likelihood principle enables growth modelling in historic height data also. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Physicochemical and biochemical characterization of biosurfactants released by Lactobacillus strains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velraeds, MMC; vanderMei, HC; Reid, G; Busscher, HJ

    1996-01-01

    Biosurfactants from Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus 36 and ATCC 7469, Lactobacillus fermentum B54 and Lactobacillus acidophilus RC14 were isolated from bacteria in their mid-exponential (4-5 h) and stationary growth phases (18 h) and physicochemical and biochemical properties of the

  18. Effect of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria on Yield and Yield Components of Garlic Medicinal Plant (Allium sativum L. under the Conditions of Different Organic and Chemical Fertilizers Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaser Esmaeilian

    2018-03-01

    often underestimated. Garlic is easy to grow and can be grown year-round in mild climates. Garlic cloves are used for consumption (raw and cooked or for medicinal purposes. They have a pungent characteristic, spicy flavor that mellows and sweetens considerably with cooking. Materials and Methods: In order to evaluate the effect of biofertilizers and organic and chemical fertilizers on yield and yield components of garlic (Allium sativum L., a split plot experiment based on RCBD with three replications was conducted in 2015-2016 growing seasons, in Gonabad University, Iran. Main plot included different organic and chemical fertilizers (1- vermicompost, 2- cow manure, 3- chemical fertilizer and 4- control and sub plot included plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (nitroxin, biophosphorous and control. In order to determine physic-chemical properties of soil, sampling was performed at the depth of 0 to 30 cm. Before cultivation, 7 and 30 t.ha-1 vermicompost and cow manure were added to the soil, respectively. Nutrient requirement of garlic for nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium from the chemical source was considered 40, 50 and 60 kg.ha-1. For application of biofertilizers, bulblets inoculated with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria for 15 minutes. Distance in and between rows was considered 10 and 20 cm, respectively. Weeds were controlled manually three times. At the end of the growing season, economic yield, biological yield, plant height, shoot dry weight, bulb diameter, bulblet weight per plant, bulblet volume per plant and bulblet number per plant were measured. Analysis of data variance was performed by using SAS software (Ver 9.1. Results and Discussion: The results showed that simple effect of chemical fertilizer on bulb diameter was not significant but combined application of chemical fertilizer and biophosphorous increased bulb diameter as much as 18% compared to control. Combined application of nitroxin and cow manure increased bulblet weight per plant by 41

  19. Identifying optimal models to represent biochemical systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochamad Apri

    Full Text Available Biochemical systems involving a high number of components with intricate interactions often lead to complex models containing a large number of parameters. Although a large model could describe in detail the mechanisms that underlie the system, its very large size may hinder us in understanding the key elements of the system. Also in terms of parameter identification, large models are often problematic. Therefore, a reduced model may be preferred to represent the system. Yet, in order to efficaciously replace the large model, the reduced model should have the same ability as the large model to produce reliable predictions for a broad set of testable experimental conditions. We present a novel method to extract an "optimal" reduced model from a large model to represent biochemical systems by combining a reduction method and a model discrimination method. The former assures that the reduced model contains only those components that are important to produce the dynamics observed in given experiments, whereas the latter ensures that the reduced model gives a good prediction for any feasible experimental conditions that are relevant to answer questions at hand. These two techniques are applied iteratively. The method reveals the biological core of a model mathematically, indicating the processes that are likely to be responsible for certain behavior. We demonstrate the algorithm on two realistic model examples. We show that in both cases the core is substantially smaller than the full model.

  20. Seasonal variation in the biochemical composition of red seaweed

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The biochemical composition of red seaweeds,Catenella repens was investigated in this present study along with subsequent analysis of relevant physico-chemical variables.In this study, the relationship between the nutritive components of this species and the ambient environmental parameters was established.

  1. Field comparison of sardine post-flexion larval growth and biochemical composition from three sites in the W Mediterranean (Ebro river coast, bays of Almería and Málaga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Garcia

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Late larval stages of sardine (16-23 mm were sampled during the 2003 spawning season in their nursery grounds located off the Ebro river mouth, on the Catalan coast, and in two bays of the Alborán Sea coasts, the Bay of Almería and the Bay of Málaga. The daily growth analysis of each sampled population revealed faster growth in the Ebro sardine larvae than in both of the Alboran Sea larval populations. This fact is supported by their greater content with age of DNA, RNA and protein. However, the significantly higher carbohydrate content of the Bay of Almería sardine larvae and a higher Fulton’s index, indicative of energy storage of individuals, in both of the sardine populations sampled in the Bays of Almería and Málaga show evident differences in the daily growth of the Alborán Sea larvae from those originating in the Ebro region. Late larval growth in the Alborán Sea sardine tends to favour an increase in body mass rather than in body length. This study hypothesises that the productivity pulses off the Alboran Sea coasts induced by the north and northwestern wind regimes may be responsible for the growth pulses observed in the otolith microstructure.

  2. Hierarchical modularization of biochemical pathways using fuzzy-c means clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luis Balaguer, Maria A; Williams, Cranos M

    2014-08-01

    Biological systems that are representative of regulatory, metabolic, or signaling pathways can be highly complex. Mathematical models that describe such systems inherit this complexity. As a result, these models can often fail to provide a path toward the intuitive comprehension of these systems. More coarse information that allows a perceptive insight of the system is sometimes needed in combination with the model to understand control hierarchies or lower level functional relationships. In this paper, we present a method to identify relationships between components of dynamic models of biochemical pathways that reside in different functional groups. We find primary relationships and secondary relationships. The secondary relationships reveal connections that are present in the system, which current techniques that only identify primary relationships are unable to show. We also identify how relationships between components dynamically change over time. This results in a method that provides the hierarchy of the relationships among components, which can help us to understand the low level functional structure of the system and to elucidate potential hierarchical control. As a proof of concept, we apply the algorithm to the epidermal growth factor signal transduction pathway, and to the C3 photosynthesis pathway. We identify primary relationships among components that are in agreement with previous computational decomposition studies, and identify secondary relationships that uncover connections among components that current computational approaches were unable to reveal.

  3. A joint individual-based model coupling growth and mortality reveals that tree vigor is a key component of tropical forest dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubry-Kientz, Mélaine; Rossi, Vivien; Boreux, Jean-Jacques; Hérault, Bruno

    2015-06-01

    Tree vigor is often used as a covariate when tree mortality is predicted from tree growth in tropical forest dynamic models, but it is rarely explicitly accounted for in a coherent modeling framework. We quantify tree vigor at the individual tree level, based on the difference between expected and observed growth. The available methods to join nonlinear tree growth and mortality processes are not commonly used by forest ecologists so that we develop an inference methodology based on an MCMC approach, allowing us to sample the parameters of the growth and mortality model according to their posterior distribution using the joint model likelihood. We apply our framework to a set of data on the 20-year dynamics of a forest in Paracou, French Guiana, taking advantage of functional trait-based growth and mortality models already developed independently. Our results showed that growth and mortality are intimately linked and that the vigor estimator is an essential predictor of mortality, highlighting that trees growing more than expected have a far lower probability of dying. Our joint model methodology is sufficiently generic to be used to join two longitudinal and punctual linked processes and thus may be applied to a wide range of growth and mortality models. In the context of global changes, such joint models are urgently needed in tropical forests to analyze, and then predict, the effects of the ongoing changes on the tree dynamics in hyperdiverse tropical forests.

  4. INFLUENCIA DE LA SALINIDAD Y LA IRRADIANCIA SOBRE EL CRECIMIENTO Y COMPOSICIÓN BIOQUÍMICA DE UNA NUEVA CEPA DE Dunaliella salina, PROVENIENTE DE LAS SALINAS DE ARAYA, VENEZUELA | INFLUENCE OF SALINITY AND IRRADIANCE ON GROWTH AND BIOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF A NEW STRAIN of Dunaliella salina FROM THE ARAYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Guevara

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Dunaliella salina is a microalga used for the production of metabolites of high industrial and pharmaceutical value. The combined effect of irradiance and salinity on growth, pigment production and biochemical composition of this strain were evaluated in order to contribute to the knowledge of the physiological responses of this new isolate of D. salina from Araya saltworks, to changes in the conditions of its environment. It was aslo intendend to increase the variety of native microalgae species which can serve as sources of bioproduction for bioactive compounds, biomass and metabolites of application in pharmaceuticals and biomedical industries. Batch cultures of the strain of D. salina were conducted for 22 d at f/2 medium Guillard (0.88 mmol.L-1 of nitrogen at 27 ± 2°C, pH 7.8; photoperiod 12 h light: 12 h darkness, continuous aeration (150 mL.L-1 in two salinities (40 and 250 UPS and irradiances (195 and 295 µmolphotons.m-2.s-1. Population growth was evaluated daily and at the end of the trial the contents of biomass, pigments, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and cell size were determined. The growth rate of the new strain of D. salina decreased with increasing salinity and irradiance. However, cell size, biomass, content of proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, total carotenoids and β-carotene increased with increasing irradiance and salinity. In addition, the potential of this strain for the production of β-carotene was shown.

  5. Biochemical characterization of cholesterol-reducing Eubacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mott, G E; Brinkley, A W; Mersinger, C L

    1980-12-01

    We characterized two isolates of cholesterol-reducing Eubacterium by conducting conventional biochemical tests and by testing various sterols and glycerolipids as potential growth factors. In media containing cholesterol and plasmenylethanolamine, the tests for nitrate reduction, indole production, and gelatin and starch hydrolyses were negative, and no acid was produced from any of 22 carbohydrates. Both isolates hydrolyzed esculin to esculetin, indicating beta-glycosidase activity. In addition to plasmenylethanolamine, five other lipids which contain an alkenyl ether residue supported growth of Eubacterium strain 403 in a lecithin-cholesterol base medium. Of six steroids tested, cholesterol, cholest-4-en-3-one, cholest-4-en-3 beta-ol (allocholesterol), and androst-5-en-3 beta-ol-17-one supported growth of Eubacterium strain 403. All four steroids were reduced to the 3 beta-ol, 5 beta-H products. The delta 5 steroids cholest-5-en-3 alpha-ol (epicholesterol) and 22,23-bisnor-5-cholenic acid-3-beta-ol were not reduced and did not support growth of the Eubacterium strain.

  6. Crack Growth Rate Properties of Gr.91 Steel for a Defect Assessment of a Component in a Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyeong-Yeon; Kim, Woo-Gon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    In this study, the crack growth models were derived from a number of crack growth tests for Gr.91 steel specimens under fatigue loading and creep loading at elevated temperature. The test data from the experiments of fatigue crack growth (FCG) and creep crack growth (CCG) were obtained, and the test data were compared with those of the RCC-MRx to investigate conservatism of the crack growth models in RCC-MRx. It was shown that the FCG rate model of RCC-MRx was conservative while the CCG model was non-conservative for Gr.91 steel when compared with present test data. The FCG rate tests were conducted with round bar type single edge crack tension specimens, and standard C(T) specimens with a 12.7mm thickness. The FCG test results were compared with those of the FCG rate models of RCC-MRx that are based on 25.4mm thick C(T) specimens. It was shown that the FCG rate model of RCC-MRx was conservative when compared to the present test data. The CCG rate models were derived from the test data for standard C(T) specimens with 12.7mm thickness. The data were compared with those of the RCC-MRx that are based on 25.4mm thick C(T) specimens. Conservatism of the crack growth models in 2012 edition of the RCC-MRx code was reviewed with the present CCG test data.

  7. Dendrobium nobile Lindley and its bibenzyl component moscatilin are able to protect retinal cells from ischemia/hypoxia by dowregulating placental growth factor and upregulating Norrie disease protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Wen-Haur; Lai, Ming-Yi; Pan, Hwai-Tzong; Shiu, Huei-Wen; Chen, Mi-Mi; Chao, Hsiao-Ming

    2018-06-22

    Presumably, progression of developmental retinal vascular disorders is mainly driven by persistent ischemia/hypoxia. An investigation into vision-threatening retinal ischemia remains important. Our aim was to evaluate, in relation to retinal ischemia, protective effects and mechanisms of Dendrobium nobile Lindley (DNL) and its bibenzyl component moscatilin. The therapeutic mechanisms included evaluations of levels of placental growth factor (PLGF) and Norrie disease protein (NDP). An oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) model involved cells cultured in DMEM containing 1% O 2 , 94% N 2 and 0 g/L glucose. High intraocular pressure (HIOP)-induced retinal ischemia was created by increasing IOP to 120 mmHg for 60 min in Wistar rats. The methods included electroretinogram (ERG), histopathology, MTT assay and biochemistry. When compared with cells cultured in DMEM containing DMSO (DMSO+DMEM), cells subjected to OGD and pre-administrated with DMSO (DMSO+OGD) showed a significant reduction in the cell viability and NDP expression. Moreover, cells that received OGD and 1 h pre-administration of 0.1 μM moscatilin (Pre-OGD Mos 0.1 μM) showed a significant counteraction of the OGD-induced decreased cell viability. Furthermore, compared with the DMSO+OGD group (44.54 ± 3.15%), there was significant elevated NDP levels in the Pre-OGD Mos 0.1 μM group (108.38 ± 29.33%). Additionally, there were significant ischemic alterations, namely reduced ERG b-wave, less numerous retinal ganglion cells, decreased inner retinal thickness, and reduced/enhanced amacrine's ChAT/Müller's GFAP or vimentin immunolabelings. Moreover, there were significantly increased protein levels of HIF-1α, VEGF, PKM2, RBP2 and, particularly, PLGF (pg/ml; Sham vs. Vehicle: 15.11 ± 1.58 vs. 39.53 ± 5.25). These ischemic effects were significantly altered when 1.0 g/Kg/day DNL (DNL1.0 + I/R or I/R+ DNL1.0) was applied before and/or after ischemia, but not vehicle (Vehicle+I/R). Of

  8. Evaluation of growth characters and yield components for six durum wheat lines (triticum durum deaf) selected from M4 and M5 - irradiated population under drought conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesiem, M. R. A.; Kassem, M. K. M.; Basyouny, M. A. E.

    2012-12-01

    Grain of two durum wheat cultivars, Sohag 3 and Beni Suef 3 were irradiated with gamma ray doses 0, 150, 250 and 350 Gy to obtain new durum wheat lines, characterized by high yielding and drought tolerance. Irradiated grains were cultivated in the field under normal and drought conditions 2005 - 2010 seasons. 20 grain (M 1 ) from each treatment was planed as in the first season. In the second season (M 2 ), grains of 61 plants were selected as thy had the following higher criteria, i.e yield, grain yield / plant, plant height, tillering and 100 grains weight. The selected variants should exceed by 50% or more than control. Grains of the 61 selected plants were individually sown under normal and drought condition. At the end of this season, six selected putative line had superiority over their parents. The S1 and S2 lines had an excellent grain yield per plant under normal condition but S3 and S4 lines had superiority for grain yield per plant under drought condition as compared to parents Sohag3. B1 and B2 lines had the superiority for grain per plant under normal condition comparing with the parent Beni Suef3. In the fourth season (M4),growth, chemical compositions and yield as well as its components of the six putative lines as well as the parents Sohag 3 and Beni Suef 3 were determined under normal and drought conditions. The results showed a significant under normal and drought conditions. The results showed a significant increase in the number of leaves on the main stem and tillering number / plant for S1, S2, B1, B2 as compared with their corresponding parent under normal condition. Also, S3 and S4 line shad the same results comparing with the parent Sohag3 under drought condition. The results of S3 and S4 showed an accumulation of organic protective asmolytes such as sugar, proline and free amino acid. As well as N, P, K, and Ca concentrations in shoots and roots as compared to the parent Sohag 3 . The putative line S1, A2 and B1 showed significant increase

  9. Biochemical reactions of the organism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorova, A.V.

    1984-01-01

    Effects of mercury, strontium chloride, GMDA, trichlorfon as well as some radionuclides ( 89 Sr, 137 Cs, 203 Hg) were studied on rats. Changes in biochemical parameters (histamine content, activity of cholinesterase and histaminase) are noted. Most noticeable changes were observed in enzymatic activity. Distortion of enzymatic systems and accumulation of intermediate exchange and decay products of tissues in excess quantities affecting other systems can be the reason for changes in the organism. The observed changes in biochemical parameters should be necessarily taken into account at hygienic regulations of harmful effects of enviroment

  10. Screening of the two-component-system histidine kinases of Listeria monocytogenes EGD-e. LiaS is needed for growth under heat, acid, alkali, osmotic, ethanol and oxidative stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöntinen, Anna; Lindström, Miia; Skurnik, Mikael; Korkeala, Hannu

    2017-08-01

    To study the role of each two-component system (TCS) histidine kinase (HK) in stress tolerance of Listeria monocytogenes EGD-e, we monitored the growth of individual HK deletion mutant strains under heat (42.5 °C), acid (pH 5.6), alkali (pH 9.4), osmotic (6% NaCl), ethanol (3.5 vol%), and oxidative (5 mM H 2 O 2 ) stresses. The growth of ΔliaS (Δlmo1021) strain was impaired under each stress, with the most notable decrease under heat and osmotic stresses. The ΔvirS (Δlmo1741) strain showed nearly completely restricted growth at high temperature and impaired growth in ethanol. The growth of ΔagrC (Δlmo0050) strain was impaired under osmotic stress and slightly under oxidative stress. We successfully complemented the HK mutations using a novel allelic exchange based approach. This approach avoided the copy-number problems associated with in trans complementation from a plasmid. The mutant phenotypes were restored to the wild-type level in the complemented strains. This study reveals novel knowledge on the HKs needed for growth of L. monocytogenes EGD-e under abovementioned stress conditions, with LiaS playing multiple roles in stress tolerance of L. monocytogenes EGD-e. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. C. elegans fmi-1/flamingo and Wnt pathway components interact genetically to control the anteroposterior neurite growth of the VD GABAergic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huarcaya Najarro, Elvis; Ackley, Brian D

    2013-05-01

    Directed axonal growth is essential to establish neuronal networks. During the early development of the VD neurons, an anterior neurite that will become the VD axon extends along the anteroposterior (A/P) axis in the ventral nerve cord (VNC) in Caenorhabditis elegans. Little is known about the cellular and molecular mechanisms that are important for correct neurite growth in the VNC. In fmi-1/flamingo mutant animals, we observed that some postembryonically born VD neurons had a posterior neurite instead of a normal anterior neurite, which caused aberrant VD commissure patterning along the A/P axis. In addition, VD anterior neurites had underextension defects in the VNC in fmi-1 animals, whereas VD commissure growth along the dorsoventral (D/V) axis occurred normally in these animals, suggesting that fmi-1 is important for neurite growth along the A/P axis but not the D/V axis. We also uncovered unknown details of the early development of the VD neurons, indicating that the neurite defects arose during their early development. Interestingly, though fmi-1 is present at this time in the VNC, we did not observe FMI-1 in the VD neurons themselves, suggesting that fmi-1 might be working in a cell non-autonomous fashion. Furthermore, fmi-1 appears to be working in a novel pathway, independently from the planar cell polarity pathway and in parallel to lin-17/frizzled and dsh-1/dishevelled, to determine the direction of neurite growth. Our findings indicate that redundant developmental pathways regulate neurite growth in the VNC in C. elegans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Biochemical composition and caloric content in the sand whiting Sillago sihama (Forsskal), from Zuari Estuary, Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shamsan, E.F.; Ansari, Z.A.

    to prevent a number of coronary heart diseases (Edirisinghe, 1998), is also present in fishes. Although several studies deal with the proximate composition of biochemical components of many commercially important fishes but no work on similar lines has...

  13. Mutations in the NHEJ component XRCC4 cause primordial dwarfism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Jennie E; van der Burg, Mirjam; IJspeert, Hanna; Carroll, Paula; Wu, Qian; Ochi, Takashi; Leitch, Andrea; Miller, Edward S; Kysela, Boris; Jawad, Alireza; Bottani, Armand; Brancati, Francesco; Cappa, Marco; Cormier-Daire, Valerie; Deshpande, Charu; Faqeih, Eissa A; Graham, Gail E; Ranza, Emmanuelle; Blundell, Tom L; Jackson, Andrew P; Stewart, Grant S; Bicknell, Louise S

    2015-03-05

    Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) is a key cellular process ensuring genome integrity. Mutations in several components of the NHEJ pathway have been identified, often associated with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), consistent with the requirement for NHEJ during V(D)J recombination to ensure diversity of the adaptive immune system. In contrast, we have recently found that biallelic mutations in LIG4 are a common cause of microcephalic primordial dwarfism (MPD), a phenotype characterized by prenatal-onset extreme global growth failure. Here we provide definitive molecular genetic evidence supported by biochemical, cellular, and immunological data for mutations in XRCC4, encoding the obligate binding partner of LIG4, causing MPD. We report the identification of biallelic mutations in XRCC4 in five families. Biochemical and cellular studies demonstrate that these alterations substantially decrease XRCC4 protein levels leading to reduced cellular ligase IV activity. Consequently, NHEJ-dependent repair of ionizing-radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks is compromised in XRCC4 cells. Similarly, immunoglobulin junctional diversification is impaired in cells. However, immunoglobulin levels are normal, and individuals lack overt signs of immunodeficiency. Additionally, in contrast to individuals with LIG4 mutations, pancytopenia leading to bone marrow failure has not been observed. Hence, alterations that alter different NHEJ proteins give rise to a phenotypic spectrum, from SCID to extreme growth failure, with deficiencies in certain key components of this repair pathway predominantly exhibiting growth deficits, reflecting differential developmental requirements for NHEJ proteins to support growth and immune maturation. Copyright © 2015 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The contribution of component variation and phytoplankton growth to the distribution variation of chromophoric dissolved organic matter content in a mid-latitude subtropical drinking water source reservoir for two different seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qiyuan; Jiang, Juan; Zheng, Yuyi; Wang, Feifeng; Wu, Chunshan; Xie, Rong-Rong

    2017-07-01

    The distribution variation in chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) content in mid-latitude subtropical drinking water source reservoirs (MDWSRs) has great significance in the security of aquatic environments and human health. CDOM distribution is heavily influenced by biogeochemical processes and anthropogenic activity. However, little is known regarding the impact of component variation and phytoplankton growth on CDOM distribution variation in MDWSR. Therefore, samples were collected from a representative MDWSR (the Shanzai Reservoir) for analysis. CDOM absorption and fluorescence coupling with parallel factor analysis were measured and calculated. The results indicated that only two CDOM components were found in the surface water of Shanzai Reservoir, fulvic acid, and high-excitation tryptophan, originating from terrestrial and autochthonous sources, respectively. The types of components did not change with the season. The average molecular weight of CDOM increased in proportion to its fulvic acid content. The distribution variation in CDOM content mainly resulted from the variation in two CDOM components in summer and from high-excitation tryptophan in winter. Phytoplankton growth strongly influenced the distribution variation of CDOM content in summer; the metabolic processes of Cyanobacteria and Bacillariophyta consumed fulvic acid, while that of Cryptophyta produced high-excitation tryptophan.

  15. Circadian Clocks: Unexpected Biochemical Cogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Tetsuya; Mchaourab, Hassane; Johnson, Carl Hirschie

    2015-10-05

    A circadian oscillation can be reconstituted in vitro from three proteins that cycles with a period of ∼ 24 h. Two recent studies provide surprising biochemical answers to why this remarkable oscillator has such a long time constant and how it can switch effortlessly between alternating enzymatic modes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Circadian Clocks: Unexpected Biochemical Cogs

    OpenAIRE

    Mori, Tetsuya; Mchaourab, Hassane; Johnson, Carl Hirschie

    2015-01-01

    A circadian oscillation can be reconstituted in vitro from three proteins that cycles with a period of ~24 h. Two recent studies provide surprising biochemical answers to why this remarkable oscillator has such a long time constant and how it can switch effortlessly between alternating enzymatic modes.

  17. Other components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This chapter includes descriptions of electronic and mechanical components which do not merit a chapter to themselves. Other hardware requires mention because of particularly high tolerance or intolerance of exposure to radiation. A more systematic analysis of radiation responses of structures which are definable by material was given in section 3.8. The components discussed here are field effect transistors, transducers, temperature sensors, magnetic components, superconductors, mechanical sensors, and miscellaneous electronic components

  18. Comparative biochemical composition in gonad and adductor muscle of triploid and diploid catarina scallop (Argopecten ventricosus Sowerby II, 1842).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Verdugo, C A.; Racotta, I S.; Ibarra, A M.

    2001-05-15

    Biochemical components of gonad and adductor muscle for diploid and triploid catarina scallop, Argopecten ventricosus, were evaluated and compared at four periods in 1 year (January, April, June, and October). Two comparisons were done. The first one compared an untreated control (diploid) vs. a triploidy-treated group for which the percentage of triploids was 57%. The second comparison was done on a group derived from within the triploidy-treated group, separating diploids (internal control) from triploids ('putative triploids'). Regardless of which comparison, in the gonad diploid scallops had larger concentrations of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and acylglycerols than triploid scallops. This reflects the maturation processes in diploid scallops vs. the sterility seen in most triploid scallops, and it is particularly supported by the consistently larger concentration of acylglycerols in gonads of diploids than in triploids. The gonad index of the internal control (diploid) group was significantly larger than that seen in the putative triploid group at all sampling periods but October, when none of the gonad biochemical components were different between ploidy groups.Triploid scallops had a significantly larger muscle index than diploids from April to October. This can be caused by a larger gain in muscle tissue in triploids than diploids from January to June. However, there were no consistent differences in any of the biochemical components evaluated in adductor muscle of diploids and triploids. The use of freshly ingested food rather than reserve mobilization from muscle in diploids is suggested by these results. Nutrients derived from ingested food are apparently used for muscle growth in triploids, whereas in diploids those nutrients serve primarily for gonad development. The importance of freshly ingested food for maintenance and growth is suggested because the decline in biochemical components seen in October in both muscle and gonad was paired with a

  19. Eps15 is recruited to the plasma membrane upon epidermal growth factor receptor activation and localizes to components of the endocytic pathway during receptor internalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torrisi, M R; Lotti, L V; Belleudi, F

    1999-01-01

    Eps15 is a substrate for the tyrosine kinase of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and is characterized by the presence of a novel protein:protein interaction domain, the EH domain. Eps15 also stably binds the clathrin adaptor protein complex AP-2. Previous work demonstrated an essential...

  20. Final Report for Project 13-4791: New Mechanistic Models of Creep-Fatigue Crack Growth Interactions for Advanced High Temperature Reactor Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruzic, Jamie J [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Siegmund, Thomas [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Tomar, Vikas [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2018-03-20

    This project developed and validated a novel, multi-scale, mechanism-based model to quantitatively predict creep-fatigue crack growth and failure for Ni-based Alloy 617 at 800°C. Alloy 617 is a target material for intermediate heat exchangers in Generation IV very high temperature reactor designs, and it is envisioned that this model will aid in the design of safe, long lasting nuclear power plants. The technical effectiveness of the model was shown by demonstrating that experimentally observed crack growth rates can be predicted under both steady state and overload crack growth conditions. Feasibility was considered by incorporating our model into a commercially available finite element method code, ABAQUS, that is commonly used by design engineers. While the focus of the project was specifically on an alloy targeted for Generation IV nuclear reactors, the benefits to the public are expected to be wide reaching. Indeed, creep-fatigue failure is a design consideration for a wide range of high temperature mechanical systems that rely on Ni-based alloys, including industrial gas power turbines, advanced ultra-super critical steam turbines, and aerospace turbine engines. It is envisioned that this new model can be adapted to a wide range of engineering applications.

  1. Biochemical Process Development and Integration | Bioenergy | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biochemical Process Development and Integration Biochemical Process Development and Integration Our conversion and separation processes to pilot-scale integrated process development and scale up. We also Publications Accounting for all sugar produced during integrated production of ethanol from lignocellulosic

  2. Electronic components

    CERN Document Server

    Colwell, Morris A

    1976-01-01

    Electronic Components provides a basic grounding in the practical aspects of using and selecting electronics components. The book describes the basic requirements needed to start practical work on electronic equipment, resistors and potentiometers, capacitance, and inductors and transformers. The text discusses semiconductor devices such as diodes, thyristors and triacs, transistors and heat sinks, logic and linear integrated circuits (I.C.s) and electromechanical devices. Common abbreviations applied to components are provided. Constructors and electronics engineers will find the book useful

  3. Caracterização bioquímica de soros de bezerros utilizados na manutenção de culturas celulares usadas em virologia Biochemical characterization of calf sera used for the growth of cell cultures used in virology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Christina Nunes Tenório

    1989-04-01

    Full Text Available Oito lotes de soros de bezerros com idade maior ou menor de seis meses, usados para suplementar meios de cultivo de linhagens de células de uso difundido em virologia, foram testados quanto à sua capacidade promotora de crescimento (CPC e classificados como bons promotores ou promotores pobres. Foram pesquisados parâmetros relacionados com macronutrientes para estabelecer o perfil bioquímico daqueles lotes. Os resultados obtidos podem ser considerados valores normais para animais aparentemente sadios. As variações que ocorreram para um mesmo parâmetro bioquímico, entre os resultados da pesquisa e os de alguns estudos existentes na literatura, podem ser atribuídas à metodologia utilizada, à raça e idade dos animais, ou mesmo à própria dieta regional. A análise estatística, realizada pela aplicação do teste "t" de Student aos valores das médias e dos desvios padrão, demonstrou que, com relação às frações séricas, não ocorreram diferenças significantes entre soros de CPC celular boa ou pobre, considerando-se t c=2,45, enquanto que, para soros animais maiores ou menores de seis meses, apenas os resultados relativos às frações alfa e beta (t=2,68 e 2,61, respectivamente apresentaram significância, sendo superiores ao t crítico. Ficou evidenciado que a avaliação do conjunto de parâmetros bioquímicos pesquisados não permite diferenciar soros pertencentes aos dois grupos de animais, isto é, identificar soros de boa ou de pobre CPC, ou soros de bezerros maiores ou menores de seis meses de idadeEight lots of the calf sera employed to supplement culture media for the cultivation of animal cells, of widespread use in virology obtained from calves above and below six months of age were rated as good or as poor cell growth promoters according to their growth promoting capacity (GPC. Parameters related to macronutrients contained in these serum lots were then evaluated with the purpose of establishing their biochemical

  4. Effect of seed rate on growth, yield components and yield of mash bean grown under irrigated conditions of arid uplands of Balochistan, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aachakzai, A.K.K.; Taran, S.A.

    2011-01-01

    A field experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of six different seed rates viz., 15, 17.5, 20, 22.5, 25 and 27.5 kg ha/sup -1/ on the growth, yield and yield attributes of mash bean Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper). This study was conducted for two consecutive years at the Agriculture Research Institute (ARI) under the existing semi-arid climatic, edaphic and water conditions of Quetta, Balochistan. Results revealed that plant population, pods plant/sup -1/, grain yield plant/sup -1/ and grain yield ha/sup -1/ were significantly (p<0.05 influenced by varying seed rates. However, other mentioned growth and yield attributes did not respond significantly. Statistically and numerically a maximum yield plant/sup -1/ (20.98 g) and yield ha/sup -1/ (3120 kg) were obtained in applied seed at the rate of 20 kg ha/sup -1/. Whereas, the same was obtained for plant population and plant height in applied seed rate of 25 kg ha/sup -1/. However, maximum number of branches plant/sup -1/ (4.22) was received for applied seeds at the rate of 15 kg ha/sup -1/. Therefore, seed at the rate of 20 kg ha/sup -1/ seems optimum which could be due to the most desirable population or planting density in the existing environmental conditions of Quetta. Results further revealed that only plant population plot/sup -1/ (r=0.481), and yield plant/sup -1/ (r=0.569) were significantly and positively correlated with grain yield ha/sup -1/, while all other remaining growth and yield attributes exhibited insignificant association with grain yield ha/sup -1/. Hence these two parameters i.e., planting density and grain yield plant/sup -1/ should be given more consideration while deciding about selection criteria for mash bean under irrigated conditions of arid uplands of Balochistan. (author)

  5. Biochemical markers of bone turnover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Deog Yoon

    1999-01-01

    Biochemical markers of bone turnover has received increasing attention over the past few years, because of the need for sensitivity and specific tool in the clinical investigation of osteoporosis. Bone markers should be unique to bone, reflect changes of bone less, and should be correlated with radiocalcium kinetics, histomorphometry, or changes in bone mass. The markers also should be useful in monitoring treatment efficacy. Although no bone marker has been established to meet all these criteria, currently osteocalcin and pyridinium crosslinks are the most efficient markers to assess the level of bone turnover in the menopausal and senile osteoporosis. Recently, N-terminal telopeptide (NTX), C-terminal telopeptide (CTX) and bone specific alkaline phosphatase are considered as new valid markers of bone turnover. Recent data suggest that CTX and free deoxypyridinoline could predict the subsequent risk of hip fracture of elderly women. Treatment of postmenopausal women with estrogen, calcitonin and bisphosphonates demonstrated rapid decrease of the levels of bone markers that correlated with the long-term increase of bone mass. Factors such as circadian rhythms, diet, age, sex, bone mass and renal function affect the results of biochemical markers and should be appropriately adjusted whenever possible. Each biochemical markers of bone turnover may have its own specific advantages and limitations. Recent advances in research will provide more sensitive and specific assays

  6. Biochemical toxicology of environmental agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruin, A. de

    1976-01-01

    A thorough and up-to-date account of the molecular-biological aspects of harmful agents - both chemical and physical - is given. This current treatise is principally intended to serve as an informative reference work for researchers in various areas of the field. In the pursuit of this aim, a devision of the entire field into 42 chapters has been made. Each chapter starts with a short introductory account dealing with the biochemical essentials of the particular subject. Radiation effects are discussed briefly at the end of each treatise. In order to make the treatise useful as a source book, a substantial collection of pertinent literature references is provided which are numbered in order of citation in the text. Initial chapters are devoted to the metabolic fate of the major classes of xenobiotic compounds. Peripheral topics, closely related to metabolism and dealing with modification of xenobiotic-metabolizing ability, as well as interaction phenomena follow (chs. 5-8). Subjects that draw heavily on the practical field of occupational hygiene are dealt with in chapters 9 and 10. The systematic treatment of how chemical and physical agents interact with the various biochemical and enzymatic systems they encounter during their passage through the organism occupies quantitatively the main part of the book (chs. 11-36). Finally, radiation biochemistry is discussed from the viewpoint of its high degree of scientific advancement, and secondly because the type of biochemical changes produced in vivo by X-rays closely parallel those evoked by chemical agents

  7. Anticancer system created by acrolein and hydroxyl radical generated in enzymatic oxidation of spermine and other biochemical reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcon, R A

    2012-10-01

    A hypothesis suggesting the existence of a ubiquitous physiological anticancer system created by two highly reactive oxidative stress inducers with anticancer properties, acrolein and hydroxyl radical, is reported in this communication. Both components can originate separately or together in several biochemical interactions, among them, the enzymatic oxidation of the polyamine spermine, which appear to be their main source. The foundations of this hypothesis encompass our initial search for growth-inhibitors or anticancer compounds in biological material leading to the isolation of spermine, a polyamine that became highly cytotoxic through the generation of acrolein, when enzymatically oxidized. Findings complemented with pertinent literature data by other workers and observed anticancer activities by sources capable of producing acrolein and hydroxyl radical. This hypothesis obvious implication: spermine enzymatic oxidations or other biochemical interactions that would co-generate acrolein and hydroxyl radical, the anticancer system components, should be tried as treatments for any given cancer. The biochemical generation of acrolein observed was totally unexpected, since this aldehyde was known; as a very toxic and highly reactive xenobiotic chemical produced in the pyrolysis of fats and other organic material, found as an atmospheric pollutant, in tobacco smoke and car emissions, and mainly used as a pesticide or aquatic herbicide. Numerous studies on acrolein, considered after our work a biological product, as well, followed. In them, acrolein widespread presence, its effects on diverse cellular proteins, such as, growth factors, and its anticancer activities, were additionally reported. Regarding hydroxyl radical, the second component of the proposed anticancer system, and another cytotoxic product in normal cell metabolism, it co-generates with acrolein in several biochemical interactions, occurrences suggesting that these products might jointly fulfill some

  8. Combined effects of elevated CO2 and Cd-contaminated water on growth, photosynthetic response, Cd accumulation and thiolic components status in Lemna minor L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrini, F; Bianconi, D; Massacci, A; Iannelli, M A

    2016-05-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate the combined effects of elevated CO2 and cadmium (Cd) treatments on growth, photosynthetic efficiency and phytoremediation ability in Lemna minor L. Plants of L. minor were exposed to different Cd concentrations (0, 1.5, 2.5 and 5 mg L(-1) Cd) for periods of 24, 48 and 72 h at ambient (AC) and at elevated (EC) CO2 (350 and 700 ppm, respectively). Cadmium concentration, bioconcentration factor, enzyme activities and thiols content enhanced in plants with the increase of Cd treatments, time of exposure and at both CO2 levels. Glutathione levels increased only at AC. Growth, photosynthetic and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, and the reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione ratio declined in plants with increasing exposure time, Cd treatments and at both CO2 levels. Our results suggested that the alleviation of toxicity, at low Cd doses, observed in L. minor grown at EC is dependent on both increased photosynthesis and an enhanced antioxidant capacity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Combined effects of elevated CO_2 and Cd-contaminated water on growth, photosynthetic response, Cd accumulation and thiolic components status in Lemna minor L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietrini, F.; Bianconi, D.; Massacci, A.; Iannelli, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Elevated CO_2 did not affect the ability of L. minor plants to accumulate Cd in their tissues. • Elevated CO_2 decreased Cd toxicity in L. minor plants by increasing photosynthesis. • Elevated CO_2 reduced Cd toxicity in duckweed by enhancing antioxidant system. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the combined effects of elevated CO_2 and cadmium (Cd) treatments on growth, photosynthetic efficiency and phytoremediation ability in Lemna minor L. Plants of L. minor were exposed to different Cd concentrations (0, 1.5, 2.5 and 5 mg L"−"1 Cd) for periods of 24, 48 and 72 h at ambient (AC) and at elevated (EC) CO_2 (350 and 700 ppm, respectively). Cadmium concentration, bioconcentration factor, enzyme activities and thiols content enhanced in plants with the increase of Cd treatments, time of exposure and at both CO_2 levels. Glutathione levels increased only at AC. Growth, photosynthetic and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, and the reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione ratio declined in plants with increasing exposure time, Cd treatments and at both CO_2 levels. Our results suggested that the alleviation of toxicity, at low Cd doses, observed in L. minor grown at EC is dependent on both increased photosynthesis and an enhanced antioxidant capacity.

  10. A flavonoid component from Docynia delavayi (Franch.) Schneid represses transplanted H22 hepatoma growth and exhibits low toxic effect on tumor-bearing mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiangpei; Shu, Guangwen; Chen, Lvyi; Mi, Xue; Mei, Zhinan; Deng, Xukun

    2012-09-01

    The fruit of Docynia delavayi (Franch.) Schneid is a kind of popular food in southwestern areas of China. Additionally, its rhizome has been long used as a folk medicine in the treatment of liver cancer by local people. Chrysin is a kind of flavonoid which induces cancer cell death in vitro. However, its anti-tumor activity in vivo and toxicological effects on the tumor-bearing animals still remain poorly understood. In this study, we obtained four flavonoids from this herb. Among them, chrysin showed the strongest cytotoxic effect on an array of cultured tumor cells. Further investigations revealed that it significantly repressed transplanted H22 ascitic hepatic tumor cell growth in vivo. Moreover, this compound displayed little toxic effects. Additionally, we demonstrated that in transplanted tumor tissues, chrysin not only activated caspase-3 and induced apoptosis, but also inhibited the production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and suppressed angiogenesis. These data showed that chrysin exhibited prominent anti-tumor activities and low toxic effects in vivo. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Combined effects of elevated CO{sub 2} and Cd-contaminated water on growth, photosynthetic response, Cd accumulation and thiolic components status in Lemna minor L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietrini, F.; Bianconi, D.; Massacci, A. [Institute of Agro-Environmental and Forest Biology, National Research Council of Italy, Via Salaria Km 29,300, 00015 Monterotondo Scalo, Roma (Italy); Iannelli, M.A., E-mail: adelaide.iannelli@ibba.cnr.it [Institute of Agricultural Biology and Biotechnology, National Research Council of Italy, Via Salaria Km 29,300, 00015 Monterotondo Scalo, Roma (Italy)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Elevated CO{sub 2} did not affect the ability of L. minor plants to accumulate Cd in their tissues. • Elevated CO{sub 2} decreased Cd toxicity in L. minor plants by increasing photosynthesis. • Elevated CO{sub 2} reduced Cd toxicity in duckweed by enhancing antioxidant system. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the combined effects of elevated CO{sub 2} and cadmium (Cd) treatments on growth, photosynthetic efficiency and phytoremediation ability in Lemna minor L. Plants of L. minor were exposed to different Cd concentrations (0, 1.5, 2.5 and 5 mg L{sup −1} Cd) for periods of 24, 48 and 72 h at ambient (AC) and at elevated (EC) CO{sub 2} (350 and 700 ppm, respectively). Cadmium concentration, bioconcentration factor, enzyme activities and thiols content enhanced in plants with the increase of Cd treatments, time of exposure and at both CO{sub 2} levels. Glutathione levels increased only at AC. Growth, photosynthetic and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, and the reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione ratio declined in plants with increasing exposure time, Cd treatments and at both CO{sub 2} levels. Our results suggested that the alleviation of toxicity, at low Cd doses, observed in L. minor grown at EC is dependent on both increased photosynthesis and an enhanced antioxidant capacity.

  12. Comparison of growth performance, carcass components, and meat quality between Mos rooster (Galician indigenous breed) and Sasso T-44 line slaughtered at 10 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, D; Rois, D; Vázquez, J A; Lorenzo, J M

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this research was to make a full study of the meat from Mos-breed roosters (Spanish indigenous chicken). To achieve this purpose, the type of breed (Mos vs. a hybrid line, Sasso T-44) and the effect of finishing treatment in the last month (corn vs. commercial fodder) on growth performance, carcass and meat quality (physicochemical and textural traits), fatty and amino acid profile, and sensorial description were studied. The finishing feeding effect did not modify the growth, but the differences between genotypes were statistically significant (P 0.05) were found, and carcass weight clearly differed between genotypes due to the lower growth rate of Mos roosters. Drumstick, thigh, and wing percentages were greater in Mos breed than in Sasso T-44 birds, whereas breast (15.2%), that is the most highly valued piece of the chicken, was similar for both genotypes. Significant differences in pH, protein, and ash content between genotypes have been found, whereas finishing feeding treatment had an effect on myoglobin and redness index (P roosters fed with corn had a higher luminosity. Despite the fact of the slaughtered age of birds, values of shear force were slightly higher than 2 kg (2.11 kg) for both genotypes, thus it can be classified as very tender meat. Mos breed showed a higher percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids (25.90 vs. 22.74; P < 0.001) and a lower percentage of monounsaturated fatty acids (35.14 vs. 38.95; P < 0.001) than Sasso T-44 chicken muscles. Surprisingly, birds finishing with the corn diet (2 times higher in linolenic acid than fodder) did not increase their polyunsaturated fatty acid level in the breast, obtaining in the Mos breed a polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio of 0.69. The amino acid profile of the indigenous-breed breast was not similar to that of the commercial-strain breast; besides, finishing feeding treatment had more of an effect on amino acid profile, affecting the majority of amino acids, with the

  13. Molecular and biochemical analyses of CbCel9A/Cel48A, a highly secreted multi-modular cellulase by Caldicellulosiruptor bescii during growth on crystalline cellulose.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuolin Yi

    Full Text Available During growth on crystalline cellulose, the thermophilic bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor bescii secretes several cellulose-degrading enzymes. Among these enzymes is CelA (CbCel9A/Cel48A, which is reported as the most highly secreted cellulolytic enzyme in this bacterium. CbCel9A/Cel48A is a large multi-modular polypeptide, composed of an N-terminal catalytic glycoside hydrolase family 9 (GH9 module and a C-terminal GH48 catalytic module that are separated by a family 3c carbohydrate-binding module (CBM3c and two identical CBM3bs. The wild-type CbCel9A/Cel48A and its truncational mutants were expressed in Bacillus megaterium and Escherichia coli, respectively. The wild-type polypeptide released twice the amount of glucose equivalents from Avicel than its truncational mutant that lacks the GH48 catalytic module. The truncational mutant harboring the GH9 module and the CBM3c was more thermostable than the wild-type protein, likely due to its compact structure. The main hydrolytic activity was present in the GH9 catalytic module, while the truncational mutant containing the GH48 module and the three CBMs was ineffective in degradation of either crystalline or amorphous cellulose. Interestingly, the GH9 and/or GH48 catalytic modules containing the CBM3bs form low-density particles during hydrolysis of crystalline cellulose. Moreover, TM3 (GH9/CBM3c and TM2 (GH48 with three CBM3 modules synergistically hydrolyze crystalline cellulose. Deletion of the CBM3bs or mutations that compromised their binding activity suggested that these CBMs are important during hydrolysis of crystalline cellulose. In agreement with this observation, seven of nine genes in a C. bescii gene cluster predicted to encode cellulose-degrading enzymes harbor CBM3bs. Based on our results, we hypothesize that C. bescii uses the GH48 module and the CBM3bs in CbCel9A/Cel48A to destabilize certain regions of crystalline cellulose for attack by the highly active GH9 module and other

  14. Molecular and biochemical analyses of CbCel9A/Cel48A, a highly secreted multi-modular cellulase by Caldicellulosiruptor bescii during growth on crystalline cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Zhuolin; Su, Xiaoyun; Revindran, Vanessa; Mackie, Roderick I; Cann, Isaac

    2013-01-01

    During growth on crystalline cellulose, the thermophilic bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor bescii secretes several cellulose-degrading enzymes. Among these enzymes is CelA (CbCel9A/Cel48A), which is reported as the most highly secreted cellulolytic enzyme in this bacterium. CbCel9A/Cel48A is a large multi-modular polypeptide, composed of an N-terminal catalytic glycoside hydrolase family 9 (GH9) module and a C-terminal GH48 catalytic module that are separated by a family 3c carbohydrate-binding module (CBM3c) and two identical CBM3bs. The wild-type CbCel9A/Cel48A and its truncational mutants were expressed in Bacillus megaterium and Escherichia coli, respectively. The wild-type polypeptide released twice the amount of glucose equivalents from Avicel than its truncational mutant that lacks the GH48 catalytic module. The truncational mutant harboring the GH9 module and the CBM3c was more thermostable than the wild-type protein, likely due to its compact structure. The main hydrolytic activity was present in the GH9 catalytic module, while the truncational mutant containing the GH48 module and the three CBMs was ineffective in degradation of either crystalline or amorphous cellulose. Interestingly, the GH9 and/or GH48 catalytic modules containing the CBM3bs form low-density particles during hydrolysis of crystalline cellulose. Moreover, TM3 (GH9/CBM3c) and TM2 (GH48 with three CBM3 modules) synergistically hydrolyze crystalline cellulose. Deletion of the CBM3bs or mutations that compromised their binding activity suggested that these CBMs are important during hydrolysis of crystalline cellulose. In agreement with this observation, seven of nine genes in a C. bescii gene cluster predicted to encode cellulose-degrading enzymes harbor CBM3bs. Based on our results, we hypothesize that C. bescii uses the GH48 module and the CBM3bs in CbCel9A/Cel48A to destabilize certain regions of crystalline cellulose for attack by the highly active GH9 module and other endoglucanases

  15. Biochemical processes of oligotrophic peat deposits of Vasyugan Mire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inisheva, L. I.; Sergeeva, M. A.

    2009-04-01

    The problem of peat and mire ecosystems functioning and their rational use is the main problem of biosphere study. This problem also refers to forecasting of biosphere changes results which are global and anthropogenic. According to many scientists' research the portion of mires in earth carbon balance is about 15% of world's stock. The aim of this study is to investigate biochemical processes in oligotrophic deposits in North-eastern part of Vasyugan Mire. The investigations were made on the territory of scientific-research ground (56˚ 03´ and 56˚ 57´ NL, 82˚ 22´ and 82˚ 42´ EL). It is situated between two rivers Bakchar and Iksa (in outskirts of the village Polynyanka, Bakchar region, Tomsk oblast). Evolution of investigated mire massif began with the domination of eutrophic phytocenosis - Filicinae, then sedge. Later transfer into oligotrophic phase was accompanied by formation of meter high-moor peat deposit. The age of three-meter peat deposit reaches four thousand years. Biochemical processes of carbon cycle cover the whole peat deposit, but the process activity and its direction in different layers are defined by genesis and duration of peat formation. So, the number of cellulose-fermenting aerobes in researched peat deposits ranges from 16.8 to 75.5 million CFU/g, and anaerobic bacteria from 9.6 to 48.6 million CFU/g. The high number of aerobes is characteristic for high water levels, organizing by raised bog peats. Their number decreases along the profile in 1.7 - 2 times. The number of microflora in peat deposit is defined by the position in the landscape profile (different geneses), by the depth, by hydrothermic conditions of years and individual months. But microflora activity shows along all depth of peat deposit. We found the same in the process of studying of micromycete complex structure. There was revealed either active component micromycete complex - mycelium, or inert one - spores in a meter layer of peat deposit. If mushrooms

  16. A cylindrical salad growth facility with a light-emitting diodes unit as a component for biological life support system for space crews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erokhin, A. N.; Berkovich, Yu. A.; Smolianina, S. O.; Krivobok, N. M.; Agureev, A. N.; Kalandarov, S. K.

    2006-01-01

    Efficiency of salad production under light-emitting diodes was tested with a prototype space plant growth facility "Phytocycle SD" with a 10-step crop conveyer. The system has a plant chamber in the form of a spiral cylinder. The planting unit inside the chamber is built of 10 root modules which provide a co-axial planting cylinder that rotates relative to the leaf chamber. Twelve panels of the lighting unit on the internal surfaces of the spiral cylinder carry 438 red (660 nm) and 88 blue (470 nm) light-emitting diodes producing average PPF equal 360 μmol m -2 s -1 4 cm below the light source, and 3 panels producing PPF equal 190 μmol m -2 s -1 at the initial steps of the plant conveyer. The system requires 0.44 kW and provides a plant chamber volume of 0.19 m 3, with 0.86 m 2 illuminated crop area. Productive efficiency of the facility was studied in a series of laboratory experiments with celery cabbage ( Brassica pekinensis) ( Lour) ( Rupr.) grown in the conveyer with a one-step period of 3 days. The crop grew in a fiber ion-exchange mineral-rich soil BIONA V3 under the 24-h light. Maximal productivity of the ripe (30-day-old) plants reached 700 g of the fresh edible biomass from one root module. There was a 30% greater biomass production and 3-5 times greater specific productivity per unit of expenditure of consumable resources over plants grown in a flat planting. This improved production was due to the extension of illuminated crop area for the final conveyor steps and concentration of photon flux toward center axis of cylindrical growth chamber. Biomass contents of ascorbic acid and carotene gathered from one root module per day ranged from 250 to 300 mg and 30 to 40 mg respectively. With this productivity, celery cabbage raised in "Phytocycle SD" potentially can satisfy the daily demands in vitamin C, vitamin A for a crew of three. Wider nutritional needs can be satisfied by planting mixed salad crops.

  17. Biochemical Abnormalities in Batten's Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jytte Lene; Nielsen, Gunnar Gissel; Jensen, Gunde Egeskov

    1978-01-01

    The present data indicate that a group of ten patients with Batten's syndrome showed reduced activity of erythrocyte glutathione (GSH) peroxidase (Px) (glutathione: H2O2 oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.9.) using H2O2 as peroxide donor. Assay of erythrocyte GSHPx using H2O2, cumene hydroperoxide and t......-butyl hydroperoxide as donors also makes it possible biochemically to divide Batten's syndrome into two types: (1) one type with decreased values when H2O2 and cumene hydroperoxide are used, and (2) one type with increased values when t-butyl hydroperoxide is used. Furthermore an increased content of palmitic, oleic...

  18. Slot-waveguide biochemical sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Carlos A; Gylfason, Kristinn B; Sánchez, Benito; Griol, Amadeu; Sohlström, H; Holgado, M; Casquel, R

    2007-11-01

    We report an experimental demonstration of an integrated biochemical sensor based on a slot-waveguide microring resonator. The microresonator is fabricated on a Si3N4-SiO2 platform and operates at a wavelength of 1.3 microm. The transmission spectrum of the sensor is measured with different ambient refractive indices ranging from n=1.33 to 1.42. A linear shift of the resonant wavelength with increasing ambient refractive index of 212 nm/refractive index units (RIU) is observed. The sensor detects a minimal refractive index variation of 2x10(-4) RIU.

  19. Thermodynamic analysis of biochemical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Y.; Fan, L.T.; Shieh, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    Introduction of the concepts of the availability (or exergy), datum level materials, and the dead state has been regarded as some of the most significant recent developments in classical thermodynamics. Not only the available energy balance but also the material and energy balances of a biological system may be established in reference to the datum level materials in the dead state or environment. In this paper these concepts are illustrated with two examples of fermentation and are shown to be useful in identifying sources of thermodynamic inefficiency, thereby leading naturally to the rational definition of thermodynamic efficiency of a biochemical process

  20. Physiological and biochemical responses of Ricinus communis seedlings to different temperatures: a metabolomics approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribeiro de Jesus, P.R.; Fernandez, L.G.; Delmondez de Castro, R.; Ligterink, W.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Compared with major crops, growth and development of Ricinus communis is still poorly understood. A better understanding of the biochemical and physiological aspects of germination and seedling growth is crucial for the breeding of high yielding varieties adapted to various growing

  1. Crescimento relativo dos componentes do corpo de zebuínos de diferentes raças Relative growth of body components from different zebu breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Mendes Jorge

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados 64 tourinhos Gir, Guzerá, Mocho Tabapuã e Nelore, com 24 meses e pesos vivos médios iniciais de 376,4; 357,6, 362,0 e 368,6 kg respectivamente. Os animais de cada raça foram divididos em cinco categorias. Uma categoria foi abatida imediatamente (AB, três receberam, em baias individuais, ração contendo 50% de concentrado na matéria seca ad libitum (I, II e III e uma recebeu a mesma ração, em quantidade restrita (AR. Os animais I, II e III foram abatidos ao atingirem pesos vivos individuais de 405, 450 e 495 kg, respectivamente. No abate determinou-se o peso corporal vazio (PCVZ, e pesaram-se a cabeça, os pés, o couro, os órgãos internos e as vísceras. Adotou-se a equação de regressão do logaritmo do peso de cada componente do corpo em função do logaritmo do PCVZ. Todos os componentes estudados, excetuando-se o fígado e o baço, revelaram um menor ímpeto de crescimento em relação ao do PCVZ.Sixty three steers from zebu breeds Gyr, Guzerat, Mocho Tabapua and Nellore, weighing, respectively, 376.4, 357.6, 362.0 and 368.6 kg initial live weight and twenty-four months old, were used. The animals from each breed were divided into five groups. One group was ramdomly assigned to immediate slaughter (AB, three groups were full-fed a ration containing 50% concentrate, dry matter basis until reaching the slaughter weights of 405, 450 and 495 kg, respectively (group I, II and III. The fifth group was fed a restricted amount of the same ration (AR. At slaughter the empty body weight (EBW was determined and the weight of internal organs and viscera were recorded. Regression equations of log weight of body component as a function of log EBW were fitted. All body components studied, with exception of liver and spleen, developed slowlier than EBW.

  2. The biochemical estimation of age in Euphausiids: Laboratory calibration and field comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, H. R.; Ju, Se-J.; Son, S.-K.; Feinberg, L. R.; Shaw, C. T.; Peterson, W. T.

    2010-04-01

    Euphausiids play a key role in many marine ecosystems as a link between primary producers and top predators. Understanding their demographic (i.e. age) structure is an essential tool to assess growth and recruitment as well as to determine how changes in environmental conditions might alter their condition and distribution. Age determination of crustaceans cannot be accomplished using traditional approaches, and here we evaluate the potential for biochemical products of tissue metabolism (termed lipofuscins) to determine the demographic structure of euphausiids in field collections . Lipofuscin was extracted from krill neural tissues (eye and eye-stalk), quantified using fluorescent intensity and normalized to tissue protein content to allow comparisons across animal sizes. Multiple fluorescent components from krill were observed, with the major product having a maximum fluorescence at excitation of 355 nm and emission of 510 nm. Needed age calibration of lipofuscin accumulation in Euphausia pacifica was accomplished using known-age individuals hatched and reared in the laboratory for over one year. Lipofuscin content extracted from neural tissues of laboratory-reared animals was highly correlated with the chronological age of animals ( r=0.87). Calibrated with laboratory lipofuscin accumulation rates, field-collected sub-adult and adult E. pacifica in the Northeast Pacific were estimated to be older than 100 days and younger than 1year. Comparative data for the Antarctic krill, E. superba showed much higher lipofuscin values suggesting a much longer lifespan than the more temperate species, E. pacifica. These regional comparisons suggest that biochemical indices allow a practical approach to estimate population age structure of diverse populations, and combined with other measurements can provide estimates of vital rates (i.e. longevity, mortality, growth) for krill populations in dynamic environments.

  3. Biochemical and microbial soil functioning after application of the insecticide imidacloprid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cycoń, Mariusz; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia

    2015-01-01

    Imidacloprid is one of the most commonly used insecticides in agricultural practice, and its application poses a potential risk for soil microorganisms. The objective of this study was to assess whether changes in the structure of the soil microbial community after imidacloprid application at the field rate (FR, 1mg/kg soil) and 10 times the FR (10× FR, 10mg/kg soil) may also have an impact on biochemical and microbial soil functioning. The obtained data showed a negative effect by imidacloprid applied at the FR dosage for substrate-induced respiration (SIR), the number of total bacteria, dehydrogenase (DHA), both phosphatases (PHOS-H and PHOS-OH), and urease (URE) at the beginning of the experiment. In 10× FR treated soil, decreased activity of SIR, DHA, PHOS-OH and PHOS-H was observed over the experimental period. Nitrifying and N2-fixing bacteria were the most sensitive to imidacloprid. The concentration of NO3(-) decreased in both imidacloprid-treated soils, whereas the concentration of NH4(+) in soil with 10× FR was higher than in the control. Analysis of the bacterial growth strategy revealed that imidacloprid affected the r- or K-type bacterial classes as indicated also by the decreased eco-physiological (EP) index. Imidacloprid affected the physiological state of culturable bacteria and caused a reduction in the rate of colony formation as well as a prolonged time for growth. Principal component analysis showed that imidacloprid application significantly shifted the measured parameters, and the application of imidacloprid may pose a potential risk to the biochemical and microbial activity of soils. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Smad signaling pathway is a pivotal component of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-3 regulation by transforming growth factor beta in human chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Hamid Yaqoob; Ricci, Gemma; Zafarullah, Muhammad

    2008-09-01

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta1) promotes cartilage matrix synthesis and induces tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-3 (TIMP-3), which inhibits matrix metalloproteinases, aggrecanases and TNF-alpha-converting enzyme implicated in articular cartilage degradation and joint inflammation. TGF-beta1 activates Akt, ERK and Smad2 pathways in chondrocytes. Here we investigated previously unexplored roles of specific Smads in TGF-beta1 induction of TIMP-3 gene by pharmacological and genetic knockdown approaches. TGF-beta1-induced Smad2 phosphorylation and TIMP-3 protein expression could be inhibited by the Smad2/3 phosphorylation inhibitors, PD169316 and SB203580 and by Smad2-specific siRNA. Specific inhibitor of Smad3 (SIS3) and Smad3 siRNA abolished TGF-beta induction of TIMP-3. Smad2/3 siRNAs also down regulated TIMP-3 promoter-driven luciferase activities, suggesting transcriptional regulation. SiRNA-driven co-Smad4 knockdown abrogated TIMP-3 augmentation by TGF-beta. TIMP-3 promoter deletion analysis revealed that -828 deletion retains the original promoter activity while -333 and -167 deletions display somewhat reduced activity suggesting that most of the TGF-beta-responsive, cis-acting elements are found in the -333 fragment. Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis confirmed binding of Smad2 and Smad4 with the -940 and -333 promoter sequences. These results suggest that receptor-activated Smad2 and Smad3 and co-Smad4 critically mediate TGF-beta-stimulated TIMP-3 expression in human chondrocytes and TIMP-3 gene is a target of Smad signaling pathway.

  5. Evaluation of Sowing Date, Plant Density and Harvest Method on Growth, Yield and Yield Components of Baby Corn (Zea mays L. var. SC403su

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rahmani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering importance of baby corn, the study was consisted of sowing date (14th June, 3th July and 24th July as main Plots and plant densities (6.5, 8.5 and 10.5. plant m-2 as sub Plots and two harvest methods (baby corn, as first harvest sweet corn and next ear as baby corn on Growth parameter and yield of baby corn (Zea mays L. Var SC403su in agricultural Research Center and Natural Resources of Khorasan Razavi Province, Mashhad on 2009. The experiment was carried out in a factorial split plot design based on randomized completely block design with 4 replications. The results showed the highest plant height on sowing date 3thJuly with average 168.6 cm. Also the highest standard ear percentage that one of the important factors for food manufactory had on sowing date 24th July with plant density 10.5 plants plant m-2, by harvesting method baby corn with 63.9 percentages. Also The results showed the highest substandard ear percentage of baby corn was belonged to sowing date 24th July with 8.5 plant m-2, by harvesting method (baby corn sweet corn with 74.6%. The highest harvest ear index was belonged to sowing date14thJune, by harvesting method (baby corn sweet corn with 35.29 percentages. Therefore, sowing date 3thJuly for forage production with average 4 kg m-2 by harvesting method baby corn are recommended for lateral produce production. Considering to Mashhad weather conditions, producing the highest and best standard ear percentage, density, 10.5 plants per square meter and 24th July planting is recommended.

  6. Effects of planting pattern and density on growth indices, yield and yield component of corn (Zea mays in competition with redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retrofelexus(

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    alireza barkhi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted in 2002-2003 using split-split plot arrangement based on Rondomised Compelete Block Design with three replications at Feiz Abad Agricultural Research Station of Qazvin, in order to study of planting patterns and corn densitis effect in competition with redroot pigweed. Main plots inclouded two planting pattern of corn (P1: single row and P2: double row, sub plots inclouded two corn densities (D1:7 and D2:10 plant/m2 and sub sub plots inclouded 4 weed densities (C1:0, C2:2, C3:6, C4:12 plant/m2. Sampling conducted in 2-weekly intervals and growth indices evaluated. Results indicated that with increasing of weed density CGR, TDW, LAI, number of seeds in row, grain and ear yield decreased but plant height increased. Also LAI, CGR, TDW, number of weed seed and seed,s weight of weed increased. By increasing in corn density LAI, CGR, TDW, ear and grain yield increased, but length and diameter of ear and number of seeds in row decreased. Also LAI and CGR of weed increased, but TDW was decreased. In double row planting pattern just CGR, LAI, TDW of corn were higher significantly than single row planting pattern. But single row planting of weed caused higher LAI, NAR, RGR, CGR and TDW of weed in comparison with double row planting pattern. In 2-way interaction, double row planting pattern and zero densities and 2 weeds/m2 had highest grain yield respectively. There were no significant differences for 3-way interactions but double row planting pattern 10 plant density of corn/m2 zero weed/ m2 had highest grain yield.

  7. Effect of Modifying Factors on Radiosensitive Biochemical Reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romantsev, E. F.; Filippovich, I. V.; Zhulanova, Z. I.; Blokhina, V. D.; Trebenok, Z. A.; Kolesnikov, E. E.; Sheremetyevskaya, T. N.; Nikolsky, A. V.; Zymaleva, O. G. [Institute of Biophysics, USSR Ministry of Health, Moscow, USSR (Russian Federation)

    1971-03-15

    Some of the radioprotective aminothiols are now routine pharmacopoeial drugs and are used in clinics to decrease the radiation reaction which appears as a side effect during the radiotherapy of cancer. The action of effective modifying agents on radiosensitive biochemical reactions in the organisms of mammals, in principle, cannot be different from the same effects of the protectors on biochemical systems of the human organism. The effect of modifying agents is mediated by biochemical systems. The administration of radioprotective doses of MEA to rats before irradiation results in a significant normalization of the excretion in urine of degradation products of nucleic acids (so-called Dische-positive compounds), the excretion of which sharply rises after irradiation. The curve of the radioprotective effect of MEA (survival rate after administration of radioprotectors at different intervals of time) completely corresponds to curves of the accumulation of MEA which is bound (by mixed disulphide links) to the proteins of liver mitochondria, to proteins of the nuclear-sap, to the hyaloplasm of rat thymus and to the nuclear ribosomes of the spleen. After MEA administration the curve of the biosynthesis of deoxycytidine represents a mirror reflection of the curve of MEA bound to proteins of the thymus hyaloplasm by means of mixed disulphide links. The mechanism of action of such modifying factors as MEA in experiments on mammals is mediated to a great degree through the temporary formation of mixed disulphide links between the aminothiol and the protein component of enzymes in different biochemical systems. (author)

  8. Growth-arresting Activity of Acmella Essential Oil and its Isolated Component D-Limonene (1, 8 P-Mentha Diene) against Trichophyton rubrum (Microbial Type Culture Collection 296).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padhan, Diptikanta; Pattnaik, Smaranika; Behera, Ajaya Kumar

    2017-10-01

    Spilanthes acmella is used as a remedy in toothache complaints by the tribal people of Western part of Odisha, India. The objective of this study was to study the growth-arresting activity of an indigenous Acmella essential oil (EO) ( S. acmella Murr, Asteraceae ) and its isolated component, d-limonene against Trichophyton rubrum (microbial type culture collection 296). The EO was extracted from flowers of indigenous S. acmella using Clevenger's apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). High pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) was carried out to isolate the major constituent. The isolated fraction was subjected to fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The antidermatophytic activity was screened for using "disc diffusion" and "slant dilution" method followed by optical, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies. The molecular dockings were made between d-limonene with cell wall synthesis-related key enzymes (14 methyl deaminase and monooxygenase). The GC-MS analysis EO had inferred the presence of 7 number of major (≥2%) components. The component with highest peak area (%) was found to be 41.02. The HPLC-isolated fraction was identified as d-limonene (1,8 p-Mentha-diene) by FTIR and NMR. Qualitative and quantitative assays had suggested the growth inhibitory activity of Acmella EO and its component. Shrinkage, evacuation, cell wall puncture, and leakage of cellular constituents by the activity of Acmella oil and d-limonene were evidenced from optical, SEM, and TEM studies. The computer simulation had predicted the binding strengths of d-limonene and fluconazole with dermatophyte cell wall enzymes. There could have been synergistic action of all or some of compounds present in indigenous Acmella EO. There was presence of seven number of (d-limonene, ocimene, β-myrcene, cyclohexene, 3-(1, 5-dimethyl-4-hexenyl)-6-methylene,

  9. The Coxiella Burnetii type IVB secretion system (T4BSS) component DotA is released/secreted during infection of host cells and during in vitro growth in a T4BSS-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luedtke, Brandon E; Mahapatra, Saugata; Lutter, Erika I; Shaw, Edward I

    2017-06-01

    Coxiella burnetii is a Gram-negative intracellular pathogen and is the causative agent of the zoonotic disease Q fever. To cause disease, C. burnetii requires a functional type IVB secretion system (T4BSS) to transfer effector proteins required for the establishment and maintenance of a membrane-bound parasitophorous vacuole (PV) and further modulation of host cell process. However, it is not clear how the T4BSS interacts with the PV membrane since neither a secretion pilus nor an extracellular pore forming apparatus has not been described. To address this, we used the acidified citrate cysteine medium (ACCM) along with cell culture infection and immunological techniques to identify the cellular and extracellular localization of T4BSS components. Interestingly, we found that DotA and IcmX were secreted/released in a T4BSS-dependent manner into the ACCM. Analysis of C. burnetii-infected cell lines revealed that DotA colocalized with the host cell marker CD63 (LAMP3) at the PV membrane. In the absence of bacterial protein synthesis, DotA also became depleted from the PV membrane. These data are the first to identify the release/secretion of C. burnetii T4BSS components during axenic growth and the interaction of a T4BSS component with the PV membrane during infection of host cells. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. An Integrated Qualitative and Quantitative Biochemical Model Learning Framework Using Evolutionary Strategy and Simulated Annealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zujian; Pang, Wei; Coghill, George M

    2015-01-01

    Both qualitative and quantitative model learning frameworks for biochemical systems have been studied in computational systems biology. In this research, after introducing two forms of pre-defined component patterns to represent biochemical models, we propose an integrative qualitative and quantitative modelling framework for inferring biochemical systems. In the proposed framework, interactions between reactants in the candidate models for a target biochemical system are evolved and eventually identified by the application of a qualitative model learning approach with an evolution strategy. Kinetic rates of the models generated from qualitative model learning are then further optimised by employing a quantitative approach with simulated annealing. Experimental results indicate that our proposed integrative framework is feasible to learn the relationships between biochemical reactants qualitatively and to make the model replicate the behaviours of the target system by optimising the kinetic rates quantitatively. Moreover, potential reactants of a target biochemical system can be discovered by hypothesising complex reactants in the synthetic models. Based on the biochemical models learned from the proposed framework, biologists can further perform experimental study in wet laboratory. In this way, natural biochemical systems can be better understood.

  11. Principal components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hallin, M.; Hörmann, S.; Piegorsch, W.; El Shaarawi, A.

    2012-01-01

    Principal Components are probably the best known and most widely used of all multivariate analysis techniques. The essential idea consists in performing a linear transformation of the observed k-dimensional variables in such a way that the new variables are vectors of k mutually orthogonal

  12. Carbon isotope fractionation during diamond growth in depleted peridotite: Counterintuitive insights from modelling water-maximum CHO fluids as multi-component systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachel, T.; Chacko, T.; Luth, R. W.

    2017-09-01

    Because of the inability of depleted cratonic peridotites to effectively buffer oxygen fugacities when infiltrated by CHO or carbonatitic fluids, it has been proposed recently (Luth and Stachel, 2014) that diamond formation in peridotites typically does not occur by rock-buffered redox reactions as previously thought but by an oxygen-conserving reaction in which minor coexisting CH4 and CO2 components in a water-rich fluid react to form diamond (CO2 + CH4 = 2C + 2H2O). In such fluid-buffered systems, carbon isotope fractionation during diamond precipitation occurs in the presence of two dominant fluid carbon species. Carbon isotope modelling of diamond precipitation from mixed CH4- and CO2-bearing fluids reveals unexpected fundamental differences relative to diamond crystallization from a single carbon fluid species: (1) irrespective of which carbon fluid species (CH4 or CO2) is dominant in the initial fluid, diamond formation is invariably associated with progressive minor (diamond in 13C as crystallization proceeds. This is in contrast to diamond precipitation by rock-buffered redox processes from a fluid containing only a single carbon species, which can result in either progressive 13C enrichment (CO2 or carbonate fluids) or 13C depletion (CH4 fluids) in the diamond. (2) Fluid speciation is the key factor controlling diamond δ13 C values; as XCO2 (XCO2 = CO2/[CO2 + CH4]) in the initial fluid increases from 0.1 to 0.9 (corresponding to an increase in fO2 of 0.8 log units), the carbon isotope composition of the first-precipitated diamond decreases by 3.7‰. The tight mode in δ13C of - 5 ± 1 ‰ for diamonds worldwide places strict constraints on the dominant range of XCO2 in water-rich fluids responsible for diamond formation. Specifically, precipitation of diamonds with δ13C values in the range -4 to -6‰ from mantle-derived fluids with an average δ13C value of -5‰ (derived from evidence not related to diamonds) requires that diamond-forming fluids were

  13. Biochemical nature of Russell Bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossuto, Maria Francesca; Ami, Diletta; Anelli, Tiziana; Fagioli, Claudio; Doglia, Silvia Maria; Sitia, Roberto

    2015-07-30

    Professional secretory cells produce and release abundant proteins. Particularly in case of mutations and/or insufficient chaperoning, these can aggregate and become toxic within or amongst cells. Immunoglobulins (Ig) are no exception. In the extracellular space, certain Ig-L chains form fibrils causing systemic amyloidosis. On the other hand, Ig variants lacking the first constant domain condense in dilated cisternae of the early secretory compartment, called Russell Bodies (RB), frequently observed in plasma cell dyscrasias, autoimmune diseases and chronic infections. RB biogenesis can be recapitulated in lymphoid and non-lymphoid cells by expressing mutant Ig-μ, providing powerful models to investigate the pathophysiology of endoplasmic reticulum storage disorders. Here we analyze the aggregation propensity and the biochemical features of the intra- and extra-cellular Ig deposits in human cells, revealing β-aggregated features for RB.

  14. Biochemical Markers in Neurocritical Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omidvar Rezae

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available During the past two decades, a variety of serum or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF biochemical markers in daily clinical practice have been recommended to diagnose and monitor diverse diseases or pathologic situations. It will be essential to develop a panel of biomarkers, to be suitable for evaluation of treatment efficacy, representing distinct phases of injury and recovery and consider the temporal profile of those. Among the possible and different biochemical markers, S100b appeared to fulfill many of optimized criteria of an ideal marker. S100b, a cytosolic low molecular weight dimeric calciumbinding protein from chromosome 21, synthesized in glial cells throughout the CNS, an homodimeric diffusible, belongs to a family of closely related protein, predominantly expressed by astrocytes and Schwann cells and a classic immunohistochemical marker for these cells, is implicated in brain development and neurophysiology. Of the 3 isoforms of S-100, the BB subunit (S100B is present in high concentrations in central and peripheral glial and Schwann cells, Langerhans and anterior pituitary cells, fat, muscle, and bone marrow tissues. The biomarker has shown to be a sensitive marker of clinical and subclinical cerebral damage, such as stroke, traumatic brain injury, and spinal cord injury. Increasing evidence suggests that the biomarker plays a double function as an intracellular regulator and an extracellular signal of the CNS. S100b is found in the cytoplasm in a soluble form and also is associated with intracellular membranes, centrosomes, microtubules, and type III intermediate filaments. Their genomic organization now is known, and many of their target proteins have been identified, although the mechanisms of regulating S100b secretion are not completely understood and appear to be related to many factors, such as the proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a, interleukin (IL-1b, and metabolic stress. 

  15. Growth performance, haemo-biochemical parameters and meat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... coxistac and olaquindox [PosCon]; and 3) commercial grower diet without antibiotics in which L. javanica was included at the rate of 25 g/kg [Ljav25]. Experimental diets and fresh water were offered ad libitum. Weekly feed intake and body weights were recorded to calculate feed conversion efficiency (FCE). At 9 weeks of ...

  16. Growth performance, haemo-biochemical parameters and meat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NWUUser

    2017-09-04

    Sep 4, 2017 ... 2 Food Security and Safety Niche area, Faculty of Agriculture, Science ... analysis showed no significant week × diet interaction effect on average ... has been used as an ethno-veterinary drug to treat a wide array of livestock ...

  17. Family history and biochemical diagnosis in 1948 kidney stone formers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco R. Spivacow

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The presence of family history of nephrolithiasis is associated with an increased risk of renal lithiasis. Different epidemiological studies have shown a family component in the incidence of it, which is independent of dietary and environmental factors. The role of heredity is evident in monogenic diseases such as cystinuria, Dent’s disease or primary hyperoxaluria, while a polygenic inheritance has been proposed to explain the tendency to form calcium oxalate stones. Objective: Our objective was to evaluate the family history of patients with renal lithiasis and the correlation of family history with its corresponding biochemical alteration, considering only those with a single metabolic alteration. Methods: a prospective and retrospective observational and analytical study that included 1948 adults over 17 years of age and a normal control group of 165 individuals, all evaluated according to an ambulatory protocol to obtain a biochemical diagnosis. They were asked about their family history of nephrolithiasis and classified into five groups according to the degree of kinship and the number of people affected in the family. Results: a positive family history of nephrolithiasis was found in 27.4% of renal stone formers, predominantly in women, compared to 15.2% of normal controls. The family history of nephrolithiasis was observed especially in 31.4% of patients with hypomagnesuria and in 29.6% of hypercalciuric patients. The rest of the biochemical alterations had a positive family history between 28.6% in hyperoxaluria and 21.9% in hypocitraturia. The highest percentage of family history of nephrolithiasis was found in cystinuria (75% although there were few patients with this diagnosis. Conclusions: the inheritance has a clear impact on urolithiasis independently of the present biochemical alteration. Family history of nephrolithiasis of the first and second degree was observed between 21 and 32% of patients with renal

  18. Prevalence of biochemical and immunological abnormalities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tile prevalence of biochemical and immunological abnormalities was studied in a group of 256 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (104 coloureds, 100 whites and 52 blacks). The most common biochemical abnormalities detected were a reduction in the serum creatinine value (43,4%), raised globulins (39,7%), raised serum ...

  19. Organic and biochemical synthesis group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Stable isotopes, because of their unique properties and non-radioactive nature, have great potential for many fields of science and technology. In particular, isotopes of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur (the basic building blocks of all biological molecules) would be widely used in biomedical and environmental research if they were economically available in sufficient quantities and in the required chemical forms. The major objective of our program continues to be stimulation of the widespread utilization of stable isotopes and commercial involvement through development and demonstration of applications which have potential requirements for large quantities of isotopes. Thus, demand will be created which is necessary for large-scale production of stable isotopes and labeled compounds and concomitant low unit costs. The program continues to produce a variety of labeled materials needed for clinical, biomedical, chemical, and environmental applications which serve as effective demonstrations of unique and advantageous utilization of stable isotopes. Future commercial involvement should benefit, and is a consideration in our research and development, from the technology transfer that can readily be made as a result of our organic and biochemical syntheses and also of various techniques involved in applications

  20. Climatic Controls on Leaf Nitrogen Content and Implications for Biochemical Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tcherednichenko, I. A.; White, M.; Bastidas, L.

    2007-12-01

    Leaf nitrogen (N) content, expressed as percent total nitrogen per unit of leaf dry mass, is a widely used parameter in biochemical modeling, due mainly to its role as a potentially limiting factor for photosynthesis. The amount of nitrogen, however, does not occur in a fixed amount in every leaf, but rather varies continuously with the leaf life cycle, in constant response to soil-root-stem-leaf-climate interactions and demand for growth. Moreover, while broad data on leaf N has become available it is normally measured under ambient conditions with consequent difficulty for distinguishing between genetic and time specific environmental effects. In the present work we: 1) Investigate the theoretical variation of leaf mass, specific heat capacity and leaf thickness of full sun-expanded leaves as a regulatory mechanism to ensure thermal survival along with long-term climatic radiation/temperature gradient; and discuss nitrogen and carbon controls on leaf thickness. 2) Based on possible states of partition between nitrogenous and non-nitrogenous components of a leaf we further derive probability density functions (PDFs) of nitrogen and carbon content and assess the effect of water and nutrient uptake on the PDFs. 3) Translate the results to spatially explicit representation over the conterminous USA at 1 km spatial resolution by providing maximum potential values of leaf N of fully expanded leaf optimally suited for long term climatic averages values and soils conditions. Implications for potential presence of inherently slow/fast growing species are discussed along with suitability of results for use by biochemical models.

  1. PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL MARKERS OF SALINITY TOLERANCE IN PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa YILDIZ

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Salt stress limits plant productivity in arid and semi arid regions. Salt stress causes decrease in plant growth by adversely affecting physiological processes, especially photosynthesis. Salinity tolerance is defined as the ability of plant to maintain normal rowth and development under salt conditions. Salt stress results in accumulation of low molecular weight compounds, termed compatible solutes, which do not interfere with the normal biochemical reactions. These compatible solutes such as carbohydrates, polyols, amino acids and amides, quaternary ammonium compounds, polyamines andsoluble proteins may play a crucial role in osmotic adjustment, protection of macromolecules, maintenance of cellular pH and detoxification of free radicals. On the other hand, plants subjected to environmental stresses such as salinity produce reactive oxygen species (ROS and these ROS are efficiently eliminated by antioxidant enzyme systems. In plant breeding studies, the use of some physiological and biochemical markers for improving the salt tolerance in plants is crucial. In this review, the possibility of using some physiological and biochemical markers as selection criteria for salt tolerance is discussed.

  2. Improved biochemical preservation of heart slices during cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, D A; Reid, B B; Connors, R C; Albanil, A; Stringham, J C; Karwande, S V

    2000-01-01

    Development of myocardial preservation solutions requires the use of whole organ models which are animal and labor intensive. These models rely on physiologic rather than biochemical endpoints, making accurate comparison of the relative efficacy of individual solution components difficult. We hypothesized that myocardial slices could be used to assess preservation of biochemical function during cold storage. Whole rat hearts were precision cut into slices with a thickness of 200 microm and preserved at 4 degrees C in one of the following solutions: Columbia University (CU), University of Wisconsin (UW), D5 0.2% normal saline with 20 meq/l KCL (QNS), normal saline (NS), or a novel cardiac preservation solution (NPS) developed using this model. Myocardial biochemical function was assessed by ATP content (etamoles ATP/mg wet weight) and capacity for protein synthesis (counts per minute (cpm)/mg protein) immediately following slicing (0 hours), and at 6, 12, 18, and 24 hours of cold storage. Six slices were assayed at each time point for each solution. The data were analyzed using analysis of variance and are presented as the mean +/- standard deviation. ATP content was higher in the heart slices stored in the NPS compared to all other solutions at 6, 12, 18 and 24 hours of cold storage (p cold storage (p cold storage.

  3. Improved biochemical preservation of lung slices during cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, D A; Connors, R C; Reid, B B; Albanil, A; Stringham, J C; Karwande, S V

    2000-05-15

    Development of lung preservation solutions typically requires whole-organ models which are animal and labor intensive. These models rely on physiologic rather than biochemical endpoints, making accurate comparison of the relative efficacy of individual solution components difficult. We hypothesized that lung slices could be used to assess preservation of biochemical function during cold storage. Whole rat lungs were precision cut into slices with a thickness of 500 microm and preserved at 4 degrees C in the following solutions: University of Wisconsin (UW), Euro-Collins (EC), low-potassium-dextran (LPD), Kyoto (K), normal saline (NS), or a novel lung preservation solution (NPS) developed using this model. Lung biochemical function was assessed by ATP content (etamol ATP/mg wet wt) and capacity for protein synthesis (cpm/mg protein) immediately following slicing (0 h) and at 6, 12, 18, and 24 h of cold storage. Six slices were assayed at each time point for each solution. The data were analyzed using analysis of variance and are presented as means +/- SD. ATP content was significantly higher in the lung slices stored in NPS compared with all other solutions at each time point (P cold storage. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  4. The influence of season on carbon allocation to suberin and other stem components of cork oak saplings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguado, Pedro L; Curt, M Dolores; Pereira, Helena; Fernández, Jesús

    2017-02-01

    The growth pattern of cork oak (Quercus suber L.), an important component of South Mediterranean woodlands, is seasonal. Seasonality has been found for shoot, radial and cork ring growth as well as for carbon (C) photoassimilation, nutrients remobilization and water relations, among other physiological aspects. However, little is known about the seasonality of C allocation to cork oak chemical compounds, including suberin, a major component of cork. In order to achieve this goal, an isotopic tracer experiment was conducted using 18-month-old cork oaks so that the fate of C photoassimilated in different seasons could be traced into biochemical (main organic) stem components. Two distinct patterns of C allocation, associated with the stages of active plant growth and dormancy, were identified and described. Evidence was provided that translocation of photoassimilated C to stems does not cease during the dormancy period and that suberin is the major C sink for the C assimilated throughout the whole active growth period, as compared with other stem components. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Biochemical thermodynamics: applications of Mathematica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberty, Robert A

    2006-01-01

    reactants. Thus loading this package makes available 774 mathematical functions for these properties. These functions can be added and subtracted to obtain changes in these properties in biochemical reactions and apparent equilibrium constants.

  6. Morphological, physiological and biochemical studies on Pyricularia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-02-28

    Feb 28, 2014 ... compounds seem to reflect inherent biochemical and physiological differences among P. grisea isolates .... solutions for imaging and microscopy, soft image system .... characteristics among 12 P. grisea isolates from rice were.

  7. Biochemical changes in blood caused by radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapol'skaya, N.A.; Fedorova, A.V.

    1975-01-01

    The changes were studied occurring in some biochemical indicators in blood at chronic peroral administration of strontium-90, cesium-137 and iodine-131 in amounts resulting in accumulation of commensurable doses in critical organs corresponding to each isotope

  8. Biochemical and kinetic characterization of geranylgeraniol 18 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suchart

    2015-07-22

    Jul 22, 2015 ... biochemical characterization of GGOH 18-hydroxylase activity in the microsomal fraction from C. .... method as previously described (Chanama et al., 2009). Briefly, 30 g of frozen ..... Catalytic properties of the plant cytochrome.

  9. Short Report Biochemical derangements prior to emergency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MMJ VOL 29 (1): March 2017. Biochemical derangements prior to emergency laparotomy at QECH 55. Malawi Medical Journal 29 (1): March 2017 ... Venepuncture was performed preoperatively for urgent cases, defined as those requiring.

  10. A Program on Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San, Ka-Yiu; McIntire, Larry V.

    1989-01-01

    Presents an introduction to the Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering program at Rice University. Describes the development of the academic and enhancement programs, including organizational structure and research project titles. (YP)

  11. [Biochemical diagnostics of fatal opium intoxication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papyshev, I P; Astashkina, O G; Tuchik, E S; Nikolaev, B S; Cherniaev, A L

    2013-01-01

    Biochemical diagnostics of fatal opium intoxication remains a topical problem in forensic medical science and practice. We investigated materials obtained in the course of forensic medical expertise of the cases of fatal opium intoxication. The study revealed significant differences between myoglobin levels in blood, urine, myocardium, and skeletal muscles. The proposed approach to biochemical diagnostics of fatal opium intoxication enhances the accuracy and the level of evidence of expert conclusions.

  12. Improving Marine Ecosystem Models with Biochemical Tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pethybridge, Heidi R.; Choy, C. Anela; Polovina, Jeffrey J.; Fulton, Elizabeth A.

    2018-01-01

    Empirical data on food web dynamics and predator-prey interactions underpin ecosystem models, which are increasingly used to support strategic management of marine resources. These data have traditionally derived from stomach content analysis, but new and complementary forms of ecological data are increasingly available from biochemical tracer techniques. Extensive opportunities exist to improve the empirical robustness of ecosystem models through the incorporation of biochemical tracer data and derived indices, an area that is rapidly expanding because of advances in analytical developments and sophisticated statistical techniques. Here, we explore the trophic information required by ecosystem model frameworks (species, individual, and size based) and match them to the most commonly used biochemical tracers (bulk tissue and compound-specific stable isotopes, fatty acids, and trace elements). Key quantitative parameters derived from biochemical tracers include estimates of diet composition, niche width, and trophic position. Biochemical tracers also provide powerful insight into the spatial and temporal variability of food web structure and the characterization of dominant basal and microbial food web groups. A major challenge in incorporating biochemical tracer data into ecosystem models is scale and data type mismatches, which can be overcome with greater knowledge exchange and numerical approaches that transform, integrate, and visualize data.

  13. RMBNToolbox: random models for biochemical networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niemi Jari

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an increasing interest to model biochemical and cell biological networks, as well as to the computational analysis of these models. The development of analysis methodologies and related software is rapid in the field. However, the number of available models is still relatively small and the model sizes remain limited. The lack of kinetic information is usually the limiting factor for the construction of detailed simulation models. Results We present a computational toolbox for generating random biochemical network models which mimic real biochemical networks. The toolbox is called Random Models for Biochemical Networks. The toolbox works in the Matlab environment, and it makes it possible to generate various network structures, stoichiometries, kinetic laws for reactions, and parameters therein. The generation can be based on statistical rules and distributions, and more detailed information of real biochemical networks can be used in situations where it is known. The toolbox can be easily extended. The resulting network models can be exported in the format of Systems Biology Markup Language. Conclusion While more information is accumulating on biochemical networks, random networks can be used as an intermediate step towards their better understanding. Random networks make it possible to study the effects of various network characteristics to the overall behavior of the network. Moreover, the construction of artificial network models provides the ground truth data needed in the validation of various computational methods in the fields of parameter estimation and data analysis.

  14. 40 CFR 158.2082 - Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides residue data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... These data requirements apply to all biochemical pesticides, i.e., naturally occurring insect repellents and attractants, semiochemicals (e.g., insect pheromones), natural and plant growth regulators. Notes... food crop use, terrestrial feed crop use, aquatic food crop use, greenhouse food crop use, and indoor...

  15. Biochemical response and host-pathogen relation of stalk rot fungi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. nirupma

    photosynthesis, which are the vital processes taking place inside the plant, leading to wide fluctuations in sugars (Klement ... The suspension spray was prepared by taking. 200 ml of ..... biochemical factors due to cell response that is, defence .... by Fusarium moniliforme on corn growth and cellular morphology. Plant Dis.

  16. Cellular and biochemical actions of adrenal glucocorticoid hormones on rat thymic lymphocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    Young, D A; Voris, B P; Nicholson, M L

    1981-01-01

    The molecular, biochemical, and cellular effects of adrenal glucocorticoid hormones on thymic lymphocytes are reviewed, with emphasis on their relationship to the growth suppressive and lethal actions that occur in lymphoid tissues when glucocorticoids are administered to the whole animal. The data support the hypothesis that the hormonal inhibition of growth and development is a consequence of its ability to suppress cellular energy production, causing the cells to behave as though they were...

  17. Structural and Biochemical Studies of LysM Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Mei Mei Jaslyn Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    . Most of the signalling components in the Nod factor signalling pathway have been identified through genetic approaches. The current symbiosis signalling model, however, lacks components that could link Nod factor perception at the plasma membrane to downstream responses, such as calcium influx and perinuclear calcium...... involved in peptidoglycan hydrolysis; the Cell Wall Lytic enzyme associated with cell Separation (CwlS) from Bacillus subtilis, and P60_Tth from Thermus thermopiles. Biochemical studies conducted on purified CwlS showed that multiple LysM modules function cooperatively to bind N-acetylglucosamine (NAG......-induced intermolecular dimerization was observed in the co-crystal structure of P60_2LysM and NAG6. Until today, this is the only structural evidence illustrating intermolecular dimerization of LysM proteins. Intermolecular dimerization of plant LysM receptor kinases (RK) has been proposed as a mechanism...

  18. Biochemical Stimulus-Based Strategies for Meniscus Tissue Engineering and Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mingxue; Guo, Weimin; Gao, Shunag; Hao, Chunxiang; Shen, Shi; Zhang, Zengzeng; Wang, Zhenyong; Wang, Zehao; Li, Xu; Jing, Xiaoguang; Zhang, Xueliang; Yuan, Zhiguo; Wang, Mingjie; Zhang, Yu; Peng, Jiang; Wang, Aiyuan; Wang, Yu; Sui, Xiang

    2018-01-01

    Meniscus injuries are very common and still pose a challenge for the orthopedic surgeon. Meniscus injuries in the inner two-thirds of the meniscus remain incurable. Tissue-engineered meniscus strategies seem to offer a new approach for treating meniscus injuries with a combination of seed cells, scaffolds, and biochemical or biomechanical stimulation. Cell- or scaffold-based strategies play a pivotal role in meniscus regeneration. Similarly, biochemical and biomechanical stimulation are also important. Seed cells and scaffolds can be used to construct a tissue-engineered tissue; however, stimulation to enhance tissue maturation and remodeling is still needed. Such stimulation can be biomechanical or biochemical, but this review focuses only on biochemical stimulation. Growth factors (GFs) are one of the most important forms of biochemical stimulation. Frequently used GFs always play a critical role in normal limb development and growth. Further understanding of the functional mechanism of GFs will help scientists to design the best therapy strategies. In this review, we summarize some of the most important GFs in tissue-engineered menisci, as well as other types of biological stimulation. PMID:29581987

  19. Proximate biochemical composition and caloric potential in the raft-grown green mussel Perna viridis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rivonker, C.U.; Parulekar, A.H.

    The biochemical components of the mussel tissue, cultured on the raft were estimated. The range of variation in the content of moisture, protein, carbohydrates, lipid, organic carbon and ash were 66.8-90.1; 46.2-67.4; 11.7-18.6; 2.9-7.4; 19...

  20. Genomic, proteomic and biochemical analysis of the organohalide respiratory pathway in Desulfitobacterium dehalogenans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruse, T.; Pas, van de B.A.; Atteia, A.; Krab, K.; Hagen, W.R.; Goodwin, L.; Chain, P.; Boeren, S.; Maphosa, F.; Schraa, G.; Vos, de W.M.; Oost, van der J.; Smidt, H.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Desulfitobacterium dehalogenans is able to grow by organohalide respiration using 3-chloro-4-hydroxyphenyl acetate (Cl-OHPA) as an electron acceptor. We used a combination of genome sequencing, biochemical analysis of redox active components and shotgun proteomics to study elements of the

  1. Hierarchical graphs for rule-based modeling of biochemical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Bin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In rule-based modeling, graphs are used to represent molecules: a colored vertex represents a component of a molecule, a vertex attribute represents the internal state of a component, and an edge represents a bond between components. Components of a molecule share the same color. Furthermore, graph-rewriting rules are used to represent molecular interactions. A rule that specifies addition (removal of an edge represents a class of association (dissociation reactions, and a rule that specifies a change of a vertex attribute represents a class of reactions that affect the internal state of a molecular component. A set of rules comprises an executable model that can be used to determine, through various means, the system-level dynamics of molecular interactions in a biochemical system. Results For purposes of model annotation, we propose the use of hierarchical graphs to represent structural relationships among components and subcomponents of molecules. We illustrate how hierarchical graphs can be used to naturally document the structural organization of the functional components and subcomponents of two proteins: the protein tyrosine kinase Lck and the T cell receptor (TCR complex. We also show that computational methods developed for regular graphs can be applied to hierarchical graphs. In particular, we describe a generalization of Nauty, a graph isomorphism and canonical labeling algorithm. The generalized version of the Nauty procedure, which we call HNauty, can be used to assign canonical labels to hierarchical graphs or more generally to graphs with multiple edge types. The difference between the Nauty and HNauty procedures is minor, but for completeness, we provide an explanation of the entire HNauty algorithm. Conclusions Hierarchical graphs provide more intuitive formal representations of proteins and other structured molecules with multiple functional components than do the regular graphs of current languages for

  2. Classification and fingerprinting of different berries based on biochemical profiling and antioxidant capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasminka Milivojević

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the biochemical composition of six berry types belonging to Fragaria, Rubus, Vaccinium and Ribes genus. Fruit samples were collected in triplicate (50 fruit each from 18 different species or cultivars of the mentioned genera, during three years (2008 to 2010. Content of individual sugars, organic acids, flavonols, and phenolic acids were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis, while total phenolics (TPC and total antioxidant capacity (TAC, by using spectrophotometry. Principal component analysis (PCA and hierarchical cluster analysis (CA were performed to evaluate the differences in fruit biochemical profile. The highest contents of bioactive components were found in Ribes nigrum and in Fragaria vesca, Rubus plicatus, and Vaccinium myrtillus. PCA and CA were able to partially discriminate between berries on the basis of their biochemical composition. Individual and total sugars, myricetin, ellagic acid, TPC and TAC showed the highest impact on biochemical composition of the berry fruits. CA separated blackberry, raspberry, and blueberry as isolate groups, while classification of strawberry, black and red currant in a specific group has not occurred. There is a large variability both between and within the different types of berries. Metabolite fingerprinting of the evaluated berries showed unique biochemical profiles and specific combination of bioactive compound contents.

  3. The Effect of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR and Phosphate Solubilizing Microorganism (PSM on Yield and Yield Components of Wheat (cv. N80 under Different Nitrogen and Phosphorous Fertilizers Levels in Greenhouse Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H Bahari saravi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR and phosphate solubilizing microorganism (PSM on yield and yield components of wheat a pot experiment was conducted at Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University during 2009. Experiment was arranged in factorial based on completely randomized design in three replicates. Treatments were included bio-fertilizer in four levels (non-inoculation control, Phosphate Barvare 2 (Pseudomonas fluorescens+Bacillus subtilis, Supernitroplus (Azotobacter brasilense+Azospirillum lipoferum and Nitroxine (Azospirillum + Pseudomona + Bacillus, three levels of chemical nitrogen fertilizer (0, 75 and 150 kg urea/ha and three levels of phosphorus fertilizer (0, 60 and 120 kg super phosphate triple/ha. Results showed that the studied treatments (biofertilizer, nitrogen and phosphate inorganic fertilizers had significant effect on grain number per spike, 1000 grain weight, grain yield, straw yield, biological yield and harvest index. Interaction effect between biofertilizer and chemical fertilizers was significant in terms of grain yield. The maximum grain yield was resulted from simultaneously applying of Nitroxine and 75 kg ha-1 nitrogen fertilizer. By contrast, the highest straw yield was obtained when 150 kg nitrogen fertilizer was used. Grain yield had the maximum correlation with biological yield (r=0.85**. Grain yield positively and significantly correlated with grain number per spike (r=0.73**, 1000 grain weight (r=0.68**, straw yield (r=0.56** and harvest index (r=0.69**. In conclusion biofertilizer inoculations could reduce application of nitrogen and phosphorus chemical fertilizers and increase plant performance.

  4. Connecting Biochemical Photosynthesis Models with Crop Models to Support Crop Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Alex; Song, Youhong; van Oosterom, Erik J.; Hammer, Graeme L.

    2016-01-01

    The next advance in field crop productivity will likely need to come from improving crop use efficiency of resources (e.g., light, water, and nitrogen), aspects of which are closely linked with overall crop photosynthetic efficiency. Progress in genetic manipulation of photosynthesis is confounded by uncertainties of consequences at crop level because of difficulties connecting across scales. Crop growth and development simulation models that integrate across biological levels of organization and use a gene-to-phenotype modeling approach may present a way forward. There has been a long history of development of crop models capable of simulating dynamics of crop physiological attributes. Many crop models incorporate canopy photosynthesis (source) as a key driver for crop growth, while others derive crop growth from the balance between source- and sink-limitations. Modeling leaf photosynthesis has progressed from empirical modeling via light response curves to a more mechanistic basis, having clearer links to the underlying biochemical processes of photosynthesis. Cross-scale modeling that connects models at the biochemical and crop levels and utilizes developments in upscaling leaf-level models to canopy models has the potential to bridge the gap between photosynthetic manipulation at the biochemical level and its consequences on crop productivity. Here we review approaches to this emerging cross-scale modeling framework and reinforce the need for connections across levels of modeling. Further, we propose strategies for connecting biochemical models of photosynthesis into the cross-scale modeling framework to support crop improvement through photosynthetic manipulation. PMID:27790232

  5. Connecting Biochemical Photosynthesis Models with Crop Models to Support Crop Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Alex; Song, Youhong; van Oosterom, Erik J; Hammer, Graeme L

    2016-01-01

    The next advance in field crop productivity will likely need to come from improving crop use efficiency of resources (e.g., light, water, and nitrogen), aspects of which are closely linked with overall crop photosynthetic efficiency. Progress in genetic manipulation of photosynthesis is confounded by uncertainties of consequences at crop level because of difficulties connecting across scales. Crop growth and development simulation models that integrate across biological levels of organization and use a gene-to-phenotype modeling approach may present a way forward. There has been a long history of development of crop models capable of simulating dynamics of crop physiological attributes. Many crop models incorporate canopy photosynthesis (source) as a key driver for crop growth, while others derive crop growth from the balance between source- and sink-limitations. Modeling leaf photosynthesis has progressed from empirical modeling via light response curves to a more mechanistic basis, having clearer links to the underlying biochemical processes of photosynthesis. Cross-scale modeling that connects models at the biochemical and crop levels and utilizes developments in upscaling leaf-level models to canopy models has the potential to bridge the gap between photosynthetic manipulation at the biochemical level and its consequences on crop productivity. Here we review approaches to this emerging cross-scale modeling framework and reinforce the need for connections across levels of modeling. Further, we propose strategies for connecting biochemical models of photosynthesis into the cross-scale modeling framework to support crop improvement through photosynthetic manipulation.

  6. Biochemical Removal of HAP Precursors From Coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, G.; Tucker, L.; Richards, J.

    1997-07-01

    This project addresses DOE's interest in advanced concepts for controlling emissions of air toxics from coal-fired utility boilers. We are determining the feasibility of developing a biochemical process for the precombustion removal of substantial percentages of 13 inorganic hazardous air pollutant (HAP) precursors from coal. These HAP precursors are Sb, As, Be, Cd, Cr, Cl, Co, F, Pb, Hg, Mn, Ni, and Se. Although rapid physical coal cleaning is done routinely in preparation plants, biochemical processes for removal of HAP precursors from coal potentially offer advantages of deeper cleaning, more specificity, and less coal loss. Compared to chemical processes for coal cleaning, biochemical processes potentially offer lower costs and milder process conditions. Pyrite oxidizing bacteria, most notably Thiobacillusferrooxidans, are being evaluated in this project for their ability to remove HAP precursors from U.S. coals

  7. Biochemical Removal of HAP Precursors From Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, G.; Tucker, L.; Richards, J.

    1997-07-01

    This project addresses DOE`s interest in advanced concepts for controlling emissions of air toxics from coal-fired utility boilers. We are determining the feasibility of developing a biochemical process for the precombustion removal of substantial percentages of 13 inorganic hazardous air pollutant (HAP) precursors from coal. These HAP precursors are Sb, As, Be, Cd, Cr, Cl, Co, F, Pb, Hg, Mn, Ni, and Se. Although rapid physical coal cleaning is done routinely in preparation plants, biochemical processes for removal of HAP precursors from coal potentially offer advantages of deeper cleaning, more specificity, and less coal loss. Compared to chemical processes for coal cleaning, biochemical processes potentially offer lower costs and milder process conditions. Pyrite oxidizing bacteria, most notably Thiobacillusferrooxidans, are being evaluated in this project for their ability to remove HAP precursors from U.S. coals.

  8. eQuilibrator--the biochemical thermodynamics calculator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamholz, Avi; Noor, Elad; Bar-Even, Arren; Milo, Ron

    2012-01-01

    The laws of thermodynamics constrain the action of biochemical systems. However, thermodynamic data on biochemical compounds can be difficult to find and is cumbersome to perform calculations with manually. Even simple thermodynamic questions like 'how much Gibbs energy is released by ATP hydrolysis at pH 5?' are complicated excessively by the search for accurate data. To address this problem, eQuilibrator couples a comprehensive and accurate database of thermodynamic properties of biochemical compounds and reactions with a simple and powerful online search and calculation interface. The web interface to eQuilibrator (http://equilibrator.weizmann.ac.il) enables easy calculation of Gibbs energies of compounds and reactions given arbitrary pH, ionic strength and metabolite concentrations. The eQuilibrator code is open-source and all thermodynamic source data are freely downloadable in standard formats. Here we describe the database characteristics and implementation and demonstrate its use.

  9. eQuilibrator—the biochemical thermodynamics calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamholz, Avi; Noor, Elad; Bar-Even, Arren; Milo, Ron

    2012-01-01

    The laws of thermodynamics constrain the action of biochemical systems. However, thermodynamic data on biochemical compounds can be difficult to find and is cumbersome to perform calculations with manually. Even simple thermodynamic questions like ‘how much Gibbs energy is released by ATP hydrolysis at pH 5?’ are complicated excessively by the search for accurate data. To address this problem, eQuilibrator couples a comprehensive and accurate database of thermodynamic properties of biochemical compounds and reactions with a simple and powerful online search and calculation interface. The web interface to eQuilibrator (http://equilibrator.weizmann.ac.il) enables easy calculation of Gibbs energies of compounds and reactions given arbitrary pH, ionic strength and metabolite concentrations. The eQuilibrator code is open-source and all thermodynamic source data are freely downloadable in standard formats. Here we describe the database characteristics and implementation and demonstrate its use. PMID:22064852

  10. Self-organizing ontology of biochemically relevant small molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chepelev, Leonid L; Hastings, Janna; Ennis, Marcus; Steinbeck, Christoph; Dumontier, Michel

    2012-01-06

    The advent of high-throughput experimentation in biochemistry has led to the generation of vast amounts of chemical data, necessitating the development of novel analysis, characterization, and cataloguing techniques and tools. Recently, a movement to publically release such data has advanced biochemical structure-activity relationship research, while providing new challenges, the biggest being the curation, annotation, and classification of this information to facilitate useful biochemical pattern analysis. Unfortunately, the human resources currently employed by the organizations supporting these efforts (e.g. ChEBI) are expanding linearly, while new useful scientific information is being released in a seemingly exponential fashion. Compounding this, currently existing chemical classification and annotation systems are not amenable to automated classification, formal and transparent chemical class definition axiomatization, facile class redefinition, or novel class integration, thus further limiting chemical ontology growth by necessitating human involvement in curation. Clearly, there is a need for the automation of this process, especially for novel chemical entities of biological interest. To address this, we present a formal framework based on Semantic Web technologies for the automatic design of chemical ontology which can be used for automated classification of novel entities. We demonstrate the automatic self-assembly of a structure-based chemical ontology based on 60 MeSH and 40 ChEBI chemical classes. This ontology is then used to classify 200 compounds with an accuracy of 92.7%. We extend these structure-based classes with molecular feature information and demonstrate the utility of our framework for classification of functionally relevant chemicals. Finally, we discuss an iterative approach that we envision for future biochemical ontology development. We conclude that the proposed methodology can ease the burden of chemical data annotators and

  11. Self-organizing ontology of biochemically relevant small molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The advent of high-throughput experimentation in biochemistry has led to the generation of vast amounts of chemical data, necessitating the development of novel analysis, characterization, and cataloguing techniques and tools. Recently, a movement to publically release such data has advanced biochemical structure-activity relationship research, while providing new challenges, the biggest being the curation, annotation, and classification of this information to facilitate useful biochemical pattern analysis. Unfortunately, the human resources currently employed by the organizations supporting these efforts (e.g. ChEBI) are expanding linearly, while new useful scientific information is being released in a seemingly exponential fashion. Compounding this, currently existing chemical classification and annotation systems are not amenable to automated classification, formal and transparent chemical class definition axiomatization, facile class redefinition, or novel class integration, thus further limiting chemical ontology growth by necessitating human involvement in curation. Clearly, there is a need for the automation of this process, especially for novel chemical entities of biological interest. Results To address this, we present a formal framework based on Semantic Web technologies for the automatic design of chemical ontology which can be used for automated classification of novel entities. We demonstrate the automatic self-assembly of a structure-based chemical ontology based on 60 MeSH and 40 ChEBI chemical classes. This ontology is then used to classify 200 compounds with an accuracy of 92.7%. We extend these structure-based classes with molecular feature information and demonstrate the utility of our framework for classification of functionally relevant chemicals. Finally, we discuss an iterative approach that we envision for future biochemical ontology development. Conclusions We conclude that the proposed methodology can ease the burden of

  12. Self-organizing ontology of biochemically relevant small molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chepelev Leonid L

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The advent of high-throughput experimentation in biochemistry has led to the generation of vast amounts of chemical data, necessitating the development of novel analysis, characterization, and cataloguing techniques and tools. Recently, a movement to publically release such data has advanced biochemical structure-activity relationship research, while providing new challenges, the biggest being the curation, annotation, and classification of this information to facilitate useful biochemical pattern analysis. Unfortunately, the human resources currently employed by the organizations supporting these efforts (e.g. ChEBI are expanding linearly, while new useful scientific information is being released in a seemingly exponential fashion. Compounding this, currently existing chemical classification and annotation systems are not amenable to automated classification, formal and transparent chemical class definition axiomatization, facile class redefinition, or novel class integration, thus further limiting chemical ontology growth by necessitating human involvement in curation. Clearly, there is a need for the automation of this process, especially for novel chemical entities of biological interest. Results To address this, we present a formal framework based on Semantic Web technologies for the automatic design of chemical ontology which can be used for automated classification of novel entities. We demonstrate the automatic self-assembly of a structure-based chemical ontology based on 60 MeSH and 40 ChEBI chemical classes. This ontology is then used to classify 200 compounds with an accuracy of 92.7%. We extend these structure-based classes with molecular feature information and demonstrate the utility of our framework for classification of functionally relevant chemicals. Finally, we discuss an iterative approach that we envision for future biochemical ontology development. Conclusions We conclude that the proposed methodology

  13. Biochemical activity of fullerenes and related derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huczko, A.; Lange, H.; Calko, E.

    1999-01-01

    An astonishing scientific interest, embodied in over 15000 research articles so far, has been encountered since 1985 when fullerenes were discovered. From new superconductors to a rich electrochemistry and reaction chemistry, fullerene nanostructures continue to excite the scientific world, and new findings continue at record pace. This review presents many examples of the biochemical activities of fullerenes and derivatives, e. g. cytotoxic activity, selective DNA cleavage and antiviral activity against HIV. We also present some results of our testing which show that, despite its chemical and biochemical activity, fullerene matter does not present any health hazard directly related to skin irritation and allergic risks. (author)

  14. Stimulation growth effect of Eriocheir sinensis treated with low-dose neutron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Keyong; Liu Chunquan; Xu Lixin; Peng Zhangji

    2006-01-01

    This paper was dealt with the relationship between biochemical indexes and different growth stages of Eriocheir sinensis megalopa treated with Low-dose Neutron at 55.24 to 73.66 mGy. It showed that some biochemical component indexes were increased, such as-SH group in protain (between 23.40% to 69.59%), albumen (between 4.99% to 22.6%) and Hyp compared with CK. However, free radical level (between 7.67% to 32.68%) and AKP were decreased. The carapace color was turned into darker than that of CK; Antibacterial immunity of younger crab during the growing stage was increased, the body size of treated Eriocheir sinensis megalopa became uniform and early sexual maturity was inhibited in a certain degree with a low dose neutron treatment. (authors)

  15. Interferon-β treatment associated with a biochemical profile suggestive of acromegaly. A case report of a patient treated for multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Mikkel; Frystyk, Jan; Miller, Karen K

    2010-01-01

    We describe a 34-year-old female treated with IFN-ß for 8 years with a biochemical profile suggestive of acromegaly. The patient presented with elevated serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and insufficient suppression of growth hormone (GH) during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). There ......-I. In conclusion, IFN-ß treatment mimicked acromegaly biochemically. The changes were partially reversible....

  16. Interferon-β treatment associated with a biochemical profile suggestive of acromegaly. A case report of a patient treated for multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Mikkel; Frystyk, Jan; Miller, Karen K

    2010-01-01

    We describe a 34-year-old female treated with IFN-β for 8 years with a biochemical profile suggestive of acromegaly. The patient presented with elevated serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and insufficient suppression of growth hormone (GH) during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). There ......-I. In conclusion, IFN-β treatment mimicked acromegaly biochemically. The changes were partially reversible....

  17. Combination of biochemical and mechanical cues for tendon tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Stefano; Costantini, Marco; Fornetti, Ersilia; Bernardini, Sergio; Trombetta, Marcella; Seliktar, Dror; Cannata, Stefano; Rainer, Alberto; Gargioli, Cesare

    2017-11-01

    Tendinopathies negatively affect the life quality of millions of people in occupational and athletic settings, as well as the general population. Tendon healing is a slow process, often with insufficient results to restore complete endurance and functionality of the tissue. Tissue engineering, using tendon progenitors, artificial matrices and bioreactors for mechanical stimulation, could be an important approach for treating rips, fraying and tissue rupture. In our work, C3H10T1/2 murine fibroblast cell line was exposed to a combination of stimuli: a biochemical stimulus provided by Transforming Growth Factor Beta (TGF-β) and Ascorbic Acid (AA); a three-dimensional environment represented by PEGylated-Fibrinogen (PEG-Fibrinogen) biomimetic matrix; and a mechanical induction exploiting a custom bioreactor applying uniaxial stretching. In vitro analyses by immunofluorescence and mechanical testing revealed that the proposed combined approach favours the organization of a three-dimensional tissue-like structure promoting a remarkable arrangement of the cells and the neo-extracellular matrix, reflecting into enhanced mechanical strength. The proposed method represents a novel approach for tendon tissue engineering, demonstrating how the combined effect of biochemical and mechanical stimuli ameliorates biological and mechanical properties of the artificial tissue compared to those obtained with single inducement. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  18. The clinical presentation and biochemical diagnosis of acromegaly and gigantism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jialal, I; Nathoo, B C; Joubert, S; Asmal, A C; Pillay, N L

    1982-04-24

    Over a 5-year period 14 patients with acromegaly and gigantism were seen at the endocrine clinic of King Edward VIII Hospital: 9 were Blacks and 5 Indians; 8 of the patients were women. The mean age of the patients was 46 years. Surprisingly, only 2 patients complained of acral overgrowth. Symptomatology was varied and not characteristic of the condition. On examination all patients had unequivocal signs of soft-tissue and bony overgrowth, 64% had visual abnormalities and 50% hypertension. Radiologically, 88% showed an enlarged pituitary fossa. On biochemical investigation, the fasting levels of growth hormone (GH) were increased in 12 patients and during oral glucose tolerance tests, the GH levels in these 12 patients were not suppressed. One patient in whom the fasting GH level was not increased had progressed to the stage of panhypopituitarism, in the remaining patient challenge with thyrotrophin-releasing hormone (TRH) led to increased GH levels and L-dopa challenge resulted in a paradoxical decrease in GH levels. Seven patients with increased GH levels who were challenged with L-dopa showed the typical decrease in GH levels found in this condition; in 5 of these patients, challenged with TRH, GH levels increased. The findings emphasize that despite the ease of clinical diagnosis, appropriate biochemical investigations are necessary to confirm the exact status of the disease, which is rare in the population studied.

  19. Biochemical characterization of Tunisian grapevine varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferjani Ben Abdallah

    1998-03-01

    The study of GPI, PGM, AAT and peroxydase isozyme banding patterns in combination with berry colour has led to establish a classification of the 61 autochton varieties into 37 groups including 26 varieties definitely differentiated through the results of this biochemical study.

  20. Survey of Biochemical Education in Japanese Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa, Yasuo

    1995-01-01

    Reports findings of questionnaires sent to faculty in charge of biochemical education in medical schools and other programs from dentistry to agriculture. Total class hours have declined since 1984. New trends include bioethics and computer-assisted learning. Tables show trends in lecture hours, lecture content, laboratory hours, core subject…

  1. Haematological and biochemical responses of starter broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to investigate the haematological and biochemical responses of starter broiler chickens fed copper and probiotics supplemented diets. A total of 180-day old Marshal broiler chicks were randomly allotted to six treatment groups of 30 birds each. The treatments were divided into three replicates of ten ...

  2. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis of biochemical reaction systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Xuan; Dempsey, William P; Goutsias, John

    2009-09-07

    Sensitivity analysis is an indispensable tool for studying the robustness and fragility properties of biochemical reaction systems as well as for designing optimal approaches for selective perturbation and intervention. Deterministic sensitivity analysis techniques, using derivatives of the system response, have been extensively used in the literature. However, these techniques suffer from several drawbacks, which must be carefully considered before using them in problems of systems biology. We develop here a probabilistic approach to sensitivity analysis of biochemical reaction systems. The proposed technique employs a biophysically derived model for parameter fluctuations and, by using a recently suggested variance-based approach to sensitivity analysis [Saltelli et al., Chem. Rev. (Washington, D.C.) 105, 2811 (2005)], it leads to a powerful sensitivity analysis methodology for biochemical reaction systems. The approach presented in this paper addresses many problems associated with derivative-based sensitivity analysis techniques. Most importantly, it produces thermodynamically consistent sensitivity analysis results, can easily accommodate appreciable parameter variations, and allows for systematic investigation of high-order interaction effects. By employing a computational model of the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling cascade, we demonstrate that our approach is well suited for sensitivity analysis of biochemical reaction systems and can produce a wealth of information about the sensitivity properties of such systems. The price to be paid, however, is a substantial increase in computational complexity over derivative-based techniques, which must be effectively addressed in order to make the proposed approach to sensitivity analysis more practical.

  3. Biochemical applications of FT-IR spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pistorius, A.M.A.

    1996-01-01

    This thesis describes the use of (FT-)IR spectroscopy in general biochemical research. In chapter 3, IR spectroscopy is used in the quantitation of residual detergent after reconstitution of an integral membrane protein in a pre-defined lipid matrix. This chapter discusses the choice of the

  4. Some hematological and biochemical parameters in smokeless ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2007-01-04

    Jan 4, 2007 ... The effect of Jharda powder (smokeless tobacco) on some hematological and biochemical parameters in consumers was investigated. Hematological parameters including hemoglobin content and white blood cell and leukocyte counts were higher in jharda powder consumers, while monocytes and.

  5. 2009 Biochemical Conversion Platform Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, John [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program’s Biochemical Conversion platform review meeting, held on April 14-16, 2009, at the Sheraton Denver Downtown, Denver, Colorado.

  6. Some hematological and biochemical parameters in smokeless ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of Jharda powder (smokeless tobacco) on some hematological and biochemical parameters in consumers was investigated. Hematological parameters including hemoglobin content and white blood cell and leukocyte counts were higher in jharda powder consumers, while monocytes and basophiles counts were ...

  7. Haematological And Biochemical Effects Of Sulphadimidine In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Haematological and biochemical efects of sulphadmidine were studied in Nigerian mongrel dogs. Five Nigerian mongrel dogs of either sex weighing between 7 and 12 kg were used for the study. The pretreatment blood and serum samples were collected and the weight of animals taken before the administraton of 100 ...

  8. Biochemical and secondary metabolites changes under moisture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study showed the importance of carbohydrate and nitrogen cycle related metabolites in mediating tolerance in cassava by affecting their phenotypic expression in the plant. Keywords: Hydrothermal stress, bio-chemicals, pigments, secondary metabolites, cassava. African Journal of Biotechnology, Vol 13(31) 3173-3186 ...

  9. Biochemical and serological characterization of Escherichia coli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to determine the isolation rate, serotypes and biochemical profiles of E. coli from colibacillosis and dead-in-shell embryos in Zaria, Northern-Nigeria. The isolation rate of E. coli from hatcheries studied were 4.67% and 7.50% from farms of Simtu Agricultural Company and National Animal Production ...

  10. Biochemical and Kinetic Characterization of Geranylgeraniol 18 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This enzyme and its gene are an attractive target for development of plaunotol production and its detailed biochemical properties need to be understood. Recently, even though the gene (CYP97C27) coding for GGOH 18-hydroxylase has been identified, cloned, and expressed in Escherichia coli system, the enzyme activity ...

  11. Characterizing multistationarity regimes in biochemical reaction networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Otero-Muras

    Full Text Available Switch like responses appear as common strategies in the regulation of cellular systems. Here we present a method to characterize bistable regimes in biochemical reaction networks that can be of use to both direct and reverse engineering of biological switches. In the design of a synthetic biological switch, it is important to study the capability for bistability of the underlying biochemical network structure. Chemical Reaction Network Theory (CRNT may help at this level to decide whether a given network has the capacity for multiple positive equilibria, based on their structural properties. However, in order to build a working switch, we also need to ensure that the bistability property is robust, by studying the conditions leading to the existence of two different steady states. In the reverse engineering of biological switches, knowledge collected about the bistable regimes of the underlying potential model structures can contribute at the model identification stage to a drastic reduction of the feasible region in the parameter space of search. In this work, we make use and extend previous results of the CRNT, aiming not only to discriminate whether a biochemical reaction network can exhibit multiple steady states, but also to determine the regions within the whole space of parameters capable of producing multistationarity. To that purpose we present and justify a condition on the parameters of biochemical networks for the appearance of multistationarity, and propose an efficient and reliable computational method to check its satisfaction through the parameter space.

  12. Evaluation of Haematological and Biochemical Parameters of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Evaluation of Haematological and Biochemical Parameters of Juvenile Oreochromis niloticus after Exposure to Water Soluble Fractions of ... niloticus were evaluated. After a preliminary determination of the 96 h-LC50 of ... evaporation, dissolution, emulsion, photolysis and biodegradation which generate a water soluble.

  13. Metabonomics and medicine: the Biochemical Oracle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Steve; Holmes, Elaine; Carmichael, Paul

    2002-10-01

    Occasionally, a new idea emerges that has the potential to revolutionize an entire field of scientific endeavour. It is now within our grasp to be able to detect subtle perturbations within the phenomenally complex biochemical matrix of living organisms. The discipline of metabonomics promises an all-encompassing approach to understanding total, yet fundamental, changes occurring in disease processes, drug toxicity and cell function.

  14. Discordant results between biochemical and molecular transthyretin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Discordant results between biochemical and molecular transthyretin assays: lessons learned from a unique testing algorithm at the Mayo Clinic. Honey V. Reddi Brittany C. Thomas Kurt S. Willkomm Matthew J. Ferber Kandelaria M. Rumilla Kimiyo M. Raymond John F. O'Brien W. Edward Highsmith. Research Note Volume ...

  15. Biochemical and microstructural characteristics of meat samples ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to compare the efficiency of different plant proteases for changing biochemical and microstructural characteristics in muscle foods. The meat samples from chicken, giant catfish, pork and beef were treated with four types of proteolytic enzymes: Calotropis procera latex proteases, papaya latex ...

  16. Stoichiometric estimates of the biochemical conversion efficiencies in tsetse metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Custer Adrian V

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The time varying flows of biomass and energy in tsetse (Glossina can be examined through the construction of a dynamic mass-energy budget specific to these flies but such a budget depends on efficiencies of metabolic conversion which are unknown. These efficiencies of conversion determine the overall yields when food or storage tissue is converted into body tissue or into metabolic energy. A biochemical approach to the estimation of these efficiencies uses stoichiometry and a simplified description of tsetse metabolism to derive estimates of the yields, for a given amount of each substrate, of conversion product, by-products, and exchanged gases. This biochemical approach improves on estimates obtained through calorimetry because the stoichiometric calculations explicitly include the inefficiencies and costs of the reactions of conversion. However, the biochemical approach still overestimates the actual conversion efficiency because the approach ignores all the biological inefficiencies and costs such as the inefficiencies of leaky membranes and the costs of molecular transport, enzyme production, and cell growth. Results This paper presents estimates of the net amounts of ATP, fat, or protein obtained by tsetse from a starting milligram of blood, and provides estimates of the net amounts of ATP formed from the catabolism of a milligram of fat along two separate pathways, one used for resting metabolism and one for flight. These estimates are derived from stoichiometric calculations constructed based on a detailed quantification of the composition of food and body tissue and on a description of the major metabolic pathways in tsetse simplified to single reaction sequences between substrates and products. The estimates include the expected amounts of uric acid formed, oxygen required, and carbon dioxide released during each conversion. The calculated estimates of uric acid egestion and of oxygen use compare favorably to

  17. Physiological and biochemical aspects of the effect of ionizing radiations on the lung parenchyma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasquier, Christian.

    1975-03-01

    Concerning the biochemical reactions of the lung parenchyma to irradiation the following points have been developed. Role of biochemically active substances (histamine, serotonin, kinins, catecholamines, prostaglandins) in the early reaction of the lung to irradiation, their common feature being their vascular impact point. Lung irradiation and lipids (fatty acids and lipid metabolism in general); irradiation, by raising the proportion of unsaturated at the expense of saturated fatty acids, may give rise to serious physiological respiratory disorders. Lung irradiation and blood fluidity (fibrinolytic activity, heparin, platelet factors). Pulmonary interstitium and irradiation (of the three interstitium components collagen plays a preferential part). Irradiation and immunological lung reaction (reasons behind the immunological theory, immunological assistance, immunological mechanism of pulmonary reactions towards pollutants). Enzymatic lung radiolesion indicators. Three kinds of physiological changes have been considered. Vascular physiology disturbances caused by the initial biochemical reactions; anomalies of physiological or functional trials, images of the lesion formed; disorders of the cell physiology of carcinogenesis [fr

  18. Label-Free Imaging and Biochemical Characterization of Bovine Sperm Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Maria Antonietta; Di Caprio, Giuseppe; Managò, Stefano; De Angelis, Annalisa; Sirleto, Luigi; Coppola, Giuseppe; De Luca, Anna Chiara

    2015-01-01

    A full label-free morphological and biochemical characterization is desirable to select spermatozoa during preparation for artificial insemination. In order to study these fundamental parameters, we take advantage of two attractive techniques: digital holography (DH) and Raman spectroscopy (RS). DH presents new opportunities for studying morphological aspect of cells and tissues non-invasively, quantitatively and without the need for staining or tagging, while RS is a very specific technique allowing the biochemical analysis of cellular components with a spatial resolution in the sub-micrometer range. In this paper, morphological and biochemical bovine sperm cell alterations were studied using these techniques. In addition, a complementary DH and RS study was performed to identify X- and Y-chromosome-bearing sperm cells. We demonstrate that the two techniques together are a powerful and highly efficient tool elucidating some important criterions for sperm morphological selection and sex-identification, overcoming many of the limitations associated with existing protocols. PMID:25836358

  19. Biochemical composition of the alligator pipefish, Syngnathoides biaculeatus (Bloch, 1785)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanaye, Sushant Vilas; Pawar, Ashwini Pandurang; Rivonker, Chandrasheker Umanath; Sreepada, Rayadurga Anantha; Ansari, Zakir Ali; Ram, Anirudh

    2017-11-01

    Considering the economic importance in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and lack of baseline information, we evaluated the proximate composition, fatty acid and amino acid profiles, trace element content and C:N ratio in the alligator pipefish, Syngnathoides biaculeatus. Amongst proximate principals, a crude protein formed the major biochemical component ((58.9±2.2)% dry weight). Mean percent concentrations (dry weight) of other components such as a total lipid (TL), ash and nitrogen-free extract measured were, (1.8±0.2)%, (19.2±2.2)% and (20.1±0.45)%, respectively. The fatty acid profile revealed the presence of 27 saturated fatty acids (SFA) with 13 straight-chained and 14 branched-chained, 28 unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) with 14 monounsaturated and 14 polyunsaturated and nine other minor fatty acids. Mean percent contributions of total SFAs and UFAs to TL were found to be (55.41±0.24)% and (44.05±0.25)%, respectively. Altogether, 16 different amino acids with an equal number of essential (EAA) and non-essential (NAA) ones were identified. Percent contributions by EAA and NAA to the total amino acid content were 38.11% and 61.89%, respectively. Trace metal concentrations in S. biaculeatus were generally low and their distribution followed the order, Mg>Fe>Zn>Mn>Cu>Cr>Ni>Hg>Co. The C:N ratio was (4.37±0.04)%. The profile of major biochemical constituents in alligator pipefish, S. biaculeatus revealed its potential use in TCM as well as a nutritional diet for human consumption. The results of the study would also form the basis for formulation and optimization of diets for the culture of S. biaculeatus.

  20. Kombucha tea fermentation: Microbial and biochemical dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravorty, Somnath; Bhattacharya, Semantee; Chatzinotas, Antonis; Chakraborty, Writachit; Bhattacharya, Debanjana; Gachhui, Ratan

    2016-03-02

    Kombucha tea, a non-alcoholic beverage, is acquiring significant interest due to its claimed beneficial properties. The microbial community of Kombucha tea consists of bacteria and yeast which thrive in two mutually non-exclusive compartments: the soup or the beverage and the biofilm floating on it. The microbial community and the biochemical properties of the beverage have so far mostly been described in separate studies. This, however, may prevent understanding the causal links between the microbial communities and the beneficial properties of Kombucha tea. Moreover, an extensive study into the microbial and biochemical dynamics has also been missing. In this study, we thus explored the structure and dynamics of the microbial community along with the biochemical properties of Kombucha tea at different time points up to 21 days of fermentation. We hypothesized that several biochemical properties will change during the course of fermentation along with the shifts in the yeast and bacterial communities. The yeast community of the biofilm did not show much variation over time and was dominated by Candida sp. (73.5-83%). The soup however, showed a significant shift in dominance from Candida sp. to Lachancea sp. on the 7th day of fermentation. This is the first report showing Candida as the most dominating yeast genus during Kombucha fermentation. Komagateibacter was identified as the single largest bacterial genus present in both the biofilm and the soup (~50%). The bacterial diversity was higher in the soup than in the biofilm with a peak on the seventh day of fermentation. The biochemical properties changed with the progression of the fermentation, i.e., beneficial properties of the beverage such as the radical scavenging ability increased significantly with a maximum increase at day 7. We further observed a significantly higher D-saccharic acid-1,4-lactone content and caffeine degradation property compared to previously described Kombucha tea fermentations. Our

  1. [Physiological and biochemical characteristics and capacity for polyhydroxyalkanoates synthesis in a glucose-utilizing strain of hydrogen-oxidizing bacteria, Ralstonia eutropha B8562].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volova, T G; Kozhevnikov, I V; Dolgopolova, Iu B; Trusova, M Iu; Kalacheva, G S; Aref'eva, Iu V

    2005-01-01

    The physiological, biochemical, genetic, and cultural characteristics of the glucose-utilizing mutant strain Ralstonia eutropha B8562 were investigated in comparison with the parent strain R. eutropha B5786. The morphological, cultural, and biochemical characteristics of strain R. eutropha B8562 were similar to those of strain R. eutropha B5786. Genetic analysis revealed differences between the 16S rRNA gene sequences of these strains. The growth characteristics of the mutant using glucose as the sole carbon and energy source were comparable with those of the parent strain grown on fructose. Strain B8562 was characterized by high yields of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) from different carbon sources (CO2, fructose, and glucose). In batch culture with glucose under nitrogen limitation, PHA accumulation reached 90% of dry weight. In PHA, beta-hydroxybutyrate was predominant (over 99 mol %); beta-hydroxyvalerate (0.25-0.72 mol %) and beta-hydroxyhexanoate (0.008-1.5 mol %) were present as minor components. The strain has prospects as a PHA producer on glucose-containing media.

  2. Biochemical and toxicological studies of aqueous extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biochemical and toxicological studies of aqueous extract of Syzigium ... tract diseases and also used as food spices), on some biochemical indices, such as ... liver functions and blood parameters were studied in adult albino rats of both sexes.

  3. Biochemical changes during aging of soybean seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balešević-Tubić Svetlana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical changes that occur in the seed as a result of ageing are very significant for seed quality and longevity. Because of its characteristic composition, processes occurring in the seed of oil crops during storage will be typical as well. Six soybean varieties developed in Institute of field and vegetable crops Novi Sad, submitted to accelerated and natural aging, under controlled and conventional storage conditions were used in these trials. The content of malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities were studied. The biochemical processes i.e. lipid peroxidation, as well as the decrease in supeoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities (especially pronounced by applied accelerated aging were caused by both type of aging. The degree of seed damage and the ability of seed to resist the negative consequences of aging were influenced, beside duration of aging period, by type of storage and characteristics of soybean varieties. .

  4. Optimal Information Processing in Biochemical Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Chris

    2012-02-01

    A variety of experimental results over the past decades provide examples of near-optimal information processing in biological networks, including in biochemical and transcriptional regulatory networks. Computing information-theoretic quantities requires first choosing or computing the joint probability distribution describing multiple nodes in such a network --- for example, representing the probability distribution of finding an integer copy number of each of two interacting reactants or gene products while respecting the `intrinsic' small copy number noise constraining information transmission at the scale of the cell. I'll given an overview of some recent analytic and numerical work facilitating calculation of such joint distributions and the associated information, which in turn makes possible numerical optimization of information flow in models of noisy regulatory and biochemical networks. Illustrating cases include quantification of form-function relations, ideal design of regulatory cascades, and response to oscillatory driving.

  5. Some biochemical studies on thyroid immunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoush, M.A.M.

    1980-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of induced immunological environment on: a - Carbohydrate metabolism as reflected by immunoreactive insulin and blood sugar levels. b - Biochemical parameters, namely total protein, albumin, globulin, alkaline phosphatase and transaminases, reflecting liver function. c - Radioimmunological tests reflecting thyroid function. The study comprised 36 male rabbits, boscate strain of six months age assigned randomly to : control, albumin immunized and thyroglobulin immunized groups

  6. Biochemical composition and methane production correlations

    OpenAIRE

    Charnier, Cyrille; Latrille, Eric; Moscoviz, Roman; Miroux, Jérémie; Steyer, Jean-Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Substrates for anaerobic digestion are composed of heterogeneous and complex organic matter. General parameters of the organic matter can be used to describe its composition such as sugar, protein and lipid contents, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) and kinetic of methane production. These parameters are required for the monitoring of digesters but their characterization are time consuming and expensive; thus, these parameters are rarely assessed all together....

  7. Biochemical changes in ginger after gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kausar, T.; Salahuddin; Pervaiz, K.; Niazi, A.H.K.

    2001-01-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinate) was irradiated with gamma rays (0.1Kgy, 1.0Kgy). Biochemical changes during storage at room temperature (23-28 degree centigrade), in sand (23-28 degree centigrade) and at cold (8 degree centigrade) temperature were observed. Changes in starch, soluble protein, fixed oil and volatile oil contents showed that treatment of ginger at 0.1Kgy radiation level was most appropriate for storage upto 45 days

  8. Plant responses to UV and blue light: biochemical and genetic approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, G.I.; Christie, J.M.; Fuglevand, G.; Long, J.C.; Jackson, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    UV and blue light control many aspects of plant growth and development. It is evident that several different photoreceptors mediate responses to UV and blue light, and there are reports of the functional and biochemical characterisation of a putative photoreceptor for phototropism and of the functional and molecular characterisation of the CRY1 photoreceptor, encoded by the Arabidopsis HY4 gene. The CRY1 photoreceptor mediates extension growth and gene expression responses to UV-A/blue light presumably through different or branching signal transduction pathways. Progress has been made in cell physiological and biochemical studies of UV/blue light signal transduction, but much remains to be done to relate candidate UV/blue signal transduction events to particular photoreceptors and responses. The application of a genetic approach in Arabidopsis has been responsible for many advances in understanding UV/blue responses, but further UV-B, UV-A and blue light response mutants need to be isolated. (author)

  9. Biochemical Factors Modulating Cellular Neurotoxicity of Methylmercury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvinder Kaur

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Methylmercury (MeHg, an environmental toxicant primarily found in fish and seafood, poses a dilemma to both consumers and regulatory authorities, given the nutritional benefits of fish consumption versus the possible adverse neurological damage. Several studies have shown that MeHg toxicity is influenced by a number of biochemical factors, such as glutathione (GSH, fatty acids, vitamins, and essential elements, but the cellular mechanisms underlying these complex interactions have not yet been fully elucidated. The objective of this paper is to outline the cellular response to dietary nutrients, as well as to describe the neurotoxic exposures to MeHg. In order to determine the cellular mechanism(s of toxicity, the effect of pretreatment with biochemical factors (e.g., N-acetyl cysteine, (NAC; diethyl maleate, (DEM; docosahexaenoic acid, (DHA; selenomethionine, SeM; Trolox and MeHg treatment on intercellular antioxidant status, MeHg content, and other endpoints was evaluated. This paper emphasizes that the protection against oxidative stress offered by these biochemical factors is among one of the major mechanisms responsible for conferring neuroprotection. It is therefore critical to ascertain the cellular mechanisms associated with various dietary nutrients as well as to determine the potential effects of neurotoxic exposures for accurately assessing the risks and benefits associated with fish consumption.

  10. Multidimensional biochemical information processing of dynamical patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Yoshihiko

    2018-02-01

    Cells receive signaling molecules by receptors and relay information via sensory networks so that they can respond properly depending on the type of signal. Recent studies have shown that cells can extract multidimensional information from dynamical concentration patterns of signaling molecules. We herein study how biochemical systems can process multidimensional information embedded in dynamical patterns. We model the decoding networks by linear response functions, and optimize the functions with the calculus of variations to maximize the mutual information between patterns and output. We find that, when the noise intensity is lower, decoders with different linear response functions, i.e., distinct decoders, can extract much information. However, when the noise intensity is higher, distinct decoders do not provide the maximum amount of information. This indicates that, when transmitting information by dynamical patterns, embedding information in multiple patterns is not optimal when the noise intensity is very large. Furthermore, we explore the biochemical implementations of these decoders using control theory and demonstrate that these decoders can be implemented biochemically through the modification of cascade-type networks, which are prevalent in actual signaling pathways.

  11. Explorations into Chemical Reactions and Biochemical Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasteiger, Johann

    2016-12-01

    A brief overview of the work in the research group of the present author on extracting knowledge from chemical reaction data is presented. Methods have been developed to calculate physicochemical effects at the reaction site. It is shown that these physicochemical effects can quite favourably be used to derive equations for the calculation of data on gas phase reactions and on reactions in solution such as aqueous acidity of alcohols or carboxylic acids or the hydrolysis of amides. Furthermore, it is shown that these physicochemical effects are quite effective for assigning reactions into reaction classes that correspond to chemical knowledge. Biochemical reactions constitute a particularly interesting and challenging task for increasing our understanding of living species. The BioPath.Database is a rich source of information on biochemical reactions and has been used for a variety of applications of chemical, biological, or medicinal interests. Thus, it was shown that biochemical reactions can be assigned by the physicochemical effects into classes that correspond to the classification of enzymes by the EC numbers. Furthermore, 3D models of reaction intermediates can be used for searching for novel enzyme inhibitors. It was shown in a combined application of chemoinformatics and bioinformatics that essential pathways of diseases can be uncovered. Furthermore, a study showed that bacterial flavor-forming pathways can be discovered. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Bayesian estimation of (covariance components for growth traits in tabapuã cattle Estimação bayesiana de componentes de (covariância de características ponderais na raça tabapuã

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Galvão de Albuquerque

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the features of interest to the animal breeding, that can be measured repeatedly throughout an individual's life, are among other, growth characteristics, which are characteristic features called longitudinal or repeated. It was used 8193 Tabapuã breed records of animal weight raised in 25 farms distributed in the states of Bahia, Alagoas, Sergipe, Minas Gerais and São Paulo and born between the years of 1975 and 2001. Aiming to estimate the (co variance and genetic parameters for weights at 120 (W120, 365 (W365, 450 (W450 e 550 (W550 days old. Variance components were estimated in a Bayesian context considering a multi-trait animal model with fixed effects for contemporary groups and ages of the mother and the animal. The random effects were considered direct genetic and maternal and maternal permanent environment and error. The effects mothers were included in the model only for W120 and W365. The direct heritability were 0.31, 0.38, 0.33 and 0.29 for W120, W365, W450 and W550, respectively. The fractions of genetic and maternal permanent environment effects on phenotypic variances were 0.06 and 0.01, 0.03 and 0.01 for W120 and W365.Entre as características de interesse para o melhoramento genético animal que podem ser mensuradas repetidamente ao longo da vida do indivíduo, encontram-se, entre outras, as características de crescimento, que são denominadas características repetidas ou longitudinais. Foram utilizados 8.193 registros de peso de animais da raça Tabapuã criados em 25 fazendas distribuídas nos estados da Bahia, Alagoas, Sergipe, Minas Gerais e São Paulo, nascidos entre os anos de 1975 e 2001, com o objetivo de estimar componentes de (covariância e parâmetros genéticos para pesos aos 120 (P120, 365 (P365, 450 (P450 e 550 (P550 dias de idade. Os componentes de variância foram mensurados em um contexto bayesiano, considerando um modelo animal multi-característica com efeitos fixos de grupos de contemporâneos e

  13. Salicylic acid-induced germination, biochemical and developmental alterations in rye (Secale cereale L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Yanik, Fatma; Aytürk, Özlem; Çetinbaş-Genç, Aslihan; Vardar, Filiz

    2018-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is one of the endogenous plant growth regulators that modulate various metabolic and physiological events. To evaluate the exogenous SA-induced germination, biochemical and developmental alterations, different concentrations (10, 100, 500 and 1000 μM) of SA were applied to rye (Secale cereale L.) seeds in hydroponic culture conditions for 15 days. The observations revealed that seed germination and root elongation were stimulated in 10 μM SA treatment, however they were in...

  14. Biological growth in bodies with incoherent interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Digendranath; Gupta, Anurag

    2018-01-01

    A general theory of thermodynamically consistent biomechanical-biochemical growth in a body, considering mass addition in the bulk and at an incoherent interface, is developed. The incoherency arises due to incompatibility of growth and elastic distortion tensors at the interface. The incoherent interface therefore acts as an additional source of internal stress besides allowing for rich growth kinematics. All the biochemicals in the model are essentially represented in terms of nutrient concentration fields, in the bulk and at the interface. A nutrient balance law is postulated which, combined with mechanical balances and kinetic laws, yields an initial-boundary-value problem coupling the evolution of bulk and interfacial growth, on the one hand, and the evolution of growth and nutrient concentration on the other. The problem is solved, and discussed in detail, for two distinct examples: annual ring formation during tree growth and healing of cutaneous wounds in animals.

  15. Modeling Exponential Population Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Bonnie

    2009-01-01

    The concept of population growth patterns is a key component of understanding evolution by natural selection and population dynamics in ecosystems. The National Science Education Standards (NSES) include standards related to population growth in sections on biological evolution, interdependence of organisms, and science in personal and social…

  16. Organic solvent pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for biofuels and biochemicals: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ke; Pei, Zhijian; Wang, Donghai

    2016-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass represents the largest potential volume and lowest cost for biofuel and biochemical production. Pretreatment is an essential component of biomass conversion process, affecting a majority of downstream processes, including enzymatic hydrolysis, fermentation, and final product separation. Organic solvent pretreatment is recognized as an emerging way ahead because of its inherent advantages, such as the ability to fractionate lignocellulosic biomass into cellulose, lignin, and hemicellulose components with high purity, as well as easy solvent recovery and solvent reuse. Objectives of this review were to update and extend previous works on pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for biofuels and biochemicals using organic solvents, especially on ethanol, methanol, ethylene glycol, glycerol, acetic acid, and formic acid. Perspectives and recommendations were given to fully describe implementation of proper organic solvent pretreatment for future research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The biophysics of neuronal growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franze, Kristian; Guck, Jochen

    2010-01-01

    For a long time, neuroscience has focused on biochemical, molecular biological and electrophysiological aspects of neuronal physiology and pathology. However, there is a growing body of evidence indicating the importance of physical stimuli for neuronal growth and development. In this review we briefly summarize the historical background of neurobiophysics and give an overview over the current understanding of neuronal growth from a physics perspective. We show how biophysics has so far contributed to a better understanding of neuronal growth and discuss current inconsistencies. Finally, we speculate how biophysics may contribute to the successful treatment of lesions to the central nervous system, which have been considered incurable until very recently.

  18. Novel biochemical markers of psychosocial stress in women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Asberg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prolonged psychosocial stress is a condition assessed through self-reports. Here we aimed to identify biochemical markers for screening and early intervention in women. METHODS: Plasma concentrations of interleukin (IL 1-alpha, IL1-beta, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, interferon-gamma (INF-gamma, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1, epidermal growth factor (EGF, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, total tri-iodothyronine (TT3, total thyroxine (TT4, prolactin, and testosterone were measured in: 195 women on long-term sick-leave for a stress-related affective disorder, 45 women at risk for professional burnout, and 84 healthy women. RESULTS: We found significantly increased levels of MCP-1, VEGF and EGF in women exposed to prolonged psychosocial stress. Statistical analysis indicates that they independently associate with a significant risk for being classified as ill. CONCLUSIONS: MCP-1, EGF, and VEGF are potential markers for screening and early intervention in women under prolonged psychosocial stress.

  19. Mercury-induced biochemical and proteomic changes in rice roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun-An; Chi, Wen-Chang; Huang, Tsai-Lien; Lin, Chung-Yi; Quynh Nguyeh, Thi Thuy; Hsiung, Yu-Chywan; Chia, Li-Chiao; Huang, Hao-Jen

    2012-06-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a serious environmental pollution threats to the planet. Accumulation of Hg in plants disrupts many cellular-level functions and inhibits growth and development, but the mechanism is not fully understood. We investigated cellular, biochemical and proteomic changes in rice roots under Hg stress. Root growth rate was decreased and Hg, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and malondialdehyde (MDA) content and lipoxygenase activity were increased significantly with increasing Hg concentration in roots. We revealed a time-dependent alteration in total glutathione content and enzymatic activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) during Hg stress. 2-D electrophoresis revealed differential expression of 25 spots with Hg treatment of roots: 14 spots were upregulated and 11 spots downregulated. These differentially expressed proteins were identified by ESI-MS/MS to be involved in cellular functions including redox and hormone homeostasis, chaperone activity, metabolism, and transcription regulation. These results may provide new insights into the molecular basis of the Hg stress response in plants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Dietary behaviour and health in Northern Ireland: an exploration of biochemical and haematological associations.

    OpenAIRE

    Barker, M E; McClean, S I; Strain, J J; Thompson, K A

    1992-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to determine the relationships between dietary behaviour and biochemical and haematological measures. DESIGN--This was a cross sectional population study. SETTING--The study took place in the general community within Northern Ireland. SUBJECTS--522 randomly selected adults aged 18-64 years took part (65% of the eligible sample). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--Four dietary behaviours were identified using principal components analysis from 7 d weighed dietary recor...

  1. Chemical, biochemical and microbiological indicators to assess soil quality in temperate agro-ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Giacometti, Caterina

    2013-01-01

    Soil is a critically important component of the earth’s biosphere. Developing agricultural production systems able to conserve soil quality is essential to guarantee the current and future capacity of soil to provide goods and services. This study investigates the potential of microbial and biochemical parameters to be used as early and sensitive soil quality indicators. Their ability to differentiate plots under contrasting fertilization regimes is evaluated based also on their sensitivi...

  2. Trace element deficiency and its diagnosis by biochemical criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchgessner, M.; Grassmann, E.; Roth, H.P.; Spoerl, R.; Schnegg, A.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of trace element deficiency on growth of rats and dairy cows is demonstrated using zinc and nickel. The effect of copper deficiency on reproductive performance is shown to be associated with increased death rates of pregnant animals and their foetuses. For the diagnosis of suboptimum states of trace element supply, biochemical criteria are needed. The mere analysis of the trace element content of various body tissues may lead to falase diagnoses because of the often slow response to varying intake and because of interactions with other dietary ingredients affecting absorption and metabolic efficiency of utilization. Thus copper deficiency is associated with a decrease in the serum level of both copper and iron, despite adequate iron intake, and simultaneously with an accumulation of iron in the liver of the animal. Enzymes and hormones containing the essential trace element as an integral constituent may serve as biochemical criteria. A sensitive response to zinc intake is exhibited by the activity of the alkaline phosphatase of serum or bones, and by the activity of the pancreatic carboxypeptidase A, all of which show a significant reaction to deficient intake within two to four days, and perhaps by the biopotency of insulin. Ceruloplasmin responds to the supply of copper. Its biosynthesis in the liver is possible only from copper available for this purpose. Thus, the determination of ceruloplasmin may take account of at least part of the copper available to the body for metabolic functions. Among various criteria, the catalase activity in blood may provide additional information on the state of iron supply. Malate dehydrogenase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase respond to nickel-deficient intake. Nickel deficiency also involves anaemia due to disorders in iron absorption

  3. Biochemical characterization of the maltokinase from Mycobacterium bovis BCG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamosa Pedro

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maltose-1-phosphate was detected in Mycobacterium bovis BCG extracts in the 1960's but a maltose-1-phosphate synthetase (maltokinase, Mak was only much later purified from Actinoplanes missouriensis, allowing the identification of the mak gene. Recently, this metabolite was proposed to be the intermediate in a pathway linking trehalose with the synthesis of glycogen in M. smegmatis. Although the M. tuberculosis H37Rv mak gene (Rv0127 was considered essential for growth, no mycobacterial Mak has, to date, been characterized. Results The sequence of the Mak from M. bovis BCG was identical to that from M. tuberculosis strains (99-100% amino acid identity. The enzyme was dependent on maltose and ATP, although GTP and UTP could be used to produce maltose-1-phosphate, which we identified by TLC and characterized by NMR. The Km for maltose was 2.52 ± 0.40 mM and 0.74 ± 0.12 mM for ATP; the Vmax was 21.05 ± 0.89 μmol/min.mg-1. Divalent cations were required for activity and Mg2+ was the best activator. The enzyme was a monomer in solution, had maximal activity at 60°C, between pH 7 and 9 (at 37°C and was unstable on ice and upon freeze/thawing. The addition of 50 mM NaCl markedly enhanced Mak stability. Conclusions The unknown role of maltokinases in mycobacterial metabolism and the lack of biochemical data led us to express the mak gene from M. bovis BCG for biochemical characterization. This is the first mycobacterial Mak to be characterized and its properties represent essential knowledge towards deeper understanding of mycobacterial physiology. Since Mak may be a potential drug target in M. tuberculosis, its high-level production and purification in bioactive form provide important tools for further functional and structural studies.

  4. Biochemical changes in the mycelium of two Rhizoctonia solani isolates during autolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Reddy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Some biochemical changes occurring in the mycelium of two isolates (one pathogenic FR and another non-pathogenic GD2 of R. solani during autolytic phase of their growth were studied, by growing the fungi for periods longer than 210 days. During autolysis a decrease of 76.4% and 78.5% in mycelial dry weight occurred in pathogenic and non-pathogenic isolates respectively, compared to that at the beginning of autolysis. The mycelium of non-pathogenic isolate was more affected during autolytic phase of growth than that of the pathogenic isolate.

  5. Evaluation of biochemical component and antimicrobial activity of some seaweeeds occurring at Karachi coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambreen, A.; Hira, K.; Ruqqia, A.; Sultana, V.

    2012-01-01

    Nutritionally valuable seaweeds are being used as fresh or dried vegetables or as ingredients in wide variety of prepared foods. Interest in seaweeds has increased markedly through out the world due to their value in nutrition and in medicine. In this study 16 seaweed species collected from Karachi coast were examined for the estimation of ascorbic acid (vitamin C), calcium and 9 for protein, carbohydrate and lipid contents. Lipid content was found less as compared to carbohydrate and protein in most of the brown and red seaweeds. All the seaweeds showed the presence of calcium at varying concentrations, while ascorbic acid was found in fourteen seaweeds in considerable amount. Intake of edible seaweeds having ascorbic acid and calcium may protect the human from the diseases related to deficiency of calcium and vitamin C. Microbes and microbial infection remains a threat to human life. In this study, ethanol extract of 5 seaweeds were screened for antibacterial activity, while 9 tested against root rotting fungi. Most of the brown species had shown potent antimicrobial activity followed by red algal species. The highest antibacterial activity was found in ethanol extract of brown seaweed species Dictyota dichotoma var intricata and D. indica against Salmonella typhimurium followed by D. indica and Halimeda tuna against Bacillus subtilis with a zone of inhibition of 15, 15, 14, and 14 mm respectively. Dictyota dichotoma var. intricata, D.indica, Sargassum lanceolatum and red Melanothamnus afaqhusainii produced a zone of inhibition of 11, 10, 9, 11mm respectively against gram negative bacteria Salmonella typhimurium even at lowest concentration of 2mg/disc. The ethanol extract of most of the species was found less active against tested fungi (Rhizoctonia solani, Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium solani and F. oxysporum). Only two brown seaweeds Sargassum ilicifolium and Cystoseira indica had shown antifungal activity to some extent. (author)

  6. Biochemical studies on some components of onion and garlic treated with gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, A.N.E.

    2007-01-01

    the present work was carried out in order to evaluate the biological activities of garlic and onion essential oils as chemo preventive agents on male albino rats treated with AFB 1 -CCL 4 . the results showed that the main constituent of onion and garlic essential oil were dipropyl disulfide (DPDS) and diallyl trisulfide (DATS), respectively. the determination of different biological parameters showed a significant high levels of ALT,AST, caspase-3, GSH, total bilirubin, creatinine and urea in rat serum treated with AFB 1 -CCL 4 . on the other hand , a noticeable decrease in total protein, GST activity were detected, onion or garlic essential oils application have been found to regulate the biological parameters activities to the normal levels, besides, enhancing the accumulation of protein and their fractions. allicin compounds have been found to possess a lowering action of blood sugar

  7. Brominated Skeletal Components of the Marine Demosponges, Aplysina cavernicola and Ianthella basta: Analytical and Biochemical Investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eike Brunner

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Demosponges possess a skeleton made of a composite material with various organic constituents and/or siliceous spicules. Chitin is an integral part of the skeleton of different sponges of the order Verongida. Moreover, sponges of the order Verongida, such as Aplysina cavernicola or Ianthella basta, are well-known for the biosynthesis of brominated tyrosine derivates, characteristic bioactive natural products. It has been unknown so far whether these compounds are exclusively present in the cellular matrix or whether they may also be incorporated into the chitin-based skeletons. In the present study, we therefore examined the skeletons of A. cavernicola and I. basta with respect to the presence of bromotyrosine metabolites. The chitin-based-skeletons isolated from these sponges indeed contain significant amounts of brominated compounds, which are not easily extractable from the skeletons by common solvents, such as MeOH, as shown by HPLC analyses in combination with NMR and IR spectroscopic measurements. Quantitative potentiometric analyses confirm that the skeleton-associated bromine mainly withstands the MeOH-based extraction. This observation suggests that the respective, but yet unidentified, brominated compounds are strongly bound to the sponge skeletons, possibly by covalent bonding. Moreover, gene fragments of halogenases suggested to be responsible for the incorporation of bromine into organic molecules could be amplified from DNA isolated from sponge samples enriched for sponge-associated bacteria.

  8. Determining the biochemical properties of the Oxalate Biosynthetic Component (Obc)1 from Burkholderia mallei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxalic acid is produced by a variety of organisms ranging from simple microbes to complex animals. This acid has been proposed to fulfill various physiological and pathological functions which vary between organisms. In bacteria from the Burkholderia genus, oxalate secretion has been shown to be quo...

  9. On the Adaptive Design Rules of Biochemical Networks in Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bor-Sen Chen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical networks are the backbones of physiological systems of organisms. Therefore, a biochemical network should be sufficiently robust (not sensitive to tolerate genetic mutations and environmental changes in the evolutionary process. In this study, based on the robustness and sensitivity criteria of biochemical networks, the adaptive design rules are developed for natural selection in the evolutionary process. This will provide insights into the robust adaptive mechanism of biochemical networks in the evolutionary process. We find that if a mutated biochemical network satisfies the robustness and sensitivity criteria of natural selection, there is a high probability for the biochemical network to prevail during natural selection in the evolutionary process. Since there are various mutated biochemical networks that can satisfy these criteria but have some differences in phenotype, the biochemical networks increase their diversities in the evolutionary process. The robustness of a biochemical network enables co-option so that new phenotypes can be generated in evolution. The proposed robust adaptive design rules of natural selection gain much insight into the evolutionary mechanism and provide a systematic robust biochemical circuit design method of biochemical networks for biotechnological and therapeutic purposes in the future.

  10. Biochemical Markers for Assessing Aquatic Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeňka Svobodová

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical markers, specifically enzymes of the first phase of xenobiotic transformation - cytochrome P450 and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD - were used to determine the quantities of persistent organic pollutants (POPs in fish muscle (PCB, HCB, HCH, OCS, DDT. Eight rivers were monitored (Orlice, Chrudimka, Cidlina, Jizera, Vltava, Ohře and Bílina; and the River Blanice was used as a control. The indicator species selected was the chub (Leuciscus cephalus L.. There were no significant differences in cytochrome P450 content between the locations monitored. The highest concentration of cytochrome P450 in fish liver was in the Vltava (0.241 nmol mg-1 protein, and the lowest was in the Orlice (0.120 nmol mg-1 protein. Analysis of EROD activity showed a significant difference between the Blanice and the Vltava (P< 0.05, and also between the Orlice and the Vltava (P< 0.01, the Orlice and the Bílina (P< 0.01, and the Orlice and the Ohře (P< 0.05. The highest EROD activity in fish liver was in the Vltava (576.4 pmol min-1 mg-1 protein, and the lowest was in the Orlice (63.05 pmol min-1 mg-1 protein. In individual locations, results of chemical monitoring and values of biochemical markers were compared. A significant correlation (P< 0.05 was found between biochemical markers and OCS, and PCB. Among the tributaries studied those that contaminated the Elbe most were the Vltava and the Bílina. These tributaries should not be considered the main sources of industrial contamination of the River Elbe, because the most important contamination sources were along the river Elbe itself.

  11. Biochemical Disincentives to Fertilizing Cellulosic Ethanol Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, M. E.; Hockaday, W. C.; Snapp, S.; McSwiney, C.; Baldock, J.

    2010-12-01

    Corn grain biofuel crops produce the highest yields when the cropping ecosystem is not nitrogen (N)-limited, achieved by application of fertilizer. There are environmental consequences for excessive fertilizer application to crops, including greenhouse gas emissions, hypoxic “dead zones,” and health problems from N runoff into groundwater. The increase in corn acreage in response to demand for alternative fuels (i.e. ethanol) could exacerbate these problems, and divert food supplies to fuel production. A potential substitute for grain ethanol that could reduce some of these impacts is cellulosic ethanol. Cellulosic ethanol feedstocks include grasses (switchgrass), hardwoods, and crop residues (e.g. corn stover, wheat straw). It has been assumed that these feedstocks will require similar N fertilization rates to grain biofuel crops to maximize yields, but carbohydrate yield versus N application has not previously been monitored. We report the biochemical stocks (carbohydrate, protein, and lignin in Mg ha-1) of a corn ecosystem grown under varying N levels. We measured biochemical yield in Mg ha-1 within the grain, leaf and stem, and reproductive parts of corn plants grown at seven N fertilization rates (0-202 kg N ha-1), to evaluate the quantity and quality of these feedstocks across a N fertilization gradient. The N fertilization rate study was performed at the Kellogg Biological Station-Long Term Ecological Research Site (KBS-LTER) in Michigan. Biochemical stocks were measured using 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), combined with a molecular mixing model (Baldock et al. 2004). Carbohydrate and lignin are the main biochemicals of interest in ethanol production since carbohydrate is the ethanol feedstock, and lignin hinders the carbohydrate to ethanol conversion process. We show that corn residue carbohydrate yields respond only weakly to N fertilization compared to grain. Grain carbohydrate yields plateau in response to fertilization at

  12. The biochemical womb of schizophrenia: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, N; Gautam, S; Gaur, M; Sharma, P; Dadheech, G; Mishra, S

    2008-10-01

    The conclusive identification of specific etiological factors or pathogenic processes in the illness of schizophrenia has remained elusive despite great technological progress. The convergence of state-of-art scientific studies in molecular genetics, molecular neuropathophysiology, in vivo brain imaging and psychopharmacology, however, indicates that we may be coming much closer to understanding the genesis of schizophrenia. In near future, the diagnosis and assessment of schizophrenia using biochemical markers may become a "dream come true" for the medical community as well as for the general population. An understanding of the biochemistry/ visa vis pathophysiology of schizophrenia is essential to the discovery of preventive measures and therapeutic intervention.

  13. Conservation Laws in Biochemical Reaction Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahdi, Adam; Ferragut, Antoni; Valls, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    We study the existence of linear and nonlinear conservation laws in biochemical reaction networks with mass-action kinetics. It is straightforward to compute the linear conservation laws as they are related to the left null-space of the stoichiometry matrix. The nonlinear conservation laws...... are difficult to identify and have rarely been considered in the context of mass-action reaction networks. Here, using the Darboux theory of integrability, we provide necessary structural (i.e., parameterindependent) conditions on a reaction network to guarantee the existence of nonlinear conservation laws...

  14. Lipoprotein (a) and biochemical parameters in elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Yuttana Sudjaroen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] is an low-density lipoprotein like particle and is an important independent risk factor for coronary artery diseases (CAD). Few studies on Lp(a) level in Thai elderly to screening risk of CAD may concerned. Aims: To study the relation of Lp(a) level and routine biochemical parameters including lipid profiles and fasting blood glucose in elderly and to determine risk of subclinical symptoms by using Lp(a) levels as early risk predictor. Settings and Design: ...

  15. Radiation treatment of drugs, biochemicals and vaccines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordheim, W.; Braeuniger, S.; Kirsch, B.; Kotowski, H.; Teupel, D.

    1984-12-01

    The concise and tabulated review reports experimental results on the effects of radiation treatment on drugs, vaccines, biochemicals and adjuvants including enzymes as well. Irradiation was mostly performed by γ-radiation using 60 Co and to a lesser extent by 137 Cs, 182 Ta, X-rays and accelerators. Ionizing radiation proved to be a useful tool for sterilization and inactivation in producing drugs, vaccines, and bioactive agents and will contribute to realize procedures difficultly solvable as to engineering and economy, respectively. 124 refs

  16. Growth factor involvement in tension-induced skeletal muscle growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenburgh, Herman H.

    1993-01-01

    Long-term manned space travel will require a better understanding of skeletal muscle atrophy which results from microgravity. Astronaut strength and dexterity must be maintained for normal mission operations and for emergency situations. Although exercise in space slows the rate of muscle loss, it does not prevent it. A biochemical understanding of how gravity/tension/exercise help to maintain muscle size by altering protein synthesis and/or degradation rate should ultimately allow pharmacological intervention to prevent muscle atrophy in microgravity. The overall objective is to examine some of the basic biochemical processes involved in tension-induced muscle growth. With an experimental in vitro system, the role of exogenous and endogenous muscle growth factors in mechanically stimulated muscle growth are examined. Differentiated avian skeletal myofibers can be 'exercised' in tissue culture using a newly developed dynamic mechanical cell stimulator device which simulates different muscle activity patterns. Patterns of mechanical activity which significantly affect muscle growth and metabolic characteristics were found. Both exogenous and endogenous growth factors are essential for tension-induced muscle growth. Exogenous growth factors found in serum, such as insulin, insulin-like growth factors, and steroids, are important regulators of muscle protein turnover rates and mechanically-induced muscle growth. Endogenous growth factors are synthesized and released into the culture medium when muscle cells are mechanically stimulated. At least one family of mechanically induced endogenous factors, the prostaglandins, help to regulate the rates of protein turnover in muscle cells. Endogenously synthesized IGF-1 is another. The interaction of muscle mechanical activity and these growth factors in the regulation of muscle protein turnover rates with our in vitro model system is studied.

  17. Supplemental exogenous NPK application alters biochemical processes to improve yield and drought tolerance in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabbir, Rana Nauman; Waraich, E A; Ali, H; Nawaz, F; Ashraf, M Y; Ahmad, R; Awan, M I; Ahmad, S; Irfan, M; Hussain, S; Ahmad, Z

    2016-02-01

    The recent food security issues, combined with the threats from climate change, demand future farming systems to be more precise and accurate to fulfill the ever increasing global food requirements. The role of nutrients such as nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P), and potassium (K) in stimulating plant growth and development is well established; however, little is known about their function, if applied in combination, in improving crop yields under environmental stresses like drought. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of combined foliar spray of supplemental NPK (NPKc) on physiological and biochemical mechanisms that enhance the drought tolerance potential of wheat for improved yield. Foliar NPKc markedly influenced the accumulation of osmoprotectants and activity of both nitrogen assimilation and antioxidant enzymes. It significantly improved the concentration of proline (66 %), total soluble sugars (37 %), and total soluble proteins (10 %) and enhanced the activity of nitrate reductase, nitrite reductase, catalase, and peroxidase by 47, 45, 19, and 8 %, respectively, with respect to no spray under water-deficit conditions which, in turn, improve the yield and yield components. The accumulation of osmolytes and activity of antioxidant machinery were more pronounced in drought tolerant (Bhakkar-02) than sensitive genotype (Shafaq-06).

  18. Molecular and biochemical responses of hypoxia exposure in Atlantic croaker collected from hypoxic regions in the northern Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Saydur; Thomas, Peter

    2017-01-01

    A major impact of global climate change has been the marked increase worldwide in the incidence of coastal hypoxia (dissolved oxygen, DOhypoxic waters as well as their molecular and physiological responses to environmental hypoxia exposure are largely unknown. A suite of potential hypoxia exposure biomarkers was evaluated in Atlantic croaker collected from hypoxic and normoxic regions in the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGOM), and in croaker after laboratory exposure to hypoxia (DO: 1.7 mg l-1). Expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-α, hif-α; neuronal nitric oxide synthase, nNOS; and insulin-like growth factor binding protein, igfbp mRNAs and protein carbonyl (PC, an oxidative stress indicator) content were elevated several-fold in brain and liver tissues of croaker collected from nGOM hypoxic sites. All of these molecular and biochemical biomarkers were also upregulated ~3-10-fold in croaker brain and liver tissues within 1-2 days of hypoxia exposure in controlled laboratory experiments. These results suggest that hif-αs, nNOS and igfbp-1 transcripts and PC contents are useful biomarkers of environmental hypoxia exposure and some of its physiological effects, making them important components for improved assessments of long-term impacts of environmental hypoxia on fish populations.

  19. Biochemical and Biophysical Cues in Matrix Design for Chronic and Diabetic Wound Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yun; Ahadian, Samad; Radisic, Milica

    2017-02-01

    Progress in biomaterial science and engineering and increasing knowledge in cell biology have enabled us to develop functional biomaterials providing appropriate biochemical and biophysical cues for tissue regeneration applications. Tissue regeneration is particularly important to treat chronic wounds of people with diabetes. Understanding and controlling the cellular microenvironment of the wound tissue are important to improve the wound healing process. In this study, we review different biochemical (e.g., growth factors, peptides, DNA, and RNA) and biophysical (e.g., topographical guidance, pressure, electrical stimulation, and pulsed electromagnetic field) cues providing a functional and instructive acellular matrix to heal diabetic chronic wounds. The biochemical and biophysical signals generally regulate cell-matrix interactions and cell behavior and function inducing the tissue regeneration for chronic wounds. Some technologies and devices have already been developed and used in the clinic employing biochemical and biophysical cues for wound healing applications. These technologies can be integrated with smart biomaterials to deliver therapeutic agents to the wound tissue in a precise and controllable manner. This review provides useful guidance in understanding molecular mechanisms and signals in the healing of diabetic chronic wounds and in designing instructive biomaterials to treat them.

  20. Exercise-induced biochemical changes and their potential influence on cancer: a scientific review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Robert James; Kenfield, Stacey A; Jimenez, Alfonso

    2017-01-01

    Aim To review and discuss the available international literature regarding the indirect and direct biochemical mechanisms that occur after exercise, which could positively, or negatively, influence oncogenic pathways. Methods The PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane libraries were searched for papers up to July 2016 addressing biochemical changes after exercise with a particular reference to cancer. The three authors independently assessed their appropriateness for inclusion in this review based on their scientific quality and relevance. Results 168 papers were selected and categorised into indirect and direct biochemical pathways. The indirect effects included changes in vitamin D, weight reduction, sunlight exposure and improved mood. The direct effects included insulin-like growth factor, epigenetic effects on gene expression and DNA repair, vasoactive intestinal peptide, oxidative stress and antioxidant pathways, heat shock proteins, testosterone, irisin, immunity, chronic inflammation and prostaglandins, energy metabolism and insulin resistance. Summary Exercise is one of several lifestyle factors known to lower the risk of developing cancer and is associated with lower relapse rates and better survival. This review highlights the numerous biochemical processes, which explain these potential anticancer benefits. PMID:27993842

  1. Mitigating component performance variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gara, Alan G.; Sylvester, Steve S.; Eastep, Jonathan M.; Nagappan, Ramkumar; Cantalupo, Christopher M.

    2018-01-09

    Apparatus and methods may provide for characterizing a plurality of similar components of a distributed computing system based on a maximum safe operation level associated with each component and storing characterization data in a database and allocating non-uniform power to each similar component based at least in part on the characterization data in the database to substantially equalize performance of the components.

  2. [Biochemical principles of early saturnism recognition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsimakuridze, M P; Mansuradze, E A; Zurashvili, D G; Tsimakuridze, M P

    2009-03-01

    The aim of the work is to determine the major sensitive criteria of biochemical indicators that allow timely discovery of negative influence of lead on organism and assist in early diagnosis of primary stages of saturnism. The workers of Georgian typographies, performing technological processes of letterpress printing were observed. Professional groups having contact with lead aerosols (main group of 66 people) and the workers of the same typography not being in touch with the poison (control group of 24 people) were studied. It was distinguished that, protracted professional contact with lead causes moderate increase of lead, coproporphyrin and DALA in daily urine in most cases; it is more clearly evidenced in the professional groups of lead smelters and lino operators and less clearly among typesetter and printers. Upon the checkup of people, having a direct contact with lead, biochemical analysis of urine should be given a preference, especially the determination of quantitative content of lead and coproporphyrin in urine with the aim of revealing the lead carrier, which is one of the first signals for occupational lookout and medical monitoring of the similar contingent.

  3. Biochemical Manifestation of HIV Lipodystrophy Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihenetu, Kenneth; Mason, Darius

    2012-01-01

    Highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART), including protease inhibitors (PI) have led to dramatic improvements in the quality and quantity of life in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). However, a significant number of AIDS patients on HAART develop characteristic changes in body fat redistribution referred to as lipodystrophy syndrome (LDS). Features of LDS include hypertrophy in the neck fat pad (buffalo hump), increased fat in the abdominal region (protease paunch), gynecomastia and loss of fat in the mid-face and extremities. The aim of this paper is to review the current knowledge regarding this syndrome. This article reviews the published investigations on biochemical manifestation of HIV lipodystrophy syndrome. It is estimated that approximately 64% of patients treated with PI will experience this syndrome. Biochemically, these patients have increased triglycerides (Trig), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and extremely low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C). It is hoped that awareness of this syndrome would aid in early diagnosis and better patient management, possibly leading to a lower incidence of cardiovascular complications among these patients.

  4. Biochemical research elucidating metabolic pathways in Pneumocystis*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaneshiro E.S.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Advances in sequencing the Pneumocystis carinii genome have helped identify potential metabolic pathways operative in the organism. Also, data from characterizing the biochemical and physiological nature of these organisms now allow elucidation of metabolic pathways as well as pose new challenges and questions that require additional experiments. These experiments are being performed despite the difficulty in doing experiments directly on this pathogen that has yet to be subcultured indefinitely and produce mass numbers of cells in vitro. This article reviews biochemical approaches that have provided insights into several Pneumocystis metabolic pathways. It focuses on 1 S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet; SAM, which is a ubiquitous participant in numerous cellular reactions; 2 sterols: focusing on oxidosqualene cyclase that forms lanosterol in P. carinii; SAM:sterol C-24 methyltransferase that adds methyl groups at the C-24 position of the sterol side chain; and sterol 14α-demethylase that removes a methyl group at the C-14 position of the sterol nucleus; and 3 synthesis of ubiquinone homologs, which play a pivotal role in mitochondrial inner membrane and other cellular membrane electron transport.

  5. Pheochromocytoma-paraganglioma: Biochemical and genetic diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano Megías, Marta; Rodriguez Puyol, Diego; Fernández Rodríguez, Loreto; Sención Martinez, Gloria Lisette; Martínez Miguel, Patricia

    Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas are tumours derived from neural crest cells, which can be diagnosed by biochemical measurement of metanephrine and methoxytyramine. Advances in genetic research have identified many genes involved in the pathogenesis of these tumours, suggesting that up to 35-45% may have an underlying germline mutation. These genes have a singular transcriptional signature and can be grouped into 2 clusters (or groups): cluster 1 (VHL and SHDx), involved in angiogenesis and hypoxia pathways; and cluster 2 (MEN2 and NF1), linked to the kinase signalling pathway. In turn, these genes are associated with a characteristic biochemical phenotype (noradrenergic and adrenergic), and clinical features (location, biological behaviour, age of presentation, etc.) in a large number of cases. Early diagnosis of these tumours, accompanied by a correct genetic diagnosis, should eventually become a priority to enable better treatment, early detection of complications, proper screening of family members and related tumours, as well as an improvement in the overall prognosis of these patients. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Development of class model based on blood biochemical parameters as a diagnostic tool of PSE meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Daofeng; Zhou, Xu; Yang, Feng; Tian, Shiyi; Zhang, Xiaojun; Ma, Lin; Han, Jianzhong

    2017-06-01

    A fast, sensitive and effective method based on the blood biochemical parameters for the detection of PSE meat was developed in this study. A total of 200 pigs were slaughtered in the same slaughterhouse. Meat quality was evaluated by measuring pH, electrical conductivity and color at 45min, 2h and 24h after slaughtering in M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LD). Blood biochemical parameters were determined in blood samples collected during carcass bleeding. Principal component analysis (PCA) biplot showed that high levels of exsanguination Creatine Kinase, Lactate Dehydrogenase, Aspertate aminotransferase, blood glucose and lactate were associated with the PSE meat, and the five biochemical parameters were found to be good indicators of PSE meat Discriminant function analysis (DFA) was able to clearly identify PSE meat using the five biochemical parameters as input data, and the class model is an effective diagnostic tool in pigs which can be used to detect the PSE meat and reduce economic loss for the company. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A Pilot Comparative Study of 26 Biochemical Markers in Seminal Plasma and Serum in Infertile Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-Xiang Feng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The relationships of the biochemical components in seminal plasma and serum, and their origins and physiological effects in male reproductive system have been poorly understood. Methods. Based on the calibration and quality control measures, 26 biochemical markers, in seminal plasma and serum samples from 36 male infertility patients with nonazoospermia were detected and compared. Results. Only PA was undetectable in all seminal plasma samples. There were significant differences of all other 24 biochemical markers in seminal plasma and serum (P<0.05 except for UA (P=0.214. There were rich proteins in seminal plasma, and globulin accounted for about 90%. There were also abundant enzymes in seminal plasma, and the activities of ALT, AST, AKP, GGT, LDH, CK, and αHBDH in seminal plasma were significantly higher than those in serum while ADA was inversely lower. There were relatively low levels of Glu, TG, TC, and hsCRP in seminal plasma, but Glu was undetectable in 8 of 36 cases. Conclusions. The differences of the levels of biochemical markers in seminal plasma and serum might be associated with the selective secretion of testis, epididymis and male accessory glands, and the specific environment needed for sperm metabolism and function maintenance.

  8. A modular microfluidic architecture for integrated biochemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Kashan A; Ryu, Kee Suk; Goluch, Edgar D; Nam, Jwa-Min; Liu, Juewen; Thaxton, C Shad; Chiesl, Thomas N; Barron, Annelise E; Lu, Yi; Mirkin, Chad A; Liu, Chang

    2005-07-12

    Microfluidic laboratory-on-a-chip (LOC) systems based on a modular architecture are presented. The architecture is conceptualized on two levels: a single-chip level and a multiple-chip module (MCM) system level. At the individual chip level, a multilayer approach segregates components belonging to two fundamental categories: passive fluidic components (channels and reaction chambers) and active electromechanical control structures (sensors and actuators). This distinction is explicitly made to simplify the development process and minimize cost. Components belonging to these two categories are built separately on different physical layers and can communicate fluidically via cross-layer interconnects. The chip that hosts the electromechanical control structures is called the microfluidic breadboard (FBB). A single LOC module is constructed by attaching a chip comprised of a custom arrangement of fluid routing channels and reactors (passive chip) to the FBB. Many different LOC functions can be achieved by using different passive chips on an FBB with a standard resource configuration. Multiple modules can be interconnected to form a larger LOC system (MCM level). We demonstrated the utility of this architecture by developing systems for two separate biochemical applications: one for detection of protein markers of cancer and another for detection of metal ions. In the first case, free prostate-specific antigen was detected at 500 aM concentration by using a nanoparticle-based bio-bar-code protocol on a parallel MCM system. In the second case, we used a DNAzyme-based biosensor to identify the presence of Pb(2+) (lead) at a sensitivity of 500 nM in <1 nl of solution.

  9. Delayed growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Slow rate of growth; Retarded growth and development; Growth delay Images Toddler development References Cooke DW, Divall SA, Radovick S. Normal and aberrant growth in children. In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, ...

  10. Performance, immunity, serum biochemical and hematological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... results suggest that supplementing broilers' diet with 5 g/kg thyme can indicate favorable influences of antibiotic growth promoter on performance without any detrimental impacts on immune responses and blood parameters. Key words: Broiler, thyme, growth performance, immunity, serum biochemistry, hematology.

  11. Ocean acidification induces biochemical and morphological changes in the calcification process of large benthic foraminifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prazeres, Martina; Uthicke, Sven; Pandolfi, John M

    2015-03-22

    Large benthic foraminifera are significant contributors to sediment formation on coral reefs, yet they are vulnerable to ocean acidification. Here, we assessed the biochemical and morphological impacts of acidification on the calcification of Amphistegina lessonii and Marginopora vertebralis exposed to different pH conditions. We measured growth rates (surface area and buoyant weight) and Ca-ATPase and Mg-ATPase activities and calculated shell density using micro-computer tomography images. In A. lessonii, we detected a significant decrease in buoyant weight, a reduction in the density of inner skeletal chambers, and an increase of Ca-ATPase and Mg-ATPase activities at pH 7.6 when compared with ambient conditions of pH 8.1. By contrast, M. vertebralis showed an inhibition in Mg-ATPase activity under lowered pH, with growth rate and skeletal density remaining constant. While M. vertebralis is considered to be more sensitive than A. lessonii owing to its high-Mg-calcite skeleton, it appears to be less affected by changes in pH, based on the parameters assessed in this study. We suggest difference in biochemical pathways of calcification as the main factor influencing response to changes in pH levels, and that A. lessonii and M. vertebralis have the ability to regulate biochemical functions to cope with short-term increases in acidity. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  12. BioNessie - a grid enabled biochemical networks simulation environment

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, X.; Jiang, J.; Ajayi, O.; Gu, X.; Gilbert, D.; Sinnott, R.O.

    2008-01-01

    The simulation of biochemical networks provides insight and understanding about the underlying biochemical processes and pathways used by cells and organisms. BioNessie is a biochemical network simulator which has been developed at the University of Glasgow. This paper describes the simulator and focuses in particular on how it has been extended to benefit from a wide variety of high performance compute resources across the UK through Grid technologies to support larger scale simulations.

  13. Possibilities and methods for biochemical assessment of radiation injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minkova, M [Meditsinska Akademiya, Sofia (Bulgaria). Nauchen Inst. po Rentgenologiya i Radiobiologiya

    1986-01-01

    An extensitive review (77 references) is made of the application of biochemical diagnostic methods for assessment of radiation diseases. A brief characteristics of several biochemical indicators is given: deoxycytidine, thymidine, rho-aminoisocarboxylic acid, DNA-ase, nucleic acids. Influence of such factors as age, sex, season etc. is studied by means of functional biochemical indicators as: creatine, triptophanic metabolites, 5-hydroxy-indolacetic acid, biogenic amines, serum proteins, enzymes, etc.

  14. Prions: the danger of biochemical weapons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Almeida Xavier

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of biotechnology increases the risk of using biochemical weapons for mass destruction. Prions are unprecedented infectious pathogens that cause a group of fatal neurodegenerative diseases by a novel mechanism. They are transmissible particles that are devoid of nucleic acid. Due to their singular characteristics, Prions emerge as potential danger since they can be used in the development of such weapons. Prions cause fatal infectious diseases, and to date there is no therapeutic or prophylactic approach against these diseases. Furthermore, Prions are resistant to food-preparation treatments such as high heat and can find their way from the digestive system into the nervous system; recombinant Prions are infectious either bound to soil particles or in aerosols. Therefore, lethal Prions can be developed by malicious researchers who could use it to attack political enemies since such weapons cause diseases that could be above suspicion.

  15. Biochemical Basis of Sestrin Physiological Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Allison; Cho, Chun-Seok; Namkoong, Sim; Cho, Uhn-Soo; Lee, Jun Hee (Michigan)

    2016-05-10

    Excessive accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and chronic activation of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1) are well-characterized promoters of aging and age-associated degenerative pathologies. Sestrins, a family of highly conserved stress-inducible proteins, are important negative regulators of both ROS and mTORC1 signaling pathways; however, the mechanistic basis of how Sestrins suppress these pathways remains elusive. In the past couple of years, breakthrough discoveries about Sestrin signaling and its molecular nature have markedly increased our biochemical understanding of Sestrin function. These discoveries have also uncovered new potential therapeutic strategies that may eventually enable us to attenuate aging and age-associated diseases.

  16. Simplifying biochemical models with intermediate species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feliu, Elisenda; Wiuf, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    techniques, we study systematically the effects of intermediate, or transient, species in biochemical systems and provide a simple, yet rigorous mathematical classification of all models obtained from a core model by including intermediates. Main examples include enzymatic and post-translational modification...... systems, where intermediates often are considered insignificant and neglected in a model, or they are not included because we are unaware of their existence. All possible models obtained from the core model are classified into a finite number of classes. Each class is defined by a mathematically simple...... canonical model that characterizes crucial dynamical properties, such as mono- and multistationarity and stability of steady states, of all models in the class. We show that if the core model does not have conservation laws, then the introduction of intermediates does not change the steady...

  17. Biochemical and genetic improvement of Zymomonas mobilis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingram, L O; Carey, V C; Dombek, K M; Holt, A S; Holt, W A; Osman, Y A; Walia, S K

    1984-01-01

    Zymomonas mobilis offers many advantages for alcohol production including three- to five-fold higher rates of substrate conversion. Current progress and approaches are discussed for the biochemical and genetic improvement of this organism. These include the isolation of salt-resistant mutants and low pH-tolerant mutants. Gene banks of Lactobacillus heterohiochi are being screened for genes encoding alcohol resistance which can be subsequently introduced into Zymomonas mobilis. In addition, an enteric lactose operon has been inserted into Zymomonas mobilis and is expressed. These new strains are being further modified to increase the substrate range of Zymomonas mobilis to include lactose. This lactose operon serves as a model system to investigate the expression of foreign genes in Zymomonas mobilis. 25 references.

  18. Implantable biochemical fuel cell. [German patent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, G; Rao, J R

    1978-09-14

    Implantable biochemical fuel cells for the operation of heart pacemakers or artificial hearts convert oxidisable body substances such as glucose on the anode side and reduce the oxygen contained in body fluids at the cathode. The anode and cathode are separated by membranes which are impermeable to albumen and blood corpuscles in body fluids. A chemical shortcircuit cannot occur in practice if, according to the invention, one or more selective oxygen electrodes with carbon as catalyst are arranged so that the mixture which diffuses into the cell from body fluids during operation reaches the fuel cell electrode through the porous oxygen electrode. The membranes used must be permeable to water. Cellulose, polymerised polyvinyl alcohol or an ion exchanger with a buffering capacity between pH5 and 8 act as permeable materials.

  19. The biochemical anatomy of cortical inhibitory synapses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Heller

    Full Text Available Classical electron microscopic studies of the mammalian brain revealed two major classes of synapses, distinguished by the presence of a large postsynaptic density (PSD exclusively at type 1, excitatory synapses. Biochemical studies of the PSD have established the paradigm of the synapse as a complex signal-processing machine that controls synaptic plasticity. We report here the results of a proteomic analysis of type 2, inhibitory synaptic complexes isolated by affinity purification from the cerebral cortex. We show that these synaptic complexes contain a variety of neurotransmitter receptors, neural cell-scaffolding and adhesion molecules, but that they are entirely lacking in cell signaling proteins. This fundamental distinction between the functions of type 1 and type 2 synapses in the nervous system has far reaching implications for models of synaptic plasticity, rapid adaptations in neural circuits, and homeostatic mechanisms controlling the balance of excitation and inhibition in the mature brain.

  20. Highly valuable microalgae: biochemical and topological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignolet, Olivier; Jubeau, Sébastien; Vaca-Garcia, Carlos; Michaud, Philippe

    2013-08-01

    The past decade has seen a surge in the interest in microalgae culture for biodiesel production and other applications as renewable biofuels as an alternative to petroleum transport fuels. The development of new technologies for the culture of these photosynthetic microorganisms and improved knowledge of their biochemical composition has spurred innovation in the field of high-value biomolecules. These developments are only economically viable if all the microalgae fractions are valorized in a biorefinery strategy. Achieving this objective requires an understanding of microalgae content and the cellular localization of the main biomolecular families in order to develop efficient harvest and sequential recovery technologies. This review summarizes the state of the art in microalgae compositions and topologies using some examples of the main industrially farmed microalgae.

  1. Hemoglobin Variants: Biochemical Properties and Clinical Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, Christopher S.; Dickson, Claire F.; Gell, David A.; Weiss, Mitchell J.

    2013-01-01

    Diseases affecting hemoglobin synthesis and function are extremely common worldwide. More than 1000 naturally occurring human hemoglobin variants with single amino acid substitutions throughout the molecule have been discovered, mainly through their clinical and/or laboratory manifestations. These variants alter hemoglobin structure and biochemical properties with physiological effects ranging from insignificant to severe. Studies of these mutations in patients and in the laboratory have produced a wealth of information on hemoglobin biochemistry and biology with significant implications for hematology practice. More generally, landmark studies of hemoglobin performed over the past 60 years have established important paradigms for the disciplines of structural biology, genetics, biochemistry, and medicine. Here we review the major classes of hemoglobin variants, emphasizing general concepts and illustrative examples. PMID:23388674

  2. Physiological and biochemical response to high temperature stress in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayamanesh, Shahnoosh; Keitel, Claudia; Ahmad, Nabil; Trethowan, Richard

    2016-04-01

    High temperature has been shown to lower the growth and yield of Okra, an important summer vegetable crop grown in Asia, Africa, the Middle East and Australia. We aimed to characterise the physiological and biochemical response of Okra to heat stress. 150 genotypes from Pakistan and the AVRDC (The World Vegetable Centre) were screened for their physiological response (fluorescence, electrolyte leakage and yield) to heat in a greenhouse. Four genotypes (including heat tolerant and sensitive) were selected and subsequently grown in control and hot greenhouses. Daytime temperatures were on average 10°C warmer in the hot greenhouse, whereas nighttime temperatures were similar between the two temperature treatments. During a 12 week period, the physiological (assimilation rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, fluorescence, electrolyte leakage, water potential) and biochemical (carbohydrates, sugar alcohols, C content) response of the four genotypes to heat stress was assessed. The effect of heat stress on the C allocation patterns and yield in Okra will be discussed.

  3. Biochemical and cellular properties of Gluconacetobacter xylinus cultures exposed to different modes of rotating magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fijałkowski Karol

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of a rotating magnetic field (RMF on cellular and biochemical properties of Gluconacetobacter xylinus during the process of cellulose synthesis by these bacteria. The application of the RMF during bacterial cellulose (BC production intensified the biochemical processes in G. xylinus as compared to the RMF-unexposed cultures. Moreover, the RMF had a positive impact on the growth of cellulose-producing bacteria. Furthermore, the application of RMF did not increase the number of mutants unable to produce cellulose. In terms of BC production efficacy, the most favorable properties were found in the setting where RMF generator was switched off for the first 72 h of cultivation and switched on for the further 72 h. The results obtained can be used in subsequent studies concerning the optimization of BC production using different types of magnetic fields including RMF, especially.

  4. Biochemically enhanced methane production from coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opara, Aleksandra

    For many years, biogas was connected mostly with the organic matter decomposition in shallow sediments (e.g., wetlands, landfill gas, etc.). Recently, it has been realized that biogenic methane production is ongoing in many hydrocarbon reservoirs. This research examined microbial methane and carbon dioxide generation from coal. As original contributions methane production from various coal materials was examined in classical and electro-biochemical bench-scale reactors using unique, developed facultative microbial consortia that generate methane under anaerobic conditions. Facultative methanogenic populations are important as all known methanogens are strict anaerobes and their application outside laboratory would be problematic. Additional testing examined the influence of environmental conditions, such as pH, salinity, and nutrient amendments on methane and carbon dioxide generation. In 44-day ex-situ bench-scale batch bioreactor tests, up to 300,000 and 250,000 ppm methane was generated from bituminous coal and bituminous coal waste respectively, a significant improvement over 20-40 ppm methane generated from control samples. Chemical degradation of complex hydrocarbons using environmentally benign reagents, prior to microbial biodegradation and methanogenesis, resulted in dissolution of up to 5% bituminous coal and bituminous coal waste and up to 25% lignite in samples tested. Research results confirm that coal waste may be a significant underutilized resource that could be converted to useful fuel. Rapid acidification of lignite samples resulted in low pH (below 4.0), regardless of chemical pretreatment applied, and did not generate significant methane amounts. These results confirmed the importance of monitoring and adjusting in situ and ex situ environmental conditions during methane production. A patented Electro-Biochemical Reactor technology was used to supply electrons and electron acceptor environments, but appeared to influence methane generation in a

  5. Modeling of uncertainties in biochemical reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mišković, Ljubiša; Hatzimanikatis, Vassily

    2011-02-01

    Mathematical modeling is an indispensable tool for research and development in biotechnology and bioengineering. The formulation of kinetic models of biochemical networks depends on knowledge of the kinetic properties of the enzymes of the individual reactions. However, kinetic data acquired from experimental observations bring along uncertainties due to various experimental conditions and measurement methods. In this contribution, we propose a novel way to model the uncertainty in the enzyme kinetics and to predict quantitatively the responses of metabolic reactions to the changes in enzyme activities under uncertainty. The proposed methodology accounts explicitly for mechanistic properties of enzymes and physico-chemical and thermodynamic constraints, and is based on formalism from systems theory and metabolic control analysis. We achieve this by observing that kinetic responses of metabolic reactions depend: (i) on the distribution of the enzymes among their free form and all reactive states; (ii) on the equilibrium displacements of the overall reaction and that of the individual enzymatic steps; and (iii) on the net fluxes through the enzyme. Relying on this observation, we develop a novel, efficient Monte Carlo sampling procedure to generate all states within a metabolic reaction that satisfy imposed constrains. Thus, we derive the statistics of the expected responses of the metabolic reactions to changes in enzyme levels and activities, in the levels of metabolites, and in the values of the kinetic parameters. We present aspects of the proposed framework through an example of the fundamental three-step reversible enzymatic reaction mechanism. We demonstrate that the equilibrium displacements of the individual enzymatic steps have an important influence on kinetic responses of the enzyme. Furthermore, we derive the conditions that must be satisfied by a reversible three-step enzymatic reaction operating far away from the equilibrium in order to respond to

  6. Biochemical parameters in chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, R M; Lazarus, J M

    1988-03-01

    We analyzed biochemical data derived from 911 patients with renal insufficiency observed at our institution for periods up to 7 years. During early renal failure (RF) (creatinine less than 5 mg/dL), the rate of change of hematocrit, total CO2 (tCO2) and urea per unit change of creatinine was significantly higher than during moderate (creatinine between 5 and 10 mg/dL) or advanced (creatinine greater than 10 mg/dL) RF. For example, the rate of change of hematocrit (%, volume/volume [v/v]) was (mean +/- SEM) -2.15 +/- 0.15% for each 1 mg/dL increase in creatinine in the range of creatinine less than 5 mg/dL, whereas for the range of creatinine greater than 10 mg/dL, the rate of change was only -0.48 +/- 0.06% (P less than 0.001). Similarly, the rate of change of tCO2 was -1.68 +/- 0.09 mEq/L for each 1 mg/dL increment in creatinine concentration during early RF, and -0.19 +/- 0.09 mEq/L per unit increase in creatinine during advanced RF (P less than 0.001). Chloride concentration initially increased as a function of creatinine in early RF, but decreased in advanced RF, whereas the anion gap increased throughout the course of RF. Mean serum phosphate concentration also increased steadily, but remained below the upper range of normal (4.7 mg/dL) during early RF without the use of phosphate binders. These data suggest that different biochemical parameters change at different rates as a function of the severity of renal dysfunction, and that although phosphate retention may occur, hyperphosphatemia is not a hallmark of early RF.

  7. Reusable Component Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Reusable Component Services (RCS) is a super-catalog of components, services, solutions and technologies that facilitates search, discovery and collaboration in...

  8. Serous carcinomatous component championed by heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) predisposing to metastasis and recurrence in stage I uterine malignant mixed mullerian tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Shimizu, David; Killeen, Jeffrey L; Honda, Stacey A; Lu, Di; Stanoyevitch, Alexander; Lin, Fritz; Wang, Beverly; Monuki, Edwin S; Carbone, Michele

    2016-07-01

    The stage I uterine malignant mixed mullerian tumor (MMMT) shows different potential for progression. We reason that MMMTs with high-grade carcinomatous component and positivity for HB-EGF are prone to recurrence/metastasis in the early stage. A retrospective clinical and histopathologic review with immunohistochemical staining for HB-EGF, EGFR, and integrin-α5 was performed for 62 surgically staged MMMT cases. Recurrence/metastasis (RM) is 6/18 (33%) in stage I disease. Of all the clinicopathologic variables and biomarkers analyzed for stage I MMMT, serous carcinomatous component (83% [5/6] versus 17% [1/12], P = .0015) and HB-EGF expression (100% [6/6] versus 50% [6/12], P=.0339) were significantly different between groups with RM and without RM. The presence of serous carcinoma in all stages was 83% (5/6) in stage I with RM, 8% (1/12) in stage I without RM, 20% (1/5) in stage II, 36.4% (8/22) in stage III and 64.7% (11/17) in stage IV; this was paralleled by HB-EGF expression of 100% (6/6), 50% (6/12), 40% (2/5), 50% (11/22) and 71% (12/17) with a correlation coefficient r=0.9131 (P=.027). HB-EGF and integrin-α5 were highly expressed in MMMTs bearing serous carcinoma component, compared to endometrioid and unclassifiable/miscellaneous subtypes (84.6%/47.6%/33.3%, P=.025 for HB-EGF; and 61.5%/42.9%/20.0%, P=.021 for integrin-α5). The EGFR positivity was comparable among the three subtypes (48.1%, 47.6% and 26.7%, P=.326). This study indicates that serous carcinomatous component championed by expression of HB-EGF predisposes to recurrence/metastasis in stage I MMMT. This process might involve integrin-α5 and does not seem to require overexpression of EGFR. Further study is required. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Biochemical adaptation of phytopathogenic fungi, Sclerotium rolfsii ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nbuensanteai

    2012-10-18

    Oct 18, 2012 ... demonstrate that growth, sclerotia germination and biomass of S. rolfsii were obviously increased at ... Key words: Sclerotium rolfsii, enzyme activities, stress response, cellular composition, FT-IR .... The conversion of the.

  10. Biochemical studies in Ulva reticulata Forsskal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dhargalkar, V.K.

    Major metabolites like proteins, carbohydrates and lipids in the alga Ulva reticulata were estimated. Carbohydrate was found to decrease after December which may perhaps be due to the spore formation and extensive growth of the thallus. Protein...

  11. In vitro colonization of the muscle extracellular matrix components by Escherichia coli O157:H7: the influence of growth medium, temperature and pH on initial adhesion and induction of biofilm formation by collagens I and III.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Chagnot

    Full Text Available Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC O157:H7 are responsible for repeated food-poisoning cases often caused by contaminated burgers. EHEC infection is predominantly a pediatric illness, which can lead to life-threatening diseases. Ruminants are the main natural reservoir for EHEC and food contamination almost always originates from faecal contamination. In beef meat products, primary bacterial contamination occurs at the dehiding stage of slaughtering. The extracellular matrix (ECM is the most exposed part of the skeletal muscles in beef carcasses. Investigating the adhesion to the main muscle fibrous ECM proteins, insoluble fibronectin, collagen I, III and IV, laminin-α2 and elastin, results demonstrated that the preceding growth conditions had a great influence on subsequent bacterial attachment. In the tested experimental conditions, maximal adhesion to fibril-forming collagens I or III occurred at 25°C and pH 7. Once initially adhered, exposure to lower temperatures, as applied to meat during cutting and storage, or acidification, as in the course of post-mortem physiological modifications of muscle, had no effect on detachment, except at pHu. In addition, dense biofilm formation occurred on immobilized collagen I or III and was induced in growth medium supplemented with collagen I in solution. From this first comprehensive investigation of EHEC adhesion to ECM proteins with respect to muscle biology and meat processing, new research directions for the development of innovative practices to minimize the risk of meat contamination are further discussed.

  12. Biochemical indices and life traits of loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta from Cape Verde Islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Vieira

    Full Text Available The loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta is an endangered marine reptile for whom assessing population health requires knowledge of demographic parameters such as individual growth rate. In Cape Verde, as within several populations, adult female loggerhead sea turtles show a size-related behavioral and trophic dichotomy. While smaller females are associated with oceanic habitats, larger females tend to feed in neritic habitats, which is reflected in their physiological condition and in their offspring. The ratio of RNA/DNA provides a measure of cellular protein synthesis capacity, which varies depending on changes in environmental conditions such as temperature and food availability. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the combined use of morphometric data and biochemical indices as predictors of the physiological condition of the females of distinct sizes and hatchlings during their nesting season and how temperature may influence the physiological condition on the offspring. Here we employed biochemical indices based on nucleic acid derived indices (standardized RNA/DNA ratio-sRD, RNA concentration and DNA concentration in skin tissue as a potential predictor of recent growth rate in nesting females and hatchling loggerhead turtles. Our major findings were that the physiological condition of all nesting females (sRD decreased during the nesting season, but that females associated with neritic habitats had a higher physiological condition than females associated with oceanic habitats. In addition, the amount of time required for a hatchling to right itself was negatively correlated with its physiological condition (sRD and shaded nests produced hatchlings with lower sRD. Overall, our results showed that nucleic acid concentrations and ratios of RNA to DNA are an important tool as potential biomarkers of recent growth in marine turtles. Hence, as biochemical indices of instantaneous growth are likely temperature-, size- and age

  13. Physiological and biochemical responses of thyme plants to some antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SALWA A. ORABI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Orabi SA, Talaat IM, Balbaa LK. 2014. Physiological and biochemical responses of thyme plants to some antioxidants. Nusantara Bioscience 6: 118-125. Two pot experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of tryptophan, nicotinamide and α-tocopherol (each at 50 and 100 mg/L on plant growth, essential oil yield and its main constituents. All treatments significantly promoted plant height, and increased fresh and dry mass (g/plant of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.. The treatment with 100 mg/L nicotinamide showed increasing in total potassium mainly in the first cut. Total soluble sugars, oil percentage and oil yield and protein recorded increments with tryptophan treatments. Treatment of Thymus plants with 100 mg/L nicotinamide observed the highest percentage of thymol (67.61%. Oxygenated compounds recorded the highest value with 50 mg/L α-tocopherol treatment, while the maximum non-oxygenated ones resulted from the application of 100 mg/L nicotinamide. All treatments under study significantly affected the activity of oxidoreductase enzymes (POX and PPO. Nicotinamide at the concentration of 100 mg/L recorded the highest increments in APX and GR and the lowest values in oxidoreductase enzyme activities added to the lowest values of lipid peroxidation to enhance the best protection of thyme plants.

  14. Spongiosa Primary Development: A Biochemical Hypothesis by Turing Patterns Formations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Rodrigo López-Vaca

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a biochemical model describing the formation of primary spongiosa architecture through a bioregulatory model by metalloproteinase 13 (MMP13 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. It is assumed that MMP13 regulates cartilage degradation and the VEGF allows vascularization and advances in the ossification front through the presence of osteoblasts. The coupling of this set of molecules is represented by reaction-diffusion equations with parameters in the Turing space, creating a stable spatiotemporal pattern that leads to the formation of the trabeculae present in the spongy tissue. Experimental evidence has shown that the MMP13 regulates VEGF formation, and it is assumed that VEGF negatively regulates MMP13 formation. Thus, the patterns obtained by ossification may represent the primary spongiosa formation during endochondral ossification. Moreover, for the numerical solution, we used the finite element method with the Newton-Raphson method to approximate partial differential nonlinear equations. Ossification patterns obtained may represent the primary spongiosa formation during endochondral ossification.

  15. Statistical physics approaches to subnetwork dynamics in biochemical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravi, B.; Sollich, P.

    2017-08-01

    We apply a Gaussian variational approximation to model reduction in large biochemical networks of unary and binary reactions. We focus on a small subset of variables (subnetwork) of interest, e.g. because they are accessible experimentally, embedded in a larger network (bulk). The key goal is to write dynamical equations reduced to the subnetwork but still retaining the effects of the bulk. As a result, the subnetwork-reduced dynamics contains a memory term and an extrinsic noise term with non-trivial temporal correlations. We first derive expressions for this memory and noise in the linearized (Gaussian) dynamics and then use a perturbative power expansion to obtain first order nonlinear corrections. For the case of vanishing intrinsic noise, our description is explicitly shown to be equivalent to projection methods up to quadratic terms, but it is applicable also in the presence of stochastic fluctuations in the original dynamics. An example from the epidermal growth factor receptor signalling pathway is provided to probe the increased prediction accuracy and computational efficiency of our method.

  16. Software component quality evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, A. J.

    1991-01-01

    The paper describes a software inspection process that can be used to evaluate the quality of software components. Quality criteria, process application, independent testing of the process and proposed associated tool support are covered. Early results indicate that this technique is well suited for assessing software component quality in a standardized fashion. With automated machine assistance to facilitate both the evaluation and selection of software components, such a technique should promote effective reuse of software components.

  17. Reactor component automatic grapple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenaway, P.R.

    1982-01-01

    A grapple for handling nuclear reactor components in a medium such as liquid sodium which, upon proper seating and alignment of the grapple with the component as sensed by a mechanical logic integral to the grapple, automatically seizes the component. The mechanical logic system also precludes seizure in the absence of proper seating and alignment. (author)

  18. Repurposing learning object components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbert, K.; Jovanovic, J.; Gasevic, D.; Duval, E.; Meersman, R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an ontology-based framework for repurposing learning object components. Unlike the usual practice where learning object components are assembled manually, the proposed framework enables on-the-fly access and repurposing of learning object components. The framework supports two

  19. Advances in citric acid fermentation by Aspergillus niger: biochemical aspects, membrane transport and modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papagianni, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Citric acid is regarded as a metabolite of energy metabolism, of which the concentration will rise to appreciable amounts only under conditions of substantive metabolic imbalances. Citric acid fermentation conditions were established during the 1930s and 1940s, when the effects of various medium components were evaluated. The biochemical mechanism by which Aspergillus niger accumulates citric acid has continued to attract interest even though its commercial production by fermentation has been established for decades. Although extensive basic biochemical research has been carried out with A. niger, the understanding of the events relevant for citric acid accumulation is not completely understood. This review is focused on citric acid fermentation by A. niger. Emphasis is given to aspects of fermentation biochemistry, membrane transport in A. niger and modeling of the production process.

  20. The Role of Antioxidants in Biochemical Disorders Induced by Arsenic in Adult male Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanin, M.M.; Zaki, Z.T.; Emarah, E.A.M.; Hussein, A.M.M.

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation included biochemical, radiometric, molecular studies and histopathological examination to evaluate the protective role of Antox tablets toward Arsenic toxicity in adult male albino rats (Rattus rattus). Arsenic were given as sodium arsenate to different groups in drinking water at a dose of 100 mg/L, for 3 and 6 weeks led to severe tissue damage as revealed by an elevation of serum total protein and alteration of serum protein fractions. Using radioimmunoassay it was found that serum total testosterone level was significantly decreased. The decreased level of total testosterone paralleled the observed testicular damage. Treatment of male rats with antioxidant (Antox) along with arsenic led to an improvement in both the biochemical and histological alterations induced by arsenic. Thus the protective role of Antox is attributed to its antioxidant and free radicals scavenging properties of its components (selenium, vitamin A acetate, ascorbic acid and vitamin E).

  1. Biochemical indicators for novel forest decline in spruce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baur, M.; Lauchert, U.; Wild, A.

    1998-01-01

    The impact of air pollution on 24 stands of spruce trees in several regions in Germany was investigated. We looked for evidence of biochemical and physiological change at the level of the photosynthetic thylakoid membranes as well as for changes in the antioxidative system in two year old needles. We observed that, as the chlorophyll content decreases in the needles, the among of D1 protein declines far more rapidly in relation to the redox components P700 and cytochrome f. Consequently, the PSII/PSI stoichiometry keeps dropping to progressively lower, meaning unfavorable, values at the chlorophyll content diminishes. This is particularly the case in the higher elevation characteristically increases while the D1 protein content falls. The higher α-tocopherol values, however, are obviously neither able to protect the D1 protein from degradation nor to compensate for the higher oxidative stress. Apart from that the ascorbate/tocopherol ratios remained in the majority of cases in the unfavorable range of far below 10, where an effective protection of the membranes from free radicals is not guaranteed. This then is mirrored in the increased degradation of D1 and the lower PSII/PSI ratio

  2. Biochemical and molecular genetic studies on some cyanobacterial isolates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamal, E.A.R.; Ebrahim, S.A.A.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, the isolation and purification of a set of Cyanobacteria strains belonging to genus Oscillatoria was undertaken, followed by the analyses of phylogenetic relationships using different biochemical and molecular genetic techniques (SOS-PAGE and RAPO-PCR). A total of 45 protein bands were observed within the studied Osci/latoria isolates by SOS-PAGE (only three unique bands, eight monomorphic bands and 37 polymorphic bands). On the other hand, extracted ONA from isolates was used to identify the molecular fingerprints. A sum of 94 polymorphic bands was generated by these primers in the Ocsi/laloria genotypes under study. A total of 20 unique bands were identified out of the polymorphic ones. These unique bands were used to discriminate among the studied Ocsi/latoria isolates. Most isolates of Ocsi/latoria genotypes were discriminated by one or more unique bands. Numerical taxonomic using 45 protein attributes of 19 isolates and RAPO markers on five isolates. Two methods -Clustering (UPGMA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) were used for these analyses. The similarities and clusters produced between the studied isolates were discussed.

  3. Biochemical and molecular genetic studies on some cyanobacterial isolates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamal, E A.R. [Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Biology; Ebrahim, S A.A. [Ain Sham University, Cairo (Egypt). Dept. of Cytogenetic

    2011-11-15

    In the present study, the isolation and purification of a set of Cyanobacteria strains belonging to genus Oscillatoria was undertaken, followed by the analyses of phylogenetic relationships using different biochemical and molecular genetic techniques (SOS-PAGE and RAPO-PCR). A total of 45 protein bands were observed within the studied Osci/latoria isolates by SOS-PAGE (only three unique bands, eight monomorphic bands and 37 polymorphic bands). On the other hand, extracted ONA from isolates was used to identify the molecular fingerprints. A sum of 94 polymorphic bands was generated by these primers in the Ocsi/laloria genotypes under study. A total of 20 unique bands were identified out of the polymorphic ones. These unique bands were used to discriminate among the studied Ocsi/latoria isolates. Most isolates of Ocsi/latoria genotypes were discriminated by one or more unique bands. Numerical taxonomic using 45 protein attributes of 19 isolates and RAPO markers on five isolates. Two methods -Clustering (UPGMA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) were used for these analyses. The similarities and clusters produced between the studied isolates were discussed.

  4. Rapid Discrimination Among Putative Mechanistic Models of Biochemical Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomnitz, Jason G; Savageau, Michael A

    2016-08-31

    An overarching goal in molecular biology is to gain an understanding of the mechanistic basis underlying biochemical systems. Success is critical if we are to predict effectively the outcome of drug treatments and the development of abnormal phenotypes. However, data from most experimental studies is typically noisy and sparse. This allows multiple potential mechanisms to account for experimental observations, and often devising experiments to test each is not feasible. Here, we introduce a novel strategy that discriminates among putative models based on their repertoire of qualitatively distinct phenotypes, without relying on knowledge of specific values for rate constants and binding constants. As an illustration, we apply this strategy to two synthetic gene circuits exhibiting anomalous behaviors. Our results show that the conventional models, based on their well-characterized components, cannot account for the experimental observations. We examine a total of 40 alternative hypotheses and show that only 5 have the potential to reproduce the experimental data, and one can do so with biologically relevant parameter values.

  5. Predictive hypotheses are ineffectual in resolving complex biochemical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Michael

    2018-03-20

    Scientific hypotheses may either predict particular unknown facts or accommodate previously-known data. Although affirmed predictions are intuitively more rewarding than accommodations of established facts, opinions divide whether predictive hypotheses are also epistemically superior to accommodation hypotheses. This paper examines the contribution of predictive hypotheses to discoveries of several bio-molecular systems. Having all the necessary elements of the system known beforehand, an abstract predictive hypothesis of semiconservative mode of DNA replication was successfully affirmed. However, in defining the genetic code whose biochemical basis was unclear, hypotheses were only partially effective and supplementary experimentation was required for its conclusive definition. Markedly, hypotheses were entirely inept in predicting workings of complex systems that included unknown elements. Thus, hypotheses did not predict the existence and function of mRNA, the multiple unidentified components of the protein biosynthesis machinery, or the manifold unknown constituents of the ubiquitin-proteasome system of protein breakdown. Consequently, because of their inability to envision unknown entities, predictive hypotheses did not contribute to the elucidation of cation theories remained the sole instrument to explain complex bio-molecular systems, the philosophical question of alleged advantage of predictive over accommodative hypotheses became inconsequential.

  6. A case study of evolutionary computation of biochemical adaptation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    François, Paul; Siggia, Eric D

    2008-01-01

    Simulations of evolution have a long history, but their relation to biology is questioned because of the perceived contingency of evolution. Here we provide an example of a biological process, adaptation, where simulations are argued to approach closer to biology. Adaptation is a common feature of sensory systems, and a plausible component of other biochemical networks because it rescales upstream signals to facilitate downstream processing. We create random gene networks numerically, by linking genes with interactions that model transcription, phosphorylation and protein–protein association. We define a fitness function for adaptation in terms of two functional metrics, and show that any reasonable combination of them will yield the same adaptive networks after repeated rounds of mutation and selection. Convergence to these networks is driven by positive selection and thus fast. There is always a path in parameter space of continuously improving fitness that leads to perfect adaptation, implying that the actual mutation rates we use in the simulation do not bias the results. Our results imply a kinetic view of evolution, i.e., it favors gene networks that can be learned quickly from the random examples supplied by mutation. This formulation allows for deductive predictions of the networks realized in nature

  7. Biochemical activity of di- and polyamines in the green alga Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck (Chlorophyceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romuald Czerpak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study concerns on the influence of diamines (agmatine, putrescine and polyamines (spermine, spermidine upon the growth and the content of chlorophyll a and b, monosaccharides and proteins in the cells of alga Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck (Chlorophyceae. In the experiments agmatine, putrescine, spermine and spermidine in the range of concentrations 10-6-10-3 M were used. At the concentration 10-3 M and the 1st day of cultivation, they have a toxic effect on growth of the algae. It was found that di- and polyamines used within the range of concentration 10-6-10-4 M stimulate the growth and the contents of analysed biochemical parameters in the cells of C. vulgaris. The most stimulating influence on metabolism of the alga was demonstrated by spermidine and putrescine at concentration of 10-4 M. Agmatine and spermine were characterised by a lower biological activity than spermidine and putrescine demonstrated the most stimulating influence.

  8. Long-term treatment outcomes of acromegaly patients presenting biochemically-uncontrolled at a tertiary pituitary center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, John D; Broder, Michael S; Cherepanov, Dasha; Chang, Eunice; Mamelak, Adam; Said, Qayyim; Neary, Maureen P; Bonert, Vivien

    2017-08-04

    Acromegaly is a rare, slowly progressive disorder resulting from excessive growth hormone (GH) production by a pituitary somatotroph tumor. The objective of this study was to examine acromegaly treatment outcomes during long-term care at a specialized pituitary center in patients presenting with lack of biochemical control. Data came from an acromegaly registry at the Cedars-Sinai Medical Center Pituitary Center (center). Acromegaly patients included in this study were those who presented biochemically-uncontrolled for care at the center. Biochemical control status, based on serum insulin-like growth factor-1 values, was determined at presentation and at study end. Patient characteristics and acromegaly treatments were reported before and after presentation by presenting treatment status and final biochemical control status. Data on long-term follow-up were recorded from 1985 through June 2013. Seventy-four patients presented uncontrolled: 40 untreated (54.1%) and 34 (45.9%) previously-treated. Mean (SD) age at diagnosis was 43.2 (14.7); 32 (43.2%) were female patients. Of 65 patients with tumor size information, 59 (90.8%) had macroadenomas. Prior treatments among the 34 previously-treated patients were pituitary surgery alone (47.1%), surgery and medication (41.2%), and medication alone (11.8%). Of the 40 patients without prior treatment, 82.5% achieved control by study end. Of the 34 with prior treatment, 50% achieved control by study end. This observational study shows that treatment outcomes of biochemically-uncontrolled acromegaly patients improve with directed care, particularly for those that initially present untreated. Patients often require multiple modalities of treatment, many of which are offered with the highest quality at specialized pituitary centers. Despite specialized care, some patients were not able to achieve biochemical control with methods of treatment that were available at the time of their treatment, showing the need for additional

  9. Urinary growth hormone excretion in acromegaly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K M; Lindholm, J; Vandeweghe, M

    1993-01-01

    The biochemical assessment of disease activity in acromegaly still presents a problem, especially in treated patients with mild clinical symptoms. We therefore examined the diagnostic value of the measurement of urinary growth hormone (GH) excretion in seventy unselected patients with acromegaly...

  10. Predictive factors for intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albu, A R; Anca, A F; Horhoianu, V V; Horhoianu, I A

    2014-06-15

    Reduced fetal growth is seen in about 10% of the pregnancies but only a minority has a pathological background and is known as intrauterine growth restriction or fetal growth restriction (IUGR / FGR). Increased fetal and neonatal mortality and morbidity as well as adult pathologic conditions are often associated to IUGR. Risk factors for IUGR are easy to assess but have poor predictive value. For the diagnostic purpose, biochemical serum markers, ultrasound and Doppler study of uterine and spiral arteries, placental volume and vascularization, first trimester growth pattern are object of assessment today. Modern evaluations propose combined algorithms using these strategies, all with the goal of a better prediction of risk pregnancies.

  11. Exploring basic biochemical constituents in the body tissues of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feeding regime did not influence susceptibility to mass loss during export. Animal age influenced the biochemical composition and export performance of abalone. Keywords: abalone; aquaculture; feeds; Haliotis midae; live export; mass loss; tissue biochemical constituents. African Journal of Marine Science 2010, 32(1): ...

  12. Haematological and blood biochemical indices of West African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Haematological and blood biochemical indices of West African dwarf goats vaccinated against Pestes des petit ruminants (PPR) ... blood biochemical indices of forty randomly selected West African dwarf (WAD) goats were studied. Packed cell volume ... neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and white blood cells (WBC) than females.

  13. An improved solution of first order kinetics for biochemical oxygen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper evaluated selected Biochemical Oxygen Demand first order kinetics methods. Domesticinstitutional wastewaters were collected twice in a month for three months from the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife waste stabilization ponds. Biochemical Oxygen Demand concentrations at different days were determined ...

  14. Simulation studies in biochemical signaling and enzyme reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelatury, Sudarshan R.; Vagula, Mary C.

    2014-06-01

    Biochemical pathways characterize various biochemical reaction schemes that involve a set of species and the manner in which they are connected. Determination of schematics that represent these pathways is an important task in understanding metabolism and signal transduction. Examples of these Pathways are: DNA and protein synthesis, and production of several macro-molecules essential for cell survival. A sustained feedback mechanism arises in gene expression and production of mRNA that lead to protein synthesis if the protein so synthesized serves as a transcription factor and becomes a repressor of the gene expression. The cellular regulations are carried out through biochemical networks consisting of reactions and regulatory proteins. Systems biology is a relatively new area that attempts to describe the biochemical pathways analytically and develop reliable mathematical models for the pathways. A complete understanding of chemical reaction kinetics is prohibitively hard thanks to the nonlinear and highly complex mechanisms that regulate protein formation, but attempting to numerically solve some of the governing differential equations seems to offer significant insight about their biochemical picture. To validate these models, one can perform simple experiments in the lab. This paper introduces fundamental ideas in biochemical signaling and attempts to take first steps into the understanding of biochemical oscillations. Initially, the two-pool model of calcium is used to describe the dynamics behind the oscillations. Later we present some elementary results showing biochemical oscillations arising from solving differential equations of Elowitz and Leibler using MATLAB software.

  15. Possible Biochemical Markers in Protein-Energy Malnutrition and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to determine possible biochemical markers in children suffering from Plasmodium falciparum malaria and Protein-Energy Malnutrition in a Hospital setting in Western Kenya. Spectrophotometric assays of selected biochemical parameters namely, albumin, total proteins, glucose, glutamate ...

  16. Biochemical evaluation of phenylketonuria (PKU: from diagnosis to treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Belmont-Martínez

    2014-07-01

    Besides periodical Phe and Tyr testing, biochemical follow-up includes the measurement of necessary elements that guarantee normal physical and intellectual development such as selenium, zinc, B12 vitamin, folates, iron and long chain fatty acids. Clinical context is as important as biochemical status so periodic evaluation of nutritional, medical, social and psychological aspects should be included.

  17. Developments in commercially produced microbials at Biochem Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Lublinkhof; Douglas H. Ross

    1985-01-01

    Biochem Products is part of a large industrial and scientific family - the Solvay Group. Solvay, headquartered in Brussels, Belgium is a multinational company with 46,000 employees worldwide. In the U.S., our working partners include a large polymer manufacturer, a peroxygen producer and a leading poultry and animal health products company. Biochem Products is a...

  18. VISUALIZATION OF BIOCHEMICAL ACTIVITY OF MICROORGANISMS GENUS AEROCOCCUS SPECIES AEROCOCCUS VIRIDANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepansky DO

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Aerococci are catalase-negative Gram-positive microorganisms, widespread in the environment, in the cold-blooded microbiocenoses [1, 2] and warm-blooded organisms [3]. Currently, there are seven species of the Aerococcus genus [4]. Type A. viridans got its name as a result of greening blood agar around the growing colonies. It was found that one of the products of A. viridans growth is hydrogen peroxide, has an antagonistic effect on various kinds of bacteria "in vitro" and "in vivo" [5]. It was subsequently found that hydrogen peroxide and superoxide radical are produced as a result of NAD-independent lactatoxidase [6,7] and piruvatoxidase functioning[8]. The oxidative ability of A. viridans is a distinctive feature and allows to visualize these properties using a specific indicator medium [9]. We have developed an indicator that enables to visualize oxidation and reduction properties of aerococci. Material & methods. Auto-symbiotic cultures of A. viridans was used for studying of oxidase - reductase activity, inoculated from human body, an industrial strain of A. viridans 167, used for the preparation of "A-bacterin", culture of Aureobasidium pullulans B5, isolated from the soil and having glucose oxidase activity [10]. Designed indicating medium were also tested in the inoculation of aerococci crops, having lactatoxidase activity of biomaterials from birds and mammals. As a basis for the indicating media (IM IM1 media was selected with following composition (g per 1 liter of water Iodide / potassium 26.0 Soluble starch 10.0 Nutrient agar 30.0 For visualization of oxidase-reductase activity of aerococci acellular components IM4 was developed based on IM3, in which distilled water after double purification was used instead of tap water and highly purified agar-agar was used instead of standard nutrient agar. Results & discussion. IM1 is used to test the oxidative properties of aerococci crops. IM manifests the appearance of a dark

  19. LeishCyc: a biochemical pathways database for Leishmania major

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doyle Maria A

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leishmania spp. are sandfly transmitted protozoan parasites that cause a spectrum of diseases in more than 12 million people worldwide. Much research is now focusing on how these parasites adapt to the distinct nutrient environments they encounter in the digestive tract of the sandfly vector and the phagolysosome compartment of mammalian macrophages. While data mining and annotation of the genomes of three Leishmania species has provided an initial inventory of predicted metabolic components and associated pathways, resources for integrating this information into metabolic networks and incorporating data from transcript, protein, and metabolite profiling studies is currently lacking. The development of a reliable, expertly curated, and widely available model of Leishmania metabolic networks is required to facilitate systems analysis, as well as discovery and prioritization of new drug targets for this important human pathogen. Description The LeishCyc database was initially built from the genome sequence of Leishmania major (v5.2, based on the annotation published by the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. LeishCyc was manually curated to remove errors, correct automated predictions, and add information from the literature. The ongoing curation is based on public sources, literature searches, and our own experimental and bioinformatics studies. In a number of instances we have improved on the original genome annotation, and, in some ambiguous cases, collected relevant information from the literature in order to help clarify gene or protein annotation in the future. All genes in LeishCyc are linked to the corresponding entry in GeneDB (Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. Conclusion The LeishCyc database describes Leishmania major genes, gene products, metabolites, their relationships and biochemical organization into metabolic pathways. LeishCyc provides a systematic approach to organizing the evolving information about Leishmania

  20. Soya bean Gα proteins with distinct biochemical properties exhibit differential ability to complement Saccharomyces cerevisiae gpa1 mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy Choudhury, Swarup; Wang, Yuqi; Pandey, Sona

    2014-07-01

    Signalling pathways mediated by heterotrimeric G-proteins are common to all eukaryotes. Plants have a limited number of each of the G-protein subunits, with the most elaborate G-protein network discovered so far in soya bean (Glycine max, also known as soybean) which has four Gα, four Gβ and ten Gγ proteins. Biochemical characterization of Gα proteins from plants suggests significant variation in their properties compared with the well-characterized non-plant proteins. Furthermore, the four soya bean Gα (GmGα) proteins exhibit distinct biochemical activities among themselves, but the extent to which such biochemical differences contribute to their in vivo function is also not known. We used the yeast gpa1 mutant which displays constitutive signalling and growth arrest in the pheromone-response pathway as an in vivo model to evaluate the effect of distinct biochemical activities of GmGα proteins. We showed that specific GmGα proteins can be activated during pheromone-dependent receptor-mediated signalling in yeast and they display different strengths towards complementation of yeast gpa1 phenotypes. We also identified amino acids that are responsible for differential complementation abilities of specific Gα proteins. These data establish that specific plant Gα proteins are functional in the receptor-mediated pheromone-response pathway in yeast and that the subtle biochemical differences in their activity are physiologically relevant.