WorldWideScience

Sample records for grown sic whisker

  1. Bulk Thermoelectric Materials Reinforced with SiC Whiskers

    Akao, Takahiro; Fujiwara, Yuya; Tarui, Yuki; Onda, Tetsuhiko; Chen, Zhong-Chun

    2014-06-01

    SiC whiskers have been incorporated into Zn4Sb3 compound as reinforcements to overcome its extremely brittle nature. The bulk samples were prepared by either hot-extrusion or hot-pressing techniques. The obtained products containing 1 vol.% to 5 vol.% SiC whiskers were confirmed to exhibit sound appearance, high density, and fine-grained microstructure. Mechanical properties such as the hardness and fracture resistance were improved by the addition of SiC whiskers, as a result of dispersion strengthening and microstructural refinement induced by a pinning effect. Furthermore, crack deflection and/or bridging/pullout mechanisms are invoked by the whiskers. Regarding the thermoelectric properties, the Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity values comparable to those of the pure compound are retained over the entire range of added whisker amount. However, the thermal conductivity becomes large with increasing amount of SiC whiskers because of the much higher conductivity of SiC relative to the Zn4Sb3 matrix. This results in a remarkable degradation of the dimensionless figure of merit in the samples with addition of SiC whiskers. Therefore, the optimum amount of SiC whiskers in the Zn4Sb3 matrix should be determined by balancing the mechanical properties and thermoelectric performance.

  2. Research on SiC Whisker Prepared by H-PSO

    WANG Yao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available SiC whiskers were prepared on the matrix of graphite by using high hydrogenous silicone oil(PSO as raw material. The effect of surface conditions of graphite and heating temperature on the growth of SiC whisker was mainly studied in this paper. The main factor which affects the nucleation and growth of SiC whisker is the heating temperature, with the heating temperature rising, the production of SiC whisker increases. The surface condition of graphite matrix also influences the growth of SiC whisker. With the nucleation points provided by graphite matrix defects increasing, the production of SiC whisker incleases and SiC whisker starts to overlap with each other. The formation process of SiC whisker includes two steps:nucleation and growth. SiC whisker nucleates at low temperature and grows at high temperature, which follows the VLS (vapor-liquid-solid growth mechanism.

  3. Synthesis of whiskers of SiC microwave assisted; Sintesis de whiskers de SiC asistida por microondas

    Garza-Mendez, F. J.; Vanegas, A. J.; Vazquez, B. A.; Garza-Paz, J.

    2013-06-01

    We developed a new process for the synthesis of SiC whiskers assisted by microwaves; this is based on the mixture of silica xerogels and graphite powder. As energy source were used microwaves of 2.45 GHz and 1.0 kW of power RMS. On the other hand, mesoporous silica was synthesized via sol-gel, the precursors used were TEOS/H{sub 2}O and ethanol. Through analysis of the BET is determined the value of average pore size (3.0 nm) and the surface area (1090 m2/g).By mean of X-Ray diffraction it was demonstrated that the silica obtained is an amorphous solid and, the powders obtained in the microwave synthesis are {beta}-SiC. Synthesized SiC powders were observed using a SEM in secondary electron mode, it was observed that this powders consists of SiC whiskers. The effect of microwaves on the synthesis of whiskers of SiC is discussed in the present work. (Author) 19 refs.

  4. The development of SiC whisker fabrication technology for nuclear applications

    Kang, Thae Khapp; Kuk, Il Hiun; Kim, Chang Kyu; Lee, Jae Chun; Lee, Ho Jin; Park, Soon Dong; Im, Gyeong Soo

    1991-02-01

    Some important experiments for whisker growth reactions, fabrication processes, and experiments for fabricarion of whisker reinforced composites have been performed. In order to investigate growth reaction of SiC whiskers, a conventional carbothermic reaction was tested. Based on the results of carbothermic process, a new process called silicothermic reaction was planned and some basic experiments were performed. Reaction characteristics of silicon monoxide, core material for SiC whisker growth in both of the reactions were investigated for basic data. Additionally, a hydrofluoric acid leaching process was tested for developing SiC whisker recovery process, and powder metallurgy process and melt sqeeze process were tried to develop aluminum-SiC whisker composites. (Author)

  5. Enhancing Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Epoxy Nanocomposites via Alignment of Magnetized SiC Whiskers.

    Townsend, James; Burtovyy, Ruslan; Aprelev, Pavel; Kornev, Konstantin G; Luzinov, Igor

    2017-07-12

    This research is focused on the fabrication and properties of epoxy nanocomposites containing magnetized SiC whiskers (MSiCWs). To this end, we report an original strategy for fabrication of magnetically active SiCWs by decorating the whiskers with magnetic (iron oxide) nanoparticles via polymer-polymer (poly(acrylic acid)/poly(2-vinyl pyridine)) complexation. The obtained whiskers demonstrated a substantial magnetic response in the polymerizing epoxy resin, with application of only a 20 mT (200 G) magnetic field. We also found that the whiskers chemically reacted with the epoxy resin, causing formation of an extended interphase near the boundary of the whiskers. The SiC whiskers oriented with the magnetic field demonstrated positive effects on the behavior of epoxy-based nanocomposites. Namely, the aligned MSiCWs enhanced the thermomechanical properties of the materials significantly above that of the neat epoxy and epoxy nanocomposite, with randomly oriented whiskers.

  6. The development of SiC whisker fabrication technology for nuclear applications

    Kang, Thae Khapp; Kuk, Il Hiun; Lee, Jae Chun; Rhee, Chang Kyu; Lee, Ho Jin; Park, Soon Dong

    1990-02-01

    Important process factors of carbothermic process for the growth of SiC whiskers were investigated. The crystalline form of silicon dioxide, amount of carbon addition, graphite, silicon, catalysts, additive and reaction temperature were chosen as the main factors. Morphology of the resultant products was grouped into 3 different types; whisker,noodle and power types. The addition of catalyst affected in most the formation of SiC whiskers. Effects of catalyst and additive additions and reaction atmospheres on the morphology anf growth of SiC whiskers were investigated, silicon monoxide power and carbon monoxide gas were used as the raw materials. The addition of an iron containing catalyst resulted in a very long thread-like growth of the whiskers, while that of sodium chloride helical curlings. Addition of hydrogen to the non-oxidizing atmosphere enhanced the whisker formations. Crystallization of amorphous silicon monoxide raw powder was investigated at high temperatures up to 1500 deg C in Ar atmosphere using graphite crucible. Up to 900 deg C no crystallization occurred, while at 1100 - 1300 deg C silicon formation, and at 1500 deg C silicon dioxide and silicon carbide formations were detected. A slight weight loss began 1300 deg C, and the weight loss became about 33 % at 1500 deg C. After the formation reaction of SiC whiskers, the reaction products were leached by hydrofluoric acids. The optimum concentration of the hydrofluoric acid was 2 %. (author)

  7. Composition of Whiskers Grown on Copper in Repository Environment

    Hermansson, Hans-Peter; Tarkpea, Peeter; Holgersson, Stellan

    2001-11-01

    There is a hypothesis that a special family of local attack on copper based on growth of whiskers of sulfide, oxide/hydroxide and also carbonate/malachite could appear in the repository environment. It was earlier demonstrated that such whiskers could grow in a laboratory simulated repository environment, containing sulfide. A suggested composition of whiskers has earlier been forwarded but was not demonstrated. In the present work whiskers and their substrates were grown and characterized by investigations with a combination of SEM-EDS, XRD and LRS (Laser Raman Spectroscopy) techniques. SEM-EDS was used to determine the morphology and an elemental composition and distribution of whiskers and their substrate. A special effort was made to find out if the whisker growth is of a local or global character. The phase status could be determined locally and globally by combining XRD and LRS techniques on whiskers and substrates. Ideally, LRS gives a phase resolution down to a radius of 1 μm on the sample surface. This is of great value as it is of interest to study if there are phase differences in different parts of a whisker. Such information is important to understand the whisker growth mechanism. Cylindrical samples of pure copper were prepared and exposed to the selected de-aerated model groundwater containing, among other ions, chloride and sulfide. Exposure was performed in sealed glass flasks under de-aerated conditions. After exposure the copper sample was investigated on the surface, in cross section and on whiskers using the mentioned techniques. The results show that a black, easily detached layer of corrosion products is formed on the sample surface. The corrosion layer was subdivided into at least five parallel strata (probably more) of different composition. Numerous small pits and shallow pitting attacks with a larger radius were observed in the copper metal and the metal surface was in general very rough. A multitude of very easily detached whiskers or

  8. Microstructure and fracture in SiC whisker reinforced 2124 aluminum composite

    Nieh, T. G.; Raninen, R. A.; Chellman, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    The microstructures of extruded and hot-rolled 2124 Al-15 percent (by weight) SiC whisker composites have been investigated, experimentally. Among the specific factors studied were: the strength of the whisker-matrix interfaces; (2) the presence of oxides; (3) the presence of defective whiskers; (4) and the presence of distribution of intermetallic compounds, impurities in the SiC(w) powder, and microstructural inhomogeneities. Modifications in the microstructure of the SiC/AL composites due to hot rolling and extrusion are illustrated in a series of microphotographs. It was found that hot rolling along the axis of extrusion was associated with some types of whisker damage, while the whiskers still retain their original orientation. Hot-rolling perpendicular to the axis of extrusion, however, tended to rotate the whiskers and produced a nearly isotropic material. Whisker free zones were virtually eliminated or reduced in size by hot rolling. In situ Auger fractography of the composite showed that the interfacial bonding between the SiC and the Al matrix was good and that Al2O2 had no significant influence on the fracture mechanics of the composite.

  9. Zirconia toughened SiC whisker reinforced alumina composites small business innovation research

    Loutfy, R. O.; Stuffle, K. L.; Withers, J. C.; Lee, C. T.

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this phase 1 project was to develop a ceramic composite with superior fracture toughness and high strength, based on combining two toughness inducing materials: zirconia for transformation toughening and SiC whiskers for reinforcement, in a controlled microstructure alumina matrix. The controlled matrix microstructure is obtained by controlling the nucleation frequency of the alumina gel with seeds (submicron alpha-alumina). The results demonstrate the technical feasibility of producing superior binary composites (Al2O3-ZrO2) and tertiary composites (Al2O3-ZrO2-SiC). Thirty-two composites were prepared, consolidated, and fracture toughness tested. Statistical analysis of the results showed that: (1) the SiC type is the key statistically significant factor for increased toughness; (2) sol-gel processing with a-alumina seed had a statistically significant effect on increasing toughness of the binary and tertiary composites compared to the corresponding mixed powder processing; and (3) ZrO2 content within the range investigated had a minor effect. Binary composites with an average critical fracture toughness of 6.6MPam sup 1/2, were obtained. Tertiary composites with critical fracture toughness in the range of 9.3 to 10.1 MPam sup 1/2 were obtained. Results indicate that these composites are superior to zirconia toughened alumina and SiC whisker reinforced alumina ceramic composites produced by conventional techniques with similar composition from published data.

  10. Conversion of wood flour/SiO2/phenolic composite to porous SiC ceramic containing SiC whiskers

    Li Zhong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel wood flour/SiO2/phenolic composite was chosen to be converted into porous SiC ceramic containing SiC whiskers via carbothermal reduction. At 1550°C the composite is converted into porous SiC ceramic with pore diameters of 10~40μm, and consisting of β-SiC located at the position of former wood cell walls. β-SiC wire-like whiskers of less than 50 nm in diameter and several tens to over 100 μm in length form within the pores. The surface of the resulting ceramic is coated with β-SiC necklace-like whiskers with diameters of 1~2μm.

  11. Effect of SiC whisker addition on the microstructures and mechanical properties of Ti(C, N)-based cermets

    Wu, Peng; Zheng, Yong; Zhao, Yongle; Yu, Haizhou

    2011-01-01

    Ti(C, N)-based cermets with addition of SiC whisker (SiC w ) were prepared by vacuum sintering. The microstructures of the prepared cermets were investigated by using X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Mechanical properties such as transverse rupture strength (TRS), fracture toughness (K IC ) and hardness (HRA) were also measured. It was found that the grain size of the cermets was affected by the SiC whisker addition. The cermets with 1.0 wt.% SiC whisker addition exhibited the smallest grain size. The porosities of the cermets increased with increasing SiC whisker additions. The addition of the SiC whisker had no influence on the phase constituents of the cermets. Compared with the cermets with no whisker addition, the highest TRS and fracture toughness for cermets with 1.0 wt.% SiC whisker addition increased by about 24% and 29%, respectively. The strengthening mechanisms were attributed to finer grain size, homogeneous microstructure and moderate thickness of rim phase. The toughening mechanisms were characterized by crack deflection, whisker bridging and whisker pulling-out.

  12. Grinding Characteristics Of Directionally Aligned SiC Whisker Wheel-Comparison With Al2O3 Fiber Wheel

    魏源迁; 山口胜美; 菊泽贤二; 洞口严; 中根正喜

    2003-01-01

    A unique SiC whisker wheel was invented,in which the whiskers were aligned normally to the grinding wheel surface.In this paper,grindabilities of the SiC whisker wheel are investigated and compared with those of other wheels of SiC grains,Al2O3 grains,as well as Al2O3 long and short fibres which were also aligned normally to the grinding wheel surface,respectively.The main research contents concern grinding characteristics of a directionally aligned SiC whisker wheel such as material-removal volume,wheel-wear rates,integrity of the ground surfaces,grinding ratios and grinding efficiency.Furthermore,grinding wheels of whiskers and fibres have a common disadvantage:they tend to load easily.The authors have proposed a simple method of loading-free grinding to overcome this propensity and investigate some related grinding characteristics under loading-free grinding conditions.

  13. Electroluminescence of Zn{sub 2}GeO{sub 4}:Mn through SiC whisker electric field enhancement

    Wagstaff, Brandon, E-mail: wagstabj@mcmaster.ca [McMaster University, Department of Engineering Physics, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 4L8 (Canada); Kitai, Adrian, E-mail: kitaia@mcmaster.ca [McMaster University, Department of Engineering Physics, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 4L8 (Canada); McMaster University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 4L8 (Canada)

    2015-11-15

    Alternating current (AC) electroluminescence of thin film oxide phosphors is well known. However in this work electroluminescence of bulk oxide powder phosphors is achieved. A new type of AC Electroluminescent (ACEL) device has been created and developed by integrating SiC whiskers into a phosphor matrix composed of manganese-activated zinc germanate (Zn{sub 2}GeO{sub 4}:Mn{sup 2+}). The conductive SiC whiskers enhance the average electric field in specific regions of the phosphor such that localized breakdown of the phosphor occurs, thus emitting green light. This field enhancement allows light emission to occur in thick film oxide powder phosphors and is notably the first time that bright and reasonably efficient electroluminescence of zinc germanate has been observed without using expensive thin film deposition techniques. Light emission has been achieved in thick pressed pellets using surface-deposited electrodes and the brightness-voltage characteristics of light emission are shown to be consistent with field emission of carriers from the embedded whiskers. - Highlights: • A new electroluminescent phosphor, Zn{sub 2}GeO{sub 4}Mn{sup 2+}+SiC whiskers, is proposed. • A procedure is described to fabricate a solid sample of this composite material. • Under an AC voltage, green light is emitted only in samples containing the SiC whiskers. • A brightness of 25 Cd/m{sup 2} and efficiency of 0.25 Lm/W is observed 9.6×10{sup 6} V/m. • This is notably the first time that ACEL has been observed in bulk Zn{sub 2}GeO{sub 4}Mn{sup 2+}.

  14. Fabrication of SiC Composites with Synergistic Toughening of Carbon Whisker and In Situ 3C-SiC Nanowire

    Zhang Yunlong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The SiC composites with synergistic toughening of carbon whisker and in situ 3C-SiC nanowire have been fabricated by hot press sinter technology and annealed treatment technology. Effect of annealed time on the morphology of SiC nanowires and mechanical properties of the Cw/SiC composites was surveyed in detail. The appropriate annealed time improved mechanical properties of the Cw/SiC composites. The synergistic effect of carbon whisker and SiC nanowire can improve the fracture toughness for Cw/SiC composites. The vapor-liquid-solid growth (VLS mechanism was proposed. TEM photo showed that 3C-SiC nanowire can be obtained with preferential growth plane ({111}, which corresponded to interplanar spacing about 0.25 nm.

  15. Effect of Reactant Concentration on the Microstructure of SiC Nano wires Grown In Situ within SiC Fiber Preforms

    Kim, Weon Ju; Kang, Seok Min; Park, Ji Yeon; Ryu, Woo Seog

    2006-01-01

    Silicon carbide fiber-reinforced silicon carbide matrix (SiC f /SiC) composites are considered as advanced materials for control rods and other in-core components of high-temperature gas cooled reactors. Although the carbon fiber-reinforced carbon matrix (C f /C) composites are more mature and have advantages in cost, manufacturability and some thermomechanical properties, the SiC f /SiC composites have a clear advantage in irradiation stability, specifically a lower level of swelling and retention of mechanical properties. This offers a lifetime component for control rod application to HTGRs while the Cf/C composites would require 2-3 replacements over the reactor lifetime. In general, the chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) technique has been used most widely to produce SiC f /SiC composites. Although the technique produces a highly pure SiC matrix, it requires a long processing time and inevitably contains large interbundle pores. The present authors have recently developed 'whisker growing-assisted process,' in which one-dimensional SiC nano structures with high aspect ratios such as whiskers, nano wires and nano rods are introduced into the fiber preform before the matrix infiltration step. This novel method can produce SiC f /SiC composites with a lower porosity and an uniform distribution of pores when compared with the conventional CVI. This would be expected to increase mechanical and thermal properties of the SiC f /SiC composites. In order to take full advantage of the whisker growing strategy, however, a homogeneous growth of long whiskers is required. In this study, we applied the atmospheric pressure CVI process without metallic catalysts for the growth of SiC nano wires within stacked SiC fiber fabrics. We focused on the effect of the concentration of a reactant gas on the growth behavior and microstructures of the SiC nano wires and discussed a controlling condition for the homogenous growth of long SiC nano wires

  16. Nanomechanical properties of SiC films grown from C{sub 60} precursors using atomic force microscopy

    Morse, K. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Balooch, M.; Hamza, A.V.; Belak, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The mechanical properties of SiC films grown via C{sub 60} precursors were determined using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Conventional silicon nitride and modified diamond cantilever AFM tips were employed to determine the film hardness, friction coefficient, and elastic modulus. The hardness is found to be between 26 and 40 GPa by nanoindentation of the film with the diamond tip. The friction coefficient for the silicon nitride tip on the SiC film is about one third that for silicon nitride sliding on a silicon substrate. By combining nanoindentation and AFM measurements an elastic modulus of {approximately}300 GPa is estimated for these SiC films. In order to better understand the atomic scale mechanisms that determine the hardness and friction of SiC, we simulated the molecular dynamics of a diamond indenting a crystalline SiC substrate.

  17. Microstructure of nitrides grown on inclined c-plane sapphire and SiC substrate

    Imura, M.; Honshio, A.; Miyake, Y.; Nakano, K.; Tsuchiya, N.; Tsuda, M.; Okadome, Y.; Balakrishnan, K.; Iwaya, M.; Kamiyama, S.; Amano, H.; Akasaki, I.

    2006-01-01

    High-quality (112-bar 0) GaN layers with atomically flat surface have been grown on a precisely offset-angle-controlled (11-bar 02) sapphire substrate by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE). Insertion of AlGaN layer between underlying AlN layer and GaN was found to improve crystalline quality of upper GaN layer. In addition, a combination of high growth condition followed and epitaxial lateral overgrowth has been employed for the growth of GaN and this helped in reducing the dislocation density in the resultant layers. GaN and AlN were grown on (303-bar 8) SiC substrates by MOVPE and sublimation methods, respectively. The crystal orientation of GaN and AlN could be just aligned to that of the substrate. Microstructure analysis of the layers was also carried out by transmission electron microscopy

  18. Pressureless sintering of whisker-toughened ceramic composites

    Tiegs, T.N.

    1993-05-04

    A pressureless sintering method is disclosed for use in the production of whisker-toughened ceramic composites wherein the sintered density of composites containing up to about 20 vol. % SiC whiskers is improved by reducing the average aspect ratio of the whiskers to from about 10 to about 20. Sintering aids further improve the density, permitting the production of composites containing 20 vol. % SiC with sintered densities of 94% or better of theoretical density by a pressureless sintering method.

  19. Diffusion bonding of an aluminium alloy (AA 2124) reinforced with SiC whiskers, using AL-Li interlayers (AA 8090)

    Urena, A.; Gomez de Salazar, J.M.; Escalera, M.D.; Escriche, E.

    1994-01-01

    The use of an AL-Li alloy as interlayer for the diffusion bonding of an aluminium matrix composite reinforced with silicon carbide whiskers has been studied. The influence of the different welding parameters on the joint microstructure and mechanical strength has also been analyzed. Besides, the failure mechanisms of shear tested joints have been investigated using fractographic techniques. (Author) 9 refs

  20. Multilayer epitaxial graphene grown on the (SiC 000 1-bar ) surface; structure and electronic properties

    Sprinkle, M; Hicks, J; Tinkey, H; Clark, M C; Hass, J; Conrad, E H; Tejeda, A; Taleb-Ibrahimi, A; Le Fevre, P; Bertran, F; Soukiassian, P; Martinotti, D

    2010-01-01

    We review the progress towards developing epitaxial graphene as a material for carbon electronics. In particular, we discuss improvements in epitaxial graphene growth, interface control and the understanding of multilayer epitaxial graphene's (MEG's) electronic properties. Although graphene grown on both polar faces of SiC will be discussed, our discussions will focus on graphene grown on the (0 0 0 1-bar ) C-face of SiC. The unique properties of C-face MEG have become apparent. These films behave electronically like a stack of nearly independent graphene sheets rather than a thin Bernal stacked graphite sample. The origins of multilayer graphene's electronic behaviour are its unique highly ordered stacking of non-Bernal rotated graphene planes. While these rotations do not significantly affect the inter-layer interactions, they do break the stacking symmetry of graphite. It is this broken symmetry that leads to each sheet behaving like isolated graphene planes.

  1. SiC nanofibers grown by high power microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition

    Honda, Shin-ichi; Baek, Yang-Gyu; Ikuno, Takashi; Kohara, Hidekazu; Katayama, Mitsuhiro; Oura, Kenjiro; Hirao, Takashi

    2003-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) nanofibers have been synthesized on Si substrates covered by Ni thin films using high power microwave chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Characterization using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) combined with electron energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) revealed that the resultant fibrous nanostructures were assigned to β-SiC with high crystallinity. The formation of SiC nanofibers can be explained by the vapor liquid solid (VLS) mechanism in which precipitation of SiC occurs from the supersaturated Ni nanoparticle containing Si and C

  2. A possibility of enhancing Jc in MgB2 film grown on metallic hastelloy tape with the use of SiC buffer layer

    Putri, W. B. K.; Kang, B.; Ranot, M.; Lee, J. H.; Kang, W. N.

    2014-01-01

    We have grown MgB 2 on SiC buffer layer by using metallic Hastelloy tape as the substrate. Hastelloy tape was chosen for its potential practical applications, mainly in the power cable industry. SiC buffer layers were deposited on Hastelloy tapes at 400, 500, and 600 degrees C by using a pulsed laser deposition method, and then by using a hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition technique, MgB 2 films were grown on the three different SiC buffer layers. An enhancement of critical current density values were noticed in the MgB 2 films on SiC/Hastelloy deposited at 500 and 600 degrees C. From the surface analysis, smaller and denser grains of MgB 2 tapes are likely to cause this enhancement. This result infers that the addition of SiC buffer layers may contribute to the improvement of superconducting properties of MgB 2 tapes.

  3. Transfer of Graphene Layers Grown on SiC Wafers to Other Substrates and Their Integration into Field Effect Transistors

    Unarunotai, Sakulsuk; Murata, Yuya; Chialvo, Cesar; Kim, Hoon-Sik; MacLaren, Scott; Mason, Nadya; Petrov, Ivan; Rogers, John

    2010-03-01

    An approach to produce graphene films by epitaxial growth on silicon carbide substrate is promising, but its current implementation requires the use of SiC as the device substrate. We present a simple method for transferring epitaxial sheets of graphene on SiC to other substrates. The graphene was grown on the (0001) face of 6H-SiC by thermal annealing in a hydrogen atmosphere. Transfer was accomplished using a peeling process with a bilayer film of Gold/polyimide, to yield graphene with square millimeters of coverage on the target substrate. Back gated field-effect transistors fabricated on oxidized silicon substrates with Cr/Au as source-drain electrodes exhibited ambipolar characteristics with hole mobilities of ˜100 cm^2/V-s, and negligible influence of resistance at the contacts. This work was supported by the U.S. DOE, under Award No. DE-FG02-07ER46471, through the Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

  4. Ion irradiation effects on the matrix phase of SiCf/SiC composites prepared by the whisker growing assisted CVI process

    Park, Kyeong Hwan; Park, Ji Yeon; Kang, Suk Min; Kim, Weon Ju; Jung, Choong Hwan; Ryu, Woo Seog

    2005-01-01

    SiC f /SiC composites are one of promising candidates for structural material of the next generation energy system such as GFR and fusion reactors. A number of fabrication methods have been studied for obtaining an outstanding SiC f /SiC composite with a high density, high crystallinity and purity. SiC f /SiC composites consisted of whisker-reinforced matrix have a great potential at the viewpoint both of the fabrication process and the mechanical properties. SiC whiskers formed between SiC fibers improve the densification of SiC matrix during CVI process. In addition, the reinforced whiskers would be likely to enhance the mechanical properties of matrix and SiC f /SiC composite. While there has been significant developmental work on manufacturing the SiC f /SiC composite by the whisker growing assisted CVI process, detailed understanding of what effects the complex in the operating conditions combined with realistic materials property data is not adequately understood. Especially, its irradiation effects are even less clear and not well understood. A method of charged-particle irradiation is the most important R and D topics for simulating the core conditions of the advanced nuclear systems. Many studies on radiation effects of SiC and SiC f /SiC composites using a method of ion irradiation have in progress for R and D of the advanced nuclear systems. In this present work, changes of the mechanical property of SiC whisker-reinforced matrix in SiC f /SiC composite were evaluated by means of the depth sensing indentation method before and after chargedparticle irradiation

  5. Photoluminescence studies of cubic phase GaN grown by molecular beam epitaxy on (001) silicon covered with SiC layer

    Godlewski, M.; Ivanov, V.Yu.; Bergman, J.P.; Monemar, B.; Barski, A.; Langer, R.

    1997-01-01

    In this work we evaluate optical properties of cubic phase GaN epilayers grown on top of (001) silicon substrate prepared by new process. Prior to the growth Si substrate was annealed at 1300-1400 o C in propane. The so-prepared substrate is covered within a thin (∼ 4 nm) SiC wafer, which allowed a successful growth of good morphological quality cubic phase GaN epilayers. The present results confirm recent suggestion on smaller ionization energies of acceptors in cubic phase GaN epilayers. (author)

  6. Unraveling the role of SiC or Si substrates in water vapor incorporation in SiO 2 films thermally grown using ion beam analyses

    Corrêa, S. A.; Soares, G. V.; Radtke, C.; Stedile, F. C.

    2012-02-01

    The incorporation of water vapor in SiO 2 films thermally grown on 6H-SiC(0 0 0 1) and on Si (0 0 1) was investigated using nuclear reaction analyses. Water isotopically enriched in deuterium ( 2H or D) and in 18O was used. The dependence of incorporated D with the water annealing temperature and initial oxide thickness were inspected. The D amount in SiO 2/SiC structures increases continuously with temperature and with initial oxide thickness, being incorporated in the surface, bulk, and interface regions of SiO 2 films. However, in SiO 2/Si, D is observed mostly in near-surface regions of the oxide and no remarkable dependence with temperature or initial oxide thickness was observed. At any annealing temperature, oxygen from water vapor was incorporated in all depths of the oxide films grown on SiC, in contrast with the SiO 2/Si.

  7. Determination of the thickness distribution of a graphene layer grown on a 2″ SiC wafer by means of Auger electron spectroscopy depth profiling

    Kotis, L.; Gurban, S.; Pecz, B.; Menyhard, M.; Yakimova, R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The thickness of graphene grown on SiC was determined by AES depth profiling. • The AES depth profiling verified the presence of buffer layer on SiC. • The presence of unsaturated Si bonds in the buffer layer has been shown. • Using multipoint analysis thickness distribution of the graphene on the wafer was determined. - Abstract: Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) depth profiling was applied for determination of the thickness of a macroscopic size graphene sheet grown on 2 in. 6H-SiC (0 0 0 1) by sublimation epitaxy. The measured depth profile deviated from the expected exponential form showing the presence of an additional, buffer layer. The measured depth profile was compared to the simulated one which allowed the derivation of the thicknesses of the graphene and buffer layers and the Si concentration of buffer layer. It has been shown that the graphene-like buffer layer contains about 30% unsaturated Si. The depth profiling was carried out in several points (diameter 50 μm), which permitted the constructing of a thickness distribution characterizing the uniformity of the graphene sheet

  8. Microscopic Structure of Metal Whiskers

    Borra, Vamsi; Georgiev, Daniel G.; Karpov, V. G.; Shvydka, Diana

    2018-05-01

    We present TEM images of the interior of metal whiskers (MWs) grown on electroplated Sn films. Along with earlier published information, our observations focus on a number of questions, such as, why MWs' diameters are in the micron range (significantly exceeding the typical nanosizes of nuclei in solids), why the diameters remain practically unchanged in the course of MW growth, what the nature of MW diameter stochasticity is, and what the origin of the well-known striation structure of MW side surfaces is. In an attempt to address such questions, we perform an in-depth study of MW structure at the nanoscale by detaching a MW from its original film, reducing its size to a thin slice by cutting its sides by a focused ion beam, and performing TEM on that structure. Also, we examine the root of the MW and Cu-Sn interface for the intermetallic compounds. Our TEM observations reveal a rich nontrivial morphology suggesting that MWs may consist of many side-by-side grown filaments. This structure appears to extend to the outside whisker surface and be the reason for the striation. In addition, we put forward a theory where nucleation of multiple thin metal needles results in micron-scale and larger MW diameters. This theory is developed in the average field approximation similar to the roughening transitions of metal surfaces. The theory also predicts MW nucleation barriers and other observed features.

  9. Significantly improved surface morphology of N-polar GaN film grown on SiC substrate by the optimization of V/III ratio

    Deng, Gaoqiang; Zhang, Yuantao; Yu, Ye; Yan, Long; Li, Pengchong; Han, Xu; Chen, Liang; Zhao, Degang; Du, Guotong

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, N-polar GaN films with different V/III ratios were grown on vicinal C-face SiC substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. During the growth of N-polar GaN film, the V/III ratio was controlled by adjusting the molar flow rate of ammonia while keeping the trimethylgallium flow rate unchanged. The influence of the V/III ratio on the surface morphology of N-polar GaN film has been studied. We find that the surface root mean square roughness of N-polar GaN film over an area of 20 × 20 μm2 can be reduced from 8.13 to 2.78 nm by optimization of the V/III ratio. Then, using the same growth conditions, N-polar InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were grown on the rough and the smooth N-polar GaN templates, respectively. Compared with the LED grown on the rough N-polar GaN template, dramatically improved interface sharpness and luminescence uniformity of the InGaN/GaN MQWs are achieved for the LED grown on the smooth N-polar GaN template.

  10. Water absorption in thermally grown oxides on SiC and Si: Bulk oxide and interface properties

    Liu, Gang [Institute for Advanced Materials, Devices and Nanotechnology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Xu, Can; Feldman, Leonard C. [Institute for Advanced Materials, Devices and Nanotechnology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Yakshinskiy, Boris; Wielunski, Leszek; Gustafsson, Torgny [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Bloch, Joseph [Institute for Advanced Materials, Devices and Nanotechnology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); NRCN, Beer-Sheva 84190 (Israel); Dhar, Sarit [Department of Physics, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849 (United States)

    2014-11-10

    We combine nuclear reaction analysis and electrical measurements to study the effect of water exposure (D{sub 2}O) on the n-type 4H-SiC carbon face (0001{sup ¯}) MOS system and to compare to standard silicon based structures. We find that: (1) The bulk of the oxides on Si and SiC behave essentially the same with respect to deuterium accumulation; (2) there is a significant difference in accumulation of deuterium at the semiconductor/dielectric interface, the SiC C-face structure absorbs an order of magnitude more D than pure Si; (3) standard interface passivation schemes such as NO annealing greatly reduce the interfacial D accumulation; and (4) the effective interfacial charge after D{sub 2}O exposure is proportional to the total D amount at the interface.

  11. Silicon carbide whiskers with superlattice structure: A precursor for a new type of nanoreactor

    Lutsenko, Vadym G.

    2008-01-01

    Silicon carbide whiskers exhibit growth predominantly in the direction. The high level of impurities, stacking faults and nanosized twins govern the formation of homojunctions and heterojunctions in crystals. The structure of the whiskers comprises a hybrid superlattice, i.e. contains elements of doped and composite superlattices. An individual SiC whisker can contain hundreds of quantum wells with anomalous chemical properties. This paper shows that it is possible to selectively etch quantum wells and to construct whiskers with quasi-regularly distributed slit-like nanopores (nanoreactors), which are bordered by polar planes {1 1 1}, {0 0 0 1} or a combination of them, and also to produce flat SiC nanocrystals bordered by polar planes

  12. X-ray absorption near-edge structure of GaN with high Mn concentration grown on SiC

    Sancho-Juan, O.; Cantarero, A.; Garro, N.; Cros, A.; Martínez-Criado, G.; Salomé, M.; Susini, J.; Olguín, D.; Dhar, S.

    2009-07-01

    By means of x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) several Ga1-xMnxN (0.03grown by molecular beam epitaxy on [0001] SiC substrates. The low mismatch between GaN and SiC allows for a good quality and homogeneity of the material. The measurements were performed in fluorescence mode around both the Ga and Mn K edges. All samples studied present a similar Mn ionization state, very close to 2+, and tetrahedral coordination. In order to interpret the near-edge structure, we have performed ab initio calculations using the full potential linear augmented plane wave method as implemented in the Wien2k code. The calculations show the appearance of a Mn bonding \\mathrm {t_{2}}\\uparrow band localized in the gap region, and the corresponding anti-bonding state \\mathrm {t_{2}}\\downarrow , which seem to be responsible for the double structure which appears at the pre-edge absorption region. The shoulders and main absorption peak of the XANES spectra are attributed to transitions from the Mn(1s) band to the conduction bands, which are partially dipole allowed because of the Mn(4p) contribution to these bands.

  13. X-ray absorption near-edge structure of GaN with high Mn concentration grown on SiC

    Sancho-Juan, O; Cantarero, A; Garro, N; Cros, A [Materials Science Institute, University of Valencia, PO Box 22085, E46071 Valencia (Spain); Martinez-Criado, G; Salome, M; Susini, J [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, 38043 Grenoble (France); Olguin, D [Dept. de Fisica, CINVESTAV-IPN, 07300 Mexico D F (Mexico); Dhar, S [Experimentalphysik, Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, Lotharstrasse 1, 47057 Duisburg (Germany)

    2009-07-22

    By means of x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) several Ga{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}N (0.03grown by molecular beam epitaxy on [0001] SiC substrates. The low mismatch between GaN and SiC allows for a good quality and homogeneity of the material. The measurements were performed in fluorescence mode around both the Ga and Mn K edges. All samples studied present a similar Mn ionization state, very close to 2+, and tetrahedral coordination. In order to interpret the near-edge structure, we have performed ab initio calculations using the full potential linear augmented plane wave method as implemented in the Wien2k code. The calculations show the appearance of a Mn bonding t{sub 2}arrow up band localized in the gap region, and the corresponding anti-bonding state t{sub 2}arrow down, which seem to be responsible for the double structure which appears at the pre-edge absorption region. The shoulders and main absorption peak of the XANES spectra are attributed to transitions from the Mn(1s) band to the conduction bands, which are partially dipole allowed because of the Mn(4p) contribution to these bands.

  14. Silicon carbide whisker reinforced composites and method for making same

    Wei, G.C.

    1984-02-09

    The present invention is directed to the fabrication of ceramic composites which possess improved mechanical properties, especially increased fracture toughness. In the formation of these ceramic composites, the single-crystal SiC whiskers are mixed with fine ceramic powders of a ceramic material such as Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, mullite, or B/sub 4/C. The mixtures which contain a homogeneous dispersion of the SiC whiskers are hot pressed at pressures in a range of about 28 to 70 MPa and temperatures in the range of about 1600 to 1950/sup 0/C with pressing times varying from about 0.75 to 2.5 hours. The resulting ceramic composites show an increase in fracture toughness of up to about 9 MPa.m/sup 1/2/ which represents as much as a two-fold increase over that of the matrix material.

  15. PEALD grown high-k ZrO{sub 2} thin films on SiC group IV compound semiconductor

    Khairnar, A. G., E-mail: agkhairnar@gmail.com; Patil, V. S.; Agrawal, K. S.; Salunke, R. S.; Mahajan, A. M., E-mail: ammahajan@nmu.ac.in [North Maharashtra University, Department of Electronics, School of Physical Sciences (India)

    2017-01-15

    The study of ZrO{sub 2} thin films on SiC group IV compound semiconductor has been studied as a high mobility substrates. The ZrO{sub 2} thin films were deposited using the Plasma Enhanced Atomic Layer Deposition System. The thickness of the thin films were measured using ellipsometer and found to be 5.47 nm. The deposited ZrO{sub 2} thin films were post deposition annealed in rapid thermal annealing chamber at temperature of 400°Ð¡. The atomic force microscopy and X-гау photoelectron spectroscopy has been carried out to study the surface topography, roughness and chemical composition of thin film, respectively.

  16. Preparation of mullite whiskers reinforced SiC/Al2O3 composites by microwave sintering

    Wei Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mullite whiskers reinforced SiC/Al2O3 composites were prepared by microwave sintering in a microwave chamber with TE666 resonant mode. Original SiC particles were coated with SiO2 using sol-gel processing and mixed with Al2O3 particles. Mullite was formed in the reaction between SiO2 and Al2O3. The isostatically pressed cylindrical pellets were sintered from 1350 °C to 1600 °C for 30 min. Physical and chemical responses were investigated by detecting changes in reflected power during the microwave sintering process. XRD was carried out to characterize the samples and showed that mullite could be formed at 1200 °C. Bridging of mullite whiskers between Al2O3 and SiC particles was observed by SEM and is due to a so-called local hot spot effect, which was the unique feature for microwave sintering. The optimized microwave sintering temperature was 1500 °C corresponding to the maximum amount of mullite whiskers within SiC/Al2O3 composites. The high electro-magnetic field enhanced the decomposition of mullite at higher temperatures above 1550 °C. The mechanical properties of mullite whiskers reinforced SiC/Al2O3 composites are much better than the SiC/Al2O3 composites without mullite whiskers.

  17. Tin Whisker Testing and Modeling

    2015-11-01

    to 25°C/85%RH. The greatest whisker nucleation and growth occurred on the Cu alloy lead terminations. During high humidity isothermal exposure...Circuits, Lead-Free Solder, Electronic Assembly, Humidity Exposure, Thermal Cycling, Corrosion, Contamination, Whisker Length Statistics 16. SECURITY...rework fluxes, and immersion Sn finished Cu circuit board pads. The assemblies were exposed to various thermal cycling and isothermal high humidity and

  18. Properties of ZnO whiskers under CO2-laser irradiation

    Shkumbatyuk, P. S.

    2010-01-01

    Needlelike ZnO single crystals (whiskers) 0.3-0.8 mm long and 1-10 μm in diameter with a resistivity from 3 x 10 2 to 1 Ω cm have been grown under cw CO 2 -laser irradiation. The whiskers exhibit weak electroluminescence caused by injection from contacts with participation of intrinsic defects, which affect the electric field distribution.

  19. Mitigating tin whisker risks theory and practice

    Handwerker, Carol A; Bath, Jasbir

    2016-01-01

    Discusses the growth mechanisms of tin whiskers and the effective mitigation strategies necessary to reduce whisker growth risks. This book covers key tin whisker topics, ranging from fundamental science to practical mitigation strategies. The text begins with a review of the characteristic properties of local microstructures around whisker and hillock grains to identify why these particular grains and locations become predisposed to forming whiskers and hillocks. The book discusses the basic properties of tin-based alloy finishes and the effects of various alloying elements on whisker formation, with a focus on potential mechanisms for whisker suppression or enhancement for each element. Tin whisker risk mitigation strategies for each tier of the supply chain for high reliability electronic systems are also described.

  20. High-temperature deformation of SiC-whisker-reinforced MgO-PSZ/mullite composites

    Parthasarathy, T.A.; Hay, R.S.; Ruh, R.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of 33.5 vol% SiC whisker loading on high-temperature deformation of 1 wt% MgO-38.5 wt% zirconia-mullite composites was studied between 1,300 and 1,400 C. At strain rates of 10 -6 to 5 x 10 -4 /s the creep resistance of zirconia-mullite composites without SiC reinforcement was inferior to monolithic mullite of similar grain size. Analysis of the results suggested that the decreased creep resistance of mullite-zirconia composites compared to pure mullite could be at least partially explained by mechanical effects of the weaker zirconia phase, increased effective diffusivity of mullite by zirconia addition, and to the differences in mullite grain morphology. With SiC whisker reinforcement, the deformation rate at high stress was nearly the same as that of the unreinforced material, but at low stress the creep rates of the SiC-reinforced material were significantly lowered. The stress dependence of the creep rate of unreinforced material suggested that diffusional creep was the operative mechanism, while the reinforced material behaved as if a threshold stress for creep existed. The threshold stress could be rationalized based on a whisker network model. This was supported by data on other whisker-containing materials; however, the threshold stress had a temperature dependence that was orders of magnitude higher than the elastic constants, leaving the physical model incomplete. The effects of residual stresses and amorphous phases at whisker/matrix interfaces are invoked to help complete the physical model for creep threshold stress

  1. Metal Whiskers: A Discussion of Risks and Mitigation

    2010-11-30

    efforts to investigate – Chromate conversion finishes DO NOT appear to stop whisker formation [4] S. Arnold, "Repressing the Growth of Tin Whiskers...November 30, 2010 Metal Whiskers 10 Examples of Metal Whiskers Zinc-Plated Steel Bus Rail with Yellow Chromate Conversion Finish Zinc whiskers grew...Metal Whiskers 11 Examples of Metal Whiskers Tin-Plated D-Sub Connector Shell Connector Advertised as “RoHS Compliant” November 30, 2010 Metal

  2. Effect of high temperature annealing on the grain size of CVD-grown SiC and experimental PBMR TRISO coated particles

    Mokoduwe, SM

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available in the PBMR fuel SiC layer. square samples were cut from the original sample received from ORNL and prepared for grain size Prague, Czech Republic, October 18 – 2000 °C. These no significant ion of how the 8] also ge is also of tal THODS -Si... for grain size determination Fig. 5: Influence of high temperature annealing on the CVD ORNL polycrystalline 3 C-SiC. Fig. 6: Influence of high temperature annealing on the polycrystalline 3 C-SiC layer of PBMR TRISO CP batches D and E...

  3. Whiskers and fibers of hydroxyapatite; Whiskers e fibras de hidroxiapatita

    Cardoso, G.B.C.; Motisuke, M.; Zavaglia, C.A.C., E-mail: guicardoso@fem.unicamp.b [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais; Arruda, A.C.F. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Engenharia de Petroleo

    2009-07-01

    Hydroxyapatite is a bioactive ceramic, which acts in tissue engineering by attracting bone cells. Occasionally it can be used as a biocompatible reinforcement. The mechanical role of this biomaterial can be defined depending of some characteristics analyzed by scanning electron microscope and X ray power diffraction. It can be classified in whiskers and fibers; each one has their own properties, which were discussed in this work. For its use as reinforcement it is necessary matrix with specific characteristics. (author)

  4. The crystallographic growth directions of Sn whiskers

    Stein, J.; Welzel, U.; Leineweber, A.; Huegel, W.; Mittemeijer, E.J.

    2015-01-01

    The growth directions of 55 Sn whiskers, i.e. the crystallographic orientation parallel to the whisker-growth axes, were determined using (i) a focused ion beam microscope for the determination of the physical growth angles of the whiskers with respect to a specimen (reference) coordinate system and (ii) an electron backscatter detector in a scanning electron microscope for the determination of the crystallographic orientation of the whiskers. The Sn whiskers were found to grow preferentially along low-index directions of the β-Sn crystal structure. The experimental findings of this study (and most of the results presented in the literature as well) were explained by applying, in a modified way, the Hartman–Perdok concept of periodic bond chains, i.e. chains of strong bonds running uninterruptedly through the structure, to the Sn whisker-growth phenomenon

  5. Sn whiskers removed by energy photo flashing

    Jiang, N.; Yang, M.; Novak, J.; Igor, P.; Osterman, M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Sn whiskers were sintered by intense light flashing (Photosintering). ► Photosintering can effectively eliminate Sn whiskers. ► Photosintering would not damage electronic devices. ► Photosintering is a very promising approach to improve Sn-based electronic surface termination. - Abstract: Sn whiskers have been known to be the major issue resulting in electronic circuit shorts. In this study, we present a novel energy photo flashing approach (photosintering) to shorten and eliminate Sn whiskers. It has been found that photosintering is very effective to modify and remove Sn whiskers; only a sub-millisecond duration photosintering can amazingly get rid of over 90 vol.% of Sn whiskers. Moreover, this photosintering approach has also been proved to cause no damages to electronic devices, suggesting it is a potentially promising way to improve Sn-based electronic surface termination.

  6. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Tin Whisker (and Other Metal Whisker) Homepage

    Brusse, Jay; Sampson, Mike; Leidecker, Henning; Kadesch, Jong

    2004-01-01

    This website provides information about tin whiskers and related research. The independent research performed during the past 50+ years is so vast that it is impractical to cover all aspects of tin whiskers in this one resource. Therefore, the absence of information in this website about a particular aspect of tin whiskers should NOT be construed as evidence of absence.

  7. Electric field stimulated growth of Zn whiskers

    Niraula, D.; McCulloch, J.; Warrell, G. R.; Irving, R.; Karpov, V. G.; Shvydka, Diana

    2016-07-01

    We have investigated the impact of strong (˜104 V/cm) electric fields on the development of Zn whiskers. The original samples, with considerable whisker infestation were cut from Zn-coated steel floors and then exposed to electric fields stresses for 10-20 hours at room temperature. We used various electric field sources, from charges accumulated in samples irradiated by: (1) the electron beam of a scanning electron microscope (SEM), (2) the electron beam of a medical linear accelerator, and (3) the ion beam of a linear accelerator; we also used (4) the electric field produced by a Van der Graaf generator. In all cases, the exposed samples exhibited a considerable (tens of percent) increase in whiskers concentration compared to the control sample. The acceleration factor defined as the ratio of the measured whisker growth rate over that in zero field, was estimated to approach several hundred. The statistics of lengths of e-beam induced whiskers was found to follow the log-normal distribution known previously for metal whiskers. The observed accelerated whisker growth is attributed to electrostatic effects. These results offer promise for establishing whisker-related accelerated life testing protocols.

  8. Electric field stimulated growth of Zn whiskers

    Niraula, D.; McCulloch, J.; Irving, R.; Karpov, V. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Warrell, G. R.; Shvydka, Diana, E-mail: diana.shvydka@utoledo.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toledo Health Science Campus, Toledo, Ohio 43614 (United States)

    2016-07-15

    We have investigated the impact of strong (∼10{sup 4} V/cm) electric fields on the development of Zn whiskers. The original samples, with considerable whisker infestation were cut from Zn-coated steel floors and then exposed to electric fields stresses for 10-20 hours at room temperature. We used various electric field sources, from charges accumulated in samples irradiated by: (1) the electron beam of a scanning electron microscope (SEM), (2) the electron beam of a medical linear accelerator, and (3) the ion beam of a linear accelerator; we also used (4) the electric field produced by a Van der Graaf generator. In all cases, the exposed samples exhibited a considerable (tens of percent) increase in whiskers concentration compared to the control sample. The acceleration factor defined as the ratio of the measured whisker growth rate over that in zero field, was estimated to approach several hundred. The statistics of lengths of e-beam induced whiskers was found to follow the log-normal distribution known previously for metal whiskers. The observed accelerated whisker growth is attributed to electrostatic effects. These results offer promise for establishing whisker-related accelerated life testing protocols.

  9. Li induced effects in the core level and π-band electronic structure of graphene grown on C-face SiC

    Johansson, Leif I., E-mail: lij@ifm.liu.se; Xia, Chao; Virojanadara, Chariya [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, SE-58183 Linköping (Sweden)

    2015-11-15

    Studies of the effects induced in the electronic structure after Li deposition, and subsequent heating, on graphene samples prepared on C-face SiC are reported. The as prepared graphene samples are essentially undoped, but after Li deposition, the Dirac point shifts down to 1.2 eV below the Fermi level due to electron doping. The shape of the C 1s level also indicates a doping concentration of around 10{sup 14 }cm{sup −2} after Li deposition, when compared with recent calculated results of core level spectra of graphene. The C 1s, Si 2p, and Li 1s core level results show little intercalation directly after deposition but that most of the Li has intercalated after heating at 280 °C. Heating at higher temperatures leads to desorption of Li from the sample, and at 1030 °C, Li can no longer be detected on the sample. The single π-band observable from multilayer C-face graphene samples in conventional angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy is reasonably sharp both on the initially prepared sample and after Li deposition. After heating at 280 °C, the π-band appears more diffuse and possibly split. The Dirac point becomes located at 0.4 eV below the Fermi level, which indicates occurrence of a significant reduction in the electron doping concentration. Constant energy photoelectron distribution patterns extracted from the as prepared graphene C-face sample and also after Li deposition and heating at 280 °C look very similar to earlier calculated distribution patterns for monolayer graphene.

  10. Li induced effects in the core level and π-band electronic structure of graphene grown on C-face SiC

    Johansson, Leif I.; Xia, Chao; Virojanadara, Chariya

    2015-01-01

    Studies of the effects induced in the electronic structure after Li deposition, and subsequent heating, on graphene samples prepared on C-face SiC are reported. The as prepared graphene samples are essentially undoped, but after Li deposition, the Dirac point shifts down to 1.2 eV below the Fermi level due to electron doping. The shape of the C 1s level also indicates a doping concentration of around 10 14  cm −2 after Li deposition, when compared with recent calculated results of core level spectra of graphene. The C 1s, Si 2p, and Li 1s core level results show little intercalation directly after deposition but that most of the Li has intercalated after heating at 280 °C. Heating at higher temperatures leads to desorption of Li from the sample, and at 1030 °C, Li can no longer be detected on the sample. The single π-band observable from multilayer C-face graphene samples in conventional angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy is reasonably sharp both on the initially prepared sample and after Li deposition. After heating at 280 °C, the π-band appears more diffuse and possibly split. The Dirac point becomes located at 0.4 eV below the Fermi level, which indicates occurrence of a significant reduction in the electron doping concentration. Constant energy photoelectron distribution patterns extracted from the as prepared graphene C-face sample and also after Li deposition and heating at 280 °C look very similar to earlier calculated distribution patterns for monolayer graphene

  11. Growth, characterization, and physical properties of Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O superconducting whiskers

    Kraak, W.; Thiele, P.

    1996-01-01

    Single crystal whiskers of the Bi-based high-T c superconductors have been grown directly from the stoichiometric melt. Conditions for the preferable growth of the (2212) phase and annealing conditions for the conversion from the (2212) phase to the (2223) and (2234) Bi-based superconducting phases are achieved. The orientation and chemical composition of the crystals were characterized by X-ray diffractometry and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Characteristic structural properties of the whiskers (incommensurable modulation in b-direction, peculiarities of dislocation networks) have been revealed by transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction. Some special features of the broad superconducting transition in multiphase whiskers have been examined by spatially resolved measurements using low-temperature scanning electron microscopy. (orig.)

  12. Tapered whiskers are required for active tactile sensation.

    Hires, Samuel Andrew; Pammer, Lorenz; Svoboda, Karel; Golomb, David

    2013-11-19

    Many mammals forage and burrow in dark constrained spaces. Touch through facial whiskers is important during these activities, but the close quarters makes whisker deployment challenging. The diverse shapes of facial whiskers reflect distinct ecological niches. Rodent whiskers are conical, often with a remarkably linear taper. Here we use theoretical and experimental methods to analyze interactions of mouse whiskers with objects. When pushed into objects, conical whiskers suddenly slip at a critical angle. In contrast, cylindrical whiskers do not slip for biologically plausible movements. Conical whiskers sweep across objects and textures in characteristic sequences of brief sticks and slips, which provide information about the tactile world. In contrast, cylindrical whiskers stick and remain stuck, even when sweeping across fine textures. Thus the conical whisker structure is adaptive for sensor mobility in constrained environments and in feature extraction during active haptic exploration of objects and surfaces. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01350.001.

  13. Whiskers aid anemotaxis in rats.

    Yu, Yan S W; Graff, Matthew M; Bresee, Chris S; Man, Yan B; Hartmann, Mitra J Z

    2016-08-01

    Observation of terrestrial mammals suggests that they can follow the wind (anemotaxis), but the sensory cues underlying this ability have not been studied. We identify a significant contribution to anemotaxis mediated by whiskers (vibrissae), a modality previously studied only in the context of direct tactile contact. Five rats trained on a five-alternative forced-choice airflow localization task exhibited significant performance decrements after vibrissal removal. In contrast, vibrissal removal did not disrupt the performance of control animals trained to localize a light source. The performance decrement of individual rats was related to their airspeed threshold for successful localization: animals that found the task more challenging relied more on the vibrissae for localization cues. Following vibrissal removal, the rats deviated more from the straight-line path to the air source, choosing sources farther from the correct location. Our results indicate that rats can perform anemotaxis and that whiskers greatly facilitate this ability. Because air currents carry information about both odor content and location, these findings are discussed in terms of the adaptive significance of the interaction between sniffing and whisking in rodents.

  14. Reduction of the internal electric field in GaN/AlN quantum dots grown on the a-plane of SiC substrates

    Garro, N.; Cros, A.; Budagosky, J.A.; Cantarero, A. [Institut de Ciencia dels Materials, Universitat de Valencia, 46071 Valencia (Spain); Vinattieri, A.; Gurioli, M. [INFM, Dept. of Physics and LENS, Universita di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Founta, S.; Mariette, H.; Daudin, B. [CEA-CNRS Group ' ' Nanophysique et Semiconducteurs' ' , Departement de Recherche Fondamentale sur la Matiere Condensee, CEA Grenoble, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France)

    2005-11-01

    We present a study of the emission of a multi-layer stack of self-assembled GaN/AlN quantum dots grown on the a-plane of 6H-SiC. We look for signatures of the internal electric field in the power dependence of the time-integrated and time-resolved photoluminescence spectra. The lack of a dynamical red-shift reveals that internal electric fields are significantly reduced in these dots. A band on the low energy side of the emission is observed whose intensity quenches fast when increasing the temperature. The polarization selection rules of the emission are examined in order to determine the physical nature of this band. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  15. Fabrication and characterization of intrinsic Josephson junctions in RE-123 whiskers

    Okutsu, T.; Ueda, S.; Ishii, S.; Nagasawa, M.; Takano, Y.

    2008-01-01

    The series of REBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ RE-123; RE = Y, Eu, Gd, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, and Lu) single-crystal whiskers have been successfully grown using the Te- or Sb-doping method. Intrinsic Josephson junctions (IJJs) were fabricated from the whiskers using a focused ion beam (FIB). As-grown IJJs with T c > 70 K showed a Josephson current but no multi-branches in the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics. Under-doped specimens were obtained by a post-annealing process. As-grown IJJs with lower T c and all the specimens of the post-annealed IJJs showed clear multi-branched structure. The post-annealing reduced the critical temperature (T c ) and the critical current density (J c ) of the IJJs, and increased the anisotropic parameter γ

  16. Defect-induced polytype transformations in LPE grown SiC epilayers on (1 1 1) 3C-SiC seeds grown by VLS on 6H-SiC

    Marinova, Maya; Zoulis, Georgios; Robert, Teddy; Mercier, Frederic; Mantzari, Alkioni; Galben, Irina; Kim-Hak, Olivier; Lorenzzi, Jean; Juillaguet, Sandrine; Chaussende, Didier; Ferro, Gabriel; Camassel, Jean; Polychroniadis, Efstathios K.

    2009-01-01

    The results of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with low-temperature photoluminescence (LTPL) and Raman studies of liquid phase grown epilayers on top of a vapor liquid solid (VLS) grown 3C-SiC buffer layer are compared. While the 6H-SiC substrate was completely covered by the 3C-SiC seed after the first VLS process, degradation occurred during the early stage of the liquid phase epitaxy process. This resulted in polytype instabilities, such that several rhombohedral forms stabilized one after the other. These (21R-SiC, 57R-SiC) eventually led after few microns to a final transition back to 6H-SiC. This interplay of polytypes resulted in a complex optical signature, with specific LTPL and Raman features.

  17. Correlation between (in)commensurate domains of multilayer epitaxial graphene grown on SiC(0 0 0 1-bar ) and single layer electronic behavior

    Mendes-de-Sa, T G; Goncalves, A M B; Matos, M J S; Coelho, P M; Magalhaes-Paniago, R; Lacerda, R G

    2012-01-01

    A systematic study of the evolution of the electronic behavior and atomic structure of multilayer epitaxial graphene (MEG) as a function of growth time was performed. MEG was obtained by sublimation of a 4H-SiC(0 0 0 1-bar ) substrate in an argon atmosphere. Raman spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction were carried out in samples grown for different times. For 30 min of growth the sample Raman signal is similar to that of graphite, while for 60 min the spectrum becomes equivalent to that of exfoliated graphene. Conventional x-ray diffraction reveals that all the samples have two different (0001) lattice spacings. Grazing incidence x-ray diffraction shows that thin films are composed of rotated (commensurate) structures formed by adjacent graphene layers. Thick films are almost completely disordered. This result can be directly correlated to the single layer electronic behavior of the films as observed by Raman spectroscopy. Finally, to understand the change in lattice spacings as a result of layer rotation, we have carried out first principles calculations (using density functional theory) of the observed commensurate structures. (paper)

  18. Chemical vapor deposition of tetraboron silicide whiskers

    Motozima, Seizi; Sugiyama, Kozoh; Takahashi, Yasutaka

    1975-01-01

    Growth conditions of B 4 Si whiskers were investigated at the temperature range of 1000 - 1100 0 C. Optimum composition of halides was determined as BCl 3 /SiCl 4 =2 - 0.5, and BCl 3 =1 - 6 vol%, SiCl 4 =1 - 7 vol%. Gold had an excellent impurity effect with optimum concentration of 20 - 50 μg/cm 2 on whisker growth, and gave wool like whiskers of 0.1 - 1 μ in thickness and 0.5 - 2 mm in length. B 4 Si whisker growth was explained in terms of a tip VLS mechanism, for a drop-like deposit of impurity was observed on each tip. (auth.)

  19. Inorganic-whisker-reinforced polymer composites synthesis, properties and applications

    Sun, Qiuju

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic-Whisker-Reinforced Polymer Composites: Synthesis, Properties and Applications gives a comprehensive presentation of inorganic microcrystalline fibers, or whiskers, a polymer composite filler. It covers whisker synthesis, surface modification, applications for reinforcing polymer-matrix composites, and analysis of resulting filled polymer composites. It focuses on calcium carbonate whiskers as a primary case study, introducing surface treatment methods for calcium carbonate whiskers and factors that influence them. Along with calcium carbonate, the book discusses potassium titanate and aluminum borate whiskers, which also comprise the new generation of inorganic whiskers. According to research results, composites filled by inorganic whiskers show improved strength, wear-resistance, thermal conductivity, and antistatic properties. It explains the importance of modifying polymer materials for use with inorganic whiskers and describes preparation and evaluation methods of polymers filled with inorganic ...

  20. Cellulose whisker/epoxy resin nanocomposites.

    Tang, Liming; Weder, Christoph

    2010-04-01

    New nanocomposites composed of cellulose nanofibers or "whiskers" and an epoxy resin were prepared. Cellulose whiskers with aspect ratios of approximately 10 and approximately 84 were isolated from cotton and sea animals called tunicates, respectively. Suspensions of these whiskers in dimethylformamide were combined with an oligomeric difunctional diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A with an epoxide equivalent weight of 185-192 and a diethyl toluenediamine-based curing agent. Thin films were produced by casting these mixtures and subsequent curing. The whisker content was systematically varied between 4 and 24% v/v. Electron microscopy studies suggest that the whiskers are evenly dispersed within the epoxy matrix. Dynamic mechanical thermoanalysis revealed that the glass transition temperature (T(g)) of the materials was not significantly influenced by the incorporation of the cellulose filler. Between room temperature and 150 degrees C, i.e., below T(g), the tensile storage moduli (E') of the nanocomposites increased modestly, for example from 1.6 GPa for the neat polymer to 4.9 and 3.6 GPa for nanocomposites comprising 16% v/v tunicate or cotton whiskers. The relative reinforcement was more significant at 185 degrees C (i.e., above T(g)), where E' was increased from approximately 16 MPa (neat polymer) to approximately 1.6 GPa (tunicate) or approximately 215 MPa (cotton). The mechanical properties of the new materials are well-described by the percolation model and are the result of the formation of a percolating whisker network in which stress transfer is facilitated by strong interactions between the whiskers.

  1. Irradiation induced creep in whiskers of NaCl

    Khan, J.A.A.

    1977-09-01

    Whiskers of NaCl have been grown and irradiated under flexion by X-rays (approximately 2x10 7 R/h) at room temperature and the residual curvature measured. Complete recovery of the initial form of the whisker within an hour's annealing at 400 0 C proves clearly that the observed deformation (creep) is due to the presence of dislocation loops. The choice of NaCl extremely simplifies the experiment and its interpretation since X-rays create point defects one by one. Moreover, this mode of irradiation, at room temperature, produces a very simple situation: perfect interstitial dislocation loops and immobile point defects which are little influenced by the applied stress. The flexion leads to a stress system which hardly differs from an uniaxial stress. One can study separately the preferential nucleation of dislocation loops and their differential growth by carrying out an irradiation under stress followed by an irradiation without stress and vice versa. It is shown that the induced creep is mostly due to the preferential nucleation of dislocation loops and is little affected by the differential growth of these loops. The nucleation period of the loops is very short: a dose of approximately 10 -5 d.p.a. is largely sufficient for the quasi completion of dislocation loops in a crystal having an impurity concentration of approximately 10 -3 [fr

  2. An Empirical Model for Estimating the Probability of Electrical Short Circuits from Tin Whiskers-Part I

    Courey, Karim; Wright, Clara; Asfour, Shihab; Bayliss, Jon; Ludwig, Larry

    2008-01-01

    Existing risk simulations make the assumption that when a free tin whisker has bridged two adjacent exposed electrical conductors, the result is an electrical short circuit. This conservative assumption is made because shorting is a random event that has a currently unknown probability associated with it. Due to contact resistance, electrical shorts may not occur at lower voltage levels. In this experiment, we study the effect of varying voltage on the breakdown of the contact resistance which leads to a short circuit. From this data, we can estimate the probability of an electrical short, as a function of voltage, given that a free tin whisker has bridged two adjacent exposed electrical conductors. In addition, three tin whiskers grown from the same Space Shuttle Orbiter card guide used in the aforementioned experiment were cross sectioned and studied using a focused ion beam (FIB).

  3. Influence of defects in SiC (0001) on epitaxial graphene

    Guo Yu; Guo Li-Wei; Lu Wei; Huang Jiao; Jia Yu-Ping; Sun Wei; Li Zhi-Lin; Wang Yi-Fei

    2014-01-01

    Defects in silicon carbide (SiC) substrate are crucial to the properties of the epitaxial graphene (EG) grown on it. Here we report the effect of defects in SiC on the crystalline quality of EGs through comparative studies of the characteristics of the EGs grown on SiC (0001) substrates with different defect densities. It is found that EGs on high quality SiC possess regular steps on the surface of the SiC and there is no discernible D peak in its Raman spectrum. Conversely, the EG on the SiC with a high density of defects has a strong D peak, irregular stepped morphology and poor uniformity in graphene layer numbers. It is the defects in the SiC that are responsible for the irregular stepped morphology and lead to the small domain size in the EG. (rapid communication)

  4. NASA GSFC Tin Whisker Homepage http://nepp.nasa.gov/whisker

    Shaw, Harry

    2000-01-01

    The NASA GSFC Tin Whisker Homepage provides general information and GSFC Code 562 experimentation results regarding the well known phenomenon of tin whisker formation from pure tin plated substrates. The objective of this www site is to provide a central repository for information pertaining to this phenomenon and to provide status of the GSFC experiments to understand the behavior of tin whiskers in space environments. The Tin Whisker www site is produced by Code 562. This www site does not provide information pertaining to patented or proprietary information. All of the information contained in this www site is at the level of that produced by industry and university researchers and is published at international conferences.

  5. SIC Industriemonitor najaar 2003

    Brouwer, N.; de Nooij, M.; Pomp, M.

    2003-01-01

    In juni 2000 publiceerde de Stichting voor Economisch Onderzoek (SEO) van de Universiteit van Amsterdam in opdracht van Stichting voor Industriebeleid en Communicatie (SIC) een ontwerp voor een SIC industriemonitor met een voorstel voor de inhoud en de structuur van een dergelijke monitor. Op dat

  6. Biopolymer nanocomposite films reinforced with nanocellulose whiskers

    Amit Saxena; Marcus Foston; Mohamad Kassaee; Thomas J. Elder; Arthur J. Ragauskas

    2011-01-01

    A xylan nanocomposite film with improved strength and barrier properties was prepared by a solution casting using nanocellulose whiskers as a reinforcing agent. The 13C cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CP/MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis of the spectral data obtained for the NCW/xylan nanocomposite films indicated the signal intensity originating...

  7. Galvano-magnetic properties and Shubnikov de Haas effect of Te-whiskers

    Berezovets, Veacheslav; Bondarchuk, Nikolai; Nikolaeva, Albina; Nijankovskii, Victor

    2009-01-01

    The work is devoted to investigation of the peculiarities of magnetoresistance, Hall effect and Shubnikov de Haas oscillations in Te-whiskers. Te-whiskers was prepared from vapor-gas phase on the substrate pure tellurium and grown naturally, of the walls of a crucible in the course of growing Te single crystals by the Czochralski method . The measurements of the galvanomagnetic properties and Shubnikov de Haas oscillation correspond to the notion of the occurrence of the effect of intraband magnetic breakdown when two different quasi-classical cyclotron trajectories coexist simultaneously in a magnetic field. This effect is a consequence of the presence of the saddle point in the dispersion law of the tellurium valence band. (authors)

  8. Theoretical and experimental analysis of the toughening behavior of whisker reinforcement in ceramic matrix composites

    Becher, P.F.; Hsueh, C.H.; Angelini, P.; Tiegs, T.N.

    1988-01-01

    Analytical solutions are presented describing the experimentally verified toughening of whisker reinforced ceramics. Clear insights are provided into the interrelationships of whiskers, matrices, and interfaces in the case of strong interfaces with minimized whisker pullout

  9. Temperature-dependent transformation from whisker- to nanoparticle-strengthened composite interface in the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Ag-based alloy system and mechanical properties of the joints

    Wang, Yifeng; Cao, Jian, E-mail: cao_jian@hit.edu.cn; Wang, Zhijie; Chen, Zhe; Song, Xiaoguo; Feng, Jicai

    2015-11-15

    Al{sub 4}B{sub 2}O{sub 9}-whisker-coated Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ceramics were bonded by AgCu–4.5 wt.%Ti alloy in vacuum. The microstructure of the whisker-coated Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} joints was investigated by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. A continuous (Cu,Al){sub 3}Ti{sub 3}O layer formed against the alloy at lower bonding temperatures, and a complex transition zone bordering the whiskers was observed, which consisted of Ag nanoparticles, titanium oxides, TiB{sub 2}, (Cu,Al){sub 3}Ti{sub 3}O nanoparticles and possible Ag{sub 3}Al. As the bonding temperature increased, the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/AgCuTi interface was found to transform from whisker- to nanoparticle-strengthened composite region. Bend test results revealed that both the whiskers grown on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and the dispersive nanoscale products in the alloy played positive roles in improving the joint properties. The maximum bend strength of the whisker-coated Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} joints was 313 MPa at the bonding temperature of 820 °C. - Highlights: • Al{sub 4}B{sub 2}O{sub 9}-whisker-coated Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ceramics were bonded by AgCu–4.5 wt.%Ti alloy in vacuum. • Microstructures of whisker-coated Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} joints were investigated in detail. • Both whiskers and the dispersive nanoscale products can improve the joint properties. • The maximum bend strength of the whisker-coated Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} joints was 313 MPa.

  10. Temperature-dependent transformation from whisker- to nanoparticle-strengthened composite interface in the Al2O3/Ag-based alloy system and mechanical properties of the joints

    Wang, Yifeng; Cao, Jian; Wang, Zhijie; Chen, Zhe; Song, Xiaoguo; Feng, Jicai

    2015-01-01

    Al 4 B 2 O 9 -whisker-coated Al 2 O 3 ceramics were bonded by AgCu–4.5 wt.%Ti alloy in vacuum. The microstructure of the whisker-coated Al 2 O 3 joints was investigated by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. A continuous (Cu,Al) 3 Ti 3 O layer formed against the alloy at lower bonding temperatures, and a complex transition zone bordering the whiskers was observed, which consisted of Ag nanoparticles, titanium oxides, TiB 2 , (Cu,Al) 3 Ti 3 O nanoparticles and possible Ag 3 Al. As the bonding temperature increased, the Al 2 O 3 /AgCuTi interface was found to transform from whisker- to nanoparticle-strengthened composite region. Bend test results revealed that both the whiskers grown on Al 2 O 3 and the dispersive nanoscale products in the alloy played positive roles in improving the joint properties. The maximum bend strength of the whisker-coated Al 2 O 3 joints was 313 MPa at the bonding temperature of 820 °C. - Highlights: • Al 4 B 2 O 9 -whisker-coated Al 2 O 3 ceramics were bonded by AgCu–4.5 wt.%Ti alloy in vacuum. • Microstructures of whisker-coated Al 2 O 3 joints were investigated in detail. • Both whiskers and the dispersive nanoscale products can improve the joint properties. • The maximum bend strength of the whisker-coated Al 2 O 3 joints was 313 MPa.

  11. Innovation Incubator: Whisker Labs Technical Evaluation

    Sparn, Bethany F. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Frank, Stephen M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Earle, Lieko [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Scheib, Jennifer G. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The Wells Fargo Innovation Incubator (IN2) is a program to foster and accelerate startup companies with commercial building energy-efficiency and demand management technologies. The program is funded by the Wells Fargo Foundation and co-administered by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Whisker Labs, an Oakland, California-based company, was one of four awardees in the first IN2 cohort and was invited to participate in the program because of its novel electrical power sensing technology for circuit breakers. The stick-on Whisker meters install directly on the front face of the circuit breakers in an electrical panel using adhesive, eliminating the need to open the panel and install current transducers (CTs) on the circuit wiring.

  12. Whiskers and Localized Corrosion on Copper in Repository Environment

    Hermansson, Hans-Peter; Gillen, Peter

    2004-03-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that whiskers (thread/hair shaped structures) can form on copper in a sulphide containing environment. A remaining important question is whether the attack on the copper metal surface beneath a whisker is of a localized or of a general nature. This issue has not been clarified as whiskers are very fragile and have always detached and fallen off from the surface at some stage of handling. It has therefore been very difficult to link the growth root of the whisker to underlying structures in the metal surface. A study was therefore initiated to settle the important issue of the relation between whisker position and the type of underlying metal attack. The usage of a porous medium was originally planned to support the whiskers in order to keep them in place and by post examinations characterize the nature of the whisker roots and thus the type of attack on the metal. However, the early stages of the present experimental work clearly indicated that other ways of study were necessary. A photographic method for the registration and positioning of whisker growth was therefore developed. It proved to be a successful means to coordinate whisker position and to link it with the attack on the underlying metal. Shortage of sulphide in previous experiments caused a retarded growth rate of whiskers. Therefore, in present experiments the sulphide concentration was kept at a more constant level throughout an experiment and a hindered whisker growth did not limit the attack on underlying metal. Whiskers and substrates were observed with a video camera throughout an experiment and the phase composition was examined with Laser Raman Spectroscopy, LRS and the Raman video microscope. Post examinations were also performed using light optical microscopy. By combining the results from the optical methods it has been possible to distinguish two kinds of whisker roots (small/large diameter) with the underlying metal surface. It has also been demonstrated

  13. Residual stress and mechanical properties of SiC ceramic by heat treatment

    Yoon, H.K.; Kim, D.H.; Shin, B.C.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Silicon carbide is a compound of relatively low density, high hardness, elevated thermal stability and good thermal conductivity, resulting in good thermal shock resistance. Because of these properties, SiC materials are widely used as abrasives and refractories. In this study, SiC single and poly crystals was grown by the sublimation method using the SiC seed crystal and SiC powder as the source material. Mechanical properties of SiC single and poly crystals are carried out by using the nano-indentation method and small punch test after the heat treatment. As a result, mechanical properties of SiC poly crystal had over double than single. And SiC single and poly crystals were occurred residual stress, but residual stress was shown relaxant properties by the effect of heat treatment. (authors)

  14. An Investigation of the Electrical Short Circuit Characteristics of Tin Whiskers

    Courey, Karim J.

    2008-01-01

    Existing risk simulations make the assumption that when a free tin whisker has bridged two adjacent exposed electrical conductors, the result is an electrical short circuit. This conservative assumption is made because shorting is a random event that has a currently unknown probability associated with it. Due to contact resistance electrical shorts may not occur at lower voltage levels. In this experiment, we study the effect of varying voltage on the breakdown of the contact resistance which leads to a short circuit. From this data we can estimate the probability of an electrical short, as a function of voltage, given that a free tin whisker has bridged two adjacent exposed electrical conductors. Also, three tin whiskers grown from the same Space Shuttle Orbiter card guide used in the aforementioned experiment were cross-sectioned and studied using a focused ion beam (FIB). The rare polycrystalline structure seen in the FIB cross section was confirmed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The FIB was also used to cross section two card guides to facilitate the measurement of the grain size to determine that the tin plating on the card guides had a bright finish.

  15. Nanoreinforced biocompatible hydrogels from wood hemicelluloses and cellulose whiskers

    Muzaffer Ahmet Karaaslan; Mandla A. Tshabalala; Daniel J. Yelle; Gisela Buschle-Diller

    2011-01-01

    Nanoreinforced hydrogels with a unique network structure were prepared from wood cellulose whiskers coated with chemically modified wood hemicelluloses. The hemicelluloses were modified with 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate prior to adsorption onto the cellulose whiskers in aqueous medium. Synthesis of the hydrogels was accomplished by in situ radical polymerization of the...

  16. Quantifying the Effect of Stress on Sn Whisker Nucleation Kinetics

    Chason, Eric; Vasquez, Justin; Pei, Fei; Jain, Nupur; Hitt, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    Although Sn whiskers have been studied extensively, there is still a need to understand the driving forces behind whisker nucleation and growth. Many studies point to the role of stress, but confirming this requires a quantitative comparison between controlled stress and the resulting whisker evolution. Recent experimental studies applied stress to a Sn layer via thermal cycling and simultaneously monitored the evolution of the temperature, stress and number of nuclei. In this work, we analyze these nucleation kinetics in terms of classical nucleation theory to relate the observed behavior to underlying mechanisms including a stress dependent activation energy and a temperature and stress-dependent whisker growth rate. Non-linear least squares fitting of the data taken at different temperatures and strain rates to the model shows that the results can be understood in terms of stress decreasing the barrier for whisker nucleation.

  17. SiC Seeded Crystal Growth

    Glass, R. C.; Henshall, D.; Tsvetkov, V. F.; Carter, C. H., Jr.

    1997-07-01

    The availability of relatively large (30 mm) SiC wafers has been a primary reason for the renewed high level of interest in SiC semiconductor technology. Projections that 75 mm SiC wafers will be available in 2 to 3 years have further peaked this interest. Now both 4H and 6H polytypes are available, however, the micropipe defects that occur to a varying extent in all wafers produced to date are seen by many as preventing the commercialization of many types of SiC devices, especially high current power devices. Most views on micropipe formation are based around Frank's theory of a micropipe being the hollow core of a screw dislocation with a huge Burgers vector (several times the unit cell) and with the diameter of the core having a direct relationship with the magnitude of the Burgers vector. Our results show that there are several mechanisms or combinations of these mechanisms which cause micropipes in SiC boules grown by the seeded sublimation method. Additional considerations such as polytype variations, dislocations and both impurity and diameter control add to the complexity of producing high quality wafers. Recent results at Cree Research, Inc., including wafers with micropipe densities of less than 1 cm - 2 (with 1 cm2 areas void of micropipes), indicate that micropipes will be reduced to a level that makes high current devices viable and that they may be totally eliminated in the next few years. Additionally, efforts towards larger diameter high quality substrates have led to production of 50 mm diameter 4H and 6H wafers for fabrication of LEDs and the demonstration of 75 mm wafers. Low resistivity and semi-insulating electrical properties have also been attained through improved process and impurity control. Although challenges remain, the industry continues to make significant progress towards large volume SiC-based semiconductor fabrication.

  18. Fabrication and Mechanical Properties of SiCw(p/SiC-Si Composites by Liquid Si Infiltration using Pyrolysed Rice Husks and SiC Powders as Precursors

    Dan Zhu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Dense silicon carbide (SiC matrix composites with SiC whiskers and particles as reinforcement were prepared by infiltrating molten Si at 1550 °C into porous preforms composed of pyrolysed rice husks (RHs and extra added SiC powder in different ratios. The Vickers hardness of the composites showed an increase from 18.6 to 21.3 GPa when the amount of SiC added in the preforms was 20% (w/w, and then decreased to 17.3 GPa with the increase of SiC added in the preforms up to 80% (w/w. The values of flexural strength of the composites initially decreased when 20% (w/w SiC was added in the preform and then increased to 587 MPa when the SiC concentration reached 80% (w/w. The refinement of SiC particle sizes and the improvement of the microstructure in particle distribution of the composites due to the addition of external SiC played an effective role in improving the mechanical properties of the composites.

  19. Anatomical pathways involved in generating and sensing rhythmic whisker movements

    Laurens W.J. Bosman

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The rodent whisker system is widely used as a model system for investigating sensorimotor integration, neural mechanisms of complex cognitive tasks, neural development, and robotics. The whisker pathways to the barrel cortex have received considerable attention. However, many subcortical structures are paramount to the whisker system. They contribute to important processes, like filtering out salient features, integration with other senses and adaptation of the whisker system to the general behavioral state of the animal. We present here an overview of the brain regions and their connections involved in the whisker system. We do not only describe the anatomy and functional roles of the cerebral cortex, but also those of subcortical structures like the striatum, superior colliculus, cerebellum, pontomedullary reticular formation, zona incerta and anterior pretectal nucleus as well as those of level setting systems like the cholinergic, histaminergic, serotonergic and noradrenergic pathways. We conclude by discussing how these brain regions may affect each other and how they together may control the precise timing of whisker movements and coordinate whisker perception.

  20. Identification of sigma and OMEGA phases in AA2009/SiC composites

    Rodrigo, P., E-mail: pilar.rodrigo@urjc.e [Departamento de Ciencia e Ingenieria de Materiales, Escuela Superior de Ciencias Experimentales y Tecnologia, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, c/Tulipan s/n, 28933 Mostoles, Madrid (Spain); Poza, P.; Utrilla, M.V.; Urena, A. [Departamento de Ciencia e Ingenieria de Materiales, Escuela Superior de Ciencias Experimentales y Tecnologia, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, c/Tulipan s/n, 28933 Mostoles, Madrid (Spain)

    2009-08-12

    The microstructure evolution during ageing treatment at 170 and 190 deg. C of AA2009/SiC composites, reinforced with 15 vol.% particulates and whiskers, was studied by transmission electron microscopy. Besides theta' and S' phases, the typical hardening precipitates on Al-Cu-Mg alloys, it was found the presence of OMEGA and sigma (Al{sub 5}Cu{sub 6}Mg{sub 2}) phases in the matrix. sigma phase was only found in the matrix of particulate composite, while OMEGA phase appeared in both. This phase has not been previously observed in Al matrix composites based on conventional Al-Cu-Mg alloys.

  1. Bio-Inspired PVDF-Based, Mouse Whisker Mimicking, Tactile Sensor

    Mohsin Islam Tiwana

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The design and fabrication of a Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF based, mouse (or rodent whisker mimicking, tactile sensor is presented. Unlike previous designs reported in the literature, this sensor mimics the mouse whisker not only mechanically, but it also makes macro movements just like a real mouse whisker in a natural environment. We have developed a mathematical model and performed finite element analysis using COMSOL, in order to optimise the whisker to have the same natural frequency as that of a biological whisker. Similarly, we have developed a control system that enables the whisker mimicking sensor to vibrate at variable frequencies and conducted practical experiments to validate the response of the sensor. The natural frequency of the whisker can be designed anywhere between 35 and 110 Hz, the same as a biological whisker, by choosing different materials and physical dimensions. The control system of this sensor enables the whisker to vibrate between 5 and 236 Hz.

  2. Structural and morphological properties of GaN buffer layers grown by ammonia molecular beam epitaxy on SiC substrates for AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    Corrion, A. L.; Poblenz, C.; Wu, F.; Speck, J. S.

    2008-01-01

    The impact of growth conditions on the surface morphology and structural properties of ammonia molecular beam epitaxy GaN buffers layers on SiC substrates was investigated. The threading dislocation (TD) density was found to decrease with decreasing NH 3 :Ga flux ratio, which corresponded to an increase in surface roughness and reduction in residual compressive lattice mismatch stress. Furthermore, the dislocation density and compressive stress decreased for increasing buffer thickness. TD inclination was proposed to account for these observations. Optimized surface morphologies were realized at high NH 3 :Ga flux ratios and were characterized by monolayer-high steps, spiral hillocks, and pyramidal mounds, with rms roughness of ∼1.0 nm over 2x2 μm 2 atomic force microscopy images. Smooth surface morphologies were realized over a large range of growth temperatures and fluxes, and growth rates of up to 1 μm/h were achieved. TD densities in the buffers as low as 3x10 9 cm -2 were demonstrated. These buffers were highly insulating and were used in recently reported AlGaN/GaN HEMTs with power densities of >11 W/mm at 4 and 10 GHz

  3. Low-temperature strain gauges based on silicon whiskers

    Druzhinin A. A.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available To create low-temperature strain gauges based on p-type silicon whiskers tensoresistive characteristics of these crystals in 4,2—300 K temperature range were studied. On the basis of p-type Si whiskers with different resistivity the strain gauges for different materials operating at cryogenic temperatures with extremely high gauge factor at 4,2 K were developed, as well as strain gauges operating at liquid helium temperatures in high magnetic fields.

  4. Tin Whisker Growth and Mitigation with a Nanocrysytalline Nickel Coating

    Janiuk, Szymon

    Tin whiskers are a problem in the electronics industry since the EU banned the use of lead in Pb-Sn solders as part of the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS). The biggest concern with Sn whiskers is their ability to short-circuit electronics. High reliability applications such as the aerospace, defense, healthcare, and automotive industries are at most risk. This project explores Sn whisker mitigation and prevention with the use of nanocrystalline nickel coating over Sn surfaces. Sn was plated onto a pure Cu substrate using electroplating. A high temperature and high humidity condition, at 85°C and 85% RH, was effective at growing whiskers. A nNi coating was plated over Sn/Cu coupons. After subjecting the nNi/ Sn/Cu samples through 85°C/85% RH testing conditions, no whiskers were observed penetrating the surface. These results make nNi a viable material to use as a coating to prevent the growth of Sn whiskers in electronic assemblies.

  5. Growth and characterization of high-purity SiC single crystals

    Augustine, G.; Balakrishna, V.; Brandt, C. D.

    2000-04-01

    High-purity SiC single crystals with diameter up to 50 mm have been grown by the physical vapor transport method. Finite element analysis was used for thermal modeling of the crystal growth cavity in order to reduce stress in the grown crystal. Crystals are grown in high-purity growth ambient using purified graphite furniture and high-purity SiC sublimation sources. Undoped crystals up to 50 mm in diameter with micropipe density less than 100 cm -2 have been grown using this method. These undoped crystals exhibit resistivities in the 10 3 Ω cm range and are p-type due to the presence of residual acceptor impurities, mainly boron. Semi-insulating SiC material is obtained by doping the crystal with vanadium. Vanadium has a deep donor level located near the middle of the band gap, which compensates the residual acceptor resulting in semi-insulating behavior.

  6. A novel biomimetic whisker technology based on fiber Bragg grating and its application

    Zhao, Chenlu; Jiang, Qi; Li, Yibin

    2017-09-01

    The paper describes a novel, biomimetic whisker-based sensing technology following the basic design of the facial whiskers of animals such as rats and mice. The sensor consists of a 3× 2 whisker array on each side of a robot. In experiments with the artificial whiskers, the motor drives rotating whiskers, and the center wavelength of a fiber Bragg grating pasted on the whisker will shift when the whisker touches an obstacle. The distance will be obtained by processing the wavelength shift data with algorithms. Then the shape recognition can be realized by postprocessing the distance data. The experimental results prove that the whisker array is capable of accurately gathering the distance and shape information of an object.

  7. Preparation of Polyaniline-Doped Fullerene Whiskers

    Bingzhe Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fullerene C60 whiskers (FWs doped with polyaniline emeraldine base (PANI-EB were synthesized by mixing PANI-EB/N-methyl pyrrolidone (NMP colloid and FWs suspension based on the nature of the electron acceptor of C60 and electron donor of PANI-EB. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR, and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis spectra characterized the morphology and molecular structure of the FWs doped with PANI-EB. SEM observation showed that the smooth surface of FWs was changed to worm-like surface morphology after being doped with PANI-EB. The UV-Vis spectra suggested that charge-transfer (CT complex of C60 and PANI-EB was formed as PANI-EBδ+-C60δ-. PANI-EB-doped FWs might be useful as a new type of antibacterial and self-cleaning agent as well as multifunctional material to improve the human health and living environment.

  8. Strengthening and toughening of poly(L-lactide) composites by surface modified MgO whiskers

    Wen, Wei [Biomaterial Research Laboratory, Department of Material Science and Engineering, College of Science and Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Luo, Binghong, E-mail: tluobh@jnu.edu.cn [Biomaterial Research Laboratory, Department of Material Science and Engineering, College of Science and Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Engineering Research Center of Artificial Organs and Materials, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Qin, Xiaopeng; Li, Cairong [Biomaterial Research Laboratory, Department of Material Science and Engineering, College of Science and Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Liu, Mingxian; Ding, Shan [Biomaterial Research Laboratory, Department of Material Science and Engineering, College of Science and Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Engineering Research Center of Artificial Organs and Materials, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Zhou, Changren, E-mail: tcrz9@jnu.edu.cn [Biomaterial Research Laboratory, Department of Material Science and Engineering, College of Science and Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Engineering Research Center of Artificial Organs and Materials, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510632 (China)

    2015-03-30

    Highlights: • The grafted PLLA chain on the surface of g-MgO whisker was ruled out by FTIR spectroscopy and TG/DTG analyses. • The excellent dispersion of g-MgO whiskers and the strong interfacial adhesion of g-MgO whiskers/PLLA composite were proved by FSEM. • Comparing to MgO particles and MgO whiskers, fibrous-like g-MgO whiskers are the most effective reinforcing and toughening fillers for PLLA. - Abstract: To improve both the strength and toughness of poly(L-lactide) (PLLA), fibrous-like MgO whiskers with diameters of 0.15–1 μm and lengths of 15–110 μm were prepared, and subsequently surface modified with L-lactide to obtain grafted MgO whiskers (g-MgO whiskers). The structures and properties of MgO whiskers and g-MgO whiskers were studied. Then, a series of MgO whiskers/PLLA and g-MgO whiskers/PLLA composites were prepared by solution casting method, for comparison, MgO particles/PLLA composite was prepared too. The resulting composites were evaluated in terms of hydrophilicity, crystallinity, dispersion of whiskers, interfacial adhesion and mechanical performance by means of polarized optical microscopy (POM), contact angle measurement, field emission scanning electron microscope (FSEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and tensile testing. The results revealed that the crystallization rate and hydrophilicity of PLLA were improved by the introduction of MgO whiskers and g-MgO whiskers. The g-MgO whiskers can disperse more uniformly in and show stronger interfacial adhesion with the matrix than MgO whiskers as a result of the surface modification. Due to the bridge effect of the whiskers and the excellent interfacial adhesion between g-MgO whiskers and PLLA, g-MgO whiskers/PLLA composites exhibited remarkably higher strength, modulus and toughness compared to the pristine PLLA, MgO particles/PLLA and MgO whiskers/PLLA composites.

  9. DC Characterisation of C60 Whiskers and Nanowhiskers

    Larsson, Michael; Kjelstrup-Hansen, Jakob; Lucyszyn, Stepan

    2007-01-01

    C60 whiskers exhibit increasing conductivity with decreasing diameter. At diameters of 1 mm and below, a single-crystal structure predominates, and enhanced electrical characteristics are expected; however, no supporting data exists in the literature. Here, results of four-point probe measurements......, indicating strong potential for use in organic electronic applications of the future. Repeated current cycling in air is observed to promote sample degradation, possibly due to progressive oxidation of the carbon structure. A micromachined four-point probe is also used to try to establish non...... on C60 whiskers and nanowhiskers with diameters in the range 650 nm to 1.3 mm are reported for the first time. Samples are attached to pre-patterned planar and raised electrodes using FIB-deposited tungsten. A low resistivity of 3 Wcm is measured in air, on a C60 whisker having a diameter of 650 nm...

  10. Extraction and characterization of whiskers from Panicum grass cellulose fibers

    Martins, Douglas F.; Vieira, Julia G.; Pasquini, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    In this work are presented studies of the extraction of cellulose whiskers from Panicum grass fibers (Panicum maximum) by acid hydrolysis performed with H 2 SO 4 11.22 M. The fibers used in the hydrolysis process were previously purified and the efficiency of the purification process was evaluated by determining the lignin content by Klason method, before and after purification. The hydrolysis was performed at 40 degree C for 30 minutes. The whiskers were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). It was verified a reduction in the crystallinity index and also a reduction of the degradation temperature of the whiskers in relation to the purified grass Panicum fibers. (author)

  11. Nanocomposite polymer electrolyte based on whisker or microfibrils polyoxyethylene nanocomposites

    Alloin, Fannie, E-mail: fannie.alloin@lepmi.grenoble-inp.f [LEPMI, Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et de Physicochimie des Materiaux et des Interfaces, Grenoble-INP-UJF-CNRS, UMR 5631, BP 75, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); D' Aprea, Alessandra [Laboratoire de Rheologie, Grenoble-INP-UJF, UMR 5520, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); LEPMI, Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et de Physicochimie des Materiaux et des Interfaces, Grenoble-INP-UJF-CNRS, UMR 5631, BP 75, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Ecole Internationale du Papier, de la communication imprimee et des Biomateriaux, PAGORA- Grenoble-INP, BP 65, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres Cedex (France); Kissi, Nadia El [Laboratoire de Rheologie, Grenoble-INP-UJF, UMR 5520, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Dufresne, Alain [Ecole Internationale du Papier, de la communication imprimee et des Biomateriaux, PAGORA- Grenoble-INP, BP 65, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres Cedex (France); Bossard, Frederic [Laboratoire de Rheologie, Grenoble-INP-UJF, UMR 5520, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2010-07-15

    Nanocomposite polymer electrolytes composed of high molecular weight poly(oxyethylene) PEO as a matrix, LiTFSI as lithium salt and ramie, cotton and sisal whiskers with high aspect ratio and sisal microfibrils (MF), as reinforcing phase were prepared by casting-evaporation. The morphology of the composite electrolytes was investigated by scanning electron microscopy and their thermal behavior (characteristic temperatures, degradation temperature) were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. Nanocomposite electrolytes based on PEO reinforced by whiskers and MF sisal exhibited very high mechanical performance with a storage modulus of 160 MPa at high temperature. A weak decrease of the ionic conductivity was observed with the incorporation of 6 wt% of whiskers. The addition of microfibrils involved a larger decrease of the conductivity. This difference may be associated to the more restricted PEO mobility due to the addition of entangled nanofibers.

  12. Plasma deposition of polymer composite films incorporating nanocellulose whiskers

    Samyn, P.; Airoudj, A.; Laborie, M.-P.; Mathew, A. P.; Roucoules, V.

    2011-11-01

    In a trend for sustainable engineering and functionalization of surfaces, we explore the possibilities of gas phase processes to deposit nanocomposite films. From an analysis of pulsed plasma polymerization of maleic anhydride in the presence of nanocellulose whiskers, it seems that thin nanocomposite films can be deposited with various patterns. By specifically modifying plasma parameters such as total power, duty cycle, and monomer gas pressure, the nanocellulose whiskers are either incorporated into a buckled polymer film or single nanocellulose whiskers are deposited on top of a polymeric film. The density of the latter can be controlled by modifying the exact positioning of the substrate in the reactor. The resulting morphologies are evaluated by optical microscopy, AFM, contact angle measurements and ellipsometry.

  13. Muscular Basis of Whisker Torsion in Mice and Rats.

    Haidarliu, Sebastian; Bagdasarian, Knarik; Shinde, Namrata; Ahissar, Ehud

    2017-09-01

    Whisking mammals move their whiskers in the rostrocaudal and dorsoventral directions with simultaneous rolling about their long axes (torsion). Whereas muscular control of the first two types of whisker movement was already established, the anatomic muscular substrate of the whisker torsion remains unclear. Specifically, it was not clear whether torsion is induced by asymmetrical operation of known muscles or by other largely unknown muscles. Here, we report that mystacial pads of newborn and adult rats and mice contain oblique intrinsic muscles (OMs) that connect diagonally adjacent vibrissa follicles. Each of the OMs is supplied by a cluster of motor end plates. In rows A and B, OMs connect the ventral part of the rostral follicle with the dorsal part of the caudal follicle. In rows C-E, in contrast, OMs connect the dorsal part of the rostral follicle to the ventral part of the caudal follicle. This inverse architecture is consistent with previous behavioral observations [Knutsen et al.: Neuron 59 (2008) 35-42]. In newborn mice, torsion occurred in irregular single twitches. In adult anesthetized rats, microelectrode mediated electrical stimulation of an individual OM that is coupled with two adjacent whiskers was sufficient to induce a unidirectional torsion of both whiskers. Torsional movement was associated with protracting movement, indicating that in the vibrissal system, like in the ocular system, torsional movement is mechanically coupled to horizontal and vertical movements. This study shows that torsional whisker rotation is mediated by specific OMs whose morphology and attachment sites determine rotation direction and mechanical coupling, and motor innervation determines rotation dynamics. Anat Rec, 300:1643-1653, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Synthesis and growth mechanisms of ZrC whiskers fabricated by a VLS process

    Lee, Dongju [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of). Nuclear Materials Development Division; Song, Sung Ho [Kongju National Univ., Chungnam (Korea, Republic of). Division of Advanced Materials Engineering

    2017-08-15

    The mechanisms of nano-sized ZrC whisker formation by a vapor-liquid-solid process (VLS) are investigated, which produces a very high purity, single crystal whisker. Rectangular ZrC whiskers with a cross-sectional diameter of 100-200 nm and lengths up to tens of microns are formed under the catalytic effect of nickel. The ZrC whiskers are characterized using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. ZrC whiskers can be used as a potential reinforcing and strengthening phase for ceramic composites.

  15. Vortex Shedding in the Wake Induced by a Real Elephant Seal Whisker

    Turk, Jodi; Omilion, Alexis; Zhang, Wei; Kim, Jeong-Jae; Kim, Jeong-Ju; Choi, Woo-Rak; Lee, Sang-Joon

    2017-11-01

    Biomimicry has been adopted to create innovative solutions in a vast range of applications. One such application is the design of seal-whisker-inspired flow sensors for autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). In dark, cramped, and unstable terrain AUVs are not able to maneuver using visual and sonar-based navigation. Hence, it is critical to use underwater flow sensors to accurately detect minute disturbances in the surroundings. Certain seal whiskers exhibit a unique undulating three-dimensional morphology that can reduce vortex induced vibrations (VIVs) if the major axis of the whisker cross-section is aligned to the inflow. This allows the seal to precisely track prey fish upstream using solely their whiskers. The current study aims to understand the effect of a real seal whisker's morphology on the vortex shedding behavior. Despite extensive studies of wake induced by scaled whisker-like models, the vortex shedding in the wake of a real seal whisker is not well understood. A series of experiments are conducted with a high-speed Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) system in a water channel to examine the vortex shedding downstream from a smooth whisker and an undulating whisker at a Reynolds number of a few hundred. Results of the vortex shedding induced by real seal whiskers can provide insights on developing high-sensitivity underwater flow sensors for AUVs and other whisker-inspired structures.

  16. Controlled growth of filamentary crystals and fabrication of single-crystal whisker probes

    Givargizov, E. I.

    2006-01-01

    The growth of filamentary crystals (whiskers) on a single-crystal substrate through the vapour-liquid-solid mechanism is described. The possibility of fabricating oriented systems of whiskers on the basis of this mechanism of crystal growth is noted. A phenomenon that is important for nanotechnology is noted: the existence of a critical diameter of whiskers, below which they are not formed. The phenomenon of radial periodic instability, which is characteristic of nanowhiskers, is described and the ways of its elimination are shown. The possibility of transforming whiskers into single-crystal tips and the growth of crystalline diamond particles at their apices are noted as important for practice. Possible applications of systems of whiskers and tips are described briefly. Particular attention is paid to the latest direction in whisker technology-fabrication of single-crystal whisker probes for atomic force microscopy

  17. Understanding and predicting metallic whisker growth and its effects on reliability : LDRD final report.

    Michael, Joseph Richard; Grant, Richard P.; Rodriguez, Mark Andrew; Pillars, Jamin; Susan, Donald Francis; McKenzie, Bonnie Beth; Yelton, William Graham

    2012-01-01

    Tin (Sn) whiskers are conductive Sn filaments that grow from Sn-plated surfaces, such as surface finishes on electronic packages. The phenomenon of Sn whiskering has become a concern in recent years due to requirements for lead (Pb)-free soldering and surface finishes in commercial electronics. Pure Sn finishes are more prone to whisker growth than their Sn-Pb counterparts and high profile failures due to whisker formation (causing short circuits) in space applications have been documented. At Sandia, Sn whiskers are of interest due to increased use of Pb-free commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) parts and possible future requirements for Pb-free solders and surface finishes in high-reliability microelectronics. Lead-free solders and surface finishes are currently being used or considered for several Sandia applications. Despite the long history of Sn whisker research and the recently renewed interest in this topic, a comprehensive understanding of whisker growth remains elusive. This report describes recent research on characterization of Sn whiskers with the aim of understanding the underlying whisker growth mechanism(s). The report is divided into four sections and an Appendix. In Section 1, the Sn plating process is summarized. Specifically, the Sn plating parameters that were successful in producing samples with whiskers will be reviewed. In Section 2, the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of Sn whiskers and time-lapse SEM studies of whisker growth will be discussed. This discussion includes the characterization of straight as well as kinked whiskers. In Section 3, a detailed discussion is given of SEM/EBSD (electron backscatter diffraction) techniques developed to determine the crystallography of Sn whiskers. In Section 4, these SEM/EBSD methods are employed to determine the crystallography of Sn whiskers, with a statistically significant number of whiskers analyzed. This is the largest study of Sn whisker crystallography ever reported. This section includes a

  18. Tin Whisker Formation — A Stress Relieve Phenomenon

    Dittes, M.; Oberndorff, P.; Crema, P.; Su, P.

    2006-02-01

    With the move towards lead-free electronics also the solderable finish of electronic components' terminations are converted. While the typical finish was containing 5 % to 20 % lead (Pb) and thus was almost whisker free, lead (Pb)-free finishes such as pure tin or high tin alloys are rather prone to grow whisker. These whiskers are spontaneous protrusions that grow to a significant length of up to millimeters with a typical diameter in the range of few microns and are suspect to cause shorts in electronic assemblies. The latest details of the mechanisms are not yet understood. However it appears to be well established that the driving force for tin whisker growth is a compressive stress in the tin layer and that this stress is released by whisker formation. Besides the mechanism for whisker growth therefore the mechanism of the stress induction is of interest. The origin of that stress may have multiple sources. Among others the most important one is the volume increase within the tin layer due the formation of intermetallics at the interface to the base material. This applies to all copper based material. For base materials with a coefficient of thermal expansion (cte) significantly different from the tin finish another mechanism plays the dominant role. This is the induction of stress during thermal cycling due to the different expansion of the materials with every temperature change. Another mechanism for stress induction may be the oxidation of the finish, which also leads to a local volume increase. Based on the knowledge of stress induction various mitigation strategies can be deducted. Most common is the introduction of a diffusion barrier (e.g. Ni) in order to prevent the growth of the Cu-Sn intermetallics, the controlled growth of Cu-Sn intermetallics in order to prevent their irregularity or the introduction of a mechanical buffer material targeting at the minimisation of the cte mismatch between base and finish material. With respect to the stress

  19. Control of the graphene growth rate on capped SiC surface under strong Si confinement

    Çelebi, C.; Yanık, C.; Demirkol, A.G.; Kaya, İsmet İ.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Graphene is grown on capped SiC surface with well defined cavity size. ► Graphene growth rate linearly increases with the cavity height. ► Graphene uniformity is reduced with thickness. - Abstract: The effect of the degree of Si confinement on the thickness and morphology of UHV grown epitaxial graphene on (0 0 0 −1) SiC is investigated by using atomic force microscopy and Raman spectroscopy measurements. Prior to the graphene growth process, the C-face surface of a SiC substrate is capped by another SiC comprising three cavities on its Si-rich surface with depths varying from 0.5 to 2 microns. The Si atoms, thermally decomposed from the sample surface during high temperature annealing of the SiC cap /SiC sample stack, are separately trapped inside these individual cavities at the sample/cap interface. Our analyses show that the growth rate linearly increases with the cavity height. It was also found that stronger Si confinement yields more uniform graphene layers.

  20. [Biomimetic mineralization of rod-like cellulose nano-whiskers and spectrum analysis].

    Qu, Ping; Wang, Xuan; Cui, Xiao-xia; Zhang, Li-ping

    2012-05-01

    Cellulose nano-whiskers/nano-hydroxyapatite composite was prepared with biomimetic mineralization using rod-like cellulose nano-whiskers as template. The cellulose nano-whiskers and cellulose nano-whiskers/nano-hydroxyapatite composite were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (SEM-EDXA). Variation and distribution of carbon, oxygen, calcium, and phosphorus in the composites were studied. The morphologies and growth mechanism of nano-hydroxyapatite were analyzed. The results showed that nano-hydroxyapatite was formed on the surface of cellulose nano-whiskers; the carbon-oxygen ratio of cellulose nano-whiskers and cellulose nano-whiskers/nano-hydroxyapatite composite was 1.81 and 1.54, respectively; the calcium-phosphorus ratio of the composite was 1.70. The nucleation of nano-hydroxyapatite was around the hydroxyl groups of cellulose nano-whiskers. It is suggested that there is coordination between the hydroxyl groups of cellulose nano-whiskers and calcium ions of nano-hydroxyapatite. The nano-hydroxyapatite can distribute in the matrix of cellulose nano-whiskers. From the atomic force microscope (AFM) images, we can see that the diameter of the spherical nano-hydroxyapatite particles was about 20 nm.

  1. Grafted SiC nanocrystals

    Saini, Isha; Sharma, Annu; Dhiman, Rajnish

    2017-01-01

    ), raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. UV–Visible absorption spectroscopy was used to study optical properties such as optical energy gap (Eg), Urbach's energy (Eu), refractive index (n), real (ε1) and imaginary (ε2) parts of dielectric constant of PVA as well as PVA......Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) grafted SiC (PVA-g-SiC)/PVA nanocomposite was synthesized by incorporating PVA grafted silicon carbide (SiC) nanocrystals inside PVA matrix. In-depth structural characterization of resulting nanocomposite was carried out using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR...

  2. Synthesis of Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+{delta}} whiskers and cross-whisker intrinsic Josephson junction

    Hatano, T.; Takano, Y.; Arisawa, S.; Ishii, A.; Togano, K. [National Research Inst. for Metals, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Fukuyo, A. [Science Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-03-01

    A synthesis technique of Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+{delta}} single-crystal whiskers was studied. The whiskers were synthesized by heating glassy melt-quenched Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O (3:2:2:4 in cationic ratio) plates. The atmospheric condition of the whisker growth, especially oxygen partial pressure and gas flow, was investigated. It was found out that the whisker growth rate shows a maximum at P{sub O2}=2/3 bar. For the crystalline quality of the whiskers, the airtight condition was found to be useful as compared to the conventional oxygen stream condition. The crystalline quality, especially the straightness and morphology of the surface, could be improved by keeping the growing whiskers under the equilibrium P{sub Bi} condition. Over 20-mm-long whisker crystals have been successfully synthesized by choosing optimum oxygen partial pressure around the P{sub O2}=2/3 bar in the airtight condition. The growth condition and mechanism of the Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+{delta}} whiskers were investigated by an in-situ high-temperature x-ray diffraction analysis and an in-situ high-temperature microscope observation. It was found that the whiskers grow in a partially melted state at a temperature of 10-40 degrees below the melting point. The result obtained demonstrates that Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+{delta}} whiskers grow at their bottom by the conventional liquid-phase growth mechanism, as was proposed by Matsubara et al. (author)

  3. Synthesis of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ whiskers and cross-whisker intrinsic Josephson junction

    Hatano, T.; Takano, Y.; Arisawa, S.; Ishii, A.; Togano, K.; Fukuyo, A.

    2001-01-01

    A synthesis technique of Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+δ single-crystal whiskers was studied. The whiskers were synthesized by heating glassy melt-quenched Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O (3:2:2:4 in cationic ratio) plates. The atmospheric condition of the whisker growth, especially oxygen partial pressure and gas flow, was investigated. It was found out that the whisker growth rate shows a maximum at P O2 =2/3 bar. For the crystalline quality of the whiskers, the airtight condition was found to be useful as compared to the conventional oxygen stream condition. The crystalline quality, especially the straightness and morphology of the surface, could be improved by keeping the growing whiskers under the equilibrium P Bi condition. Over 20-mm-long whisker crystals have been successfully synthesized by choosing optimum oxygen partial pressure around the P O2 =2/3 bar in the airtight condition. The growth condition and mechanism of the Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+δ whiskers were investigated by an in-situ high-temperature x-ray diffraction analysis and an in-situ high-temperature microscope observation. It was found that the whiskers grow in a partially melted state at a temperature of 10-40 degrees below the melting point. The result obtained demonstrates that Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+δ whiskers grow at their bottom by the conventional liquid-phase growth mechanism, as was proposed by Matsubara et al. (author)

  4. Structure of MnSi on SiC(0001)

    Meynell, S. A.; Spitzig, A.; Edwards, B.; Robertson, M. D.; Kalliecharan, D.; Kreplak, L.; Monchesky, T. L.

    2016-11-01

    We report on the growth and magnetoresistance of MnSi films grown on SiC(0001) by molecular beam epitaxy. The growth resulted in a textured MnSi(111) film with a predominantly [1 1 ¯0 ] MnSi (111 )∥[11 2 ¯0 ] SiC(0001) epitaxial relationship, as demonstrated by transmission electron microscopy, reflection high energy electron diffraction, and atomic force microscopy. The 500 ∘C temperature required to crystallize the film leads to a dewetting of the MnSi layer. Although the sign of the lattice mismatch suggested the films would be under compressive stress, the films acquire an in-plane tensile strain likely driven by the difference in thermal expansion coefficients between the film and substrate during annealing. As a result, the magnetoresistive response demonstrates that the films possess a hard-axis out-of-plane magnetocrystalline anisotropy.

  5. Whisker-Like Formations in Sn-3.0Ag-Pb Alloys

    Koncz-Horváth D.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, different types of whisker-like formations of Sn-3.0Ag based alloy were presented. In the experimental process the amount of Pb element was changed between 1000 and 2000 ppm, and the furnace atmosphere and cooling rate were also modified. The novelty of this work was that whisker-like formations in macro scale size were experienced after an exothermic reaction. The whiskers of larger sizes than general provided opportunities to investigate the microstructure and the concentration nearby the whiskers. In addition, the whisker-like formations from Sn-Ag based bulk material did not only consist of pure tin but tin and silver phases. The whisker-like growth appeared in several forms including hillock, spire and nodule shaped formations in accordance with parameters. It was observed that the compound phases were clustered in many cases mainly at hillocks.

  6. Fabrication of α-chitin whisker-reinforced poly(vinyl alcohol) nanocomposite nanofibres by electrospinning

    Junkasem, Jirawut; Rujiravanit, Ratana; Supaphol, Pitt

    2006-01-01

    The present contribution reports, for the first time, the successful fabrication of α-chitin whisker-reinforced poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) nanocomposite nanofibres by electrospinning. The α-chitin whiskers were prepared from α-chitin flakes from shrimp shells by acid hydrolysis. The as-prepared chitin whiskers exhibited lengths in the range 231-969 nm and widths in the range 12-65 nm, with the average length and width being about 549 and 31 nm, respectively. Successful incorporation of the chitin whiskers within the as-spun PVA/chitin whisker nanocomposite nanofibres was verified by infrared spectroscopic and thermogravimetric methods. The incorporation of chitin whiskers within the as-spun nanocomposite fibre mats increased the Young's modulus by about 4-8 times over that of the neat as-spun PVA fibre mat

  7. A radial map of multi-whisker correlation selectivity in the rat barrel cortex.

    Estebanez, Luc; Bertherat, Julien; Shulz, Daniel E; Bourdieu, Laurent; Léger, Jean-François

    2016-11-21

    In the barrel cortex, several features of single-whisker stimuli are organized in functional maps. The barrel cortex also encodes spatio-temporal correlation patterns of multi-whisker inputs, but so far the cortical mapping of neurons tuned to such input statistics is unknown. Here we report that layer 2/3 of the rat barrel cortex contains an additional functional map based on neuronal tuning to correlated versus uncorrelated multi-whisker stimuli: neuron responses to uncorrelated multi-whisker stimulation are strongest above barrel centres, whereas neuron responses to correlated and anti-correlated multi-whisker stimulation peak above the barrel-septal borders, forming rings of multi-whisker synchrony-preferring cells.

  8. Palladium transport in SiC

    Olivier, E.J.; Neethling, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We investigate the reaction of Pd with SiC at typical HTGR operating temperatures. ► The high temperature mobility of palladium silicides within polycrystalline SiC was studied. ► Corrosion of SiC by Pd was seen in all cases. ► The preferential corrosion and penetration of Pd along grain boundaries in SiC was found. ► The penetration and transport of palladium silicides in SiC along grain boundaries was found. - Abstract: This paper reports on a transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) study of Pd corroded SiC. The reaction of Pd with different types of SiC at typical HTGR operating temperatures was examined. In addition the high temperature mobility of palladium silicides within polycrystalline SiC was investigated. The results indicated corrosion of the SiC by Pd in all cases studied. The corrosion leads to the formation of palladium silicides within the SiC, with the predominant phase found being Pd 2 Si. Evidence for the preferential corrosion and penetration of Pd along grain boundaries in polycrystalline SiC was found. The penetration and transport, without significant corrosion, of palladium silicides into polycrystalline SiC along grain boundaries was also observed. Implications of the findings with reference to the use of Tri Isotropic particles in HTGRs will be discussed.

  9. Palladium transport in SiC

    Olivier, E.J., E-mail: jolivier@nmmu.ac.za [Centre for High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth (South Africa); Neethling, J.H. [Centre for High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth (South Africa)

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigate the reaction of Pd with SiC at typical HTGR operating temperatures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The high temperature mobility of palladium silicides within polycrystalline SiC was studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Corrosion of SiC by Pd was seen in all cases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The preferential corrosion and penetration of Pd along grain boundaries in SiC was found. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The penetration and transport of palladium silicides in SiC along grain boundaries was found. - Abstract: This paper reports on a transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) study of Pd corroded SiC. The reaction of Pd with different types of SiC at typical HTGR operating temperatures was examined. In addition the high temperature mobility of palladium silicides within polycrystalline SiC was investigated. The results indicated corrosion of the SiC by Pd in all cases studied. The corrosion leads to the formation of palladium silicides within the SiC, with the predominant phase found being Pd{sub 2}Si. Evidence for the preferential corrosion and penetration of Pd along grain boundaries in polycrystalline SiC was found. The penetration and transport, without significant corrosion, of palladium silicides into polycrystalline SiC along grain boundaries was also observed. Implications of the findings with reference to the use of Tri Isotropic particles in HTGRs will be discussed.

  10. Mystacial Whisker Layout and Musculature in the Guinea Pig (Cavia porcellus): A Social, Diurnal Mammal.

    Grant, Robyn A; Delaunay, Mariane G; Haidarliu, Sebastian

    2017-03-01

    All mammals (apart from apes and humans) have whiskers that make use of a similar muscle arrangement. Whisker specialists, such as rats and mice, tend to be nocturnal and arboreal, relying on their whisker sense of touch to guide exploration around tree canopies at night. As such, nocturnal arboreal rodents have many whiskers that are organised into a grid-like pattern, and moved using a complex array of muscles. Indeed, most arboreal, nocturnal mammals tend to have specialised whiskers that are longer and arranged in a dense, regular grid, compared with terrestrial, diurnal mammals. The guinea pig diverged early from murid rodents (around 75 million years ago), and are ground-dwelling, diurnal animals. It would be predicted that, as a terrestrial mammal, they may have less whiskers and a reduced muscle architecture compared to arboreal, nocturnal rodents. We examined the mystacial whisker layout, musculature and movement capacity of Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) whiskers and found that they did indeed have a disorganized whisker layout, with a fortification around the eye area. In addition, there was a reduction in musculature, especially in the intrinsic muscles. Despite guinea pigs not cyclically moving their whiskers, the mystacial musculature was still very similar to that of murid rodents. We suggest that the conserved presence of whisker layout and musculature, even in visual mammals such as primates and guinea pigs, may indicate that whiskers still play an important role in these animals, including protecting the eyes and being involved in tactile social behaviors. Anat Rec, 300:527-536, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Contributions of Stress and Oxidation on the Formation of Whiskers in Pb-free Solders

    2016-01-29

    nucleation of whiskers and the confirmation of the effect of oxygen content in the formation of whiskers. Different levels of elastic stress were...substrate P Load RH Relative humidity max Stress at the top surface of the film SE Secondary Electrons SEM Scanning Electron Microscopy SRNL...demonstration of effects of stress state in the nucleation of whiskers and the confirmation of the effect of oxygen content in the formation of

  12. Surface modification of magnesium hydroxide sulfate hydrate whiskers using a silane coupling agent by dry process

    Zhu, Donghai; Nai, Xueying; Lan, Shengjie; Bian, Shaoju; Liu, Xin; Li, Wu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Dry process was adopted to modify the surface of MHSH whiskers using silane. • Si−O−Mg bonds were formed directly by the reaction between Si−OC 2 H 5 and −OH of MHSH. • Dispersibility and compatibility of modified whiskers greatly improved in organic phase. • Thermal stability of whiskers was enhanced after modified. - Abstract: In order to improve the compatibility of magnesium hydroxide sulfate hydrate (MHSH) whiskers with polymers, the surface of MHSH whiskers was modified using vinyltriethoxysilane (VTES) by dry process. The possible mechanism of the surface modification and the interfacial interactions between MHSH whiskers and VTES, as well as the effect of surface modification, were studied. Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analyses showed that the agglomerations were effectively separated and a thin layer was formed on the surface of the whiskers after modification. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses showed that the VTES molecules were bound to the surface of MHSH whiskers after modification. Chemical bonds (Si−O−Mg) were formed by the reaction between Si−OC 2 H 5 or Si−OH and the hydroxyl group of MHSH whiskers. The effect of surface modification was evaluated by sedimentation tests, contact angle measurements and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results showed that the surface of MHSH whiskers was transformed from hydrophilic to hydrophobic, and the dispersibility and the compatibility of MHSH whiskers were significantly improved in the organic phase. Additionally, the thermal stability of the VTES-modified MHSH whiskers was improved significantly.

  13. An Empirical Model for Estimating the Probability of Electrical Short Circuits from Tin Whiskers. Part 2

    Courey, Karim; Wright, Clara; Asfour, Shihab; Onar, Arzu; Bayliss, Jon; Ludwig, Larry

    2009-01-01

    In this experiment, an empirical model to quantify the probability of occurrence of an electrical short circuit from tin whiskers as a function of voltage was developed. This empirical model can be used to improve existing risk simulation models. FIB and TEM images of a tin whisker confirm the rare polycrystalline structure on one of the three whiskers studied. FIB cross-section of the card guides verified that the tin finish was bright tin.

  14. Effects of UV light intensity on electrochemical wet etching of SiC for the fabrication of suspended graphene

    O, Ryong-Sok; Takamura, Makoto; Furukawa, Kazuaki; Nagase, Masao; Hibino, Hiroki

    2015-03-01

    We report on the effects of UV light intensity on the photo assisted electrochemical wet etching of SiC(0001) underneath an epitaxially grown graphene for the fabrication of suspended structures. The maximum etching rate of SiC(0001) was 2.5 µm/h under UV light irradiation in 1 wt % KOH at a constant current of 0.5 mA/cm2. The successful formation of suspended structures depended on the etching rate of SiC. In the Raman spectra of the suspended structures, we did not observe a significant increase in the intensity of the D peak, which originates from defects in graphene sheets. This is most likely explained by the high quality of the single-crystalline graphene epitaxially grown on SiC.

  15. Extraction and characterization of cellulose nano whiskers from balsa wood

    Morelli, Carolina L.; Bretas, Rosario E.S.; Marconcini, Jose M.; Pereira, Fabiano V.; Branciforti, Marcia C.

    2011-01-01

    In this study cellulose nano whiskers were obtained from balsa wood. For this purpose, fibers of balsa wood were subjected to hydrolysis reactions for lignin and hemi cellulose digestion and acquisition of nano-scale cellulose. Cellulose nano crystals obtained had medium length and thickness of 176 nm and 7 nm respectively. Infrared spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction showed that the process used for extracting nano whiskers could digest nearly all the lignin and hemi cellulose from the balsa fiber and still preserve the aspect ratio and crystallinity, satisfactory enough for future application in polymer nano composites. Thermogravimetry showed that the onset temperature of thermal degradation of cellulose nano crystals (226 degree C) was higher than the temperature of the balsa fiber (215 degree C), allowing its use in molding processes with many polymers from the molten state.(author)

  16. Crystalline instability of Bi-2212 superconducting whiskers near room temperature

    Cagliero, Stefano; Khan, Mohammad Mizanur Rahman; Agostino, Angelo; Truccato, Marco; Orsini, Francesco; Marinone, Massimo; Poletti, Giulio; Lascialfari, Alessandro

    2009-01-01

    We report new evidences for the thermodynamic instability of whisker crystals in the Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O (BSCCO) system. Annealing treatments at 90 C have been performed on two sets of samples, which were monitored by means of X-rays diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements, respectively. Two main crystalline domains of Bi 2 Sr 2 CuCa 2 O 8+x (Bi-2212) were identified in the samples by the XRD data, which underwent an evident crystalline segregation after about 60 hours. Very fast dynamics of the surface modifications was also described by the AFM monitoring. Two typologies of surface structures formed after about 3 annealing hours: continuous arrays of dome shaped bodies were observed along the edges of the whiskers, while in the central regions a dense texture of flat bodies was found. These modifications are described in terms of the formation of simple oxide clusters involving a degradation of the internal layers. (orig.)

  17. Peripheral optogenetic stimulation induces whisker movement and sensory perception in head-fixed mice.

    Park, Sunmee; Bandi, Akhil; Lee, Christian R; Margolis, David J

    2016-06-08

    We discovered that optical stimulation of the mystacial pad in Emx1-Cre;Ai27D transgenic mice induces whisker movements due to activation of ChR2 expressed in muscles controlling retraction and protraction. Using high-speed videography in anesthetized mice, we characterize the amplitude of whisker protractions evoked by varying the intensity, duration, and frequency of optogenetic stimulation. Recordings from primary somatosensory cortex (S1) in anesthetized mice indicated that optogenetic whisker pad stimulation evokes robust yet longer latency responses than mechanical whisker stimulation. In head-fixed mice trained to report optogenetic whisker pad stimulation, psychometric curves showed similar dependence on stimulus duration as evoked whisker movements and S1 activity. Furthermore, optogenetic stimulation of S1 in expert mice was sufficient to substitute for peripheral stimulation. We conclude that whisker protractions evoked by optogenetic activation of whisker pad muscles results in cortical activity and sensory perception, consistent with the coding of evoked whisker movements by reafferent sensory input.

  18. Numerical study of whisker field lines in the periphery of the Large Helical Device

    Akao, Hideki

    1990-01-01

    The behavior of periphery magnetic field lines in the standard Large-Helical Device (l=2 heliotron/torsatron type) configuration is studied numerically. Three different types of behavior are found, corresponding to three different regions: the stochastic region near the outermost magnetic surface, the whisker region, and the inter-whisker region outside the stochastic region. The behavior of whisker and inter-whisker field lines is specifically analyzed. It is found that whisker field lines exhibit both regular and irregular types of behavior, whereas inter-whisker field lines exhibit only regular behavior. The connection lengths for the whisker field lines are usually as long as several tens of toroidal pitches, whereas those for the inter-whisker field lines are usually less than ten toroidal pitch lengths. Whisker field lines are characterized by three fundamental processes; stretching, folding, and nesting associated with the motion of a residual X-point of the separatrix. Simple modeling is performed to reproduce these three fundamental processes. (author)

  19. The Effects of Oxidation Layer, Temperature, and Stress on Tin Whisker Growth: A Short Review

    Mahim, Z.; Salleh, M. A. A.; Khor, C. Y.

    2018-03-01

    In order to reduce the Tin (Sn) whisker growth phenomenon in solder alloys, the researcher all the world has studied the factor of this behaviour. However, this phenomenon still hunted the electronic devices and industries. The whiskers growth were able to cause the electrical short, which would lead to the catastrophic such as plane crush, the failure of heart pacemaker, and the lost satellite connection. This article focuses on the three factors that influence the whiskers growth in solder alloys which is stress, oxidation layer and temperature. This findings were allowed the researchers to develop various method on how to reduce the growth of the Sn whiskers.

  20. Hydrothermal formation and characterization of magnesium oxysulfate whiskers

    Xiang, L.; Liu, F.; Li, J.; Jin, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Magnesium oxysulfate (5Mg(OH) 2 ·MgSO 4 ·3H 2 O) whiskers with a diameter of 0.2-1.0 μm and a length of 20-50 μm were synthesized via the hydrothermal treatment of the slurry formed by mixing the MgSO 4 and NaOH solutions at room temperature. The composition, morphology, structure and thermal behavior of the hydrothermal products were examined with X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) and chemical analysis. The experimental results indicated that the process parameters, such as the concentration of the reactant, the dispersion of the Mg(OH) 2 slurry and the temperature in hydrothermal treatment should be controlled carefully to synthesis 5Mg(OH) 2 ·MgSO 4 ·3H 2 O whiskers and to avoid the formation of the sectorial or granular impurities. 5Mg(OH) 2 ·MgSO 4 ·3H 2 O whiskers were decomposed gradually and converted finally to MgO particles after being heated in air at temperature up to 1050 deg. C. Granular products formed if the heating temperature was above 320 deg. C

  1. The Formation of Graphite Whiskers in the Primitive Solar Nebula

    Nuth, Joseph A., III; Kimura, Yuki; Lucas, Christopher; Ferguson, Frank; Johnson, Natasha M.

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that carbonaceous grains are efficiently destroyed in the interstellar medium and must either reform in situ at very low pressures and temperatures or in an alternative environment more conducive to grain growth. Graphite whiskers have been discovered associated with high-temperature phases in meteorites such as calcium aluminum inclusions and chondrules, and it has been suggested that the expulsion of such material from proto stellar nebulae could significantly affect the optical properties of the average interstellar grain population. We have experimentally studied the potential for Fischer-Tropsch and Haber-Bosch type reactions to produce organic materials in protostellar systems from the abundant H2, CO, and N2 reacting on the surfaces of available silicate grains. When graphite grains are repeatedly exposed to H2, CO, and N2 at 875 K abundant graphite whiskers are observed to form on or from the surfaces of the graphite grains. In a dense, turbulent nebula, such extended whiskers are very likely to be broken off, and fragments could be ejected either in polar jets or by photon pressure after transport to the outer reaches of the nebula.

  2. Significantly Enhanced Dielectric Performances and High Thermal Conductivity in Poly(vinylidene fluoride)-Based Composites Enabled by SiC@SiO2 Core-Shell Whiskers Alignment.

    He, Dalong; Wang, Yao; Song, Silong; Liu, Song; Deng, Yuan

    2017-12-27

    Design of composites with ordered fillers arrangement results in anisotropic performances with greatly enhanced properties along a specific direction, which is a powerful tool to optimize physical properties of composites. Well-aligned core-shell SiC@SiO 2 whiskers in poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) matrix has been achieved via a modified spinning approach. Because of the high aspect ratio of SiC whiskers, strong anisotropy and significant enhancement in dielectric constant were observed with permittivity 854 along the parallel direction versus 71 along the perpendicular direction at 20 vol % SiC@SiO 2 loading, while little increase in dielectric loss was found due to the highly insulating SiO 2 shell. The anisotropic dielectric behavior of the composite is perfectly understood macroscopically to have originated from anisotropic intensity of interfacial polarization based on an equivalent circuit model of two parallel RC circuits connected in series. Furthermore, finite element simulations on the three-dimensional distribution of local electric field, polarization, and leakage current density in oriented SiC@SiO 2 /PVDF composites under different applied electrical field directions unambiguously revealed that aligned core-shell SiC@SiO 2 whiskers with a high aspect ratio significantly improved dielectric performances. Importantly, the thermal conductivity of the composite was synchronously enhanced over 7 times as compared to that of PVDF matrix along the parallel direction at 20 vol % SiC@SiO 2 whiskers loading. This study highlights an effective strategy to achieve excellent comprehensive properties for high-k dielectrics.

  3. The physics of epitaxial graphene on SiC(0001)

    Kageshima, H; Hibino, H; Tanabe, S

    2012-01-01

    Various physical properties of epitaxial graphene grown on SiC(0001) are studied. First, the electronic transport in epitaxial bilayer graphene on SiC(0001) and quasi-free-standing bilayer graphene on SiC(0001) is investigated. The dependences of the resistance and the polarity of the Hall resistance at zero gate voltage on the top-gate voltage show that the carrier types are electron and hole, respectively. The mobility evaluated at various carrier densities indicates that the quasi-free-standing bilayer graphene shows higher mobility than the epitaxial bilayer graphene when they are compared at the same carrier density. The difference in mobility is thought to come from the domain size of the graphene sheet formed. To clarify a guiding principle for controlling graphene quality, the mechanism of epitaxial graphene growth is also studied theoretically. It is found that a new graphene sheet grows from the interface between the old graphene sheets and the SiC substrate. Further studies on the energetics reveal the importance of the role of the step on the SiC surface. A first-principles calculation unequivocally shows that the C prefers to release from the step edge and to aggregate as graphene nuclei along the step edge rather than be left on the terrace. It is also shown that the edges of the existing graphene more preferentially absorb the isolated C atoms. For some annealing conditions, experiments can also provide graphene islands on SiC(0001) surfaces. The atomic structures are studied theoretically together with their growth mechanism. The proposed embedded island structures actually act as a graphene island electronically, and those with zigzag edges have a magnetoelectric effect. Finally, the thermoelectric properties of graphene are theoretically examined. The results indicate that reducing the carrier scattering suppresses the thermoelectric power and enhances the thermoelectric figure of merit. The fine control of the Fermi energy position is thought to

  4. Contributions of stress and oxidation on the formation of whiskers in Pb-free solders

    Duncan, A. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hoffman, E. N. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the environmental factors influencing formation of tin whiskers on electrodeposited lead free, tin coatings over copper (or copper containing) substrates is the topic of this study . An interim report* summarized initial observations as to the role of stress and oxide formation on whisker growth. From the initial results, two main areas were chosen to be the focus of additional research: the demonstration of effects of elastic stress state in the nucleation of whiskers and the confirmation of the effect of oxygen content in the formation of whiskers. Different levels of elastic stress were induced with the incorporation of a custom designed fixture that loaded the sample in a four-point bending configuration and were maintained in an environmental chamber under conditions deemed favorable for whisker growth. The effects of oxygen content were studied by aging substrates in gas vials of varying absolute pressure and different oxygen partial pressure.

  5. Effect of TiC whisker addition on properties of YG1OF alloy

    2007-01-01

    The cemented carbide material (YG10F) with different additions of TiC whisker (0%, 0.3%, 0.6%, mass fraction) was prepared by different techniques. The effect of TiC whisker addition on the density, microhardness and toughness of the experimental material was investigated. The results indicate that after the wet-milling for 8 h and sintering in vacuum at 1 440 ℃, the toughness of YG10F is remarkably improved and meanwhile higher microhardness is obtained by 0.3% TiC whisker addition. Preliminary analysis suggests that the main toughening mechanism of TiC whisker in YG10F is whisker pull-out and bridging phenomena.

  6. Strain gradient plasticity effects in whisker-reinforced metals

    Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    2002-01-01

    A metal reinforced by fibers in the micron range is studied using the strain gradient plasticity theory of Fleck and Hutchinson (2001). Cell-model analyzes are used to study the influence of the material length parameters numerically. Different higher order boundary conditions are considered...... at the fiber-matrix interface. The results are presented as overall stress-strain curves for the whisker-reinforced metal, and also contour plots of effective plastic strain are shown. The strain gradient plasticity theory predicts a significant stiffening effect when compared to conventional models...

  7. Microstructure and growth mechanism of tin whiskers on RESn3 compounds

    Li Caifu; Liu Zhiquan

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Large amount of intact tin whiskers were firstly prepared without post handling, and their microstructures were investigated systematically with TEM. A growth model was proposed to explain the observed growth characteristics from Sn–RE alloys. - Abstract: An exclusive method was developed to prepare intact tin whiskers as transmission electron microscope specimens, and with this technique in situ observation of tin whisker growth from RESn 3 (RE = Nd, La, Ce) film specimen was first achieved. Electron irradiation was discovered to have an effect on the growth of a tin whisker through its root. Large quantities of tin whiskers with diameters from 20 nm to 10 μm and lengths ranging from 50 nm to 500 μm were formed at a growth rate of 0.1–1.8 nm s −1 on the surface of RESn 3 compounds. Most (>85%) of these tin whiskers have preferred growth directions of 〈1 0 0〉, 〈0 0 1〉, 〈1 0 1〉 and 〈1 0 3〉, as determined by statistics. This kind of tin whisker is single-crystal β-Sn even if it has growth striations, steps and kinks, and no dislocations or twin or grain boundaries were observed within the whisker body. RESn 3 compounds undergo selective oxidation during whisker growth, and the oxidation provides continuous tin atoms for tin whisker growth until they are exhausted. The driving force for whisker growth is the compressive stress resulting from the restriction of the massive volume expansion (38–43%) during the oxidation by the surface RE(OH) 3 layer. Tin atoms diffuse and flow to feed the continuous growth of tin whiskers under a compressive stress gradient formed from the extrusion of tin atoms/clusters at weak points on the surface RE(OH) 3 layers. A growth model was proposed to discuss the characteristics and growth mechanism of tin whiskers from RESn 3 compounds.

  8. Crystalline instability of Bi-2212 superconducting whiskers near room temperature

    Cagliero, Stefano; Khan, Mohammad Mizanur Rahman [Torino Universita, ' NIS' Centre of Excellence, Dip. Chimica Generale e Chimica Organica, and CNISM UdR, Turin (Italy); Torino Universita, ' NIS' Centre of Excellence, Dip. Fisica Sperimentale, and CNISM UdR, Turin (Italy); Agostino, Angelo [Torino Universita, ' NIS' Centre of Excellence, Dip. Chimica Generale e Chimica Organica, and CNISM UdR, Turin (Italy); Truccato, Marco [Torino Universita, ' NIS' Centre of Excellence, Dip. Fisica Sperimentale, and CNISM UdR, Turin (Italy); Orsini, Francesco; Marinone, Massimo; Poletti, Giulio [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Istituto di Fisiologia Generale e Chimica Biologica, Milan (Italy); CNR-INFM-S3 NRC, Modena (Italy); Lascialfari, Alessandro [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Istituto di Fisiologia Generale e Chimica Biologica, Milan (Italy); CNR-INFM-S3 NRC, Modena (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Pavia, INFM-CNR c/o Dipartimento di Fisica A. Volta, Pavia (Italy)

    2009-05-15

    We report new evidences for the thermodynamic instability of whisker crystals in the Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O (BSCCO) system. Annealing treatments at 90 C have been performed on two sets of samples, which were monitored by means of X-rays diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements, respectively. Two main crystalline domains of Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CuCa{sub 2}O{sub 8+x} (Bi-2212) were identified in the samples by the XRD data, which underwent an evident crystalline segregation after about 60 hours. Very fast dynamics of the surface modifications was also described by the AFM monitoring. Two typologies of surface structures formed after about 3 annealing hours: continuous arrays of dome shaped bodies were observed along the edges of the whiskers, while in the central regions a dense texture of flat bodies was found. These modifications are described in terms of the formation of simple oxide clusters involving a degradation of the internal layers. (orig.)

  9. Tin Whisker Electrical Short Circuit Characteristics. Part 2

    Courey, Karim J.; Asfour, Shihab S.; Onar, Arzu; Bayliss, Jon A.; Ludwig, Lawrence L.; Wright, Maria C.

    2009-01-01

    Existing risk simulations make the assumption that when a free tin whisker has bridged two adjacent exposed electrical conductors, the result is an electrical short circuit. This conservative assumption is made because shorting is a random event that has an unknown probability associated with it. Note however that due to contact resistance electrical shorts may not occur at lower voltage levels. In our first article we developed an empirical probability model for tin whisker shorting. In this paper, we develop a more comprehensive empirical model using a refined experiment with a larger sample size, in which we studied the effect of varying voltage on the breakdown of the contact resistance which leads to a short circuit. From the resulting data we estimated the probability distribution of an electrical short, as a function of voltage. In addition, the unexpected polycrystalline structure seen in the focused ion beam (FIB) cross section in the first experiment was confirmed in this experiment using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The FIB was also used to cross section two card guides to facilitate the measurement of the grain size of each card guide's tin plating to determine its finish.

  10. Growth of graphene from SiC{0001} surfaces and its mechanisms

    Norimatsu, Wataru; Kusunoki, Michiko

    2014-01-01

    Graphene, a one-atom-layer carbon material, can be grown by thermal decomposition of SiC. On Si-terminated SiC(0001), graphene nucleates at steps and grows layer-by-layer, and as a result a homogeneous monolayer or bilayer can be obtained. We demonstrate this mechanism both experimentally and theoretically. On the C-face (000 1-bar ), multilayer graphene nucleates not only at steps, but also on the terraces. These differences reflect the distinct differences in the reactivity of these faces. Due to its high quality and structural controllability, graphene on SiC{0001} surfaces will be a platform for high-speed graphene device applications. (paper)

  11. Effect of linear alcohol molecular size on the self-assembly of fullerene whiskers

    Amer, Maher S.; Todd, T. Kyle; Busbee, John D.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The longer the alcohol molecule, the shorter the length of the assembled whisker. → Interaction between alcohol and fullerene solvent is the key factor. → The stronger the alcohol/solvent interaction, the longer the whisker. - Abstract: The recent development of self-assembled fullerene whiskers and wires has created an enormous potential and resolved a serious challenge for utilizing such unique class of carbon material in advanced nano-scale, molecular-based electronic, optical, and thermal devices. In this paper we investigate, the self-assembly of C 60 molecules into one-dimensional whiskers using a series of linear alcohols H(CH 2 ) n OH, with n changing from 1 (methanol) to 3 (isopropyl alcohol), to elucidate the effect of alcohol molecular size on the size distribution of the self-assemble fullerene whiskers. Our results show that the length of the produced fullerene whiskers is affected by the molecular size of the alcohol used in the process. The crucial role played by solvent/alcohol interaction in the assembly process is discussed. In addition, Raman spectroscopy measurements support the notion that the self-assembled whiskers are primarily held by depletion forces and no evidence of fullerene polymerization was observed.

  12. Precision rodent whisker stimulator with integrated servo-locked control and displacement measurement.

    Walker, Jennifer L; Monjaraz-Fuentes, Fernanda; Pedrow, Christi R; Rector, David M

    2011-03-15

    We developed a high speed voice coil based whisker stimulator that delivers precise deflections of a single whisker or group of whiskers in a repeatable manner. The device is miniature, quiet, and inexpensive to build. Multiple stimulators fit together for independent stimulation of four or more whiskers. The system can be used with animals under anesthesia as well as awake animals with head-restraint, and does not require trimming the whiskers. The system can deliver 1-2 mm deflections in 2 ms resulting in velocities up to 900 mm/s to attain a wide range of evoked responses. Since auditory artifacts can influence behavioral studies using whisker stimulation, we tested potential effects of auditory noise by recording somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) with varying auditory click levels, and with/without 80 dBa background white noise. We found that auditory clicks as low as 40 dBa significantly influence the SEP. With background white noise, auditory clicks as low as 50 dBa were still detected in components of the SEP. For behavioral studies where animals must learn to respond to whisker stimulation, these sounds must be minimized. Together, the stimulator and data system can be used for psychometric vigilance tasks, mapping of the barrel cortex and other electrophysiological paradigms. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Switching Performance Evaluation of Commercial SiC Power Devices (SiC JFET and SiC MOSFET) in Relation to the Gate Driver Complexity

    Pittini, Riccardo; Zhang, Zhe; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2013-01-01

    and JFETs. The recent introduction of SiC MOSFET has proved that it is possible to have highly performing SiC devices with a minimum gate driver complexity; this made SiC power devices even more attractive despite their device cost. This paper presents an analysis based on experimental results...... of the switching losses of various commercially available Si and SiC power devices rated at 1200 V (Si IGBTs, SiC JFETs and SiC MOSFETs). The comparison evaluates the reduction of the switching losses which is achievable with the introduction of SiC power devices; this includes analysis and considerations...

  14. Calcium silicate ceramic scaffolds toughened with hydroxyapatite whiskers for bone tissue engineering

    Feng, Pei; Wei, Pingpin; Li, Pengjian; Gao, Chengde; Shuai, Cijun; Peng, Shuping

    2014-01-01

    Calcium silicate possessed excellent biocompatibility, bioactivity and degradability, while the high brittleness limited its application in load-bearing sites. Hydroxyapatite whiskers ranging from 0 to 30 wt.% were incorporated into the calcium silicate matrix to improve the strength and fracture resistance. Porous scaffolds were fabricated by selective laser sintering. The effects of hydroxyapatite whiskers on the mechanical properties and toughening mechanisms were investigated. The results showed that the scaffolds had a uniform and continuous inner network with the pore size ranging between 0.5 mm and 0.8 mm. The mechanical properties were enhanced with increasing hydroxyapatite whiskers, reached a maximum at 20 wt.% (compressive strength: 27.28 MPa, compressive Young's modulus: 156.2 MPa, flexural strength: 15.64 MPa and fracture toughness: 1.43 MPa·m 1/2 ) and then decreased by addition of more hydroxyapatite whiskers. The improvement of mechanical properties was due to whisker pull-out, crack deflection and crack bridging. Moreover, the degradation rate decreased with the increase of hydroxyapatite whisker content. A layer of bone-like apatite was formed on the scaffold surfaces after being soaked in simulated body fluid. Human osteoblast-like MG-63 cells spread well on the scaffolds and proliferated with increasing culture time. These findings suggested that the calcium silicate scaffolds reinforced with hydroxyapatite whiskers showed great potential for bone regeneration and tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: • HA whiskers were incorporated into CS to improve the properties. • The scaffolds were successfully fabricated by SLS. • Toughening mechanisms was whisker pull-out, crack deflection and bridging. • The scaffolds showed excellent apatite forming ability

  15. Calcium silicate ceramic scaffolds toughened with hydroxyapatite whiskers for bone tissue engineering

    Feng, Pei [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Complex Manufacturing, Central South University, Changsha 410083, PR China, (China); Wei, Pingpin [Cancer Research Institute, Central South University, Changsha 410078 (China); Li, Pengjian; Gao, Chengde [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Complex Manufacturing, Central South University, Changsha 410083, PR China, (China); Shuai, Cijun, E-mail: shuai@csu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Complex Manufacturing, Central South University, Changsha 410083, PR China, (China); Department of Regenerative Medicine and Cell Biology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States); Peng, Shuping, E-mail: shuping@csu.edu.cn [Cancer Research Institute, Central South University, Changsha 410078 (China)

    2014-11-15

    Calcium silicate possessed excellent biocompatibility, bioactivity and degradability, while the high brittleness limited its application in load-bearing sites. Hydroxyapatite whiskers ranging from 0 to 30 wt.% were incorporated into the calcium silicate matrix to improve the strength and fracture resistance. Porous scaffolds were fabricated by selective laser sintering. The effects of hydroxyapatite whiskers on the mechanical properties and toughening mechanisms were investigated. The results showed that the scaffolds had a uniform and continuous inner network with the pore size ranging between 0.5 mm and 0.8 mm. The mechanical properties were enhanced with increasing hydroxyapatite whiskers, reached a maximum at 20 wt.% (compressive strength: 27.28 MPa, compressive Young's modulus: 156.2 MPa, flexural strength: 15.64 MPa and fracture toughness: 1.43 MPa·m{sup 1/2}) and then decreased by addition of more hydroxyapatite whiskers. The improvement of mechanical properties was due to whisker pull-out, crack deflection and crack bridging. Moreover, the degradation rate decreased with the increase of hydroxyapatite whisker content. A layer of bone-like apatite was formed on the scaffold surfaces after being soaked in simulated body fluid. Human osteoblast-like MG-63 cells spread well on the scaffolds and proliferated with increasing culture time. These findings suggested that the calcium silicate scaffolds reinforced with hydroxyapatite whiskers showed great potential for bone regeneration and tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: • HA whiskers were incorporated into CS to improve the properties. • The scaffolds were successfully fabricated by SLS. • Toughening mechanisms was whisker pull-out, crack deflection and bridging. • The scaffolds showed excellent apatite forming ability.

  16. Cultured embryonic non-innervated mouse muzzle is capable of generating a whisker pattern.

    Andrés, F L; Van Der Loos, H

    1983-01-01

    The whisker pattern on the muzzle of the mouse is mapped in the contralateral parietal neocortex, each whisker follicle projecting to its own multineuronal unit ('barrel'). To determine the role, if any, of the peripheral innervation in the establishment of the vibrissal array, we cultured non-innervated prospective whiskerpads from 9- and 10-day-old embryos, mostly on chorioallantoic membrane. The results show that skin, alone, is capable of generating the whisker pattern, thus adducing a strong argument for the hypothesis that the central brain maps have their origin in the periphery. Copyright © 1983. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Characterization of microstructure of Si3N4 whisker reinforced glass ceramic

    Han, Byoung Sung; Choi, Shung Shaon

    1993-01-01

    Glass ceramics, especially fiber-reinforced composite ceramics, have attracted a great deal of attention in improving the reliability of ceramic components because of the improvement in various mechanical properties. Through hot-pressing and sintering, 225 cordierite was transformed with glass ceramic and mullite phase. Particularly glass glain size increased with the increasing of the sintering temperature and the heat treatment enhance the toughness and hardness of materials. Like the increased sintering temperature, the roughness increased with increasing whisker vol.%. In case of whisker-rinforced glass ceramic, the fracture surface of samples has been associated with a whisker orientation of samples. (Author)

  18. Effects of local film properties on the nucleation and growth of tin whiskers and hillocks

    Sarobol, Pylin

    Whiskers and hillocks grow spontaneously on Pb-free Sn electrodeposited films as a response to thin film stresses. Stress relaxation occurs by atom deposition to specific grain boundaries in the plane of the film, with hillocks being formed when grain boundary migration accompanies growth out of the plane of the film. The implication for whisker formation in electronics is serious: whiskers can grow to be millimeters long, sometimes causing short circuiting between adjacent components and, thereby, posing serious electrical reliability risks. In order to develop more effective whisker mitigation strategies, a predictive physics-based model has been needed. A growth model is developed, based on grain boundary faceting, localized Coble creep, as well as grain boundary sliding for whiskers, and grain boundary sliding with shear induced grain boundary migration for hillocks. In this model of whisker formation, two mechanisms are important: accretion of atoms by Coble creep on grain boundary planes normal to the growth direction inducing a grain boundary shear and grain boundary sliding in the direction of whisker growth. The model accurately captures the importance of the geometry of "surface grains"---shallow grains on film surfaces whose depths are significantly less than their in-plane grain sizes. A critical factor in the analysis is the ratio of the grain boundary sliding coefficient to the in-plane film compressive stress. If the accretion-induced shear stresses are not coupled to grain boundary motion and sliding occurs, a whisker forms. If the shear stress is coupled to grain boundary migration, a hillock forms. Based on this model, long whiskers grow from shallow surface grains with easy grain boundary sliding in the direction of growth. Other observed growth morphologies will be discussed in light of our model. Additional insights into the preferred sites for whisker and hillock growth were developed based on elastic anisotropy, local film microstructure

  19. White light emission from fluorescent SiC with porous surface

    Lu, Weifang; Ou, Yiyu; Fiordaliso, Elisabetta Maria

    2017-01-01

    We report for the frst time a NUV light to white light conversion in a N-B co-doped 6H-SiC (fuorescent SiC) layer containing a hybrid structure. The surface of fuorescent SiC sample contains porous structures fabricated by anodic oxidation method. After passivation by 20nm thick Al2O3, the photol......We report for the frst time a NUV light to white light conversion in a N-B co-doped 6H-SiC (fuorescent SiC) layer containing a hybrid structure. The surface of fuorescent SiC sample contains porous structures fabricated by anodic oxidation method. After passivation by 20nm thick Al2O3...... the bulk fuorescent SiC layer. A high color rendering index of 81.1 has been achieved. Photoluminescence spectra in porous layers fabricated in both commercial n-type and lab grown N-B co-doped 6H-SiC show two emission peaks centered approximately at 460nm and 530nm. Such bluegreen emission phenomenon can......, the photoluminescence intensity from the porous layer was signifcant enhanced by a factor of more than 12. Using a porous layer of moderate thickness (~10µm), high-quality white light emission was realized by combining the independent emissions of blue-green emission from the porous layer and yellow emission from...

  20. Reactividad entre whiskers de α-SiC y aluminio durante el procesado por vía líquida de materiales compuestos de matriz metálica

    Ureña, A.

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The reactivity between α-SiC whiskers and an aluminium alloy (Al-Cu-Mg, both present in a metal matrix composite, has been studied when such matrix is in molten state. Using mainly transmission electron microscopy (TEM and electron microdiffraction (ED, the nature and morphology of the reaction products generated at the α-SiC/aluminium interface, when this last melts under different condition which simulate casting and welding procedures for metal matrix composites, have been characterised. Both the formation of Al4C3 aggregates with platelet morphology generated by dissolution-reaction mechanisms, and aciculate crystals of the same carbide form by complete dissolution of the α-SiC whiskers and later Al4C3 precipitation into the molten aluminium. Ternary Al-Si carbides with high chemical stability have been also identified by TEMED (β-Al4SiC4, being its formation related with higher energetic conditions than for the Al4C3.

    Se realiza un estudio de la reactividad entre whiskers de α-SiC y una aleación de aluminio en estado líquido (Al-Cu-Mg, que forman parte de un material compuesto de matriz metálica. Empleando fundamentalmente técnicas de microscopía electrónica de barrido (MEB y de transmisión (MET, junto con difracción de electrones (DE, se ha caracterizado la naturaleza y morfología de los productos de reacción que se generan en la intercara α-SiC/aluminio, cuando éste funde en diferentes condiciones que simulan procesos de fabricación y soldadura del material compuesto. Se ha observado tanto la formación de agregados de Al4C3 con morfología tabular producidos por mecanismos de disolución-reacción de los whiskers, como de cristales aciculares del mismo tipo de carburo formados por disolución total de α-SiC y precipitación en el aluminio fundido. Se ha determinado también que, en condiciones suficientemente energéticas, pueden llegar a formarse carburos ternarios de aluminio y silicio (β-Al4SiC4 que

  1. Improved mechanical properties of hydroxyapatite whisker-reinforced poly(L-lactic acid) scaffold by surface modification of hydroxyapatite.

    Fang, Zhou; Feng, Qingling

    2014-02-01

    To improve the mechanical properties of porous hydroxyapatite/poly(L-lactic acid) (HA/PLLA) composites, HA whiskers with high crystallinity and high aspect ratio were synthesized. HA whiskers were modified with γ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) to improve the interface between HA whiskers and PLLA. The composite scaffold consists of a porous PLLA matrix with HA whiskers distributed homogeneously. The morphology and the distributions of pore sizes of PLLA scaffold was not influenced by introducing HA whiskers, while the mechanical properties were improved. Both the compressive strength and compressive modulus were increased with the weight ratio of APTES-modified HA whiskers up to 30 wt.%, but only up to 15 wt.% for non-modified HA whiskers. With more than 15 wt.% HA whiskers, the mechanical properties of HA/PLLA scaffold were better improved with APTES-modified HA whiskers than non-modified. The HA whisker/PLLA scaffold with high porosity and improved mechanical properties is attractive in the application of tissue engineering. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Beta 2-adrenergic receptors are colocalized and coregulated with whisker barrels in rat somatosensory cortex

    Vos, P.; Kaufmann, D.; Hand, P.J.; Wolfe, B.B.

    1990-01-01

    Autoradiography has been used to visualize independently the subtypes of beta-adrenergic receptors in rat somatosensory cortex. Beta 2-adrenergic receptors, but not beta 1-adrenergic receptors colocalize with whisker barrels in this tissue. Thus, each whisker sends a specific multisynaptic pathway to the somatosensory cortex that can be histochemically visualized and only one subtype of beta-adrenergic receptor is specifically associated with this cortical representation. Additionally, neonatal lesion of any or all of the whisker follicles results in loss of the corresponding barrel(s) as shown by histochemical markers. This loss is paralleled by a similar loss in the organization of beta 2-adrenergic receptors in the somatosensory cortex. Other results indicate that these beta 2-adrenergic receptors are not involved in moment-to-moment signal transmission in this pathway and, additionally, are not involved in a gross way in the development of whisker-barrel array

  3. Structure and Properties of Chitin Whisker Reinforced Papers for Food Packaging Application

    Zhihan Li

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, concerns about environmental waste caused by petroleum-derived chemicals as well as the consumer's demand for high quality food products, have prompted people to pay more attention to developing biodegradable food packaging materials using natural resources such as cellulose fibers and chitin derivatives. In this study, chitin whiskers have been successfully generated by hydrolyzing the α-chitin sample. Then the synthesized nano-sized chitin whiskers were used at ratios from 0.1% to 2% (wt% for improving strength properties of paper sheets by the dip-coating method. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM were used to investigate the morphology of chitin whiskers and cellulose fiber compounds. The results showed that coating with chitin whiskers brought about an increase in tear strength, burst strength, and wet and dry tensile strength, with a decrease in Zeta-potential value.

  4. Hydrothermal Formation Of Hemi-hydrate Calcium Sulfate Whiskers In The Presence Of Additives

    Luo, K. B.; Li, C. M.; Li, H. P.; Ning, P.; Xiang, L.

    2010-01-01

    The influence of addictives on the hydrothermal formation of hemi-hydrate calcium sulfate (CaSO 4 ·0.5H 2 O) whiskers were discussed in this paper, using CaCl 2 and Na 2 SO 4 as the reactants. The presence of NaCl, CaCl 2 or Na 2 SO 4 increased the concentrations of Ca 2+ and SO 4 2- , leading to the formation of CaSO 4 ·0.5H 2 O whiskers with aspect ratio lower than 50. The one dimensional growth of CaSO 4 ·0.5H 2 O whiskers was enhanced in water with no additives owing to the low super-saturation, leading to the formation of uniform whiskers with a length of 200-2000 μm and an aspect ratio higher than 100.

  5. A truncated conical beam model for analysis of the vibration of rat whiskers.

    Yan, Wenyi; Kan, Qianhua; Kergrene, Kenan; Kang, Guozheng; Feng, Xi-Qiao; Rajan, Ramesh

    2013-08-09

    A truncated conical beam model is developed to study the vibration behaviour of a rat whisker. Translational and rotational springs are introduced to better represent the constraint conditions at the base of the whiskers in a living rat. Dimensional analysis shows that the natural frequency of a truncated conical beam with generic spring constraints at its ends is inversely proportional to the square root of the mass density. Under all the combinations of the classical free, pinned, sliding or fixed boundary conditions of a truncated conical beam, it is proved that the natural frequency can be expressed as f = α(rb/L(2))E/ρ and the frequency coefficient α only depends on the ratio of the radii at the two ends of the beam. The natural frequencies of a representative rat whisker are predicted for two typical situations: freely whisking in air and the tip touching an object. Our numerical results show that there exists a window where the natural frequencies of a rat whisker are very sensitive to the change of the rotational constraint at the base. This finding is also confirmed by the numerical results of 18 whiskers with their data available from literature. It can be concluded that the natural frequencies of a rat whisker can be adjusted within a wide range through manipulating the constraints of the follicle on the rat base by a behaving animal. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Growth of cadmium oxide whiskers on cadmium sulphide single crystals with copper as growth activator

    Koparanova, N.; Simov, S. (Bylgarska Akademiya na Naukite, Sofia. Inst. po Fizika na Tvyrdoto Tyalo); Genchev, D. (Bylgarska Akademiya na Naukite, Sofia. Inst. za Yadrena Izsledvaniya i Yadrena Energetika); Metchenov, G. (Research Inst. of Criminalistics and Criminology, Sofia (Bulgaria))

    1985-02-01

    Some results on the growth and morphology of cadmium oxide whiskers, obtained on cadmium sulphide single crystals with copper as a growth activator, are presented in this work. Cadmium oxide whiskers have been obtained on brace 112-bar0 brace faces of cadmium sulphide plates with a copper layer deposited in advance. The whiskers grew during the annealing of the plates in a weak stream of technically pure argon at temperatures 670 to 730 deg C for 15 min to 3.5 h. Details about the procedure have been given elsewhere. The composition and morphology of the whiskers have been studied by an X-ray microanalyser JEOL 35 DDS and a scanning electron microscope JEOL, JSM 35. The optical microscopic observations have shown that after annealing, a gray-black granular layer is formed on the cadmium sulphide single crystals and this layer can easily be separated from the crystal substrate. Under the granular layer the crystal is heavily damaged. The whiskers grow on the granular layer and they are coloured yellow-brown or red-brown. The maximum whisker length attains several hundreds of micrometres and in some cases up to 1 mm or more.

  7. Growth of cadmium oxide whiskers on cadmium sulphide single crystals with copper as growth activator

    Koparanova, N.; Simov, S.

    1985-01-01

    Some results on the growth and morphology of cadmium oxide whiskers, obtained on cadmium sulphide single crystals with copper as a growth activator, are presented in this work. Cadmium oxide whiskers have been obtained on brace 112-bar0 brace faces of cadmium sulphide plates with a copper layer deposited in advance. The whiskers grew during the annealing of the plates in a weak stream of technically pure argon at temperatures 670 to 730 deg C for 15 min to 3.5 h. Details about the procedure have been given elsewhere. The composition and morphology of the whiskers have been studied by an X-ray microanalyser JEOL 35 DDS and a scanning electron microscope JEOL, JSM 35. The optical microscopic observations have shown that after annealing, a gray-black granular layer is formed on the cadmium sulphide single crystals and this layer can easily be separated from the crystal substrate. Under the granular layer the crystal is heavily damaged. The whiskers grow on the granular layer and they are coloured yellow-brown or red-brown. The maximum whisker length attains several hundreds of micrometres and in some cases up to 1 mm or more. (author)

  8. Effects of SiC amount on phase compositions and properties of Ti3SiC2-based composites

    蔡艳芝; 殷小玮; 尹洪峰

    2015-01-01

    The phase compositions and properties of Ti3SiC2-based composites with SiC addition of 5%−30% in mass fraction fabricated by in-situ reaction and hot pressing sintering were studied. SiC addition effectively prevented TiC synthesis but facilitated SiC synthesis. The Ti3SiC2/TiC−SiC composite had better oxidation resistance when SiC added quantity reached 20% but poorer oxidation resistance with SiC addition under 15%than Ti3SiC2/TiC composite at higher temperatures. There were more than half of the original SiC and a few Ti3SiC2 remaining in Ti3SiC2/TiC−SiC with 20% SiC addition, but all constituents in Ti3Si2/TiC composite were oxidized after 12 h in air at 1500 °C. The oxidation scale thickness of TS30, 1505.78μm, was near a half of that of T, 2715μm, at 1500 °C for 20 h. Ti3SiC2/TiC composite had a flexural strength of 474 MPa, which was surpassed by Ti3SiC2/TiC−SiC composites when SiC added amount reached 15%. The strength reached the peak of 518 MPa at 20%SiC added amount.

  9. Repeated whisker stimulation evokes invariant neuronal responses in the dorsolateral striatum of anesthetized rats: a potential correlate of sensorimotor habits

    Mowery, Todd M.; Harrold, Jon B.; Alloway, Kevin D.

    2011-01-01

    The dorsolateral striatum (DLS) receives extensive projections from primary somatosensory cortex (SI), but very few studies have used somesthetic stimulation to characterize the sensory coding properties of DLS neurons. In this study, we used computer-controlled whisker deflections to characterize the extracellular responses of DLS neurons in rats lightly anesthetized with isoflurane. When multiple whiskers were synchronously deflected by rapid back-and-forth movements, whisker-sensitive neur...

  10. In-situ measurement of bending strength of TiC whiskers in the scanning electron microscope

    Seino, Yutaka; Shin, Shoichiro; Nagai, Satoshi [National Research Lab. of Metrology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1995-10-01

    The three-point bending strength of TiC whiskers was measured in a scanning electron microscope. The whisker samples have {approximately} 50 {micro}m length and 2 {approximately} 4 {micro}m diameter and are commercially available as reinforcements. For composite materials. The distribution of the bending strengths of the whiskers showed a double peak around 5.2GPa and 30.4GPa, respectively. The difference in these values is attributed to differences in the cleavage strength of two crystal planes depending on whisker growth direction.

  11. The role of whiskers in compensation of visual deficit in a mouse model of retinal degeneration.

    Voller, Jaroslav; Potužáková, Barbora; Šimeček, Vojtěch; Vožeh, František

    2014-01-13

    Sensory deprivation in one modality can enhance the development of the remaining modalities via mechanisms of synaptic plasticity. Mice of the C3H strain suffer from RD1 retinal degeneration that leads to visual impairment at weaning age. We examined a role of whiskers in compensation of the visual deficit. In order to differentiate the contribution of the whiskers from other mechanisms that can take part in the compensation, we investigated the effect of both chronic and acute tactile deprivation. Three-month-old mice were used. We examined motor skills (rotarod, beam walking test), gait control (CatWalk system), spontaneous motor activity (open field) and CNS excitability to an acoustic stimulus for assessment of compensatory changes in auditory system (audiogenic epilepsy). In the sighted mice, the only effect was a decline in their rotarod test performance after acute whisker removal. In the blind animals, chronic tactile deprivation caused changes in their gait and impaired the performance in motor tests. Some other compensatory mechanisms were involved but the whiskers are essential for the compensation as it emerged from more marked change of gait and the worsening of the motor performance after the acute whisker removal. Both chronic and acute tactile deprivation induced anxiety-like behaviour. Only a combination of blindness and chronic tactile deprivation led to an increased sense of hearing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Isolation of whiskers from natural sources and their dispersed in a non-aqueous medium

    Vestena, Mauro; Gross, Idejan Padilha; Pires, Alfredo Tiburcio Nunes; Muller, Carmen Maria Olivera, E-mail: mauro@utfpr.edu.br [Universidade Federal Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2016-10-15

    Whiskers have been used as a nano material dispersed in polymer matrices to modify the microscopic and macroscopic properties of the polymer. These nanomaterials can be isolated from cellulose, one of the most abundant natural renewable sources of biodegradable polymer. In this study, whiskers were isolated from sugarcane bagasse and corn cob straw fibers. Initially, the cellulose fiber was treated through an alkaline/oxidative process followed by acid hydrolysis. Dimethylformamide and dimethyl sulfoxide were used to replace the aqueous medium for the dispersion of the whiskers. For the solvent exchange, dimethylformamide or dimethyl sulfoxide was added to the aqueous dispersion and the water was then removed by fractional distillation. FTIR, TGA, XRD, TEM, Zeta and DLS techniques were used to evaluate the efficiency of the isolation process as well as the morphology and dimensions of the whiskers. The dimensions of the whiskers are comparable with values reported in the literature, maintaining the uniformity and homogeneity in both aqueous and non-aqueous solvents. (author)

  13. Isolation of whiskers from natural sources and their dispersed in a non-aqueous medium

    Mauro Vestena

    Full Text Available Abstract Whiskers have been used as a nanomaterial dispersed in polymer matrices to modify the microscopic and macroscopic properties of the polymer. These nanomaterials can be isolated from cellulose, one of the most abundant natural renewable sources of biodegradable polymer. In this study, whiskers were isolated from sugarcane bagasse and corn cob straw fibers. Initially, the cellulose fiber was treated through an alkaline/oxidative process followed by acid hydrolysis. Dimethylformamide and dimethyl sulfoxide were used to replace the aqueous medium for the dispersion of the whiskers. For the solvent exchange, dimethylformamide or dimethyl sulfoxide was added to the aqueous dispersion and the water was then removed by fractional distillation. FTIR, TGA, XRD, TEM, Zeta and DLS techniques were used to evaluate the efficiency of the isolation process as well as the morphology and dimensions of the whiskers. The dimensions of the whiskers are comparable with values reported in the literature, maintaining the uniformity and homogeneity in both aqueous and non-aqueous solvents.

  14. Peculiarities of magnetoresistance in InSb whiskers at cryogenic temperatures

    Druzhinin, A., E-mail: druzh@polynet.lviv.ua [Lviv Polytechnic National University, Bandera Str., 12, 79013 Lviv (Ukraine); International Laboratory of High Magnetic Fields and Low Temperatures, Gajowicka 95, Wroclaw (Poland); Ostrovskii, I.; Khoverko, Yu. [Lviv Polytechnic National University, Bandera Str., 12, 79013 Lviv (Ukraine); International Laboratory of High Magnetic Fields and Low Temperatures, Gajowicka 95, Wroclaw (Poland); Liakh-Kaguy, N.; Khytruk, I. [Lviv Polytechnic National University, Bandera Str., 12, 79013 Lviv (Ukraine); Rogacki, K. [International Laboratory of High Magnetic Fields and Low Temperatures, Gajowicka 95, Wroclaw (Poland)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Magnetoresistance in InSb whiskers with impurity concentration near MIT is studied. • SdH oscillations of transverse and longitudinal magnetoresistance are examined. • Mechanisms of electron scattering are determined • Main crystal parameters of InSb whiskers are determined. - Abstract: The study of the magnetoresistance in InSb whiskers with an impurity concentration in the vicinity to the metal-insulator phase transition, at low temperature range 4.2–77 K, and in fields, with induction up to 14 T, was conducted. The presence of Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations in both transverse and longitudinal magnetoresistance was observed. The following parameters of InSb whiskers were defined: period of oscillations 0.1 T{sup −1}, cyclotron effective mass of electrons m{sub c} ≈ 0.14m{sub o,} concentration of charge carriers 2.3 × 10{sup 17} cm{sup −3}, g-factor g{sup *} ≈ 30 and Dingle temperature T{sub D} = 14.5 K. To determine the nature of crystal defects, the electron scattering processes on the short-range potential, caused by interaction with polar and nonpolar optical phonons, piezoelectric and acoustic phonons, static strain centers and ionized impurities in n-InSb whiskers, with defect concentration 2.9 × 10{sup 17} cm{sup −3}, are considered. The temperature dependences of electron mobility in the range 4.2–500 K were calculated.

  15. Microwave absorption behaviors of tetra-needle-like ZnO whiskers

    Zhou Zuowan; Chu Longsheng; Hu Shuchun

    2006-01-01

    A novel type of microwave absorption coating was prepared using tetra-needle-like zinc oxide whiskers as the main functional agent. The results of the experiments show that the composite coatings containing ZnO whisker appear to have good efficiency of microwave absorption, and the effect is influenced by the aspect ratio (length to diameter, L/D), the content of the T-ZnO whiskers and the resistivity of the whiskers. Microwave-heat transformation of this kind of whisker and its composite was investigated, and the results indicated that the apparent density affected the efficiency of the heat generating. The suitable value of the apparent density is 0.16-0.18 g/cm 3 . The mechanism of microwave absorption and microwave-heat transformation was explained by the semiconductive networks formed by the tetra-needle shape, diffuse reflections results from quasi-antenna, multipoles due to charge concentration and the multi-interfaces in the composites

  16. Fast feedback in active sensing: touch-induced changes to whisker-object interaction.

    Dudi Deutsch

    Full Text Available Whisking mediated touch is an active sense whereby whisker movements are modulated by sensory input and behavioral context. Here we studied the effects of touching an object on whisking in head-fixed rats. Simultaneous movements of whiskers C1, C2, and D1 were tracked bilaterally and their movements compared. During free-air whisking, whisker protractions were typically characterized by a single acceleration-deceleration event, whisking amplitude and velocity were correlated, and whisk duration correlated with neither amplitude nor velocity. Upon contact with an object, a second acceleration-deceleration event occurred in about 25% of whisk cycles, involving both contacting (C2 and non-contacting (C1, D1 whiskers ipsilateral to the object. In these cases, the rostral whisker (C2 remained in contact with the object throughout the double-peak phase, which effectively prolonged the duration of C2 contact. These "touch-induced pumps" (TIPs were detected, on average, 17.9 ms after contact. On a slower time scale, starting at the cycle following first touch, contralateral amplitude increased while ipsilateral amplitude decreased. Our results demonstrate that sensory-induced motor modulations occur at various timescales, and directly affect object palpation.

  17. A critical review of growth of low-dimensional carbon nanostructures on SiC (0 0 0 1): impact of growth environment

    Lu Weijie; Boeckl, John J; Mitchel, William C

    2010-01-01

    Graphene and carbon nanotube (CNT) structures have promise for many electronic device applications and both have been grown on SiC through the decomposition of the substrate. It is well known that both graphene and aligned CNTs are grown under similar conditions with overlapping temperature and pressure ranges, but a fundamental understanding of the two types of growths is actively being researched. Moreover, various technical challenges need to be overcome to achieve improvement in the electronic and structural quality of these carbon-based nanostructures on SiC. Specifically, an understanding and control of the SiC surface graphitization process and interface structure needs to be established. In this review, we focus on graphene growth on SiC (0 0 0 1) (Si-face) as a model system in comparison with aligned CNT growth on SiC. The experimental growth aspects for graphene growth, including vacuum and ambient growth environments, and growth temperature are summarized, then proposed decomposition and growth mechanisms are discussed. Both thermal and chemical decomposition processes are presented and special emphasis is given to the role of growth process variations between laboratories. The chemical reactions driving the graphitization process and ultimately the carbon nanostructure growth on SiC are discussed. It is suggested that the composition of the residual gases in the growth environment is a critical parameter and that gas composition at the growth temperature should be monitored.

  18. Solid-state synthesis of Li_4Ti_5O_1_2 whiskers from TiO_2-B

    Yao, Wenjun; Zhuang, Wei; Ji, Xiaoyan; Chen, Jingjing; Lu, Xiaohua; Wang, Changsong

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The Li_4Ti_5O_1_2 whiskers were synthesized from TiO_2-B whiskers via a solid state reaction. • The TiO_2-B crystal structure for lithium diffusion is easier than anatase. • The separated diffusion and reaction process is crucial for the solid-state syntheses of Li_4Ti_5O_1_2 whiskers. - Abstract: In this work, Li_4Ti_5O_1_2 (LTO) was synthesized from the precursors of TiO_2-B and anatase whiskers, respectively. The synthesized LTO whiskers from TiO_2-B whiskers via a solid state reaction at 650 °C have a high degree of crystallinity with an average diameter of 300 nm. However, when anatase whiskers were used as the precursor, only particle morphology LTO was produced at 750 °C. The further analysis of the precursors, the intermediate products and the final products reveal that the crystal structure of the anatase hinders the diffusion of lithium, leading to a typical reaction–diffusion process. Under this condition, only particle morphology LTO can be produced. However, the crystal structure of the TiO_2-B is easy for lithium diffusion and the process is performed in two separated steps (i.e., diffusion and reaction), which makes it possible to decrease the solid-state reaction temperature down to 650 °C and then maintain the morphologies of whiskers.

  19. Direct growth of freestanding GaN on C-face SiC by HVPE.

    Tian, Yuan; Shao, Yongliang; Wu, Yongzhong; Hao, Xiaopeng; Zhang, Lei; Dai, Yuanbin; Huo, Qin

    2015-06-02

    In this work, high quality GaN crystal was successfully grown on C-face 6H-SiC by HVPE using a two steps growth process. Due to the small interaction stress between the GaN and the SiC substrate, the GaN was self-separated from the SiC substrate even with a small thickness of about 100 μm. Moreover, the SiC substrate was excellent without damage after the whole process so that it can be repeatedly used in the GaN growth. Hot phosphoric acid etching (at 240 °C for 30 min) was employed to identify the polarity of the GaN layer. According to the etching results, the obtained layer was Ga-polar GaN. High-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) were done to characterize the quality of the freestanding GaN. The Raman measurements showed that the freestanding GaN film grown on the C-face 6H-SiC was stress-free. The optical properties of the freestanding GaN layer were determined by photoluminescence (PL) spectra.

  20. Stability to irradiation of SiGe whisker crystals used for sensors of physical values

    Druzhinin A. A.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available An influence of g-irradiation (Co60 with doze up to 1—1018 сm–2 and magnetic field with induction up to 14 T on conduction of 1–xGex (х = 0,03 whisker crystals with resistivity of 0,08—0,025 Оhm·сm in temperature range 4,2—300 K have been studied. It is shown that whisker crystals resistance faintly varies under irradiation with doze 2·1017 сm–2, while their magnetoresistance substantially changes. The strain sensors stable to irradiation action operating in high magnetic fields on the base of the whiskers have been designed.

  1. SiC for microwave power transistors

    Sriram, S.; Siergiej, R.R.; Clarke, R.C.; Agarwal, A.K.; Brandt, C.D. [Northrop Grumman Sci. and Technol. Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1997-07-16

    The advantages of SiC for high power, microwave devices are discussed. The design considerations, fabrication, and experimental results are described for SiC MESFETs and SITs. The highest reported f{sub max} for a 0.5 {mu}m MESFET using semi-insulating 4H-SiC is 42 GHz. These devices also showed a small signal gain of 5.1 dB at 20 GHz. Other 4H-SiC MESFETs have shown a power density of 3.3 W/mm at 850 MHz. The largest SiC power transistor reported is a 450 W SIT measured at 600 MHz. The power output density of this SIT is 2.5 times higher than that of comparable silicon devices. SITs have been designed to operate as high as 3.0 GHz, with a 3 cm periphery part delivering 38 W of output power. (orig.) 28 refs.

  2. Sensory prediction on a whiskered robot: A tactile analogy to "optic flow"

    Christopher L Schroeder

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available When an animal moves an array of sensors (e.g., the hand, the eye through the environment, spatial and temporal gradients of sensory data are related by the velocity of the moving sensory array. In vision, the relationship between spatial and temporal brightness gradients is quantified in the optical flow equation. In the present work, we suggest an analog to optical flow for the rodent vibrissal (whisker array, in which the perceptual intensity that flows over the array is bending moment. Changes in bending moment are directly related to radial object distance, defined as the distance between the base of a whisker and the point of contact with the object. Using both simulations and a 1x5 array (row of artificial whiskers, we demonstrate that local object curvature can be estimated based on differences in radial distance across the array. We then develop two algorithms, both based on tactile flow, to predict the future contact points that will be obtained as the whisker array translates along the object. The translation of the robotic whisker array represents the rat's head velocity. The first algorithm uses a calculation of the local object slope, while the second uses a calculation of the local object curvature. Both algorithms successfully predict future contact points for simple surfaces. The algorithm based on curvature was found to more accurately predict future contact points as surfaces became more irregular. We quantify the inter-related effects of whisker spacing and the object’s spatial frequencies, and examine the issues that arise in the presence of real-world noise, friction, and slip.

  3. Neurons within the trigeminal mesencephalic nucleus encode for the kinematic parameters of the whisker pad macrovibrissae.

    Mameli, Ombretta; Caria, Marcello A; Biagi, Francesca; Zedda, Marco; Farina, Vittorio

    2017-05-01

    It has been recently shown in rats that spontaneous movements of whisker pad macrovibrissae elicited evoked responses in the trigeminal mesencephalic nucleus (Me5). In the present study, electrophysiological and neuroanatomical experiments were performed in anesthetized rats to evaluate whether, besides the whisker displacement per se, the Me5 neurons are also involved in encoding the kinematic properties of macrovibrissae movements, and also whether, as reported for the trigeminal ganglion, even within the Me5 nucleus exists a neuroanatomical representation of the whisker pad macrovibrissae. Extracellular electrical activity of single Me5 neurons was recorded before, during, and after mechanical deflection of the ipsilateral whisker pad macrovibrissae in different directions, and with different velocities and amplitudes. In several groups of animals, single or multiple injections of the tracer Dil were performed into the whisker pad of one side, in close proximity to the vibrissae follicles, in order to label the peripheral terminals of the Me5 neurons innervating the macrovibrissae (whisking-neurons), and therefore, the respective perikaria within the nucleus. Results showed that: (1) the whisker pad macrovibrissae were represented in the medial-caudal part of the Me5 nucleus by a single cluster of cells whose number seemed to match that of the macrovibrissae; (2) macrovibrissae mechanical deflection elicited significant responses in the Me5 whisking-neurons, which were related to the direction, amplitude, and frequency of the applied deflection. The specific functional role of Me5 neurons involved in encoding proprioceptive information arising from the macrovibrissae movements is discussed within the framework of the whole trigeminal nuclei activities. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  4. A Grande Reportagem no contexto informativo SIC

    Colaço, Vanessa Alexandra Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Os telespectadores querem ver grandes reportagens? Como evoluíram as audiências da Grande Reportagem SIC? É este o produto premium da estação? Terá este formato um investimento e continuidade garantidas? Estas são algumas das questões formuladas e às quais se procurou dar resposta neste Relatório de Estágio. Neste trabalho traça-se o perfil do programa Grande Reportagem SIC, clarificando a linha editorial que lhe serviu de base, procurando perceber as suas dinâmicas e passando em revista mome...

  5. Simulations of Proton Implantation in Silicon Carbide (SiC)

    2016-03-31

    Simulations of Proton Implantation in Silicon Carbide (SiC) Jonathan P. McCandless, Hailong Chen, Philip X.-L. Feng Electrical Engineering, Case...of implanting protons (hydrogen ions, H+) into SiC thin layers on silicon (Si) substrate, and explore the ion implantation conditions that are...relevant to experimental radiation of SiC layers. Keywords: silicon carbide (SiC); radiation effects; ion implantation ; proton; stopping and range of

  6. Development of 9Al2O3{center_dot}2B2O3 whiskers reinforced piston by squeeze casting. Manufacturing process and characteristics of whiskers preform; Squeeze cast ho ni yoru 9Al2O3{center_dot}2B2O3 whisker kyoka piston no kaihatsu

    Yamauchi, T; Suzuki, M; Takahashi, M; Takada, I; Toda, M [Suzuki Motor Co. Ltd., Shizuoka (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The properties of 9Al2O3 {center_dot} 2B2O3 whisker reinforced aluminum alloy is excellent compared with conventional material at elevated temperatures. 9Al2O3 {center_dot} 2B2O3 whisker reinforced aluminum alloy was applied to the piston head of two cycle engines. This piston was produced by a squeeze casting process with the granulated whiskers preform which was infiltrated by a molten aluminum alloy under high pressure. Since the permeability of the granulated whiskers preform is larger than that of the uniform preform in which whiskers are distributed randomly and uniformly, it became possible to suppress the preform deformation using the developed preform. 7 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. The 'whisker sign' as an indicator of ochronosis in skeletal scintigraphy

    Paul, R.; Ylinen, S.L.

    1991-01-01

    A patient with alkaptonuria and ochronotic arthrosis was imaged twice with ( 99m Tc-DPD) - once during a bout of arthritic knee pain and once when symptom-free. There was a marked accumulation of radioactivity in the large joints. During the episode of arthritis the knee joints had a higher uptake than when the patient was without symptoms. The intervertebral discs showed a high uptake which extended laterally from the axial vertebral column; the finding gave an impression of whiskers, and this 'whisker sign' may be characteristic of ochronosis. (orig.)

  8. The 'whisker sign' as an indicator of ochronosis in skeletal scintigraphy

    Paul, R.; Ylinen, S.L. (Turku Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine)

    1991-03-01

    A patient with alkaptonuria and ochronotic arthrosis was imaged twice with ({sup 99m}Tc-DPD) - once during a bout of arthritic knee pain and once when symptom-free. There was a marked accumulation of radioactivity in the large joints. During the episode of arthritis the knee joints had a higher uptake than when the patient was without symptoms. The intervertebral discs showed a high uptake which extended laterally from the axial vertebral column; the finding gave an impression of whiskers, and this 'whisker sign' may be characteristic of ochronosis. (orig.).

  9. Fabrication of a single layer graphene by copper intercalation on a SiC(0001) surface

    Yagyu, Kazuma; Tochihara, Hiroshi; Tomokage, Hajime; Suzuki, Takayuki; Tajiri, Takayuki; Kohno, Atsushi; Takahashi, Kazutoshi

    2014-01-01

    Cu atoms deposited on a zero layer graphene grown on a SiC(0001) substrate, intercalate between the zero layer graphene and the SiC substrate after the thermal annealing above 600 °C, forming a Cu-intercalated single layer graphene. On the Cu-intercalated single layer graphene, a graphene lattice with superstructure due to moiré pattern is observed by scanning tunneling microscopy, and specific linear dispersion at the K ¯ point as well as a characteristic peak in a C 1s core level spectrum, which is originated from a free-standing graphene, is confirmed by photoemission spectroscopy. The Cu-intercalated single layer graphene is found to be n-doped

  10. Structural and optical characterization of GaN heteroepitaxial films on SiC substrates

    Morse, M.; Wu, P.; Choi, S.; Kim, T.H.; Brown, A.S.; Losurdo, M.; Bruno, G.

    2006-01-01

    We have estimated the threading dislocation density and type via X-ray diffraction and Williamson-Hall analysis to elicit qualitative information directly related to the electrical and optical quality of GaN epitaxial layers grown by PAMBE on 4H- and 6H-SiC substrates. The substrate surface preparation and buffer choice, specifically: Ga flashing for SiC oxide removal, controlled nitridation of SiC, and use of AlN buffer layers all impact the resultant screw dislocation density, but do not significantly influence the edge dislocation density. We show that modification of the substrate surface strongly affects the screw dislocation density, presumably due to impact on nucleation during the initial stages of heteroepitaxy

  11. Thermal detection mechanism of SiC based hydrogen resistive gas sensors

    Fawcett, Timothy J.; Wolan, John T.; Lloyd Spetz, Anita; Reyes, Meralys; Saddow, Stephen E.

    2006-10-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) resistive hydrogen gas sensors have been fabricated and tested. Planar NiCr contacts were deposited on a thin 3C-SiC epitaxial film grown on thin Si wafers bonded to polycrystalline SiC substrates. At 673K, up to a 51.75±0.04% change in sensor output current and a change in the device temperature of up to 163.1±0.4K were demonstrated in response to 100% H2 in N2. Changes in device temperature are shown to be driven by the transfer of heat from the device to the gas, giving rise to a thermal detection mechanism.

  12. Structural and optical characterization of GaN heteroepitaxial films on SiC substrates

    Morse, M. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, 128 Hudson Hall, Durham, NC (United States) and Department of Physics, Duke University, 128 Hudson Hall, Durham, NC (United States)]. E-mail: michael.morse@duke.edu; Wu, P. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, 128 Hudson Hall, Durham, NC (United States); Department of Physics, Duke University, 128 Hudson Hall, Durham, NC (United States); Choi, S. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, 128 Hudson Hall, Durham, NC (United States); Department of Physics, Duke University, 128 Hudson Hall, Durham, NC (United States); Kim, T.H. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, 128 Hudson Hall, Durham, NC (United States); Department of Physics, Duke University, 128 Hudson Hall, Durham, NC (United States); Brown, A.S. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, 128 Hudson Hall, Durham, NC (United States) and Department of Physics, Duke University, 128 Hudson Hall, Durham, NC (United States)]. E-mail: abrown@ee.duke.edu; Losurdo, M. [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and of Plasmas, IMIP-CNR, via Orabona, 4-70126 Bari (Italy); Bruno, G. [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and of Plasmas, IMIP-CNR, via Orabona, 4-70126 Bari (Italy)

    2006-10-31

    We have estimated the threading dislocation density and type via X-ray diffraction and Williamson-Hall analysis to elicit qualitative information directly related to the electrical and optical quality of GaN epitaxial layers grown by PAMBE on 4H- and 6H-SiC substrates. The substrate surface preparation and buffer choice, specifically: Ga flashing for SiC oxide removal, controlled nitridation of SiC, and use of AlN buffer layers all impact the resultant screw dislocation density, but do not significantly influence the edge dislocation density. We show that modification of the substrate surface strongly affects the screw dislocation density, presumably due to impact on nucleation during the initial stages of heteroepitaxy.

  13. Microwave joining of SiC

    Silberglitt, R.; Ahmad, I. [FM Technologies, Inc., Fairfax, VA (United States); Black, W.M. [George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA (United States)] [and others

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of this work is to optimize the properties of SiC-SiC joints made using microwave energy. The current focus is on optimization of time-temperature profiles, production of SiC from chemical precursors, and design of new applicators for joining of long tubes.

  14. A porous SiC ammonia sensor

    Connolly, E.J.; Timmer, B.H.; Pham, H.T.M.; Groeneweg, J.; Sarro, P.M.; Olthuis, Wouter; French, P.J.

    2005-01-01

    When used as the dielectric in a capacitive sensing arrangement, porous SiC has been found to be extremely sensitive to the presence of ammonia (NH3) gas. The exact sensing method is still not clear, but NH3 levels as low as 0.5 ppm could be detected. We report the fabrication and preliminary

  15. About SIC POVMs and discrete Wigner distributions

    Colin, Samuel; Corbett, John; Durt, Thomas; Gross, David

    2005-01-01

    A set of d 2 vectors in a Hilbert space of dimension d is called equiangular if each pair of vectors encloses the same angle. The projection operators onto these vectors define a POVM which is distinguished by its high degree of symmetry. Measures of this kind are called symmetric informationally complete, or SIC POVMs for short, and could be applied for quantum state tomography. Despite its simple geometrical description, the problem of constructing SIC POVMs or even proving their existence seems to be very hard. It is our purpose to introduce two applications of discrete Wigner functions to the analysis of the problem at hand. First, we will present a method for identifying symmetries of SIC POVMs under Clifford operations. This constitutes an alternative approach to a structure described before by Zauner and Appleby. Further, a simple and geometrically motivated construction for an SIC POVM in dimensions two and three is given (which, unfortunately, allows no generalization). Even though no new structures are found, we hope that the re-formulation of the problem may prove useful for future inquiries

  16. Matrix densification of SiC composites by sintering process

    Kim, Young-Wook; Jang, Doo-Hee; Eom, Jung-Hye; Chun, Yong-Seong

    2007-02-01

    The objectives of this research are to develop a process for dense SiC fiber-SiC composites with a porosity of 5% or less and to develop high-strength SiC fiber-SiC composites with a strength of 500 MPa or higher. To meet the above objectives, the following research topics were investigated ; new process development for the densification of SiC fiber-SiC composites, effect of processing parameters on densification of SiC fiber-SiC composites, effect of additive composition on matrix microstructure, effects of additive composition and content on densification of SiC fiber-SiC composites, mechanical properties of SiC fiber-SiC composites, effect of fiber coating on densification and strength of SiC fiber-SiC composites, development of new additive composition. There has been a great deal of progress in the development of technologies for the processing and densification of SiC fiber-SiC composites and in better understanding of additive-densification-mechanical property relations as results of this project. Based on the progress, dense SiC fiber-SiC composites (≥97%) and high strength SiC fiber-SiC composites (≥600 MPa) have been developed. Development of 2D SiC fiber-SiC composites with a relative density of ≥97% and a strength of ≥600 MPa can be counted as a notable achievement

  17. Effect of carbon coating on spontaneous C12A7 whisker formation

    Zaikovskii, Vladimir I.; Volodin, Alexander M.; Stoyanovskii, Vladimir O.; Cherepanova, Svetlana V.; Vedyagin, Aleksey A.

    2018-06-01

    A carbon nanoreactor concept was applied to study the stabilization effect of carbon shell on phase composition and morphology of dodecacalcium hepta-aluminate Ca12Al14O33. The starting C12A7 powder was obtained using aluminum and calcium hydroxides as precursors. Carbon shell was formed by a chemical vapor deposition of divinyl at 550 °C. After the calcination at 1400 °C, the product was characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). It was observed for a first time that spontaneous formation of calcium aluminate whiskers take place under the conditions described. Each whisker consists of a 'head' (globular particle of 0.5 microns in diameter) and a 'tail' (prolonged whisker of few microns in length and 0.1-0.2 microns in diameter). According to HRTEM, the 'head' is characterized with microcrystal lattice of Ca12Al14O33 compound. XRD data show the presence of CaAl2O4 phase traces. The 'head' and 'tail' of the whisker are covered with structured graphene layers of 10 nm and 3 nm, correspondingly.

  18. 3D printed biomimetic whisker-based sensor with co-planar capacitive sensing

    Delamare, John; Sanders, Remco G.P.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a whisker sensor for tactile purposes and which is fabricated by 3D printing. Read-out consists of a capacitive measurement of a co-planar capacitance which is affected by a dielectric that is driven into the electric field of the capacitance. The current

  19. Estimating the Probability of Electrical Short Circuits from Tin Whiskers. Part 2

    Courey, Karim J.; Asfour, Shihab S.; Onar, Arzu; Bayliss, Jon A.; Ludwig, Larry L.; Wright, Maria C.

    2010-01-01

    To comply with lead-free legislation, many manufacturers have converted from tin-lead to pure tin finishes of electronic components. However, pure tin finishes have a greater propensity to grow tin whiskers than tin-lead finishes. Since tin whiskers present an electrical short circuit hazard in electronic components, simulations have been developed to quantify the risk of said short circuits occurring. Existing risk simulations make the assumption that when a free tin whisker has bridged two adjacent exposed electrical conductors, the result is an electrical short circuit. This conservative assumption is made because shorting is a random event that had an unknown probability associated with it. Note however that due to contact resistance electrical shorts may not occur at lower voltage levels. In our first article we developed an empirical probability model for tin whisker shorting. In this paper, we develop a more comprehensive empirical model using a refined experiment with a larger sample size, in which we studied the effect of varying voltage on the breakdown of the contact resistance which leads to a short circuit. From the resulting data we estimated the probability distribution of an electrical short, as a function of voltage. In addition, the unexpected polycrystalline structure seen in the focused ion beam (FIB) cross section in the first experiment was confirmed in this experiment using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The FIB was also used to cross section two card guides to facilitate the measurement of the grain size of each card guide's tin plating to determine its finish .

  20. Analysis of the collar-whisker structure of temperate lactococcal bacteriophage TP901-1

    Vegge, Christina Skovgaard; Neve, Horst; Brøndsted, Lone

    2006-01-01

    Proteins homologous to the protein NPS (neck passage structure) are widespread among lactococcal phages. We investigated the hypothesis that NPS is involved in the infection of phage TP901-1 by analysis of an NPS mutant. NPS was determined to form a collar-whisker complex but was shown to be none...

  1. Rat whisker movement after facial nerve lesion: Evidence for autonomic contraction of skeletal muscle.

    Heaton, J.T.; Sheu, S.H.; Hohman, M.H.; Knox, C.J.; Weinberg, J.S.; Kleiss, I.J.; Hadlock, T.A.

    2014-01-01

    Vibrissal whisking is often employed to track facial nerve regeneration in rats; however, we have observed similar degrees of whisking recovery after facial nerve transection with or without repair. We hypothesized that the source of non-facial nerve-mediated whisker movement after chronic

  2. Two whisker motor areas in the rat cortex: evidence from thalamocortical connections.

    Mohammed, Hisham; Jain, Neeraj

    2014-02-15

    In primates, the motor cortex consists of at least seven different areas, which are involved in movement planning, coordination, initiation, and execution. However, for rats, only the primary motor cortex has been well described. A rostrally located second motor area has been proposed, but its extent, organization, and even definitive existence remain uncertain. Only a rostral forelimb area (RFA) has been definitively described, besides few reports of a rostral hindlimb area. We have previously proposed existence of a second whisker area, which we termed the rostral whisker area (RWA), based on its differential response to intracortical microstimulation compared with the caudal whisker area (CWA) in animals under deep anesthesia (Tandon et al. [2008] Eur J Neurosci 27:228). To establish that RWA is distinct from the caudally contiguous CWA, we determined sources of thalamic inputs to the two proposed whisker areas. Sources of inputs to RFA, caudal forelimb area (CFA), and caudal hindlimb region were determined for comparison. The results show that RWA and CWA can be distinguished based on differences in their thalamic inputs. RWA receives major projections from mediodorsal and ventromedial nuclei, whereas the major projections to CWA are from the ventral anterior, ventrolateral, and posterior nuclei. Moreover, the thalamic nuclei that provide major inputs to RWA are the same as for RFA, and the nuclei projecting to CWA are same as for CFA. The results suggest that rats have a second rostrally located motor area with RWA and RFA as its constituents. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. In vitro formation of the Merkel cell-neurite complex in embryonic mouse whiskers using organotypic co-cultures.

    Ishida, Kentaro; Saito, Tetsuichiro; Mitsui, Toshiyuki

    2018-06-01

    A Merkel cell-neurite complex is a touch receptor composed of specialized epithelial cells named Merkel cells and peripheral sensory nerves in the skin. Merkel cells are found in touch-sensitive skin components including whisker follicles. The nerve fibers that innervate Merkel cells of a whisker follicle extend from the maxillary branch of the trigeminal ganglion. Whiskers as a sensory organ attribute to the complicated architecture of the Merkel cell-neurite complex, and therefore it is intriguing how the structure is formed. However, observing the dynamic process of the formation of a Merkel cell-neurite complex in whiskers during embryonic development is still difficult. In this study, we tried to develop an organotypic co-culture method of a whisker pad and a trigeminal ganglion explant to form the Merkel cell-neurite complex in vitro. We initially developed two distinct culture methods of a single whisker row and a trigeminal ganglion explant, and then combined them. By dissecting and cultivating a single row from a whisker pad, the morphogenesis of whisker follicles could be observed under a microscope. After the co-cultivation of the whisker row with a trigeminal ganglion explant, a Merkel cell-neurite complex composed of Merkel cells, which were positive for both cytokeratin 8 and SOX2, Neurofilament-H-positive trigeminal nerve fibers and Schwann cells expressing Nestin, SOX2 and SOX10 was observed via immunohistochemical analyses. These results suggest that the process for the formation of a Merkel cell-neurite complex can be observed under a microscope using our organotypic co-culture method. © 2018 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  4. Almalaurea: sic transit gloria mundi

    Andrea Cammelli

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Inter-University Consortium AlmaLaurea, based in Bologna, this year celebrates twenty years of activity: founded in 1994, today it brings together 65 Italian universities, representing more than 80% of the national student population. Since then, AlmaLaurea has grown, exporting world-wide a system, unique in Europe, that has obtained international recognition. Besides reducing the gap between demand and supply for jobs, AlmaLaurea has created a tool capable of evaluating and monitoring, in the short, medium and long term, the outcome of graduates’ study and employment, one, three and five years after they have graduated. Through its annual surveys, the Consortiumthus provides each participating university, the governing bodies of the universities, evaluation cells, and committees involved in teaching activities and counseling with complete, timely and reliable documentation. In addition, its database, which contains almost 2,000,000 certified CVs in Italian and in English, is also an important supporting tool for both public and private Italian and foreign companies.

  5. A new paradigm for the reversible blockage of whisker sensory transmission.

    Gener, Thomas; Reig, Ramon; Sanchez-Vives, Maria V

    2009-01-30

    The objective of this study was to explore a paradigm that would allow a temporary deprivation of whisker information lasting for a few hours. An additional requirement was to be non-invasive in order to be usable in awake chronically implanted rats without inducing stress. With that aim, electrophysiological recordings from the barrel cortex of anesthetized rats were obtained. The pressure of an air-puff (5-10 ms) delivered to the whiskers was adjusted to evoke a consistent response of around 100 microV (extracellular) or approximately 5 mV (intracellular) in the contralateral cortex. Lidocaine was then locally applied in different forms (cream, local injection, aerosol, drops) and concentrations (2-10%) to the base of the whiskers. The stimulus-induced response was monitored once every 5s for several hours (3-6h) in order to characterize its course of action. Local injection of lidocaine induced the fastest and most complete blockage, but was ruled out for being invasive. Out of the remaining forms of application, a lidocaine drop (0.4 ml, 10%) to the base of the whiskers was found to induce a reliable blockage (to an average 9% the original response). The maximum effect was reached after 150-200 min, and the response was totally recovered approximately 300 min after lidocaine application. This characterization should be useful to induce an efficient, short term and reversible blockage of whisker sensory transmission in both anesthetized and awake preparations, while not causing stress in an awake animal.

  6. Whisker motor cortex reorganization after superior colliculus output suppression in adult rats.

    Veronesi, Carlo; Maggiolini, Emma; Franchi, Gianfranco

    2013-10-01

    The effect of unilateral superior colliculus (SC) output suppression on the ipsilateral whisker motor cortex (WMC) was studied at different time points after tetrodotoxin and quinolinic acid injections, in adult rats. The WMC output was assessed by mapping the movement evoked by intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) and by recording the ICMS-evoked electromyographic (EMG) responses from contralateral whisker muscles. At 1 h after SC injections, the WMC showed: (i) a strong decrease in contralateral whisker sites, (ii) a strong increase in ipsilateral whisker sites and in ineffective sites, and (iii) a strong increase in threshold current values. At 6 h after injections, the WMC size had shrunk to 60% of the control value and forelimb representation had expanded into the lateral part of the normal WMC. Thereafter, the size of the WMC recovered, returning to nearly normal 12 h later (94% of control) and persisted unchanged over time (1-3 weeks). The ICMS-evoked EMG response area decreased at 1 h after SC lesion and had recovered its baseline value 12 h later. Conversely, the latency of ICMS-evoked EMG responses had increased by 1 h and continued to increase for as long as 3 weeks following the lesion. These findings provide physiological evidence that SC output suppression persistently withdrew the direct excitatory drive from whisker motoneurons and induced changes in the WMC. We suggest that the changes in the WMC are a form of reversible short-term reorganization that is induced by SC lesion. The persistent latency increase in the ICMS-evoked EMG response suggested that the recovery of basic WMC excitability did not take place with the recovery of normal explorative behaviour. © 2013 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. SIC POVMs and Clifford groups in prime dimensions

    Zhu Huangjun

    2010-01-01

    We show that in prime dimensions not equal to 3, each group covariant symmetric informationally complete positive operator valued measure (SIC POVM) is covariant with respect to a unique Heisenberg-Weyl (HW) group. Moreover, the symmetry group of the SIC POVM is a subgroup of the Clifford group. Hence, two SIC POVMs covariant with respect to the HW group are unitarily or antiunitarily equivalent if and only if they are on the same orbit of the extended Clifford group. In dimension 3, each group covariant SIC POVM may be covariant with respect to three or nine HW groups, and the symmetry group of the SIC POVM is a subgroup of at least one of the Clifford groups of these HW groups, respectively. There may exist two or three orbits of equivalent SIC POVMs for each group covariant SIC POVM, depending on the order of its symmetry group. We then establish a complete equivalence relation among group covariant SIC POVMs in dimension 3, and classify inequivalent ones according to the geometric phases associated with fiducial vectors. Finally, we uncover additional SIC POVMs by regrouping of the fiducial vectors from different SIC POVMs which may or may not be on the same orbit of the extended Clifford group.

  8. Phenomenological inelastic constitutive equations for SiC and SiC fibers under irradiation

    El-Azab, A.; Ghoniem, N.M.

    1994-01-01

    Experimental data on irradiation-induced dimensional changes and creep in β-SiC and SiC fibers is analyzed, with the objective of studying the constitutive behavior of these materials under high-temperature irradiation. The data analysis includes empirical representation of irradiation-induced dimensional changes in SiC matrix and SiC fibers as function of time and irradiation temperature. The analysis also includes formulation of simple scaling laws to extrapolate the existing data to fusion conditions on the basis of the physical mechanisms of radiation effects on crystalline solids. Inelastic constitutive equations are then developed for SCS-6 SiC fibers, Nicalon fibers and CVD SiC. The effects of applied stress, temperature, and irradiation fields on the deformation behavior of this class of materials are simultaneously represented. Numerical results are presented for the relevant creep functions under the conditions of the fusion reactor (ARIES IV) first wall. The developed equations can be used in estimating the macro mechanical properties of SiC-SiC composite systems as well as in performing time-dependent micro mechanical analysis that is relevant to slow crack growth and fiber pull-out under fusion conditions

  9. Self-Organized Graphene Nanoribbons on SiC(0001) Studied with Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

    Torrance, David; Zhang, Baiqian; Hoang, Tien; First, Phillip

    2012-02-01

    Graphene nanoribbons grown directly on nanofacets of SiC(0001) offer an attractive union of top-down and bottom-up fabrication techniques. Nanoribbons have been shown to form on the facets of templated silicon carbide substrates,ootnotetextSprinkle et al., Nat. Nanotech. 5, 727 (2010). but also appear spontaneously along step-bunches on vicinal SiC(0001) miscut slightly towards . These self-organized graphene nanoribbons were characterized with low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) in ultra-high vacuum. Our measurements indicate that the graphene forms a continuous ``buffer layer'' across the SiC(0001) terraces during nanoribbon formation, with the zigzag edge of the buffer layer aligned parallel to the step-bunched nanofacets. Scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/STS) was used to characterize the topography and electrical characteristics of the graphene nanoribbons. These measurements indicate that the graphene nanoribbons are highly-crystalline with predominantly zigzag edges.

  10. Enhancing the oxidation resistance of graphite by applying an SiC coat with crack healing at an elevated temperature

    Park, Jae-Won, E-mail: pjw@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daedeok-Daero, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon-City (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eung-Seon; Kim, Jae-Un [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daedeok-Daero, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon-City (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yootaek [Dept. of Materials Engineering, Kyonggi Universtiy, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Windes, William E. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Ion beam mixed SiC coating was performed on the graphite for the enhanced adhesion. • The SiC coated was cracked at the elevated temperature, confirming the strong bonding, and then was vigorously oxidized leaving only the SiC layer. • For crack healing, CVD crack healing increased by ∼4 times in 20% weight reduction in air at 900 °C as compared to PVD crack healing. - Abstract: The potential of reducing the oxidation of the supporting graphite components during normal and/or accident conditions in the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design has been studied. In this work efforts have been made to slow the oxidation process of the graphite with a thin SiC coating (∼ 10 μm). Upon heating at ≥ 1173 K in air, the spallations and cracks were formed in the dense columnar structured SiC coating layer grown on the graphite with a functionally gradient electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD. In accordance with the formations of these defects, the sample was vigorously oxidized, leaving only the SiC coating layer. Then, efforts were made to heal the surface defects using additional EB-PVD with ion beam bombardment and chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The EB-PVD did not effectively heal the cracks. But, the CVD was more appropriate for crack healing, likely due to its excellent crack line filling capability with a high density and high aspect ratio. It took ∼ 34 min for the 20% weight loss of the CVD crack healed sample in the oxidation test with annealing at 1173 K, while it took ∼ 8 min for the EB-PVD coated sample, which means it took ∼4 times longer at 1173 K for the same weight reduction in this experimental set-up.

  11. Enhancing the oxidation resistance of graphite by applying an SiC coat with crack healing at an elevated temperature

    Park, Jae-Won; Kim, Eung-Seon; Kim, Jae-Un; Kim, Yootaek; Windes, William E.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Ion beam mixed SiC coating was performed on the graphite for the enhanced adhesion. • The SiC coated was cracked at the elevated temperature, confirming the strong bonding, and then was vigorously oxidized leaving only the SiC layer. • For crack healing, CVD crack healing increased by ∼4 times in 20% weight reduction in air at 900 °C as compared to PVD crack healing. - Abstract: The potential of reducing the oxidation of the supporting graphite components during normal and/or accident conditions in the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design has been studied. In this work efforts have been made to slow the oxidation process of the graphite with a thin SiC coating (∼ 10 μm). Upon heating at ≥ 1173 K in air, the spallations and cracks were formed in the dense columnar structured SiC coating layer grown on the graphite with a functionally gradient electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD. In accordance with the formations of these defects, the sample was vigorously oxidized, leaving only the SiC coating layer. Then, efforts were made to heal the surface defects using additional EB-PVD with ion beam bombardment and chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The EB-PVD did not effectively heal the cracks. But, the CVD was more appropriate for crack healing, likely due to its excellent crack line filling capability with a high density and high aspect ratio. It took ∼ 34 min for the 20% weight loss of the CVD crack healed sample in the oxidation test with annealing at 1173 K, while it took ∼ 8 min for the EB-PVD coated sample, which means it took ∼4 times longer at 1173 K for the same weight reduction in this experimental set-up.

  12. Fabrication and properties of aluminum silicate fibrous materials with in situ synthesized K2Ti6O13 whiskers

    Liu, Hao; Wei, Nan; Wang, Zhou-fu; Wang, Xi-tang; Ma, Yan

    2017-11-01

    To improve their mechanical and thermal insulation properties, aluminum silicate fibrous materials with in situ synthesized K2Ti6O13 whiskers were prepared by firing a mixture of short aluminum silicate fibers and gel powders obtained from a sol-gel process. During the preparation process, the fiber surface was coated with K2Ti6O13 whiskers after the fibers were subjected to a heat treatment carried out at various temperatures. The effects of process parameters on the microstructure, compressive strength, and thermal conductivity were analyzed systematically. The results show that higher treatment temperatures and longer treatment durations promoted the development of K2Ti6O13 whiskers on the surface of aluminum silicate fibers; in addition, the intersection structure between whiskers modulated the morphology and volume of the multi-aperture structure among fibers, substantially increasing the fibers' compressive strength and reducing their heat conduction and convective heat transfer at high temperatures.

  13. Magnetic whiskers of p-aminobenzoic acid and their use for preparation of filled and microchannel silicone rubbers

    Semenov, V. V.; Loginova, V. V.; Zolotareva, N. V.; Razov, E. N.; Kotomina, V. E.; Kruglov, A. V.

    2016-01-01

    A thin cobalt layer has been formed on the surface of p-aminobenzoic acid whiskers by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The metallized crystals have been oriented in liquid polydimethylsiloxane rubber by applying a dc magnetic field. After vulcanization, the filler has been removed by processing in an alcohol solution of trifluoroacetic acid. The cobalt deposition on the surface of the organic compound and the properties of metallized whiskers are investigated by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM).

  14. Magnetic whiskers of p-aminobenzoic acid and their use for preparation of filled and microchannel silicone rubbers

    Semenov, V. V., E-mail: vvsemenov@iomc.ras.ru; Loginova, V. V.; Zolotareva, N. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Razuvaev Institute of Organometallic Chemistry (Russian Federation); Razov, E. N. [Lobachevsky Nizhny Novgorod State University (Russian Federation); Kotomina, V. E.; Kruglov, A. V. [Lobachevsky Nizhny Novgorod State University, Physical‒Technical Research Institute (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-15

    A thin cobalt layer has been formed on the surface of p-aminobenzoic acid whiskers by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The metallized crystals have been oriented in liquid polydimethylsiloxane rubber by applying a dc magnetic field. After vulcanization, the filler has been removed by processing in an alcohol solution of trifluoroacetic acid. The cobalt deposition on the surface of the organic compound and the properties of metallized whiskers are investigated by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM).

  15. Neonatal Whisker Trimming Impairs Fear/Anxiety-Related Emotional Systems of the Amygdala and Social Behaviors in Adult Mice.

    Hitomi Soumiya

    Full Text Available Abnormalities in tactile perception, such as sensory defensiveness, are common features in autism spectrum disorder (ASD. While not a diagnostic criterion for ASD, deficits in tactile perception contribute to the observed lack of social communication skills. However, the influence of tactile perception deficits on the development of social behaviors remains uncertain, as do the effects on neuronal circuits related to the emotional regulation of social interactions. In neonatal rodents, whiskers are the most important tactile apparatus, so bilateral whisker trimming is used as a model of early tactile deprivation. To address the influence of tactile deprivation on adult behavior, we performed bilateral whisker trimming in mice for 10 days after birth (BWT10 mice and examined social behaviors, tactile discrimination, and c-Fos expression, a marker of neural activation, in adults after full whisker regrowth. Adult BWT10 mice exhibited significantly shorter crossable distances in the gap-crossing test than age-matched controls, indicating persistent deficits in whisker-dependent tactile perception. In contrast to controls, BWT10 mice exhibited no preference for the social compartment containing a conspecific in the three-chamber test. Furthermore, the development of amygdala circuitry was severely affected in BWT10 mice. Based on the c-Fos expression pattern, hyperactivity was found in BWT10 amygdala circuits for processing fear/anxiety-related responses to height stress but not in circuits for processing reward stimuli during whisker-dependent cued learning. These results demonstrate that neonatal whisker trimming and concomitant whisker-dependent tactile discrimination impairment severely disturbs the development of amygdala-dependent emotional regulation.

  16. Repeated whisker stimulation evokes invariant neuronal responses in the dorsolateral striatum of anesthetized rats: a potential correlate of sensorimotor habits.

    Mowery, Todd M; Harrold, Jon B; Alloway, Kevin D

    2011-05-01

    The dorsolateral striatum (DLS) receives extensive projections from primary somatosensory cortex (SI), but very few studies have used somesthetic stimulation to characterize the sensory coding properties of DLS neurons. In this study, we used computer-controlled whisker deflections to characterize the extracellular responses of DLS neurons in rats lightly anesthetized with isoflurane. When multiple whiskers were synchronously deflected by rapid back-and-forth movements, whisker-sensitive neurons in the DLS responded to both directions of movement. The latency and magnitude of these neuronal responses displayed very little variation with changes in the rate (2, 5, or 8 Hz) of whisker stimulation. Simultaneous recordings in SI barrel cortex and the DLS revealed important distinctions in the neuronal responses of these serially connected brain regions. In contrast to DLS neurons, SI neurons were activated by the initial deflection of the whiskers but did not respond when the whiskers moved back to their original position. As the rate of whisker stimulation increased, SI responsiveness declined, and the latencies of the responses increased. In fact, when whiskers were deflected at 5 or 8 Hz, many neurons in the DLS responded before the SI neurons. These results and earlier anatomic findings suggest that a component of the sensory-induced response in the DLS is mediated by inputs from the thalamus. Furthermore, the lack of sensory adaptation in the DLS may represent a critical part of the neural mechanism by which the DLS encodes stimulus-response associations that trigger motor habits and other stimulus-evoked behaviors that are not contingent on rewarded outcomes.

  17. Pós de Al2O3/SiC obtidos a partir de reação de redução carbotérmica Al2O3/SiC powders from carbothermal reduction reaction

    F. M. Spiandorello

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foram utilizadas matérias-primas naturais para a obtenção de pós Al2O3/SiC através da redução carbotérmica das mesmas por um agente rico em carbono. Os aluminossilicatos estudados foram caulim, cianita e ilita-moscovita, sendo que os mesmos foram reduzidos ou por negro de fumo ou por grafite. Os pós resultantes da reação foram caracterizados por microscopia eletrônica de varredura e transmissão, difração de raios X e picnometria de hélio. Durante a reação, as diferenças existentes tanto na estrutura das matérias-primas quanto na composição química produziram pós com morfologia diversa. Foram encontradas estruturas como grandes aglomerados esféricos, whiskers, partículas e aglomerados fibrosos.In this work natural raw materials were used to obtain Al2O3/SiC powders by carbothermal reduction. The aluminosilicates studied were kaolin, kyanite and illite-muscovite and the reductor agents were carbon black or graphite. The reaction powders were characterized by transmission and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and helium picnometry. During the reaction, the differences among the raw materials structures as well as into the chemical composition produced powders with several morphologies. Big spherical agglomerates, whiskers, particles and fibrous clusters were found.

  18. Electrochemical preparation of Al–Sm intermetallic compound whisker in LiCl–KCl Eutectic Melts

    Ji, De−Bin; Yan, Yong−De; Zhang, Mi−Lin; Li, Xing; Jing, Xiao−Yan; Han, Wei; Xue, Yun; Zhang, Zhi−Jian; Hartmann, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The reduction process of Sm(III) was investigated in LiCl–KCl melt on an aluminum electrode at 773 K. • Al–Sm alloy with different phase structure (Al 2 Sm and Al 3 Sm) was prepared by potentiostatic electrolysis on an aluminum electrode with the change of electrolytic potentials and time in LiCl–KCl–SmCl 3 melts. • Al − Sm alloy containing whiskers (Al 4 Sm) was obtained by potentiostatic electrolysis (−2.10 V) on an aluminum electrode for 7 hours with the change of electrolytic temperature and cooling rate in LiCl–KCl–SmCl 3 (16.5 wt. %) melts. The results from micro–hardness test and potentiodynamic polarization test show the micro hardness and corrosion property are remarkably improved with the help of Al–Sm intermetallic compound whiskers. - Abstract: This work presents the electrochemical study of Sm(III) on an aluminum electrode in LiCl–KCl melts at 773 K by different electrochemical methods. Three electrochemical signals in cyclic voltammetry, square wave voltammetry, open circuit chronopotentiometry, and cathode polarization curve are attributed to different kinds of Al–Sm intermetallic compounds, Al 2 Sm, Al 3 Sm, and Al 4 Sm, respectively. Al–Sm alloy with different phase structure (Al 2 Sm and Al 3 Sm) could be obtained by the potentiostatic electrolysis with the change of electrolytic potentials and time. Al–Sm alloy containing whiskers (Al 4 Sm) was obtained by potentiostatic electrolysis (−2.10 V) on an aluminum electrode for 7 hours with the change of electrolytic temperature and cooling rate in LiCl–KCl–SmCl 3 (16.5 wt. %) melts. The XRD and SEM&EDS were employed to investigate the phase composition and microstructure of Al–Sm alloy. SEM analysis shows that lots of needle−like precipitates formed in Al–Sm alloy, and their ratios of length to diameter are found to be greater than 10 to 1. The TEM and electron diffraction pattern were performed to investigate the crystal structure of the

  19. SiC Power MOSFET with Improved Gate Dielectric

    Sbrockey, Nick M. [Structured Materials Industries, Inc., Piscataway, NJ (United States); Tompa, Gary S. [Structured Materials Industries, Inc., Piscataway, NJ (United States); Spencer, Michael G. [Structured Materials Industries, Inc., Piscataway, NJ (United States); Chandrashekhar, Chandra M.V. S. [Structured Materials Industries, Inc., Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    2010-08-23

    In this STTR program, Structured Materials Industries (SMI), and Cornell University are developing novel gate oxide technology, as a critical enabler for silicon carbide (SiC) devices. SiC is a wide bandgap semiconductor material, with many unique properties. SiC devices are ideally suited for high-power, highvoltage, high-frequency, high-temperature and radiation resistant applications. The DOE has expressed interest in developing SiC devices for use in extreme environments, in high energy physics applications and in power generation. The development of transistors based on the Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) structure will be critical to these applications.

  20. Morphological and electronic properties of epitaxial graphene on SiC

    Yakimova, R.; Iakimov, T.; Yazdi, G.R.; Bouhafs, C.; Eriksson, J.; Zakharov, A.; Boosalis, A.; Schubert, M.; Darakchieva, V.

    2014-01-01

    We report on the structural and electronic properties of graphene grown on SiC by high-temperature sublimation. We have studied thickness uniformity of graphene grown on 4H–SiC (0 0 0 1), 6H–SiC (0 0 0 1), and 3C–SiC (1 1 1) substrates and investigated in detail graphene surface morphology and electronic properties. Differences in the thickness uniformity of the graphene layers on different SiC polytypes is related mainly to the minimization of the terrace surface energy during the step bunching process. It is also shown that a lower substrate surface roughness results in more uniform step bunching and consequently better quality of the grown graphene. We have compared the three SiC polytypes with a clear conclusion in favor of 3C–SiC. Localized lateral variations in the Fermi energy of graphene are mapped by scanning Kelvin probe microscopy. It is found that the overall single-layer graphene coverage depends strongly on the surface terrace width, where a more homogeneous coverage is favored by wider terraces. It is observed that the step distance is a dominating, factor in determining the unintentional doping of graphene from the SiC substrate. Microfocal spectroscopic ellipsometry mapping of the electronic properties and thickness of epitaxial graphene on 3C–SiC (1 1 1) is also reported. Growth of one monolayer graphene is demonstrated on both Si- and C-polarity of the 3C–SiC substrates and it is shown that large area homogeneous single monolayer graphene can be achieved on the Si-face substrates. Correlations between the number of graphene monolayers on one hand and the main transition associated with an exciton enhanced van Hove singularity at ∼4.5 eV and the free-charge carrier scattering time, on the other are established. It is shown that the interface structure on the Si- and C-polarity of the 3C–SiC (1 1 1) differs and has a determining role for the thickness and electronic properties homogeneity of the epitaxial graphene.

  1. Changes in work function due to NO2 adsorption on monolayer and bilayer epitaxial graphene on SiC(0001)

    Caffrey, Nuala M.; Armiento, Rickard; Yakimova, Rositsa; Abrikosov, Igor A.

    2016-11-01

    The electronic properties of monolayer graphene grown epitaxially on SiC(0001) are known to be highly sensitive to the presence of NO2 molecules. The presence of small areas of bilayer graphene, on the other hand, considerably reduces the overall sensitivity of the surface. We investigate how NO2 molecules interact with monolayer and bilayer graphene, both free-standing and on a SiC(0001) substrate. We show that it is necessary to explicitly include the effect of the substrate in order to reproduce the experimental results. When monolayer graphene is present on SiC, there is a large charge transfer from the interface between the buffer layer and the SiC substrate to the molecule. As a result, the surface work function increases by 0.9 eV after molecular adsorption. A graphene bilayer is more effective at screening this interfacial charge, and so the charge transfer and change in work function after NO2 adsorption is much smaller.

  2. Heteroepitaxial growth of SiC films by carbonization of polyimide Langmuir-Blodgett films on Si

    Goloudina S.I.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High quality single crystal SiC films were prepared by carbonization of polyimide Langmuir-Blodgett films on Si substrate. The films formed after annealing of the polyimide films at 1000°C, 1100°C, 1200°C were studied by Fourier transform-infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD, Raman spectroscopy, transmission electon microscopy (TEM, transmission electron diffraction (TED, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. XRD study and HRTEM cross-section revealed that the crystalline SiC film begins to grow on Si (111 substrate at 1000°C. According to the HRTEM cross-section image five planes in 3C-SiC (111 film are aligned with four Si(111 planes at the SiC/Si interface. It was shown the SiC films (35 nm grown on Si(111 at 1200°C have mainly cubic 3C-SiC structure with a little presence of hexagonal polytypes. Only 3C-SiC films (30 nm were formed on Si (100 substrate at the same temperature. It was shown the SiC films (30-35 nm are able to cover the voids in Si substrate with size up to 10 μm.

  3. The impact of SiC substrate treatment on the heteroepitaxial growth of GaN by plasma assisted MBE

    Brown, A.S.; Kim, T.H.; Choi, S.; Morse, M.; Wu, P. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC 27709 (United States); Losurdo, M.; Giangregorio, M.M.; Capezzuto, P.; Bruno, G. [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and of Plasmas, IMIP-CNR, and INSTM via Orabona 4 -70126, Bari (Italy)

    2005-11-01

    We report on the impact of the preparation of the Si-face 4H-SiC(0001){sub Si} substrate using a Ga flash-off process on the epitaxial growth of GaN by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The nucleation, as well as the resultant structural and morphological properties of GaN grown directly on 4H-SiC(0001){sub Si} are strongly influenced by the chemical and morphological modifications of the SiC surface induced by the Ga flash-off process. Herein we describe the impact of the specific concentration of Ga incident on the surface (quantified in terms of monolayer (ML) coverage): of 0.5 ML, 1ML and 2ML. The residual oxygen at the SiC surface, unintentional SiC nitridation and the formation of cubic GaN grains during the initial nucleation stage, are all reduced when a 2 ML Ga flash is used. All of the above factors result in structural improvement of the GaN epitaxial layers. The correlation between the SiC surface modification, the initial nucleation stage, and the GaN epitaxial layer structural quality has been articulated using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry data. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. Poly(Butylene Terephthalate Based Composites Containing Alumina Whiskers: Influence of Filler Functionalization on Dielectric Properties

    Pietro Russo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly(butylene terephthalate (PBT is one of the most widely used semicrystalline thermoplastics polyester because of its superior thermal and mechanical properties, high dimensional stability and excellent processability. In this research PBT-based nanocomposites, including various amounts (up to 10 wt% of commercial alumina whiskers, have been prepared by using a Brabender internal chamber mixer and analysed in terms of morphological features and dielectric properties. Specific attention has been focused on the effect of the filler functionalization considering 3-glycidoxy propylmethoxysilane (GPS or 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS as coupling agents. Tests, performed on compounds filled with neat and functionalized alumina whiskers, show a clear dependence of relative dielectric permittivity εr, invariance of dissipation factor (tgδ, and a sensible increase of volume electrical resistivity (ρv with the filler’s content and are encouraging for a future introduction of such composites in many electrical applications.

  5. Whisker growth: a new mechanism for helium blistering of surfaces in complex radiation environments

    McDonell, W.R.

    1978-01-01

    Implantation of helium concurrent with the generation of large numbers of displaced atoms in surface layers of materials exposed to 252 Cf α-particles and fission fragments produces a unique form of low temperature surface blistering. The purpose of this paper is to formulate a basis for the whisker-growth mechanism for helium blistering as an aid to the specification of conditions under which the mechanism might apply

  6. Optogenetic probing of nerve and muscle function after facial nerve lesion in the mouse whisker system

    Bandi, Akhil; Vajtay, Thomas J.; Upadhyay, Aman; Yiantsos, S. Olga; Lee, Christian R.; Margolis, David J.

    2018-02-01

    Optogenetic modulation of neural circuits has opened new avenues into neuroscience research, allowing the control of cellular activity of genetically specified cell types. Optogenetics is still underdeveloped in the peripheral nervous system, yet there are many applications related to sensorimotor function, pain and nerve injury that would be of great benefit. We recently established a method for non-invasive, transdermal optogenetic stimulation of the facial muscles that control whisker movements in mice (Park et al., 2016, eLife, e14140)1. Here we present results comparing the effects of optogenetic stimulation of whisker movements in mice that express channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) selectively in either the facial motor nerve (ChAT-ChR2 mice) or muscle (Emx1-ChR2 or ACTA1-ChR2 mice). We tracked changes in nerve and muscle function before and up to 14 days after nerve transection. Optogenetic 460 nm transdermal stimulation of the distal cut nerve showed that nerve degeneration progresses rapidly over 24 hours. In contrast, the whisker movements evoked by optogenetic muscle stimulation were up-regulated after denervation, including increased maximum protraction amplitude, increased sensitivity to low-intensity stimuli, and more sustained muscle contractions (reduced adaptation). Our results indicate that peripheral optogenetic stimulation is a promising technique for probing the timecourse of functional changes of both nerve and muscle, and holds potential for restoring movement after paralysis induced by nerve damage or motoneuron degeneration.

  7. Reinforcement of thermoplastic chitosan hydrogel using chitin whiskers optimized with response surface methodology.

    Sun, Guohui; Zhang, Xin; Bao, Zixian; Lang, Xuqian; Zhou, Zhongzheng; Li, Yang; Feng, Chao; Chen, Xiguang

    2018-06-01

    To strengthen the mechanical strength of thermo-sensitive hydroxybutyl chitosan (HBC) hydrogel, chitin whiskers were used as sticker to fabricate reinforced HBC (HBCW) hydrogel by using response surface methodology. Unlike the intrinsic network of HBC hydrogel, HBCW hydrogel showed a laminar shape with firm structure. The preparation condition was optimized by three-factor-three-level Box-Behnken design. The maximum mechanical strength (1011.11 Pa) was achieved at 50 °C, when the concentrations of HBC and chitin whiskers were 5.1 wt% and 2.0 wt%, respectively. The effects of temperature, pH value and NaCl concentration on mechanical strength of HBCW hydrogels were investigated via the oscillatory stress sweeps. The results showed that HBCW hydrogel could reach the maximum stiffness (∼1126 Pa) at 37 °C pH 12.0. Low pH and high salty ions could decrease the stability of hydrogel, while chitin whiskers could increase the stress tolerance and related ruptured strain of HBCW hydrogels. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Zinc oxide crystal whiskers as a novel sorbent for solid-phase extraction of flavonoids.

    Wang, Licheng; Shangguan, Yangnan; Hou, Xiudan; Jia, Yong; Liu, Shujuan; Sun, Yingxin; Guo, Yong

    2017-08-15

    As a novel solid-phase extraction material, zinc oxide crystal whiskers were used to extract flavonoid compounds and showed good extraction abilities. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and surface area/pore volume characterized the sorbent. The zinc oxide was packed into a solid-phase extraction micro-column and its extraction ability was evaluated by four model flavonoid compounds. The sample loading and elution parameters were optimized and the zinc oxide based analytical method for flavonoids was established. It showed that the method has wide linearities from 1 to 150μg/L and low limits of detection at 0.25μg/L. The relative standard deviations of a single column repeatability and column to column reproducibility were less than 6.8% and 10.6%. Several real samples were analyzed by the established method and satisfactory results were obtained. The interactions between flavonoids and zinc oxide were calculated and proved to be from the Van der Waals' forces between the 4p and 5d orbitals from zinc atom and the neighboring π orbitals from flavonoid phenyl groups. Moreover, the zinc oxide crystal whiskers showed good stability and could be reused more than 50 times under the operation conditions. This work proves that the zinc oxide crystal whiskers are a good candidate for flavonoids enrichment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Whisker and Hillock formation on Sn, Sn-Cu and Sn-Pb electrodeposits

    Boettinger, W.J.; Johnson, C.E.; Bendersky, L.A.; Moon, K.-W.; Williams, M.E.; Stafford, G.R.

    2005-01-01

    High purity bright Sn, Sn-Cu and Sn-Pb layers, 3, 7 and 16 μm thick were electrodeposited on phosphor bronze cantilever beams in a rotating disk apparatus. Beam deflection measurements within 15 min of plating proved that all electrodeposits had in-plane compressive stress. In several days, the surfaces of the Sn-Cu deposits, which have the highest compressive stress, develop 50 μm contorted hillocks and 200 μm whiskers, pure Sn deposits develop 20 μm compact conical hillocks, and Sn-Pb deposits, which have the lowest compressive stress, remain unchanged. The differences between the initial compressive stresses for each alloy and pure Sn is due to the rapid precipitation of Cu 6 Sn 5 or Pb particles, respectively, within supersaturated Sn grains produced by electrodeposition. Over longer time, analysis of beam deflection measurements indicates that the compressive stress is augmented by the formation of Cu 6 Sn 5 on the bronze/Sn interface, while creep of the electrodeposit tends to decrease the compressive stress. Uniform creep occurs for Sn-Pb because it has an equi-axed grain structure. Localized creep in the form of hillocks and whiskers occurs for Sn and Sn-Cu because both have columnar structures. Compact hillocks form for the Sn deposits because the columnar grain boundaries are mobile. Contorted hillocks and whiskers form for the Sn-Cu deposits because the columnar grain boundary motion is impeded

  10. Effect of heating parameters on sintering behaviors and properties of mullite whisker frameworks

    Zhang, Y. M.; Zeng, D. J.; Wang, B.; Yang, J. F.

    2018-04-01

    Mullite whisker frameworks were fabricated by vapor-solid reaction with SiO2, Al2O3 and AlF3 powders as the whisker forming agent at high temperatures. The effects of heating temperature and soaking time on the weight loss, liner shrinkage, porosity, microstructure and compressive strength were investigated. The results showed that with the increasing of the sintering temperature and soaking time, the weight loss and liner shrinkage of the samples increased and the porosities decreased due to the accelerated vapor-solid reaction, resulting in strong bonding and grain growth of the mullite frameworks. The compressive strength of the samples increased with increasing the sintering temperature from 1500 to 1650 °C, and decreased with the soaking time extended to more than 5 h for 1500 °C and 2 h for 1650 °C. A maximum compressive strength of 142 MPa at a porosity of 62.3% was obtained for the mullite whisker framework heated at 1500 °C for 5 h. The enhanced strength was attributed to the strong bonding strength and fine mullite grains resulting from a relative lower heating temperature and a modest soaking time.

  11. Piriform cortical glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons express coordinated plasticity for whisker-induced odor recall.

    Liu, Yahui; Gao, Zilong; Chen, Changfeng; Wen, Bo; Huang, Li; Ge, Rongjing; Zhao, Shidi; Fan, Ruichen; Feng, Jing; Lu, Wei; Wang, Liping; Wang, Jin-Hui

    2017-11-10

    Neural plasticity occurs in learning and memory. Coordinated plasticity at glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons during memory formation remains elusive, which we investigate in a mouse model of associative learning by cellular imaging and electrophysiology. Paired odor and whisker stimulations lead to whisker-induced olfaction response. In mice that express this cross-modal memory, the neurons in the piriform cortex are recruited to encode newly acquired whisker signal alongside innate odor signal, and their response patterns to these associated signals are different. There are emerged synaptic innervations from barrel cortical neurons to piriform cortical neurons from these mice. These results indicate the recruitment of associative memory cells in the piriform cortex after associative memory. In terms of the structural and functional plasticity at these associative memory cells in the piriform cortex, glutamatergic neurons and synapses are upregulated, GABAergic neurons and synapses are downregulated as well as their mutual innervations are refined in the coordinated manner. Therefore, the associated activations of sensory cortices triggered by their input signals induce the formation of their mutual synapse innervations, the recruitment of associative memory cells and the coordinated plasticity between the GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons, which work for associative memory cells to encode cross-modal associated signals in their integration, associative storage and distinguishable retrieval.

  12. Detail study of SiC MOSFET switching characteristics

    Li, Helong; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2014-01-01

    This paper makes detail study of the latest SiC MOSFETs switching characteristics in relation to gate driver maximum current, gate resistance, common source inductance and parasitic switching loop inductance. The switching performance of SiC MOSFETs in terms of turn on and turn off voltage...

  13. Challenges in Switching SiC MOSFET without Ringing

    Li, Helong; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2014-01-01

    Switching SiC MOSFET without ringing in high frequency applications is important for meeting the EMI (ElectroMagnetic Interference) standard. Achieving a clean switching waveform of SiC MOSFET without additional components is becoming a challenge. In this paper, the switching oscillation mechanis...

  14. Advances in wide bandgap SiC for optoelectronics

    Ou, Haiyan; Ou, Yiyu; Argyraki, Aikaterini

    2014-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) has played a key role in power electronics thanks to its unique physical properties like wide bandgap, high breakdown field, etc. During the past decade, SiC is also becoming more and more active in optoelectronics thanks to the progress in materials growth and nanofabrication...

  15. Tema 8. Principis físics dels semiconductors (Resum)

    Beléndez Vázquez, Augusto

    2011-01-01

    Resum del "Tema 8. Principis físics dels semiconductors" de l'assignatura "Fonaments Físics de l'Enginyeria I" de "Grau en Enginyeria en So i Imatge" impartit a l'Escola Politècnica Superior de la Universitat d'Alacant.

  16. Energy efficiency improvement target for SIC 34 - fabricated metal products

    Byrer, T. G.; Billhardt, C. F.; Farkas, M. S.

    1977-03-15

    A March 15, 1977 revision of a February 15, 1977 document on the energy improvement target for the Fabricated Metal Products industry (SIC 34) is presented. A net energy savings in 1980 of 24% as compared with 1972 energy consumption in SIC 34 is considered a realistic goal. (ERA citation 04:045008)

  17. Low cost sic coated erosion resistant graphite

    Zafar, M.F.; Nicholls, J.R.

    2007-01-01

    The development of materials with unique and improved properties using low cost processes is essential to increase performance and reduce cost of the solid rocket motors. Specifically advancements are needed for boost phase nozzle. As these motors operate at very high pressure and temperatures, the nozzle must survive high thermal stresses with minimal erosion to maintain performance. Currently three material choices are being exploited; which are refractory metals, graphite and carbon-carbon composites. Of these three materials graphite is the most attractive choice because of its low cost, light weight, and easy forming. However graphite is prone to erosion, both chemical and mechanical, which may affect the ballistic conditions and mechanical properties of the nozzle. To minimize this erosion high density graphite is usually preferred; which is again very expensive. Another technique used to minimize the erosion is Pyrolytic Graphite (PG) coating inside the nozzle. However PG coating is prone to cracking and spallation along with very cumbersome deposition process. Another possible methodology to avoid this erosion is to convert the inside surface of the rocket nozzle to Silicon Carbide (SiC), which is very erosion resistant and have much better thermal stability compared to graphite and even PG. Due to its functionally gradient nature such a layer will be very adherent and resistant to spallation. The current research is focused on synthesizing, characterizing and oxidation testing of such a converted SiC layer on commercial grade graphite. (author)

  18. New constructions of approximately SIC-POVMs via difference sets

    Luo, Gaojun; Cao, Xiwang

    2018-04-01

    In quantum information theory, symmetric informationally complete positive operator-valued measures (SIC-POVMs) are related to quantum state tomography (Caves et al., 2004), quantum cryptography (Fuchs and Sasaki, 2003) [1], and foundational studies (Fuchs, 2002) [2]. However, constructing SIC-POVMs is notoriously hard. Although some SIC-POVMs have been constructed numerically, there does not exist an infinite class of them. In this paper, we propose two constructions of approximately SIC-POVMs, where a small deviation from uniformity of the inner products is allowed. We employ difference sets to present the first construction and the dimension of the approximately SIC-POVMs is q + 1, where q is a prime power. Notably, the dimension of this framework is new. The second construction is based on partial geometric difference sets and works whenever the dimension of the framework is a prime power.

  19. High density plasma via hole etching in SiC

    Cho, H.; Lee, K.P.; Leerungnawarat, P.; Chu, S.N.G.; Ren, F.; Pearton, S.J.; Zetterling, C.-M.

    2001-01-01

    Throughwafer vias up to 100 μm deep were formed in 4H-SiC substrates by inductively coupled plasma etching with SF 6 /O 2 at a controlled rate of ∼0.6 μm min-1 and use of Al masks. Selectivities of >50 for SiC over Al were achieved. Electrical (capacitance-voltage: current-voltage) and chemical (Auger electron spectroscopy) analysis techniques showed that the etching produced only minor changes in reverse breakdown voltage, Schottky barrier height, and near surface stoichiometry of the SiC and had high selectivity over common frontside metallization. The SiC etch rate was a strong function of the incident ion energy during plasma exposure. This process is attractive for power SiC transistors intended for high current, high temperature applications and also for SiC micromachining

  20. Fluorescent SiC as a New Platform for Visible and Infrared Emitting Applications as Well as Prospective Photovoltaics

    Syvaejaervi, Mikael; Sun, Jianwu; Wellmann, Peter

    region from 700 to 900 nm with a peak at 830 nm. Further on, the boron is a deep level and replacing the boron with the aluminum, being a shallow acceptor, would open up further emissions in the visible and infrared regions that would allow tuning of emission for selected purposes. The combination......Fluorescent SiC is a novel materials system which may be a new platform for visible and infrared emitting applications. Although SiC is an indirect bandgap semiconductor, the donor acceptor pair emissions involving deep acceptors could become efficient if the acceptor envelope function...... efficient optoelectronic transistions. We have shown that 3C-SiC could be grown in a very high quality. Carrier lifetime is one of the key parameters governing the electronic and optoelectronic devices. Very recently we have synthesized high quality 3C-SiC by a PVT process on 6H-SiC and with a very high...

  1. Spontaneous growth of whiskers on RE-bearing intermetallic compounds of Sn-RE, In-RE, and Pb-RE

    Liu Meng [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Science, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Xian Aiping, E-mail: ap.xian@imr.ac.c [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Science, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2009-11-03

    A phenomenon of the whiskers growth on the bulk rare earth (RE)-intermetallic compounds of NdSn{sub 3}, NdIn{sub 3}, and LaPb{sub 3} is reported. The whiskers formed spontaneously on all of the RE-intermetallic compounds after exposed to room ambience (21-28 deg. C/20-56% RH, relative humidity) for several days. Among the samples, the propensity of whisker growth for NdSn{sub 3} is the strongest, on which the tin whiskers were flourishing and covered all of the surfaces after exposed to room ambience for 22 days; while LaPb{sub 3} is the secondary and NdIn{sub 3} is the last one. Observed by SEM, the whiskers were exhibited as different morphology, size, and number density. The XRD analysis confirms the existence of RE(OH){sub 3} after whiskers formed, also, the weight gain curve of the samples exposed to room ambience supports that a spontaneous chemical reaction of the RE-intermetallic compounds with water in room ambience takes place. In discussion, it is proposed that the fresh metal atoms released by the chemical reaction could be causative to result in nucleation and spontaneous growth of the whiskers, while the anisotropy of crystal structure could be a reason to understand the difference of the whisker growth behaviors between Sn and Pb.

  2. Spontaneous growth of whiskers on RE-bearing intermetallic compounds of Sn-RE, In-RE, and Pb-RE

    Liu Meng; Xian Aiping

    2009-01-01

    A phenomenon of the whiskers growth on the bulk rare earth (RE)-intermetallic compounds of NdSn 3 , NdIn 3 , and LaPb 3 is reported. The whiskers formed spontaneously on all of the RE-intermetallic compounds after exposed to room ambience (21-28 deg. C/20-56% RH, relative humidity) for several days. Among the samples, the propensity of whisker growth for NdSn 3 is the strongest, on which the tin whiskers were flourishing and covered all of the surfaces after exposed to room ambience for 22 days; while LaPb 3 is the secondary and NdIn 3 is the last one. Observed by SEM, the whiskers were exhibited as different morphology, size, and number density. The XRD analysis confirms the existence of RE(OH) 3 after whiskers formed, also, the weight gain curve of the samples exposed to room ambience supports that a spontaneous chemical reaction of the RE-intermetallic compounds with water in room ambience takes place. In discussion, it is proposed that the fresh metal atoms released by the chemical reaction could be causative to result in nucleation and spontaneous growth of the whiskers, while the anisotropy of crystal structure could be a reason to understand the difference of the whisker growth behaviors between Sn and Pb.

  3. Irradiation damage of SiC semiconductor device (I)

    Park, Ji Yeon; Kim, Weon Ju

    2000-09-01

    This report reviewed the irradiation damage of SiC semiconductor devices and examined a irradiation behavior of SiC single crystal as a pre-examination for evaluation of irradiation behavior of SiC semiconductor devices. The SiC single was crystal irradiated by gamma-beam, N+ ion and electron beam. Annealing examinations of the irradiated specimens also were performed at 500 deg C. N-type 6H-SiC dopped with N+ ion was used and irradiation doses of gamma-beam, N+ion and electron beam were up to 200 Mrad, 1x10 16 N + ions/cm 2 and 3.6 x 10 17 e/cm 2 and 1.08 x 10 18 e/cm 2 , respectively. Irradiation damages were analyzed by the EPR method. Additionally, properties of SiC, information about commercial SiC single crystals and the list of web sites with related to the SiC device were described in the appendix

  4. Irradiation damage of SiC semiconductor device (I)

    Park, Ji Yeon; Kim, Weon Ju

    2000-09-01

    This report reviewed the irradiation damage of SiC semiconductor devices and examined a irradiation behavior of SiC single crystal as a pre-examination for evaluation of irradiation behavior of SiC semiconductor devices. The SiC single was crystal irradiated by gamma-beam, N+ ion and electron beam. Annealing examinations of the irradiated specimens also were performed at 500 deg C. N-type 6H-SiC dopped with N+ ion was used and irradiation doses of gamma-beam, N+ion and electron beam were up to 200 Mrad, 1x10{sup 16} N{sup +} ions/cm{sup 2} and 3.6 x 10{sup 17} e/cm{sup 2} and 1.08 x 10{sup 18} e/cm{sup 2} , respectively. Irradiation damages were analyzed by the EPR method. Additionally, properties of SiC, information about commercial SiC single crystals and the list of web sites with related to the SiC device were described in the appendix.

  5. Anomalous growth of whisker-like bismuth-tin extrusions from tin-enriched tin-Bi deposits

    Hu, C.-C.; Tsai, Y.-D.; Lin, C.-C.; Lee, G.-L.; Chen, S.-W.; Lee, T.-C.; Wen, T.-C.

    2009-01-01

    This article shows the first finding that the anomalous growth of Bi-Sn extrusions from tin-enriched alloys (Sn-xBi with x between 20 and 10 wt.%) can be induced by post-plating annealing in N 2 between 145 and 260 deg. C for 10 min although metal whiskers were commonly formed on the surface of pure metals or alloys of the enriched component. From SEM observations, very similar to Sn whiskers, Bi-Sn extrusions vary in size, shape, length, and diameter with changing the annealing temperature, which are highly important in regarding the potential for failure of electronic products. Annealing resulting in thermal expansion of Sn grains is believed to squeeze the Bi-Sn alloys with relatively low melting points to form whisker-like extrusions although the exact mechanism is unclear

  6. THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF SIC AND C FIBERS

    Youngblood, Gerald E.; Senor, David J.; Kowbel, W.; Webb, J.; Kohyama, Akira

    2000-09-01

    Several rod-shaped specimens with uniaxially packed fibers (Hi-Nicalon, Hi-Nicalon Type S, Tyranno SA and Amoco K1100 types) and a pre-ceramic polymer matrix have been fabricated. By using appropriate analytic models, the bare fiber thermal conductivity (Kf) and the interface thermal conductance (h) will be determined as a function of temperature up to 1000?C before and after irradiation for samples cut from these rods. Initial results are: (1) for unirradiated Hi-Nicalon SiC fiber, Kf varied from 4.3 up to 5.9 W/mK for the 27-1000?C range, (2) for unirradiated K1100 graphite fiber, Kf varied from 576 down to 242 W/mK for the 27-1000?C range, and (3) h = 43 W/cm2K at 27?C as a typical fiber/matrix interface conductance.

  7. Palladium assisted silver transport in polycrystalline SiC

    Neethling, J.H., E-mail: Jan.Neethling@nmmu.ac.za [Physics Department, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, PO Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); O' Connell, J.H.; Olivier, E.J. [Physics Department, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, PO Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa)

    2012-10-15

    The transport of silver in polycrystalline 3C-SiC and hexagonal 6H-SiC has been investigated by annealing the SiC samples in contact with a Pd-Ag compound at temperatures of 800 and 1000 Degree-Sign C and times of 24 and 67 h. The Pd was added in an attempt to improve the low wetting of SiC by Ag and further because Pd is produced in measurable concentrations in coated particles during reactor operation. Pd is also known to coalesce at the IPyC-SiC interface and to chemically attack the SiC layer. SEM, TEM and EDS were used to show that the Ag penetrates polycrystalline SiC along grain boundaries together with Pd. It is suggested that Ag transport in SiC takes place along grain boundaries in the form of moving nodules consisting of a Ag-Pd mixture. It is assumed that the nodules move along grain boundaries by dissolving the SiC at the leading edge followed by the reprecipitation of SiC at the trailing edge. Since the solubility of Cs in Ag and Pd is extremely low, it is unlikely that Cs will penetrate the SiC together with the Ag-Pd compound if present at the IPyC-SiC interface. If it is assumed that the dominant transport mechanism of Ag in intact polycrystalline SiC is indeed the Pd assisted mechanism, then the stabilization of Pd (and other metallic fission products) in the kernel could be a way of mitigating Ag release from TRISO-coated particles.

  8. Palladium assisted silver transport in polycrystalline SiC

    Neethling, J.H.; O’Connell, J.H.; Olivier, E.J.

    2012-01-01

    The transport of silver in polycrystalline 3C-SiC and hexagonal 6H-SiC has been investigated by annealing the SiC samples in contact with a Pd–Ag compound at temperatures of 800 and 1000 °C and times of 24 and 67 h. The Pd was added in an attempt to improve the low wetting of SiC by Ag and further because Pd is produced in measurable concentrations in coated particles during reactor operation. Pd is also known to coalesce at the IPyC–SiC interface and to chemically attack the SiC layer. SEM, TEM and EDS were used to show that the Ag penetrates polycrystalline SiC along grain boundaries together with Pd. It is suggested that Ag transport in SiC takes place along grain boundaries in the form of moving nodules consisting of a Ag–Pd mixture. It is assumed that the nodules move along grain boundaries by dissolving the SiC at the leading edge followed by the reprecipitation of SiC at the trailing edge. Since the solubility of Cs in Ag and Pd is extremely low, it is unlikely that Cs will penetrate the SiC together with the Ag–Pd compound if present at the IPyC–SiC interface. If it is assumed that the dominant transport mechanism of Ag in intact polycrystalline SiC is indeed the Pd assisted mechanism, then the stabilization of Pd (and other metallic fission products) in the kernel could be a way of mitigating Ag release from TRISO-coated particles.

  9. Helical patterns of magnetization and magnetic charge density in iron whiskers

    Templeton, Terry L.; Hanham, Scott D.; Arrott, Anthony S.

    2018-05-01

    Studies with the (1 1 1) axis along the long axis of an iron whisker, 40 years ago, showed two phenomena that have remained unexplained: 1) In low fields, there are six peaks in the ac susceptibility, separated by 0.2 mT; 2) Bitter patterns showed striped domain patterns. Multipole columns of magnetic charge density distort to form helical patterns of the magnetization, accounting for the peaks in the susceptibility from the propagation of edge solitons along the intersections of the six sides of a (1 1 1) whisker. The stripes follow the helices. We report micromagnetic simulations in cylinders with various geometries for the cross-sections from rectangular, to hexagonal, to circular, with wide ranges of sizes and lengths, and different anisotropies, including (0 0 1) whiskers and the hypothetical case of no anisotropy. The helical patterns have been there in previous studies, but overlooked. The surface swirls and body helices are connected, but have their own individual behaviors. The magnetization patterns are more easily understood when viewed observing the scalar divergences of the magnetization as isosurfaces of magnetic charge density. The plus and minus charge densities form columns that interact with unlike charges attracting, but not annihilating as they are paid for by a decrease in exchange energy. Just as they start to form the helix, the columns are multipoles. If one could stretch the columns, the self-energy of the charges in a column would be diminished while making the attractive interactions of the unlike charges larger. The columns elongate by becoming helical. The visualization of 3-D magnetic charge distributions aids in the understanding of magnetization in soft magnetic materials.

  10. Irradiation damages in Ti3SiC2

    Nappe, J.C.; Grosseau, Ph.; Guilhot, B.; Audubert, F.; Beauvy, M.

    2007-01-01

    Carbides, by their remarkable properties, are considered as possible materials (fuel cans) in reactor of generation IV. Among those studied, Ti 3 SiC 2 is particularly considered because it joins both the ceramics and metals properties. Nevertheless, its behaviour under irradiation is not known. Characterizations have been carried out on samples irradiated at 75 MeV krypton ions. They have revealed that TiO 2 (formed at the surface of Ti 3 SiC 2 ) is pulverized by the irradiation and that the crystal lattice of Ti 3 SiC 2 dilates with c. (O.M.)

  11. Homoepitaxial VPE growth of SiC active layers

    Burk, A.A. Jr. [Northrop Grumman Electron. Sensors and Syst. Div., Baltimore, MD (United States); Rowland, L.B. [Northrop Grumman Sci. and Technol. Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1997-07-01

    SiC active layers of tailored thickness and doping form the heart of all SiC electronic devices. These layers are most conveniently formed by vapor phase epitaxy (VPE). Exacting requirements are placed upon the SiC-VPE layers` material properties by both semiconductor device physics and available methods of device processing. In this paper, the current ability of the SiC-VPE process to meet these requirements is described along with continuing improvements in SiC epitaxial reactors, processes and materials. (orig.) 48 refs.

  12. Determining the fracture resistance of advanced SiC fiber reinforced SiC matrix composites

    Nozawa, T.; Katoh, Y.; Kishimoto, H.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: One of the perceived advantages for highly-crystalline and stoichiometric silicon carbide (SiC) and SiC composites, e.g., advanced SiC fiber reinforced chemically-vapor-infiltrated (CVI) SiC matrix composites, is the retention of fast fracture properties after neutron irradiation at high-temperatures (∼1000 deg. C) to intermediate-doses (∼15 dpa). Accordingly, it has been clarified that the maximum allowable stress (or strain) limit seems unaffected in certain irradiation conditions. Meanwhile, understanding the mechanism of crack propagation from flaws, as potential weakest link to cause composite failure, is somehow lacking, despite that determining the strength criterion based on the fracture mechanics will eventually become important considering the nature of composites' fracture. This study aims to evaluate crack propagation behaviors of advanced SiC/SiC and to provide fundamentals on fracture resistance of the composites to define the strength limit for the practical component design. For those purposes, the effects of irreversible energies related to interfacial de-bonding, fiber bridging, and microcrack forming on the fracture resistance were evaluated. Two-dimensional SiC/SiC composites were fabricated by CVI or nano-infiltration and transient-eutectic-phase (NITE ) methods. Hi-Nicalon TM Type-S or Tyranno TM -SA fibers were used as reinforcements. In-plane mode-I fracture resistance was evaluated by the single edge notched bend technique. The key finding is the continuous Load increase with the crack growth for any types of advanced composites, while many studies specified the gradual load decrease for the conventional composites once the crack initiates. This high quasi-ductility appeared due primarily to high friction (>100 MPa) at the fiber/matrix interface using rough SiC fibers. The preliminary analysis based on the linear elastic fracture mechanics, which does not consider the effects of irreversible energy

  13. Whisker and Nose Tactile Sense Guide Rat Behavior in a Skilled Reaching Task

    Pierantonio Parmiani

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Skilled reaching is a complex movement in which a forelimb is extended to grasp food for eating. Video-recordings analysis of control rats enables us to distinguish several components of skilled reaching: Orient, approaching the front wall of the reaching box and poking the nose into the slot to locate the food pellet; Transport, advancing the forelimb through the slot to reach-grasp the pellet; and Withdrawal of the grasped food to eat. Although food location and skilled reaching is guided by olfaction, the importance of whisker/nose tactile sense in rats suggests that this too could play a role in reaching behavior. To test this hypothesis, we studied skilled reaching in rats trained in a single-pellet reaching task before and after bilateral whisker trimming and bilateral infraorbital nerve (ION severing. During the task, bilaterally trimmed rats showed impaired Orient with respect to controls. Specifically, they detected the presence of the wall by hitting it with their nose (rather than their whiskers, and then located the slot through repetitive nose touches. The number of nose touches preceding poking was significantly higher in comparison to controls. On the other hand, macrovibrissae trimming resulted in no change in reaching/grasping or withdrawal components of skilled reaching. Bilaterally ION-severed rats, displayed a marked change in the structure of their skilled reaching. With respect to controls, in ION-severed rats: (a approaches to the front wall were significantly reduced at 3–5 and 6–8 days; (b nose pokes were significantly reduced at 3–5 days, and the slot was only located after many repetitive nose touches; (c the reaching-grasping-retracting movement never appeared at 3–5 days; (d explorative paw movements, equal to zero in controls, reached significance at 9–11 days; and (e the restored reaching-grasping-retracting sequence was globally slower than in controls, but the success rate was the same. These findings

  14. Effects of chitin nano-whiskers on the antibacterial and physicochemical properties of maize starch films.

    Qin, Yang; Zhang, Shuangling; Yu, Jing; Yang, Jie; Xiong, Liu; Sun, Qingjie

    2016-08-20

    We investigated the effects of chitin nano-whiskers (CNWs) on the antibacterial and physiochemical properties of maize starch-based films. The microstructures, crystalline structures, and thermal, mechanical and barrier properties of the nanocomposite films were characterized by using transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, thermogravimetric, differential scanning calorimeter, and texture profile analysis. The tensile strength of the maize starch films increased from 1.64MPa to 3.69MPa (Pstarch films. Furthermore, the nanocomposite films exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive Listeria monocytogenes but not against Gram-negative Escherichia coli. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. EBSD characterization of the growth mechanism of SiC synthesized via direct microwave heating

    Wang, Jigang, E-mail: wangjigang@seu.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Metallic Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China); Xizang Key Laboratory of Optical Information Processing and Visualization Technology, School of Information Engineering, Xizang Minzu University, Xianyang 712082 (China); Huang, Shan; Liu, Song; Qing, Zhou [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Metallic Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China)

    2016-04-15

    Well-crystallized 3C-silicon carbide (SiC) grains/nanowires have been synthesized rapidly and conveniently via direct microwave heating, simply using silicon dioxide powders and artificial graphite as raw materials. The comprehensive characterizations have been employed to investigate the micro-structure of the obtained 3C-SiC products. Results indicated that, different from the classic screw dislocation growth mechanism, the 3C-SiC grains/nanowires synthesized via high-energy vacuum microwave irradiation were achieved through the two-dimension nucleation and laminar growth mechanism. Especially, the electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) was employed to characterize the crystal planes of the as-grown SiC products. The calculated Euler angles suggested that the fastest-growing crystal planes (211) were overlapped gradually. Through the formation of the (421) transformation plane, (211) finally evolved to (220) which existed as the side face of SiC grains. The most stable crystal planes (111) became the regular hexagonal planes in the end, which could be explained by the Bravais rule. The characterization results of EBSD provided important experimental information for the evolution of crystal planes. - Graphical abstract: The formation of 3C-SiC prepared via direct microwave heating follows the mechanism of two-dimension nucleation and laminar growth. - Highlights: • 3C−SiC grains/nanowires were obtained via direct microwave heating. • 3C−SiC followed the mechanism of two-dimension nucleation and laminar growth. • In-situ EBSD analysis provided the experimental evidences of the growth.

  16. Characterization of SiC based composite materials by the infiltration of ultra-fine SiC particles

    Lee, J.K.; Lee, S.P.; Byun, J.H.

    2010-01-01

    The fabrication route of SiC materials by the complex compound of ultra-fine SiC particles and oxide additive materials has been investigated. Especially, the effect of additive composition ratio on the characterization of SiC materials has been examined. The characterization of C/SiC composites reinforced with plain woven carbon fabrics was also investigated. The fiber preform for C/SiC composites was prepared by the infiltration of complex mixture into the carbon fabric structure. SiC based composite materials were fabricated by a pressure assisted liquid phase sintering process. SiC materials possessed a good density higher than about 3.0 Mg/m 3 , accompanying the creation of secondary phase by the chemical reaction of additive materials. C/SiC composites also represented a dense morphology in the intra-fiber bundle region, even if this material had a sintered density lower than that of monolithic SiC materials. The flexural strength of SiC materials was greatly affected by the composition ratio of additive materials.

  17. Structural effects of field emission from GaN nanofilms on SiC substrates

    Chen, Cheng-Cheng; Wang, Ru-Zhi, E-mail: wrz@bjut.edu.cn; Zhu, Man-Kang; Yan, Hui [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, 100 Pingleyuan, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100124 (China); Liu, Peng [Department of Physics Tsinghua University, Tsinghua-Foxconn Nanotechnology Research Center, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang, Bi-Ben [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University of Technology, Chongqing 400054 (China)

    2014-04-21

    GaN nanofilms (NFs) with different structures are grown on SiC substrates by pulsed laser deposition under different conditions. The synthesized GaN NFs are studied by X-ray diffraction, field-emission (FE) scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The GaN NFs are composed of diversified GaN nanoparticles with a diameter of 9–38 nm, thickness of 10–50 nm, and roughness of 0.22–13.03 nm. FE from the GaN NFs is structure dependent, which is explained by stress changing the band gap of the NFs. By structure modulation, the turn-on field of GaN NFs can be as low as 0.66 V/μm at a current density of 1 μA/cm{sup 2}, with a current density of up to 1.1 mA/cm{sup 2} at a field of 4.18 V/μm. Fowler-Nordheim curves of some samples contain multiple straight lines, which originate from the structural change and diversification of GaN nanoparticles under an applied field. Overall, our results suggest that GaN NFs with excellent FE properties can be prepared on SiC substrates, which provides a new route to fabricate high-efficiency FE nanodevices.

  18. Microwave joining of SiC ceramics and composites

    Ahmad, I.; Silberglitt, R.; Tian, Y.L. [FM Technologies, Inc., Fairfax, VA (United States); Katz, J.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Potential applications of SiC include components for advanced turbine engines, tube assemblies for radiant burners and petrochemical processing and heat exchangers for high efficiency electric power generation systems. Reliable methods for joining SiC are required in order to cost-effectively fabricate components for these applications from commercially available shapes and sizes. This manuscript reports the results of microwave joining experiments performed using two different types of SiC materials. The first were on reaction bonded SiC, and produced joints with fracture toughness equal to or greater than that of the base material over an extended range of joining temperatures. The second were on continuous fiber-reinforced SiC/SiC composite materials, which were successfully joined with a commercial active brazing alloy, as well as by using a polymer precursor.

  19. Ohmic Contacts to P-Type SiC

    Crofton, John

    2000-01-01

    Alloys of aluminum (Al) have previously been used as ohmic contacts to p-type SiC, however the characteristics and performance of these contacts is drastically affected by the type and composition of the Al alloy...

  20. Broadband antireflection nanodome structures on SiC substrate

    Ou, Yiyu; Zhu, Xiaolong; Møller, Uffe Visbech

    2013-01-01

    Nanodome structures are demonstrated on the SiC substrate by using nanosphere lithography and dry etching. Significant surface antireflection has been observed over a broad spectral range from 400 nm to 1600 nm....

  1. An Extension of SIC Predictions to the Wiener Coactive Model.

    Houpt, Joseph W; Townsend, James T

    2011-06-01

    The survivor interaction contrasts (SIC) is a powerful measure for distinguishing among candidate models of human information processing. One class of models to which SIC analysis can apply are the coactive, or channel summation, models of human information processing. In general, parametric forms of coactive models assume that responses are made based on the first passage time across a fixed threshold of a sum of stochastic processes. Previous work has shown that that the SIC for a coactive model based on the sum of Poisson processes has a distinctive down-up-down form, with an early negative region that is smaller than the later positive region. In this note, we demonstrate that a coactive process based on the sum of two Wiener processes has the same SIC form.

  2. Synthesis of micro-sized interconnected Si-C composites

    Wang, Donghai; Yi, Ran; Dai, Fang

    2016-02-23

    Embodiments provide a method of producing micro-sized Si--C composites or doped Si--C and Si alloy-C with interconnected nanoscle Si and C building blocks through converting commercially available SiO.sub.x (0

  3. Nanocrystalline SiC film thermistors for cryogenic applications

    Mitin, V. F.; Kholevchuk, V. V.; Semenov, A. V.; Kozlovskii, A. A.; Boltovets, N. S.; Krivutsa, V. A.; Slepova, A. S.; Novitskii, S. V.

    2018-02-01

    We developed a heat-sensitive material based on nanocrystalline SiC films obtained by direct deposition of carbon and silicon ions onto sapphire substrates. These SiC films can be used for resistance thermometers operating in the 2 K-300 K temperature range. Having high heat sensitivity, they are relatively low sensitive to the magnetic field. The designs of the sensors are presented together with a discussion of their thermometric characteristics and sensitivity to magnetic fields.

  4. Whiskers growth and self-healing in Ti-based metallic glasses during ion irradiation

    Zhang, Kun; Hu, Zheng; Zhao, Ziqiang; Wei, Bingchen; Li, Yansen; Wei, Yuhang

    2018-04-01

    Ti-based metallic glasses were subjected to a 20 MeV Cl4+ ion radiation under liquid-nitrogen cooling. Their responses, as well as effects of the electronic excitation and nucleus-nucleus collision were evaluated. The collision cascade during irradiation typically changes the structure by increasing the liquid-like zone/cluster, or the content of the free volume. However, along the ion incident depth, the structure change is inhomogeneous. Numerous whiskers appear and aggregate on the side of the irradiation surface, which are several micrometers away from the edge. This corresponds with the maximum collision depth obtained by the Monte Carlo simulation, where nuclear loss plays a dominant role. Moreover, the liquid-like zone continually forms, which add to the whiskers growth and subsequent self-healing. Results suggest that the irradiation-induced local shear stress combines with the well-localized liquid-like zone results in the observed phenomena. This study demonstrates that metallic glasses have high morphological instability under ion irradiation, which assets can pave new paths for their further applications.

  5. Enhancing the oxidation resistance of graphite by applying an SiC coat with crack healing at an elevated temperature

    Park, Jae-Won; Kim, Eung-Seon; Kim, Jae-Un; Kim, Yootaek; Windes, William E.

    2016-08-01

    The potential of reducing the oxidation of the supporting graphite components during normal and/or accident conditions in the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design has been studied. In this work efforts have been made to slow the oxidation process of the graphite with a thin SiC coating (∼ 10 μm). Upon heating at ≥ 1173 K in air, the spallations and cracks were formed in the dense columnar structured SiC coating layer grown on the graphite with a functionally gradient electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD. In accordance with the formations of these defects, the sample was vigorously oxidized, leaving only the SiC coating layer. Then, efforts were made to heal the surface defects using additional EB-PVD with ion beam bombardment and chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The EB-PVD did not effectively heal the cracks. But, the CVD was more appropriate for crack healing, likely due to its excellent crack line filling capability with a high density and high aspect ratio. It took ∼ 34 min for the 20% weight loss of the CVD crack healed sample in the oxidation test with annealing at 1173 K, while it took ∼ 8 min for the EB-PVD coated sample, which means it took ∼4 times longer at 1173 K for the same weight reduction in this experimental set-up.

  6. SR phase contrast imaging to address the evolution of defects during SiC growth

    Argunova, Tatiana S.; Gutkin, Mikhail Yu.; Je, Jung Ho; Mokhov, Evgeniy N.; Nagalyuk, Sergey S.; Hwu, Yeukuang

    2011-01-01

    Sliced SiC boule grown by physical vapor transport is investigated using synchrotron white beam phase contrast imaging combined with Bragg diffraction. The evolution of defects is revealed. In the early growth stage, foreign polytype inclusions not only induce massive generation of full-core dislocations and dislocated micropipes but also attract them, forming slit-type pores at the boundaries of inclusions. In the intermediate stage, when inclusions stop to grow and become overgrown by the matrix, the pore density significantly reduces, which is attributed to their transformation into new micropipes. In the later stage, the micropipe density decreases, providing evidence for their partial annihilation and healing. Mechanisms for the evolution from inclusions to pores and finally to micropipes during the crystal growth are further discussed. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Investigation of SiC crystals by means of synchrotron topography

    Wierzchowski, W.; Tymicki, E.; Balcer, T.; Pawlowska, M.; Wieteska, K.; Malinowska, A.; Wierzbicka, E.; Grasza, K.; Graeff, W.

    2006-01-01

    The crystallographic quality of monopolytypic 6H SiC crystals grown by Physical Vapour Transport in graphite crucible was studied. The diameter of crystals was increased up to 65 mm. The crystals were investigated using several methods of characterisation including white and monochromatic beam synchrotron diffraction topography and scanning electron microscopy. Particularly useful results were obtained using back reflection white beam synchrotron section topography, which provided the intersection of the large thickness of the sample investigated. The topographs revealed a great part of macro and micropipes present in the samples, reproduced as white areas. The additional possibility offered the section topographs taken using a fine grid with the distance between the wires equal to 0.7 mm, which enabled evaluation of the lattice deformation. The scanning electron microscopy was also very useful in studying the micropipes and voids as well as in observation of the selective etching pattern. (author)

  8. Designing the fiber volume ratio in SiC fiber-reinforced SiC ceramic composites under Hertzian stress

    Lee, Kee Sung; Jang, Kyung Soon; Park, Jae Hong; Kim, Tae Woo; Han, In Sub; Woo, Sang Kuk

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Optimum fiber volume ratios in the SiC/SiC composite layers were designed under Hertzian stress. → FEM analysis and spherical indentation experiments were undertaken. → Boron nitride-pyrocarbon double coatings on the SiC fiber were effective. → Fiber volume ratio should be designed against flexural stress. -- Abstract: Finite element method (FEM) analysis and experimental studies are undertaken on the design of the fiber volume ratio in silicon carbide (SiC) fiber-reinforced SiC composites under indentation contact stresses. Boron nitride (BN)/Pyrocarbon (PyC) are selected as the coating materials for the SiC fiber. Various SiC matrix/coating/fiber/coating/matrix structures are modeled by introducing a woven fiber layer in the SiC matrix. Especially, this study attempts to find the optimum fiber volume ratio in SiC fiber-reinforced SiC ceramics under Hertzian stress. The analysis is performed by changing the fiber type, fiber volume ratio, coating material, number of coating layers, and stacking sequence of the coating layers. The variation in the stress for composites in relation to the fiber volume ratio in the contact axial or radial direction is also analyzed. The same structures are fabricated experimentally by a hot process, and the mechanical behaviors regarding the load-displacement are evaluated using the Hertzian indentation method. Various SiC matrix/coating/fiber/coating/matrix structures are fabricated, and mechanical characterization is performed by changing the coating layer, according to the introduction (or omission) of the coating layer, and the number of woven fiber mats. The results show that the damage mode changes from Hertzian stress to flexural stress as the fiber volume ratio increases in composites because of the decreased matrix volume fraction, which intensifies the radial crack damage. The result significantly indicates that the optimum fiber volume ratio in SiC fiber-reinforced SiC ceramics should be designed for

  9. Hydrothermal Preparation and Characterization of Ultralong Strontium-Substituted Hydroxyapatite Whiskers Using Acetamide as Homogeneous Precipitation Reagent

    Xu, Jianqiang; Yang, Yaoqi; Wan, Rong; Zhang, Weibin

    2014-01-01

    The ultralong strontium- (Sr-) substituted hydroxyapatite (SrHAp) whiskers were successfully prepared using acetamide as homogeneous precipitation reagent. The effect of the Sr substitution amount on the lattice constants and proliferation of human osteoblast cells (MG-63) was further investigated. The results showed that the SrHAp whiskers with diameter of 0.2–12 μm and ultralong length up to 200 μm were obtained and the Sr substitution level could be facilely tailored by regulating the initial molar ratio of Sr/(Sr + Ca) in raw materials. The Sr2+ replaced part of Ca2+ and the lattice constants increased apparently with the increase of the Sr substitution amount. Compared with the pure HAp whiskers, the Sr substitution apparently stimulated the proliferation of MG-63 at certain extracted concentrations. Our study suggested that the obtained SrHAp whiskers might be used as bioactive and mechanical reinforcement materials for hard tissue regeneration applications. PMID:24592192

  10. Developing an Empirical Model for Estimating the Probability of Electrical Short Circuits from Tin Whiskers. Part 2

    Courey, Karim J.; Asfour, Shihab S.; Onar, Arzu; Bayliss, Jon A.; Ludwig, Larry L.; Wright, Maria C.

    2009-01-01

    To comply with lead-free legislation, many manufacturers have converted from tin-lead to pure tin finishes of electronic components. However, pure tin finishes have a greater propensity to grow tin whiskers than tin-lead finishes. Since tin whiskers present an electrical short circuit hazard in electronic components, simulations have been developed to quantify the risk of said short circuits occurring. Existing risk simulations make the assumption that when a free tin whisker has bridged two adjacent exposed electrical conductors, the result is an electrical short circuit. This conservative assumption is made because shorting is a random event that had an unknown probability associated with it. Note however that due to contact resistance electrical shorts may not occur at lower voltage levels. In our first article we developed an empirical probability model for tin whisker shorting. In this paper, we develop a more comprehensive empirical model using a refined experiment with a larger sample size, in which we studied the effect of varying voltage on the breakdown of the contact resistance which leads to a short circuit. From the resulting data we estimated the probability distribution of an electrical short, as a function of voltage. In addition, the unexpected polycrystalline structure seen in the focused ion beam (FIB) cross section in the first experiment was confirmed in this experiment using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The FIB was also used to cross section two card guides to facilitate the measurement of the grain size of each card guide's tin plating to determine its finish.

  11. Fabricação de compósitos com matriz de alumina reforçada com whiskers de mulita

    Salles, Mário César Fernandez de

    2008-01-01

    Neste trabalho foram fabricados compósitos cerâmicos utilizando alumina como matriz e whiskers de mulita como reforço. As composições de whiskers foram 10, 20, 30 e 40% em peso. Os whiskers de mulita utilizados como matérias-primas foram obtidos através do tratamento térmico do mineral topázio incolor no Laboratório de Tratamento Térmico de Materiais do ICEB/UFOP. A alumina de elevada pureza foi fornecida pela empresa Alfa Apesar. As matérias primas, após serem pesadas, foram submetidas a um ...

  12. The spin relaxation of nitrogen donors in 6H SiC crystals as studied by the electron spin echo method

    Savchenko, D.; Shanina, B.; Kalabukhova, E.; Pöppl, A.; Lančok, J.; Mokhov, E.

    2016-04-01

    We present the detailed study of the spin kinetics of the nitrogen (N) donor electrons in 6H SiC wafers grown by the Lely method and by the sublimation "sandwich method" (SSM) with a donor concentration of about 1017 cm-3 at T = 10-40 K. The donor electrons of the N donors substituting quasi-cubic "k1" and "k2" sites (Nk1,k2) in both types of the samples revealed the similar temperature dependence of the spin-lattice relaxation rate (T1-1), which was described by the direct one-phonon and two-phonon processes induced by the acoustic phonons proportional to T and to T9, respectively. The character of the temperature dependence of the T1-1 for the donor electrons of N substituting hexagonal ("h") site (Nh) in both types of 6H SiC samples indicates that the donor electrons relax through the fast-relaxing centers by means of the cross-relaxation process. The observed enhancement of the phase memory relaxation rate (Tm-1) with the temperature increase for the Nh donors in both types of the samples, as well as for the Nk1,k2 donors in Lely grown 6H SiC, was explained by the growth of the free electron concentration with the temperature increase and their exchange scattering at the N donor centers. The observed significant shortening of the phase memory relaxation time Tm for the Nk1,k2 donors in the SSM grown sample with the temperature lowering is caused by hopping motion of the electrons between the occupied and unoccupied states of the N donors at Nh and Nk1,k2 sites. The impact of the N donor pairs, triads, distant donor pairs formed in n-type 6H SiC wafers on the spin relaxation times was discussed.

  13. Effects of Adaptation on Discrimination of Whisker Deflection Velocity and Angular Direction in a Model of the Barrel Cortex

    Mainak J. Patel

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Two important stimulus features represented within the rodent barrel cortex are velocity and angular direction of whisker deflection. Each cortical barrel receives information from thalamocortical (TC cells that relay information from a single whisker, and TC input is decoded by barrel regular-spiking (RS cells through a feedforward inhibitory architecture (with inhibition delivered by cortical fast-spiking or FS cells. TC cells encode deflection velocity through population synchrony, while deflection direction is encoded through the distribution of spike counts across the TC population. Barrel RS cells encode both deflection direction and velocity with spike rate, and are divided into functional domains by direction preference. Following repetitive whisker stimulation, system adaptation causes a weakening of synaptic inputs to RS cells and diminishes RS cell spike responses, though evidence suggests that stimulus discrimination may improve following adaptation. In this work, I construct a model of the TC, FS, and RS cells comprising a single barrel system—the model incorporates realistic synaptic connectivity and dynamics and simulates both angular direction (through the spatial pattern of TC activation and velocity (through synchrony of the TC population spikes of a deflection of the primary whisker, and I use the model to examine direction and velocity selectivity of barrel RS cells before and after adaptation. I find that velocity and direction selectivity of individual RS cells (measured over multiple trials sharpens following adaptation, but stimulus discrimination using a simple linear classifier by the RS population response during a single trial (a more biologically meaningful measure than single cell discrimination over multiple trials exhibits strikingly different behavior—velocity discrimination is similar both before and after adaptation, while direction classification improves substantially following adaptation. This is the

  14. Super-hydrophobic surfaces of SiO₂-coated SiC nanowires: fabrication, mechanism and ultraviolet-durable super-hydrophobicity.

    Zhao, Jian; Li, Zhenjiang; Zhang, Meng; Meng, Alan

    2015-04-15

    The interest in highly water-repellent surfaces of SiO2-coated SiC nanowires has grown in recent years due to the desire for self-cleaning and anticorrosive surfaces. It is imperative that a simple chemical treatment with fluoroalkylsilane (FAS, CF3(CF2)7CH2CH2Si(OC2H5)3) in ethanol solution at room temperature resulted in super-hydrophobic surfaces of SiO2-coated SiC nanowires. The static water contact angle of SiO2-coated SiC nanowires surfaces was changed from 0° to 153° and the morphology, microstructure and crystal phase of the products were almost no transformation before and after super-hydrophobic treatment. Moreover, a mechanism was expounded reasonably, which could elucidate the reasons for their super-hydrophobic behavior. It is important that the super-hydrophobic surfaces of SiO2-coated SiC nanowires possessed ultraviolet-durable (UV-durable) super-hydrophobicity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. TRISO coated fuel particles with enhanced SiC properties

    Lopez-Honorato, E.; Tan, J.; Meadows, P.J.; Marsh, G.; Xiao, P.

    2009-01-01

    The silicon carbide (SiC) layer used for the formation of TRISO coated fuel particles is normally produced at 1500-1650 deg. C via fluidized bed chemical vapor deposition from methyltrichlorosilane in a hydrogen environment. In this work, we show the deposition of SiC coatings with uniform grain size throughout the coating thickness, as opposed to standard coatings which have larger grain sizes in the outer sections of the coating. Furthermore, the use of argon as the fluidizing gas and propylene as a carbon precursor, in addition to hydrogen and methyltrichlorosilane, allowed the deposition of stoichiometric SiC coatings with refined microstructure at 1400 and 1300 deg. C. The deposition of SiC at lower deposition temperatures was also advantageous since the reduced heat treatment was not detrimental to the properties of the inner pyrolytic carbon which generally occurs when SiC is deposited at 1500 deg. C. The use of a chemical vapor deposition coater with four spouts allowed the deposition of uniform and spherical coatings.

  16. Cellulose whiskers from sisal fibers: a study about the variable of extraction by acid hydrolysis

    Teodoro, Kelcilene B.R.; Teixeira, Eliangela de Morais; Correa, Ana Carolina; Campos, Adriana de; Marconcini, Jose Manoel; Mattoso, Luiz Henrique Capparelli

    2011-01-01

    The incorporation of cellulosic nanostructures in polymeric matrices has been studied due to their properties of biodegradation, and expected higher mechanical performance than the traditional composites. In this work, cellulose nanofibers were obtained from sisal bleached with reagents without chlorine, where it was used an acid mixture, with acetic acid and nitric acid, and after the bleached fibers were submitted to acid hydrolysis. The influence of the temperature and time of hydrolysis on the morphology and dimensions, crystallinity and thermal stability were analyzed by scanning transmission electronic microscopy (TEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), respectively. The hydrolysis condition of 60 deg C and 15 minutes showed to be the most effective condition to obtain whiskers from sisal fibers, resulting in nanostructures with higher crystallinity and thermal. (author)

  17. Enhancing light emission in flexible AC electroluminescent devices by tetrapod-like zinc oxide whiskers.

    Wen, Li; Liu, Nishuang; Wang, Siliang; Zhang, Hui; Zhao, Wanqiu; Yang, Zhichun; Wang, Yumei; Su, Jun; Li, Luying; Long, Fei; Zou, Zhengguang; Gao, Yihua

    2016-10-03

    Flexible alternating current electroluminescent devices (ACEL) are more and more popular and widely used in liquid-crystal display back-lighting, large-scale architectural and decorative lighting due to their uniform light emission, low power consumption and high resolution. However, presently how to acquire high brightness under a certain voltage are confronted with challenges. Here, we demonstrate an electroluminescence (EL) enhancing strategy that tetrapod-like ZnO whiskers (T-ZnOw) are added into the bottom electrode of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) instead of phosphor layer in flexible ACEL devices emitting blue, green and orange lights, and the brightness is greatly enhanced due to the coupling between the T-ZnOw and ZnS phosphor dispersed in the flexible polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) layer. This strategy provides a new routine for the development of high performance, flexible and large-area ACEL devices.

  18. Performance of Silicon carbide whisker reinforced ceramic inserts on Inconel 718 in end milling process

    Reddy, M M; Joshua, C X H

    2016-01-01

    An experimental investigation is planned in order to study the machinability of Inconel 718 with silicon carbide whisker reinforced ceramic inserts in end milling process. The relationship between the cutting speed, feed rate, and depth of cut against the response factors are studied to show the level of significance of each parameter. The cutting parameters are optimized by using Taguchi method. Implementing analysis of variance, the parameter which influences the surface roughness the most is determined to be the cutting speed, followed by the feed rate and depth of cut. Meanwhile, the optimal cutting condition is determined to have high cutting speed, low feed rate, and high depth of cut in the range of selected parameters. (paper)

  19. Establishment of neurovascular congruency in the mouse whisker system by an independent patterning mechanism.

    Oh, Won-Jong; Gu, Chenghua

    2013-10-16

    Nerves and vessels often run parallel to one another, a phenomenon that reflects their functional interdependency. Previous studies have suggested that neurovascular congruency in planar tissues such as skin is established through a "one-patterns-the-other" model, in which either the nervous system or the vascular system precedes developmentally and then instructs the other system to form using its established architecture as a template. Here, we find that, in tissues with complex three-dimensional structures such as the mouse whisker system, neurovascular congruency does not follow the previous model but rather is established via a mechanism in which nerves and vessels are patterned independently. Given the diversity of neurovascular structures in different tissues, guidance signals emanating from a central organizer in the specific target tissue may act as an important mechanism to establish neurovascular congruency patterns that facilitate unique target tissue function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Phase and structural transformations in annealed copper coatings in relation to oxide whisker growth

    Dorogov, M.V.; Priezzheva, A.N. [Togliatti State University, Belorusskaya 14, 445667 Togliatti (Russian Federation); Vlassov, S., E-mail: vlassovs@ut.ee [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Kengaraga 8, LV-1063 Riga (Latvia); Kink, I.; Shulga, E. [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Ravila 14c, 50411 Tartu (Estonia); Dorogin, L.M. [Togliatti State University, Belorusskaya 14, 445667 Togliatti (Russian Federation); Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Ravila 14c, 50411 Tartu (Estonia); ITMO University, Kronverkskiy 49, 197101 Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation); Lõhmus, R. [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Ravila 14c, 50411 Tartu (Estonia); Tyurkov, M.N.; Vikarchuk, A.A. [Togliatti State University, Belorusskaya 14, 445667 Togliatti (Russian Federation); Romanov, A.E. [Togliatti State University, Belorusskaya 14, 445667 Togliatti (Russian Federation); Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Ravila 14c, 50411 Tartu (Estonia); ITMO University, Kronverkskiy 49, 197101 Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation); Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, RAS, Polytechnicheskaya 26, 194021 Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Coatings prepared by Cu microparticle electrodeposition. • Structural and phase transformation in Cu coatings annealed at 400 °C. • Annealing is accompanied by intensive growth of CuO whiskers. • Layered oxide phases (Cu{sub 2}O and CuO) in the coating are characterized. • Formation of volumetric defects in the coating is demonstrated. - Abstract: We describe structural and phase transformation in copper coatings made of microparticles during heating and annealing in air in the temperature range up to 400 °C. Such thermal treatment is accompanied by intensive CuO nanowhisker growth on the coating surface and the formation of the layered oxide phases (Cu{sub 2}O and CuO) in the coating interior. X-ray diffraction and focused ion beam (FIB) are employed to characterize the multilayer structure of annealed copper coatings. Formation of volumetric defects such as voids and cracks in the coating is demonstrated.

  1. Solid-state synthesis of Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} whiskers from TiO{sub 2}-B

    Yao, Wenjun [State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, College of Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, No. 5 Xin Mofan Road, Nanjing 210009 (China); Zhuang, Wei [State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, College of Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, No. 5 Xin Mofan Road, Nanjing 210009 (China); College of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Engineering, National Engineering Technique Research Center for Biotechnology, Nanjing Tech University, No. 30, Puzhu South Road, Nanjing 211816 (China); Ji, Xiaoyan [Division of Energy Science/Energy Engineering, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå 97187 Sweden (Sweden); Chen, Jingjing; Lu, Xiaohua [State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, College of Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, No. 5 Xin Mofan Road, Nanjing 210009 (China); Wang, Changsong, E-mail: wcs@njtech.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, College of Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, No. 5 Xin Mofan Road, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • The Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} whiskers were synthesized from TiO{sub 2}-B whiskers via a solid state reaction. • The TiO{sub 2}-B crystal structure for lithium diffusion is easier than anatase. • The separated diffusion and reaction process is crucial for the solid-state syntheses of Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} whiskers. - Abstract: In this work, Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} (LTO) was synthesized from the precursors of TiO{sub 2}-B and anatase whiskers, respectively. The synthesized LTO whiskers from TiO{sub 2}-B whiskers via a solid state reaction at 650 °C have a high degree of crystallinity with an average diameter of 300 nm. However, when anatase whiskers were used as the precursor, only particle morphology LTO was produced at 750 °C. The further analysis of the precursors, the intermediate products and the final products reveal that the crystal structure of the anatase hinders the diffusion of lithium, leading to a typical reaction–diffusion process. Under this condition, only particle morphology LTO can be produced. However, the crystal structure of the TiO{sub 2}-B is easy for lithium diffusion and the process is performed in two separated steps (i.e., diffusion and reaction), which makes it possible to decrease the solid-state reaction temperature down to 650 °C and then maintain the morphologies of whiskers.

  2. Determination of irradiation temperature using SiC temperature monitors

    Maruyama, Tadashi; Onose, Shoji

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a method for detecting the change in length of SiC temperature monitors and a discussion is made on the relationship between irradiation temperature and the recovery in length of SiC temperature monitors. The SiC specimens were irradiated in the experimental fast reactor JOYO' at the irradiation temperatures around 417 to 645degC (design temperature). The change in length of irradiated specimens was detected using a dilatometer with SiO 2 glass push rod in an infrared image furnace. The temperature at which recovery in macroscopic length begins was obtained from the annealing intersection temperature. The results of measurements indicated that a difference between annealing intersection temperature and the design temperature sometimes reached well over ±100degC. A calibration method to obtain accurate irradiation temperature was presented and compared with the design temperature. (author)

  3. Defects induced by helium implantation in SiC

    Oliviero, E.; Barbot, J.F.; Declemy, A.; Beaufort, M.F.; Oliviero, E.

    2008-01-01

    SiC is one of the considered materials for nuclear fuel conditioning and for the fabrication of some core structures in future nuclear generation reactors. For the development of this advance technology, a fundamental research on this material is of prime importance. In particular, the implantation/irradiation effects have to be understood and controlled. It is with this aim that the structural alterations induced by implantation/irradiation in SiC are studied by different experimental techniques as transmission electron microscopy, helium desorption, X-ray diffraction and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. In this work, the different types of defects induced by helium implantation in SiC, point or primary defects (obtained at low energy (∼100 eV) until spread defects (obtained at higher energy (until ∼2 MeV)) are exposed. The amorphization/recrystallization and swelling phenomena are presented too. (O.M.)

  4. SiC fibre by chemical vapour deposition on tungsten filament

    Unknown

    SiC fibre by chemical vapour deposition on tungsten filament ... CMCs), in defence and industrial applications. SiC has attractive ... porosity along with chemical purity. This is lacking .... reactor. Since mercury is very toxic it should be removed.

  5. A route to strong p-doping of epitaxial graphene on SiC

    Cheng, Yingchun; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2010-01-01

    The effects of Au intercalation on the electronic properties of epitaxialgraphenegrown on SiC{0001} substrates are studied using first principles calculations. A graphenemonolayer on SiC{0001} restores the shape of the pristine graphene dispersion

  6. Rare earth element abundances in presolar SiC

    Ireland, T. R.; Ávila, J. N.; Lugaro, M.; Cristallo, S.; Holden, P.; Lanc, P.; Nittler, L.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.; Gyngard, F.; Amari, S.

    2018-01-01

    Individual isotope abundances of Ba, lanthanides of the rare earth element (REE) group, and Hf have been determined in bulk samples of fine-grained silicon carbide (SiC) from the Murchison CM2 chondrite. The analytical protocol involved secondary ion mass spectrometry with combined high mass resolution and energy filtering to exclude REE oxide isobars and Si-C-O clusters from the peaks of interest. Relative sensitivity factors were determined through analysis of NIST SRM reference glasses (610 and 612) as well as a trace-element enriched SiC ceramic. When normalised to chondrite abundances, the presolar SiC REE pattern shows significant deficits at Eu and Yb, which are the most volatile of the REE. The pattern is very similar to that observed for Group III refractory inclusions. The SiC abundances were also normalised to s-process model predictions for the envelope compositions of low-mass (1.5-3 M⊙) AGB stars with close-to-solar metallicities (Z = 0.014 and 0.02). The overall trace element abundances (excluding Eu and Yb) appear consistent with the predicted s-process patterns. The depletions of Eu and Yb suggest that these elements remained in the gas phase during the condensation of SiC. The lack of depletion in some other moderately refractory elements (like Ba), and the presence of volatile elements (e.g. Xe) indicates that these elements were incorporated into SiC by other mechanisms, most likely ion implantation.

  7. Change of I-V characteristics of SiC diodes upon reactor irradiation; Modification des caracteristiques I-V de jonctions p-n au SiC du fait d'une irradiation dans un reacteur; Izmeneniya kharakteristik I-V vyrashchennogo v SiC perekhoda tipa p-n posle oblucheniya ego v reaktore; Modificaciones que sufren por irradiacion en un reactor las caracteristicas I-V de uniones p-n en SiC

    Heerschap, M; De Coninck, R [Solid State Physics Dept., SCK-CEN, Mol (Belgium)

    1962-04-15

    In search for semiconductors, which can be used in high-flux reactors in order to measure flux distributions, we irradiated SiC p-n junctions in the Belgium BR-1 reactor. Two types of SiC-diodes of different origin have been irradiated. These junctions are grown in the Lely-furnace. The change in forward and reverse characteristics have been measured during and after irradiation up to temperatures of 150{sup o}C, while measurements up to a temperature of 500{sup o}C are in progress. It has been found that one type resists BR-1 neutrons up to an integrated flux of 10{sup 15} n/cm{sup 2}, while the other resists irradiation up to a flux of 10{sup 17} n/cm{sup 2}. The changes in characteristics are given as well as the result of some annealing experiments. (author) [French] En recherchant des semi-conducteurs pouvant servir a mesurer les distributions de flux dans les reacteurs a haut flux de neutrons, les auteurs ont irradie des jonctions p-n au SiC dans le reacteur belge BR-1. Deux types de diodes a SiC d'origines differentes ont ete ainsi irradies. Les jonctions en question sont preparees par etirage dans le four Lely. Les auteurs ont mesure les modifications subies par les caracteristiques I-V apres et pendant l'irradiation a des temperatures allant jusqu'a 150{sup o}C; ils poursuivent leurs mesures dans la gamme des temperatures allant de 150{sup o}C a 500{sup o}C. Us ont constate que l'un des types de diode a SiC resiste aux neutrons du reacteur BR-1 jusqu'a 10{sup 15} n/cm{sup 2}, tandis que l'autre type resiste a l'irradiation jusqu'a 10{sup 17} n/cm{sup 2}. Les auteurs indiquent les modifications subies par les caracteristiques, ainsi que le resultat de certaines experiences de recuit. (author) [Spanish] Los autores estan tratando de encontrar semiconductores con los que sea posible medir distribuciones de flujo en reactores de flujo elevado, y con este fin irradiaron uniones p-n del SiC en el reactor BR-1 de Belgica. Irradiaron dos tipos de diodos de SiC de

  8. Nucleation and growth of polycrystalline SiC

    Kaiser, M.; Schimmel, S.; Jokubavicius, V.

    2014-01-01

    The nucleation and bulk growth of polycrystalline SiC in a 2 inch PVT setup using isostatic and pyrolytic graphite as substrates was studied. Textured nucleation occurs under near-thermal equilibrium conditions at the initial growth stage with hexagonal platelet shaped crystallites of 4H, 6H and 15......R polytypes. It is found that pyrolytic graphite results in enhanced texturing of the nucleating gas species. Reducing the pressure leads to growth of the crystallites until a closed polycrystalline SiC layer containing voids with a rough surface is developed. Bulk growth was conducted at 35 mbar Ar...

  9. High Temperature Memories in SiC Technology

    Ekström, Mattias

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is part of the Working On Venus (WOV) project. The aim of the project is to design electronics in silicon carbide (SiC) that can withstand the extreme surface environmen  of Venus. This thesis investigates some possible computer memory technologies that could survive on the surface of Venus. A memory must be able to function at 460 °C and after a total radiation dose of at least 200 Gy (SiC). This thesis is a literature survey. The thesis covers several Random-Access Memory (RAM) ...

  10. Effect of AlN doping on the growth morphology of SiC

    Singh, N.B.; Jones, E.; Berghmans, A.; Wagner, B.P.; Jelen, E.; McLaughlin, S.; Knuteson, D.J.; Fitelson, M.; King, M.; Kahler, D. [Northrop Grumman Corporation, ES-ATL, Linthicum, MD (United States)

    2009-09-15

    AlN doped SiC films were deposited on on-axis Si-face 4H-SiC(0001) substrates by the physical vapor transport (PVT) method. Thick film in the range of 20 {mu}m range was grown and morphology was characterized. Films were grown by physical vapor deposition (PVD) in a vertical geometry in the nitrogen atmosphere. We observed that nucleation occurred in the form of discs and growth occurred in hexagonal geometry. The X-ray studies showed (001)orientation and full width of half maxima (FWHM) was less than 0.1 indicating good crystallinity. We also observed that film deposited on the carbon crucible had long needles with anisotropic growth very similar to that of pure AlN. Some of the needles grew up to sizes of 200{mu}m in length and 40 to 50 {mu}m in width. It is clear that annealing of SiC-AlN powder or high temperature physical vapor deposition produces similar crystal structure for producing AlN-SiC solid solution. SEM studies indicated that facetted hexagons grew on the top of each other and coarsened and merged to form cm size grains on the substrate. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  11. SiC epitaxial layer growth in a novel multi-wafer VPE reactor

    Burk, A.A. Jr.; O`Loughlin, M.J. [Northrop Grumman Advanced Technology Lab., Baltimore, MD (United States); Mani, S.S. [Northrop Grumman Science and Technology Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1998-06-01

    Preliminary results are presented for SiC epitaxial layer growth employing a unique planetary SiC-VPE reactor. The high-throughput, multi-wafer (7 x 2-inch) reactor, was designed for atmospheric and reduced pressure operation at temperatures up to and exceeding 1600 C. Specular epitaxial layers have been grown in the reactor at growth rates from 3-5 {mu}m/hr. The thickest layer grown to data was 42 {mu}m. The layers exhibit minimum unintentional n-type doping of {proportional_to}1 x 10{sup 15} cm{sup -3}, room temperature mobilities of {proportional_to}1000 cm{sup 2}/Vs, and intentional n-type doping from {proportional_to}5 x 10{sup 15} cm{sup -3} to >1 x 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}. Intrawafer thickness and doping uniformities of 4% and 7% (standard deviation/mean) have been obtained, respectively, on 35 mm diameter substrates. Recently, 3% thickness uniformity has been demonstrated on a 50 mm substrate. Within a run, wafer-to-wafer thickness deviation is {proportional_to}4-14%. Doping variation is currently larger, ranging as much as a factor of two from the highest to the lowest doped wafer. Continuing efforts to improve the susceptor temperature uniformity and reduce unintentional hydrocarbon generation to improve layer uniformity and reproducibility, are presented. (orig.) 18 refs.

  12. Influence of microstructure on hydrothermal corrosion of chemically vapor processed SiC composite tubes

    Kim, Daejong; Lee, Ho Jung; Jang, Changheui; Lee, Hyeon-Geun; Park, Ji Yeon; Kim, Weon-Ju

    2017-08-01

    Multi-layered SiC composites consisting of monolithic SiC and a SiCf/SiC composite are one of the accident tolerant fuel cladding concepts in pressurized light water reactors. To evaluate the integrity of the SiC fuel cladding under normal operating conditions of a pressurized light water reactor, the hydrothermal corrosion behavior of multi-layered SiC composite tubes was investigated in the simulated primary water environment of a pressurized water reactor without neutron fluence. The results showed that SiC phases with good crystallinity such as Tyranno SA3 SiC fiber and monolithic SiC deposited at 1200 °C had good corrosion resistance. However, the SiC phase deposited at 1000 °C had less crystallinity and severely dissolved in water, particularly the amorphous SiC phase formed along grain boundaries. Dissolved hydrogen did not play a significant role in improving the hydrothermal corrosion resistance of the CVI-processed SiC phases containing amorphous SiC, resulting in a significant weight loss and reduction of hoop strength of the multi-layered SiC composite tubes after corrosion.

  13. Magneto-resistance of Si0,97Ge0,03 whiskers irradiated by reactor fast neutrons

    Pavlovska, N.T.; Litovchenko, P.G.; Karpenko, A.Ya.; Uhryn, Yu.O.; Pavlovskyj, Yu.V.; Ostrovskii, I.P.; Khoverko, Yu.M.

    2012-01-01

    The influence of reactor fast-neutrons irradiation by the fluence of 8,6·10 17 n/cm 2 and strong magnetic field (up to 14 T) on resistance of Si 1-x Ge x (x = 0.03) whiskers in the temperature range of 4,2 - 300 K is studied. The activation energy of the of impurity levels is calculated. The interpretation of changes in the magneto-resistance is proposed

  14. Residual stresses and mechanical properties of Si3N4/SiC multilayered composites with different SiC layers

    Liua, S.; Lia, Y.; Chena, P.; Lia, W.; Gaoa, S.; Zhang, B.; Yeb, F.

    2017-01-01

    The effect of residual stresses on the strength, toughness and work of fracture of Si3N4/SiC multilayered composites with different SiC layers has been investigated. It may be an effective way to design and optimize the mechanical properties of Si3N4/SiC multilayered composites by controlling the properties of SiC layers. Si3N4/SiC multilayered composites with different SiC layers were fabricated by aqueous tape casting and pressureless sintering. Residual stresses were calculated by using ANSYS simulation, the maximum values of tensile and compressive stresses were 553.2MPa and −552.1MPa, respectively. Step-like fracture was observed from the fracture surfaces. Fraction of delamination layers increased with the residual stress, which can improve the reliability of the materials. Tensile residual stress was benefit to improving toughness and work of fracture, but the strength of the composites decreased. [es

  15. Analysis of polytype stability in PVT grown silicon carbide single crystal using competitive lattice model Monte Carlo simulations

    Hui-Jun Guo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Polytype stability is very important for high quality SiC single crystal growth. However, the growth conditions for the 4H, 6H and 15R polytypes are similar, and the mechanism of polytype stability is not clear. The kinetics aspects, such as surface-step nucleation, are important. The kinetic Monte Carlo method is a common tool to study surface kinetics in crystal growth. However, the present lattice models for kinetic Monte Carlo simulations cannot solve the problem of the competitive growth of two or more lattice structures. In this study, a competitive lattice model was developed for kinetic Monte Carlo simulation of the competition growth of the 4H and 6H polytypes of SiC. The site positions are fixed at the perfect crystal lattice positions without any adjustment of the site positions. Surface steps on seeds and large ratios of diffusion/deposition have positive effects on the 4H polytype stability. The 3D polytype distribution in a physical vapor transport method grown SiC ingot showed that the facet preserved the 4H polytype even if the 6H polytype dominated the growth surface. The theoretical and experimental results of polytype growth in SiC suggest that retaining the step growth mode is an important factor to maintain a stable single 4H polytype during SiC growth.

  16. Luminescence and Morphological Properties of GaN Layers Grown on SiC/Si(111) Substrates

    Sanchez-Garcia, M.A.; Ristic, J.; Calleja, E. [ISOM and Dpto. Ing. Electronica, ETSI Telecomunicacion, Univ. Politecnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Perez-Rodriguez, A.; Serre, C.; Romano-Rodriguez, A.; Morante, J.R. [EME - Electronic Materials and Engineering, Department of Electronics, Universidad de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Koegler, R.; Skorupa, W. [Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e.V., 01314 Dresden (Germany); Trampert, A.; Ploog, K.H. [Paul-Drude-Institut fuer Festkoerperelektronik, Hausvogteiplatz 5-7, 10117 Berlin (Germany)

    2002-08-16

    This article describes the fabrication of SiC thin films on top of Si(111) substrates by means of a multiple C-ion implantation and the subsequent growth by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy of GaN layers. The stoichiometry of the top SiC layer is controlled by reactive ion etching. Photoluminescence spectra reveal that all GaN layers are under biaxial tensile strain of thermal origin. The photoluminescence efficiency clearly depends on the stoichiometry of the initial SiC layer and on whether AlN buffer layers are used or not. GaN layers grown directly on bare non-stoichiometric SiC layers exhibit the best photoluminescence efficiency but also a high degree of mosaicity, as measured by X-ray diffraction techniques. The nucleation process involved in the initial stages of the growth leads to the formation of large dislocation-free grains with a high PL efficiency and with a higher tensile strain character. Despite the lack of a perfect monocrystalline SiC substrate lattice, high quality GaN microcrystals are obtained. (Abstract Copyright[2002], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  17. Electrochemical migration, whisker formation, and corrosion behavior of printed circuit board under wet H2S environment

    Zou, Shiwen; Li, Xiaogang; Dong, Chaofang; Ding, Kangkang; Xiao, Kui

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •The electrochemical migration, whisker formation, and corrosion behavior of PCB under wet H 2 S environment were observed and studied systematically. •The process of electrochemical migration of solder joints is explained. •The corrosion mechanism of PCB interconnectors induced by micro pores under wet H 2 S environment is discussed, and the corrosion reaction model is proposed. -- Abstract: Electrochemical migration, whisker formation, and corrosion behavior of printed circuit board (PCB) under wet H 2 S environment were analyzed by environment scanning electron microscope (ESEM), Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) with mapping and element phase cluster (EPC) techniques, Raman Spectrum analysis and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technology. The results showed that nonuniform corrosion behavior occurred on PCB surfaces under 1 ppm wet H 2 S at 40 °C; whiskers formed on the inner sidewall of via-holes with a growth rate of 1.2 Å/s; numerous corrosion products migrated through the pore of plated gold layer, which broke off the protective layer. The corrosion rate was accelerated according to the big-cathode-small-anode model

  18. High temperature flow behaviour of SiC reinforced lithium

    The compressive flow behaviour of lithium aluminosilicate (LAS) glass, with and without SiC particulate reinforcements, was studied. The LAS glass crystallized to spodumene during high-temperature testing. The flow behaviour of LAS glass changed from Newtonian to non-Newtonian due to the presence of crystalline ...

  19. Investigation of thermoelectric SiC ceramics for energy harvesting ...

    Utilizing thermoelectric technology to aerodynamic heat harvesting on the ... in terms of the computational fluid dynamics and the thermal conduction theory. ... It is shown that doping elements with good ... ous SiC materials, yet few experimental studies have been ... polymer-derived consolidated SiC-based ceramics, which.

  20. Microstructure and mechanical properties of SiC materials

    Yarahmadi, M.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of the microstructure on the mechanical properties of SiC materials of different chemical composition (SSiC, SiSiC, and RSiC) was investigated. Furthermore, the creep strength was determined on oxidized samples and on non-pretreated samples. (HSCH)

  1. Emanation thermal analysis of SiC based materials

    Bálek, V.; Zeleňák, V.; Mitsuhashi, T.; Bakardjieva, Snejana; Šubrt, Jan; Haneda, H.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 1 (2002), s. 83-89 ISSN 1418-2874 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 180 Grant - others:EFDA(XE) TTMA-001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4032918 Keywords : emanation thermal analysis * SEM * SiC nanocomposites Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.598, year: 2002

  2. Fission-product SiC reaction in HTGR fuel

    Montgomery, F.

    1981-01-01

    The primary barrier to release of fission product from any of the fuel types into the primary circuit of the HTGR are the coatings on the fuel particles. Both pyrolytic carbon and silicon carbide coatings are very effective in retaining fission gases under normal operating conditions. One of the possible performance limitations which has been observed in irradiation tests of TRISO fuel is chemical interaction of the SiC layer with fission products. This reaction reduces the thickness of the SiC layer in TRISO particles and can lead to release of fission products from the particles if the SiC layer is completely penetrated. The experimental section of this report describes the results of work at General Atomic concerning the reaction of fission products with silicon carbide. The discussion section describes data obtained by various laboratories and includes (1) a description of the fission products which have been found to react with SiC; (2) a description of the kinetics of silicon carbide thinning caused by fission product reaction during out-of-pile thermal gradient heating and the application of these kinetics to in-pile irradiation; and (3) a comparison of silicon carbide thinning in LEU and HEU fuels

  3. MICROSTRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF HOT ISOSTATICALLY PRESSED AL-SIC

    Bronsveld, P.M.; Hosson, J.Th. De; Sargent, M.A.; Alsem, W.H.M.

    1991-01-01

    The difference between extruded and hot isostatically pressed (HIP) Al6061 both with a T6 final heat treatment and with a 30 wt.% SiC particulate reinforcement is one of densification. The higher density of the HIP material is not translated into a stronger material. The Mg2Si precipitation is

  4. High temperature flow behaviour of SiC reinforced lithium ...

    Unknown

    Verdier (1996) explored the effect of SiC particulate rein- forcements in oxynitride glasses. Like in silicate compo- sites, non-Newtonian behaviour was observed in oxynitride glasses but instead of shear thinning they observed shear thickening. This was attributed to change in composition of grain boundary glass coupled ...

  5. SiC substrate defects and III-N heteroepitaxy

    Poust, B D [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Koga, T S [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Sandhu, R [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Heying, B [Northrop Grumman Space Technology, Space and Electronics Group, Redondo Beach, CA 90278 (United States); Hsing, R [Northrop Grumman Space Technology, Space and Electronics Group, Redondo Beach, CA 90278 (United States); Wojtowicz, M [Northrop Grumman Space Technology, Space and Electronics Group, Redondo Beach, CA 90278 (United States); Khan, A [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Goorsky, M S [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2003-05-21

    This study addressed how defects in SiC substrates influence the crystallographic properties of AlGaN/GaN layers deposited by metallorganic vapour phase epitaxy and by molecular beam epitaxy. We employed double crystal reflection x-ray topography using symmetric (0008) and (00012) reflections with CuK{alpha} radiation ({lambda} = 1.54 A) to image dislocations, micropipes, and low angle boundaries in SiC substrates. Lattice strain near the core of a micropipe defect was estimated to be of the order of 10{sup -7}. The substrates investigated exhibited radial patterns of strain and, primarily, of tilt of the order of tens of arcsec. After deposition of the AlGaN and GaN layers, DCXRT images were generated from the substrate (0008) or (00012) and GaN epitaxial layer (0004) reflections. Full-width at half-maximum values ranging from {approx}100 to 300 arcsec were typical of the GaN reflections, while those of the 4H-SiC reflections were {approx}20-70 arcsec. Micropipes, tilt boundaries, and inclusions in the SiC were shown to produce structural defects in the GaN layers. A clear correlation between SiC substrate defects and GaN defects has been established.

  6. SiC substrate defects and III-N heteroepitaxy

    Poust, B D; Koga, T S; Sandhu, R; Heying, B; Hsing, R; Wojtowicz, M; Khan, A; Goorsky, M S

    2003-01-01

    This study addressed how defects in SiC substrates influence the crystallographic properties of AlGaN/GaN layers deposited by metallorganic vapour phase epitaxy and by molecular beam epitaxy. We employed double crystal reflection x-ray topography using symmetric (0008) and (00012) reflections with CuKα radiation (λ = 1.54 A) to image dislocations, micropipes, and low angle boundaries in SiC substrates. Lattice strain near the core of a micropipe defect was estimated to be of the order of 10 -7 . The substrates investigated exhibited radial patterns of strain and, primarily, of tilt of the order of tens of arcsec. After deposition of the AlGaN and GaN layers, DCXRT images were generated from the substrate (0008) or (00012) and GaN epitaxial layer (0004) reflections. Full-width at half-maximum values ranging from ∼100 to 300 arcsec were typical of the GaN reflections, while those of the 4H-SiC reflections were ∼20-70 arcsec. Micropipes, tilt boundaries, and inclusions in the SiC were shown to produce structural defects in the GaN layers. A clear correlation between SiC substrate defects and GaN defects has been established

  7. SiC as an oxidation-resistant refractory material. Pt. 1

    Schlichting, J.

    1979-01-01

    Uses his own investigations and gives a literature survey on the oxidation and corrosion behaviour of SiC (in the form of a pure SiC powder, hot-pressed and reaction-sintered materials). The excellent stability of SiC in oxidizing atmosphere is due to the development of protective SiO 2 coatings. Any changes in these protective coatings (e.g. due to impurities with corrosive media, high porosity of SiC, etc.) lead in most cases to increased rates of oxidation and thus restrict the field of application of SiC. (orig.) [de

  8. PhySIC: a veto supertree method with desirable properties.

    Ranwez, Vincent; Berry, Vincent; Criscuolo, Alexis; Fabre, Pierre-Henri; Guillemot, Sylvain; Scornavacca, Celine; Douzery, Emmanuel J P

    2007-10-01

    This paper focuses on veto supertree methods; i.e., methods that aim at producing a conservative synthesis of the relationships agreed upon by all source trees. We propose desirable properties that a supertree should satisfy in this framework, namely the non-contradiction property (PC) and the induction property (PI). The former requires that the supertree does not contain relationships that contradict one or a combination of the source topologies, whereas the latter requires that all topological information contained in the supertree is present in a source tree or collectively induced by several source trees. We provide simple examples to illustrate their relevance and that allow a comparison with previously advocated properties. We show that these properties can be checked in polynomial time for any given rooted supertree. Moreover, we introduce the PhySIC method (PHYlogenetic Signal with Induction and non-Contradiction). For k input trees spanning a set of n taxa, this method produces a supertree that satisfies the above-mentioned properties in O(kn(3) + n(4)) computing time. The polytomies of the produced supertree are also tagged by labels indicating areas of conflict as well as those with insufficient overlap. As a whole, PhySIC enables the user to quickly summarize consensual information of a set of trees and localize groups of taxa for which the data require consolidation. Lastly, we illustrate the behaviour of PhySIC on primate data sets of various sizes, and propose a supertree covering 95% of all primate extant genera. The PhySIC algorithm is available at http://atgc.lirmm.fr/cgi-bin/PhySIC.

  9. Passivation of hexagonal SiC surfaces by hydrogen termination

    Seyller, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Surface hydrogenation is a well established technique in silicon technology. It is easily accomplished by wet-chemical procedures and results in clean and unreconstructed surfaces, which are extremely low in charged surface states and stable against oxidation in air, thus constituting an ideal surface preparation. As a consequence, methods for hydrogenation have been sought for preparing silicon carbide (SiC) surfaces with similar well defined properties. It was soon recognized, however, that due to different surface chemistry new ground had to be broken in order to find a method leading to the desired monatomic hydrogen saturation. In this paper the results of H passivation of SiC surfaces by high-temperature hydrogen annealing will be discussed, thereby placing emphasis on chemical, structural and electronic properties of the resulting surfaces. In addition to their unique properties, hydrogenated hexagonal SiC {0001} surfaces offer the interesting possibility of gaining insight into the formation of silicon- and carbon-rich reconstructions as well. This is due to the fact that to date hydrogenation is the only method providing oxygen-free surfaces with a C to Si ratio of 1:1. Last but not least, the electronic properties of hydrogen-free SiC {0001} surfaces will be alluded to. SiC {0001} surfaces are the only known semiconductor surfaces that can be prepared in their unreconstructed (1 x 1) state with one dangling bond per unit cell by photon induced hydrogen desorption. These surfaces give indications of a Mott-Hubbard surface band structure

  10. Formation mechanism of SiC in C-Si system by ion irradiation

    Hishita, Shunichi; Aizawa, Takashi; Suehara, Shigeru; Haneda, Hajime

    2003-01-01

    The irradiation effects of 2 MeV He + , Ne + , and Ar + ions on the film structure of the C-Si system were investigated with RHEED and XPS. The ion dose dependence of the SiC formation was kinetically analyzed. The SiC formation at moderate temperature was achieved by 2 MeV ion irradiation when the thickness of the initial carbon films was appropriate. The evolution process of the SiC film thickness consisted of the 3 stages. The first stage was the steep increase of the SiC, and was governed by the inelastic collision. The second was the gentle increase of the SiC, and was governed by the diffusion. The last was the decrease of the SiC, and was caused by the sputtering. The formation mechanism of the SiC was discussed. (author)

  11. A comparative study on electrical characteristics of 1-kV pnp and npn SiC bipolar junction transistors

    Okuda, Takafumi; Kimoto, Tsunenobu; Suda, Jun

    2018-04-01

    We investigate the electrical characteristics of 1-kV pnp SiC bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) and compare them with those of npn SiC BJTs. The base resistance, current gain, and blocking capability are characterized. It is found that the base resistance of pnp SiC BJTs is two orders of magnitude lower than that of npn SiC BJTs. However, the obtained current gains are low below unity in pnp SiC BJTs, whereas npn SiC BJTs exhibit a current gain of 14 without surface passivation. The reason for the poor current gain of pnp SiC BJTs is discussed.

  12. Elaboration of silicon carbides nano particles (SiC): from the powder synthesis to the sintered ceramic

    Reau, A.

    2008-01-01

    Materials for the reactor cores of the fourth generation will need materials supporting high temperatures with fast neutrons flux. SiC f /SiC ceramics are proposed. One of the possible elaboration process is to fill SiC fiber piece with nano particles SiC powder and to strengthen by sintering. The aim of this thesis is to obtain a nano structured SiC ceramic as a reference for the SiC f /SiC composite development and to study the influence of the fabrication parameters. (A.L.B.)

  13. Facile synthesis of Cu/tetrapod-like ZnO whisker compounds with enhanced photocatalytic properties

    Liu, Hong; Liu, Huarong; Fan, Ximei

    2017-09-01

    Cu/tetrapod-like ZnO whisker (T-ZnOw) compounds were successfully synthesized using N2H4 \\cdot H2O as a reducing agent by a simple reduction method without any insert gas at room temperature. The crystal phase composition and morphology of the as-prepared samples were investigated by XRD, SEM and FESEM tests. The photocatalytic property of the as-prepared samples was detected by the degradation of methyl orange (MO) aqueous solution under UV irradiation. It can be found that Cu nanoparticles (CuNPs) dispersed on the surface of T-ZnOw increased with the increasing of Cu/Zn molar ratios (Cu/Zn MRs), and an octahedral structure of CuNPs was obtained when the sample was prepared with less than and equal to 7.30% Cu/Zn MR, but tended to a spherical or nanorod structure of CuNPs densely arranged on the surface of T-ZnOw, which is prepared by Cu/Zn MRs up to 22.00%. All the compounds exhibited excellent photocatalytic activity in decomposing of MO than T-ZnOw, the photocatalytic property of the samples increased with the increasing of Cu/Zn MRs up to 7.30%, while it decreases when further increasing the Cu/Zn MRs. The Schottky barrier of the Cu/T-ZnOw compound can effectively capture photoinduced electrons from the interface and enhanced the photocatalytic property of T-ZnOw.

  14. [Breeding biology of the whiskered auklet (Aethia pygmaea): incubation, chick growth, and feather ontogenesis].

    Koniukhov, N B; Zubakin, V A; Williams, J; Fischer, J

    2000-01-01

    This is the second publication on the results of studies of the whiskered auklet breeding biology on Buldir Island. In 1993, according to the time of chick hatching the egg-laying period began in late April-early May. The single egg was incubated by both parents, which relieved each other once a day, usually at early night. Among the chicks under observation, the first hatched on June 11; the median of hatching was on June 17. After hatching, the egg shell usually remained in the nest. The chick was continuously brooded by one of parents for the first several days but since the age of 7-9 days, it stayed in the nest by itself during the daytime. Each parent fed the chick once a day, at early night, although occasional feedings were recorded also during daytime and at dawn. A newly hatched chick was covered by typical embryonal (natal) down. The remiges, rectrices, their coverts, and large feathers on pteryla humeralis had a mesoptile stage during their growth (the second down generation). The juvenile plumage consisted of semiplumes of types I and II and contour feathers of type I and, possibly, type II. In fledglings, the ornamental feathers were underdeveloped: the crest was absent and facial plumes only began growing. By reaching 100 g, the chicks left their nests at the age of about 37 days. A longer nesting period than in other Aethia auklets appears to be related to a low feeding rate due to the nocturnal activity in the colony.

  15. Whisker Deprivation Drives Two Phases of Inhibitory Synapse Weakening in Layer 4 of Rat Somatosensory Cortex.

    Melanie A Gainey

    Full Text Available Inhibitory synapse development in sensory neocortex is experience-dependent, with sustained sensory deprivation yielding fewer and weaker inhibitory synapses. Whether this represents arrest of synapse maturation, or a more complex set of processes, is unclear. To test this, we measured the dynamics of inhibitory synapse development in layer 4 of rat somatosensory cortex (S1 during continuous whisker deprivation from postnatal day 7, and in age-matched controls. In deprived columns, spontaneous miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs and evoked IPSCs developed normally until P15, when IPSC amplitude transiently decreased, recovering by P16 despite ongoing deprivation. IPSCs remained normal until P22, when a second, sustained phase of weakening began. Delaying deprivation onset by 5 days prevented the P15 weakening. Both early and late phase weakening involved measurable reduction in IPSC amplitude relative to prior time points. Thus, deprivation appears to drive two distinct phases of active IPSC weakening, rather than simple arrest of synapse maturation.

  16. Rat whisker movement after facial nerve lesion: evidence for autonomic contraction of skeletal muscle.

    Heaton, James T; Sheu, Shu Hsien; Hohman, Marc H; Knox, Christopher J; Weinberg, Julie S; Kleiss, Ingrid J; Hadlock, Tessa A

    2014-04-18

    Vibrissal whisking is often employed to track facial nerve regeneration in rats; however, we have observed similar degrees of whisking recovery after facial nerve transection with or without repair. We hypothesized that the source of non-facial nerve-mediated whisker movement after chronic denervation was from autonomic, cholinergic axons traveling within the infraorbital branch of the trigeminal nerve (ION). Rats underwent unilateral facial nerve transection with repair (N=7) or resection without repair (N=11). Post-operative whisking amplitude was measured weekly across 10weeks, and during intraoperative stimulation of the ION and facial nerves at ⩾18weeks. Whisking was also measured after subsequent ION transection (N=6) or pharmacologic blocking of the autonomic ganglia using hexamethonium (N=3), and after snout cooling intended to elicit a vasodilation reflex (N=3). Whisking recovered more quickly and with greater amplitude in rats that underwent facial nerve repair compared to resection (Pfacial-nerve-mediated whisking was elicited by electrical stimulation of the ION, temporarily diminished following hexamethonium injection, abolished by transection of the ION, and rapidly and significantly (Pfacial nerve resection. This study provides the first behavioral and anatomical evidence of spontaneous autonomic innervation of skeletal muscle after motor nerve lesion, which not only has implications for interpreting facial nerve reinnervation results, but also calls into question whether autonomic-mediated innervation of striated muscle occurs naturally in other forms of neuropathy. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Pd/CeO2/SiC Chemical Sensors

    Lu, Weijie; Collins, W. Eugene

    2005-01-01

    The incorporation of nanostructured interfacial layers of CeO2 has been proposed to enhance the performances of Pd/SiC Schottky diodes used to sense hydrogen and hydrocarbons at high temperatures. If successful, this development could prove beneficial in numerous applications in which there are requirements to sense hydrogen and hydrocarbons at high temperatures: examples include monitoring of exhaust gases from engines and detecting fires. Sensitivity and thermal stability are major considerations affecting the development of high-temperature chemical sensors. In the case of a metal/SiC Schottky diode for a number of metals, the SiC becomes more chemically active in the presence of the thin metal film on the SiC surface at high temperature. This increase in chemical reactivity causes changes in chemical composition and structure of the metal/SiC interface. The practical effect of the changes is to alter the electronic and other properties of the device in such a manner as to degrade its performance as a chemical sensor. To delay or prevent these changes, it is necessary to limit operation to a temperature sensor structures. The present proposal to incorporate interfacial CeO2 films is based partly on the observation that nanostructured materials in general have potentially useful electrical properties, including an ability to enhance the transfer of electrons. In particular, nanostructured CeO2, that is CeO2 with nanosized grains, has shown promise for incorporation into hightemperature electronic devices. Nanostructured CeO2 films can be formed on SiC and have been shown to exhibit high thermal stability on SiC, characterized by the ability to withstand temperatures somewhat greater than 700 C for limited times. The exchanges of oxygen between CeO2 and SiC prevent the formation of carbon and other chemical species that are unfavorable for operation of a SiC-based Schottky diode as a chemical sensor. Consequently, it is anticipated that in a Pd/CeO2/SiC Schottky

  18. Ethanolic extract of Astragali radix and Salviae radix prohibits oxidative brain injury by psycho-emotional stress in whisker removal rat model.

    Hyeong-Geug Kim

    Full Text Available Myelophil, an ethanolic extract of Astragali Radix and Salviae Radix, has been clinically used to treat chronic fatigue and stress related disorders in South Korea. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of Myelophil on a whisker removal-induced psycho-emotional stress model. SD rats were subjected to whisker removal after oral administration of Myelophil or ascorbic acid for consecutive 4 days. Whisker removal considerably increased total reactive oxygen species in serum levels as well as cerebral cortex and hippocampal regions in brain tissues. Lipidperoxidation levels were also increased in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus regions, and brain tissue injuries as shown in histopathology and immunohistochemistry. However, Myelophil significantly ameliorated these alterations, and depletion of glutathione contents in both cerebral cortex and hippocampus regions respectively. Serum levels of corticosterone and adrenaline were notably altered after whisker removal stress, whereas these abnormalities were significantly normalized by pre-treatment with Myelophil. The NF-κB was notably activated in both cerebral cortex and hippocampus after whisker removal stress, while it was efficiently blocked by pre-treatment with Myelophil. Myelophil also significantly normalizes alterations of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6 and interferon-γ in both gene expressions and protein levels. These results suggest that Myelophil has protective effects on brain damages in psycho-emotional stress, and the underlying mechanisms involve regulation of inflammatory proteins, especially NF-κB modulation.

  19. Optical and magnetic resonance signatures of deep levels in semi-insulating 4H SiC

    Carlos, W.E.; Glaser, E.R.; Shanabrook, B.V.

    2003-01-01

    We have studied semi-insulating (SI) 4H SiC grown by physical vapor transport (PVT) and by high-temperature chemical vapor deposition (HTCVD) using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and infrared photoluminescence (IR-PL) to better understand the defect(s) responsible for the SI behavior. Although intrinsic defects such as the isolated carbon vacancy and in some cases the isolated Si vacancies have previously been observed by EPR in undoped SI SiC, their concentrations are an order of magnitude too low to be responsible for the SI behavior. We are able to observe the EPR signature of the carbon vacancy-carbon antisite pair (V C -C Si ) pair defect in an excited state of its 2+ charge state in all PVT samples and some HTCVD samples. We also establish the IR-PL signature of this EPR center as the UD2 spectrum - a set of four sharp lines between 1.1 and 1.15 eV previously observed by Magnusson et al. in neutron-irradiated 4H-SiC. We also observe the UD1 line, a pair of sharp IR-PL lines at ∼1.06 eV and UD3, a single sharp line at ∼1.36 eV. We propose a simple model for the SI behavior in material in which the (V C -C Si ) pair defect is the dominant deep defect

  20. Effect of inclusion of SiC particulates on the mechanical resistance behaviour of stir-cast AA6063/SiC composites

    Balasubramanian, I.; Maheswaran, R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • AA6063/SiC composites with different weight percent are stir cast. • Resistance properties against indentation, stretching force and sliding force are studied. • Increase in initiation of cleavage facets and reduces the tensile strength for 15% SiC. • Transition from micro ploughing to micro cutting wear mechanism is less due to SiC inclusion. - Abstract: This study investigates the mechanical resistance behaviour of AA6063 particulate composites with the inclusion of micron-sized silicon carbide (SiC) particles with different weight percentages in an AA6063 aluminium matrix. AA6063/SiC particulate composites containing 0, 5, 10, and 15 weight percent of SiC particles were produced by stir casting. Standard mechanical tests were conducted on the composite plates, and the mechanical resistance to indentation, tensile force and sliding force are evaluated. It has been observed that upon addition of SiC particles, the resistance against indentation is increased and the resistance against tensile force is initially increased and then decreased. Furthermore, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the fracture appearance of the broken specimen subjected to tensile force and morphological changes in the surface subjected to sliding force are analysed. The SEM images reveal that the addition of SiC particles in the AA6063 aluminium matrix initiates more cleavage facets. This leads to brittle fracture in the specimen subjected to tensile forces and less transition from material displacement to material removal in the specimen subjected to sliding forces

  1. MAX Phase Modified SiC Composites for Ceramic-Metal Hybrid Cladding Tubes

    Jung, Yang-Il; Kim, Sun-Han; Park, Dong-Jun; Park, Jeong-Hwan; Park, Jeong-Yong; Kim, Hyun-Gil; Koo, Yang-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    A metal-ceramic hybrid cladding consists of an inner zirconium tube, and an outer SiC fiber-matrix SiC ceramic composite with surface coating as shown in Fig. 1 (left-hand side). The inner zirconium allows the matrix to remain fully sealed even if the ceramic matrix cracks through. The outer SiC composite can increase the safety margin by taking the merits of the SiC itself. In addition, the outermost layer prevents the dissolution of SiC during normal operation. On the other hand, a ceramic-metal hybrid cladding consists of an outer zirconium tube, and an inner SiC ceramic composite as shown in Fig. 1 (right-hand side). The outer zirconium protects the fuel rod from a corrosion during reactor operation, as in the present fuel claddings. The inner SiC composite, additionally, is designed to resist the severe oxidation under a postulated accident condition of a high-temperature steam environment. Reaction-bonded SiC was fabricated by modifying the matrix as the MAX phase. The formation of Ti 3 SiC 2 was investigated depending on the compositions of the preform and melt. In most cases, TiSi 2 was the preferential phase because of its lowest melting point in the Ti-Si-C system. The evidence of Ti 3 SiC 2 was the connection with the pressurizing

  2. POWDER INJECTION MOLDING OF SIC FOR THERMAL MANAGEMENT V

    Valmikanathan Onbattuvelli

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Silicon carbide (SiC exhibits many functional properties that are relevant to applications in electronics, aerospace, defense and automotive industries. However, the successful translation of these properties into final applications lies in the net-shaping of ceramics into fully dense microstructures. Increasing the packing density of the starting powders is one effective route to achieve high sintered density and dimensional precision. The present paper presents an in-depth study on the effects of nanoparticle addition on the powder injection molding process (PIM of SiC powder-polymer mixtures. In particular, bimodal mixtures of nanoscale and sub-micrometer particles are found to have significantly increased powder packing characteristics (solids loading in the powder-polymer mixtures. The influence of nanoparticle addition on the multi-step PIM process is examined. The above results provide new perspectives which could impact a wide range of materials, powder processing techniques and applications.

  3. Creep behavior for advanced polycrystalline SiC fibers

    Youngblood, G.E.; Jones, R.H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Kohyama, Akira [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    A bend stress relaxation (BSR) test has been utilized to examine irradiation enhanced creep in polycrystalline SiC fibers which are under development for use as fiber reinforcement in SiC/SiC composite. Qualitative, S-shaped 1hr BSR curves were compared for three selected advanced SiC fiber types and standard Nicalon CG fiber. The temperature corresponding to the middle of the S-curve (where the BSR parameter m = 0.5) is a measure of a fiber`s thermal stability as well as it creep resistance. In order of decreasing thermal creep resistance, the measured transition temperatures were Nicalon S (1450{degrees}C), Sylramic (1420{degrees}C), Hi-Nicalon (1230{degrees}C) and Nicalon CG (1110{degrees}C).

  4. Study on extrusion process of SiC ceramic matrix

    Dai, Xiao-Yuan; Shen, Fan; Ji, Jia-You; Wang, Shu-Ling; Xu, Man

    2017-11-01

    In this thesis, the extrusion process of SiC ceramic matrix has been systematically studied.The effect of different cellulose content on the flexural strength and pore size distribution of SiC matrix was discussed.Reselts show that with the increase of cellulose content, the flexural strength decreased.The pore size distribution in the sample was 1um-4um, and the 1um-2um concentration was more concentrated. It is found that the cellulose content has little effect on the pore size distribution.When the cellulose content is 7%, the flexural strength of the sample is 40.9Mpa. At this time, the mechanical properties of the sample are the strongest.

  5. Deposition of SiC thin films by PECVD

    Cho, N I; Kim, C K

    1999-01-01

    The SiC films were deposited on Si substrate by the decomposition of CH sub 3 SiCl sub 3 (methylthrichlorosilane) molecules in a high frequency discharge field. From the Raman spectra, it is conjectured that the deposited film are formed into the polycrystalline structure. The photon absorption measurement reveal that the band gap of the electron energy state are to be 2.4 eV for SiC, and 2.6 eV for Si sub 0 sub . sub 4 C sub 0 sub . sub 6 , respectively. In the high power density regime, methyl-radicals decompose easily and increases the carbon concentration in plasma and result in the growing films.

  6. Tailoring of SiC nanoprecipitates formed in Si

    Velisa, G., E-mail: gihan.velisa@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, Service de Recherches de Métallurgie Physique, Laboratoire JANNUS, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, P.O. Box MG-6, 077125 Magurele (Romania); Trocellier, P. [CEA, DEN, Service de Recherches de Métallurgie Physique, Laboratoire JANNUS, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Thomé, L. [Centre de Spectrométrie Nucléaire et de Spectrométrie de Masse, UMR8609, Bât. 108, 91405 Orsay (France); Vaubaillon, S. [CEA, INSTN, UEPTN, Laboratoire JANNUS, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Miro, S.; Serruys, Y.; Bordas, É. [CEA, DEN, Service de Recherches de Métallurgie Physique, Laboratoire JANNUS, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Meslin, E. [CEA, DEN, Service de Recherches de Métallurgie Physique, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Mylonas, S. [Centre de Spectrométrie Nucléaire et de Spectrométrie de Masse, UMR8609, Bât. 108, 91405 Orsay (France); Coulon, P.E. [Ecole Polytechnique, Laboratoire des Solides Irradiés, CEA/DSM/IRAMIS-CNRS, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Leprêtre, F.; Pilz, A.; Beck, L. [CEA, DEN, Service de Recherches de Métallurgie Physique, Laboratoire JANNUS, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2013-07-15

    The SiC synthesis through single-beam of C{sup +}, and simultaneous-dual-beam of C{sup +} and Si{sup +} ion implantations into a Si substrate heated at 550 °C has been studied by means of three complementary analytical techniques: nuclear reaction analysis (NRA), Raman, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It is shown that a broad distribution of SiC nanoprecipitates is directly formed after simultaneous-dual-beam (520-keV C{sup +} and 890-keV Si{sup +}) and single-beam (520-keV C{sup +}) ion implantations. Their shape appear as spherical (average size ∼4–5 nm) and they are in epitaxial relationship with the silicon matrix.

  7. Graphic Grown Up

    Kim, Ann

    2009-01-01

    It's no secret that children and YAs are clued in to graphic novels (GNs) and that comics-loving adults are positively giddy that this format is getting the recognition it deserves. Still, there is a whole swath of library card-carrying grown-up readers out there with no idea where to start. Splashy movies such as "300" and "Spider-Man" and their…

  8. Comparative study of initial growth stage in PVT growth of AlN on SiC and on native AlN substrates

    Epelbaum, B.M.; Heimann, P.; Bickermann, M.; Winnacker, A. [Department of Materials Science 6, University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Martensstr. 7, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2005-05-01

    The main issue in homoepitaxial growth of aluminum nitride (AlN) on native seed substrates appears to be aluminum oxynitride poisoning of seed surface leading to polycrystalline growth at 1750-1850 C. This is well below the lowest growth temperature appropriate for physical vapor transport (PVT) of bulk AlN, which is about 2150 C. Contrary, heteroepitaxial growth of AlN on SiC is relatively easy to achieve because of natural formation of a thin molten layer on the seed surface and VLS growth of AlN via the molten buffer layer. The most critical issue of AlN growth on SiC is cracking of the grown layer upon cooling as a result of different thermal expansion. Optimization of seeded growth process can be achieved by proper choice of SiC seed orientation and by use of ultra-pure starting material. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  9. GaN thin films on SiC substrates studied using variable energy positron annihilation spectroscopy

    Hu, Y.F.; Shan, Y.Y.; Beling, C.D.; Fung, S.; Xie, M.H.; Cheung, S.H.; Tu, J.; Tong, D.S.Y.

    2001-01-01

    A variety of GaN epilayers, grown on 6H-SiC substrates using different growth conditions, have been studied using variable energy positron annihilation spectroscopy. In the S-E plots, a peak structure in the S-parameter is seen which is related to the GaN/substrate heterojunction. The position of the peak is found to be much closer to the sample surface than expected from simple mean implantation depth arguments. This anomaly is attributed to the fact that there is a rectifying potential step that prevents diffusing positrons in the GaN from entering the SiC substrate. This effect has been successfully mimicked by inserting an artificial electric field into the thin interfacial region in the VEPFIT analysis. (orig.)

  10. Normal Isocurvature Surfaces and Special Isocurvature Circles (SIC)

    Manoussakis, Gerassimos; Delikaraoglou, Demitris

    2010-05-01

    An isocurvature surface of a gravity field is a surface on which the value of the plumblines' curvature is constant. Here we are going to study the isocurvature surfaces of the Earth's normal gravity field. The normal gravity field is a symmetric gravity field therefore the isocurvature surfaces are surfaces of revolution. But even in this case the necessary relations for their study are not simple at all. Therefore to study an isocurvature surface we make special assumptions to form a vector equation which will hold only for a small coordinate patch of the isocurvature surface. Yet from the definition of the isocurvature surface and the properties of the normal gravity field is possible to express very interesting global geometrical properties of these surfaces without mixing surface differential calculus. The gradient of the plumblines' curvature function is vertical to an isocurvature surface. If P is a point of an isocurvature surface and "Φ" is the angle of the gradient of the plumblines' curvature with the equatorial plane then this direction points to the direction along which the curvature of the plumbline decreases / increases the most, and therefore is related to the strength of the normal gravity field. We will show that this direction is constant along a line of curvature of the isocurvature surface and this line is an isocurvature circle. In addition we will show that at each isocurvature surface there is at least one isocurvature circle along which the direction of the maximum variation of the plumblines' curvature function is parallel to the equatorial plane of the ellipsoid of revolution. This circle is defined as a Special Isocurvature Circle (SIC). Finally we shall prove that all these SIC lye on a special surface of revolution, the so - called SIC surface. That is to say, a SIC is not an isolated curve in the three dimensional space.

  11. Modelling of ion implantation in SiC crystals

    Chakarov, Ivan [SILVACO International, 4701 Patrick Henry Drive, Building 2, Santa Clara, CA 95054 (United States)]. E-mail: ivan.chakarov@silvaco.com; Temkin, Misha [SILVACO International, 4701 Patrick Henry Drive, Building 2, Santa Clara, CA 95054 (United States)

    2006-01-15

    An advanced electronic stopping model for ion implantation in SiC has been implemented within the binary collision approximation. The model has been thoroughly tested and validated for Al implantation into 4H-, 6H-SiC under different initial implant conditions. A very good agreement between calculated and experimental profiles has been achieved. The model has been integrated in an industrial technology CAD process simulator.

  12. Modelling of ion implantation in SiC crystals

    Chakarov, Ivan; Temkin, Misha

    2006-01-01

    An advanced electronic stopping model for ion implantation in SiC has been implemented within the binary collision approximation. The model has been thoroughly tested and validated for Al implantation into 4H-, 6H-SiC under different initial implant conditions. A very good agreement between calculated and experimental profiles has been achieved. The model has been integrated in an industrial technology CAD process simulator

  13. SiC Composite for Fuel Structure Applications

    Yueh, Ken [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Charlotte, NC (United States)

    2017-12-22

    Extensive evaluation was performed to determine the suitability of using SiC composite as a boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel channel material. A thin walled SiC composite box, 10 cm in dimension by approximately 1.5 mm wall thickness was fabricated using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) for testing. Mechanical test results and performance evaluations indicate the material could meet BWR channel mechanical design requirement. However, large mass loss of up to 21% was measured in in-pile corrosion test under BWR-like conditions in under 3 months of irradiation. A fresh sister sample irradiated in a follow-up cycle under PWR conditions showed no measureable weight loss and thus supports the hypothesis that the oxidizing condition of the BWR-like coolant chemistry was responsible for the high corrosion rate. A thermodynamic evaluation showed SiC is not stable and the material may oxidize to form SiO2 and CO2. Silica has demonstrated stability in high temperature steam environment and form a protective oxide layer under severe accident conditions. However, it does not form a protective layer in water under normal BWR operational conditions due to its high solubility. Corrosion product stabilization by modifying the SiC CVD surface is an approach evaluated in this study to mitigate the high corrosion rate. Titanium and zirconium have been selected as stabilizing elements since both TiSiO4 and ZrSiO4 are insoluble in water. Corrosion test results in oxygenated water autoclave indicate TiSiO4 does not form a protective layer. However, zirconium doped test samples appear to form a stable continuous layer of ZrSiO4 during the corrosion process. Additional process development is needed to produce a good ZrSiC coating to verify functionality of the mitigation concept.

  14. Behaviors of SiC fibers at high temperature

    Colin, C.; Falanga, V.; Gelebart, L.

    2010-01-01

    On the one hand, considering the improvements of mechanical and thermal behaviours of the last generation of SiC fibers (Hi-Nicalon S, Tyranno SA3); on the other hand, regarding physical and chemical properties and stability under irradiation, SiC/SiC composites are potential candidates for nuclear applications in advanced fission and fusion reactors. CEA must characterize and optimize these composites before their uses in reactors. In order to study this material, CEA is developing a multi-scale approach by modelling from fibers to bulk composite specimen: fibres behaviours must be well known in first. Thus, CEA developed a specific tensile test device on single fibers at high temperature, named MecaSiC. Using this device, we have already characterized the thermoelastic and thermoelectric behaviours of SiC fibers. Additional results about the plastic properties at high temperatures were also obtained. Indeed, we performed tensile tests between 1200 degrees C up to 1700 degrees C to characterize this plastic behaviour. Some thermal annealing, up to 3 hours at 1700 degrees C, had been also performed. Furthermore, we compare the mechanical behaviours with the thermal evolution of the electric resistivity of these SiC fibers. Soon, MecaSiC will be coupled to a new charged particle accelerator. Thus, in this configuration, we will be able to study in-situ irradiation effects on fibre behaviours, as swelling or creep for example

  15. Electrical measurement of radiation effect in SiC

    Kanazawa, Satoshi; Kamiya, Koji; Kanno, Ikuo [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering] [and others

    1996-04-01

    For aiming to limited resources and environmental conservations on the Earth, development of controlling element workable under high temperature environment was investigated so as to establish a high grade and optimum controlling system. In order to observe changes of electrical properties before and after irradiation and after annealing, and to investigate changes of carrier concentration and movability after irradiating neutron from reactor and accelerator for the SiC single crystal wafer, elucidation on neutron irradiation effect of SiC as well as finding an optimum method on nuclear conversion injection were investigated. For this reason, SiC surface was purified by its etching and was treated thermally at 1000degC for about 30 min. under argon gas atmosphere after vacuum depositing nickel on it. And then, it was irradiated neutron using Kyoto University reactor (LTL), Linac and University of Tokyo reactor (YAYOI) to measure changes of resistivity using van der Pauw. As a result, it was found that LTL irradiation data was under investigation of measuring method, that in Linac no meaning change was observed because of low irradiation, and that only YAYOI data showed increase of resistivity. (G.K.)

  16. SYLRAMICTM SiC fibers for CMC reinforcement

    Jones, Richard E.; Petrak, Dan; Rabe, Jim; Szweda, Andy

    2000-01-01

    Dow Corning researchers developed SYLRAMIC SiC fiber specifically for use in ceramic-matrix composite (CMC) components for use in turbine engine hot sections where excellent thermal stability, high strength and high thermal conductivity are required. This is a stoichiometric SiC fiber with a high degree of crystallinity, high tensile strength, high tensile modulus and good thermal conductivity. Owing to the small diameter, this textile-grade fiber can be woven into 2-D and 3-D structures for CMC fabrication. These properties are also of high interest to the nuclear community. Some initial studies have shown that SYLRAMIC fiber shows very good dimensional stability in a neutron flux environment, which offers further encouragement. This paper will review the properties of SYLRAMIC SiC fiber and then present the properties of polymer impregnation and pyrolysis (PIP) processed CMC made with this fiber at Dow Corning. While these composites may not be directly applicable to applications of interest to this audience, we believe that the properties shown will give good evidence that the fiber should be suitable for high temperature structural applications in the nuclear arena

  17. Growth of single-crystal W whiskers during humid H2/N2 reduction of Ni, Fe-Ni, and Co-Ni doped tungsten oxide

    Wang Shiliang; He Yuehui; Zou Jou; Wang Yong; Huang Han

    2009-01-01

    Numbers of W whiskers were obtained by reducing Ni, Ni-Fe, and Ni-Co doped tungsten oxide in a mixed atmosphere of humid H 2 and N 2 . The phases and morphologies of the reduction products were characterized by XRD and SEM. Intensive TEM and EDS analyses showed that the obtained whiskers were W single crystals which typical have alloyed particles (Ni-W, Fe-Ni, or Co-Ni-W) at the growth tips. The formed W whiskers were presumed to be induced by the alloyed particles. Our experimental results revealed that, during the reduction process of tungsten oxide, the pre-reduced Ni, Fe-Ni, or Co-Ni particles not only served as nucleation aids for the initial growth of W phase from W oxide but also played the roles of catalysts during the reductive decomposition of gaseous WO 2 (OH) 2 .

  18. Influence of extrusion parameters on sic distribution and properties of AA6061/SiC composites produced by kobo method

    WoĨniak, Jarosáaw; Kostecki, Marek; Broniszewski, Kamil; Olszyna, Andrzej [Faculty of Material Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Bochniak, Wáodzimierz [Faculty of Non-Ferrous Metals, AGH University of Science and Technology, Cracow (Poland)

    2013-07-01

    The influence of extrusion parameters on reinforcements distribution and properties of AA6061+x% vol. SiC p (x=0; 2.5; 5; 7.5; 10) composites was discussed in this paper The averages size of AA6061 and SiC particles were 10.6 μ m and 0.42 μ m, respectively. The composites were consolidated via powder metallurgy processing (without the sintering) and extruded by KoBo method. The microstructure was examined on each steps of production. High values of density for all produced composites were achieved. Additionally, hardness and Young’s modulus were investigated. The best reinforcement distribution and mechanical properties were obtained for composites extruded with the highest extrusion ratio. Key words: aluminum alloy, extrusion, aged hardening, metal matrix composites, microstructure.

  19. Reproductive success of Whiskered Tern Chlidonias hybrida in eastern Spain in relation to water level variation.

    Ortiz Lledó, Álvaro; Vidal Mateo, Javier; Urios Moliner, Vicente

    2018-01-01

    A study on the Whiskered Tern Chlidonias hybrida was carried out between 2002 and 2009 in wetlands of eastern Spain to evaluate how water level fluctuation affects its reproductive success (hatching, fledgling and breeding success). This species is catalogued as Vulnerable in Spain and has an unfavorable conservation status in Europe. Our study includes 18 sampling areas from five wetlands, covering a total of 663 nests, 1,618 eggs, 777 nestlings and 225 fledglings. The colonies were visited at least twice per week in breeding period. The number of eggs and/or nestlings present in each nest were annotated each time the colonies were visited with the aim to compare the evolution of these parameters with time. Hatching success was calculated as the proportion of egg that hatched successfully. Fledgling success and breeding success were calculated as the proportion of chicks that fledged successfully and the proportion of eggs that produced fledglings. We used the Kruskal-Wallis test to analyze the differences in the dependent variables hatching, fledgling and breeding success among the wetlands and the sampling areas. We explored the relationship between the different reproductive success with the average fluctuation rate and the anchoring depth of nests, using statistics of the linear regression. It was observed that the reproductive success varied significantly in the interaction among the different categories of water level fluctuation and the different areas (using the Kruskal-Wallis test). Our records showed that pronounced variations in water level destroyed several nests, which affected the Whiskered Tern reproductive success. Considering all events that occurred in 18 areas, the mean (±SD) of nests, eggs and nestlings that were lost after water level fluctuations were of 25.60 ± 21.79%, 32.06 ± 27.58% and 31.91 ± 21.28% respectively, also including the effects of rain and predation. Unfavorable climatic events, such as strong wind, rain or hail, also

  20. Reproductive success of Whiskered Tern Chlidonias hybrida in eastern Spain in relation to water level variation

    Álvaro Ortiz Lledó

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background A study on the Whiskered Tern Chlidonias hybrida was carried out between 2002 and 2009 in wetlands of eastern Spain to evaluate how water level fluctuation affects its reproductive success (hatching, fledgling and breeding success. This species is catalogued as Vulnerable in Spain and has an unfavorable conservation status in Europe. Methods Our study includes 18 sampling areas from five wetlands, covering a total of 663 nests, 1,618 eggs, 777 nestlings and 225 fledglings. The colonies were visited at least twice per week in breeding period. The number of eggs and/or nestlings present in each nest were annotated each time the colonies were visited with the aim to compare the evolution of these parameters with time. Hatching success was calculated as the proportion of egg that hatched successfully. Fledgling success and breeding success were calculated as the proportion of chicks that fledged successfully and the proportion of eggs that produced fledglings. We used the Kruskal–Wallis test to analyze the differences in the dependent variables hatching, fledgling and breeding success among the wetlands and the sampling areas. We explored the relationship between the different reproductive success with the average fluctuation rate and the anchoring depth of nests, using statistics of the linear regression. Results It was observed that the reproductive success varied significantly in the interaction among the different categories of water level fluctuation and the different areas (using the Kruskal–Wallis test. Our records showed that pronounced variations in water level destroyed several nests, which affected the Whiskered Tern reproductive success. Considering all events that occurred in 18 areas, the mean (±SD of nests, eggs and nestlings that were lost after water level fluctuations were of 25.60 ± 21.79%, 32.06 ± 27.58% and 31.91 ± 21.28% respectively, also including the effects of rain and predation. Discussion Unfavorable

  1. Characterization of a SiC MIS Schottky diode as RBS particle detector

    Kaufmann, I. R.; Pick, A. C.; Pereira, M. B.; Boudinov, H. I.

    2018-02-01

    A 4H-SiC Schottky diode was investigated as a particle detector for Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS) experiment. The device was fabricated on a commercial 4H-SiC epitaxial n-type layer grown onto a 4H-SiC n+ type substrate wafer doped with nitrogen. Hafnium oxide with thickness of 1 nm was deposited by Atomic Layer Deposition and 10 nm of Ni were deposited by sputtering to form the Ni/HfO2/4H-SiC MIS Schottky structure. Current-Voltage curves with variable temperature were measured to extract the real Schottky Barrier Height (0.32 V) and ideality factor values (1.15). Reverse current and Capacitance-Voltage measurements were performed on the 4H-SiC detector and compared to a commercial Si barrier detector acquired from ORTEC. RBS data for four alpha energies (1, 1.5, 2 and 2.5 MeV) were collected from an Au/Si sample using the fabricated SiC and the commercial Si detectors simultaneously. The energy resolution for the fabricated detector was estimated to be between 75 and 80 keV.

  2. Spherical nanostructured Si/C composite prepared by spray drying technique for lithium ion batteries anode

    Chen Libao; Xie Xiaohua; Wang Baofeng; Wang Ke; Xie Jingying

    2006-01-01

    Spherical nanostructured Si/C composite was prepared by spray drying technique, followed by heat treatment, in which nanosized silicon and fine graphite particles were homogeneously embedded in carbon matrix pyrolyzed by phenol formaldehyde resin. Cyclic voltammetry tests showed two pairs of redox peaks corresponding to lithiation and delithiation of Si/C composite. The Si/C composite exhibited a reversible capacity of 635 mAh g -1 and good cycle performance used in lithium ion batteries. To improve cycle performance of this Si/C composite further, the carbon-coated Si/C composite was synthesized by the second spray drying and heat treatment processing. The cycle performance of carbon-coated Si/C composite was improved significantly, which was attributed to the formation of stable SEI passivation layers on the outer surface of carbon shell which protected the bared silicon from exposing to electrolyte directly

  3. Development of the fabrication process of SiC composite by polycarbosilane

    Park, Ji Yeon; Kim, Weon Ju; Kim, Jung Il; Ryu, Woo Seog

    2004-11-01

    This technical report reviewed the fabrication process of fiber reinforced ceramic composites, characteristics of the PIP process, and applications of SiC f /SiC composite to develop a silicon carbide composite by PIP method. Additionally, characteristics and thermal behaviors of a PCS+SiC powder slurry and infiltration behaviors of slurry into the SiC fabric was evaluated. The stacking behaviors of SiC fabrics infiltrated a PCS+SiC powder slurry was also investigated. Using this stacked preforms, SiC f /SiC composites were fabricated by the electron beam curing and pyrolysis process and the thermal oxidation curing and pyrolysis process, respectively. And the characteristics of both composites were compared

  4. Spherical nanostructured Si/C composite prepared by spray drying technique for lithium ion batteries anode

    Chen Libao [Energy Science and Technology Laboratory, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Xie Xiaohua [Energy Science and Technology Laboratory, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang Baofeng [Department of Chemical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Wang Ke [Energy Science and Technology Laboratory, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Xie Jingying [Energy Science and Technology Laboratory, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China) and Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)]. E-mail: jyxie@mail.sim.ac.cn

    2006-07-15

    Spherical nanostructured Si/C composite was prepared by spray drying technique, followed by heat treatment, in which nanosized silicon and fine graphite particles were homogeneously embedded in carbon matrix pyrolyzed by phenol formaldehyde resin. Cyclic voltammetry tests showed two pairs of redox peaks corresponding to lithiation and delithiation of Si/C composite. The Si/C composite exhibited a reversible capacity of 635 mAh g{sup -1} and good cycle performance used in lithium ion batteries. To improve cycle performance of this Si/C composite further, the carbon-coated Si/C composite was synthesized by the second spray drying and heat treatment processing. The cycle performance of carbon-coated Si/C composite was improved significantly, which was attributed to the formation of stable SEI passivation layers on the outer surface of carbon shell which protected the bared silicon from exposing to electrolyte directly.

  5. Structural and thermal characterization of polyvinylalcohol grafted SiC nanocrystals

    Saini, Isha; Sharma, Annu; Dhiman, Rajnish

    2017-01-01

    introduced in the characteristic TO and LO mode of vibration of SiC nanocrystals after grafting procedure.XRD analysis confirmed that the grafting procedure did not alter the crystalline geometry of SiC nanocrystals. TEM and SEM images further support the FTIR and Raman spectroscopic results and confirm...... of semiconducting SiC nanocrystals using a novel method. FTIR spectroscopy reveals the introduction of new peaks corresponding to various functional groups of PVA alongwith the presence of characteristic Si-C vibrational peak in the spectra of grafted SiC nanocrystals. Raman spectra depict the presence of changes...... the presence of PVA layer around SiC nanocrystals. Thermal degradation behavior of PVA-g-SiC nanocrystals has been studied using TGA analysis....

  6. SiC Optically Modulated Field-Effect Transistor

    Tabib-Azar, Massood

    2009-01-01

    An optically modulated field-effect transistor (OFET) based on a silicon carbide junction field-effect transistor (JFET) is under study as, potentially, a prototype of devices that could be useful for detecting ultraviolet light. The SiC OFET is an experimental device that is one of several devices, including commercial and experimental photodiodes, that were initially evaluated as detectors of ultraviolet light from combustion and that could be incorporated into SiC integrated circuits to be designed to function as combustion sensors. The ultraviolet-detection sensitivity of the photodiodes was found to be less than desired, such that it would be necessary to process their outputs using high-gain amplification circuitry. On the other hand, in principle, the function of the OFET could be characterized as a combination of detection and amplification. In effect, its sensitivity could be considerably greater than that of a photodiode, such that the need for amplification external to the photodetector could be reduced or eliminated. The experimental SiC OFET was made by processes similar to JFET-fabrication processes developed at Glenn Research Center. The gate of the OFET is very long, wide, and thin, relative to the gates of typical prior SiC JFETs. Unlike in prior SiC FETs, the gate is almost completely transparent to near-ultraviolet and visible light. More specifically: The OFET includes a p+ gate layer less than 1/4 m thick, through which photons can be transported efficiently to the p+/p body interface. The gate is relatively long and wide (about 0.5 by 0.5 mm), such that holes generated at the body interface form a depletion layer that modulates the conductivity of the channel between the drain and the source. The exact physical mechanism of modulation of conductivity is a subject of continuing research. It is known that injection of minority charge carriers (in this case, holes) at the interface exerts a strong effect on the channel, resulting in amplification

  7. Tribo-performance of epoxy hybrid composites reinforced with carbon fibers and potassium titanate whiskers

    Suresha, B.; Harshavardhan, B.; Ravishankar, R.

    2018-04-01

    The present investigation deals with the fabrication and characterization of epoxy reinforced with bidirectional carbon fiber mat (CF/Ep) and filled with 2.5, 5 and 7.5 wt% potassium titanate whiskers (PTw) composites. The effect of PTw loading on hardness, tensile properties and dry sliding wear behaviour of CF/Ep composite were carefully investigated in expectation of providing valuable information for the application of hybrid CF/Ep composites. Results indicated that the incorporation of PTw actually improved the hardness, tensile strength and tensile modulus of CF/Ep composites. Meanwhile, the specific wear rate of CF/Ep filled by 5 wt % PTw reached to 6.3× 10-14 m3/N-m, which is 41% lower than that of CF/Ep composite at the same dry sliding condition. It also seen that the fiber and filler worked synergistically to enhance the wear resistance. Further, for all composites the friction coefficient increases with increase in load and sliding velocity. However, PTw reinforced CF/Ep exhibited considerably higher coefficient of friction compared to unfilled ones, while PTw filler loading of 5 wt% was effective in reducing the specific wear rate of CF/Ep composite. The carbon fiber carried the applied load between the contact surfaces and protected the epoxy from severe abrasion of the counterface. At the same time, the exposed PTw out of the epoxy matrix around the fiber inhibited the direct scraping between the fiber and counterface so that the fibers could be less directly impacted during the subsequent wear process and they were protected from severe damage.

  8. Rapid disinhibition by adjustment of PV intrinsic excitability during whisker map plasticity in mouse S1.

    Gainey, Melanie A; Aman, Joseph W; Feldman, Daniel E

    2018-04-20

    Rapid plasticity of layer (L) 2/3 inhibitory circuits is an early step in sensory cortical map plasticity, but its cellular basis is unclear. We show that, in mice of either sex, 1 day whisker deprivation drives rapid loss of L4-evoked feedforward inhibition and more modest loss of feedforward excitation in L2/3 pyramidal (PYR) cells, increasing E-I conductance ratio. Rapid disinhibition was due to reduced L4-evoked spiking by L2/3 parvalbumin (PV) interneurons, caused by reduced PV intrinsic excitability. This included elevated PV spike threshold, associated with an increase in low-threshold, voltage activated delayed rectifier (presumed Kv1) and A-type potassium currents. Excitatory synaptic input and unitary inhibitory output of PV cells were unaffected. Functionally, the loss of feedforward inhibition and excitation were precisely coordinated in L2/3 PYR cells, so that peak feedforward synaptic depolarization remained stable. Thus, rapid plasticity of PV intrinsic excitability offsets early weakening of excitatory circuits to homeostatically stabilize synaptic potentials in PYR cells of sensory cortex. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Inhibitory circuits in cerebral cortex are highly plastic, but the cellular mechanisms and functional importance of this plasticity are incompletely understood. We show that brief (1-day) sensory deprivation rapidly weakens parvalbumin (PV) inhibitory circuits by reducing the intrinsic excitability of PV neurons. This involved a rapid increase in voltage-gated potassium conductances that control near-threshold spiking excitability. Functionally, the loss of PV-mediated feedforward inhibition in L2/3 pyramidal cells was precisely balanced with the separate loss of feedforward excitation, resulting in a net homeostatic stabilization of synaptic potentials. Thus, rapid plasticity of PV intrinsic excitability implements network-level homeostasis to stabilize synaptic potentials in sensory cortex. Copyright © 2018 the authors.

  9. Synthesis, characterization, antimicrobial activity and mechanism of a novel hydroxyapatite whisker/nano zinc oxide biomaterial

    Yu, Jian; Zhang, Wenyun; Li, Yang; Wang, Gang; Yang, Lidou; Jin, Jianfeng; Chen, Qinghua; Huang, Minghua

    2015-01-01

    Postoperative infections remain a risk factor that leads to failures in oral and maxillofacial artificial bone transplantation. This study aimed to synthesize and evaluate a novel hydroxyapatite whisker (HAPw) / nano zinc oxide (n-ZnO) antimicrobial bone restorative biomaterial. A scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) were employed to characterize and analyze the material. Antibacterial capabilities against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans were determined by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), and kinetic growth inhibition assays were performed under darkness and simulated solar irradiation. The mode of antibiotic action was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The MIC and MBC were 0.078–1.250 mg ml −1 and 0.156–2.500 mg ml −1 , respectively. The inhibitory function on the growth of the microorganisms was achieved even under darkness, with gram-positive bacteria found to be more sensitive than gram-negative, and enhanced antimicrobial activity was exhibited under simulated solar excitation compared to darkness. TEM and CLSM images revealed a certain level of bacterial cell membrane destruction after treatment with 1 mg ml −1 of the material for 12 h, causing the leakage of intracellular contents and bacteria death. These results suggest favorable antibiotic properties and a probable mechanism of the biomaterial for the first time, and further studies are needed to determine its potential application as a postoperative anti-inflammation method in bone transplantation. (paper)

  10. Synthesis, characterization, antimicrobial activity and mechanism of a novel hydroxyapatite whisker/nano zinc oxide biomaterial.

    Yu, Jian; Zhang, Wenyun; Li, Yang; Wang, Gang; Yang, Lidou; Jin, Jianfeng; Chen, Qinghua; Huang, Minghua

    2014-12-23

    Postoperative infections remain a risk factor that leads to failures in oral and maxillofacial artificial bone transplantation. This study aimed to synthesize and evaluate a novel hydroxyapatite whisker (HAPw) / nano zinc oxide (n-ZnO) antimicrobial bone restorative biomaterial. A scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) were employed to characterize and analyze the material. Antibacterial capabilities against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans were determined by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), and kinetic growth inhibition assays were performed under darkness and simulated solar irradiation. The mode of antibiotic action was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The MIC and MBC were 0.078-1.250 mg ml(-1) and 0.156-2.500 mg ml(-1), respectively. The inhibitory function on the growth of the microorganisms was achieved even under darkness, with gram-positive bacteria found to be more sensitive than gram-negative, and enhanced antimicrobial activity was exhibited under simulated solar excitation compared to darkness. TEM and CLSM images revealed a certain level of bacterial cell membrane destruction after treatment with 1 mg ml(-1) of the material for 12 h, causing the leakage of intracellular contents and bacteria death. These results suggest favorable antibiotic properties and a probable mechanism of the biomaterial for the first time, and further studies are needed to determine its potential application as a postoperative anti-inflammation method in bone transplantation.

  11. In vitro corrosion and cytocompatibility properties of nano-whisker hydroxyapatite coating on magnesium alloy for bone tissue engineering applications.

    Yang, Huawei; Yan, Xueyu; Ling, Min; Xiong, Zuquan; Ou, Caiwen; Lu, Wei

    2015-03-17

    We report here the successful fabrication of nano-whisker hydroxyapatite (nHA) coatings on Mg alloy by using a simple one-step hydrothermal process in aqueous solution. The nHA coating shows uniform structure and high crystallinity. Results indicate that nHA coating is promising for improving the in vitro corrosion and cytocompatibility properties of Mg-based implants and devices for bone tissue engineering. In addition, the simple hydrothermal deposition method used in the current study is also applicable to substrates with complex shapes or surface geometries.

  12. In Vitro Corrosion and Cytocompatibility Properties of Nano-Whisker Hydroxyapatite Coating on Magnesium Alloy for Bone Tissue Engineering Applications

    Huawei Yang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We report here the successful fabrication of nano-whisker hydroxyapatite (nHA coatings on Mg alloy by using a simple one-step hydrothermal process in aqueous solution. The nHA coating shows uniform structure and high crystallinity. Results indicate that nHA coating is promising for improving the in vitro corrosion and cytocompatibility properties of Mg-based implants and devices for bone tissue engineering. In addition, the simple hydrothermal deposition method used in the current study is also applicable to substrates with complex shapes or surface geometries.

  13. Whiskers de fibra de sisal obtidos sob diferentes condições de hidrólise ácida: efeito do tempo e da temperatura de extração Whiskers from sisal fibers obtained under different acid hydrolysis conditions: effect of time and temperature of extraction

    Kelcilene B. R. Teodoro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, os efeitos de diferentes condições de tempo e temperatura usados para a preparação de whiskers de sisal foram investigados com o objetivo de se determinar a influência destes parâmetros experimentais na morfologia, cristalinidade e estabilidade térmica dos materiais preparados. A obtenção dos whiskers deu-se após o pré-branqueamento da fibra de sisal com solução alcalina de peróxido de hidrogênio. A fibra branqueada foi submetida ao processo de hidrólise com solução de ácido sulfúrico 60% (m/m sob três diferentes condições de temperatura e tempos de extração: 45 °C e 60 minutos (WS45_60; 45 °C e 75 minutos (WS45_75 e 60 °C e 30 minutos (WS60_30. Os whiskers foram caracterizados quanto à morfologia por microscopia eletrônica de transmissão (MET, quanto à cristalinidade (DRX, carga superficial (potencial zeta , teor de enxofre (análise elementar e quanto à estabilidade térmica por termogravimetria (TGA. Os resultados mostraram que os whiskers de sisal apresentaram comprimento e diâmetro médios e 210 nm e 5 nm respectivamente. Devido à alta aglomeração dos whiskers, diferenças relativas às características dimensionais não puderam ser determinadas. Os resultados obtidos revelaram uma forte dependência da cristalinidade final dos whiskers com a temperatura e tempo de extração. O uso de temperatura mais alta (60 °C associado a um menor tempo de extração (30 minutos resulta em whiskers com boa estabilidade térmica (235 °C, maior cristalinidade e sem o comprometimento da estrutura cristalina da celulose.In this work, the effects of different conditions of time and temperature, used for the preparation of whiskers from sisal, were investigated to determine the influence of experimental parameters on morphology, crystallinity and thermal stability of materials prepared. The whiskers were obtained after the bleaching of sisal raw fiber with a solution of hydrogen peroxide alkaline. The

  14. Structural and electronic properties of epitaxial graphene on SiC(0 0 0 1): a review of growth, characterization, transfer doping and hydrogen intercalation

    Riedl, C; Coletti, C; Starke, U

    2010-01-01

    Graphene, a monoatomic layer of graphite, hosts a two-dimensional electron gas system with large electron mobilities which makes it a prospective candidate for future carbon nanodevices. Grown epitaxially on silicon carbide (SiC) wafers, large area graphene samples appear feasible and integration in existing device technology can be envisioned. This paper reviews the controlled growth of epitaxial graphene layers on SiC(0 0 0 1) and the manipulation of their electronic structure. We show that epitaxial graphene on SiC grows on top of a carbon interface layer that-although it has a graphite-like atomic structure-does not display the linear π-bands typical for graphene due to a strong covalent bonding to the substrate. Only the second carbon layer on top of this interface acts like monolayer graphene. With a further carbon layer, a graphene bilayer system develops. During the growth of epitaxial graphene on SiC(0 0 0 1) the number of graphene layers can be precisely controlled by monitoring the π-band structure. Experimental fingerprints for in situ growth control could be established. However, due to the influence of the interface layer, epitaxial graphene on SiC(0 0 0 1) is intrinsically n-doped and the layers have a long-range corrugation in their density of states. As a result, the Dirac point energy where the π-bands cross is shifted away from the Fermi energy, so that the ambipolar properties of graphene cannot be exploited. We demonstrate methods to compensate and eliminate this structural and electronic influence of the interface. We show that the band structure of epitaxial graphene on SiC(0 0 0 1) can be precisely tailored by functionalizing the graphene surface with tetrafluoro-tetracyanoquinodimethane (F4-TCNQ) molecules. Charge neutrality can be achieved for mono- and bilayer graphene. On epitaxial bilayer graphene, where a band gap opens due to the asymmetric electric field across the layers imposed by the interface, the magnitude of this band gap

  15. A Short-Circuit Safe Operation Area Identification Criterion for SiC MOSFET Power Modules

    Reigosa, Paula Diaz; Iannuzzo, Francesco; Luo, Haoze

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a new method for the investigation of the short-circuit safe operation area (SCSOA) of state-of-the-art SiC MOSFET power modules rated at 1.2 kV based on the variations in SiC MOSFET electrical parameters (e.g., short-circuit current and gate–source voltage). According...... to the experimental results, two different failure mechanisms have been identified, both reducing the short-circuit capability of SiC power modules with respect to discrete SiC devices. Based on such failure mechanisms, two short-circuit safety criteria have been formulated: 1) the short-circuit...

  16. New Possibilities of Power Electronic Structures Using SiC Technology

    Robert Sul

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is dedicated to the recent unprecedented boom of SiC electronic technology. The contribution deals with brief survey of those properties. In particular, the differences (both good and bad between SiC electronics technology and well-known silicon VLSI technology are highlighted. Projected performance benefits of SiC electronics are given for several large-scale applications on the end of the contribution. The basic properties of SiC material have been discussed already on the beginning of 80’s, also at our university.

  17. The spin relaxation of nitrogen donors in 6H SiC crystals as studied by the electron spin echo method

    Savchenko, D., E-mail: dariyasavchenko@gmail.com [Institute of Physics of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague 182 21 (Czech Republic); National Technical University of Ukraine “Kyiv Polytechnic Institute,” Kyiv 03056 (Ukraine); Shanina, B.; Kalabukhova, E. [V.E. Lashkaryov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, NASU, Kyiv 03028 (Ukraine); Pöppl, A. [Institute of Experimental Physics II, Leipzig University, Leipzig D-04103 (Germany); Lančok, J. [Institute of Physics of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague 182 21 (Czech Republic); Mokhov, E. [A.F. Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, RAS, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Saint-Petersburg National Research University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics, St. Petersburg 19710 (Russian Federation)

    2016-04-07

    We present the detailed study of the spin kinetics of the nitrogen (N) donor electrons in 6H SiC wafers grown by the Lely method and by the sublimation “sandwich method” (SSM) with a donor concentration of about 10{sup 17 }cm{sup −3} at T = 10–40 K. The donor electrons of the N donors substituting quasi-cubic “k1” and “k2” sites (N{sub k1,k2}) in both types of the samples revealed the similar temperature dependence of the spin-lattice relaxation rate (T{sub 1}{sup −1}), which was described by the direct one-phonon and two-phonon processes induced by the acoustic phonons proportional to T and to T{sup 9}, respectively. The character of the temperature dependence of the T{sub 1}{sup −1} for the donor electrons of N substituting hexagonal (“h”) site (N{sub h}) in both types of 6H SiC samples indicates that the donor electrons relax through the fast-relaxing centers by means of the cross-relaxation process. The observed enhancement of the phase memory relaxation rate (T{sub m}{sup −1}) with the temperature increase for the N{sub h} donors in both types of the samples, as well as for the N{sub k1,k2} donors in Lely grown 6H SiC, was explained by the growth of the free electron concentration with the temperature increase and their exchange scattering at the N donor centers. The observed significant shortening of the phase memory relaxation time T{sub m} for the N{sub k1,k2} donors in the SSM grown sample with the temperature lowering is caused by hopping motion of the electrons between the occupied and unoccupied states of the N donors at N{sub h} and N{sub k1,k2} sites. The impact of the N donor pairs, triads, distant donor pairs formed in n-type 6H SiC wafers on the spin relaxation times was discussed.

  18. Small Incision Cataract Surgery (SICS with Clear Corneal Incision and SICS with Scleral Incision – A Comparative Study

    Md Shafiqul Alam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Age related cataract is the leading cause of blindness and visual impairment throughout the world. With the advent of microsurgical facilities simple cataract extraction surgery has been replaced by small incision cataract surgery (SICS with posterior chamber intra ocular lens implant, which can be done either with clear corneal incision or scleral incision. Objective: To compare the post operative visual outcome in these two procedures of cataract surgery. Materials and method: This comparative study was carried out in the department of Ophthalmology, Delta Medical College & Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh, during the period of January 2010 to December 2012. Total 60 subjects indicated for age related cataract surgery irrespective of sex with the age range of 40-80 years with predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria were enrolled in the study. Subjects were randomly and equally distributed in 2 groups; Group A for SICS with clear corneal incision and group B for SICS with scleral incision. Post operative visual out come was evaluated by determining visual acuity and astigmatism in different occasions and was compared between groups. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS for windows version12. Results: The highest age incidence (43.3% was found between 61 to 70 years of age group. Among study subjects 40 were male and 20 were female. Preoperative visual acuity and astigmatism were evenly distributed between groups. Regarding postoperative unaided visual outcome, 6/12 or better visual acuity was found in 19.98% cases in group A and 39.6% cases in group B at 1st week. At 6th week 6/6 vision was found in 36.3% in Group A and 56.1% in Group B and 46.2% in group A and 66% in group B without and with correction respectively. With refractive correction, 6/6 vision was attained in 60% subjects of group A and 86.67% of group B at 8th week. Post operative visual acuity was statistically significant in all occasions. Postoperative astigmatism of

  19. SiC Nanoparticles Toughened-SiC/MoSi2-SiC Multilayer Functionally Graded Oxidation Protective Coating for Carbon Materials at High Temperatures

    Abdollahi, Alireza; Ehsani, Naser; Valefi, Zia; Khalifesoltani, Ali

    2017-05-01

    A SiC nanoparticle toughened-SiC/MoSi2-SiC functionally graded oxidation protective coating on graphite was prepared by reactive melt infiltration (RMI) at 1773 and 1873 K under argon atmosphere. The phase composition and anti-oxidation behavior of the coatings were investigated. The results show that the coating was composed of MoSi2, α-SiC and β-SiC. By the variations of Gibbs free energy (calculated by HSC Chemistry 6.0 software), it could be suggested that the SiC coating formed at low temperatures by solution-reprecipitation mechanism and at high temperatures by gas-phase reactions and solution-reprecipitation mechanisms simultaneously. SiC nanoparticles could improve the oxidation resistance of SiC/MoSi2-SiC multiphase coating. Addition of SiC nanoparticles increases toughness of the coating and prevents spreading of the oxygen diffusion channels in the coating during the oxidation test. The mass loss and oxidation rate of the SiC nanoparticle toughened-SiC/MoSi2-SiC-coated sample after 10-h oxidation at 1773 K were only 1.76% and 0.32 × 10-2 g/cm3/h, respectively.

  20. Electrospun composite nanofiber membrane of poly(l-lactide) and surface grafted chitin whiskers: Fabrication, mechanical properties and cytocompatibility.

    Liu, Hua; Liu, Wenjun; Luo, Binghong; Wen, Wei; Liu, Mingxian; Wang, Xiaoying; Zhou, Changren

    2016-08-20

    To improve both the mechanical properties and cytocompatibility of poly(l-lactide) (PLLA), rod-like chitin whiskers (CHWs) were prepared, and subsequently surface modified with l-lactide to obtain grafted CHWs (g-CHWs). Then, CHWs and g-CHWs were further introduced into PLLA matrix to fabricate CHWs/PLLA and g-CHWs/PLLA nanofiber membranes by electrospinning technique. Morphologies and properties of the CHWs and g-CHWs were characterized. The surface-grafted PLLA chains played an important role in improving interfacial interaction between the whiskers and PLLA matrix. The g-CHWs dispersed more uniformly in matrix than CHWs, and the as-prepared g-CHWs/PLLA nanofiber membrane showed relative smooth and uniform fiber. As a result, the tensile strength and modulus of the g-CHWs/PLLA nanofiber membrane were obviously superior to those of the pure PLLA and CHWs/PLLA nanofiber membranes. Cells culture results indicated that g-CHWs/PLLA nanofiber membrane is more effectively in promoting MC3T3-E1 cells adhesion, spreading and proliferation than pure PLLA and CHWs/PLLA nanofiber membrane. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The functional upregulation of piriform cortex is associated with cross-modal plasticity in loss of whisker tactile inputs.

    Bing Ye

    Full Text Available Cross-modal plasticity is characterized as the hypersensitivity of remaining modalities after a sensory function is lost in rodents, which ensures their awareness to environmental changes. Cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying cross-modal sensory plasticity remain unclear. We aim to study the role of different types of neurons in cross-modal plasticity.In addition to behavioral tasks in mice, whole-cell recordings at the excitatory and inhibitory neurons, and their two-photon imaging, were conducted in piriform cortex. We produced a mouse model of cross-modal sensory plasticity that olfactory function was upregulated by trimming whiskers to deprive their sensory inputs. In the meantime of olfactory hypersensitivity, pyramidal neurons and excitatory synapses were functionally upregulated, as well as GABAergic cells and inhibitory synapses were downregulated in piriform cortex from the mice of cross-modal sensory plasticity, compared with controls. A crosswire connection between barrel cortex and piriform cortex was established in cross-modal plasticity.An upregulation of pyramidal neurons and a downregulation of GABAergic neurons strengthen the activities of neuronal networks in piriform cortex, which may be responsible for olfactory hypersensitivity after a loss of whisker tactile input. This finding provides the clues for developing therapeutic strategies to promote sensory recovery and substitution.

  2. Highly conductive Al-doped tetra-needle-like ZnO whiskers prepared by a solid state method

    Wan Cuifeng; Tan Hairen; Jin Shengming; Yang Huaming; Tang Motang; He Jing

    2008-01-01

    Tetra-needle-like zinc oxide whiskers (T-ZnO W ) were doped with Al 3+ by a solid state method. In this study, modification conditions were thoroughly investigated to obtain low resistivity T-ZnO W , without destroying the tetra-needle-like structure. The Al-doped T-ZnO W was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transition infrared (FT-IR) spectra and electrical resistance measurement. The SEM and XRD results indicated that the tetra-needle-like structure of ZnO whiskers could be well maintained after modification and the doped (0 0 2) face was preferred. FT-IR results showed that the decrease of resistivity of Al-doped T-ZnO W resulted from formation of [AlO 4 ] configuration in T-ZnO W bulk. Experiment results showed that the annealing temperature, doping concentration and type of Al sources affected the resistivity of T-ZnO W considerably. The optimum Al-doped concentration was 7.0 at.% and the resistivity of T-ZnO W could be considerably decreased from 10 8 to 10 2 Ω cm

  3. A Preliminary Evaluation of Lyophilized Gelatin Sponges, Enhanced with Platelet-Rich Plasma, Hydroxyapatite and Chitin Whiskers for Bone Regeneration

    Andrew J. Spence

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to perform a number of preliminary in vitro evaluations on an array of modified gelatin gel sponge scaffolds for use in a bone graft application. The gelatin gels were modified through the addition of a number of components which each possess unique properties conducive to the creation and regeneration of bone: a preparation rich in growth factors (PRGF, a bioactive, lyophilized form of platelet-rich plasma, hydroxyapatite, and chitin whiskers. Platelet-rich plasma therapy is an emerging practice that has proven effective in a number of clinical applications, including enhancing bone repair through improved deposition of new bony matrix and angiogenesis. As such, the inclusion of PRGF in our gelatin scaffolds was intended to significantly enhance scaffold bioactivity, while the addition of hydroxyapatite and chitin whiskers were anticipated to increase scaffold strength. Additionally, the gelatin sponges, which readily dissolve in aqueous solutions, were subjected to 1-Ethyl-3-[3-dimethylaminopropyl]carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC cross-linking, either during or post-gelation, to control their rate of degradation. Scaffolds were evaluated in vitro with respect to compressive strength, mass loss/degradation, protein release, and cellular interaction, with results demonstrating the potential of the gelatin gel sponge scaffold for use in the regeneration of bone.

  4. A Preliminary Evaluation of Lyophilized Gelatin Sponges, Enhanced with Platelet-Rich Plasma, Hydroxyapatite and Chitin Whiskers for Bone Regeneration

    Rodriguez, Isaac A.; Sell, Scott A.; McCool, Jennifer M.; Saxena, Gunjan; Spence, Andrew J.; Bowlin, Gary L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to perform a number of preliminary in vitro evaluations on an array of modified gelatin gel sponge scaffolds for use in a bone graft application. The gelatin gels were modified through the addition of a number of components which each possess unique properties conducive to the creation and regeneration of bone: a preparation rich in growth factors (PRGF, a bioactive, lyophilized form of platelet-rich plasma), hydroxyapatite, and chitin whiskers. Platelet-rich plasma therapy is an emerging practice that has proven effective in a number of clinical applications, including enhancing bone repair through improved deposition of new bony matrix and angiogenesis. As such, the inclusion of PRGF in our gelatin scaffolds was intended to significantly enhance scaffold bioactivity, while the addition of hydroxyapatite and chitin whiskers were anticipated to increase scaffold strength. Additionally, the gelatin sponges, which readily dissolve in aqueous solutions, were subjected to 1-Ethyl-3-[3-dimethylaminopropyl]carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) cross-linking, either during or post-gelation, to control their rate of degradation. Scaffolds were evaluated in vitro with respect to compressive strength, mass loss/degradation, protein release, and cellular interaction, with results demonstrating the potential of the gelatin gel sponge scaffold for use in the regeneration of bone. PMID:24709699

  5. [Effect of amount of silane coupling agent on flexural strength of dental composite resins reinforced with aluminium borate whisker].

    Zhu, Ming-yi; Zhang, Xiu-yin

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of amount of silane coupling agent on flexural strength of dental composite resins reinforced with aluminium borate whisker (ABW). ABW was surface-treated with 0%, 1%, 2%, 3% and 4% silan coupling agent (γ-MPS), and mixed with resin matrix to synthesize 5 groups of composite resins. After heat-cured at 120 degrees centigrade for 1 h, specimens were tested in three-point flexure to measure strength according to ISO-4049. One specimen was selected randomly from each group and observed under scanning electron microscope (SEM). The data was analyzed with SAS 9.2 software package. The flexural strength (117.93±11.9 Mpa) of the group treated with 2% silane coupling agent was the highest, and significantly different from that of the other 4 groups (α=0.01). The amount of silane coupling agent has impact on the flexural strength of dental composite resins reinforced with whiskers; The flexual strength will be reduced whenever the amount is higher or lower than the threshold. Supported by Research Fund of Science and Technology Committee of Shanghai Municipality (08DZ2271100).

  6. Stability analysis of SiO2/SiC multilayer coatings

    Fu Zhiqiang; Jean-Charles, R.

    2006-01-01

    The stability behaviours of SiC coatings and SiO 2 /SiC coatings in helium with little impurities are studied by HSC Chemistry 4.1, the software for analysis of Chemical reaction and equilibrium in multi-component complex system. It is found that in helium with a low partial pressure of oxidative impurities under different total pressure, the key influence factor controlling T cp of SiC depends is the partial pressure of oxidative impurities; T cp of SiC increases with the partial pressure of oxidative impurities. In helium with a low partial pressure of different impurities, the key influence factor of T cs of SiO 2 are both the partial pressure of impurities and the amount of impurities for l mol SiO 2 ; T cs of SiO 2 increases with the partial pressure of oxidative impurities at the same amount of the impurities for 1 mol SiO 2 while it decreases with the amount of the impurities for 1 mm SiO 2 at the same partial pressure of the impurities. The influence of other impurities on T cp of SiC in He-O 2 is studied and it is found that CO 2 , H 2 O and N-2 increase T cp of SiC in He-O 2 while H 2 , CO and CH 4 decrease T cp of SiC He-O 2 . When there exist both oxidative impurities and reductive impurities, their effect on T cs of SiO 2 can be suppressed by the other. In HTR-10 operation atmosphere, SiO 2 /SiC coatings can keep stable status at higher temperature than SiC coatings, so SiO 2 /SiC coatings is more suitable to improve the oxidation resistance of graphite in HTR-10 operation atmosphere compared with SiC coatings. (authors)

  7. Neutron displacement damage cross sections for SiC

    Huang Hanchen; Ghoniem, N.

    1993-01-01

    Calculations of neutron displacement damage cross sections for SiC are presented. We use Biersack and Haggmark's empirical formula in constructing the electronic stopping power, which combines Lindhard's model at low PKA energies and Bethe-Bloch's model at high PKA energies. The electronic stopping power for polyatomic materials is computed on the basis of Bragg's Additivity Rule. A continuous form of the inverse power law potential is used for nuclear scattering. Coupled integro-differential equations for the number of displaced atoms j, caused by PKA i, are then derived. The procedure outlined above gives partial displacement cross sections, displacement cross sections for each specie of the lattice, and for each PKA type. The corresponding damage rates for several fusion and fission neutron spectra are calculated. The stoichiometry of the irradiated material is investigated by finding the ratio of displacements among various atomic species. The role of each specie in displacing atoms is also investigated by calculating the fraction of displacements caused by each PKA type. The study shows that neutron displacement damage rates of SiC in typical magnetic fusion reactor first walls will be ∝10-15 dpa MW -1 m 2 ; in typical lead-protected inertial confinement fusion reactor first walls they will be ∝15-20 dpa MW -1 m 2 . For fission spectra, we find that the neutron displacement damage rate of SiC is ∝74 dpa per 10 27 n/m 2 in FFTF, ∝39 dpa per 10 27 n/m 2 in HFIR, and 25 dpa per 10 27 n/m 2 in NRU. Approximately 80% of displacement atoms are shown to be of the carbon-type. (orig.)

  8. Feasibility study of a SiC sandwich neutron spectrometer

    Wu, Jian, E-mail: caepwujian@163.com [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900, Sichuan Province (China); Lei, Jiarong, E-mail: jiarong_lei@163.com [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900, Sichuan Province (China); Jiang, Yong; Chen, Yu; Rong, Ru; Zou, Dehui; Fan, Xiaoqiang [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900, Sichuan Province (China); Chen, Gang; Li, Li; Bai, Song [Nanjing Electronic Devices Institute, Nanjing 210016 (China)

    2013-04-21

    Semiconductor sandwich neutron spectrometers are suitable for in-pile measurements of fast reactor spectra thanks to their compact and relatively simple design. We have assembled and tested a sandwich neutron spectrometer based on 4H-silicon carbide (4H-SiC) Schottky diodes. The SiC diodes detect neutrons via neutron-induced charged particles (tritons and alpha particles) produced by {sup 6}Li(n,α){sup 3}H reaction. {sup 6}LiF neutron converter layers are deposited on the front surface of Schottky diodes by magnetron sputtering. The responses of SiC diodes to charged particles were investigated with an {sup 241}Am alpha source. A sandwich neutron spectrometer was assembled with two SiC Schottky diodes selected based on the charged-particle-response experimental results. The low-energy neutron response of the sandwich spectrometer was measured in the neutron field of the Chinese Fast Burst Reactor-II (CFBR-II). Spectra of alpha particles and tritons from {sup 6}Li(n,α){sup 3}H reaction were obtained with two well-resolved peaks. The energy resolution of the sum spectrum was 8.8%. The primary experimental results confirmed the 4H-SiC sandwich neutron spectrometer's feasibility. -- Highlights: ► Sandwich neutron spectrometer employing 4H-SiC as a detecting material has been developed for the first time. ► {sup 6}LiF neutron converter has been deposited on the surface of 4H-SiC Schottky diode. ► Preliminary testing results obtained with the 4H-SiC sandwich neutron spectrometer are presented.

  9. Crystal growth and characterization of fluorescent SiC

    Wellmann, P.; Kaiser, M.; Hupfer, T.

    -SiC co-doped with nitrogen and boron has been achieved [1][2]. The source is the rate determining step, and is expected to be determining the fluorescent properties by introducing dopants to the layer from the source. The optimization process of the polycrystalline, co-doped SiC:B,N source material...... and its impact on the FSPG epitaxial process, in particular the influence on the brightness of the is presented. In particular, the doping properties of the poly-SiC source material influence on the brightness of the fluorescent 6H-SiC. In addition we have investigated how the grain orientation...

  10. SiC MOSFETs based split output half bridge inverter

    Li, Helong; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Beczkowski, Szymon

    2014-01-01

    output. The double pulse test shows the devices' current during commutation process and the reduced switching losses of SiC MOSFETs compared to that of the traditional half bridge. The efficiency comparison is presented with experimental results of half bridge power inverter with split output...... and traditional half bridge inverter, from switching frequency 10 kHz to 100 kHz. The experimental results comparison shows that the half bridge with split output has an efficiency improvement of more than 0.5% at 100 kHz switching frequency....

  11. SiC epitaxy growth using chloride-based CVD

    Henry, Anne; Leone, Stefano; Beyer, Franziska C.; Pedersen, Henrik; Kordina, Olof; Andersson, Sven; Janzén, Erik

    2012-01-01

    The growth of thick epitaxial SiC layers needed for high-voltage, high-power devices is investigated with the chloride-based chemical vapor deposition. High growth rates exceeding 100 μm/h can be obtained, however to obtain device quality epilayers adjustments of the process parameters should be carried out appropriately for the chemistry used. Two different chemistry approaches are compared: addition of hydrogen chloride to the standard precursors or using methyltrichlorosilane, a molecule that contains silicon, carbon and chlorine. Optical and electrical techniques are used to characterize the layers.

  12. Spontaneous growth of whiskers from an interlayer of Mo sub 2 C beneath a diamond particle deposited in a combustion-flame

    Okada, Katsuyuki; Komatsu, Shojiro; Ishigaki, Takamasa; Matsumoto, Seiichiro; Moriyoshi, Yusuke (National Inst. for Research in Inorganic Materials, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan))

    1992-02-01

    When diamond particles deposited on a molybdenum substrate in a C{sub 2}H{sub -}O{sub 2} combustion-flame were kept for one year in the ambient atmosphere at room temperature, spontaneous whisker growth from an interlayer of Mo{sub 2}C beneath the diamond particles took place. The whiskers were clarified by electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in a polycrystal composed of MoO{sub 2}, MoOC, and Mo{sub 2}C. The growth mechanism of them is discussed from two different points of view as follows: One is that the oxidation of an interlayer of Mo{sub 2}C beneath a diamond particle effectively reduces the surface free energy between the interlayer and diamond particle; consequently, the whisker can grow by using a screw dislocation. The other is that the internal stress existing between a diamond particle and an Mo{sub 2}C interlayer provides a very reactive zone where the growth of whisker takes place through the oxidation of Mo{sub 2}C. (orig.).

  13. Influence of deposition temperature on the structural and morphological properties of Be{sub 3}N{sub 2} thin films grown by reactive laser ablation

    Chale-Lara, F., E-mail: fabio_chale@yahoo.com.mx [Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada, Apartado Postal 2681, Ensenada, Baja California, C.P. 22860 (Mexico); Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 14, Ensenada CP 22860, Baja California (Mexico); Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada-IPN, Unidad Altamira, Km. 14.5 Carretera Tampico-Puerto Industrial, Altamira, Tamaulipas (Mexico); Farias, M.H.; De la Cruz, W. [Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 14, Ensenada CP 22860, Baja California (Mexico); Zapata-Torres, M. [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada-IPN, Legaria 694, Col. Irrigacion, Del. Miguel Hidalgo, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2010-10-01

    Be{sub 3}N{sub 2} thin films have been grown on Si(1 1 1) substrates using the pulsed laser deposition method at different substrate temperatures: room temperature (RT), 200 deg. C, 400 deg. C, 600 deg. C and 700 deg. C. Additionally, two samples were deposited at RT and were annealed after deposition in situ at 600 deg. C and 700 deg. C. In order to obtain the stoichiometry of the samples, they have been characterized in situ by X-ray photoelectron (XPS) and reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy (REELS). The influence of the substrate temperature on the morphological and structural properties of the films was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results show that all prepared films presented the Be{sub 3}N{sub 2} stoichiometry. Formation of whiskers with diameters of 100-200 nm appears at the surface of the films prepared with a substrate temperature of 600 deg. C or 700 deg. C. However, the samples grown at RT and annealed at 600 deg. C or 700 deg. C do not show whiskers on the surface. The average root mean square (RMS) roughness and the average grain size of the samples grown with respect the substrate temperature is presented. The films grown with a substrate temperature between the room temperature to 400 deg. C, and the sample annealed in situ at 600 deg. C were amorphous; while the {alpha}Be{sub 3}N{sub 2} phase was presented on the samples with a substrate temperature of 600 deg. C, 700 deg. C and that deposited with the substrate at RT and annealed in situ at 700 deg. C.

  14. Influence of deposition temperature on the structural and morphological properties of Be3N2 thin films grown by reactive laser ablation

    Chale-Lara, F.; Farias, M.H.; De la Cruz, W.; Zapata-Torres, M.

    2010-01-01

    Be 3 N 2 thin films have been grown on Si(1 1 1) substrates using the pulsed laser deposition method at different substrate temperatures: room temperature (RT), 200 deg. C, 400 deg. C, 600 deg. C and 700 deg. C. Additionally, two samples were deposited at RT and were annealed after deposition in situ at 600 deg. C and 700 deg. C. In order to obtain the stoichiometry of the samples, they have been characterized in situ by X-ray photoelectron (XPS) and reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy (REELS). The influence of the substrate temperature on the morphological and structural properties of the films was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results show that all prepared films presented the Be 3 N 2 stoichiometry. Formation of whiskers with diameters of 100-200 nm appears at the surface of the films prepared with a substrate temperature of 600 deg. C or 700 deg. C. However, the samples grown at RT and annealed at 600 deg. C or 700 deg. C do not show whiskers on the surface. The average root mean square (RMS) roughness and the average grain size of the samples grown with respect the substrate temperature is presented. The films grown with a substrate temperature between the room temperature to 400 deg. C, and the sample annealed in situ at 600 deg. C were amorphous; while the αBe 3 N 2 phase was presented on the samples with a substrate temperature of 600 deg. C, 700 deg. C and that deposited with the substrate at RT and annealed in situ at 700 deg. C.

  15. Fabrication of SiC nanopillars by inductively coupled SF6/O2 plasma etching

    Choi, J H; Bano, E; Latu-Romain, L; Dhalluin, F; Chevolleau, T; Baron, T

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a top-down fabrication technique for nanometre scale silicon carbide (SiC) pillars using inductively coupled plasma etching. A set of experiments in SF 6 -based plasma was carried out in order to realize high aspect ratio SiC nanopillars. The etched SiC nanopillars using a small circular mask pattern (115 nm diameter) show high aspect ratio (7.4) with a height of 2.2 µm at an optimum bias voltage (300 V) and pressure (6 mTorr). Under the optimal etching conditions using a large circular mask pattern with 370 nm diameter, the obtained SiC nanopillars exhibit high anisotropy features (6.4) with a large etch depth (>7 µm). The etch characteristic of the SiC nanopillars under these conditions shows a high etch rate (550 nm min -1 ) and a high selectivity (over 60 for Ni). We also studied the etch profile of the SiC nanopillars and mask evolution over the etching time. As the mask pattern size shrinks in nanoscale, vertical and lateral mask erosion plays a crucial role in the etch profile of the SiC nanopillars. Long etching process makes the pillars appear with a hexagonal shape, coming from the crystallographic structure of α-SiC. It is found that the feature of pillars depends not only on the etching process parameters, but also on the crystallographic structure of the SiC phase. (paper)

  16. [Application of Raman spectroscopy to investigation of CVD-SIC fiber].

    Liu, Bin; Yang, Yan-Qing; Luo, Xian; Huang, Bin

    2011-11-01

    The CVD-SiC fiber was studied by using laser Raman spectra. It was found that the sharp TO peak exists in the first SiC deposit layer, indicating the larger SiC grains. But the second SiC deposit layer is with small grains. Raman peak of carbon and silicon was detected respectively in the first and second layer. Compared with that of the single SiC fiber, the TO peaks move to the high wave number for the SiC fiber in SiC(f)/Ti-6Al-4V composite. It indicates that the compressive thermal residual stress is present in the SiC fiber during the fabrication of the composite because of the mismatched coefficient of thermal expansion between Ti-6Al-4V matrix and SiC fiber. The average thermal residual stress of the SiC fiber in SiC(f)/Ti-6Al-4V composite was calculated to be 318 MPa and the residual stress in first deposit layer is 436 MPa which is much higher than that in the second layer.

  17. De interactie van SiC met Fe, Ni en hun legeringen

    Schiepers, R.C.J.

    1991-01-01

    De interactie tussen SiC en metalen gebaseerd op Fe en Ni is bestudeerd in het temperatuurtraject 700-1035°C door middel van vaste-stof-diffusiekoppels. In de koppels van SiC met Fe, Ni en hun legeringen treden hevige reakties op, die de vorming van een goede verbinding verhinderen. Door het grate

  18. Kronig-Penney-like description for band gap variation in SiC polytypes

    Backes, W.H.; Nooij, de F.C.; Bobbert, P.A.; van Haeringen, W.

    1996-01-01

    A one-dimensional Kronig-Penney-like model for envelope wave functions is presented to explain the band gap variation of SiC polytypes. In this model the envelope functions obey discontinuous boundary conditions. The electronic band gaps of cubic and several hexagonal and rhombohedral SiC polytypes

  19. Transformation from amorphous to nano-crystalline SiC thin films ...

    Administrator

    phous SiC to cubic nano-crystalline SiC films with the increase in the gas flow ratio. Raman scattering ... Auger electron spectroscopy showed that the carbon incorporation in the .... with a 514 nm Ar+ laser excitation source and the laser.

  20. Research Progress of Optical Fabrication and Surface-Microstructure Modification of SiC

    Fang Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available SiC has become the best candidate material for space mirror and optical devices due to a series of favorable physical and chemical properties. Fine surface optical quality with the surface roughness (RMS less than 1 nm is necessary for fine optical application. However, various defects are present in SiC ceramics, and it is very difficult to polish SiC ceramic matrix with the 1 nm RMS. Surface modification of SiC ceramics must be done on the SiC substrate. Four kinds of surface-modification routes including the hot pressed glass, the C/SiC clapping, SiC clapping, and Si clapping on SiC surface have been reported and reviewed here. The methods of surface modification, the mechanism of preparation, and the disadvantages and advantages are focused on in this paper. In our view, PVD Si is the best choice for surface modification of SiC mirror.

  1. High efficiency three-phase power factor correction rectifier using SiC switches

    Kouchaki, Alireza; Nymand, Morten

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents designing procedure of a high efficiency 5 kW silicon-carbide (SiC) based threephase power factor correction (PFC). SiC switches present low capacitive switching loss compared to the alternative Si switches. Therefore, the switching frequency can be increased and hence the siz...

  2. Using of the Modern Semiconductor Devices Based on the SiC

    Pavel Drabek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with possibility of application of the semiconductor devices based on the SiC (Silicon Carbide inthe power electronics. Basic synopsis of SiC based materials problems are presented, appreciation of their properties incomparison with current using power semiconductor devices ((IGBT, MOSFET, CoolFET transistors.

  3. Characterisation of 10 kV 10 A SiC MOSFET

    Eni, Emanuel-Petre; Incau, Bogdan Ioan; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to characterize and evaluate the static and dynamic performances of 10 kV 10 A 4H-SIC MOSFETs at high temperatures. The results show good electrical performances of the SiC MOSFETs for high temperature operations. The double-pulse test results showed interesting...

  4. High efficiency battery converter with SiC devices for residential PV systems

    Pham, Cam; Teodorescu, Remus; Kerekes, Tamas

    2013-01-01

    The demand for high efficiency and higher power density is a challenge for Si-based semiconductors due to the physical characteristics of material. These can be overcome by employing wide-band-gap materials like SiC. This paper compares a second generator SiC MOSFETs against a normally-on Trench...

  5. 10kV SiC MOSFET split output power module

    Beczkowski, Szymon; Li, Helong; Uhrenfeldt, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The poor body diode performance of the first generation of 10kV SiC MOSFETs and the parasitic turn-on phenomenon limit the performance of SiC based converters. Both these problems can potentially be mitigated using a split output topology. In this paper we present a comparison between a classical...

  6. Biomimetic synthesis of cellular SiC based ceramics from plant ...

    Unknown

    SiC based materials so derived can be used in structural applications and in designing high temperature filters and catalyst supports. Keywords. Biomimetic synthesis; carbonaceous biopreform; biomorphic Si–SiC ceramic composites; porous cellular SiC ceramics. 1. Introduction. In recent years, there has been tremendous ...

  7. Reliability Concerns for Flying SiC Power MOSFETs in Space

    Galloway, K. F.; Witulski, A. F.; Schrimpf, R. D.; Sternberg, A. L.; Ball, D. R.; Javanainen, A.; Reed, R. A.; Sierawski, B. D.; Lauenstein, J-M

    2018-01-01

    SiC power MOSFETs are space-ready in terms of typical reliability measures. However, single event burnout (SEB) often occurs at voltages 50% or lower than specified breakdown. Data illustrating burnout for 1200 V devices is reviewed and the space reliability of SiC MOSFETs is discussed.

  8. Tema 8. Principis físics dels semiconductors (Guia del tema)

    Beléndez Vázquez, Augusto

    2011-01-01

    Guia del "Tema 8. Principis físics dels semiconductors" de l'assignatura "Fonaments Físics de l'Enginyeria I" de "Grau en Enginyeria en So i Imatge" impartit a l'Escola Politècnica Superior de la Universitat d'Alacant.

  9. Computational Modeling of Radiation Phenomenon in SiC for Nuclear Applications

    Ko, Hyunseok

    Silicon carbide (SiC) material has been investigated for promising nuclear materials owing to its superior thermo-mechanical properties, and low neutron cross-section. While the interest in SiC has been increasing, the lack of fundamental understanding in many radiation phenomena is an important issue. More specifically, these phenomena in SiC include the fission gas transport, radiation induced defects and its evolution, radiation effects on the mechanical stability, matrix brittleness of SiC composites, and low thermal conductivities of SiC composites. To better design SiC and SiC composite materials for various nuclear applications, understanding each phenomenon and its significance under specific reactor conditions is important. In this thesis, we used various modeling approaches to understand the fundamental radiation phenomena in SiC for nuclear applications in three aspects: (a) fission product diffusion through SiC, (b) optimization of thermodynamic stable self-interstitial atom clusters, (c) interface effect in SiC composite and their change upon radiation. In (a) fission product transport work, we proposed that Ag/Cs diffusion in high energy grain boundaries may be the upper boundary in unirradiated SiC at relevant temperature, and radiation enhanced diffusion is responsible for fast diffusion measured in post-irradiated fuel particles. For (b) the self-interstitial cluster work, thermodynamically stable clusters are identified as a function of cluster size, shape, and compositions using a genetic algorithm. We found that there are compositional and configurational transitions for stable clusters as the cluster size increases. For (c) the interface effect in SiC composite, we investigated recently proposed interface, which is CNT reinforced SiC composite. The analytical model suggests that CNT/SiC composites have attractive mechanical and thermal properties, and these fortify the argument that SiC composites are good candidate materials for the cladding

  10. Creep behavior for advanced polycrystalline SiC fibers

    Youngblood, G.E.; Jones, R.H.; Kohyama, Akira

    1997-01-01

    A bend stress relaxation (BSR) test is planned to examine irradiation enhanced creep in polycrystalline SiC fibers which are under development for use as fiber reinforcement in SiC/SiC composite. Baseline 1 hr and 100 hr BSR thermal creep open-quotes mclose quotes curves have been obtained for five selected advanced SiC fiber types and for standard Nicalon CG fiber. The transition temperature, that temperature where the S-shaped m-curve has a value 0.5, is a measure of fiber creep resistance. In order of decreasing thermal creep resistance, with the 100 hr BSR transition temperature given in parenthesis, the fibers ranked: Sylramic (1261 degrees C), Nicalon S (1256 degrees C), annealed Hi Nicalon (1215 degrees C), Hi Nicalon (1078 degrees C), Nicalon CG (1003 degrees C) and Tyranno E (932 degrees C). The thermal creep for Sylramic, Nicalon S, Hi Nicalon and Nicalon CG fibers in a 5000 hr irradiation creep BSR test is projected from the temperature dependence of the m-curves determined during 1 and 100 hr BSR control tests

  11. Creep behavior for advanced polycrystalline SiC fibers

    Youngblood, G.E.; Jones, R.H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Kohyama, Akira [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    A bend stress relaxation (BSR) test is planned to examine irradiation enhanced creep in polycrystalline SiC fibers which are under development for use as fiber reinforcement in SiC/SiC composite. Baseline 1 hr and 100 hr BSR thermal creep {open_quotes}m{close_quotes} curves have been obtained for five selected advanced SiC fiber types and for standard Nicalon CG fiber. The transition temperature, that temperature where the S-shaped m-curve has a value 0.5, is a measure of fiber creep resistance. In order of decreasing thermal creep resistance, with the 100 hr BSR transition temperature given in parenthesis, the fibers ranked: Sylramic (1261{degrees}C), Nicalon S (1256{degrees}C), annealed Hi Nicalon (1215{degrees}C), Hi Nicalon (1078{degrees}C), Nicalon CG (1003{degrees}C) and Tyranno E (932{degrees}C). The thermal creep for Sylramic, Nicalon S, Hi Nicalon and Nicalon CG fibers in a 5000 hr irradiation creep BSR test is projected from the temperature dependence of the m-curves determined during 1 and 100 hr BSR control tests.

  12. Enhanced defects recombination in ion irradiated SiC

    Izzo, G.; Litrico, G.; Grassia, F.; Calcagno, L.; Foti, G.

    2010-01-01

    Point defects induced in SiC by ion irradiation show a recombination at temperatures as low as 320 K and this process is enhanced after running current density ranging from 80 to 120 A/cm 2 . Ion irradiation induces in SiC the formation of different defect levels and low-temperature annealing changes their concentration. Some levels (S 0 , S x and S 2 ) show a recombination and simultaneously a new level (S 1 ) is formed. An enhanced recombination of defects is besides observed after running current in the diode at room temperature. The carriers introduction reduces the S 2 trap concentration, while the remaining levels are not modified. The recombination is negligible up to a current density of 50 A/cm 2 and increases at higher current density. The enhanced recombination of the S 2 trap occurs at 300 K, which otherwise requires a 400 K annealing temperature. The process can be related to the electron-hole recombination at the associated defect.

  13. A Kochen–Specker inequality from a SIC

    Bengtsson, Ingemar; Blanchfield, Kate; Cabello, Adán

    2012-01-01

    Yu and Oh (eprint) have given a state-independent proof of the Kochen–Specker theorem in three dimensions using only 13 rays. The proof consists of showing that a non-contextual hidden variable theory necessarily leads to an inequality that is violated by quantum mechanics. We give a similar proof making use of 21 rays that constitute a SIC (symmetric informationally-complete positive operator-valued measure) and a complete set of MUB (mutually unbiased bases). A theory-independent inequality is also presented using the same 21 rays, as required for experimental tests of contextuality. -- Highlights: ► We find a state-independent Kochen–Specker inequality in dimension 3 with 21 rays. ► The rays constitute a SIC (9 rays) and a complete set of MUB (12 rays). ► Orthogonalities among the rays produce the Hesse configuration. ► The rays also give a state-independent non-contextual hidden variable inequality. ► We show that both inequalities are violated by quantum mechanics.

  14. The role of Pd in the transport of Ag in SiC

    Olivier, E.J.; Neethling, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents results in support of a newly proposed transport mechanism to account for the release of Ag from intact TRISO particles during HTR reactor operation. The study reveals that the migration of Ag in polycrystalline SiC can occur in association with Pd, a relatively high yield metallic fission product. The migration takes place primarily along grain boundary routes, seen in the form of distinct Pd, Ag and Si containing nodules. Pd is known to rapidly migrate to the SiC and iPyC interface within TRISO particles during operation. It has been shown to chemically corrode the SiC to form palladium silicides. These palladium silicides are found present along SiC grain boundaries in nodule like form. It is suggested that Ag penetrates these nodules together with the palladium silicide, to form a Pd, Ag and Si solution capable of migrating along SiC grain boundaries over time.

  15. The role of Pd in the transport of Ag in SiC

    Olivier, E.J., E-mail: jolivier@nmmu.ac.za [Centre for High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth (South Africa); Neethling, J.H. [Centre for High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth (South Africa)

    2013-01-15

    This paper presents results in support of a newly proposed transport mechanism to account for the release of Ag from intact TRISO particles during HTR reactor operation. The study reveals that the migration of Ag in polycrystalline SiC can occur in association with Pd, a relatively high yield metallic fission product. The migration takes place primarily along grain boundary routes, seen in the form of distinct Pd, Ag and Si containing nodules. Pd is known to rapidly migrate to the SiC and iPyC interface within TRISO particles during operation. It has been shown to chemically corrode the SiC to form palladium silicides. These palladium silicides are found present along SiC grain boundaries in nodule like form. It is suggested that Ag penetrates these nodules together with the palladium silicide, to form a Pd, Ag and Si solution capable of migrating along SiC grain boundaries over time.

  16. Oxidation of SiC cladding under Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) conditions in LWRs

    Lee, Y.; Yue, C.; Arnold, R. P.; McKrell, T. J.; Kazimi, M. S.

    2012-01-01

    An experimental assessment of Silicon Carbide (SiC) cladding oxidation rate in steam under conditions representative of Loss of Coolant Accidents (LOCA) in light water reactors (LWRs) was conducted. SiC oxidation tests were performed with monolithic alpha phase tubular samples in a vertical quartz tube at a steam temperature of 1140 deg. C and steam velocity range of 1 to 10 m/sec, at atmospheric pressure. Linear weight loss of SiC samples due to boundary layer controlled reaction of silica scale (SiO 2 volatilization) was experimentally observed. The weight loss rate increased with increasing steam flow rate. Over the range of test conditions, SiC oxidation rates were shown to be about 3 orders of magnitude lower than the oxidation rates of zircaloy 4. A SiC volatilization correlation for developing laminar flow in a vertical channel is formulated. (authors)

  17. Fabrication of Multi-Layerd SiC Composite Tube for LWR Applications

    Kim, Daejong; Jung, Choonghwan; Kim, Weonju; Park, Jiyeon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jongmin [Chungnam National Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    In this study, the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) methods were employed for the fabrication of the composite tubes. SiC ceramics and SiC-based composites have recently been studied for LWR fuel cladding applications because of good mechanical/physical properties, neutron irradiation resistance and excellent compatibility with coolant under severe accident. A multi-layered SiC composite tube as the nuclear fuel cladding is composed of the monolith SiC inner layer, SiC/SiC composite intermediate layer, and monolith SiC outer layer. Since all constituents should be highly pure, stoichiometric to achieve the good properties, it has been considered that the chemical process is a well-suited technique for the fabrication of the SiC phases.

  18. Introduction of nano-laminate Ti3SiC2 and SiC phases into Cf-C composite by liquid silicon infiltration method

    Omid Yaghobizadeh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The material Cf-C-SiC-Ti3SiC2 is promising for high temperature application. Due to the laminated structure and special properties, the Ti3SiC2 is one of the best reinforcements for Cf-C-SiC composites. In this paper, Cf-C-SiC-Ti3SiC2 composites were fabricated by liquid silicon infiltration (LSI method; the effect of the TiC amount on the various composites properties were studied. For samples with 0, 50 and 90 vol.% of TiC, the results show that bending strength are 168, 190, and 181 MPa; porosities are 3.2, 4.7, and 9%; the fracture toughness are 6.1, 8.9, and 7.8 MPa∙m1/2; interlaminar shear strength are 27, 36, and 30 MPa; the amount of the MAX phase are 0, 8.5, and 5.6 vol.%, respectively. These results show that amount of TiC is not the main effective parameter in synthesis of Ti3SiC2. The existence of carbon promotes the synthesis of Ti3SiC2 indicating that only sufficient carbon content can lead to the appearance of Ti3SiC2 in the LSI process.

  19. Improved thermoelectric performance of CdO by adding SiC fibers versus by adding SiC nanoparticles inclusions

    Liang, S.; Li, Longjiang

    2018-03-01

    We report the improved thermoelectric (TE) performance of CdO by alloying with SiC fibers. In contrast to the lowered thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) in a CdO matrix with SiC nanoparticle composites, an appreciable ZT value increment of about 36% (from 0.32 to 0.435) at 1000 K was obtained in the CdO matrix with SiC fiber composites. Both kinds of composites show substantially decreased thermal conductivity due to additional phonon scattering by the nano-inclusions. Compared to the very high electrical resistivity (ρ ˜ 140 μΩ m) for 5 at. % SiC nanoparticle composites, SiC fiber composites favorably maintained a very low ρ (˜30 μΩ m) even with 5 at. % SiC at 1000 K. We think the substantial difference of specific surface areas of these two nano-inclusions (30 m2/g for fibers vs 300 m2/g for nanoparticles) might play a crucial role to fine tune the TE performance. Larger interface could be inductive to diffusion and electron acceptor activation, which affect carrier mobility considerably. This work might hint at an alternative approach to improve TE materials' performance.

  20. Low dose irradiation performance of SiC interphase SiC/SiC composites

    Snead, L.L.; Lowden, R.A.; Strizak, J.; More, K.L.; Eatherly, W.S.; Bailey, J.; Williams, A.M.; Osborne, M.C.; Shinavski, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    Reduced oxygen Hi-Nicalon fiber reinforced composite SiC materials were densified with a chemically vapor infiltrated (CVI) silicon carbide (SiC) matrix and interphases of either 'porous' SiC or multilayer SiC and irradiated to a neutron fluence of 1.1 x 10 25 n m -2 (E>0.1 MeV) in the temperature range of 260 to 1060 C. The unirradiated properties of these composites are superior to previously studied ceramic grade Nicalon fiber reinforced/carbon interphase materials. Negligible reduction in the macroscopic matrix microcracking stress was observed after irradiation for the multilayer SiC interphase material and a slight reduction in matrix microcracking stress was observed for the composite with porous SiC interphase. The reduction in strength for the porous SiC interfacial material is greatest for the highest irradiation temperature. The ultimate fracture stress (in four point bending) following irradiation for the multilayer SiC and porous SiC interphase materials was reduced by 15% and 30%, respectively, which is an improvement over the 40% reduction suffered by irradiated ceramic grade Nicalon fiber materials fabricated in a similar fashion, though with a carbon interphase. The degradation of the mechanical properties of these composites is analyzed by comparison with the irradiation behavior of bare Hi-Nicalon fiber and Morton chemically vapor deposited (CVD) SiC. It is concluded that the degradation of these composites, as with the previous generation ceramic grade Nicalon fiber materials, is dominated by interfacial effects, though the overall degradation of fiber and hence composite is reduced for the newer low-oxygen fiber. (orig.)

  1. Hydrothermally grown zeolite crystals

    Durrani, S.K.; Qureshi, A.H.; Hussain, M.A.; Qazi, N.K.

    2009-01-01

    The aluminium-deficient and ferrosilicate zeolite-type materials were synthesized by hydrothermal process at 150-170 degree C for various periods of time from the mixtures containing colloidal reactive silica, sodium aluminate, sodium hydroxide, iron nitrate and organic templates. Organic polycation templates were used as zeolite crystal shape modifiers to enhance relative growth rates. The template was almost completely removed from the zeolite specimens by calcination at 550 degree C for 8h in air. Simultaneous thermogravimetric (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) was performed to study the removal of water molecules and the amount of organic template cations occluded inside the crystal pore of zeolite framework. The 12-13% weight loss in the range of (140-560 degree C) was associated with removal of the (C/sub 3/H/sub 7/)/sub 4/ N+ cation and water molecules. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques were employed to study the structure, morphology and surface features of hydrothermally grown aluminium-deficient and ferrosilicate zeolite-type crystals. In order to elucidate the mode of zeolite crystallization the crystallinity and unit cell parameters of the materials were determined by XRD, which are the function of Al and Fe contents of zeolites. (author)

  2. SiC interlayer by laser-cladding on WC-Co substrates for CVD diamond deposition

    Contin, Andre; Fraga, Mariana Amorim; Vieira, Jose; Trava-Airoldi, Vladimir Jesus; Corat, Evaldo Jose, E-mail: andrecontin@yahoo.com.br [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Campos, Raonei Alves [Universidade Federal do Sul e Sudeste do Para (UNIFESSPA), Belem, PA (Brazil); Vasconcelos, Getulio [Instituto de Estudos Avancados (IEA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: Despite their huge industrial potential and commercial interest, the direct diamond coating on cemented carbide (WC-Co) is limited, mainly because of the catalytic effect of Cobalt (Co) and the high difference in thermal expansion coefficient [1]. This results in poor adherence between diamond and WC-Co. In addition, the low diamond film adhesion to the cemented carbide useless for machining applications. Removal of Co binder from the substrate surface by superficial etching is one of the techniques used to improve the adhesion between diamond and WC-Co. For the present study, diamond films were deposited on WC-Co substrates with an intermediate barrier to block the Co diffusion to the surface substrate. The laser cladding process produced the SiC barrier, in which a powder layer is melted by a laser irradiation to create the coating on the substrate. The use of laser cladding is the novel method for an intermediate barrier for cemented carbides. The advantages of laser cladding include a faster processing speed, precision, versatility. We reported the application of pretreatment method called ESND (Electrostatic self-assembly seeding of nanocrystalline diamond). The nucleation density was around 10{sup 11}part/cm{sup 2}. Diamond films were grown by Hot Filament Chemical Vapor Deposition. Characterization of samples included Field Emission Gun-Scanning Electron Microscopy (FEG-SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman Scattering Spectroscopy. Results showed that laser irradiation formed stable Co compounds in the interfacial barrier. It is because nucleation and good quality of diamond film since the cobalt are no longer free to migrate to the surface during the CVD diamond deposition. Reference: [1] Y. X. Cui, B. Shen, F. H. Sun. Diamond deposition on WC–Co substrate with amorphous SiC interlayer, Surface Engineering, 30, (2014) 237-243. (author)

  3. Detection and analysis of particles with failed SiC in AGR-1 fuel compacts

    Hunn, John D., E-mail: hunnjd@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6093 (United States); Baldwin, Charles A.; Gerczak, Tyler J.; Montgomery, Fred C.; Morris, Robert N.; Silva, Chinthaka M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6093 (United States); Demkowicz, Paul A.; Harp, Jason M.; Ploger, Scott A. [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-6188 (United States)

    2016-09-15

    Highlights: • Cesium release was used to detect SiC failure in HTGR fuel. • Tristructural-isotropic particles with SiC failure were isolated by gamma screening. • SiC failure was studied by X-ray tomography and SEM. • SiC degradation was observed after irradiation and subsequent safety testing. - Abstract: As the primary barrier to release of radioactive isotopes emitted from the fuel kernel, retention performance of the SiC layer in tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coated particles is critical to the overall safety of reactors that utilize this fuel design. Most isotopes are well-retained by intact SiC coatings, so pathways through this layer due to cracking, structural defects, or chemical attack can significantly contribute to radioisotope release. In the US TRISO fuel development effort, release of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs are used to detect SiC failure during fuel compact irradiation and safety testing because the amount of cesium released by a compact containing one particle with failed SiC is typically ten or more times higher than that released by compacts without failed SiC. Compacts with particles that released cesium during irradiation testing or post-irradiation safety testing at 1600–1800 °C were identified, and individual particles with abnormally low cesium retention were sorted out with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Irradiated Microsphere Gamma Analyzer (IMGA). X-ray tomography was used for three-dimensional imaging of the internal coating structure to locate low-density pathways through the SiC layer and guide subsequent materialography by optical and scanning electron microscopy. All three cesium-releasing particles recovered from as-irradiated compacts showed a region where the inner pyrocarbon (IPyC) had cracked due to radiation-induced dimensional changes in the shrinking buffer and the exposed SiC had experienced concentrated attack by palladium; SiC failures observed in particles subjected to safety testing were

  4. Grown on Novel Microcarriers

    Torsten Falk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Human retinal pigment epithelial (hRPE cells have been tested as a cell-based therapy for Parkinson’s disease but will require additional study before further clinical trials can be planned. We now show that the long-term survival and neurotrophic potential of hRPE cells can be enhanced by the use of FDA-approved plastic-based microcarriers compared to a gelatin-based microcarrier as used in failed clinical trials. The hRPE cells grown on these plastic-based microcarriers display several important characteristics of hRPE found in vivo: (1 characteristic morphological features, (2 accumulation of melanin pigment, and (3 high levels of production of the neurotrophic factors pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF and vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A. Growth of hRPE cells on plastic-based microcarriers led to sustained levels (>1 ng/ml of PEDF and VEGF-A in conditioned media for two months. We also show that the expression of VEGF-A and PEDF is reciprocally regulated by activation of the GPR143 pathway. GPR143 is activated by L-DOPA (1 μM which decreased VEGF-A secretion as opposed to the previously reported increase in PEDF secretion. The hRPE microcarriers are therefore novel candidate delivery systems for achieving long-term delivery of the neuroprotective factors PEDF and VEGF-A, which could have a value in neurodegenerative conditions such as Parkinson’s disease.

  5. Surface functionalization of epitaxial graphene on SiC by ion irradiation for gas sensing application

    Kaushik, Priya Darshni; Ivanov, Ivan G.; Lin, Pin-Cheng; Kaur, Gurpreet; Eriksson, Jens; Lakshmi, G.B.V.S.; Avasthi, D.K.; Gupta, Vinay; Aziz, Anver; Siddiqui, Azher M.; Syväjärvi, Mikael; Yazdi, G. Reza

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • For the first time the gas sensing application of SHI irradiated epitaxial graphene on SiC is explored. • Surface morphology of irradiated graphene layers showed graphene folding, hillocks, and formation of wrinkles. • Existence of an optimal fluence which maximize the gas sensing response towards NO_2 and NH_3 gases. - Abstract: In this work, surface functionalization of epitaxial graphene grown on silicon carbide was performed by ion irradiation to investigate their gas sensing capabilities. Swift heavy ion irradiation using 100 MeV silver ions at four varying fluences was implemented on epitaxial graphene to investigate morphological and structural changes and their effects on the gas sensing capabilities of graphene. Sensing devices are expected as one of the first electronic applications using graphene and most of them use functionalized surfaces to tailor a certain function. In our case, we have studied irradiation as a tool to achieve functionalization. Morphological and structural changes on epitaxial graphene layers were investigated by atomic force microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Raman mapping and reflectance mapping. The surface morphology of irradiated graphene layers showed graphene folding, hillocks, and formation of wrinkles at highest fluence (2 × 10"1"3 ions/cm"2). Raman spectra analysis shows that the graphene defect density is increased with increasing fluence, while Raman mapping and reflectance mapping show that there is also a reduction of monolayer graphene coverage. The samples were investigated for ammonia and nitrogen dioxide gas sensing applications. Sensors fabricated on pristine and irradiated samples showed highest gas sensing response at an optimal fluence. Our work provides new pathways for introducing defects in controlled manner in epitaxial graphene, which can be used not only for gas sensing application but also for other applications, such as electrochemical, biosensing, magnetosensing and spintronic

  6. Surface functionalization of epitaxial graphene on SiC by ion irradiation for gas sensing application

    Kaushik, Priya Darshni, E-mail: kaushik.priyadarshni@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, SE-58183 Linköping (Sweden); Department of Physics, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, 110025 (India); Ivanov, Ivan G.; Lin, Pin-Cheng [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, SE-58183 Linköping (Sweden); Kaur, Gurpreet [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi, 110007 (India); Eriksson, Jens [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, SE-58183 Linköping (Sweden); Lakshmi, G.B.V.S. [Inter-University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi, 110067 (India); Avasthi, D.K. [Inter-University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi, 110067 (India); Amity Institute of Nanotechnology, Noida 201313 (India); Gupta, Vinay [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi, 110007 (India); Aziz, Anver; Siddiqui, Azher M. [Department of Physics, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, 110025 (India); Syväjärvi, Mikael [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, SE-58183 Linköping (Sweden); Yazdi, G. Reza, E-mail: yazdi@ifm.liu.se [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, SE-58183 Linköping (Sweden)

    2017-05-01

    Highlights: • For the first time the gas sensing application of SHI irradiated epitaxial graphene on SiC is explored. • Surface morphology of irradiated graphene layers showed graphene folding, hillocks, and formation of wrinkles. • Existence of an optimal fluence which maximize the gas sensing response towards NO{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} gases. - Abstract: In this work, surface functionalization of epitaxial graphene grown on silicon carbide was performed by ion irradiation to investigate their gas sensing capabilities. Swift heavy ion irradiation using 100 MeV silver ions at four varying fluences was implemented on epitaxial graphene to investigate morphological and structural changes and their effects on the gas sensing capabilities of graphene. Sensing devices are expected as one of the first electronic applications using graphene and most of them use functionalized surfaces to tailor a certain function. In our case, we have studied irradiation as a tool to achieve functionalization. Morphological and structural changes on epitaxial graphene layers were investigated by atomic force microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Raman mapping and reflectance mapping. The surface morphology of irradiated graphene layers showed graphene folding, hillocks, and formation of wrinkles at highest fluence (2 × 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}). Raman spectra analysis shows that the graphene defect density is increased with increasing fluence, while Raman mapping and reflectance mapping show that there is also a reduction of monolayer graphene coverage. The samples were investigated for ammonia and nitrogen dioxide gas sensing applications. Sensors fabricated on pristine and irradiated samples showed highest gas sensing response at an optimal fluence. Our work provides new pathways for introducing defects in controlled manner in epitaxial graphene, which can be used not only for gas sensing application but also for other applications, such as electrochemical, biosensing, magnetosensing and

  7. Microstructure of SiC ceramics fabricated by pyrolysis of electron beam irradiated polycarbomethylsilane containing precursors

    Xu Yunshu; Tanaka, Shigeru

    2003-01-01

    A modified gel-casting method was developed to form the ceramics precursor matrix by using polycarbomehylsilane (PCMS) and SiC powder. The polymer precursor was mixed with SiC powder in toluene, and then the slurry samples were cast into designed shapes. The pre-ceramic samples were then irradiated by 2.0 MeV electron beam generated by a Cockcroft-Walton type accelerator in He gas flow to about 15 MGy. The cured samples were pyrolyzed and sintered into SiC ceramics at 1300degC in Ar gas. The modified gel-casting method leaves almost no internal stress in the pre-ceramic samples, and the electron beam curing not only diminished the amount of pyrolysis gaseous products but also enhanced the interface binding of the polymer converted SiC and the grains of SiC powder. Optical microscope, AFM and SEM detected no visible internal or surface cracks in the final SiC ceramics matrix. A maximum value of 122 MPa of flexural strength of the final SiC ceramics was achieved. (author)

  8. SiC nanoparticles as potential carriers for biologically active substances

    Guevara-Lora, Ibeth; Czosnek, Cezary; Smycz, Aleksandra; Janik, Jerzy F.; Kozik, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    Silicon carbide SiC thanks to its many advantageous properties has found numerous applications in diverse areas of technology. In this regard, its nanosized forms often with novel properties have been the subject of intense research in recent years. The aim of this study was to investigate the binding of biologically active substances onto SiC nanopowders as a new approach to biomolecule immobilization in terms of their prospective applications in medicine or for biochemical detection. The SiC nanoparticles were prepared by a two-stage aerosol-assisted synthesis from neat hexamethyldisiloxane. The binding of several proteins (bovine serum albumin, high molecular weight kininogen, immunoglobulin G) on SiC particle surfaces was demonstrated at the levels of 1-2 nanograms per mg of SiC. These values were found to significantly increase after suitable chemical modifications of nanoparticle surfaces (by carbodiimide or 3-aminopropyltrietoxysilane treatment). The study of SiC biocompatibility showed a lack of cytotoxicity against macrophages-like cells below the concentration of 1 mg nanoparticles per mL. In summary, we demonstrated the successful immobilization of the selected substances on the SiC nanoparticles. These results including the cytotoxicity study make nano-SiC highly attractive for potential applications in medicine, biotechnology or molecular detection.

  9. Additive Manufacturing of SiC Based Ceramics and Ceramic Matrix Composites

    Halbig, Michael Charles; Singh, Mrityunjay

    2015-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) ceramics and SiC fiber reinforcedSiC ceramic matrix composites (SiCSiC CMCs) offer high payoff as replacements for metals in turbine engine applications due to their lighter weight, higher temperature capability, and lower cooling requirements. Additive manufacturing approaches can offer game changing technologies for the quick and low cost fabrication of parts with much greater design freedom and geometric complexity. Four approaches for developing these materials are presented. The first two utilize low cost 3D printers. The first uses pre-ceramic pastes developed as feed materials which are converted to SiC after firing. The second uses wood containing filament to print a carbonaceous preform which is infiltrated with a pre-ceramic polymer and converted to SiC. The other two approaches pursue the AM of CMCs. The first is binder jet SiC powder processing in collaboration with rp+m (Rapid Prototyping+Manufacturing). Processing optimization was pursued through SiC powder blending, infiltration with and without SiC nano powder loading, and integration of nanofibers into the powder bed. The second approach was laminated object manufacturing (LOM) in which fiber prepregs and laminates are cut to shape by a laser and stacked to form the desired part. Scanning electron microscopy was conducted on materials from all approaches with select approaches also characterized with XRD, TGA, and bend testing.

  10. Factors affecting the corrosion of SiC layer by fission product palladium

    Dewita, E.

    2000-01-01

    HTR is one of the advanced nuclear reactors which has inherent safety system, graphite moderated and helium gas cooled. In general, these reactors are designed with the TRISO coated particle consist of four coating layers that are porous pyrolytic carbon (PyC). inner dense PyC (IPyC), silicon carbide (SiC), and outer dense PyC (OPyC). Among the four coating layers, the SiC plays an important role beside in retaining metallic fission products, it also provides mechanical strength to fuel particle. However, results of post irradiation examination indicate that fission product palladium can react with and corrode SiC layer, This assessment is conducted to get the comprehension about resistance of SiC layer on irradiation effects, especially in order to increase the fuel bum-up. The result of this shows that the corrosion of SiC layer by fission product palladium is beside depend on the material characteristics of SiC, and also there are other factors that affect on the SiC layer corrosion. Fuel enrichment, bum-up, and irradiation time effect on the palladium flux in fuel kernel. While, the fuel density, vapour pressure of palladium (the degree depend on the irradiation temperature and kernel composition) effect on palladium migration in fuel particle. (author)

  11. Structural and electrical characterization of ion beam synthesized and n-doped SiC layers

    Serre, C.; Perez-Rodriguez, A.; Romano-Rodriguez, A.; Morante, J.R. [Barcelona Univ. (Spain). Dept. Electronica; Panknin, D.; Koegler, R.; Skorupa, W. [Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Esteve, J.; Acero, M.C. [CSIC, Bellaterra (Spain). Centre Nacional de Microelectronica

    2001-07-01

    This work reports preliminary data on the ion beam synthesis of n-doped SiC layers. For this, two approaches have been studied: (i) doping by ion implantation (with N{sup +}) of ion beam synthesized SiC layers and (ii) ion beam synthesis of SiC in previously doped (with P) Si wafers. In the first case, the electrical data show a p-type overcompensation of the SiC layer in the range of temperatures between -50 C and 125 C. The structural (XRD) and in-depth (SIMS, Spreading Resistance) analysis of the samples suggest this overcompensation to be induced by p-type active defects related to the N{sup +} ion implantation damage, and therefore the need for further optimization their thermal processing. In contrast, the P-doped SiC layers always show n-type doping. This is also accompanied by a higher structural quality, being the spectral features of the layers similar to those from the not doped material. Electrical activation of P in the SiC lattice is about one order of magnitude lower than in Si. These data constitute, to our knowledge, the first results reported on the doping of ion beam synthesized SiC layers. (orig.)

  12. Effect of Ti and Si interlayer materials on the joining of SiC ceramics

    Jung, Yang Il; Park, Jung Hwan; Kim, Hyun Gil; Park, Dong Jun; Park, Jeong Yong; Kim, Weon Ju [LWR Fuel Technology Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    SiC-based ceramic composites are currently being considered for use in fuel cladding tubes in light-water reactors. The joining of SiC ceramics in a hermetic seal is required for the development of ceramic-based fuel cladding tubes. In this study, SiC monoliths were diffusion bonded using a Ti foil interlayer and additional Si powder. In the joining process, a very low uniaxial pressure of ∼0.1 MPa was applied, so the process is applicable for joining thin-walled long tubes. The joining strength depended strongly on the type of SiC material. Reaction-bonded SiC (RB-SiC) showed a higher joining strength than sintered SiC because the diffusion reaction of Si was promoted in the former. The joining strength of sintered SiC was increased by the addition of Si at the Ti interlayer to play the role of the free Si in RB-SiC. The maximum joint strength obtained under torsional stress was ∼100 MPa. The joint interface consisted of TiSi{sub 2}, Ti{sub 3}SiC{sub 2}, and SiC phases formed by a diffusion reaction of Ti and Si.

  13. Sr{sub 1.98}Eu{sub 0.02}SiO{sub 4} luminescence whisker based on vapor-phase deposition: Facile synthesis, uniform morphology and enhanced luminescence properties

    Xu, Jian, E-mail: xujian@stu.xmu.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Hassan, Dhia A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Department of Chemistry, College of Education for Pure Science, University of Basrah, 61004 (Iraq); Zeng, Renjie; Peng, Dongliang [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Fujian Key Lab of Advanced Special Material, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramic Fibers, Ministry of Education, Xiamen 361005 (China)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • For the first time, it is possible to obtain Sr{sub 1.98}Eu{sub 0.02}SiO{sub 4} whisker. • The whiskers are smooth and uniform with L/D ratio over 50. • Durability and thermal stability of the whisker are enhanced. - Abstract: A high performance strontium silicate phosphor has been successfully synthesized though a facile vapor-phase deposition method. The product consists of single crystal whiskers which are smooth and uniform, and with a sectional equivalent diameter of around 5 μm; the aspect ratio is over 50 and no agglomeration can be observed. X-ray diffraction result confirmed that the crystal structure of the whisker was α’-Sr{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}. The exact chemical composition was Sr{sub 1.98}Eu{sub 0.02}SiO{sub 4} which was analyzed by energy dispersive spectrometer and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer. The whisker shows broad green emission with peak at 523 nm ranging from 470 to 600 nm (excited at 370 nm). Compared with traditional Sr{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}:Eu phosphor, durability (at 85% humidity and 85 °C) and thermal stability of the whisker are obviously improved. Moreover, growth mechanism of the Sr{sub 1.98}Eu{sub 0.02}SiO{sub 4} whiskers is Vapor–Liquid–Solid. On a macro-scale, the product is still powder which makes it suitable for the current packaging process of WLEDs.

  14. Demonstration of SiC Pressure Sensors at 750 C

    Okojie, Robert S.; Lukco, Dorothy; Nguyen, Vu; Savrun, Ender

    2014-01-01

    We report the first demonstration of MEMS-based 4H-SiC piezoresistive pressure sensors tested at 750 C and in the process confirmed the existence of strain sensitivity recovery with increasing temperature above 400 C, eventually achieving near or up to 100% of the room temperature values at 750 C. This strain sensitivity recovery phenomenon in 4H-SiC is uncharacteristic of the well-known monotonic decrease in strain sensitivity with increasing temperature in silicon piezoresistors. For the three sensors tested, the room temperature full-scale output (FSO) at 200 psig ranged between 29 and 36 mV. Although the FSO at 400 C dropped by about 60%, full recovery was achieved at 750 C. This result will allow the operation of SiC pressure sensors at higher temperatures, thereby permitting deeper insertion into the engine combustion chamber to improve the accurate quantification of combustor dynamics.

  15. SiC MOSFET Switching Power Amplifier Project Summary

    Miller, Kenneth E.; Ziemba, Timothy; Prager, James; Slobodov, Ilia; Henson, Alex

    2017-10-01

    Eagle Harbor Technologies has completed a Phase I/II program to develop SiC MOSFET based Switching Power Amplifiers (SPA) for precision magnet control in fusion science applications. During this program, EHT developed several units have been delivered to the Helicity Injected Torus (HIT) experiment at the University of Washington to drive both the voltage and flux circuits of the helicity injectors. These units are capable of switching 700 V at 100 kHz with an adjustable duty cycle from 10 - 90% and a combined total output current of 96 kA for 4 ms (at max current). The SPAs switching is controlled by the microcontroller at HIT, which adjusts the duty cycle to maintain a specific waveform in the injector. The SPAs include overcurrent and shoot-through protection circuity. EHT will present an overview of the program including final results for the SPA waveforms. With support of DOE SBIR.

  16. Detection and Analysis of Particles with Failed SiC in AGR-1 Fuel Compacts

    Hunn, John D.; Baldwin, Charles A.; Gerczak, Tyler J.; Montgomery, Fred C.; Morris, Robert N.; Silva, Chinthaka M.; Demkowicz, Paul A.; Harp, Jason M.; Ploger, Scott A.

    2014-01-01

    As the primary barrier to release of radioactive isotopes emitted from the fuel kernel, retention performance of the SiC layer in tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coated particles is critical to the overall safety of reactors that utilize this fuel design. Most isotopes are well-retained by intact SiC coatings, so pathways through this layer due to cracking, structural defects, or chemical attack can significantly contribute to radioisotope release. In the US TRISO fuel development effort, release of "1"3"4Cs and "1"3"7Cs are used to detect SiC failure during fuel compact irradiation and safety testing because the amount of cesium released by a compact containing one particle with failed SiC is typically ten or more times higher than that released by compacts without failed SiC. Compacts with particles that released cesium during the AGR-1 irradiation test or post-irradiation safety testing at 1600– 1800°C were identified, and individual particles with abnormally low cesium retention were sorted out with the ORNL Irradiated Microsphere Gamma Analyzer (IMGA). X-ray tomography was used for three-dimensional imaging of the internal coating structure to locate low-density pathways through the SiC layer and guide subsequent materialography by optical and scanning electron microscopy. All three cesium-releasing particles recovered from as-irradiated compacts showed a region where the inner pyrocarbon (IPyC) had cracked due to radiation-induced dimensional changes in the shrinking buffer and the exposed SiC had experienced concentrated attack by palladium; SiC failures observed in particles subjected to safety testing were related to either fabrication defects or showed extensive Pd corrosion through the SiC where it had been exposed by similar IPyC cracking. (author)

  17. Comparative study of SiC- and Si-based photovoltaic inverters

    Ando, Yuji; Oku, Takeo; Yasuda, Masashi; Shirahata, Yasuhiro; Ushijima, Kazufumi; Murozono, Mikio

    2017-01-01

    This article reports comparative study of 150-300 W class photovoltaic inverters (Si inverter, SiC inverter 1, and SiC inverter 2). In these sub-kW class inverters, the ON-resistance was considered to have little influence on the efficiency. The developed SiC inverters, however, have exhibited an approximately 3% higher direct current (DC)-alternating current (AC) conversion efficiency as compared to the Si inverter. Power loss analysis indicated a reduction in the switching and reverse recovery losses of SiC metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors used for the DC-AC converter is responsible for this improvement. In the SiC inverter 2, an increase of the switching frequency up to 100 kHz achieved a state-of-the-art combination of the weight (1.25 kg) and the volume (1260 cm3) as a 150-250 W class inverter. Even though the increased switching frequency should cause the increase of the switching losses, the SiC inverter 2 exhibited an efficiency comparable to the SiC inverter 1 with a switching frequency of 20 kHz. The power loss analysis also indicated a decreased loss of the DC-DC converter built with SiC Schottky barrier diodes led to the high efficiency for its increased switching frequency. These results clearly indicated feasibility of SiC devices even for sub-kW photovoltaic inverters, which will be available for the applications where compactness and efficiency are of tremendous importance.

  18. Effect of SiC particles on microarc oxidation process of magnesium matrix composites

    Wang, Y.Q.; Wang, X.J.; Gong, W.X.; Wu, K.; Wang, F.H.

    2013-01-01

    SiC particles are an important reinforced phase in metal matrix composites. Their effect on the microarc oxidation (MAO, also named plasma electrolytic oxidation-PEO) process of SiC p /AZ91 Mg matrix composites (MMCs) was studied and the mechanism was revealed. The corrosion resistance of MAO coating was also investigated. Voltage–time curves during MAO were recorded to study the barrier film status on the composites. Scanning electron microscopy was used to characterize the existing state of SiC particles in MAO. Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to analyze the chemical composition of the coating. Corrosion resistance of the bare and coated composites was evaluated by potentiodynamic polarization curves in 3.5% NaCl solution. Results showed that the integrality and electrical insulation properties of the barrier film on the composites were destroyed by the SiC particles. Consequently, the sparking discharge at the early stage of MAO was inhibited, and the growth efficiency of the MAO coating decreased with the increase in the volume fraction of SiC particles. SiC particles did not exist stably during MAO; they were oxidized or partially oxidized into SiO 2 before the overall sparking discharge. The transformation from semi-conductive SiC to insulating SiO 2 by oxidation restrained the current leakage at the original SiC positions and then promoted sparking discharge and coating growth. The corrosion current density of SiC p /AZ91 MMCs was reduced by two orders of magnitude after MAO treatment. However, the corrosion resistances of the coated composites were lower than that of the coated alloy.

  19. Residual stresses and mechanical properties of Si3N4/SiC multilayered composites with different SiC layers; Las tensiones residuales y las propiedades mecánicas de compuestos multicapa de Si3N4/SiC con diferentes capas de SiC

    Liua, S.; Lia, Y.; Chena, P.; Lia, W.; Gaoa, S.; Zhang, B.; Yeb, F.

    2017-11-01

    The effect of residual stresses on the strength, toughness and work of fracture of Si3N4/SiC multilayered composites with different SiC layers has been investigated. It may be an effective way to design and optimize the mechanical properties of Si3N4/SiC multilayered composites by controlling the properties of SiC layers. Si3N4/SiC multilayered composites with different SiC layers were fabricated by aqueous tape casting and pressureless sintering. Residual stresses were calculated by using ANSYS simulation, the maximum values of tensile and compressive stresses were 553.2MPa and −552.1MPa, respectively. Step-like fracture was observed from the fracture surfaces. Fraction of delamination layers increased with the residual stress, which can improve the reliability of the materials. Tensile residual stress was benefit to improving toughness and work of fracture, but the strength of the composites decreased. [Spanish] Se ha investigado el efecto de las tensiones residuales en la resistencia, dureza y trabajo de fractura de los compuestos multicapa de Si3N4/SiC con diferentes capas de SiC. Puede ser una manera eficaz de diseñar y optimizar las propiedades mecánicas de los compuestos multicapa de Si3N4/SiC mediante el control de las propiedades de las capas de SiC. Los compuestos multicapa de Si3N4/SiC con diferentes capas de SiC se fabricaron por medio de colado en cinta en medio acuoso y sinterización sin presión. Las tensiones residuales se calcularon mediante el uso de la simulación ANSYS, los valores máximos de las fuerzas de tracción y compresión fueron 553,2 MPa y −552,1 MPa, respectivamente. Se observó una fractura escalonada a partir de las superficies de fractura. La fracción de capas de deslaminación aumenta con la tensión residual, lo que puede mejorar la fiabilidad de los materiales. La fuerza de tracción residual era beneficiosa para la mejora de la dureza y el trabajo de fractura, pero la resistencia de los compuestos disminuyó.

  20. The influence of various dielectric parameters on the reststrahlen region of SiC

    Engelbrecht, J.A.A.; Rooyen, I.J. van

    2011-01-01

    The reststrahlen region of SiC is analysed with the goal of establishing the origin of different shapes of this band, by varying the dielectric parameters involved when simulating the reststrahlen region as obtained by infrared reflectance. -- Research highlights: → An anomalous peak observed in the reststrahlen band of SiC was investigated. → The reflection spectrum of SiC in the reststrahlen region was simulated by theoretical calculations. → The influence on the reststrahlen band of the dielectric parameters used in the simulations is discussed. → Dielectric parameters used in the simulations did not yield the anomalous peak that is observed experimentally.

  1. The influence of various dielectric parameters on the reststrahlen region of SiC

    Engelbrecht, J.A.A., E-mail: Japie.Engelbrecht@nmmu.ac.z [Physics Department, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, PO Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Rooyen, I.J. van [Physics Department, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, PO Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); National Laser Centre, CSIR, PO Box 395, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa)

    2011-02-01

    The reststrahlen region of SiC is analysed with the goal of establishing the origin of different shapes of this band, by varying the dielectric parameters involved when simulating the reststrahlen region as obtained by infrared reflectance. -- Research highlights: {yields} An anomalous peak observed in the reststrahlen band of SiC was investigated. {yields} The reflection spectrum of SiC in the reststrahlen region was simulated by theoretical calculations. {yields} The influence on the reststrahlen band of the dielectric parameters used in the simulations is discussed. {yields} Dielectric parameters used in the simulations did not yield the anomalous peak that is observed experimentally.

  2. Synthesis of nanostructured SiC using the pulsed laser deposition technique

    Zhang, H.X.; Feng, P.X.; Makarov, V.; Weiner, B.R.; Morell, G.

    2009-01-01

    We report the new results on the direct synthesis of nanostructured silicon carbide (SiC) materials using the pulsed laser deposition technique. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed that SiC nanoholes, nanosprouts, nanowires, and nanoneedles were obtained. The crystallographic structure, chemical composition, and bond structure of the nanoscale SiC materials were investigated using X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Raman scattering spectroscopy. The transverse optical mode and longitudinal optical mode in Raman spectra were found to become sharper as the substrate temperature was increased, while the material structure evolved from amorphous to crystalline

  3. A route to strong p-doping of epitaxial graphene on SiC

    Cheng, Yingchun

    2010-11-09

    The effects of Au intercalation on the electronic properties of epitaxialgraphenegrown on SiC{0001} substrates are studied using first principles calculations. A graphenemonolayer on SiC{0001} restores the shape of the pristine graphene dispersion, where doping levels between strongly n-doped and weakly p-doped can be achieved by altering the Au coverage. We predict that Au intercalation between the two C layers of bilayer graphenegrown on SiC{0001} makes it possible to achieve a strongly p-doped graphene state, where the p-doping level can be controlled by means of the Au coverage.

  4. Investigation on the Short Circuit Safe Operation Area of SiC MOSFET Power Modules

    Reigosa, Paula Diaz; Luo, Haoze; Iannuzzo, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    This paper gives a better insight of the short circuit capability of state-of-the-art SiC MOSFET power modules rated at 1.2 kV by highlighting the physical limits under different operating conditions. Two different failure mechanisms have been identified, both reducing the short-circuit capability...... of SiC power modules in respect to discrete SiC devices. Based on such failure mechanisms, two short circuit criteria (i.e., short circuit current-based criterion and gate voltage-based criterion) are proposed in order to ensure their robustness under short-circuit conditions. A Safe Operation Area (SOA...

  5. Effects of SiC and MgO on aluminabased ceramic foams filters

    CAO Da-li; ZHOU Jing-yi; JIN Yong-ming

    2007-01-01

    Alumina-based foam ceramic filters were fabricated by using alumina, SiC, magnesia powder as major materials. It has been found that this ceramic filter has a uniform macrostructure for filtering molten metals. The influences of SiC and magnesia content, the sintering temperatures on ceramic properties were discussed. Aluminabased foam ceramic filters containing 2.2 mass% magnesia and 7.6 mass% SiC has a compressive strength of 1.36 MPa and a thermal shock resistance of 5 times. Its main phas...

  6. Effects of SiC and MgO on aluminabased ceramic foams filters

    CAO Da-li

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Alumina-based foam ceramic filters were fabricated by using alumina, SiC, magnesia powder as major materials. It has been found that this ceramic filter has a uniform macrostructure for filtering molten metals. The influences of SiC and magnesia content, the sintering temperatures on ceramic properties were discussed. Aluminabased foam ceramic filters containing 2.2 mass% magnesia and 7.6 mass% SiC has a compressive strength of 1.36 MPa and a thermal shock resistance of 5 times. Its main phases after 1 hour sintering at 1 500 consist of alumina, silicon carbide, spinel and mullite.

  7. Pulsed laser deposition of SiC thin films at medium substrate temperatures

    Katharria, Y.S.; Kumar, Sandeep; Choudhary, R.J.; Prakash, Ram; Singh, F.; Lalla, N.P.; Phase, D.M.; Kanjilal, D.

    2008-01-01

    Systematic studies of thin silicon carbide (SiC) films deposited on Si (100) substrates using pulsed laser deposition technique at room temperature, 370 deg. C and 480 deg. C are carried out. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed the formation of SiC bonds in the films at these temperatures along with some graphitic carbon clusters. Fourier transform infrared analysis also confirmed the formation of SiC nanocrystallites in the films. Transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction were used to study the structural properties of nanocrystallites formed in the films. Surface morphological analysis using atomic force microscopy revealed the growth of smooth films

  8. GREENHOUSE-GROWN CAPE GOOSEBERRY

    /2006 S 4,00. Printed in Uganda. All rights reserved O2006, African Crop Science Society. SHORT COMMINICATION. EFFECT OF GIBBERRELLIC ACID ON GROWTH AND FRUIT YIELD OF. GREENHOUSE-GROWN CAPE GOOSEBERRY.

  9. D-region ion-neutral coupled chemistry (Sodankylä Ion Chemistry, SIC) within the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM 4) - WACCM-SIC and WACCM-rSIC

    Kovács, Tamás; Plane, John M. C.; Feng, Wuhu; Nagy, Tibor; Chipperfield, Martyn P.; Verronen, Pekka T.; Andersson, Monika E.; Newnham, David A.; Clilverd, Mark A.; Marsh, Daniel R.

    2016-09-01

    This study presents a new ion-neutral chemical model coupled into the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM). The ionospheric D-region (altitudes ˜ 50-90 km) chemistry is based on the Sodankylä Ion Chemistry (SIC) model, a one-dimensional model containing 307 ion-neutral and ion recombination, 16 photodissociation and 7 photoionization reactions of neutral species, positive and negative ions, and electrons. The SIC mechanism was reduced using the simulation error minimization connectivity method (SEM-CM) to produce a reaction scheme of 181 ion-molecule reactions of 181 ion-molecule reactions of 27 positive and 18 negative ions. This scheme describes the concentration profiles at altitudes between 20 km and 120 km of a set of major neutral species (HNO3, O3, H2O2, NO, NO2, HO2, OH, N2O5) and ions (O2+, O4+, NO+, NO+(H2O), O2+(H2O), H+(H2O), H+(H2O)2, H+(H2O)3, H+(H2O)4, O3-, NO2-, O-, O2, OH-, O2-(H2O), O2-(H2O)2, O4-, CO3-, CO3-(H2O), CO4-, HCO3-, NO2-, NO3-, NO3-(H2O), NO3-(H2O)2, NO3-(HNO3), NO3-(HNO3)2, Cl-, ClO-), which agree with the full SIC mechanism within a 5 % tolerance. Four 3-D model simulations were then performed, using the impact of the January 2005 solar proton event (SPE) on D-region HOx and NOx chemistry as a test case of four different model versions: the standard WACCM (no negative ions and a very limited set of positive ions); WACCM-SIC (standard WACCM with the full SIC chemistry of positive and negative ions); WACCM-D (standard WACCM with a heuristic reduction of the SIC chemistry, recently used to examine HNO3 formation following an SPE); and WACCM-rSIC (standard WACCM with a reduction of SIC chemistry using the SEM-CM method). The standard WACCM misses the HNO3 enhancement during the SPE, while the full and reduced model versions predict significant NOx, HOx and HNO3 enhancements in the mesosphere during solar proton events. The SEM-CM reduction also identifies the important ion-molecule reactions that affect the partitioning of

  10. Stress evolution of GaN/AlN heterostructure grown on 6H-SiC substrate by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    Agrawal, M.; Ravikiran, L.; Dharmarasu, N.; Radhakrishnan, K.; Karthikeyan, G. S.; Zheng, Y.

    2017-01-01

    The stress evolution of GaN/AlN heterostructure grown on 6H-SiC substrate by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PA-MBE) has been studied. AlN nucleation layer and GaN layer were grown as a function of III/V ratio. GaN/AlN structure is found to form buried cracks when AlN is grown in the intermediate growth regime(III/V˜1)and GaN is grown under N-rich growth regime (III/VHEMT) heterostructure was demonstrated on 2-inch SiC that showed good two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) properties with a sheet resistance of 480 Ω/sq, mobility of 1280 cm2/V.s and sheet carrier density of 1×1013 cm-2.

  11. Electrical transport effects due to oxygen content modifications in a Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ superconducting whisker

    Cagliero, Stefano; Agostino, Angelo; Bonometti, Elisabetta; Truccato, Marco

    2007-01-01

    We report a set of resistivity measurements along the a-axis of a Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+δ microscopic superconducting whisker. The effect of the storage environment on sample ageing has been studied, considering both an air atmosphere at 273 K and a helium atmosphere at about 300 K for an overall storage time of about 100 days. It is clearly shown that the material underwent a remarkable resistivity increase of 26% at 260 K accompanied by a decrease in the critical temperature of 0.6 K during the whole ageing period. The helium atmosphere increased the average process rate by about two orders of magnitude. The present results are in agreement with previous findings on room temperature structural modifications in Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+δ whiskers and can be ascribed to oxygen depletion phenomena from the material

  12. Dynamic mixed state in micron bridges on the basis of Bi sub 2 Sr sub 2 CaCu sub 2 O sub x whiskers

    Zybtsev, S G; Pokrovskii, V Yu

    2001-01-01

    One studied destruction of superconductivity by current in BSCCO (2212) single-crystal whiskers and in bridges based on them with dimensions of the order of the magnetic field penetration efficient depth. One measured the volt-ampere characteristics (VAC) of micron bridges made of Bi sub 2 Sr sub 2 CaCu sub 2 O sub x single-crystal whiskers. It was detected that at temperatures below temperature of superconducting transition in VAC one observed current quasi-periodic abrupt changes of voltage with portions of the constant differential resistance the value of which was proportional to the number of abrupt change. In the narrowest (0.5-1 mu m) bridges one observed up to 10 abrupt changes of voltage. The result is explained by formation of vortex lines under the effect of current

  13. Extraction and characterization of cellulose nano whiskers from balsa wood; Extracao e caracterizacao de nanocristais de celulose obtidos da madeira balsa

    Morelli, Carolina L.; Bretas, Rosario E.S., E-mail: bretas@ufscar.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos - UFSCar, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Marconcini, Jose M. [Embrapa Instrumentacao, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Pereira, Fabiano V. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais - UFMG, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Branciforti, Marcia C. [Universidade de Sao Paulo - USP, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    In this study cellulose nano whiskers were obtained from balsa wood. For this purpose, fibers of balsa wood were subjected to hydrolysis reactions for lignin and hemi cellulose digestion and acquisition of nano-scale cellulose. Cellulose nano crystals obtained had medium length and thickness of 176 nm and 7 nm respectively. Infrared spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction showed that the process used for extracting nano whiskers could digest nearly all the lignin and hemi cellulose from the balsa fiber and still preserve the aspect ratio and crystallinity, satisfactory enough for future application in polymer nano composites. Thermogravimetry showed that the onset temperature of thermal degradation of cellulose nano crystals (226 degree C) was higher than the temperature of the balsa fiber (215 degree C), allowing its use in molding processes with many polymers from the molten state.(author)

  14. Fabrication of mullite-bonded porous SiC ceramics from multilayer-coated SiC particles through sol-gel and in-situ polymerization techniques

    Ebrahimpour, Omid

    In this work, mullite-bonded porous silicon carbide (SiC) ceramics were prepared via a reaction bonding technique with the assistance of a sol-gel technique or in-situ polymerization as well as a combination of these techniques. In a typical procedure, SiC particles were first coated by alumina using calcined powder and alumina sol via a sol-gel technique followed by drying and passing through a screen. Subsequently, they were coated with the desired amount of polyethylene via an in-situ polymerization technique in a slurry phase reactor using a Ziegler-Natta catalyst. Afterward, the coated powders were dried again and passed through a screen before being pressed into a rectangular mold to make a green body. During the heating process, the polyethylene was burnt out to form pores at a temperature of about 500°C. Increasing the temperature above 800°C led to the partial oxidation of SiC particles to silica. At higher temperatures (above 1400°C) derived silica reacted with alumina to form mullite, which bonds SiC particles together. The porous SiC specimens were characterized with various techniques. The first part of the project was devoted to investigating the oxidation of SiC particles using a Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) apparatus. The effects of particle size (micro and nano) and oxidation temperature (910°C--1010°C) as well as the initial mass of SiC particles in TGA on the oxidation behaviour of SiC powders were evaluated. To illustrate the oxidation rate of SiC in the packed bed state, a new kinetic model, which takes into account all of the diffusion steps (bulk, inter and intra particle diffusion) and surface oxidation rate, was proposed. Furthermore, the oxidation of SiC particles was analyzed by the X-ray Diffraction (XRD) technique. The effect of different alumina sources (calcined Al2O 3, alumina sol or a combination of the two) on the mechanical, physical, and crystalline structure of mullite-bonded porous SiC ceramics was studied in the

  15. Real-time observation of growth and orientation of Sm-Ba-Cu-O phases on a Sm-211 whisker substrate by high-temperature optical microscopy

    Sun, J.L.; Huang, Y.B.; Cheng, L.; Yao, X.; Lai, Y.J.; Jirsa, Miloš

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 2 (2009), 898-902 ISSN 1528-7483 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/08/0722 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : high-temperature optical microscopy * growth and orientation of Sm-Ba-Cu-O phases * Sm-211 whisker substrate Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 4.162, year: 2009

  16. The annealing effects on irradiated SiC piezo resistive pressure sensor

    Almaz, E.; Blue, T. E.; Zhang, P.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of temperature on annealing of Silicon Carbide (SiC) piezo resistive pressure sensor which was broken after high fluence neutron irradiation, were investigated. Previously, SiC piezo resistive sensor irradiated with gamma ray and fast neutron in the Co-60 gamma-ray irradiator and Beam Port 1 (BP1) and Auxiliary Irradiation Facility (AIF) at the Ohio State University Nuclear Reactor Laboratory (OSUNRL) respectively. The Annealing temperatures were tested up to 400 C. The Pressure-Output voltage results showed recovery after annealing process on SiC piezo resistive pressure sensor. The bridge resistances of the SiC pressure sensor stayed at the same level up to 300 C. After 400 C annealing, the resistance values changed dramatically.

  17. Properties of SiC semiconductor detector of fast neutrons investigated using MCNPX code

    Sedlakova, K.; Sagatova, A.; Necas, V.; Zatko, B.

    2013-01-01

    The potential of silicon carbide (SiC) for use in semiconductor nuclear radiation detectors has been long recognized. The wide bandgap of SiC (3.25 eV for 4H-SiC polytype) compared to that for more conventionally used semiconductors, such as silicon (1.12 eV) and germanium (0.67 eV), makes SiC an attractive semiconductor for use in high dose rate and high ionization nuclear environments. The present work focused on the simulation of particle transport in SiC detectors of fast neutrons using statistical analysis of Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNPX. Its possibilities in detector design and optimization are presented.(authors)

  18. Large area SiC coating technology of RBSC for semiconductor processing component

    Park, Ji Yeon; Kim, Weon Ju

    2001-06-01

    As the semiconductor process is developed for the larger area wafer and the larger-scale integration, the processing fixtures are required to have excellent mechanical and high temperature properties. This highlights the importance of silicon carbide-based materials as a substitute for quartz-based susceptors. In this study, SiC coating technology on reaction sintered (RS) SiC with thickness variation of +/- 10% within a diameter of 8 inch by low pressure chemical vapor deposition has been developed for making a plate type SiC fixture such as heater, baffle, etc., with a diameter of 12 inch. Additionally, a state of art on fabrication technology and products of the current commercial SiC fixtures has been described.

  19. Breakthrough in Power Electronics from SiC: May 25, 2004 - May 31, 2005

    Marckx, D. A.

    2006-03-01

    This report explores the premise that silicon carbide (SiC) devices would reduce substantially the cost of energy of large wind turbines that need power electronics for variable speed generation systems.

  20. Deposition of thin ultrafiltration membranes on commercial SiC microfiltration tubes

    Facciotti, Marco; Boffa, Vittorio; Magnacca, Giuliana

    2014-01-01

    Porous SiC based materials present high mechanical, chemical and thermal robustness, and thus have been largely applied to water-filtration technologies. In this study, commercial SiC microfiltration tubes with nominal pore size of 0.04 m were used as carrier for depositing thin aluminium oxide....... After 5 times coating, a 5.6 µm thick γ-Al2O3 layer was obtained. This membrane shows retention of ~75% for polyethylene glycol molecules with Mn of 8 and 35 kDa, indicating that, despite their intrinsic surface roughness, commercial SiC microfiltration tubes can be applied as carrier for thin...... ultrafiltration membranes. This work also indicates that an improvement of the commercial SiC support surface smoothness may greatly enhance permeance and selectivity of Υ-Al2O3 ultrafiltration membranes by allowing the deposition of thinner defect-free layers....

  1. FABRICATION AND MATERIAL ISSUES FOR THE APPLICATION OF SiC COMPOSITES TO LWR FUEL CLADDING

    WEON-JU KIM

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The fabrication methods and requirements of the fiber, interphase, and matrix of nuclear grade SiCf/SiC composites are briefly reviewed. A CVI-processed SiCf/SiC composite with a PyC or (PyC-SiCn interphase utilizing Hi-Nicalon Type S or Tyranno SA3 fiber is currently the best combination in terms of the irradiation performance. We also describe important material issues for the application of SiC composites to LWR fuel cladding. The kinetics of the SiC corrosion under LWR conditions needs to be clarified to confirm the possibility of a burn-up extension and the cost-benefit effect of the SiC composite cladding. In addition, the development of end-plug joining technology and fission products retention capability of the ceramic composite tube would be key challenges for the successful application of SiC composite cladding.

  2. SiC Armor Tiles via Magnetic Compaction and Pressureless Sintering

    Chelluri, Bhanu; Knoth, Ed A; Franks, L. P

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the SBIR, entitled "Continuous Dynamic Processing of Ceramic Tiles for Ground Vehicle Protection", was to create a high rate, cost effective manufacturing method for producing silicon carbide (SiC...

  3. Mechanism of Si intercalation in defective graphene on SiC

    Kaloni, Thaneshwor P.; Cheng, Yingchun; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo; Upadhyay Kahaly, M.

    2012-01-01

    Previously reported experimental findings on Si-intercalated graphene on SiC(0001) seem to indicate the possibility of an intercalation process based on the migration of the intercalant through atomic defects in the graphene sheet. We employ density

  4. Ultra-Lightweight, High Efficiency Silicon-Carbide (SIC) Based Power Electronic Converters, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business of Innovation Research Phase I proposal seeks to investigate and prove the feasibility of developing highly efficient, ultra-lightweight SiC...

  5. SiC nanocrystals as Pt catalyst supports for fuel cell applications

    Dhiman, Rajnish; Morgen, Per; Skou, E.M.

    2013-01-01

    A robust catalyst support is pivotal to Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFCs) to overcome challenges such as catalyst support corrosion, low catalyst utilization and overall capital cost. SiC is a promising candidate material which could be applied as a catalyst support in PEMFCs. Si...... on the nanocrystals of SiC-SPR and SiC-NS by the polyol method. The SiC substrates are subjected to an acid treatment to introduce the surface groups, which help to anchor the Pt nano-catalysts. These SiC based catalysts have been found to have a higher electrochemical activity than commercially available Vulcan...... based catalysts (BASF & HISPEC). These promising results signal a new era of SiC based catalysts for fuel cell applications....

  6. Silicon Carbide (SiC) Power Processing Unit (PPU) for Hall Effect Thrusters, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this SBIR project, APEI, Inc. is proposing to develop a high efficiency, rad-hard 3.8 kW silicon carbide (SiC) Power Processing Unit (PPU) for Hall Effect...

  7. Large area SiC coating technology of RBSC for semiconductor processing component

    Park, Ji Yeon; Kim, Weon Ju

    2001-06-01

    As the semiconductor process is developed for the larger area wafer and the larger-scale integration, the processing fixtures are required to have excellent mechanical and high temperature properties. This highlights the importance of silicon carbide-based materials as a substitute for quartz-based susceptors. In this study, SiC coating technology on reaction sintered (RS) SiC with thickness variation of +/- 10% within a diameter of 8 inch by low pressure chemical vapor deposition has been developed for making a plate type SiC fixture such as heater, baffle, etc., with a diameter of 12 inch. Additionally, a state of art on fabrication technology and products of the current commercial SiC fixtures has been described

  8. Preparation and infrared absorption properties of buried SiC layers

    Yan Hui; Chen Guanghua; Wong, S.P.; Kwok, R.W.M.

    1997-01-01

    Buried SiC layers were formed by using a metal vapor vacuum arc (MEVVA) ion source, with C + ions implanted into Si substrates under different doses. In the present study, the extracted voltage was 50 kV and the ion dose was varied from 3.0 x 10 17 to 1.6 x 10 18 cm -2 . According to infrared absorption measurements, it was fount that the structure of the buried SiC layers depended on the ion dose. Moreover, the results also demonstrated that the buried SiC layers including cubic crystalline SiC could be synthesized at an averaged substrate temperature of lower than 400 degree C with the MEVVA ion source

  9. Switching Investigations on a SiC MOSFET in a TO-247 Package

    Anthon, Alexander; Hernandez Botella, Juan Carlos; Zhang, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the switching behavior of a SiC MOSFET in a TO-247 package. Based on simulations, critical parasitic inductances in the circuit layout are analyzed and their effect on the switching losses highlighted. Especially the common source inductance, a critical parameter in a TO-247...... package, has a major influence on the switching energy. Crucial design guidelines for an improved double pulse test circuit are introduced which are used for practical investigations on the switching behavior. Switching energies of a SiC MOSFET in a TO-247 package is measured depending on varying gate...... resistance and loop inductances. With total switching energy of 340.24 μJ, the SiC MOSFET has more than six times lower switching losses than a regular Si IGBT. Implementing the SiC switches in a 3 kW T-Type inverter topology, efficiency improvements of 0.8 % are achieved and maximum efficiency of 97...

  10. Trapping Effects in GaN and SiC Microwave FETs

    Binari, Steven C; Klein, P. B; Kazior, Thomas E

    2002-01-01

    ...). This is particularly true for the wide bandgap devices. In this paper, we review the various trapping phenomena observed in SiC- and GaN-based FETs that contribute to compromised power performance...

  11. Recent progress of ultrahigh voltage SiC devices for particle accelerator

    Fukuda, Kenji; Tsuji, Takashi; Shiomi, Hiromu; Mizushima, Tomonori; Yonezawa, Yoshiyuki; Kondo, Chikara; Otake, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) is the promising material for next power electronics technology used in the field such as HEV, EV, and railway, electric power infrastructure. SiC enables power devices with low loss to easily operate in an ultrahigh-voltage region because of the high breakdown electric field of SiC. In this paper, we report static and dynamic electric performances of 3300 V class SiC SBDs, IE-MOSFETs, >10 kV PiN diodes and IE-IGBTs. Especially, the electrical characteristics of IE-IGBT with the blocking voltage of 16.5 kV indicate the sufficient ability to convert the thyratron in high power RF system of an accelerator. (author)

  12. Research Progress on Preparation for Biomass-based SiC Ceramic

    CUI He-shuai

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Silicon carbide (SiC ceramics prepared by the conventional process has excellent properties and wide application prospects, but the increased cost of high-temperature preparation process restricts its further development. In contrast, the abundant porous structure of biomass makes itself to be ideal replacement of SiC ceramic prepared at low temperature. This paper reviewed the structure characteristics, preparation methods, pyrolysis mechanism and influence parameters of biomass-based SiC ceramic, and eventually explored the current problems and development trends of the pretreatment of carbon source and silicon source, the pyrolysis process and the application research on the preparation for biomass-based SiC ceramic.

  13. Synthesis of boron nitride nanotubes with SiC nanowire as template

    Zhong, B.; Song, L.; Huang, X.X.; Wen, G.W.; Xia, L.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) have been fabricated using SiC nanowires as template. → SiC nanowires could be effectively etched out by the vapors decomposed from ammonia borane, leading to the formation of BNNTs. → A template self-sacrificing mechanism is responsible for the formation of BNNTs. -- Abstract: A novel template method for the preparation of boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) using SiC nanowire as template and ammonia borane as precursor is reported. We find out that the SiC nanowires could be effectively etched out by the vapors decomposed from ammonia borane, leading to the formation of BNNTs. The as-prepared products are well characterized by means of complementary analytical techniques. A possible formation mechanism is disclosed. The method developed here paves the way for large scale production of BNNTs.

  14. Near-surface and bulk behavior of Ag in SiC

    Xiao, H.Y.; Zhang, Y.; Snead, L.L.; Shutthanandan, V.; Xue, H.Z.; Weber, W.J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Ag release from SiC poses problems in safe operation of nuclear reactors. ► Near-surface and bulk behavior of Ag are studied by ab initio and ion beam methods. ► Ag prefers to adsorb on the surface rather than in the bulk SiC. ► At high temperature Ag desorbs from the surface instead of diffusion into bulk SiC. ► Surface diffusion may be a dominating mechanism accounting for Ag release from SiC. - Abstract: The diffusive release of fission products, such as Ag, from TRISO particles at high temperatures has raised concerns regarding safe and economic operation of advanced nuclear reactors. Understanding the mechanisms of Ag diffusion is thus of crucial importance for effective retention of fission products. Two mechanisms, i.e., grain boundary diffusion and vapor or surface diffusion through macroscopic structures such as nano-pores or nano-cracks, remain in debate. In the present work, an integrated computational and experimental study of the near-surface and bulk behavior of Ag in silicon carbide (SiC) has been carried out. The ab initio calculations show that Ag prefers to adsorb on the SiC surface rather than in the bulk, and the mobility of Ag on the surface is high. The energy barrier for Ag desorption from the surface is calculated to be 0.85–1.68 eV, and Ag migration into bulk SiC through equilibrium diffusion process is not favorable. Experimentally, Ag ions are implanted into SiC to produce Ag profiles buried in the bulk and peaked at the surface. High-temperature annealing leads to Ag release from the surface region instead of diffusion into the interior of SiC. It is suggested that surface diffusion through mechanical structural imperfection, such as vapor transport through cracks in SiC coatings, may be a dominating mechanism accounting for Ag release from the SiC in the nuclear reactor.

  15. The development of chemically vapor deposited mullite coatings for the corrosion protection of SiC

    Auger, M.; Hou, P.; Sengupta, A.; Basu, S.; Sarin, V. [Boston Univ., MA (United States)

    1998-05-01

    Crystalline mullite coatings have been chemically vapor deposited onto SiC substrates to enhance the corrosion and oxidation resistance of the substrate. Current research has been divided into three distinct areas: (1) Development of the deposition processing conditions for increased control over coating`s growth rate, microstructure, and morphology; (2) Analysis of the coating`s crystal structure and stability; (3) The corrosion resistance of the CVD mullite coating on SiC.

  16. Effect of high temperature annealing on the microstructure of SCS-6 SiC fibers

    Ning, X. J.; Pirouz, P.; Bhatt, R. T.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of annealing the SCS-6 SiC fiber for one hour at 2000 C in an argon atmosphere is reported. The SiC grains in the fiber coarsen appreciably and the intergranular carbon films segregate to the grain junctions. It would appear that grain growth in the outer part of the fiber is primarily responsible for the loss in fiber strength and improvement in fiber creep resistance.

  17. The origin of a peak in the reststrahlen region of SiC

    Engelbrecht, J.A.A.; Rooyen, I.J. van; Henry, A.; Janzén, E.; Olivier, E.J.

    2012-01-01

    A peak in the reststrahlen region of SiC is analyzed in order to establish the origin of this peak. The peak can be associated with a thin damaged layer on the SiC wafers, and a relation is found between surface roughness and the height of this peak, by modeling the damaged layer as an additional layer when simulating the reflectivity from the wafers.

  18. The origin of a peak in the reststrahlen region of SiC

    Engelbrecht, J.A.A., E-mail: Japie.Engelbrecht@nmmu.ac.za [Physics Department, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, PO Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Rooyen, I.J. van [Physics Department, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, PO Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Henry, A.; Janzen, E. [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linkoeping University, SE-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden); Olivier, E.J. [Physics Department, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, PO Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa)

    2012-05-15

    A peak in the reststrahlen region of SiC is analyzed in order to establish the origin of this peak. The peak can be associated with a thin damaged layer on the SiC wafers, and a relation is found between surface roughness and the height of this peak, by modeling the damaged layer as an additional layer when simulating the reflectivity from the wafers.

  19. Development of Universal Controller Architecture for SiC Based Power Electronic Building Blocks

    2017-10-30

    SiC Based Power Electronic Building Blocks Award Number Title of Research 30 October 2017 SUBMITTED BY D R. HERBERT L. G INN, Pl DEPT. OF...Naval Research , Philadelphia PA, Aug. 2017. • Ginn, H.L. Bakos J., "Development of Universal Controller Architecture for SiC Based Power Electronic...Controller Implementation for MMC Converters", Workshop on Control Architectures for Modular Power Conversion Systems, Office of Naval Research , Arlington VA

  20. SiC: An Agent Based Architecture for Preventing and Detecting Attacks to Ubiquitous Databases

    Pinzón, Cristian; de Paz Santana, Yanira; Bajo Pérez, Javier; Abraham, Ajith P.; Corchado Rodríguez, Juan M.

    2009-01-01

    One of the main attacks to ubiquitous databases is the structure query language (SQL) injection attack, which causes severe damages both in the commercial aspect and in the user’s confidence. This chapter proposes the SiC architecture as a solution to the SQL injection attack problem. This is a hierarchical distributed multiagent architecture, which involves an entirely new approach with respect to existing architectures for the prevention and detection of SQL injections. SiC incorporates a k...

  1. Manufacturing: SiC Power Electronics for Variable Frequency Motor Drives

    Horowitz, Kelsey A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bench Reese, Samantha R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Remo, Timothy W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-15

    This brochure, published as an annual research highlight of the Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CEMAC), summarizes CEMAC analysis of silicon carbide (SiC) power electronics for variable frequency motor drives. The key finding presented is that variations in manufacturing expertise, yields, and access to existing facilities impact regional costs and manufacturing location decisions for SiC ingots, wafers, chips, and power modules more than do core country-specific factors such as labor and electricity costs.

  2. Passivation of surface-nanostructured f-SiC and porous SiC

    Ou, Haiyan; Lu, Weifang; Ou, Yiyu

    The further enhancement of photoluminescence from nanostructured fluorescent silicon carbide (f-SiC) and porous SiC by using atomic layer deposited (ALD) Al2O3 is studied in this paper.......The further enhancement of photoluminescence from nanostructured fluorescent silicon carbide (f-SiC) and porous SiC by using atomic layer deposited (ALD) Al2O3 is studied in this paper....

  3. Associations of unilateral whisker and olfactory signals induce synapse formation and memory cell recruitment in bilateral barrel cortices: cellular mechanism for unilateral training toward bilateral memory

    Zilong Gao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Somatosensory signals and operative skills learned by unilateral limbs can be retrieved bilaterally. In terms of cellular mechanism underlying this unilateral learning toward bilateral memory, we hypothesized that associative memory cells in bilateral cortices and synapse innervations between them were produced. In the examination of this hypothesis, we have observed that paired unilateral whisker and odor stimulations led to odorant-induced whisker motions in bilateral sides, which were attenuated by inhibiting the activity of barrel cortices. In the mice that showed bilateral cross-modal responses, the neurons in both sides of barrel cortices became to encode this new odor signal alongside the innate whisker signal. Axon projections and synapse formations from the barrel cortex, which was co-activated with the piriform cortex, toward its contralateral barrel cortex were upregulated. Glutamatergic synaptic transmission in bilateral barrel cortices was upregulated and GABAergic synaptic transmission was downregulated. The associative activations of the sensory cortices facilitate new axon projection, glutamatergic synapse formation and GABAergic synapse downregulation, which drive the neurons to be recruited as associative memory cells in the bilateral cortices. Our data reveals the productions of associative memory cells and synapse innervations in bilateral sensory cortices for unilateral training toward bilateral memory.

  4. Hydrogen generation due to water splitting on Si - terminated 4H-Sic(0001) surfaces

    Li, Qingfang; Li, Qiqi; Yang, Cuihong; Rao, Weifeng

    2018-02-01

    The chemical reactions of hydrogen gas generation via water splitting on Si-terminated 4H-SiC surfaces with or without C/Si vacancies were studied by using first-principles. We studied the reaction mechanisms of hydrogen generation on the 4H-SiC(0001) surface. Our calculations demonstrate that there are major rearrangements in surface when H2O approaches the SiC(0001) surface. The first H splitting from water can occur with ground-state electronic structures. The second H splitting involves an energy barrier of 0.65 eV. However, the energy barrier for two H atoms desorbing from the Si-face and forming H2 gas is 3.04 eV. In addition, it is found that C and Si vacancies can form easier in SiC(0001)surfaces than in SiC bulk and nanoribbons. The C/Si vacancies introduced can enhance photocatalytic activities. It is easier to split OH on SiC(0001) surface with vacancies compared to the case of clean SiC surface. H2 can form on the 4H-SiC(0001) surface with C and Si vacancies if the energy barriers of 1.02 and 2.28 eV are surmounted, respectively. Therefore, SiC(0001) surface with C vacancy has potential applications in photocatalytic water-splitting.

  5. Preparation of biomorphic SiC ceramic by carbothermal reduction of oak wood charcoal

    Qian Junmin; Wang Jiping; Jin Zhihao

    2004-01-01

    Highly porous silicon carbide (SiC) ceramic with woodlike microstructure has been prepared at 1400-1600 deg. C by carbothermal reduction reaction of charcoal/silica composites in static argon atmosphere. These composites were fabricated by infiltrating silica sol into a porous biocarbon template from oak wood using a vacuum/pressure infiltration process. The morphology of resulting porous SiC ceramic, as well as the conversion mechanism of wood to porous SiC ceramic, have been investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques. Experimental results show that the biomorphic cellular morphology of oak wood charcoal is remained in the porous SiC ceramic with high precision that consists of β-SiC with traces of α-SiC. Silica in the charcoal/silica composites exists in the cellular pores in form of fibers and rods. The SiC strut material is formed by gas-solid reaction between SiO (g) and C (s) during the charcoal-to-ceramic conversion. The densification of SiC strut material may occur at moderate temperatures and holding time

  6. Preparation of biomorphic SiC ceramic by carbothermal reduction of oak wood charcoal

    Qian Junmin; Wang Jiping; Jin Zhihao

    2004-04-25

    Highly porous silicon carbide (SiC) ceramic with woodlike microstructure has been prepared at 1400-1600 deg. C by carbothermal reduction reaction of charcoal/silica composites in static argon atmosphere. These composites were fabricated by infiltrating silica sol into a porous biocarbon template from oak wood using a vacuum/pressure infiltration process. The morphology of resulting porous SiC ceramic, as well as the conversion mechanism of wood to porous SiC ceramic, have been investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques. Experimental results show that the biomorphic cellular morphology of oak wood charcoal is remained in the porous SiC ceramic with high precision that consists of {beta}-SiC with traces of {alpha}-SiC. Silica in the charcoal/silica composites exists in the cellular pores in form of fibers and rods. The SiC strut material is formed by gas-solid reaction between SiO (g) and C (s) during the charcoal-to-ceramic conversion. The densification of SiC strut material may occur at moderate temperatures and holding time.

  7. Features of film growth during plasma anodizing of Al 2024/SiC metal matrix composite

    Xue Wenbin [Key Laboratory for Radiation Beam Technology and Materials Modification, Institute of Low Energy Nuclear Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)]. E-mail: xuewb@bnu.edu.cn

    2006-07-15

    Plasma anodizing is a novel promising process to fabricate corrosion-resistant protective films on metal matrix composites. The corrosion-resistant films were prepared by plasma anodizing on SiC reinforced aluminum matrix composite. The morphology and microstructure of films were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Specifically, the morphology of residual SiC reinforcement particles in the film was observed. It is found that the most SiC reinforcement particles have been molten to become silicon oxide, but a few tiny SiC particles still remain in the film close to the composite/film interface. This interface is irregular due to the hindering effect of SiC particles on the film growth. Morphology and distribution of residual SiC particles in film provide direct evidence to identify the local melt occurs in the interior of plasma anodizing film even near the composite/film interface. A model of film growth by plasma anodizing on metal matrix composites was proposed.

  8. Applications, Prospects and Challenges of Silicon Carbide Junction Field Effect Transistor (SIC JFET

    Frederick Ojiemhende Ehiagwina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Properties of Silicon Carbide Junction Field Effect Transistor (SiC JFET such as high switching speed, low forward voltage drop and high temperature operation have attracted the interest of power electronic researchers and technologists, who for many years developed devices based on Silicon (Si.  A number of power system Engineers have made efforts to develop more robust equipment including circuits or modules with higher power density. However, it was realized that several available power semiconductor devices were approaching theoretical limits offered by Si material with respect to capability to block high voltage, provide low on-state voltage drop and switch at high frequencies. This paper presents an overview of the current applications of SiC JFET in circuits such as inverters, rectifiers and amplifiers. Other areas of application reviewed include; usage of the SiC JFET in pulse signal circuits and boost converters. Efforts directed toward mitigating the observed increase in electromagnetic interference were also discussed. It also presented some areas for further research, such as having more applications of SiC JFET in harsh, high temperature environment. More work is needed with regards to SiC JFET drivers so as to ensure stable and reliable operation, and reduction in the prices of SiC JFETs through mass production by industries.

  9. Electronic Structure and Chemical Bond of Ti3SiC2 and Adding Al Element

    MIN Xinmin; LU Ning; MEI Bingchu

    2006-01-01

    The relation among electronic structure, chemical bond and property of Ti3SiC2 and Al-doped was studied by density function and discrete variation (DFT-DVM) method. When Al element is added into Ti3SiC2, there is a less difference of ionic bond, which does not play a leading role to influent the properties. After adding Al, the covalent bond of Al and the near Ti becomes somewhat weaker, but the covalent bond of Al and the Si in the same layer is obviously stronger than that of Si and Si before adding. Therefore, in preparation of Ti3SiC2, adding a proper quantity of Al can promote the formation of Ti3SiC2. The density of state shows that there is a mixed conductor character in both of Ti3SiC2 and adding Al element. Ti3SiC2 is with more tendencies to form a semiconductor. The total density of state near Fermi lever after adding Al is larger than that before adding, so the electric conductivity may increase after adding Al.

  10. Temperature Dependence of Mechanical Properties of TRISO SiC Coatings

    Kim, Do Kyung; Park, Kwi Il; Lee, Hyeon Keun; Seong, Young Hoon; Lee, Seung Jun

    2009-04-01

    SiC coating layer has been introduced as protective layer in TRISO nuclear fuel particle of high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) due to excellent mechanical stability at high temperature. It is important to study for high temperature stability in SiC coating layers, because TRISO fuel particles were operating at high temperature around 1000 .deg. C. In this study, the nanoindentation test and micro tensile test were conducted in order to measure the mechanical properties of SiC coating layers at elevated temperature. SiC coating film was fabricated on the carbon substrate using chemical vapor deposition process with different microstructures and thicknesses. Nanoindentation test was performed for the analysis of the hardness, modulus and creep properties up to 500 .deg. C. Impression creep method applied to nanoindentation and creep properties of SiC coating layers were characterized by nanoindentation creep test. The fracture strength of SiC coating layers was measured by the micro tensile method at room temperature and 500 .deg. C. From the results, we can conclude that the hardness and fracture strength are decreased with temperature and no significant change in the modulus is observed with increase in temperature. The deformation mechanism for indentation creep and creep rate changes as the testing temperature increased

  11. Mechanical Properties and Elastic Constants Due to Damage Accumulation and Amorphization in SiC

    Gao, Fei; Weber, William J.

    2004-01-01

    Damage accumulation due to cascade overlap, which was simulated previously, has been used to study the changes of elastic constants, bulk and elastic moduli as a function of dose. These mechanical properties generally decrease with increasing dose, and the rapid decrease at low-dose level indicates that point defects and small clusters play an important role in the changes of elastic constants rather than topological disorder. The internal strain relaxation has no effect on the elastic constants, C11 and C12, in perfect SiC, but it has a significant influence on all elastic constants calculated in damaged SiC. The elastic constants in the cascade-amorphized (CA) SiC decrease about 19%, 29% and 46% for C11, C12 and C44, respectively. The bulk modulus decrease 23% and the elastic modulus decreases 29%, which is consistent with experimental measurements. The stability of both the perfect SiC and CA-SiC under hydrostatic tension has been also investigated. All mechanical properties in the CA-SiC exhibit behavior similar to that in perfect SiC, but the critical stress at which the CA-SiC becomes structurally unstable is one order of magnitude smaller than that for perfect SiC

  12. Feasibility study on the application of carbide (ZrC, SiC) for VHTR

    Park, Ji Yeon; Kim, Weon Ju; Jung, Choong Hwan; Ryu, Woo Seog; Kim, Si Hyeong; Jang, Moon Hee; Lee, Young Woo

    2006-08-15

    A feasibility study on the coating process of ZrC for the TRISO nuclear fuel and applications of SiC as high temperature materials for the core components has performed to develop the fabrication process for the advanced ZrC TRISO fuels and the high temperature structural components for VHTR, respectively. In the case of ZrC coating, studies were focused on the comparisons of the developed coating processes for screening of our technology, the evaluations of the reactions parameters for a ZrC deposition by the thermodynamic calculations and the preliminary coating experiments by the chloride process. With relate to SiC ceramics, our interesting items are as followings; an analysis of applications and specifications of the SiC components and collections of the SiC properties and establishments of data base. For these purposes, applications of SiC ceramics for the GEN-IV related components as well as the fusion reactor related ones were reviewed. Additionally, the on-going activities with related to the ZrC clad and the SiC composites discussed in the VHTR GIF-PMB, were reviewed to make the further research plans at the section 1 in chapter 3.

  13. Packaging Technologies for 500C SiC Electronics and Sensors

    Chen, Liang-Yu

    2013-01-01

    Various SiC electronics and sensors are currently under development for applications in 500C high temperature environments such as hot sections of aerospace engines and the surface of Venus. In order to conduct long-term test and eventually commercialize these SiC devices, compatible packaging technologies for the SiC electronics and sensors are required. This presentation reviews packaging technologies developed for 500C SiC electronics and sensors to address both component and subsystem level packaging needs for high temperature environments. The packaging system for high temperature SiC electronics includes ceramic chip-level packages, ceramic printed circuit boards (PCBs), and edge-connectors. High temperature durable die-attach and precious metal wire-bonding are used in the chip-level packaging process. A high temperature sensor package is specifically designed to address high temperature micro-fabricated capacitive pressure sensors for high differential pressure environments. This presentation describes development of these electronics and sensor packaging technologies, including some testing results of SiC electronics and capacitive pressure sensors using these packaging technologies.

  14. High temperature oxidation behavior of SiC coating in TRISO coated particles

    Liu, Rongzheng; Liu, Bing; Zhang, Kaihong; Liu, Malin; Shao, Youlin; Tang, Chunhe

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • High temperature oxidation tests of SiC coating in TRISO particles were carried out. • The dynamic oxidation process was established. • Oxidation mechanisms were proposed. • The existence of silicon oxycarbides at the SiO 2 /SiC interface was demonstrated. • Carbon was detected at the interface at high temperatures and long oxidation time. - Abstract: High temperature oxidation behavior of SiC coatings in tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) coated particles is crucial to the in-pile safety of fuel particles for a high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR). The postulated accident condition of air ingress was taken into account in evaluating the reliability of the SiC layer. Oxidation tests of SiC coatings were carried out in the ranges of temperature between 800 and 1600 °C and time between 1 and 48 h in air atmosphere. Based on the microstructure evolution of the oxide layer, the mechanisms and kinetics of the oxidation process were proposed. The existence of silicon oxycarbides (SiO x C y ) at the SiO 2 /SiC interface was demonstrated by X-ray photospectroscopy (XPS) analysis. Carbon was detected by Raman spectroscopy at the interface under conditions of very high temperatures and long oxidation time. From oxidation kinetics calculation, activation energies were 145 kJ/mol and 352 kJ/mol for the temperature ranges of 1200–1500 °C and 1550–1600 °C, respectively

  15. Features of film growth during plasma anodizing of Al 2024/SiC metal matrix composite

    Xue Wenbin

    2006-01-01

    Plasma anodizing is a novel promising process to fabricate corrosion-resistant protective films on metal matrix composites. The corrosion-resistant films were prepared by plasma anodizing on SiC reinforced aluminum matrix composite. The morphology and microstructure of films were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Specifically, the morphology of residual SiC reinforcement particles in the film was observed. It is found that the most SiC reinforcement particles have been molten to become silicon oxide, but a few tiny SiC particles still remain in the film close to the composite/film interface. This interface is irregular due to the hindering effect of SiC particles on the film growth. Morphology and distribution of residual SiC particles in film provide direct evidence to identify the local melt occurs in the interior of plasma anodizing film even near the composite/film interface. A model of film growth by plasma anodizing on metal matrix composites was proposed

  16. The effect of SiC particle size on the properties of Cu–SiC composites

    Celebi Efe, G.; Zeytin, S.; Bindal, C.

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The relative densities of Cu–SiC composites sintered at 700 °C for 2 h are ranged from 97.3% to 91.8% for SiC with 1 μm particle size and 97.5% to 95.2% for SiC with 5 μm particle size, microhardness of composites ranged from 143 to 167 HV for SiC having 1 μm particle size and 156–182 HVN for SiC having 5 μm particle size and the electrical conductivity of composites changed between 85.9% IACS and 55.7% IACS for SiC with 1 μm particle size, 87.9% IACS and 65.2%IACS for SiC with 5 μm particle size. It was found that electrical conductivity of composites containing SiC with 5 μm particle size is better than that of Cu–SiC composites containing SiC with particle size of 1 μm. Highlights: ► In this research, the effect of SiC particle size on some properties of Cu–SiC composites were investigated. ► The mechanical properties were improved. ► The electrical properties were obtained at desirable level. -- Abstract: SiC particulate-reinforced copper composites were prepared by powder metallurgy (PM) method and conventional atmospheric sintering. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques were used to characterize the sintered composites. The effect of SiC content and particle size on the relative density, hardness and electrical conductivity of composites were investigated. The relative densities of Cu–SiC composites sintered at 700 °C for 2 h are ranged from 97.3% to 91.8% for SiC with 1 μm particle size and from 97.5% to 95.2% for SiC with 5 μm particle size. Microhardness of composites ranged from 143 to 167 HV for SiC having 1 μm particle size and from 156 to 182 HV for SiC having 5 μm particle size. The electrical conductivity of composites changed between 85.9% IACS and 55.7% IACS for SiC with 1 μm particle size, between 87.9% IACS and 65.2% IACS for SiC with 5 μm particle size.

  17. Amplifiers dedicated for large area SiC photodiodes

    Doroz, P.; Duk, M.; Korwin-Pawlowski, M. L.; Borecki, M.

    2016-09-01

    Large area SiC photodiodes find applications in optoelectronic sensors working at special conditions. These conditions include detection of UV radiation in harsh environment. Moreover, the mentioned sensors have to be selective and resistant to unwanted signals. For this purpose, the modulation of light at source unit and the rejection of constant current and low frequency component of signal at detector unit are used. The popular frequency used for modulation in such sensor is 1kHz. The large area photodiodes are characterized by a large capacitance and low shunt resistance that varies with polarization of the photodiode and can significantly modify the conditions of signal pre-amplification. In this paper two pre-amplifiers topology are analyzed: the transimpedance amplifier and the non-inverting voltage to voltage amplifier with negative feedback. The feedback loops of both pre-amplifiers are equipped with elements used for initial constant current and low frequency signals rejections. Both circuits are analyzed and compared using simulation and experimental approaches.

  18. Prospects of III-nitride optoelectronics grown on Si

    Zhu, D; Wallis, D J; Humphreys, C J

    2013-01-01

    The use of III-nitride-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is now widespread in applications such as indicator lamps, display panels, backlighting for liquid-crystal display TVs and computer screens, traffic lights, etc. To meet the huge market demand and lower the manufacturing cost, the LED industry is moving fast from 2 inch to 4 inch and recently to 6 inch wafer sizes. Although Al 2 O 3 (sapphire) and SiC remain the dominant substrate materials for the epitaxy of nitride LEDs, the use of large Si substrates attracts great interest because Si wafers are readily available in large diameters at low cost. In addition, such wafers are compatible with existing processing lines for 6 inch and larger wafers commonly used in the electronics industry. During the last decade, much exciting progress has been achieved in improving the performance of GaN-on-Si devices. In this contribution, the status and prospects of III-nitride optoelectronics grown on Si substrates are reviewed. The issues involved in the growth of GaN-based LED structures on Si and possible solutions are outlined, together with a brief introduction to some novel in situ and ex situ monitoring/characterization tools, which are especially useful for the growth of GaN-on-Si structures. (review article)

  19. Atom-scale covalent electrochemical modification of single-layer graphene on SiC substrates by diaryliodonium salts

    Gearba, Raluca I.; Mueller, Kory M.; Veneman, Peter A.; Holliday, Bradley J.; Chan, Calvin K.; Stevenson, Keith J.

    2015-01-01

    Owing to its high conductivity, graphene holds promise as an electrode for energy devices such as batteries and photovoltaics. However, to this end, the work function and doping levels in graphene need to be precisely tuned. One promising route for modifying graphene's electronic properties is via controlled covalent electrochemical grafting of molecules. We show that by employing diaryliodonium salts instead of the commonly used diazonium salts, spontaneous functionalization is avoided. This then allows for precise tuning of the grafting density. Moreover, by employing bis(4-nitrophenyl)iodonium(III) tetrafluoroborate (DNP) salt calibration curves, the surface functionalization density (coverage) of glassy carbon was controlled using cyclic voltammetry in varying salt concentrations. These electro-grafting conditions and calibration curves translated directly over to modifying single layer epitaxial graphene substrates (grown on insulating 6H-SiC (0 0 0 1)). In addition to quantifying the functionalization densities using electrochemical methods, samples with low grafting densities were characterized by low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (LT-STM). We show that the use of buffer-layer free graphene substrates is required for clear observation of the nitrophenyl modifications. Furthermore, atomically-resolved STM images of single site modifications were obtained, showing no preferential grafting at defect sites or SiC step edges as supposed previously in the literature. Most of the grafts exhibit threefold symmetry, but occasional extended modifications (larger than 4 nm) were observed as well

  20. An improved design of TRISO particle with porous SiC inner layer by fluidized bed-chemical vapor deposition

    Liu, Rongzheng; Liu, Malin, E-mail: liumalin@tsinghua.edu.cn; Chang, Jiaxing; Shao, Youlin; Liu, Bing

    2015-12-15

    Tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) particle has been successful in high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR), but an improved design is required for future development. In this paper, the coating layers are reconsidered, and an improved design of TRISO particle with porous SiC inner layer is proposed. Three methods of preparing the porous SiC layer, called high methyltrichlorosilane (MTS) concentration method, high Ar concentration method and hexamethyldisilane (HMDS) method, are experimentally studied. It is indicated that porous SiC layer can be successfully prepared and the density of SiC layer can be adjusted by tuning the preparation parameters. Microstructure and characterization of the improved TRISO coated particle are given based on scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman scattering and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. It can be found that the improved TRISO coated particle with porous SiC layer can be mass produced successfully. The formation mechanisms of porous SiC layer are also discussed based on the fluidized bed-chemical vapor deposition principle. - Graphical abstract: An improved design of TRISO particle with porous SiC inner layer to replace the inner porous pyrolytic carbon layer was proposed and prepared by FB-CVD method. This new design is aimed to reduce the total internal pressure of the particles by reducing the formation of CO and to reduce the risks of amoeba effect. - Highlights: • An improved design of TRISO particle with porous SiC inner layer was proposed. • Three methods of preparing porous SiC layer are proposed and experimentally studied. • The density of porous SiC layer can be controlled by adjusting experimental parameters. • Formation mechanisms of porous SiC layer were given based on the FB-CVD principle. • TRISO particles with porous SiC inner layer were mass produced successfully.

  1. Diffusion of Ag, Au and Cs implants in MAX phase Ti3SiC2

    Jiang, Weilin; Henager, Charles H.; Varga, Tamas; Jung, Hee Joon; Overman, Nicole R.; Zhang, Chonghong; Gou, Jie

    2015-05-16

    MAX phases (M: early transition metal; A: elements in group 13 or 14; X: C or N), such as titanium silicon carbide (Ti3SiC2), have a unique combination of both metallic and ceramic properties, which make them attractive for potential nuclear applications. Ti3SiC2 has been considered as a possible fuel cladding material. This study reports on the diffusivities of fission product surrogates (Ag and Cs) and a noble metal Au (with diffusion behavior similar to Ag) in this ternary compound at elevated temperatures, as well as in dual-phase nanocomposite of Ti3SiC2/3C-SiC and polycrystalline CVD 3C-SiC for behavior comparisons. Samples were implanted with Ag, Au or Cs ions and characterized with various methods, including x-ray diffraction, electron backscatter diffraction, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, helium ion microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The results show that in contrast to immobile Ag in 3C-SiC, there is a significant outward diffusion of Ag in Ti3SiC2 within the dual-phase nanocomposite during Ag ion implantation at 873 K. Similar behavior of Au in polycrystalline Ti3SiC2 was also observed. Cs out-diffusion and release from Ti3SiC2 occurred during post-implantation thermal annealing at 973 K. This study suggests caution and further studies in consideration of Ti3SiC2 as a fuel cladding material for advanced nuclear reactors operating at very high temperatures.

  2. Loss Model and Efficiency Analysis of Tram Auxiliary Converter Based on a SiC Device

    Hao Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the auxiliary converter in the auxiliary power supply system of a modern tram adopts Si IGBT as its switching device and with the 1700 V/225 A SiC MOSFET module commercially available from Cree, an auxiliary converter using all SiC devices is now possible. A SiC auxiliary converter prototype is developed during this study. The author(s derive the loss calculation formula of the SiC auxiliary converter according to the system topology and principle and each part loss in this system can be calculated based on the device datasheet. Then, the static and dynamic characteristics of the SiC MOSFET module used in the system are tested, which aids in fully understanding the performance of the SiC devices and provides data support for the establishment of the PLECS loss simulation model. Additionally, according to the actual circuit parameters, the PLECS loss simulation model is set up. This simulation model can simulate the actual operating conditions of the auxiliary converter system and calculate the loss of each switching device. Finally, the loss of the SiC auxiliary converter prototype is measured and through comparison it is found that the loss calculation theory and PLECS loss simulation model is valuable. Furthermore, the thermal images of the system can prove the conclusion about loss distribution to some extent. Moreover, these two methods have the advantages of less variables and fast calculation for high power applications. The loss models may aid in optimizing the switching frequency and improving the efficiency of the system.

  3. SiC Coating Process Development Using H-PCS in Supercritical CO2

    Park, Kwangheon; Jung, Wonyoung

    2013-01-01

    We tried SiC coating using supercritical fluids. Supercritical fluids are the substance exists over critical temperature and critical pressure. It is hard to expect that there would be a big change as single-solvent as the fluid is incompressible and the space between the molecules is almost steady. But the fluid which is being supercritical can bring a great change when it is changed its pressure near its critical point, showing its successive change in the density, viscosity, diffusion coefficient and the polarity. We have tested the 'H-PCS into SiC' coating experiment with supercritical CO 2 which has the high penetration, low viscosity as well as the high density and the high solubility that shows the property of the fluid. This experiment is for SiC coating using H-PCS in supercritical CO 2 . It shows the clear difference that the penetration of H-PCS into the SiC between dip coating method and using the supercritical CO 2 If we can make a metal cladding with SiC composites as a protective layer, the use of the cladding will be very broad and diverse. Inherent safe nuclear fuels can be possible that can stand under severe accident conditions. SiC is known to be one of a few materials that maintain very corrosion-resistant properties under tough corrosive environments. The metal cladding with SiC composites as a protective layer will be a high-tech product that can be used in many applications including chemical, material, and nuclear engineering and etc

  4. Effect of process conditions and chemical composition on the microstructure and properties of chemically vapor deposited SiC, Si, ZnSe, ZnS and ZnS(x)Se(1-x)

    Pickering, Michael A.; Taylor, Raymond L.; Goela, Jitendra S.; Desai, Hemant D.

    1992-01-01

    Subatmospheric pressure CVD processes have been developed to produce theoretically dense, highly pure, void-free and large area bulk materials, SiC, Si, ZnSe, ZnS and ZnS(x)Se(1-x). These materials are used for optical elements, such as mirrors, lenses and windows, over a wide spectral range from the VUV to the IR. We discuss the effect of CVD process conditions on the microstructure and properties of these materials, with emphasis on optical performance. In addition, we discuss the effect of chemical composition on the properties of the composite material ZnS(x)Se(1-x). We first present a general overview of the bulk CVD process and the relationship between process conditions, such as temperature, pressure, reactant gas concentration and growth rate, and the microstructure, morphology and properties of CVD-grown materials. Then we discuss specific results for CVD-grown SiC, Si, ZnSe, ZnS and ZnS(x)Se(1-x).

  5. CVD of SiC and AlN using cyclic organometallic precursors

    Interrante, L. V.; Larkin, D. J.; Amato, C.

    1992-01-01

    The use of cyclic organometallic molecules as single-source MOCVD precursors is illustrated by means of examples taken from our recent work on AlN and SiC deposition, with particular focus on SiC. Molecules containing (AlN)3 and (SiC)2 rings as the 'core structure' were employed as the source materials for these studies. The organoaluminum amide, (Me2AlNH2)3, was used as the AlN source and has been studied in a molecular beam sampling apparatus in order to determine the gas phase species present in a hot-wall CVD reactor environment. In the case of SiC CVD, a series of disilacyclobutanes (Si(XX')CH2)2 (with X and X' = H, CH3, and CH2SiH2CH3), were examined in a cold-wall, hot-stage CVD reactor in order to compare their relative reactivities and prospective utility as single-source CVD precursors. The parent compound, disilacyclobutane, (SiH2CH2)2, was found to exhibit the lowest deposition temperature (ca. 670 C) and to yield the highest purity SiC films. This precursor gave a highly textured, polycrystalline film on the Si(100) substrates.

  6. Residual Stress Measurement of SiC tile/Al7075 Hybrid Composites by Neutron Diffraction

    Park, Jong Bok; Lee, Jun Ho; Hong, Soon Hyung; Ryu, Ho Jin [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Bok; Lee, Sang Kwan [Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Muslihd, M. Rifai [Center for Advanced Materials Science and Technology, Tangerang (India)

    2016-05-15

    In this research, SiC which has low density, high compressive strength, and high elastic modulus was used to fabricate the armor plate. In addition, Al which has low density and high toughness was used for a metal matrix of the composites. If two materials are combined, the composite can be effective materials for light weight armor applications. However, the existence of a large difference in coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) between SiC and Al matrix, SiC/Al composites can have residual stresses while cooled in the fabrication process. Previous research reported that residual stresses in the composites or microstructures have an effect on the fatigue life and their mechanical properties. Some researchers reported about the residual stresses in the SiCp/Al metal matrix composites by numerical simulation systems, X-ray diffraction, and destructive methods. In order to analyze the residual stress of SiC/Al composites, the neutron diffraction as the non-destructive method was performed in this research. The 50 vol.% SiC{sub p}/Al7075 composites and SiC tile inserted 50 vol.% SiC{sub p}/Al7075 hybrid composites were measured to analyze the residual stress of Al (111) and SiC (111). Both samples had the tensile residual stresses in the Al (111) and the compressive residual stresses in the SiC (111) due to the difference in CTE.

  7. Ag Transport Through Non-Irradiated and Irradiated SiC

    Szlufarska, Izabela [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Morgan, Dane [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Blanchard, James [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2016-01-11

    Silicon carbide is the main barrier to diffusion of fission products in the current design of TRistuctural ISOtropic (TRISO) coated fuel particles, and Ag is one of the few fission products that have been shown to escape through this barrier. Because the SiC coating in TRISO is exposed to radiation throughout the lifetime of the fuel, understanding of how radiation changes the transport of the fission products is essential for the safety of the reactor. The goals of this project are: (i) to determine whether observed variation in integral release measurements of Ag through SiC can be explained by differences in grain size and grain boundary (GB) types among the samples; (2) to identify the effects of irradiation on diffusion of Ag through SiC; (3) to discover phenomena responsible for significant solubility of Ag in polycrystalline SiC. To address these goals, we combined experimental analysis of SiC diffusion couples with modeling studies of diffusion mechanisms through bulk and GBs of this material. Comparison between results obtained for pristine and irradiated samples brings in insights into the effects of radiation on Ag transport.

  8. Stress Wave attenuation in SiC3D/Al Composite

    Yuan Chunyuan; Wang Yangwei; Li Guoju; Zhang Xu; Gao Jubin

    2013-01-01

    SiC 3D /Al composite is a kind of special composite with interpenetrating network microstructure. The attenuation properties of stress wave propagation along the SiC 3D /Al composite are studied by a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar system and FEM simulations, and the attenuation mechanism is discussed in this paper. Results show that the attenuation rate of the stress wave in the composite is up to 1.73MPa·mm −1 . The reduction of the amplitude of waves is caused by that plenty of interfaces between SiC and Al within the composite acting with stress waves. When the incident plane wave reaches the SiC 3D /Al interface, reflection wave and transmission wave propagates in different directions along the irregular interface between SiC phase and aluminium phase due to the impedance mismatch of them, which leads to the divergence of stress wave. At the same time, some stress micro-focuses occurs in the aluminium phase for the complex wave superimposition, and some plastic deformation may take place within such micro-regions, which results in the consumption of stress wave energy. In conclusion, the stress wave attenuation is derived from divergence and consumption of stress wave.

  9. Highly flexible and robust N-doped SiC nanoneedle field emitters

    Chen, Shanliang

    2015-01-23

    Flexible field emission (FE) emitters, whose unique advantages are lightweight and conformable, promise to enable a wide range of technologies, such as roll-up flexible FE displays, e-papers and flexible light-emitting diodes. In this work, we demonstrate for the first time highly flexible SiC field emitters with low turn-on fields and excellent emission stabilities. n-Type SiC nanoneedles with ultra-sharp tips and tailored N-doping levels were synthesized via a catalyst-assisted pyrolysis process on carbon fabrics by controlling the gas mixture and cooling rate. The turn-on field, threshold field and current emission fluctuation of SiC nanoneedle emitters with an N-doping level of 7.58 at.% are 1.11 V μm-1, 1.55 V μm-1 and 8.1%, respectively, suggesting the best overall performance for such flexible field emitters. Furthermore, characterization of the FE properties under repeated bending cycles and different bending states reveal that the SiC field emitters are mechanically and electrically robust with unprecedentedly high flexibility and stabilities. These findings underscore the importance of concurrent morphology and composition controls in nanomaterial synthesis and establish SiC nanoneedles as the most promising candidate for flexible FE applications. © 2015 Nature Publishing Group All rights reserved.

  10. SiC Conversion Coating Prepared from Silica-Graphite Reaction

    Back-Sub Sung

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The β-SiC conversion coatings were successfully synthesized by the SiO(v-graphite(s reaction between silica powder and graphite specimen. This paper is to describe the effects on the characteristics of the SiC conversion coatings, fabricated according to two different reaction conditions. FE-SEM, FE-TEM microstructural morphologies, XRD patterns, pore size distribution, and oxidation behavior of the SiC-coated graphite were investigated. In the XRD pattern and SAD pattern, the coating layers showed cubic SiC peak as well as hexagonal SiC peak. The SiC coatings showed somewhat different characteristics with the reaction conditions according to the position arrangement of the graphite samples. The SiC coating on graphite, prepared in reaction zone (2, shows higher intensity of beta-SiC main peak (111 in XRD pattern as well as rather lower porosity and smaller main pore size peak under 1 μm.

  11. Friction Stir Processing of Copper-Coated SiC Particulate-Reinforced Aluminum Matrix Composite

    Chih-Wei Huang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, we proposed a novel friction stir processing (FSP to produce a locally reinforced aluminum matrix composite (AMC by stirring copper-coated SiC particulate reinforcement into Al6061 alloy matrix. Electroless-plating process was applied to deposit the copper surface coating on the SiC particulate reinforcement for the purpose of improving the interfacial adhesion between SiC particles and Al matrix. The core-shell SiC structure provides a layer for the atomic diffusion between aluminum and copper to enhance the cohesion between reinforcing particles and matrix on one hand, the dispersion of fine copper in the Al matrix during FSP provides further dispersive strengthening and solid solution strengthening, on the other hand. Hardness distribution and tensile results across the stir zone validated the novel concept in improving the mechanical properties of AMC that was realized via FSP. Optical microscope (OM and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM investigations were conducted to investigate the microstructure. Energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS, electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA, and X-ray diffraction (XRD were explored to analyze the atomic inter-diffusion and the formation of intermetallic at interface. The possible strengthening mechanisms of the AMC containing Cu-coated SiC particulate reinforcement were interpreted. The concept of strengthening developed in this work may open a new way of fabricating of particulate reinforced metal matrix composites.

  12. InP-based photonic integrated circuit platform on SiC wafer.

    Takenaka, Mitsuru; Takagi, Shinichi

    2017-11-27

    We have numerically investigated the properties of an InP-on-SiC wafer as a photonic integrated circuit (PIC) platform. By bonding a thin InP-based semiconductor on a SiC wafer, SiC can be used as waveguide cladding, a heat sink, and a support substrate simultaneously. Since the refractive index of SiC is sufficiently low, PICs can be fabricated using InP-based strip and rib waveguides with a minimum bend radius of approximately 7 μm. High-thermal-conductivity SiC underneath an InP-based waveguide core markedly improves heat dissipation, resulting in superior thermal properties of active devices such as laser diodes. The InP-on-SiC wafer has significantly smaller thermal stress than InP-on-SiO 2 /Si wafer, which prevents the thermal degradation of InP-based devices during high-temperature processes. Thus, InP on SiC provides an ideal platform for high-performance PICs.

  13. Ag Transport Through Non-Irradiated and Irradiated SiC

    Szlufarska, Izabela; Morgan, Dane; Blanchard, James

    2016-01-01

    Silicon carbide is the main barrier to diffusion of fission products in the current design of TRistuctural ISOtropic (TRISO) coated fuel particles, and Ag is one of the few fission products that have been shown to escape through this barrier. Because the SiC coating in TRISO is exposed to radiation throughout the lifetime of the fuel, understanding of how radiation changes the transport of the fission products is essential for the safety of the reactor. The goals of this project are: (i) to determine whether observed variation in integral release measurements of Ag through SiC can be explained by differences in grain size and grain boundary (GB) types among the samples; (2) to identify the effects of irradiation on diffusion of Ag through SiC; (3) to discover phenomena responsible for significant solubility of Ag in polycrystalline SiC. To address these goals, we combined experimental analysis of SiC diffusion couples with modeling studies of diffusion mechanisms through bulk and GBs of this material. Comparison between results obtained for pristine and irradiated samples brings in insights into the effects of radiation on Ag transport.

  14. Plasmon-assisted photoluminescence enhancement of SiC nanocrystals by proximal silver nanoparticles

    Zhang, N.; Dai, D.J.; Fan, J.Y.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We studied metal surface plasmon-enhanced photoluminescence in SiC nanocrystals. ► The integrated emission intensity can be enhanced by 17 times. ► The coupling between SiC emission and Ag plasmon oscillation induces the enhancement. ► The enhancement is tunable with varied spacing thickness of electrolytes. - Abstract: Plasmon-enhanced photoluminescence has wide application potential in many areas, whereas the underlying mechanism is still in debate. We report the photoluminescence enhancement in SiC nanocrystal–Ag nanoparticle coupled system spaced by the poly(styrene sulfonic acid) sodium salt/poly(allylamine hydrochloride) polyelectrolyte bilayers. The integrated luminescence intensity can be improved by up to 17 times. Our analysis indicates that the strong coupling between the SiC nanocrystals and the surface plasmon oscillation of the silver nanoparticles is the major cause of the luminescence enhancement. These findings will help to understand the photoluminescence enhancement mechanism as well as widen the applications of the SiC nanocrystals in photonics and life sciences.

  15. Thermal conductivity analysis of SiC ceramics and fully ceramic microencapsulated fuel composites

    Lee, Hyeon-Geun; Kim, Daejong; Lee, Seung Jae; Park, Ji Yeon; Kim, Weon-Ju

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal conductivity of SiC ceramics and FCM pellets was measured and discussed. • Thermal conductivity of FCM pellets was analyzed by the Maxwell-Eucken equation. • Effective thermal conductivity of TRISO particles applied in this study was assumed. - Abstract: The thermal conductivity of SiC ceramics and FCM fuel composites, consisting of a SiC matrix and TRISO coated particles, was measured and analyzed. SiC ceramics and FCM pellets were fabricated by hot press sintering with Al_2O_3 and Y_2O_3 sintering additives. Several factors that influence thermal conductivity, specifically the content of sintering additives for SiC ceramics and the volume fraction of TRISO particles and the matrix thermal conductivity of FCM pellets, were investigated. The thermal conductivity values of samples were analyzed on the basis of their microstructure and the arrangement of TRISO particles. The thermal conductivity of the FCM pellets was compared to that predicted by the Maxwell-Eucken equation and the thermal conductivity of TRISO coated particles was calculated. The thermal conductivity of FCM pellets in various sintering conditions was in close agreement to that predicted by the Maxwell-Eucken equation with the fitted thermal conductivity value of TRISO particles.

  16. Methodology Development for SiC Sensor Signal Modelling in the Nuclear Reactor Radiation Environments

    Cetnar, J.; Krolikowski, I.P.

    2013-06-01

    This paper deals with SiC detector simulation methodology for signal formation by neutrons and induced secondary radiation as well as its inverse interpretation. The primary goal is to achieve the SiC capability of simultaneous spectroscopic measurements of neutrons and gamma-rays for which an appropriate methodology of the detector signal modelling and its interpretation must be adopted. The process of detector simulation is divided into two basically separate but actually interconnected sections. The first one is the forward simulation of detector signal formation in the field of the primary neutron and secondary radiations, whereas the second one is the inverse problem of finding a representation of the primary radiation, based on the measured detector signals. The applied methodology under development is based on the Monte Carlo description of radiation transport and analysis of the reactor physics. The methodology of SiC detector signal interpretation will be based on the existing experience in neutron metrology developed in the past for various neutron and gamma-ray detection systems. Since the novel sensors based on SiC are characterised by a new structure, yet to be finally designed, the methodology for particle spectroscopic fluence measurement must be developed while giving a productive feed back to the designing process of SiC sensor, in order to arrive at the best possible design. (authors)

  17. Anodization Mechanism on SiC Nanoparticle Reinforced Al Matrix Composites Produced by Power Metallurgy.

    Ferreira, Sonia C; Conde, Ana; Arenas, María A; Rocha, Luis A; Velhinho, Alexandre

    2014-12-19

    Specimens of aluminum-based composites reinforced by silicon carbide nanoparticles (Al/SiC np ) produced by powder metallurgy (PM) were anodized under voltage control in tartaric-sulfuric acid (TSA). In this work, the influence of the amount of SiC np on the film growth during anodizing was investigated. The current density versus time response and the morphology of the porous alumina film formed at the composite surface are compared to those concerning a commercial aluminum alloy (AA1050) anodized under the same conditions. The processing method of the aluminum alloys influences the efficiency of the anodizing process, leading to a lower thicknesses for the unreinforced Al-PM alloy regarding the AA1050. The current density versus time response is strongly dependent on the amount of SiC np . The current peaks and the steady-state current density recorded at each voltage step increases with the SiC np volume fraction due to the oxidation of the SiC np . The formation mechanism of the anodic film on Al/SiC np composites is different from that occurring in AA1050, partly due the heterogeneous distribution of the reinforcement particles in the metallic matrix, but also to the entrapment of SiC np in the anodic film.

  18. Pore Formation Process of Porous Ti3SiC2 Fabricated by Reactive Sintering

    Huibin Zhang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Porous Ti3SiC2 was fabricated with high purity, 99.4 vol %, through reactive sintering of titanium hydride (TiH2, silicon (Si and graphite (C elemental powders. The reaction procedures and the pore structure evolution during the sintering process were systematically studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscope (SEM. Our results show that the formation of Ti3SiC2 from TiH2/Si/C powders experienced the following steps: firstly, TiH2 decomposed into Ti; secondly, TiC and Ti5Si3 intermediate phases were generated; finally, Ti3SiC2 was produced through the reaction of TiC, Ti5Si3 and Si. The pores formed in the synthesis procedure of porous Ti3SiC2 ceramics are derived from the following aspects: interstitial pores left during the pressing procedure; pores formed because of the TiH2 decomposition; pores formed through the reactions between Ti and Si and Ti and C powders; and the pores produced accompanying the final phase synthesized during the high temperature sintering process.

  19. Highly flexible and robust N-doped SiC nanoneedle field emitters

    Chen, Shanliang; Ying, Pengzhan; Wang, Lin; Wei, Guodong; Gao, Fengmei; Zheng, Jinju; Shang, Minhui; Yang, Zuobao; Yang, Weiyou; Wu, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Flexible field emission (FE) emitters, whose unique advantages are lightweight and conformable, promise to enable a wide range of technologies, such as roll-up flexible FE displays, e-papers and flexible light-emitting diodes. In this work, we demonstrate for the first time highly flexible SiC field emitters with low turn-on fields and excellent emission stabilities. n-Type SiC nanoneedles with ultra-sharp tips and tailored N-doping levels were synthesized via a catalyst-assisted pyrolysis process on carbon fabrics by controlling the gas mixture and cooling rate. The turn-on field, threshold field and current emission fluctuation of SiC nanoneedle emitters with an N-doping level of 7.58 at.% are 1.11 V μm-1, 1.55 V μm-1 and 8.1%, respectively, suggesting the best overall performance for such flexible field emitters. Furthermore, characterization of the FE properties under repeated bending cycles and different bending states reveal that the SiC field emitters are mechanically and electrically robust with unprecedentedly high flexibility and stabilities. These findings underscore the importance of concurrent morphology and composition controls in nanomaterial synthesis and establish SiC nanoneedles as the most promising candidate for flexible FE applications. © 2015 Nature Publishing Group All rights reserved.

  20. High purity and semi-insulating 4H-SiC crystals grown by physical vapor transport

    Augustine, G.; Hobgood, H.McD.; Balakrishna, V.; Dunne, G.T.; Hopkins, R.H.; Thomas, R.N. [Northrop Grumman Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Science and Technology Center; Doolittle, W.A.; Rohatgi, A. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    1998-06-01

    High purity undoped and semi-insulating vanadium doped 4H-SiC single crystals with diameters up to 50 mm were grown by the physical vapor transport method. Undoped crystals exhibiting resistivities in the 10{sup 2} to 10{sup 3} {Omega}-cm range and photoconductive decay (PCD) lifetimes in the 2 to 9 {mu}s range, were grown from high purity SiC sublimation sources. The crystals were p-type due to the presence of residual acceptor impurities, mainly boron. The semi-insulating behavior of the vanadium doped crystals is attributed to compensation of residual acceptors by the deep level vanadium donor located near the middle of the band gap. (orig.) 6 refs.

  1. Electrical characterization of 6H-SiC grown by physical vapor transport method

    Zaremba, G., E-mail: gzaremba@ite.waw.p [Institute of Electron Technology, Department of Analysis of Semiconductor Nanostructures, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Kaniewska, M.; Jung, W. [Institute of Electron Technology, Department of Analysis of Semiconductor Nanostructures, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Guziewicz, M. [Institute of Electron Technology, Department of Semiconductor Processing for Photonics, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Grasza, K. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, ul. Wolczynska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland)

    2009-11-25

    Deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and capacitance versus voltage (C-V) measurements have been used to study the electrical properties of electron traps in n-type 6H-silicon carbide (SiC) grown by physical vapor transport (PVT) technique, designed as Schottky diodes. Ir Schottky- and Ni ohmic-contacts were deposited by sputtering. Current versus voltage (I-V) measurements showed that sputter deposition of the Schottky contact yields diodes with a reduced barrier height and poor rectification characteristics. Four main electron traps revealed in DLTS spectra have activation energies at 0. 39, 0.41, 0,66, and 0.74 eV below the conduction band. Based on a comparison made with electron traps reported in the literature, we conclude that three of them are well-known traps found in the as-grown or irradiated material. There was no emission signature in the literature to make such a correspondence for the trap at 0.74 eV. Strongly nonhomogenous spatial distribution with a tendency of the trap to accumulation at the surface was found by DLTS and C-V profiling. This together with the fact that the trap at 0.74 eV has not been previously reported in as-grown or processed material makes it possible that the trap is sputter deposition induced defect.

  2. A microstructure study of C + SiC coating materials for first wall of fusion reactor

    Pan Ying; Gao Dihua; Lu Huaichang; Yao Yiming

    1995-03-01

    By means of OM, SEM, XRD, WDS and EDAX, a microstructure study has been made of: (1) the dependence of microstructure and crystal structure of C + SiC coating and content and distribution of SiC in it on technological process, the coating was deposited on graphite substrate by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) with C 3 H 6 , CH 3 SiCl 3 and Ar mixture gases; (2) the influence of chemical sputtering by hydrogen ions and thermal shock by electron beams with high energy on microstructure and performance of the coating. The results show that the C + SiC coating deposited at 1600 degree C has good adherence and is resistant to damage from chemical sputtering by hydrogen ions and resistant to thermal shock by electron beams. (9 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.)

  3. Brazing of AlN to SiC by a Pr silicide: Physicochemical aspects

    Koltsov, A. [SIMAP - UMR CNRS 5266, INP Grenoble-UJF, Domaine Universitaire, BP 75, 1130 rue de la Piscine, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres, Cedex (France)], E-mail: alexey.koltsov@arcelor.com; Hodaj, F.; Eustathopoulos, N. [SIMAP - UMR CNRS 5266, INP Grenoble-UJF, Domaine Universitaire, BP 75, 1130 rue de la Piscine, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres, Cedex (France)

    2008-11-15

    In view of their very different thermomechanical properties, joining of metals to ceramics by brazing is usually performed by means of one or more interlayers. In a recent investigation AlN was chosen as interlayer material for brazing SiC to a superalloy. The aim of the present study is to determine an alloy with a high melting point (close to 1200 deg. C) enabling brazing of AlN to SiC. Two types of experiments are performed with a Si-17 at.% Pr eutectic alloy (T{sub m} = 1212 deg. C): sessile drop experiments to determine wetting and brazing of AlN and SiC plates to determine gap filling. Experiments are carried out in high vacuum to promote deoxidation. Interfacial reactivity, joint microstructure and type of failure occurring during cooling are examined by optical and scanning electron microscopy.

  4. Brazing of AlN to SiC by a Pr silicide: Physicochemical aspects

    Koltsov, A.; Hodaj, F.; Eustathopoulos, N.

    2008-01-01

    In view of their very different thermomechanical properties, joining of metals to ceramics by brazing is usually performed by means of one or more interlayers. In a recent investigation AlN was chosen as interlayer material for brazing SiC to a superalloy. The aim of the present study is to determine an alloy with a high melting point (close to 1200 deg. C) enabling brazing of AlN to SiC. Two types of experiments are performed with a Si-17 at.% Pr eutectic alloy (T m = 1212 deg. C): sessile drop experiments to determine wetting and brazing of AlN and SiC plates to determine gap filling. Experiments are carried out in high vacuum to promote deoxidation. Interfacial reactivity, joint microstructure and type of failure occurring during cooling are examined by optical and scanning electron microscopy

  5. Investigation of reactivity between SiC and Nb-1Zr in planned irradiation creep experiments

    Lewinsohn, C.A.; Hamilton, M.L.; Jones, R.H.

    1997-08-01

    Thermodynamic calculations and diffusion couple experiments showed that SiC and Nb-1Zr were reactive at the upper range of temperatures anticipated in the planned irradiation creep experiment. Sputter-deposited aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) was selected as a diffusion barrier coating. Experiments showed that although the coating coarsened at high temperature it was an effective barrier for diffusion of silicon from SiC into Nb-1Zr. Therefore, to avoid detrimental reactions between the SiC composite and the Nb-1Zr pressurized bladder during the planned irradiation creep experiment, a coating of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} will be required on the Nb-1Zr bladder.

  6. Optical study on neutron irradiation effect on hexagonal SiC single crystal

    Okada, Moritami; Kimura, Itsurou; Kanazawa, Satoshi; Kanno, Ikuo; Kamiya, Koji [Kyoto Univ. (Japan); Nakata, Toshitake; Watanabe, Masanori; Nakagawa, Masuo; Atobe, Kozo

    1996-04-01

    It is well known that SiC is a higher radiation resistant semiconductor on comparison with Si and Ge. Recently, on accompanying with advancement of developing program on nuclear fission reactor on space, development of electronic element workable effectively under severe radiation environment is desired. SiC is expected as one of such elements. Therefore, because of considering importance of understanding the effect on fundamental properties of SiC electronic element under radiation environment before its development, some studies on it was executed. In this paper, according to find out induction of interesting defect center in hexagonal 4H- and 6H-SiC single crystals irradiated with reactor neutron on light absorption and SER test, outlines of these experimental results were reported. (G.K.)

  7. Characteristics of hot-pressed fiber-reinforced ceramics with SiC matrix

    Miyoshi, Tadahiko; Kodama, Hironori; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Goto, Akihiro; Iijima, Shiroo

    1989-11-01

    Silicon carbide ceramics’ matrix composites with SiC or C filaments were fabricated through hot pressing, and the effects of the filament pullout on their fracture toughness were experimentally investigated. The C-rich coating layers on the SiC filaments were found to have a significant effect on the frictional stress at the filament/matrix interfaces, through assising the filamet pullout from the matrix. Although the coating layers were apt to burn out in the sintering process of SiC matrix compposites, a small addition of carbon to the raw materials was found to be effective for the retention of the layers on the fibers, thus increasing the fracture toughness of the composites. The fracture toughness of the C filament/SiC matrix composite increased with temperature due to the larger interfacial frictional stress at higher temperatures, because of the higher thermal expansion of the filament in the radial direction than that of the matrix.

  8. Oxidation of BN-coated SiC fibers in ceramic matrix composites

    Sheldon, B.W.; Sun, E.Y.

    1996-01-01

    Thermodynamic calculations were performed to analyze the simultaneous oxidation of BN and SiC. The results show that, with limited amounts of oxygen present, the formation of SiO 2 should occur prior to the formation of B 2 O 3 . This agrees with experimental observations of oxidation in glass-ceramic matrix composites with BN-coated SiC fibers, where a solid SiO 2 reaction product containing little or no boron has been observed. The thermodynamic calculations suggest that this will occur when the amount of oxygen available is restricted. One possible explanation for this behavior is that SiO 2 formation near the external surfaces of the composite closes off cracks or pores, such that vapor phase O 2 diffusion into the composite occurs only for a limited time. This indicates that BN-coated SiC fibers will not always oxidize to form significant amounts of a low-melting, borosilicate glass

  9. The Oxidation Rate of SiC in High Pressure Water Vapor Environments

    Opila, Elizabeth J.; Robinson, R. Craig

    1999-01-01

    CVD SiC and sintered alpha-SiC samples were exposed at 1316 C in a high pressure burner rig at total pressures of 5.7, 15, and 25 atm for times up to 100h. Variations in sample emittance for the first nine hours of exposure were used to determine the thickness of the silica scale as a function of time. After accounting for volatility of silica in water vapor, the parabolic rate constants for Sic in water vapor pressures of 0.7, 1.8 and 3.1 atm were determined. The dependence of the parabolic rate constant on the water vapor pressure yielded a power law exponent of one. Silica growth on Sic is therefore limited by transport of molecular water vapor through the silica scale.

  10. Origin of the high p-doping in F intercalated graphene on SiC

    Cheng, Yingchun

    2011-08-04

    The atomic and electronic structures of F intercalated epitaxialgraphene on a SiC(0001) substrate are studied by first-principles calculations. A three-step fluorination process is proposed. First, F atoms are intercalated between the graphene and the SiC, which restores the Dirac point in the band structure. Second, saturation of the topmost Si dangling bonds introduces p-doping up to 0.37 eV. Third, F atoms bond covalently to the graphene to enhance the p-doping. Our model explains the highly p-doped state of graphene on SiC after fluorination [A. L. Walter et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 184102 (2011)].

  11. A Fast Electro-Thermal Co-Simulation Modeling Approach for SiC Power MOSFETs

    Ceccarelli, Lorenzo; Bahman, Amir Sajjad; Iannuzzo, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to propose a novel electro-thermal co-simulation approach for the new generation of SiC MOSFETs, by development of a PSpice-based compact and physical SiC MOSFET model including temperature dependency of several parameters and a Simulink-based thermal network. The PSpice...... the FEM simulation of the DUT’s structure, performed in ANSYS Icepack. A MATLAB script is used to process the simulation data and feed the needed settings and parameters back into the simulation. The parameters for a CREE 1.2 kV/30 A SiC MOSFET have been identified and the electro-thermal model has been...

  12. Methods for growth of relatively large step-free SiC crystal surfaces

    Neudeck, Philip G. (Inventor); Powell, J. Anthony (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A method for growing arrays of large-area device-size films of step-free (i.e., atomically flat) SiC surfaces for semiconductor electronic device applications is disclosed. This method utilizes a lateral growth process that better overcomes the effect of extended defects in the seed crystal substrate that limited the obtainable step-free area achievable by prior art processes. The step-free SiC surface is particularly suited for the heteroepitaxial growth of 3C (cubic) SiC, AlN, and GaN films used for the fabrication of both surface-sensitive devices (i.e., surface channel field effect transistors such as HEMT's and MOSFET's) as well as high-electric field devices (pn diodes and other solid-state power switching devices) that are sensitive to extended crystal defects.

  13. Fluorescent SiC with pseudo-periodic moth-eye structures

    Ou, Yiyu; Aijaz, Imran; Ou, Haiyan

    2012-01-01

    White light-emitting diodes (LEDs) consisting of a nitride-based blue LED chip and phosphor are very promising candidates for the general lighting applications as energy-saving sources. Recently, donor-acceptor doped fluorescent SiC has been proven as a highly efficient wavelength converter...... to enhance the extraction efficiency, we present a simple method to fabricate the pseudo-periodic moth-eye structures on the surface of the fluorescent SiC. A thin gold layer is deposited on the fluorescent SiC first. Then the thin gold layer is treated by rapid thermal processing. After annealing, the thin...... gold layer turns into discontinuous nano-islands. The average size of the islands is dependent on the annealing condition which could be well controlled. By using the reactive-ion etching, pseudo-periodic moth-eye structures would be obtained using the gold nano-islands as a mask layer. Reactive...

  14. Development of Simulink-Based SiC MOSFET Modeling Platform for Series Connected Devices

    Tsolaridis, Georgios; Ilves, Kalle; Reigosa, Paula Diaz

    2016-01-01

    A new MATLAB/Simulink-based modeling platform has been developed for SiC MOSFET power modules. The modeling platform describes the electrical behavior f a single 1.2 kV/ 350 A SiC MOSFET power module, as well as the series connection of two of them. A fast parameter initialization is followed...... by an optimization process to facilitate the extraction of the model’s parameters in a more automated way relying on a small number of experimental waveforms. Through extensive experimental work, it is shown that the model accurately predicts both static and dynamic performances. The series connection of two Si......C power modules has been investigated through the validation of the static and dynamic conditions. Thanks to the developed model, a better understanding of the challenges introduced by uneven voltage balance sharing among series connected devices is possible....

  15. Pseudo Dirac dispersion in Mn-intercalated graphene on SiC

    Kahaly, M. Upadhyay

    2013-07-01

    The atomic and electronic structures of bulk C6Mn, bulk C 8Mn, and Mn-intercalated graphene on SiC(0 0 0 1) and SiC(0001̄) are investigated by density functional theory. We find for both configurations of Mn-intercalated graphene a nonmagnetic state, in agreement with the experimental situation for SiC(0 0 0 1), and explain this property. The electronic structures around the Fermi energy are dominated by Dirac-like cones at energies consistent with data from angular resolved photoelectron spectroscopy [Gao et al., ACS Nano. 6 (2012) 6562]. However, our results demonstrate that the corresponding states trace back to hybridized Mn d orbitals, and not to the graphene. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. ToF-MEIS stopping measurements in thin SiC films

    Linnarsson, M.K.; Khartsev, S.; Primetzhofer, D.; Possnert, G.; Hallén, A.

    2014-01-01

    Electronic stopping in thin, amorphous, SiC films has been studied by time-of-flight medium energy ion scattering and conventional Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. Amorphous SiC films (8, 21 and 36 nm) were prepared by laser ablation using a single crystalline silicon carbide target. Two kinds of substrate films, one with a lower atomic mass (carbon) and one with higher atomic mass (iridium) compared to silicon has been used. Monte Carlo simulations have been used to evaluate electronic stopping from the shift in energy for the signal scattered from Ir with and without SiC. The two kinds of samples are used to illustrate the strength and challenges for ToF-MEIS compared to conventional RBS

  17. Cl-intercalated graphene on SiC: Influence of van der Waals forces

    Cheng, Yingchun; Zhu, Zhiyong; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2013-01-01

    The atomic and electronic structures of Cl-intercalated epitaxial graphene on SiC are studied by first-principles calculations. By increasing the Cl concentration, doping levels from n-type to slightly p-type are achieved on the SiC(0001) surface, while a wider range of doping levels is possible on the SiC(0001̄) surface. We find that the Cl atoms prefer bonding to the substrate rather than to the graphene. By varying the Cl concentration the doping level can be tailored. Consideration of van der Waals forces improves the distance between the graphene and the substrate as well as the binding energy, but it is not essential for the formation energy. For understanding the doping mechanism the introduction of non-local van der Waals contributions to the exchange correlation functional is shown to be essential. Copyright © EPLA, 2013.

  18. Pseudo Dirac dispersion in Mn-intercalated graphene on SiC

    Kahaly, M. Upadhyay; Kaloni, Thaneshwor P.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2013-01-01

    The atomic and electronic structures of bulk C6Mn, bulk C 8Mn, and Mn-intercalated graphene on SiC(0 0 0 1) and SiC(0001̄) are investigated by density functional theory. We find for both configurations of Mn-intercalated graphene a nonmagnetic state, in agreement with the experimental situation for SiC(0 0 0 1), and explain this property. The electronic structures around the Fermi energy are dominated by Dirac-like cones at energies consistent with data from angular resolved photoelectron spectroscopy [Gao et al., ACS Nano. 6 (2012) 6562]. However, our results demonstrate that the corresponding states trace back to hybridized Mn d orbitals, and not to the graphene. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Friction stir spot welding of 2024-T3 aluminum alloy with SiC nanoparticles

    Paidar, Moslem; Sarab, Mahsa Laali [Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    In this study, the Friction stir spot welding (FSSW) of 2024-T3 aluminum alloy with 1.6 mm thickness was investigated. The effects of the silicon carbide (SiC) nanoparticles on the metallurgical and mechanical properties were discussed. The effects of particles on tension shear and wear tests were also investigated. The process was conducted at a constant rotational speed of 1000 rpm. Results showed that adding SiC nanoparticles to the weld during FSSW had a major effect on the mechanical properties. In fact, the addition of nanoparticles as barriers prevented grain growth in the Stir zone (SZ). The data obtained in the tensile-shear and wear tests showed that tensile-shear load and wear resistance increased with the addition of SiC nanoparticles, which was attributed to the fine grain size produced in the SZ.

  20. Proposal of a SiC disposal canister for very deep borehole disposal

    Choi, Heui-Joo; Lee, Minsoo; Lee, Jong-Youl; Kim, Kyungsu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In this paper authors proposed a silicon carbide, SiC, disposal canister for the DBD concept in Korea. A. Kerber et al. first proposed the SiC canister for a geological disposal of HLW, CANDU or HTR spent nuclear fuels. SiC has some drawbacks in welding or manufacturing a large canister. Thus, we designed a double layered disposal canister consisting of a stainless steel outer layer and a SiC inner layer. KAERI has been interested in developing a very deep borehole disposal (DBD) of HLW generated from pyroprocessing of PWR spent nuclear fuel and supported the relevant R and D with very limited its own budget. KAERI team reviewed the DBD concept proposed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and developed its own concept. The SNL concept was based on the steel disposal canister. The authors developed a new technology called cold spray coating method to manufacture a copper-cast iron disposal canister for a geological disposal of high level waste in Korea. With this method, 8 mm thin copper canister with 400 mm in diameter and 1200 mm in height was made. In general, they do not give any credit on the lifetime of a disposal canister in DBD concept unlike the geological disposal. In such case, the expensive copper canister should be replaced with another one. We designed a disposal canister using SiC for DBD. According to an experience in manufacturing a small size canister, the fabrication of a large-size one is a challenge. Also, welding of SiC canister is not easy. Several pathways are being paved to overcome it.