WorldWideScience

Sample records for growing market sophisticated

  1. Growing a market economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, N.; Pryor, R.J.

    1997-09-01

    This report presents a microsimulation model of a transition economy. Transition is defined as the process of moving from a state-enterprise economy to a market economy. The emphasis is on growing a market economy starting from basic microprinciples. The model described in this report extends and modifies the capabilities of Aspen, a new agent-based model that is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories on a massively parallel Paragon computer. Aspen is significantly different from traditional models of the economy. Aspen`s emphasis on disequilibrium growth paths, its analysis based on evolution and emergent behavior rather than on a mechanistic view of society, and its use of learning algorithms to simulate the behavior of some agents rather than an assumption of perfect rationality make this model well-suited for analyzing economic variables of interest from transition economies. Preliminary results from several runs of the model are included.

  2. Constructing a sophistication index as a method of market ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    segmentation method offers researchers and marketing practitioners a ..... Pallant (2010) recommends a minimum value of 0.6 for a good analysis. .... a means of profiling segments, stock farmers are not classified as unsophisticated,.

  3. Constructing a Sophistication Index as a Method of Market ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the process of index construction as a means of measuring a hypothetical construct that can typically not be measured by a single question or item and applying it as a method of market segmentation. The availability of incidental secondary data provided a relevant quantitative basis to illustrate this ...

  4. Experiential Marketing: Growing Importance in Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Tümer Kabadayı

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Although the concept of experience entered in the field of marketing in 1982, this concept has now become a key constituent of understanding consumer behaviour. In recent years, a great deal of research has examined this concept is a foundation of economy and future of marketing. From this point of view the purpose of this study is to discuss concept of experience, experiential marketing and related concepts in a holistic perspective and moreover some marketing implications have been given.

  5. Growing markets to sustain oil sands development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, T.H.

    2003-01-01

    The utilization of Alberta bitumen for the clean fuels market depends on upgrading, transportation, and refining processes. Forecasts show that oil sands production, which includes synthetic crude oil (SCO), will surpass declining conventional production in Western Canada. Several issues pose a challenge to the oil sands processing industry. The producers' market is affected by crude oil prices, market expansion options, diluent availability/cost, supply cost competitiveness, and regional processing. The common market issues include light/heavy crude prices, oil sands crude qualities, prices of oil sands crudes, pipeline infrastructure, and competitive supplies. The issues facing the refiners are: refining margins, security of crude supply, refined product quality, and competitive product supply. A brief review of markets for Canadian crude oil, including synthetic crude, was provided. The share of the Midwest market by Alberta must be retained and increased. The market expansion options were reviewed for both downstream (refining) and upstream (upgrading) operations. To reach more distant markets such as Southern Midwest, Washington, and California, new pipeline capacity would be required. The market is nearly saturated for Canada's heavy oil supply. More upgrading will be required as bitumen production increases. Market growth is still possible for Canada's SCO but according to forecasts, the market could also become saturated. To increase demand and allow supplies to grow, SCO prices may fall below light crude prices. It was noted that a balance must be achieved in order for producers to increase production and for refiner/upgraders to expand their conversion capacity. tabs., figs

  6. Australia: A Growing Market for Asean Exports?

    OpenAIRE

    Tongzon, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    Much has been written regarding South East Asian countries as growing markets for Australian exports particularly in the past decade. But nothing so far has been done to examine whether ASEAN exports have also experienced some redirection towards the Australian market. The findings confirm our a priori expectations: no significant general reorientation was observed for the ASEAN group of countries, and ASEAN’s country bias declined over the period under study. This is in contrast to the Austr...

  7. Price transmission in the Swiss wheat market: does sophisticated border protection make the difference?

    OpenAIRE

    Esposti, Roberto; Listorti, Giulia

    2014-01-01

    This study deals with horizontal wheat price transmission from the international markets to the domestic Swiss market. The analysis takes into account trade policies implemented at the borders that might shelter the domestic market from international markets fluctuations, as well as the presence of explosive behavior in some of the price series. Furthermore, the Swiss case is peculiar due to the presence of different border policies for wheat according to its domestic use, food or feed. The p...

  8. A Future Market Reduces Bubbles but Allows Greater Profit for More Sophisticated Traders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noussair, C.N.; Tucker, S.; Xu, Yilong

    2014-01-01

    We study the effect of the addition of a futures market, in which contracts maturing in the last period of the life of the asset can be traded. Our experiment has two treatments, one in which a spot market operates on its own, and a second treatment in which a spot and futures market are active

  9. Sophisticated Players and Sophisticated Agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rustichini, A.

    1998-01-01

    A sophisticated player is an individual who takes the action of the opponents, in a strategic situation, as determined by decision of rational opponents, and acts accordingly. A sophisticated agent is rational in the choice of his action, but ignores the fact that he is part of a strategic

  10. The State of Nursing Home Information Technology Sophistication in Rural and Nonrural US Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Gregory L; Madsen, Richard W; Miller, Erin L; Wakefield, Douglas S; Wise, Keely K; Alexander, Rachel L

    2017-06-01

    To test for significant differences in information technology sophistication (ITS) in US nursing homes (NH) based on location. We administered a primary survey January 2014 to July 2015 to NH in each US state. The survey was cross-sectional and examined 3 dimensions (IT capabilities, extent of IT use, degree of IT integration) among 3 domains (resident care, clinical support, administrative activities) of ITS. ITS was broken down by NH location. Mean responses were compared across 4 NH categories (Metropolitan, Micropolitan, Small Town, and Rural) for all 9 ITS dimensions and domains. Least square means and Tukey's method were used for multiple comparisons. Methods yielded 815/1,799 surveys (45% response rate). In every health care domain (resident care, clinical support, and administrative activities) statistical differences in facility ITS occurred in larger (metropolitan or micropolitan) and smaller (small town or rural) populated areas. This study represents the most current national assessment of NH IT since 2004. Historically, NH IT has been used solely for administrative activities and much less for resident care and clinical support. However, results are encouraging as ITS in other domains appears to be greater than previously imagined. © 2016 National Rural Health Association.

  11. Growing Soviet market is worth the hassles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muse, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    Tremendous opportunity is offered by the potential market in the Soviet republics for a diverse oil and gas equipment company, such as Baker Hughes. Until recently, however, the many risks and problems limited efforts to direct, hard currency sales by three or four individual divisions (out of a total of 23) that chose to pursue markets for their products by working through independent agents. This article discusses some aspects of dealing with the Soviet market

  12. The growing photovoltaic market in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaurey, Akanksha

    2001-01-01

    Growth of the Indian photovoltaic industry, which produces 58 MW p at present, is influenced by global market trends, owing to the cost of the technology. It is also driven by local government initiatives and policies. The current structure of the market and its various segments is discussed, with the objective of studying the overall growth potential. A growth of 250 MW p in the next ten years is projected, with annual production reaching 35 MW p by 2010. In order to achieve the projected market volume, specific barriers related to technology and market development are identified, and enabling mechanisms are suggested. The Indian experience of barriers to adoption of PV technology, and their removal, are discussed. (Author)

  13. Obfuscation, Learning, and the Evolution of Investor Sophistication

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce Ian Carlin; Gustavo Manso

    2011-01-01

    Investor sophistication has lagged behind the growing complexity of retail financial markets. To explore this, we develop a dynamic model to study the interaction between obfuscation and investor sophistication in mutual fund markets. Taking into account different learning mechanisms within the investor population, we characterize the optimal timing of obfuscation for financial institutions who offer retail products. We show that educational initiatives that are directed to facilitate learnin...

  14. Asia's growing role in the global energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Three articles are drawn together in this special Petroleum Economist survey on the growing role played by Asian countries in global energy markets, both as world gas suppliers and as important markets for various oil products. The first looks at independent storage in the Asian countries in global energy markets, both as world gas suppliers and as important markets for various oil products. The first looks at independent storage in the Asian Pacific area; the second describes the growth of Asia's natural gas industry and the third item celebrates the product surplus produced due to recent refinery expansion programs. (UK)

  15. QUALITY PREMIUMS FOR AUSTRALIAN WHEAT IN THE GROWING ASIAN MARKETS

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmadi-Esfahani, Fredoun Z.; Stanmore, Roland G.

    1994-01-01

    An hedonic price function is applied to Australia's wheat exports to the growing Asian markets. The values for the quality characteristics in the wheat markets of Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, South Korea, and Thailand are estimated. The data base for the study is from the Australian Wheat Board shipments over the period 1984 to 1991. The sample is divided into two separate time periods to test the consistency in demand for export wheat and to trace recent trends in quality premiums. The im...

  16. The growing threat of AIDS: how marketers must respond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boller, G W; Bush, A J

    1990-09-01

    The authors attempt to expand the dialogue between the health care industry and the marketing discipline on perhaps the most crucial issue facing health care marketers today--AIDS. They offer a critique of a JHCM article by Ronald Paul Hill. Their intent is to prompt a reconsideration of the normative propositions Hill suggests for health care marketers in response to the AIDS crisis.

  17. Growing a medical practice with social media marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laban, Jake

    2012-01-01

    Many medical practices are facing the lack of practice growth that their social media efforts are generating. This article provides concrete ideas that can be put in place by any medical practice to realize sustainable practice growth through social media marketing. In the article, the author demonstrates that social media marketing of the medical practice has become absolutely essential in today's evolving, competitive, and fast-paced environment. This demonstration is made through an exploration of the evolution of what "good" marketing has looked like for medical practices over time. In addition, attention is paid to the shift in the definition of good marketing that is required for the practice that is preparing a social media-marketing plan. Specifically, the article investigates the proven requirements for a balanced blend of unique and engaging promotional and nonpromotional community outreach, which is required on a daily basis to achieve the significant, lasting, and sustainable growth that the practice wishes to achieve.

  18. China as A Growing Strategic Market for German Business

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Zijun

    2011-01-01

    @@ German Companies view China as a more strategically important market, despite their concerns over China's regulatory environment, according to a re-port from the German Chamber of Commerce in China.

  19. Solar generation: a blueprint for growing the PV market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, M.; Stierstorfer, J.; Teske, S.; Aubrey, C.

    2001-01-01

    The rapid growth of the solar electricity market is discussed. The European Photovoltaic Industry Association and Greenpeace have recently collaborated on a long-term forecast of the global solar electricity market up to 2020 with predictions up to 2040; the conclusions from their joint study are the subject of this article. The paper is presented under the main sub-headings of (i) background to the collaboration; (ii) the Greenpeace perspective; (iii) the impact of solar electricity in the lives of consumers and job-seekers born today; (iv) solar generation-methods and assumptions (v) market growth rates; (vi) electricity generation; (vii) carbon dioxide emissions; (viii) projection to 2040; (ix) key results of the EPIA/Greenpeace analysis; (x) solar electricity as a vehicle for job creation and (xi) creating the conditions for optimizing the impact of solar electricity on future generations. A chart shows solar electricity job creation potential 2000-2020

  20. THE GROWING NATURAL FOODS MARKET: OPPORTUNITIES AND OBSTACLES FOR MASS MARKET SUPERMARKETS

    OpenAIRE

    Richman, Nessa J.

    2000-01-01

    Seven serious obstacles hinder the success of mass market grocery stores that try to succeed in the natural foods market. Finding timely and complete market information, linking with natural foods suppliers, and pricing and marketing natural foods are the three most important. Uncertainty about future standards for natural foods is the only major obstacle for natural foods stores. The problems facing mass market stores trying to succeed in the natural foods market are related to the market st...

  1. Growing-up milk: a necessity or marketing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przyrembel, Hildegard; Agostoni, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    Growing-up milk (GUM) products intended for children between 1 and 3 years of age are increasingly being introduced into the diets of young children. Although not a necessity for adequate nutrition of that age group, they can compensate for nutritional deficiencies which may occur in the transition phase of infant nutrition to family food, particularly when bad dietary patterns prevail in the family. For that purpose, GUM should be composed to decrease the overall protein intake which tends to be higher than the reference values for that age. This can be achieved by diluting fat-reduced cow's milk to a protein level comparable to infant or follow-on formulae and by partially replacing cow's milk fat with appropriate vegetable oils to increase the content of essential fatty acids and possibly by adding long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids whilst preserving the content of some minerals (such as calcium and phosphorus) and vitamins (B2 and B12) well represented in cow's milk. The content of iron, iodine, zinc and the vitamins A and D should be the same as in a follow-on formula. Based on available evidence, GUM should not be promoted as a necessity in the nutrition of young children. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. In Praise of the Sophists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Walker

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the thinking of the Greek Sophist philosophers, particularly Gorgias and Protagoras, and their importance and relevance for contemporary English instructors. Considers the problem of language as signs of reality in the context of Sophist philosophy. (HB)

  3. A hierarchical Markov decision process modeling feeding and marketing decisions of growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pourmoayed, Reza; Nielsen, Lars Relund; Kristensen, Anders Ringgaard

    2016-01-01

    Feeding is the most important cost in the production of growing pigs and has a direct impact on the marketing decisions, growth and the final quality of the meat. In this paper, we address the sequential decision problem of when to change the feed-mix within a finisher pig pen and when to pick pigs...... for marketing. We formulate a hierarchical Markov decision process with three levels representing the decision process. The model considers decisions related to feeding and marketing and finds the optimal decision given the current state of the pen. The state of the system is based on information from on...

  4. The end of surplus and a growing role in world markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eklof, W.D.

    1991-01-01

    Rapid economic growth in Asia in recent years has rekindled the region's appetite for energy. This surge in energy consumption since the oil price collapse in 1986 has brought into sharp focus critical challenges facing Asian governments and commercial organizations in the 1990's--challenges that must be met if the economic success of recent years is to continue. Yet supplying energy to fuel economic growth will be more difficult than in the past. Oil reserves in the region are inadequate to support the anticipated growth in demands, and new discoveries may be modest. Gas reserves are plentiful, but not well located to meet the energy needs of major markets. Added to difficulties associated with these resource-based limitations new challenges are emerging: growing consumer demands for transportation fuels and electricity, a growing concern for the environmental impact of energy production and consumption, and the need to rethink long-standing energy policies that were based on expectations of very high future oil prices. These new factors will complicate policy decisions and place new constraints on available energy options. This paper addresses the future development of Asian oil and gas markets in light of these challenges, and provides an assessment of the potential growth of gas markets, the need for growing oil imports into the region, and the need for new refining capacity to meet the growing demand for transportation fuels

  5. Does Investors' Sophistication Affect Persistence and Pricing of Discretionary Accruals?

    OpenAIRE

    Lanfeng Kao

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines whether the sophistication of market investors influences management's strategy on discretionary accounting choice, and thus changes the persistence of discretionary accruals. The results show that the persistence of discretionary accruals for firms face with naive investors is lower than that for firms face with sophisticated investors. The results also demonstrate that sophisticated investors indeed incorporate the implications of current earnings components into future ...

  6. Cumulative Dominance and Probabilistic Sophistication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakker, P.P.; Sarin, R.H.

    2000-01-01

    Machina & Schmeidler (Econometrica, 60, 1992) gave preference conditions for probabilistic sophistication, i.e. decision making where uncertainty can be expressed in terms of (subjective) probabilities without commitment to expected utility maximization. This note shows that simpler and more general

  7. Cognitive Load and Strategic Sophistication

    OpenAIRE

    Allred, Sarah; Duffy, Sean; Smith, John

    2013-01-01

    We study the relationship between the cognitive load manipulation and strategic sophistication. The cognitive load manipulation is designed to reduce the subject's cognitive resources that are available for deliberation on a choice. In our experiment, subjects are placed under a large cognitive load (given a difficult number to remember) or a low cognitive load (given a number which is not difficult to remember). Subsequently, the subjects play a one-shot game then they are asked to recall...

  8. The Effect of Agricultural Growing Season Change on Market Prices in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    deBeurs, K.M.; Brown, M. E.

    2013-01-01

    to plan effective adaptation strategies. Remote sensing data can also provide some understanding of the spatial extent of these changes and whether they are likely to continue. Given the agricultural nature of most economies on the African continent, agricultural production continues to be a critical determinant of both food security and economic growth (Funk and Brown, 2009). Crop phenological parameters, such as the start and end of the growing season, the total length of the growing season, and the rate of greening and senescence are important for planning crop management, crop diversification, and intensification. The World Food Summit of 1996 defined food security as: "when all people at all times have access to sufficient, safe, nutritious food to maintain a healthy and active life". Food security roughly depends on three factors: 1) availability of food; 2) access to food and 3) appropriate use of food, as well as adequate water and sanitation. The first factor is dependent on growing conditions and weather and climate. In a previous paper we have investigated this factor by evaluating the effect of large scale climate oscillation on land surface phenology (Brown et al., 2010). We found that all areas in Africa are significantly affected by at least one type of large scale climate oscillations and concluded that these somewhat predictable oscillations could perhaps be used to forecast agricultural production. In addition, we have evaluated changes in agricultural land surface phenology over time (Brown et al., 2012). We found that land surface phenology models, which link large-scale vegetation indices with accumulated humidity, could successfully predict agricultural productivity in several countries around the world. In this chapter we are interested in the effect of variability in peak timing of the growing season, or phenology, on the second factor of food security, food access. In this chapter we want to determine if there is a link between market prices

  9. Challenges of the growing African cement market – environmental issues, regulative framework, and quality infrastructure requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Wolfram

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The African cement, concrete and construction business is growing at rapid pace. The cement sales are expected to grow rapidly until 2050. The number of newly built cement plants increases dramatically and in addition more cements are being imported from outside the continent, e.g. from Turkey, Pakistan, Indonesia, and China, driven by overcapacities in the countries of origin. This causes a high number of potentials and challenges at the same time. Newly built cement plants can operate directly at best technological state of the art and thus incorporate more sustainable technologies as well as produce new and more sustainable products such as cements blended with sustainable supplementary cementitious materials such as calcined clays, and industrial or agricultural by products. At the same time the new variety of binding agent as well as the international imports, which are driven by price considerations, make the cement market prone to quality scatter. This puts pressure on the quality control regulations and institutions to ensure safety of construction, healthy application, and environmental safety for the population. The paper presents possible solutions to build up the rapidly increasing African cement production more sustainably than in the rest of the world as well as the related challenges and obstacles that need to be overcome. Based on experiences with a series of pan-African cement testing laboratory proficiency schemes conclusions are made on technical, regulative and political level.

  10. Marketing-Stimulated Word-of-Mouth: A Channel for Growing Demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombeski, William R; Martin, Becky; Britt, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Marketing-stimulated word-of-mouth (WOM) marketing has been poorly understood in health care, leading to it being underappreciated and underutilized by marketers. A study of new patients to a new runner's clinic was conducted to understand how they chose the program. The importance of marketing-stimulated WOM, both individual and organizational, is documented. Marketing-stimulated WOM is an often overlooked and rarely measured channel for increasing the impact of marketing programs.

  11. Eaton launches EV certification for fast-growing electric vehicle market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2011-11-15

    This paper presents Electrical Line magazine's industry news, where it covers the launch by Eaton Corporation of electric vehicle (EV) certification for the fast-growing electric vehicle market. The aim of the certification is to help homeowners locate electricians specializing in electric vehicle support. Eaton certified EV contractors will visit the residence of people interested in an EV and determine if it can support a charging station. These contractors are trained, qualified and members of Eaton's certified contractor network. The residential power stations come in a wall-mount or pedestal model that can fully charge an electric car in 6 to 24 hours, depending on the model. The article also covers a new venture by Powercheck, a Vancouver-based company, which ensures that electrical wiring in older homes is safe and complies with their insurance company's safety requirements. Powercheck examines the entire house for electrical fire hazards and produces a detailed report listing the corrective actions needed.

  12. Growing in Motion: The Circulation of Used Things on Second-hand Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staffan Appelgren

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available From having been associated with poverty and low status, the commerce with second-hand goods in retro shops, flea markets, vintage boutiques and trade via Internet is expanding in Sweden as in many countries in the Global North. This article argues that a significant aspect of the recent interest in second-hand and reuse concerns the meaning fulness of circulation in social life. Using classic anthropological theory on how the circulation of material culture generates sociality, it focuses on how second-hand things are transformed by their circulation. Rather than merely having cultural biographies, second-hand things are reconfigured through their shifts between different social contexts in a process that here is understood as a form of growing. Similar to that of an organism, this growth is continuous, irreversible and dependent on forces both internal and external to it. What emerges is a category of things that combine elements of both commodities and gifts, as these have been theorized within anthropology. While first cycle commodities are purified of their sociality, the hybrid second-hand thing derives its ontological status as well as social and commercial value precisely from retaining "gift qualities", produced by its circulation.

  13. Sophisticating a naive Liapunov function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.; Lewins, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    The art of the direct method of Liapunov to determine system stability is to construct a suitable Liapunov or V function where V is to be positive definite (PD), to shrink to a center, which may be conveniently chosen as the origin, and where V is the negative definite (ND). One aid to the art is to solve an approximation to the system equations in order to provide a candidate V function. It can happen, however, that the V function is not strictly ND but vanishes at a finite number of isolated points. Naively, one anticipates that stability has been demonstrated since the trajectory of the system at such points is only momentarily tangential and immediately enters a region of inward directed trajectories. To demonstrate stability rigorously requires the construction of a sophisticated Liapunov function from what can be called the naive original choice. In this paper, the authors demonstrate the method of perturbing the naive function in the context of the well-known second-order oscillator and then apply the method to a more complicated problem based on a prompt jump model for a nuclear fission reactor

  14. Sophistication and Performance of Italian Agri‐food Exports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Carbone

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Nonprice competition is increasingly important in world food markets. Recently, the expression ‘export sophistication’ has been introduced in the economic literature to refer to a wide set of attributes that increase product value. An index has been proposed to measure sophistication in an indirect way through the per capita GDP of exporting countries (Lall et al., 2006; Haussmann et al., 2007.The paper applies the sophistication measure to the Italian food export sector, moving from an analysis of trends and performance of Italian food exports. An original way to disentangle different components in the temporal variation of the sophistication index is also proposed.Results show that the sophistication index offers original insights on recent trends in world food exports and with respect to Italian core food exports.

  15. Can reduced stocking rates and natural forage utilization produce market sized catfish from fingerlings in one growing season

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of growing marketable channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus from pond-run fingerlings (15.9 g/fish) using low stocking densities (7,413 or 14,826 fish/ha) and electrified bug lights to enhance natural forage available to fish. Even at low sto...

  16. The evaluation of service delivery in the fast growing black diamond market / R. Venter

    OpenAIRE

    Venter, Raymano

    2010-01-01

    The black middle–class market segment also known as the black diamond market segment has shown immense growth in SA. It currently consists of approximately 3 million black middle–class South Africans with a buying power of approximately R200 billion. Despite the immense size and spending power of black diamonds, combined with its rapid growth over the past 15 years and expected future growth, little research has been conducted on this market segment. The rapid market growth ...

  17. Pension fund sophistication and investment policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Dreu, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/364537906; Bikker, J.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/06912261X

    This paper assesses the sophistication of pension funds’ investment policies using data on 748 Dutch pension funds during the 1999–2006 period. We develop three indicators of sophistication: gross rounding of investment choices, investments in alternative sophisticated asset classes and ‘home bias’.

  18. Local foods and local markets: strategies to grow the local sector in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Holt

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available L’intérêt pour une économie alimentaire alternative est de plus en plus marqué depuis une dizaine d’années. Le développement parallèle de travaux académiques et d’activités administrées par des organisations gouvernementales ou non-gouvernementales, conduit à un amalgame de théories et de pratiques diverses en matière de produits locaux. L’objectif de cet article est d’explorer les réseaux et les discours consernant la production et la consommation de produits locaux en Grande-Bretagne. L’analyse, entre autre fondée sur des interviews approfondies avec des représentants de l’industrie agro-alimentaire et d’organisations de base, révèle des differences dans le language et la conceptualisation du “local” qui influencent le rôle joué par les produits locaux aux niveaux économique et diététique. L’article s’achève sur l’importance et la priorité à donner aux politiques du secteur publique qui soutiennent les producteurs et entreprises de produits locaux, à la fois en milieu rural et urbain.Interest in an alternative food economy has been growing over the last decade. Parallel developments in academia and the activities of government and non-government organisations have led to a fusion of theory and practice under an umbrella of local food. The purpose of this article is to explore the networks and discourses that surround the production and consumption of local food in the UK. This is achieved through the analysis of a series of in-depth interviews with industry and grassroots organisations set against a background of consumer opinion deriving from focus groups. The analysis demonstrates that differences in the language and conceptualisation of local reveal different roles for local food in the economy and in the diet. The article concludes that policies to support public sector procurement through a hinterland of small-scale producer marketing and processing enterprises should be a priority in

  19. E-mail marketing grows up: a primer for the managed care industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dysart, J

    2000-02-01

    Managed care plans are jumping onto the electronic marketing bandwagon in a big way, taking advantage of not only the basic E-mail system but also expanding on that medium and developing creative vehicles to send the health plan's message. In this article, the author describes how E-mail technology is being used to hone the marketing edge in MCOs.

  20. Emissions Trading - Growing Markets with Impacts on Energy and Biofuel Business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otterstroem, Tomas

    2006-01-01

    The markets for environmental derivatives are relatively new, e.g. in June 2006, the EU ETS has been operational for eighteen months and the Swedish electricity-certificate scheme has been operating for about three years. There is a clear trend towards an increasingly CO 2 -constrained economy, in which trading schemes are implemented with the purpose of reducing the overall cost of reaching the targets set. The business impacts of emissions trading are significant for many actors, both in terms of direct financial effects (e.g. need to buy or sell allowances) as indirect ones (e.g. changes in the competitiveness of fuels, the price of electricity and the demand for low-emission technologies). During 2005, almost 800 million tons of CO 2 equivalents have changed owner on the carbon markets. The market and variety of products are increasing and the market volume is expected to exceed 10 billion euros in 2006

  1. La Selva and the Magnetic Pull of Markets: Organic Coffee-Growing in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Ellen Contreras

    1995-01-01

    A confederation of 10 coffee producers from southern Mexico seeks to improve the lives and incomes of participants by taking advantage of the lucrative organic coffee market. A farmer-to-farmer extension approach teaches over 200 participants to improve the quality and production of coffee in a manner that conserves natural resources and…

  2. Proceedings of the 2008 growing inclusive markets conference : business works for development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This conference provided a forum for researchers, educators and representatives from the international development community to discuss methods of creating and sustaining inclusive markets in developing countries. The aim of the conference was to foster relationship-building and project-building skills in developing and emerging markets, with a focus on grassroots private sector development and entrepreneurship. New policies, and communications strategies were discussed, and technology innovations were presented. Banking products and services for micro- and small-scale entrepreneurs were evaluated. Sustainable manufacturing enterprises were presented, and various micro-credit enterprises were discussed. The conference featured 32 presentations, of which 2 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs

  3. Proceedings of the 2008 growing inclusive markets conference : business works for development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This conference provided a forum for researchers, educators and representatives from the international development community to discuss methods of creating and sustaining inclusive markets in developing countries. The aim of the conference was to foster relationship-building and project-building skills in developing and emerging markets, with a focus on grassroots private sector development and entrepreneurship. New policies, and communications strategies were discussed, and technology innovations were presented. Banking products and services for micro- and small-scale entrepreneurs were evaluated. Sustainable manufacturing enterprises were presented, and various micro-credit enterprises were discussed. The conference featured 32 presentations, of which 2 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs.

  4. Growing in Motion: The Circulation of Used Things on Second-hand Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Staffan Appelgren; Anna Bohlin

    2015-01-01

    From having been associated with poverty and low status, the commerce with second-hand goods in retro shops, flea markets, vintage boutiques and trade via Internet is expanding in Sweden as in many countries in the Global North. This article argues that a significant aspect of the recent interest in second-hand and reuse concerns the meaning fulness of circulation in social life. Using classic anthropological theory on how the circulation of material culture generates sociality, it focuses on...

  5. Conference Proceedings: The Quest for gas: tapping additional supplies for a growing market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The two-day conference attracted 375 attendees from 19 U.S. states, 10 Canadian provinces and territories and several delegates from Europe. The conference reviewed the supply picture in Western Canada and the U.S., the market outlook with special reference to the robust electricity and industrial market, the outlook on gas prices and how the recent high prices impact on gas producers, royalty owners, industrial process users, the expansion of frontier gas, and competing sources of electrical generation, mainly existing coal and nuclear plants. The focus of the discussions centered on the so-called '30 Tcf vision' the recent National Petroleum Council Study in the United States. Further integration of the US and Canadian gas industry, primarily in the area of gas supply, was predicted. Evidence for this integration is the tremendous expansion of the role of frontier gas supplies from the Gulf of Mexico, LNG and coal seam gas in the USA and from the Scotian Shelf, the Liard Valley, north of the sixtieth parallel, Alaska's North Slope and Canada's Mackenzie Delta, to meet North American market demand. A resurgence in the role of large companies was also predicted, displacing the variety of independents, large and small, that have sprung up during the past decade

  6. Westcoast Energy annual report 2000: linking new supply to growing markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Financial information from Westcoast Energy Inc. was presented along with a review of their operations throughout 2000. Westcoast Energy is a leading energy company with assets reported at $15.1 billion. In 2000, net income was reported at $340 million, up from $222 million in 1999. The company's network of gathering, processing, transportation, distribution, power generation and storage facilities rely on clean-burning natural gas as the energy source. In 2000, Westcoast's British Columbia pipeline system was further extended into the Northwest Territories with the connection of new reserves at Fort Liard. In addition, start-up on the Alliance and Vector pipelines linked Eastern Canada and the Central United States. Construction was also completed on two major lateral pipelines for the Maritimes and Northeast Pipeline, extending service into Atlantic Canadian markets. This report also presented consolidated financial statements and common share information. Revenue and expenditure statements were summarized by source. tabs., figs

  7. The Study of Factors that Influence the Entrepreneurship in the Growing Energy Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinias, Ioannis G.

    2009-08-01

    In this paper, we are trying to study the field of private enterprise in the sector of Energy in Greece. The changes in the institutional and financial substructures, in the last decade, have supported the materialization of an important number of investment plans. The investor's interest in the energy sector has been expressed up to now in the utilisation of Renewable Sources of Energy (RSE), the substitution of "traditional" fuels with clean fuels (natural gas, liquid gas), the implementation of electricity's co-production, as well as in the saving of energy. The goal of that study is to answer specific questions concerning the entrepreneurship in the Greek Energy sector. Who the investors are in the Greek energy market and which their traits are? We are trying to analyse the procedures which must be followed for the preparation of an investment plan. Moreover we investigate the financial factors, such as the economic growth and the employment that can affect the entrepreneurship. The sources of finance and the role of Small and Medium Enterpises in the energy sector are also very important elements in our research. Finally we are trying to analyse the international perspective of entrepreneurship and the mechanism of how the global circumstances in the field of energy can affect the inland product of energy.

  8. MARKET ANALYSIS AND MICROBIAL BIOPREPARATIONS CREATION FOR CROP GROWING IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARKET ANALYSIS AND MICROBIAL BIOPREPARATIONS CREATION FOR CROP GROWING IN UKRAINE

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available А microbial biopreparations, particularly for the leguminous, grains, industrial and other agricultural crops of Ukrainian as well as foreign production are analyzed. All biopreparations on the market of Ukraine may be divided into basic groups — growth-activating preparations, phytoprotective preparations, preparations for the accelerated decomposition of plant wastes, preparations for restoration and preservation of soil fertility (depending on the functional activity of a biological agent as well as info mono- and complex biopreparations (depending on the number of components within them. Approaches to the creation of complex biopreparations and compositions based on biological agents — microorganisms with agronomically valuable properties, fungi, algae, biologically active metabolites of plants and microorganisms as well as microelements in chelated forms are considered to solve the following key environmental goals: getting organic crop production, restoration and preservation of soil fertility. The results of original research on the complex compositions based on nodule bacteria, rhizobacteria, microorganisms — destructors of xenobiotics, microbial (exopolysaccharides, exometabolites and plant (phytolectins, extract of blue-green algae metabolites for growth of legumes and grain cultures are presented. It is established that the complex biopreparations and compositions have more effective and stable action as compared to monoculture. The examples of biopreparations of a new generation which are created using the innovative technologies such as IGET Technology (Induced Gene Expression Triggers, LHO-promoter (lipohitooligosaccharides-promoter technology, TOP-technology (technology osmoprotector involving achievements of molecular and cell biology, nanotechnology as well as the modern solid carriers, adhesives, lipkogenes, formularies that provide high titer of microbial cells in biopreparations, close contact the bacterial cells with

  9. The value of multivariate model sophistication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rombouts, Jeroen; Stentoft, Lars; Violante, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    We assess the predictive accuracies of a large number of multivariate volatility models in terms of pricing options on the Dow Jones Industrial Average. We measure the value of model sophistication in terms of dollar losses by considering a set of 444 multivariate models that differ in their spec....... In addition to investigating the value of model sophistication in terms of dollar losses directly, we also use the model confidence set approach to statistically infer the set of models that delivers the best pricing performances.......We assess the predictive accuracies of a large number of multivariate volatility models in terms of pricing options on the Dow Jones Industrial Average. We measure the value of model sophistication in terms of dollar losses by considering a set of 444 multivariate models that differ...

  10. Does underground storage still require sophisticated studies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsily, G. de

    1997-01-01

    Most countries agree to the necessity of burying high or medium-level wastes in geological layers situated at a few hundred meters below the ground level. The advantages and disadvantages of different types of rock such as salt, clay, granite and volcanic material are examined. Sophisticated studies are lead to determine the best geological confinement but questions arise about the time for which safety must be ensured. France has chosen 3 possible sites. These sites are geologically described in the article. The final place will be proposed after a testing phase of about 5 years in an underground facility. (A.C.)

  11. Growing and marketing woody species to support pollinators: An emerging opportunity for forest, conservation, and native plant nurseries in the Northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kas Dumroese; Tara Luna

    2016-01-01

    The decline of insects that pollinate flowers is garnering more attention by land managers, policymakers, and the general public. Nursery managers who grow native trees, shrubs, and woody vines have a promising opportunity to showcase these species, marketing their contributions to pollinator health and other ecosystem services in urban and wild landscapes....

  12. Rising Mal-Employment and the Great Recession: The Growing Disconnection between Recent College Graduates and the College Labor Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogg, Neeta P.; Harrington, Paul E.

    2011-01-01

    This article looks at the phenomenon of mal-employment among college graduates in the United States, beginning with an overview of labor-market trends and the effects of the Great Recession on the job-market experiences of young people, including recent college graduates. It then defines "mal-employment" and examines its incidence over…

  13. A Two-stage Empirical Analysis of Market Participation in Yam-growing Areas of West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mignouna, DB.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The transition from semi-subsistence to commercialized agriculture has been subject of global debates in Africa for more than a half century. This is the reminiscence of the necessity to formulate policies and programs to increase the yields and stimulate the investments in agriculture. Participation in agricultural markets could be a viable channel to transform subsistence agriculture thereby lifting millions of poor farmers out of hunger and poverty traps. Unfortunately, most of the potential beneficiaries are hindered by several factors in their quest to participate in yam market. This study investigated the underpinning drivers of market participation among small-scale farmers in the yam belt of West Africa. Using a multistage random sample of 1,400 households form Nigeria and Ghana, the study tested the hypothesis that factors affecting the farmers' decision to participate are not necessarily the same as those affecting the level of participation. Non-price constraints played a significant role in decision-making concerning market participation. Creation of an enabling environment and strengthening the social institutions should be considered in order to generate adequate marketable surplus to make market participation possible and valuable. Policies that reduce transaction costs and encourage farmers to commercialise their production could be alternatives to price-based policies. Moreover, improving the productivity of farmers will not only increase the likelihood of market participation but also the volumes offered for sale.

  14. The potential of green power trading. The key forum for business and policy makers in a growing market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This report summarises the information presented at the European Conference on Green Power Marketing held in 2004 in Lausanne, Switzerland. It takes a look at the market chances of ecologically produced electricity for use in Switzerland and for export. The opinions of experts from the areas of business, science, politics and marketing that were presented at the meeting are summarised. Future power shortages are discussed and the development of electricity consumption and production are examined. Foreseeable discrepancies between consumption and production that will lead to increases in the price for power are discussed, as is the carbon dioxide emissions question. The European Union's power source declaration directive is examined and the effects it could have on the demand for ecologically produced electricity are discussed. Labelling systems for green power and mechanisms for their validation are also discussed

  15. Proceedings of the Canadian Institute's 4. annual oil sands supply and infrastructure conference : maximizing opportunity and mitigating risks in a rapidly growing market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This conference addressed the challenges facing oil sands development, with particular reference to supply and infrastructure issues. Updates on oil sands markets and opportunities were presented along with strategies for mitigating risks in a rapidly growing market. The best practices for supplying a demanding market through supply shortages and high prices were identified along with policies that should be implemented to help overcome labour shortages. Some presentations expressed how commodities pricing and trends can impact business. Others showed how markets in China and the United States are prepared for oilsands products. The views of other international companies on oil sands was also discussed along with proposed plans to eliminate the infrastructure congestion and risks caused by expanding oil sands development. The challenges and benefits of investing in Alberta's oil sands were reviewed along with strategies to enhance upgrading and refining capacity in the province. Economic drivers and the creation of new markets were examined, and various export opportunities were reviewed along with industry management challenges concerning human resources, labour supply, training and education. The conference featured 10 presentations, of which 3 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  16. Grow, Baby, Grow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maybe you quit smoking during your pregnancy. Or maybe you struggled and weren’t able to stay quit. Now that your baby is here, trying to stay away from smoking is still important. That’s because the chemicals in smoke can make it harder for your baby to grow like he or she should.

  17. Developments on the European energy market. Part 1. Natural gas supply. Extra import covers growing natural gas demand in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Gelder, J.W.

    2000-01-01

    This first part of a series on developments in the European gas market features the growth in gas supply. 35% of the gas demand must be covered from sources outside Europe. For the future additional imports are required from countries such as the Russian Federation, Algeria and Nigeria. Over the next few years the artificial link between ga and oil prices will disappear, bringing the gas price to a structurally lower level. It will be of crucial importance that gas suppliers will not be able to form cartels to keep prices high. All competing projects will curb price increases on the European market, but will definitely result in more freedom of choice for European natural gas consumers

  18. The marketing of social causes: the first 10 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, K F; Kotler, P

    1980-01-01

    Social marketing, the application of marketing thinking and tools to the promotion of social causes, has proved successful in effectively promoting beneficial social change, and is expected to grow in scope, scale, and effectiveness. It has evolved through social advertising and social communication, and is increasingly employed by a growing number or organizations and government agencies. Increasingly, social communication and marketing are being added to social advertising. Family planning, heart disease prevention, and other health cases are cited as examples of the range and impact of social marketing applications. As advances in conceptualizing social marketing problems and evaluating the impacts of social marketing programs make them more effective, social marketing specialists should be expected to work on a wider range of social causes with increasing sophistication. The evaluation of social marketing is discussed. Situations calling for social marketing are also explored, program accomplishments outlined, and criticisms and obstacles examined.

  19. Automatically Assessing Lexical Sophistication: Indices, Tools, Findings, and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, Kristopher; Crossley, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the construct of lexical sophistication and its applications for measuring second language lexical and speaking proficiency. In doing so, the study introduces the Tool for the Automatic Analysis of LExical Sophistication (TAALES), which calculates text scores for 135 classic and newly developed lexical indices related to word…

  20. The Impact of Financial Sophistication on Adjustable Rate Mortgage Ownership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Hyrum; Finke, Michael S.; Huston, Sandra J.

    2011-01-01

    The influence of a financial sophistication scale on adjustable-rate mortgage (ARM) borrowing is explored. Descriptive statistics and regression analysis using recent data from the Survey of Consumer Finances reveal that ARM borrowing is driven by both the least and most financially sophisticated households but for different reasons. Less…

  1. The role of sophisticated accounting system in strategy management

    OpenAIRE

    Naranjo Gil, David

    2004-01-01

    Organizations are designing more sophisticated accounting information systems to meet the strategic goals and enhance their performance. This study examines the effect of accounting information system design on the performance of organizations pursuing different strategic priorities. The alignment between sophisticated accounting information systems and organizational strategy is analyzed. The enabling effect of the accounting information system on performance is also examined. Relationships ...

  2. Probabilistic Sophistication, Second Order Stochastic Dominance, and Uncertainty Aversion

    OpenAIRE

    Simone Cerreia-Vioglio; Fabio Maccheroni; Massimo Marinacci; Luigi Montrucchio

    2010-01-01

    We study the interplay of probabilistic sophistication, second order stochastic dominance, and uncertainty aversion, three fundamental notions in choice under uncertainty. In particular, our main result, Theorem 2, characterizes uncertainty averse preferences that satisfy second order stochastic dominance, as well as uncertainty averse preferences that are probabilistically sophisticated.

  3. The First Sophists and the Uses of History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarratt, Susan C.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the history of intellectual views on the Greek sophists in three phases: (1) their disparagement by Plato and Aristotle as the morally disgraceful "other"; (2) nineteenth century British positivists' reappraisal of these relativists as ethically and scientifically superior; and (3) twentieth century versions of the sophists as…

  4. PAUL AND SOPHISTIC RHETORIC: A PERSPECTIVE ON HIS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use of modern rhetorical theories but analyses the letter in terms of the clas- ..... If a critical reader would have had the traditional anti-sophistic arsenal ..... pressions and that 'rhetoric' is mainly a matter of communicating these thoughts.

  5. Financial Literacy and Financial Sophistication in the Older Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusardi, Annamaria; Mitchell, Olivia S.; Curto, Vilsa

    2017-01-01

    Using a special-purpose module implemented in the Health and Retirement Study, we evaluate financial sophistication in the American population over the age of 50. We combine several financial literacy questions into an overall index to highlight which questions best capture financial sophistication and examine the sensitivity of financial literacy responses to framing effects. Results show that many older respondents are not financially sophisticated: they fail to grasp essential aspects of risk diversification, asset valuation, portfolio choice, and investment fees. Subgroups with notable deficits include women, the least educated, non-Whites, and those over age 75. In view of the fact that retirees increasingly must take on responsibility for their own retirement security, such meager levels of knowledge have potentially serious and negative implications. PMID:28553191

  6. The conceptualization and measurement of cognitive health sophistication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodie, Graham D; Collins, William B; Jensen, Jakob D; Davis, Lashara A; Guntzviller, Lisa M; King, Andy J

    2013-01-01

    This article develops a conceptualization and measure of cognitive health sophistication--the complexity of an individual's conceptual knowledge about health. Study 1 provides initial validity evidence for the measure--the Healthy-Unhealthy Other Instrument--by showing its association with other cognitive health constructs indicative of higher health sophistication. Study 2 presents data from a sample of low-income adults to provide evidence that the measure does not depend heavily on health-related vocabulary or ethnicity. Results from both studies suggest that the Healthy-Unhealthy Other Instrument can be used to capture variability in the sophistication or complexity of an individual's health-related schematic structures on the basis of responses to two simple open-ended questions. Methodological advantages of the Healthy-Unhealthy Other Instrument and suggestions for future research are highlighted in the discussion.

  7. Financial Literacy and Financial Sophistication in the Older Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusardi, Annamaria; Mitchell, Olivia S; Curto, Vilsa

    2014-10-01

    Using a special-purpose module implemented in the Health and Retirement Study, we evaluate financial sophistication in the American population over the age of 50. We combine several financial literacy questions into an overall index to highlight which questions best capture financial sophistication and examine the sensitivity of financial literacy responses to framing effects. Results show that many older respondents are not financially sophisticated: they fail to grasp essential aspects of risk diversification, asset valuation, portfolio choice, and investment fees. Subgroups with notable deficits include women, the least educated, non-Whites, and those over age 75. In view of the fact that retirees increasingly must take on responsibility for their own retirement security, such meager levels of knowledge have potentially serious and negative implications.

  8. The Participation Banking As A Distinctive Method And The Its Growing In The Turkish Finance Market-Period: 2007-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferhat Sayım

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Financial systems and companies has become the most important reason in the weakness of world economic system. The formation and development process of the financial structure also constitutes the infrastructure of the world economic system. The path of the financial system and development has led to discuss with the financial crisis in 2008-2011. One of the argument topic in order to reduce problems caused by the conventional banking system is alternative financing systems. In Turkey, the corporations based on profit share system which are named participation based banking attention, if the alternative banking systems are considered. These banks which settle on different principles in the risk distribution of the portfolio acquired are analyzed more nowadays. Participation based banks are placed in almost every regulation related to banking terms and get their legal infrastructure more stable in the banking legislation of Turkey.This study is a 2007-2013 part of research series. We try to find out the place and the importance of participation based banking with the various sub-headings especially in Turkey. We examine the comparative review 2007-2013 data of participation banks which Total Assets, Equity Net Profit, Collected Turkish Currency and Foreign Currency Funds and Bank Loan Funds, figures for the four participation banks in Turkey. We are comparing the total figures with deposit banks for the same period.One of our primary aim in this essay, to study in the framework of the alternatives of the financial companies and options. These options could be stated as a vibrant and viable well established choice as a non-western model- different from the classical western interest based leading banking system in the globe. Moreover, that participation banking systems’ grow and increase with its resourceful bulk of transactions and shares within the financial market. In addition, we intended to delineate the basic functioning structures, rules

  9. Do teachers and students get the Ed-Tech products they need: The challenges of Ed-Tech procurement in a rapidly growing market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Morrison

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ed-tech courseware products to support teaching and learning are being developed and made available for acquisition by school districts at a rapid rate. In this growing market, developers and providers face challenges with making their products visible to customers, while school district stakeholders must grapple with “discovering” which products of the many available best address their instructional needs. The present study presents the experiences with and perceptions about the procurement process from 47 superintendents representing diverse school districts in the U. S. Results indicate that, while improvements are desired in many aspects of the procurement process, the superintendents, overall, believe that, once desired products are identified, they are generally able to acquire them. Difficulties lie in tighter budgets, discovering products that are potentially the best choices, and evaluating the effectiveness of the products selected as options. These findings are presented and interpreted in relation to five major “Action Points” in the procurement process, and also with regard to implications for evaluating how educational technology impacts K-12 instruction.

  10. Finding the Fabulous Few: Why Your Program Needs Sophisticated Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfizenmaier, Emily

    1981-01-01

    Fund raising, it is argued, needs sophisticated prospect research. Professional prospect researchers play an important role in helping to identify prospective donors and also in helping to stimulate interest in gift giving. A sample of an individual work-up on a donor and a bibliography are provided. (MLW)

  11. Procles the Carthaginian: A North African Sophist in Pausanias’ Periegesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Sánchez Hernández

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Procles, cited by Pausanias (in the imperfect tense about a display in Rome and for an opinion about Pyrrhus of Epirus, probably was not a historian of Hellenistic date, but a contemporary sophist whom Pausanias encountered in person in Rome.

  12. SMEs and new ventures need business model sophistication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesting, Peter; Günzel-Jensen, Franziska

    2015-01-01

    , and Spreadshirt, this article develops a framework that introduces five business model sophistication strategies: (1) uncover additional functions of your product, (2) identify strategic benefits for third parties, (3) take advantage of economies of scope, (4) utilize cross-selling opportunities, and (5) involve...

  13. Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2010-01-01

    There is not enough marketing of dentistry; but there certainly is too much selling of poor quality service that is being passed off as dentistry. The marketing concept makes the patient and the patients' needs the ultimate criteria of marketing efforts. Myths and good practices for effective marketing that will promote oral health are described under the traditional four "Ps" categories of "product" (best dental care), "place" (availability), "promotion" (advertising and other forms of making patients aware of available services and how to use them), and "price" (the total cost to patients of receiving care).

  14. Growing Alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger-Petersen, Mai Corlin

    2014-01-01

    From 2014, Anhui Province will pilot a reform of the residential land market in China, thus integrating rural Anhui in the national housing market. In contrast, artist and activist Ou Ning has proposed the Bishan time money currency, intending to establish an alternative economic circuit in Bishan...

  15. Development Strategies for Tourism Destinations: Tourism Sophistication vs. Resource Investments

    OpenAIRE

    Rainer Andergassen; Guido Candela

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the effectiveness of development strategies for tourism destinations. We argue that resource investments unambiguously increase tourism revenues and that increasing the degree of tourism sophistication, that is increasing the variety of tourism related goods and services, increases tourism activity and decreases the perceived quality of the destination's resource endowment, leading to an ambiguous effect on tourism revenues. We disentangle these two effects and charact...

  16. MARKETING COMMUNICATION TO INDUSTRIAL CLUSTERS OF SLOVAK REPUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Loučanová

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the growing attention is paid to the promotion and development of clusters, i.e. concentration of businesses and other cooperating institutions in a sector and region. Despite of the economy globalization and sophisticated global communications technologies, the factor of geographical concentration should be declined, however the experts highlight the importance of direct contact with local and tacit knowledge. The aim of this paper is analyzing of marketing communication tools in different clusters of Slovakia.

  17. The New Toxicology of Sophisticated Materials: Nanotoxicology and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Andrew D.; Warheit, David B.; Philbert, Martin A.

    2011-01-01

    It has long been recognized that the physical form of materials can mediate their toxicity—the health impacts of asbestiform materials, industrial aerosols, and ambient particulate matter are prime examples. Yet over the past 20 years, toxicology research has suggested complex and previously unrecognized associations between material physicochemistry at the nanoscale and biological interactions. With the rapid rise of the field of nanotechnology and the design and production of increasingly complex nanoscale materials, it has become ever more important to understand how the physical form and chemical composition of these materials interact synergistically to determine toxicity. As a result, a new field of research has emerged—nanotoxicology. Research within this field is highlighting the importance of material physicochemical properties in how dose is understood, how materials are characterized in a manner that enables quantitative data interpretation and comparison, and how materials move within, interact with, and are transformed by biological systems. Yet many of the substances that are the focus of current nanotoxicology studies are relatively simple materials that are at the vanguard of a new era of complex materials. Over the next 50 years, there will be a need to understand the toxicology of increasingly sophisticated materials that exhibit novel, dynamic and multifaceted functionality. If the toxicology community is to meet the challenge of ensuring the safe use of this new generation of substances, it will need to move beyond “nano” toxicology and toward a new toxicology of sophisticated materials. Here, we present a brief overview of the current state of the science on the toxicology of nanoscale materials and focus on three emerging toxicology-based challenges presented by sophisticated materials that will become increasingly important over the next 50 years: identifying relevant materials for study, physicochemical characterization, and

  18. Strategic sophistication of individuals and teams. Experimental evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, Matthias; Czermak, Simon; Feri, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Many important decisions require strategic sophistication. We examine experimentally whether teams act more strategically than individuals. We let individuals and teams make choices in simple games, and also elicit first- and second-order beliefs. We find that teams play the Nash equilibrium strategy significantly more often, and their choices are more often a best response to stated first order beliefs. Distributional preferences make equilibrium play less likely. Using a mixture model, the estimated probability to play strategically is 62% for teams, but only 40% for individuals. A model of noisy introspection reveals that teams differ from individuals in higher order beliefs. PMID:24926100

  19. Few remarks on chiral theories with sophisticated topology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golo, V.L.; Perelomov, A.M.

    1978-01-01

    Two classes of the two-dimensional Euclidean chiral field theoreties are singled out: 1) the field phi(x) takes the values in the compact Hermitiam symmetric space 2) the field phi(x) takes the values in an orbit of the adjoint representation of the comcompact Lie group. The theories have sophisticated topological and rich analytical structures. They are considered with the help of topological invariants (topological charges). Explicit formulae for the topological charges are indicated, and the lower bound extimate for the action is given

  20. STOCK EXCHANGE LISTING INDUCES SOPHISTICATION OF CAPITAL BUDGETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley Mendes-da-Silva

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article compares capital budgeting techniques employed in listed and unlisted companies in Brazil. We surveyed the Chief Financial Officers (CFOs of 398 listed companies and 300 large unlisted companies, and based on 91 respondents, the results suggest that the CFOs of listed companies tend to use less simplistic methods more often, for example: NPV and CAPM, and that CFOs of unlisted companies are less likely to estimate the cost of equity, despite being large companies. These findings indicate that stock exchange listing may require greater sophistication of the capital budgeting process.

  1. Market Development of Video Games : Video game markets and marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Pu, Jun

    2010-01-01

    This diploma work focus on analysing the markets and marketing of video game industry. After the research of this study, I found out that console game markets are growing dramatically in the recent years. On the other hand, PC game markets (excluding online game markets) are growing slowly due to the problem of illegal copies. So my study will then focus on the development of console game markets and marketing. A new concept called Three Parties is introduced in chapter 5 to help ...

  2. The sophisticated control of the tram bogie on track

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan DOLECEK

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the problems of routing control algorithms of new conception of tram vehicle bogie. The main goal of these research activities is wear reduction of rail wheels and tracks, wear reduction of traction energy losses and increasing of running comfort. The testing experimental tram vehicle with special bogie construction powered by traction battery is utilized for these purposes. This vehicle has a rotary bogie with independent rotating wheels driven by permanent magnets synchronous motors and a solid axle. The wheel forces in bogie are measured by large amounts of the various sensors placed on the testing experimental tram vehicle. Nowadays the designed control algorithms are implemented to the vehicle superset control system. The traction requirements and track characteristics have an effect to these control algorithms. This control including sophisticated routing brings other improvements which is verified and corrected according to individual traction and driving characteristics, and opens new possibilities.

  3. Taking profit from the growing use of mobile phone in Benin: A Contingent Valuation approach for market and quality information access

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arinloye, D.D.A.A.; Linnemann, A.R.; Hagelaar, J.L.F.; Coulibaly, O.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2015-01-01

    An information systems-adapted Contingent Valuation survey was used to assess smallholder farmers' perceptions and the premium they are willing to pay (WTP) to get mobile phone-based information on market prices and product quality to overcome the recurrent information asymmetry issues in the chain.

  4. Roman sophisticated surface modification methods to manufacture silver counterfeited coins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingo, G. M.; Riccucci, C.; Faraldi, F.; Pascucci, M.; Messina, E.; Fierro, G.; Di Carlo, G.

    2017-11-01

    By means of the combined use of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) the surface and subsurface chemical and metallurgical features of silver counterfeited Roman Republican coins are investigated to decipher some aspects of the manufacturing methods and to evaluate the technological ability of the Roman metallurgists to produce thin silver coatings. The results demonstrate that over 2000 ago important advances in the technology of thin layer deposition on metal substrates were attained by Romans. The ancient metallurgists produced counterfeited coins by combining sophisticated micro-plating methods and tailored surface chemical modification based on the mercury-silvering process. The results reveal that Romans were able systematically to chemically and metallurgically manipulate alloys at a micro scale to produce adherent precious metal layers with a uniform thickness up to few micrometers. The results converge to reveal that the production of forgeries was aimed firstly to save expensive metals as much as possible allowing profitable large-scale production at a lower cost. The driving forces could have been a lack of precious metals, an unexpected need to circulate coins for trade and/or a combinations of social, political and economic factors that requested a change in money supply. Finally, some information on corrosion products have been achieved useful to select materials and methods for the conservation of these important witnesses of technology and economy.

  5. Sophisticated Communication in the Brazilian Torrent Frog Hylodes japi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sá, Fábio P; Zina, Juliana; Haddad, Célio F B

    2016-01-01

    Intraspecific communication in frogs plays an important role in the recognition of conspecifics in general and of potential rivals or mates in particular and therefore with relevant consequences for pre-zygotic reproductive isolation. We investigate intraspecific communication in Hylodes japi, an endemic Brazilian torrent frog with territorial males and an elaborate courtship behavior. We describe its repertoire of acoustic signals as well as one of the most complex repertoires of visual displays known in anurans, including five new visual displays. Previously unknown in frogs, we also describe a bimodal inter-sexual communication system where the female stimulates the male to emit a courtship call. As another novelty for frogs, we show that in addition to choosing which limb to signal with, males choose which of their two vocal sacs will be used for visual signaling. We explain how and why this is accomplished. Control of inflation also provides additional evidence that vocal sac movement and color must be important for visual communication, even while producing sound. Through the current knowledge on visual signaling in Neotropical torrent frogs (i.e. hylodids), we discuss and highlight the behavioral diversity in the family Hylodidae. Our findings indicate that communication in species of Hylodes is undoubtedly more sophisticated than we expected and that visual communication in anurans is more widespread than previously thought. This is especially true in tropical regions, most likely due to the higher number of species and phylogenetic groups and/or to ecological factors, such as higher microhabitat diversity.

  6. Sophisticated Communication in the Brazilian Torrent Frog Hylodes japi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio P de Sá

    Full Text Available Intraspecific communication in frogs plays an important role in the recognition of conspecifics in general and of potential rivals or mates in particular and therefore with relevant consequences for pre-zygotic reproductive isolation. We investigate intraspecific communication in Hylodes japi, an endemic Brazilian torrent frog with territorial males and an elaborate courtship behavior. We describe its repertoire of acoustic signals as well as one of the most complex repertoires of visual displays known in anurans, including five new visual displays. Previously unknown in frogs, we also describe a bimodal inter-sexual communication system where the female stimulates the male to emit a courtship call. As another novelty for frogs, we show that in addition to choosing which limb to signal with, males choose which of their two vocal sacs will be used for visual signaling. We explain how and why this is accomplished. Control of inflation also provides additional evidence that vocal sac movement and color must be important for visual communication, even while producing sound. Through the current knowledge on visual signaling in Neotropical torrent frogs (i.e. hylodids, we discuss and highlight the behavioral diversity in the family Hylodidae. Our findings indicate that communication in species of Hylodes is undoubtedly more sophisticated than we expected and that visual communication in anurans is more widespread than previously thought. This is especially true in tropical regions, most likely due to the higher number of species and phylogenetic groups and/or to ecological factors, such as higher microhabitat diversity.

  7. ADVERTISING AGENCY MARKETING MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Kislov, Yevgenia Horobei

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Goal of the paper. The goal of this article is to define the nature, specific features and factors pertaining to the advertising agency marketing management. One of the tools is the use of non-standard approaches to management of advertising agencies, which under certain conditions makes it possible to improve the situation and to bring the agency to a new higher level as well as to improve the efficiency of its functioning in the conditions of transformational economy of Ukraine. Methodology. Monitoring of the marketing behavior of agencies that promote advertising services. The results of monitoring and analysis demonstrated that the majority of agencies have a disorganized approach to the agency marketing, which results in sporadic activities related to the use and organization of agency marketing. Only individual agencies begin to form their own marketing strategy for the implementation of which marketing budgets are allocated. The main marketing functions of a Ukrainian advertising agency have been identified. Practical value. Rapid development of technologies, sophistication and increased variety of goods and services, reduction of their life cycle, higher customer demands, the growth of volume and speed of obtaining information, increased competition – all these changes that are taking place in the external environment make the Ukrainian companies that provide advertising services search for new approaches to ensure better adaptation to these conditions. Uncertainty, unpredictability and instability of the external environment will continue to grow. Therefore, the companies that provide advertising services need to constantly adapt not only to the existing conditions but also ensure that they are able to quickly react in the future. The basic precondition for success is stability of the quality that is achieved through strategic planning, fine-tuned search system, efficient management, which encourages creation of a position of quality

  8. Library of sophisticated functions for analysis of nuclear spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morháč, Miroslav; Matoušek, Vladislav

    2009-10-01

    In the paper we present compact library for analysis of nuclear spectra. The library consists of sophisticated functions for background elimination, smoothing, peak searching, deconvolution, and peak fitting. The functions can process one- and two-dimensional spectra. The software described in the paper comprises a number of conventional as well as newly developed methods needed to analyze experimental data. Program summaryProgram title: SpecAnalysLib 1.1 Catalogue identifier: AEDZ_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEDZ_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 42 154 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 2 379 437 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++ Computer: Pentium 3 PC 2.4 GHz or higher, Borland C++ Builder v. 6. A precompiled Windows version is included in the distribution package Operating system: Windows 32 bit versions RAM: 10 MB Word size: 32 bits Classification: 17.6 Nature of problem: The demand for advanced highly effective experimental data analysis functions is enormous. The library package represents one approach to give the physicists the possibility to use the advanced routines simply by calling them from their own programs. SpecAnalysLib is a collection of functions for analysis of one- and two-parameter γ-ray spectra, but they can be used for other types of data as well. The library consists of sophisticated functions for background elimination, smoothing, peak searching, deconvolution, and peak fitting. Solution method: The algorithms of background estimation are based on Sensitive Non-linear Iterative Peak (SNIP) clipping algorithm. The smoothing algorithms are based on the convolution of the original data with several types of filters and algorithms based on discrete

  9. Impact of sophisticated fog spray models on accident analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roblyer, S.P.; Owzarski, P.C.

    1978-01-01

    The N-Reactor confinement system release dose to the public in a postulated accident is reduced by washing the confinement atmosphere with fog sprays. This allows a low pressure release of confinement atmosphere containing fission products through filters and out an elevated stack. The current accident analysis required revision of the CORRAL code and other codes such as CONTEMPT to properly model the N Reactor confinement into a system of multiple fog-sprayed compartments. In revising these codes, more sophisticated models for the fog sprays and iodine plateout were incorporated to remove some of the conservatism of steam condensing rate, fission product washout and iodine plateout than used in previous studies. The CORRAL code, which was used to describe the transport and deposition of airborne fission products in LWR containment systems for the Rasmussen Study, was revised to describe fog spray removal of molecular iodine (I 2 ) and particulates in multiple compartments for sprays having individual characteristics of on-off times, flow rates, fall heights, and drop sizes in changing containment atmospheres. During postulated accidents, the code determined the fission product removal rates internally rather than from input decontamination factors. A discussion is given of how the calculated plateout and washout rates vary with time throughout the analysis. The results of the accident analyses indicated that more credit could be given to fission product washout and plateout. An important finding was that the release of fission products to the atmosphere and adsorption of fission products on the filters were significantly lower than previous studies had indicated

  10. Growing Pains

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Heat expands and cold contracts: it’s a simple thermodynamic rule. But when temperatures swing from 300 K to near-absolute zero, this rule can mean a contraction of more than 80 metres across the LHC’s 27-km-long cryogenic system. Keeping this growth in check are compensators (a.k.a. bellows), which shrink and stretch in response to thermodynamic changes. Leak tests and X-rays now underway in the tunnel have revealed that these “joints” might be suffering from growing pains…   This 25-μm weld crack is thought to be the cause of the helium leaks. Prior to the LS1 warm-up, CERN’s cryogenic experts knew of two points in the machine’s cryogenic distribution system that were leaking helium. Fortunately, these leaks were sufficiently small, confined to known sub-sectors of the cryogenic line and – with help from the vacuum team (TE-VSC) – could easily be compensated for. But as the machine warmed up f...

  11. Information flows at OS level unmask sophisticated Android malware

    OpenAIRE

    Viet Triem Tong , Valérie; Trulla , Aurélien; Leslous , Mourad; Lalande , Jean-François

    2017-01-01

    International audience; The detection of new Android malware is far from being a relaxing job. Indeed, each day new Android malware appear in the market and it remains difficult to quickly identify them. Unfortunately users still pay the lack of real efficient tools able to detect zero day malware that have no known signature. The difficulty is that most of the existing approaches rely on static analysis coupled with the ability of malware to hide their malicious code. Thus, we believe that i...

  12. >From naive to sophisticated behavior in multiagents-based financial market models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansilla, R.

    2000-09-01

    The behavior of physical complexity and mutual information function of the outcome of a model of heterogeneous, inductive rational agents inspired by the El Farol Bar problem and the Minority Game is studied. The first magnitude is a measure rooted in the Kolmogorov-Chaitin theory and the second a measure related to Shannon's information entropy. Extensive computer simulations were done, as a result of which, is proposed an ansatz for physical complexity of the type C(l)=lα and the dependence of the exponent α from the parameters of the model is established. The accuracy of our results and the relationship with the behavior of mutual information function as a measure of time correlation of agents choice are discussed.

  13. Marketing Communication Strategies of the Industrial Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Wodyński

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Industrial market, created by companies, which buy and sell goods which are not directly for consumption, but are used in production process, communicates with the environment in a specific way. Many industrial companies supply only the customers of non consumption goods market and hence they do not enter into direct contact with a final consumer. In such cases recognizing the customers needs is even more difficult. Such environment requires efficiently functioning and planned communication of the company with the market. This study presents methods and strategies of marketing communication really used in industrial companies. While analysing marketing strategies of industrial companies, the author draws the attention to the fact that even though there was system transformation, the state still has significant impact on functioning and development of industry and that in a way directs and created barriers in companies functioning. Such conditions force even more active marketing communication as well as searching new solutions. As there are more and more sophisticated marketing techniques related to digital media, there is also a growing demand for strategic solutions in marketing communication. Digital media, first of all the Internet, provide so far unavailable possibilities of researching consumers behaviours and ways of using media. They also give a chance to follow the behaviour of smaller, unique and often social groups of consumers.

  14. Sophisticated Search Capabilities in the ADS Abstract Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhorn, G.; Accomazzi, A.; Grant, C. S.; Henneken, E.; Kurtz, M. J.; Murray, S. S.

    2003-12-01

    The ADS provides access to over 940,000 references from astronomy and planetary sciences publications and 1.5 million records from physics publications. It is funded by NASA and provides free access to these references, as well as to 2.4 million scanned pages from the astronomical literature. These include most of the major astronomy and several planetary sciences journals, as well as many historical observatory publications. The references now include the abstracts from all volumes of the Journal of Geophysical Research (JGR) since the beginning of 2002. We get these abstracts on a regular basis. The Kluwer journal Solar Physics has been scanned back to volume 1 and is available through the ADS. We have extracted the reference lists from this and many other journals and included them in the reference and citation database of the ADS. We have recently scanning Earth, Moon and Planets, another Kluwer journal, and will scan other Kluwer journals in the future as well. We plan on extracting references from these journals as well in the near future. The ADS has many sophisticated query features. These allow the user to formulate complex queries. Using results lists to get further information about the selected articles provide the means to quickly find important and relevant articles from the database. Three advanced feedback queries are available from the bottom of the ADS results list (in addition to regular feedback queries already available from the abstract page and from the bottom of the results list): 1. Get reference list for selected articles: This query returns all known references for the selected articles (or for all articles in the first list). The resulting list will be ranked according to how often each article is referred to and will show the most referenced articles in the field of study that created the first list. It presumably shows the most important articles in that field. 2. Get citation list for selected articles: This returns all known articles

  15. Outsourcing of distribution and marketing modules - market opportunity for public utility companies; Outsourcing von Vertriebs- und Marketingmodulen - eine Marktchance fuer Stadtwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiefer, B. [ELEMENTERRA GmbH, Iserlohn (Germany)

    2007-09-15

    As a result of the liberalisation of the electricity market, growing domestic and international competition and, most importantly, unbundling legislation, German suppliers are compelled to make their network infrastructure available at attractive price levels and thus to abandon the formerly widespread practice of cross-subsidising distribution. Municipal utility companies are thus faced with the growing necessity to make their distribution processes for products and services profitable in themselves. Sophisticated direct distribution concepts involving the collaboration of external service providers in combination with green electricity products are a promising approach.

  16. The Impact of Services on Economic Complexity: Service Sophistication as Route for Economic Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojkoski, Viktor; Utkovski, Zoran; Kocarev, Ljupco

    2016-01-01

    Economic complexity reflects the amount of knowledge that is embedded in the productive structure of an economy. By combining tools from network science and econometrics, a robust and stable relationship between a country's productive structure and its economic growth has been established. Here we report that not only goods but also services are important for predicting the rate at which countries will grow. By adopting a terminology which classifies manufactured goods and delivered services as products, we investigate the influence of services on the country's productive structure. In particular, we provide evidence that complexity indices for services are in general higher than those for goods, which is reflected in a general tendency to rank countries with developed service sector higher than countries with economy centred on manufacturing of goods. By focusing on country dynamics based on experimental data, we investigate the impact of services on the economic complexity of countries measured in the product space (consisting of both goods and services). Importantly, we show that diversification of service exports and its sophistication can provide an additional route for economic growth in both developing and developed countries.

  17. Marketing marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Karel Jan van Alsem

    2013-01-01

    In deze installatierede betoogt Karel Jan Alsem dat marketing een grotere strategische rol in organisaties zou moeten krijgen. Want marketing is bij uitstek de verbinding tussen klantwensen en het DNA van een organisatie. Doordat merken gemiddeld voor mensen niet heel belangrijk zijn, is goede

  18. Lexical Sophistication as a Multidimensional Phenomenon: Relations to Second Language Lexical Proficiency, Development, and Writing Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minkyung; Crossley, Scott A.; Kyle, Kristopher

    2018-01-01

    This study conceptualizes lexical sophistication as a multidimensional phenomenon by reducing numerous lexical features of lexical sophistication into 12 aggregated components (i.e., dimensions) via a principal component analysis approach. These components were then used to predict second language (L2) writing proficiency levels, holistic lexical…

  19. The predictors of economic sophistication: media, interpersonal communication and negative economic experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalogeropoulos, A.; Albæk, E.; de Vreese, C.H.; van Dalen, A.

    2015-01-01

    In analogy to political sophistication, it is imperative that citizens have a certain level of economic sophistication, especially in times of heated debates about the economy. This study examines the impact of different influences (media, interpersonal communication and personal experiences) on

  20. Isocratean Discourse Theory and Neo-Sophistic Pedagogy: Implications for the Composition Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Kristine L.

    With the recent interest in the fifth century B.C. theories of Protagoras and Gorgias come assumptions about the philosophical affinity of the Greek educator Isocrates to this pair of older sophists. Isocratean education in discourse, with its emphasis on collaborative political discourse, falls within recent definitions of a sophist curriculum.…

  1. Aristotle and Social-Epistemic Rhetoric: The Systematizing of the Sophistic Legacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, James E.

    While Aristotle's philosophical views are more foundational than those of many of the Older Sophists, Aristotle's rhetorical theories inherit and incorporate many of the central tenets ascribed to Sophistic rhetoric, albeit in a more systematic fashion, as represented in the "Rhetoric." However, Aristotle was more than just a rhetorical…

  2. Reconfiguring the Financial Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Bucur

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The debut of the new millennium is marked by the increased economic and social imbalances. An important task of economic science is to identify the causes and factors that contributed to the radical transformation of the unfolding conditions of economic activity. The existence of different perspectives to approach the new realities may offer greater opportunities for decrypting the conditions that generated so far unknown developments, as well as for shaping solutions to promote new paths of progress and civilization. The defining with profound implications on the economy and society is represented by the globalization. From this perspective, we have analysed the new dimensions of capital accumulation and economic growth in the context of deregulation and liberalization of the international capital movements. In this context, we have noticed the increasing influence of the financial markets on the economy, the tendency to remove the finances from the real economy requirements, the growing role of external financing using more volatile capital goods, increased competition regarding the access to financing, the significant increase of power of the international capital markets whose characteristic is represented by the increased instability, the implications of the investors’ obsession with an excessive profitableness of their own funds and the expansion of using sophisticated financial products. Realities of today’s financial markets, which are the subject of numerous studies and analysis, have contributed to the association of the arguments that are contesting the thesis on the virtues of self-regulation markets and promoting a new paradigm, within which finances should subordinate the requirements of a balanced and sustained economic growth.

  3. Investment in capital markets

    OpenAIRE

    Ledenyov, Dimitri O.; Ledenyov, Viktor O.

    2017-01-01

    Investment in Capital Markets creates a strategic vision on the financial capital investment in the capital markets with the aim to get an increased return premium in the short and long time periods. The book is written with a main goal to explain the pros and cons of the financial capital investment in the capital markets, discussing the sophisticated investment concepts and techniques in the simple understandable readable general format language. We would like to highlight the three interes...

  4. Children as consumers: advertising and marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, Sandra L

    2008-01-01

    Marketing and advertising support the U.S. economy by promoting the sale of goods and services to consumers, both adults and children. Sandra Calvert addresses product marketing to children and shows that although marketers have targeted children for decades, two recent trends have increased their interest in child consumers. First, both the discretionary income of children and their power to influence parent purchases have increased over time. Second, as the enormous increase in the number of available television channels has led to smaller audiences for each channel, digital interactive technologies have simultaneously opened new routes to narrow cast to children, thereby creating a growing media space just for children and children's products. Calvert explains that paid advertising to children primarily involves television spots that feature toys and food products, most of which are high in fat and sugar and low in nutritional value. Newer marketing approaches have led to online advertising and to so-called stealth marketing techniques, such as embedding products in the program content in films, online, and in video games. All these marketing strategies, says Calvert, make children younger than eight especially vulnerable because they lack the cognitive skills to understand the persuasive intent of television and online advertisements. The new stealth techniques can also undermine the consumer defenses even of older children and adolescents. Calvert explains that government regulations implemented by the Federal Communications Commission and the Federal Trade Commission provide some protection for children from advertising and marketing practices. Regulators exert more control over content on scarce television airwaves that belong to the public than over content on the more open online spaces. Overall, Calvert concludes, children live and grow up in a highly sophisticated marketing environment that influences their preferences and behaviors.

  5. Choose profit over market share: Profit-oriented competitive strategies in contested markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilstein Frank

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available If there was ever an eye-opening moment for us concerning the topic of competitive strategy, then it was this: In the summer of 2003 we presented the CEO of a world-renowned public company with a sophisticated strategy that would secure its path towards profitable growth. She waited with growing impatience for the end of the presentation to crush six months of work with one sentence: "That's all very well and good. But I want to destroy my competitors!" Our objections undoubtedly earned a place in the company's history, but ultimately we failed. Three years have passed since then - three years in which the company has drastically reduced its formerly attractive margins in numerous important markets. And despite strong attacks, the company has not succeeded in ousting even one competitor from its relevant markets.

  6. Millennium bim managing growing demand

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Francisca Barbosa Malpique de Paiva

    2014-01-01

    Millennium bim, the Mozambican operation of Millennium bcp group, was the Company selected to serve as background for the development of a teaching case in Marketing. This case is followed by a teaching note, and is intended to be used as a pedagogical tool in undergraduate and/or graduate programs. Even though Mozambique is still characterized by high financial exclusion, the number of people entering within the banking industry has been growing at a fast pace. Actually, the demand for fi...

  7. Global unbalance in seaweed production, research effort and biotechnology markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazarrasa, Inés; Olsen, Ylva S; Mayol, Eva; Marbà, Núria; Duarte, Carlos M

    2014-01-01

    Exploitation of the world's oceans is rapidly growing as evidenced by a booming patent market of marine products including seaweed, a resource that is easily accessible without sophisticated bioprospecting technology and that has a high level of domestication globally. The investment in research effort on seaweed aquaculture has recently been identified to be the main force for the development of a biotechnology market of seaweed-derived products and is a more important driver than the capacity of seaweed production. Here, we examined seaweed patent registrations between 1980 and 2009 to assess the growth rate of seaweed biotechnology, its geographic distribution and the types of applications patented. We compare this growth with scientific investment in seaweed aquaculture and with the market of seaweed production. We found that both the seaweed patenting market and the rate of scientific publications are rapidly growing (11% and 16.8% per year respectively) since 1990. The patent market is highly geographically skewed (95% of all registrations belonging to ten countries and the top two holding 65% of the total) compared to the distribution of scientific output among countries (60% of all scientific publications belonging to ten countries and the top two countries holding a 21%), but more homogeneously distributed than the production market (with a 99.8% belonging to the top ten countries, and a 71% to the top two). Food industry was the dominant application for both the patent registrations (37.7%) and the scientific publications (21%) followed in both cases by agriculture and aquaculture applications. This result is consistent with the seaweed taxa most represented. Kelp, which was the target taxa for 47% of the patent registrations, is a traditional ingredient in Asian food and Gracilaria and Ulva, which were the focus of 15% and 13% of the scientific publications respectively, that are also used in more sophisticated applications such as cosmetics, chemical

  8. Growing media [Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass F. Jacobs; Thomas D. Landis; Tara Luna

    2009-01-01

    Selecting the proper growing medium is one of the most important considerations in nursery plant production. A growing medium can be defined as a substance through which roots grow and extract water and nutrients. In native plant nurseries, a growing medium can consist of native soil but is more commonly an "artificial soil" composed of materials such as peat...

  9. A Historical Review of R. J. Reynolds’ Strategies for Marketing Tobacco to Hispanics in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parascandola, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Hispanics are the fastest growing racial/ethnic group in the United States, and smoking is the leading preventable cause of morbidity and mortality among this population. We analyzed tobacco industry documents on R. J. Reynolds’ marketing strategies toward the Hispanic population using tobacco industry document archives from the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu) between February–July 2011 and April–August 2012. Our analysis revealed that by 1980 the company had developed a sophisticated surveillance system to track the market behavior of Hispanic smokers and understand their psychographics, cultural values, and attitudes. This information was translated into targeted marketing campaigns for the Winston and Camel brands. Marketing targeted toward Hispanics appealed to values and sponsored activities that could be perceived as legitimating. Greater understanding of tobacco industry marketing strategies has substantial relevance for addressing tobacco-related health disparities. PMID:23488493

  10. A historical review of R.J. Reynolds' strategies for marketing tobacco to Hispanics in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias-Rios, Lisbeth; Parascandola, Mark

    2013-05-01

    Hispanics are the fastest growing racial/ethnic group in the United States, and smoking is the leading preventable cause of morbidity and mortality among this population. We analyzed tobacco industry documents on R. J. Reynolds' marketing strategies toward the Hispanic population using tobacco industry document archives from the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu) between February-July 2011 and April-August 2012. Our analysis revealed that by 1980 the company had developed a sophisticated surveillance system to track the market behavior of Hispanic smokers and understand their psychographics, cultural values, and attitudes. This information was translated into targeted marketing campaigns for the Winston and Camel brands. Marketing targeted toward Hispanics appealed to values and sponsored activities that could be perceived as legitimating. Greater understanding of tobacco industry marketing strategies has substantial relevance for addressing tobacco-related health disparities.

  11. The musicality of non-musicians: an index for assessing musical sophistication in the general population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Müllensiefen

    Full Text Available Musical skills and expertise vary greatly in Western societies. Individuals can differ in their repertoire of musical behaviours as well as in the level of skill they display for any single musical behaviour. The types of musical behaviours we refer to here are broad, ranging from performance on an instrument and listening expertise, to the ability to employ music in functional settings or to communicate about music. In this paper, we first describe the concept of 'musical sophistication' which can be used to describe the multi-faceted nature of musical expertise. Next, we develop a novel measurement instrument, the Goldsmiths Musical Sophistication Index (Gold-MSI to assess self-reported musical skills and behaviours on multiple dimensions in the general population using a large Internet sample (n = 147,636. Thirdly, we report results from several lab studies, demonstrating that the Gold-MSI possesses good psychometric properties, and that self-reported musical sophistication is associated with performance on two listening tasks. Finally, we identify occupation, occupational status, age, gender, and wealth as the main socio-demographic factors associated with musical sophistication. Results are discussed in terms of theoretical accounts of implicit and statistical music learning and with regard to social conditions of sophisticated musical engagement.

  12. Moral foundations and political attitudes: The moderating role of political sophistication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milesi, Patrizia

    2016-08-01

    Political attitudes can be associated with moral concerns. This research investigated whether people's level of political sophistication moderates this association. Based on the Moral Foundations Theory, this article examined whether political sophistication moderates the extent to which reliance on moral foundations, as categories of moral concerns, predicts judgements about policy positions. With this aim, two studies examined four policy positions shown by previous research to be best predicted by the endorsement of Sanctity, that is, the category of moral concerns focused on the preservation of physical and spiritual purity. The results showed that reliance on Sanctity predicted political sophisticates' judgements, as opposed to those of unsophisticates, on policy positions dealing with equal rights for same-sex and unmarried couples and with euthanasia. Political sophistication also interacted with Fairness endorsement, which includes moral concerns for equal treatment of everybody and reciprocity, in predicting judgements about equal rights for unmarried couples, and interacted with reliance on Authority, which includes moral concerns for obedience and respect for traditional authorities, in predicting opposition to stem cell research. Those findings suggest that, at least for these particular issues, endorsement of moral foundations can be associated with political attitudes more strongly among sophisticates than unsophisticates. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  13. Reading wild minds: A computational assay of Theory of Mind sophistication across seven primate species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Devaine

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Theory of Mind (ToM, i.e. the ability to understand others' mental states, endows humans with highly adaptive social skills such as teaching or deceiving. Candidate evolutionary explanations have been proposed for the unique sophistication of human ToM among primates. For example, the Machiavellian intelligence hypothesis states that the increasing complexity of social networks may have induced a demand for sophisticated ToM. This type of scenario ignores neurocognitive constraints that may eventually be crucial limiting factors for ToM evolution. In contradistinction, the cognitive scaffolding hypothesis asserts that a species' opportunity to develop sophisticated ToM is mostly determined by its general cognitive capacity (on which ToM is scaffolded. However, the actual relationships between ToM sophistication and either brain volume (a proxy for general cognitive capacity or social group size (a proxy for social network complexity are unclear. Here, we let 39 individuals sampled from seven non-human primate species (lemurs, macaques, mangabeys, orangutans, gorillas and chimpanzees engage in simple dyadic games against artificial ToM players (via a familiar human caregiver. Using computational analyses of primates' choice sequences, we found that the probability of exhibiting a ToM-compatible learning style is mainly driven by species' brain volume (rather than by social group size. Moreover, primates' social cognitive sophistication culminates in a precursor form of ToM, which still falls short of human fully-developed ToM abilities.

  14. The musicality of non-musicians: an index for assessing musical sophistication in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müllensiefen, Daniel; Gingras, Bruno; Musil, Jason; Stewart, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    Musical skills and expertise vary greatly in Western societies. Individuals can differ in their repertoire of musical behaviours as well as in the level of skill they display for any single musical behaviour. The types of musical behaviours we refer to here are broad, ranging from performance on an instrument and listening expertise, to the ability to employ music in functional settings or to communicate about music. In this paper, we first describe the concept of 'musical sophistication' which can be used to describe the multi-faceted nature of musical expertise. Next, we develop a novel measurement instrument, the Goldsmiths Musical Sophistication Index (Gold-MSI) to assess self-reported musical skills and behaviours on multiple dimensions in the general population using a large Internet sample (n = 147,636). Thirdly, we report results from several lab studies, demonstrating that the Gold-MSI possesses good psychometric properties, and that self-reported musical sophistication is associated with performance on two listening tasks. Finally, we identify occupation, occupational status, age, gender, and wealth as the main socio-demographic factors associated with musical sophistication. Results are discussed in terms of theoretical accounts of implicit and statistical music learning and with regard to social conditions of sophisticated musical engagement.

  15. Knowledge Is Power. Research Can Help Your Marketing Program Succeed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert M.

    1982-01-01

    Three major types of market research can be helpful in college marketing: exploratory (internal and external to the college); developmental, to test marketing strategies and messages; and evaluative, to complete the market planning cycle. Increasingly sophisticated and accountable marketing techniques can be developed. (MSE)

  16. Differential ethnic associations between maternal flexibility and play sophistication in toddlers born very low birth weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Sarah J.; Montague, Erica Q.; Maclean, Peggy C.; Bancroft, Mary E.; Lowe, Jean R.

    2013-01-01

    Children born very low birth weight (development of self-regulation and effective functional skills, and play serves as an important avenue of early intervention. The current study investigated associations between maternal flexibility and toddler play sophistication in Caucasian, Spanish speaking Hispanic, English speaking Hispanic, and Native American toddlers (18-22 months adjusted age) in a cross-sectional cohort of 73 toddlers born VLBW and their mothers. We found that the association between maternal flexibility and toddler play sophistication differed by ethnicity (F(3,65) = 3.34, p = .02). In particular, Spanish speaking Hispanic dyads evidenced a significant positive association between maternal flexibility and play sophistication of medium effect size. Results for Native Americans were parallel to those of Spanish speaking Hispanic dyads: the relationship between flexibility and play sophistication was positive and of small-medium effect size. Findings indicate that for Caucasians and English speaking Hispanics, flexibility evidenced a non-significant (negative and small effect size) association with toddler play sophistication. Significant follow-up contrasts revealed that the associations for Caucasian and English speaking Hispanic dyads were significantly different from those of the other two ethnic groups. Results remained unchanged after adjusting for the amount of maternal language, an index of maternal engagement and stimulation; and after adjusting for birth weight, gestational age, gender, test age, cognitive ability, as well maternal age, education, and income. Our results provide preliminary evidence that ethnicity and acculturation may mediate the association between maternal interactive behavior such as flexibility and toddler developmental outcomes, as indexed by play sophistication. Addressing these association differences is particularly important in children born VLBW because interventions targeting parent interaction strategies such as

  17. The Value of Multivariate Model Sophistication: An Application to pricing Dow Jones Industrial Average options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rombouts, Jeroen V.K.; Stentoft, Lars; Violante, Francesco

    innovation for a Laplace innovation assumption improves the pricing in a smaller way. Apart from investigating directly the value of model sophistication in terms of dollar losses, we also use the model condence set approach to statistically infer the set of models that delivers the best pricing performance.......We assess the predictive accuracy of a large number of multivariate volatility models in terms of pricing options on the Dow Jones Industrial Average. We measure the value of model sophistication in terms of dollar losses by considering a set 248 multivariate models that differer...

  18. Cognitive ability rivals the effect of political sophistication on ideological voting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebbelstrup Rye Rasmussen, Stig

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the impact of cognitive ability on ideological voting. We find, using a US sample and a Danish sample, that the effect of cognitive ability rivals the effect of the traditionally strongest predicter of ideological voting political sophistication. Furthermore, the results...... are consistent with the effect of cognitive ability being partly mediated by political sophistication. Much of the effect of cognitive ability remains however and is not explained by differences in education or Openness to experience either. The implications of these results for democratic theory are discussed....

  19. The Direct Results of Integrated Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevier, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    Discussions among college and university administrators on improving marketing efforts often revolve around questions about whether the marketing function should be centralized or decentralized. An impetus of these discussions is the increased marketing sophistication of many boards. Many trustees are strongly urging their institutions to apply…

  20. Assessing Epistemic Sophistication by Considering Domain-Specific Absolute and Multiplicistic Beliefs Separately

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Johannes; Rosman, Tom; Mayer, Anne-Kathrin; Leichner, Nikolas; Krampen, Günter

    2016-01-01

    Background: Particularly in higher education, not only a view of science as a means of finding absolute truths (absolutism), but also a view of science as generally tentative (multiplicism) can be unsophisticated and obstructive for learning. Most quantitative epistemic belief inventories neglect this and understand epistemic sophistication as…

  1. The Relationship between Logistics Sophistication and Drivers of the Outsourcing of Logistics Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wanke

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A strong link has been established between operational excellence and the degree of sophistication of logistics organization, a function of factors such as performance monitoring, investment in Information Technology [IT] and the formalization of logistics organization, as proposed in the Bowersox, Daugherty, Dröge, Germain and Rogers (1992 Leading Edge model. At the same time, shippers have been increasingly outsourcing their logistics activities to third party providers. This paper, based on a survey with large Brazilian shippers, addresses a gap in the literature by investigating the relationship between dimensions of logistics organization sophistication and drivers of logistics outsourcing. To this end, the dimensions behind the logistics sophistication construct were first investigated. Results from factor analysis led to the identification of six dimensions of logistics sophistication. By means of multivariate logistical regression analyses it was possible to relate some of these dimensions, such as the formalization of the logistics organization, to certain drivers of the outsourcing of logistics activities of Brazilian shippers, such as cost savings. These results indicate the possibility of segmenting shippers according to characteristics of their logistics organization, which may be particularly useful to logistics service providers.

  2. Reacting to Neighborhood Cues?: Political Sophistication Moderates the Effect of Exposure to Immigrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danckert, Bolette; Dinesen, Peter Thisted; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar

    2017-01-01

    is founded on politically sophisticated individuals having a greater comprehension of news and other mass-mediated sources, which makes them less likely to rely on neighborhood cues as sources of information relevant for political attitudes. Based on a unique panel data set with fine-grained information...

  3. Sophistic Ethics in the Technical Writing Classroom: Teaching "Nomos," Deliberation, and Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, J. Blake

    1995-01-01

    Claims that teaching ethics is particularly important to technical writing. Outlines a classical, sophistic approach to ethics based on the theories and pedagogies of Protagoras, Gorgias, and Isocrates, which emphasizes the Greek concept of "nomos," internal and external deliberation, and responsible action. Discusses problems and…

  4. Close to the Clothes : Materiality and Sophisticated Archaism in Alexander van Slobbe’s Design Practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baronian, M.-A.

    This article looks at the work of contemporary Dutch fashion designer Alexander van Slobbe (1959) and examines how, since the 1990s, his fashion practices have consistently and consciously put forward a unique reflection on questions related to materiality, sophisticated archaism, luxury,

  5. Close to the Clothes: Materiality and Sophisticated Archaism in Alexander van Slobbe’s Design Practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baronian, M.-A.

    This article looks at the work of contemporary Dutch fashion designer Alexander van Slobbe (1959) and examines how, since the 1990s, his fashion practices have consistently and consciously put forward a unique reflection on questions related to materiality, sophisticated archaism, luxury,

  6. Lexical Complexity Development from Dynamic Systems Theory Perspective: Lexical Density, Diversity, and Sophistication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Kalantari

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This longitudinal case study explored Iranian EFL learners’ lexical complexity (LC through the lenses of Dynamic Systems Theory (DST. Fifty independent essays written by five intermediate to advanced female EFL learners in a TOEFL iBT preparation course over six months constituted the corpus of this study. Three Coh-Metrix indices (Graesser, McNamara, Louwerse, & Cai, 2004; McNamara & Graesser, 2012, three Lexical Complexity Analyzer indices (Lu, 2010, 2012; Lu & Ai, 2011, and four Vocabprofile indices (Cobb, 2000 were selected to measure different dimensions of LC. Results of repeated measures analysis of variance (RM ANOVA indicated an improvement with regard to only lexical sophistication. Positive and significant relationships were found between time and mean values in Academic Word List and Beyond-2000 as indicators of lexical sophistication. The remaining seven indices of LC, falling short of significance, tended to flatten over the course of this writing program. Correlation analyses among LC indices indicated that lexical density enjoyed positive correlations with lexical sophistication. However, lexical diversity revealed no significant correlations with both lexical density and lexical sophistication. This study suggests that DST perspective specifies a viable foundation for analyzing lexical complexity

  7. Does a more sophisticated storm erosion model improve probabilistic erosion estimates?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ranasinghe, R.W.M.R.J.B.; Callaghan, D.; Roelvink, D.

    2013-01-01

    The dependency between the accuracy/uncertainty of storm erosion exceedance estimates obtained via a probabilistic model and the level of sophistication of the structural function (storm erosion model) embedded in the probabilistic model is assessed via the application of Callaghan et al.'s (2008)

  8. Latin America wind market assessment. Forecast 2013-2022

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-10-15

    Wind Power Activities by Country: Developers/Owners, Wind Plant Sizes, Wind Turbines Deployed, Commissioning Dates, Market Share, and Capacity Forecasts Latin American markets are a subject of intense interest from the global wind industry. Wind plant construction across Latin America is modest compared to the more established markets like the United States, Europe, and China, but it is an emerging market that is taking off at a rapid pace. The region has become the hottest alternative growth market for the wind energy industry at a time when growth rates in other markets are flat due to a variety of policy and macroeconomic challenges. Globalization is driving sustainable economic growth in most Latin American countries, resulting in greater energy demand. Wind is increasingly viewed as a valuable and essential answer to increasing electricity generation across most markets in Latin America. Strong wind resources, coupled with today's sophisticated wind turbines, are providing cost-effective generation that is competitive with fossil fuel generation. Most Latin American countries also rely heavily on hydroelectricity, which balances well with variable wind generation. Navigant Research forecasts that if most wind plants under construction with planned commissioning go online as scheduled, annual wind power installations in Latin America will grow from nearly 2.2 GW in 2013 to 4.3 GW by 2022. This Navigant Research report provides a comprehensive view of the wind energy market dynamics at play in Latin America. It offers a country-by-country analysis, outlining the key energy policies and development opportunities and barriers and identifying which companies own operational wind plants and which wind turbine vendors supplied those projects. Market forecasts for wind power installations, capacity, and market share in Latin America, segmented by country and company, extend through 2022. The report also offers an especially close analysis of Brazil and Mexico

  9. Supplies should match growing demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmusen, H.J.

    1997-01-01

    The natural gas industry is currently enjoying healthy growth prospects. Not only is the demand for natural gas steadily growing; the outlook for increasing gas reserves is promising as well. The success of natural gas in the marketplace reflects, on one hand, continuous attention paid to public and customer requirements and, on the other hand, the ability of the gas industry to direct technological developments toward the increasing public demand for gas at competitive market prices supplied in a reliable, safe and environmentally friendly manner. In the past, the gas industry has been involved in the development of technologies for everything from gas production to the end user and from borehole to burner tip, and the author believes that the industry must continue or even increase its emphasis on technology in the future in order to capture new market opportunities. He explains this by looking at the supply side, the demand side and the structural side of the business

  10. Sophisticated Fowl: The Complex Behaviour and Cognitive Skills of Chickens and Red Junglefowl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Garnham

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The world’s most numerous bird, the domestic chicken, and their wild ancestor, the red junglefowl, have long been used as model species for animal behaviour research. Recently, this research has advanced our understanding of the social behaviour, personality, and cognition of fowl, and demonstrated their sophisticated behaviour and cognitive skills. Here, we overview some of this research, starting with describing research investigating the well-developed senses of fowl, before presenting how socially and cognitively complex they can be. The realisation that domestic chickens, our most abundant production animal, are behaviourally and cognitively sophisticated should encourage an increase in general appraise and fascination towards them. In turn, this should inspire increased use of them as both research and hobby animals, as well as improvements in their unfortunately often poor welfare.

  11. The relation between maturity and sophistication shall be properly dealt with in nuclear power development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yongjiang

    2009-01-01

    The paper analyses the advantages and disadvantages of the second generation improved technologies and third generation technologies mainly developed in China in terms of safety and economy. The paper also discusses the maturity of the second generation improved technologies and the sophistication of the third generation technologies respectively. Meanwhile, the paper proposes that the advantage and disadvantage of second generation improved technologies and third generation technologies should be carefully taken into consideration and the relationship between the maturity and sophistication should be properly dealt with in the current stage. A two-step strategy shall be taken as a solution to solve the problem of insufficient capacity of nuclear power, trace and develop the third generation technologies, so as to ensure the sound and fast development of nuclear power. (authors)

  12. Financial Sophistication and the Distribution of the Welfare Cost of Inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Paola Boel; Gabriele Camera

    2009-01-01

    The welfare cost of anticipated inflation is quantified in a calibrated model of the U.S. economy that exhibits tractable equilibrium dispersion in wealth and earnings. Inflation does not generate large losses in societal welfare, yet its impact varies noticeably across segments of society depending also on the financial sophistication of the economy. If money is the only asset, then inflation hurts mostly the wealthier and more productive agents, while those poorer and less productive may ev...

  13. Putin’s Russia: Russian Mentality and Sophisticated Imperialism in Military Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Szénási, Lieutenant-Colonel Endre

    2016-01-01

    According to my experiences, the Western world hopelessly fails to understand Russian mentality, or misinterprets it. During my analysis of the Russian way of thinking I devoted special attention to the examination of military mentality. I have connected the issue of the Russian way of thinking to the contemporary imperial policies of Putin’s Russia.  I have also attempted to prove the level of sophistication of both. I hope that a better understanding of both the Russian mentality and imperi...

  14. Musical Sophistication and the Effect of Complexity on Auditory Discrimination in Finnish Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Caitlin; Aalto, Daniel; Šimko, Juraj; Vainio, Martti; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2017-01-01

    Musical experiences and native language are both known to affect auditory processing. The present work aims to disentangle the influences of native language phonology and musicality on behavioral and subcortical sound feature processing in a population of musically diverse Finnish speakers as well as to investigate the specificity of enhancement from musical training. Finnish speakers are highly sensitive to duration cues since in Finnish, vowel and consonant duration determine word meaning. Using a correlational approach with a set of behavioral sound feature discrimination tasks, brainstem recordings, and a musical sophistication questionnaire, we find no evidence for an association between musical sophistication and more precise duration processing in Finnish speakers either in the auditory brainstem response or in behavioral tasks, but they do show an enhanced pitch discrimination compared to Finnish speakers with less musical experience and show greater duration modulation in a complex task. These results are consistent with a ceiling effect set for certain sound features which corresponds to the phonology of the native language, leaving an opportunity for music experience-based enhancement of sound features not explicitly encoded in the language (such as pitch, which is not explicitly encoded in Finnish). Finally, the pattern of duration modulation in more musically sophisticated Finnish speakers suggests integrated feature processing for greater efficiency in a real world musical situation. These results have implications for research into the specificity of plasticity in the auditory system as well as to the effects of interaction of specific language features with musical experiences. PMID:28450829

  15. Musical Sophistication and the Effect of Complexity on Auditory Discrimination in Finnish Speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Caitlin; Aalto, Daniel; Šimko, Juraj; Vainio, Martti; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2017-01-01

    Musical experiences and native language are both known to affect auditory processing. The present work aims to disentangle the influences of native language phonology and musicality on behavioral and subcortical sound feature processing in a population of musically diverse Finnish speakers as well as to investigate the specificity of enhancement from musical training. Finnish speakers are highly sensitive to duration cues since in Finnish, vowel and consonant duration determine word meaning. Using a correlational approach with a set of behavioral sound feature discrimination tasks, brainstem recordings, and a musical sophistication questionnaire, we find no evidence for an association between musical sophistication and more precise duration processing in Finnish speakers either in the auditory brainstem response or in behavioral tasks, but they do show an enhanced pitch discrimination compared to Finnish speakers with less musical experience and show greater duration modulation in a complex task. These results are consistent with a ceiling effect set for certain sound features which corresponds to the phonology of the native language, leaving an opportunity for music experience-based enhancement of sound features not explicitly encoded in the language (such as pitch, which is not explicitly encoded in Finnish). Finally, the pattern of duration modulation in more musically sophisticated Finnish speakers suggests integrated feature processing for greater efficiency in a real world musical situation. These results have implications for research into the specificity of plasticity in the auditory system as well as to the effects of interaction of specific language features with musical experiences.

  16. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Manufacturing activities continue to lose steam as the purchasing managers index drops for the third consecutive month. The U.S.retail giant Best Buy trims its China presence after struggling to survive amidcut-throat competition. But an increasing number of U.S. companies are still expanding into China to cash in on the vibrant market. The aluminum behemoth Chalco jumps back into the black due to growing prices of thelight metal. China’s leading portal website Sina makes a push into the online shopping market by acquiring a stake in an online apparel retailer.

  17. Assessing the Returns from Organic Marketing Channels

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Timothy A.

    2009-01-01

    Organic farmers face heightened pressure in developing a portfolio of different marketing channels and in bargaining competitively with increasingly sophisticated marketing participants in the supply chain for organic products. This research assists producers by identifying specific farm and demographic factors that enhance earnings given the choice of marketing outlet. The two significant selectivity coefficients confirm that organic earnings when marketing through a single outlet are biased...

  18. Growing Safflower in Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Pace, M. G.; Israelsen, C. E.; Creech, E.; Allen, N.

    2015-01-01

    This fact sheet provides information on growing safflower in Utah. It has become popular on dryland farms in rotation with winter wheat. Safflower seed provides three products, oil, meal, and birdseed.

  19. "Should I Buy or Should I Grow?" How drug policy institutions and drug market transaction costs shape the decision to self-supply with cannabis in the Netherlands and the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belackova, Vendula; Maalsté, Nicole; Zabransky, Tomas; Grund, Jean Paul

    2015-03-01

    This paper uses the framework of institutional economics to assess the impact of formal and informal institutions that influence the transaction costs on the cannabis market, and users' decisions to self-supply in the Czech Republic and the Netherlands, two countries with seemingly identical policies towards cannabis cultivation. A comparative analysis was conducted using secondary qualitative and quantitative data in four areas that were identified as relevant to the decision to cultivate cannabis: (i) the rules of the game - cannabis cultivation policy; (ii) "playing the game" - implementation of cannabis cultivation policy, (iii) informal institutions - cannabis cultivation culture, and (iv) the transaction costs of the cannabis market - availability, quality, and relative cannabis prices adjusted by purchasing power parity. Although the two policies are similar, their implementation differs substantially. In the Czech Republic, law enforcement has focused almost exclusively on large-scale cultivation. This has resulted in a competitive small-scale cultivation market, built upon a history of cannabis self-supply, which is pushing cannabis prices down. In the Netherlands, the costs of establishing one's own self-supply have historically outweighed the costs associated with buying in coffee shops. Additionally, law enforcement has recently pushed small-scale growers away from the market, and a large-scale cannabis supply, partly controlled by organised criminal groups, has been established that is driving prices up. The Czech cannabis prices have become relatively lower than the Dutch prices only recently, and the decision to buy on the market or to self-supply will be further shaped by the transactions costs on both markets, by policy implementation and by the local culture. The ability to learn from the impacts of cannabis cultivation policies conducted within the framework of UN drug treaties is particularly important at a time when increasing numbers of

  20. Do organizations adopt sophisticated capital budgeting practices to deal with uncertainty in the investment decision? : A research note

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeeten, Frank H M

    This study examines the impact of uncertainty on the sophistication of capital budgeting practices. While the theoretical applications of sophisticated capital budgeting practices (defined as the use of real option reasoning and/or game theory decision rules) have been well documented, empirical

  1. The Market - between Marketing and Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    is applicable in real life situations. Furthermore we shall discuss implications of the global disintegration of production, and the growing content of intangibles (experiences) in the goods we consume, for our understanding of the market. This takes us to a plausible theoretical explanation of the smile......We all know what a market is, but when it comes to theorizing about markets and modelling them, there are differences within the fields of economics and marketing management. Here we shall try to locate the cause of these differences, and discuss when the economic concept of an ideal market...

  2. The midstream markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurney, J.

    1998-01-01

    Intense activity by wholesale gas marketers and traders now characterises the post-deregulation natural gas industry''s transmission systems, once the sole preserve of powerful interstate pipeline companies. This has meant a shift in power from large companies with massive infrastructure investment to new smaller companies specialising in sophisticated business skills technology utilization. The history underpinning these changes is described in order to clarify the economic changes which have occurred. (UK)

  3. "SOCRATICS" AS ADDRESSES OF ISOCRATES’ EPIDEICTIC SPEECHES (Against the Sophists, Encomium of Helen, Busiris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Usacheva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the three epideictic orations of Isocrates which are in themselves a precious testimony of the quality of intellectual life at the close of the fourth century before Christ. To this period belong also the Socratics who are generally seen as an important link between Socrates and Plato. The author of this article proposes a more productive approach to the study of Antisthenes, Euclid of Megara and other so-called Socratics, revealing them not as independent thinkers but rather as adherents of the sophistic school and also as teachers, thereby, including them among those who took part in the educative activity of their time

  4. Low Level RF Including a Sophisticated Phase Control System for CTF3

    CERN Document Server

    Mourier, J; Nonglaton, J M; Syratchev, I V; Tanner, L

    2004-01-01

    CTF3 (CLIC Test Facility 3), currently under construction at CERN, is a test facility designed to demonstrate the key feasibility issues of the CLIC (Compact LInear Collider) two-beam scheme. When completed, this facility will consist of a 150 MeV linac followed by two rings for bunch-interleaving, and a test stand where 30 GHz power will be generated. In this paper, the work that has been carried out on the linac's low power RF system is described. This includes, in particular, a sophisticated phase control system for the RF pulse compressor to produce a flat-top rectangular pulse over 1.4 µs.

  5. Marketing Audit A Systematic and Comprehensive Marketing Examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Al Fahad

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract-The growing complexity of the current market environment needs a more systematic evaluation process that how organizational marketing performance deals with the dynamic market. This paper point out the benefit of marketing audit to deals with systematic evaluation of plans objectives strategies activities and organizational structure as well as marketing staff. Recent study has portrayed a broader conceptualization of effectiveness of using marketing audit. Through this paper we want to bring into focus the broad and different aspects of marketing audit that can help the organization its strength and weakness. The paper suggests that marketing audit should use as a mechanism to evaluate the entire marketing system.

  6. Systematization and sophistication of a comprehensive sensitivity analysis program. Phase 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyamada, Kiyoshi; Ikeda, Takao

    2004-02-01

    This study developed minute estimation by adopting comprehensive sensitivity analytical program for reliability of TRU waste repository concepts in a crystalline rock condition. We examined each components and groundwater scenario of geological repository and prepared systematic bases to examine the reliability from the point of comprehensiveness. Models and data are sophisticated to examine the reliability. Based on an existing TRU waste repository concepts, effects of parameters to nuclide migration were quantitatively classified. Those parameters, that will be decided quantitatively, are such as site character of natural barrier and design specification of engineered barriers. Considering the feasibility of those figures of specifications, reliability is re-examined on combinations of those parameters within a practical range. Future issues are; Comprehensive representation of hybrid geosphere model including the fractured medium and permeable matrix medium. Sophistication of tools to develop the reliable combinations of parameters. It is significant to continue this study because the disposal concepts and specification of TRU nuclides containing waste on various sites shall be determined rationally and safely through these studies. (author)

  7. Markets and organizations: individualism and economic theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, M.

    2010-01-01

    Economic theory depicts markets and organizations as opposite allocation mechanisms. Market allocation is based on mobility and organization on instruction. The paper argues that markets and organizations are complements in economies that grow through innovation. Diversity of organizations lies at

  8. Coal exports still growing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blain, M.

    1998-01-01

    It is shown that the swings and roundabouts of the Asian economic shake out and Australian dollar devaluation are starting to work their way through the Australian export coal market. Perhaps somewhat surprisingly, at this stage the results are not proving to be as bad as were at first predicted by some market watchers. Export revenue and tonnages are up 12% for the year to July 98. Coal exports totaling $9.5 billion left Australia's shores in the 12 months confirming coal as Australia's single largest export revenue earner. Sales volumes in the present financial year are still increasing, the market being driven by steadily increasing Asian demand for steaming coal from places like Korea, Malaysia, Thailand and the Philippines

  9. Prediction Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Christian Franz; Ivens, Bjørn Sven; Ohneberg, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, Prediction Markets gained growing interest as a forecasting tool among researchers as well as practitioners, which resulted in an increasing number of publications. In order to track the latest development of research, comprising the extent and focus of research, this article...... provides a comprehensive review and classification of the literature related to the topic of Prediction Markets. Overall, 316 relevant articles, published in the timeframe from 2007 through 2013, were identified and assigned to a herein presented classification scheme, differentiating between descriptive...... works, articles of theoretical nature, application-oriented studies and articles dealing with the topic of law and policy. The analysis of the research results reveals that more than half of the literature pool deals with the application and actual function tests of Prediction Markets. The results...

  10. Growing Plants and Minds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presser, Ashley Lewis; Kamdar, Danae; Vidiksis, Regan; Goldstein, Marion; Dominguez, Ximena; Orr, Jillian

    2017-01-01

    Many preschool classrooms explore plant growth. However, because many plants take a long time to grow, it is often hard to facilitate engagement in some practices (i.e., since change is typically not observable from one day to another, children often forget their prior predictions or cannot recall what plants looked like days or weeks earlier).…

  11. Growing Backyard Textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Eleanor Hall

    1975-01-01

    For those involved in creative work with textiles, the degree of control possible in texture, finish, and color of fiber by growing and processing one's own (perhaps with students' help) can make the experience rewarding. The author describes the processes for flax and nettles and gives tips on necessary equipment. (Author/AJ)

  12. Obesity : a growing problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seidell, J C

    Obesity, defined as a body mass index (BMI) of 30 kg/m2 or more, is common in many parts of the world, especially in the established market economies, the former socialist economies of Europe, Latin America, the Caribbean and the Middle Eastern Crescent. As many as 250 million people worldwide may

  13. Growing Through Innovation Replicability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hsuan, Juliana; Lévesque, Moren

    2012-01-01

    of growth policies. We use a utility function that considers proxies for both growth and failure potential to uncover the role played in selecting these policies by the economic environment of the targeted market for expansion. Our analysis further reveals the importance of the innovation...

  14. GrOW brochure

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Canada's International Development Research Centre (IDRC). It is housed within ... latory frameworks that restrict women's opportunities to engage fully in markets and ... growth could be harnessed to close persistent gender gaps in opportunities ... out policy implications, identifying what works and what does not work in ...

  15. Growing Competition for Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Susan

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Questia subscription-based online academic digital books library. Highlights include weaknesses of the collection; what college students want from a library; importance of marketing; competition for traditional academic libraries that may help improve library services; and the ability of Questia to overcome barriers and…

  16. xSyn: A Software Tool for Identifying Sophisticated 3-Way Interactions From Cancer Expression Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baishali Bandyopadhyay

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Constructing gene co-expression networks from cancer expression data is important for investigating the genetic mechanisms underlying cancer. However, correlation coefficients or linear regression models are not able to model sophisticated relationships among gene expression profiles. Here, we address the 3-way interaction that 2 genes’ expression levels are clustered in different space locations under the control of a third gene’s expression levels. Results: We present xSyn, a software tool for identifying such 3-way interactions from cancer gene expression data based on an optimization procedure involving the usage of UPGMA (Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean and synergy. The effectiveness is demonstrated by application to 2 real gene expression data sets. Conclusions: xSyn is a useful tool for decoding the complex relationships among gene expression profiles. xSyn is available at http://www.bdxconsult.com/xSyn.html .

  17. When not to copy: female fruit flies use sophisticated public information to avoid mated males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyau, Adeline; Blanchet, Simon; van Laere, Pauline; Clobert, Jean; Danchin, Etienne

    2012-10-01

    Semen limitation (lack of semen to fertilize all of a female's eggs) imposes high fitness costs to female partners. Females should therefore avoid mating with semen-limited males. This can be achieved by using public information extracted from watching individual males' previous copulating activities. This adaptive preference should be flexible given that semen limitation is temporary. We first demonstrate that the number of offspring produced by males Drosophila melanogaster gradually decreases over successive copulations. We then show that females avoid mating with males they just watched copulating and that visual public cues are sufficient to elicit this response. Finally, after males were given the time to replenish their sperm reserves, females did not avoid the males they previously saw copulating anymore. These results suggest that female fruit flies may have evolved sophisticated behavioural processes of resistance to semen-limited males, and demonstrate unsuspected adaptive context-dependent mate choice in an invertebrate.

  18. RSYST: From nuclear reactor calculations towards a highly sophisticated scientific software integration environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noack, M.; Seybold, J.; Ruehle, R.

    1996-01-01

    The software environment RSYST was originally used to solve problems of reactor physics. The consideration of advanced scientific simulation requirements and the strict application of modern software design principles led to a system which is perfectly suitable to solve problems in various complex scientific problem domains. Starting with a review of the early days of RSYST, we describe the straight evolution driven by the need of software environment which combines the advantages of a high-performance database system with the capability to integrate sophisticated scientific technical applications. The RSYST architecture is presented and the data modelling capabilities are described. To demonstrate the powerful possibilities and flexibility of the RSYST environment, we describe a wide range of RSYST applications, e.g., mechanical simulations of multibody systems, which are used in biomechanical research, civil engineering and robotics. In addition, a hypermedia system which is used for scientific technical training and documentation is presented. (orig.) [de

  19. Reasons for the Fast Growing Seawater Desalination Capacity in Algeria

    KAUST Repository

    Drouiche, Nadjib; Ghaffour, NorEddine; Naceur, Mohamed Wahib; Mahmoudi, Hacè ne; Ouslimane, Tarik

    2011-01-01

    growing markets. Five desalination plants, including the Africa's largest seawater reverse osmosis project with a total capacity of 200,000 m3 per day, are already in operation and the remaining projects are either under construction or in commissioning

  20. How to Grow Old

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bertrand Russell

    2008-01-01

    <正>1. In spite of the title, this article will really be on how not to grow old, which, at my time of life, is a much more important subject. My first advice would be to choose your ancestors carefully. Although both my parents died young, I have done well in this respect as regards my other ancestors. My maternal grandfather, it is true, was cut off in the flower of his youth at the age of sixty-seven,

  1. The Marketing Audit as a Method of the Evaluation of the Marketing Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaňa, Kamil; Černá, Ľubica

    2012-12-01

    The growing complexity of the current market environment needs a more systematic evaluation process of the organizational marketing performance to deal with the dynamic market. This paper deals with marketing audit as a comprehensive assessment of all angles of marketing operation in an organization and also deals with systematic evaluation of plans, objectives, strategies, activities and organizational structure as well as marketing staff.

  2. THE CHALLENGES OF SMEs IN MODERN MARKETING

    OpenAIRE

    OANA PREDA; IULIA FURDUI

    2009-01-01

    SME’s are actually driving Romanian economy, especially after the European Union integration, but the risk of failure is obvious due to the lack of openness to the modern times. SME’s need to upgrade their competitiveness and their knowledge about online marketing and the complexity of the market. Most of the SME’s disregard the importance of marketing promotions services. The Internet is also considered an expensive and sophisticated way when it comes to advertising for small companies. Wron...

  3. Growing Role of Retail in Distribution Channels

    OpenAIRE

    Ishak Mesic

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to demonstrate the growing role of retail trade (retail) in the channels of distribution of goods both in domestic and international markets. Technical-technological development has provided great opportunities for all production of material goods, so that the focus of problem in the economic possibilities of playing shifted from production to sales opportunities, or consumption. The ultimate consumers and their needs and requirements have become a central area of study, bas...

  4. Photovoltaics: a market overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derrick, A.; Barlow, R.W.; McNelis, B.; Gregory, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive assessment of the current state of this ever-growing market, then, in the form of extensive individual profiles, lists almost 200 companies active in PV. Chapters cover: the evolution of the industry; module production; module destinations; applications markets; characteristics of international trade tariffs; classifications of products; prospects for the future and sources of further information. (author)

  5. Determinants of Marketing Performance: Innovation, Market Capabilities and Marketing Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Naili Farida

    2016-01-01

    This research aim to analyze causality influence between innovations, market capability, social modal, entrepreneurs oriented into marketing performance. Organizational innovations is a basic focus on Total  Quality Management. Innovation has a role to technological development and competitive economy environment. The sample technique used is Purpusive sampling amount 58 respondent owner of Batik Small Medium Enterprise known as UKM.  Small businesses have small medium or medium can grow and ...

  6. Bond markets in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibin Mu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available African bond markets have been steadily growing in recent years, but nonetheless remain undeveloped. African countries would benefit from greater access to financing and deeper financial markets. This paper compiles a unique set of data on government securities and corporate bond markets in Africa. It then applies an econometric model to analyze the key determinants of African government securities market and corporate bond market capitalization. Government securities market capitalization is directly related to better institutions and interest rate volatility, and inversely related to smaller fiscal deficits, higher interest rate spreads, exchange rate volatility, and current and capital account openness. Corporate bond market capitalization is directly linked to economic size, the level of development of the economy and financial markets, better institutions, and interest rate volatility, and inversely related to higher interest rate spreads and current account openness. Policy implications follow.

  7. 2013 Bioenergy Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwab, Amy [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Moriarty, Kristi [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Milbrandt, Anelia [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Geiger, Jesse [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lewis, John [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-03-28

    This report provides a status of the markets and technology development involved in growing a domestic bioenergy economy as it existed at the end of 2013. It compiles and integrates information to provide a snapshot of the current state and historical trends influencing the development of bioenergy markets. This information is intended for policy-makers as well as technology developers and investors tracking bioenergy developments. It also highlights some of the key energy and regulatory drivers of bioenergy markets.

  8. Derivatives in emerging markets

    OpenAIRE

    Dubravko Mihaljek; Frank Packer

    2010-01-01

    Turnover of derivatives has grown more rapidly in emerging markets than in developed countries. Foreign exchange derivatives are the most commonly traded of all risk categories, with increasingly frequent turnover in emerging market currencies and a growing share of cross-border transactions. As the global reach of the financial centres in emerging Asia has expanded, the offshore trading of many emerging market currency derivatives has risen as well. Growth in derivatives turnover is positive...

  9. Exploring the predictive power of interaction terms in a sophisticated risk equalization model using regression trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Veen, S H C M; van Kleef, R C; van de Ven, W P M M; van Vliet, R C J A

    2018-02-01

    This study explores the predictive power of interaction terms between the risk adjusters in the Dutch risk equalization (RE) model of 2014. Due to the sophistication of this RE-model and the complexity of the associations in the dataset (N = ~16.7 million), there are theoretically more than a million interaction terms. We used regression tree modelling, which has been applied rarely within the field of RE, to identify interaction terms that statistically significantly explain variation in observed expenses that is not already explained by the risk adjusters in this RE-model. The interaction terms identified were used as additional risk adjusters in the RE-model. We found evidence that interaction terms can improve the prediction of expenses overall and for specific groups in the population. However, the prediction of expenses for some other selective groups may deteriorate. Thus, interactions can reduce financial incentives for risk selection for some groups but may increase them for others. Furthermore, because regression trees are not robust, additional criteria are needed to decide which interaction terms should be used in practice. These criteria could be the right incentive structure for risk selection and efficiency or the opinion of medical experts. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. The tool for the automatic analysis of lexical sophistication (TAALES): version 2.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, Kristopher; Crossley, Scott; Berger, Cynthia

    2017-07-11

    This study introduces the second release of the Tool for the Automatic Analysis of Lexical Sophistication (TAALES 2.0), a freely available and easy-to-use text analysis tool. TAALES 2.0 is housed on a user's hard drive (allowing for secure data processing) and is available on most operating systems (Windows, Mac, and Linux). TAALES 2.0 adds 316 indices to the original tool. These indices are related to word frequency, word range, n-gram frequency, n-gram range, n-gram strength of association, contextual distinctiveness, word recognition norms, semantic network, and word neighbors. In this study, we validated TAALES 2.0 by investigating whether its indices could be used to model both holistic scores of lexical proficiency in free writes and word choice scores in narrative essays. The results indicated that the TAALES 2.0 indices could be used to explain 58% of the variance in lexical proficiency scores and 32% of the variance in word-choice scores. Newly added TAALES 2.0 indices, including those related to n-gram association strength, word neighborhood, and word recognition norms, featured heavily in these predictor models, suggesting that TAALES 2.0 represents a substantial upgrade.

  11. Simple Plans or Sophisticated Habits? State, Transition and Learning Interactions in the Two-Step Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akam, Thomas; Costa, Rui; Dayan, Peter

    2015-12-01

    The recently developed 'two-step' behavioural task promises to differentiate model-based from model-free reinforcement learning, while generating neurophysiologically-friendly decision datasets with parametric variation of decision variables. These desirable features have prompted its widespread adoption. Here, we analyse the interactions between a range of different strategies and the structure of transitions and outcomes in order to examine constraints on what can be learned from behavioural performance. The task involves a trade-off between the need for stochasticity, to allow strategies to be discriminated, and a need for determinism, so that it is worth subjects' investment of effort to exploit the contingencies optimally. We show through simulation that under certain conditions model-free strategies can masquerade as being model-based. We first show that seemingly innocuous modifications to the task structure can induce correlations between action values at the start of the trial and the subsequent trial events in such a way that analysis based on comparing successive trials can lead to erroneous conclusions. We confirm the power of a suggested correction to the analysis that can alleviate this problem. We then consider model-free reinforcement learning strategies that exploit correlations between where rewards are obtained and which actions have high expected value. These generate behaviour that appears model-based under these, and also more sophisticated, analyses. Exploiting the full potential of the two-step task as a tool for behavioural neuroscience requires an understanding of these issues.

  12. Simple Plans or Sophisticated Habits? State, Transition and Learning Interactions in the Two-Step Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akam, Thomas; Costa, Rui; Dayan, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The recently developed ‘two-step’ behavioural task promises to differentiate model-based from model-free reinforcement learning, while generating neurophysiologically-friendly decision datasets with parametric variation of decision variables. These desirable features have prompted its widespread adoption. Here, we analyse the interactions between a range of different strategies and the structure of transitions and outcomes in order to examine constraints on what can be learned from behavioural performance. The task involves a trade-off between the need for stochasticity, to allow strategies to be discriminated, and a need for determinism, so that it is worth subjects’ investment of effort to exploit the contingencies optimally. We show through simulation that under certain conditions model-free strategies can masquerade as being model-based. We first show that seemingly innocuous modifications to the task structure can induce correlations between action values at the start of the trial and the subsequent trial events in such a way that analysis based on comparing successive trials can lead to erroneous conclusions. We confirm the power of a suggested correction to the analysis that can alleviate this problem. We then consider model-free reinforcement learning strategies that exploit correlations between where rewards are obtained and which actions have high expected value. These generate behaviour that appears model-based under these, and also more sophisticated, analyses. Exploiting the full potential of the two-step task as a tool for behavioural neuroscience requires an understanding of these issues. PMID:26657806

  13. Simple Plans or Sophisticated Habits? State, Transition and Learning Interactions in the Two-Step Task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Akam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The recently developed 'two-step' behavioural task promises to differentiate model-based from model-free reinforcement learning, while generating neurophysiologically-friendly decision datasets with parametric variation of decision variables. These desirable features have prompted its widespread adoption. Here, we analyse the interactions between a range of different strategies and the structure of transitions and outcomes in order to examine constraints on what can be learned from behavioural performance. The task involves a trade-off between the need for stochasticity, to allow strategies to be discriminated, and a need for determinism, so that it is worth subjects' investment of effort to exploit the contingencies optimally. We show through simulation that under certain conditions model-free strategies can masquerade as being model-based. We first show that seemingly innocuous modifications to the task structure can induce correlations between action values at the start of the trial and the subsequent trial events in such a way that analysis based on comparing successive trials can lead to erroneous conclusions. We confirm the power of a suggested correction to the analysis that can alleviate this problem. We then consider model-free reinforcement learning strategies that exploit correlations between where rewards are obtained and which actions have high expected value. These generate behaviour that appears model-based under these, and also more sophisticated, analyses. Exploiting the full potential of the two-step task as a tool for behavioural neuroscience requires an understanding of these issues.

  14. A sophisticated simulation for the fracture behavior of concrete material using XFEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Changhai; Wang, Xiaomin; Kong, Jingchang; Li, Shuang; Xie, Lili

    2017-10-01

    The development of a powerful numerical model to simulate the fracture behavior of concrete material has long been one of the dominant research areas in earthquake engineering. A reliable model should be able to adequately represent the discontinuous characteristics of cracks and simulate various failure behaviors under complicated loading conditions. In this paper, a numerical formulation, which incorporates a sophisticated rigid-plastic interface constitutive model coupling cohesion softening, contact, friction and shear dilatation into the XFEM, is proposed to describe various crack behaviors of concrete material. An effective numerical integration scheme for accurately assembling the contribution to the weak form on both sides of the discontinuity is introduced. The effectiveness of the proposed method has been assessed by simulating several well-known experimental tests. It is concluded that the numerical method can successfully capture the crack paths and accurately predict the fracture behavior of concrete structures. The influence of mode-II parameters on the mixed-mode fracture behavior is further investigated to better determine these parameters.

  15. Nurturing Opportunity Identification for Business Sophistication in a Cross-disciplinary Study Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Oganisjana

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Opportunity identification is the key element of the entrepreneurial process; therefore the issue of developing this skill in students is a crucial task in contemporary European education which has recognized entrepreneurship as one of the lifelong learning key competences. The earlier opportunity identification becomes a habitual way of thinking and behavior across a broad range of contexts, the more likely that entrepreneurial disposition will steadily reside in students. In order to nurture opportunity identification in students for making them able to organize sophisticated businesses in the future, certain demands ought to be put forward as well to the teacher – the person who is to promote these qualities in their students. The paper reflects some findings of a research conducted within the frameworks of a workplace learning project for the teachers of one of Riga secondary schools (Latvia. The main goal of the project was to teach the teachers to identify hidden inner links between apparently unrelated things, phenomena and events within 10th grade study curriculum and connect them together and create new opportunities. The creation and solution of cross-disciplinary tasks were the means for achieving this goal.

  16. Ranking network of a captive rhesus macaque society: a sophisticated corporative kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fushing, Hsieh; McAssey, Michael P; Beisner, Brianne; McCowan, Brenda

    2011-03-15

    We develop a three-step computing approach to explore a hierarchical ranking network for a society of captive rhesus macaques. The computed network is sufficiently informative to address the question: Is the ranking network for a rhesus macaque society more like a kingdom or a corporation? Our computations are based on a three-step approach. These steps are devised to deal with the tremendous challenges stemming from the transitivity of dominance as a necessary constraint on the ranking relations among all individual macaques, and the very high sampling heterogeneity in the behavioral conflict data. The first step simultaneously infers the ranking potentials among all network members, which requires accommodation of heterogeneous measurement error inherent in behavioral data. Our second step estimates the social rank for all individuals by minimizing the network-wide errors in the ranking potentials. The third step provides a way to compute confidence bounds for selected empirical features in the social ranking. We apply this approach to two sets of conflict data pertaining to two captive societies of adult rhesus macaques. The resultant ranking network for each society is found to be a sophisticated mixture of both a kingdom and a corporation. Also, for validation purposes, we reanalyze conflict data from twenty longhorn sheep and demonstrate that our three-step approach is capable of correctly computing a ranking network by eliminating all ranking error.

  17. Ranking network of a captive rhesus macaque society: a sophisticated corporative kingdom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsieh Fushing

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We develop a three-step computing approach to explore a hierarchical ranking network for a society of captive rhesus macaques. The computed network is sufficiently informative to address the question: Is the ranking network for a rhesus macaque society more like a kingdom or a corporation? Our computations are based on a three-step approach. These steps are devised to deal with the tremendous challenges stemming from the transitivity of dominance as a necessary constraint on the ranking relations among all individual macaques, and the very high sampling heterogeneity in the behavioral conflict data. The first step simultaneously infers the ranking potentials among all network members, which requires accommodation of heterogeneous measurement error inherent in behavioral data. Our second step estimates the social rank for all individuals by minimizing the network-wide errors in the ranking potentials. The third step provides a way to compute confidence bounds for selected empirical features in the social ranking. We apply this approach to two sets of conflict data pertaining to two captive societies of adult rhesus macaques. The resultant ranking network for each society is found to be a sophisticated mixture of both a kingdom and a corporation. Also, for validation purposes, we reanalyze conflict data from twenty longhorn sheep and demonstrate that our three-step approach is capable of correctly computing a ranking network by eliminating all ranking error.

  18. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Economic data for July indicated that pillar forces of the economy remained strong in July.Fixed-asset investment and retail sales are still soaring.Exports are also recouping some strength,growing over 38 percent in July.The CPI went up by 3.3 percent,a reflection of simmering inflationary jitters.House prices in 70 large and medium-sized cities rose 10.3 percent,the slowest pace in half a year.International grain prices head north,and threaten to filter through the Chinese market.

  19. Growing old graciously.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Manthorpe describes a nursing home for people with dementia in the Netherlands. With 120 beds it is large but splitting it into six-bed wings, each with separate sitting room, bathroom and kitchen, means that it still feels homely. The heart of the home is a central courtyard that has the feel of a market place in a small village. There is a large café bar in which residents, families and local residents can mingle. Crucially, there is also a small but well-stocked supermarket. There is no central provision of meals - staff cook with the residents. Residents can make a leisurely visit to the supermarket with staff. Preparing for and cleaning up after the meal becomes a framework for the day providing a normalising rhythm and purposeful activity.

  20. Sulphur demand growing. [Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-01-20

    Sulfur markets look better going into 1975 than they have for several years, as North American demand growth is being filled largely by elemental sulfur producers and overseas. Demand is rising as fast as the capacity of Canadian transportation and handling facilities. It will take a long time to make much of a dent in the total Alberta stockpile of 14 million long tons at the end of 1974, with involuntary production from sour gas plants exceeding sales volume since 1972. However, there is some encouragement in the approaching peakout of production combined with a substantial increase in price since the low point of the cycle at the beginning of 1973, and a predicted rise of at least 20% in domestic (North American) sales this year over 1974.

  1. The growing fibroadenoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, Linda M; Sara, Rana

    2015-01-01

    Fibroadenomas (FAs) are the most common tumors of the breast clinically and pathologically in adolescent and young women but may be discovered at any age. With increasing use of core biopsy rather than excision for diagnosis, it is now commonplace to follow these lesions with imaging. To assess the incidence of epithelial abnormalities (atypia, in situ or invasive, ductal or lobular malignancies) in FAs diagnosed by core biopsy and to re-evaluate the management paradigm for any growing FA. A retrospective review of the senior author’s pathology results over 19 years identified 2062 nodular FAs (biopsied by ultrasound or stereotactic guidance). Eighty-three core biopsied FAs were identified which subsequently enlarged. Twelve of 2062 of core biopsied nodules demonstrated atypia, in situ, or invasive malignancy (ductal or lobular) within or adjacent to the FA (0.58%). Eighty-three FAs enlarged and underwent either surgical excision (n = 65), repeat core biopsy (n = 9), or imaging follow-up (n = 9). The incidence of atypia, in situ or invasive malignancy was 0/83 (0%). Two enlarging FAs were subsequently surgically diagnosed as benign phyllodes tumors (PT). Malignancy in or adjacent to a core biopsied FA is rare. The risk of cancer in a growing FA is even rarer; none were present in our series. FAs with abnormal epithelial abnormalities require excision. Otherwise, FAs without epithelial abnormality diagnosed by core biopsy need no specific follow-up considering the negligible incidence of conversion to malignancy. The breast interventionalist must know how to manage discordant pathology results

  2. Sophisticated Online Learning Scheme for Green Resource Allocation in 5G Heterogeneous Cloud Radio Access Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Alqerm, Ismail

    2018-01-23

    5G is the upcoming evolution for the current cellular networks that aims at satisfying the future demand for data services. Heterogeneous cloud radio access networks (H-CRANs) are envisioned as a new trend of 5G that exploits the advantages of heterogeneous and cloud radio access networks to enhance spectral and energy efficiency. Remote radio heads (RRHs) are small cells utilized to provide high data rates for users with high quality of service (QoS) requirements, while high power macro base station (BS) is deployed for coverage maintenance and low QoS users service. Inter-tier interference between macro BSs and RRHs and energy efficiency are critical challenges that accompany resource allocation in H-CRANs. Therefore, we propose an efficient resource allocation scheme using online learning, which mitigates interference and maximizes energy efficiency while maintaining QoS requirements for all users. The resource allocation includes resource blocks (RBs) and power. The proposed scheme is implemented using two approaches: centralized, where the resource allocation is processed at a controller integrated with the baseband processing unit and decentralized, where macro BSs cooperate to achieve optimal resource allocation strategy. To foster the performance of such sophisticated scheme with a model free learning, we consider users\\' priority in RB allocation and compact state representation learning methodology to improve the speed of convergence and account for the curse of dimensionality during the learning process. The proposed scheme including both approaches is implemented using software defined radios testbed. The obtained results and simulation results confirm that the proposed resource allocation solution in H-CRANs increases the energy efficiency significantly and maintains users\\' QoS.

  3. Multi-disciplinary communication networks for skin risk assessment in nursing homes with high IT sophistication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Gregory L; Pasupathy, Kalyan S; Steege, Linsey M; Strecker, E Bradley; Carley, Kathleen M

    2014-08-01

    The role of nursing home (NH) information technology (IT) in quality improvement has not been clearly established, and its impacts on communication between care givers and patient outcomes in these settings deserve further attention. In this research, we describe a mixed method approach to explore communication strategies used by healthcare providers for resident skin risk in NH with high IT sophistication (ITS). Sample included NH participating in the statewide survey of ITS. We incorporated rigorous observation of 8- and 12-h shifts, and focus groups to identify how NH IT and a range of synchronous and asynchronous tools are used. Social network analysis tools and qualitative analysis were used to analyze data and identify relationships between ITS dimensions and communication interactions between care providers. Two of the nine ITS dimensions (resident care-technological and administrative activities-technological) and total ITS were significantly negatively correlated with number of unique interactions. As more processes in resident care and administrative activities are supported by technology, the lower the number of observed unique interactions. Additionally, four thematic areas emerged from staff focus groups that demonstrate how important IT is to resident care in these facilities including providing resident-centered care, teamwork and collaboration, maintaining safety and quality, and using standardized information resources. Our findings in this study confirm prior research that as technology support (resident care and administrative activities) and overall ITS increases, observed interactions between staff members decrease. Conversations during staff interviews focused on how technology facilitated resident centered care through enhanced information sharing, greater virtual collaboration between team members, and improved care delivery. These results provide evidence for improving the design and implementation of IT in long term care systems to support

  4. Of Sophists and Spin-Doctors: Industry-Sponsored Ghostwriting and the Crisis of Academic Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    McHenry, Leemon

    2010-01-01

    Ghostwriting for medical journals has become a major, but largely invisible, factor contributing to the problem of credibility in academic medicine. In this paper I argue that the pharmaceutical marketing objectives and use of medical communication firms in the production of ghostwritten articles constitute a new form of sophistry. After identifying three distinct types of medical ghostwriting, I survey the known cases of ghostwriting in the literature and explain the harm done to academic me...

  5. Brand personality and its influence on brand loyalty - Do sophisticated brands have more brand loyal customers?

    OpenAIRE

    Bekk, Magdalena; Skatulla, Veronika; Pösl, Miriam; Natter, Martin; Spörrle, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. Creating loyal customers is one of the most important aims organisations have. However, most marketing departments try to create loyal customers through customer loyalty programmes only. This study aims at investigating the influence of the brand’s image (i.e., brand personality; Aaker, 1997) on brand loyalty. Method. Study 1 (N = 360) was used to derive a valid single-item measure from a multi-item scale for the three inter-culturally stable brand personality dimensions (sinc...

  6. Food Marketing in Irish Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Colette; Clerkin, Pauline; Gabhainn, Saoirse Nic; Mulvihill, Maureen

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Schools are thought to represent a growing marketing opportunity for food advertisers in many countries. Marketing of unhealthy food to children is linked to the increased prevalence of obesity worldwide. This paper aims to explore ways in which schools respond to commercial activity around food marketing. Design/methodology/approach: A…

  7. Melting ice, growing trade?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Bensassi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Large reductions in Arctic sea ice, most notably in summer, coupled with growing interest in Arctic shipping and resource exploitation have renewed interest in the economic potential of the Northern Sea Route (NSR. Two key constraints on the future viability of the NSR pertain to bathymetry and the future evolution of the sea ice cover. Climate model projections of future sea ice conditions throughout the rest of the century suggest that even under the most “aggressive” emission scenario, increases in international trade between Europe and Asia will be very low. The large inter-annual variability of weather and sea ice conditions in the route, the Russian toll imposed for transiting the NSR, together with high insurance costs and scarce loading/unloading opportunities, limit the use of the NSR. We show that even if these obstacles are removed, the duration of the opening of the NSR over the course of the century is not long enough to offer a consequent boost to international trade at the macroeconomic level.

  8. Foreign launch competition growing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodsky, R. F.; Wolfe, M. G.; Pryke, I. W.

    1986-07-01

    A survey is given of progress made by other nations in providing or preparing to provide satellite launch services. The European Space Agency has four generations of Ariane vehicles, with a fifth recently approved; a second launch facility in French Guiana that has become operational has raised the possible Ariane launch rate to 10 per year, although a May failure of an Ariane 2 put launches on hold. The French Hermes spaceplane and the British HOTOL are discussed. Under the auspices of the Italian National Space Plane, the Iris orbital transfer vehicle is developed and China's Long March vehicles and the Soviet Protons and SL-4 vehicles are discussed; the Soviets moreover are apparently developing not only a Saturn V-class heavy lift vehicle with a 150,000-kg capacity (about five times the largest U.S. capacity) but also a space shuttle and a spaceplane. Four Japanese launch vehicles and some vehicles in an Indian program are also ready to provide launch services. In this new, tough market for launch services, the customers barely outnumber the suppliers. The competition develops just as the Challenger and Titan disasters place the U.S. at a disadvantage and underline the hard work ahead to recoup its heretofore leading position in launch services.

  9. Windpower's future grows brighter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flavin, C.

    1995-01-01

    Modern technologies to generate electricity from windpower were introduced only 15 years ago. Today, equipment and control improvements have moved this benign process into a strong competitive position, both nationally and internationally. Altogether, the world had roughly 20,000 wind turbines in operation by the end of 1993, producing 3,000 megawatts of electricity. More than a dozen American and European companies, many with government assistance, are pursuing advanced wind technologies that are believed capable of closing the remaining cost gap with fossil fuel plants. According to one study, the average capacity factor of Californian wind turbines -- the percentage of their annual power potential generated -- rose from 13 in 1987 to 24 in 1990. These machines are now estimated to be ''available'' to operate 95 percent of the time, which is better than most fossil fuel plants. The machines now entering the market generate 300--750 kilowatts per turbine rather than the 100-kilowatt average of the late eighties' models. They have lighter and more aerodynamic blades made of synthetic materials, improved rotor-hub connections and drive trains, new blade controls, and more advanced power electronics, including some that operate at variable speeds, which allows the turbines to run more efficiently in a range of winds. The new designs are less expensive and can be deployed in more moderate wind regimes. In 1994, wind developers using the new technology signed contracts to sell wind-generated electricity for as low as 4--5 cents per kilowatt-hour

  10. Reactive polymer coatings: A robust platform towards sophisticated surface engineering for biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsien-Yeh

    Functionalized poly(p-xylylenes) or so-called reactive polymers can be synthesized via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) polymerization. The resulting ultra-thin coatings are pinhole-free and can be conformally deposited to a wide range of substrates and materials. More importantly, the equipped functional groups can served as anchoring sites for tailoring the surface properties, making these reactive coatings a robust platform that can deal with sophisticated challenges faced in biointerfaces. In this work presented herein, surface coatings presenting various functional groups were prepared by CVD process. Such surfaces include aldehyde-functionalized coating to precisely immobilize saccharide molecules onto well-defined areas and alkyne-functionalized coating to click azide-modified molecules via Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction. Moreover, CVD copolymerization has been conducted to prepare multifunctional coatings and their specific functions were demonstrated by the immobilization of biotin and NHS-ester molecules. By using a photodefinable coating, polyethylene oxides were immobilized onto a wide range of substrates through photo-immobilization. Spatially controlled protein resistant properties were characterized by selective adsorption of fibrinogen and bovine serum albumin as model systems. Alternatively, surface initiator coatings were used for polymer graftings of polyethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate, and the resultant protein- and cell- resistant properties were characterized by adsorption of kinesin motor proteins, fibrinogen, and murine fibroblasts (NIH3T3). Accessibility of reactive coatings within confined microgeometries was systematically studied, and the preparation of homogeneous polymer thin films within the inner surface of microchannels was demonstrated. Moreover, these advanced coatings were applied to develop a dry adhesion process for microfluidic devices. This process provides (i) excellent bonding strength, (ii) extended

  11. 2015 Bioenergy Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, Ethan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Moriarty, Kristi [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lewis, John [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Milbrandt, Anelia [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schwab, Amy [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-02-28

    This report is an update to the 2013 report and provides a status of the markets and technology development involved in growing a domestic bioenergy economy as it existed at the end of 2015. It compiles and integrates information to provide a snapshot of the current state and historical trends influencing the development of bioenergy markets. This version features details on the two major bioenergy markets: biofuels and biopower and an overview of bioproducts that enable bioenergy production. The information is intended for policy-makers as well as technology developers and investors tracking bioenergy developments. It also highlights some of the key energy and regulatory drivers of bioenergy markets.

  12. Growing Galaxies Gently

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    New observations from ESO's Very Large Telescope have, for the first time, provided direct evidence that young galaxies can grow by sucking in the cool gas around them and using it as fuel for the formation of many new stars. In the first few billion years after the Big Bang the mass of a typical galaxy increased dramatically and understanding why this happened is one of the hottest problems in modern astrophysics. The results appear in the 14 October issue of the journal Nature. The first galaxies formed well before the Universe was one billion years old and were much smaller than the giant systems - including the Milky Way - that we see today. So somehow the average galaxy size has increased as the Universe has evolved. Galaxies often collide and then merge to form larger systems and this process is certainly an important growth mechanism. However, an additional, gentler way has been proposed. A European team of astronomers has used ESO's Very Large Telescope to test this very different idea - that young galaxies can also grow by sucking in cool streams of the hydrogen and helium gas that filled the early Universe and forming new stars from this primitive material. Just as a commercial company can expand either by merging with other companies, or by hiring more staff, young galaxies could perhaps also grow in two different ways - by merging with other galaxies or by accreting material. The team leader, Giovanni Cresci (Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri) says: "The new results from the VLT are the first direct evidence that the accretion of pristine gas really happened and was enough to fuel vigorous star formation and the growth of massive galaxies in the young Universe." The discovery will have a major impact on our understanding of the evolution of the Universe from the Big Bang to the present day. Theories of galaxy formation and evolution may have to be re-written. The group began by selecting three very distant galaxies to see if they could find evidence

  13. "Gone are the days of mass-media marketing plans and short term customer relationships": tobacco industry direct mail and database marketing strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, M Jane; Ling, Pamela M

    2016-07-01

    As limitations on traditional marketing tactics and scrutiny by tobacco control have increased, the tobacco industry has benefited from direct mail marketing which transmits marketing messages directly to carefully targeted consumers utilising extensive custom consumer databases. However, research in these areas has been limited. This is the first study to examine the development, purposes and extent of direct mail and customer databases. We examined direct mail and database marketing by RJ Reynolds and Philip Morris utilising internal tobacco industry documents from the Legacy Tobacco Document Library employing standard document research techniques. Direct mail marketing utilising industry databases began in the 1970s and grew from the need for a promotional strategy to deal with declining smoking rates, growing numbers of products and a cluttered media landscape. Both RJ Reynolds and Philip Morris started with existing commercial consumer mailing lists, but subsequently decided to build their own databases of smokers' names, addresses, brand preferences, purchase patterns, interests and activities. By the mid-1990s both RJ Reynolds and Philip Morris databases contained at least 30 million smokers' names each. These companies valued direct mail/database marketing's flexibility, efficiency and unique ability to deliver specific messages to particular groups as well as direct mail's limited visibility to tobacco control, public health and regulators. Database marketing is an important and increasingly sophisticated tobacco marketing strategy. Additional research is needed on the prevalence of receipt and exposure to direct mail items and their influence on receivers' perceptions and smoking behaviours. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  14. How market environment may constrain global franchising in emerging markets

    OpenAIRE

    Baena Graciá, Verónica

    2011-01-01

    Although emerging markets are some of the fastest growing economies in the world and represent countries that are experiencing a substantial economic transformation, little is known about the factors influencing country selection for expansion in those markets. In an attempt to enhance the knowledge that managers and scholars have on franchising expansion, the present study examines how market conditions may constrain international diffusion of franchising in emerging markets. They are: i) ge...

  15. Sophisticated Approval Voting, Ignorance Priors, and Plurality Heuristics: A Behavioral Social Choice Analysis in a Thurstonian Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regenwetter, Michel; Ho, Moon-Ho R.; Tsetlin, Ilia

    2007-01-01

    This project reconciles historically distinct paradigms at the interface between individual and social choice theory, as well as between rational and behavioral decision theory. The authors combine a utility-maximizing prescriptive rule for sophisticated approval voting with the ignorance prior heuristic from behavioral decision research and two…

  16. Purification through Emotions: The Role of Shame in Plato's "Sophist" 230B4-E5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candiotto, Laura

    2018-01-01

    This article proposes an analysis of Plato's "Sophist" (230b4--e5) that underlines the bond between the logical and the emotional components of the Socratic "elenchus", with the aim of depicting the social valence of this philosophical practice. The use of emotions characterizing the 'elenctic' method described by Plato is…

  17. Foundations of Social Media Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Constantinides, Efthymios

    2014-01-01

    The Social Media have changed the power structures in the marketplace; evidence points to a major power migration taking place and to emergence of a new breed of powerful and sophisticated customer, difficult to influence, persuade and retain The paper outlines the nature, effects and present status of the Social Media, underlying their role as customer empowerment agents. It explains their aptitude and possible roles as part of the corporate Marketing strategy and identifies different ways o...

  18. A growing danger: the risks posed by marihuana grow-ops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, F. [Canadian Electricity Association (Canada)

    2005-02-01

    The proliferation of sophisticated illegal indoor multi-plant marihuana cultivation operations is discussed, focusing primarily on public health and safety issues. Public health issues arise from the high level of molds and pollens caused by high humidity, which can cause asthma, respiratory conditions and allergies, particularly among children, and the likelihood of deadly levels of carbon monoxide build-up resulting from faulty rerouting of the residence's ventilation system. Safety issues discussed are: fires and electrocutions associated with the use of electrical diversions or bipasses to circumvent utility meters, the chemical and electrical hazards involved in investigating and dismantling growing operations, the significant dangers to utility crews who must repair illegal electrical bypasses, injuries by the booby-traps planted to protect the operation from other criminals or law enforcement agents, and the physical danger from the violence, including homicide and assaults, carried out by operators to exert control over production and distribution. Although in general, there is a relaxed attitude towards marihuana use in Canada. there is growing evidence of increasing public concern over large-scale growing operations. Nevertheless, to date operators of grow-ops have been dealt with lightly by the justice system. For example, in British Columbia 11,733 cases have come to the attention of police during the 1997 to 2000 period. Of these about half were dealt with informally (i.e. 'no case' seizures) and 2,255 cases led to at least one offender being convicted. The majority of convictions did not result in custodial dispositions. Only 18 per cent of the cases resulted in prison sentences, the average term being only 4.5 months.

  19. Chinese Market for Fibres and Cables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    This article presents a summary of Chinese market of optical fibres and cables based on the development of the optical communications industry. Analysis shows that the market will keep growing for sometime in the future.

  20. Direct Marketing Communication at SEAL Communication Company

    OpenAIRE

    Wachtler, Kamilla Dóra

    2010-01-01

    The appearance of the Internet and new, rapidly changing emerging online technologies have led to some fundamental changes in marketing -- especially direct marketing. Besides the growing popularity of the Internet, the appearance of databases and one-to-one marketing are challenging traditional marketing methods. This thesis attempts to illustrate how direct marketing techniques can be implemented in an IT company. It starts with an overview of the concepts of direct marketing and its techni...

  1. Effect of Marketing Knowledge Competency and Entrepreneurship Orientation on Marketing Capabilities and Marketing Performance of Fishery Smes in Malang City, East Java

    OpenAIRE

    Charir, Nur Azizah; Primyastanto, Mimit; Abidin, Zainal

    2017-01-01

    Fishery SMEs of in Malang city is increasing, these SMEs owner face up the challenge of confronting competitor's product. Fishery SMEs can improve their competitiveness through marketing knowledge competency, entrepreneurial orientation (EO) and need to grow the marketing capabilities and improving marketing performance. This study aimed to analyze the effect of marketing knowledge competency on marketing capabilities, EO on marketing capabilities, marketing knowledge competency on marketing ...

  2. RETROSPECTIVE OF FINANCIAL REPORTING ON CAPITAL MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Muresan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a conceptual framework for the evolution offinancial reporting on capital market. Due to the worlwide changes, the role of financial reportingin capital market is constantly growing. Financial reporting analyzed through market perspective isstrongly correlated with issues like: capital allocation, financial statements, internationalaccounting standards and informational valences. Capital market research emphasizes the need forqualitative and transparent...

  3. Marketing and selling solar energy equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Book, Tony

    1999-01-01

    The literature on creating consumer awareness and acceptance of solar water heating systems for marketing purposes is sparse. This paper discusses some of the sophisticated marketing techniques available and some results. Selling solar water heating systems in Northern European latitudes requires a degree of persistence and commitment that is probably not required in what are regarded as the 'sunny climes' around the Mediterranean., the Middle East, Africa, South East Asia and Australia. (Author)

  4. Crop to wild gene flow: Does more sophisticated research provide better risk assessment?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong, Tom J. de; Rong, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Genes can sometimes flow from genetically modified crops to wild plants. ► The probability can be predicted from seed production of hybrids and backcrosses. ► Nevertheless predictions about introgression remain uncertain. ► One should be reluctant to ask too much detail in Environmental Risk Assessment. ► Instead possible harm should have a more central place. -- Abstract: Research into introgression, the permanent incorporation of alleles of one species into another, is flourishing and gives new insights into evolution and speciation. The possible transfer of transgenes from crop species to wild relatives is of major concern for regulators. Applicants that want to introduce a genetically modified (GM) crop on the European market need to indicate the likelihood of introgression and its anticipated effects in an Environmental Risk Analysis (ERA). The European Food Safety Association (EFSA) and competent authorities of different countries evaluate the ERA. Predicting which crop alleles will or will not be permanently incorporated into wild populations requires, apart from information on seed production of hybrids, information on how these crop alleles are associated with fitness. Advances in genetics open new avenues to address this question in more detail. We argue, however, that, even with the best techniques, predicting introgression from crop to wild species will always have a considerable margin of uncertainty. One must therefore be prudent to demand more detailed research for the ERA, especially since the possible harm of transgenes in natural populations remains so poorly defined by regulators

  5. Marketing; Il marketing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muscigna, M [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, S. Maria di Galeria, RM (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione

    1999-07-01

    The report discusses marketing strategies oriented to the organizations and analyzes its critical factors, which determine the success of the organization activity. [Italian] Il rapporto analizza i caratteri delle strategie del marketing orientato all'impresa. Vengono infine analizzati i fattori critici che determinano il successo o l'insuccesso delle scelte aziendali.

  6. Marketing; Il marketing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muscigna, M. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, S. Maria di Galeria, RM (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione

    1999-07-01

    The report discusses marketing strategies oriented to the organizations and analyzes its critical factors, which determine the success of the organization activity. [Italian] Il rapporto analizza i caratteri delle strategie del marketing orientato all'impresa. Vengono infine analizzati i fattori critici che determinano il successo o l'insuccesso delle scelte aziendali.

  7. THE GROWING POWER OF SOCIAL MEDIA AND SEARCH MARKETING

    OpenAIRE

    C. Tharanidevi; M. Indhumathi

    2017-01-01

    “Social media” is a name given to web-based and mobile technologies that are used to turn communication into an interactive dialogue. This interactive dialogue can occur between organizations, communities and individuals. The Internet allows millions of people to connect with each other, and also allows business owners to promote their businesses to people all over the world by using web-based applications. We currently live in a world in which traditional advertising strategies aren’t enough...

  8. Plus 50 Students: Tapping into a Growing Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of Community Colleges (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    At 78 million strong, the baby boomer generation is bringing a surge of older students to campus. In a national survey by the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC), 93% of the institutions reported demand for plus 50 programs and services. Community college is particularly appealing to this student population: half of all adults over…

  9. Marijuana growing operations in British Columbia revisited, 1997-2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plecas, D.; Malm, A.; Kinney, B. [University College of the Fraser Valley, Abbotsford, BC (Canada). Dept. of Criminology and Criminal Justice]|[University College of the Fraser Valley, Abbotsford, BC (Canada). International Centre for Urban Research Studies

    2005-03-01

    The results of a comprehensive study of marihuana cultivation in British Columbia were presented. This report describes the incidents of marihuana grow operations coming to the attention of the police; the characteristics of marihuana growing operations; the suspects involved; the actions taken by the police and courts; and penalty. The study confirms that these operations which are dispersed throughout the province are increasing in both size and sophistication. The average number of kilograms of harvested marihuana seized per grow operation tripled from 1997 to 2003. In addition, the number of high intensity lights seized per operation also grew, leading to an associated increase in the average amount of electricity theft per operation. About 1 in 5 grow operations involved hydro theft. The average cost associated with hydro theft per operation was about $2,880 in 1997 and $3,740 in 2003. In 2003, it is estimated that growers stole more than $3,200,000 from BC Hydro. In addition to electricity by-passes, 15 per cent of indoor grow operations contained hazards such as weapons, explosives, and other drugs. 25 tabs., 34 figs.

  10. Experimental Research in Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Jose Mauro Hernandez; Kenny Basso; Marcelo Moll Brandão

    2014-01-01

    Considering the growing number of scientific studies published in the marketing field and the development of unique theories of the area (Hunt, 2010), using experimental designs seems increasingly appropriate to investigate marketing phenomena. This article aims to discuss the main elements in conducting experimental studies and also to stimulate researchers to adopt this research method. Several international journals (e.g., JCR, JCP, JMR, JR, JBR) have been publishing articles based on expe...

  11. “Gone are the days of mass-media marketing plans and short term customer relationships”: tobacco industry direct mail and database marketing strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, M Jane; Ling, Pamela M

    2015-01-01

    Background As limitations on traditional marketing tactics and scrutiny by tobacco control have increased, the tobacco industry has benefited from direct mail marketing which transmits marketing messages directly to carefully targeted consumers utilising extensive custom consumer databases. However, research in these areas has been limited. This is the first study to examine the development, purposes and extent of direct mail and customer databases. Methods We examined direct mail and database marketing by RJ Reynolds and Philip Morris utilising internal tobacco industry documents from the Legacy Tobacco Document Library employing standard document research techniques. Results Direct mail marketing utilising industry databases began in the 1970s and grew from the need for a promotional strategy to deal with declining smoking rates, growing numbers of products and a cluttered media landscape. Both RJ Reynolds and Philip Morris started with existing commercial consumer mailing lists, but subsequently decided to build their own databases of smokers’ names, addresses, brand preferences, purchase patterns, interests and activities. By the mid-1990s both RJ Reynolds and Philip Morris databases contained at least 30 million smokers’ names each. These companies valued direct mail/database marketing’s flexibility, efficiency and unique ability to deliver specific messages to particular groups as well as direct mail’s limited visibility to tobacco control, public health and regulators. Conclusions Database marketing is an important and increasingly sophisticated tobacco marketing strategy. Additional research is needed on the prevalence of receipt and exposure to direct mail items and their influence on receivers’ perceptions and smoking behaviours. PMID:26243810

  12. Nurse education in competitive markets: the case for relationship marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, P M

    1998-10-01

    Since the National Health Service reforms of the late 1980s, nurse education has been increasingly subject to market forces. This new competitive environment presents not only threat, but also challenge and opportunity. Providers of nurse education who recognize the need for market orientation and develop responsive marketing strategies will maximize their potential for market retention and growth. Traditional marketing strategies have considerable limitations for public sector services. The new and growing field of relationship marketing offers nurse education an opportunity to retain and develop profitable relationships with both internal and external markets. This paper reviews the marketing arena in nurse education and proposes context-based qualitative research to ascertain definitive constructs of service quality. Such constructs might then be rooted in a theoretical framework of service quality measurement, and be measured within the disconfirmation paradigm of relationship marketing.

  13. A Case Study on E - Banking Security – When Security Becomes Too Sophisticated for the User to Access Their Information

    OpenAIRE

    Aaron M. French

    2012-01-01

    While eBanking security continues to increase in sophistication to protect against threats, the usability of the eBanking decreases resulting in poor security behaviors by the users. The current research evaluates se curity risks and measures taken for eBanking solutions. A case study is presented describing how increased complexity decreases vulnerabilities online but increases vulnerabilities from internal threats and eBanking users

  14. Livestock Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futrell, Gene; And Others

    This marketing unit focuses on the seasonal and cyclical patterns of livestock markets. Cash marketing, forward contracting, hedging in the futures markets, and the options markets are examined. Examples illustrate how each marketing tool may be useful in gaining a profit on livestock and cutting risk exposure. The unit is organized in the…

  15. [Community marketing of contraceptives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia, J M

    1987-09-01

    The 5-year-old community contraceptive distribution program developed by PROFAMILIA, Colombia's private family planning organization, has given excellent results, but several cost-effectiveness comparisons with social marketing programs have suggested that commercial distribution programs are superior. The community contraceptive distribution program has a high content of information and education activities, which produced significant increases in knowledge and use of contraception in the communities covered. It has been a fundamental support for the social marketing program, creating much of the demand for contraceptive products that the social marketing program has filled. The social marketing program has given good results in terms of volume of sales and in cost-effectiveness since 1976, prompting calls for replacement of the community contraceptive distribution program by the social marketing program in those sectors where knowledge and use of contraception have achieved acceptable levels. An experiment in the Department of Santander in 1984 and 1985 gave very favorable results, suggesting that community contraceptive distribution programs should be replaced by social marketing programs in all more developed markets. But economic problems in 1985 and the decision of manufacturers to decrease the profit margin for PROFAMILIA jeopardized the social marketing program. The community distribution program covered about 20% of the market. Reduced profits in the social marketing program threatened its continued expansion, at the same time that potential demand was growing because of increases in the fertile aged population and increased use of contraception. To meet the need, PROFAMILIA combined the community contraceptive distribution and social marketing programs into a new entity to be called community marketing. The strategy of the community marketing program will be to maintain PROFAMILIA's participation in the market and aid the growth of demand for

  16. The marketing concept applied to an education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, S C; Moody, D L; Barbrow, E P

    1984-09-01

    Dietetic education programs seeking to maintain their enrollment levels may find it necessary to adopt more sophisticated marketing strategies. This article describes the application of the marketing process to an extended degree dietetic program that serves a national audience. It also presents a strategy for initiating a marketing study and marketing orientation by analyzing its internal program data. The article discusses the specific market characteristics of the program's primary market segments, and it presents further implications for dietitians at work in health care facilities, in businesses, or in private practice.

  17. A study on the influence of eWOM using content analysis: how do comments on value for money, product sophistication and experiential feeling affect our choices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Vincent; Chan, Alpha

    2017-07-01

    The influence of electronic word of mouth (eWOM) has been heavily investigated in relation to online ratings. However, only a few studies examined the content of eWOM. From the perspective of the consideration sets model, consumers formulate an awareness set, a consideration set and a choice set before making a purchase. We argue that the formulation of these sets is influenced by eWOM based on its volume, valance and content relating to product attributes such as value for money, product sophistication and experiential feeling. In this study, the content of posts relating to Shure professional earphones in the online forum Mingo (www.mingo-hmw.com/forum) was captured and annotated. During the data collection period, Mingo was the sole online forum relating to professional earphones. Without much interference from other online forums, the circumstances of this study closely approximate a laboratory setting. In addition, we collected the actual sales, marketing costs, fault rates and number of retail stores selling the Shure professional earphones for 126 weeks. Our findings show that the weekly volume of posts, their relative number of positive (negative) comments, especially regarding value for money and sound quality, and those posts from the earlier week impinged strongly on weekly sales of Shure products. From the regression models, the explained variance in sales jumps from 0.236 to 0.732 due to the influence of eWOM.

  18. Growing container seedlings: Three considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kas Dumroese; Thomas D. Landis

    2015-01-01

    The science of growing reforestation and conservation plants in containers has continually evolved, and three simple observations may greatly improve seedling quality. First, retaining stock in its original container for more than one growing season should be avoided. Second, strongly taprooted species now being grown as bareroot stock may be good candidates...

  19. The emerging petrocoke market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dymond, R.

    1999-01-01

    This article focuses on the growing acceptance of petroleum coke as a fuel, and examines the marketing of the coke, world and US production of petroleum coke, its properties and quality, and its contamination by sulphur and trace metals. Details are given of the use of the coke as a carbon source and also as a solid fuel, export markets, and current market trends . Tables illustrating the world production of petrocoke by region, typical end-uses, and planned/announced capacity additions are provided as well as charts indicating the world profile for petroleum coke

  20. Realistic electricity market simulator for energy and economic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernal-Agustin, Jose L.; Contreras, Javier; Conejo, Antonio J.; Martin-Flores, Raul

    2007-01-01

    Electricity market simulators have become a useful tool to train engineers in the power industry. With the maturing of electricity markets throughout the world, there is a need for sophisticated software tools that can replicate the actual behavior of power markets. In most of these markets, power producers/consumers submit production/demand bids and the Market Operator clears the market producing a single price per hour. What makes markets different from each other are the bidding rules and the clearing algorithms to balance the market. This paper presents a realistic simulator of the day-ahead electricity market of mainland Spain. All the rules that govern this market are modeled. This simulator can be used either to train employees by power companies or to teach electricity markets courses in universities. To illustrate the tool, several realistic case studies are presented and discussed. (author)

  1. Global patterns of domestic cannabis cultivation: sample characteristics and patterns of growing across eleven countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potter, G.R.; Barratt, M.J.; Malm, A.; Bouchard, M.; Blok, T.; Christensen, A.S.; Decorte, T.; Asmussen Frank, V.; Hakkarainen, P.; Klein, A.; Lenton, S.; Perälä, J.; Werse, B.; Wouters, M.; Werse, B.; Bernard, C.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To provide an overview of: demographic characteristics; experiences with growing cannabis; methods and scale of growing operations; reasons for growing; personal use of cannabis and other drugs; participation in cannabis and other drug markets; contacts with the criminal justice system for

  2. MARKETING STRATEGIES OF SMARTPHONES PRODUCERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markova V.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Smartphones global market is one of the most dynamically developing markets that can be characterized by high level of competition. The growth of smartphones homogeneity, which is a reduction in difference between technical and functional parameters of smartphones produced by various manufacturers, can be considered the market’s specific feature. The unique situation of high-tech product homogeneity in a fast-growing market is scantily described in specialized literature. The article shows changeability of smartphones global market leaders and explains that the key success factor in such a mature market is marketing. Based on secondary information, marketing strategies of long standing market leader in sales Samsung and overtaking Apple companies are determined as well as strategies of contenders for leadership - Chinese companies Huawei and Lenovo. It is shown on Lenovo case that inexplicit positioning leads to a loss of the growing market share due to offensive marketing strategies of other Chinese companies. The research results broaden the knowledge of methodical potential of marketing strategies in companies’ activities in competitive markets of homogeneous high-tech products.

  3. The Exempt Market in Canada: Empirics, Observations and Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Jog

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a massive and vital capital market at work in Canada — possibly bigger than rough estimates have so far suggested — and it is one for which several market regulators are preparing new rules. Yet the remarkable thing is how little we know about it. Data about the so-called exempt market are so lacking that were regulators in Ontario and the other provinces contemplating new exempt-market regulations to proceed, they would be creating policies based on anecdotal, incomplete and, potentially, incorrect evidence. Even estimating the size of the Canadian exempt market has been an inexact science, given the incomplete data, but we can estimate that it provides in excess of $100 billion in gross capital flow every year, and that amount continues to grow. While it may be natural to assume that the exempt market is used primarily by small and medium-sized enterprises, it seems it is primarily used by the financial services industry. These institutions appear to rely on the exempt market to raise potentially short-term debt capital relatively free of particularly burdensome information-disclosure requirements. Unfortunately, we are forced to rely here again on deductions based on limited evidence: So incomplete are the data about the exempt market that we lack even complete information on the type of issuers, investors and securities, or the volume and duration of the securities and the level of redemptions. The exempt market exists for important reasons: it is a way out of the regulatory conundrum, wherein the regulator’s mandate to protect investors, through significant requirements for information disclosure, can put too large a burden on certain issuers. That is why it is essential that any new regulations are developed using a thorough understanding of how it operates. Yet the reality is that it is impossible to evaluate how individual investors and small firms are using the exempt market, or their experience in it. This is

  4. Data driven marketing for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Semmelroth, David

    2013-01-01

    Embrace data and use it to sell and market your products Data is everywhere and it keeps growing and accumulating. Companies need to embrace big data and make it work harder to help them sell and market their products. Successful data analysis can help marketing professionals spot sales trends, develop smarter marketing campaigns, and accurately predict customer loyalty. Data Driven Marketing For Dummies helps companies use all the data at their disposal to make current customers more satisfied, reach new customers, and sell to their most important customer segments more efficiently. Identifyi

  5. The Book-to-Market Anomaly in the Chinese Stock Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kin-Yip Ho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the existence of value premium in the Chinese stock markets and empirically provides its explanation. Our results suggest that the value premium does exist in the Chinese markets, and investor sophistication is significant in explaining its existence. In particular, there is supporting evidence that the value premium could be driven by individual investors, whereas stocks that are mostly held by institutional investors are value-premium free. We briefly discuss the implications of our findings.

  6. The growing need for analytical quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suschny, O.; Richman, D.M.

    1974-01-01

    Technological development in a country is directly dependent upon its analytical chemistry or measurement capability, because it is impossible to achieve any level of technological sophistication without the ability to measure. Measurement capability is needed to determine both technological competence and technological consequence. But measurement itself is insufficient. There must be a standard or a reference for comparison. In the complicated world of chemistry the need for reference materials grows with successful technological development. The International Atomic Energy Agency has been distributing calibrated radioisotope solutions, standard reference materials and intercomparison materials since the early 1960's. The purpose of this activity has been to help laboratories in its Member States to assess and, if necessary, to improve the reliability of their analytical work. The value and continued need of this service has been demonstrated by the results of many intercomparisons which proved that without continuing analytical quality control activities, adequate reliability of analytical data could not be taken for granted. Analytical chemistry, lacking the glamour of other aspects of the physical sciences, has not attracted the attention it deserves, but in terms of practical importance, it warrants high priority in any developing technological scheme, because without it there is little chance to evaluate technological success or failure or opportunity to identify the reasons for success or failure. The scope and the size of the future programme of the IAEA in this field has been delineated by recommendations made by several Panels of Experts; all have agreed on the importance of this programme and made detailed recommendations in their areas of expertise. The Agency's resources are limited and it cannot on its own undertake the preparation and distribution of all the materials needed. It can, however, offer a focal point to bring together different

  7. Lifelong learning on the market shelf

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, Camilla

    2009-01-01

    LEARNING CAPITALISM: Learning has been commodified in many parts of the world, and the growing learning market challenges public education in many ways, says Professor SoongHee Han.......LEARNING CAPITALISM: Learning has been commodified in many parts of the world, and the growing learning market challenges public education in many ways, says Professor SoongHee Han....

  8. Organization of growing random networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krapivsky, P. L.; Redner, S.

    2001-01-01

    The organizational development of growing random networks is investigated. These growing networks are built by adding nodes successively, and linking each to an earlier node of degree k with an attachment probability A k . When A k grows more slowly than linearly with k, the number of nodes with k links, N k (t), decays faster than a power law in k, while for A k growing faster than linearly in k, a single node emerges which connects to nearly all other nodes. When A k is asymptotically linear, N k (t)∼tk -ν , with ν dependent on details of the attachment probability, but in the range 2 -2 power-law tail, where s is the component size. The out component has a typical size of order lnt, and it provides basic insights into the genealogy of the network

  9. coffee growing areas in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    smallholder commercialisation and market integration. This paper addresses ... diversified farming is a strategy pursued by the majority of the surveyed households. The study findings ..... 4.1 Cropping pattorn and crop mix. The average farm ...

  10. Marketing plan for Snack Books

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Bernardo Vilaça Ribeiro dos

    2009-01-01

    A Work Project, presented as part of the requirements for the Award of a Masters Degree in Management from the NOVA – School of Business and Economics In 2008 LeYa had the desire to grow in two different ways: gaining market share to competitor firms in the book publishing market; and develop a strategy for market size growth, benefiting from first mover advantage. At that time we were already catalyzing and collecting the benefits of dimension, either by using our enhanced...

  11. MARKETING STRATEGIES OF SMARTPHONES PRODUCERS

    OpenAIRE

    Markova V.; Tzinlin M.; Ge C.

    2017-01-01

    Smartphones global market is one of the most dynamically developing markets that can be characterized by high level of competition. The growth of smartphones homogeneity, which is a reduction in difference between technical and functional parameters of smartphones produced by various manufacturers, can be considered the market’s specific feature. The unique situation of high-tech product homogeneity in a fast-growing market is scantily described in specialized literature. The article shows ch...

  12. Market, Regulation, Market, Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankel, Christian; Galland, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    barriers to trade in Europe, realized the free movement of products by organizing progressively several orders of markets and regulation. Based on historical and institutional documents, on technical publications, and on interviews, this article relates how the European Commission and the Member States had......This paper focuses on the European Regulatory system which was settled both for opening the Single Market for products and ensuring the consumers' safety. It claims that the New Approach and Standardization, and the Global Approach to conformity assessment, which suppressed the last technical...... alternatively recourse to markets and to regulations, at the three main levels of the New Approach Directives implementation. The article focuses also more specifically on the Medical Devices sector, not only because this New Approach sector has long been controversial in Europe, and has recently been concerned...

  13. Data flood : using processes such as data quality management and cloud computing, oil and gas producers harness the growing quantities of digital information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, P.

    2009-07-15

    One of the greatest challenges facing companies today is information growth. The oil and gas sector is one of the most data-intensive businesses in the world. Seismic data alone is growing at more than 30 per cent per year. In addition, the ability to efficiently handle the increase in data can be compromised as reservoir models grow bigger with the use of more sophisticated algorithms. The oil and gas industry is also faced with the challenge of protecting the integrity of information while making it available to all who need it. Better information management is essential to identifying risks, expanding markets, managing costs and improving integration across the global enterprise. This article described how Schlumberger has implemented an ongoing process that improves data quality and keeps the data quality from degrading over time. The company has developed a solution called Data Quality Management (DQM) to better control and manage the huge flow of data. A set of DQM training classes have been developed along with a DQM Handbook. This article also addressed the issue of cloud computing which will continue to gain prominence as oil and gas companies try to handle high volumes of data more effectively. Cloud computing refers to accessing resources and services needed to perform functions with dynamically changing needs. A cloud service has 3 characteristics that differentiate it from traditional hosting, notably it is sold on demand; it is elastic; and the service is fully managed by the provider. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  14. Demand response in energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skytte, K.; Birk Mortensen, J.

    2004-11-01

    Improving the ability of energy demand to respond to wholesale prices during critical periods of the spot market can reduce the total costs of reliably meeting demand, and the level and volatility of the prices. This fact has lead to a growing interest in the short-run demand response. There has especially been a growing interest in the electricity market where peak-load periods with high spot prices and occasional local blackouts have recently been seen. Market concentration at the supply side can result in even higher peak-load prices. Demand response by shifting demand from peak to base-load periods can counteract the market power in the peak-load. However, demand response has so far been modest since the current short-term price elasticity seems to be small. This is also the case for related markets, for example, green certificates where the demand is determined as a percentage of the power demand, or for heat and natural gas markets. This raises a number of interesting research issues: 1) Demand response in different energy markets, 2) Estimation of price elasticity and flexibility, 3) Stimulation of demand response, 4) Regulation, policy and modelling aspects, 5) Demand response and market power at the supply side, 6) Energy security of supply, 7) Demand response in forward, spot, ancillary service, balance and capacity markets, 8) Demand response in deviated markets, e.g., emission, futures, and green certificate markets, 9) Value of increased demand response, 10) Flexible households. (BA)

  15. RELATIONSHIP DERIVATIVES FINANCIAL MARKETS, MONEY AND STOCK MARKETS AS A SUBSYSTEM OF FINANCIAL MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Yulia Yelnikova

    2016-01-01

    Under conditions of intensive strengthening of globalization of world financial markets and deepening of the crisis, the main source of which are financial markets, financial derivatives market is rapidly developing. In such circumstances, we observe very active growing demand for tools, the main purpose of which is to reduce the financial risk – derivatives. Outlined trend has also involved Ukraine. In this connection, there is an objective need to develop estimate the interconnection of the...

  16. Regulation of alcohol marketing: a global view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casswell, Sally; Maxwell, Anna

    2005-09-01

    The marketing of alcohol produces a new challenge for policy development internationally, in part because of the increase in the use of new, unmeasured technologies. Many of these new developments are, as yet, relatively invisible in the policy arena. New approaches in branding, the utilization of marketing opportunities via branded events and new products provide additional complexity to attempts to monitor and to restrict the impact of marketing on young people and other vulnerable groups. Current attempts to restrict marketing globally, which rely primarily on voluntary codes and focus on traditional media, are inadequate to these challenges. A new statutory framework is required to enable the monitoring and control of the full marketing mix in ways which match the sophistication of the marketing efforts themselves.

  17. Inbound marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Popek, Tomáš

    2011-01-01

    In my work I focus on Inbound Marketing, which represents a new perspective on marketing, that has not been given the attention it deserves. It is a combination of existing and proven marketing methods that are used to obtain new customers with minimal marketing costs to the organization. The first section of my work is devoted to defining the concept of Inbound Marketing definitions and explanations. Furthermore, I present a list of instruments used in Inbound Marketing, and showcase the def...

  18. Internet of Things Healthcare Market Research Report

    OpenAIRE

    Vijay

    2018-01-01

    The global IoT in healthcare market is growing at a significant rate, due to increasing demand for advanced healthcare information system, and growing prevalence of chronic and lifestyle associated diseases. In addition, the growing need for remote patient monitoring services, increasing demand of mHealth technologies, and increasing support from government organizations are also driving the growth of the global IoT in healthcare market. Explore Report with Detailed TOC at: https://www.ps...

  19. Growing Oppression, Growing Resistance : LGBT Activism and Europeanisation in Macedonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miškovska Kajevska, A.; Bilić, B.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides one of the first socio-historical overviews of the LGBT groups in Macedonia and argues that an important impetus for the proliferation of LGBT activities has been the growing state-endorsed homophobia starting from 2008. The homophobic rhetoric of the ruling parties was clearly

  20. The green marketing of modern office furniture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林凡青

    2015-01-01

    Green marketing is referred to as the mainstream of marketing in the 21st century, it mainly discusses the enterprise how to deal with the growing consumer demand for environmentally friendly products. Green marketing is an extension of the traditional marketing and the development, in the traditional marketing concept, through the coordination of enterprises, customers, competitors to gain maximum profits, and green marketing is more than the ecological environment factors included. Furniture enterprises through to carry out green marketing strategy, sales of green furniture products, the corresponding measures to guide the sustainable consumption and satisfy the consumer, to achieve economic interests, the interests of the consumers, the environment is unified.

  1. Cheap heat grows in fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haluza, I.

    2006-01-01

    Slovak farmers resemble the peasants from the film T he Magnificent Seven . They keep complaining about their fate but consider any innovation as an interference. And that is why they still have not started growing fast-growing wood although the number of heating plants processing bio-mass from forests and fields is growing. Natural gas is expensive and coal creates pollution. Energy from biomass is becoming a good business and also creates new business opportunities - growing the raw material it needs. Such heating plants usually use waste from wood processing companies and Slovak Forests (Lesy SR) has also started deliveries of chip wood from old forests. There are plantations of fast growing wood suitable for heat production of over 500-thousand hectares throughout the EU. This is about 10% of Slovakian's area where the first plantations are also already being set up. The first promising plantation project was launched this spring. And this is not a project launched and backed by a big company but a starting up businessman, Miroslav Forgac from Kosice. He founded his company, Forgim, last winter. Without big money involved and thank to a new business idea he managed to persuade farmers to set up the first plantations. He supplied the seedlings and the business has started with 75 ha of plantations around Trnava, Sala, Komarno, Lucenec, Poprad and Kosice. He is gradually signing contracts with other landowners and next year the area of plantations is set to grow by 1500 ha. Plantations of fast growing trees such as willow, poplar and acacia regenerate by new trees growing out of the roots of the old and from cut trees so from one seedling and one investment there can be several harvests. Swedish willows from Forgim regenerate 20 to 25 years after the first planting. And only then new seedlings have to be purchased. Using special machines that even cut the wood to wood chips the plantations can be 'harvested' every three years. Unlike crops, the fields do not

  2. Determinants of Marketing Performance: Innovation, Market Capabilities and Marketing Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naili Farida

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This research aim to analyze causality influence between innovations, market capability, social modal, entrepreneurs oriented into marketing performance. Organizational innovations is a basic focus on Total  Quality Management. Innovation has a role to technological development and competitive economy environment. The sample technique used is Purpusive sampling amount 58 respondent owner of Batik Small Medium Enterprise known as UKM.  Small businesses have small medium or medium can grow and develop so that it is able to increase its product and sustainability efforts on the creative industry. The technique analysis used is Parsial Least Square (PLS, this result shows entrepreneur orientation doesn’t influence into market capability and social modal, innovation has positive influence and significance into market capability and marketing performance. This results shows innovation has important role in advantaging market capability while influencing to increase marketing performance of Small Medium Enterprise known as UKM. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis pengaruh kausalitas antara inovasi, kemampuan pasar, modal sosial, pengusaha berorientasi ke kinerja pemasaran. Inovasi organisasi adalah dasar TQM. Inovasi mempunyai peran pentinga dalam pengembangan teknologi dan lingkungan yang penuh persaingan. Teknik sampel yang digunakan adalah Purposive Sampling jumlah 58 pemilik responden dari Batik Kecil Menengah dikenal sebagai UKM. UKM dapat tumbuh dan berkembang melalui industri kreatif. Teknik analisis yang digunakan adalah Parsial Least Square (PLS, hasil ini menunjukkan orientasi entrepreneur tidak mempengaruhi ke kemampuan pasar dan modal sosial, inovasi berpengaruh positif dan signifikan dalam kemampuan pasar dan kinerja pemasaran. Hal ini menyebabkan menunjukkan inovasi memiliki peran penting dalam advantaging kemampuan pasar sementara yang mempengaruhi untuk meningkatkan kinerja pemasaran Kecil Menengah dikenal sebagai UKM.

  3. Learning Strategic Sophistication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blume, A.; DeJong, D.V.; Maier, M.

    2005-01-01

    We experimentally investigate coordination games in which cognition plays an important role, i.e. where outcomes are affected by the agents level of understanding of the game and the beliefs they form about each others understanding.We ask whether and when repeated exposure permits agents to learn

  4. Exploitation Strategies in Social Parasites of Fungus Growing Ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clement, Janni Dolby

    One of the most remarkable and complex parasitic interactions is social parasitism, where a parasite exploits a complete society, rather than an individual organism. By integrating into a society the parasite gains protection against predators and diseases, and can redirect resources from the host...... to increase its own fitness. The host will use a sophisticated recognition system in order to accept nestmates and expel intruders from their societies. However this defence barrier can be overcome by parasites. Among the most specialized social parasites are the inquilines that exploit social insect colonies...... to this are Acromyrmex insinuator and Acromyrmex ameliae, parasites of fungus-growing ants. By still producing a worker caste both species offers a rare opportunity to study adaptive features in parasite worker behaviour. Furthermore can closely related inquiline-host combinations give us an insight in the trade...

  5. Risky markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, G.

    1998-01-01

    The Export Development Corporation (EDC) supports Canadian exporters and investors in international projects by providing export credit insurance for commodities and by providing financing for projects ranging from chemical plants to pipeline projects. EDC has been an active participant in financing projects in 'risky markets' in China, Columbia, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Russia and Venezuela. This presentation reviewed the origins and dimensions of the Asian crisis and how the spillover effects are showing up in most regions of the world. It was suggested that the factors which contributed to the crisis were: (1) growing macroeconomic imbalances, (2) excessive private capital inflows financing risky and low-profitability ventures, (3) financial sector mismanagement, (4) political uncertainty, and (5) decline in investor confidence. The Asian financial crisis will affect other developing countries in the following ways: (1) shrinking foreign private capital flows, (2) widening spreads for foreign and private borrowers, (3) reduced trade volumes due to import compression, (4) lower prices for traded goods, (5) depressed international interest rates. As a result of the Asian crisis, banks in Japan, Korea, Singapore, Europe and North America have cancelled or restructured several billion dollars in loans. Several projects are now under review, have been delayed or cancelled. It was suggested that significant changes in risk management strategies must be made in order for the countries of Asia to restructure their economies. Putting an end to 'cronyism' establishing well-supervised banking, legal and court systems that are up-to-date and transparent, are also essential ingredients of recovery

  6. Sustainable Marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.

    2017-01-01

    In this article, three different conceptions of sustainable marketing are discussed and compared. These different conceptions are referred to as social, green, and critical sustainable marketing. Social sustainable marketing follows the logic of demand-driven marketing management and places the

  7. Exploring Classroom Hydroponics. Growing Ideas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Gardening Association, Burlington, VT.

    Growing Ideas, the National Gardening Association's series for elementary, middle, and junior high school educators, helps teachers engage students in using plants and gardens as contexts for developing a deeper, richer understanding of the world around them. This volume's focus is on hydroponics. It presents basic hydroponics information along…

  8. Organization of growing random networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krapivsky, P. L.; Redner, S.

    2001-06-01

    The organizational development of growing random networks is investigated. These growing networks are built by adding nodes successively, and linking each to an earlier node of degree k with an attachment probability A{sub k}. When A{sub k} grows more slowly than linearly with k, the number of nodes with k links, N{sub k}(t), decays faster than a power law in k, while for A{sub k} growing faster than linearly in k, a single node emerges which connects to nearly all other nodes. When A{sub k} is asymptotically linear, N{sub k}(t){similar_to}tk{sup {minus}{nu}}, with {nu} dependent on details of the attachment probability, but in the range 2{lt}{nu}{lt}{infinity}. The combined age and degree distribution of nodes shows that old nodes typically have a large degree. There is also a significant correlation in the degrees of neighboring nodes, so that nodes of similar degree are more likely to be connected. The size distributions of the in and out components of the network with respect to a given node{emdash}namely, its {open_quotes}descendants{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}ancestors{close_quotes}{emdash}are also determined. The in component exhibits a robust s{sup {minus}2} power-law tail, where s is the component size. The out component has a typical size of order lnt, and it provides basic insights into the genealogy of the network.

  9. Growing an Emerging Research University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birx, Donald L.; Anderson-Fletcher, Elizabeth; Whitney, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    The emerging research college or university is one of the most formidable resources a region has to reinvent and grow its economy. This paper is the first of two that outlines a process of building research universities that enhance regional technology development and facilitate flexible networks of collaboration and resource sharing. Although the…

  10. Growing Crystals on the Ceiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christman, Robert A.

    1980-01-01

    Described is a method of studying growing crystals in a classroom utilizing a carrousel projector standing vertically. A saturated salt solution is placed on a slide on the lens of the projector and the heat from the projector causes the water to evaporate and salt to crystalize. (Author/DS)

  11. Agglomerative clustering of growing squares

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castermans, Thom; Speckmann, Bettina; Staals, Frank; Verbeek, Kevin; Bender, M.A.; Farach-Colton, M.; Mosteiro, M.A.

    2018-01-01

    We study an agglomerative clustering problem motivated by interactive glyphs in geo-visualization. Consider a set of disjoint square glyphs on an interactive map. When the user zooms out, the glyphs grow in size relative to the map, possibly with different speeds. When two glyphs intersect, we wish

  12. Inferences from growing trees backwards

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Green; Kent A. McDonald

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to illustrate how longitudinal stress wave techniques can be useful in tracking the future quality of a growing tree. Monitoring the quality of selected trees in a plantation forest could provide early input to decisions on the effectiveness of management practices, or future utilization options, for trees in a plantation. There will...

  13. COFFEE GROWING AREAS OF ETHIOPIA"

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    accelerated economic growth, part of which is hoped to be achieved via increased ... at the Fifth International Conference on the Ethiopian Economy held at the United ... Samuel and Ludi: Agricultural commercialisation in coffee growing areas. ... Ethiopia produces and exports one of the best fighland coffees in the world.

  14. PV supply chain growing pains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkins, A. [Matrix Energy Inc., Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2010-11-15

    This article discussed issues involving the supply chain for photovoltaic (PV) equipment that is emerging in Ontario as a result of the Feed-in-Tariff (FIT) program that was launched in late 2009. The rapidly developing PV supply chain may not be taking a sustainable path. The domestic-content requirement is making manufacturers outlay capital to set up manufacturing in Ontario without reliable market data. Only a small number of dealer/installers have any meaningful experience designing and installing grid-tie PV. Until recently, wholesale distributors designed and supplied most grid-tie PV systems in Canada, and solar dealers/installers or electricians or electrical contractors did the installation. Instead of selling directly to dealer/installers, solar manufacturers should develop strong relationships with wholesalers, who have system design experience and product training. This would allow manufacturers to focus on their core strength, reach more customers, and keep lower inventory levels. Wholesale distributors in turn provide dealer/installers with expertise in product and system design, training from a range of manufacturers, marketing and logistics support, and immediate access to inventory. Manufacturers generally lack appropriate accounting, engineering, marketing, and logistics services to deal with a multitude of active accounts, and they are not structured to work with architects and engineers to do complete system design. Partnering with wholesale distributors allows manufacturers to take on the residential and small-scale commercial sectors by building brand awareness and increasing market share and sales across Canada. 2 figs.

  15. Renewable fuels - a growing future?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackledge, C.

    1997-01-01

    The production of ethanol fuels, industrial alcohol, vodka, and gasoline additives from barley and corn by Commercial Alcohols and Alberta Bioclean is reported. The reformulated gasoline market, the reduced emission with ethanol fuels, plans for a new alcohol plant, sale of byproduct high protein animal feed and carbon dioxide, and the encouragement offered by the Canadian government are discussed. (UK)

  16. PV supply chain growing pains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkins, A.

    2010-01-01

    This article discussed issues involving the supply chain for photovoltaic (PV) equipment that is emerging in Ontario as a result of the Feed-in-Tariff (FIT) program that was launched in late 2009. The rapidly developing PV supply chain may not be taking a sustainable path. The domestic-content requirement is making manufacturers outlay capital to set up manufacturing in Ontario without reliable market data. Only a small number of dealer/installers have any meaningful experience designing and installing grid-tie PV. Until recently, wholesale distributors designed and supplied most grid-tie PV systems in Canada, and solar dealers/installers or electricians or electrical contractors did the installation. Instead of selling directly to dealer/installers, solar manufacturers should develop strong relationships with wholesalers, who have system design experience and product training. This would allow manufacturers to focus on their core strength, reach more customers, and keep lower inventory levels. Wholesale distributors in turn provide dealer/installers with expertise in product and system design, training from a range of manufacturers, marketing and logistics support, and immediate access to inventory. Manufacturers generally lack appropriate accounting, engineering, marketing, and logistics services to deal with a multitude of active accounts, and they are not structured to work with architects and engineers to do complete system design. Partnering with wholesale distributors allows manufacturers to take on the residential and small-scale commercial sectors by building brand awareness and increasing market share and sales across Canada. 2 figs.

  17. Sophisticated Calculation of the 1oo4-architecture for Safety-related Systems Conforming to IEC61508

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayek, A; Al Bokhaiti, M; Schwarz, M H; Boercsoek, J

    2012-01-01

    With the publication and enforcement of the standard IEC 61508 of safety related systems, recent system architectures have been presented and evaluated. Among a number of techniques and measures to the evaluation of safety integrity level (SIL) for safety-related systems, several measures such as reliability block diagrams and Markov models are used to analyze the probability of failure on demand (PFD) and mean time to failure (MTTF) which conform to IEC 61508. The current paper deals with the quantitative analysis of the novel 1oo4-architecture (one out of four) presented in recent work. Therefore sophisticated calculations for the required parameters are introduced. The provided 1oo4-architecture represents an advanced safety architecture based on on-chip redundancy, which is 3-failure safe. This means that at least one of the four channels have to work correctly in order to trigger the safety function.

  18. Capacity Market Design: Motivation and Challenges in Alberta’s Electricity Market

    OpenAIRE

    David Brown

    2018-01-01

    Alberta’s electricity market is currently undergoing a period of substantial transition. The province should proceed with caution as it switches from an energy-only electricity market to a capacity market by 2021. Many other jurisdictions have already made the changeover and Alberta can learn from their experiences in order to avoid common mistakes and pitfalls that can arise with the deployment of a capacity market.There were growing concerns that the existing electricity market structure wo...

  19. 手机广告智能分发和精细化营销模型%Mobile Advertising Intelligent Distribution Sophisticated Marketing Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜峰

    2011-01-01

    本文主要分析了移动通信时代下企业和用户的信息服务需求,提出了一种手机广告智能分发和精确投放的模型,采用3+N用户属性理论对用户电信数据进行分析和分类,利用逻辑表达式进行广告需求人群和用户模型的智能匹配,并采用逻辑回归模型对用户属性数据进行了精确构建,并对方案进行分析.

  20. TRICARE Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-21

    definitive. It stated that: Marketing is much more than advertising or promotion materials. Marketing is a foundation for building a business strategy ; it...objectives, and strategies for marketing TRICARE. However, the Director provided the plan for information; none of the recipients of the plan were...overarching goal and extensively in the marketing strategies section. Specifically, the Marketing Plan states that strategies employed to accomplish

  1. Hospital marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Tony

    2003-01-01

    This article looks at a prescribed academic framework for various criteria that serve as a checklist for marketing performance that can be applied to hospital marketing organizations. These guidelines are drawn from some of Dr. Noel Capon of Columbia University's book Marketing Management in the 21st Century and applied to actual practices of hospital marketing organizations. In many ways this checklist can act as a "marketing" balanced scorecard to verify performance effectiveness and develop opportunities for innovation.

  2. Internet marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Zelený, Martin

    2009-01-01

    In the bachelor thesis are introduced theoretical concepts of the Internet and marketing, accented the need of marketing mix along with its specifics of the internet environment. Next is interpreted which tools can be used for marketing of firms and which marketing instruments are to be deployed. Final chapter illustrates socio-demographics of Czech internet users along with media market allocation from the perspective of all media as well as in the segment of the Internet.

  3. Money Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Marvin Goodfriend

    2011-01-01

    Money markets offer monetary services and short-term finance in the capital market with the credit support of institutional sponsors. Investors finance money market instruments at low interest because their salability on short notice confers an implicit monetary services yield. Low interest attracts borrowers to money markets. The fragile equilibrium depends on collective confidence in the credit quality of instruments supplied to the market. Federal Reserve monetary and credit policies have ...

  4. Stream Clustering of Growing Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Zaigham Faraz; Spiliopoulou, Myra

    We study incremental clustering of objects that grow and accumulate over time. The objects come from a multi-table stream e.g. streams of Customer and Transaction. As the Transactions stream accumulates, the Customers’ profiles grow. First, we use an incremental propositionalisation to convert the multi-table stream into a single-table stream upon which we apply clustering. For this purpose, we develop an online version of K-Means algorithm that can handle these swelling objects and any new objects that arrive. The algorithm also monitors the quality of the model and performs re-clustering when it deteriorates. We evaluate our method on the PKDD Challenge 1999 dataset.

  5. How do normal faults grow?

    OpenAIRE

    Blækkan, Ingvild; Bell, Rebecca; Rotevatn, Atle; Jackson, Christopher; Tvedt, Anette

    2018-01-01

    Faults grow via a sympathetic increase in their displacement and length (isolated fault model), or by rapid length establishment and subsequent displacement accrual (constant-length fault model). To test the significance and applicability of these two models, we use time-series displacement (D) and length (L) data extracted for faults from nature and experiments. We document a range of fault behaviours, from sympathetic D-L fault growth (isolated growth) to sub-vertical D-L growth trajectorie...

  6. Marketing Industrial Project-Related Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cova, Bernard; Skaates, Maria Anne

    2002-01-01

    Services are a growing part of projects in the context of the international trend toward solution buying and selling on B2B markets. Services are also often a key source of competitive advantage in project business. Therefore the aim of this paper is to critically scrutinise the intuitive...... hypothesis that the marketing of project-related services lies somewhere at the crossroads between services marketing and project marketing....

  7. Electricity market design for the future

    OpenAIRE

    robinson, david; Keay, Malcolm

    2017-01-01

    This paper explains why current electricity markets are not fit for purpose and propose a new market design. Electricity markets operating today were designed for the technical and economic conditions of the 1990's. These conditions have changed substantially, especially with increased penetration of intermittent renewables and the growing potential for distributed energy resources and consumer involvement. Today's markets are incompatible with these trends. They do not provide h...

  8. Marketing fundamentals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, W H

    2001-01-01

    This chapter outlines current marketing practice from a managerial perspective. The role of marketing within an organization is discussed in relation to efficiency and adaptation to changing environments. Fundamental terms and concepts are presented in an applied context. The implementation of marketing plans is organized around the four P's of marketing: product (or service), promotion (including advertising), place of delivery, and pricing. These are the tools with which marketers seek to better serve their clients and form the basis for competing with other organizations. Basic concepts of strategic relationship management are outlined. Lastly, alternate viewpoints on the role of advertising in healthcare markets are examined.

  9. Politisk marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Disciplinen politisk marketing er udbredt i mange vestlige lande. Imidlertid er kendskabet til politisk marketing i Danmark bemærkelsesværdigt lavt. I det lys er denne bog Politisk Marketing: Personer, Partier & Praksis den første bog i Danmark, som -ud fra marketing- indkredser de sidste mange års...... brudflader i dansk politik. Gennem ti bidrag fra forskere og praktikere udskraber forfatterne et DNA for feltet politisk marketing. Kort sagt kan du i denne bog finde svarene på: Hvad er politisk marketing? Hvordan har det udviklet sig? Og hvilke konsekvenser har dette fænomen for vælgere, partier og...

  10. To market, to market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lieberman, J.I.

    1992-01-01

    Senator Lieberman and three fellow members of Congress introduced the CO 2 Offset Policy Efficiency Act (COPE), which incorporates the use of marketable permits to reduce CO 2 emissions. For COPE to be fully effective, however, several key criteria must be met: (1) establishing initial baselines will be critical to ensure that emission reductions are credited properly; (2) accurate plant-by-plant monitoring must be in place to ensure that claimed reductions have actually occurred; (3) the program must include a strong enforcement provision to prevent evasion and to punish violators with substantial automatic fines. COPE imposes a sanction equal to roughly four times the estimated cost of offsets; the sanctions would be paid before enforcement proceedings commence. The urgency and complexity of global warming requires us to break with the past and develop new ways of delaying with pollution, Senator Lieberman feels by giving the market a chance to work on behalf of the environment, the sale of emission allowance will reduce CO 2 emissions in the most-efficient cost-effective way possible

  11. Coal world market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    A brief analysis of major tendencies in the world market of coal is presented. It is pointed out that recent years, by and large, were favourable for the development of the world coal industry. Prices for coal (both for power-grade and coking one) in 1995 after many years of depressive state increased by nearly 20 % and reached a maximum of the last decade. International coal trading continues to grow and the tendency may persist in the mext two years

  12. Morale in the market

    OpenAIRE

    Ognedal, Tone

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing interest in morale as a potential substitute for sanctions, encouraged by exerimental evidence that people's morale affect their economic decisions. I show that while morale may be a substitute for sanctions for each citizen, it is not a substitute in the market. In a model where employed and self-employed differ in their opportunities for tax evasion, I demonstrate that a higher fraction of tax compliant citizens may reduce social surplus and tax revenues. In contrast to s...

  13. Choices and decisions: Locating the poor in urban land markets

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wanjiku Kihato, C

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ). In trying to understand growing poverty in the global economy, leading economist Dani Rodrik contends that the increasing asymmetry between capital and labour values, the decoupling of markets and regulatory institutions, and growing informalisation of work...

  14. SPORT MARKETING

    OpenAIRE

    Omer Špirtović; Danilo Aćimović; Ahmet Međedović; Zoran Bogdanović

    2010-01-01

    Word „marketing“ comes from AngloSaxon linguistic domain and implies in a narrow sense the market. Under marketing, we consider certain process, which should create and solve relations of exchange between manufacturers on one side, and consumers on the other. Discussion about sport marketing implies its theoretical definition and generalization, and then its actual definition in sport environment. Sport marketing belongs to business function of sport organization and represents primaly an eco...

  15. Mobile marketing

    OpenAIRE

    KLEČKOVÁ, Zuzana

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this thesis was to provide a comprehensive overview of the mobile marketing and analyze selected campaigns of Czech mobile marketing in comparison to world successful campaigns. The research contained studying of available literature about the theme to gain general knowledge about the issue. The theoretical part of the thesis contains predominantly various definitions of mobile marketing and its tools, advantages of these tools and some information about Mobile Marketing Assoc...

  16. Marketing Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Andrýsková, Hana

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to examine current marketing efforts of AARON - the leading seller of digital cameras. I will analyze current marketing tools and suggest improvements in efficiency and effectiveness of these tools. Marketing strategy is a method of managing and coordinating efforts in marketing field so that the goals can be reached. The aim is to increase sales, turnover, revenues, profits, drive out competition and also to build up a corporate image and corporate culture. I will a...

  17. Dental implants in growing children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S K Mishra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The replacement of teeth by implants is usually restricted to patients with completed craniofacial growth. The aim of this literature review is to discuss the use of dental implants in normal growing patients and in patients with ectodermal dysplasia and the influence of maxillary and mandibular skeletal and dental growth on the stability of those implants. It is recommended that while deciding the optimal individual time point of implant insertion, the status of skeletal growth, the degree of hypodontia, and extension of related psychological stress should be taken into account, in addition to the status of existing dentition and dental compliance of a pediatric patient.

  18. Torsion of a growing shaft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Manzhirov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The torsion of a shaft by rigid disks is considered. The shaft has the form of circular cylinder. Two rigid disks are attached to its end faces. The process of continuous growth of such shaft under the influence of twisting torques applied to the disks is studied. Dual series equations which reflect the mathematical content of the problem at the different stages of the growing process are derived and solved. Results of the numerical analysis and singularities of the qualitative mechanical behaviour of the fundamental characteristics are discussed.

  19. Growing energy demand - environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rama Rao, G.A.

    2012-01-01

    Scientists can bring information, insights, and analytical skills to bear on matters of public concern. Often they can help the public and its representatives to understand the likely causes of events (such as natural and technological disasters) and to estimate the possible effects of projected policies. Often they can testify to what is not possible. Even so, scientists can seldom bring definitive answers to matters of public debate. Some issues are too complex to fit within the current scope of science, or there may be little reliable information available, or the values involved may lie outside of science. Scientists and technologists strive to find an answer to the growing energy demand

  20. Global Market Access in the Internet Era: South Africa's Wood Furniture Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodley, Sagren

    2002-01-01

    Explores the link between Internet connectivity and access to global markets, and uses the South African wood furniture producers as they are integrated into global value chains and exposed to the demands of more sophisticated markets. Articulates policy recommendations to promote greater diffusion of e-commerce technologies in the wood furniture…

  1. Dissimilarity of E-marketing VS traditional marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrdad Salehi; Hanieh Mirzaei; Mohammadreza Aghaei; Milad Abyari

    2012-01-01

    The revolution of information technology (IT) and communications has changed the way people conduct business today.Nowadays, most of the businesses are related to electronically instruments especially internet. Implementation of E-marketing can change the shape of business all over the world. Because of the rapid proliferation of the Internet, the World Wide Web (WWW) and electronic communication has created fast growing new electronic channels for marketing. If we surf through the internet, ...

  2. Harnessing marketing automation for B2B content marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Järvinen, Joel; Taiminen, Heini

    2016-01-01

    The growing importance of the Internet to B2B customer purchasing decisions has motivated B2B sellers to create digital content that leads potential buyers to interact with their company. This trend has engendered a new paradigm referred to as ‘content marketing.’ This study investigates the organizational processes for developing valuable and timely content to meet customer needs and for integrating content marketing with B2B selling processes. The results of this single case study demonstra...

  3. Social network marketing strategy and SME strategy benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Nobre, Helena; Silva, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    The study explored what benefits to small or medium-sized firms (SMEs) could be derived from the development of a social media marketing strategy. Results indicated that Facebook can facilitate communications between SME companies and customers, and can also be an important tool in creating brand recognition and broadening awareness. The importance of developing a thoughtfully designed strategy was cited, as SMEs often lack sophisticated marketing or business plans. The positive study results...

  4. Sophisticated approval voting, ignorance priors, and plurality heuristics: a behavioral social choice analysis in a Thurstonian framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regenwetter, Michel; Ho, Moon-Ho R; Tsetlin, Ilia

    2007-10-01

    This project reconciles historically distinct paradigms at the interface between individual and social choice theory, as well as between rational and behavioral decision theory. The authors combine a utility-maximizing prescriptive rule for sophisticated approval voting with the ignorance prior heuristic from behavioral decision research and two types of plurality heuristics to model approval voting behavior. When using a sincere plurality heuristic, voters simplify their decision process by voting for their single favorite candidate. When using a strategic plurality heuristic, voters strategically focus their attention on the 2 front-runners and vote for their preferred candidate among these 2. Using a hierarchy of Thurstonian random utility models, the authors implemented these different decision rules and tested them statistically on 7 real world approval voting elections. They cross-validated their key findings via a psychological Internet experiment. Although a substantial number of voters used the plurality heuristic in the real elections, they did so sincerely, not strategically. Moreover, even though Thurstonian models do not force such agreement, the results show, in contrast to common wisdom about social choice rules, that the sincere social orders by Condorcet, Borda, plurality, and approval voting are identical in all 7 elections and in the Internet experiment. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Yersinia virulence factors - a sophisticated arsenal for combating host defences [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Atkinson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The human pathogens Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia enterocolitica cause enterocolitis, while Yersinia pestis is responsible for pneumonic, bubonic, and septicaemic plague. All three share an infection strategy that relies on a virulence factor arsenal to enable them to enter, adhere to, and colonise the host while evading host defences to avoid untimely clearance. Their arsenal includes a number of adhesins that allow the invading pathogens to establish a foothold in the host and to adhere to specific tissues later during infection. When the host innate immune system has been activated, all three pathogens produce a structure analogous to a hypodermic needle. In conjunction with the translocon, which forms a pore in the host membrane, the channel that is formed enables the transfer of six ‘effector’ proteins into the host cell cytoplasm. These proteins mimic host cell proteins but are more efficient than their native counterparts at modifying the host cell cytoskeleton, triggering the host cell suicide response. Such a sophisticated arsenal ensures that yersiniae maintain the upper hand despite the best efforts of the host to counteract the infecting pathogen.

  6. Marketing 101.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Karla A.

    1997-01-01

    A marketing model for camps includes a mix of services, presentation, and communication elements that promote the virtues of camp, convince potential campers and their families of the benefits of camp, and successfully distinguish the camp from others. Includes resources related to marketing strategies, theme merchandise, and market trends…

  7. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The hottest financial market topic of the moment could be the subprime loan crisis in the United States. The crisis has stormed the U.S. stock market, dragging it to its biggest falls in a single trading day. Other markets, such as Japan’s, were also vul

  8. Auto Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    <正> Editor’s notes: As China’s WTO entry is drawing near, Chinese people are witnessing the marketing activities of foreign automakers in China: establishing new firms and promoting new vehicles, etc. In face of the enormous Chinese market, foreign automakers are busy in establishing their brand images, fostering consumption population in order to take more market shares in the future.

  9. Service marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babić-Hodović Vesna

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of postindustrial society and services revolution created numerous changes in size of consumer demand, consumer reaction and priorities. Continuous change on the side of demand and offer must follow changes in marketing orientation. Leader in that change is services marketing which by knowing services range and all the changes builds a new concept called Relationship Marketing.

  10. WHITE WHEAT MARKET AND STRATEGY ANALYSIS FOR NORTH DAKOTA

    OpenAIRE

    Janzen, Edward L.; Wilson, William W.

    2001-01-01

    There is a growing interest and a perceived demand for hard white (HW) wheat to satisfy the needs of the growing Asian noodle market which is currently dominated by Australia. The wheat industry is reviewed with attention to U.S. and Australian production and international markets for white wheat. Quality issues and target markets/market development are discussed. Economic issues associated with production of HW wheat in hard red spring (HRS) wheat producing areas, primarily North Dakota, are...

  11. Marketing in life insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Njegomir Vladimir

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Insurance industry has traditionally been oriented on sale of its products i.e. at the stage which from the aspect of marketing theory can be characterized as sales phase, phase which proceeds the marketing orientation. However, faced with numerous challenges of modern business environment such as globalization, deregulation and sophisticated information technology insurance companies must change their way of doing business. Competition is becoming fierce as insurance companies are faced with competition not only from insurance industry but also from other competitors, such as banks, that are in position to offer product substitutes for life insurance products. In this new environment information about customers and their education are becoming critical factors. Insurance companies must know their customers what influences their demand for life insurance, what is the amount of their income, what is inflation rate, their expenditures on other goods i.e. opportunity costs, etc. Those are factors that force insurance companies to concentrate more on present and potential buyers and their needs and force them to give their best to satisfy those needs in a way that will produce delighted customers.

  12. How fast do eels grow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, H.J.M.

    1988-01-01

    Not so very much about the growth pattern of the eel is known yet. Eels move about nearly all the time. They are thus very difficult to follow and we do not, for examble, yet know how long it actually takes for them to grow to maturity in the wild. So far, a macroscopic analysis of the number of bright and dark areas (growth rings) in the 'earstones' has been used to determine eel age, but this method was recently challenged. Use of radioisotopes has been suggested previously for this purpose. For this present study the rare earth elements, europium-152 and europium-155 are used. When incubated in artificial sea water, a satisfactory final radioactive label was achieved. Two experiments were planned in collaboration with the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. 2000 Elvers were set out in 1982, in the cooling water outlet of the Oskarshamn nuclear power plant, each marked with europium-155. In 1984 another 10 000 elvers labelled with europium-152 were set out under similar conditions. The idea was mainly to see how fast the eels would grow, and to compare their known age with that determined by examining the earstones. Results showed that there was no clear-cut correlation between actual eel age and the biological age determination used so far. During four years, only 10 of the original 1300 eels were recaptured. It is thus hard to say anything definite from our results on the viability of setting out elvers in the environment

  13. Marketing maloobchodu

    OpenAIRE

    Demuth, Jan

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is about the situation of retail marketing in Czech republic, with a special focus on in-store marketing instruments and activities. The goal of this work is to evaluate the application of these marketing instruments in a specific retail store. This chosen store is supermarket Billa. The first part of the thesis is offering theoretical base for in-store marketing activities and also presents the history of retail marketing in Czech republic. The second part is focusing on the situ...

  14. MARKETING CHANNELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Stošić Mihajlović

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Marketing channel is a set of entities and institutions, completion of distribution and marketing activities, attend the efficient and effective networking of producers and consumers. Marketing channels include the total flows of goods, money and information taking place between the institutions in the system of marketing, establishing a connection between them. The functions of the exchange, the physical supply and service activities, inherent in the system of marketing and trade. They represent paths which products and services are moving after the production, which will ultimately end up buying and eating by the user.

  15. Capacity Markets and Market Stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stauffer, Hoff

    2006-01-01

    The good news is that market stability can be achieved through a combination of longer-term contracts, auctions for far enough in the future to permit new entry, a capacity management system, and a demand curve. The bad news is that if and when stable capacity markets are designed, the markets may seem to be relatively close to where we started - with integrated resource planning. Market ideologues will find this anathema. (author)

  16. A Snapshot of Serial Rape: An Investigation of Criminal Sophistication and Use of Force on Victim Injury and Severity of the Assault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Heer, Brooke

    2016-02-01

    Prior research on rapes reported to law enforcement has identified criminal sophistication and the use of force against the victim as possible unique identifiers to serial rape versus one-time rape. This study sought to contribute to the current literature on reported serial rape by investigating how the level of criminal sophistication of the rapist and use of force used were associated with two important outcomes of rape: victim injury and overall severity of the assault. In addition, it was evaluated whether rapist and victim ethnicity affected these relationships. A nation-wide sample of serial rape cases reported to law enforcement collected by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) was analyzed (108 rapists, 543 victims). Results indicated that serial rapists typically used a limited amount of force against the victim and displayed a high degree of criminal sophistication. In addition, the more criminally sophisticated the perpetrator was, the more sexual acts he performed on his victim. Finally, rapes between a White rapist and White victim were found to exhibit higher levels of criminal sophistication and were more severe in terms of number and types of sexual acts committed. These findings provide a more in-depth understanding of serial rape that can inform both academics and practitioners in the field about contributors to victim injury and severity of the assault. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Market formation and market selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Raalte, C.L.J.P.

    1996-01-01

    The organization of markets is an important field of inquiry in modern economic theory. This monograph analyzes models which consider the formation and selection of markets. In these models, markets are organized by middlemen and used by traders. In Part I of the monograph, coalitions of middlemen

  18. Market Survey Turkey. Electricity Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-12-01

    The present market survey presents the Turkish power market and derives business opportunities and prospects for Dutch trade and industry. This market survey has been carried out for the following four, from time to time overlapping, sectors that have been identified by EVD as potential opportunities for Dutch small and medium-sized enterprises (SME): renewable energy, energy efficiency, electricity generation, electricity distribution

  19. World market of marketing research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuels John

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The value of the total world market market research in the year 2001 was US$15,890 million, a 2.8% increase on the previous year. This is the first of several articles to be published in Research World on the results from ESOMAR's latest annual study on the market research sector worldwide

  20. Access to capital--a growing concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Donald A

    2004-01-01

    Access to capital over the next ten years will be one of the biggest challenges healthcare organizations will face as they strive to remain competitive and serve their communities. Meeting the growing needs for capital will require a disciplined and honest assessment of the capital sources that will be available and the best ways of positioning an organization to maximize their uses. It is incumbent on chief executive officers and other senior leaders to create a disciplined process for allocating capital and conveying how that process will be linked to the organization's strategic plan. All of the credit constituencies "buying" healthcare need to fully understand how the organization is positioning itself for future growth and success, and detailed bond marketing plans need to be implemented well before the actual sale of a new bond issue. Large and small healthcare providers will have sufficient access to capital in the future if investors believe that senior hospital executives have a credible plan and are disciplined enough to execute it.

  1. Viking Disruptions or Growing Integration?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sindbæk, Søren Michael

    2012-01-01

    Long-distance communication has emerged as a particular focus for archaeological exploration using network theory, analysis, and modelling. Initial attempts to adapt methods from social network analysis to archaeological data have, however, struggled to produce decisive results. This paper...... demonstrates how formal network analysis can be combined with a contextual reading of evidence relating to a long-distance communication network in the past. A study of the combined distributions of ten vessel types in 152 settlement sites from the 10th century suggests the outline of the core structure...... of the network. The model implies that 10th century long-distance exchange in the North Sea region featured long-distance links equal to those of the Carolingian emporia trade, and represented a growth in terms of new axes of integration, above all the growing links between the Scandinavian Peninsula...

  2. Growing the Blockchain information infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbar, Karim; Bjørn, Pernille

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present ethnographic data that unpacks the everyday work of some of the many infrastructuring agents who contribute to creating, sustaining and growing the Blockchain information infrastructure. We argue that this infrastructuring work takes the form of entrepreneurial actions......, which are self-initiated and primarily directed at sustaining or increasing the initiator’s stake in the emerging information infrastructure. These entrepreneurial actions wrestle against the affordances of the installed base of the Blockchain infrastructure, and take the shape of engaging...... or circumventing activities. These activities purposefully aim at either influencing or working around the enablers and constraints afforded by the Blockchain information infrastructure, as its installed base is gaining inertia. This study contributes to our understanding of the purpose of infrastructuring, seen...

  3. Going global - growing small businesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.R.

    1994-01-01

    The Going Global Energy Steering Committee was established to help small and medium-sized Canadian enterprises to compete in the electrical power industry in the Asia-Pacific region primarily, but also in Eastern Europe and Latin America. The aim is to provide market intelligence, and help with forming consortia for financing. A small to medium-sized business can be defined as one with 50 to 500 employees. Big businesses no longer have the same competitive advantages that they once had, because automated systems can make short production runs just as cost-effective as long ones, and because computerization, automation and rising productivity mean that fewer workers are required than formerly

  4. How to grow great leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ready, Douglas A

    2004-12-01

    Few leaders excel at both the unit and enterprise levels. More than ever, though, corporations need people capable of running business units, functions, or regions and focusing on broader company goals. It's up to organizations to develop leaders who can manage the inherent tensions between unit and enterprise priorities. Take the example of RBC Financial Group, one of the largest, most profitable companies in Canada. In the mid-1990's, RBC revamped its competitive strategy in a couple of ways. After the government announced that the Big Six banks in Canada could neither merge with nor acquire one another, RBC decided to grow through cross-border acquisitions. Additionally, because customers were starting to seek bundled products and services, RBC reached across its traditional stand-alone businesses to offer integrated solutions. These changes in strategy didn't elicit immediate companywide support. Instinctively, employees reacted against what would amount to a delicate balancing act: They would have to lift their focus out of their silos while continuing to meet unit goals. However, by communicating extensively with staff members, cross-fertilizing talent across unit boundaries, and targeting rewards to shape performance, RBC was able to cultivate rising leaders with the unit expertise and the enterprise vision to help the company fulfill its new aims. Growing such well-rounded leaders takes sustained effort because unit-enterprise tensions are quite real. Three common conditions reinforce these tensions. First, most organizational structures foster silo thinking and unimaginative career paths. Second, most companies lack venues for airing and resolving conflicts that arise when there are competing priorities. Third, many have misguided reward systems that pit unit performance against enterprise considerations. Such long-established patterns of organizational behavior are tough to break. Fortunately, as RBC discovered, people can be trained to think and work

  5. Building Models in the Classroom: Taking Advantage of Sophisticated Geomorphic Numerical Tools Using a Simple Graphical User Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, S. G.; Koons, P. O.; Gerbi, C. C.; Capps, D. K.; Tucker, G. E.; Rogers, Z. A.

    2014-12-01

    Sophisticated numerical tools exist for modeling geomorphic processes and linking them to tectonic and climatic systems, but they are often seen as inaccessible for users with an exploratory level of interest. We have improved the accessibility of landscape evolution models by producing a simple graphics user interface (GUI) that takes advantage of the Channel-Hillslope Integrated Landscape Development (CHILD) model. Model access is flexible: the user can edit values for basic geomorphic, tectonic, and climate parameters, or obtain greater control by defining the spatiotemporal distributions of those parameters. Users can make educated predictions by choosing their own parametric values for the governing equations and interpreting the results immediately through model graphics. This method of modeling allows users to iteratively build their understanding through experimentation. Use of this GUI is intended for inquiry and discovery-based learning activities. We discuss a number of examples of how the GUI can be used at the upper high school, introductory university, and advanced university level. Effective teaching modules initially focus on an inquiry-based example guided by the instructor. As students become familiar with the GUI and the CHILD model, the class can shift to more student-centered exploration and experimentation. To make model interpretations more robust, digital elevation models can be imported and direct comparisons can be made between CHILD model results and natural topography. The GUI is available online through the University of Maine's Earth and Climate Sciences website, through the Community Surface Dynamics Modeling System (CSDMS) model repository, or by contacting the corresponding author.

  6. Background field removal technique using regularization enabled sophisticated harmonic artifact reduction for phase data with varying kernel sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Hirohito; Kasai, Harumasa; Arai, Nobuyuki; Kunitomo, Hiroshi; Hirose, Yasujiro; Shibamoto, Yuta

    2016-09-01

    An effective background field removal technique is desired for more accurate quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) prior to dipole inversion. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of regularization enabled sophisticated harmonic artifact reduction for phase data with varying spherical kernel sizes (REV-SHARP) method using a three-dimensional head phantom and human brain data. The proposed REV-SHARP method used the spherical mean value operation and Tikhonov regularization in the deconvolution process, with varying 2-14mm kernel sizes. The kernel sizes were gradually reduced, similar to the SHARP with varying spherical kernel (VSHARP) method. We determined the relative errors and relationships between the true local field and estimated local field in REV-SHARP, VSHARP, projection onto dipole fields (PDF), and regularization enabled SHARP (RESHARP). Human experiment was also conducted using REV-SHARP, VSHARP, PDF, and RESHARP. The relative errors in the numerical phantom study were 0.386, 0.448, 0.838, and 0.452 for REV-SHARP, VSHARP, PDF, and RESHARP. REV-SHARP result exhibited the highest correlation between the true local field and estimated local field. The linear regression slopes were 1.005, 1.124, 0.988, and 0.536 for REV-SHARP, VSHARP, PDF, and RESHARP in regions of interest on the three-dimensional head phantom. In human experiments, no obvious errors due to artifacts were present in REV-SHARP. The proposed REV-SHARP is a new method combined with variable spherical kernel size and Tikhonov regularization. This technique might make it possible to be more accurate backgroud field removal and help to achive better accuracy of QSM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Gains from Improved Market Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Karl Gunnar; Ejrnæs, Mette

    faster, violations of the law of one price become smaller and hence less persistent. There were also significant gains from improved market efficiency but that improvement took place after the information ‘regime’ shifted from pre-telegraphic communication to a regime with swift transmission...... of information in an era which developed a sophisticated commercial press and telegraphic communication. Improved market efficiency probably stimulated trade more than falling transport costs......This paper looks at the gains from improved market efficiency in long-distance grain trade in the second half of the 19th century when violations of the law of one price were reduced due to improved information transmission. Two markets, a major export centre, Chicago, and a major importer...

  8. RELATIONSHIP DERIVATIVES FINANCIAL MARKETS, MONEY AND STOCK MARKETS AS A SUBSYSTEM OF FINANCIAL MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Yelnikova

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Under conditions of intensive strengthening of globalization of world financial markets and deepening of the crisis, the main source of which are financial markets, financial derivatives market is rapidly developing. In such circumstances, we observe very active growing demand for tools, the main purpose of which is to reduce the financial risk – derivatives. Outlined trend has also involved Ukraine. In this connection, there is an objective need to develop estimate the interconnection of the money and stock markets and derivatives market. It should be kept in mind that achieving the outlined goal is possible only under condition of the full understanding of the scientific and methodological principles of the development of these markets. Purpose is to estimate the interconnection of the money and stock markets and derivatives market by building a mathematical model of system of structural equations that will promote the compilation of scientifically based program of derivatives market. Methodology. By using methods of economic-mathematical modelling were estimated the degree of influence of studied markets factors on financial derivatives market development and by changing this or that factor were predicted future trends of its operations. Results of the survey showed the current state and problems of derivatives market functioning. At the same time, our study allowed us to talk, that factors of the money and stock markets have a different impact on the derivatives market. So, the majority of money market factors have a reverse influence on the development of derivatives market. Instead, the stock market has a direct influence. Practical implications. The proposed scientific and methodical approach to evaluating the impact of factors on the derivatives market allows: influenced by different factors; to conduct a qualitative interpretation of the quantitative changes in the level of market development; to form a complete system of state

  9. Is marketing becoming a dirty word? A longitudinal study of public perceptions of marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Dalsace, Frédéric; Markovitch, Dmitri

    2009-01-01

    There is growing sentiment in the marketing community that our society holds an increasingly unfavorable view of the marketing profession. However, this sentiment is largely based on anecdotal and experiential evidence. In response, the authors use content analysis of the general press to investigate the American public’s current and past attitudes towards marketing. They obtain compelling evidence that the public’s attitude towards marketing has deteriorated over the past twenty years. They ...

  10. DOES MARKETING RELATE TO FINANCE? – “MARKETING IS FINANCE?” THEORETICAL PERCEPTION

    OpenAIRE

    Elvira Fetahu

    2014-01-01

    As market develops and grows continuously and internationalizes, the confusion among companies increases regarding their orientation of the business. They find it each day more difficult to grab new shares in the market, to capture and gain new customers, to hold their clientele, to increase continuously their customers’ satisfaction, to position properly in the market and to face competition, as well as to answer to the spontaneity of the market evolution.  This tells for an increasing role ...

  11. The Mexican market for electrical equipment and services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, J.

    1994-05-01

    Most of Mexico's electric power needs are supplied by the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE). Total installed capacity is ca 33,000 MW, of which ca 42% comes from oil-fired generation and 26% hydroelectric. Electricity consumption is expected to grow at ca 6%/y between 1993 and 2000; to meet this demand, CFE plans to build nearly 14,000 MW of additional generating capacity to cost ca $34 billion. A new law governing the electric power sector recently privatized electrical project construction and provided for private financing. Construction of all larger generation and transmission projects has been privatized, thereby deregulating and simplifying the bidding process for Canadian firms wishing to bid, subcontract, or supply equipment or materials. The most notable opportunities for Canadian firms are in transmission projects. The Mexican electrical manufacturing industry comprises ca 2,000 firms employing 150,000 people. Branch plants of global firms plus domestic companies supply over 70% of market demand. Production of equipment and materials for the electrical sector is well integrated with suppliers and customers, and manufacturers are seeking imports to replace abandoned product lines as the industry rationalizes. These, along with more sophisticated equipment not made in Mexico, provide opportunities for Canadian suppliers. The North American Free Trade Agreement gives preference to Canadians over offshore competitors, and eliminates many barriers to exports. Canada's Export Development Corporation provides financing with a line of credit for the electrical sector. Marketing in Mexico is best done through personal visits and capable local representation. A directory of Mexican electrical manufacturers who import is appended. 1 tab

  12. Markets in New England

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, J.D.

    1998-01-01

    Bay State Gas Company is a large American natural gas local distribution company which provides unbundled services and unbundled gas transportation service to about 306,000 residential, commercial and industrial customers in Massachusetts, Maine and New Hampshire. They operate as Northern Utilities Inc. in Maine and New Hampshire. Bay State Gas Company recently announced a strategic merger with NIPSCO Industries. The merger will allow the company to take advantage of opportunities that stem from their location in a high growth potential region, and the growth potential associated with retail unbundling. New England is a small natural gas market with an annual consumption of about 600 BCF, but the market is greatly under saturated. Only 31 per cent of New England homes heat with natural gas compared to 54 per cent of the U.S. as a whole. Three important changes in the New England energy market have been identified that will help the natural gas industry grow in the region: (1) unbundling of retail natural gas markets, (2) deregulation of electric markets, and (3) development of a new pipeline infrastructure. 7 figs

  13. Growing hairs in shorn cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília José Veríssimo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The shearing operation can provide double benefits to the cattle: they can become more heat tolerant and the tick infestation decreases. The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus causes great losses to dairy cattle, especially to the Holstein cattle because they are very susceptible to this tick. Its control is becoming each day more difficult, owing to the increasing resistance to acaricides they are acquiring. The objective of this work was to study the growing of haircoat following shearing. We made our experiment with 17 animals, 7 females and 10 males. They were shaved on the anterior third (head, neck, dewlap, scapula and arm of one side, at random. The work was performed in two steps: they were shorn for the first time on August 2nd 2012, with a size 10 blade in a clipper Oster model GoldenA5, which left the fur coat 2 mm long. Then we evaluated the hair length growing by collecting fortnightly three sample of hairs in the middle of the scapula, with  electric pliers, modified for this purpose, in both sides of the animals, sheared and non-sheared, until 30 days after this shearing. The three hair samples were put inside a little plastic bag per animal. Meanwhile, as we thought that the animals shearing had to be done closer to the skin, we decided to shear them again (in the same side shorn before, on October 2nd 2012. We changed our procedure using the same machine, but now with a blade size 30, which left the fur coat 1mm thick. After that, we collected again, fortnightly, samples of hairs on both sides during 2 months. The 10 longest hairs in the plastig bag were measured using a graph paper and the average per animal was calculated in each data and blade. A random design was applied for statistical analysis, the hair length of both sides, sheared and non sheared were compared by a two related samples tests – Wilcoxon, in a non parametric test, using the SPSSP 12.0 program, in each data within each blade. Using blade size

  14. Marketization Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Balle; Lindholst, Andrej Christian

    2016-01-01

    out; Benchmarking and yardstick competition; and Public-Private collaboration. On the basis of the review of the seven articles, it is found that all elements in all marketization models are firmly embedded but also under dynamic change within public service delivery systems. The review also......Purpose: The purpose of this introduction article to the IJPSM special issue on marketization is to clarify the conceptual foundations of marketization as a phenomenon within the public sector and to gauge current marketization trends on the basis of the seven articles in the special issue. Design....../methodology/approach: Conceptual clarification and cross-cutting review of seven articles analysing marketization in six countries in three policy areas at the level of local government. Findings: Four ideal-type models are deduced: Quasi-markets, involving both provider competition and free choice for users; Classic contracting...

  15. Marketing automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TODOR Raluca Dania

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The automation of the marketing process seems to be nowadays, the only solution to face the major changes brought by the fast evolution of technology and the continuous increase in supply and demand. In order to achieve the desired marketing results, businessis have to employ digital marketing and communication services. These services are efficient and measurable thanks to the marketing technology used to track, score and implement each campaign. Due to the technical progress, the marketing fragmentation, demand for customized products and services on one side and the need to achieve constructive dialogue with the customers, immediate and flexible response and the necessity to measure the investments and the results on the other side, the classical marketing approached had changed continue to improve substantially.

  16. SPORT MARKETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Špirtović

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Word „marketing“ comes from AngloSaxon linguistic domain and implies in a narrow sense the market. Under marketing, we consider certain process, which should create and solve relations of exchange between manufacturers on one side, and consumers on the other. Discussion about sport marketing implies its theoretical definition and generalization, and then its actual definition in sport environment. Sport marketing belongs to business function of sport organization and represents primaly an economical process of connecting produktion (sport organizations with sportsmen and coaches and consumption (sport and other public. Sport marketing is the reality in sport today, and cannot be observed as fashionabless of capitalistic production. Today is almost impossible for sport organization to make business without its business part called sport marketing if it wants to survive in sport arena.

  17. Sport Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Ekmekci, Ridvan; Ekmekçi, Aytul Yeter

    2009-01-01

    Abstract  Marketing which is entered to almost our whole life, now more than goods and services, became an important  concept of ideas, persons, institutions, events, and facilities. As a main activities of business co. marketing has an important place in sports industry. Recently, the development of special sport marketing strategies and the presentation of sport goods and services to consumers are gaining importance. Efforts of increasing income of sport clubs, because of sport organization...

  18. Viral Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Sorina Raula Gîrboveanu; Silvia Puiu

    2008-01-01

    With consumers showing increasing resistance to traditional forms of advertising such as TV or newspaper ads, marketers have turned to alternate strategies, including viral marketing. Viral marketing exploits existing social networks by encouraging customers to share product information with their friends.In our study we are able to directly observe the effectiveness of person to person word of mouth advertising for hundreds of thousands of products for the first time

  19. Online marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Zrůst, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to evaluate pay per click marketing as suitable marketing tool for promotion and distribution of a given product. The paper describes basic vocabulary related to PPC advertising, common metrics, tools used by online marketers, and logic of running PPC campaigns. The paper also tries to quantify impact of Internet on economies. The second part applies the theory to analysis of consumers' conversion path while searching online in common search engines where PPC marketi...

  20. Affiliate marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Ureš, Michal

    2012-01-01

    This bachelor's thesis focuses on the topic of online affiliate marketing from the perspective of an internet entrepreneur. In the first, theoretical part, it characterizes the affiliate marketing, describes different, significant affiliate solutions in the Czech market and opportunities for their implementations. In the second, practical part, it concentrates mainly on an affiliate program of a company called GameLeader, s.r.o. It analyses expectations of the business from the implementation...

  1. Power marketing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sioshansi, F.P.; Altman, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    One of the most significant developments in the US electric power industry in recent years has been the phenomenal growth of power marketing. What was barely a blimp on the radar screen in 1992 has turned out to be a jumbo jet. This article explains what is power marketing who are power marketers, what role play these players and what will be their longer-term impact on the traditional industry [it

  2. Pharmaceutical market access in emerging markets: concepts, components, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anuj; Juluru, Karthaveerya; Thimmaraju, Phani Kishore; Reddy, Jayachandra; Patil, Anand

    2014-01-01

    This article intends to consolidate the concepts of pharmaceutical market access and highlight its growing importance in emerging markets. Market access has gained considerable attention worldwide as countries try to contain their escalating healthcare expenditures amidst the global economic slowdown. This has resulted in governments adopting stricter measures for new product approval. Thus, pharmaceutical companies are finding it increasingly difficult to successfully address the specific challenges posed by various government and regulatory agencies and stakeholders. There is an increasing need to establish market access functions, especially in emerging markets, where the complex, dynamic healthcare landscape confounds product approval and uptake. Moreover, emerging markets are the engines of growth today, and, thus, performing in these markets is critical for the majority of pharmaceutical companies. To address the challenges posed by regulatory agencies and diverse stakeholders, a customized market access strategy is the need of the hour. A market access framework with specific tools and tactics will help companies to plan, implement, and monitor stakeholder engagement activities.

  3. Marketing plan

    OpenAIRE

    Jantunen, Essi; Hellman, Annika

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this bachelor’s thesis was to draw up an efficient marketing plan for Pohjolan Vihreä Polku Oy, which offers meeting and nature activity services. The company was in a process of conversion and needed a structured marketing plan. The objectives of the company were perceived through severe research. The main purposes of the marketing plan were to raise the visibility of the company and increase its clientele. The proposed marketing actions are also to be used to improve the company’...

  4. Developing markets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Figueiredo, Bernardo; Chelekis, Jessica; DeBerry-Spence, Benet

    2015-01-01

    acknowledging complex, systemic interdependencies between markets, marketing, and society. Based on a critical review of the meaning of development and an interrogation of various developmental discourses, the authors develop a conceptual framework that brings together issues of development, wellbeing......, and social inequalities. We suggest that these issues are better understooda nd addressed when examined via grounded investigations of the role of markets in shaping the management of resources, consumer agency, power inequalities and ethics. The use of markets as units of analysis may lead to further cross...

  5. Case grows for climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hileman, B.

    1999-08-09

    In the four years since the IPCC stated that 'the balance of evidence suggests a discernible human influence on global climate', evidence for anomalous warming has become more compelling, and as a result scientists have become more concerned that human-induced climate change has already arrived. The article summarises recent extra evidence on global temperatures, carbon dioxide measurements, ice shelf breakup, coral bleaching, unstable climates and improved climate models. At the time of the Kyoto conference, the US became keen on the idea that enhancing forest and soil carbon sequestration was a good way to offset emissions reduction targets. Congress is however under the opinion on that the Kyoto protocol presents a threat to the US economy, and senate is very unlikely to ratify the protocol during the Clinton Administration. The debate as to whether the US government should mandate major emission reduction or wait for more scientific certainty may continue for a number of years, but, growing concern of scientists and the public for the harmful effects of climate change may cause a change. 4 figs., 8 photos.

  6. Hard Copy Market Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testan, Peter R.

    1987-04-01

    A number of Color Hard Copy (CHC) market drivers are currently indicating strong growth in the use of CHC technologies for the business graphics marketplace. These market drivers relate to product, software, color monitors and color copiers. The use of color in business graphics allows more information to be relayed than is normally the case in a monochrome format. The communicative powers of full-color computer generated output in the business graphics application area will continue to induce end users to desire and require color in their future applications. A number of color hard copy technologies will be utilized in the presentation graphics arena. Thermal transfer, ink jet, photographic and electrophotographic technologies are all expected to be utilized in the business graphics presentation application area in the future. Since the end of 1984, the availability of color application software packages has grown significantly. Sales revenue generated by business graphics software is expected to grow at a compound annual growth rate of just over 40 percent to 1990. Increased availability of packages to allow the integration of text and graphics is expected. Currently, the latest versions of page description languages such as Postscript, Interpress and DDL all support color output. The use of color monitors will also drive the demand for color hard copy in the business graphics market place. The availability of higher resolution screens is allowing color monitors to be easily used for both text and graphics applications in the office environment. During 1987, the sales of color monitors are expected to surpass the sales of monochrome monitors. Another major color hard copy market driver will be the color copier. In order to take advantage of the communications power of computer generated color output, multiple copies are required for distribution. Product introductions of a new generation of color copiers is now underway with additional introductions expected

  7. An empirical analysis on the effects of marketing communications on market share adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Hozouri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, there has been growing competition between two primary sources of mobile service providers including Hamrah Aval and Irancell in Iran. The competition is so tight that both service providers have spent significant amount of money on marketing planning. Therefore, it is necessary to find important factors influencing on better marketing planning. This paper presents an investigation to analyze the effects of marketing communications on market share adjustment. The proposed study of this paper has used principle component analysis and it has detected four factors environment issues, marketing organization, market development and relationship oriented.

  8. A marketing clinical doctorate programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Isaac D; Kimball, Olive M

    2007-01-01

    Over the past decade, clinical doctorate programs in health disciplines have proliferated amid both support and controversy among educators, professional organizations, practitioners, administrators, and third-party payers. Supporters argue that the explosion of new knowledge and increasing sophistication of technology have created a need for advanced practice models to enhance patient care and safety and to reduce costs. Critics argue that necessary technological advances can be incorporated into existing programs and believe that clinical doctorates will increase health care costs, not reduce them. Despite the controversy, many health disciplines have advanced the clinical doctorate (the most recent is the doctor of nursing practice in 2004), with some professions mandating the doctorate as the entry-level degree (i.e., psychology, pharmacy, audiology, and so on). One aspect of the introduction of clinical doctoral degrees has been largely overlooked, and that is the marketing aspect. Because of marketing considerations, some clinical doctorates have been more successfully implemented and accepted than others. Marketing is composed of variables commonly known as "the four P's of marketing": product, price, promotion, and place. This report explores these four P's within the context of clinical doctorates in the health disciplines.

  9. Modelling gas markets - a survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This report reviews research of relevance to the analysis of present and future developments of the European natural gas market. The research activities considered are confined to (1) numerical models for gas markets, (2) analyses of energy demand, and (3) analyses of behaviour and cost structures in the transmission and distribution sector. Most of the market models are strictly micro economic and assume perfect competition or a game-theoretical equilibrium. They use sophisticated solution concepts, but very simplified specifications of supply and demand functions. Most of the research on demand is econometric analyses. These have more detailed model specification than have the aggregated market models. It is found, however, that the econometric literature based on neo-classical economics has not yielded unambiguous results and the specifications disregard important real world aspects of gas demand. The section on demand concludes that the extent of the gas grid is an important determinant for gas demand, but there has been virtually no research on what determines this variable. Data about transmission and distribution of gas in Europe is scarce and only a few non-econometric and virtually no econometric analyses are available. However, some conclusions can be made from relevant North American literature: (1) there has been significant autonomous technical progress in the transmission industry, (2) distribution costs strongly depend on geographical and other conditions, and (3) ownership, whether private or public, may be important for distribution costs and pricing policies. 56 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Modelling gas markets - a survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This report reviews research of relevance to the analysis of present and future developments of the European natural gas market. The research activities considered are confined to (1) numerical models for gas markets, (2) analyses of energy demand, and (3) analyses of behaviour and cost structures in the transmission and distribution sector. Most of the market models are strictly micro economic and assume perfect competition or a game-theoretical equilibrium. They use sophisticated solution concepts, but very simplified specifications of supply and demand functions. Most of the research on demand is econometric analyses. These have more detailed model specification than have the aggregated market models. It is found, however, that the econometric literature based on neo-classical economics has not yielded unambiguous results and the specifications disregard important real world aspects of gas demand. The section on demand concludes that the extent of the gas grid is an important determinant for gas demand, but there has been virtually no research on what determines this variable. Data about transmission and distribution of gas in Europe is scarce and only a few non-econometric and virtually no econometric analyses are available. However, some conclusions can be made from relevant North American literature: (1) there has been significant autonomous technical progress in the transmission industry, (2) distribution costs strongly depend on geographical and other conditions, and (3) ownership, whether private or public, may be important for distribution costs and pricing policies. 56 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  11. Wood energy markets, 2010-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco Aguilar; Christopher Gaston; Rens Hartkamp; Warren Mabee; Kenneth Skog

    2011-01-01

    Global wood energy markets continue to grow, driven primarily by demand in the EU and its commitment to meet 20% of energy consumption from renewable sources by 2020. Large investments in industrial pellet-production capacity have been made under expectations of a continuously growing demand, mainly from the EU. Concern about how energy and climate-change policies may...

  12. Sexual Markets or Black Markets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groes-Green, Christian

    2014-01-01

    sex with sugar-daddies, called sponsors or patrons, who provide for them in exchange for sex while male peers often become street vendors, street artists or petty criminals engaged in the so-called ‘black’ markets of theft, sale of counterfeits, and circulation of stolen goods, alcohol and drugs. As I...... show, these gendered markets are highly entangled and interdependent, and as I argue, male and female markets use many of the same technologies, sources and circuits of exchange...

  13. Protein nutrition of growing cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalupa, W.; Scott, G.C.

    1976-01-01

    In vitro studies on apparent degradation of amino acids by mixed and pure cultures of rumen bacteria demonstrated that (a) amino acids are degraded at differing rates (Arg, Thr>Lys, Phe, Leu, Ile>Val, Met); (b) certain amino acids (Met, Val, Try, Orn) are degraded to greater extents when fermented alone than in conjunction with other amino acids; (c) individual strains of rumen bacteria do not utilize all amino acids; and (d) total ruminal degradation of amino acids is the result of extensive bacterial interaction, and may vary greatly depending on the predominant types of micro-organisms present. Abomasal infusion of a mixture of 10 essential amino acids consistently increased nitrogen retention, but attempts to elucidate primary limiting amino acids were not conclusive. Our data suggested that supplementary methionine alone may not significantly increase nitrogen retention, but methionine must be present in order to obtain responses from other amino acids. Methionine plus lysine plus threonine usually increased nitrogen retention, but the magnitude of responses varied. The classical nitrogen balance technique may lack the sensitivity needed to detect small responses resulting from supplements of single amino acids, or growing cattle, unlike sheep used for wool growth, may not be suffering from specific amino acid deficiencies. Chemical suppression of ruminal degradation of amino acids produced significant increases in nitrogen retention and growth, and improved feed efficiencies. Productivity responses to rumen bypass techniques would seem to depend primarily upon (a) the degree to which dietary protein is degraded in the rumen, and (b) the quantity of absorbable amino acids supplied by the diet in relation to quantities required by the animal. (author)

  14. Growing population causes of unemployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    At the March, 1995, International Meeting on Population and Social Development in Copenhagen, during the session on unemployment, underemployment, and population it was stated that the problem of employment was the extent to which a nation's labor supply was not matched by labor demand or job opportunities. Population was thus a supply factor, and the country's economic situation was a demand factor. The demographic variables that were considered important in the supply of labor were: a) the size and rate of growth of the population, which was a function of the birth rate, the death rate, and migration; and b) the age structure of the population, which was also a product of the rate of growth of the population and its distribution. An imbalance between the supply of labor and the demand for it gave rise to unemployment and underemployment. The vicious cycle generated by a high dependency burden associated with a young age-structure led to low savings and investments, which in turn led to low economic growth and a low standard of living. This produced high fertility rates, which in turn heightened the dependency burden perpetuating the cycle. This vicious cycle could be broken at only two points: at the high fertility stage, primarily by introducing family planning programs; and at the stage of low economic growth, by adopting policies to accelerate economic growth. To be successful, however, both actions had to be pursued simultaneously. Numerous participants emphasized the global nature of the issue of unemployment and underemployment; the effects of international competition and restrictive trade policies on employment opportunities. The growing disparity between North and South had created a social injustice between countries. Several participants called for more humane policies that favored democracy and promoted human development, and asked for assistance to help create an enabling environment for social and economic development.

  15. Educational Blogging: Integrating Technology into Marketing Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Melike Demirbag; Piskin, Burak; Bol, Beste

    2010-01-01

    The major challenge of marketing education is that the discipline continually reinvents itself. Marketing approaches and practices once new rapidly become old and many texts grow outdated in a short period of time, increasing the pressure on the instructors to provide the students with the latest knowledge. The changing environment of business…

  16. MARKETING MIX IN OLTENIA ENERGY COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Păunescu Alberto Nicolae

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Electricity generation in Romania it’s realized in percentage 30 % in OLTENIA ENERGY COMPLEX. This is the biggest producer of energy, end coal in the country. Therefore Marketing mix is very important to ensure that the company grows. The final objective is that the volume of sales, market share and growth.

  17. Marketing the academic medical center group practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eudes, J A; Divis, K L

    1992-01-01

    From a marketing perspective, there are many differences between private and academic medical center (AMC) group practices. Given the growing competition between the two, write John Eudes and Kathy Divis, it is important for the AMC group practice to understand and use these differences to develop a competitive market advantage.

  18. Electric utilities strategies in final energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, A.

    2000-01-01

    In rapidly changing markets, electric utilities pay growing attention to customers and service. They are aware that competition needs strategies capable of transforming and strengthening the privileged position resulting from the knowledge of the market. Moreover, this aspect is the link between different value chains to describe new multi utility approaches [it

  19. [With optimism, we are growing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trias, M

    1994-06-01

    The decision by the US Agency for International Development to terminate assistance to various family planning associations in the Western Hemisphere will reduce the budget of Colombia's PROFAMILIA by around 25% and force the association to replace the funds with local resources. Assistance is to be suspended as of July 1996. PROFAMILIA is in a phase of expansion as it seeks to increase its diversification activities, which comprise medical and surgical activities distinct from family planning. New national social security legislation and the tendency toward privatization of medical care have created a more competitive environment. PROFAMILIA must be cautious in raising its highly subsidized fees for family planning services because such increases could discourage contraceptive use by the target population of low income people. New, relatively well-remunerated contracts are being prepared with official and semiofficial agencies. The social marketing program is somewhat blocked by the appearance of new competitors. A new clinic for men near the PROFAMILIA headquarters in Bogota will offer a full range of medical and surgical services. PROFAMILIA is investing heavily in its Medellin clinic, which is second in importance only to Bogota, and is building a new and larger clinic in Cali. Facilities in other cities are being remodeled. The diversification program has been going well, but a slight slowing of growth in family planning programs has been noted in comparison with the record year of 1992. Contraceptive usage is at high levels but has not reached its maximum potential. Increasing coverage for large population groups in rural and marginal urban areas who are difficult and costly to serve will be the association's major concern for the coming months and years.

  20. [Market and ageing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joël, M-E

    2005-06-01

    Ageing can be defined as growth of the proportion of elderly people in the population, but also as a group of transformations in life cycles: older age at time of first job, marriage, birth of first child, early retirement, longer life expectancy, active retirement, greater number of dependent persons. The economic impact of the ageing population has been extensively studied from the perspective of the social security fund. In France and in most developed countries, population ageing has considerably destabilized social accounting creating a gap between a system thought out after WWII and the present social environment. The current response of social security system to elderly person's needs is considered inadequate. There are however other consequences of ageing. It is important to measure the upheaval caused by longer life expectancy and changing life stages on all markets. Three kinds of markets are involved in different ways: job market, services market for the elderly and all goods market for seniors and golden aged. Many studies have focused on the links between economic production and physiological ageing. The traditional organisation of working conditions stresses working intensity over experience, young workers'capabilities over than those of older workers. The link between age and the job market can also be analyzed by considering supply and demand for employment for workers over 50. Another question is the workforce shortage forecasted in some sectors (health and social sectors in particular) and the role of immigration. Growth in the supply of long-term care will require restructuring of the sector's logistics and financing. Certain trends are appearing: government authorities are reducing their supply of services, private production is increasing, public financing is being maintained, and individual contributions are growing while the role of insurance has remained stagnant. A qualitative analysis of the markets also shows heterogeneous workers

  1. Sophisticated Epistemologies of Physics versus High-Stakes Tests: How Do Elite High School Students Respond to Competing Influences about How to Learn Physics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerdelen-Damar, Sevda; Elby, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates how elite Turkish high school physics students claim to approach learning physics when they are simultaneously (i) engaged in a curriculum that led to significant gains in their epistemological sophistication and (ii) subject to a high-stakes college entrance exam. Students reported taking surface (rote) approaches to…

  2. Marketing Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilke, Ricky

    2012-01-01

    Book review of: Christian Homburg, Sabine Kuester, Harley Krohmer, Marketing Management – A Contemporary Perspective, McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2009......Book review of: Christian Homburg, Sabine Kuester, Harley Krohmer, Marketing Management – A Contemporary Perspective, McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2009...

  3. Market shifting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forst, Michael

    2013-11-01

    After years of oversupply and artificially low module pricing, market analysts believe that the solar industry will begin to stabilize by 2017. While the market activities are shifting from Europe to the Asia Pacific region and the United States, the solar shakeout continues to be in full swing including solar cell and module manufacturing. (orig.)

  4. Marketing Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancil, Ronald A., Sr.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the Marketing Education program at West Haven (CT) High School in West Haven, Connecticut, that promotes skills for life and attributes, enhances the academic program, and develops leaders out of ordinary students through an interactive curriculum. The three components of West Haven's marketing and management program are (1)…

  5. Art Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Arora (Payal); F.R.R. Vermeylen (Filip)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe advent of digitization has had a profound impact on the art market and its institutions. In this chapter, we focus on the market for visual arts as it finds its expression in (among other) paintings, prints, drawings, photographs, sculpture and the like. These artistic disciplines

  6. Direct marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čičić Muris

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct Marketing (DM is usually treated as unworthy activity, with actions at the edge of legality and activities minded cheating. Despite obvious problems regarding ethics and privacy threat, DM with its size, importance and role in a concept of integrated marketing communication deserves respect and sufficient analysis and review

  7. Tourism Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This document contains teacher materials for a 6-unit, 1-year distributive education course in marketing tourism offered in grades 11 and 12 in North Carolina. Although in general the material presented concerns marketing tourism anywhere, some of it is specifically related to tourism within North Carolina. A purpose statement explains the…

  8. Fruit-Growing in Latvia – Industry and Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaufmane Edīte

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In all times, fruit trees for family use have been grown at Latvian farms. Yet these fruits obtained market value only after the land ownership reform in 19th century. This facilitated rapid area increase of different fruit crops, allowing supply with fruits not only the local market, but also for export to the largest cities of Russia. Especially fast development of fruit-growing was observed during the first independent republic (1919–1940. The demand for planting material increased, and plants were imported from Western Europe. Choice of unsuitable cultivars and rootstocks was the main reason of the massive orchard area loss during the following severe winters. After the Second World War, the Soviet powers supported only the establishment of large orchards for processing needs, 200-300 ha, which were unsuitable for the Latvian climate and terrain. At the same time, numbers of allotment gardens rapidly increased and part of their produce was sold also on the market. After regaining of independence and private property, interest in fresh fruit and berry production for market, as well as processing, renewed. It was hindered by lack of continuity in experience and knowledge. Diversity of terrain, soils and climate all demand considerate choice of suitable orchard location and cultivars. Direct use of foreign experience often led to failure. At present, development of the fruit industry is most of all hindered by lack of qualified specialists of different levels, which does not allow to establish an appropriate consulting system. Cooperation of growers for easier marketing also is developing too slowly. Insufficient economic and market research does not allow to balance the demand with increase of plantation area, especially for large-scale processing and export, so strategic guidance of the fruit industry is not possible. Development of fruit-growing is hindered also by a lack of continuous long-term support to horticultural science. As a

  9. How Your Fetus Grows During Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patients About ACOG How Your Fetus Grows During Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs How Your Fetus ... 2018 PDF Format How Your Fetus Grows During Pregnancy Pregnancy How does pregnancy begin? What is the ...

  10. Menopausal women's positive experience of growing older

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvas, Lotte

    2006-01-01

    This paper aims to describe menopausal women's positive experience of growing older and becoming middle-aged.......This paper aims to describe menopausal women's positive experience of growing older and becoming middle-aged....

  11. The internationalisation of marketing in the education and research sector

    OpenAIRE

    Mirosława Pluta–Olearnik

    2015-01-01

    A growing number of entities operating in the Polish sector of higher education and science and research aspire to have an active presence in foreign markets and even in the global market. This presence must be accompanied by thoughtful marketing strategies using effective marketing tools. The aim of the article is to indicate the possibility of using the knowledge of international marketing to increase the efficiency of the entities of the Polish sector of education and research. Particular ...

  12. Border markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this issue of Articulo – Journal of Urban Research is to examine the characteristics of border markets in a comparative perspective. In this introductory paper, I first discuss what makes African border markets different from other markets, and examine several factors that explain...... their unequal economic development: the presence of a trade community, the combination of trading and productive activities, and the relative porosity of borders. In a second part, I examine how border markets on the U.S.-Mexico border must simultaneously guarantee the security of the state while favoring...... regional trade. The last part of the paper argues that more policy attention should be paid to border markets which, despite being at the margin of states, are a vital component of their economy. Fifty years after most West African states became independent and just as NAFTA turns 20, it is high time...

  13. Crossover marketing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heath, D.S.

    1998-01-01

    The impact of a deregulated energy market on customers in Ontario was discussed. In particular, the way in which Sunoco will deal with energy convergence and how Sunoco plans to generate interest among residential consumers in a deregulated and competitive energy market was described. Integrated energy solutions that offer customers value-added heating, ventilating and air conditioning products and services, inclusive of equipment sales, installation, repair, rental, leasing, financing, warranty, insurance and maintenance is the ultimate goal of Sunoco. The major retail issues in the energy market such as licensing of marketers, customer mobility, transfer of utility assets to affiliates, Ontario Hydro's market power in electrical generation, distribution of stranded debt charges, and a timetable for deregulation were also addressed. figs

  14. Fashion marketing in textile and clothing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alica Grilec Kaurić

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Fashion marketing explores connection between fashion design and marketing including development, promotion, sales and price aspects of fashion industry. Successful fashion marketing managers are aware that the most important fashion marketing elements are customer trend identification, building strong brands and creating positive image of the producers. This paper presents the findings of a research conducted for the purpose of identifying trends in marketing sector in textile and clothing industry in Croatia. The research was conducted through personal interviews with marketing and company managers in Croatia. The research identified that marketing is insufficiently implemented in Croatian textile and clothing industry, despite growing brand management importance. However, because of lack in marketing knowledge and bad brand management, development of fashion brand is the most critical factor in successful business activity in textile and clothing industry.

  15. Understanding digital marketing basics and actions

    OpenAIRE

    Piñeiro Otero, Teresa; Martínez Rolán, Luis Xabier

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides a technical outline of the basics of online mar- keting. The outline includes an introduction to digital marketing and strategic planning and development. Our contribution offers theoretical and practical insights relative to this growing marketing area, with information on the main areas for which online marketing is particularly suited: (1) the E-commerce section explores different business models and what techniques are used for their development; (2) Web Search Marke...

  16. THE IMPORTANCE OF CAPITAL MARKET IN ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alin Marius Andrieş

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available All participants in capital markets are asking how to finance investments or to invest money available. The answer to these questions depends on the situation you have: deficit or surplus capital. This article addresses issues concerning the place and role of capital market within the financial markets and in financing investments, trying to highlight the growing importance of this subsystem, shown both to economic agents and to all categories of investors.

  17. Nutritional studies on growing rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, A.M.E.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    This work was carried out to study the effect of adding drinking water with either, copper sulfate, ascorbic acid or drinking cooled water on growth performance (live body weight,body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion and water consumption), digestibility coefficients of nutrients, carcass traits, some physiological parameters and economical efficiency of growing NZW rabbits under Egyptian summer conditions. Ninety six weanling New Zealand White (NZW) male rabbits at five weeks of age and nearly similar average body weight (650.3 ±3.7 g) were randomly divided into eight treatment groups (twelve rabbits in each group), and then each group was subdivided into four replicates, each of three rabbits. The rabbits were assigned to drinking water as follow: the 1 st group was given fresh tap water without any additives as a control. The 2 n d, 3 r d and 4 t h groups were given tap fresh water supplemented with copper sulfate at levels of 40, 80 and 120 mg/L drinking water, respectively. The 5 t h, 6 t h and 7 t h groups were given tap fresh water supplemented with ascorbic acid at levels of 250, 500 and 750 mg/L drinking water, respectively. The 8 t h group was given cooled drinking water (CW) at 10-15 degree C. Results showed that supplementation of 40 or 80 mg copper sulfate/L or 500 mg ascorbic acid/L to heat-stressed rabbits drinking water improved final live body weight, body weight gain, daily water consumption, feed conversion ratio, performance index and economical efficiency. Hot carcass percentage was significantly (P<0.01) decreased with 80 mg/L copper sulfate and increased significantly (P<0.01) due to supplementation the drinking water with 250 mg ascorbic acid/L. Cooled water (10-15 degree C) improved significantly (P<0.01) each of final body weight, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, performance index, economical efficiency and decreased significantly (P<0.01) each of hot carcass %, dressed weight %, heart %, total giblets %, rectal

  18. FX and derivatives markets in emerging economies and the internationalisation of their currencies

    OpenAIRE

    Torsten Ehlers; Frank Packer

    2013-01-01

    Derivatives markets in emerging economies have continued to grow since 2010, driven mostly by very strong growth in the OTC market. Emerging market currencies have become more international as offshore markets are a major contributor to FX turnover. The Chinese renminbi is actively traded within emerging Asia. Trading of emerging market currencies is positively related to the size of cross-border financial flows.

  19. Marketing is Dead! Long Live Marketing!

    OpenAIRE

    Marjanova Jovanov, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    The contents of the lectures included: Why marketing? Citizen, Consumer, Customer (Behavior) Who is the Father of Marketing? Some Antecedents of Marketing When Did Marketing Start? The Contributors of Marketing Where Did Marketing Start? Job Positions in Today’s Marketing Organization The Role of the Chief Marketing Officer Four Different CEO Views of Marketing Reality – Truth – Challenge (Why Can’t We Make It?) The Strong and Steady Progress of Marketi...

  20. Experimental Research in Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Mauro Hernandez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Considering the growing number of scientific studies published in the marketing field and the development of unique theories of the area (Hunt, 2010, using experimental designs seems increasingly appropriate to investigate marketing phenomena. This article aims to discuss the main elements in conducting experimental studies and also to stimulate researchers to adopt this research method. Several international journals (e.g., JCR, JCP, JMR, JR, JBR have been publishing articles based on experiments that not only demonstrate a relationship between two events, but also elucidate how they occur by means of mediation and moderation analyses. This article intents to be a roadmap for novice researchers on how to conduct experiments and to offer new perspectives in experimental research for experienced researchers.  

  1. Mobile Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Luengo Cascudo, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    El principal objetivo de este proyecto es explicar y entender la importancia del Mobile Marketing como nueva herramienta de negocio en el Marketing empresarial. Para ello, el primer objetivo es entender los dos factores que para mí son la clave de su importancia: la evolución del entorno tecnológico y el cambio en los hábitos del consumidor. Debido a la novedad de esta nueva forma de Marketing y al hecho de que está en constante definición, es básico exponer de la forma más cla...

  2. Mobile Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    竹安, 数博; Takeyasu, Kazuhiro

    2005-01-01

    This article deals with one of the modern trends in marketing communication, which is mobile marketing. Towards the end of 2008, several projects which use mobile phones for target marketing communication were launched. Commercial SMS´s are sent on the base of agreement or registration of the consumers on special websites, for example hellomobil.cz. The benefit for the consumers is the bonus which can have more forms - not only sending money to the account, free SMS´s/MMS´s and minutes but al...

  3. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    TO THE POINT:The government vows to control the real estate market after a year of robust growth.To diversify financial investment tools,the regulatory authorities approved the launch of stock index futures,and short selling and margin trading to allow investors to hedge against risks.China overtakes the United States to become the world’s biggest auto market in2009.The country is also expected to become the largest consumer market in the world by2020.Google threatens to halt its China operations if it cannot reach a censorship agreement with the government.

  4. Uranium market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubini, L.A.; Asem, M.A.D.

    1990-01-01

    The historical development of the uranium market is present in two periods: The initial period 1947-1970 and from 1970 onwards, with the establishment of a commercial market. The world uranium requirements are derived from the corresponding forecast of nuclear generating capacity, with, particular emphasis to the brazilian requirements. The forecast of uranium production until the year 2000 is presented considering existing inventories and the already committed demand. The balance between production and requirements is analysed. Finally the types of contracts currently being used and the development of uranium prices in the world market are considered. (author)

  5. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China vows to keep a stringent handle on the industrial overcapacity that is draining life from the economic revival. China Mobile pushes forward OPhone and its operating system in an aggressive push into the 3G market. As its tight grip over the market slips, the wireless titan cannot wait to regain lost ground. China’s manufacturing sector continues to pick up steam as evidenced by the climbing PMI. Soaring prices of pork and eggs reignite fears over inflation. The buoyant real estate market appears to be nearing a turning point as sales cool down.

  6. MELNIK VINE-GROWING REGION – HISTORY AND TRADITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoslava Ganeva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The region of Melnik (Southwest Bulgaria has exclusively appropriate climate for wine growing. Its borders are defined by the dissemination of the wide Melnik grape vine, revealed by experts as an old local variety. Few are the wine-growing centers that carry such an effective ampelographic tradition. A few are the viticulture centers, bearing such effective tradition. The vine is grown here from the Thracian antiquity and is the basis for a livelihood, preserved and retransmitted for many generations. It is characterized by a specialization in the production and marketing of high quality red dry wines. The article deals with the development of the Melnik vineyard as a result of different political and economic conditions in the course of historical development. Various archival materials, specialized studies and personal fieldwork research have been used.

  7. Social marketing: issues for consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novelli, W D

    1983-01-01

    competitive pressures found in the private sector, social organizations lack the personal accountability needed to foster the development of an effective marketing function. The challenges or problems confronting social marketing are not insurmountable. The application of the discipline for the promotion of social issues, ideas, and causes is likely to continue to grow. A need exists for a more common process of social agencies to apply marketing tools and techniques. Another need is for improved training of social marketing managers.

  8. Growing our business - the opportunities for nuclear in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollins, P.

    2000-01-01

    There is currently a growing belief from many quarters that nuclear power is undergoing something of a renaissance. British Energy is at the heart of nuclear power generation in the UK and is now looking to expand its business into the US, the largest electricity market in the world. Following a brief outline of where British Energy is at today, this paper goes on to discuss the company's future plans, not only in the UK but more particularly in the US, where sweeping deregulation has opened up possibilities for a company like British Energy to export its nuclear skills. (author)

  9. The art of designing markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Alvin E

    2007-10-01

    Traditionally, markets have been viewed as simply the confluence of supply and demand. But to function properly, they must be able to attract a sufficient number of buyers and sellers, induce participants to make their preferences clear, and overcome congestion by providing both enough time to make choices and a speedy means of registering them. Solutions to these challenges are the province of market design--a blend of game theory and experimental economics. Roth, a professor of both business and economics at Harvard, is a leading market designer. He and his colleagues have rescued failing markets by, for example, designing labor clearinghouses through which U.S. doctors get their first jobs and auctions through which the Federal Communications Commission sells licenses for parts of the radio broadcast spectrum. They have also created marketlike allocation procedures that involve neither prices nor an exchange of money; these include systems for assigning children to schools in Boston and New York and for facilitating exchanges of kidneys. Computers enable the design of "smart markets" that combine the inputs of users in complex ways: In kidney exchange, they run through every possible match of donors and recipients to arrange the greatest possible number of transplants. In the future, computers may make it possible to auction bundled goods, such as airport takeoff and landing slots. As online markets--like those for jobs and dating--proliferate, a growing understanding of markets in general will provide virtually limitless opportunities for market design.

  10. Mobile marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Gause, Matěj

    2012-01-01

    The goal of bachelor's thesis on the theme "Mobile marketing" is to outline its development and why is this new phenomen so important for all modern companies around the world. The work is not about simple description of mobile marketing media but it vividly informs about the latest trends and news from the world of mobile apps and games. It presents the most successful mobile apps which registered more than billion downloads and from their unique characteristics it unveils great potential of...

  11. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China’s manufacturing activities keep slowing down.The"big four"state-owned commercial banks have reaped juicy profits,though capital adequacy remains a concern.In striking contrast,the steelmakers are struggling to make ends meet as costs inflation erodes profit margins.The consumer market booms as usual during the May Day holiday.The search engine Baidu benefits from torrid traffic growth and a diversified market strategy.

  12. Entrepreneurial Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Gruber, Marc

    2004-01-01

    Entrepreneurship is one of the youngest disciplines in the area of business administration. Hence, there is a special need for literature that can be used in teaching and that can serve as a basis for research. This article reviews five textbooks and three research-oriented books on entrepreneurial marketing, which is regarded as one of the key areas of entrepreneurship. As the review shows, there is no textbook that covers all relevant aspects of entrepreneurial marketing in sufficient bread...

  13. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The manufacturing industry shows signs of recovery as reflected by a rebounding PMI. The initial public offerings market withers due to less than favorable stock markets. Chinese shipbuilders reel from decreasing orders as external demands falter. The mobile payment industry bursts with vitality, though the security issue remains an acute concern. Foreign banks in China lag behind their local competitors in terms of profitability owing to limited ability to attract deposits.

  14. Market scope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Nova Scotia's Energy Strategy is aimed at opening the electricity market to wholesale competition, allowing eligible wholesale customers (such as municipal distribution utilities) to buy their electricity from competitive sources. The Nova Scotia Electricity Marketplace Governance Committee (EMGC) is concerned that this will not promote long-term competition because these eligible customers form only a very small fraction (1.6 per cent) of the total electricity demand in the province. This report examines the possible extensions of competition beyond the minimum specified in the Energy Strategy. It also identifies approaches that the EMGC may consider, including other potential levels of competition and their associated issues. The report discussed the issue of implementing wholesale competition as it relates to unbundling of the transmission tariff from the cost of energy supply and from the cost of distribution in retail marketing. The stages of expanding the market scope were also described with reference to large industrial customers, medium industrial and large commercial customers, and small commercial and residential customers. The report states that it is unlikely that the transition to an open access transmission market will need to be reversed, as it is likely to be an essential component of any further development. The EMGC feels it could minimize future transition costs and promote future evolution of competition by recommending for an institutional and market structure that is compatible with a broader competitive market

  15. Business cycle research in marketing : A review and research agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekimpe, Marnik; Deleersnyder, Barbara

    Business cycles (BCs) may affect entire markets, and significantly alter many firms’ marketing activities and performance. Even though managers cannot prevent BCs from occurring, marketing research over the last 15 years has provided growing evidence that their impact on consumers, and hence on firm

  16. Three Steps to Engage Volunteers in Membership Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossell, Tony

    2011-01-01

    There is a big world out there, and volunteers can make a significant impact in helping one reach out to others and grow his/her PTA membership. In fact, word-of-mouth marketing tied for the top spot as the most effective method of new member recruitment in Marketing General's 2010 Membership Marketing Benchmarking Report. So getting volunteers'…

  17. Marketing orientation in pharmaceutical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prošić Danica

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceutical companies are major stakeholders in the global health agenda Virtually all drugs used by patients in Europe reach markets through the promotion tactics of a small number of corporations with a tremendous impact on global health. The sector is both fast growing and highly profitable. Effective marketing strategies are a crucial ingredient in making sure pharmaceutical products and profits flow in a virtuous cycle. At first glance, the relationship between doctors and drug companies, as well as advertising practices for over-the-counter medication, appears tightly regulated. According to many consumer organizations, drug promotion in Europe today can be characterized as nice and friendly marketing. This refers to the creation of a false sense of trust that consumers associate with branded pharmaceutical products, as a result of pharmaceutical marketing efforts disguised as genuine corporate responsibility.

  18. Medical device market in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Philip; Morshed, Bashir I; Mussivand, Tofy

    2015-06-01

    With China's growing old-age population and economic presence on the international stage, it has become important to evaluate its domestic and foreign market contribution to medical devices. Medical devices are instruments or apparatuses used in the prevention, rehabilitation, treatment, or knowledge generation with respect to disease or other abnormal conditions. This article provides information drawn from recent publications to describe the current state of the Chinese domestic market for medical devices and to define opportunities for foreign investment potential therein. Recent healthcare reforms implemented to meet rising demand due to an aging and migrating population are having a positive effect on market growth-a global market with a projected growth of 15% per year over the next decade. Copyright © 2015 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Security and labour market flexibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refslund, Bjarke; Rasmussen, Stine; Sørensen, Ole H.

    2017-01-01

    In the face of the economic and financial crisis, several European countries have implemented a number of structural reforms to increase employment and the flexibility of the labour market, in particular by reducing employment protection in an effort to deregulate labour markets. Reform proponents...... employment. Conversely, reform opponents claim that this view builds on a misguided view of labour market dynamics. They do not believe that such reforms will lead to job growth, asserting that such reforms are as likely to reduce as to increase employment and that they will lead to growing inequality...... and labour market segmentation. In Denmark, employee protection in terms of notice periods and dismissal compensation, which is mainly regulated by collective agreement, is among the lowest in the EU. Unemployment was, before the crisis, among the lowest in the EU but the crisis also negatively affected...

  20. Canton Fair: "The Growing Importance of Emerging Markets"%Canton Fair: "The Growing Importance of Emerging Markets"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    As the world's best athletes give everything during this summer's sporting season, individuals and governments are trying equally hard to overcome the cha!lenges of the global economy. In Europe, experts are working to solve the ongoing Euro crisis, while in the US small businesses are heading online to boost sales. Beating the recession has become a medal-worthy activity in itself.

  1. Traditional marketing vs. Internet marketing. A comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Varfan, Mona; Shima, Alfa

    2008-01-01

    Title: Traditional marketing vs. Internet marketing: A comparison Problem: Marketing is an important strategy for businesses and it contains numerous effective tools. Traditional marketing has been in use for many years and nowadays Internet has brought new ways of doing business for companies and that has affected marketing. What are the main differences between Internet marketing and traditional marketing? Which one of the two approaches contains the most used and effective marketing tools ...

  2. Design and Operation of Distribution Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parhizi, Sina

    The growing penetration of distributed prosumers especially microgrids poses new challenges to the operation of wholesale markets and distribution power systems. Price spikes and higher uncertainty are among these consequences. Distribution markets are envisioned as a remedy to streamline integration of distributed resources and microgrids in the electricity market. This dissertation offers an analytical formulation of electricity markets in the distribution level, considering various prevailing aspects of the market operation problem. The prevailing challenges in regards to integration of microgrids in the electricity markets are illustrated first, and the distribution market operator (DMO) construct is outlined. The day-ahead scheduling of a microgrid participating in a DMO market is formulated and studied. Then the operation of distribution markets integrated with large numbers of responsive participants is considered, and its transactions with the distribution market participants on one hand, and the wholesale market on the other hand are modeled and studied. The market settlement and clearing, essential in operation of distribution markets, is considered and solved. The pricing mechanism in a distribution market is proposed and the relation of distribution and transmission and distribution prices is studied. A more advanced pricing mechanism considering voltages and reactive power is developed and studied. In order to offer a more accurate pricing structure within the distribution system, a linearized distribution power flow is utilized. The performance of the proposed methods is analyzed and the results are presented. Markets have been recently envisioned to be a suitable instrument for integration of distributed energy resources in the distribution system, but most of the discussions surrounding this topic is at the conceptual level. In this work, it is demonstrated that distribution markets are effective in integrating microgrids and distributed resources

  3. Market potential for Canadian crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heath, M.; Fisher, L.; Golosinski, D.; Luthin, A.; Gill, L.; Raggett, C.

    1997-01-01

    Future key markets for Canadian crude were evaluated, and probable flow volumes and prices were identified. Key concerns of market participants such as pricing, alternative crude sources, pipeline tariffs and crude quality, were examined. An overview of the competition faced by Canadian crude supply in global markets was presented. World crude oil supply and demand was discussed. US and Canadian crude oil supply (2000 to 2010), refinery demand for light and heavy crudes, existing future crude oil and refined product pipeline infrastructure, and pricing implications of changing crude oil flows were analyzed. The general conclusion was that the US market will continue to provide growing markets for Canadian crude oil, and that the Canadian supply to fulfill increased export requirements will be available due to the combined effects of increasing heavy crude supply, growing production from the east coast offshore, and recent and ongoing pipeline expansions and additions. 20 refs., 64 tabs., 42 figs

  4. Does the market maker stabilize the market?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, M.; Chiarella, C.; He, X.Z.; Wang, D.

    2009-01-01

    The market maker plays an important role in price formation, but his/her behavior and stabilizing impact on the market are relatively unclear, in particular in speculative markets. This paper develops a financial market model that examines the impact on market stability of the market maker, who acts

  5. Solution to marketing; Marketing solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Y.; Fukushima, T.; Kanezuka, A. [Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-05-10

    Fuji Electric in cooperation with Citation Japan Co., Ltd. and Asahi Arthur Andersen Limited has developed the 'marketing analysis support system' which supports the integrated analysis of evaluation factors of various dimensions and efficient commodity development and demand estimation in the enterprise. With this system, more precise marketing analysis and estimation are made possible by analyzing a commodity into evaluation factors from psychological and physical points of view and further making various multivariate analyses. (author)

  6. Marketing strategy determinants in rural hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, H L; Haley, D; Piland, N F

    1993-01-01

    Rural hospitals confront an inauspicious environment due to changes in patient reimbursement and medical practice. Facing a situation of declining revenues, marketing presents an option for rural hospitals to adapt to the growing constraints. This paper analyzes the determinants of marketing strategy emphasis in rural hospitals. The conceptual model adopted in this study predicts that prior performance and contextual variables explain marketing strategy emphasis. The relationships are examined in a case study of rural New Mexico hospitals. Results suggest that prior performance and several contextual variables explain variations in marketing strategy emphasis. In particular, higher gross patient revenues are associated with more emphasis on television and radio advertising. Furthermore, rural New Mexico hospitals with high numbers of licensed beds and medical staff members, or that are affiliated with a chain organization, place greater emphasis on market research and market planning. The implications for marketing practice in rural hospitals are discussed.

  7. Implementing "Marketing Me": A Simulation Enhanced Variant for a Student Self-Marketing Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flostrand, Andrew; Ho, Jason Y. C.; Krider, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    The use of student self-branding exercises in introductory marketing courses for undergraduate business programs has been growing in popularity due to a number of advantages for students. This article introduces implementation of the "Marketing Me" variant developed and used since 2013 by the authors, wherein alumni are brought in to…

  8. Potato market in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    С. І. Мельник

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To study Ukrainian potato market at the current stage of the development and determine its future prospects. Results. The features of Ukrainian potato market were determined. Production is almost fully provided by private households, meeting the needs of the domestic market. Main regions with the highest gross output and production of potatoes were defined. Ukraine is one of the major potato producing countries in the world. Today our country is not a key supplier or importer of this product because of the low export orientation of the industry, its technological backwardness, limited product range and the large number of small producers. Ukraine exports potato mainly to CIS countries, the highest share of potato import comes from the European Union. Now there are only a few large manufacturing companies in the market, which can be classified as industrial. Most potato varieties, officially permitted for dissemination in Ukraine, are classified as table ones and recommended for cultivation in the Forest-Steppe and Polissia zones. Achievements of the industry include the development of such very popular and promising trend as organic potato growing, which area in our country is one of the largest in the world. Conclusions. Potato produced in Ukraine is used for human consumption, animal feeding, planting and processing, its volumes are relatively stable. Large-scale industrial production of potato is not widely practiced because of low wholesale prices and high labor intensity of the cultivation process. During next few years, in view of current trends, production of potato and severe limitations of the domestic market for foreign operations will remain unchanged. A shift in emphasis in the product range – from fresh potato to processed food products should be a prospect for domestic industrial producers to improve their position in Ukraine and abroad.

  9. A global assessment of market accessibility and market influence for global environmental change studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verburg, Peter H [Institute for Environmental Studies, Amsterdam Global Change Institute, VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1087, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Ellis, Erle C [Department of Geography and Environmental Systems, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States); Letourneau, Aurelien, E-mail: Peter.Verburg@ivm.vu.nl [UMR 5175 Centre d' Ecologie Fonctionnelle and Evolutive, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 1919 Route de Mende, 34293 Montpellier cedex 5 (France)

    2011-07-15

    Markets influence the global patterns of urbanization, deforestation, agriculture and other land use systems. Yet market influence is rarely incorporated into spatially explicit global studies of environmental change, largely because consistent global data are lacking below the national level. Here we present the first high spatial resolution gridded data depicting market influence globally. The data jointly represent variations in both market strength and accessibility based on three market influence indices derived from an index of accessibility to market locations and national level gross domestic product (purchasing power parity). These indices show strong correspondence with human population density while also revealing several distinct and useful relationships with other global environmental patterns. As market influence grows, the need for high resolution global data on market influence and its dynamics will become increasingly important to understanding and forecasting global environmental change.

  10. A global assessment of market accessibility and market influence for global environmental change studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verburg, Peter H.; Ellis, Erle C.; Letourneau, Aurelien

    2011-07-01

    Markets influence the global patterns of urbanization, deforestation, agriculture and other land use systems. Yet market influence is rarely incorporated into spatially explicit global studies of environmental change, largely because consistent global data are lacking below the national level. Here we present the first high spatial resolution gridded data depicting market influence globally. The data jointly represent variations in both market strength and accessibility based on three market influence indices derived from an index of accessibility to market locations and national level gross domestic product (purchasing power parity). These indices show strong correspondence with human population density while also revealing several distinct and useful relationships with other global environmental patterns. As market influence grows, the need for high resolution global data on market influence and its dynamics will become increasingly important to understanding and forecasting global environmental change.

  11. A global assessment of market accessibility and market influence for global environmental change studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verburg, Peter H; Ellis, Erle C; Letourneau, Aurelien

    2011-01-01

    Markets influence the global patterns of urbanization, deforestation, agriculture and other land use systems. Yet market influence is rarely incorporated into spatially explicit global studies of environmental change, largely because consistent global data are lacking below the national level. Here we present the first high spatial resolution gridded data depicting market influence globally. The data jointly represent variations in both market strength and accessibility based on three market influence indices derived from an index of accessibility to market locations and national level gross domestic product (purchasing power parity). These indices show strong correspondence with human population density while also revealing several distinct and useful relationships with other global environmental patterns. As market influence grows, the need for high resolution global data on market influence and its dynamics will become increasingly important to understanding and forecasting global environmental change.

  12. Assessing demand for physical objects among marketing agencies : market research for Alphaform RPI Oy

    OpenAIRE

    Popova, Oxana

    2012-01-01

    The market for 3D printing services is projected to grow significantly. A service provider of 3D printing and rapid prototyping services, Alphaform RPI Oy recognizes that there are numerous growth opportunities that can be exploited. A market research was initiated by the case company to look for any emerging trends to use physical objects. The study was focused on exploring marketing agencies and their vision on 3D printing and rapid prototyping services. Theoretical framework was built ...

  13. Social media marketing : Acquiring customer loyalty and relationship management using social media as a marketing channel

    OpenAIRE

    Saqib, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Social media is a marketing phenomenon that is growing very fast. Social media helps creating value for customers in broadcasting the advertising among social networks. Blog posts, videos, pictures, reviews and ratings all have a significant impact on marketing. The purpose of the thesis is to investigate how companies can achieve customer loyalty and customer relationship management using social media marketing and if companies can target new customers by social media. An inductive ...

  14. Marketing insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiemer, Carolin; Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz; Jespersen, Kristjan

    2018-01-01

    In entering Western markets, edible insects are typically framed as the ‘solution’ to a number of challenges caused by unsustainable global food systems, such as climate change and global health issues. In addition, some media outlets also frame insects as the next ‘superfood’. Superfood is a mar......In entering Western markets, edible insects are typically framed as the ‘solution’ to a number of challenges caused by unsustainable global food systems, such as climate change and global health issues. In addition, some media outlets also frame insects as the next ‘superfood’. Superfood...... is a marketing term for nutrient-packed foods, which are successfully promoted to Western consumers with the promises of health, well-being and beauty. However, the increase in the demand in the West is argued to cause negative social, environmental, economic and cultural consequences – externalities – felt...

  15. MARKETING CULTURAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Gómez Ramírez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza la definición de "Marketing" Cultural y la adaptación y beneficios del "marketing" tradicional respecto al conjunto de manifestaciones artísticas de las diversas industrias involucradas en el sector cultural o artístico; asimismo, se desagregan los conceptos básicos que lo componen como factor de éxito en dichas empresas. Se hace uso de la exposición de casos específicos para ilustrar la articulación de estos dos conceptos aparentemente contrapuestos, cultura y "marketing", y registra algunas reflexiones para que el lector se involucre en la construcción del concepto aquí presentado.

  16. Postmodernist marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Radenković-Šošić

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The traits of postmodernist communication with consumers are based on the transmission of postmodernist concepts in the area of marketing and communication with consumers. The paper offers an overview of the basic semiological points of interpretation of commercial messages, especially the semiotic square pioneered by Jean-Marie Floch, as well as offering an analysis of commercial messages according to the most prominent traits of postmodernist marketing: creating the effect of hyperreality, fragmentary communication, and displacement of reality, bringing opposites together and accepting difference. The results of the analysis confirm the hypothesized high level of congruence of certain postmodernist traits of marketing with messages which emphasize the ludist and utopian values of products.

  17. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    After four days of breathtaking plunges, the Chinese stock market recovered to a period of steady growth thanks to encouragement from various government departments. The Chinese central bank will probably raise the interest rate in June after food prices increased dramatically in May. More good news for foreign banks. Early this month, the central bank allowed foreign banks to trade gold on the Chinese gold market and they are now able to issue bankcards in the country. Lenovo Group, China’s leading PC producer, is dedicated to exploring the rural market to boost its competitiveness. China Mobile will seek bidders to offer cell-phone handsets, a package worth 4-6 billion yuan.

  18. Market Sociality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Christian; Lange, Ann-Christina

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a critical systematic discussion of Shiller’s writings from the late 1970s to the present, as well as an examination of the social-psychological assumptions on which his work is built. We argue that Shiller’s work displays a tension between mimetic and anti-mimetic tendencies......, i.e. between understanding financial markets as captured by fads and fashions (mimesis), and at the same time understanding such markets on the basis of a notion of homo economicus (an essentially anti-mimetic figure). Identifying that tension not only sheds novel light on Shiller’s work, but also...... allows us to critically discuss Mirowski’s negative appraisal of Shiller’s behavioural finance programme. Further, we argue that the mimetic/anti-mimetic tension in Shiller’s work can equally be identified in a broader range of theories about financial markets, and that attending to it therefore opens up...

  19. Strategic management approach to marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Jović Mile B.

    2004-01-01

    The marketing concept is not a theory of marketing, but a philosophy of business. It affirms that the key to meeting the objectives of stake-holders is to satisfy customers. In competitive manners this means that success goes to those firms which are best in meeting the needs of its customers. A business that fails to do this in a competitive economy will not survive because customers will go elsewhere. Business that are good at satisfying customer needs have the best opportunities to grow an...

  20. Marketing relacional

    OpenAIRE

    Lahuerta Cuartero, Ainara

    2015-01-01

    El Marketing Relacional es una herramienta de marketing a través del cual las empresas tratan de fidelizar a sus clientes mediante determinados programas de fidelización. Se deben tener en cuenta una serie de aspectos a la hora de llevas a cabo esta herramienta como por ejemplo, la imagen de marca, la comunicación o la credibilidad de la empresa. Renfe es una empresa que se preocupa por la satisfacción de los clientes y por ello pone a disposición de estos multitud de ventajas (descuentos, pr...

  1. EMERGING MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GHEORGHE CARALICEA-MĂRCULESCU

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The emerging markets are winning the currency war, because at this very moment its the battle of global financial institutions , as to who is more vulnerable and more exposed to the debt crisis and have their hands in more risky assets. US and Euro with their intertwining the financial stuff of the nation, the banks and the corporations are in a deep mess. One goes down, takes the other ones too. Right now , they all are struggling and getting beaten up , while the emerging markets are quiet and not really expressing their stands on the current situation except are reacting by all only putting their own houses in order.

  2. Marketing percolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, J.; Libai, B.; Solomon, S.; Jan, N.; Stauffer, D.

    2000-09-01

    A percolation model is presented, with computer simulations for illustrations, to show how the sales of a new product may penetrate the consumer market. We review the traditional approach in the marketing literature, which is based on differential or difference equations similar to the logistic equation (Bass, Manage. Sci. 15 (1969) 215). This mean-field approach is contrasted with the discrete percolation on a lattice, with simulations of "social percolation" (Solomon et al., Physica A 277 (2000) 239) in two to five dimensions giving power laws instead of exponential growth, and strong fluctuations right at the percolation threshold.

  3. Mobil marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Engelová, Kateřina

    2006-01-01

    Mobil marketing - reklama a podpora prodeje prostřednictvím mobilních telefonů. Technologické a kulturní předpoklady vzniku tohoto odvětví. Mobil marketing a marketingový mix, možnosti synergie. Nástroje mobil marketingu - reklamní SMS a MMS, lokační služby, soutěže, ankety a hlasování, věrnostní systémy, mobilní obsah. Subjekty mobil marketingu. M-komerce. Využití pro podnikové aplikace.

  4. Digital Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Jerry Wind; Vijay Mahajan

    2002-01-01

    The digital revolution has shaken marketing to its core with consumers being offered greater price transparency and often even the chance to dictate the price. What does pricing mean in a world in which customers propose their own prices (as at priceline.com) or buyers and sellers haggle independently in auctions (as at e-Bay)? The most significant changes in the digital marketing show the emergence of 'cyber consumers', the cyber business-to-business world and the changing reality of an incr...

  5. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    TO THE POINT: China’s foreign trade records monthly drop again, with February’s deficit reaching $7.3 billion. The feverish auto market is calming down, with February sales dropping 33.1 percent from a month ago. Chinese thermal power generators are facing serious head- winds as the coal price increases. Ernst & Young’s report shows China racing ahead of other countries in renewable energy investments. The U.S. coupon website Groupon.com extends its reach into China, but its prospects remain uncertain. Digital advertiser Focus Media is faring well thanks to a booming advertising market in China.

  6. Response of growing bones to irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Gonzalez, D.

    1980-01-01

    This thesis describes the effects of ionizing radiations on growing bones. The epiphyseal disc of growing mouse tibia was selected as a model for the experiments. An attempt has been made to obtain clinical data from irradiated bones during the childhood and to quantitate this information. Within the range of possibilities correlations have been established between the experimental and clinical data. (Auth.)

  7. Strategic marketing in the UK tobacco industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Susan; Hastings, Gerard; MacFadyen, Lynn

    2002-08-01

    Tobacco-industry marketing has played a central part in the global spread of tobacco use and addiction. Although the absolute size of the tobacco market has dwindled, the industry is still immensely successful, largely due to sophisticated and manipulative marketing strategies. The UK tobacco industry identifies target groups and builds enduring relationships based on careful brand management. Potential customers are exposed to brands which are likely to appeal to them most. Tobacco companies tailor their products to target markets by altering the content of tar and nicotine, and by adding flavourings to produce a distinctive taste. Marketing strategies ensure that the products are promoted heavily at the point of sale, and directed advertising and sponsorship agreements are used to increase the visibility of the brand and strengthen its image. Tobacco companies also target non-consumer organisations such as retailers and policy makers with the aim of creating the best possible business environment for tobacco sales. We review published evidence, internal-advertising-agency documents, and observational data about tobacco promotion, and discuss the use of targeted marketing strategies in the UK.

  8. The emergence of the marketing mix in the banking sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melnic Elena- Lidia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article explains the emergence of the marketing mix in the banking sector and the specificity of this field. Research has shown that the evolution of the marketing mix in banking is closely related to the evolution of the marketing mix for services. The modern approach of the marketing mix for services comes from Booms and Bitner, from 1981. They filled the traditional 4Ps of the marketing mix (coming from products: price, product, placement (distribution and promotion with specific intangible services components: personnel, presence (physical evidence and process. For the banking sector, the development of those three components nowadays represents the main challenge because they represent the most important way to differentiate from the competition and to deliver superior services to the customers who are more sophisticated and demanding

  9. A market in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, N.

    2014-01-01

    In March 2011, the uranium market was hit hard by the Fukushima disaster, which stalled the growth in nuclear reactor requirements and is still having a profound effect today with zero Japanese nuclear reactors in operation. To make matters worse, the evolving shale gas revolution has made it difficult for many U.S. merchant nuclear plants to compete with gas-fired plants, leading some of these plants to shut down early. As Japanese nuclear plants remain offline, uranium inventories have been building, with the market currently sitting on excess supply of about 14 million pounds U3O8 [~5,400 t U] for 2014. Due to the current oversupply situation, uranium prices have moved below where the true equilibrium likely should be, especially given that 50% of current uranium production is at a full cost above the current spot price of $35 per pound [91 USD/kg U]. Although new uranium projects are planned over the next few years, they are not assured of coming online unless market conditions improve. And with more production cutbacks eminent due to the unfavorable economics for some operating and planned uranium mines, the market could find itself in a volatile situation in only a few years with Chinese nuclear generation expected to grow rapidly, and new countries such as the U.A.E. and Saudi Arabia advancing their nuclear power programs. In fact, the pullback in both the spot and long-term uranium prices over the past three years could again create a problem for the market over the next few years since there is currently less impetus to expand uranium production or engage in exploration. With global nuclear reactor requirements still increasing significantly in the medium- to long-term, more requisite new production will have to be brought online, especially with the U.S.-Russia HEU deal having ended last year, which contributed to up to 24 million pounds of U_3O_8 [~9,200 tU] feed annually. In addition to transitioning from an inventory-driven market to a production

  10. TOURIST DESTINATION MARKETING RADAUTI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana HÎNCU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is a dynamic phenomenon, which is in continuous change. The tourism market is in constant transformation due to competition and growing. Tourist destinations, is facing many challenges in order to enter and remain on the market. Thus tourist destination is a well-defined service which is an assembly designed to meet tourists. The marketing mix includes the following elements: product, price, distribution, promotion. Tourists come to this area because of monasteries, some of which are included in UNESCO and are recognized nationally and internationally. Thus Romanian tourists choose this tourist destination just for a weekend. To prolong the stay of both foreigners and Romanians, as well as to attract a large number of tourists is necessary to develop tourism products type tours: 5-6 days for visiting the tourist area of Radauti. These products must contain an offer as varied and diverse, so every day contain different activities and be adjusted, for example by age segments. Linked pricing policy usually access tariffs are differentiated between Romanian and foreign tourists, being lower in the first category. Travel agencies prefer to organize package tours on request only devise some that distribute them internally and externally. There are initiatives to promote tourism area Radauti, due to the high attractiveness among destinations in Romania. Thus, this must be considered a tourist destination tourism brand renowned nationally and internationally.

  11. The current market picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwick, G.

    2001-01-01

    The speaker discussed the situation of gas supply and demand in the eastern part of North America. The first PowerPoint slide provided the outline of the presentation. The author showed maps detailing the regional gas demand, first in Ontario, Quebec and the Maritimes, then New England. The next few slides depicted the North American power generation capacity, and the market fundamentals of supply. The Canadian East Coast Forecast Production was shown, and the impact of liquid natural gas (LNG) and Sable deliveries through 2010 explained. The key themes for the next ten years were explored and the situation of Sable gas to Quebec as of 23 May 2001 was described. The implications for the Quebec market are many: Quebec is now receiving Sable gas and its connection with the Portland market is proving very useful. It all leads to growing confidence on the part of industrial gas users. The author concluded the presentation with a few thoughts: (1) moderate demand growth in Central Canada, (2) stronger growth in New England, (3) power generation is a key driver of demand, (4) LNG, East Coast and Arctic gas will be key supply sources, and (5) Sable gas to Quebec. figs

  12. Marketing netcoatings for aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Robert J

    2014-10-17

    Unsustainable harvesting of natural fish stocks is driving an ever growing marine aquaculture industry. Part of the aquaculture support industry is net suppliers who provide producers with nets used in confining fish while they are grown to market size. Biofouling must be addressed in marine environments to ensure maximum product growth by maintaining water flow and waste removal through the nets. Biofouling is managed with copper and organic biocide based net coatings. The aquaculture industry provides a case study for business issues related to entry of improved fouling management technology into the marketplace. Several major hurdles hinder entry of improved novel technologies into the market. The first hurdle is due to the structure of business relationships. Net suppliers can actually cut their business profits dramatically by introducing improved technologies. A second major hurdle is financial costs of registration and demonstration of efficacy and quality product with a new technology. Costs of registration are prohibitive if only the net coatings market is involved. Demonstration of quality product requires collaboration and a team approach between formulators, net suppliers and farmers. An alternative solution is a vertically integrated business model in which the support business and product production business are part of the same company.

  13. How can the Japanese specialty retailers of private-label apparel (SPAs) go into the German fast fashion market?

    OpenAIRE

    Ka Yu, Setu; Zastezhko, Olena

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Date: 2008 May 28 Course: Master Thesis Authors: Ka Yu Seto and Olena Zastezhko Tutor: Carl Thunman Title: How can the Japanese specialty retailers of private-label apparel (SPAs) go into the German fast fashion market? Introduction: Japan is one of the largest and most sophisticated clothing markets in the world, and its fashion designs and products quality enjoy high reputation from world-wide. Because of keen competition in the domestic market, fashion retail chains find it necess...

  14. Marketing deportivo

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez Montaña, Nelson Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    El marketing deportivo en nuestro país y sus repercusiones en el mundo, es una clara herramienta para el desarrollo del mercadeo, y muestra las tendencias mundiales que ejemplifican de alguna forma el desarrollo de la industria deportiva como también el apoyo a sponsorizacion en los deportes

  15. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU YUE

    2010-01-01

    @@ Online Ad Boom According to a report delivered by iResearch Consulting Group, a market researcher that specializes in Web-related studies, the Chinese online advertisement value in 2009 soared 21.2 percent year on year to reach 20.61 billion yuan($3 billion).

  16. Processed Apple Product Marketing Analysis: Hard Cider and Apple Wine

    OpenAIRE

    Rowles, Kristin

    2000-01-01

    Hard cider and apple wine offer new value-added marketing opportunities to the apple industry. Both products are situated in rapidly growing categories of the beverage industry. The development of effective marketing strategies for these products requires an understanding of the forces driving competition in these markets. This paper provides background information to support competitive analysis and strategy development. Development of these markets will be positive for the apple industry, b...

  17. Research on Green Food Marketing Strategy of China

    OpenAIRE

    Qu Yan

    2015-01-01

    With the improvement of people's living standards, people's growing demand for green food is becoming bigger and bigger, but there are some problems in traditional marketing and at the same time, the rapid development of web marketing has impacted greatly on traditional marketing channels of the green food. The study attempts to analyze the development and the problems of green food in our country in traditional marketing, discussed the necessity and feasibility of the traditional green food ...

  18. Market Power in Laboratory Emission Permit Markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godby, R.

    2002-01-01

    Many proposals suggesting the use of markets to control pollution assume markets will be competitive. When markets do not exhibit competitive characteristics, however, should they still be expected to result in efficiency improvement relative to traditional approaches? This paper employs experimental economic methods to examine the effect of market structure on the use of marketable emissions permits. Results indicate that in a market with one dominant firm and a number of fringe firms, strategic manipulation occurs repeatedly in the laboratory as predicted by market power models, undermining the allocative and dynamic efficiency benefits such markets offer. When firms compete in a downstream product market dominated by the same single firm, market efficiency can actually be reduced with the implementation of permit markets. Final market efficiencies reflect initial endowments and are influenced by competitive conditions elsewhere in the economy, indicating that policy-makers should carefully consider whether markets are appropriate in such circumstances

  19. From physical marketing to web marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Constantinides, Efthymios

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the criticism of the 4P marketing mix framework as the basis of traditional and virtual marketing planning. Argues that the customary marketing management approach, based on the popular marketing mix 4Ps paradigm, is inadequate in the case of virtual marketing. Identifies two main

  20. Marketing Optimization for B2B Market

    OpenAIRE

    Kaynova Tatyana V.

    2012-01-01

    The article presents market definition B2B, the necessity to optimize marketing B2B market, provides a system for B2B-marketing and developed stages of its formation. On this basis it was identified key factors of customer loyalty and are the stages of development of loyalty programs for customers market B2B.

  1. Utilizing of marketing research for marketing communication

    OpenAIRE

    Bielová, Zuzana

    2008-01-01

    The subject of bachelor's thesis "Utilizing of marketing research for marketing communication" is analyze problematic of marketing communications in sector of educational services. The aims are potential clients of education. I will try to make out import of marketing research for marketing communication of the company.

  2. Marketing Reference Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, O. Gene

    1995-01-01

    Relates the marketing concept to library reference services. Highlights include a review of the literature and an overview of marketing, including research, the marketing mix, strategic plan, marketing plan, and marketing audit. Marketing principles are applied to reference services through the marketing mix elements of product, price, place, and…

  3. Entrepreneurship and marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Sidorchuk, Roman

    2009-01-01

    This article analyzes the relationship marketing and entrepreneurship. Marketing considered as an integral part of entrepreneurship. Commit role in relationship marketing and entrepreneurship innovation. The role of marketing in the search for potential market demand of innovation as the scope of latent or unmet needs of customers. Shown the lack of marketing in today's special marketing tools for entrepreneurs.

  4. Microsatellite Primers for Fungus-Growing Ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen Fredsted, Palle; Gertsch, Pia J.; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan (Koos)

    2002-01-01

    We isolated five polymorphic microsatellite loci from a library of two thousand recombinant clones of two fungus-growing ant species, Cyphomyrmex longiscapus and Trachymyrmex cf. zeteki. Amplification and heterozygosity were tested in five species of higher attine ants using both the newly...... developed primers and earlier published primers that were developed for fungus-growing ants. A total of 20 variable microsatellite loci, developed for six different species of fungus-growing ants, are now available for studying the population genetics and colony kin-structure of these ants....

  5. Microsatellite primers for fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen, Palle; Gertsch, P J; Boomsma, JJ

    2002-01-01

    We isolated five polymorphic microsatellite loci from a library of two thousand recombinant clones of two fungus-growing ant species, Cyphomyrmex longiscapus and Trachymyrmex cf. zeteki. Amplification and heterozygosity were tested in five species of higher attine ants using both the newly...... developed primers and earlier published primers that were developed for fungus-growing ants. A total of 20 variable microsatellite loci, developed for six different species of fungus-growing ants, are now available for studying the population genetics and colony kin-structure of these ants....

  6. The market of biopharmaceutical medicines: A snapshot of a diverse industrial landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moorkens, E. (Evelien); Meuwissen, N. (Nicolas); Huys, I. (Isabelle); P.J. Declerck (Paul); A.G. Vulto (Arnold); S. Simoens (Steven)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Biopharmaceutical medicines represent a growing share of the global pharmaceutical market, and with many of these biopharmaceutical products facing loss of exclusivity rights, also biosimilars may now enter the biopharmaceutical market. Objectives: This study aims to identify

  7. A foot in the Door: Relationship marketing efforts towards Transaction-oriented customers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Houman

    2002-01-01

    Despite the growing awareness of relationship marketing, there are still limitations to the range of exchange situations where relationship marketing is applicable. Customers may resist suppliers' attempts to become intimate. This contribution deals with how suppliers seek to overcome customer...

  8. Potential of the social media as instruments of higher education marketing: a segmentation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Constantinides, Efthymios; Zinck Stagno, Marc C.

    2011-01-01

    The importance of social media as platforms of social interaction, communication and marketing is growing. Increasing numbers of businesses in various industries have already integrated or plan to integrate social media applications into their marketing programs. Higher education institutions show

  9. EU-Korea FTA and Its Impact on V4 Economies. A Comparative Analysis of Trade Sophistication and Intra-Industry Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalski Bartosz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates selected short- and mid-term effects in trade in goods between the Visegrad countries (V4: the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and the Slovak Republic and the Republic of Korea under the framework of the Free Trade Agreement between the European Union and the Republic of Korea. This Agreement is described in the “Trade for All” (2015: 9 strategy as the most ambitious trade deal ever implemented by the EU. The primary purpose of our analysis is to identify, compare, and evaluate the evolution of the technological sophistication of bilateral exports and imports. Another dimension of the paper concentrates on the developments within intra-industry trade. Moreover, these objectives are approached taking into account the context of the South Korean direct investment inflow to the V4. The evaluation of technological sophistication is based on UNCTAD’s methodology, while the intensity of intra-industry trade is measured by the GL-index and identification of its subcategories (horizontal and vertical trade. The analysis covers the timespan 2001–2015. The novelty of the paper lies in the fact that the study of South Korean-V4 trade relations has not so far been carried out from this perspective. Thus this paper investigates interesting phenomena identified in the trade between the Republic of Korea (ROK and V4 economies. The main findings imply an impact of South Korean direct investments on trade. This is represented by the trade deficit of the V4 with ROK and the structure of bilateral trade in terms of its technological sophistication. South Korean investments might also have had positive consequences for the evolution of IIT, particularly in the machinery sector. The political interpretation indicates that they may strengthen common threats associated with the middle-income trap, particularly the technological gap and the emphasis placed on lower costs of production.

  10. Do we need a power exchange if there are enough power marketers ?

    OpenAIRE

    SMEERS, Yves; WEI, Jing-Yuan

    1997-01-01

    Decentralization in electricity restructuring is a growing trend that Power Marketers are ex- pected to take advantage of. We consider a market composed of Power Marketers, an Indepen- dent System Operator, generators and retailers. Power Marketers behave a` la Cournot-Nash and the ISO implements a Transmission Capacity Reservation market a` la FERC. Retailers are price taker. Generators’ behavior is only reflected in the purchase costs of the Power Marketers. Their behavior is thus not reall...

  11. Interaction of Compliance and Voluntary Renewable Energy Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Lokey, E.

    2007-10-01

    In recent years, both compliance and voluntary markets have emerged to help support the development of renewable energy resources. Both of these markets are growing rapidly and today about half of U.S. states have RPS policies in place, with a number of these policies adopted in the last several years. In addition, many states have recently increased the stringency of their RPS policies. This paper examines key market interaction issues between compliance and voluntary renewable energy markets. It provides an overview of both the compliance and voluntary markets, addressing each market's history, purpose, size, scope, and benefits while addressing issues, including double counting.

  12. Market Structure and Market Access

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph Francois; Ian Wooton

    2008-01-01

    The authors examine an issue at the nexus of domestic competition policy and international trade, the interaction between goods trade and market power in domestic trade and distribution sectors. Theory suggests a set of linkages between service-sector competition and goods trade supported by econometrics involving imports of 22 OECD countries compared with 69 exporters. Competition in serv...

  13. More than Chatting Online: Children, Marketing and the Use of Digital Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Ilana; Jevons, Colin; Henderson, Michael; Gabbott, Mark; Beale, Denise

    2011-01-01

    While schools have taught media literacy for many years, new challenges are raised by the growth of digital media and the sophistication of marketing techniques aimed at children. In response to a moral panic over the dangers posed by new media, schools have focused on cyber-safety education to reduce the incidence of phenomena such as…

  14. Brazilian, Chinese, and Indian exports: is the regional market really a source of learning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Baumann

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In some Latin American countries the exporting activity starts at a regional level, with producers only later venturing into more competitive markets. The implicit risk is that a country might never progress from the regional stage to a more global market. This article compares the experiences of Brazil, China and India. It is shown that Brazil relied on the regional market far more intensely than these Asian countries. There were clear gains accruing to China and India for having exploited more sophisticated markets from the very beginning of their export drive.

  15. International coal trade: the evolution of a global market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The international coal market has developed over the last 25 years to a mature stable market, largely free of government involvement. It is evident, however, that while the coal market is considered widely to be reliable and mature, there is only limited understanding of the way in which the market operates. Understanding energy market mechanisms is fundamental to encourage confidence in the continuing performance of liberalized markets. This publication seeks to address this need by providing a brief descriptive analysis of the operation of the coal market. The report draws attention to the considerable changes that have been experienced to date in the market, where freely operating market mechanisms have coped well. Further change is on the horizon. Coal demand in Europe is stagnating while growing rapidly in Asia. The once-dominant European market remains the region where price is formed but the Asian market is growing rapidly and becoming more flexible. Increasing competition for market share, low margins, and pressure on utilities to reduce costs as electricity markets are liberalized, will continue to stimulate productivity improvement and may lead to innovations in marketing to cope with stable real prices, high transport, and transaction costs

  16. The development of the housing market in Russian regions by the example of Saint Petersburg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romaniuk Georgii Daniilovich

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the state and development of housing market in St. Petersburg during 2000-2013. Reveals the stages of the real estate market in this period, its characteristic features and trends of today. There is the growing role of the primary market in the structure of the housing market and shows its modern features and problems.

  17. The market platforms and the operating of exchange systems of CO2 quotas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fremont, R.

    2005-06-01

    In the framework of the climatic change, the first carbon transactions appeared in 1999. Still 2005 they operated without an organized market system. The european market changed the situation: the market grow. This document details the six projects of market platform existing in 2005 and wonders on their success conditions. (A.L.B.)

  18. Effects of Participation in a Simulation Game on Marketing Students' Numeracy and Financial Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Ross; Vos, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    The need to endow marketing graduates with skills relevant to employability grows ever more important. Marketing math and elementary financial understanding are essential employability skills, particularly given the contemporary emphasis on marketing metrics, but the evidence is that marketing graduates are often relatively weak in such skills.…

  19. Market study on the Mexican market for electrical distribution equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    A brief historical survey of the development of the Mexican electric power sector is presented, along with an overview of the state of the Mexican economy since the late 1980s and the present characteristics of the Mexican electricity sector. The Mexican market for electric power generation and distribution equipment is then assessed, from the perspective of Canadian suppliers and manufacturers intending to enter this market. Projected consumption of electrical generation and distribution equipment in Mexico for 1994 is estimated at US$1,035,600,000 ($719.4 million in production, $356.9 million in imports, and $40.7 million in exports). This market increased 12.3% in 1990, and since power demand in Mexico has been growing faster than growth in capacity, it is possible that investments in the electricity sector will grow at faster rates. Items which are traditionally imported include nuclear reactors and related equipment, boilers, turbines, power breakers, valves, coal and ash handling equipment, relays, automatic controls, and chemical treatment equipment. The USA has the greatest share of the import market with 35%, followed by Japan (22%), Switzerland (18%), and Germany (13%). Canadian exports have concentrated on distribution equipment and only totalled $1.7 million in 1990. Electricity is distributed to some 16.6 million users over a national interconnected system having total installed capacity of 30,513 MW in 1991. There are plans to increase capacity by 9.7 GW by 1994 and another 37.4-47.8 GW between 1995 and 2010. Projections of electricity needs by region are listed along with the new power plants targeted for investment. Market liberalization and lowering of tariffs have made the Mexican market more accessible to exporters. 8 tabs

  20. Visualization of airflow growing soap bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Rahbi, Hamood; Bock, Matthew; Ryu, Sangjin

    2016-11-01

    Visualizing airflow inside growing soap bubbles can answer questions regarding the fluid dynamics of soap bubble blowing, which is a model system for flows with a gas-liquid-gas interface. Also, understanding the soap bubble blowing process is practical because it can contribute to controlling industrial processes similar to soap bubble blowing. In this study, we visualized airflow which grows soap bubbles using the smoke wire technique to understand how airflow blows soap bubbles. The soap bubble blower setup was built to mimic the human blowing process of soap bubbles, which consists of a blower, a nozzle and a bubble ring. The smoke wire was placed between the nozzle and the bubble ring, and smoke-visualized airflow was captured using a high speed camera. Our visualization shows how air jet flows into the growing soap bubble on the ring and how the airflow interacts with the soap film of growing bubble.

  1. Anticipated ethical challenges with growing molecular prenatal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anticipated ethical challenges with growing molecular prenatal diagnosis in Nigeria. ... Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences ... Ethical standards in medical laboratories are derived from medical ethics therefore, the four fundamental ...

  2. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The drought in southwest China casts an ominous shadow over the prospects of many listed power and chemical companies suffering from the disaster.Taiwan’s economy is expected to draw strength from a shopping spree by mainland businessmen starting in April.In an effort to take heat out of the burning hot real estate sector,China is forcing 78 centrally administered state-owned enterprises out of the property market.Air China gains control of Shenzhen Airlines in a move to enhance its market presence in Guangdong Province.China Unicom reports slim profits due to rising 3G network spending.Alibaba.com,the country’s largest e-commerce website,taps the booming small and medium-sized enterprise sector of Brazil.

  3. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    According to November economic figures, the Chinese economy is on track for recovery on all fronts. The logistics industry recoups its strength, though woes on the trade front require more time to fully recover. By partly withdrawing tax incentives for prospective real estate and auto buyers, China aims to calm the bubbling markets. Auto behemoth General Motors forges a joint venture with Shanghai Automotive Industry Corp. Group to maneuver into the emerging Indian auto market. Canadian handset maker RIM launches a version of the BlackBerry that supports the TD network of China Mobile for millions of individual users in China. Siemens makes a push into green business in China with a 2-billion-yuan ($293 million) sale.

  4. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    TO THE POINT:Economic data for April have been released. Inflation jitters seem to be easing a little,but risks still loom large. On the trade front,exporters recoup their strength,but imports have lost some steam in part due to waning domestic demands. Investment and consumption maintain momentum,both growing at double-digit growth rates. Internet giant Tencent buys into movie maker Huayi,which is expected to benefit both sides.

  5. Market Entry and Distribution Strategy for Interbev UK Ltd in Malaysia & Singapore

    OpenAIRE

    Sheikh, Omar

    2013-01-01

    For UK export companies distributing branded alcoholic beverages globally, the opportunities posed by new growth markets such as those in South East Asia are particularly attractive. With emerging economies supporting growth and rising living standards, consumer buying habits have changed from the simple need for sustenance to sophistication. This has led to an overall increase in demand for luxury goods, especially those in the alcoholic beverage market. Two South East Asian countries in par...

  6. Sustainable packaging design for consumer electronics products: Balancing marketing, logistics and environmental requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Wever, R.; Boks, C.B.; Pratama, I.; Stevels, A.L.N.

    2007-01-01

    Packaging design for consumer electronic products is a challenge because contradictory demands from a distribution perspective and a marketing perspective have to be balanced. With several company departments involved and powerful external stakeholders this is a complicated matter. As the level of sophistication of data concerning a packagings marketing performance is limited, decisions are often strongly based on beliefs. This is reflected in inconsistencies in packaging that is currently in...

  7. Facebook Drives Behavior of Passive Households in Stock Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siikanen, Milla; Baltakys, Kęstutis; Kanniainen, Juho

    2018-01-01

    on Nokia. We find that the decisions to buy versus sell are associated with Facebook data especially for passive households and for nonprofit organizations. At the same time, it seems that more sophisticated investors—financial and insurance institutions—are behaving independently from Facebook activities.......Recent studies using data on social media and stock markets have mainly focused on predicting stock returns. Instead of predicting stock price movements, we examine the relation between Facebook data and investors’ decision making in stock markets with a unique data on investors’ transactions...

  8. Risk Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Boutang , Jérôme; De Lara , Michel

    2016-01-01

    In a modern world increasingly perceived as uncertain, the mere purchase of a household cleaning product, or a seemingly harmless bottle of milk, conveys interrogations about potential hazards, from environmental to health impacts. The main purpose of this article is to suggest that risk could be considered as one of the major dimensions of choice for a wide range of concerns and markets, alongside aspiration/satisfaction, and tackled efficiently by mobilizing the recent findings of cognitive...

  9. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    TO THE POINT: The Chinese central bank raised the interest rate for the fifth time this year but this had little impact on the property and stock mar- kets. Foreign direct investment and fixed asset investment saw moderate increases in the first eight months, partly because of the government’s tightening policies. Gold futures will be traded on the market. Online traders are now required to acquire business licenses from regulative bodies.

  10. Auto Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    <正> Editor’s notes: the "online investigation of the updated condition of auto market in China", organized by BAGAE together with 7 websites, ended recently. The participants were from 32 provinces, cities and autonomous regions throughout China. Diplomas of the 4,657 participants were generally high, of which college or/over accounted for 80.7%; the participants were mainly middle-aged and young people in which 92.1% were below 40 years old.

  11. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    By expanding yuan settlement in cross-border trade andallowing cross-border direct investment in the yuan, China aims to pushforward the internationalization of its currency. House prices are still holding up inChina, but property developers are under increasing pressures. China’s goldmarket bursts with vitality as investors seek safety amid soaringinflation. The automaker BYD faces serious headwinds due to a plunge insales. The telecom giant China Mobile faces slower growth in its customerbase due to cutthroat market competition.

  12. Growing America's Energy Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    The emerging U.S. bioenergy industry provides a secure and growing supply of transportation fuels, biopower, and bioproducts produced from a range of abundant, renewable biomass resources. Bioenergy can help ensure a secure, sustainable, and economically sound future by reducing U.S. dependence on foreign oil, developing domestic clean energy sources, and generating domestic green jobs. Bioenergy can also help address growing concerns about climate change by reducing greenhouse gas emissions to create a healthier environment for current and future generations.

  13. Pembentukan Sikap Konsumen Pada Cause Related Marketing Produk Utilitarian Dan High Involvement

    OpenAIRE

    Singgih Santoso

    2016-01-01

    With popularity growing of social marketing concepts and consciousness of the environmental issues in recent days, cause related marketing activities oriented in environmental conservation issues is also growing. Research aims is to examine the formation of consumer attitudes on cause related marketing activities, a marketing activities which undertaken a commercial brand with a nonprofit organization; in this research product is utilitarian product and also high involvement product, namely A...

  14. Academic Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecaterina Daniela ZECA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Academic Marketing is an investment in a future dominated by The Forth Industrial Revolution and Globalization and not an expense. This aspect will basically alter our way to teach and to learn. In its dimensions, arguably changes will be like anything we has seen before. We try to assess how will be all unfold but, anyway, academic field response at this challenge should be integrated and comprehensive, involving all stakeholders both public and private sectors, because these changes herald upheaval of whole organizations. The educational service is a special one, delivered today but with effects in the future, the future of the individual, the future of generation, the future of nations. The educational service policy adapted to the requirements of time, brings to the front the opportunity of academic marketing. To analyze demand in a professional way, to measure trends and correlated university programs with the forecast demand for jobs, it is the subject. In the case of academic education, we are talking also about cost, distribution and promotion policies, but being a special service we also discuss about ethic boundaries. This work is an open chapter focusing studies on academic megamarketing, the work keeping up with the pace of change, students enrolment mobility, overtakes job market, and an imposed win-win-win formula, applied for students, local community and academic field.

  15. Beef cattle growing and backgrounding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peel, Derrell S

    2003-07-01

    The stocker industry is one of many diverse production and marketing activities that make up the United States beef industry. The stocker industry is probably the least understood industry sector and yet it plays a vital role in helping the industry exploit its competitive advantage of using forage resources and providing an economical means of adjusting the timing and volume of cattle and meat in a complex market environment.

  16. The Swedish wood fuel market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillring, Bengt

    1999-01-01

    In Sweden, wood fuels are traditionally used in the Swedish forest products industry and for heating of single-family houses. More recently they are also become established as an energy source for district heating and electricity production. Energy policy, especially the energy taxation system, has favoured wood fuels and other biofuels, mainly for environmental reasons. There is now an established commercial market for wood fuels in the district heating sector, which amounts to 45 PJ and is growing 20 per cent annually. Price levels have been stable in current prices for a decade, mainly because of good access to wood fuels. Price levels are dominated by production costs on a market that is largely governed by the buyer. It is expected that the use of wood fuels will increased in Sweden in the future, which will push a further development of this section on the market and bring about technological changes in the area. (Author)

  17. From physical marketing to web marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Constantinides, Efthymios

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the criticism of the 4P marketing mix framework as the basis of traditional and virtual marketing planning. Argues that the customary marketing management approach, based on the popular marketing mix 4Ps paradigm, is inadequate in the case of virtual marketing. Identifies two main limitations of the marketing mix when applied in online environments namely the role of the Ps in a virtual commercial setting and the lack of any strategic elements in the model. Identifies the critical fac...

  18. Does Online Marketing Truly Replace Traditional Marketing?

    OpenAIRE

    Gunawan, Emilia Margareth

    2013-01-01

    This review explains the way how online marketing has been replacing traditional marketing in terms of marketing mix. This replacement might happen, because online marketing can give advantages, i.e., offering on-time delivery, increasing effectiveness of two way interactions between buyer and seller, and creating online communities (Szmigin, et al, 2005). The transition of atoms to bits format reflects that tangible products in traditional marketing is being digitalized. The marketing strate...

  19. Renewable energy markets in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinot, Eric; Chaurey, Akanksha; Lew, Debra; Moreira, Jose Roberto; Wamukonya, Njeri

    2003-01-01

    Roughly 400 million households, or 40% of the population of developing countries, do not have access to electricity. Household and community demand for lighting, TV, radio, and wireless telephony in rural areas without electricity has driven markets for solar home systems, biogas-fueled lighting, small hydro mini-grids, wind or solar hybrid mini-grids, and small wind turbines. These technologies are not strictly comparable with each other, however; the level of service that households receive varies considerably by technology and by the specific equipment size used. Regardless of size, surveys and anecdotal evidence suggest that rural households value both electric lighting and television viewing. Growing numbers of individual equipment purchases, beyond government-driven programs, point to growing market demand. As energy consumption rises with increases in population and living standards, awareness is growing about the environmental costs of energy and the need to expand access to energy in new ways. As recognition grows of the contribution renewable energy can make to development, renewable energy is shifting from the fringe to the mainstream of sustainable development. Support for renewable energy has been building among those in government, multilateral organizations, industry, and non-governmental organizations. Commercial markets for renewable energy are expanding, shifting investment patterns away from traditional government and donor sources to greater reliance on private firms and banks. In this paper we take a market orientation, providing an aggregate review of past market experience, existing applications, and results of policies and programs. (BA)

  20. Smoothing Techniques for Market Fluctuation Signals

    OpenAIRE

    Dzikevičius, Audrius; Šaranda, Svetlana

    2011-01-01

    The financial crisis of 2008–2009 caused lots of discussions between Academia and as a result researches on financial crisis and bubble prediction possibilities appeared. Academia shows its growing interest in the issue during the last decade. The majority of researches made are based on different forms of forecast used. Some of previous studies claim that the trend of the stock market can be forecasted using moving average method. After the finance market crashed, a need to forecast further ...

  1. Affiliate Marketing Plan : case: MSO.fi

    OpenAIRE

    Bystrova, Ekaterina

    2015-01-01

    With an increasing number of people utilizing Internet in their everyday life online marketing is also growing in its importance among companies. Companies nowadays realize that without practicing online marketing it is almost impossible to increase their brand awareness and catch the modern consumer’s attention. This thesis is a functional thesis commissioned by Sanoma Digital Finland. The focus of this study is on one of their webpages, Mitäsaisiolla.fi which is an online store offering ...

  2. Stepping stones to significant market shares for renewables. The European forum for market players and decision makers in the renewable energy industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This invitation to a two-day European Forum for market players and decision makers in the renewable energy business lists the presentations made at the conference in 2007. The programme included contributions in the following areas: Policies and market deployment initiatives, market trends and experience - from support schemes to market experience, opportunities in a changing framework in Switzerland, instruments and infrastructure requirements - how to make the market work and supply and demand aspects of a growing market. The conference examined how renewable forms of energy can gain significant market shares and reach a quota of 50% renewables in 50 years. The first session examined policies and market deployment initiatives, the second market trends and experiences, the third opportunities for Switzerland in a changing framework. The second day featured sessions on instruments and infrastructure requirements as well as on supply and demand aspects in a growing market. The conference was complemented with four workshops.

  3. Stepping stones to significant market shares for renewables. The European forum for market players and decision makers in the renewable energy industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This invitation to a two-day European Forum for market players and decision makers in the renewable energy business lists the presentations made at the conference in 2007. The programme included contributions in the following areas: Policies and market deployment initiatives, market trends and experience - from support schemes to market experience, opportunities in a changing framework in Switzerland, instruments and infrastructure requirements - how to make the market work and supply and demand aspects of a growing market. The conference examined how renewable forms of energy can gain significant market shares and reach a quota of 50% renewables in 50 years. The first session examined policies and market deployment initiatives, the second market trends and experiences, the third opportunities for Switzerland in a changing framework. The second day featured sessions on instruments and infrastructure requirements as well as on supply and demand aspects in a growing market. The conference was complemented with four workshops.

  4. Biofuel supply chain, market, and policy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Leilei

    that have complex ramifications and result in sophisticate interactions among multiple stakeholders. The third part of the dissertation investigates the impacts of flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) market penetration levels on the market outcomes, including cellulosic biofuel production and price, blended fuel market price, and profitability of each stakeholder in the biofuel supply chain for imperfectly competitive biofuel markets. In this paper, I investigate the penetration levels of FFVs by incorporating the substitution among different fuels in blended fuel demand functions through "cross price elasticity" in a bottom-up equilibrium model framework. The complementarity based problem is solved by a Taylor expansion-based iterative procedure. At each step of the iteration, the highly nonlinear complementarity problems with constant elasticity of demand functions are linearized into linear complimentarity problems and solved until it converges. This model can be applied to investigate the interaction between the stakeholders in the biofuel market, and to assist decision making for both cellulosic biofuel investors and government.

  5. Interactions between the German Electricity Spot Market and the Reserve Energy Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graeber, Bernhardt

    2005-01-01

    Eight years after market opening, Germany has well established spot and future markets for electricity. Besides OTC and Internet broker platforms the main market place is the European Energy Exchange in Leipzig (EEX) with its spot and future market. Less known is the reserve energy market in Germany. The four German transmission system operators (TSOs) EnBW, EON, RWE and Vattenfall purchase network services on the reserve energy market. Products with specific technical requirements are primary, secondary and tertiary reserve. (Details about the technical requirements and typical means for providing the required services will be presented.) Each TSO organises a separate auction for these products - for primary and secondary reserve half-yearly, for tertiary reserve daily. Due to the technical requirements the liquidity on these markets is limited, but especially on the tertiary reserve market it is recently growing significantly due to new participants marketing several smaller municipal and industrial reserve power plants as combined bids which meet the 30 MW min. capacity requirement. Every power plant or interruptible load could not only be offered as capacity on the reserve market but could also be dispatched for the spot market. Therefore the developments of prices on these markets are not independent and opportunity costs against the spot market can be estimated for different type of plants bidding in the reserve market. Another interaction between reserve and spot market is caused by the balancing price system in Germany. Prices for balancing energy meeting deviations between load, trading balance and production of a market participant are based on quarter-hourly reserve energy costs encountered by the TSO. As unbiased load and production forecasts are not strictly enforced by the TSOs so far, part of the planned demand could be met with balancing energy if EEX spot market prices rise above expected balancing energy prices. This interrelationship has a

  6. Does the market maker stabilize the market?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mei; Chiarella, Carl; He, Xue-Zhong; Wang, Duo

    2009-08-01

    The market maker plays an important role in price formation, but his/her behavior and stabilizing impact on the market are relatively unclear, in particular in speculative markets. This paper develops a financial market model that examines the impact on market stability of the market maker, who acts as both a liquidity provider and an active investor in a market consisting of two types of boundedly rational speculative investors-the fundamentalists and trend followers. We show that the market maker does not necessarily stabilize the market when he/she actively manages the inventory to maximize profits, and that rather the market maker’s impact depends on the behavior of the speculators. Numerical simulations show that the model is able to generate outcomes for asset returns and market inventories that are consistent with empirical findings.

  7. Market efficiency in foreign exchange markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Gabjin; Kim, Seunghwan; Eom, Cheoljun

    2007-08-01

    We investigate the relative market efficiency in financial market data, using the approximate entropy(ApEn) method for a quantification of randomness in time series. We used the global foreign exchange market indices for 17 countries during two periods from 1984 to 1998 and from 1999 to 2004 in order to study the efficiency of various foreign exchange markets around the market crisis. We found that on average, the ApEn values for European and North American foreign exchange markets are larger than those for African and Asian ones except Japan. We also found that the ApEn for Asian markets increased significantly after the Asian currency crisis. Our results suggest that the markets with a larger liquidity such as European and North American foreign exchange markets have a higher market efficiency than those with a smaller liquidity such as the African and Asian markets except Japan.

  8. Cleaner Production: A Growing Movement in Brazilian Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oduvaldo Vendrametto

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Cleaner Production (CP is gaining emphasis in both world and Brazilian production sectors. Nature’s warnings indicating the exhaustion of any capacity to absorb and regenerate waste, stricter legislation regarding pollution emitters, market competitiveness associated with environmental and social responsibility cause concerns and lead to actions to reduce aggressions against the environment. This paper shows evidence of this concern and presents cases in which a large automotive industry, acting as a partner to suppliers, promotes changes in how it delivers its products, eliminating large cardboard, plastic and wood packaging. A small company had a similar initiative, reducing the use of cardboard and plastic packaging. More important is the revelation of a widely dispersed, yet growing and incremental movement of responsibilities among companies.The benefits of cleaner production implementation were evaluated by confronting environmental and financial assessment. For the ambient evaluation, it will be used methodology of Material Intensity (Wuppertal Institute, a.

  9. Demand grows in N. America as gas supply sources shift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, M.M.

    1996-01-01

    Growing demand for gas as a power-generation fuel is combining with changing patterns of gas transportation to present North American producers and pipelines with a series of new challenges. Results of a recent Enron study show how natural gas supplies available to US markets continue to shift their center of gravity toward Canadian and western sources. These changes--demand growth paced by electricity generation and supply source relocation--plus extraordinary gas basin price differentials this winter, point to (a) the opportunities for and risks of adding pipeline capacity in the US and Canada, on the one hand, and (b) tough decisions that may need to be made by Gulf of Mexico and Midcontinent area producers, on the other, to compete in an environment of changing economics and infrastructure

  10. Marketing reporting system

    OpenAIRE

    Hanić Hasan M.

    2004-01-01

    The main components of a developed and good organized marketing information system are: internal reporting system, marketing reporting system, market research system and analytical marketing system. Marketing reporting system provides data and information about changes in business and micro marketing environment. This component of MIS ensures that marketing managers are up-to-date with what is going on, and to be informed about changes in company marketing environment.

  11. Marketing reporting system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanić Hasan M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The main components of a developed and good organized marketing information system are: internal reporting system, marketing reporting system, market research system and analytical marketing system. Marketing reporting system provides data and information about changes in business and micro marketing environment. This component of MIS ensures that marketing managers are up-to-date with what is going on, and to be informed about changes in company marketing environment.

  12. Mathematical models in marketing a collection of abstracts

    CERN Document Server

    Funke, Ursula H

    1976-01-01

    Mathematical models can be classified in a number of ways, e.g., static and dynamic; deterministic and stochastic; linear and nonlinear; individual and aggregate; descriptive, predictive, and normative; according to the mathematical technique applied or according to the problem area in which they are used. In marketing, the level of sophistication of the mathe­ matical models varies considerably, so that a nurnber of models will be meaningful to a marketing specialist without an extensive mathematical background. To make it easier for the nontechnical user we have chosen to classify the models included in this collection according to the major marketing problem areas in which they are applied. Since the emphasis lies on mathematical models, we shall not as a rule present statistical models, flow chart models, computer models, or the empirical testing aspects of these theories. We have also excluded competitive bidding, inventory and transportation models since these areas do not form the core of ·the market...

  13. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Pork prices in Beijing remained relatively stable despite the swine flu outbreak in Mexico. China’s job market is still in the doldrums with the registered urban jobless rising slightly in the first quarter. The government is preparing to issue the third tranche of its stimulus package. China Minmetals Corp. received approval from the Australian Treasury to buy the assets of Oz Minerals Ltd. There were signs that international hot money has started to leave China. Surveys indicate that new Chinese parents are shunning foreign baby-care products.

  14. Outperforming markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian; Rimmel, Gunnar; Yosano, Tadanori

    2015-01-01

    This article studies the effects of disclosure practices of Japanese IPO prospectuses on long-term stock performance and bid-ask spread, as a proxy for cost of capital, after a company is admitted to the stock exchange. A disclosure index methodology is applied to 120 IPO prospectuses from 2003....... Intellectual capital information leads to significantly better long-term performance against a reference portfolio, and is thus important to the capital market. Further, superior disclosure of IC reduces bid-ask spread in the long-term, indicating that such disclosures are important in an IPO setting. Analysts...

  15. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    As illustrated by the current session of the Canton Fair,China’s exports are staging a swift comeback,though uncertainties lie ahead. In its drive toward a more sustainable economy,the country bumps up lending for the western regions and small businesses. Foreign banks are losing ground in China due to a lending spree by local rivals. Online travel agents scramble to pledge the lowest prices for hotels as they tap an over-crowded market. Also under pressure is China Mobile that recorded slower profit growth for the first quarter of the year. China launches an international commodities trading platform in Beijing on April 20.

  16. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    TO THE POINT: The Chinese Government, concerned about the stumbling domestic stock markets, has repeatedly emphasized the importance of "maintaining stability." China National Petroleum Corp. reported losses in its oil refinery business during the first half of the year. Domestic consumption, a major pillar of economic growth, rose substantially in June, up 23 percent year on year. Dabao, a well-known Chinese cosmetics brand, was officially acquired by Johnson & Johnson. China now plans to spend more money to help small and medium-sized companies boost employment.

  17. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Controversies proliferate over Chinese automaker Geely’s plan to buy the Swedish car brand Volvo, as analysts discount the prospect over its ability to integrate with the up-scale car manufacturer. China plans a pilot program that equalizes on-grid tariffs for hydro-and coal-fired power. Centrally-administered property developers join the real estate craze to scoop up land in big cities, adding to looming concerns over the property bubble that is waiting to burst. The domestic tourism market continues to gather momentum, offsetting downturns of inbound travel. Digital advertiser Focus Media loses its shine, reporting a painful loss between April and June.

  18. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The Canton Fair, a barometer of the country’s export health, continued to send worrying signals as foreign buyers skimped on orders for Chinese products. The country’s fund managers cashed in on the stock market euphoria of the first quarter. The central state-owned enterprises bounced back from their previous dismal financial situation. China Mobile, the country’s largest mobile service provider, saw slower profit growth in the first quarter. The first domestic auto financing company with no foreign ownership opened in Shanghai.

  19. An agency theory perspective on the purchase of marketing services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tate, W.L.; Ellram, L.M.; Bals, L.; Hartmann, E.; Valk, van der W.

    2010-01-01

    The purchase of business services has become an important part of organizations' acquisition of external resources, and is therefore receiving growing scholarly attention. The supply management function is increasingly supporting more complex service purchases, including a wide range of marketing

  20. Plato's patricide in the sophist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deretić Irina J.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the author attempts to elucidate validity of Plato's criticism of Parmenides' simplified monistic ontology, as well as his concept of non-being. In contrast to Parmenides, Plato introduces a more complex ontology of the megista gene and redefines Parmenides' concept of non-being as something absolutely different from being. According to Plato, not all things are in the same sense, i. e. they have the different ontological status. Additionally, he redefines Parmenides' concept of absolute non-being as 'difference' or 'otherness.' .

  1. Sophisticated fuel handling system evolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    The control systems at Sellafield fuel handling plant are described. The requirements called for built-in diagnostic features as well as the ability to handle a large sequencing application. Speed was also important; responses better than 50ms were required. The control systems are used to automate operations within each of the three main process caves - two Magnox fuel decanners and an advanced gas-cooled reactor fuel dismantler. The fuel route within the fuel handling plant is illustrated and described. ASPIC (Automated Sequence Package for Industrial Control) which was developed as a controller for the plant processes is described. (U.K.)

  2. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Despite chilly headwinds in the international market,Chinese domestic consumption grew a robust 20.8 percent in November year on year,the ninth consecutive month of growth of more than 20 percent.But bad news quickly followed.Industrial value-added output grew merely 5.4 percent in November,the second instance of single-digit growth since 2002.Centrally administered state-owned enterprises(SOEs) saw their profits plunge 26 percent last month.The harsh job environ-ment prompted the government to ensure there would be no layoffs at the SOEs,but salaries may be cut to offset the profit drops.Ping An,the country’s second largest insurer,had huge losses from its investment in the troubled Belgian financial giant Fortis NV.The Chinese currency took its first step into the international market as the central banks of China and South Korea signed a bilateral currency-swap agreement.

  3. Market performance of organic food brands in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrysochou, Polymeros; Vassilev, Boyan

    that repeat purchase loyalty toward organic food brands could increase is more a myth rather than reality. The organic food market can grow by targeting additional consumers – those who never bought organic before - and therefore increase its customer base. However, there are crucial elements to be taken......The market of organic products grows rapidly. Over the last decade, its value has more than tripled with global sales having increased from 18 billion USD in 2000 to 54.9 billion USD in 2009 (Sahota, 2011). In Denmark the organic food market is the biggest in Europe with a market share of 7.......2% in 2009 (Willer et al., 2011). This growth primarily took place in the last decade during where sales almost doubled since 2005 (www.organicdenmark.dk). This reason itself makes Denmark an interesting case worth of investigation, in order to provide guidelines on how the organic market could grow in other...

  4. An Essay on Marketing Performance Assessment: Opportunities in the Context of Research Studies in Marketing in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Angotti Guissoni

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Assessing marketing performance is important in order to minimize the subjectivism in the decision making process. Assessing marketing performance is an alternative so marketing will no longer be considered as a tactical area but rather strategically. In this context, research in marketing should investigate the effects of marketing activities by applying metrics. Despite marketing’s growing importance in journals and developed markets, there are few research studies in Brazil, so we organized a theoretical essay. This essay intends to contribute to the marketing literature in two ways: i by presenting a detailed overview of the marketing performance literature from the 1960’s until the year 2012, which allows us to complement previous studies, from a new perspective on the evolution of the central ideas in marketing; ii identifying research opportunities related to this topic that may stimulate debates and future research. 

  5. THE EMERGENCE OF THE EUROPEAN COUNTERFEIT MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Maftei

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The European market of counterfeit goods has become a subject of increasing concern for businesses, private firms and policymakers. With a growing demand in consumption for this kind of goods, each sector is damaged from the toy industries to the pharmaceuticals industry. This article is aimed to expose the dynamic of the European counterfeiting markets, to highlight the main factors of production, the main providers, the smuggling routes, the overall profit, the main counterfeit products and also to offer a general perspective on the affected European markets.

  6. A Market-Based Virtual Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Shi; Træholt, Chresten; Poulsen, Bjarne

    2009-01-01

    The fast growing penetration of Distributed Energy Resources (DER) and the continuing trend towards a more liberalized electricity market requires more efficient energy management strategies to handle both emerging technical and economic issues. In this paper, a market-based Virtual Power Plant...... (MBVPP) model is proposed which provides individual DER units the accesses to current electricity markets. General bidding scenario and price signal scenario as two optional operation scenarios are operated by one MBVPP. In the end, a use case of a MBVPP with micro Combined Heat and Power (μCHP) systems...

  7. Market opportunities: U.S. - PADD IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garner, R.P.

    1997-01-01

    The current supply and demand balance, the short and long term expectations and marketing opportunities for Canadian crude oil in PADD IV, the Rocky Mountain region in the US, were reviewed. It was suggested that market opportunities in PADD IV are derived from the following four factors: (1) crude oil declines within that area, (2) federal regulations, (3) competitive presence with markets, and (4) population growth. The overall conclusion was that Canadian producers and PADD IV refiners will be looking at an ever-growing relationship based on freight equalized world crude prices. 8 tabs., 5 figs

  8. Emerging Market Firms’ Acquisitions in Advanced Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stucchi, Tamara

    2012-01-01

    markets. These antecedents can influence emerging market firms’ capacities to absorb or exploit technological and/or marketing advantages in advanced markets. In order to be successful, emerging market firms have to undertake those upmarket acquisitions that best “fit” their antecedents. Four mutually......This study draws upon the resource-based view and the institution-based view of the firm to provide a comprehensive overview of how different resource-, institution- and industry-based antecedents affect the motivations guiding the acquisitions that emerging market firms undertake in advanced...... exclusive acquisition strategies are derived, which are then illustrated using examples of Indian firms’ acquisitions in advanced markets....

  9. Caffeinated Energy Drinks -- A Growing Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Reissig, Chad J.; Strain, Eric C.; Griffiths, Roland R.

    2008-01-01

    Since the introduction of Red Bull in Austria in 1987 and in the United States in 1997, the energy drink market has grown exponentially. Hundreds of different brands are now marketed, with caffeine content ranging from a modest 50 mg to an alarming 505 mg per can or bottle. Regulation of energy drinks, including content labeling and health warnings differs across countries, with some of the most lax regulatory requirements in the U.S. The absence of regulatory oversight has resulted in aggres...

  10. Identifying the transition between single and multiple mating of queens in fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen, Palle; Murakami, Takahiro; Schultz, Ted R

    2002-01-01

    Obligate mating of females (queens) with multiple males has evolved only rarely in social Hymenoptera (ants, social bees, social wasps) and for reasons that are fundamentally different from those underlying multiple mating in other animals. The monophyletic tribe of ('attine') fungus-growing ants...... is known to include evolutionarily derived genera with obligate multiple mating (the Acromyrmex and Atta leafcutter ants) as well as phylogenetically basal genera with exclusively single mating (e.g. Apterostigma, Cyphomyrmex, Myrmicocrypta). All attine genera share the unique characteristic of obligate...... dependence on symbiotic fungus gardens for food, but the sophistication of this symbiosis differs considerably across genera. The lower attine genera generally have small, short-lived colonies and relatively non-specialized fungal symbionts (capable of living independently of their ant hosts), whereas...

  11. Growing Economic Inequality and Its (Partially Political Roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kay Lehman Schlozman

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Growing economic inequality fosters inequality in the political processes of American democracy. Since the 1970’s inequalities in earnings and wealth have increased dramatically in the United States creating a higher level of inequality in disposable income than in other developed democracies. The United States also lags behind other rich nations in the way it provides for those at the bottom of the income distribution, and there is no evidence that the opportunities for success promised by the American Dream compensate for inequality in America. Technological and economic developments are significant causes of this growing economic inequality. The role of politics is more controversial, but government policy influences the distribution of income and education by the way it determines government benefits, taxes and the way markets function. For a number of reasons—including, most importantly, the relationship between education and income and the ability of the affluent to make large campaign donations—those who are economically well-off speak more loudly in politics. They are more likely to engage in most forms of individual political participation—not only ones that involve using cash but also ones that cost nothing except time. Moreover, when it comes to political voice through organizations, a professionalized domain dominated by hired experts in which the volume of political voice can be altered to reflect available economic resources, affluent interests are more likely to be organized and active. This essay considers the growing economic inequalities that form an important part of the backdrop for unequal political voice.

  12. Food Marketing Technology and Contingency Market Valuation

    OpenAIRE

    Garth J. Holloway; Anthony C. Zwart

    1993-01-01

    Marketing activities are introduced into a rational expectations model of the food marketing system. The model is used to evaluate effects of alternative marketing technologies on the distribution of the benefits of contingency markets in agriculture. Benefits depend on two parameters: the cost share of farm inputs and the elasticity of substitution between farm and nonfarm inputs in food marketing. Over a broad spectrum of technologies, consumers are likely to be the net beneficiaries and fa...

  13. Relationship Marketing in Legal Services Marketing Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Audronė Androšiūnaitė; Borisas Melnikas

    2013-01-01

    The article defines the concept of professional services and evaluates the extent, to which legal services could be understood as professional services. In addition, literature analysis in the relationship marketing is presented as well as conclusions on the method for the use of relationship marketing in the development of legal services marketing strategy. Strategies of professional services marketing are completely different from other services marketing because of relations with current c...

  14. Evolution of gas markets and energy security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitrova, Tatiana

    2007-07-01

    Questions of energy security and international gas trade became indissolubly connected during the last years. Paradoxically during the evolution of natural gas markets concerns about security issues in gas trade are only growing at the same time as transaction costs. Market participants have developed several mechanisms of adaptation (vertical integration, mutual penetration of capital and long-term contracts) which should be regarded not as a market failure but as an essential part of energy security guarantees at the moment. Further gas market evolution will demand more unified institutional framework to decrease threats to energy security and transaction costs. But this framework should be a result of mutual compromise of all market participants. (auth)

  15. [Social marketing and public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcaro, P; Mannocci, A; Saulle, R; Miccoli, S; Marzuillo, C; La Torre, G

    2013-01-01

    Social marketing uses the principles and techniques of commercial marketing by applying them to the complex social context in order to promote changes (cognitive; of action; behavioral; of values) among the target population in the public interest. The advent of Internet has radically modified the communication process, and this transformation also involved medical-scientific communication. Medical journals, health organizations, scientific societies and patient groups are increasing the use of the web and of many social networks (Twitter, Facebook, Google, YouTube) as channels to release scientific information to doctors and patients quickly. In recent years, even Healthcare in Italy reported a considerable application of the methods and techniques of social marketing, above all for health prevention and promotion. Recently the association for health promotion "Social marketing and health communication" has been established to promote an active dialogue between professionals of social marketing and public health communication, as well as among professionals in the field of communication of the companies involved in the "health sector". In the field of prevention and health promotion it is necessary to underline the theme of the growing distrust in vaccination practices. Despite the irrefutable evidence of the efficacy and safety of vaccines, the social-cultural transformation together with the overcoming of compulsory vaccination and the use of noninstitutional information sources, have generated confusion among citizens that tend to perceive compulsory vaccinations as needed and safe, whereas recommended vaccinations as less important. Moreover, citizens scarcely perceive the risk of disease related to the effectiveness of vaccines. Implementing communication strategies, argumentative and persuasive, borrowed from social marketing, also for the promotion of vaccines is a priority of the health system. A typical example of the application of social marketing, as

  16. A Little Salesmanship "Grows" a Long Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montas, Leah

    2012-01-01

    Goshen Elementary PTA's membership shrank the first year the author was PTA president. In the back of her mind, she was bothered by the fact that their membership numbers had dropped. So, after she attended a regional session with her vice president on growing membership, she got the courage to propose something different. They discussed with…

  17. Growing Income Inequality Threatens American Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Greg J.; Murnane, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    The first of two articles in consecutive months describes the origins and nature of growing income inequality, and some of its consequences for American children. It documents the increased family income inequality that's occurred over the past 40 years and shows that the increased income disparity has been more than matched by an expanding…

  18. Level crossing analysis of growing surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahbazi, F; Sobhanian, S; Tabar, M Reza Rahimi; Khorram, S; Frootan, G R; Zahed, H

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the average frequency of positive slope ν + α , crossing the height α = h - h-bar in the surface growing processes. The exact level crossing analysis of the random deposition model and the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang equation in the strong coupling limit before creation of singularities is given

  19. The Growing Diversity of Work Schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Shirley J.

    1986-01-01

    The author highlights the predominance of the five-day, 40-hour workweek. Although finding little change in recent years in the proportion of workers on 40-hour schedules, Smith notes that there have been some changes in work patterns, with a still small but growing group of workers on "compressed" full-time weeks of less than five days.…

  20. Protect Your Health as You Grow Older

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you get older. It’s important to: Keep your body and mind active Choose healthy foods Get enough sleep Talk to your doctor ... Just like physical activity is good for your body, activities that challenge your ... your brain healthy. As you grow older, it's important to: Learn ...