WorldWideScience

Sample records for groups behavioural evidence

  1. Greater number of group identifications is associated with healthier behaviour: Evidence from a Scottish community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sani, Fabio; Madhok, Vishnu; Norbury, Michael; Dugard, Pat; Wakefield, Juliet R H

    2015-09-01

    This paper investigates the interplay between group identification (i.e., the extent to which one has a sense of belonging to a social group, coupled with a sense of commonality with in-group members) and four types of health behaviour, namely physical exercise, smoking, drinking, and diet. Specifically, we propose a positive relationship between one's number of group identifications and healthy behaviour. This study is based on the Scottish portion of the data obtained for Wave 1 of the two-wave cross-national Health in Groups project. Totally 1,824 patients from five Scottish general practitioner (GP) surgeries completed the Wave 1 questionnaire in their homes. Participants completed measures of group identification, group contact, health behaviours, and demographic variables. Results demonstrate that the greater the number of social groups with which one identifies, the healthier one's behaviour on any of the four health dimensions considered. We believe our results are due to the fact that group identification will generally (1) enhance one's sense of meaning in life, thereby leading one to take more care of oneself, (2) increase one's sense of responsibility towards other in-group members, thereby enhancing one's motivation to be healthy in order to fulfil those responsibilities, and (3) increase compliance with healthy group behavioural norms. Taken together, these processes amply overcompensate for the fact that some groups with which people may identify can actually prescribe unhealthy behaviours. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  2. Students' online collaborative intention for group projects: Evidence from an extended version of the theory of planned behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Eddie W L; Chu, Samuel K W

    2016-08-01

    Given the increasing use of web technology for teaching and learning, this study developed and examined an extended version of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) model, which explained students' intention to collaborate online for their group projects. Results indicated that past experience predicted the three antecedents of intention, while past behaviour was predictive of subjective norm and perceived behavioural control. Moreover, the three antecedents (attitude towards e-collaboration, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control) were found to significantly predict e-collaborative intention. This study explored the use of the "remember" type of awareness (i.e. past experience) and evaluated the value of the "know" type of awareness (i.e. past behaviour) in the TPB model. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  3. Deficits in implicit attention to social signals in schizophrenia and high risk groups: behavioural evidence from a new illusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mascha van 't Wout

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An increasing body of evidence suggests that the apparent social impairments observed in schizophrenia may arise from deficits in social cognitive processing capacities. The ability to process basic social cues, such as gaze direction and biological motion, effortlessly and implicitly is thought to be a prerequisite for establishing successful social interactions and for construing a sense of "social intuition." However, studies that address the ability to effortlessly process basic social cues in schizophrenia are lacking. Because social cognitive processing deficits may be part of the genetic vulnerability for schizophrenia, we also investigated two groups that have been shown to be at increased risk of developing schizophrenia-spectrum pathology: first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients and men with Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY. RESULTS: We compared 28 patients with schizophrenia, 29 siblings of patients with schizophrenia, and 29 individuals with Klinefelter syndrome with 46 matched healthy control subjects on a new paradigm. This paradigm measures one's susceptibility for a bias in distance estimation between two agents that is induced by the implicit processing of gaze direction and biological motion conveyed by these agents. Compared to control subjects, patients with schizophrenia, as well as siblings of patients and Klinefelter men, showed a lack of influence of social cues on their distance judgments. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that the insensitivity for social cues is a cognitive aspect of schizophrenia that may be seen as an endophenotype as it appears to be present both in relatives who are at increased genetic risk and in a genetic disorder at risk for schizophrenia-spectrum psychopathology. These social cue-processing deficits could contribute, in part, to the difficulties in higher order social cognitive tasks and, hence, to decreased social competence that has been observed in these groups.

  4. Deficits in implicit attention to social signals in schizophrenia and high risk groups: behavioural evidence from a new illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van 't Wout, Mascha; van Rijn, Sophie; Jellema, Tjeerd; Kahn, René S; Aleman, André

    2009-01-01

    An increasing body of evidence suggests that the apparent social impairments observed in schizophrenia may arise from deficits in social cognitive processing capacities. The ability to process basic social cues, such as gaze direction and biological motion, effortlessly and implicitly is thought to be a prerequisite for establishing successful social interactions and for construing a sense of "social intuition." However, studies that address the ability to effortlessly process basic social cues in schizophrenia are lacking. Because social cognitive processing deficits may be part of the genetic vulnerability for schizophrenia, we also investigated two groups that have been shown to be at increased risk of developing schizophrenia-spectrum pathology: first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients and men with Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY). We compared 28 patients with schizophrenia, 29 siblings of patients with schizophrenia, and 29 individuals with Klinefelter syndrome with 46 matched healthy control subjects on a new paradigm. This paradigm measures one's susceptibility for a bias in distance estimation between two agents that is induced by the implicit processing of gaze direction and biological motion conveyed by these agents. Compared to control subjects, patients with schizophrenia, as well as siblings of patients and Klinefelter men, showed a lack of influence of social cues on their distance judgments. We suggest that the insensitivity for social cues is a cognitive aspect of schizophrenia that may be seen as an endophenotype as it appears to be present both in relatives who are at increased genetic risk and in a genetic disorder at risk for schizophrenia-spectrum psychopathology. These social cue-processing deficits could contribute, in part, to the difficulties in higher order social cognitive tasks and, hence, to decreased social competence that has been observed in these groups.

  5. Specialist group therapy for firesetting behaviour: evidence of a treatment effect from a non-randomised pilot trial with male prisoners

    OpenAIRE

    Gannon, T.; Alleyne, E.; Butler, H.; Danby, H.; Kapoor, A.; Lovell, T.; Mozova, K.; Spruin, E.; Tostevin, T.; Tyler, N.; O'Ciardha, C.

    2015-01-01

    Despite huge societal costs associated with firesetting, no standardized therapy has been developed to address this hugely damaging behavior. This study reports the evaluation of the first standardized CBT group designed specifically to target deliberate firesetting in male prisoners (the Firesetting Intervention Programme for Prisoners; FIPP). Fifty-four male prisoners who had set a deliberate fire were referred for FIPP treatment by their prison establishment and psychologically assessed at...

  6. Motivational systems or motivational states : Behavioural and physiological evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolhaas, J.M.; de Boer, S.F.; Bohus, B.G J

    This paper will critically discuss the available behavioural and neurobiological evidence for the existence of motivational systems and motivational states on the basis of our studies on aggressive behaviour in male rats and mice. Three types of evidence will be discussed. First, some behavioural

  7. Prosocial behaviours of young adolescents: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergin, Christi; Talley, Susan; Hamer, Lynne

    2003-02-01

    This study investigated young adolescents' perceptions of their peers' prosocial behaviours. In eight focus groups, 53 11- to 13-year olds described specific prosocial acts of their peers. Results suggest that traditional research has not addressed the diversity of prosocial behaviours that youth enact, nor emphasized behaviours that are salient to young adolescents. Such behaviours included standing up for others, encouraging others, helping others develop skills, including others who are left out, and being humorous. Facilitating emotional regulation of others emerged as an important component of prosocial behaviour. These data can help guide future research on prosocial development to include a broader array of authentic behaviours of young adolescents.

  8. Collective self and individual choice : The effects of inter-group comparative context on environmental values and behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rabinovich, Anna; Morton, Thomas A.; Postmes, Tom; Verplanken, Bas

    2012-01-01

    Self-categorization theory suggests that inter-group comparisons inform individual behaviour by affecting perceived in-group stereotypes that are internalized by group members. The present paper provides evidence for this chain of effects in the domain of environmental behaviour. In two studies,

  9. Group Pressure in Youngsters’ Dangerous Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Mimoza Çarka

    2015-01-01

    Unintentional injury is the leading cause of death and disability in children. Many injuries to school–aged children occur during unsupervised peer activities, but peer influences on risky behavior in preadolescence remain under-investigated. We examined peer context effects on reported risk-taking, indentified predictors of peer influence, and compared peer influence in high-and low-social-functioning groups. Forty-one boys aged 8-10 years listened to scenarios in which they encountered oppo...

  10. The theory of planned behaviour: self-identity, social identity and group norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, D J; Hogg, M A; White, K M

    1999-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine further the role that self-identity plays in the theory of planned behaviour and, more specifically, to: (1) examine the combined effects of self-identity and social identity constructs on intention and behaviour, and (2) examine the effects of self-identity as a function of past experience of performing the behaviour. The study was concerned with the prediction of intention to engage in household recycling and reported recycling behaviour. A sample of 143 community residents participated in the study. It was prospective in design: measures of the predictors and intention were obtained at the first wave of data collection, whereas behaviour was assessed two weeks later. Self-identity significantly predicted behavioural intention, a relationship that was not dependent on the extent to which the behaviour had been performed in the past. As expected, there was also evidence that the perceived norm of a behaviourally relevant reference group was related to behavioural intention, but only for participants who identified strongly with the group, whereas the relationship between perceived behavioural control (a personal factor) and intention was strongest for low identifiers.

  11. Risk behaviour and group formation in microcredit groups in Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lensink, Robert; Mehrteab, Habteab T.

    2003-01-01

    We conducted a survey in 2001 among members and group leaders of borrowers who accessed loans from two microcredit programs in Eritrea. Using the results from this survey, this paper aims to provide new insights into the empirical relevance of the homogeneous matching hypothesis for microcredit

  12. Risk Behaviour and Group Formation in Microcredit Groups in Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lensink, B.W.; Mehrteab, H.T.

    2006-01-01

    We conducted a survey in 2001 among members and group leaders of borrowers who accessed loans from two microcredit programs in Eritrea. Using the results from this survey, this paper aims to provide new insights into the empirical relevance of the homogeneous matching hypothesis for microcredit

  13. Group or ungroup - moose behavioural response to recolonization of wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Månsson, Johan; Prima, Marie-Caroline; Nicholson, Kerry L; Wikenros, Camilla; Sand, Håkan

    2017-01-01

    Predation risk is a primary motivator for prey to congregate in larger groups. A large group can be beneficial to detect predators, share predation risk among individuals and cause confusion for an attacking predator. However, forming large groups also has disadvantages like higher detection and attack rates of predators or interspecific competition. With the current recolonization of wolves ( Canis lupus ) in Scandinavia, we studied whether moose ( Alces alces ) respond by changing grouping behaviour as an anti-predatory strategy and that this change should be related to the duration of wolf presence within the local moose population. In particular, as females with calves are most vulnerable to predation risk, they should be more likely to alter behaviour. To study grouping behaviour, we used aerial observations of moose ( n  = 1335, where each observation included one or several moose) inside and outside wolf territories. Moose mostly stayed solitary or in small groups (82% of the observations consisted of less than three adult moose), and this behavior was independent of wolf presence. The results did not provide unequivocal support for our main hypothesis of an overall change in grouping behaviour in the moose population in response to wolf presence. Other variables such as moose density, snow depth and adult sex ratio of the group were overall more influential on grouping behaviour. However, the results showed a sex specific difference in social grouping in relation to wolf presence where males tended to form larger groups inside as compared to outside wolf territories. For male moose, population- and environmentally related variables were also important for the pattern of grouping. The results did not give support for that wolf recolonization has resulted in an overall change in moose grouping behaviour. If indeed wolf-induced effects do exist, they may be difficult to discern because the effects from moose population and environmental factors may be

  14. What do nurses do in professional Facebook groups and how can we explain their behaviours?

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan, Gemma Sinead

    2017-01-01

    AIMTo explore and explain the causal (mechanisms) relationships between nurse’s actions and behaviours in Facebook groups.BACKGROUNDOnline Social Networks such as Facebook have rapidly diffused through the nursing profession with an estimated 60% using social media every day. There have been a range of concerns linked to unprofessional behaviours on Facebook despite professional guidance being in place. However, there is little evidence that explores the causal and influencing factors that le...

  15. Low Self-Esteem: Group Cognitive Behaviour Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Anne; Haywood, Pennie; Galloway, Scott

    2007-01-01

    This article will describe a self-esteem cognitive behavioural therapy group run with adults with learning disabilities. The aim is to show how a group of this nature can be organized and run, using theory to inform practice. An introduction to the concept of self esteem will be given and then explored in relation to adults with learning…

  16. Group behaviour in physical, chemical and biological systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-03-15

    Mar 15, 2014 ... [Saçlıoğlu C, Pekcan Ö and Nanjundiah V 2014 Group behaviour in physical, .... properties is no longer a feasible exercise (as with the molecules of gas ..... sate which flows as an electrical current without resistance in.

  17. Is Poverty a Driver for Risky Sexual Behaviour? Evidence from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper contributes to conflicting evidence on the link between poverty and risky sexual behaviour by examining the effect of wealth status on age at first sex, condom use, and multiple partners using nationally representative adolescents\\' data from Burkina Faso, Ghana, Malawi, and Uganda. The results show that the ...

  18. Personality traits and group-based information behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldegård, Jette

    2009-01-01

    followed during a project assignment. The long version of the commonly-used NEO-PI-R test instrument was employed to describe and compare each group member's personality traits at a more detailed level. Data were also collected through a process survey, a diary and an interview. Analysis. The calculation....... Information behaviour associated with personality traits was identified, but the presence of personality effects tended to vary with the perceived presence of the social context. Conclusions. Some matches were identified between group members' personality traits and their actual information behaviour...... but there were also deviations, which were found that seemed to be related to the group-work context. The importance of studying personality traits in context has further been confirmed....

  19. Investigating the relationship between leader behaviours and group cohesion within women's walking groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caperchione, Cristina; Mummery, W Kerry; Duncan, Mitch

    2011-07-01

    Early research has shown that leadership behaviour is viewed as a crucial factor in successfully developing team cohesion, effectively resulting in greater team satisfaction and more positive team outcomes. However, little is understood if these same factors have an impact on physical activity groups. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between leader behaviours and group cohesiveness within women's physical activity groups. Participants (N = 95) included a sub-sample of adult women who were previously involved in a women's physical activity/walking program. Participants assessed their groups' leader behaviour using items pertaining to enthusiasm, motivation, instruction and availability, and their groups' cohesiveness using the Physical Activity Group Environment Questionnaire (PAGEQ). Canonical correlation analysis was used to determine the strength of association between the four concepts of group cohesion (ATG-T, ATG-S, GI-T and GI-S) and the four items pertaining to leadership behaviour. A significant multivariate relationship was revealed between group cohesion and leadership behaviour, Wilks' lambda = 0.43, F(16,170) = 5.16, p cohesion. Although a cause-effect relationship cannot be determined, the current study can serve as a valuable template in guiding future research in examining potential mechanisms that may assist with physical activity sustainability. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Demographic diversity, communication and learning behaviour in healthcare groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curşeu, Petru Lucian

    2013-01-01

    An integrative model of group learning was tested in a sample of 40 healthcare groups (434 respondents), and the results show that age diversity reduces the frequency of face-to-face communication whereas educational diversity reduces the frequency of virtual communication in healthcare groups. Frequency of communication (both face-to-face and virtual), in turn, positively impacts on the emergence of trust and psychological safety, which are essential drivers of learning behaviours in healthcare groups. Additional results show that average educational achievement within groups is conducive for communication frequency (both face-to-face and virtual), whereas mean age within groups has a negative association with the use of virtual communication in healthcare groups. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Outcomes and Experiences of an Adapted Dialectic Behaviour Therapy Skills Training Group for People with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossland, Tom; Hewitt, Olivia; Walden, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Background: A growing body of evidence supports the use of Dialectic Behaviour Therapy with people with an intellectual disability. Various adaptation have been used in studies exploring the efficacy of this intervention. Method: A Dialectic Behaviour Therapy DBT skills training group was attended by people with an intellectual disability and…

  2. Public attitudes towards pricing policies to change health-related behaviours: a UK focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerville, Claire; Marteau, Theresa M; Kinmonth, Ann Louise; Cohn, Simon

    2015-12-01

    Evidence supports the use of pricing interventions in achieving healthier behaviour at population level. The public acceptability of this strategy continues to be debated throughout Europe, Australasia and USA. We examined public attitudes towards, and beliefs about the acceptability of pricing policies to change health-related behaviours in the UK. The study explores what underlies ideas of acceptability, and in particular those values and beliefs that potentially compete with the evidence presented by policy-makers. Twelve focus group discussions were held in the London area using a common protocol with visual and textual stimuli. Over 300,000 words of verbatim transcript were inductively coded and analyzed, and themes extracted using a constant comparative method. Attitudes towards pricing policies to change three behaviours (smoking, and excessive consumption of alcohol and food) to improve health outcomes, were unfavourable and acceptability was low. Three sets of beliefs appeared to underpin these attitudes: (i) pricing makes no difference to behaviour; (ii) government raises prices to generate income, not to achieve healthier behaviour and (iii) government is not trustworthy. These beliefs were evident in discussions of all types of health-related behaviour. The low acceptability of pricing interventions to achieve healthier behaviours in populations was linked among these responders to a set of beliefs indicating low trust in government. Acceptability might be increased if evidence regarding effectiveness came from trusted sources seen as independent of government and was supported by public involvement and hypothecated taxation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  3. Price effects on the smoking behaviour of adult age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, G A

    2008-12-01

    To provide a cigarette price elasticity reference for adult age groups, and to estimate the smoking behaviour changes in US adults in light of unprecedented state excise tax increases on cigarettes during the 1990s. Individual-level data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System for 1993-2000 were merged with state-level cigarette price and tax data. Data were analysed for different age groups using a weighted least squares regression framework. The outcome variables measured were whether an individual was a smoker, whether he/she had tried to quit smoking during the previous year, and how many cigarettes were smoked per day among the total population and among active smokers. This study confirmed previous results that younger individuals are more responsive to price changes than older individuals. Although older age groups are less sensitive to price changes, their smoking behaviour changes are still statistically significant. This study found that while older individuals are less responsive to price changes than younger individuals, their behavioural changes due to cigarette price increases should not be ignored.

  4. Cognitive behavioural group treatment for social anxiety in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsep, Patrick; Nathan, Paula; Castle, David

    2003-09-01

    Anxiety symptoms reported by individuals with schizophrenia have been traditionally seen as symptoms associated with the principal disorder and therefore not requiring special attention. The primary aim of this paper is to therapeutically target social anxiety symptoms in individuals with schizophrenia in order to determine the effectiveness of the cognitive behavioural group treatment model as an intervention for social anxiety in this participant group. Thirty-three individuals with schizophrenia and co-morbid social anxiety were allocated to a group-based cognitive behaviour (CBGT) intervention or waitlist control (WLC). Baseline, completion and follow-up ratings consist of measures of social anxiety: the Brief Social Phobia Scale (BSPS), Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation scale (BFNE) and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS); measures of general psychopathology: the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS) and Global Severity Index (GSI) from the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI); and the Quality of Life, Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (QLESQ). Pre- and post-treatment measures were subjected to statistical evaluation. All outcome measures displayed statistical improvement in the intervention group compared with no change in the control group. These treatment gains were maintained at follow-up. CBGT for social anxiety in schizophrenia was demonstrated to be effective as an adjunctive treatment for this population.

  5. Behavioural evidence for colour vision in an elasmobranch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van-Eyk, Sarah M; Siebeck, Ulrike E; Champ, Connor M; Marshall, Justin; Hart, Nathan S

    2011-12-15

    Little is known about the sensory abilities of elasmobranchs (sharks, skates and rays) compared with other fishes. Despite their role as apex predators in most marine and some freshwater habitats, interspecific variations in visual function are especially poorly studied. Of particular interest is whether they possess colour vision and, if so, the role(s) that colour may play in elasmobranch visual ecology. The recent discovery of three spectrally distinct cone types in three different species of ray suggests that at least some elasmobranchs have the potential for functional trichromatic colour vision. However, in order to confirm that these species possess colour vision, behavioural experiments are required. Here, we present evidence for the presence of colour vision in the giant shovelnose ray (Glaucostegus typus) through the use of a series of behavioural experiments based on visual discrimination tasks. Our results show that these rays are capable of discriminating coloured reward stimuli from other coloured (unrewarded) distracter stimuli of variable brightness with a success rate significantly different from chance. This study represents the first behavioural evidence for colour vision in any elasmobranch, using a paradigm that incorporates extensive controls for relative stimulus brightness. The ability to discriminate colours may have a strong selective advantage for animals living in an aquatic ecosystem, such as rays, as a means of filtering out surface-wave-induced flicker.

  6. The Use of Group Therapy as a Means of Facilitating Cognitive-Behavioural Instruction for Adolescents with Disruptive Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larmar, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    This article reports on the findings of an action research enquiry examining the efficacy of group therapy as a means of facilitating cognitive-behavioural instruction for students who exhibit disruptive behaviours. A curriculum comprising the key tenets of cognitive-behaviour modification was developed and taught over a 9-week period to a group…

  7. How within-group behavioural variation and task efficiency enhance fitness in a social group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruitt, Jonathan N; Riechert, Susan E

    2011-04-22

    How task specialization, individual task performance and within-group behavioural variation affects fitness is a longstanding and unresolved problem in our understanding of animal societies. In the temperate social spider, Anelosimus studiosus, colony members exhibit a behavioural polymorphism; females either exhibit an aggressive 'asocial' or docile 'social' phenotype. We assessed individual prey-capture success for both phenotypes, and the role of phenotypic composition on group-level prey-capture success for three prey size classes. We then estimated the effect of group phenotypic composition on fitness in a common garden, as inferred from individual egg-case masses. On average, asocial females were more successful than social females at capturing large prey, and colony-level prey-capture success was positively associated with the frequency of the asocial phenotype. Asocial colony members were also more likely to engage in prey-capture behaviour in group-foraging situations. Interestingly, our fitness estimates indicate females of both phenotypes experience increased fitness when occupying colonies containing unlike individuals. These results imply a reciprocal fitness benefit of within-colony behavioural variation, and perhaps division of labour in a spider society.

  8. Early social isolation impairs development, mate choice and grouping behaviour of predatory mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schausberger, Peter; Gratzer, Marian; Strodl, Markus A

    2017-05-01

    The social environment early in life is a key determinant of developmental, physiological and behavioural trajectories across vertebrate and invertebrate animals. One crucial variable is the presence/absence of conspecifics. For animals usually reared in groups, social isolation after birth or hatching can be a highly stressful circumstance, with potentially long-lasting consequences. Here, we assessed the effects of social deprivation (isolation) early in life, that is, absence of conspecifics, versus social enrichment, that is, presence of conspecifics, on developmental time, body size at maturity, mating behaviour and group-living in the plant-inhabiting predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis . Socially deprived protonymphs developed more slowly and were less socially competent in grouping behaviour than socially enriched protonymphs. Compromised social competence in grouping behaviour was evident in decreased activity, fewer mutual encounters and larger interindividual distances, all of which may entail severe fitness costs. In female choice/male competition, socially deprived males mated earlier than socially enriched males; in male choice/female competition, socially deprived females were more likely to mate than socially enriched females. In neither mate choice situation did mating duration or body size at maturity differ between socially deprived and enriched mating opponents. Social isolation-induced shifts in mating behaviour may be interpreted as increased attractiveness or competitiveness or, more likely, as hastiness and reduced ability to assess mate quality. Overall, many of the social isolation-induced behavioural changes in P. persimilis are analogous to those observed in other animals such as cockroaches, fruit flies, fishes or rodents. We argue that, due to their profound and persistent effects, early social deprivation or enrichment may be important determinants in shaping animal personalities.

  9. Genetic composition of social groups influences male aggressive behaviour and fitness in natural genotypes of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltz, Julia B

    2013-11-22

    Indirect genetic effects (IGEs) describe how an individual's behaviour-which is influenced by his or her genotype-can affect the behaviours of interacting individuals. IGE research has focused on dyads. However, insights from social networks research, and other studies of group behaviour, suggest that dyadic interactions are affected by the behaviour of other individuals in the group. To extend IGE inferences to groups of three or more, IGEs must be considered from a group perspective. Here, I introduce the 'focal interaction' approach to study IGEs in groups. I illustrate the utility of this approach by studying aggression among natural genotypes of Drosophila melanogaster. I chose two natural genotypes as 'focal interactants': the behavioural interaction between them was the 'focal interaction'. One male from each focal interactant genotype was present in every group, and I varied the genotype of the third male-the 'treatment male'. Genetic variation in the treatment male's aggressive behaviour influenced the focal interaction, demonstrating that IGEs in groups are not a straightforward extension of IGEs measured in dyads. Further, the focal interaction influenced male mating success, illustrating the role of IGEs in behavioural evolution. These results represent the first manipulative evidence for IGEs at the group level.

  10. Group-based parent training programmes for improving emotional and behavioural adjustment in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Jane; Bergman, Hanna; Kornør, Hege; Wei, Yinghui; Bennett, Cathy

    2016-08-01

    Emotional and behavioural problems in children are common. Research suggests that parenting has an important role to play in helping children to become well-adjusted, and that the first few months and years are especially important. Parenting programmes may have a role to play in improving the emotional and behavioural adjustment of infants and toddlers, and this review examined their effectiveness with parents and carers of young children. 1. To establish whether group-based parenting programmes are effective in improving the emotional and behavioural adjustment of young children (maximum mean age of three years and 11 months); and2. To assess whether parenting programmes are effective in the primary prevention of emotional and behavioural problems. In July 2015 we searched CENTRAL (the Cochrane Library), Ovid MEDLINE, Embase (Ovid), and 10 other databases. We also searched two trial registers and handsearched reference lists of included studies and relevant systematic reviews. Two reviewers independently assessed the records retrieved by the search. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs of group-based parenting programmes that had used at least one standardised instrument to measure emotional and behavioural adjustment in children. One reviewer extracted data and a second reviewer checked the extracted data. We presented the results for each outcome in each study as standardised mean differences (SMDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Where appropriate, we combined the results in a meta-analysis using a random-effects model. We used the GRADE (Grades of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) approach to assess the overall quality of the body of evidence for each outcome. We identified 22 RCTs and two quasi-RCTs evaluating the effectiveness of group-based parenting programmes in improving the emotional and behavioural adjustment of children aged up to three years and 11 months (maximum mean age three years 11 months

  11. Theories of behaviour change synthesised into a set of theoretical groupings: introducing a thematic series on the theoretical domains framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Jill J; O'Connor, Denise; Curran, Janet

    2012-04-24

    Behaviour change is key to increasing the uptake of evidence into healthcare practice. Designing behaviour-change interventions first requires problem analysis, ideally informed by theory. Yet the large number of partly overlapping theories of behaviour makes it difficult to select the most appropriate theory. The need for an overarching theoretical framework of behaviour change was addressed in research in which 128 explanatory constructs from 33 theories of behaviour were identified and grouped. The resulting Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) appears to be a helpful basis for investigating implementation problems. Research groups in several countries have conducted TDF-based studies. It seems timely to bring together the experience of these teams in a thematic series to demonstrate further applications and to report key developments. This overview article describes the TDF, provides a brief critique of the framework, and introduces this thematic series.In a brief review to assess the extent of TDF-based research, we identified 133 papers that cite the framework. Of these, 17 used the TDF as the basis for empirical studies to explore health professionals' behaviour. The identified papers provide evidence of the impact of the TDF on implementation research. Two major strengths of the framework are its theoretical coverage and its capacity to elicit beliefs that could signify key mediators of behaviour change. The TDF provides a useful conceptual basis for assessing implementation problems, designing interventions to enhance healthcare practice, and understanding behaviour-change processes. We discuss limitations and research challenges and introduce papers in this series.

  12. Evidence of probabilistic behaviour in protein interaction networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reifman Jaques

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data from high-throughput experiments of protein-protein interactions are commonly used to probe the nature of biological organization and extract functional relationships between sets of proteins. What has not been appreciated is that the underlying mechanisms involved in assembling these networks may exhibit considerable probabilistic behaviour. Results We find that the probability of an interaction between two proteins is generally proportional to the numerical product of their individual interacting partners, or degrees. The degree-weighted behaviour is manifested throughout the protein-protein interaction networks studied here, except for the high-degree, or hub, interaction areas. However, we find that the probabilities of interaction between the hubs are still high. Further evidence is provided by path length analyses, which show that these hubs are separated by very few links. Conclusion The results suggest that protein-protein interaction networks incorporate probabilistic elements that lead to scale-rich hierarchical architectures. These observations seem to be at odds with a biologically-guided organization. One interpretation of the findings is that we are witnessing the ability of proteins to indiscriminately bind rather than the protein-protein interactions that are actually utilized by the cell in biological processes. Therefore, the topological study of a degree-weighted network requires a more refined methodology to extract biological information about pathways, modules, or other inferred relationships among proteins.

  13. Adoption of the Good Behaviour Game: An evidence-based intervention for the prevention of behaviour problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkman, Marieke A. M.; Harting, Janneke; van der Wal, Marcel F.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective: The Good Behaviour Game (GBG) has been shown to be effective in preventing childhood disruptive behaviours and their long-term unfavourable health-related outcomes. Like many other evidence-based preventive health programmes, however, its current use in Dutch primary

  14. Focus Group Evidence: Implications for Design and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Katherine E.; Gandha, Tysza; Culbertson, Michael J.; Carlson, Crystal

    2014-01-01

    In evaluation and applied social research, focus groups may be used to gather different kinds of evidence (e.g., opinion, tacit knowledge). In this article, we argue that making focus group design choices explicitly in relation to the type of evidence required would enhance the empirical value and rigor associated with focus group utilization. We…

  15. Idiosyncrasies in Australian petrol price behaviour: evidence of seasonalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, Jason D.; Lilian Ong; Izan, H.Y.

    2000-01-01

    It has been argued that there are certain idiosyncrasies in Australian petrol price behaviour. To the extent that these idiosyncrasies result in large magnitude differences in petrol prices, they may be exploited by consumers to significantly reduce their household expenditure on the product. Similarly, such seasonalities may influence retailers in their purchase and storage decision. The objective of this paper is to test for seasonalities in the Australian retail petrol market. The approach adopted is similar to that for determining calendar anomalies as documented in the financial and commodity markets literature. We find that a monthly seasonal effect is pronounced with petrol prices lower in the months of February-May and highest in July and August. A day-of-the-week effect is also apparent and is manifest in all petrol prices for capital cities (Adelaide, Brisbane, Melbourne and Sydney) across various years. However, the half-month effect, as is common in stock returns, is not observed. Moreover, contrary to popular belief that petrol prices are higher surrounding holidays, no evidence of the holiday effect is found. In Brisbane and Melbourne, petrol prices also have some relationship to the mood of consumers, as proxied using weather conditions. This is not observed in Adelaide and Sydney. (Author)

  16. CORPORATE DIVIDEND POLICY AND BEHAVIOUR: THE MALAYSIAN EVIDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Pandey

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines corporate dividend policy and behaviour of the Kuala Lumpur Stock Exchange (KLSE companies. Our results confirm the influence of industry on payout ratios. We also find that payout ratios in a given industry vary significantly across time. The results of multinomial logit analysis reveal that the KLSE companies' dividend actions are sensitive to the changes in earnings. Probabilities of dividend increases, decreases and omissions are high, respectively, with earnings increases, decreases and losses. This causes volatility in dividend payments. The KLSE firms appear to be reluctant to omit dividend except when they suffer losses. Further, using Lintner's framework and panel data regression methodology, we find evidence in favour of regular, but less stable, dividend policies being pursued by the KLSE companies. This is contrary to the experiences of companies in the developed capital markets. The results of the two-way fixed firm and time effects model reveal that there are significant differences in dividend policies across individual firms and over time.

  17. Evidence for a relationship between trait gratitude and prosocial behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost-Dubrow, Rachel; Dunham, Yarrow

    2018-03-01

    Prosocial behaviour towards unrelated others is communally beneficial but can be individually costly. The emotion of gratitude mitigates this cost by encouraging direct as well as "upstream" reciprocity, thereby facilitating cooperation. A widely used method for measuring trait gratitude is the Gratitude Questionnaire (GQ6) [McCullough, M., Emmons, R., & Tsang, J. (2002). The grateful disposition: A conceptual and empirical topography. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82, 112-127. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.82.1.112 ]. Here we undertake an assessment of the external validity of the GQ6 by examining its relationship with two incentivized economic games that serve as face valid indices of generosity and reciprocity. In two studies (total N = 501) we find that trait gratitude as measured by the GQ6 predicts greater donations in a charity donation task as well as greater transfers and returns in an incentivized trust game. These results support the hypothesis that individuals with higher trait gratitude are more generous and trusting on average, and provide initial evidence as to the predictive validity of the GQ6.

  18. Students Working Online for Group Projects: A Test of an Extended Theory of Planned Behaviour Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Eddie W. L.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined an extended theory of planned behaviour (TPB) model that specified factors affecting students' intentions to collaborate online for group work. Past behaviour, past experience and actual behavioural control were incorporated in the extended TPB model. The mediating roles of attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioural…

  19. Group-size effect on scanning behaviour of Maasai Ostrich Struthio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Group-size effect on scanning behaviour of Maasai Ostrich Struthio camelus ... minute) among different group sizes in late 2006 in Serengeti National Park, ... be influenced by factors other than group size, such as body size and habitat type.

  20. The Efficacy of Positive Behavioural Support with the Most Challenging Behaviour: The Evidence and Its Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaVigna, Gary W.; Willis, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Positive behaviour support (PBS) is behaviour analysis applied in support of people with challenging behaviour. Questions have been raised as to PBS effectiveness, costs, and accessibility. Method: Outcome studies meeting specified criteria for PBS were selected for review. All told, 12 outcome studies encompassing 423 cases were…

  1. Group lending and the role of the group leader : Theory and evidence from Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijkel, Remco van; Hermes, Niels; Lensink, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: This paper investigates the strategic monitoring behaviour within a group lending setting. We develop a theoretical model, showing that monitoring efforts of group members differ from each other in equilibrium, as a result of the asymmetry between these members in terms of the future

  2. Educational Expansion, Economic Growth and Antisocial Behaviour: Evidence from England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabates, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of the increase in post-compulsory schooling and economic growth on conviction rates for antisocial behaviour in England. I hypothesise that both educational and employment opportunities should lead to greater reductions in antisocial behaviour when they are combined than when they exist in isolation. I test this…

  3. Financial Literacy and Financial Behaviour: Experimental Evidence from Rural Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sayinzoga, Aussi; Bulte, E.H.; Lensink, Robert

    We organise a field experiment with smallholder farmers in Rwanda to measure the impact of financial literacy training on financial knowledge and behaviour. The training increased financial literacy of participants, changed their savings and borrowing behaviour and had a positive effect on the new

  4. A Preliminary Study of Work-Focused Cognitive Behavioural Group Therapy for Japanese Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Daisuke; Watanabe, Asuka; Takeichi, Sakino; Ishihara, Ayako; Yamamoto, Kazuyoshi

    2018-06-06

    In Japan, cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) has been introduced in the 'Rework Programme', but its impact on return to work (RTW) has not been fully clarified. This pilot study investigated the initial efficacy of a work-focused cognitive behavioural group therapy (WF-CBGT) for Japanese workers on sick leave due to depression. Twenty-three patients on leave due to depression were recruited from a mental health clinic. WF-CBGT including behavioural activation therapy, cognitive therapy, and problem-solving therapy techniques was conducted for eight weekly 150-minute sessions. Participants completed questionnaires on depression and anxiety (Kessler-6), social adaptation (Social Adaptation Self-Evaluation Scale), and difficulty in RTW (Difficulty in Returning to Work Inventory) at pre- and post-intervention time points. Rates of re-instatement after the intervention were examined. One participant dropped out, but 22 participants successfully completed the intervention. All scale scores significantly improved after intervention and, except for difficulty in RTW related to physical fitness, all effect sizes were above the moderate classification. All participants who completed the intervention succeeded in RTW. Results suggested the possibility that WF-CBGT may be a feasible and promising intervention for Japanese workers on leave due to depression regardless of cross-cultural differences, but that additional research examining effectiveness using controlled designs and other samples is needed. Future research should examine the efficacy of this programme more systematically to provide relevant data to aid in the continued development of an evidence-based intervention.

  5. Repeatable group differences in the collective behaviour of stickleback shoals across ecological contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Establishing how collective behaviour emerges is central to our understanding of animal societies. Previous research has highlighted how universal interaction rules shape collective behaviour, and that individual differences can drive group functioning. Groups themselves may also differ considerably in their collective behaviour, but little is known about the consistency of such group variation, especially across different ecological contexts that may alter individuals' behavioural responses. Here, we test if randomly composed groups of sticklebacks differ consistently from one another in both their structure and movement dynamics across an open environment, an environment with food, and an environment with food and shelter. Based on high-resolution tracking data of the free-swimming shoals, we found large context-associated changes in the average behaviour of the groups. But despite these changes and limited social familiarity among group members, substantial and predictable behavioural differences between the groups persisted both within and across the different contexts (group-level repeatability): some groups moved consistently faster, more cohesively, showed stronger alignment and/or clearer leadership than other groups. These results suggest that among-group heterogeneity could be a widespread feature in animal societies. Future work that considers group-level variation in collective behaviour may help understand the selective pressures that shape how animal collectives form and function. PMID:29436496

  6. Evidence for an expectancy-based theory of avoidance behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Declercq, Mieke; De Houwer, Jan; Baeyens, Frank

    2008-01-01

    In most studies on avoidance learning, participants receive an aversive unconditioned stimulus after a warning signal is presented, unless the participant performs a particular response. Lovibond (2006) recently proposed a cognitive theory of avoidance learning, according to which avoidance behaviour is a function of both Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning. In line with this theory, we found that avoidance behaviour was based on an integration of acquired knowledge about, on the one hand, the relation between stimuli and, on the other hand, the relation between behaviour and stimuli.

  7. Social influence on sustainable consumption : Evidence from a behavioural experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salazar, H.; Oerlemans, L.A.G.; van Stroe, S.

    2013-01-01

    Although social influence on consumers’ behaviour has been recognized and documented, the vast majority of empirical consumer studies about sustainable products considers mainly, if not only, individual characteristics (socio-demographic attributes, individual environmental attitudes, etc.), to

  8. Growth Performance and Behaviour in Grouped Pigs Fed Fibrous Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Bakare

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of feeding fibrous diets on growth performance and occurrence of aggressive behaviours in growing pigs. Sixty healthy castrated pigs (initial body weight: 46.7±4.35 kg were used. A basal diet was diluted with maize cobs to two levels (0 and 160 g/kg dry matter. Behavioural activities were observed using video cameras for three weeks, 8 h/d starting at 0800 h. Pigs subjected to control diet gained more weight compared to pigs receiving fibrous diet in week 1 (0.47 vs 0.15 kg, respectively and 2 (1.37 vs 1.04, respectively (p<0.05. Average daily gain was not affected by treatment diet in the third week. Pigs on high fibrous spent more time eating, lying down, standing, walking and fighting (p<0.05 compared to pigs on control diet. Time spent eating increased as the weeks progressed whilst time spent lying down decreased. Time of day had an effect on time spent on different behavioural activities exhibited by all pigs on different treatment diet (p<0.05. Inactivity was greatest in 5th (1200 to 1300 h hour of the day for all the pigs on different dietary treatments. Skin lesions appeared the most on neck and shoulder region followed by chest, stomach and hind leg region, and finally head region (p<0.05. Pigs on high fibre diet had more skin lesions in all body regions compared to pigs on control diet (p<0.05. It can be concluded that the high fibrous diet with maize cobs did not affect growth performance and also did not reduce aggressive behaviours. Aggressive behaviours emanated out of frustration when queuing on the feeder. The findings of this study suggest that maize cobs can be included at a level of 160 g/kg in diets of pigs. However, to reduce the level of aggression more feeding space should be provided.

  9. Social influence in the theory of planned behaviour: the role of descriptive, injunctive, and in-group norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Katherine M; Smith, Joanne R; Terry, Deborah J; Greenslade, Jaimi H; McKimmie, Blake M

    2009-03-01

    The present research investigated three approaches to the role of norms in the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). Two studies examined the proposed predictors of intentions to engage in household recycling (Studies 1 and 2) and reported recycling behaviour (Study 1). Study 1 tested the impact of descriptive and injunctive norms (personal and social) and the moderating role of self-monitoring on norm-intention relations. Study 2 examined the role of group norms and group identification and the moderating role of collective self on norm-intention relations. Both studies demonstrated support for the TPB and the inclusion of additional normative variables: attitudes; perceived behavioural control; descriptive; and personal injunctive norms (but not social injunctive norm) emerged as significant independent predictors of intentions. There was no evidence that the impact of norms on intentions varied as a function of the dispositional variables of self-monitoring (Study 1) or the collective self (Study 2). There was support, however, for the social identity approach to attitude-behaviour relations in that group norms predicted recycling intentions, particularly for individuals who identified strongly with the group. The results of these two studies highlight the critical role of social influence processes within the TPB and the attitude-behaviour context.

  10. Acceptability of financial incentives and penalties for encouraging uptake of healthy behaviours: focus groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Emma L; Sniehotta, Falko F; McColl, Elaine; Adams, Jean

    2015-01-31

    There is evidence that financial incentive interventions, which include both financial rewards and also penalties, are effective in encouraging healthy behaviours. However, concerns about the acceptability of such interventions remain. We report on focus groups with a cross-section of adults from North East England exploring their acceptance of financial incentive interventions for encouraging healthy behaviours amongst adults. Such information should help guide the design and development of acceptable, and effective, financial incentive interventions. Eight focus groups with a total of 74 adults were conducted between November 2013 and January 2014 in Newcastle upon Tyne, UK. Focus groups lasted approximately 60 minutes and explored factors that made financial incentives acceptable and unacceptable to participants, together with discussions on preferred formats for financial incentives. Verbatim transcripts were thematically coded and analysed in Nvivo 10. Participants largely distrusted health promoting financial incentives, with a concern that individuals may abuse such schemes. There was, however, evidence that health promoting financial incentives may be more acceptable if they are fair to all recipients and members of the public; if they are closely monitored and evaluated; if they are shown to be effective and cost-effective; and if clear health education is provided alongside health promoting financial incentives. There was also a preference for positive rewards rather than negative penalties, and for shopping vouchers rather than cash incentives. This qualitative empirical research has highlighted clear suggestions on how to design health promoting financial incentives to maximise acceptability to the general public. It will also be important to determine the acceptability of health promoting financial incentives in a range of stakeholders, and in particular, those who fund such schemes, and policy-makers who are likely to be involved with the design

  11. Multiple goals and time constraints: perceived impact on physicians' performance of evidence-based behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Jillian J

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Behavioural approaches to knowledge translation inform interventions to improve healthcare. However, such approaches often focus on a single behaviour without considering that health professionals perform multiple behaviours in pursuit of multiple goals in a given clinical context. In resource-limited consultations, performing these other goal-directed behaviours may influence optimal performance of a particular evidence-based behaviour. This study aimed to investigate whether a multiple goal-directed behaviour perspective might inform implementation research beyond single-behaviour approaches. Methods We conducted theory-based semi-structured interviews with 12 general medical practitioners (GPs in Scotland on their views regarding two focal clinical behaviours--providing physical activity (PA advice and prescribing to reduce blood pressure (BP to Results Most GPs reported strong intention to prescribe to reduce BP but expressed reasons why they would not. Intention to provide PA advice was variable. Most GPs reported that time constraints and patient preference detrimentally affected their control over providing PA advice and prescribing to reduce BP, respectively. Most GPs perceived many of their other goal-directed behaviours as interfering with providing PA advice, while fewer GPs reported goal-directed behaviours that interfere with prescribing to reduce BP. Providing PA advice and prescribing to reduce BP were perceived to be facilitated by similar diabetes-related behaviours (e.g., discussing cholesterol. While providing PA advice was perceived to be mainly facilitated by providing other lifestyle-related clinical advice (e.g., talking about weight, BP prescribing was reported as facilitated by pursuing ongoing standard consultation-related goals (e.g., clearly structuring the consultation. Conclusion GPs readily relate their other goal-directed behaviours with having a facilitating and interfering influence on their

  12. Demographic diversity, communication and learning behaviour in healthcare groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curseu, P.L.

    2013-01-01

    An integrative model of group learning was tested in a sample of 40 healthcare groups (434 respondents), and the results show that age diversity reduces the frequency of face-to-face communication whereas educational diversity reduces the frequency of virtual communication in healthcare groups.

  13. Firm-Level Determinants of Exporting Behaviour: Evidence from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper uses firm-level panel data to investigate the exporting behaviour of the Kenyan manufacturing firms. Using probit and tobit regression models, the results obtained show that factors determining the decision to export are different from those affecting the share exported. Likewise, factors determining exporting ...

  14. Management of disruptive behaviour within nursing work environments: a comprehensive systematic review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers-Clark, Catherine; Pearce, Susanne; Cameron, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    In an increasingly complex health care environment, where nurses are essential to the health system's capacity to respond to the challenges presented by an ageing population, creating positive work environments is fundamental for nurses, their co-workers, and their patients. Disruptive clinician behaviour, which refers to behaviours such as bullying and physical violence, but also to more subtle behaviours such as withholding vital information or gossiping, can be highly destructive within a work environment. The implications of such behaviours within the nursing workforce specifically, and to the health care system more broadly, are profound. Substantial evidence suggests that the pervasiveness of such behaviours has consequences for recruitment and retention, staff morale, job satisfaction, and staff absenteeism, as well as intra and inter-professional communication and teamwork which can ultimate also affect patient safety. The extent of the problem of disruptive behaviour in the workforce is discussed widely in the literature and nurses as a cohort have been studied extensively, however there has been no systematic review of evidence relating to how to manage these behaviours successfully. The objective of this systematic review was to appraise and synthesise the best available evidence in relation to interventions which have been successful in managing disruptive clinician behaviour in the nursing work environment. Types of participants - The primary participant group of interest for this systematic review includes nurses working in any health care setting; however any other member of the health care team such as medical practitioners or allied health were also considered.Types of intervention(s)/phenomena of interest - Any study that explored behavioural, educational, managerial, organisational and personal interventions to manage disruptive behaviours in the health care setting was considered.Types of studies - Studies using quantitative and qualitative

  15. Hospital nurses' information retrieval behaviours in relation to evidence based nursing: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alving, Berit Elisabeth; Christensen, Janne Buck; Thrysøe, Lars

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to provide an overview of the information retrieval behaviour of clinical nurses, in terms of the use of databases and other information resources and their frequency of use. Systematic searches carried out in five databases and handsearching were used to identify the studies from 2010 to 2016, with a populations, exposures and outcomes (PEO) search strategy, focusing on the question: In which databases or other information resources do hospital nurses search for evidence based information, and how often? Of 5272 titles retrieved based on the search strategy, only nine studies fulfilled the criteria for inclusion. The studies are from the United States, Canada, Taiwan and Nigeria. The results show that hospital nurses' primary choice of source for evidence based information is Google and peers, while bibliographic databases such as PubMed are secondary choices. Data on frequency are only included in four of the studies, and data are heterogenous. The reasons for choosing Google and peers are primarily lack of time; lack of information; lack of retrieval skills; or lack of training in database searching. Only a few studies are published on clinical nurses' retrieval behaviours, and more studies are needed from Europe and Australia. © 2018 Health Libraries Group.

  16. Climate and the evolution of group-living behaviour in the armadillo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    autumn period of low food availability and resulted in the evolution of heavy armour and group-living behaviour. The moderate winters and early spring temperatures allowed full capitalization on high arthropod abundance during winter–spring, ...

  17. Differential impact of student behaviours on group interaction and collaborative learning: medical students' and tutors' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Maha; Velan, Gary M; O'Sullivan, Anthony J; Balasooriya, Chinthaka

    2016-08-22

    Collaboration is of increasing importance in medical education and medical practice. Students' and tutors' perceptions about small group learning are valuable to inform the development of strategies to promote group dynamics and collaborative learning. This study investigated medical students' and tutors' views on competencies and behaviours which promote effective learning and interaction in small group settings. This study was conducted at UNSW Australia. Five focus group discussions were conducted with first and second year medical students and eight small group tutors were interviewed. Data were transcribed verbatim and thematic analysis was conducted. Students and tutors identified a range of behaviours that influenced collaborative learning. The main themes that emerged included: respectfulness; dominance, strong opinions and openness; constructiveness of feedback; active listening and contribution; goal orientation; acceptance of roles and responsibilities; engagement and enthusiasm; preparedness; self- awareness and positive personal attributes. An important finding was that some of these student behaviours were found to have a differential impact on group interaction compared with collaborative learning. This information could be used to promote higher quality learning in small groups. This study has identified medical students' and tutors' perceptions regarding interactional behaviours in small groups, as well as behaviours which lead to more effective learning in those settings. This information could be used to promote learning in small groups.

  18. Alexithymia and affective verbal behaviour of three groups of patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, S

    1985-01-01

    The study described in this article was designed to investigate patients' response to affective stimuli on two levels of measurement: one was designed to yield information about cognitive attribution processes whereas the second level was aimed at uncovering deeper, more unconscious responses to the given stimuli. These were displayed as part of an experimental setting, in which three groups were compared: psychosomatic (duodenal ulcer), somatic and psychoneurotic patients. Systematic variation was introduced by showing either of two versions of a short film which differed in the degree of friendliness displayed by the main character. The results show differential effects on the two levels of measurement: in the case of the first level, an interpretation within the framework of current conceptualizations of alexithymia would have been possible, but results for the second level of measurement (utilizing Gottschalk-Gleser content analysis of speech) indicate that psychosomatic patients show the same kind of sensitive response to affective stimuli as patients from the other two groups.

  19. Headache and temporomandibular disorders: evidence for diagnostic and behavioural overlap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaros, A G; Urban, D; Locke, J

    2007-06-01

    To assess the diagnostic and behavioural overlap of headache patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD), individuals recruited from the general population with self-described headaches were compared with non-headache controls. The examination and diagnostic procedures in the Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) for TMD were applied to both sets of subjects by a blinded examiner. Following their examination, subjects used experience sampling methods to obtain data on pain, tooth contact, masticatory muscle tension, emotional states and stress. Results showed that a significantly higher proportion of the headache patients received an RDC/TMD diagnosis of myofascial pain than non-headache controls. Headache patients also reported significantly more frequent and intense tooth contact, more masticatory muscle tension, more stress and more pain in the face/head and other parts of the body than non-headache controls. These results are similar to those reported for TMD patients and they suggest that headache patients and TMD patients overlap considerably in diagnosis and oral parafunctional behaviours.

  20. A Brief Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Psychoeducational Group for Chinese People with Chronic Illnesses: An Evaluation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Daniel F. K.; Ip, Priscilla S. Y.; Lee, Kim Man

    2017-01-01

    This pilot study attempted to examine the effectiveness of a brief cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) psychoeducational group for Chinese people with chronic illness in Hong Kong. It adopted a single group design, and 52 participants joined the group. A questionnaire with three outcome measures, measuring general mental health, quality of life…

  1. Behavioural interventions for urinary incontinence in community-dwelling seniors: an evidence-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    community-dwelling seniors with/without cognitive deficits and/or motor deficits?Are patient-directed behavioural interventions effective in improving UI in mobile, motivated community-dwelling seniors?Are behavioural interventions delivered by NCAs or CNSs in a clinic setting effective in improving incontinence outcomes in community-dwelling seniors? The quality of the evidence was assessed as high, moderate, low, or very low according to the GRADE methodology and GRADE Working Group. As per GRADE the following definitions apply: HighFurther research is very unlikely to change confidence in the estimate of effect.ModerateFurther research is likely to have an important impact on confidence in the estimate of effect and may change the estimate.LowFurther research is very likely to have an important impact on confidence in the estimate of effect and is likely to change the estimate.Very LowAny estimate of effect is very uncertain Executive Summary Table 1 summarizes the results of the analysis. The available evidence was limited by considerable variation in study populations and in the type and severity of UI for studies examining both caregiver-directed and patient-directed interventions. The UI literature frequently is limited to reporting subjective outcome measures such as patient observations and symptoms. The primary outcome of interest, admission to a LTC home, was not reported in the UI literature. The number of eligible studies was low, and there were limited data on long-term follow-up. Executive Summary Table 1:Summary of Evidence on Behavioural Interventions for the Treatment of Urinary Incontinence in Community-Dwelling SeniorsInterventionTarget PopulationInterventionsConclusionsGRADE quality of the evidence1. Caregiver-dependent techniques (toileting assistance)Medically complex, frail individuals at home with/without cognitive deficits and/or motor deficitsDelivered by informal caregivers who are trained by a nurse or a nurse with specialized UI training (NCA

  2. Effects of group size on behaviour, growth and occurrence of bite marks in farmed mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsson, Helene M. K.; Hansen, Steffen W.; Loberg, Jenny

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the occurrence of stereotypic behaviours and the activity level in farmed mink when group housed in climbing cages and if group housing increase aggression by assessing the prevalence of bite marks. This was studied in juvenile mink of the colour types...... sunset during six periods of five days each from August-October. After pelting, the leather side of the undried skins were visually inspected for bite marks. Stereotypic behaviours were infrequent (0.1% of observations). Pair housed mink in climbing cages were more "inactive out in cage" than pair housed...... mink in standard cages (p 0.0001), but cage type had no effect on the behaviours "being in nest box", "active out in cage", "interactions with enrichments" or "social interactions" (n.s.). Group sizes of three or four mink increased the behaviours "active out in cage" (P 0.0001) and decreased "being...

  3. Evidence that non-dreamers do dream: a REM sleep behaviour disorder model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlin, Bastien; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Chaumereuil, Charlotte; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2015-12-01

    To determine whether non-dreamers do not produce dreams or do not recall them, subjects were identified with no dream recall with dreamlike behaviours during rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, which is typically characterised by dream-enacting behaviours congruent with sleep mentation. All consecutive patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder or rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder associated with Parkinson's disease who underwent a video-polysomnography were interviewed regarding the presence or absence of dream recall, retrospectively or upon spontaneous arousals. The patients with no dream recall for at least 10 years, and never-ever recallers were compared with dream recallers with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder regarding their clinical, cognitive and sleep features. Of the 289 patients with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, eight (2.8%) patients had no dream recall, including four (1.4%) patients who had never ever recalled dreams, and four patients who had no dream recall for 10-56 years. All non-recallers exhibited, daily or almost nightly, several complex, scenic and dreamlike behaviours and speeches, which were also observed during rapid eye movement sleep on video-polysomnography (arguing, fighting and speaking). They did not recall a dream following sudden awakenings from rapid eye movement sleep. These eight non-recallers with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder did not differ in terms of cognition, clinical, treatment or sleep measures from the 17 dreamers with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder matched for age, sex and disease. The scenic dreamlike behaviours reported and observed during rapid eye movement sleep in the rare non-recallers with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder (even in the never-ever recallers) provide strong evidence that non-recallers produce dreams, but do not recall them. Rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder provides a new model to

  4. A study of the information seeking behaviour of hospital pharmacists: empirical evidence from Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostagiolas, Petros A; Aggelopoulou, Vasiliki A; Niakas, Dimitris

    2011-12-01

    Hospital pharmacists need access to high-quality information in order to constantly update their knowledge and improve their skills. In their modern role, they are expected to address three types of challenges: scientific, organizational and administrative, thus having an increased need for adequate information and library services. This study investigates the information-seeking behaviour of public hospital pharmacists providing evidence from Greece that could be used to encourage the development of effective information hospital services and study the links between the information seeking behaviour of hospital pharmacists and their modern scientific and professional role. An empirical research was conducted between January and February 2010 with the development and distribution of a structured questionnaire. The questionnaire was filled in and returned by 88 public hospital pharmacists from a total of 286 working in all Greek public hospitals, providing a response rate of 31%. The hospital pharmacists in Greece are in search of scientific information and, more particularly, pharmaceutical information (e.g., drug indications, storage, dosage and prices). The Internet and the National Organization of Medicines are their main information sources, while the lack of time and organized information are the main obstacles they have to face when seeking information. The modern professional role of hospital pharmacists as invaluable contributors to efficient and safer healthcare services may be further supported through the development of specialized libraries and information services within Greek public hospitals. © 2011 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2011 Health Libraries Group.

  5. ANALYSIS OF RAILWAY USER TRAVEL BEHAVIOUR PATTERNS OF DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takamasa AKIYAMA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there have been requirments for a transport environment that will foster the development of safe, comfortable townships. The study of urban activities amid an aging society and effective use of public transport modes in addressing environmental problems have become particularly important issues. This study analyzes travel behaviour patterns of varying age groups using urban railways in order to examine the relationship between urban public transport use and urban activities. specifically, it analyzes the composition of urban activity and travel behaviour patterns among urban railway users in the Keihanshin (Kyoto-Osaka-Kobe metropolitan area. This paper looks at urban activities within aging societies and identifies the differences in travel behaviour of railway users by separating them into young, middle aged and senior citizen age groups. Analysis makes particular use of the Railway station Database, which is a compilation of existing studies into attributes of railway stations and their surroundings, and results of person trip surveys. Rail use behaviour characteristics have been sorted by age group because mobility via urban railway systems is varied by age group. As a result, differences in railway usage patterns (travel objectives, distance and time, and number of transfers, etc. have been identified and so too have differences in urban activity patterns related to free activities (shopping, recreation. Furthermore, the study developed a travel behaviour pattern estimation model which is capable of categorizing specific transport behaviour patterns and estimating rail users and transport behaviour patterns from the relationship with areas surrounding railway stations to ensure future mobility by public transport for older age groups. The results make it possible to put forward proposals for urban rail services that will facilitate urban activities for the different age groups. Eventually, it will be possible to understand

  6. Search for evidence of source event grouping among ureilites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, S. P.; Swindle, T. D.

    2017-11-01

    We use cosmic-ray exposure (CRE) ages of ureilites, combined with magnesium numbers of olivine, and oxygen isotopes, to search for evidence of specific source events initiating exposure for groups of ureilites. This technique can also be used to investigate the heterogeneity of the body from which the samples were derived. There are a total of 39 ureilites included in our work, which represents the largest collection of ureilite CRE age data used to date. Although we find some evidence of possible clusters, it is clear that most ureilites did not originate in one or two events on a homogeneous parent body.

  7. Genetic evidence for patrilocal mating behavior among Neandertal groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Rosas, Antonio; Estalrrich, Almudena

    2011-01-01

    The remains of 12 Neandertal individuals have been found at the El Sidrón site (Asturias, Spain), consisting of six adults, three adolescents, two juveniles, and one infant. Archaeological, paleontological, and geological evidence indicates that these individuals represent all or part of a contem...... of the three adult females carried different mtDNA lineages. These findings provide evidence to indicate that Neandertal groups not only were small and characterized by low genetic diversity but also were likely to have practiced patrilocal mating behavior....

  8. Factors Influencing Suicide Behaviours in Immigrant and Ethno-Cultural Minority Groups: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Daniel W L; Li, Lun; Daoust, Gabrielle D

    2017-06-01

    This paper reviews recent literature on factors influencing suicide behaviours, including thoughts, plans, and attempts, in immigrant and ethno-cultural minority groups, to inform a more comprehensive understanding of suicide behaviours in increasingly culturally diverse populations. Thirty-three studies published between 2002 and 2013 were identified through digital databases searches and included in this review. Analysis of study findings focused on impacts of ethno-cultural identity and acculturation, other cultural and immigration influences, and family and community supports on suicide behaviours. Policy, practice, and research recommendations are identified, to inform relevant suicide prevention efforts and enhance mental health supports for immigrant and ethno-cultural minority populations.

  9. Evidence for attitudinal-behaviour consistency:Implications for consumer research paradigms

    OpenAIRE

    Foxall, Gordon R.

    1983-01-01

    Evidence is presented in this paper to show that the view ofmarketing communications effects promulgated by numerous marketing, advertising and consumer behaviour texts and journals should be questioned. This is the portrayal of advertising, in particular, as strongly persuasive, a pre-purchase influence which acts upon purchase behaviour by first operating upon and modifying mental attitudes. The latent process conception of attitude upon which this perspective is founded lacks convincing em...

  10. Short-Term Cognitive-Behavioural Group Treatment for Hoarding Disorder: A Naturalistic Treatment Outcome Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulding, Richard; Nedeljkovic, Maja; Kyrios, Michael; Osborne, Debra; Mogan, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    The study aim was to test whether a 12-week publically rebated group programme, based upon Steketee and Frost's Cognitive Behavioural Therapy-based hoarding treatment, would be efficacious in a community-based setting. Over a 3-year period, 77 participants with clinically significant hoarding were recruited into 12 group programmes. All completed treatment; however, as this was a community-based naturalistic study, only 41 completed the post-treatment assessment. Treatment included psychoeducation about hoarding, skills training for organization and decision making, direct in-session exposure to sorting and discarding, and cognitive and behavioural techniques to support out-of-session sorting and discarding, and nonacquiring. Self-report measures used to assess treatment effect were the Savings Inventory-Revised (SI-R), Savings Cognition Inventory, and the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales. Pre-post analyses indicated that after 12 weeks of treatment, hoarding symptoms as measured on the SI-R had reduced significantly, with large effect sizes reported in total and across all subscales. Moderate effect sizes were also reported for hoarding-related beliefs (emotional attachment and responsibility) and depressive symptoms. Of the 41 participants who completed post-treatment questionnaires, 14 (34%) were conservatively calculated to have clinically significant change, which is considerable given the brevity of the programme judged against the typical length of the disorder. The main limitation of the study was the moderate assessment completion rate, given its naturalistic setting. This study demonstrated that a 12-week group treatment for hoarding disorders was effective in reducing hoarding and depressive symptoms in an Australian clinical cohort and provides evidence for use of this treatment approach in a community setting. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. A 12-week group programme delivered in a community setting was effective for helping with

  11. Working with Clients Who Engage in Self-Harming Behaviour: Experiences of a Group of Counsellors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Claudine

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the experiences of a group of counsellors regarding working with clients who engage in self-harming behaviour, in order to gain an understanding of what it is like to work with this client group. A series of six individual, semi-structured qualitative interviews were carried out, which were then transcribed and analysed…

  12. How do Small Groups Promote Behaviour Change? An Integrative Conceptual Review of Explanatory Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borek, Aleksandra J; Abraham, Charles

    2018-03-01

    Small groups are used to promote health, well-being, and personal change by altering members' perceptions, beliefs, expectations, and behaviour patterns. An extensive cross-disciplinary literature has articulated and tested theories explaining how such groups develop, function, and facilitate change. Yet these theoretical understandings are rarely applied in the development, description, and evaluation of health-promotion, group-based, behaviour-change interventions. Medline database, library catalogues, search engines, specific journals and reference lists were searched for relevant texts. Texts were reviewed for explanatory concepts or theories describing change processes in groups, which were integrated into the developing conceptual structure. This was designed to be a parsimonious conceptual framework that could be applied to design and delivery. Five categories of interacting processes and concepts were identified and defined: (1) group development processes, (2) dynamic group processes, (3) social change processes, (4) personal change processes, and (5) group design and operating parameters. Each of these categories encompasses a variety of theorised mechanisms explaining individual change in small groups. The final conceptual model, together with the design issues and practical recommendations derived from it, provides a practical basis for linking research and theory explaining group functioning to optimal design of group-based, behaviour-change interventions. © 2018 The Authors. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Association of Applied Psychology.

  13. Observational evidences of viscoelastic behaviour at low strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daminelli, Rosastella; Marcellini, Alberto; Tento, Alberto

    2014-05-01

    Theoretical formulations of inhomogeneous waves in low-loss media have been suggested by a number of researchers due to the important role played by anelasticity in changing the characteristics of seismic waves. The Homogeneous Isotropic Linear Viscoelastic Model (HILV) introduced by Borcherdt (2009) is particularly promising because of its mathematical simplicity and the handiness to test the model in real seismograms. We showed that the seismograms of the explosion of a 2nd World War bomb found in Milan recorded by a seismic station at 2 km epicentral distance, exhibit a clear elliptical prograde P wave particle motion (Marcellini and Tento, 2011) as predicted by HILV. We observed a similar P wave prograde elliptical motion analysing a ML 4.8 earthquake occurred on July 17, 2011 in the Po Valley at a 48 km epicentral distance from a seismic station located at Palazzo Te, Mantova (Daminelli et al., 2013). In both cases the stations were situated on the deep quaternary sediments of the Po Valley. Based on measured Vp and Vs and the amplitude of the recorded motion, the strain at the station sites was estimated to be 10-6, 10-7. In this paper we extend the analysis of the previously mentioned seismograms to check the feasibility of HILV application to other types of waves that are particularly relevant in fields such as the engineering seismology. We focus on the S waves (as it is well known HILV predicts the split of S in S type I and S type II) of the seismograms of the earthquake recorded in Mantova and on the Rayleigh waves of the explosion recorded in Milan. The results show that observational evidences of HILV are not as clear as for P waves, probably because of noise or superposition of converted waves. However, once established the validity of HILV by P waves (that is very simple), the whole seismograms can be interpreted following HILV, confirming the relevancy of anelasticity also at low strain. Borcherdt, R.D. (2009) 'Viscoelastic Waves in Layered Media

  14. Treating panic symptoms within everyday clinical settings: the feasibility of a group cognitive behavioural intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austin, S.F.; Sumbundu, A.D.; Lykke, J.

    2008-01-01

    of significant clinical change displayed and resources required to carry out the intervention. A small sample of GP-referred patients displaying panic symptoms completed a 2-week intensive cognitive-behavioural intervention. Results collected post-intervention revealed significant clinical reductions in panic......Panic disorder is a common and debilitating disorder that has a prevalence rate of 3-5% in the general population. Cognitive-behavioural interventions have been shown to be an efficacious treatment for panic, although a limited number of studies have examined the effectiveness of such interventions...... implemented in everyday clinical settings. The aim of the following pilot study was to examine the feasibility of a brief group cognitive-behavioural intervention carried out in a clinical setting. Salient issues in determining feasibility include: representativeness of patient group treated, amount...

  15. Ambivalence, prejudice and negative behavioural tendencies towards out-groups: The moderating role of attitude basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costarelli, Sandro; Gerłowska, Justyna

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments explored the relations between prejudice (suppression), (cognitive) ambivalence and negative behavioural tendencies towards out-groups. The current work argues that expressing out-group ambivalence based on cognitive, but not affective, information is a strategy to justify one's otherwise suppressed prejudice, which may ultimately "cover" the discriminatory nature of out-group-directed negative behavioural tendencies. Two experiments show that (1) participants evaluating the out-group in a normative context inducing prejudice suppression are more likely to self-report ambivalent beliefs rather than ambivalent emotions concerning the out-group as compared with participants whose prejudice expression is induced and (2) high-prejudice participants compared with low-prejudice participants are more prone to out-group-directed negative behavioural tendencies when these latter are self-reported after the expression of ambivalent beliefs but not ambivalent emotions concerning the out-group, and when the expression of their prejudicial evaluations is salient but not when it is not. In light of the extent to which ambivalent attitudes towards out-groups are often seamlessly integrated into public discourse, the implications of the findings are discussed not only for intergroup research but also at the societal level.

  16. A Naturalistic Comparison of Group Transdiagnostic Behaviour Therapy (TBT) and Disorder-Specific Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Groups for the Affective Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gros, Daniel F; Merrifield, Colleen; Rowa, Karen; Szafranski, Derek D; Young, Lisa; McCabe, Randi E

    2018-05-29

    Transdiagnostic psychotherapies are designed to apply the same underlying treatment principles across a set of psychiatric disorders, without significant tailoring to specific diagnoses. Several transdiagnostic psychotherapy protocols have been developed recently, each of which has its own strengths and weaknesses. One promising treatment is Transdiagnostic Behaviour Therapy (TBT), in that it is one of the few transdiagnostic treatments to date shown to be effective in patients with depressive and anxiety disorders. However, TBT has only been investigated via individual psychotherapy. The present study investigated the effectiveness of a group protocol for TBT, compared with disorder-specific group psychotherapies, in a naturalistic setting. 109 participants with various diagnoses of affective disorders completed either group TBT (n = 37) or a disorder-specific group psychotherapy (n = 72). Measures included assessments of psychiatric symptomatology and transdiagnostic impairment at baseline and post-treatment. Overall, participants in the TBT group demonstrated significant improvements across all measures. When compared with disorder-specific groups, no statistical differences were observed between groups across symptoms; however, participants in the TBT group demonstrated roughly twice the treatment effect sizes in transdiagnostic impairment compared with participants in the disorder-specific groups. In addition, when participants from the most well-represented diagnosis and disorder-specific treatment (social anxiety disorder) were investigated separately, participants in the TBT group demonstrated significantly larger improvements in comorbid depressive symptoms than participants in the disorder-specific treatment. Pending replication and additional comparison studies, group TBT may provide an effective group treatment option for patients with affective disorders.

  17. Big hearts, small hands: a focus group study exploring parental food portion behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Curtis

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of healthy food portion sizes among families is deemed critical to childhood weight management; yet little is known about the interacting factors influencing parents’ portion control behaviours. This study aimed to use two synergistic theoretical models of behaviour: the COM-B model (Capability, Opportunity, Motivation – Behaviour and Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF to identify a broad spectrum of theoretically derived influences on parents’ portion control behaviours including examination of affective and habitual influences often excluded from prevailing theories of behaviour change. Methods Six focus groups exploring family weight management comprised of one with caseworkers (n = 4, four with parents of overweight children (n = 14 and one with parents of healthy weight children (n = 8. A thematic analysis was performed across the dataset where the TDF/COM-B were used as coding frameworks. Results To achieve the target behaviour, the behavioural analysis revealed the need for eliciting change in all three COM-B domains and nine associated TDF domains. Findings suggest parents’ internal processes such as their emotional responses, habits and beliefs, along with social influences from partners and grandparents, and environmental influences relating to items such as household objects, interact to influence portion size behaviours within the home environment. Conclusion This is the first study underpinned by COM-B/TDF frameworks applied to childhood weight management and provides new targets for intervention development and the opportunity for future research to explore the mediating and moderating effects of these variables on one another.

  18. Renormalisation group behaviour of O+ and 2+ glueball masses in SU(2) lattice gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, K.; Schierholz, G.

    1982-07-01

    We calculate the 0 + and 2 + glueball masses at several values of the coupling and verify compatibility with the desired renormalisation group behaviour. The calculation uses momentum smeared glueball wave functions on a large 8 4 lattice and confirms our previous results obtained on smaller lattices. (orig.)

  19. Evidence-based practice exposure and physiotherapy students' behaviour during clinical placements: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Nina Rydland; Lygren, Hildegunn; Espehaug, Birgitte; Nortvedt, Monica Wammen; Bradley, Peter; Bjordal, Jan Magnus

    2014-12-01

    Physiotherapists are expected to practice in an evidence-based way. Evidence-based practice (EBP) should be an integral part of the curriculum to ensure use of the five EBP steps: asking clinical questions, searching for and appraising research evidence, integrating the evidence into clinical practice and evaluating this process. The aim of this study was to compare self-reported EBP behaviour, abilities and barriers during clinical placements reported by five cohorts of final year physiotherapy students' with different EBP exposure across the 3-year bachelor programme. A cross-sectional study was conducted among five cohorts (2006-2010) with third year physiotherapy students at a University College in Norway. In total, 246 students were eligible for this study. To collect data, we used a questionnaire with 42 items related to EBP behaviour, ability and barriers. Associations were investigated using the Spearman's rho (r). In total, 180 out of 246 third year physiotherapy students, who had recently completed a clinical placement, filled out the questionnaire (73 %). The association between the level of EBP exposure and students' self-reported EBP behaviour, abilities and barriers was low for most items in the questionnaire. Statistically significant correlations were found for eight items, related to information need, question formulation, use of checklists, searching and perceived ability to search for and critically appraise research evidence. The strongest correlation was found between the level of EBP exposure and ability to critically appraise research evidence (r = 0.41, p physiotherapy students' EBP behaviour was found for elements such as asking and searching, ability to search for and critically appraise research evidence, and experience of critical appraisal as a barrier. Further research need to explore strategies for EBP exposure throughout the curriculum, regarding content, timing, amount and type of training. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons

  20. Parents' experiences of being in the Solihull Approach parenting group, 'Understanding Your Child's Behaviour': an interpretative phenomenological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, L R; Butterworth, R E; Johnson, R; Law, G Urquhart

    2015-11-01

    Empirical evidence suggests that the Solihull Approach parenting group, 'Understanding Your Child's Behaviour' (UYCB), can improve child behaviour and parental well-being. However, little is known about parents' in-depth experience of participating in the UYCB programme. This study provides an in-depth qualitative evaluation of UYCB, focussing on possible moderating factors and mechanisms of change that may inform programme development. Ten parents (eight mothers and two fathers), recruited from seven UYCB groups across two locations, were interviewed within 7 weeks of completing the group and again 10 months later. Data were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Four themes were identified: 'Two Tiers of Satisfaction', 'Development as a Parent', 'Improved Self-belief' and 'The "Matthew Effect"'. In summary, the majority of parents were immensely satisfied at both completion and follow-up: they valued an experience of containment and social support and perceived improvement in specific child difficulties, their experience of parenting, their confidence and their coping. Most parents appeared to have developed more reflective and empathic parenting styles, with self-reported improved behaviour management. Theoretical material was well received, although some struggled with technical language. Positive outcomes appeared to be maintained, even reinforced, at follow-up, and were associated with having few initial child difficulties, perceiving improvement at completion and persevering with the recommendations. Two participants, whose children had the most severe difficulties, perceived deterioration and felt that the group was insufficient for their level of difficulties. Through in-depth analysis of parental experiences, UYCB appears to achieve its aims and communicate well its theoretical principles, although change may also occur through processes common to other group programmes (e.g. social support). Recommendations, stemming from the

  1. Impaired insight in cocaine addiction: laboratory evidence and effects on cocaine-seeking behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Thomas; Parvaz, Muhammad A.; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Woicik, Patricia A.; Telang, Frank; Wang, Gene-Jack; Volkow, Nora D.; Goldstein, Rita Z.

    2010-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric disorders are often characterized by impaired insight into behaviour. Such an insight deficit has been suggested, but never directly tested, in drug addiction. Here we tested for the first time this impaired insight hypothesis in drug addiction, and examined its potential association with drug-seeking behaviour. We also tested potential modulation of these effects by cocaine urine status, an individual difference known to impact underlying cognitive functions and prognosis. Sixteen cocaine addicted individuals testing positive for cocaine in urine, 26 cocaine addicted individuals testing negative for cocaine in urine, and 23 healthy controls completed a probabilistic choice task that assessed objective preference for viewing four types of pictures (pleasant, unpleasant, neutral and cocaine). This choice task concluded by asking subjects to report their most selected picture type; correspondence between subjects’ self-reports with their objective choice behaviour provided our index of behavioural insight. Results showed that the urine positive cocaine subjects exhibited impaired insight into their own choice behaviour compared with healthy controls; this same study group also selected the most cocaine pictures (and fewest pleasant pictures) for viewing. Importantly, however, it was the urine negative cocaine subjects whose behaviour was most influenced by insight, such that impaired insight in this subgroup only was associated with higher cocaine-related choice on the task and more severe actual cocaine use. These findings suggest that interventions to enhance insight may decrease drug-seeking behaviour, especially in urine negative cocaine subjects, potentially to improve their longer-term clinical outcomes. PMID:20395264

  2. Impaired insight in cocaine addiction: laboratory evidence and effects on cocaine-seeking behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, S.J.; Moeller, S.J.; Maloney, T.; Parvaz, M.A.; Alia-Klein, N.; Woicik, P.A.; Telang, F.; Wang, G.-J.; Volkow, N.D.; Goldstein, R.Z.

    2010-04-15

    Neuropsychiatric disorders are often characterized by impaired insight into behaviour. Such an insight deficit has been suggested, but never directly tested, in drug addiction. Here we tested for the first time this impaired insight hypothesis in drug addiction, and examined its potential association with drug-seeking behaviour. We also tested potential modulation of these effects by cocaine urine status, an individual difference known to impact underlying cognitive functions and prognosis. Sixteen cocaine addicted individuals testing positive for cocaine in urine, 26 cocaine addicted individuals testing negative for cocaine in urine, and 23 healthy controls completed a probabilistic choice task that assessed objective preference for viewing four types of pictures (pleasant, unpleasant, neutral and cocaine). This choice task concluded by asking subjects to report their most selected picture type; correspondence between subjects self-reports with their objective choice behaviour provided our index of behavioural insight. Results showed that the urine positive cocaine subjects exhibited impaired insight into their own choice behaviour compared with healthy controls; this same study group also selected the most cocaine pictures (and fewest pleasant pictures) for viewing. Importantly, however, it was the urine negative cocaine subjects whose behaviour was most influenced by insight, such that impaired insight in this subgroup only was associated with higher cocaine-related choice on the task and more severe actual cocaine use. These findings suggest that interventions to enhance insight may decrease drug-seeking behaviour, especially in urine negative cocaine subjects, potentially to improve their longer-term clinical outcomes.

  3. Group Differences in Test-Taking Behaviour: An Example from a High-Stakes Testing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenlund, Tova; Eklöf, Hanna; Lyrén, Per-Erik

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated whether different groups of test-takers vary in their reported test-taking behaviour in a high-stakes test situation. A between-group design (N = 1129) was used to examine whether high and low achievers, as well as females and males, differ in their use of test-taking strategies, and in level of reported test anxiety and…

  4. Systematic mapping review of the factors influencing dietary behaviour in ethnic minority groups living in Europe: a DEDIPAC study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osei-Kwasi, Hibbah Araba; Nicolaou, Mary; Powell, Katie; Terragni, Laura; Maes, Lea; Stronks, Karien; Lien, Nanna; Holdsworth, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Europe has a growing population of ethnic minority groups whose dietary behaviours are potentially of public health concern. To promote healthier diets, the factors driving dietary behaviours need to be understood. This review mapped the broad range of factors influencing dietary behaviour among

  5. Cochrane review: behavioural and cognitive-behavioural group-based parenting programmes for early-onset conduct problems in children aged 3 to 12 years (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlong, Mairead; McGilloway, Sinead; Bywater, Tracey; Hutchings, Judy; Smith, Susan M; Donnelly, Michael

    2013-03-07

    Early-onset child conduct problems are common and costly. A large number of studies and some previous reviews have focused on behavioural and cognitive-behavioural group-based parenting interventions, but methodological limitations are commonplace and evidence for the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of these programmes has been unclear. To assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of behavioural and cognitive-behavioural group-based parenting programmes for improving child conduct problems, parental mental health and parenting skills. We searched the following databases between 23 and 31 January 2011: CENTRAL (2011, Issue 1), MEDLINE (1950 to current), EMBASE (1980 to current), CINAHL (1982 to current), PsycINFO (1872 to current), Social Science Citation Index (1956 to current), ASSIA (1987 to current), ERIC (1966 to current), Sociological Abstracts (1963 to current), Academic Search Premier (1970 to current), Econlit (1969 to current), PEDE (1980 to current), Dissertations and Theses Abstracts (1980 to present), NHS EED (searched 31 January 2011), HEED (searched 31 January 2011), DARE (searched 31 January 2011), HTA (searched 31 January 2011), mRCT (searched 29 January 2011). We searched the following parent training websites on 31 January 2011: Triple P Library, Incredible Years Library and Parent Management Training. We also searched the reference lists of studies and reviews. We included studies if: (1) they involved randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-randomised controlled trials of behavioural and cognitive-behavioural group-based parenting interventions for parents of children aged 3 to 12 years with conduct problems, and (2) incorporated an intervention group versus a waiting list, no treatment or standard treatment control group. We only included studies that used at least one standardised instrument to measure child conduct problems. Two authors independently assessed the risk of bias in the trials and the methodological quality of

  6. A review of behaviour change theories and techniques used in group based self-management programmes for chronic low back pain and arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Alison; Tully, Mark A; Matthews, James; Hurley, Deirdre A

    2015-12-01

    Medical Research Council (MRC) guidelines recommend applying theory within complex interventions to explain how behaviour change occurs. Guidelines endorse self-management of chronic low back pain (CLBP) and osteoarthritis (OA), but evidence for its effectiveness is weak. This literature review aimed to determine the use of behaviour change theory and techniques within randomised controlled trials of group-based self-management programmes for chronic musculoskeletal pain, specifically CLBP and OA. A two-phase search strategy of electronic databases was used to identify systematic reviews and studies relevant to this area. Articles were coded for their use of behaviour change theory, and the number of behaviour change techniques (BCTs) was identified using a 93-item taxonomy, Taxonomy (v1). 25 articles of 22 studies met the inclusion criteria, of which only three reported having based their intervention on theory, and all used Social Cognitive Theory. A total of 33 BCTs were coded across all articles with the most commonly identified techniques being 'instruction on how to perform the behaviour', 'demonstration of the behaviour', 'behavioural practice', 'credible source', 'graded tasks' and 'body changes'. Results demonstrate that theoretically driven research within group based self-management programmes for chronic musculoskeletal pain is lacking, or is poorly reported. Future research that follows recommended guidelines regarding the use of theory in study design and reporting is warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Developing theory-informed behaviour change interventions to implement evidence into practice: a systematic approach using the Theoretical Domains Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    French Simon D

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is little systematic operational guidance about how best to develop complex interventions to reduce the gap between practice and evidence. This article is one in a Series of articles documenting the development and use of the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF to advance the science of implementation research. Methods The intervention was developed considering three main components: theory, evidence, and practical issues. We used a four-step approach, consisting of guiding questions, to direct the choice of the most appropriate components of an implementation intervention: Who needs to do what, differently? Using a theoretical framework, which barriers and enablers need to be addressed? Which intervention components (behaviour change techniques and mode(s of delivery could overcome the modifiable barriers and enhance the enablers? And how can behaviour change be measured and understood? Results A complex implementation intervention was designed that aimed to improve acute low back pain management in primary care. We used the TDF to identify the barriers and enablers to the uptake of evidence into practice and to guide the choice of intervention components. These components were then combined into a cohesive intervention. The intervention was delivered via two facilitated interactive small group workshops. We also produced a DVD to distribute to all participants in the intervention group. We chose outcome measures in order to assess the mediating mechanisms of behaviour change. Conclusions We have illustrated a four-step systematic method for developing an intervention designed to change clinical practice based on a theoretical framework. The method of development provides a systematic framework that could be used by others developing complex implementation interventions. While this framework should be iteratively adjusted and refined to suit other contexts and settings, we believe that the four-step process should be

  8. Developing theory-informed behaviour change interventions to implement evidence into practice: a systematic approach using the Theoretical Domains Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Simon D; Green, Sally E; O'Connor, Denise A; McKenzie, Joanne E; Francis, Jill J; Michie, Susan; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Schattner, Peter; Spike, Neil; Grimshaw, Jeremy M

    2012-04-24

    There is little systematic operational guidance about how best to develop complex interventions to reduce the gap between practice and evidence. This article is one in a Series of articles documenting the development and use of the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) to advance the science of implementation research. The intervention was developed considering three main components: theory, evidence, and practical issues. We used a four-step approach, consisting of guiding questions, to direct the choice of the most appropriate components of an implementation intervention: Who needs to do what, differently? Using a theoretical framework, which barriers and enablers need to be addressed? Which intervention components (behaviour change techniques and mode(s) of delivery) could overcome the modifiable barriers and enhance the enablers? And how can behaviour change be measured and understood? A complex implementation intervention was designed that aimed to improve acute low back pain management in primary care. We used the TDF to identify the barriers and enablers to the uptake of evidence into practice and to guide the choice of intervention components. These components were then combined into a cohesive intervention. The intervention was delivered via two facilitated interactive small group workshops. We also produced a DVD to distribute to all participants in the intervention group. We chose outcome measures in order to assess the mediating mechanisms of behaviour change. We have illustrated a four-step systematic method for developing an intervention designed to change clinical practice based on a theoretical framework. The method of development provides a systematic framework that could be used by others developing complex implementation interventions. While this framework should be iteratively adjusted and refined to suit other contexts and settings, we believe that the four-step process should be maintained as the primary framework to guide researchers through a

  9. Association between cancer literacy and cancer-related behaviour: evidence from Ticino, Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Diviani

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. This paper details the role of different dimensions of health literacy in the relationship between health literacy and cancer-related health behaviours. In particular, Cancer Literacy is studied as an exemplar of a dimension of health literacy beyond basic reading and writing skills. The link between functional health literacy, Cancer Literacy and cancer-related health behaviours is investigated in a sample of Ticino (Switzerland residents (n=639. Design and methods. Detailed data is collected about respondents’ functional health literacy, Cancer Literacy, cancer information seeking behaviour, engagement in cancer preventive behaviours, participation to cancer screenings, and intention to adhere to current screening recommendations. Results. Results confirm the added value of Cancer Literacy – compared to functional health literacy – in explaining people’s cancer information seeking behaviour, their participation to several cancer screenings and their screening intention, underscoring the need to take into account dimensions of health literacy beyond basic functional skills. Conclusions. From a public health perspective, findings provide further evidence on the importance of adapting informational and educational communication intervention designed to improve cancer prevention and screening to different audiences.

  10. ANALYSIS OF RAILWAY USER TRAVEL BEHAVIOUR PATTERNS OF DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS

    OpenAIRE

    AKIYAMA, Takamasa; OKUSHIMA, Masashi

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, there have been requirments for a transport environment that will foster the development of safe, comfortable townships. The study of urban activities amid an aging society and effective use of public transport modes in addressing environmental problems have become particularly important issues. This study analyzes travel behaviour patterns of varying age groups using urban railways in order to examine the relationship between urban public transport use and urban activities. ...

  11. Love thy neighbour: group properties of gaping behaviour in mussel aggregations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katy R Nicastro

    Full Text Available By associating closely with others to form a group, an animal can benefit from a number of advantages including reduced risk of predation, amelioration of environmental conditions, and increased reproductive success, but at the price of reduced resources. Although made up of individual members, an aggregation often displays novel effects that do not manifest at the level of the individual organism. Here we show that very simple behaviour in intertidal mussels shows new effects in dense aggregations but not in isolated individuals. Perna perna and Mytilus galloprovincialis are gaping (periodic valve movement during emersion and non-gaping mussels respectively. P. perna gaping behaviour had no effect on body temperatures of isolated individuals, while it led to increased humidity and decreased temperatures in dense groups (beds. Gaping resulted in cooler body temperatures for P. perna than M. galloprovincialis when in aggregations, while solitary individuals exhibited the highest temperatures. Gradients of increasing body temperature were detected from the center to edges of beds, but M. galloprovincialis at the edge had the same temperature as isolated individuals. Furthermore, a field study showed that during periods of severe heat stress, mortality rates of mussels within beds of the gaping P. perna were lower than those of isolated individuals or within beds of M. galloprovincialis, highlighting the determinant role of gaping on fitness and group functioning. We demonstrate that new effects of very simple individual behaviour lead to amelioration of abiotic conditions at the aggregation level and that these effects increase mussel resistance to thermal stress.

  12. Behavioural and Psychiatric Phenotypes in Men and Boys with X-Linked Ichthyosis: Evidence from a Worldwide Online Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohini Chatterjee

    Full Text Available X-linked ichthyosis (XLI is a rare dermatological condition arising from deficiency for the enzyme steroid sulfatase (STS. Preliminary evidence in boys with XLI, and animal model studies, suggests that individuals lacking STS are at increased risk of developmental disorders and associated traits. However, the behavioural profile of children with XLI is poorly-characterised, and the behavioural profile of adults with XLI has not yet been documented at all.Using an online survey, advertised worldwide, we collected detailed self- or parent-reported information on behaviour in adult (n = 58 and younger (≤18yrs, n = 24 males with XLI for comparison to data from their non-affected brothers, and age/gender-matched previously-published normative data. The survey comprised demographic and background information (including any prior clinical diagnoses and validated questionnaires assaying phenotypes of particular interest (Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale v1.1, Barrett Impulsiveness Scale-11, adult and adolescent Autism Quotient, Kessler Psychological Distress Scales, and Disruptive Behaviour Disorder Rating Scale.Individuals with XLI generally exhibited normal sensory function. Boys with XLI were at increased risk of developmental disorder, whilst adults with the condition were at increased risk of both developmental and mood disorders. Both adult and younger XLI groups scored significantly more highly than male general population norms on measures of inattention, impulsivity, autism-related traits, psychological distress and disruptive behavioural traits.These findings indicate that both adult and younger males with XLI exhibit personality profiles that are distinct from those of males within the general population, and suggest that individuals with XLI may be at heightened risk of psychopathology. The data are consistent with the notion that STS is important in neurodevelopment and ongoing brain function, and with previous work suggesting high rates of

  13. Group housing during gestation affects the behaviour of sows and the physiological indices of offspring at weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Q; Sun, Q; Wang, G; Zhou, B; Lu, M; Marchant-Forde, J N; Yang, X; Zhao, R

    2014-07-01

    To compare the behaviour of sows and the physiological indices of their offspring in stall and group-housing systems, 28 sows were randomly distributed into two systems with 16 sows in stalls, and the other 12 sows were divided into three groups with four sows per pen. The area per sow in stalls and groups was 1.2 and 2.5 m2, respectively. Back fat depth of the sow was measured. Salivary cortisol concentration of the sows, colostrum composition and piglets' serum biochemical indicators were evaluated. The behaviour of the sows, including agonistic behaviour, non-agonistic social behaviour, stereotypical behaviour and other behaviours at weeks 2, 9 and 14 of pregnancy were analysed. The results showed no differences in the back fat depth of sows. Colostrum protein, triglyceride, triiodothyronine, thyroxine and prolactin concentrations in the whey also demonstrated no significant differences between the two housing systems. Salivary cortisol concentration was significantly higher in the sows housed in groups than the sows in stalls. The concentrations of serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were significantly higher in the offspring of sows housed in groups (P=0.006 and 0.005, respectively). The GLM procedure for repeated measures analysis showed the frequency of drinking, and non-agonistic social behaviour was significantly higher in the sows housed in groups than the sows in stalls; yet the frequency of agonistic and sham chewing demonstrated the opposite direction. The duration of standing was significantly longer in the sows housed in groups, but the sitting and stereotypical behaviour duration were significantly shorter compared with the sows in stalls. These results indicated that group housing has no obvious influence on the colostrum composition of sows; however, it was better for sows to express their non-agonistic social behaviour and reduce the frequency of agonistic behaviour and stereotypical behaviour. Meanwhile, group

  14. BETWEEN THE RIGHT AND THE COMMON. HOW GROUPS REACT TO SOCIALLY UNDESIRABLE BEHAVIOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komendant-Brodowska Agata

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to analyse the relationship between group characteristics and the scope of reaction of the group to socially undesirable behaviour. Sometimes small groups or communities fail to react to undesirable or violent behaviour and their apathy can have devastating consequences. Such a situation can occur among co-workers witnessing workplace mobbing, or neighbours who do not react to a suspicion of domestic violence. Reasons for their inaction are diverse and can include fear, doubts concerning the necessity of such a reaction, and also conformity. In the paper I examine a seemingly favourable situation: I assume that reaction is costless and all the members of the group would like to react (internalised norm, but they also want to conform. In order to analyse the factors that can influence the scope of group reaction, a structurally embedded sequential coordination game was played for different initial conditions. Computer simulations were conducted for networks of a specific type (Erd¨os-R´enyi random graph. The main aim of the analysis was to identify non-structural and structural features of the group that can impede or even block the intervention of the group. There is a positive relationship between the scope of group reaction and the strength of the internalized norm, whereas the level of conformity affects the chances of group intervention in a negative way. Heterogeneity of the group is an important factor - the scope of reaction is higher when members of the group have different levels of norm internalisation and conformity. There is a non-linear relationship between network density and the scope of reaction. Both low and high density can make it harder for people to act.

  15. The Assessment of Eating Behaviour in Children Who Are Obese: A Psychological Approach. A Position Paper from the European Childhood Obesity Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braet, Caroline; O'Malley, Grace; Weghuber, Daniel; Vania, Andrea; Erhardt, Éva; Nowicka, Paulina; Mazur, Artur; Frelut, Marie Laure; Ardelt-Gattinger, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Objective This paper introduces health professionals to the different psychological models thought to influence eating behaviour in the absence of hunger in children who are obese and to propose a method of assessing these behaviours in practice. Methods Clinical researchers from the European Childhood Obesity Group (ECOG) adopted an evidence-based approach to examine the literature concerning the assessment of eating behaviour in children who are obese. Studies published in English were filtered out of the medical and psychological literature from 1960 to the present, and the resulting bibliography was searched for relevant articles. Key themes from the current evidence were compiled and classified according to the underpinning psychological models. Based on the current evidence and the authors' combined clinical experience, a three-staged approach to assessment was agreed by consensus. Results Valid and reliable tools for assessing and monitoring each of the three identified models (Dietary Restraint Theory, Emotional Eating and the Diathesis-Stress Model) are suggested for use in clinical practice, and the ECOG three-staged approach to assessing eating behaviours in the absence of hunger is described. Conclusions This paper presents practical guidance on how to assess eating behaviour in the absence of hunger in children who are clinically obese and suggests a focus for future research. PMID:24820848

  16. Studer Group® ' s evidence-based leadership initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuller, Kristin A; Kash, Bita A; Gamm, Larry D

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the implementation of an organizational change initiative--Studer Group®'s Evidence-Based Leadership (EBL)--in two large, US health systems by comparing and contrasting the factors associated with successful implementation and sustainability of the EBL initiative. This comparative case study assesses the responses to two pairs of open-ended questions during in-depth qualitative interviews of leaders and managers at both health systems. Qualitative content analysis was employed to identify major themes. Three themes associated with success and sustainability of EBL emerged at both health systems: leadership; culture; and organizational processes. The theme most frequently identified for both success and sustainability of EBL was culture. In contrast, there was a significant decline in salience of the leadership theme as attention shifts from success in implementation of EBL to sustaining EBL long term. Within the culture theme, accountability, and buy-in were most often cited by interviewees as success factors, while sense of accountability, buy-in, and communication were the most reported factors for sustainability. Cultural factors, such as accountability, staff support, and communication are driving forces of success and sustainability of EBL across both health systems. Leadership, a critical factor in several stages of implementation, appears to be less salient as among factors identified as important to longer term sustainability of EBL.

  17. Consumers' beliefs and behavioural intentions towards organic food. Evidence from the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagata, Lukas

    2012-08-01

    Research has revealed that organic consumers share beliefs about positive health effects, environmentally friendly production and better taste of organic food. Yet, very little is known about the decisions of organic consumers in post-socialist countries with emerging organic food markets. In order to examine this area a representative data set (N=1054) from the Czech Republic was used. Target group of the study has become the Czech consumers that purchase organic food on regular basis. The consumers' behaviour was conceptualised with the use of the theory of planned behaviour (ToPB). Firstly, the ToPB model was tested, and secondly, belief-based factors that influence the decisions and behaviour of consumers were explored. The theory proved able to predict and explain the behaviour of Czech organic consumers. The best predictors of the intention to purchase organic food are attitudes towards the behaviour and subjective norms. Decisive positions in consumers' beliefs have product- and process-based qualities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Behavioural responses of dusky dolphin groups (Lagenorhynchus obscurus to tour vessels off Kaikoura, New Zealand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lundquist

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Commercial viewing and swimming with dusky dolphins (Lagenorhynchus obscurus near Kaikoura, New Zealand began in the late 1980s and researchers have previously described changes in vocalisation, aerial behaviour, and group spacing in the presence of vessels. This study was conducted to assess the current effects that tourism has on the activity budget of dusky dolphins to provide wildlife managers with information for current decision-making and facilitate development of quantitative criteria for management of this industry in the future. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: First-order time discrete Markov chain models were used to assess changes in the behavioural state of dusky dolphin pods targeted by tour vessels. Log-linear analysis was conducted on behavioural state transitions to determine whether the likelihood of dolphins moving from one behavioural state to another changed based on natural and anthropogenic factors. The best-fitting model determined by Akaike Information Criteria values included season, time of day, and vessel presence within 300 m. Interactions with vessels reduced the proportion of time dolphins spent resting in spring and summer and increased time spent milling in all seasons except autumn. Dolphins spent more time socialising in spring and summer, when conception occurs and calves are born, and the proportion of time spent resting was highest in summer. Resting decreased and traveling increased in the afternoon. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Responses to tour vessel traffic are similar to those described for dusky dolphins elsewhere. Disturbance linked to vessels may interrupt social interactions, carry energetic costs, or otherwise affect individual fitness. Research is needed to determine if increased milling is a result of acoustic masking of communication due to vessel noise, and to establish levels at which changes to behavioural budgets of dusky dolphins are likely to cause long-term harm. Threshold

  19. Determinants of eating behaviour in university students: a qualitative study using focus group discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deliens, Tom; Clarys, Peter; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte

    2014-01-18

    College or university is a critical period regarding unhealthy changes in eating behaviours in students. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore which factors influence Belgian (European) university students' eating behaviour, using a qualitative research design. Furthermore, we aimed to collect ideas and recommendations in order to facilitate the development of effective and tailored intervention programs aiming to improve healthy eating behaviours in university students. Using a semi-structured question guide, five focus group discussions have been conducted consisting of 14 male and 21 female university students from a variety of study disciplines, with a mean age of 20.6 ± 1.7 yrs. Using Nvivo9, an inductive thematic approach was used for data analysis. After the transition from secondary school to university, when independency increases, students are continuously challenged to make healthful food choices. Students reported to be influenced by individual factors (e.g. taste preferences, self-discipline, time and convenience), their social networks (e.g. (lack of) parental control, friends and peers), physical environment (e.g. availability and accessibility, appeal and prices of food products), and macro environment (e.g. media and advertising). Furthermore, the relationships between determinants and university students' eating behaviour seemed to be moderated by university characteristics, such as residency, student societies, university lifestyle and exams. Recommendations for university administrators and researchers include providing information and advice to enhance healthy food choices and preparation (e.g. via social media), enhancing self-discipline and self-control, developing time management skills, enhancing social support, and modifying the subjective as well as the objective campus food environment by e.g. making healthy foods price-beneficial and by providing vending machines with more healthy products. This is the first European

  20. Primates’ behavioural responses to tourists: evidence for a trade-off between potential risks and benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maréchal, Laëtitia; Maclarnon, Ann; Majolo, Bonaventura; Semple, Stuart

    2016-09-01

    The presence of, and interactions with tourists can be both risky and beneficial for wild animals. In wildlife tourism settings, animals often experience elevated rates of aggression from conspecifics, and they may also be threatened or physically aggressed by the tourists themselves. However, tourist provisioning of wild animals provides them with highly desirable foods. In situations of conflicting motivations such as this, animals would be expected to respond using behavioural coping mechanisms. In the present study, we investigated how animals respond to tourist pressure, using wild adult Barbary macaques in the Middle Atlas Mountains, Morocco, as a case study. We found evidence that these animals use a range of different behavioural coping mechanisms-physical avoidance, social support, affiliative, aggressive and displacement behaviours-to cope with the stress associated with tourists. The pattern of use of such behaviours appears to depend on a trade-off between perceived risks and potential benefits. We propose a framework to describe how animals respond to conflicting motivational situations, such as the presence of tourists, that present simultaneously risks and benefits.

  1. The impact of Universal Health Coverage on health care consumption and risky behaviours: evidence from Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghislandi, Simone; Manachotphong, Wanwiphang; Perego, Viviana M E

    2015-07-01

    Thailand is among the first non-OECD countries to have introduced a form of Universal Health Coverage (UHC). This policy represents a natural experiment to evaluate the effects of public health insurance on health behaviours. In this paper, we examine the impact of Thailand's UHC programme on preventive activities, unhealthy or risky behaviours and health care consumption using data from the Thai Health and Welfare Survey. We use doubly robust estimators that combine propensity scores and linear regressions to estimate differences-in-differences (DD) and differences-in-DD models. Our results offer important insights. First, UHC increases individuals' likelihood of having an annual check-up, especially among women. Regarding health care consumption, we observe that UHC increases hospital admissions by over 2% and increases outpatient visits by 13%. However, there is no evidence that UHC leads to an increase in unhealthy behaviours or a reduction of preventive efforts. In other words, we find no evidence of ex ante moral hazard. Overall, these findings suggest positive health impacts among the Thai population covered by UHC.

  2. The walking behaviour of pedestrian social groups and its impact on crowd dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Moussaïd

    Full Text Available Human crowd motion is mainly driven by self-organized processes based on local interactions among pedestrians. While most studies of crowd behaviour consider only interactions among isolated individuals, it turns out that up to 70% of people in a crowd are actually moving in groups, such as friends, couples, or families walking together. These groups constitute medium-scale aggregated structures and their impact on crowd dynamics is still largely unknown. In this work, we analyze the motion of approximately 1500 pedestrian groups under natural condition, and show that social interactions among group members generate typical group walking patterns that influence crowd dynamics. At low density, group members tend to walk side by side, forming a line perpendicular to the walking direction. As the density increases, however, the linear walking formation is bent forward, turning it into a V-like pattern. These spatial patterns can be well described by a model based on social communication between group members. We show that the V-like walking pattern facilitates social interactions within the group, but reduces the flow because of its "non-aerodynamic" shape. Therefore, when crowd density increases, the group organization results from a trade-off between walking faster and facilitating social exchange. These insights demonstrate that crowd dynamics is not only determined by physical constraints induced by other pedestrians and the environment, but also significantly by communicative, social interactions among individuals.

  3. Uncertainty dimensions of information behaviour in a group based problem solving context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldegård, Jette

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a study of uncertainty dimensions of information behaviour in a group based problem solving context. After a presentation of the cognitive uncertainty dimension underlying Kuhlthau's ISP-model, uncertainty factors associated with personality, the work task situation and social...... members' experiences of uncertainty differ from the individual information seeker in Kuhlthau's ISP-model, and how this experience may be related to personal, work task and social factors. A number of methods have been employed to collect data on each group member during the assignment process......: a demographic survey, a personality test, 3 process surveys, 3 diaries and 3 interviews. It was found that group members' experiences of uncertainty did not correspond with the ISP-model in that other factors beyond the mere information searching process seemed to intermingle with the complex process...

  4. SAVINGS BEHAVIOUR IN HOUSEHOLDS OF FARMERS AS COMPARED TO OTHER SOCIO-ECONOMIC GROUPS IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kozera

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Savings generated by the sector of households constitute an important growth factor in every economy. They are the basic source of capital accumulation, determining investment opportunities of the economy. Financial behaviour of households in terms of the accumulation of savings is infl uenced  by numerous factors, both internal, i.e. connected directly with a given household, and external, independent of it. The aim of this paper was to analyse savings behaviour of households of farmers as compared to the other socio-economicgroups in Poland in the years 2003 and 2013. Analyses were conducted on saving propensity, savings rates, and objectives and forms of savings accumulation by households of various socio-economic groups. Analyses showed that in 2013, saving propensity and savings rates in households of farmers were relatively low in comparison to other household groups. In households of farmers the objective of savings was, more frequently than in the other socio-economic groups of households, to ensure provisions for running consumption expenditure, purchase durable goods and expand their economic activity. In contrast, in comparison to the other households, farmers less frequently saved money for recreation and physical therapy.

  5. Analysis of consumer behaviour when purchasing selected commodity groups concerning the effect of price, habit, discount and product characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitka Poměnková

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is consumer behaviour analysis when purchasing selected commodity groups concerning the effect of price, habit, discount and product characteristics. Analysis proceed from the Czech household marketing research, where 726 households were electronically questioned. As mentioned above, selected factors for the analysis were habit, products‘ characteristics, price and discount actions.Primary aim is to measure the correspondence of selected factors influence on consumer behaviour during purchase decision making process of selected commodity groups. Interpretation is based on two-tier evaluation. First level represents commodity groups distinction by the character of goods and subsequent evaluation of goods characteristics correspondence in accordance with each influencing factor. Second one represents behaviour of commodity group in cross-section of selected factors. For consumer behaviour analysis chi-square test was used. Before its application the data set (responses was divided according to the ten-point scale into three interval’ groups.

  6. Quantum group based theory for antiferromagnetism and superconductivity: proof and further evidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, Sher; Mamun, S.M.; Yanagisawa, T.; Khan, Hayatullah; Rahman, M.O.; Termizi, J.A.S

    2003-10-15

    Previously one of us presented a conjecture to model antiferromagnetism and high temperature superconductivity and their 'unification' by quantum group symmetry rather than the corresponding classical symmetry in view of the critique by Baskaran and Anderson of Zhang's classical SO(5) model. This conjecture was further sharpened, experimental evidence and the important role of 1-d systems (stripes) was emphasized and moreover the relationship between quantum groups and strings via WZWN models were given in an earlier paper. In this brief note we give and discuss mathematical proof of this conjecture, which completes an important part of this idea, since previously an explicit simple mathematical proof was lacking. It is important to note that in terms of physics that the arbitrariness (freedom) of the d-wave factor g{sup 2}(k) is tied to quantum group symmetry whereas in order to recover classical SO(5) one must set it to unity in an adhoc manner. We comment on the possible connection between this freedom and the pseudogap behaviour in the cuprates.

  7. Cognitive-behavioural group therapy versus guided self-help for compulsive buying disorder: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, A; Arikian, A; de Zwaan, M; Mitchell, J E

    2013-01-01

    Compulsive buying (CB) is defined as extreme preoccupation with buying/shopping and frequent buying that causes substantial negative psychological, social, occupational and financial consequences. There exists preliminary evidence that group cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) is effective in the treatment of CB. The present pilot study made a first attempt to compare group CBT for CB with telephone-guided self-help (GSH). Fifty-six patients were allocated randomly to one of the three conditions: (1) group CBT (n = 22); (2) GSH (n = 20); and (3) a waiting list condition (n = 14). The results indicate that face-to-face group CBT is superior not only to the waiting list condition but also to GSH. Patients who received GSH tended to have more success in overcoming CB compared with the waiting list controls. Given the sample size, the results must be considered as preliminary and further research is needed to address the topic whether GSH also could be a helpful intervention in reducing CB. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Group behavioural responses of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L. to light, infrasound and sound stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Bui

    Full Text Available Understanding species-specific flight behaviours is essential in developing methods of guiding fish spatially, and requires knowledge on how groups of fish respond to aversive stimuli. By harnessing their natural behaviours, the use of physical manipulation or other potentially harmful procedures can be minimised. We examined the reactions of sea-caged groups of 50 salmon (1331 ± 364 g to short-term exposure to visual or acoustic stimuli. In light experiments, fish were exposed to one of three intensities of blue LED light (high, medium and low or no light (control. Sound experiments included exposure to infrasound (12 Hz, a surface disturbance event, the combination of infrasound and surface disturbance, or no stimuli. Groups that experienced light, infrasound, and the combination of infrasound and surface disturbance treatments, elicited a marked change in vertical distribution, where fish dived to the bottom of the sea-cage for the duration of the stimulus. Light treatments, but not sound, also reduced the total echo-signal strength (indicative of swim bladder volume after exposure to light, compared to pre-stimulus levels. Groups in infrasound and combination treatments showed increased swimming activity during stimulus application, with swimming speeds tripled compared to that of controls. In all light and sound treatments, fish returned to their pre-stimulus swimming depths and speeds once exposure had ceased. This work establishes consistent, short-term avoidance responses to these stimuli, and provides a basis for methods to guide fish for aquaculture applications, or create avoidance barriers for conservation purposes. In doing so, we can achieve the manipulation of group position with minimal welfare impacts, to create more sustainable practices.

  9. Experimental evidence for inherent Lévy search behaviour in foraging animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kölzsch, Andrea; Alzate, Adriana; Bartumeus, Frederic; de Jager, Monique; Weerman, Ellen J; Hengeveld, Geerten M; Naguib, Marc; Nolet, Bart A; van de Koppel, Johan

    2015-05-22

    Recently, Lévy walks have been put forward as a new paradigm for animal search and many cases have been made for its presence in nature. However, it remains debated whether Lévy walks are an inherent behavioural strategy or emerge from the animal reacting to its habitat. Here, we demonstrate signatures of Lévy behaviour in the search movement of mud snails (Hydrobia ulvae) based on a novel, direct assessment of movement properties in an experimental set-up using different food distributions. Our experimental data uncovered clusters of small movement steps alternating with long moves independent of food encounter and landscape complexity. Moreover, size distributions of these clusters followed truncated power laws. These two findings are characteristic signatures of mechanisms underlying inherent Lévy-like movement. Thus, our study provides clear experimental evidence that such multi-scale movement is an inherent behaviour rather than resulting from the animal interacting with its environment. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  10. Groups, Pricing, and Cost of Debt: Evidence from Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Melih Küllü

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the impact of business group affiliation on cost of loans in an emerging market setting. It focuses on operational strategy, organizational structure and internationalization policies of business group firms and their impact on borrowing cost of affiliated firms. Bank loans are a dominant source of corporate funding in emerging markets, in which business groups exist as leading economic entities. Yet, the impact of belonging to a group on the firm’s cost of debt has not been studied in depth. Our results reveal that the extent of group affiliation, government ownership, and diversification increase the cost of loans. However, a group bank is advantageous in terms of borrowing, and decreases the cost of loans. While foreign ownership is beneficial in terms of pricing, being affiliated with a foreign group is not. Being a financial firm and being cross-listed are not significantly associated with bank loan terms. Borrowing costs are thus influenced in various ways by organizational structure, operational strategies, and global policies of business groups and affiliates. Therefore, business groups may benefit from strategically implementing policies and selecting loan applicant firms.

  11. Un-Rational Behaviour? What Causes Discrepancies between Teachers' Attitudes towards Evidence Use and Actual Instances of Evidence Use in Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Chris; Zhang, Dell

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Whilst beneficial, the use of evidence to improve teaching and learning in schools is proving difficult to achieve in practice. The purpose of this paper is to shed new light on this issue by examining the applicability of a model of rational behaviour as relates to the notion of evidence-informed practice (EIP). Specifically, exploring…

  12. Smoking cessation in workplace settings: quit rates and determinants in a group behaviour therapy programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausherr, Yann; Quinto, Carlos; Grize, Leticia; Schindler, Christian; Probst-Hensch, Nicole

    2017-09-25

    To capitalise on the opportunities that the smoking ban legislation in Switzerland offers for the prevention of tobacco-related diseases, a smoking cessation programme in a workplace setting was developed and implemented in companies across the language and cultural regions of Switzerland. Our goal was to identify factors associated with relapse into smoking that may be overcome during training sessions or that should be considered for the optimisation of future interventions. Between 2006 and 2012, 1287 smokers aged 16 to 68 years voluntarily attended smoking cessation training at their workplace. The intervention was based on a cognitive behavioural group therapy combined with individual proactive telephone counselling. The evaluation consisted of three anonymised questionnaires (pre- and postintervention, and 12-month follow-up). In this prospective cohort study, we investigated the association of smoking quit rates with training and participant characteristics, including withdrawal symptoms, by use of multilevel logistic regression analysis with a random intercept for training courses. The self-reported abstinence rate was 72.4% at the end of the training, and 18.6% 1 year later. The risk of relapse during the training was positively associated with the number of years and daily cigarettes smoked, and negatively with increased appetite, sleeping troubles and satisfaction with learned techniques. Failed abstinence within the first year was associated with younger age, higher numbers of daily smoked cigarettes and unsuccessful recent quit attempts. Our evaluation suggests that younger and more addicted smokers attending smoking cessation trainings may need additional support to achieve long lasting abstinence rates. Offering smoking cessation training in a workplace setting can achieve reasonable long-term quit rates, but a subset of employees needs additional support at the group or personal level. Group behaviour therapy could be an effective method to achieve

  13. Stage-related behavioural problems in the 1-4 year old child: parental expectations in a child development unit referral group compared with a control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ticehurst, R L; Henry, R L

    1989-02-01

    Behavioural problems in preschool (1-4 years) children are a common cause of referral to health services. Parents of children presenting to the child development unit with behavioural problems (n = 18) were compared with a control group (n = 45). A questionnaire was utilized to examine the parents' expectations of the children's behaviours. As might be expected, the parents of children presenting to the Unit rated their children as having more difficult behaviours. These parents had unrealistic expectations, particularly for the 'negative' behaviours (disobedience, temper tantrums, defiance and whinging). However, they were able to anticipate normal age-related difficulties in some problem areas (dawdling during mealtimes, masturbating, not sharing toys and being jealous of one's siblings). Counselling should address the issue of matching the expectations of parents with the individual rates of development of their children.

  14. Strategic Groups: Evidence from Indian Industries | Agnihotri | KCA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper investigates the formation of strategic groups in Cement, Automobile and Information Technology firms from emerging markets like India. Based on data of 140 firms during 2005-2010, firm's membership into different strategic groups is tested. Cluster analysis and one way ANOVA have been used to identify ...

  15. Children Associate Racial Groups with Wealth: Evidence from South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Kristina R.; Shutts, Kristin; Kinzler, Katherine D.; Weisman, Kara G.

    2012-01-01

    Group-based social hierarchies exist in nearly every society, yet little is known about whether children understand that they exist. The present studies investigated whether 3- to 10-year-old children (N = 84) in South Africa associate higher status racial groups with higher levels of wealth, one indicator of social status. Children matched higher…

  16. Consumer Perceived Risk, Attitude and Online Shopping Behaviour; Empirical Evidence from Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariff, Mohd Shoki Md; Sylvester, Michele; Zakuan, Norhayati; Ismail, Khalid; Mat Ali, Kamarudin

    2014-06-01

    The development of e-commerce has increased the popularity of online shopping worldwide. In Malaysia, it was reported that online shopping market size was RM1.8 billion in 2013 and it is estimated to reach RM5 billion by 2015. However, online shopping was rated 11th out of 15 purposes of using internet in 2012. Consumers' perceived risks of online shopping becomes a hot topic to research as it will directly influence users' attitude towards online purchasing, and their attitude will have significant impact to the online purchasing behaviour. The conceptualization of consumers' perceived risk, attitude and online shopping behaviour of this study provides empirical evidence in the study of consumer online behaviour. Four types of risks - product risk, financial, convenience and non-delivery risks - were examined in term of their effect on consumers' online attitude. A web-based survey was employed, and a total of 300 online shoppers of a Malaysia largest online marketplace participated in this study. The findings indicated that product risk, financial and non-delivery risks are hazardous and negatively affect the attitude of online shoppers. Convenience risk was found to have positive effect on consumers' attitude, denoting that online buyers of this site trusted the online seller and they encountered less troublesome with the site. It also implies that consumers did not really concern on non-convenience aspect of online shopping, such as handling of returned products and examine the quality of products featured in the online seller website. The online buyers' attitude was significantly and positively affects their online purchasing behaviour. The findings provide useful model for measuring and managing consumers' perceived risk in internet-based transaction to increase their involvement in online shopping and to reduce their cognitive dissonance in the e-commerce setting.

  17. Are individuals with higher psychopathic traits better learners at lying? Behavioural and neural evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, R; Lee, T M C

    2017-07-25

    High psychopathy is characterized by untruthfulness and manipulativeness. However, existing evidence on higher propensity or capacity to lie among non-incarcerated high-psychopathic individuals is equivocal. Of particular importance, no research has investigated whether greater psychopathic tendency is associated with better 'trainability' of lying. An understanding of whether the neurobehavioral processes of lying are modifiable through practice offers significant theoretical and practical implications. By employing a longitudinal design involving university students with varying degrees of psychopathic traits, we successfully demonstrate that the performance speed of lying about face familiarity significantly improved following two sessions of practice, which occurred only among those with higher, but not lower, levels of psychopathic traits. Furthermore, this behavioural improvement associated with higher psychopathic tendency was predicted by a reduction in lying-related neural signals and by functional connectivity changes in the frontoparietal and cerebellum networks. Our findings provide novel and pivotal evidence suggesting that psychopathic traits are the key modulating factors of the plasticity of both behavioural and neural processes underpinning lying. These findings broadly support conceptualization of high-functioning individuals with higher psychopathic traits as having preserved, or arguably superior, functioning in neural networks implicated in cognitive executive processing, but deficiencies in affective neural processes, from a neuroplasticity perspective.

  18. The Human Behaviour-Change Project: harnessing the power of artificial intelligence and machine learning for evidence synthesis and interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michie, Susan; Thomas, James; Johnston, Marie; Aonghusa, Pol Mac; Shawe-Taylor, John; Kelly, Michael P; Deleris, Léa A; Finnerty, Ailbhe N; Marques, Marta M; Norris, Emma; O'Mara-Eves, Alison; West, Robert

    2017-10-18

    Behaviour change is key to addressing both the challenges facing human health and wellbeing and to promoting the uptake of research findings in health policy and practice. We need to make better use of the vast amount of accumulating evidence from behaviour change intervention (BCI) evaluations and promote the uptake of that evidence into a wide range of contexts. The scale and complexity of the task of synthesising and interpreting this evidence, and increasing evidence timeliness and accessibility, will require increased computer support. The Human Behaviour-Change Project (HBCP) will use Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning to (i) develop and evaluate a 'Knowledge System' that automatically extracts, synthesises and interprets findings from BCI evaluation reports to generate new insights about behaviour change and improve prediction of intervention effectiveness and (ii) allow users, such as practitioners, policy makers and researchers, to easily and efficiently query the system to get answers to variants of the question 'What works, compared with what, how well, with what exposure, with what behaviours (for how long), for whom, in what settings and why?'. The HBCP will: a) develop an ontology of BCI evaluations and their reports linking effect sizes for given target behaviours with intervention content and delivery and mechanisms of action, as moderated by exposure, populations and settings; b) develop and train an automated feature extraction system to annotate BCI evaluation reports using this ontology; c) develop and train machine learning and reasoning algorithms to use the annotated BCI evaluation reports to predict effect sizes for particular combinations of behaviours, interventions, populations and settings; d) build user and machine interfaces for interrogating and updating the knowledge base; and e) evaluate all the above in terms of performance and utility. The HBCP aims to revolutionise our ability to synthesise, interpret and deliver

  19. Group living in squamate reptiles: a review of evidence for stable aggregations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Michael G; Pearson, Sarah K; Johnston, Gregory R; Schwarz, Michael P

    2016-11-01

    How sociality evolves and is maintained remains a key question in evolutionary biology. Most studies to date have focused on insects, birds, and mammals but data from a wider range of taxonomic groups are essential to identify general patterns and processes. The extent of social behaviour among squamate reptiles is under-appreciated, yet they are a promising group for further studies. Living in aggregations is posited as an important step in the evolution of more complex sociality. We review data on aggregations among squamates and find evidence for some form of aggregations in 94 species across 22 families. Of these, 18 species across 7 families exhibited 'stable' aggregations that entail overlapping home ranges and stable membership in long-term (years) or seasonal aggregations. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that stable aggregations have evolved multiple times in squamates. We: (i) identify significant gaps in our understanding; (ii) outline key traits which should be the focus of future research; and (iii) outline the potential for utilising reproductive skew theory to provide insights into squamate sociality. © 2015 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  20. Identity fusion predicts endorsement of pro-group behaviours targeting nationality, religion, or football in Brazilian samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolini, Tiago; Newson, Martha; Natividade, Jean Carlos; Vázquez, Alexandra; Gómez, Ángel

    2018-04-01

    A visceral feeling of oneness with a group - identity fusion - has proven to be a stronger predictor of pro-group behaviours than other measures of group bonding, such as group identification. However, the relationship between identity fusion, other group alignment measures and their different roles in predicting pro-group behaviour is still controversial. Here, we test whether identity fusion is related to, but different from, unidimensional and multidimensional measures of group identification. We also show that identity fusion explains further variance of the endorsement of pro-group behaviour than these alternative measures and examine the structural and discriminant properties of identity fusion and group identification measures in three different contexts: nationality, religion, and football fandom. Finally, we extend the fusion literature to a new culture: Brazil. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first research explicitly addressing a comparison between these two forms of group alignment, identity fusion and identification with a group, and their role in predicting pro-group behaviours. © 2018 The British Psychological Society.

  1. The impact of online reviews on exhibitor behaviour: evidence from movie industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.; Guo, K.

    2017-11-01

    This paper explores the effects of online reviews in the empirical context of movie industry. Quality uncertainty and hedonic consumption render movies a particularly interesting category to study quality signals and social influence. Online consumer chatters about a movie are readily available in popular movie-related websites. These data, coupled with movie-specific sales and advertising information accessible online or from commercial sources, provide unique opportunity to explore the implication of word-of-mouth (WOM) for consumer behaviour and business strategy. We thus examine how online reviews impact on business strategies, in this case, exhibitor behaviour, through an empirical analysis of movie industry. First, online reviews are grouped into user reviews and critic reviews. We then use them respectively in two simultaneous equation systems, which regard online reviews, box office revenue and the number of screens as endogenous variables. Next, a three-stage least-square procedure is employed to estimate these two systems using a sample of 141 movies in the U.S. market. The results indicate that the online user reviews' rating is positively associated with the number of screens, confirming that the online review is influential on exhibitor behaviour. The number of online reviews indirectly influences the number of screens through the box office revenue.

  2. Symptom fluctuations, self-esteem, and cohesion during group cognitive behaviour therapy for early psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecomte, Tania; Leclerc, Claude; Wykes, Til

    2018-03-01

    Group cohesion has been linked to positive changes in self-esteem and in symptoms during group psychotherapy in people with psychosis. These changes may be linked to changes in symptoms as fluctuations in self-esteem have been linked to symptom fluctuations. We aimed to determine the relationship between these three factors - group cohesion, self-esteem, and symptoms - during group cognitive behaviour therapy for psychosis (GCBTp). We hypothesized that group cohesion would precede changes in symptoms and self-esteem and that improvements in self-esteem would precede improvements in symptoms. This is an uncontrolled longitudinal study recruiting from a convenience sample within two early psychosis clinics. Sixty-six individuals from first episode of psychosis treatment programmes participated in this study and received 24 sessions of a validated GCBTp protocol. Participants answered a brief questionnaire at the end of each session, measuring their group cohesion, self-esteem, and perception of their symptoms as worse, same, or better than usual. Orthogonal polynomial contrasts for time effects were estimated with a mixed model for repeated measures with a random cluster effect and revealed a quartic trend regarding changes in symptoms over the 24 sessions. Self-esteem, symptoms, and group cohesion were strongly linked during a given session. Also, self-esteem changes predicted changes in symptoms up to two sessions later, and symptoms changes predicted self-esteem changes at the next session. Group cohesion preceded improvements in both self-esteem and symptoms; self-esteem also predicted improvements in group cohesion. These results suggest that self-esteem and symptoms influence each other during therapy, with improvements in one leading to improvements in the other. Group cohesion also appears to be an essential prerequisite to positive changes in self-esteem and symptoms during GCBTp. This study emphasizes the interrelation between self-esteem improvements and

  3. Social familiarity modulates group living and foraging behaviour of juvenile predatory mites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strodl, Markus A.; Schausberger, Peter

    2012-04-01

    Environmental stressors during early life may have persistent consequences for phenotypic development and fitness. In group-living species, an important stressor during juvenile development is the presence and familiarity status of conspecific individuals. To alleviate intraspecific conflicts during juvenile development, many animals evolved the ability to discriminate familiar and unfamiliar individuals based on prior association and use this ability to preferentially associate with familiar individuals. Assuming that familiar neighbours require less attention than unfamiliar ones, as predicted by limited attention theory, assorting with familiar individuals should increase the efficiency in other tasks. We assessed the influence of social familiarity on within-group association behaviour, development and foraging of juvenile life stages of the group-living, plant-inhabiting predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. The observed groups consisted either of mixed-age familiar and unfamiliar juvenile mites or of age-synchronized familiar or unfamiliar juvenile mites or of pairs of familiar or unfamiliar larvae. Overall, familiar mites preferentially grouped together and foraged more efficiently, i.e. needed less prey at similar developmental speed and body size at maturity, than unfamiliar mites. Preferential association of familiar mites was also apparent in the inter-exuviae distances. Social familiarity was established by imprinting in the larval stage, was not cancelled or overridden by later conspecific contacts and persisted into adulthood. Life stage had an effect on grouping with larvae being closer together than nymphal stages. Ultimately, optimized foraging during the developmental phase may relax within-group competition, enhance current and future food supply needed for optimal development and optimize patch exploitation and leaving under limited food.

  4. Money for microbes-Pathogen avoidance and out-group helping behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakasuo, Michael; Köbis, Nils; Palomäki, Jussi; Jokela, Markus

    2017-02-23

    Humans have evolved various adaptations against pathogens, including the physiological immune system. However, not all of these adaptations are physiological: the cognitive mechanisms whereby we avoid potential sources of pathogens-for example, disgust elicited by uncleanliness-can be considered as parts of a behavioural immune system (BIS). The mechanisms of BIS extend also to inter-group relations: Pathogen cues have been shown to increase xenophobia/ethnocentrism, as people prefer to keep their societal in-group norms unaltered and "clean." Nonetheless, little is known how pathogen cues influence people's willingness to provide humanitarian aid to out-group members. We examined how pathogen cues affected decisions of providing humanitarian aid in either instrumental (sending money) or non-instrumental form (sending personnel to help, or accepting refugees), and whether these effects were moderated by individual differences in BIS sensitivity. Data were collected in two online studies (Ns: 188 and 210). When the hypothetical humanitarian crisis involved a clear risk of infection, participants with high BIS sensitivity preferred to send money rather than personnel or to accept refugees. The results suggest that pathogen cues influence BIS-sensitive individuals' willingness to provide humanitarian aid when there is a risk of contamination to in-group members. © 2017 International Union of Psychological Science.

  5. Evidence-based selection of theories for designing behaviour change interventions: using methods based on theoretical construct domains to understand clinicians' blood transfusion behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Jill J; Stockton, Charlotte; Eccles, Martin P; Johnston, Marie; Cuthbertson, Brian H; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Hyde, Chris; Tinmouth, Alan; Stanworth, Simon J

    2009-11-01

    Many theories of behaviour are potentially relevant to predictive and intervention studies but most studies investigate a narrow range of theories. Michie et al. (2005) agreed 12 'theoretical domains' from 33 theories that explain behaviour change. They developed a 'Theoretical Domains Interview' (TDI) for identifying relevant domains for specific clinical behaviours, but the framework has not been used for selecting theories for predictive studies. It was used here to investigate clinicians' transfusion behaviour in intensive care units (ICU). Evidence suggests that red blood cells transfusion could be reduced for some patients without reducing quality of care. (1) To identify the domains relevant to transfusion practice in ICUs and neonatal intensive care units (NICUs), using the TDI. (2) To use the identified domains to select appropriate theories for a study predicting transfusion behaviour. An adapted TDI about managing a patient with borderline haemoglobin by watching and waiting instead of transfusing red blood cells was used to conduct semi-structured, one-to-one interviews with 18 intensive care consultants and neonatologists across the UK. Relevant theoretical domains were: knowledge, beliefs about capabilities, beliefs about consequences, social influences, behavioural regulation. Further analysis at the construct level resulted in selection of seven theoretical approaches relevant to this context: Knowledge-Attitude-Behaviour Model, Theory of Planned Behaviour, Social Cognitive Theory, Operant Learning Theory, Control Theory, Normative Model of Work Team Effectiveness and Action Planning Approaches. This study illustrated, the use of the TDI to identify relevant domains in a complex area of inpatient care. This approach is potentially valuable for selecting theories relevant to predictive studies and resulted in greater breadth of potential explanations than would be achieved if a single theoretical model had been adopted.

  6. Altering micro-environments to change population health behaviour: towards an evidence base for choice architecture interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The idea that behaviour can be influenced at population level by altering the environments within which people make choices (choice architecture) has gained traction in policy circles. However, empirical evidence to support this idea is limited, especially its application to changing health behaviour. We propose an evidence-based definition and typology of choice architecture interventions that have been implemented within small-scale micro-environments and evaluated for their effects on four key sets of health behaviours: diet, physical activity, alcohol and tobacco use. Discussion We argue that the limitations of the evidence base are due not simply to an absence of evidence, but also to a prior lack of definitional and conceptual clarity concerning applications of choice architecture to public health intervention. This has hampered the potential for systematic assessment of existing evidence. By seeking to address this issue, we demonstrate how our definition and typology have enabled systematic identification and preliminary mapping of a large body of available evidence for the effects of choice architecture interventions. We discuss key implications for further primary research, evidence synthesis and conceptual development to support the design and evaluation of such interventions. Summary This conceptual groundwork provides a foundation for future research to investigate the effectiveness of choice architecture interventions within micro-environments for changing health behaviour. The approach we used may also serve as a template for mapping other under-explored fields of enquiry. PMID:24359583

  7. Nature vs. Nurture: Evidence for Social Learning of Conflict Behaviour in Grizzly Bears.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea T Morehouse

    Full Text Available The propensity for a grizzly bear to develop conflict behaviours might be a result of social learning between mothers and cubs, genetic inheritance, or both learning and inheritance. Using non-invasive genetic sampling, we collected grizzly bear hair samples during 2011-2014 across southwestern Alberta, Canada. We targeted private agricultural lands for hair samples at grizzly bear incident sites, defining an incident as an occurrence in which the grizzly bear caused property damage, obtained anthropogenic food, or killed or attempted to kill livestock or pets. We genotyped 213 unique grizzly bears (118 M, 95 F at 24 microsatellite loci, plus the amelogenin marker for sex. We used the program COLONY to assign parentage. We evaluated 76 mother-offspring relationships and 119 father-offspring relationships. We compared the frequency of problem and non-problem offspring from problem and non-problem parents, excluding dependent offspring from our analysis. Our results support the social learning hypothesis, but not the genetic inheritance hypothesis. Offspring of problem mothers are more likely to be involved in conflict behaviours, while offspring from non-problem mothers are not likely to be involved in incidents or human-bear conflicts themselves (Barnard's test, p = 0.05, 62.5% of offspring from problem mothers were problem bears. There was no evidence that offspring are more likely to be involved in conflict behaviour if their fathers had been problem bears (Barnard's test, p = 0.92, 29.6% of offspring from problem fathers were problem bears. For the mother-offspring relationships evaluated, 30.3% of offspring were identified as problem bears independent of their mother's conflict status. Similarly, 28.6% of offspring were identified as problem bears independent of their father's conflict status. Proactive mitigation to prevent female bears from becoming problem individuals likely will help prevent the perpetuation of conflicts through social

  8. Nature vs. Nurture: Evidence for Social Learning of Conflict Behaviour in Grizzly Bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morehouse, Andrea T; Graves, Tabitha A; Mikle, Nate; Boyce, Mark S

    2016-01-01

    The propensity for a grizzly bear to develop conflict behaviours might be a result of social learning between mothers and cubs, genetic inheritance, or both learning and inheritance. Using non-invasive genetic sampling, we collected grizzly bear hair samples during 2011-2014 across southwestern Alberta, Canada. We targeted private agricultural lands for hair samples at grizzly bear incident sites, defining an incident as an occurrence in which the grizzly bear caused property damage, obtained anthropogenic food, or killed or attempted to kill livestock or pets. We genotyped 213 unique grizzly bears (118 M, 95 F) at 24 microsatellite loci, plus the amelogenin marker for sex. We used the program COLONY to assign parentage. We evaluated 76 mother-offspring relationships and 119 father-offspring relationships. We compared the frequency of problem and non-problem offspring from problem and non-problem parents, excluding dependent offspring from our analysis. Our results support the social learning hypothesis, but not the genetic inheritance hypothesis. Offspring of problem mothers are more likely to be involved in conflict behaviours, while offspring from non-problem mothers are not likely to be involved in incidents or human-bear conflicts themselves (Barnard's test, p = 0.05, 62.5% of offspring from problem mothers were problem bears). There was no evidence that offspring are more likely to be involved in conflict behaviour if their fathers had been problem bears (Barnard's test, p = 0.92, 29.6% of offspring from problem fathers were problem bears). For the mother-offspring relationships evaluated, 30.3% of offspring were identified as problem bears independent of their mother's conflict status. Similarly, 28.6% of offspring were identified as problem bears independent of their father's conflict status. Proactive mitigation to prevent female bears from becoming problem individuals likely will help prevent the perpetuation of conflicts through social learning.

  9. Nature vs. nurture: Evidence for social learning of conflict behaviour in grizzly bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morehouse, Andrea T.; Graves, Tabitha A.; Mikle, Nathaniel; Boyce, Mark S.

    2016-01-01

    The propensity for a grizzly bear to develop conflict behaviours might be a result of social learning between mothers and cubs, genetic inheritance, or both learning and inheritance. Using non-invasive genetic sampling, we collected grizzly bear hair samples during 2011–2014 across southwestern Alberta, Canada. We targeted private agricultural lands for hair samples at grizzly bear incident sites, defining an incident as an occurrence in which the grizzly bear caused property damage, obtained anthropogenic food, or killed or attempted to kill livestock or pets. We genotyped 213 unique grizzly bears (118 M, 95 F) at 24 microsatellite loci, plus the amelogenin marker for sex. We used the program COLONY to assign parentage. We evaluated 76 mother-offspring relationships and 119 father-offspring relationships. We compared the frequency of problem and non-problem offspring from problem and non-problem parents, excluding dependent offspring from our analysis. Our results support the social learning hypothesis, but not the genetic inheritance hypothesis. Offspring of problem mothers are more likely to be involved in conflict behaviours, while offspring from non-problem mothers are not likely to be involved in incidents or human-bear conflicts themselves (Barnard’s test, p = 0.05, 62.5% of offspring from problem mothers were problem bears). There was no evidence that offspring are more likely to be involved in conflict behaviour if their fathers had been problem bears (Barnard’s test, p = 0.92, 29.6% of offspring from problem fathers were problem bears). For the mother-offspring relationships evaluated, 30.3% of offspring were identified as problem bears independent of their mother’s conflict status. Similarly, 28.6% of offspring were identified as problem bears independent of their father’s conflict status. Proactive mitigation to prevent female bears from becoming problem individuals likely will help prevent the perpetuation of conflicts through social learning.

  10. Commentary on 'Behavioural and cognitive-behavioural group-based parenting programmes for early-onset conduct problems in children aged 3 to 12 years'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haroon, Munib

    2013-03-07

    This is a commentary on a Cochrane review, published in this issue of EBCH, first published as: Furlong M, McGilloway S, Bywater T, Hutchings J, Smith SM, Donnelly M. Behavioural and cognitive-behavioural group-based parenting programmes for early-onset conduct problems in children aged 3 to 12 years. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2012, Issue 2. Art. No.: CD008225. DoI: 10.1002/14651858.CD008225.pub2. Copyright © 2013 The Cochrane Collaboration. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Escape behaviour of birds in urban parks and cemeteries across Europe: Evidence of behavioural adaptation to human activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Federico; Mikula, Peter; Benedetti, Yanina; Bussière, Raphaël; Jerzak, Leszek; Tryjanowski, Piotr

    2018-08-01

    Urban environments are very heterogeneous, and birds living in the proximity of humans have to adapt to local conditions, e.g. by changing their behavioural response to potential predators. In this study, we tested whether the escape distance of birds (measured as flight initiation distance; FID) differed between parks and cemeteries, areas characterized by different microhabitat conditions and human conduct, that are determinants of animal behaviour at large spatial scales. While escape behaviour of park populations of birds was often examined, cemetery populations have not been studied to the same extent and a large-scale comparison is still missing. Overall, we collected 2139 FID estimates for 44 bird species recorded in 79 parks and 90 cemeteries in four European countries: Czech Republic, France, Italy and Poland. Mixed model procedure was applied to study escape behaviour in relation to type of area (park or cemetery), environmental characteristics (area size, coverage by trees, shrubs, grass, chapels, tombstones, flowerbeds, number of street lamps) and human activity (human density, pedestrians speed and ratio of men/women). Birds allowed people closer in cemeteries than in parks in all countries. This pattern was persistent even when focusing on intraspecific differences in FID between populations of the most common bird species. Escape distance of birds was negatively correlated with the size of parks/cemeteries, while positively associated with tombstone coverage and human density in both types of habitat. Our findings highlight the ability of birds to adapt their behaviour to different types of urban areas, based on local environmental conditions, including the character of human-bird interactions. Our results also suggest that this behavioural pattern may be widespread across urban landscapes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Using Focus Groups to Study Consumer Understanding and Experiences with Tamper-Evident Packaging Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascall, Melvin A.; Lee, Ken; Fraser, Angela; Halim, Linna

    2009-01-01

    A focus group with an educational component was used to help initiate a new research hypothesis. Early-stage development of a new tamper-evident invention was improved with input from a consumer focus group. The focus group comprised consumers who were shown several tamper-evident devices, including a new color-changing cap under active…

  13. Hierarchy in the home cage affects behaviour and gene expression in group-housed C57BL/6 male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horii, Yasuyuki; Nagasawa, Tatsuhiro; Sakakibara, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Aki; Tanave, Akira; Matsumoto, Yuki; Nagayama, Hiromichi; Yoshimi, Kazuto; Yasuda, Michiko T; Shimoi, Kayoko; Koide, Tsuyoshi

    2017-08-01

    Group-housed male mice exhibit aggressive behaviour towards their cage mates and form a social hierarchy. Here, we describe how social hierarchy in standard group-housed conditions affects behaviour and gene expression in male mice. Four male C57BL/6 mice were kept in each cage used in the study, and the social hierarchy was determined from observation of video recordings of aggressive behaviour. After formation of a social hierarchy, the behaviour and hippocampal gene expression were analysed in the mice. Higher anxiety- and depression-like behaviours and elevated gene expression of hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone and hippocampal serotonin receptor subtypes were observed in subordinate mice compared with those of dominant mice. These differences were alleviated by orally administering fluoxetine, which is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor class. We concluded that hierarchy in the home cage affects behaviour and gene expression in male mice, resulting in anxiety- and depression-like behaviours being regulated differently in dominant and subordinate mice.

  14. Scientific Evidence in the Study and Treatment of Addictive Behaviours in Psychosocial Intervention. Journal on Equality and Quality of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itziar Iruarrizaga Díez

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In Spain, the importance and relevance of substance dependence and other addictive behaviours has generated great interest among the scientific community. Since its creation in 1992, Psychosocial Intervention. Journal on Equality and Quality of Life has transmitted the needs and training demands of psychologists, paying special attention to those aspects related to prevention, health outcomes and psychosocial factors involved in the onset and maintenance of drug addiction, psychosocial intervention and the treatment of addictive behaviours. As an introduction to this report on the Scientific evidence in the study and treatment of addictive behaviours, all topics covered by this journal throughout the years will be addressed.

  15. A behavioural perspective on the effects of using performance measurement systems in the companies: Evidence from a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lampreia, João

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The effects of Performance Measurement Systems (PMS on people’s behaviour are relevant for an organization performance and success. Yet motivational and behavioural consequences of PMS are far from being understood. This study aims to go further regarding the consequences on people’s behaviour of using PMS in organizations. In order to collect data researchers conducted a case study in a Portuguese multi-national company. Evidence shows that the way in which managers understand a PMS influences in a significant way how they behave. The data also lends support to the claim that PMS influence motivation, perceptions, participation and job-related stress of managers.

  16. Perceived legitimacy follows in-group interests: Evidence from intermediate-status groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caricati, Luca; Sollami, Alfonso

    2017-03-01

    In two experiments, the effect of (in)stability of status differences on the perception of perspective legitimacy and in-group threat among intermediate-status group members (i.e., nurses students or nurses) was analysed. Both studies indicated that in downwardly unstable condition, legitimacy was lower and in-group threat was higher than in stable condition. In upwardly unstable condition, perceived legitimacy was higher and in-group threat was lower than in stable condition. The indirect effects of (in)stability via in-group threat on perceived legitimacy were significant. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  17. Group Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Program Shows Potential in Reducing Symptoms of Depression and Stress among Young People with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGillivray, J. A.; Evert, H. T.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the efficacy of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) delivered in groups on the reduction of symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress in young people on the autism spectrum. Utilising a quasi-experimental design, comparisons were made between individuals allocated to a group intervention program and individuals allocated to a…

  18. Group housing during gestation affects the behaviour of sows and the physiological indices of offspring piglets at weaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to compare the behaviour of sows in stalls and group housing systems, and the physiological indices of their offspring, 28 sows were randomly distributed into 2 systems with 16 sows in stalls, and the other 12 sows were divided into 3 groups with 4 sows per pen. The area per sow in stalls a...

  19. The value of what others value : How personal and group values relate to pro-environmental attitudes and behaviours.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, Thijs; Steg, Emmalina; Johnson, Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    Personal values are considered stable predictors of environmental attitudes and behaviours (e.g., Steg et al., 2014). In addition, group values are often used to characterize groups and compare them with each other (e.g., Schwartz & Bardi, 2001). However, only little is known about the influence of

  20. Weight change in control group participants in behavioural weight loss interventions: a systematic review and meta-regression study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waters Lauren

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unanticipated control group improvements have been observed in intervention trials targeting various health behaviours. This phenomenon has not been studied in the context of behavioural weight loss intervention trials. The purpose of this study is to conduct a systematic review and meta-regression of behavioural weight loss interventions to quantify control group weight change, and relate the size of this effect to specific trial and sample characteristics. Methods Database searches identified reports of intervention trials meeting the inclusion criteria. Data on control group weight change and possible explanatory factors were abstracted and analysed descriptively and quantitatively. Results 85 trials were reviewed and 72 were included in the meta-regression. While there was no change in control group weight, control groups receiving usual care lost 1 kg more than control groups that received no intervention, beyond measurement. Conclusions There are several possible explanations why control group changes occur in intervention trials targeting other behaviours, but not for weight loss. Control group participation may prevent weight gain, although more research is needed to confirm this hypothesis.

  1. Group cognitive behavioural therapy and weight regain after diet in type 2 diabetes: results from the randomised controlled POWER trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.A.C. Berk (Kirsten); H. Buijks (Hanneke); A.J.M. Verhoeven (Adrie); Mulder, M.T. (Monique T.); B. Özcan (Behiye); van ’T Spijker, A. (Adriaan); R. Timman (Reinier); J.J. van Busschbach (Jan); E.J.G. Sijbrands (Eric)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractAims/hypothesis: Weight-loss programmes for adults with type 2 diabetes are less effective in the long term owing to regain of weight. Our aim was to determine the 2 year effectiveness of a cognitive behavioural group therapy (group-CBT) programme in weight maintenance after diet-induced

  2. The relationship between interpersonal problems, therapeutic alliance, and outcomes following group and individual cognitive behaviour therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, Peter M; Burgess, Melissa M; Nathan, Paula

    2014-03-01

    Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is efficacious, but there remains individual variability in outcomes. Patient's interpersonal problems may affect treatment outcomes, either directly or through a relationship mediated by helping alliance. Interpersonal problems may affect alliance and outcomes differentially in individual and group (CBGT) treatments. The main aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between interpersonal problems, alliance, dropout and outcomes for a clinical sample receiving either individual or group CBT for anxiety or depression in a community clinic. Patients receiving individual CBT (N=84) or CBGT (N=115) completed measures of interpersonal problems, alliance, and disorder specific symptoms at the commencement and completion of CBT. In CBGT higher pre-treatment interpersonal problems were associated with increased risk of dropout and poorer outcomes. This relationship was not mediated by alliance. In individual CBT those who reported higher alliance were more likely to complete treatment, although alliance was not associated with symptom change, and interpersonal problems were not related to attrition or outcome. Allocation to group and individual therapy was non-random, so selection bias may have influenced these results. Some analyses were only powered to detect large effects. Helping alliance ratings were high, so range restriction may have obscured the relationship between helping alliance, attrition and outcomes. Pre-treatment interpersonal problems increase risk of dropout and predict poorer outcomes in CBGT, but not in individual CBT, and this relationship is not mediated by helping alliance. Stronger alliance is associated with treatment completion in individual, but not group CBT. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Big hearts, small hands: a focus group study exploring parental food portion behaviours

    OpenAIRE

    Curtis, Kristina; Atkins, Louise; Brown, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background The development of healthy food portion sizes among families is deemed critical to childhood weight management; yet little is known about the interacting factors influencing parents’ portion control behaviours. This study aimed to use two synergistic theoretical models of behaviour: the COM-B model (Capability, Opportunity, Motivation – Behaviour) and Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) to identify a broad spectrum of theoretically derived influences on parents’ portion co...

  4. Evidence for contact calls in fish: conspecific vocalisations and ambient soundscape influence group cohesion in a nocturnal species

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oosterom, L.; Montgomery, J. C.; Jeffs, A. G.; Radford, C. A.

    2016-01-01

    Soundscapes provide a new tool for the study of fish communities. Bigeyes (Pempheris adspersa) are nocturnal planktivorous reef fish, feed in loose shoals and are soniferous. These vocalisations have been suggested to be contact calls to maintain group cohesion, however direct evidence for this is absent, despite the fact that contact calls are well documented for many other vertebrates, including marine mammals. For fish, direct evidence for group cohesion signals is restricted to the use of visual and hydrodynamic cues. In support of adding vocalisation as a contributing cue, our laboratory experiments show that bigeyes significantly increased group cohesion when exposed to recordings of ambient reef sound at higher sound levels while also decreasing vocalisations. These patterns of behaviour are consistent with acoustic masking. When exposed to playback of conspecific vocalisations, the group cohesion and vocalisation rates of bigeyes both significantly increased. These results provide the first direct experimental support for the hypotheses that vocalisations are used as contact calls to maintain group cohesion in fishes, making fish the evolutionarily oldest vertebrate group in which this phenomenon has been observed, and adding a new dimension to the interpretation of nocturnal reef soundscapes.

  5. Biogeochemical behaviour of anionic radionuclides in soil: evidence for biotic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fevrier, L.; Martin-Garin, A.

    2004-01-01

    Among studies on radionuclides, very few have been devoted to the behaviour of long-lived anionic radionuclides as 99 Tc and 79 Se in soils. Yet these two species are supposed to be highly mobile in soils, because of their anionic forms. The understanding of their biogeochemical behaviour in soils will improve both the ecological and health risk assessment. Very often the interactions between the radionuclides and the different components of soil are considered only from a physico-chemical point of view. However in surface horizons and more specially in the rhizosphere, the micro-organisms can not be ignored as they can affect either directly or indirectly the speciation of most of the chemical species, and particularly these of Se and Tc. This study demonstrates the role of the microbial compartment in the retention of Se and Tc in soil by comparing experiments with a sterilized soil (no microbial activity) to experiments with a soil more or less amended with organic carbon and / or nitrate, to stimulate its microbial activity. Kd coefficients for Se and Tc were determined in batch experiments, whereas transport of Se and Tc was investigated through column leaching experiments. Kd for Se was enhanced for the natural soil without amendment compared to the value obtained for the sterilized soil. The retention of Se was higher again in the natural soil amended with glucose and nitrate together. In addition, these amendments facilitated the development of a biofilm at the entrance of the column, which can directly retain Se. This effect was less obvious for Tc in batch experiments, but was revealed by leaching experiments where a high quantity of Tc was retained in the soil column when added with glucose and nitrate. These results give evidence that micro-organisms are responsible for a greater retention of Se and Tc in soil. (author)

  6. Behavioural and neurophysiological evidence for face identity and face emotion processing in animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Andrew J; Fischer, Hanno; Leigh, Andrea E; Kendrick, Keith M

    2006-01-01

    Visual cues from faces provide important social information relating to individual identity, sexual attraction and emotional state. Behavioural and neurophysiological studies on both monkeys and sheep have shown that specialized skills and neural systems for processing these complex cues to guide behaviour have evolved in a number of mammals and are not present exclusively in humans. Indeed, there are remarkable similarities in the ways that faces are processed by the brain in humans and other mammalian species. While human studies with brain imaging and gross neurophysiological recording approaches have revealed global aspects of the face-processing network, they cannot investigate how information is encoded by specific neural networks. Single neuron electrophysiological recording approaches in both monkeys and sheep have, however, provided some insights into the neural encoding principles involved and, particularly, the presence of a remarkable degree of high-level encoding even at the level of a specific face. Recent developments that allow simultaneous recordings to be made from many hundreds of individual neurons are also beginning to reveal evidence for global aspects of a population-based code. This review will summarize what we have learned so far from these animal-based studies about the way the mammalian brain processes the faces and the emotions they can communicate, as well as associated capacities such as how identity and emotion cues are dissociated and how face imagery might be generated. It will also try to highlight what questions and advances in knowledge still challenge us in order to provide a complete understanding of just how brain networks perform this complex and important social recognition task. PMID:17118930

  7. [Low-intensity, evidence-based cognitive-behavioural therapy of a patient with Crohn's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antal-Uram, Dóra; Harsányi, László; Perczel-Forintos, Dóra

    2018-03-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's disease and colitis ulcerosa) is a chronic, long-term condition that causes chronic inflammation in the digestive tract, and shows an increasing incidence and prevalence worldwide. Changes in disease activity over time affect psychological distress which increases the risk of exacerbations. Beside somatic symptoms (such as abdominal pain, diarrhoea and weight loss), psychiatric comorbidity (in particular major depression, anxiety, social phobia) is common in patients with Crohn's disease. This case study illustrates the management and stabilization of a 21-year-old adult male patient with active Crohn's disease and with severe psychiatric comorbidity. The patient was diagnosed with avoidant personality disorder and dysruptive mood dysregulation disorder based on the results of psychodiagnostics (SCID-II structured clinical interview, MMPI personality inventory and disease-specific clinical questionnaires such as Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Hopelessness Scale, Social Cognition Questionnaire, Anger Expression Scale, Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale). The main aim of psychotherapy is to increase the adherence to pharmacotherapy, to promote psychosocial functioning, to improve well-being and to enhance adaptive coping strategies. Low-intensity cognitive-behavioural psychotherapy was used which included psychoeducation, motivational interview, behavioural activation, patient diary, cognitive restructuring, problem-solving training, and family consulting. Twenty-five sessions were held weekly in outpatient form and 3 sessions of crisis intervention after the surgery at the hospital. The efficacy of the treatment was measured by self-reported questionnaires at baseline and at two follow-up sessions which corroborated a very significant decrease in the severity of depression, hopelessness, while emotional regulation and self-esteem became more adaptive. The remission of the above

  8. The Differentiation of Adaptive Behaviours: Evidence from High and Low Performers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Harrison; Oakland, Thomas David

    2015-01-01

    Background: Professionals who use measures of adaptive behaviour when working with special populations may assume that adaptive behaviour is a consistent and linear construct at various ability levels and thus believe the construct of adaptive behaviour is the same for high and low performers. That is, highly adaptive people simply are assumed to…

  9. Patient-Centred Multidisciplinary Inpatient Care-Have Diagnosis-Related Groups an Effect on the Doctor-Patient Relationship and Patients' Motivation for Behavioural Change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeyke, Tobias; Noehammer, Elisabeth; Ch Scheuer, Hans; Stummer, Harald

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this, the largest survey of patients performed to date, is to analyse the effects of diagnosis related groups (DRGs) on the doctor-patient relationship in the context of interdisciplinary patient-centered care. In addition, it is intended to investigate the possibility of motivating patients to change their behavioural patterns and lifestyle in the context of holistic therapy. Over a period of five years, a continuous survey was performed of hospitalised patients who were exercising their entitlement to interdisciplinary therapy in an acute, inpatient setting. The therapy was evaluated as good to very good both with and without the conditions of the case tariff fee system. Effects of the diagnosis related groups on the quality of the doctor-patient relationship could not be demonstrated (Mann-Whitney U test, p>0,05). A clear trend was evident in the influence on motivation to change behavioural patterns and lifestyle (Fisher's exact test, p=0,000). Studies of the effects of reimbursement systems in the context of interdisciplinary care are still in their infancy, despite the widespread use of diagnosis related groups. The mandatory character implicit in the case tariff fee system, which requires minimum qualitative standards for structural and procedural parameters in the context of providing interdisciplinary patient-centered care, can influence patients' behavioural patterns and lifestyle.

  10. Food additives and children's behaviour: evidence based policy at the margins of certainty

    OpenAIRE

    Stevenson, Jim

    2009-01-01

    The possible effects of food additives (specifically artificial colours) have been debated for over 30 years. The evidence accumulated suggests that for some children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) food colours exacerbate their condition. Two studies undertaken by a research group at the University of Southampton have extended these findings to the effects on hyperactivity in children from the general population who do not show ADHD. This article reviews the response ...

  11. The effect of group composition and age on social behaviour and competition in groups of weaned dairy calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Færevik, G.; Jensen, Margit Bak; Bøe, K. E.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate how group composition affects behavior and weight gain of newly weaned dairy calves and how age within heterogeneous groups affects behavior and competition. Seventy-two calves were introduced into 6 groups of 12 calves, of which 3 groups were...... period of 14 d. Analysis of the effect of group composition on behavior and weight gain included young calves in heterogeneous groups and calves in homogeneous groups within the same age range at grouping (30 to 42 d). Irrespective of group composition, time spent feeding and lying increased, whereas...... time spent active decreased from d 1 to 7. In homogeneous groups, calves were more explorative on d 1 after grouping. Finally, calves in homogeneous groups had a higher average daily weight gain than calves in heterogeneous groups. Analysis of the effect of age included young and old calves...

  12. An Evidence-Based Education Program For Adults About Child Sexual Abuse (“Prevent It!” Significantly Improves Behaviours As Well As Attitudes And Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin K Martin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Here we describe the development of an evidence-based education program for adults about childhood sexual abuse (CSA, called Prevent It! Uniquely, the primary goal of this program was to change the behaviour of participants, as well as to increase knowledge about CSA and positive attitudes towards it. A comprehensive review shows no previous similar approach. The program includes a detailed manual to allow standardized administration by trained facilitators, as well as multiple video segments from CSA survivors and professionals. A total of 23 program workshops were run, with 366 adults participating. Of these, 312 (85% agreed to take part in the study. All completed baseline ratings prior to the program and 195 (63% of study sample completed follow-up assessments at 3-months. There were no significant differences between the demographic make-up of the baseline group and the follow-up group. Assessments included demographic data, knowledge, attitudes, and several measures of behaviour (our primary outcome variable. Behavioural questions asked individuals to select behaviours used in the previous 3-months from a list of options. Questions also included asking how many times in the previous 3-months have you talked about healthy sexual development or child sexual abuse with a child you know; suspected a child was sexually abused; taken steps to protect a child; or reported suspected sexual abuse to police or child welfare? The majority of attendees were women, with the commonest age group being between 30 – 39 years old. Approximately 33% had experienced CSA themselves. At 3-month follow-up there were highly statistically significant improvements in several aspects of behaviour and knowledge, and attitudes regarding CSA. For example, the number of subjects actively looking for evidence of CSA increased from 46% at baseline to 81% at follow-up, while the number of subjects who actively took steps to protect children increased from 25% at baseline

  13. Comorbid externalising behaviour in AD/HD: evidence for a distinct pathological entity in adolescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharnel Perera

    Full Text Available While the profiling of subtypes of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD have been the subject of considerable scrutiny, both psychometrically and psychophysiologically, little attention has been paid to the effect of diagnoses comorbid with AD/HD on such profiles. This is despite the greater than 80% prevalence of comorbidity under the DSM-IV-TR diagnostic definitions. Here we investigate the event related potential (ERP and psychometric profiles of Controls, AD/HD, and comorbid AD/HD (particularly AD/HD+ODD/CD groups on six neurocognitive tasks thought to probe the constructs of selective and sustained attention, response inhibition and executive function. Data from 29 parameters extracted from a child group (age range 6 to 12; 52 Controls and 64 AD/HD and from an adolescent group (age range 13 to 17; 79 Controls and 88 AD/HD were reduced via a Principal Components Analysis, the 6 significant eigenvectors then used as determinants of cluster membership via a Two-Step Cluster Analysis. Two clusters were found in the analysis of the adolescent age group--a cluster dominated by Control and AD/HD participants without comorbidity, while the second cluster was dominated by AD/HD participants with externalising comorbidity (largely oppositional defiant/conduct disorder ODD/CD. A similar segregation within the child age group was not found. Further analysis of these objectively determined clusters in terms of their clinical diagnoses indicates a significant effect of ODD/CD comorbidity on a concurrent AD/HD diagnosis. We conclude that comorbid externalising behaviour in AD/HD constitutes a distinct pathological entity in adolescence.

  14. Learning from the Experts: A Thematic Analysis of Parent's Experiences of Attending a Therapeutic Group for Parents of Children with Learning Disabilities and Challenging Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson-Janes, Emily; Brice, Samuel; McElroy, Rebecca; Abbott, Jennie; Ball, June

    2016-01-01

    The Confident Parenting group is a therapeutic group for parents of children with learning disabilities and challenging behaviour, which is informed by the principles of behavioural theory and acceptance and commitment therapy. Parent's experiences of the group were elicited through participation in a large focus group which followed a…

  15. Knowledge and awareness of Canadian Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines: a synthesis of existing evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Allana G; Berry, Tanya; Deshpande, Sameer; Duggan, Mary; Faulkner, Guy; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; O'Reilly, Norm; Rhodes, Ryan E; Spence, John C; Tremblay, Mark S

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this review was to consolidate and synthesize existing evidence regarding current knowledge and awareness of the Canadian Physical Activity (PA) and Sedentary Behaviour (SB) Guidelines. MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO were searched for peer-reviewed publications pertaining to the guidelines. Content experts, key organizations (i.e., ParticipACTION and the Canadian Fitness and Lifestyle Research Institute), journal Web sites, and service organizations (i.e., the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology (CSEP) and the Public Health Agency of Canada) were consulted for additional evidence. Scientific publications (n = 6) and research from ParticipACTION and the Canadian Fitness and Lifestyle Research Institute reported that awareness of the guidelines is low, especially with respect to the SB guidelines. Less than 10% of survey respondents from the Canadian population were aware of the PA guidelines, and less than 5% were aware of the SB guidelines. Information on the guidelines was available on 51% of public health unit and CSEP partner Web sites. Online metrics (e.g., downloads, site accessions) from CSEP, the Public Health Agency of Canada, and journal Web sites showed that online accession of the guidelines was high (e.g., all "highly accessed" on journal Web sites). This review showed that awareness of the Canadian PA and SB Guidelines is low among the general population but higher among the scientific and stakeholder communities. Governmental, nongovernmental, and stakeholder organizations should collaborate in creating sustained, long-term, and well-resourced communication plans to reach the Canadian population to raise awareness of PA and SB guidelines and should implement programs to facilitate their uptake.

  16. Lack of behavioural evidence for kin avoidance in mate choice in a hymenopteran parasitoid (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdais, D; Hance, T

    2009-05-01

    Mechanisms for inbreeding avoidance should be prevalent in insects that reproduce by arrhenotokous haplodiploidy because of the higher potential production of unviable diploid males in inbred matings. Few studies have focused on mating strategies in insect parasitoids and even less on kinship relationships during mate choice. In this study we tested avoidance of kin as mate in the parasitic wasp Aphidius matricariae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) using an ethological approach. Key mating parameters, such as male wing fanning, latent period before genitalia contact and duration of copulation were measured. No evidence for kin avoidance in mate choice in both A. matricariae males and females was observed in our behaviour (no choice or choice tests) tests. This lack of ethological sib mating avoidance could be due to different factors such as sex determination rule different than the single locus complementary sex determination, making lower the proportion of diploid males in case of sib matings and thus its negative consequence. The existence of other inbreeding avoidance strategies and mechanisms that reduce the probability of 2 receptive relatives meeting in nature may be common, for example, inbred mating may be rare through differential dispersal, delayed maturation, or protandry.

  17. Attribution of intentional causation influences the perception of observed movements: Behavioural evidence and neural correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W Moore

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research on human agency suggests that intentional causation is associated with a subjective compression in the temporal interval between actions and their effects. That is, intentional movements and their causal effects are perceived as closer together in time than equivalent unintentional movements and their causal effects. This so-called intentional binding effect is consistently found for one’s own self-generated actions. It has also been suggested that intentional binding occurs when observing intentional movements of others. However, this evidence is undermined by limitations of the paradigm used. In the current study we aimed to overcome these limitations using a more rigorous design in combination with functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI to explore the neural underpinnings of intentional binding of observed movements. In particular, we aimed to identify brain areas sensitive to the interaction between intentionality and causality attributed to the observed action. Our behavioural results confirmed the occurrence of intentional binding for observed movements using this more rigorous paradigm. Our fMRI results highlighted a collection of brain regions whose activity was sensitive to the interaction between intentionality and causation. Intriguingly, these brain regions have previously been implicated in the sense of agency over one’s own movements. We discuss the implications of these results for intentional binding specifically, and the sense of agency more generally.

  18. Factors influencing food preparation behaviours: findings from focus groups with Mexican-American mothers in southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Teresa M; Dunton, Genevieve F; Pinard, Courtney A; Yaroch, Amy L

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore food preparation behaviours, attitudes, meal planning and shopping among Mexican-American mothers. Data were collected through four focus groups with mothers of Mexican origin/ancestry who considered themselves to be the primary food preparer. Topics included food preparation behaviours and influencers (culture, family, attitudes, barriers, meal planning and shopping). Data were analysed using a qualitative grounded theory approach. All focus groups were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and coded for themes. Data were collected in southern California, USA in 2013. Of the sample of twenty-one Mexican-American mothers, thirteen were born outside the USA and the mean household size was five members. Participants reported that food was often prepared using traditional staples and food preparation behaviours were learned from maternal family members. Participants also suggested that health was influenced by foods eaten and how they were prepared. Salient factors influencing food preparation behaviours included culture and tradition, maternal family members' food preparation behaviours, food preparation self-efficacy and attitudes towards healthy eating. Time and busy schedules were cited as barriers. Future interventions should consider utilizing family-based approaches and teaching culturally relevant food preparation skills, especially to youth, while reinforcing more healthful dietary practices.

  19. Theropod courtship: large scale physical evidence of display arenas and avian-like scrape ceremony behaviour by Cretaceous dinosaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockley, Martin G.; McCrea, Richard T.; Buckley, Lisa G.; Deock Lim, Jong; Matthews, Neffra A.; Breithaupt, Brent H.; Houck, Karen J.; Gierliński, Gerard D.; Surmik, Dawid; Soo Kim, Kyung; Xing, Lida; Yong Kong, Dal; Cart, Ken; Martin, Jason; Hadden, Glade

    2016-01-01

    Relationships between non-avian theropod dinosaurs and extant and fossil birds are a major focus of current paleobiological research. Despite extensive phylogenetic and morphological support, behavioural evidence is mostly ambiguous and does not usually fossilize. Thus, inferences that dinosaurs, especially theropods displayed behaviour analogous to modern birds are intriguing but speculative. Here we present extensive and geographically widespread physical evidence of substrate scraping behavior by large theropods considered as compelling evidence of “display arenas” or leks, and consistent with “nest scrape display” behaviour among many extant ground-nesting birds. Large scrapes, up to 2 m in diameter, occur abundantly at several Cretaceous sites in Colorado. They constitute a previously unknown category of large dinosaurian trace fossil, inferred to fill gaps in our understanding of early phases in the breeding cycle of theropods. The trace makers were probably lekking species that were seasonally active at large display arena sites. Such scrapes indicate stereotypical avian behaviour hitherto unknown among Cretaceous theropods, and most likely associated with terrirorial activity in the breeding season. The scrapes most probably occur near nesting colonies, as yet unknown or no longer preserved in the immediate study areas. Thus, they provide clues to paleoenvironments where such nesting sites occurred.

  20. Theropod courtship: large scale physical evidence of display arenas and avian-like scrape ceremony behaviour by Cretaceous dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockley, Martin G; McCrea, Richard T; Buckley, Lisa G; Lim, Jong Deock; Matthews, Neffra A; Breithaupt, Brent H; Houck, Karen J; Gierliński, Gerard D; Surmik, Dawid; Kim, Kyung Soo; Xing, Lida; Kong, Dal Yong; Cart, Ken; Martin, Jason; Hadden, Glade

    2016-01-07

    Relationships between non-avian theropod dinosaurs and extant and fossil birds are a major focus of current paleobiological research. Despite extensive phylogenetic and morphological support, behavioural evidence is mostly ambiguous and does not usually fossilize. Thus, inferences that dinosaurs, especially theropods displayed behaviour analogous to modern birds are intriguing but speculative. Here we present extensive and geographically widespread physical evidence of substrate scraping behavior by large theropods considered as compelling evidence of "display arenas" or leks, and consistent with "nest scrape display" behaviour among many extant ground-nesting birds. Large scrapes, up to 2 m in diameter, occur abundantly at several Cretaceous sites in Colorado. They constitute a previously unknown category of large dinosaurian trace fossil, inferred to fill gaps in our understanding of early phases in the breeding cycle of theropods. The trace makers were probably lekking species that were seasonally active at large display arena sites. Such scrapes indicate stereotypical avian behaviour hitherto unknown among Cretaceous theropods, and most likely associated with terrirorial activity in the breeding season. The scrapes most probably occur near nesting colonies, as yet unknown or no longer preserved in the immediate study areas. Thus, they provide clues to paleoenvironments where such nesting sites occurred.

  1. Understanding the spectrum of residential energy-saving behaviours: French evidence using disaggregated data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belaïd, Fateh; Garcia, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Analysing household energy-saving behaviours is crucial to improve energy consumption predictions and energy policy making. How should we quantitatively measure them? What are their determinants? This study explores the main factors influencing residential energy-saving behaviours based on a bottom-up multivariate statistical approach using data from the recent French PHEBUS survey. Firstly, we assess energy-saving behaviours on a one-dimension scale using IRT. Secondly, we use linear regression with an innovative variable selection method via adaptive lasso to tease out the effects of both macro and micro factors on the behavioural score. The results highlight the impact of five main attributes incentivizing energy-saving behaviours based on cross-variable analyses: energy price, household income, education level, age of head of household and dwelling energy performance. In addition, our results suggest that the analysis of the inverted U-shape impact of age enables the expansion of the energy consumption life cycle theory to energy-saving behaviours. - Highlights: • We examine the main factors influencing residential energy-saving behaviours. • We use data from the recent French PHEBUS survey. • We use IRT to assess energy-saving behaviours on a one-dimension scale. • We use linear regression with an innovative variable selection method via adaptive lasso. • We highlight the impact of five main attributes incentivizing energy-saving behaviours.

  2. Internet-versus group-administered cognitive behaviour therapy for panic disorder in a psychiatric setting: a randomised trial

    OpenAIRE

    Bergstrom, Jan; Andersson, Gerhard; Ljotsson, Brjann; Ruck, Christian; Andreewitch, Sergej; Karlsson, Andreas; Carlbring, Per; Andersson, Erik; Lindefors, Nils

    2010-01-01

    Background: Internet administered cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is a promising new way to deliver psychological treatment, but its effectiveness in regular care settings and in relation to more traditional CBT group treatment has not yet been determined. The primary aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of Internet- and group administered CBT for panic disorder (with or without agoraphobia) in a randomised trial within a regular psychiatric care setting. The second aim of the...

  3. Modelling of the turbo-generator groups dynamical behaviour. Application to the ARABELLE turbine of the N4 1400 MW unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bediou, J.

    1993-01-01

    Simulation of the dynamical behaviour of the EDF turbogenerator groups is based on developments concerning bearing behaviour and shaft line dynamics. A provisional model for the ARABELLE turbine dynamic behaviour is derived. The detailed representation of all the components allows for a fine analysis of the different effects and the evaluation of the stresses transmitted to the structure in anomalistic operating conditions

  4. Teachers' Perceptions of School Leaders' Empowering Behaviours and Psychological Empowerment: Evidence from a Singapore Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ai Noi; Nie, Youyan

    2017-01-01

    Using a convenience sample of 289 teachers in Singapore, this study examined: (1) whether there were significant differences between teachers' perceptions of principal's and immediate supervisor's empowering behaviours; and (2) teachers' perceptions of principal's and immediate supervisor's empowering behaviours in relation to teachers'…

  5. The Behavioural Phenotype of Smith-Magenis Syndrome: Evidence for a Gene-Environment Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, L.; Oliver, C.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Behaviour problems and a preference for adult contact are reported to be prominent in the phenotype of Smith-Magenis syndrome. In this study we examined the relationship between social interactions and self-injurious and aggressive/disruptive behaviour in Smith-Magenis syndrome to explore potential operant reinforcement of problem…

  6. Behavioural processes in marketing channel relationships: Review and integration of empirical evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Nils Bøgelund; Skytte, Hans

    1997-01-01

    This paper reviews the empirical research on behavioural processes in marketing channel relationships. Systematically examining nine international journals, we find 49 papers on behavioural processes. On the basis of the hypothesis tests in the papers, we discuss the results and integrate...

  7. Void analysis of target residues at SPS energy -evidence of correlation with fractal behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Dipak; Deb, Argha; Das, Rupa . E-mail : dipakghosh_in@yahoo.com

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the target residues in 32 S -AgBr and 16 0 -AgBr interactions at 200 AGeV and 60AGeV respectively in terms of fractal moment by Takagi method and void probability scaling. The study reveals an interesting feature of the production process. In 16 O- AgBr interactions multifractal behaviour is present in both hemispheres and void probability does not show a scaling behaviour, but at high energy the situation changes. In 32 S -AgBr interactions for both hemisphere monofractal behaviour is indicated by that data and void probability also shows good scaling behaviour. This suggests that a possible correlation of void probability with fractal behaviour of target residues. (author)

  8. L-040: EPR-First Responders: Forensic Evidence Management group. Action Guides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This conference is about the forensic evidence managed by the radiological emergency group. The protection guides, the evidences, the fingerprints, the experience, the strategies, the contamination level, the monitoring, the photography and the interrogation are important aspects to be considered by the first responders.

  9. Does prior psychotherapy experience affect the course of cognitive-behavioural group therapy for social anxiety disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delsignore, Aba

    2008-08-01

    To examine whether and how different patterns of psychotherapy history (no prior therapy, successful therapy experience, and unsuccessful therapy experience) affect the outcome of future treatment among patients undergoing cognitive-behavioural group therapy for social anxiety disorder. Fifty-seven patients with varying histories of psychotherapy participating in cognitive-behavioural group treatment for social anxiety disorder were included in the study. Symptom severity (including anxiety, depression, self-efficacy, and global symptom severity) was assessed at pre- and posttreatment. A therapist-rated measure of patient therapy engagement was included as a process variable. First-time therapy patients showed more favourable pretreatment variables and achieved greater benefit from group therapy. Among patients with unsuccessful therapy experience, substantial gains were attained by those who were able to actively engage in the therapy process. Patients rating previous therapies as successful could benefit the least and tended to stagnate. Possible explanations for group differences and clinical implications are discussed. Prior psychotherapy experience affects the course of cognitive-behavioural group therapy in patients with social phobias. While patients with negative therapy experience may need extensive support in being and remaining actively engaged, those rating previous therapies as successful should be assessed very carefully and may benefit from a major focus on relational aspects.

  10. Automaticity of cognitive biases in addictive behaviours: further evidence with gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCusker, C G; Gettings, B

    1997-11-01

    The hypotheses that automatic, non-volitional, attentional and memory biases for addiction-related constructs exist is tested with compulsive gamblers. An independent groups design was employed. Processing of gambling, compared to neutral and drug-related information was examined in 15 gamblers recruited from new members of Gamblers Anonymous. Comparisons were made with the performance of their spouses (N = 15) to help distinguish addiction mechanisms from more non-specific emotional experiences with gambling, and an independent control group (N = 15), recruited from the staff and students of a university department. A modified Stroop procedure was first employed. Automative cognitive interference was assessed relatively, by comparing colour-naming times on the gambling, drug and neutral Stroops. A subsequent word-stem completion task of implicit memory was then used to assess selective and automatic priming of the gambling constructs in memory. Only the gamblers showed selective and automatic interference for gambling-related constructs on the Stroop task. Spouses behaved like the control group on this task. An implicit memory bias for gambling-related words was statistically detected only in the gamblers compared to the control group, although the trend was similar in the comparison with spouses. Further evidence for the specificity of these effects was obtained in subgroup comparisons involving fruit-machine with racing gamblers. Results are generally consistent with an automaticity in the cognitive biases gamblers show for gambling-related information. Implications for cognitive understanding and treatments are highlighted.

  11. Effect of consumer behaviour and perception on car purchase decision: Empirical Evidence from Lagos - Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph. D. Samuel Taiwo Akinyele

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent days Nigeria is witnessing a change in consumerism. The market is now predominantly consumer driven. The focus is shifting for product based marketing to need based marketing. Consumer is given many options to decide. Passenger car segment is no exception to this general trend. An effective market communication is imperative for reaching the target audience. So it is important that we study the consumer perceptions and behaviour of the car owners which will give us feedback on how marketing strategies can be worked. Victoria Island in Lagos State, which is in the Southern part of Nigeria, has a progressive and growing market for cars. This area was selected for this study.Pre-testing was done by an interview schedule which was developed and administered to a convenient sample of twenty five car owners. A simple random sampling technique was adopted in the study to select the sample respondents. As the size of the universe is restricted, the study has been conducted on the respondents who are the owners of all the segments of passenger cars. A total of 350 interview schedules were prepared and out of this, only 327 interview schedules were filled up and collected. Data were collected through an interview schedule regarding reception of the respondents on the usage of cars. The following tools were used in testing the hypotheses and in the analysis of data. Descriptive statistical tools such as percentage, mean, median and standard deviation have been used to describe the profiles of consumers, preferred product attributes and level of satisfaction. ANOVA, T- Test and F- test have been used to test the significant differences between the groups of respondents in their perception and satisfaction for selected independent variable like age, sex and income. Chi-square test has been used to test the association between the consumer demographic characteristics and preferred product attributes and satisfaction. Multiple regression analysis has

  12. Humpback whale "super-groups" - A novel low-latitude feeding behaviour of Southern Hemisphere humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in the Benguela Upwelling System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlay, Ken P; Seakamela, S Mduduzi; Meÿer, Michael A; Kirkman, Stephen P; Barendse, Jaco; Cade, David E; Hurwitz, David; Kennedy, Amy S; Kotze, Pieter G H; McCue, Steven A; Thornton, Meredith; Vargas-Fonseca, O Alejandra; Wilke, Christopher G

    2017-01-01

    Southern Hemisphere humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) generally undertake annual migrations from polar summer feeding grounds to winter calving and nursery grounds in subtropical and tropical coastal waters. Evidence for such migrations arises from seasonality of historic whaling catches by latitude, Discovery and natural mark returns, and results of satellite tagging studies. Feeding is generally believed to be limited to the southern polar region, where Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) has been identified as the primary prey item. Non-migrations and / or suspended migrations to the polar feeding grounds have previously been reported from a summer presence of whales in the Benguela System, where feeding on euphausiids (E. lucens), hyperiid amphipods (Themisto gaudichaudii), mantis shrimp (Pterygosquilla armata capensis) and clupeid fish has been described. Three recent research cruises (in October/November 2011, October/November 2014 and October/November 2015) identified large tightly-spaced groups (20 to 200 individuals) of feeding humpback whales aggregated over at least a one-month period across a 220 nautical mile region of the southern Benguela System. Feeding behaviour was identified by lunges, strong milling and repetitive and consecutive diving behaviours, associated bird and seal feeding, defecations and the pungent "fishy" smell of whale blows. Although no dedicated prey sampling could be carried out within the tightly spaced feeding aggregations, observations of E. lucens in the region of groups and the full stomach contents of mantis shrimp from both a co-occurring predatory fish species (Thyrsites atun) and one entangled humpback whale mortality suggest these may be the primary prey items of at least some of the feeding aggregations. Reasons for this recent novel behaviour pattern remain speculative, but may relate to increasing summer humpback whale abundance in the region. These novel, predictable, inter-annual, low latitude feeding events

  13. Humpback whale "super-groups" - A novel low-latitude feeding behaviour of Southern Hemisphere humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae in the Benguela Upwelling System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken P Findlay

    Full Text Available Southern Hemisphere humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae generally undertake annual migrations from polar summer feeding grounds to winter calving and nursery grounds in subtropical and tropical coastal waters. Evidence for such migrations arises from seasonality of historic whaling catches by latitude, Discovery and natural mark returns, and results of satellite tagging studies. Feeding is generally believed to be limited to the southern polar region, where Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba has been identified as the primary prey item. Non-migrations and / or suspended migrations to the polar feeding grounds have previously been reported from a summer presence of whales in the Benguela System, where feeding on euphausiids (E. lucens, hyperiid amphipods (Themisto gaudichaudii, mantis shrimp (Pterygosquilla armata capensis and clupeid fish has been described. Three recent research cruises (in October/November 2011, October/November 2014 and October/November 2015 identified large tightly-spaced groups (20 to 200 individuals of feeding humpback whales aggregated over at least a one-month period across a 220 nautical mile region of the southern Benguela System. Feeding behaviour was identified by lunges, strong milling and repetitive and consecutive diving behaviours, associated bird and seal feeding, defecations and the pungent "fishy" smell of whale blows. Although no dedicated prey sampling could be carried out within the tightly spaced feeding aggregations, observations of E. lucens in the region of groups and the full stomach contents of mantis shrimp from both a co-occurring predatory fish species (Thyrsites atun and one entangled humpback whale mortality suggest these may be the primary prey items of at least some of the feeding aggregations. Reasons for this recent novel behaviour pattern remain speculative, but may relate to increasing summer humpback whale abundance in the region. These novel, predictable, inter-annual, low latitude

  14. Group-based parent-training programmes for improving emotional and behavioural adjustment in children from birth to three years old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Jane; Smailagic, Nadja; Ferriter, Michael; Bennett, Cathy; Jones, Hannah

    2010-03-17

    intervention group post-intervention. A meta-analysis of follow-up data indicates a significant result favouring the intervention group for parent-reports (SMD -0.28; CI -0.51 to -0.04) but a non-significant result favouring the intervention group for independent observations (SMD -0.19; CI -0.42, 0.05). The findings of this review provide some support for the use of group-based parenting programmes to improve the emotional and behavioural adjustment of children with a maximum mean age of three years eleven months. There is, insufficient evidence to reach firm conclusions regarding the role that such programmes might play in the primary prevention of such problems. There are also limited data available concerning the long-term effectiveness of these programmes. Further research is needed.

  15. Impact of childhood sexual abuse on the emotions and behaviours of adult men from three ethnic groups in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Jennifer Shepard; Galvan, Frank H; Williams, John K; Prusinski, Missy; Zhang, Muyu; Wyatt, Gail E; Myers, Hector F

    2014-01-06

    Adult men of different ethnic backgrounds who experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA) may vary in their reports of the psychological and behavioural impact of CSA on their lives. Empirical studies rarely examine the impact of race/ethnicity or cultural context on the psychological and behavioural struggles of adult male CSA survivors. This study utilised qualitative content analysis to examine the reported CSA-related psychological and behavioural challenges of 150 US men, with equal numbers of Blacks, Latinos and non-Latino Whites. Interview data revealed some ethnic differences: Black men more frequently denied having present day adverse effects than other groups. However, Black men who did report negative consequences of CSA discussed difficulties with substance use and hyper-sexualised behaviour more often than other ethnicities. Latino men reported anger, anxiety, hyper-vigilance, flashbacks and communication problems more often than the other two groups. Black and Latino men also discussed guilt/shame issues and sexual identity concerns more often than Whites did. In contrast, White men more frequently discussed issues related to low self-esteem, loneliness and isolation. These findings suggest that ethnically diverse men may respond differently to CSA experiences and that considerations need to be taken into account when providing healthcare to men with CSA histories.

  16. The impact of positive affect on health cognitions and behaviours: a meta-analysis of the experimental evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, David S; Bertenshaw, Emma J; Sheeran, Paschal

    2015-01-01

    Several reviews suggest that positive affect is associated with improved longevity, fewer physical symptoms, and biological indicators of good health. It is possible that positive affect could influence these outcomes by promoting healthful cognitions and behaviours. The present review identified conceptual pathways from positive affect to health cognitions and behaviour, and used random effects meta-analysis to quantify the impact of positive affect inductions (versus neutral affect conditions) on these outcomes. Literature searches located 54 independent tests that could be included in the review. Across all studies, the findings revealed no reliable effects on intentions (d+ = -.12, 95% CI = -.32 to .08, k = 15) or behaviour (d+ = .15, 95% CI = -.03 to .33, k = 23). There were four reliable effects involving specific cognitions and behaviours, but little clear evidence for generalised benefits or adverse effects of positive emotions on health-related cognitions or actions. Conclusions must be cautious given the paucity of tests available for analysis. The review offers suggestions about research designs that might profitably be deployed in future studies, and calls for additional tests of the impact of discrete positive emotions on health cognitions and behaviour.

  17. The influence of individual, group, and relative self-esteem on outcome for patients undergoing group cognitive-behavioural therapy treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Thomas J; Page, Andrew C; Hooke, Geoff R

    2013-11-01

    Despite a strong association between individual self-esteem and treatment outcome in group cognitive-behavioural therapy (GCBT), no study has investigated how patient outcomes might be influenced by an individual's self-esteem relative to other group members. The study comprised a retrospective examination of patients' data and used a multiple regression analysis to identify predictors of treatment outcome. Patients' pre-treatment self-esteem scores were assessed on a continuum and assigned to be low, medium, or high. Therapy groups were assigned to be either low, balanced or high self-esteem groups based on averaged self-esteem scores of participants. In this study, 3,878 patients who had completed a 10-day intensive cognitive behavioural group therapy programme at a private psychiatric facility were included in the study. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem measure was chosen to assess self-esteem. The three subscales of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales were used as the outcome measures. Patient outcomes were influenced by pre-treatment self-esteem scores, such that higher initial self-esteem was associated with better treatment outcomes. Low group self-esteem was predictive of significantly better outcomes for depression, relative to higher self-esteem groups. Additionally, the combined influence of high individual self-esteem and low group self-esteem was associated with significantly enhanced depression improvement. High self-esteem patients perform better on outcome measures following completion of GCBT. Low self-esteem groups show greater improvement in depression symptoms. Similar results for depression are achieved when patients with high self-esteem complete treatment in low self-esteem groups. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  18. Cooking behaviour of different ethnic groups residing in and around lowland rainforests of Sumatra, Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Wahyudi; Widianingsih, Nayu Nuringdati; Ardiansyah

    2017-01-01

    Cooking behaviour can reflect how natural resources have been converted into human nutrition. Cooking is activity from collecting to preparing food. Cooking competencies reflect the ability of people to provide for their food-based needs. Harapan Rainforest is a restoration forest with limited fo...

  19. Children's Play Behaviour and Social Communication in Integrated Special Day-Care Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhonen, Eira; Nislin, Mari A.; Alijoki, Alisa; Sajaniemi, Nina K.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate children's social communication abilities and play to reveal possible changes during a one year period in the context of Finnish early childhood special education. The data we collected during 2012-2013 consisted of assessments of play behaviour (Preschool Play Behavior Scale) and social communication…

  20. Increasing Explanatory Behaviour, Problem-Solving, and Reasoning within Classes Using Cooperative Group Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Robyn M.; Haynes, Michele

    2011-01-01

    The present study builds on research that indicates that teachers play a key role in promoting those interactional behaviours that challenge children's thinking and scaffold their learning. It does this by seeking to determine whether teachers who implement cooperative learning and receive training in explicit strategic questioning strategies…

  1. Measuring the drinking behaviour of individual pigs housed in group using radio frequency identification (RFID).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maselyne, J; Adriaens, I; Huybrechts, T; De Ketelaere, B; Millet, S; Vangeyte, J; Van Nuffel, A; Saeys, W

    2016-09-01

    Changes in the drinking behaviour of pigs may indicate health, welfare or productivity problems. Automated monitoring and analysis of drinking behaviour could allow problems to be detected, thus improving farm productivity. A high frequency radio frequency identification (HF RFID) system was designed to register the drinking behaviour of individual pigs. HF RFID antennas were placed around four nipple drinkers and connected to a reader via a multiplexer. A total of 55 growing-finishing pigs were fitted with radio frequency identification (RFID) ear tags, one in each ear. RFID-based drinking visits were created from the RFID registrations using a bout criterion and a minimum and maximum duration criterion. The HF RFID system was successfully validated by comparing RFID-based visits with visual observations and flow meter measurements based on visit overlap. Sensitivity was at least 92%, specificity 93%, precision 90% and accuracy 93%. RFID-based drinking duration had a high correlation with observed drinking duration (R 2=0.88) and water usage (R 2=0.71). The number of registrations after applying the visit criteria had an even higher correlation with the same two variables (R 2=0.90 and 0.75, respectively). There was also a correlation between number of RFID visits and number of observed visits (R 2=0.84). The system provides good quality information about the drinking behaviour of individual pigs. As health or other problems affect the pigs' drinking behaviour, analysis of the RFID data could allow problems to be detected and signalled to the farmer. This information can help to improve the productivity and economics of the farm as well as the health and welfare of the pigs.

  2. An exploration of lifestyle beliefs and lifestyle behaviour following stroke: findings from a focus group study of patients and family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Maggie; Kerr, Susan; Watson, Hazel; Paton, Gillian; Ellis, Graham

    2010-12-08

    Stroke is a major cause of disability and family disruption and carries a high risk of recurrence. Lifestyle factors that increase the risk of recurrence include smoking, unhealthy diet, excessive alcohol consumption and physical inactivity. Guidelines recommend that secondary prevention interventions, which include the active provision of lifestyle information, should be initiated in hospital, and continued by community-based healthcare professionals (HCPs) following discharge. However, stroke patients report receiving little/no lifestyle information.There is a limited evidence-base to guide the development and delivery of effective secondary prevention lifestyle interventions in the stroke field. This study, which was underpinned by the Theory of Planned Behaviour, sought to explore the beliefs and perceptions of patients and family members regarding the provision of lifestyle information following stroke. We also explored the influence of beliefs and attitudes on behaviour. We believe that an understanding of these issues is required to inform the content and delivery of effective secondary prevention lifestyle interventions. We used purposive sampling to recruit participants through voluntary sector organizations (29 patients, including 7 with aphasia; 20 family members). Using focus group methods, data were collected in four regions of Scotland (8 group discussions) and were analysed thematically. Although many participants initially reported receiving no lifestyle information, further exploration revealed that most had received written information. However, it was often provided when people were not receptive, there was no verbal reinforcement, and family members were rarely involved, even when the patient had aphasia. Participants believed that information and advice regarding healthy lifestyle behaviour was often confusing and contradictory and that this influenced their behavioural intentions. Family members and peers exerted both positive and negative

  3. Determinants of physical activity and sedentary behaviour in university students: a qualitative study using focus group discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deliens, Tom; Deforche, Benedicte; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Clarys, Peter

    2015-02-28

    College or university is a critical period regarding unhealthy changes in energy related behaviours in students. The first objective of this explorative study was to identify determinants of physical activity and sedentary behaviour in Belgian university students. Secondly, we aimed to collect ideas and recommendations to increase physical activity and decrease sedentary behaviours in university students. Using a semi-structured question guide, seven focus group discussions were conducted consisting of 17 male and 29 female university students from a variety of study disciplines, with a mean age of 20.7 ± 1.6 yrs. Using Nvivo9, an inductive thematic approach was used for data analysis. Students reported that both physical and sedentary activities were influenced by individual factors (e.g. perceived enjoyment, self-discipline, time and convenience), their social networks (e.g. (lack of) parental control, modelling, social support), physical environment (e.g. availability and accessibility, travel time/distance, prices), and macro environment (e.g. media and advertising). Furthermore, the relationships between determinants and university students' physical activity and sedentary behaviour seemed to be moderated by university characteristics, such as residency, university lifestyle, exams and academic pressure. Recommendations for future physical activity interventions include improving information strategies regarding on-campus sports activities, cheaper and/or more flexible sports subscriptions and formulas, including 'sports time' into the curricula, and providing university bicycles around campus. Students also believed that increasing students' physical activity might decrease their sedentary behaviour at the same time. The recommendations and ideas discussed in this study may facilitate the development of effective and tailored (multilevel) intervention programs aiming to increase physical activity and decrease sedentary behaviours in university students.

  4. Household Food Insecurity and Children's Behaviour Problems: New Evidence from a Trajectories-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin; Vaughn, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the association between household food insecurity (insufficient access to adequate and nutritious food) and trajectories of externalising and internalising behaviour problems in children from kindergarten to fifth grade using longitudinal data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study—Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K), a nationally representative study in the USA. Household food insecurity was assessed using the eighteen-item standard food security scale, and children's behaviour problems were reported by teachers. Latent growth curve analysis was conducted on 7,348 children in the ECLS-K, separately for boys and girls. Following adjustment for an extensive array of confounding variables, results suggest that food insecurity generally was not associated with developmental change in children's behaviour problems. The impact of food insecurity on behaviour problems may be episodic or interact with certain developmental stages. PMID:27559210

  5. Functional Neuroanatomy and Behavioural Correlates of the Basal Ganglia: Evidence from Lesion Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Ward

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The basal ganglia are interconnected with cortical areas involved in behavioural, cognitive and emotional processes, in addition to movement regulation. Little is known about which of these functions are associated with individual basal ganglia substructures.

  6. The Current Evidence for Hayek’s Cultural Group Selection Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad Lowell Stone

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article I summarize Friedrich Hayek’s cultural group selection theory and describe the evidence gathered by current cultural group selection theorists within the behavioral and social sciences supporting Hayek’s main assertions. I conclude with a few comments on Hayek and libertarianism.

  7. Everything should be as simple as possible, but no simpler: towards a protocol for accumulating evidence regarding the active content of health behaviour change interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Gjalt-Jorn Ygram; de Bruin, Marijn; Crutzen, Rik

    2015-01-01

    There is a need to consolidate the evidence base underlying our toolbox of methods of behaviour change. Recent efforts to this effect have conducted meta-regressions on evaluations of behaviour change interventions, deriving each method's effectiveness from its association to intervention effect size. However, there are a range of issues that raise concern about whether this approach is actually furthering or instead obstructing the advancement of health psychology theories and the quality of health behaviour change interventions. Using examples from theory, the literature and data from previous meta-analyses, these concerns and their implications are explained and illustrated. An iterative protocol for evidence base accumulation is proposed that integrates evidence derived from both experimental and applied behaviour change research, and combines theory development in experimental settings with theory testing in applied real-life settings. As evidence gathered in this manner accumulates, a cumulative science of behaviour change can develop.

  8. Providing education on evidence-based practice improved knowledge but did not change behaviour: a before and after study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovarini Meryl

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many health professionals lack the skills to find and appraise published research. This lack of skills and associated knowledge needs to be addressed, and practice habits need to change, for evidence-based practice to occur. The aim of this before and after study was to evaluate the effect of a multifaceted intervention on the knowledge, skills, attitudes and behaviour of allied health professionals. Methods 114 self-selected occupational therapists were recruited. The intervention included a 2-day workshop combined with outreach support for eight months. Support involved email and telephone contact and a workplace visit. Measures were collected at baseline, post-workshop, and eight months later. The primary outcome was knowledge, measured using the Adapted Fresno Test of Evidence-Based Practice (total score 0 to 156. Secondary outcomes were attitude to evidence-based practice (% reporting improved skills and confidence; % reporting barriers, and behaviour measured using an activity diary (% engaging/not engaging in search and appraisal activities, and assignment completion. Results Post-workshop, there were significant gains in knowledge which were maintained at follow-up. The mean difference in the Adapted Fresno Test total score was 20.6 points (95% CI, 15.6 to 25.5. The change from post-workshop to follow-up was small and non-significant (mean difference 1.2 points, 95% CI, -6.0 to 8.5. Fewer participants reported lack of searching and appraisal skills as barriers to evidence-based practice over time (searching = 61%, 53%, 24%; appraisal 60%, 65%, 41%. These differences were statistically significant (p = 0.0001 and 0.010 respectively. Behaviour changed little. Pre-workshop, 6% engaged in critical appraisal increasing to 18% post-workshop and 18% at follow-up. Nearly two thirds (60% were not reading any research literature at follow-up. Twenty-three participants (20.2% completed their assignment. Conclusion Evidence

  9. Priming of pop-out modulates attentional target selection in visual search: Behavioural and electrophysiological evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Eimer, Martin; Kiss, Monika; Cheung, Theodore

    2009-01-01

    Previous behavioural studies have shown that the repetition of target or distractor features across trials speeds pop-out visual search. We obtained behavioural and event-related brain potential (ERP) measures in two experiments where participants searched for a colour singleton target among homogeneously coloured distractors. An ERP marker of spatially selective attention (N2pc component) was delayed when either target or distractor colours were swapped across successive trials, demonstratin...

  10. Evidence of behaviour change following a hygiene promotion programme in Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Curtis, V; Kanki, B; Cousens, S; Diallo, I; Kpozehouen, A; Sangare, M; Nikiema, M

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine whether a large, 3-year hygiene promotion programme in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso, was effective in changing behaviours associated with the spread of diarrhoeal diseases. The programme was tailored to local customs, targeted specific types of behaviour, built on existing motivation for hygiene, and used locally appropriate channels of communication. METHODS: Two population surveys recorded the coverage of the programme among target audiences (mothers of children age...

  11. Behavioural evidence for separate mechanisms of audiovisual temporal binding as a function of leading sensory modality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecere, Roberto; Gross, Joachim; Thut, Gregor

    2016-06-01

    The ability to integrate auditory and visual information is critical for effective perception and interaction with the environment, and is thought to be abnormal in some clinical populations. Several studies have investigated the time window over which audiovisual events are integrated, also called the temporal binding window, and revealed asymmetries depending on the order of audiovisual input (i.e. the leading sense). When judging audiovisual simultaneity, the binding window appears narrower and non-malleable for auditory-leading stimulus pairs and wider and trainable for visual-leading pairs. Here we specifically examined the level of independence of binding mechanisms when auditory-before-visual vs. visual-before-auditory input is bound. Three groups of healthy participants practiced audiovisual simultaneity detection with feedback, selectively training on auditory-leading stimulus pairs (group 1), visual-leading stimulus pairs (group 2) or both (group 3). Subsequently, we tested for learning transfer (crossover) from trained stimulus pairs to non-trained pairs with opposite audiovisual input. Our data confirmed the known asymmetry in size and trainability for auditory-visual vs. visual-auditory binding windows. More importantly, practicing one type of audiovisual integration (e.g. auditory-visual) did not affect the other type (e.g. visual-auditory), even if trainable by within-condition practice. Together, these results provide crucial evidence that audiovisual temporal binding for auditory-leading vs. visual-leading stimulus pairs are independent, possibly tapping into different circuits for audiovisual integration due to engagement of different multisensory sampling mechanisms depending on leading sense. Our results have implications for informing the study of multisensory interactions in healthy participants and clinical populations with dysfunctional multisensory integration. © 2016 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience published by Federation

  12. Group Cognitive Behavioural Therapy and Group Recreational Activity for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselmark, Eva; Plenty, Stephanie; Bejerot, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Although adults with autism spectrum disorder are an increasingly identified patient population, few treatment options are available. This "preliminary" randomized controlled open trial with a parallel design developed two group interventions for adults with autism spectrum disorders and intelligence within the normal range: cognitive…

  13. Exploring the Potential Emotional and Behavioural Impact of Providing Personalised Genomic Risk Information to the Public: A Focus Group Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Amelia K; Keogh, Louise A; Newson, Ainsley J; Hersch, Jolyn; Butow, Phyllis; Cust, Anne E

    2015-01-01

    To explore the potential emotional and behavioural impact of providing information on personalised genomic risk to the public, using melanoma as an example, to aid research translation. We conducted four focus groups in which 34 participants were presented with a hypothetical scenario of an individual's lifetime genomic risk of melanoma (using the term 'genetic risk'). We asked about understanding of genetic risk, who would choose to receive this risk information, potential emotional and behavioural impacts, and other concerns or potential benefits. Data were analysed thematically. Participants thought this risk information could potentially motivate preventive behaviours such as sun protection and related it to screening for other diseases including breast cancer. Factors identified as influencing the decision to receive genetic risk information included education level, children, age and gender. Participants identified potential negative impacts on the recipient such as anxiety and worry, and proposed that this could be mitigated by providing additional explanatory and prevention information, and contact details of a health professional for further discussion. Participants' concerns included workplace and insurance discrimination. Participants recognised the potential for both positive and negative emotional and behavioural impacts related to receiving information on the personalised genomic risk of melanoma. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Experimental Evidence Shows the Importance of Behavioural Plasticity and Body Size under Competition in Waterfowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Prins, Herbert H. T.; Versluijs, Martijn; Wessels, Rick; Cao, Lei; de Boer, Willem Frederik

    2016-01-01

    When differently sized species feed on the same resources, interference competition may occur, which may negatively affect their food intake rate. It is expected that competition between species also alters behaviour and feeding patch selection. To assess these changes in behaviour and patch selection, we applied an experimental approach using captive birds of three differently sized Anatidae species: wigeon (Anas penelope) (~600 g), swan goose (Anser cygnoides) (~2700 g) and bean goose (Anser fabalis) (~3200 g). We quantified the functional response for each species and then recorded their behaviour and patch selection with and without potential competitors, using different species combinations. Our results showed that all three species acquired the highest nitrogen intake at relatively tall swards (6, 9 cm) when foraging in single species flocks in the functional response experiment. Goose species were offered foraging patches differing in sward height with and without competitors, and we tested for the effect of competition on foraging behaviour. The mean percentage of time spent feeding and being vigilant did not change under competition for all species. However, all species utilized strategies that increased their peck rate on patches across different sward heights, resulting in the same instantaneous and nitrogen intake rate. Our results suggest that variation in peck rate over different swards height permits Anatidae herbivores to compensate for the loss of intake under competition, illustrating the importance of behavioural plasticity in heterogeneous environments when competing with other species for resources. PMID:27727315

  15. Do physical activity and dietary smartphone applications incorporate evidence-based behaviour change techniques?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direito, Artur; Dale, Leila Pfaeffli; Shields, Emma; Dobson, Rosie; Whittaker, Robyn; Maddison, Ralph

    2014-06-25

    There has been a recent proliferation in the development of smartphone applications (apps) aimed at modifying various health behaviours. While interventions that incorporate behaviour change techniques (BCTs) have been associated with greater effectiveness, it is not clear to what extent smartphone apps incorporate such techniques. The purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of BCTs in physical activity and dietary apps and determine how reliably the taxonomy checklist can be used to identify BCTs in smartphone apps. The top-20 paid and top-20 free physical activity and/or dietary behaviour apps from the New Zealand Apple App Store Health & Fitness category were downloaded to an iPhone. Four independent raters user-tested and coded each app for the presence/absence of BCTs using the taxonomy of behaviour change techniques (26 BCTs in total). The number of BCTs included in the 40 apps was calculated. Krippendorff's alpha was used to evaluate interrater reliability for each of the 26 BCTs. Apps included an average of 8.1 (range 2-18) techniques, the number being slightly higher for paid (M = 9.7, range 2-18) than free apps (M = 6.6, range 3-14). The most frequently included BCTs were "provide instruction" (83% of the apps), "set graded tasks" (70%), and "prompt self-monitoring" (60%). Techniques such as "teach to use prompts/cues", "agree on behavioural contract", "relapse prevention" and "time management" were not present in the apps reviewed. Interrater reliability coefficients ranged from 0.1 to 0.9 (Mean 0.6, SD = 0.2). Presence of BCTs varied by app type and price; however, BCTs associated with increased intervention effectiveness were in general more common in paid apps. The taxonomy checklist can be used by independent raters to reliably identify BCTs in physical activity and dietary behaviour smartphone apps.

  16. Maternal employment and child socio-emotional behaviour in the UK: longitudinal evidence from the UK Millennium Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMunn, Anne; Kelly, Yvonne; Cable, Noriko; Bartley, Mel

    2012-07-01

    Mothers of young children are increasingly combining paid work with childrearing. Empirical evidence on the effects of maternal employment on children is contradictory and little work has considered the impact of maternal employment within the context of the employment patterns of both parents. Data on parental employment across three sweeps (when children were in infancy, age 3 and age 5 y) of the Millennium Cohort Study, a large nationally representative prospective birth cohort study, were used to investigate the relation between parental employment and child socio-emotional behaviour at age 5 years independent of maternal education, maternal depression or household income. The cumulative effect of maternal employment across the early years was investigated. The impact of maternal employment in the first year of life was separately examined as a potentially 'sensitive period'. There was no evidence of detrimental effects of maternal employment in the early years on subsequent child socio-emotional behaviour. There were significant gender differences in the effects of parental employment on behavioural outcomes. The most beneficial working arrangement for both girls and boys was that in which both mothers and fathers were present in the household and in paid work independent of maternal educational attainment and household income. No detrimental effects of maternal employment in the early years were seen. There were important gender differences in relationships between parental working arrangements and child socio-emotional outcomes.

  17. Video Interaction Guidance in Collaborative Group Work: Impact on Primary School Pupils' Self-Esteem and Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musset, Matthew; Topping, Keith

    2017-01-01

    Video interaction guidance (VIG) is an increasingly recognised evidence-based intervention. VIG was used to enhance pupil responses during a group work programme. Fifteen primary-aged classes across a range of socio-economic status received regular group work over a year. A mixed methods repeated measures design involved nine experimental classes…

  18. A COGNITIVE-BEHAVIOURAL GROUP TREATMENT IMPROVED WORK ABILITY IN PATIENTS WITH SEVERE FUNCTIONAL SOMATIC SYNDROMES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Andreas; Ørnbøl, Eva; Jensen, Jens Søndergaard

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Functional somatic syndromes (FSS) such as fibromyalgia, irritable bowel and chronic fatigue syndrome often disrupt employment and may lead to long-term dependence on social benefits and permanently reduced work ability. Cognitive-behavioural treatments (CBT) relief symptoms and improve...... before to 3 years after treatment by means of random effects modelling allowing individual levels and slopes. Results: Compared with the general population, FSS patients showed a continuous decline in self-support, leading to markedly reduced work ability at trial entry. In the following years, EUC...

  19. Facilitating improved road safety based on increased knowledge about driving behaviour and profiling sub-groups of drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Laila Marianne

    The aim of the Ph.D. study presented in this thesis was to facilitate improved road safety through increased understanding of methods used to measure driving behaviour, and through increased knowledge about driving behaviour in sub-groups of drivers. More specifically, the usefulness of the Driver...... with underlying mechanisms of lack of focus, emotional stress, recklessness and confusion, and hence it is highly important to further explore means to making drivers become more focused or attentive when driving, and to deal with emotional responses in traffic like impatience and frustration (Article 1). 2......, indicating that the problem lies in the drivers’ attitudes towards safety (Article 3). 6. It is indicated that rather than viewing safety and risk as two ends of a continuum, safety and risk should be understood as two separate constructs, with different underlying motives. Therefore it is suggested...

  20. Evidence, Policy and Guidance for Practice: A Critical Reflection on the Case of Social Housing Landlords and Antisocial Behaviour in Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Isobel

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the role of guidance for practitioners in the evidence-policy-practice relationship through a critical reflection of the process of developing evidence-informed guidance for housing practitioners working in the area of antisocial behaviour in Scotland. The paper applies theoretical models for the use of evidence in policy and…

  1. The behaviour of mosquitoes in relation to humans under holed bednets: the evidence from experimental huts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth R Irish

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The physical integrity of bednets is a concern of national malaria control programs, as it is a key factor in determining the rate of replacement of bednets. It is largely assumed that increased numbers of holes will result in a loss of protection of sleepers from potentially infective bites. Experimental hut studies are valuable in understanding mosquito behaviour indoors, particularly as it relates to blood feeding and mortality. This review summarises findings from experimental hut studies, focusing on two issues: (i the effect of different numbers or sizes of holes in bednets and (ii feeding behaviour and mortality with holed nets as compared with unholed nets. As might be expected, increasing numbers and area of holes resulted in increased blood feeding by mosquitoes on sleepers. However, the presence of holes did not generally have a large effect on the mortality of mosquitoes. Successfully entering a holed mosquito net does not necessarily mean that mosquitoes spend less time in contact with the net, which could explain the lack in differences in mortality. Further behavioural studies are necessary to understand mosquito behaviour around nets and the importance of holed nets on malaria transmission.

  2. Determinants and policy implications for household electricity-saving behaviour: Evidence from Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhaohua; Zhang Bin; Yin Jianhua; Zhang Yixiang

    2011-01-01

    This research sets out to explore the possibilities for further saving in household electricity consumption through a study of the residents' willingness and behavioural characteristics in electricity saving, as applied within a Chinese context. Based on an extensive literature review, the authors argue that economic benefits, policy and social norms, and past experience may have a positive correlation with household electricity-saving behaviour, while the discomfort caused by electricity-saving activities, may exert a negative effect on it. Through a sample of 816 randomly selected residents in Beijing, the propositions are examined using logit regression analysis. The conclusions support the ideas, concerning both the positive influence of economic benefits, policy and social norms, and past experience as they affect broader electricity-saving behaviour, and the negative influence of the discomfort caused by electricity-saving activities. Finally, some inferences are drawn, and suggestions are offered for policy makers and further studies. - Highlights: → We develop a logistic regression to investigate household electricity saving behaviour. → Determinants for household electricity saving are verified with a questionnaire survey. → Environmental awareness does not impact on household electricity saving directly. → It is prerequisite to focus on both financial subsidy and technology improvement. → Tiered price reform is considered an effective policy for electricity saving.

  3. Teacher interpersonal behaviour and student motivation in competence-based vocational education : Evidence from Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Misbah, Zainun; Gulikers, Judith; Maulana, Ridwan; Mulder, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Competence-based education requires changing teacher roles probably affecting teacher–student interactions and student motivation. This study examines how students (N = 1469) from competence-based and less-competence-based vocational schools perceive their teachers' interpersonal behaviour and its

  4. Families Promote Emotional and Behavioural Resilience to Bullying: Evidence of an Environmental Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowes, Lucy; Maughan, Barbara; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Arseneault, Louise

    2010-01-01

    Background: Bullied children are at risk for later emotional and behavioural problems. "Resilient" children function better than would be expected given their experience of bullying victimisation. This study examined the role of families in promoting resilience following bullying victimisation in primary school. Method: Data were from the…

  5. Some evidence on the relevance of bank behaviour for the lending channel in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ees, H.; Sterken, E.; Garretsen, Harry

    This paper studies the behaviour of Dutch banks. We test the adjustment of banks' balance sheets in times of monetary policy changes during the period 1957-1991. As a reaction to a policy change, banks basically have two alternatives to adjust their net money creation: (1) sell securities in public

  6. Information transmission via movement behaviour improves decision accuracy in human groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clément, R.J.G.; Wolf, Max; Snijders, Lysanne; Krause, Jens; Kurvers, R.H.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    A major advantage of group living is increased decision accuracy. In animal groups information is often transmitted via movement. For example, an individual quickly moving away from its group may indicate approaching predators. However, individuals also make mistakes which can initiate

  7. Information transmission via movement behaviour improves decision accuracy in human groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clément, Romain J.G.; Wolf, Max; Snijders, Lysanne; Krause, Jens; Kurvers, Ralf H.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    A major advantage of group living is increased decision accuracy. In animal groups information is often transmitted via movement. For example, an individual quickly moving away from its group may indicate approaching predators. However, individuals also make mistakes which can initiate information

  8. A review of sow and piglet behaviour and performance in group housing systems for lactating sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwamerongen, van S.E.; Bolhuis, J.E.; Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.; Soede, N.M.

    2014-01-01

    Commercial use of group housing systems for lactating sows is limited, but the recent transition to group housing during gestation in the EU may result in a renewed interest in such systems. Therefore, this review aims to identify key factors that may contribute to the success or failure of group

  9. Everything should be as simple as possible, but no simpler: towards a protocol for accumulating evidence regarding the active content of health behaviour change interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, G.J.Y.; de Bruin, M.; Crutzen, R.

    2015-01-01

    There is a need to consolidate the evidence base underlying our toolbox of methods of behaviour change. Recent efforts to this effect have conducted meta-regressions on evaluations of behaviour change interventions, deriving each method's effectiveness from its association to intervention effect

  10. Risk behaviours among internet-facilitated sex workers: evidence from two new datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Scott; Kendall, Todd D

    2010-12-01

    Sex workers have historically played a central role in STI outbreaks by forming a core group for transmission and due to their higher rates of concurrency and inconsistent condom usage. Over the past 15 years, North American commercial sex markets have been radically reorganised by internet technologies that channelled a sizeable share of the marketplace online. These changes may have had a meaningful impact on the role that sex workers play in STI epidemics. In this study, two new datasets documenting the characteristics and practices of internet-facilitated sex workers are presented and analysed. The first dataset comes from a ratings website where clients share detailed information on over 94,000 sex workers in over 40 cities between 1999 and 2008. The second dataset reflects a year-long field survey of 685 sex workers who advertise online. Evidence from these datasets suggests that internet-facilitated sex workers are dissimilar from the street-based workers who largely populated the marketplace in earlier eras. Differences in characteristics and practices were found which suggest a lower potential for the spread of STIs among internet-facilitated sex workers. The internet-facilitated population appears to include a high proportion of sex workers who are well-educated, hold health insurance and operate only part time. They also engage in relatively low levels of risky sexual practices.

  11. Evidence for a link between changes to gaze behaviour and risk of falling in older adults during adaptive locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, G J; Hollands, M A

    2006-11-01

    There is increasing evidence that gaze stabilization with respect to footfall targets plays a crucial role in the control of visually guided stepping and that there are significant changes to gaze behaviour as we age. However, past research has not measured if age-related changes in gaze behaviour are associated with changes to stepping performance. This paper aims to identify differences in gaze behaviour between young (n=8) adults, older adults determined to be at a low-risk of falling (low-risk, n=4) and older adults prone to falling (high-risk, n=4) performing an adaptive locomotor task and attempts to relate observed differences in gaze behaviour to decline in stepping performance. Participants walked at a self-selected pace along a 9m pathway stepping into two footfall target locations en route. Gaze behaviour and lower limb kinematics were recorded using an ASL 500 gaze tracker interfaced with a Vicon motion analysis system. Results showed that older adults looked significantly sooner to targets, and fixated the targets for longer, than younger adults. There were also significant differences in these measures between high and low-risk older adults. On average, high-risk older adults looked away from targets significantly sooner and demonstrated less accurate and more variable foot placements than younger adults and low-risk older adults. These findings suggest that, as we age, we need more time to plan precise stepping movements and clearly demonstrate that there are differences between low-risk and high-risk older adults in both where and when they look at future stepping targets and the precision with which they subsequently step. We propose that high-risk older adults may prioritize the planning of future actions over the accurate execution of ongoing movements and that adoption of this strategy may contribute to an increased likelihood of falls. Copyright 2005 Elsevier B.V.

  12. CO2-induced ocean acidification does not affect individual or group behaviour in a temperate damselfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Garfield Tsz; Hamilton, Trevor James; Tresguerres, Martin

    2017-07-01

    Open ocean surface CO 2 levels are projected to reach approximately 800 µatm, and ocean pH to decrease by approximately 0.3 units by the year 2100 due to anthropogenic CO 2 emissions and the subsequent process of ocean acidification (OA). When exposed to these CO 2 /pH values, several fish species display abnormal behaviour in laboratory tests, an effect proposed to be linked to altered neuronal GABA A- receptor function. Juvenile blacksmith ( Chromis punctipinnis ) are social fish that regularly experience CO 2 /pH fluctuations through kelp forest diurnal primary production and upwelling events, so we hypothesized that they might be resilient to OA. Blacksmiths were exposed to control conditions (pH ∼ 7.92; p CO 2  ∼ 540 µatm), constant acidification (pH ∼ 7.71; p CO 2  ∼ 921 µatm) and oscillating acidification (pH ∼ 7.91, p CO 2  ∼ 560 µatm (day), pH ∼ 7.70, p CO 2  ∼ 955 µatm (night)), and caught and tested in two seasons of the year when the ocean temperature was different: winter (16.5 ± 0.1°C) and summer (23.1 ± 0.1°C). Neither constant nor oscillating CO 2 -induced acidification affected blacksmith individual light/dark preference, inter-individual distance in a shoal or the shoal's response to a novel object, suggesting that blacksmiths are tolerant to projected future OA conditions. However, blacksmiths tested during the winter demonstrated significantly higher dark preference in the individual light/dark preference test, thus confirming season and/or water temperature as relevant factors to consider in behavioural tests.

  13. An In-Group Becomes Part of the Self: Response Time Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Eliot; Henry, Susan

    1996-01-01

    Social identity theory holds that social group memberships become part of the psychological self, affecting thoughts, feelings, and behavior. However, tests of this hypothesis have mainly involved judgmental dependent measures. A method is suggested that can provide more direct evidence. Discusses use of that method. (KW)

  14. Mostly Heterosexual as a Distinct Sexual Orientation Group: A Systematic Review of the Empirical Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savin-Williams, Ritch C.; Vrangalova, Zhana

    2013-01-01

    We reviewed empirical evidence regarding whether mostly heterosexual exists as a sexual orientation distinct from two adjacent groups on a sexual continuum--exclusively heterosexual and substantially bisexual. We addressed the question: Do mostly heterosexuals show a unique profile of sexual and romantic characteristics that distinguishes them as…

  15. WS-007: EPR-First Responders: Practical applications of FEMG concepts (Group management of forensic evidence)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this working session is that the participants can apply their knowledge in a potential crime. They have to know the forensic management group actions as well as how to preservate the scene and victim evidences for the forensic studies and how to prevent cross-contamination

  16. Evidence that alpha-methyl-p-tyramine is implicated in behavioural augmentation to amphetamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougan, D F; Labrie, S L; Paull, P D; Duffield, P H; Wade, D N

    1986-01-01

    Behavioural studies showed that administration of alpha-methyl-p-tyramine (AMT; 10 mg/kg i.p.) to rats 24 hr before treatment with d-amphetamine (AMPHET; 4 mg/kg i.p.) resulted in augmentation of AMPHET-induced stereotype activity. Parallel experiments involving electro-chemical estimation of dopamine metabolites in the striatum showed that the decrease in the concentration of homovanillic acid (HVA) produced by AMPHET (4 mg/kg) was enhanced in AMT (10 mg/kg) pretreated animals. These findings suggest that AMT derived from previous doses of AMPHET may play a role in the phenomena of behavioural augmentation observed after chronic administration of AMPHET.

  17. Critical behaviour of nanocrystalline gadolinium: evidence for random uniaxial dipolar universality class

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferdinand, A; Probst, A-C; Birringer, R; Michels, A; Kaul, S N

    2014-01-01

    We report on how nanocrystal size affects the critical behaviour of the rare-earth metal Gd near the ferromagnetic-to-paramagnetic phase transition. The asymptotic critical behaviour of the coarse-grained polycrystalline sample (with an average crystallite size of L≅100 μm) is that of a (pure) uniaxial dipolar ferromagnet, as is the case with single crystal Gd, albeit the width of the asymptotic critical region (ACR) is reduced. As the grain size approaches ∼30 nm, the ACR is so narrow that it could not be accessed in the present experiments. Inaccessibly narrow ACR for L ∼ 30 nm and continuous increase in the width of the ACR as L decreases from 16 to 9.5 nm basically reflect a crossover to the random uniaxial dipolar fixed point caused by the quenched random exchange disorder prevalent at the internal interfaces (grain boundaries). (paper)

  18. [A Group Cognitive-Behavioural Intervention to Prevent Depression Relapse in Individuals Having Recently Returned to Work: Protocol and Feasibility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecomte, Tania; Corbière, Marc

    Workplace depression is one of the major causes for sick leave and loss of productivity at work. Many studies have investigated factors predicting return to work for people with depression, including studies evaluating return to work programs and organizational factors. Yet, a paucity of studies have targeted the prevention of depressive relapses at work, even though more than half of those having had a depression will have a depressive relapse in the near future.Objectives This article describes a research protocol involving a novel group intervention based on cognitive behavioural principles with the aim to optimize return to work and diminish risk of depressive relapses.Method This pilot study follows a randomized controlled trial design, with half the participants (N=25) receiving the group intervention and the other half (N=25) receiving usual services. The theoretical and empirical underpinnings of the intervention are described, along with a detailed presentation of the intervention and of the study's objectives. The group intervention consists of 8 sessions whereby Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) principles and techniques are applied to the following themes: (1) Coping with stress at work; (2) Recognizing and modifying my dysfunctional beliefs linked to work; (3) Overcoming obstacles linked to work functioning and maintaining work; (4) Negotiating needed work adjustments with the support of the immediate supervisor; (5) Finding my strengths and competencies related to work; (6) Accepting criticism and asserting myself appropriately at work; (7) Uncovering my best coping strategies for work.Results Qualitative information pertaining to the first two cohorts' participants' subjective appreciation of the group experience revealed that the intervention was perceived as very useful by all, with group support, namely harmony and interpersonal support, as well as CBT strategies being mentioned specifically.Conclusion Finally, the potential relevance of the

  19. The effect of training and breed group on problem-solving behaviours in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall-Pescini, Sarah; Frazzi, Chiara; Valsecchi, Paola

    2016-05-01

    Dogs have become the focus of cognitive studies looking at both their physical and social problem-solving abilities (Bensky et al. in Adv Stud Behav, 45:209-387, 2013), but very little is known about the environmental and inherited factors that may affect these abilities. In the current study, we presented a manipulation task (a puzzle box) and a spatial task (the detour) to 128 dogs belonging to four different breed groups: Herding, Mastiff-like, Working and Retrievers (von Holdt et al. in Nature 464:898-902, 2010). Within each group, we tested highly trained and non-trained dogs. Results showed that trained dogs were faster at obtaining the reward in the detour task. In the manipulation task, trained dogs approached the apparatus sooner in the first familiarization trial, but no effect of breed emerged on this variable. Furthermore, regardless of breed, dogs in the trained group spent proportionally more time interacting with the apparatus and were more likely to succeed in the test trial than dogs in the non-trained group, whereas regardless of training, dogs in the working breed group were more likely to succeed than dogs in the retriever and herding breed groups (but not the mastiff-like group). Finally, trained dogs were less likely to look at a person than non-trained dogs during testing, but dogs in the herding group more likely to do so than dogs in the retriever and working but not the mastiff-like breed groups. Overall, results reveal a strong influence of training experience but less consistent differences between breed groups on different components thought to affect problem solving.

  20. Groups 4 Health: Evidence that a social-identity intervention that builds and strengthens social group membership improves mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, Catherine; Cruwys, Tegan; Haslam, S Alexander; Dingle, Genevieve; Chang, Melissa Xue-Ling

    2016-04-01

    Social isolation and disconnection have profound negative effects on mental health, but there are few, if any, theoretically-derived interventions that directly target this problem. We evaluate a new intervention, Groups 4 Health (G4H), a manualized 5-module psychological intervention that targets the development and maintenance of social group relationships to treat psychological distress arising from social isolation. G4H was tested using a non-randomized control design. The program was delivered to young adults presenting with social isolation and affective disturbance. Primary outcome measures assessed mental health (depression, general anxiety, social anxiety, and stress), well-being (life satisfaction, self-esteem) and social connectedness (loneliness, social functioning). Our secondary goal was to assess whether mechanisms of social identification were responsible for changes in outcomes. G4H was found to significantly improve mental health, well-being, and social connectedness on all measures, both on program completion and 6-month follow-up. In line with social identity theorizing, analysis also showed that improvements in depression, anxiety, stress, loneliness, and life satisfaction were underpinned by participants' increased identification both with their G4H group and with multiple groups. This study provides preliminary evidence of the potential value of G4H and its underlying mechanisms, but further examination is required in other populations to address issues of generalizability, and in randomized controlled trials to address its wider efficacy. Results of this pilot study confirm that G4H has the potential to reduce the negative health-related consequences of social disconnection. Future research will determine its utility in wider community contexts. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Group boundary permeability moderates the effect of a dependency meta-stereotype on help-seeking behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lange; Kou, Yu; Zhao, Yunlong; Fu, Xinyuan

    2016-08-01

    Previous studies have found that when low-status group members are aware that their in-group is stereotyped as dependent by a specific out-group (i.e. a dependency meta-stereotype is salient), they are reluctant to seek help from the high-status out-group to avoid confirming the negative meta-stereotype. However, it is unclear whether low-status group members would seek more help in the context of a salient dependency meta-stereotype when there is low (vs. high) group boundary permeability. Therefore, we conducted two experiments to examine the moderating effect of permeability on meta-stereotype confirmation with a real group. In study 1, we manipulated the salience of the dependency meta-stereotype, measured participants' perceived permeability and examined their help-seeking behaviour in a real-world task. Participants who perceived low permeability sought more help when the meta-stereotype was salient (vs. not salient), whereas participants who perceived high permeability sought the same amount of help across conditions. In study 2, we manipulated the permeability levels and measured the dependency meta-stereotype. Participants who endorsed a high-dependency meta-stereotype sought more help than participants who endorsed a low-dependency meta-stereotype; this effect was particularly strong in the low-permeability condition. The implications of these results for social mobility and intergroup helping are discussed. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  2. [Autoimmune pancreatitis. Evidence based management guidelines of the Hungarian Pancreatic Study Group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubravcsik, Zsolt; Farkas, Gyula; Hegyi, Péter; Hritz, István; Kelemen, Dezső; Lásztity, Natália; Morvay, Zita; Oláh, Attila; Pap, Ákos; Párniczky, Andrea; Sahin-Tóth, Miklós; Szentkereszti, Zsolt; Szmola, Richárd; Takács, Tamás; Tiszlavicz, László; Szücs, Ákos; Czakó, László

    2015-02-22

    Autoimmune pancreatitis is a rare disease which can even mimic pancreatic tumor, however, unlike the latter, it requires not surgical but conservative management. Correct diagnosis and differential diagnosis of autoimmune pancreatitis and treatment of these patients requires up-to-date and evidence based management guidelines. The Hungarian Pancreatic Study Group proposed to prepare an evidence based guideline based on the available international guidelines and evidences. The preparatory and consultation task force appointed by the Hungarian Pancreatic Study Group translated and complemented and/or modified the international guidelines if it was necessary. 29 relevant clinical questions in 4 topics were defined (Basics; Diagnosis; Differential diagnostics; Therapy). Evidence was classified according to the UpToDate(®) grading system. The draft of the guidelines was presented and discussed at the consensus meeting on September 12, 2014. All clinial questions were accepted with almost total (more than 95%) agreement. The present guideline is the first evidence based autoimmune pancreatitis guideline in Hungary. The guideline may provide very important and helpful data for tuition of autoimmune pancreatitis, for everyday practice and for establishing proper finance. Therefore, the authors believe that these guidelines will widely become a basic reference in Hungary.

  3. Using Behavioural Insights to Promote Food Waste Recycling in Urban Households—Evidence From a Longitudinal Field Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noah Linder

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Promoting pro-environmental behaviour amongst urban dwellers is one of today's greatest sustainability challenges. The aim of this study is to test whether an information intervention, designed based on theories from environmental psychology and behavioural economics, can be effective in promoting recycling of food waste in an urban area. To this end we developed and evaluated an information leaflet, mainly guided by insights from nudging and community-based social marketing. The effect of the intervention was estimated through a natural field experiment in Hökarängen, a suburb of Stockholm city, Sweden, and was evaluated using a difference-in-difference analysis. The results indicate a statistically significant increase in food waste recycled compared to a control group in the research area. The data analysed was on the weight of food waste collected from sorting stations in the research area, and the collection period stretched for almost 2 years, allowing us to study the short- and long term effects of the intervention. Although the immediate positive effect of the leaflet seems to have attenuated over time, results show that there was a significant difference between the control and the treatment group, even 8 months after the leaflet was distributed. Insights from this study can be used to guide development of similar pro-environmental behaviour interventions for other urban areas in Sweden and abroad, improving chances of reaching environmental policy goals.

  4. Using Behavioural Insights to Promote Food Waste Recycling in Urban Households-Evidence From a Longitudinal Field Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Noah; Lindahl, Therese; Borgström, Sara

    2018-01-01

    Promoting pro-environmental behaviour amongst urban dwellers is one of today's greatest sustainability challenges. The aim of this study is to test whether an information intervention, designed based on theories from environmental psychology and behavioural economics, can be effective in promoting recycling of food waste in an urban area. To this end we developed and evaluated an information leaflet, mainly guided by insights from nudging and community-based social marketing. The effect of the intervention was estimated through a natural field experiment in Hökarängen, a suburb of Stockholm city, Sweden, and was evaluated using a difference-in-difference analysis. The results indicate a statistically significant increase in food waste recycled compared to a control group in the research area. The data analysed was on the weight of food waste collected from sorting stations in the research area, and the collection period stretched for almost 2 years, allowing us to study the short- and long term effects of the intervention. Although the immediate positive effect of the leaflet seems to have attenuated over time, results show that there was a significant difference between the control and the treatment group, even 8 months after the leaflet was distributed. Insights from this study can be used to guide development of similar pro-environmental behaviour interventions for other urban areas in Sweden and abroad, improving chances of reaching environmental policy goals.

  5. Using Behavioural Insights to Promote Food Waste Recycling in Urban Households—Evidence From a Longitudinal Field Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Noah; Lindahl, Therese; Borgström, Sara

    2018-01-01

    Promoting pro-environmental behaviour amongst urban dwellers is one of today's greatest sustainability challenges. The aim of this study is to test whether an information intervention, designed based on theories from environmental psychology and behavioural economics, can be effective in promoting recycling of food waste in an urban area. To this end we developed and evaluated an information leaflet, mainly guided by insights from nudging and community-based social marketing. The effect of the intervention was estimated through a natural field experiment in Hökarängen, a suburb of Stockholm city, Sweden, and was evaluated using a difference-in-difference analysis. The results indicate a statistically significant increase in food waste recycled compared to a control group in the research area. The data analysed was on the weight of food waste collected from sorting stations in the research area, and the collection period stretched for almost 2 years, allowing us to study the short- and long term effects of the intervention. Although the immediate positive effect of the leaflet seems to have attenuated over time, results show that there was a significant difference between the control and the treatment group, even 8 months after the leaflet was distributed. Insights from this study can be used to guide development of similar pro-environmental behaviour interventions for other urban areas in Sweden and abroad, improving chances of reaching environmental policy goals. PMID:29623056

  6. Controlling Chronic Diseases Through Evidence-Based Decision Making: A Group-Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownson, Ross C; Allen, Peg; Jacob, Rebekah R; deRuyter, Anna; Lakshman, Meenakshi; Reis, Rodrigo S; Yan, Yan

    2017-11-30

    Although practitioners in state health departments are ideally positioned to implement evidence-based interventions, few studies have examined how to build their capacity to do so. The objective of this study was to explore how to increase the use of evidence-based decision-making processes at both the individual and organization levels. We conducted a 2-arm, group-randomized trial with baseline data collection and follow-up at 18 to 24 months. Twelve state health departments were paired and randomly assigned to intervention or control condition. In the 6 intervention states, a multiday training on evidence-based decision making was conducted from March 2014 through March 2015 along with a set of supplemental capacity-building activities. Individual-level outcomes were evidence-based decision making skills of public health practitioners; organization-level outcomes were access to research evidence and participatory decision making. Mixed analysis of covariance models was used to evaluate the intervention effect by accounting for the cluster randomized trial design. Analysis was performed from March through May 2017. Participation 18 to 24 months after initial training was 73.5%. In mixed models adjusted for participant and state characteristics, the intervention group improved significantly in the overall skill gap (P = .01) and in 6 skill areas. Among the 4 organizational variables, only access to evidence and skilled staff showed an intervention effect (P = .04). Tailored and active strategies are needed to build capacity at the individual and organization levels for evidence-based decision making. Our study suggests several dissemination interventions for consideration by leaders seeking to improve public health practice.

  7. Behavioural Responses of Yunnan Snub-Nosed Monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti) to Tourists in a Provisioned Monkey Group in Baimaxueshan Nature Reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Wancai; Ren, Baoping; Li, Yanhong; Hu, Jie; He, Xinming; Krzton, Ali; Li, Ming; Li, Dayong

    2016-01-01

    The appearance of tourists brings about behavioural changes in some primates. Primate behavioural responses to human activities can reflect their survival strategy. Little is known about how the behaviour of Rhinopithecus bieti changes in the presence of tourists. Here we provide the first detailed description of interactions between a provisioned group of R. bieti and tourists at Xiangguqing in Baimaxueshan Nature Reserve from July 2012 to June 2013. We found that R. bieti had different response rates to the 5 most common human actions (shout, photograph, offer food, clap, and wave). Results indicated that R. bieti expresses 10 behavioural reactions (threat, escape, vigilance, warning, panic, alliance, attack, foraging, approach, and staring) to tourists' actions. On the whole, most of the monkeys' responses were unfriendly or hostile; a small number were neutral and affiliative. Behavioural responses were also significantly different among the different age/sex classes. Immature individuals engaged in more affiliative behaviours than adult individuals, and adult males tended towards more hostile behaviours. The behaviour of R. bieti towards tourists showed both tension and adaptability. Scientific management of provisioned monkey groups and strict regulation of tourist behaviour is needed in order to protect the animals from the negative effects of tourism-related disturbance. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Nursing staff-led behavioural group intervention in psychiatric in-patient care: Patient and staff experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salberg, Johanna; Folke, Fredrik; Ekselius, Lisa; Öster, Caisa

    2018-02-15

    A promising intervention in mental health in-patient care is behavioural activation (BA). Interventions based on BA can be used by mental health nurses and other staff members. The aim of this study was to evaluate patients' and staff members' experiences of a nursing staff-led behavioural group intervention in mental health in-patient care. The intervention was implemented at three adult acute general mental health in-patient wards in a public hospital setting in Sweden. A self-administrated questionnaire, completed by 84 patients and 34 nurses and nurse assistants, was administered, and nonparametric data analysed using descriptive statistics. Our findings revealed that both patients and nursing staff ranked nursing care and care environment as important aspects in the recovery process. Patients and staff members reported overall positive experiences of the group sessions. Patients with higher frequencies of attendance and patients satisfied with overall care had a more positive attitude towards the intervention. A more positive experience of being a group leader was reported by staff members who had been leading groups more than ten times. The most common impeding factor during implementation, reported by staff members, was a negative attitude to change. Conducive factors were having support from a psychologist and the perception that patients were showing interest. These positive experiences reported by patients and nursing staff, combined with previous research in this field, are taking us one step further in evaluating group sessions based on BA as a meaningful nursing intervention in mental health in-patient care. © 2018 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  9. HIV among immigrants living in high-income countries: a realist review of evidence to guide targeted approaches to behavioural HIV prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McMahon Tadgh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immigrants from developing and middle-income countries are an emerging priority in HIV prevention in high-income countries. This may be explained in part by accelerating international migration and population mobility. However, it may also be due to the vulnerabilities of immigrants including social exclusion along with socioeconomic, cultural and language barriers to HIV prevention. Contemporary thinking on effective HIV prevention stresses the need for targeted approaches that adapt HIV prevention interventions according to the cultural context and population being addressed. This review of evidence sought to generate insights into targeted approaches in this emerging area of HIV prevention. Methods We undertook a realist review to answer the research question: ‘How are HIV prevention interventions in high-income countries adapted to suit immigrants’ needs?’ A key goal was to uncover underlying theories or mechanisms operating in behavioural HIV prevention interventions with immigrants, to uncover explanations as how and why they work (or not for particular groups in particular contexts, and thus to refine the underlying theories. The realist review mapped seven initial mechanisms underlying culturally appropriate HIV prevention with immigrants. Evidence from intervention studies and qualitative studies found in systematic searches was then used to test and refine these seven mechanisms. Results Thirty-four intervention studies and 40 qualitative studies contributed to the analysis and synthesis of evidence. The strongest evidence supported the role of ‘consonance’ mechanisms, indicating the pivotal need to incorporate cultural values into the intervention content. Moderate evidence was found to support the role of three other mechanisms – ‘understanding’, ‘specificity’ and ‘embeddedness’ – which indicated that using the language of immigrants, usually the ‘mother tongue’, targeting (in terms

  10. HIV among immigrants living in high-income countries: a realist review of evidence to guide targeted approaches to behavioural HIV prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Immigrants from developing and middle-income countries are an emerging priority in HIV prevention in high-income countries. This may be explained in part by accelerating international migration and population mobility. However, it may also be due to the vulnerabilities of immigrants including social exclusion along with socioeconomic, cultural and language barriers to HIV prevention. Contemporary thinking on effective HIV prevention stresses the need for targeted approaches that adapt HIV prevention interventions according to the cultural context and population being addressed. This review of evidence sought to generate insights into targeted approaches in this emerging area of HIV prevention. Methods We undertook a realist review to answer the research question: ‘How are HIV prevention interventions in high-income countries adapted to suit immigrants’ needs?’ A key goal was to uncover underlying theories or mechanisms operating in behavioural HIV prevention interventions with immigrants, to uncover explanations as how and why they work (or not) for particular groups in particular contexts, and thus to refine the underlying theories. The realist review mapped seven initial mechanisms underlying culturally appropriate HIV prevention with immigrants. Evidence from intervention studies and qualitative studies found in systematic searches was then used to test and refine these seven mechanisms. Results Thirty-four intervention studies and 40 qualitative studies contributed to the analysis and synthesis of evidence. The strongest evidence supported the role of ‘consonance’ mechanisms, indicating the pivotal need to incorporate cultural values into the intervention content. Moderate evidence was found to support the role of three other mechanisms – ‘understanding’, ‘specificity’ and ‘embeddedness’ – which indicated that using the language of immigrants, usually the ‘mother tongue’, targeting (in terms of ethnicity) and the use of

  11. Smokers are not a homogeneous group and smoking is not a uniform behaviour: profiling psychosocial characteristics differentiates between smoking patterns.

    OpenAIRE

    Seeds, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    Much of our understanding of ‘smokers’ is based the subset of the group that smoke daily, under the assumption that smokers are a relatively homogeneous group. However, there is a growing body of evidence which recognises other ‘kinds’ of smoking which are not characterised by nicotine dependence, fundamentally challenging many of our conceptions about the nature of ‘smoking’. Despite this relatively recent recognition, little has been done to reformulate our understanding of smokers as a het...

  12. Behavioural and neural evidence for the impact of fluency context on conscious memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Carlos Alexandre; Mecklinger, Axel; Zimmer, Hubert

    2017-07-01

    It has been recently suggested that fluency may impact recognition memory performance when the fluency context varies from trial-to-trial. Surprisingly, such an effect has proved difficult to detect in the masked priming paradigm, one of the most popular means to increase fluency-based memory judgements. We conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment in which participants encoded words at study and, at test, performed a recognition memory task within a masked priming procedure. In order to optimise the chances of finding priming effects on recognition memory performance, we used low-frequency words, which have been shown to increase hits relative to false alarms and enhance masked priming effects. Fluency context was manipulated by either mixing primed and unprimed trials [Random context (RC) experiment] or blocking primed and unprimed trials [Blocked context (BC) experiment]. Behaviourally, priming affected high-confidence memory performance only in the RC experiment. This behavioural effect correlated positively with neural priming in several recognition memory regions. Moreover, we observed a functional coupling between the left middle temporal gyrus and the left parietal and posterior cingulate cortices that was greater for primed relative to unprimed words. In contrast, in the BC experiment, despite similar activity in recognition-memory-related regions, we did not find any significant correlations between neural and behavioural priming. Finally, we observed striking differences in the neural correlates of masked priming between the RC and BC experiments not only in location but also in direction of the neural response. Possible implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Fish-protection devices at unscreened water diversions can reduce entrainment: evidence from behavioural laboratory investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletto, Jamilynn B.; Cocherell, Dennis E.; Mussen, Timothy D.; Ercan, Ali; Bandeh, Hossein; Kavvas, M. Levent; Cech, Joseph J.; Fangue, Nann A.

    2015-01-01

    Diversion (i.e. extraction) of water from rivers and estuaries can potentially affect native wildlife populations if operation is not carefully managed. For example, open, unmodified water diversions can act as a source of injury or mortality to resident or migratory fishes from entrainment and impingement, and can cause habitat degradation and fragmentation. Fish-protection devices, such as exclusion screens, louvres or sensory deterrents, can physically or behaviourally deter fish from approaching or being entrained into water diversions. However, empirical assessment of their efficacy is often lacking or is investigated only for particular economically or culturally important fishes, such as salmonids. The Southern population of anadromous green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris) is listed as threatened in California, and there is a high density of water diversions located within their native range (the Sacramento–San Joaquin watershed). Coupled with their unique physiology and behaviour compared with many other fishes native to California, the green sturgeon is susceptible to entrainment into diversions and is an ideal species with which to study the efficacy of mitigation techniques. Therefore, we investigated juvenile green sturgeon (188–202 days post-hatch) in the presence of several fish-protection devices to assess behaviour and entrainment risk. Using a large experimental flume (∼500 kl), we found that compared with an open diversion pipe (control), the addition of a trash-rack box, louvre box, or perforated cylinder on the pipe inlet all significantly reduced the proportion of fish that were entrained through the pipe (P = 0.03, P = 0.028, and P = 0.028, respectively). Likewise, these devices decreased entrainment risk during a single movement past the pipe by between 60 and 96%. These fish-protection devices should decrease the risk of fish entrainment during water-diversion activities. PMID:27293725

  14. Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and subsequent sexual behaviour: evidence from a large survey of Nordic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Bo T; Kjær, Susanne K; Arnheim-Dahlström, Lisen; Liaw, Kai-Li; Jensen, Kirsten E; Thomsen, Louise T; Munk, Christian; Nygård, Mari

    2014-09-03

    To assess whether recipients and non-recipients of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine subsequently differ in terms of sexual risk taking behaviour. Cross-sectional survey. Sequential analyses constructed from self-reported age at vaccination, age at first intercourse and age at response. A random selection of women aged 18-46 years living in Denmark, Norway and Sweden in 2011-2012, eligible for opportunistic or organized catch-up HPV vaccination. A total of 3805 women reported to have received the HPV vaccine and 40,247 reported not to have received it. Among vaccinees, 1539 received the HPV vaccine before or at the same age as sexual debut, of which 476 and 1063 were eligible for organized catch-up and opportunistic vaccination, respectively. Self-reported sexual behaviour, compared by hazard ratios and odds ratios for women who received the HPV vaccine before or at the same age as sexual debut versus women who did not receive the HPV vaccine. HPV vaccination did not result in younger age at first intercourse. Women who received the HPV vaccine before or at the same age as sexual debut did not have more sexual partners than did non-vaccinees. Non-use of contraception during first intercourse was more common among non-vaccinees than among HPV vaccinees. The results were similar for organized catch-up and opportunistic vaccinees. Women who received the HPV vaccine before or at the same age as sexual debut did not subsequently engage more in sexual risk taking behaviour than women who did not receive the HPV vaccine. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Reactor based plutonium disposition - physics and fuel behaviour benchmark studies of an OECD/NEA experts group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Hondt, P.; Gehin, J.; Na, B.C.; Sartori, E.; Wiesenack, W.

    2001-01-01

    One of the options envisaged for disposing of weapons grade plutonium, declared surplus for national defence in the Russian Federation and Usa, is to burn it in nuclear power reactors. The scientific/technical know-how accumulated in the use of MOX as a fuel for electricity generation is of great relevance for the plutonium disposition programmes. An Expert Group of the OECD/Nea is carrying out a series of benchmarks with the aim of facilitating the use of this know-how for meeting this objective. This paper describes the background that led to establishing the Expert Group, and the present status of results from these benchmarks. The benchmark studies cover a theoretical reactor physics benchmark on a VVER-1000 core loaded with MOX, two experimental benchmarks on MOX lattices and a benchmark concerned with MOX fuel behaviour for both solid and hollow pellets. First conclusions are outlined as well as future work. (author)

  16. Implicit Anxiety: No Evidence for a Relation with Childhood Fears and Parental Rearing Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Stieger

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Although the measurement of implicit (i.e., automatic evaluations is widespread, little is known about their origins. Some researchers have argued that implicit evaluations develop early in life through socialisation processes and are stable over time. In two studies this assumption was questioned for implicit anxiety by asking participants about their childhood fears and participants' mothers about their children's childhood fears (Study 1: 'N' = 230. Furthermore, pairs of siblings were asked about their parents rearing behaviour (Study 2: 'N' = 120 sibling pairs. Implicit anxiety (measured with the Implicit Association Test – IAT was not correlated with recalled anxiety in childhood, independent of whether the latter was self-assessed or rated by participants' mothers. Also, implicit anxiety (measured with the Single-Category-IAT was neither correlated with parents rearing behaviour nor had siblings similar implicit anxiety scores. These results suggest that implicit anxiety is either not built in childhood or not stable over time (or both. Possible explanations and implications for future research are discussed.

  17. Mozart, Mozart Rhythm and Retrograde Mozart Effects: Evidences from Behaviours and Neurobiology Bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yingshou; Xia, Yang; Kendrick, Keith; Liu, Xiuxiu; Wang, Maosen; Wu, Dan; Yang, Hua; Jing, Wei; Guo, Daqing; Yao, Dezhong

    2016-01-21

    The phenomenal finding that listening to Mozart K.448 enhances performance on spatial tasks has motivated a continuous surge in promoting music education over the past two decades. But there have been inconsistent reports in previous studies of the Mozart effect. Here conducted was a systematic study, with Mozart and retrograde Mozart music, Mozart music rhythm and pitch, behaviours and neurobiology tests, rats and humans subjects. We show that while the Mozart K.448 has positive cognitive effects, the retrograde version has a negative effect on rats' performance in the Morris water maze test and on human subjects' performance in the paper folding and cutting test and the pencil-and-paper maze test. Such findings are further confirmed by subsequent immunohistochemical analyses in rats on the neurogenesis and protein levels of BDNF and its receptor, TrkB. Furthermore, when the rhythm and pitch of the normal and retrograde Mozart music are manipulated independently, the learning performance of the rats in the Morris water maze test indicated that rhythm is a crucial element in producing the behavioural effects. These findings suggest that the nature of Mozart effect is the Mozart rhythm effect, and indicate that different music may have quite different to opposite effects. Further study on rhythm effect may provide clues to understand the common basis over animals from rats to humans.

  18. Financial Leverage Behaviour and Firm Performance: Evidence from Publicly Quoted Companies in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godsday Okoro Edesiri

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper scrutinizes financial leverage behaviour and firm performance of publicly quoted companies in Nigeria. Data of Leverage, Profitability and Firm Size were sourced from the Nigerian Stock Exchange Fact-book and Annual Report and Accounts of 120 publicly quoted companies in Nigeria during the period 1990 through 2013. Findings suggest that profitability and firm size had a negative effect on financial leverage behaviour of publicly quoted companies in Nigeria. Thus, it was recommended that firms should carry out projects that would help enhance size and profitability in all aspect of the firm. Size in terms of assets would help increase the internal funding. This in turn will have a positive impact on the financial structure of firm as more of internally generated funds will be used instead of external borrowings. Firms should not assume that making of profit shows good application of leverage as this was not found to be true from the analysis. This implies that the result can be relied upon for policy direction.

  19. Group-size effect on scanning behaviour of Maasai Ostrich Struthio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While. Scopus 37(2): 38–41, July 2017 ... tivity (Nyahongo 2004). Ostriches inside the park are speculated to be highly vigilant and form groups .... The Ostrich Communal Nesting System. Princeton: Princeton University. Press. F.J. Magige. 40 ...

  20. Social learning and the development of individual and group behaviour in mammal societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Alex; Clutton-Brock, Tim

    2011-04-12

    As in human societies, social learning may play an important role in shaping individual and group characteristics in other mammals. Here, we review research on non-primate mammals, concentrating on work at our long-term meerkat study site, where longitudinal data and field experiments have generated important insights into the role of social learning under natural conditions. Meerkats live under high predation pressure and occupy a difficult foraging niche. Accordingly, pups make extensive use of social information in learning to avoid predation and obtain food. Where individual learning is costly or opportunities are lacking, as in the acquisition of prey-handling skills, adults play an active role in promoting learning through teaching. Social learning can also cause information to spread through groups, but our data suggest that this does not necessarily result in homogeneous, group-wide traditions. Moreover, traditions are commonly eroded by individual learning. We suggest that traditions will only persist where there are high costs of deviating from the group norm or where skill development requires extensive time and effort. Persistent traditions could, theoretically, modify selection pressures and influence genetic evolution. Further empirical studies of social learning in natural populations are now urgently needed to substantiate theoretical claims.

  1. Predictors of outcome of group and internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spek, V.; Nyklicek, I.; Cuijpers, P.; Pop, V.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Little is known about which participant characteristics determine the effectiveness of various types of cognitive behavior therapy for sub-threshold depression. The aim of this study was to investigate which characteristics predict treatment outcome of group and internet-based

  2. Cognitive behavioural group treatment for Chinese parents with children with developmental disabilities in Melbourne, Australia: an efficacy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Fu Keung Daniel; Poon, Ada

    2010-08-01

    This study attempted to test the efficacy of a culturally attuned cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) group for Chinese parents with children with developmental disabilities at risk of developing mental health problems in Melbourne, Australia. It was hypothesized that the participants in the experimental group would have less parenting stress and fewer dysfunctional attitudes, rules, and values, and better mental health and quality of life than the participants in the control group post-test. A total of 58 participants were randomly assigned into CBT and waiting list control groups. While ANCOVAs were used to compare the differences in General Health Questionnaires-12 (GHQ-12), Parenting Stress Index- Parent Domain (PSI-PD), Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnnaire-18 (Q-LES-Q-18) and Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS) between participants of the experiemental and control groups, effect size statistics were performed to measure the magnitude of changes in the above instruments at post treatment. After ten weeks of treatment, the participants in the CBT group showed significant improvement in GHQ-12, Parenting Stress Index (PSI)-Parent Domain and Q-LES-Q-18 scores, but not in DAS scores. The effect size statistics revealed large differences in GHQ-12, PSI-Parent Domain and Q-LES-Q-18 scores between the participants in the experimental and control groups at post-treatment. When a GHQ score of 4 or greater was used as the recommended cut-off score, about 89% and 10% of the participants in the experimental and control groups, respectively, were classified as not at-risk cases at post-treatment. The initial findings suggest that a culturally attuned CBT group may help Chinese parents with children with developmental disabilities to reduce their parenting stress and improve their general mental health and quality of life.

  3. Implementing evidence-based medicine in general practice: a focus group based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aertgeerts Bert

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past years concerns are rising about the use of Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM in health care. The calls for an increase in the practice of EBM, seem to be obstructed by many barriers preventing the implementation of evidence-based thinking and acting in general practice. This study aims to explore the barriers of Flemish GPs (General Practitioners to the implementation of EBM in routine clinical work and to identify possible strategies for integrating EBM in daily work. Methods We used a qualitative research strategy to gather and analyse data. We organised focus groups between September 2002 and April 2003. The focus group data were analysed using a combined strategy of 'between-case' analysis and 'grounded theory approach'. Thirty-one general practitioners participated in four focus groups. Purposeful sampling was used to recruit participants. Results A basic classification model documents the influencing factors and actors on a micro-, meso- as well as macro-level. Patients, colleagues, competences, logistics and time were identified on the micro-level (the GPs' individual practice, commercial and consumer organisations on the meso-level (institutions, organisations and health care policy, media and specific characteristics of evidence on the macro-level (policy level and international scientific community. Existing barriers and possible strategies to overcome these barriers were described. Conclusion In order to implement EBM in routine general practice, an integrated approach on different levels needs to be developed.

  4. Social learning and the development of individual and group behaviour in mammal societies

    OpenAIRE

    Thornton, Alex; Clutton-Brock, Tim

    2011-01-01

    As in human societies, social learning may play an important role in shaping individual and group characteristics in other mammals. Here, we review research on non-primate mammals, concentrating on work at our long-term meerkat study site, where longitudinal data and field experiments have generated important insights into the role of social learning under natural conditions. Meerkats live under high predation pressure and occupy a difficult foraging niche. Accordingly, pups make extensive us...

  5. Molecular evidence for gender differences in the migratory behaviour of a small seabird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata J Medeiros

    Full Text Available Molecular sexing revealed an unexpectedly strong female bias in the sex ratio of pre-breeding European Storm Petrels (Hydrobates pelagicus, attracted to playback of conspecific calls during their northwards migration past SW Europe. This bias was consistent across seven years, ranging from 80.8% to 89.7% female (mean annual sex ratio ± SD = 85.5% female ±4.1%. The sex ratio did not differ significantly from unity (i.e., 50% female among (i Storm Petrel chicks at a breeding colony in NW France, (ii adults found dead on beaches in Southern Portugal, (iii breeding birds attending nest burrows in the UK, captured by hand, and (iv adults captured near a breeding colony in the UK using copies of the same sound recordings as used in Southern Europe, indicating that females are not inherently more strongly attracted to playback calls than males. A morphological discriminant function analysis failed to provide a good separation of the sexes, showing the importance of molecular sexing for this species. We found no sex difference in the seasonal or nocturnal timing of migration past Southern Europe, but there was a significant tendency for birds to be caught in sex-specific aggregations. The preponderance of females captured in Southern Europe suggests that the sexes may differ in migration route or in their colony-prospecting behaviour during migration, at sites far away from their natal colonies. Such differences in migration behaviour between males and females are poorly understood but have implications for the vulnerability of seabirds to pollution and environmental change at sea during the non-breeding season.

  6. Physical activity, sedentary behaviour, diet, and cancer: an update and emerging new evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Jacqueline; Anderson, Cheryl; Lippman, Scott M

    2017-08-01

    The lifestyle factors of physical activity, sedentary behaviour, and diet are increasingly being studied for their associations with cancer. Physical activity is inversely associated with and sedentary behaviour is positively (and independently) associated with an increased risk of more than ten types of cancer, including colorectal cancer (and advanced adenomas), endometrial cancers, and breast cancer. The most consistent dietary risk factor for premalignant and invasive breast cancer is alcohol, whether consumed during early or late adult life, even at low levels. Epidemiological studies show that the inclusion of wholegrain, fibre, fruits, and vegetables within diets are associated with reduced cancer risk, with diet during early life (age diet-related factors have not yet shown any conclusive associations between diet and cancer incidence. Obesity is a key contributory factor associated with cancer risk and mortality, including in dose-response associations in endometrial and post-menopausal breast cancer, and in degree and duration of fatty liver disease-related hepatocellular carcinoma. Obesity produces an inflammatory state, characterised by macrophages clustered around enlarged hypertrophied, dead, and dying adipocytes, forming crown-like structures. Increased concentrations of aromatase and interleukin 6 in inflamed breast tissue and an increased number of macrophages, compared with healthy tissue, are also observed in women with normal body mass index, suggesting a metabolic obesity state. Emerging randomised controlled trials of physical activity and dietary factors and mechanistic studies of immunity, inflammation, extracellular matrix mechanics, epigenetic or transcriptional regulation, protein translation, circadian disruption, and interactions of the multibiome with lifestyle factors will be crucial to advance this field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Social relationships and healthful dietary behaviour: evidence from over-50s in the EPIC cohort, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, Annalijn I; Forouhi, Nita G; Surtees, Paul; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Monsivais, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Social relationships are an important aspect of a person's social environment that can protect against a wide range of chronic conditions and facilitate recovery from disease. Social relationships have also been linked to dietary behaviour which may be an important pathway through which social circumstances exert their influence on health. Yet, questions remain about which structural aspects of social relationships most affect healthful dietary behaviours and whether different structural components interact to produce a combined effect. Using data from adults (≥50 years) in the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer-Norfolk study (1996-2002), we examined marital status, living arrangement and social isolation in relation to scores for variety of fruit and vegetable intake as a marker of diet quality associated with adverse health outcomes. Data were analysed with multivariable linear regression models for gender-specific and interaction associations. We found that being single or widowed was associated with a lower variety score, particularly vegetable variety, and associations were enhanced when combined with male gender, living alone or infrequent friend contact. Lower variety scores for lone-living were also observed, especially for men. Infrequent friend contact interacted with living arrangement to amplify negative associations of lone-living with variety, with statistically significant differences in contact frequency for vegetable variety. Lower levels of friend contact were associated with reduced variety of fruits and vegetables in a graded trend for both genders; the trend was more pronounced among men. Family contact appeared to have limited association with vegetable variety in men; among women, weekly contact was significantly and positively associated with vegetable variety compared to daily family contact. Results highlight the importance of considering living arrangement and/or frequency of social contact when assessing whether widowed

  8. Social relationships and healthful dietary behaviour: Evidence from over-50s in the EPIC cohort, UK☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, Annalijn I.; Forouhi, Nita G.; Surtees, Paul; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Monsivais, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Social relationships are an important aspect of a person's social environment that can protect against a wide range of chronic conditions and facilitate recovery from disease. Social relationships have also been linked to dietary behaviour which may be an important pathway through which social circumstances exert their influence on health. Yet, questions remain about which structural aspects of social relationships most affect healthful dietary behaviours and whether different structural components interact to produce a combined effect. Using data from adults (≥50 years) in the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer-Norfolk study (1996–2002), we examined marital status, living arrangement and social isolation in relation to scores for variety of fruit and vegetable intake as a marker of diet quality associated with adverse health outcomes. Data were analysed with multivariable linear regression models for gender-specific and interaction associations. We found that being single or widowed was associated with a lower variety score, particularly vegetable variety, and associations were enhanced when combined with male gender, living alone or infrequent friend contact. Lower variety scores for lone-living were also observed, especially for men. Infrequent friend contact interacted with living arrangement to amplify negative associations of lone-living with variety, with statistically significant differences in contact frequency for vegetable variety. Lower levels of friend contact were associated with reduced variety of fruits and vegetables in a graded trend for both genders; the trend was more pronounced among men. Family contact appeared to have limited association with vegetable variety in men; among women, weekly contact was significantly and positively associated with vegetable variety compared to daily family contact. Results highlight the importance of considering living arrangement and/or frequency of social contact when assessing whether widowed

  9. Evaluation of knowledge and practice behaviours of a group of Iranian obstetricians, general practitioners, and midwives, regarding periodontal disease and its effect on the pregnancy outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golkari, Ali; Khosropanah, Hengameh; Saadati, Faezeh

    2013-09-02

    seems quite important to find out whether the healthcare providers who are most visited by pregnant women are aware of the periodontal disease and its relationship with poor pregnancy outcomes. The present study aimed to assess and compare the knowledge and beliefs of a group of Iranian obstetricians, general practitioners, and midwives regarding periodontal disease, and to assess whether their practice behaviours reflected their beliefs. The authors hope that publication of this paper would provide an evidence to plan for these health professionals' education on the importance of pregnant women's oral health promotion.

  10. Brief intervention, physical exercise and cognitive behavioural group therapy for patients with chronic low back pain (The CINS trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, A; Moe, T F; Eriksen, H R; Tangen, T; Lie, S A; Tveito, T H; Reme, S E

    2017-09-01

    Cognitive-behavioural treatments (CBT) and physical group exercise (PE) have both shown promising effects in reducing disability and increasing work participation among chronic low back pain (CLBP) patients. A brief cognitive intervention (BI) has previously been demonstrated to reduce work disability in CLBP. The aim of this study was to test if the effect of BI could be further increased by adding either group CBT or group PE. A total of 214 patients, all sick listed 2-10 months due to CLBP, were randomized to BI (n = 99), BI + group CBT (n = 55) or BI + group PE (n = 60). Primary outcome was increased work participation at 12 months, whereas secondary outcomes included pain-related disability, subjective health complaints, anxiety, depression, coping and fear avoidance. There were no significant differences between the groups in work participation at 12 months follow-up (χ 2  = 1.15, p = 0.56). No significant differences were found on the secondary outcomes either, except for a statistically significant reduction (time by group) in pseudoneurology one domain of subjective health complaints (sleep problems, tiredness, dizziness, anxiety, depression, palpitation, heat flushes) (F 2,136  = 3.109, p = 0.048) and anxiety (F 2,143  = 4.899, p = 0.009) for the groups BI + group CBT and BI + group PE, compared to BI alone. However, these differences were not significant in post hoc analyses (Scheffé adjusted). There was no support for an effect of the added group CBT or group PE treatments to a brief cognitive intervention in this study of patients on sick leave due to low back pain. Our study demonstrates that treatments that previously were found to be effective and are included in most treatment guidelines, such as group cognitive-behavior therapy and exercise, were not effective in this given context compared to a brief, cognitive intervention. This implies that an optimized brief intervention is difficult to outperform in patients on

  11. Group cognitive behavioural therapy and weight regain after diet in type 2 diabetes: results from the randomised controlled POWER trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Kirsten A; Buijks, Hanneke I M; Verhoeven, Adrie J M; Mulder, Monique T; Özcan, Behiye; van 't Spijker, Adriaan; Timman, Reinier; Busschbach, Jan J; Sijbrands, Eric J

    2018-04-01

    Weight-loss programmes for adults with type 2 diabetes are less effective in the long term owing to regain of weight. Our aim was to determine the 2 year effectiveness of a cognitive behavioural group therapy (group-CBT) programme in weight maintenance after diet-induced weight loss in overweight and obese adults with type 2 diabetes, using a randomised, parallel, non-blinded, pragmatic study design. We included 158 obese adults (median BMI 36.3 [IQR 32.5-40.0] kg/m 2 ) with type 2 diabetes from the outpatient diabetes clinic of Erasmus MC, the Netherlands, who achieved ≥5% weight loss on an 8 week very low calorie diet. Participants were randomised (stratified by weight loss) to usual care or usual care plus group-CBT (17 group sessions). The primary outcomes were the between-group differences after 2 years in: (1) body weight; and (2) weight regain. Secondary outcomes were HbA 1c levels, insulin dose, plasma lipid levels, depression, anxiety, self-esteem, quality of life, fatigue, physical activity, eating disorders and related cognitions. Data were analysed using linear mixed modelling. During the initial 8 week dieting phase, the control group (n = 75) lost a mean of 10.0 (95% CI 9.1, 10.9) kg and the intervention group (n = 83) lost 9.2 (95% CI 8.4, 10.0) kg (p = 0.206 for the between-group difference). During 2 years of follow-up, mean weight regain was 4.7 (95% CI 3.0, 6.3) kg for the control group and 4.0 (95% CI 2.3, 5.6) kg for the intervention group, with a between-group difference of -0.7 (95% CI -3.1, 1.6) kg (p = 0.6). The mean difference in body weight at 2 years was -1.2 (95% CI -7.7, 5.3) kg (p = 0.7). None of the secondary outcomes differed between the two groups. Despite increased treatment contact, a group-CBT programme for long-term weight maintenance after an initial ≥5% weight loss from dieting in obese individuals with type 2 diabetes was not superior to usual care alone. Trialregister.nl NTR2264 FUNDING: The

  12. Report of the task group on the seismic behaviour of structures: status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-04-01

    In 1995, the CSNI Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations) approved a new mandate for PWG-3 and the new title 'Integrity of Components and Structures'. The PWG-3 is assisted by three task groups, one of which is addressing the problem of seismic behavior of structures. Ten topics were identified: engineering characterization of seismic input, site response, soil structure interaction, identification of functions and classification of systems, structures and components, structural response and capacity evaluation (including effects of aging and degradation), component and equipment response and capacity evaluation (including effects of aging and degradation), response and capacity evaluation of distribution systems (piping, cable trays, conduit, HVAC), load combination and acceptance criteria, uncertainties (PSA and margins), plant seismic instrumentation and trip. This report summarizes the seismic issues and activities in various member countries (Canada, Czech Republic, France, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Spain, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States) and international organizations (IAEA), provides a summary of the important issues that are of collective interest to the group members, and recommends a future programme of work to address these issues

  13. Mastery Motivation in Children with Intellectual Disability: Is There Evidence for a Down Syndrome Behavioural Phenotype?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Linda; Cuskelly, Monica; Browning, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of the current study was to provide empirical evidence to support or refute assumptions of phenotypic deficits in motivation for children with Down syndrome (DS). Children with moderate intellectual disability (MID) associated with etiologies other than DS were recruited in an extension of a previous study that involved children…

  14. Adapting health promotion interventions to meet the needs of ethnic minority groups: mixed-methods evidence synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jj; Davidson, E; Bhopal, Rs; White, M; Johnson, Mrd; Netto, G; Deverill, M; Sheikh, A

    2012-01-01

    of adapted interventions and summarised data to assess feasibility, acceptability, equity, clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. Interviews were transcribed, coded and thematically analysed. The quantitative and qualitative data were then synthesised using a realist framework to understand better how adapted interventions work and to assess implementation considerations and prioritise future research. Our preliminary findings were refined through discussion and debate at an end-of-study national user engagement conference. Initial user engagement emphasised the importance of extending this work beyond individual-centred behavioural interventions to also include examination of community- and ecological-level interventions; however, individual-centred behavioural approaches dominated the 15 relevant guidelines and 111 systematic reviews we identified. The most consistent evidence of effectiveness was for pharmacological interventions for smoking cessation. This body of work, however, provided scant evidence on the effectiveness of these interventions for ethnic minority groups. We identified 173 reports of adapted health promotion interventions, the majority of which focused on US-based African Americans. This body of evidence was used to develop a 46-item Typology of Adaptation and a Programme Theory of Adapted Health Promotion Interventions. Only nine empirical studies directly compared the effectiveness of culturally adapted interventions with standard health promotion interventions, these failing to yield any consistent evidence; no studies reported on cost-effectiveness. The 26 qualitative interviews highlighted the need to extend thinking on ethnicity from conventional dimensions to more contextual considerations. The realist synthesis enabled the production of a decision-making tool (RESET) to support future research. The lack of robust evidence of effectiveness for physical activity and healthy-eating interventions in the general population identified

  15. A Holistic Multi Evidence Approach to Study the Fragmentation Behaviour of Crystalline Mannitol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koner, Jasdip S.; Rajabi-Siahboomi, Ali; Bowen, James; Perrie, Yvonne; Kirby, Daniel; Mohammed, Afzal R.

    2015-11-01

    Mannitol is an essential excipient employed in orally disintegrating tablets due to its high palatability. However its fundamental disadvantage is its fragmentation during direct compression, producing mechanically weak tablets. The primary aim of this study was to assess the fracture behaviour of crystalline mannitol in relation to the energy input during direct compression, utilising ball milling as the method of energy input, whilst assessing tablet characteristics of post-milled powders. Results indicated that crystalline mannitol fractured at the hydrophilic (011) plane, as observed through SEM, alongside a reduction in dispersive surface energy. Disintegration times of post-milled tablets were reduced due to the exposure of the hydrophilic plane, whilst more robust tablets were produced. This was shown through higher tablet hardness and increased plastic deformation profiles of the post-milled powders, as observed with a lower yield pressure through an out-of-die Heckel analysis. Evaluation of crystal state using x-ray diffraction/differential scanning calorimetry showed that mannitol predominantly retained the β-polymorph however x-ray diffraction provided a novel method to calculate energy input into the powders during ball milling. It can be concluded that particle size reduction is a pragmatic strategy to overcome the current limitation of mannitol fragmentation and provide improvements in tablet properties.

  16. Systematic mapping review of the factors influencing physical activity and sedentary behaviour in ethnic minority groups in Europe: a DEDIPAC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langøien, Lars Jørun; Terragni, Laura; Rugseth, Gro; Nicolaou, Mary; Holdsworth, Michelle; Stronks, Karien; Lien, Nanna; Roos, Gun

    2017-07-24

    Physical activity and sedentary behaviour are associated with health and wellbeing. Studies indicate that ethnic minority groups are both less active and more sedentary than the majority population and that factors influencing these behaviours may differ. Mapping the factors influencing physical activity and sedentary behaviour among ethnic minority groups living in Europe can help to identify determinants of physical activity and sedentary behaviour, research gaps and guide future research. A systematic mapping review was conducted to map the factors associated with physical activity and sedentary behaviour among ethnic minority groups living in Europe (protocol PROSPERO ID = CRD42014014575). Six databases were searched for quantitative and qualitative research published between 1999 and 2014. In synthesizing the findings, all factors were sorted and structured into clusters following a data driven approach and concept mapping. Sixty-three articles were identified out of 7794 returned by the systematic search. These included 41 quantitative and 22 qualitative studies. Of these 58 focused on physical activity, 5 on both physical activity and sedentary behaviour and none focused on sedentary behaviour. The factors associated with physical activity and sedentary behaviour were grouped into eight clusters. Social & cultural environment (n = 55) and Psychosocial (39) were the clusters containing most factors, followed by Physical environment & accessibility (33), Migration context (15), Institutional environment (14), Social & material resources (12), Health and health communication (12), Political environment (3). An important finding was that cultural and religious issues, in particular those related to gender issues, were recurring factors across the clusters. Physical activity and sedentary behaviour among ethnic minority groups living in Europe are influenced by a wide variety of factors, especially informed by qualitative studies. More comparative studies are

  17. Volumetric behaviour of amino acids and their group contributions in aqueous lactose solutions at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, Amalendu; Chauhan, Nalin

    2011-01-01

    Densities, ρ, for glycine, L-alanine, L-valine, and L-leucine [(0.05 to 0.30) m] in aqueous lactose solutions ranging from pure water to 6 mass% lactose were determined at T = (293.15, 298.15, 303.15, and 308.15) K. The density was used to compute apparent molar volume, V φ , partial molar volume at infinite dilution, V φ o , and experimental slope, S V were obtained and interpreted in terms of solute-solvent and solute-solute interactions. These data were used to calculate the (∂V φ 0 /∂T) P values. The partial molar volume of transfer, ΔV φ 0 from water to aqueous lactose solutions at infinite dilution has also been calculated. In addition to this, the linear correlation of V φ 0 with number of carbon atoms in the alkyl chain of amino acids was utilized to determine the respective contributions of NH 3 + COO - , and CH 2 groups to V φ 0 .

  18. Volumetric behaviour of amino acids and their group contributions in aqueous lactose solutions at different temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, Amalendu, E-mail: palchem@sify.co [Department of Chemistry, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra 136 119 (India); Chauhan, Nalin [Department of Chemistry, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra 136 119 (India)

    2011-02-15

    Densities, {rho}, for glycine, L-alanine, L-valine, and L-leucine [(0.05 to 0.30) m] in aqueous lactose solutions ranging from pure water to 6 mass% lactose were determined at T = (293.15, 298.15, 303.15, and 308.15) K. The density was used to compute apparent molar volume, V{sub {phi}}, partial molar volume at infinite dilution, V{sub {phi}}{sup o}, and experimental slope, S{sub V} were obtained and interpreted in terms of solute-solvent and solute-solute interactions. These data were used to calculate the ({partial_derivative}V{sub {phi}}{sup 0}/{partial_derivative}T){sub P} values. The partial molar volume of transfer, {Delta}V{sub {phi}}{sup 0} from water to aqueous lactose solutions at infinite dilution has also been calculated. In addition to this, the linear correlation of V{sub {phi}}{sup 0} with number of carbon atoms in the alkyl chain of amino acids was utilized to determine the respective contributions of NH{sub 3}{sup +}COO{sup -}, and CH{sub 2} groups to V{sub {phi}}{sup 0}.

  19. Age-related variation in foraging behaviour in the wandering albatross at South Georgia: no evidence for senescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Froy

    Full Text Available Age-related variation in demographic rates is now widely documented in wild vertebrate systems, and has significant consequences for population and evolutionary dynamics. However, the mechanisms underpinning such variation, particularly in later life, are less well understood. Foraging efficiency is a key determinant of fitness, with implications for individual life history trade-offs. A variety of faculties known to decline in old age, such as muscular function and visual acuity, are likely to influence foraging performance. We examine age-related variation in the foraging behaviour of a long-lived, wide-ranging oceanic seabird, the wandering albatross Diomedea exulans. Using miniaturised tracking technologies, we compared foraging trip characteristics of birds breeding at Bird Island, South Georgia. Based on movement and immersion data collected during the incubation phase of a single breeding season, and from extensive tracking data collected in previous years from different stages of the breeding cycle, we found limited evidence for age-related variation in commonly reported trip parameters, and failed to detect signs of senescent decline. Our results contrast with the limited number of past studies that have examined foraging behaviour in later life, since these have documented changes in performance consistent with senescence. This highlights the importance of studies across different wild animal populations to gain a broader perspective on the processes driving variation in ageing rates.

  20. On the influence of typicality and age of acquisition on semantic processing: Diverging evidence from behavioural and ERP responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räling, Romy; Holzgrefe-Lang, Julia; Schröder, Astrid; Wartenburger, Isabell

    2015-08-01

    Various behavioural studies show that semantic typicality (TYP) and age of acquisition (AOA) of a specific word influence processing time and accuracy during the performance of lexical-semantic tasks. This study examines the influence of TYP and AOA on semantic processing at behavioural (response times and accuracy data) and electrophysiological levels using an auditory category-member-verification task. Reaction time data reveal independent TYP and AOA effects, while in the accuracy data and the event-related potentials predominantly effects of TYP can be found. The present study thus confirms previous findings and extends evidence found in the visual modality to the auditory modality. A modality-independent influence on semantic word processing is manifested. However, with regard to the influence of AOA, the diverging results raise questions on the origin of AOA effects as well as on the interpretation of offline and online data. Hence, results will be discussed against the background of recent theories on N400 correlates in semantic processing. In addition, an argument in favour of a complementary use of research techniques will be made. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Rescue behaviour in a social bird : removal of sticky 'bird-catcher tree' seeds by group members

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammers, Martijn; Brouwer, Lyanne

    2017-01-01

    Rescue behaviour is a special form of cooperation in which a rescuer exhibits behaviours directed towards averting a threat to an endangered individual, thereby potentially putting itself at risk. Although rescue behaviour has been well-documented in experimental studies on rats and ants, published

  2. Rescue behaviour in a social bird: removal of sticky ‘bird-catcher tree’ seeds by group members

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammers, Martijn; Brouwer, Lyanne

    2017-01-01

    Rescue behaviour is a special form of cooperation in which a rescuer exhibits behaviours directed towards averting a threat to an endangered individual, thereby potentially putting itself at risk. Although rescue behaviour has been well-documented in experimental studies on rats and ants, published

  3. Determinants of households’ investment in energy efficiency and renewables: evidence from the OECD survey on household environmental behaviour and attitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ameli, Nadia; Brandt, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides novel evidence on the main factors behind consumer choices regarding investments in energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies using the OECD Survey on Household Environmental Behaviour and Attitudes. The empirical analysis is based on the estimation of binary logit regression models. Empirical results suggest that households’ propensity to invest in clean energy technologies depends mainly on home ownership, income, social context and household energy conservation practices. Indeed, home owners and high-income households are more likely to invest than renters and low-income households. In addition, environmental attitudes and beliefs, as manifest in energy conservation practices or membership in an environmental non-governmental organisation, also play a relevant role in technology adoption. (letter)

  4. Birth order and mortality in two ethno-linguistic groups: Register-based evidence from Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarela, Jan; Cederström, Agneta; Rostila, Mikael

    2016-06-01

    Previous research has documented an association between birth order and suicide, although no study has examined whether it depends on the cultural context. Our aim was to study the association between birth order and cause-specific mortality in Finland, and whether it varies by ethno-linguistic affiliation. We used data from the Finnish population register, representing a 5% random sample of all Finnish speakers and a 20% random sample of Swedish speakers, who lived in Finland in any year 1987-2011. For each person, there was a link to all children who were alive in 1987. In total, there were 254,059 siblings in 96,387 sibling groups, and 9797 deaths. We used Cox regressions stratified by each siblings group and estimated all-cause and cause-specific mortality risks during the period 1987-2011. In line with previous research from Sweden, deaths from suicide were significantly associated with birth order. As compared to first-born, second-born had a suicide risk of 1.27, third-born of 1.35, and fourth- or higher-born of 1.72, while other causes of death did not display an evident and consistent birth-order pattern. Results for the Finnish-speaking siblings groups were almost identical to those based on both ethno-linguistic groups. In the Swedish-speaking siblings groups, there was no increase in the suicide risk by birth order, but a statistically not significant tendency towards an association with other external causes of death and deaths from cardiovascular diseases. Our findings provided evidence for an association between birth order and suicide among Finnish speakers in Finland, while no such association was found for Swedish speakers, suggesting that the birth order effect might depend on the cultural context. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The role of income in energy consumption behaviour: Evidence from French households data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cayla, Jean-Michel; Maizi, Nadia; Marchand, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to characterise quantitatively the impact of income on household energy consumption in the residential and transport sectors. Starting from the data collected in a paper survey, we analyse the extent of the constraint experienced by households in terms of equipment purchasing behaviour and daily energy consumption. This analysis shows that the least well-off households are particularly constrained since the share of their budget represented by these energy services is very large (15–25%), and this corresponds to a level of energy service well below that of the better-off households. The case of space-heating shows a factor of 2 in terms of level of comfort achieved between the extreme 10-percentiles. These households also face a strong capital constraint for equipment purchases. This leads either to a large increase in the required rate of return or to a reduction in the proportion of households that are prepared to replace their equipment earlier. The least well-off households are thus doubly constrained, since it is more difficult for them to invest. In our opinion, it is crucial to take into account this observation in the context of political measures aimed at reducing households’CO 2 emissions. - Highlights: ► Realisation of a survey to quantify the impact of income on energy consumption. ► There is a factor of 2 in the level of comfort achieved by extreme income households. ► Analysis of discount rates demanded by households according to income and end-use. ► Influence of income on intensity of use of energy services and energy management.

  6. Satisfaction and behavioural intentions of congress attendees: Evidence from an international congress in Novi Sad Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragićević Vanja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The congress industry, as a part of business tourism sector, is globally recognized for its valuable economic contribution to tourism destinations. Regardless economic benefits, there are as well as numerous social, cultural and environmental benefits that congress industry brings to destinations. This is the reason why the congress industry is becoming one of the fastest growing sectors of tourism industry. At the same time, the congress destinations worldwide are competing in bidding international congresses. According to the Strategy of Tourism Development of the Republic of Serbia (2005, congress tourism is recognized as a quick win product that could contribute in a short period of 3 to 5 years to tourism development and image of Serbia. The cities of Belgrade, Novi Sad and Niš are identified as the congress destinations capable for hosting international congresses. Novi Sad, as administrative, economic, cultural, scientific and educational centre of the region of Vojvodina (northern part of Serbia and known as 'town of fairs'(it has long tradition in organizing fairs - since 1923 has strong potential for smaller international congresses. In order to improve quality of 'congress' tourist product, provide stability of congress destination and congress centers, it is necessary to understand meeting planners' and congress attendees' levels of satisfaction and reaction to their experience in destination. In Serbia there is no research regarding mentioned items. The aim of this paper is to examine and analyze the perspective of the congress attendees, as they are final consumers of congress tourist product and their experience and behavioural intentions regarding Novi Sad is thus essential to destination marketing and management organizations, congress centre, hotel managers and meeting planners. .

  7. Behavioural evidence of a dissociation between voice gender categorization and phoneme categorization using auditory morphed stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril R Pernet

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Both voice gender and speech perception rely on neuronal populations located in the peri-sylvian areas. However, whilst functional imaging studies suggest a left versus right hemisphere and anterior versus posterior dissociation between voice and speech categorization, psycholinguistic studies on talker variability suggest that these two processes (voice and speech categorization share common mechanisms. In this study, we investigated the categorical perception of voice gender (male vs. female and phonemes (/pa/ vs. /ta/ using the same stimulus continua generated by morphing. This allowed the investigation of behavioural differences while controlling acoustic characteristics, since the same stimuli were used in both tasks. Despite a higher acoustic dissimilarity between items during the phoneme categorization task (a male and female voice producing the same phonemes than the gender task (the same person producing 2 phonemes, results showed that speech information is being processed much faster than voice information. In addition, f0 or timbre equalization did not affect RT, which disagrees with the classical psycholinguistic models in which voice information is stripped away or normalized to access phonetic content. Also, despite similar response (percentages and perceptual (d’ curves, a reverse correlation analysis on acoustic features revealed, as expected, that the formant frequencies of the consonant distinguished stimuli in the phoneme task, but that only the vowel formant frequencies distinguish stimuli in the gender task. The 2nd set of results thus also disagrees with models postulating that the same acoustic information is used for voice and speech. Altogether these results suggest that voice gender categorization and phoneme categorization are dissociated at an early stage on the basis of different enhanced acoustic features that are diagnostic to the task at hand.

  8. The efficacy of a group Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for war-affected young migrants living in Australia: A cluster randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chew Sia Ooi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPreventative and treatment programmes for people at risk of developing psychological problems after exposure to war trauma have mushroomed in the last decade. However, there is still much contention about evidence-based and culturally sensitive interventions for children. The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of the Teaching Recovery Techniques in improving the emotional and behavioural outcomes of war-affected children resettled in Australia. Methods and findings A cluster randomised controlled trial with pretest, posttest, and 3-month follow-up design was employed. A total of 82 participants (aged 10 to 17 years were randomised by school into the 8-week intervention (n = 45 or the waiting list (WL control condition (n = 37. Study outcomes included symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, internalising and externalising problems, as well as psychosocial functioning. A medium intervention effect was found for depression symptoms. Participants in the intervention condition experienced a greater symptom reduction than participants in the WL control condition, F(1,155 = 5.20, p = .024, partial ƞ2 = 0.07. This improvement was maintained at the 3-month follow-up, F(2,122 = 7.24, p = .001, partial ƞ2 = 0.20. ConclusionsThese findings suggest the potential benefit of the school and group-based intervention on depression symptoms but not on other outcomes, when compared to a waiting list control group.Trial registrationAustralian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12611000948998

  9. Experimental evidence for a vector-like behaviour of Pomeron exchange

    CERN Document Server

    Barberis, D.; Close, F.E.; Danielsen, K.M.; Donskov, S.V.; Earl, B.C.; Evans, D.; French, B.R.; Hino, T.; Inaba, S.; Jacholkowski, A.; Jacobsen, T.; Khaustov, G.V.; Kinson, J.B.; Kirk, A.; Kondashov, A.A.; Lednev, A.A.; Lenti, V.; Minashvili, I.; Peigneux, J.P.; Romanovsky, V.; Russakovich, N.; Semenov, A.; Shagin, P.M.; Shimizu, H.; Singovsky, A.V.; Sobol, A.; Stassinaki, M.; Stroot, J.P.; Takamatsu, K.; Tsuru, T.; Villalobos Baillie, O.; Votruba, M.F.; Yasu, Y.

    1999-01-01

    Evidence is presented that the Pomeron act as a non-conserved vector current. A study has been made of the azimuthal angle phi, which is defined as the angle between the pT vectors of the two outgoing protons, in the reaction pp -> pp(X0) for those resonances (X0) which are compatible with being produced by double Pomeron exchange. These distributions have been compared with a model which describes the Pomeron as a non-conserved vector current and a qualitative agreement is found. In addition, when one of the particles exchanged is known to have spin 0, namely pi-Pomeron exchange, the phi distribution is flat.

  10. Group-focused morality is associated with limited conflict detection and resolution capacity: Neuroanatomical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Kyle; Baumgartner, Thomas; Knoch, Daria

    2017-02-01

    Group-focused moral foundations (GMFs) - moral values that help protect the group's welfare - sharply divide conservatives from liberals and religiously devout from non-believers. However, there is little evidence about what drives this divide. Moral foundations theory and the model of motivated social cognition both associate group-focused moral foundations with differences in conflict detection and resolution capacity, but in opposing directions. Individual differences in conflict detection and resolution implicate specific neuroanatomical differences. Examining neuroanatomy thus affords an objective and non-biased opportunity to contrast these influential theories. Here, we report that increased adherence to group-focused moral foundations was strongly associated (whole-brain corrected) with reduced gray matter volume in key regions of the conflict detection and resolution system (anterior cingulate cortex and lateral prefrontal cortex). Because reduced gray matter is reliably associated with reduced neural and cognitive capacity, these findings support the idea outlined in the model of motivated social cognition that belief in group-focused moral values is associated with reduced conflict detection and resolution capacity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Is there evidence that walking groups have health benefits? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Sarah; Jones, Andy

    2015-06-01

    To assess the health benefits of outdoor walking groups. Systematic review and meta-analysis of walking group interventions examining differences in commonly used physiological, psychological and well-being outcomes between baseline and intervention end. Seven electronic databases, clinical trial registers, grey literature and reference lists in English language up to November 2013. Adults, group walking outdoors with outcomes directly attributable to the walking intervention. Forty-two studies were identified involving 1843 participants. There is evidence that walking groups have wide-ranging health benefits. Meta-analysis showed statistically significant reductions in mean difference for systolic blood pressure -3.72 mm Hg (-5.28 to -2.17) and diastolic blood pressure -3.14 mm Hg (-4.15 to -2.13); resting heart rate -2.88 bpm (-4.13 to -1.64); body fat -1.31% (-2.10 to -0.52), body mass index -0.71 kg/m(2) (-1.19 to -0.23), total cholesterol -0.11 mmol/L (-0.22 to -0.01) and statistically significant mean increases in VO(2max) of 2.66 mL/kg/min (1.67-3.65), the SF-36 (physical functioning) score 6.02 (0.51 to 11.53) and a 6 min walk time of 79.6 m (53.37-105.84). A standardised mean difference showed a reduction in depression scores with an effect size of -0.67 (-0.97 to -0.38). The evidence was less clear for other outcomes such as waist circumference fasting glucose, SF-36 (mental health) and serum lipids such as high-density lipids. There were no notable adverse side effects reported in any of the studies. Walking groups are effective and safe with good adherence and wide-ranging health benefits. They could be a promising intervention as an adjunct to other healthcare or as a proactive health-promoting activity. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. Effects of a brief cognitive behavioural therapy group intervention on baseline brain perfusion in adolescents with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosic-Vasic, Zrinka; Abler, Birgit; Grön, Georg; Plener, Paul; Straub, Joana

    2017-04-12

    A number of neuroimaging studies have identified altered regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) related to major depressive disorder (MDD) in adult samples, particularly in the lateral prefrontal, cingular and temporal regions. In contrast, neuroimaging investigations in adolescents with MDD are rare, although investigating young patients during a significant period of brain maturation might offer valuable insights into the neural mechanisms of MDD. We acquired perfusion images obtained with continuous arterial spin labelling in 21 medication-naive adolescents with MDD before and after a five-session cognitive behavioural group therapy (group CBT). A control group included medication-naive patients under treatment as usual while waiting for the psychotherapy. We found relatively increased rCBF in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC; BA 46), the right caudate nucleus and the left inferior parietal lobe (BA 40) after CBT compared with before CBT. Relatively increased rCBF in the right DLPFC postgroup CBT was confirmed by time (post vs. pre)×group (intervention/waiting list) interaction analyses. In the waiting group, relatively increased rCBF was found in the thalamus and the anterior cingulate cortex (BA 24). The relatively small number of patients included in this pilot study has to be considered. Our findings indicate that noninvasive resting perfusion scanning is suitable to identify CBT-related changes in adolescents with MDD. rCBF increase in the DLPFC following a significant reduction in MDD symptoms in adolescents might represent the core neural correlate of changes in 'top-down' cognitive processing, a possible correlate of improved self-regulation and cognitive control.

  13. Internet-versus group-administered cognitive behaviour therapy for panic disorder in a psychiatric setting: a randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlsson Andreas

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Internet administered cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT is a promising new way to deliver psychological treatment, but its effectiveness in regular care settings and in relation to more traditional CBT group treatment has not yet been determined. The primary aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of Internet-and group administered CBT for panic disorder (with or without agoraphobia in a randomised trial within a regular psychiatric care setting. The second aim of the study was to establish the cost-effectiveness of these interventions. Methods Patients referred for treatment by their physician, or self-referred, were telephone-screened by a psychiatric nurse. Patients fulfilling screening criteria underwent an in-person structured clinical interview carried out by a psychiatrist. A total of 113 consecutive patients were then randomly assigned to 10 weeks of either guided Internet delivered CBT (n = 53 or group CBT (n = 60. After treatment, and at a 6-month follow-up, patients were again assessed by the psychiatrist, blind to treatment condition. Results Immediately after randomization 9 patients dropped out, leaving 104 patients who started treatment. Patients in both treatment conditions showed significant improvement on the main outcome measure, the Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS after treatment. For the Internet treatment the within-group effect size (pre-post on the PDSS was Cohen's d = 1.73, and for the group treatment it was d = 1.63. Between group effect sizes were low and treatment effects were maintained at 6-months follow-up. We found no statistically significant differences between the two treatment conditions using a mixed models approach to account for missing data. Group CBT utilised considerably more therapist time than did Internet CBT. Defining effect as proportion of PDSS responders, the cost-effectiveness analysis concerning therapist time showed that Internet treatment had superior cost

  14. Transfer of training from one working memory task to another: Behavioural and neural evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin L. Beatty

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available N-back working memory (WM tasks necessitate the maintenance and updating of dynamic rehearsal sets during performance. The delayed matching-to-sample (dMTS task is another WM task, which in turn involves the encoding, maintenance, and retrieval of stimulus representations in sequential order. Because both n-back and dMTS engage WM function, we hypothesized that compared to a control task not taxing WM, training on the n-back task would be associated with better performance on dMTS by virtue of training a shared mental capacity. We tested this hypothesis by randomly assigning subjects (N = 43 to train on either the n-back (including 2-back and 3-back levels or an active control task. Following training, dMTS was administered in the fMRI scanner. The n-back group performed marginally better than the active control group on dMTS. In addition, although the n-back group improved more on the less difficult 2-back level than the more difficult 3-back level across training sessions, it was improvement on the 3-back level that accounted for 21% of the variance in dMTS performance. For the control group, improvement in training across sessions was unrelated to dMTS performance. At the neural level, greater activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus, right posterior parietal cortex and the cerebellum distinguished the n-back group from the control group in the maintenance phase of dMTS. Degree of improvement on the 3-back level across training sessions was correlated with activation in right lateral prefrontal and motor cortices in the maintenance phase of dMTS. Our results suggest that although n-back training is more likely to improve performance in easier blocks, it is improvement in more difficult blocks that is predictive of performance on a target task drawing on WM. In addition, the extent to which training on a task can transfer to another task is likely due to the engagement of shared cognitive capacities and underlying neural substrates

  15. Metastatic non-small cell lung cancer Current treatment based on evidence (ONCOL Group)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Carlos; Cardona, Andres Felipe; Reveiz, Ludovic; Serrano, Silvia Juliana; Carranza, Hernan; Vargas, Carlos Alberto; Reguart, Noemi; Campo, Felipe; Ospina, Edgar Guillermo; Sanchez, Oswaldo; Torres, Diana; Otero, Jorge Miguel

    2010-01-01

    to perform a review of evidence about the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Source of data: the information was obtained from searches conducted in Medline, CCTR, Biosis, Embase, Lilacs and CINHAL. We also collected the most representative references presented during the last five years at Asco, ESMO and IASLC. Data extraction: data were extracted by associate members to the ONCOL Group. The collection of information did not follow a uniform strategy. Results of data synthesis: therapy for NSCLC can prolong survival and improve quality of life, but the majority of advanced stage patients dies due to disease progression within 2 years, meaning that there is room for improvement. The standard chemotherapy for NSCLC involves one of a number of platinum-based doublets that have been shown to improve survival when compared with single agents or best supportive care. These doublets are generally comparable in terms of efficacy, differing primarily in their toxicity profiles. However, encouraging new options may be approaching, including therapies targeted to specific patient subpopulations, and the use of combinations of current and new drugs to produce synergistic effects. This review present a detailed analysis of current evidence regarding the treatment of NSCLC based on a representative case series. This review didn't conduct a systematic evaluation of the evidence. Conclusion: medical therapy for NSCLC produces positive changes in main outcomes, including quality of life

  16. Assessing long-term behavioural effects of feeding motivation in group-housed pregnant sows; what, when and how to observe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zonderland, J.J.; Leeuw, de J.A.; Nolten, C.; Spoolder, H.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Main aim of this study was to elucidate behavioural elements that can be used as a tool to measure satiety in group-housed pregnant sows. In addition, the best time (time of day and time on treatment) and observation method were addressed. In two batches, eight groups of five artificially

  17. Tertiary Students' Intention to e-Collaborate for Group Projects: Exploring the Missing Link from an Extended Theory of Planned Behaviour Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Eddie W. L.; Chu, Samuel K. W.; Ma, Carol S. M.

    2016-01-01

    With the emergence of web technologies, students can conduct their group projects via virtual platforms, which enable online collaboration. However, students' lack of intention to use web technologies for conducting group work has recently been highlighted. Based on the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), this paper developed and examined an…

  18. What is competent communication behaviour of patients in physician consultations? - Chronically-ill patients answer in focus groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Erika; Schöpf, Andrea C; Farin, Erik

    2017-09-01

    Many desirable outcomes depend on good patient-physician communication. Patient-based perspectives of what constitutes competent communication behavior with physicians are needed for patient-oriented health care. Therefore it was our main aim to identify competent patient communication skills from the patient's perspective. We also wanted to reveal any differences in opinion among various groups (chronic ischemic heart disease, chronic low back pain, breast cancer). This study examined nine guideline-supported focus groups in rehabilitation centers. The criterion for study inclusion was any one of the three diagnoses. Enrolled in the study were N = 49 patients (32 women) aged M = 60.1 (SD = 12.8). The interview recordings were transcribed and subjected to content analysis. We documented 396 commentaries in these interviews that were allocated to 82 different codes; these in turn resulted in the formation of 12 main topics. Examples are: posing questions, being an active and participatory patient, being aware of emotions and communicating them. This study represents stage two ('documentation of patient and clinician views') in the seven-stage model of communication research. Findings reveal that chronically-ill patients name behaviours that contribute to successful discussion with a physician. These enable us to develop communication trainings and design-measuring tools used for patient-based communication skills.

  19. The method of educational assessment affects children's neural processing and performance: behavioural and fMRI Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Steven J.; Burianová, Hana; Calleia, Alysha; Fynes-Clinton, Samuel; Kervin, Lisa; Bokosmaty, Sahar

    2017-08-01

    Standardised educational assessments are now widespread, yet their development has given comparatively more consideration to what to assess than how to optimally assess students' competencies. Existing evidence from behavioural studies with children and neuroscience studies with adults suggest that the method of assessment may affect neural processing and performance, but current evidence remains limited. To investigate the impact of assessment methods on neural processing and performance in young children, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify and quantify the neural correlates during performance across a range of current approaches to standardised spelling assessment. Results indicated that children's test performance declined as the cognitive load of assessment method increased. Activation of neural nodes associated with working memory further suggests that this performance decline may be a consequence of a higher cognitive load, rather than the complexity of the content. These findings provide insights into principles of assessment (re)design, to ensure assessment results are an accurate reflection of students' true levels of competency.

  20. Group differences in physician responses to handheld presentation of clinical evidence: a verbal protocol analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlovic Nada J

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify individual differences in physicians' needs for the presentation of evidence resources and preferences for mobile devices. Methods Within-groups analysis of responses to semi-structured interviews. Interviews consisted of using prototypes in response to task-based scenarios. The prototypes were implemented on two different form factors: a tablet style PC and a pocketPC. Participants were from three user groups: general internists, family physicians and medicine residents, and from two different settings: urban and semi-urban. Verbal protocol analysis, which consists of coding utterances, was conducted on the transcripts of the testing sessions. Statistical relationships were investigated between staff physicians' and residents' background variables, self-reported experiences with the interfaces, and verbal code frequencies. Results 47 physicians were recruited from general internal medicine, family practice clinics and a residency training program. The mean age of participants was 42.6 years. Physician specialty had a greater effect on device and information-presentation preferences than gender, age, setting or previous technical experience. Family physicians preferred the screen size of the tablet computer and were less concerned about its portability. Residents liked the screen size of the tablet, but preferred the portability of the pocketPC. Internists liked the portability of the pocketPC, but saw less advantage to the large screen of the tablet computer (F[2,44] = 4.94, p = .012. Conclusion Different types of physicians have different needs and preferences for evidence-based resources and handheld devices. This study shows how user testing can be incorporated into the process of design to inform group-based customization.

  1. Group cognitive behavioural therapy for postnatal depression: a systematic review of clinical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and value of information analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, M D; Scope, A; Sutcliffe, P A; Booth, A; Slade, P; Parry, G; Saxon, D; Kalthenthaler, E

    2010-09-01

    Postnatal depression (PND) describes a wide range of distressing symptoms that can occur in women following childbirth. There is substantial evidence to support the use of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) in the treatment of depression, and psychological therapies are recommended by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence as a first-line treatment for PND. However, access is limited owing to expense, waiting lists and availability of therapists. Group CBT may, therefore, offer a solution to these problems by reducing therapist time and increasing the number of available places for treatment. To evaluate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of group CBT compared with currently used packages of care for women with PND. Seventeen electronic bibliographic databases were searched (for example MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, EMBASE, PsycINFO, etc.), covering biomedical, health-related, science, social science and grey literature (including current research). Databases were searched from 1950 to January 2008. In addition, the reference lists of relevant articles were checked and various health services' related resources were consulted via the internet. The study population included women in the postpartum period (up to 1 year), meeting the criteria of a standardised PND diagnosis using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition, or scoring above cut-off on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). No exclusion was made on the basis of the standardised depression screening/case finding instrument of standardised clinical assessment tool used to define PND. All full papers were read by two reviewers (AS and DS) who made independent decisions regarding inclusion or exclusion, and consensus, where possible, was obtained by meeting to compare decisions. In the event of disagreement, a third reviewer (EK) read the paper and made the decision. All data from included quantitative

  2. Common region wins the competition between extrinsic grouping cues: Evidence from a task without explicit attention to grouping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoro, Pedro R; Villalba-García, Cristina; Luna, Dolores; Hinojosa, José A

    2017-12-01

    The competition between perceptual grouping factors is a relatively ignored topic, especially in the case of extrinsic grouping cues (e.g., common region or connectedness). Recent studies have examined the integration of extrinsic cues using tasks that induce selective attention to groups based on different grouping cues. However, this procedure could generate alternative strategies for task performance, which are non-related to the perceptual grouping operations. In the current work, we used an indirect task, i.e. repetition discrimination task, without explicit attention to grouping cues to further examine the rules that govern dominance between competing extrinsic grouping factors. This procedure allowed us to obtain an unbiased measure of the competition between common region and connectedness cues acting within the same display. The results corroborate previous data showing that grouping by common region dominated the perceived organization of the display, even though the phenomenological strength of the grouping cues was equated for each participant by means of a preliminary scaling task. Our results highlight the relevance of using indirect tasks as an essential tool for the systematic study of the integration of extrinsic grouping cues.

  3. Behavioural and chemical evidence for multiple colonisation of the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile, in the Western Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wossler Theresa C

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Argentine ant, Linepithema humile, is a widespread invasive ant species that has successfully established in nearly all continents across the globe. Argentine ants are characterised by a social structure known as unicoloniality, where territorial boundaries between nests are absent and intraspecific aggression is rare. This is particularly pronounced in introduced populations and results in the formation of large and spatially expansive supercolonies. Although it is amongst the most well studied of invasive ants, very little work has been done on this ant in South Africa. In this first study, we investigate the population structure of Argentine ants in South Africa. We use behavioural (aggression tests and chemical (CHC approaches to investigate the population structure of Argentine ants within the Western Cape, identify the number of supercolonies and infer number of introductions. Results Both the aggression assays and chemical data revealed that the Western Cape Argentine ant population can be divided into two behaviourally and chemically distinct supercolonies. Intraspecific aggression was evident between the two supercolonies of Argentine ants with ants able to discriminate among conspecific non-nestmates. This discrimination is linked to the divergence in cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of ants originating from the two supercolonies. Conclusions The presence of these two distinct supercolonies is suggestive of at least two independent introductions of this ant within the Western Cape. Moreover, the pattern of colonisation observed in this study, with the two colonies interspersed, is in agreement with global patterns of Argentine ant invasions. Our findings are of interest because recent studies show that Argentine ants from South Africa are different from those identified in other introduced ranges and therefore provide an opportunity to further understand factors that determine the distributional and spread

  4. Population size, group composition and behavioural ecology of geladas (Theropithecus gelada) and human-gelada conflict in Wonchit Valley, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kifle, Zewdu; Belay, Gurja; Bekele, Afework

    2013-11-01

    Primates that live in protected areas are intensively studied; however, those that live outside protected areas are less studied by primatologists. Therefore, the present study was carried out outside protected areas on the endemic gelada (Theropithecus gelada) to estimate the population size and group composition and human-gelada conflict in Wonchit Valley, Ethiopia from August 2008-March 2009. Total count method was used to determine the population size and group composition of geladas. A band of geladas was selected to carry out behavioural research. Data were collected on activity, diet and ranging patterns for one band of geladas using scan samples at 15 min intervals. Data on human-gelada conflict was gathered using questionnaire interview method. The total number of geladas in the study area was 1525. The average size of one-male unit was 16.96. Adult male to adult female sex ratio was 1.00:6.61. The average size of the band was 58.03. Group size ranged from 3 to 220. Geladas spent 65.2% of their time feeding, 16.3% moving, 4.6% resting and 13.9% socializing. The total time spent feeding on grass blades was 83.8% and 11.8% for bulbs and roots. The home range size was 1.5 km2 during the dry season and 0.2 km2 during the wet season. Geladas in the study area caused crop damage and shared pasture and drinking water with livestock. They consume crops during harvesting stage more than the seedling and vegetative stages. The study has immense contribution for the conservation and management of this endemic primate in unprotected areas.

  5. Risk factors and study designs used in research of youths' suicide behaviour-an epidemiological discussion with focus on level of evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Erik; Larsen, Kim Juul; Agerbo, Esben

    2014-01-01

    to level of evidence (LoE). Methods: We searched PubMed and psycINFO in order to identify relevant individual studies. Results: We included 36 studies of children and youth on suicidal behaviour and ideation-many rank low on LoE. For suicide, cohort design was often used, and mental illness (depression......Introduction: Many different epidemiology study designs have been used to analyse risk factors for suicide behaviour. The purpose of this study was to obtain an insight into the current study design used in research on youths' risk factors for suicide behaviour and to rank the studies according......, substance abuse and severity of mental illness) was the most common risk factor. Cohort studies are ranked 2b, which is high according to LoE. For suicide attempts, survey was often used, and psychopathology, substance abuse and being exposed to suicidal behaviour were the most common risk factors...

  6. Glioblastoma and ABO blood groups: further evidence of an association between the distribution of blood group antigens and brain tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allouh, Mohammed Z; Al Barbarawi, Mohammed M; Hiasat, Mohammad Y; Al-Qaralleh, Mohammed A; Ababneh, Emad I

    2017-10-01

    Glioblastoma is a highly malignant brain tumour that usually leads to death. Several studies have reported a link between the distribution of ABO blood group antigens and a risk of developing specific types of cancer, although no consensus has been reached. This study aims to investigate the relationship between the distribution of ABO blood group antigens and the incidence of glioblastoma. The study cohort consisted of 115 glioblastoma patients who were diagnosed at King Abdullah University Hospital, Jordan, between 2004 and 2015. Three different patient populations made up three control groups and these were selected from among patients at the same institution between 2014 and 2015 as follows: 3,847 healthy blood donors, 654 accidental trauma patients admitted to the Departments of Neurosurgery and Orthopaedics, and 230 age- and sex-matched control subjects recruited blindly from the Departments of Paediatrics and Internal Medicine. There was a significant association between the distribution of ABO blood group antigens and the incidence of glioblastoma. Post hoc residual analysis revealed that individuals with group A had a higher than expected chance of developing glioblastoma, while individuals with group O had a lower than expected chance. Furthermore, individuals with group A were found to be at a 1.62- to 2.28-fold increased risk of developing glioblastoma compared to individuals with group O. In the present study, we demonstrate that, in Jordan, individuals with group A have an increased risk of developing glioblastoma, while individuals with group O have a reduced risk. These findings suggest that the distribution of ABO blood group antigens is associated with a risk of brain tumours and may play an important role in their development. However, further clinical and experimental investigations are required to confirm this association.

  7. Evidence for implicit evaluative in-group bias : Affect-biased spontaneous trait inference in a minimal group paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otten, S; Moskowitz, GB

    Mere categorization of individuals into two distinct social categories has been shown to elicit in-group favoritism. Positive differentiation, even of trivial groups, has been explained in terms of a striving for a positive social identity (Tajfel & Turner, 1986). The present study questions this

  8. Worksite Environmental Interventions for Obesity Prevention and Control: Evidence from Group Randomized Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Isabel Diana; Becerra, Adan; Chin, Nancy P

    2014-06-01

    Worksites provide multiple advantages to prevent and treat obesity and to test environmental interventions to tackle its multiple causal factors. We present a literature review of group-randomized and non-randomized trials that tested worksite environmental, multiple component interventions for obesity prevention and control paying particular attention to the conduct of formative research prior to intervention development. The evidence on environmental interventions on measures of obesity appears to be strong since most of the studies have a low (4/8) and unclear (2/8) risk of bias. Among the studies reviewed whose potential risk of bias was low, the magnitude of the effect was modest and sometimes in the unexpected direction. None of the four studies describing an explicit formative research stage with clear integration of findings into the intervention was able to demonstrate an effect on the main outcome of interest. We present alternative explanation for the findings and recommendations for future research.

  9. Serological Evidence of Immune Priming by Group A Streptococci in Patients with Acute Rheumatic Fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy M Raynes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Acute rheumatic fever (ARF is an autoimmune response to Group A Streptococcus (GAS infection. Repeated GAS exposures are proposed to ‘prime’ the immune system for autoimmunity. This notion of immune-priming by multiple GAS infections was first postulated in the 1960s, but direct experimental evidence to support the hypothesis has been lacking. Here we present novel methodology, based on antibody responses to GAS T‑antigens, that enables previous GAS exposures to be mapped in patient sera. T-antigens are surface expressed, type specific antigens and GAS strains fall into 18 major clades or T-types. A panel of recombinant T-antigens was generated and immunoassays were performed in parallel with serum depletion experiments allowing type-specific T‑antigen antibodies to be distinguished from cross-reactive antibodies. At least two distinct GAS exposures were detected in each of the ARF sera tested. Furthermore, no two sera had the same T-antigen reactivity profile suggesting that each patient was exposed to a unique series of GAS T‑types prior to developing ARF. The methods have provided much-needed experimental evidence to substantiate the immune-priming hypothesis, and will facilitate further serological profiling studies that explore the multifaceted interactions between GAS and the host.

  10. [Evidence-based therapy guideline of the German Working Group on Obesity in Childhood and Adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, A; Kunze, D; Wabitsch, M

    2011-05-01

    Obesity in childhood and adolescence has increased worldwide in recent years. A consensus guideline (S2) for treating obesity in childhood and adolescence in Germany was first published by the German Working Group on Obesity in Childhood and Adolescence (AGA) in 2000. The intention is to gradually replace this consensus-based (S2) guideline with an evidence-based (S3) guideline. Following a systematic literature search, 21 recommendations were predominantly approved with "strong consensus" (agreement >95%). Body weight and body fat mass can be significantly influenced by conventional behavior-based measures and also by the currently available drug therapies. However, the extent of the achieved weight reduction is small. Surgical measures (unproven, experimental therapy) to reduce body weight, in contrast, are very successful. In addition to the long version of this evidence-based guideline, an abbreviated version exists and a practice guideline is planned. This guideline should be further developed within the competence network on obesity of the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research. The guideline will be published in the scholarly journals of the professional associations concerned, will be available via the Internet, and will also be distributed through periodicals, congress events, and information at facilities.

  11. MID-INFRARED EVIDENCE FOR ACCELERATED EVOLUTION IN COMPACT GROUP GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, Lisa May; Johnson, Kelsey E.; Gallagher, Sarah C.; Hibbard, John E.; Hornschemeier, Ann E.; Tzanavaris, Panayiotis; Charlton, Jane C.; Jarrett, Thomas H.

    2010-01-01

    Compact galaxy groups are at the extremes of the group environment, with high number densities and low velocity dispersions that likely affect member galaxy evolution. To explore the impact of this environment in detail, we examine the distribution in the mid-infrared (MIR) 3.6-8.0 μm color space of 42 galaxies from 12 Hickson compact groups (HCGs) in comparison with several control samples, including the LVL+SINGS galaxies, interacting galaxies, and galaxies from the Coma Cluster. We find that the HCG galaxies are strongly bimodal, with statistically significant evidence for a gap in their distribution. In contrast, none of the other samples show such a marked gap, and only galaxies in the Coma infall region have a distribution that is statistically consistent with the HCGs in this parameter space. To further investigate the cause of the HCG gap, we compare the galaxy morphologies of the HCG and LVL+SINGS galaxies, and also probe the specific star formation rate (SSFR) of the HCG galaxies. While galaxy morphology in HCG galaxies is strongly linked to position with MIR color space, the more fundamental property appears to be the SSFR, or star formation rate normalized by stellar mass. We conclude that the unusual MIR color distribution of HCG galaxies is a direct product of their environment, which is most similar to that of the Coma infall region. In both cases, galaxy densities are high, but gas has not been fully processed or stripped. We speculate that the compact group environment fosters accelerated evolution of galaxies from star-forming and neutral gas-rich to quiescent and neutral gas-poor, leaving few members in the MIR gap at any time.

  12. Evidence for an involvement of 5-hydroxytryptaminergic neurones in the maintenance of operant behaviour by positive reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wogar, M A; Bradshaw, C M; Szabadi, E

    1991-01-01

    The possible involvement of the ascending 5-hydroxytryptaminergic (5HTergic) pathways in the maintenance of operant behaviour by positive reinforcement was examined using a quantitative paradigm based on Herrnstein's (1970) equation which defines a hyperbolic relationship between steady-state response rate and reinforcement frequency in variable-interval schedules. Nine rats received injections of 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine into the dorsal and median raphe nuclei; 12 rats received sham injections. The rats were trained to steady-state in a series of variable-interval schedules of sucrose reinforcement affording a range of reinforcement frequencies. Herrnstein's equation was fitted to the data obtained from each rat and to the averaged data obtained from the two groups. The value of KH (the parameter expressing the reinforcement frequency needed to obtain the half-maximum response rate) was significantly lower in the lesioned group than in the control group; the values of Rmax (the parameter expressing the maximum response rate) did not differ significantly between the two groups. The levels of 5HT and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in the parietal cortex, hippocampus, nucleus accumbens and hypothalamus were markedly reduced in all four regions in the lesioned group, but the levels of noradrenaline and dopamine were not significantly affected. The results indicate that damage to the central 5HTergic pathways resulted in an increase in the "value" of the sucrose reinforcer, without affecting the animals' response capacity. The results are consistent with the suggestion that the 5HTergic pathways may exert some limiting control on the "values" of certain reinforcers.

  13. Using mixed methods evaluation to assess the feasibility of online clinical training in evidence based interventions: a case study of cognitive behavioural treatment for low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Helen; Hall, Amanda M; Hansen, Zara; Williamson, Esther; Davies, David; Lamb, Sarah E

    2016-06-18

    Cognitive behavioural (CB) approaches are effective in the management of non-specific low back pain (LBP). We developed the CB Back Skills Training programme (BeST) and previously provided evidence of clinical and cost effectiveness in a large pragmatic trial. However, practice change is challenged by a lack of treatment guidance and training for clinicians. We aimed to explore the feasibility and acceptability of an online programme (iBeST) for providing training in a CB approach. This mixed methods study comprised an individually randomised controlled trial of 35 physiotherapists and an interview study of 8 physiotherapists. Participants were recruited from 8 National Health Service departments in England and allocated by a computer generated randomisation list to receive iBeST (n = 16) or a face-to-face workshop (n = 19). Knowledge (of a CB approach), clinical skills (unblinded assessment of CB skills in practice), self-efficacy (reported confidence in using new skills), attitudes (towards LBP management), and satisfaction were assessed after training. Engagement with iBeST was assessed with user analytics. Interviews explored acceptability and experiences with iBeST. Data sets were analysed independently and jointly interpreted. Fifteen (94 %) participants in the iBeST group and 16 (84 %) participants in the workshop group provided data immediately after training. We observed similar scores on knowledge (MD (95 % CI): 0.97 (-1.33, 3.26)), and self-efficacy to deliver the majority of the programme (MD (95 % CI) 0.25 (-1.7; 0.7)). However, the workshop group showed greater reduction in biomedical attitudes to LBP management (MD (95 % CI): -7.43 (-10.97, -3.89)). Clinical skills were assessed in 5 (33 %) iBeST participants and 7 (38 %) workshop participants within 6 months of training and were similar between groups (MD (95 % CI): 0.17(-0.2; 0.54)). Interviews highlighted that while initially sceptical, participants found iBeST acceptable. A number

  14. Between-group behaviour in health care: gaps, edges, boundaries, disconnections, weak ties, spaces and holes. A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braithwaite Jeffrey

    2010-12-01

    limits of integration between groups occurs, the circumstances in which social spaces are or need to be negotiated and the way divides are bridged. The study's limitations are that it is bounded by the focus of attention and the search terms used and there is yet to be developed a probabilistic, predictive model for gaps and how to connect them. Conclusions Gaps offer insights into social structures, and how real world behaviours of participants in workplaces, organisations and institutions are fragile. The paper highlights the circumstances in which network disjunctures and group divides manifest. Knowledge of these phenomenon provides opportunities for working out ways to improve health sector organisational communications, knowledge transmission and relationships.

  15. An Extended Decomposed Theory of Planned Behaviour to Predict the Usage Intention of the Electric Car: A Multi-Group Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Moons

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available An Extended Decomposed Theory of Planned Behaviour (DTPB is developed that integrates emotions towards car driving and electric cars as well as car driving habits of the DTPB, and is empirically validated in a Belgian sample (n = 1023. Multi-group comparisons explore how the determinants of usage intention are different between groups of consumers differing in environmentally-friendly behaviour, environmental concern, innovativeness and personal values. Besides attitudes, media, perceived complexity, compatibility and relative advantage, emotions towards the electric car and reflective emotions towards car driving have a strong effect on usage intention. Car driving habits and perceived behavioural control (facilitators and constraints do not substantially affect usage intention. Only people differing in personal values show a different motivational structure for a number of important drivers of usage intention.

  16. Inhibition of misleading heuristics as a core mechanism for typical cognitive development: evidence from behavioural and brain-imaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borst, Grégoire; Aïte, Ania; Houdé, Olivier

    2015-04-01

    Cognitive development is generally conceived as incremental with knowledge of increasing complexity acquired throughout childhood and adolescence. However, several studies have now demonstrated not only that infants possess complex cognitive abilities but also that older children, adolescents, and adults tend to make systematic errors even in simple logical reasoning tasks. Therefore, one of the main issues for any theory of typical cognitive development is to provide an explanation of why at some age and in some contexts children, adolescents, and adults do not express a knowledge or cognitive principle that they already acquired when they were younger. In this review, we present convergent behavioural and neurocognitive evidence that cognitive development is more similar to a non-linear dynamic system than to a linear, stage-like system. In this theoretical framework, errors can emerge in problems similar to the ones infants or young children were succeeding when older children, adolescents, and adults rely on a misleading heuristic rather than on the correct logical algorithm to solve such problems. And the core mechanism for overcoming these errors is inhibitory control (i.e. the ability to inhibit the misleading heuristics). Therefore, typical cognitive development relies not only on the ability to acquire knowledge of incremental complexity but also to inhibit previously acquired knowledge. © 2015 The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology © 2015 Mac Keith Press.

  17. XVII International AIDS Conference: From Evidence to Action - Social, behavioural and economic science and policy and political science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    AIDS 2008 firmly established stigma and discrimination as fundamental priorities in the push for universal access to HIV prevention, treatment, care and support. Conference sessions and discussions reinforced the tangible negative effects of stigma on national legislation and policies. A strong theme throughout the conference was the need to replace prevention interventions that focus exclusively on individual behaviour change or biomedical prevention interventions with "combination prevention" approaches that address both individual and structural factors that increase vulnerability to HIV infection. Several high-level sessions addressed various aspects of the debate over "vertical" (disease-specific) versus "horizontal" (health systems) funding. The majority of evidence presented at the conference suggests that HIV investments strengthen health systems through the establishment of clinical and laboratory infrastructure, strengthened supply and procurement systems, improvements in health care worker training, and increased community engagement. Human rights were a focal point at the conference; several presentations emphasized the importance of securing human rights to achieve universal access goals, including workplace discrimination, travel restrictions, gender inequality, and the criminalization of homosexuality, drug use, sex work, and HIV transmission and/or exposure. PMID:19811671

  18. Cognitive intervention therapy as treatment for behaviour disorders in Alzheimer disease: evidence on efficacy and neurobiological correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Alberca, J M

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of behavioural and psychological symptoms (BPS) is very high among patients with Alzheimer disease (AD); more than 90% of AD patients will present such symptoms during the course of the disease. These symptoms result in poorer quality of life for both patients and caregivers and increased healthcare costs. BPS are the main factors involved in increases to the caregiver burden, and they often precipitate the admission of patients to residential care centres. Current consensus holds that intervention models combining pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments are the most effective for AD patients. Several studies have shown cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine combined with cognitive intervention therapy (CIT) to be effective for improving patients' cognitive function and functional capacity for undertaking daily life activities. However, the efficacy of CIT as a treatment for BPS has not yet been clearly established, which limits its use for this purpose in clinical practice. The objective of this review is to gather available evidence on the efficacy of cognitive intervention therapy (CIT) on BPS in patients with AD. The results of this review suggest that CIT may have a beneficial effect on BPS in patients with AD and should therefore be considered a treatment option for patients with AD and BPS. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. XVII International AIDS Conference: From Evidence to Action - Social, behavioural and economic science and policy and political science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mykhalovskiy, Eric; Brown, Glen; Kort, Rodney

    2009-10-06

    AIDS 2008 firmly established stigma and discrimination as fundamental priorities in the push for universal access to HIV prevention, treatment, care and support. Conference sessions and discussions reinforced the tangible negative effects of stigma on national legislation and policies. A strong theme throughout the conference was the need to replace prevention interventions that focus exclusively on individual behaviour change or biomedical prevention interventions with "combination prevention" approaches that address both individual and structural factors that increase vulnerability to HIV infection.Several high-level sessions addressed various aspects of the debate over "vertical" (disease-specific) versus "horizontal" (health systems) funding. The majority of evidence presented at the conference suggests that HIV investments strengthen health systems through the establishment of clinical and laboratory infrastructure, strengthened supply and procurement systems, improvements in health care worker training, and increased community engagement.Human rights were a focal point at the conference; several presentations emphasized the importance of securing human rights to achieve universal access goals, including workplace discrimination, travel restrictions, gender inequality, and the criminalization of homosexuality, drug use, sex work, and HIV transmission and/or exposure.

  20. Managing Repetitive Behaviours in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): Pilot Randomised Controlled Trial of a New Parent Group Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grahame, Victoria; Brett, Denise; Dixon, Linda; McConachie, Helen; Lowry, Jessica; Rodgers, Jacqui; Steen, Nick; Le Couteur, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Early intervention for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) tends to focus on enhancing social-communication skills. We report the acceptability, feasibility and impact on child functioning of a new 8 weeks parent-group intervention to manage restricted and repetitive behaviours (RRB) in young children with ASD aged 3-7 years. Forty-five families took…

  1. Distress experienced by nurses in response to the challenging behaviour of residents - evidence from German nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Sascha G; Dichter, Martin N; Palm, Rebecca; Hasselhorn, Hans Martin

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this research is to investigate the degree of distress experienced by nurses in response to the challenging behaviour of nursing home residents (residents' challenging behaviour) and their impact on nurses individual resources (general health, burnout and work ability). Because of the increasing and ageing population of nursing home residents, professional nursing care faces several challenges. One highly prevalent issue among nursing home residents is the so-called 'challenging behaviour'. However, to date, 'challenging behaviour' has not yet been recognised as an occupational stressor, and the extent of the impact of 'challenging behaviour' on nurses' well-being and functioning is not well understood. Cross-sectional study. Self-report questionnaire data collected from 731 registered nurses and nursing aides in 56 German nursing homes were used in a secondary data analysis. The level of residents' challenging behaviour-related distress that nurses experienced was assessed using a scale consisting of nine questions. Validated instruments were used for the assessment of individual resources. The mean score for residents' challenging behaviour-related distress was 41·3 (SD 21·2). Twenty-seven per cent of all nurses reported over 50 residents' challenging behaviour. Residents' challenging behaviour had a significant impact on all three measures of individual resources. Specifically, nurses exposed to frequent residents' challenging behaviour reported a significantly lower quality of general health, reduced workability and high burnout levels. Our findings indicate that residents' challenging behaviour-related distress is a significant work place stressor for nurses in nursing homes with a clear impact on general health, the risk of burnout and work ability. Our findings suggest that residents' challenging behaviour is a stressor for nurses in nursing homes. Further scientific and practical attention is necessary from the point of view of working

  2. A study on SARS awareness and health-seeking behaviour - findings from a sampled population attending National Healthcare Group Polyclinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, S L; Lim, P S; Ng, M Y; Wong, H B; Emmanuel, S C

    2004-09-01

    The study aimed to assess the effectiveness of massive SARS public education effort on SARS awareness and the conduct of those suspected of having SARS. Five hundred and ninety-three respondents attending the National Healthcare Group Polyclinics (NHGP) participated in the survey from 9 to 13 June 2003. Associations between awareness of SARS symptoms and (i) first action to be taken and (ii) mode of transportation used, if the respondent was suspected of having SARS, were analysed using Chi-square or Fisher's exact tests. Logistic regression was performed to adjust for relevant covariates. The majority (92.7%) of the respondents were aware of SARS symptoms. Television (91.6%), newspaper (65.2%) and radio (30.4%) formed the top 3 sources of information on SARS. Slightly more than half (51.6%) of those who suspect themselves of having SARS would choose to visit their primary health care doctors, while 22.7% of the respondents would go to Tan Tock Seng Hospital (TTSH). If they suspected themselves to have SARS, most (84.9%) of the 578 respondents would react appropriately by taking the SARS ambulance or driving themselves to TTSH. However, 60 respondents would nonetheless take public transport to TTSH [by taxi 8.5%, mass rapid transit (MRT) or bus 1.9%]. In particular, the retired with lower educational levels were likely to be oblivious both to the symptoms of SARS and the possible consequences of travelling by inappropriate transport. Despite more than 2 months of intensive SARS public education in Singapore, there remain important gaps in knowledge and appropriate behaviour that have to be bridged.

  3. The GRADE Working Group clarifies the construct of certainty of evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hultcrantz, Monica; Rind, David; Akl, Elie A

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To clarify the GRADE (grading of recommendations assessment, development and evaluation) definition of certainty of evidence and suggest possible approaches to rating certainty of the evidence for systematic reviews, health technology assessments and guidelines. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTIN...

  4. Inhibited attachment behaviour and disinhibited social engagement behaviour as relevant concepts in referred home reared children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheper, F Y; Abrahamse, M E; Jonkman, C S; Schuengel, C; Lindauer, R J L; de Vries, A L C; Doreleijers, T A H; Jansen, L M C

    2016-07-01

    Disorders of attachment and social engagement have mainly been studied in children, reared in institutions and foster care. There are few studies amongst home reared children living with biological parents. The aim of this study was to test the clinical significance of inhibited attachment behaviour and disinhibited social engagement behaviour in young home reared children, referred for treatment of emotional and behavioural problems, compared with young children in treatment foster care. The Disturbances of Attachment Interview, Maltreatment Classification System, the Child Behaviour Checklist and Parenting Stress Index were used in 141 referred home reared children and 59 referred foster children, aged 2.0-7.9 years (M = 4.7, SE = 1.3), 71% boys. Inhibited attachment behaviour was less prevalent in the referred home reared group (9%) than in the foster care group (27%). Disinhibited social engagement behaviour was found in 42% of the home reared group, similar to the foster care group. Inhibited attachment behaviour and disinhibited social engagement behaviour were not associated with child maltreatment. More inhibited attachment behaviour was associated with clinical levels of child internalizing and externalizing behaviour in the home reared group, not in the foster care group. In both groups, more disinhibited social engagement behaviour was associated with clinical levels of externalizing behaviour and with more parenting stress. Even without evident links to maltreatment, results of this study suggest clinical significance of inhibited attachment behaviour and disinhibited social engagement behaviour in young home reared children referred for treatment of emotional and behavioural problems. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Trace element similarity groups in north Florida Spanish moss: evidence for direct uptake of aerosol particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheline, J.; Akselsson, R.; Winchester, J.W.

    1976-02-20

    The elemental composition of 10 samples of Spanish moss Tillandsia usneoides L. collected mainly in forested areas near Tallahassee, Florida, has been compared to the composition of the ambient aerosol particle background in the forest measured as a function of particle size. For forest samples, moss composition is similar to the composition of aerosol particles greater than about 0.5-..mu..m diameter for the elements S, Cl, Ti, V, Fe, Ni, Zn, Br, Pb, and possibly Cu. Elements relatively enriched in the moss fall into two groups, K, Rb, Zr and Ca, Sr, Mn, based on detailed association patterns. No evidence is found for an enrichment, relative to the ambient aerosol, of pollution-derived elements Pb, Br, V, and Ni, although those elements are found at higher concentrations in moss samples from locations nearer roadways or oil-fired power plants. The moss appears to have potential value as an indicator of time average aerosol composition for particles of greater than or equal to 0.5 ..mu..m, except for the enriched elements, which may have longer biological retention times. (auth)

  6. Tinnitus and sound intolerance: evidence and experience of a Brazilian group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Ektor Tsuneo; Coelho, Cláudia Couto de Barros; Oiticica, Jeanne; Figueiredo, Ricardo Rodrigues; Guimarães, Rita de Cassia Cassou; Sanchez, Tanit Ganz; Gürtler, Adriana Lima; Venosa, Alessandra Ramos; Sampaio, André Luiz Lopes; Azevedo, Andreia Aparecida; Pires, Anna Paula Batista de Ávila; Barros, Bruno Borges de Carvalho; Oliveira, Carlos Augusto Costa Pires de; Saba, Clarice; Yonamine, Fernando Kaoru; Medeiros, Ítalo Roberto Torres de; Rosito, Letícia Petersen Schmidt; Rates, Marcelo José Abras; Kii, Márcia Akemi; Fávero, Mariana Lopes; Santos, Mônica Alcantara de Oliveira; Person, Osmar Clayton; Ciminelli, Patrícia; Marcondes, Renata de Almeida; Moreira, Ronaldo Kennedy de Paula; Torres, Sandro de Menezes Santos

    Tinnitus and sound intolerance are frequent and subjective complaints that may have an impact on a patient's quality of life. To present a review of the salient points including concepts, pathophysiology, diagnosis and approach of the patient with tinnitus and sensitivity to sounds. Literature review with bibliographic survey in LILACS, SciELO, Pubmed and MEDLINE database. Articles and book chapters on tinnitus and sound sensitivity were selected. The several topics were discussed by a group of Brazilian professionals and the conclusions were described. The prevalence of tinnitus has increased over the years, often associated with hearing loss, metabolic factors and inadequate diet. Medical evaluation should be performed carefully to guide the request of subsidiary exams. Currently available treatments range from medications to the use of sounds with specific characteristics and meditation techniques, with variable results. A review on tinnitus and auditory sensitivity was presented, allowing the reader a broad view of the approach to these patients, based on scientific evidence and national experience. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. Changes in male sexual behaviour in response to the AIDS epidemic: evidence from a cohort study in urban Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ng'weshemi, J. Z.; Boerma, J. T.; Pool, R.; Barongo, L.; Senkoro, K.; Maswe, M.; Isingo, R.; Schapink, D.; Nnko, S.; Borgdorff, M. W.

    1996-01-01

    To examine changes in sexual behaviour among men in urban Tanzania. An observational cohort study among factory workers during 1991-1994. Data from five follow-up visits with structured questionnaire-guided interviews and biomedical data were analysed to examine trends in sexual behaviour and

  8. Are interventions for low-income groups effective in changing healthy eating, physical activity and smoking behaviours? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Eleanor R; Dombrowski, Stephan U; McCleary, Nicola; Johnston, Marie

    2014-11-28

    To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis examining the effectiveness of behavioural interventions targeting diet, physical activity or smoking in low-income adults. Systematic review with random effects meta-analyses. Studies before 2006 were identified from a previously published systematic review (searching 1995-2006) with similar but broader inclusion criteria (including non-randomised controlled trials (RCTs)). Studies from 2006 to 2014 were identified from eight electronic databases using a similar search strategy. MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, ASSIA, CINAHL, Cochrane Controlled Trials, Cochrane Systematic Review and DARE. RCTs and cluster RCTs published from 1995 to 2014; interventions targeting dietary, physical activity and smoking; low-income adults; reporting of behavioural outcomes. Dietary, physical activity and smoking cessation behaviours. 35 studies containing 45 interventions with 17,000 participants met inclusion criteria. At postintervention, effects were positive but small for diet (standardised mean difference (SMD) 0.22, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.29), physical activity (SMD 0.21, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.36) and smoking (relative risk (RR) of 1.59, 95% CI 1.34 to 1.89). Studies reporting follow-up results suggested that effects were maintained over time for diet (SMD 0.16, 95% CI 0.08 to 0.25) but not physical activity (SMD 0.17, 95% CI -0.02 to 0.37) or smoking (RR 1.11, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.34). Behaviour change interventions for low-income groups had small positive effects on healthy eating, physical activity and smoking. Further work is needed to improve the effectiveness of behaviour change interventions for deprived populations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. How to improve attitudes toward disliked groups: The effects of narrative versus numerical evidence on political persuasion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wojcieszak, M.; Kim, N.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a model of how messages about groups one personally dislikes affect individual attitudes. We build upon theories of message persuasion and out-group acceptance to account for evidence type (numerical vs. narrative), facilitating conditions (encouraging empathy vs. objectivity), and the

  10. Group therapy for somatization disorders in primary care: maintenance of treatment goals of short cognitive-behavioural treatment one-and-a-half-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidbeck, J

    2003-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the maintenance of treatment goals of a short cognitive-behavioural group treatment programme for the management of somatization disorders in primary care. In a previous controlled 6-month follow-up study, patients with somatization disorders (n=32) improved with respect to illness and somatic preoccupation, hypochondriasis, and medication usage. In the present report the same group of patients were also investigated one-and-a-half year after initial treatment. The long-term follow-up manifested maintained improvement with respect to hypochondriasis. There was additional reduction of anxiety and psychosocial preoccupation, whereas somatization and depression-anxiety scores improved progressively. A short cognitive-behavioural group treatment of psychosomatic patients can be useful in primary care and may manifest maintained or progressive beneficial outcome.

  11. Heritable influences on behavioural problems from early childhood to mid-adolescence: evidence for genetic stability and innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, G J; Plomin, R

    2015-07-01

    Although behavioural problems (e.g., anxiety, conduct, hyperactivity, peer problems) are known to be heritable both in early childhood and in adolescence, limited work has examined prediction across these ages, and none using a genetically informative sample. We examined, first, whether parental ratings of behavioural problems (indexed by the Strengths and Difficulties questionnaire) at ages 4, 7, 9, 12, and 16 years were stable across these ages. Second, we examined the extent to which stability reflected genetic or environmental effects through multivariate quantitative genetic analysis on data from a large (n > 3000) population (UK) sample of monozygotic and dizygotic twins. Behavioural problems in early childhood (age 4 years) showed significant associations with the corresponding behavioural problem at all subsequent ages. Moreover, stable genetic influences were observed across ages, indicating that biological bases underlying behavioural problems in adolescence are underpinned by genetic influences expressed as early as age 4 years. However, genetic and environmental innovations were also observed at each age. These observations indicate that genetic factors are important for understanding stable individual differences in behavioural problems across childhood and adolescence, although novel genetic influences also facilitate change in such behaviours.

  12. Evident?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plant, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Quality assurance and evidence in career guidance in Europe are often seen as self-evident approaches, but particular interests lie behind......Quality assurance and evidence in career guidance in Europe are often seen as self-evident approaches, but particular interests lie behind...

  13. The Effect of Conflict History on Cooperation Within and Between Groups: Evidence from a Laboratory Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Beekman, Gonne; Cheung, Stephen L.; Levely, Ian

    2014-01-01

    We study cooperation within and between groups in the laboratory, comparing treatments in which two groups have previously been (i) in conflict with one another, (ii) in conflict with a different group, or (iii) not previously exposed to con flict. We model conflict using an inter-group Tullock contest, and measure its effects upon cooperation using a multi-level public good game. We demonstrate that con flict increases cooperation within groups, while decreasing cooperation between groups. M...

  14. The Impact of Antenatal Psychological Group Interventions on Psychological Well-Being: A Systematic Review of the Qualitative and Quantitative Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Wadephul

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Depression, anxiety and stress in the perinatal period can have serious, long-term consequences for women, their babies and their families. Over the last two decades, an increasing number of group interventions with a psychological approach have been developed to improve the psychological well-being of pregnant women. This systematic review examines interventions targeting women with elevated symptoms of, or at risk of developing, perinatal mental health problems, with the aim of understanding the successful and unsuccessful features of these interventions. We systematically searched online databases to retrieve qualitative and quantitative studies on psychological antenatal group interventions. A total number of 19 papers describing 15 studies were identified; these included interventions based on cognitive behavioural therapy, interpersonal therapy and mindfulness. Quantitative findings suggested beneficial effects in some studies, particularly for women with high baseline symptoms. However, overall there is insufficient quantitative evidence to make a general recommendation for antenatal group interventions. Qualitative findings suggest that women and their partners experience these interventions positively in terms of psychological wellbeing and providing reassurance of their ‘normality’. This review suggests that there are some benefits to attending group interventions, but further research is required to fully understand their successful and unsuccessful features.

  15. The Impact of Antenatal Psychological Group Interventions on Psychological Well-Being: A Systematic Review of the Qualitative and Quantitative Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadephul, Franziska; Jones, Catriona; Jomeen, Julie

    2016-06-08

    Depression, anxiety and stress in the perinatal period can have serious, long-term consequences for women, their babies and their families. Over the last two decades, an increasing number of group interventions with a psychological approach have been developed to improve the psychological well-being of pregnant women. This systematic review examines interventions targeting women with elevated symptoms of, or at risk of developing, perinatal mental health problems, with the aim of understanding the successful and unsuccessful features of these interventions. We systematically searched online databases to retrieve qualitative and quantitative studies on psychological antenatal group interventions. A total number of 19 papers describing 15 studies were identified; these included interventions based on cognitive behavioural therapy, interpersonal therapy and mindfulness. Quantitative findings suggested beneficial effects in some studies, particularly for women with high baseline symptoms. However, overall there is insufficient quantitative evidence to make a general recommendation for antenatal group interventions. Qualitative findings suggest that women and their partners experience these interventions positively in terms of psychological wellbeing and providing reassurance of their 'normality'. This review suggests that there are some benefits to attending group interventions, but further research is required to fully understand their successful and unsuccessful features.

  16. The maintenance effect of cognitive-behavioural treatment groups for the Chinese parents of children with intellectual disabilities in Melbourne, Australia: a 6-month follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, D F K; Poon, A; Kwok, Y C Lai

    2011-11-01

    Caring for a child with intellectual disability can be stressful. No data on the longer-term effects of cognitive-behavioural treatment (CBT) on parents from a Chinese-speaking background who have children with intellectual disabilities are available in the literature. This study attempted to fill this research gap by examining the maintenance effect of CBT among the Chinese parents of such children in Melbourne, Australia. Thirty-nine participants took part in our CBT groups and attended follow-up meetings. A questionnaire comprising four instruments, the Parenting Stress Index (PS) - Parent Domain, General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12), Abbreviated Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (Q-LES-Q-18) and Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS), was administered to the participants at the pre- and post-test stage and at the 6-month follow-up. One-way repeated-measures analyses of variance revealed significant time and group effects in the PS (F(2,27) = 16.93, P times. The participants continued to maintain significant improvements in mental health and quality of life and declines in the severity of parenting stress and dysfunctional attitudes at the 6-month follow-up. Effect size analyses revealed mostly large differences in the foregoing measurements (Cohen's d = 0.76-2.18) between the pre-test and 6-month follow-up. Employing a cut-off score of 3/4 in the GHQ-12 to identify at-risk and not-at-risk cases, approximately 90.5% of the participants could be classified as not-at-risk at the follow-up. Lastly, regression analyses showed that changes in DAS scores significantly predicted changes in the GHQ-12 and Q-LES-Q-18 scores at the follow-up. This study provides preliminary evidence of the 6-month maintenance effect of CBT groups for the Melbourne-resident Chinese parents of children with intellectual disabilities. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Evidence synthesis on the occurrence, causes, consequences, prevention and management of bullying and harassment behaviours to inform decision making in the NHS

    OpenAIRE

    Illing, Jan; Carter, Madeline; Thompson, Neill; Crampton, Paul; Morrow, Gill; Howse, Jenny; Cooke, A.; Burford, Bryan

    2013-01-01

    Background\\ud Workplace bullying is a persistent problem in the NHS with negative implications for individuals, teams, and organisations. Bullying is a complex phenomenon and there is a lack of evidence on the best approaches to manage the problem.\\ud \\ud Aims\\ud Research questions\\ud \\ud What is known about the occurrence, causes, consequences and management of bullying and inappropriate behaviour in the workplace?\\ud \\ud Objectives\\ud Summarise the reported prevalence of workplace bullying ...

  18. Great Expectations: The Role of Rules in Guiding Pro-Social Behaviour in Groups with High versus Low Autistic Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameel, Leila; Vyas, Karishma; Bellesi, Giulia; Cassell, Diana; Channon, Shelley

    2015-01-01

    Measuring autistic traits in the general population has proven sensitive for examining cognition. The present study extended this to pro-social behaviour, investigating the influence of expectations to help others. A novel task describing characters in need of help was administered to students scoring high versus low on the Autism-Spectrum…

  19. Does postponing minimum retirement age improve healthy behaviours before retirement? Evidence from middle-aged Italian workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertoni, Marco; Brunello, Giorgio; Mazzarella, Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    By increasing the residual working horizon of employed individuals, pension reforms that raise minimum retirement age are likely to affect the returns to investments in healthpromoting behaviours before retirement, with consequences for individual health. Using the exogenous variation in minimum

  20. To what extent does weather influence individuals’ financial decision-making behaviour? Evidence from the spread-trading market

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Shaosong

    2016-01-01

    This thesis, which is divided into 3 papers, investigates the relationship between weather and individuals’ trading behaviour in the spread-trading market. The spread-trading market offers the opportunity of examining individuals’ trading records, and thus enables the exploration of the impact of weather on individuals’ financial decision-making behaviours. The first paper investigates the effect of a range of weather variables on individual spread traders’ hourly trading volumes and their pr...

  1. Elizabeth Usher Memorial Lecture: How do we change our profession? Using the lens of behavioural economics to improve evidence-based practice in speech-language pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Patricia J

    2018-06-01

    Evidence-based practice (EBP) is a well-accepted theoretical framework around which speech-language pathologists strive to build their clinical decisions. The profession's conceptualisation of EBP has been evolving over the last 20 years with the practice of EBP now needing to balance research evidence, clinical data and informed patient choices. However, although EBP is not a new concept, as a profession, we seem to be no closer to closing the gap between research evidence and practice than we were at the start of the movement toward EBP in the late 1990s. This paper examines why speech-language pathologists find it difficult to change our own practice when we are experts in changing the behaviour of others. Using the lens of behavioural economics to examine the heuristics and cognitive processes which facilitate and inhibit change, the paper explores research showing how inconsistency of belief and action, or cognitive dissonance, is inevitable unless we act reflectively instead of automatically. The paper argues that heuristics that prevent us changing our practice toward EBP include the sunk cost fallacy, loss aversion, social desirability bias, choice overload and inertia. These automatic cognitive processes work to inhibit change and may partially account for the slow translation of research into practice. Fortunately, understanding and using other heuristics such as the framing effect, reciprocity, social proof, consistency and commitment may help us to understand our own behaviour as speech-language pathologists and help the profession, and those we work with, move towards EBP.

  2. "We get them up, moving, and out the door. How do we get them to do what is recommended?" Using behaviour change theory to put exercise evidence into action for rehabilitation professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, Caitlin; Ziebart, Christina; Papaioannou, Alexandra; Cheung, Angela M; Laprade, Judi; Lee, Linda; Jain, Ravi; Giangregorio, Lora M

    2018-01-25

    Recommendations suggest a multicomponent exercise for people with osteoporosis. We identified rehabilitation professionals' barriers and facilitators to implementing exercise recommendations with people with osteoporosis, and used those to make suggestions for targeted knowledge translation interventions. Future work will report on development and evaluation of the interventions informed by our study. Rehabilitation professionals can help people with osteoporosis to engage in a multicomponent exercise program and perform activities of daily living safely. However, rehabilitation professional face barriers to implementing exercise evidence, especially for specific disease conditions like osteoporosis. We performed a behavioural analysis and identified rehabilitation professionals' barriers to and facilitators of implementing disease-specific physical activity and exercise recommendations (Too Fit to Fracture recommendations), and used the Behaviour Change Wheel to select interventions. Semi-structured interviews and focus groups were conducted with rehabilitation professionals, including physical therapists, kinesiologists, and occupational therapists, and transcribed verbatim. Two researchers coded data and identified emerging themes. Using the Behaviour Change Wheel framework, themes were categorized into capability, opportunity, and motivation, and relevant interventions were identified. Ninety-four rehabilitation professionals (mean age 40.5 years, 88.3% female) participated. Identified barriers were as follows: capability-lack of training in behaviour change, how to modify recommendations for physical and cognitive impairments; opportunity-lack of resources, time, and team work; motivation-lack of trust between providers, fear in providing interventions that may cause harm. Interventions selected were as follows: education, training, enablement, modelling and persuasion. Policy categories are communication/marketing, guidelines, service provision and

  3. Randomised controlled feasibility trial of an evidence-informed behavioural intervention for obese adults with additional risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falko F Sniehotta

    Full Text Available Interventions for dietary and physical activity changes in obese adults may be less effective for participants with additional obesity-related risk factors and co-morbidities than for otherwise healthy individuals. This study aimed to test the feasibility and acceptability of the recruitment, allocation, measurement, retention and intervention procedures of a randomised controlled trial of an intervention to improve physical activity and dietary practices amongst obese adults with additional obesity related risk factors.Pilot single centre open-labelled outcome assessor-blinded randomised controlled trial of obese (Body Mass Index (BMI≥30 kg/m2 adults (age≥18 y with obesity related co-morbidities such as type 2 diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance or hypertension. Participants were randomly allocated to a manual-based group intervention or a leaflet control condition in accordance to a 2∶1 allocation ratio. Primary outcome was acceptability and feasibility of trial procedures, secondary outcomes included measures of body composition, physical activity, food intake and psychological process measures.Out of 806 potentially eligible individuals identified through list searches in two primary care general medical practices N = 81 participants (63% female; mean-age = 56.56(11.44; mean-BMI = 36.73(6.06 with 2.35(1.47 co-morbidities were randomised. Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation (SIMD was the only significant predictor of providing consent to take part in the study (higher chances of consent for invitees with lower levels of deprivation. Participant flowcharts, qualitative and quantitative feedback suggested good acceptance and feasibility of intervention procedures but 34.6% of randomised participants were lost to follow-up due to overly high measurement burden and sub-optimal retention procedures. Participants in the intervention group showed positive trends for most psychological, behavioural and body composition outcomes

  4. Peer monitoring, social ties and moral hazard in group lending programs : Evidence from Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, N; Lensink, R; Mehrteab, HT

    In this paper, we investigate the impact of monitoring and social ties on moral hazard behavior within group lending programs. Our study is based on data from an extensive questionnaire held in Eritrea among participants of 102 groups. We separately analyze the impact of group leaders and other

  5. Evaluating the impact of an intensive education workshop on evidence-informed decision making knowledge, skills, and behaviours: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, Jennifer; Ciliska, Donna; Dobbins, Maureen

    2014-01-17

    Health professionals require a unique set of knowledge and skills in order to meet increasing expectations to use research evidence to inform practice and policy decisions. They need to be able to find, access, interpret, and apply the best available research evidence, along with information about patient preferences, clinical expertise, and the clinical context and resources, to such decisions. This study determined preferences for continuing education following an intensive educational workshop and evaluated the impact of the workshop on evidence informed decision making (EIDM) knowledge, skills, and behaviours. An explanatory mixed methods, longitudinal study design was implemented among a convenience sample of various health care professionals attending the workshop. EIDM knowledge, skills, and behaviours were quantitatively measured at baseline and six month follow-up, with EIDM knowledge and skills measured additionally immediately following the educational workshop (post-test measurement). To determine participants preferences for continuing education, data were collected using quantitative survey (post-test measurement) and qualitative (individual telephone interviews after six-month follow-up) methods. EIDM knowledge and skills increased significantly from baseline to immediately following the intervention [5.6, 95% CI (3.7, 7.4), P skills and EIDM behaviours (r = 0.29, P 0.069 and r = 0.24, P 0.136, respectively). Over time there was a shift in preferences for timing and frequency of online continuing education strategies. Willingness to participate in continuing education, however, remained evident. An intensive educational workshop shows promise for increasing EIDM knowledge and skills. Increasing EIDM knowledge and skills may promote the capacity of health professionals to use research evidence when making practice and policy decisions and, in turn, lead to positive patient outcomes.

  6. Genetic admixture, social-behavioural factors and body composition are associated with blood pressure differently by racial-ethnic group among children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimentidis, Y C; Dulin-Keita, A; Casazza, K; Willig, A L; Allison, D B; Fernandez, J R

    2012-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease has a progressively earlier age of onset, and disproportionately affects African Americans (AAs) in the United States. It has been difficult to establish the extent to which group differences are due to physiological, genetic, social or behavioural factors. In this study, we examined the association between blood pressure and these factors among a sample of 294 children, identified as AA, European American or Hispanic American. We use body composition, behavioural (diet and physical activity) and survey-based measures (socio-economic status and perceived racial discrimination), as well as genetic admixture based on 142 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) to examine associations with systolic and diastolic blood pressure. We find that associations differ by ethnic/racial group. Notably, among AAs, physical activity and perceived racial discrimination, but not African genetic admixture, are associated with blood pressure, while the association between blood pressure and body fat is nearly absent. We find an association between blood pressure and an AIM near a marker identified by a recent genome-wide association study. Our findings shed light on the differences in risk factors for elevated blood pressure among ethnic/racial groups, and the importance of including social and behavioural measures to grasp the full genetic/environmental aetiology of disparities in blood pressure.

  7. Effects of women's groups practising participatory learning and action on preventive and care-seeking behaviours to reduce neonatal mortality: A meta-analysis of cluster-randomised trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Seward

    2017-12-01

    . Overall, women's groups practising PLA improved behaviours during and after home deliveries, including the use of safe delivery kits (odds ratio [OR] 2.92, 95% CI 2.02-4.22; I2 = 63.7%, 95% CI 4.4%-86.2%, use of a sterile blade to cut the umbilical cord (1.88, 1.25-2.82; 67.6%, 16.1%-87.5%, birth attendant washing hands prior to delivery (1.87, 1.19-2.95; 79%, 53.8%-90.4%, delayed bathing of the newborn for at least 24 hours (1.47, 1.09-1.99; 68.0%, 29.2%-85.6%, and wrapping the newborn within 10 minutes of delivery (1.27, 1.02-1.60; 0.0%, 0%-79.2%. Effects were partly dependent on the proportion of pregnant women attending groups. We did not find evidence of effects on uptake of antenatal care (OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.77-1.38; I2 = 86.3%, 95% CI 73.8%-92.8%, facility delivery (1.02, 0.93-1.12; 21.4%, 0%-65.8%, initiating breastfeeding within 1 hour (1.08, 0.85-1.39; 76.6%, 50.9%-88.8%, or exclusive breastfeeding for 6 weeks after delivery (1.18, 0.93-1.48; 72.9%, 37.8%-88.2%. The main limitation of our analysis is the high degree of heterogeneity for effects on most behaviours, possibly due to the limited number of trials involving women's groups and context-specific effects.This meta-analysis suggests that women's groups practising PLA improve key behaviours on the pathway to neonatal mortality, with the strongest evidence for home care behaviours and practices during home deliveries. A lack of consistency in improved behaviours across all trials may reflect differences in local priorities, capabilities, and the responsiveness of health services. Future research could address the mechanisms behind how PLA improves survival, in order to adapt this method to improve maternal and newborn health in different contexts, as well as improve other outcomes across the continuum of care for women, children, and adolescents.

  8. Gender-specific linkages of parents' childhood physical abuse and neglect with children's problem behaviour: evidence from Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshio, Takashi; Umeda, Maki

    2016-05-14

    Childhood abuse has far-reaching effects, not only for survivors of maltreatment but also for subsequent generations. However, the mechanism of such intergenerational linkages has not been fully explored. This study investigated this linkage with special reference to its gender-specific features. A dataset of parents and their children, obtained from a cross-sectional survey in the Tokyo metropolitan area of Japan, was used. The study sample consisted of 1750 children aged between 2 and 18 years (865 daughters and 885 sons) and their parents (1003 mothers and fathers). Regression models were estimated to assess the associations among 1) both parents' childhood physical abuse and neglect (childhood abuse), 2) parents' psychological distress, as measured by the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K6), and 3) children's problem behaviour, as measured by the clinical scales of the Child Behavior Checklist. Daughters' problem behaviour was more closely associated with mothers' than fathers' childhood abuse, whereas sons' problem behaviour was more closely associated with their fathers' experience. The impact of mothers' childhood abuse on daughters' problem behaviour was mediated at a rate of around 40 % by both parents' psychological distress. The proportion of the effect mediated by parents' psychological distress was less than 20 % for the impact of fathers' childhood abuse on sons' problem behaviour. The intergenerational impact of parental childhood abuse on children's problem behaviour is gender specific, i.e. largely characterized by the same gender linkages. Further studies that explore the mechanisms involved in the intergenerational impact of childhood abuse are needed.

  9. Empirical evidence on the demand for carve-outs in employment group mental health coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salkever, David S.; Shinogle, Judith A.

    2000-06-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS OF THE STUDY: The use of specialized behavioral health companies to manage mental/health benefits has become widespread in recent years. Recent studies have reported on the cost and utilization impacts of behavioral health carve-outs. Yet little previous research has examined the factors which lead employer-based health plans to adopt a carve-out strategy for mental health benefits. The examination of these factors is the main focus of our study. Our empirical analysis is also intended to explore several hypotheses (moral hazard, adverse selection, economies of scale and alternate utilization management strategies) that have recently been advanced to explain the popularity of carve-outs. METHODS: The data for this study are from a survey of employers who have long-term disability contracts with one large insurer. The analysis uses data from 248 employers who offer mental health benefits combined with local market information (e.g. health care price proxies, state tax rates etc), state regulations (mental health and substance abuse mandate and parity laws) and employee characteristics. Two different measures of carve-out use were used as dependent variables in the analysis: (1) the fraction of health plans offered by the employer that contained carve-out provisions and (2) a dichotomous indicator for those employers who included a carve-out arrangement in all the health plans they offered. RESULTS: Our results tended to support the general cost-control hypothesis that factors associated with higher use and/or costs of mental health services increase the demand for carve-outs. Our results gave less consistent support to the argument that carve-outs are demanded to control adverse selection, though only a few variables provided a direct test of this hypothesis. The role of economies of scale (i.e., group size) and the effectiveness of alternative strategies for managing moral hazard costs (i.e., HMOs) were confirmed by our results. DISCUSSION: We

  10. Is designation of origin an important cue driving consumer loyalty behaviour? Evidence from scanner data on dry-cured ham

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrysochou, Polymeros; Giraud, Georges

    2007-01-01

    Reference to origin and region has become a factor of differentiation and added value for food product companies. Although previous studies argue that designation of origin can be considered as an extrinsic cue affecting consumer preferences, the main concern which still exists is whether...... designation of origin influences their actual purchase behaviour and, moreover, behavioural loyalty towards them. For measuring loyalty we applied the Dirichlet model on scanner supermarket data on dry-cured ham, a common local French food product. Results show that designation of origin...

  11. Fast Color Grouping and Slow Color Inhibition: Evidence for Distinct Temporal Windows for Separate Processes in Preview Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, Jason J.; Humphreys, Glyn W.; Hulleman, Johan; Watson, Derrick G.

    2007-01-01

    The authors report 4 experiments that examined color grouping and negative carryover effects in preview search via a probe detection task (J. J. Braithwaite, G. W. Humphreys, & J. Hodsoll, 2003). In Experiment 1, there was evidence of a negative color carryover from the preview to new items, using both search and probe detection measures. There…

  12. The stratigraphy of the Steep Rock Group, N.W. Ontario, with evidence of a major unconformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, M. E.; Nisbet, E. G.

    1986-01-01

    The Steep Rock Group is exposed 6 km north of Atikokan, 200 km west of Thunder Bay. It is situated on the southern margin of the Wabigoon Belt of the Archaean Superior Province, N. W. Ontario. Reinvestigation of the geology of the Group has shown that the Group lies unconformably on the Tonalite Complex to the east. This unconformity has been previously suspected, from regional and ine mapping but no conclusive outcrop evidence for its existence has as yet been published. The strike of the group, comprised of Basal Conglomerate, Carbonate Member, Ore Zone and Ashrock is generally north-northwest dipping steeply to the southwest. Of the 7 contacts between the Steep Rock Group and the Tonalite Complex, 3 expose the unconformity (The Headland, S. Roberts Pit, Trueman Point), and 4 are faulted. These three outcrops demonstrate unequivocally that the Steep Rock group was laid down unconformably on the underlying Tonalite Complex, which is circa 3 Ga old.

  13. Peer monitoring, social ties and moral hazard in group lending programmes : evidence from Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, C.L.M.; Lensink, B.W.; Mehrteab, H.T.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we provide an empirical analysis of the impact of monitoring and social ties within group lending programs on moral hazard behavior of its participants, based on data from an extensive questionnaire held in Eritrea among participants of 102 groups. We find support for the fact that

  14. Risk-matching behavior in microcredit group formation: evidence from northern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berhane Tesfay, G.; Gardebroek, C.; Moll, H.A.J.

    2009-01-01

    Theoretical models on group lending assume the formation of groups of homogenous risk types. Recent theoretical and empirical findings challenge this view arguing that when markets for insurance are missing, risk homogeneity may not hold any more and risk heterogeneity can be the optimal outcome.

  15. Investment cash flow sensitivity and financing constraints : New evidence from Indian business group firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    George, R.; Kabir, Mohammed Rezaul; Qian, J.

    2011-01-01

    A controversy exists on the use of the investment–cash flow sensitivity as a measure of financing constraints of firms.Were-examine this controversy by analyzing firms affiliated to Indian business groups. We find a strong investment–cash flow sensitivity for both group-affiliated and independent

  16. Are Electronic Cigarettes an Effective Aid to Smoking Cessation or Reduction Among Vulnerable Groups? A Systematic Review of Quantitative and Qualitative Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, Sarah; Forouhi, Nita; Notley, Caitlin

    2018-03-28

    Smoking prevalence remains high in some vulnerable groups, including those who misuse substances, have a mental illness, are homeless or are involved with the criminal justice system. E-cigarette use is increasing and may support smoking cessation/reduction. Systematic review of quantitative and qualitative data on the effectiveness of e-cigarettes for smoking cessation/reduction among vulnerable groups. Databases searched were MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, CINAHL, ASSIA, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses and Open Grey. Narrative synthesis of quantitative data and thematic synthesis of qualitative data. 2628 records and 46 full texts were screened; 9 studies were identified for inclusion. Due to low quality of evidence, it is uncertain whether e-cigarettes are effective for smoking cessation in vulnerable populations. A moderate quality study suggested e-cigarettes were as effective as nicotine replacement therapy. Four studies suggested significant smoking reduction, however three were uncontrolled and had sample sizes below 30. A prospective cohort study found no differences between e-cigarette users and non-users. No significant adverse events and minimal side effects were identified. Qualitative thematic synthesis revealed barriers and facilitators associated with each component of the COM-B (capability, opportunity, motivation, behaviour) model, including practical barriers; perceptions of effectiveness for cessation/reduction; design features contributing to automatic and reflective motivation; smoking bans facilitating practical opportunity; and social connectedness increasing social opportunity. Further research is needed to identify the most appropriate device types for practicality and safety, level of support required in e-cigarette interventions, and to compare e-cigarettes with current best practice smoking cessation support among vulnerable groups. Smoking prevalence among people with mental illness, substance misuse, homelessness or criminal justice

  17. Behavioural evidence for heat-load problems in Great Knots in tropical Australia fuelling for long-distance flight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battley, PF; Rogers, DI; Piersma, T; Koolhaas, A; Battley, Phil F.; Rogers, Danny I.

    2003-01-01

    Migratory shorebirds that live in the tropics prior to embarking on long (> 5000 km) flights may face heat-load problems. The behaviour of a large sandpiper, the Great Knot (Calidris tenuirostris), was studied in Roebuck Bay, north-west Australia, from February to April 2000. We determined the

  18. Reading Difficulties and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Behaviours: Evidence of an Early Association in a Nonclinical Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luoni, Chiara; Balottin, Umberto; Zaccagnino, Maria; Brembilla, Laura; Livetti, Giulia; Termine, Cristiano

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often co-occurs with reading disability. A cross-sectional study in an Italian-speaking, nonclinical sample was conducted in an attempt to document the existence of an early association between reading difficulties (RD) and ADHD behaviours. We recruited a sample of 369 children in their first year at…

  19. Does postponing minimum retirement age improve healthy behaviours before retirement? Evidence from middle-aged Italian workers?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertoni, Marco; Brunello, Giorgio; Mazzarella, Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    By increasing the residual working horizon of employed individuals, pension reforms that raise minimum retirement age are likely to affect the returns to investments in health-promoting behaviours before retirement, with consequences for individual health. Using the exogenous variation in minimum

  20. Evidence for the social role theory of stereotype content: observations of groups' roles shape stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Anne M; Eagly, Alice H

    2014-09-01

    In applying social role theory to account for the content of a wide range of stereotypes, this research tests the proposition that observations of groups' roles determine stereotype content (Eagly & Wood, 2012). In a novel test of how stereotypes can develop from observations, preliminary research collected participants' beliefs about the occupational roles (e.g., lawyer, teacher, fast food worker, chief executive officer, store clerk, manager) in which members of social groups (e.g., Black women, Hispanics, White men, the rich, senior citizens, high school dropouts) are overrepresented relative to their numbers in the general population. These beliefs about groups' typical occupational roles proved to be generally accurate when evaluated in relation to data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Then, correlational studies predicted participants' stereotypes of social groups from the attributes ascribed to group members' typical occupational roles (Studies 1a, 1b, and 1c), the behaviors associated with those roles (Study 2), and the occupational interest profile of the roles (Study 3). As predicted by social role theory, beliefs about the attributes of groups' typical roles were strongly related to group stereotypes on both communion and agency/competence. In addition, an experimental study (Study 4) demonstrated that when social groups were described with changes to their typical social roles in the future, their projected stereotypes were more influenced by these future roles than by their current group stereotypes, thus supporting social role theory's predictions about stereotype change. Discussion considers the implications of these findings for stereotype change and the relation of social role theory to other theories of stereotype content. 2014 APA, all rights reserved

  1. Is Healthier Nutrition Behaviour Associated with Better Self-Reported Health and Less Health Complaints? Evidence from Turku, Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid El Ansari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We examined nutrition behaviour, self-reported health and 20 health complaints of undergraduates in Finland. Students at the University of Turku in Finland participated in a cross-sectional online survey (N = 1189. For nutrition behaviour, we computed two composite food intake pattern scores (sweets, cakes and snacks; and fruits and vegetables, a dietary guideline adherence index and the subjective importance of healthy eating. Multinomial logistic regression assessed the association of students’ nutrition behaviour with three levels of self-reported health, controlling for many potential confounders (age, sex, living with partner, economic situation, moderate physical activity, Faculty and BMI. Factor analysis of the 20 health complaints revealed three components (psychological, pains/aches and circulatory/breathing symptoms. Multiple linear regression tested the association of students’ eating habits with the three components of health complaints, controlling for the same confounders. Fruits and raw and cooked vegetable consumption, dietary guideline adherence index and subjective importance of healthy eating were highest among students with excellent/very good self-reported health, exhibiting a decreasing trend for those individuals with poor/fair self-reported health. High levels of psychological symptoms were associated with decreased consumption of fruits and vegetables, less dietary guideline adherence and less subjective importance of healthy eating. Pain/aches symptoms were associated with a higher consumption of sweets, cookies and snacks and a lower adherence to dietary guidelines. More healthy nutrition behaviour was consistently associated with better self-reported health and less health complaints. Of the four nutrition behaviour indicators we employed, the dietary guideline adherence index was the best indicator and exhibited the most consistent associations with self-reported health and health complaints.

  2. Is Healthier Nutrition Behaviour Associated with Better Self-Reported Health and Less Health Complaints? Evidence from Turku, Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ansari, Walid; Suominen, Sakari; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    We examined nutrition behaviour, self-reported health and 20 health complaints of undergraduates in Finland. Students at the University of Turku in Finland participated in a cross-sectional online survey (N = 1189). For nutrition behaviour, we computed two composite food intake pattern scores (sweets, cakes and snacks; and fruits and vegetables), a dietary guideline adherence index and the subjective importance of healthy eating. Multinomial logistic regression assessed the association of students’ nutrition behaviour with three levels of self-reported health, controlling for many potential confounders (age, sex, living with partner, economic situation, moderate physical activity, Faculty and BMI). Factor analysis of the 20 health complaints revealed three components (psychological, pains/aches and circulatory/breathing symptoms). Multiple linear regression tested the association of students’ eating habits with the three components of health complaints, controlling for the same confounders. Fruits and raw and cooked vegetable consumption, dietary guideline adherence index and subjective importance of healthy eating were highest among students with excellent/very good self-reported health, exhibiting a decreasing trend for those individuals with poor/fair self-reported health. High levels of psychological symptoms were associated with decreased consumption of fruits and vegetables, less dietary guideline adherence and less subjective importance of healthy eating. Pain/aches symptoms were associated with a higher consumption of sweets, cookies and snacks and a lower adherence to dietary guidelines. More healthy nutrition behaviour was consistently associated with better self-reported health and less health complaints. Of the four nutrition behaviour indicators we employed, the dietary guideline adherence index was the best indicator and exhibited the most consistent associations with self-reported health and health complaints. PMID:26473918

  3. Is Healthier Nutrition Behaviour Associated with Better Self-Reported Health and Less Health Complaints? Evidence from Turku, Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ansari, Walid; Suominen, Sakari; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele

    2015-10-14

    We examined nutrition behaviour, self-reported health and 20 health complaints of undergraduates in Finland. Students at the University of Turku in Finland participated in a cross-sectional online survey (N = 1189). For nutrition behaviour, we computed two composite food intake pattern scores (sweets, cakes and snacks; and fruits and vegetables), a dietary guideline adherence index and the subjective importance of healthy eating. Multinomial logistic regression assessed the association of students' nutrition behaviour with three levels of self-reported health, controlling for many potential confounders (age, sex, living with partner, economic situation, moderate physical activity, Faculty and BMI). Factor analysis of the 20 health complaints revealed three components (psychological, pains/aches and circulatory/breathing symptoms). Multiple linear regression tested the association of students' eating habits with the three components of health complaints, controlling for the same confounders. Fruits and raw and cooked vegetable consumption, dietary guideline adherence index and subjective importance of healthy eating were highest among students with excellent/very good self-reported health, exhibiting a decreasing trend for those individuals with poor/fair self-reported health. High levels of psychological symptoms were associated with decreased consumption of fruits and vegetables, less dietary guideline adherence and less subjective importance of healthy eating. Pain/aches symptoms were associated with a higher consumption of sweets, cookies and snacks and a lower adherence to dietary guidelines. More healthy nutrition behaviour was consistently associated with better self-reported health and less health complaints. Of the four nutrition behaviour indicators we employed, the dietary guideline adherence index was the best indicator and exhibited the most consistent associations with self-reported health and health complaints.

  4. Ready, set, go: a cross-sectional survey to understand priorities and preferences for multiple health behaviour change in a highly disadvantaged group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Natasha; Paul, Christine; Sanson-Fisher, Robert; Turon, Heidi; Turner, Nicole; Conigrave, Katherine

    2016-09-13

    Socially disadvantaged groups, such as Aboriginal Australians, tend to have a high prevalence of multiple lifestyle risk factors, increasing the risk of disease and underscoring the need for services to address multiple health behaviours. The aims of this study were to explore, among a socially disadvantaged group of people attending an Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service (ACCHS): a) readiness to change health behaviours; b) acceptability of addressing multiple risk factors sequentially or simultaneously; and c) preferred types of support services. People attending an ACCHS in regional New South Wales (NSW) completed a touchscreen survey while waiting for their appointment. The survey assessed participant health risk status, which health risks they would like to change, whether they preferred multiple health changes to be made together or separately, and the types of support they would use. Of the 211 participants who completed the survey, 94 % reported multiple (two or more) health risks. There was a high willingness to change, with 69 % of current smokers wanting to cut down or quit, 51 % of overweight or obese participants wanting to lose weight and 44 % of those using drugs in the last 12 months wanting to stop or cut down. Of participants who wanted to make more than one health change, over half would be willing to make simultaneous or over-lapping health changes. The most popular types of support were help from a doctor or Health Worker and seeing a specialist, with less than a quarter of participants preferring telephone or electronic (internet or smart phone) forms of assistance. The importance of involving family members was also identified. Strategies addressing multiple health behaviour changes are likely to be acceptable for people attending an ACCHS, but may need to allow flexibility in the choice of initial target behaviour, timing of changes, and the format of support provided.

  5. Do business groups affect corporate cash holdings? Evidence from a transition economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weixing Cai

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We examine whether business groups’ influence on cash holdings depends on ownership. Group affiliation can increase firms’ agency costs or benefit firms by providing an internal capital market, especially in transition economies characterized by weak investor protection and difficult external capital acquisition. A hand-collected dataset of Chinese firms reveals that group affiliation decreases cash holdings, alleviating the free-cash-flow problem of agency costs. State ownership and control of listed firms moderate this benefit, which is more pronounced when the financial market is less liquid. Group affiliation facilitates related-party transactions, increases debt capacity and decreases investment-cash-flow sensitivity and overinvestment. In transitional economies, privately controlled firms are more likely to benefit from group affiliation than state-controlled firms propped up by the government.

  6. Small business groups enhance performance and promote stability, not expropriation. Evidence from French SMEs

    OpenAIRE

    Anaïs Hamelin

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the influence of a firm’s distance from control on its performance, using a unique firm level data set on small business ownership, as well as balance sheet information. This study fills a gap in the empirical governance literature by investigating whether or not there is an expropriation of minority shareholders in small business groups. Contrary to what is usually observed for large business groups, results show a positive relationship between the separation of contr...

  7. Impact of a Multifaceted and Clinically Integrated Training Program in Evidence-Based Practice on Knowledge, Skills, Beliefs and Behaviour among Clinical Instructors in Physiotherapy: A Non-Randomized Controlled Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Rydland Olsen

    Full Text Available Physiotherapists practicing at clinical placement sites assigned the role as clinical instructors (CIs, are responsible for supervising physiotherapy students. For CIs to role model evidence-based practice (EBP they need EBP competence. The aim of this study was to assess the short and long term impact of a six-month multifaceted and clinically integrated training program in EBP on the knowledge, skills, beliefs and behaviour of CIs supervising physiotherapy students.We invited 37 CIs to participate in this non-randomized controlled study. Three self-administered questionnaires were used pre- and post-intervention, and at six-month follow-up: 1 The Adapted Fresno test (AFT, 2 the EBP Belief Scale and 3 the EBP Implementation Scale. The analysis approach was linear regression modeling using Generalized Estimating Equations.In total, 29 CIs agreed to participate in the study: 14 were invited to participate in the intervention group and 15 were invited to participate in the control group. One in the intervention group and five in the control group were lost to follow-up. At follow-up, the group difference was statistically significant for the AFT (mean difference = 37, 95% CI (15.9 -58.1, p < 0.001 and the EBP Beliefs scale (mean difference = 8.1, 95% CI (3.1 -13.2, p = 0.002, but not for the EBP Implementation scale (mean difference = 1.8. 95% CI (-4.5-8.1, p = 0.574. Comparing measurements over time, we found a statistically significant increase in mean scores related to all outcome measures for the intervention group only.A multifaceted and clinically integrated training program in EBP was successful in improving EBP knowledge, skills and beliefs among CIs. Future studies need to ensure long-term EBP behaviour change, in addition to assessing CIs' abilities to apply EBP knowledge and skills when supervising students.

  8. No rainbow for grey bamboo sharks: evidence for the absence of colour vision in sharks from behavioural discrimination experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schluessel, V; Rick, I P; Plischke, K

    2014-11-01

    Despite convincing data collected by microspectrophotometry and molecular biology, rendering sharks colourblind cone monochromats, the question of whether sharks can perceive colour had not been finally resolved in the absence of any behavioural experiments compensating for the confounding factor of brightness. The present study tested the ability of juvenile grey bamboo sharks to perceive colour in an experimental design based on a paradigm established by Karl von Frisch using colours in combination with grey distractor stimuli of equal brightness. Results showed that contrasts but no colours could be discriminated. Blue and yellow stimuli were not distinguished from a grey distractor stimulus of equal brightness but could be distinguished from distractor stimuli of varying brightness. In addition, different grey stimuli were distinguished significantly above chance level from one another. In conclusion, the behavioural results support the previously collected physiological data on bamboo sharks, which mutually show that the grey bamboo shark, like several marine mammals, is a cone monochromate and colourblind.

  9. Legal physician-assisted dying in Oregon and the Netherlands: evidence concerning the impact on patients in "vulnerable" groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battin, Margaret P; van der Heide, Agnes; Ganzini, Linda; van der Wal, Gerrit; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D

    2007-10-01

    Debates over legalisation of physician-assisted suicide (PAS) or euthanasia often warn of a "slippery slope", predicting abuse of people in vulnerable groups. To assess this concern, the authors examined data from Oregon and the Netherlands, the two principal jurisdictions in which physician-assisted dying is legal and data have been collected over a substantial period. The data from Oregon (where PAS, now called death under the Oregon Death with Dignity Act, is legal) comprised all annual and cumulative Department of Human Services reports 1998-2006 and three independent studies; the data from the Netherlands (where both PAS and euthanasia are now legal) comprised all four government-commissioned nationwide studies of end-of-life decision making (1990, 1995, 2001 and 2005) and specialised studies. Evidence of any disproportionate impact on 10 groups of potentially vulnerable patients was sought. Rates of assisted dying in Oregon and in the Netherlands showed no evidence of heightened risk for the elderly, women, the uninsured (inapplicable in the Netherlands, where all are insured), people with low educational status, the poor, the physically disabled or chronically ill, minors, people with psychiatric illnesses including depression, or racial or ethnic minorities, compared with background populations. The only group with a heightened risk was people with AIDS. While extralegal cases were not the focus of this study, none have been uncovered in Oregon; among extralegal cases in the Netherlands, there was no evidence of higher rates in vulnerable groups. Where assisted dying is already legal, there is no current evidence for the claim that legalised PAS or euthanasia will have disproportionate impact on patients in vulnerable groups. Those who received physician-assisted dying in the jurisdictions studied appeared to enjoy comparative social, economic, educational, professional and other privileges.

  10. NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY OF TROJAN ASTEROIDS: EVIDENCE FOR TWO COMPOSITIONAL GROUPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, J. P.; Burr, D. M.; Cruikshank, D. P.

    2011-01-01

    The Trojan asteroids, a very substantial population of primitive bodies trapped in Jupiter's stable Lagrange regions, remain quite poorly understood. Because they occupy these orbits, the physical properties of Trojans provide a unique perspective on the chemical and dynamical processes that shaped the Solar System. The current study was therefore undertaken to investigate surface compositions of these objects. We present 66 new near-infrared (NIR; 0.7-2.5 μm) spectra of 58 Trojan asteroids, including members of both the leading and trailing swarms. We also include in the analysis previously published NIR spectra of 13 Trojans (3 of which overlap with the new sample). This data set permits not only a direct search for compositional signatures, but also a search for patterns that may reveal clues to the origin of the Trojans. We do not report any confirmed absorption features in the new spectra. Analysis of the spectral slopes, however, reveals an interesting bimodality among the NIR data. The two spectral groups identified appear to be equally abundant in the leading and trailing swarms. The spectral groups are not a result of family membership; they occur in the background, non-family population. The average albedos of the two groups are the same within uncertainties (0.051 ± 0.016 and 0.055 ± 0.016). No correlations between spectral slope and any other physical or orbital parameter are detected, with the exception of a possible weak correlation with inclination among the less-red spectral group. The NIR spectral groups are consistent with a similar bimodality previously suggested among visible colors and spectra. Synthesizing the present results with previously published properties of Trojans, we conclude that the two spectral groups represent objects with different intrinsic compositions. We further suggest that whereas the less-red group originated near Jupiter or in the main asteroid belt, the redder spectral group originated farther out in the Solar System

  11. Evidence for a resonant behaviour in e+e- annihilation into hadrons, around 1820 MeV, at Adone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacci, C.; Zorzi, G. de; Penso, G.; Stella, B.; Baldini-Celio, R.; Capon, G.; Fabbro, R. del; Iarocci, E.; Murtas, G.P.; Spinetti, M.

    1977-01-01

    Multihadron production has been measured at the Adone e + e - storage ring in the c.m. energy region 1600/1900 MeV. A resonant behaviour is observed, centered at 1819 +- 5 (+-2) MeV, with a width of 24 +-5 (+-4) MeV. This effect is observed only in the events with 3 or 4 charged particles together with photons, but not in those without photons. (Auth.)

  12. Attention and Emotion-Enhanced Memory: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Behavioural and Neuroimaging Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Kohler, Mark; Cross, Zachariah; Santamaria, Amanda

    2018-01-01

    The interaction between attention and emotion is posited to influence long-term memory consolidation. We systematically reviewed experiments investigating the influence of attention on emotional memory to determine: (i) the reported effect of attention on memory for emotional stimuli, and (ii) whether there is homogeneity between behavioural and neuroimaging based effects. Over half of the 47 included experiments found a moderate-to-large effect of attention on emotional memory as measured be...

  13. Communicating the Nature of Science through "The Big Bang Theory": Evidence from a Focus Group Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rashel; Orthia, Lindy A.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss a little-studied means of communicating about or teaching the nature of science (NOS)--through fiction television. We report some results of focus group research which suggest that the American sitcom "The Big Bang Theory" (2007-present), whose main characters are mostly working scientists, has influenced…

  14. A Comparative Study of GDSS (Group Decision Support System) Use: Empirical Evidence and Model Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    i’ackground iniormation * Too ’ttle informacion was supplied to make a good decision. I wouldn h ,ire anyone based on :he information given. The group...education level, a low literacy level, and a strongly nationalistic regime. The government has ruled that the company must employ Brazilians in all posts

  15. Understanding internet sex-seeking behaviour and sexual risk among young men who have sex with men: evidences from a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abara, Winston; Annang, Lucy; Spencer, S Melinda; Fairchild, Amanda Jane; Billings, Debbie

    2014-12-01

    Internet sex-seeking is common among young men who have sex with men (MSM). However, research examining its association with risky sexual behaviour has produced mixed findings, possibly due to various operational definitions of internet sex-seeking which fail to account for its multi-dimensionality. This study purposed to: (1) examine if the way internet sex-seeking behaviour is operationalised influences its association with risky sexual behaviour (unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) and casual sex) and (2) determine the association of each operational definition with sexual risk. We recruited 263 sexually-experienced young MSM (18-29 years) and operationalised internet sex-seeking behaviour in four ways: (i) ever used the internet to meet other men, (ii) currently own a profile on a website dedicated to meeting other men, (iii) ever physically met a man you initially met online and (iv) ever had sex with a man you met online. Using binomial regression, we examined the association of each operationalisation with UAI and casual sex. Only MSM who reported physically meeting a man they met online and those who ever had sex with a man they met online were more likely to report a history of UAI (pdefinitions in future research and inferences drawn from such research must be interpreted with caution. Findings have important implications for sexual health research and methodology, survey development, sexual health prevention interventions, and evaluating sexual risk among young MSM. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. How group-based emotions are shaped by collective emotions: evidence for emotional transfer and emotional burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Amit; Saguy, Tamar; Halperin, Eran

    2014-10-01

    Extensive research has established the pivotal role that group-based emotions play in shaping intergroup processes. The underlying implicit assumption in previous work has been that these emotions reflect what the rest of the group feels (i.e., collective emotions). However, one can experience an emotion in the name of her or his group, which is inconsistent with what the collective feels. The current research investigated this phenomenon of emotional nonconformity. Particularly, we proposed that when a certain emotional reaction is perceived as appropriate, but the collective is perceived as not experiencing this emotion, people would experience stronger levels of group-based emotion, placing their emotional experience farther away from that of the collective. We provided evidence for this process across 2 different emotions: group-based guilt and group-based anger (Studies 1 and 2) and across different intergroup contexts (Israeli-Palestinian relations in Israel, and Black-White relations in the United States). In Studies 3 and 4, we demonstrate that this process is moderated by the perceived appropriateness of the collective emotional response. Studies 4 and 5 further provided evidence for the mechanisms underlying this effect, pointing to a process of emotional burden (i.e., feeling responsible for carrying the emotion in the name of the group) and of emotional transfer (i.e., transferring negative feelings one has toward the ingroup, toward the event itself). This work brings to light processes that were yet to be studied regarding the relationship between group members, their perception of their group, and the emotional processes that connect them. 2014 APA, all rights reserved

  17. Normal feline behaviour: … and why problem behaviours develop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, John

    2018-05-01

    Practical relevance: Cats are descended from a solitary, territorial ancestor, and while domestication has reduced their inherited tendency to be antagonistic towards all animals larger than their typical prey, they still place more reliance on the security of their territory than on psychological attachments to people or other cats, the exact opposite to dogs. Many feline problem behaviours stem from perceived threats to this security, often due to conflicts with other cats. Others are more developmental in origin, often caused by inadequate exposure to crucial stimuli, especially people, during the socialisation period. Strongly aversive events experienced at any age can also contribute. A third category comprises normal behaviour that owners deem unacceptable, such as scratching of furniture. Evidence base: This review identifies three areas in which basic research is inadequate to support widely employed concepts and practices in feline behavioural medicine. First, classification of cats' problem behaviours relies heavily on approaches derived from studies of their behavioural ecology and, to some extent, extrapolation from canine studies. Few studies have focused on cats in the home, the environment in which most behavioural disorders are expressed. Secondly, cats' chemical senses (olfactory and vomeronasal) are far more sensitive than our own, making it difficult for owners or clinicians to fully comprehend the sensory information upon which they base their behaviour. Thirdly, although the concept of psychological distress is widely invoked as an intervening variable in behavioural disorders, there are still no reliable measures of distress for pet cats in the home. Global importance: Psychological distress of some kind is the primary cause of many of the behavioural problems presented to clinicians, but surveys indicate that many more cats display the same clinical signs without their owners ever seeking help. The welfare of this 'invisible' group could be

  18. Support groups for children and adolescents bereaved by suicide: Lots of interventions, little evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journot-Reverbel, Katia; Raynaud, Jean-Philippe; Bui, Eric; Revet, Alexis

    2017-04-01

    Though many different interventions are proposed for suicide-bereaved children and adolescents, few data exist concerning their efficiency. This literature review focused on psychosocial interventions specifically targeting children and adolescents bereaved by suicide to try to provide some validate therapeutic guidelines propositions for clinicians. We only found two articles specifically targeting children or adolescents: both of them seemed to show some efficacy in reducing some psychosocial variables (anxiety, depression…) in suicide-bereaved children but results were limited by methodological problems. This review failed to provide evidence-based guidelines propositions for suicide-bereaved children and underline the crucial need for research in this field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Acidobacteria form a coherent but highly diverse group within the bacterial domain: evidence from environmental genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quaiser, Achim; Ochsenreiter, Torsten; Lanz, Christa

    2003-01-01

    fragments differed between 2.3% and 19.9% and were placed into two different subgroups of Acidobacteria (groups III and V). Although partial co-linearity was found between genomic fragments, the gene content around the rRNA operons was generally not conserved. Phylogenetic reconstructions with orthologues......Acidobacteria have been established as a novel phylum of Bacteria that is consistently detected in many different habitats around the globe by 16S rDNA-based molecular surveys. The phylogenetic diversity, ubiquity and abundance of this group, particularly in soil habitats, suggest an important...... palustris and Bradyrhizobium japonicum, including a conserved two-component system. Phylogenetic analysis of the putative response regulator confirmed that this similarity between Rhizobiales and Acidobacteria might be due to a horizontal gene transfer. In total, our data give first insight into the genome...

  20. The Effect of Group Attachment and Social Position on Prosocial Behavior. Evidence from Lab-in-the-Field Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Baldassarri, Delia; Grossman, Guy

    2013-01-01

    Social life is regulated by norms of fairness that constrain selfish behavior. While a substantial body of scholarship on prosocial behavior has provided evidence of such norms, large inter- and intra-personal variation in prosocial behavior still needs to be explained. The article identifies two social-structural dimensions along which people's generosity varies systematically: group attachment and social position. We conducted lab-in-the-field experiments involving 2,597 members of producer...

  1. Organizational Behaviour Study Material

    OpenAIRE

    P. Sreeramana Aithal

    2016-01-01

    An overview of Organizational Behaviour – History of Organisational Behaviour and its emergence as a disciple-emerging perspective Organizational Behaviour. Individual process in organisation – Learning, perception and attribution- Individual differences - Basic concepts of motivation - Advanced concepts of motivation. Group process in Organisation – Group dynamics, leadership theories - Power, politics and conflict - inter- personal communication. Enhancing individu...

  2. Evidence for Genetic Similarity of Vegetative Compatibility Groupings in Sclerotinia homoeocarpa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seog Won Chang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs are determined for many fungi to test for the ability of fungal isolates to undergo heterokaryon formation. In several fungal plant pathogens, isolates belonging to a VCG have been shown to share significantly higher genetic similarity than those of different VCGs. In this study we sought to examine the relationship between VCG and genetic similarity of an important cool season turfgrass pathogen, Sclerotinia homoeocarpa. Twenty-two S. homoeocarpa isolates from the Midwest and Eastern US, which were previously characterized in several studies, were all evaluated for VCG using an improved nit mutant assay. These isolates were also genotyped using 19 microsatellites developed from partial genome sequence of S. homoeocarpa. Additionally, partial sequences of mitochondrial genes cytochrome oxidase II and mitochondrial small subunit (mtSSU rRNA, and the atp6-rns intergenic spacer, were generated for isolates from each nit mutant VCG to determine if mitochondrial haplotypes differed among VCGs. Of the 22 isolates screened, 15 were amenable to the nit mutant VCG assay and were grouped into six VCGs. The 19 microsatellites gave 57 alleles for this set. Unweighted pair group methods with arithmetic mean (UPGMA tree of binary microsatellite data were used to produce a dendrogram of the isolate genotypes based on microsatellite alleles, which showed high genetic similarity of nit mutant VCGs. Analysis of molecular variance of microsatellite data demonstrates that the current nit mutant VCGs explain the microsatellite genotypic variation among isolates better than the previous nit mutant VCGs or the conventionally determined VCGs. Mitochondrial sequences were identical among all isolates, suggesting that this marker type may not be informative for US populations of S. homoeocarpa.

  3. Nowcasting Unemployment Rates with Google Searches: Evidence from the Visegrad Group Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlicek, Jaroslav; Kristoufek, Ladislav

    2015-01-01

    The online activity of Internet users has repeatedly been shown to provide a rich information set for various research fields. We focus on job-related searches on Google and their possible usefulness in the region of the Visegrad Group - the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia. Even for rather small economies, the online searches of inhabitants can be successfully utilized for macroeconomic predictions. Specifically, we study unemployment rates and their interconnection with job-related searches. We show that Google searches enhance nowcasting models of unemployment rates for the Czech Republic and Hungary whereas for Poland and Slovakia, the results are mixed. PMID:26001083

  4. Social gradient in the metabolic syndrome not explained by psychosocial and behavioural factors: evidence from the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, Eva; Godtfredsen, Nina; Osler, Merete

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Psychosocial stressors may mediate the effect of social status on the metabolic syndrome (MS). The paper explores this hypothesis in a random sample of the general population. DESIGN: A total of 3462 women and 2576 men aged 20-97 years from the Copenhagen City Heart Study. METHODS...... and depression, perceived stress, social network and cohabitation. Behavioural factors were smoking, alcohol and physical activity. RESULTS: There was an inverse social gradient in the prevalence of the seven components of the MS. The age-adjusted odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval) for occupying the most...

  5. Evidence for methyl group transfer between the methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins in Bacillus subtilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedale, W.A.; Nettleton, D.O.; Sopata, C.S.; Thoelke, M.S.; Ordal, G.W.

    1988-01-01

    The authors present evidence for methyl (as methyl or methoxy) transfer from the methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins H1 and possibly H3 of Bacillus subtilis to the methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein H2. This methyl transfer, which has been observed in vitro was strongly stimulated by the chemoattractant aspartate and thus may plan an important role in the sensory processing system of this organism. Although radiolabeling of H1 and H3 began at once after the addition of [ 3 H] methionine, radiolabeling of H2 showed a lag. Furthermore, the addition of excess nonradioactive methionine caused immediate exponential delabeling of H1 and H3 while labeling of H2 continued to increase. Methylation of H2 required the chemotactic methyltransferase, probably to first methylate H1 and H3. Aspartate caused increased labeling of H2 and strongly decreased labeling of H1 and H3 after the addition of nonradioactive methionine. Without the addition of nonradioactive methionine, aspartate caused demethylation of H1 and to a lesser extent H3, with an approximately equal increase of methylation of H2

  6. A randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a cognitive behavioural group approach to improve patient adherence to peritoneal dialysis fluid restrictions: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Jennifer; Clark-Carter, David; Forshaw, Mark

    2014-03-01

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD) requires patients to take an active role in their adherence to fluid restrictions. Although fluid non-adherence had been identified among this patient group, no specific interventions have been researched or published with in the PD population. The current study sought to investigate whether an applied cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT-based intervention) used among haemodialysis patients would improve fluid adherence among PD patients; utilizing clinical indicators used in practice. Fifteen PD patients identified as fluid non-adherent were randomly assigned to an intervention group (IG) or a deferred-entry control group (CG). The study ran for a total of 21 weeks, with five data collection points; at baseline, post-intervention and at three follow-up points; providing a RCT phase and a combined longitudinal analysis phase. The content of the group intervention encompassed educational, cognitive and behavioural components, aimed to assist patients' self-management of fluid. No significant differences in weight (kg) reduction were found in either phase and undesirable changes in blood pressure (BP) were observed. However, in the longitudinal phase, a statistically significant difference in oedematous status was observed at 6-week follow-up; which may be indicative of fluid adherence. Positive and significant differences were observed in the desired direction for measures of psychological well-being, quality of life and health beliefs; areas correlated with enhanced fluid adherence in other research. This study reveals encouraging and significant changes in predictors of fluid adherence. Although there were no significant changes in weight as a crude clinical measure of fluid intake, significant reductions in oedematous status were observed as a consequence of this CBT-based group intervention.

  7. Risky sexual behaviors of adolescents in rural Malawi: evidence from focus groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dancy, Barbara L; Kaponda, Chrissie P N; Kachingwe, Sitingawawo I; Norr, Kathleen F

    2006-07-01

    Little is known about rural Malawian adolescents' perceptions of their sexual behavior and what would constitute an effective HIV risk-reduction program. This study explored the perceptions of Malawain adolescents using qualitative description research with focus groups. A purposive sample of 144 adolescents, ranging from 10 to 19 years of age was obtained. Subjects were then placed in focus groups separated by gender Qualitative content analysis revealed that adolescents were at risk for HIV based on the select behaviors These included early sexual debut, multiple partners, non-use of condoms and among girls older partners These adolescents acknowledged peer pressure and lack of parental supervision as factors that perpetuated these behaviors and identified two components of HIV prevention programs. For example, parental involvement and support for sexual abstinence were among the issues discussed. It is essential that HIV risk-reduction programs create ways of involving parents and of enhancing adolescents' HIV risk-reduction skills by helping them to change peer norms and to develop negotiation and assertiveness skills to in order to resist peer pressure.

  8. Use of Class Facebook Groups to Disseminate Evidence-Based Study Tips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina J Ryan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this preliminary project was to determine the effectiveness of college administrators using Facebook® (FB to disseminate information on study methods. Innovation: Eleven study tips in the format of riddles were posted in class FB groups as memes with links that lead to the riddle answers. Between 3.2-39.7% of students clicked on the links that accessed riddle answers. In a survey, 53.8% of respondents found the memes at least somewhat useful and 57.6% reported that they somewhat liked, liked, or liked them a lot. The average score on a study method knowledge assessment increased from 50% to 64%. Critical Analysis: The ratings of usefulness and likeability varied. However, students’ knowledge about the topic increased. Administrators considering using FB to share academic advice should post sparingly, begin posting when groups are initially formed and post early during the academic term. Conflict of Interest We declare no conflicts of interest or financial interests that the authors or members of their immediate families have in any product or service discussed in the manuscript, including grants (pending or received, employment, gifts, stock holdings or options, honoraria, consultancies, expert testimony, patents and royalties.   Type: Note  

  9. [Isolated primary nocturnal enuresis: international evidence based management. Consensus recommendations by French expert group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, D; Berard, E; Blanc, J-P; Lenoir, G; Liard, F; Lottmann, H

    2010-05-01

    The causes and treatment of isolated primary nocturnal enuresis (PNE) are the subject of ongoing controversy. We are proposing consensus practical recommendations, based on a formalised analysis of the literature and validated by a large panel of experts. A task force of six experts based its work on the guide for literature analysis and recommendations and recommendation grading of the French Haute Autorité de Santé (formalized consensus process methodological guidelines) to evaluate the level of scientific proof (grade of 1 to 4) and the strength of the recommendations (grade A, B, C) of the publications on PNE. As a result of this, 223 articles from 2003 on were identified, of which only 127 (57 %) have an evaluable level of proof. This evaluation was then reviewed by a 19-member rating group. Several recommendations, poorly defined by the literature, had to be proposed by a professional agreement resulting from a consultation between the members of the task force and those of the rating group. For its final validation, the document was submitted to a reading group of 21 members working in a wide range of specialist areas and practices but all involved in PNE. The definition of PNE is very specific: intermittent incontinence during sleep, from the age of 5, with no continuous period of continence longer than 6 months, with no other associated symptom, particularly during the day. Its diagnosis is clinical by the exclusion of all other urinary pathologies. Two factors must be identified during the consultation: nocturnal polyuria promoted by excessive fluid intake, inverse secretion of vasopressin, snoring and sleep apnoea. It is sensitive to desmopressin; small bladder capacity evaluated according to a voiding diary and the ICCS formula. It may be associated with diurnal hyperactivity of the detrusor (30 %). It is resistant to desmopressin. Problems associated with PNE are: abnormal arousal threshold, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (10 %), low

  10. Evidence for Culicoides obsoletus group as vector for Schmallenberg virus in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lasse Dam; Kristensen, Birgit; Kirkeby, Carsten

    , in the south-west of Denmark (close to the German border), were sorted into pools and tested for the presence of Schmallenberg virus RNA by RT-qPCR. From 18 pools of 5 midges from the C. obsoletus group, 2 pools were both found positive in two separate assays, targeting the L- and S- segments of the SBV RNA....... However, 4 pools of C. punctatus s.str were negative. The sequence of 80bp (excluding the primer sequences) from the amplicons (ca. 145bp) was identical to that published for the expected region of the SBV L-segment. The levels of SBV RNA detected in the biting midges were much higher than could...

  11. Evidence of spotted fever group rickettsiae in state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROZENTAL Tatiana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Ticks were obtained from dogs from February to September of 1999 at weekly intervals, in the County of Piraí, State of Rio de Janeiro. Four hundred seventy four ixodids were taxonomically identified, 103 Amblyomma cajennense, seven Amblyomma ovale, 209 Rhipicephalus sanguineus, and 155 Amblyomma sp. An hemolymph test associated with Giemsa's stain revealed two specimens in 163 ticks tested (R. sanguineus and Amblyomma sp, containing rickettsia-like organisms. Direct immunofluorescence verified the presence of spotted fever group rickettsia in one specimen of R. sanguineus. Considering the limited information on rickettsiosis in Brazil, principally in relation to the vectors involved in perpetuating it in foci, these preliminary results give us an idea on the importance of infection in ticks, allowing to expand our knowledge on this zoonosis.

  12. Suicide among older psychiatric inpatients: an evidence-based study of a high risk group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erlangsen, Annette; Zarit, Steven H; Tu, Xin

    2006-01-01

    .1-0.3). In combination with other types of disorder, affective disorders were found to modify an increased risk of suicide. First versus later admission for depression was a better predictor for suicide than age at first hospitalization for depression (before or after age 60 years). More than half of suicides occurred......OBJECTIVE: Older adults have elevated suicide rates, especially in the presence of a psychiatric disorder, yet not much is known about predictors for suicide within this high-risk group. The current study examines the characteristics associated with suicide among older adults who are admitted...... to a psychiatric hospital. METHOD: All persons aged 60 and older living in Denmark who were hospitalized with psychiatric disorders during 1990-2000 were included in the study. Using a case-control design and logistic regression analysis, the authors calculated the suicide risk associated with specific patient...

  13. Impact of a Multifaceted and Clinically Integrated Training Program in Evidence-Based Practice on Knowledge, Skills, Beliefs and Behaviour among Clinical Instructors in Physiotherapy: A Non-Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Nina Rydland; Bradley, Peter; Espehaug, Birgitte; Nortvedt, Monica Wammen; Lygren, Hildegunn; Frisk, Bente; Bjordal, Jan Magnus

    2015-01-01

    Physiotherapists practicing at clinical placement sites assigned the role as clinical instructors (CIs), are responsible for supervising physiotherapy students. For CIs to role model evidence-based practice (EBP) they need EBP competence. The aim of this study was to assess the short and long term impact of a six-month multifaceted and clinically integrated training program in EBP on the knowledge, skills, beliefs and behaviour of CIs supervising physiotherapy students. We invited 37 CIs to participate in this non-randomized controlled study. Three self-administered questionnaires were used pre- and post-intervention, and at six-month follow-up: 1) The Adapted Fresno test (AFT), 2) the EBP Belief Scale and 3) the EBP Implementation Scale. The analysis approach was linear regression modeling using Generalized Estimating Equations. In total, 29 CIs agreed to participate in the study: 14 were invited to participate in the intervention group and 15 were invited to participate in the control group. One in the intervention group and five in the control group were lost to follow-up. At follow-up, the group difference was statistically significant for the AFT (mean difference = 37, 95% CI (15.9 -58.1), p students.

  14. The relationship between relational models and individualism and collectivism: evidence from culturally diverse work groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodosek, Markus

    2009-04-01

    Relational models theory (Fiske, 1991 ) proposes that all thinking about social relationships is based on four elementary mental models: communal sharing, authority ranking, equality matching, and market pricing. Triandis and his colleagues (e.g., Triandis, Kurowski, & Gelfand, 1994 ) have suggested a relationship between the constructs of horizontal and vertical individualism and collectivism and Fiske's relational models. However, no previous research has examined this proposed relationship empirically. The objective of the current study was to test the association between the two frameworks in order to further our understanding of why members of culturally diverse groups may prefer different relational models in interactions with other group members. Findings from this study support a relationship between Triandis' constructs and Fiske's four relational models and uphold Fiske's ( 1991 ) claim that the use of the relational models is culturally dependent. As hypothesized, horizontal collectivism was associated with a preference for equality matching and communal sharing, vertical individualism was related to a preference for authority ranking, and vertical collectivism was related to a preference for authority ranking and communal sharing. However, contrary to expectations, horizontal individualism was not related to a preference for equality matching and market pricing, and vertical individualism was not associated with market pricing. By showing that there is a relationship between Triandis' and Fiske's frameworks, this study closes a gap in relational models theory, namely how culture relates to people's preferences for relational models. Thus, the findings from this study will enable future researchers to explain and predict what relational models are likely to be used in a certain cultural context.

  15. Effectiveness of cognitive behaviour therapy for treatment-resistant depression with psychiatric comorbidity: comparison of individual versus group CBT in an interdisciplinary rehabilitation setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauksson, Pétur; Ingibergsdóttir, Sylvía; Gunnarsdóttir, Thórunn; Jónsdóttir, Inga Hrefna

    2017-08-01

    Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) has been shown to be effective, yet there is a paucity of research on the differential effectiveness of individual and group CBT for adults with treatment-resistant depression with psychiatric comorbidity. To investigate the effectiveness of individual and group CBT for inpatients, in an interdisciplinary rehabilitation setting; the extent of psychiatric comorbidity; and who benefits the most from group CBT. All patients (n = 181) received 6 weeks of rehabilitation (treatment as usual, TAU). In addition, they were randomly allocated to group CBT (n = 86) or individual CBT (n = 59) combined with TAU, or TAU only (n = 36). All CBT therapists were part of an interdisciplinary team, had at least 1-year CBT training, and attended weekly supervision. The same CBT manual was used for individual and group therapy, providing 12 sessions, two per week. Groups had 12-15 participants and two therapists in each session. Individual CBT was superior in efficacy to group CBT and TAU, with a large within-subject effect size (ES = 2.10). Group CBT was not superior to TAU. The benefits of treatment decreased over time, but remained large at 18-month follow-up for individual CBT (ES = 1.02), and medium for group CBT (ES = 0.46) and TAU (ES = 0.60). Individual CBT was an effective addition to TAU and showed significant improvements in symptom severity post-treatment and at 18-month follow-up. Disorder severity and comorbidity may have decreased effectiveness of group therapy primarily aimed at depression.

  16. Group Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy with Former Child Soldiers and Other War-Affected Boys in the DR Congo: A Randomised Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, John; O'Callaghan, Paul; Shannon, Ciaran; Black, Alastair; Eakin, John

    2013-01-01

    Background: The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) has been home to the world's deadliest conflict since World War II and is reported to have the largest number of child soldiers in the world. Despite evidence of the debilitating impact of war, no group-based mental health or psychosocial intervention has been evaluated in a randomised controlled…

  17. Does job strain mediate the effect of socioeconomic group on smoking behaviour? The impact of different health policies in Denmark and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ingelise; Rasmussen, Niels Kr; Ostergren, P O

    2008-01-01

    AIMS: The aim was to compare the impact of socioeconomic groups (SEG) on the risk of being a daily smoker or quitter, and to investigate whether the potentially mediating effect of psychosocial working conditions was similar in the Danish and the Swedish populations. METHODS: The study populations....... The association between SEG, current smoking, quitting, and influence at work, job demand and jobstrain, respectively, was tested by means of logistic regression. RESULTS: The contextual determinants defined by country had a different effect on smoking prevalence among men and women and among age groups. Low...... and more socially skewed among the Swedes, but did not mediate the effect of SEG on smoking behaviour. CONCLUSIONS: The smoking prevalence was lower and the quit-rates higher among Swedes than Danes. Both countries had social differences in smoking that in absolute terms were rather similar...

  18. "In our stories": The perspectives of women living with HIV on an evidence-based group intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Sannisha K; Grimes, Tiffany; Miller, Lauren; Ursillo, Alyssa; Drainoni, Mari-Lynn

    2017-07-01

    A qualitative study among women living with HIV assessed the aspects of an evidence-based intervention targeting HIV transmission risk reduction (Women Involved in Life Learning from Other Women [WiLLOW]) that women valued and how their lives were impacted. Thirty-one women (80.6% African American) completed interviews. Women valued the personal stories and positive group dynamics (i.e. safety, trust, openness, getting feedback, bonding, and socializing). As a result of WiLLOW, women embraced a strong woman image, joined groups, changed behaviors, accepted their HIV status, became optimistic, and spoke up/advocated in their relationships and communities. Interventions for HIV-positive women may benefit from incorporating the sharing of stories in their curricula and factors that build positive group dynamics.

  19. The effect of group attachment and social position on prosocial behavior. Evidence from lab-in-the-field experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldassarri, Delia; Grossman, Guy

    2013-01-01

    Social life is regulated by norms of fairness that constrain selfish behavior. While a substantial body of scholarship on prosocial behavior has provided evidence of such norms, large inter- and intra-personal variation in prosocial behavior still needs to be explained. The article identifies two social-structural dimensions along which people's generosity varies systematically: group attachment and social position. We conducted lab-in-the-field experiments involving 2,597 members of producer organizations in rural Uganda. Using different variants of the dictator game, we demonstrate that group attachment positively affects prosocial behavior, and that this effect is not simply the by-product of the degree of proximity between individuals. Second, we show that occupying a formal position in an organization or community leads to greater generosity toward in-group members. Taken together, our findings show that prosocial behavior is not an invariant social trait; rather, it varies according to individuals' relative position in the social structure.

  20. Development of heterogeneities in the subcontinental Mantle: Evidence from the Ferrar Group, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, Philip R.

    1980-06-01

    Tholeiitic lava flows (Kirkpatrick Basalts) and dolerite sills and dikes (Ferrar Dolerites) of the Jurassic Ferrar Group from Antarctica and dolerite sills from Tasmania, Australia are characterised by initial strontium isotope ratios ranging from 0.7089 to 0.7153. The mean and standard deviation of 85 analyses is 0.7115±0.0012. Some of the scatter in the initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios can be attributed to sample inhomogeneity, analytical uncertainties and sample alteration. The published major element data show well-defined trends that are consistent with an evolution by fractional crystallization. Recognition of a parental magma is difficult due to the fractionated nature of the rocks. Trace element analyses, particularly the rare earth elements (REE) support a differentiation model. Compared to mid-ocean ridge basalts, Ferrar Group rocks are enriched in light REE. Kirkpatrick Basalts from the central Transantarctic Mountains show significant correlations between initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios and major elements only for SiO2 and CaO. The general lack of strong correlation is the basis for rejecting the possibility of wholesale contamination by sialic material as a possible cause of the high 87Sr/86Sr ratios. Selective contamination of the basaltic magmas is a possibility and cannot be completely discounted. It would probably involve a fluid phase in order to transport and mix the light REE, Rb, 87Sr, and other elements. By analogy with selective contamination of ocean ridge basalts by sea water it is difficult to envisage a similar process acting on magma emplaced in a non-marine environment. Because of the elevated values of the initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios, their similar average value over 2,500 km and the large volume of magma involved (4× 105 km3) a mantle origin for the high Sr ratios is preferred. Models to account for the enrichment of Rb and light REE in the Antarctic mantle during or prior to the Jurassic include: 1. addition of continental material from a Palezoic

  1. The pivotal role of rank in grooming and support behaviour in a captive group of bonobos (Pan paniscus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervaecke, H.; Vries, Han de; Elsacker, Linda van

    2000-01-01

    We investigated dyadic grooming relationships in a captive group of bonobos (Pan paniscus) and questioned what social function grooming fulfils in the ‘market of services and favors’. Hereto we examined which of two theoretical models - grooming for support (Seyfarth, 1977, 1980) or grooming

  2. Fair Play Game: A Group Contingency Strategy to Increase Students' Active Behaviours in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidoni, Carla; Lee, Chang-Hung; Azevedo, L. B.

    2014-01-01

    A dependent group contingency strategy called Fair Play Game was applied to promote increase in number of steps during physical education classes for sixth-grade students. Results from a multiple baseline design across three classes showed that the mean number of steps for baseline vs. intervention were: Class 1: 43 vs. 64 steps/minute; Class 2:…

  3. Evaluation of a group based cognitive behavioural therapy programme for menstrual pain management in young women with intellectual disabilities: protocol for a mixed methods controlled clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Menstrual pain which is severe enough to impact on daily activities is very common amongst menstruating females. Research suggests that menstrual pain which impacts on daily functioning may be even more prevalent amongst those with intellectual disabilities. Despite this, little research attention has focused on pain management programmes for those with intellectual disabilities. The aims of this pilot study were to develop and evaluate a theory-based cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) programme for menstrual pain management in young women with intellectual disabilities. Methods/Design The study utilised a mixed methods controlled clinical trial to evaluate elements from a CBT programme called Feeling Better (McGuire & McManus, 2010). The Feeling Better programme is a modular, manualised intervention designed for people with an intellectual disability and their carers. The programme was delivered to 36 young women aged 12 – 30 years who have a Mild - Moderate Intellectual Disability, split between two conditions. The treatment group received the Feeling Better intervention and the control group received treatment as usual. To evaluate the effectiveness of the programme, measures were taken of key pain variables including impact, knowledge, self-efficacy and coping. Process evaluation was conducted to examine which elements of the programme were most successful in promoting change. Discussion Participants in the intervention group were expected to report the use of a greater number of coping strategies and have greater knowledge of pain management strategies following participation in the intervention and at three month follow-up, when compared to control group participants. A significant advantage of the study was the use of mixed methods and inclusion of process evaluation to determine which elements of a cognitive behavioural therapy programme work best for individuals with intellectual disabilities. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials

  4. Mate value and self-esteem: evidence from eight cultural groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Robin; Marshall, Tara; Fülöp, Marta; Adonu, Joseph; Spiewak, Slawomir; Neto, Felix; Hernandez Plaza, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores self-perceived mate value (SPMV), and its association with self-esteem, in eight cultures. 1066 participants, from 8 cultural groups in 7 countries, rated themselves on 24 SPMVs and completed a measure of self-esteem. Consistent with evolutionary theory, women were more likely to emphasise their caring and passionate romantic nature. In line with previous cross-cultural research, characteristics indicating passion and romance and social attractiveness were stressed more by respondents from individualistic cultures, and those higher on self-expression (rather than survival) values; characteristics indicative of maturity and confidence were more likely to be mentioned by those from Traditional, rather than Secular, cultures. Contrary to gender role theory, societal equality had only limited interactions with sex and SPMV, with honesty of greater significance for male self-esteem in societies with unequal gender roles. These results point to the importance of cultural and environmental factors in influencing self-perceived mate qualities, and are discussed in relation to broader debates about the impact of gender role equality on sex differences in personality and mating strategies.

  5. Mate value and self-esteem: evidence from eight cultural groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Goodwin

    Full Text Available This paper explores self-perceived mate value (SPMV, and its association with self-esteem, in eight cultures. 1066 participants, from 8 cultural groups in 7 countries, rated themselves on 24 SPMVs and completed a measure of self-esteem. Consistent with evolutionary theory, women were more likely to emphasise their caring and passionate romantic nature. In line with previous cross-cultural research, characteristics indicating passion and romance and social attractiveness were stressed more by respondents from individualistic cultures, and those higher on self-expression (rather than survival values; characteristics indicative of maturity and confidence were more likely to be mentioned by those from Traditional, rather than Secular, cultures. Contrary to gender role theory, societal equality had only limited interactions with sex and SPMV, with honesty of greater significance for male self-esteem in societies with unequal gender roles. These results point to the importance of cultural and environmental factors in influencing self-perceived mate qualities, and are discussed in relation to broader debates about the impact of gender role equality on sex differences in personality and mating strategies.

  6. Ordered self-assembled monolayers terminated with different chemical functional groups direct neural stem cell linage behaviours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Shenglian; Liu, Xi; He, Jin; Wang, Xiumei; Wang, Ying; Cui, Fu-Zhai

    2016-01-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) have been a promising candidate for stem cell-based nerve tissue regeneration. Therefore, the design of idea biomaterials that deliver precise regulatory signals to control stem cell fate is currently a crucial issue that depends on a profound understanding of the interactions between NSCs with the surrounding micro-environment. In this work, self-assembled monolayers of alkanethiols on gold with different chemical groups, including hydroxyl (−OH), amino (−NH 2 ), carboxyl (−COOH) and methyl (−CH 3 ), were used as a simple model to study the effects of surface chemistry on NSC fate decisions. Contact angle measurement and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) examination implied that all types of alkanethiols self-assembled on gold into a close-packed phase structure with similar molecular densities. In this study, we evaluated NSC adhesion, migration and differentiation in response to different chemical functional groups cultured under serum-free conditions. Our studies showed that NSCs exhibited certain phenotypes with extreme sensitivity to surface chemical groups. Compared with other functional groups, the SAMs with hydroxyl end-groups provided the best micro-environment in promoting NSC migration and maintaining an undifferentiated or neuronal differentiation state.  −NH 2 surfaces directed neural stem cells into astrocytic lineages, while NSCs on  −COOH and  −CH 3 surfaces had a similar potency to differentiate into three nerve lineages. To further investigate the possible signaling pathway, the gene expression of integrin β1 and β4 were examined. The results indicated that a high expression of β1 integrin would probably have a tight correlation with the expression of nestin, which implied the stemness of NSCs, while β4 integrin seemed to correspond to the differentiated NSCs. The results presented here give useful information for the future design of biomaterials to regulate the preservation

  7. Evidence that DNA excision-repair in xeroderma pigmentosum group A is limited but biologically significant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, D.R.; Kantor, G.J.

    1983-01-01

    The loss of pyrimidine dimers in nondividing populations of an excision-repair deficient xeroderma pigmentosum group. A strain (XP12BE) was measured throughout long periods (up to 5 months) following exposure to low doses of ultraviolet light (UV, 254 nm) using a UV endonuclease-alkaline sedimentation assay. Excision of about 90% of the dimers induced by 1 J/m 2 occurred during the first 50 days. The rate curve has some similarities with that of normal excision-repair proficient cultures that may not be coincidental. Rate curves for both XP12BE and normal cultures are characterized by a fast and slow component, with both rate constants for the XP12BE cultures (0.15 day -1 and 0.025 day -1 ) a factor of 10 smaller than those observed for the respective components of normal cell cultures. The slow components for both XP12BE and normal cultures extrapolate to about 30% of the initial number of dimers. No further excision was detected throughout an additional 90-day period even though the cultures were capable of excision-repair of other newly-introduced pyrimidine dimers. We conclude that nondividing XP12BE cells in addition to having a slower repair rate, cannot repair some of the UV-induced DNA damage. The repair in XP12BE is shown to have biological significance as detected by a cell-survival assay and dose-fractionation techniques. Nondividing XP12BE cells are more resistant to UV when irradiated chronically than when irradiated acutely with the same total dose. (orig.)

  8. Online group-based cognitive-behavioural therapy for adolescents and young adults after cancer treatment: a multicenter randomised controlled trial of Recapture Life-AYA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansom-Daly, Ursula M; Wakefield, Claire E; Bryant, Richard A; Butow, Phyllis; Sawyer, Susan; Patterson, Pandora; Anazodo, Antoinette; Thompson, Kate; Cohn, Richard J

    2012-08-03

    A cancer diagnosis is 2.9 times more likely to occur during the adolescent and young adult years than in younger children. This spike in incidence coincides with a life stage characterised by psychological vulnerability as young people strive to attain numerous, critical developmental milestones. The distress young people experience after cancer treatment seriously jeopardises their ability to move into well-functioning adulthood. This article presents the protocol of the Recapture Life study, a phase II three-arm randomised controlled trial designed to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of a new intervention in reducing distress and improving quality of life for adolescent and young adult cancer survivors. The novel intervention, "ReCaPTure LiFe" will be compared to a both a wait-list, and a peer-support group control. Ninety young people aged 15-25 years who have completed cancer treatment in the past 1-6 months will be recruited from hospitals around Australia. Those randomised to receive Recapture Life will participate in six, weekly, 90-minute online group sessions led by a psychologist, involving peer-discussion around cognitive-behavioural coping skills (including: behavioural activation, thought challenging, communication and assertiveness skills training, problem-solving and goal-setting). Participants randomised to the peer-support group control will receive non-directive peer support delivered in an identical manner. Participants will complete psychosocial measures at baseline, post-intervention, and 12-months post-intervention. The primary outcome will be quality of life. Secondary outcomes will include depression, anxiety, stress, family functioning, coping, and cancer-related identity. This article reviews the empirical rationale for using group-based, online cognitive-behavioural therapy in young people after cancer treatment. The potential challenges of delivering skills-based programs in an online modality are highlighted, and the role of both

  9. Online group-based cognitive-behavioural therapy for adolescents and young adults after cancer treatment: A multicenter randomised controlled trial of Recapture Life-AYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sansom-Daly Ursula M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A cancer diagnosis is 2.9 times more likely to occur during the adolescent and young adult years than in younger children. This spike in incidence coincides with a life stage characterised by psychological vulnerability as young people strive to attain numerous, critical developmental milestones. The distress young people experience after cancer treatment seriously jeopardises their ability to move into well-functioning adulthood. Methods/Design This article presents the protocol of the Recapture Life study, a phase II three-arm randomised controlled trial designed to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of a new intervention in reducing distress and improving quality of life for adolescent and young adult cancer survivors. The novel intervention, “ReCaPTure LiFe” will be compared to a both a wait-list, and a peer-support group control. Ninety young people aged 15–25 years who have completed cancer treatment in the past 1–6 months will be recruited from hospitals around Australia. Those randomised to receive Recapture Life will participate in six, weekly, 90-minute online group sessions led by a psychologist, involving peer-discussion around cognitive-behavioural coping skills (including: behavioural activation, thought challenging, communication and assertiveness skills training, problem-solving and goal-setting. Participants randomised to the peer-support group control will receive non-directive peer support delivered in an identical manner. Participants will complete psychosocial measures at baseline, post-intervention, and 12-months post-intervention. The primary outcome will be quality of life. Secondary outcomes will include depression, anxiety, stress, family functioning, coping, and cancer-related identity. Discussion This article reviews the empirical rationale for using group-based, online cognitive-behavioural therapy in young people after cancer treatment. The potential challenges of delivering skills

  10. Health Professionals' Explanations of Suicidal Behaviour: Effects of Professional Group, Theoretical Intervention Model, and Patient Suicide Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothes, Inês Areal; Henriques, Margarida Rangel

    2017-12-01

    In a help relation with a suicidal person, the theoretical models of suicidality can be essential to guide the health professional's comprehension of the client/patient. The objectives of this study were to identify health professionals' explanations of suicidal behaviors and to study the effects of professional group, theoretical intervention models, and patient suicide experience in professionals' representations. Two hundred and forty-two health professionals filled out a self-report questionnaire. Exploratory principal components analysis was used. Five explanatory models were identified: psychological suffering, affective cognitive, sociocommunicational, adverse life events, and psychopathological. Results indicated that the psychological suffering and psychopathological models were the most valued by the professionals, while the sociocommunicational was seen as the least likely to explain suicidal behavior. Differences between professional groups were found. We concluded that training and reflection on theoretical models in general and in communicative issues in particular are needed in the education of health professionals.

  11. The Influence of Tokopedia Advertising Exposure and Persuasive Exposure Group Reference Towards Online Shop Tokopedia.com Access Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Virgo, Asep; Pradekso, M.Sc, Tandiyo

    2016-01-01

    The amounts of advertising spending and rising intensity of Tokopedia advertising on television lead to rise the probability of mass getting exposed by Tokopedia advertising. This causing the emersion of mass behavior to following the advertising message from the television ads to access on Tokopedia.com. But the advertisement is not the only reason for people accessing Tokopedia website, there is another factor such as the persuasive exposure from reference group. The purpose of this researc...

  12. Increasing water availability during afterschool snack: evidence, strategies, and partnerships from a group randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Catherine M; Kenney, Erica L; Gortmaker, Steven L; Lee, Rebekka M; Thayer, Julie C; Mont-Ferguson, Helen; Cradock, Angie L

    2012-09-01

    Providing drinking water to U.S. children during school meals is a recommended health promotion strategy and part of national nutrition policy. Urban school systems have struggled with providing drinking water to children, and little is known about how to ensure that water is served, particularly in afterschool settings. To assess the effectiveness of an intervention designed to promote water as the beverage of choice in afterschool programs. The Out of School Nutrition and Physical Activity Initiative (OSNAP) used a community-based collaboration and low-cost strategies to provide water after school. A group RCT was used to evaluate the intervention. Data were collected in 2010-2011 and analyzed in 2011. Twenty afterschool programs in Boston were randomized to intervention or control (delayed intervention). Intervention sites participated in learning collaboratives focused on policy and environmental changes to increase healthy eating, drinking, and physical activity opportunities during afterschool time (materials available at www.osnap.org). Collaboration between Boston Public Schools Food and Nutrition Services, afterschool staff, and researchers established water-delivery systems to ensure children were served water during snack time. Average ounces of water served to children per day was recorded by direct observation at each program at baseline and 6-month follow-up over 5 consecutive school days. Secondary measures directly observed included ounces of other beverages served, other snack components, and water-delivery system. Participation in the intervention was associated with an increased average volume of water served (+3.6 ounces/day; p=0.01) during snack. On average, the intervention led to a daily decrease of 60.9 kcals from beverages served during snack (p=0.03). This study indicates the OSNAP intervention, including strategies to overcome structural barriers and collaboration with key actors, can increase offerings of water during afterschool snack

  13. Group cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia: Effects on sleep and depressive symptomatology in a sample with comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norell-Clarke, Annika; Jansson-Fröjmark, Markus; Tillfors, Maria; Holländare, Fredrik; Engström, Ingemar

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the effects of group CBT for insomnia (CBT-I) on insomnia and depressive symptomatology in a comorbid sample through a randomised controlled trial with a 6 month follow-up. 64 participants were recruited through advertisements and randomised to receive CBT-I or an active control (relaxation training: RT) during four group sessions. Insomnia Severity Index and BDI-II were the primary outcome measures, assessed pre-treatment, post-treatment and at 6 month follow-up. Insomnia and depressive diagnoses, and functional impairment were assessed before and after treatment, whereas sleep diary data was gathered continuously from one week before treatment until after treatment. CBT-I was more efficient than RT in reducing insomnia severity and equally effective in reducing depressive symptoms, although CBT-I was associated with a higher proportion of remitted persons than RT, regarding both insomnia and depression diagnoses. Also, CBT-I was associated with less functional impairment, shorter sleep onset latency and wake after sleep onset but both treatments had equal improvements of sleep quality, early morning awakenings and total sleep time. Group CBT-I is an efficient form of insomnia-treatment for people with insomnia comorbid with depressive symptomatology. The mixed results regarding depression outcomes warrants replication and further studies into treatment mechanisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Update of strategies to translate evidence from cochrane musculoskeletal group systematic reviews for use by various audiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, Tamara; Pardo Pardo, Jordi; Stacey, Dawn; Ghogomu, Elizabeth; Maxwell, Lara J; Welch, Vivian A; Singh, Jasvinder A; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Légaré, France; Santesso, Nancy; Toupin April, Karine; O'Connor, Annette M; Wells, George A; Winzenberg, Tania M; Johnston, Renea; Tugwell, Peter

    2014-02-01

    For rheumatology research to have a real influence on health and well-being, evidence must be tailored to inform the decisions of various audiences. The Cochrane Musculoskeletal Group (CMSG), one of 53 groups of the not-for-profit international Cochrane Collaboration, prepares, maintains, and disseminates systematic reviews of treatments for musculoskeletal diseases. While systematic reviews provided by the CMSG fill a major gap in meeting the need for high-quality evidence syntheses, our work does not end at the completion of a review. The term "knowledge translation" (KT) refers to the activities involved in bringing research evidence to various audiences in a useful form so it can be used to support decision making and improve practices. Systematic reviews give careful consideration to research methods and analysis. Because the review is often long and detailed, the clinically relevant results may not be apparent or in the optimal form for use by patients and their healthcare practitioners. This paper describes 10 formats, many of them new, for ways that evidence from Cochrane Reviews can be translated with the intention of meeting the needs of various audiences, including patients and their families, practitioners, policy makers, the press, and members of the public (the "5 Ps"). Current and future knowledge tools include summary of findings tables, patient decision aids, plain language summaries, press releases, clinical scenarios in general medical journals, frequently asked questions (Cochrane Clinical Answers), podcasts, Twitter messages, Journal Club materials, and the use of storytelling and narratives to support continuing medical education. Future plans are outlined to explore ways of improving the influence and usefulness of systematic reviews by providing results in formats suitable to our varied audiences.

  15. Ixekizumab for Treating Moderate-to-Severe Plaque Psoriasis: An Evidence Review Group Perspective of a NICE Single Technology Appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaekers, Bram L T; Wolff, Robert F; Pouwels, Xavier; Oosterhoff, Marije; Van Giessen, Anoukh; Worthy, Gill; Noake, Caro; Armstrong, Nigel; Kleijnen, Jos; Joore, Manuela A

    2018-02-26

    The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence invited Eli Lilly and Company Ltd, the company manufacturing ixekizumab (tradename Taltz ® ), to submit evidence for the clinical and cost effectiveness of ixekizumab. Ixekizumab was compared with tumour necrosis factor-α inhibitors (etanercept, infliximab, adalimumab), ustekinumab, secukinumab, best supportive care and, if non-biological treatment or phototherapy is suitable, also compared with systemic non-biological therapies and phototherapy with ultraviolet B radiation for adults with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis. Kleijnen Systematic Reviews Ltd, in collaboration with Maastricht University Medical Center, was commissioned as the independent Evidence Review Group. This article presents a summary of the company submission, the Evidence Review Group report and the development of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidance for the use of this drug in England and Wales by the Appraisal Committee. The Evidence Review Group produced a critical review of the clinical and cost effectiveness of ixekizumab based on the company submission. The company submission presented three randomised controlled trials identified in a systematic review. All randomised controlled trials were phase III, multicentre placebo-controlled trials including 3866 participants with moderate-to-severe psoriasis. Two trials also included an active comparator (etanercept). All randomised controlled trials showed statistically significant increases in two primary outcomes, static Physician Global Assessment (0,1) and improvement of 75% from baseline in the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index. Ixekizumab was generally well tolerated in the randomised controlled trials, with similar discontinuation rates because of adverse events as placebo or etanercept. The most frequent adverse events of special interest were infections and injection-site reactions. The company submission also included a network meta-analysis of

  16. Large-scale STI services in Avahan improve utilization and treatment seeking behaviour amongst high-risk groups in India: an analysis of clinical records from six states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurung Anup

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avahan, the India AIDS Initiative, implemented a large HIV prevention programme across six high HIV prevalence states amongst high risk groups consisting of female sex workers, high risk men who have sex with men, transgenders and injecting drug users in India. Utilization of the clinical services, health seeking behaviour and trends in syndromic diagnosis of sexually transmitted infections amongst these populations were measured using the individual tracking data. Methods The Avahan clinical monitoring system included individual tracking data pertaining to clinical services amongst high risk groups. All clinic visits were recorded in the routine clinical monitoring system using unique identification numbers at the NGO-level. Visits by individual clinic attendees were tracked from January 2005 to December 2009. An analysis examining the limited variables over time, stratified by risk group, was performed. Results A total of 431,434 individuals including 331,533 female sex workers, 10,280 injecting drug users, 82,293 men who have sex with men, and 7,328 transgenders visited the clinics with a total of 2,700,192 visits. Individuals made an average of 6.2 visits to the clinics during the study period. The number of visits per person increased annually from 1.2 in 2005 to 8.3 in 2009. The proportion of attendees visiting clinics more than four times a year increased from 4% in 2005 to 26% in 2009 (p Conclusions The programme demonstrated that acceptable and accessible services with marginalised and often difficult–to-reach populations can be brought to a very large scale using standardized approaches. Utilization of these services can dramatically improve health seeking behaviour and reduce STI prevalence.

  17. Behaviour of the surface hydroxide groups of exfoliated kaolinite in the gas phase and during water adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Táborosi, Attila; Szilágyi, Róbert K

    2016-02-14

    The chemical and physical properties, and thus the reactivity of phylloaluminosilicates can be tailored by intercalation, delamination, and exfoliation processes. In going from the periodic crystalline to the molecular exfoliated phase, surface defects and modifications gain importance as each face of the phylloaluminosilicate comes in direct contact with the external chemical environment. In this work, we extend our earlier studies on the molecular cluster modelling of exfoliated kaolinite sheets by evaluating the positions and orientations of surface hydroxide groups and bridging oxide anions, as the sites of reactivity. The previous focus on the inner chemical environment of a single kaolinite layer is shifted to the surface exposed octahedral aluminium-hydroxide and tetrahedral silicon-oxide sheets. The combination of semi-empirical, ab initio wave function, and density functional calculations unanimously support the amphoteric nature of the surface hydroxide groups with respect to H-bonding donor/acceptor capabilities. To a lesser extent, we observe the same for the bridging oxide anions. This is in contrast to the crystalline phase, which manifests only donor orientation for maintaining an inter-layer H-bond network. These results suggest that both electrophilic and nucleophilic characteristics of the octahedral and tetrahedral sheets need to be considered during intercalation and concomitant exfoliation of the kaolinite sheets.

  18. Health Seeking Behaviour in Delivery Process Among Kaili Da’a Ethnic Groups In Mamuju Utara, West Celebes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Handayani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of a major health problem in Mamuju Utara is the high number of infant mortality rates which isapproximately 43 cases of 2.598 live birth. It is said that the high rate of infant mortality is related to the high number ofassisted delivery by traditional birth attendant. An ethnographic research was conducted to fi nd the reasons behind theKaili Da’a ethnic group preference towards birth attendants. Methods: The research design is an exploration researchwith participant observation and indepth interviews as two techniques to gain data. Researcher stayed in the Wulai villagefor 60 days. Results: The results shows that factors which infl uence Kaili Da’a ethnic group preference in choosingtraditional birth attendants were a belief that traditional birth method was a natural thing, traditional birth attendant didn’tuse medical equipment, mother feel more comfortable with traditional birth method, health facilities are diffi cult to accessdue to geographical factors, and considerations of cost. Conclusion: Nevertheless, family’s involvement in the deliveryprocess is benefi cial to support the mother during this process. Therefore, family should be given knowledge about thesymptomps of high-risk pregnancy so that they could prevent maternal and infant deaths. In addition, it is necessary tobuild a partnership between midwifes with traditional birth attendant. Recommendation: The role of a fairly large familyduring the birth process can be maximized in a way for assistance from health workers to guide the family in order to makedeliveries in hygienic

  19. Theoretical predictions of properties and gas-phase chromatography behaviour of carbonyl complexes of group-6 elements Cr, Mo, W, and element 106, Sg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pershina, V; Anton, J

    2013-05-07

    Fully relativistic, four-component density functional theory electronic structure calculations were performed for M(CO)6 of group-6 elements Cr, Mo, W, and element 106, Sg, with an aim to predict their adsorption behaviour in the gas-phase chromatography experiments. It was shown that seaborgium hexacarbonyl has a longer M-CO bond, smaller ionization potential, and larger polarizability than the other group-6 molecules. This is explained by the increasing relativistic expansion and destabilization of the (n - 1)d AOs with increasing Z in the group. Using results of the calculations, adsorption enthalpies of the group-6 hexacarbonyls on a quartz surface were predicted via a model of physisorption. According to the results, -ΔHads should decrease from Mo to W, while it should be almost equal--within the experimental error bars--for W and Sg. Thus, we expect that in the future gas-phase chromatography experiments it will be almost impossible--what concerns ΔHads--to distinguish between the W and Sg hexacarbonyls by their deposition on quartz.

  20. Evaluation of agents and study of end-user needs and behaviour for e-commerce. COGITO focus group experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, V.; Hansen, C.B.; Andersen, H.H.K.

    2001-01-01

    -commerce in general and shopping at Internet bookstores in particular are outlined below. In this report user requirements for specification of web-sites meeting the overall wishes of the end- users have beenelicited. The needs are mainly based on experiments and discussions related to purchase of books......The process of buying products and services on the Internet often implies a high degree of complexity and uncertainty about the conditions of information seeking, about items for sale, the purchase of wanted products and the actual navigation on a site.Some important problems concerning e......, as this domain has been selected as the application domain for the e-commerce in COGITO, but the requirements are mostly common covering e-commerce ingeneral. One of the main features to consider, analyse and specify in COGITO was the use of .intelligent personalised agents. Therefore, a focus group experiment...

  1. Sun protection attitudes and behaviours among first generation Australians with darker skin types: results from focus groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Jamie; Zucca, Alison; Brozek, Irena; Rock, Vanessa; Bonevski, Billie

    2015-02-01

    Despite residing in a country that has the highest rates of skin cancer in the world, little is known about the knowledge, attitudes and sun protection practices of first generation Australian-born individuals with olive and darker skin types. Six focus groups with first generation Australian-born individuals of Asian, Mediterranean, Middle Eastern and Indian background were conducted. Participants had good knowledge of the dangers of skin cancer. Most correctly perceived darker skin types as protective and believed they were at low risk of skin cancer. Most participants could recall high profile mass media sun protection campaigns. Several participants suggested that greater representation of ethnic minorities and/or individuals with darker skin types would increase the personal relevance of campaigns. Beliefs that sun protection is not necessary on the basis of skin type highlights the need for further studies to explore fundamental differences in attitudes and practices between those with olive and darker skin and the general Australian population.

  2. Behavioural evidence of male volatile pheromones in the sex-role reversed wolf spiders Allocosa brasiliensis and Allocosa alticeps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisenberg, Anita; Baruffaldi, Luciana; González, Macarena

    2010-01-01

    The use of chemical signals in a sexual context is widespread in the animal kingdom. Most studies in spiders report the use of female pheromones that attract potential sexual partners. Allocosa brasiliensis and Allocosa alticeps are two burrowing wolf spiders that show sex-role reversal. Females locate male burrows and initiate courtship before males perform any detectable visual or vibratory signal. So, females of these species would be detecting chemical or mechanical cues left by males. Our objective was to explore the potential for male pheromones to play a role in mate detection in A. brasiliensis and A. alticeps. We designed two experiments. In Experiment 1, we tested the occurrence of male contact pheromones by evaluating female courtship when exposed to empty burrows constructed by males or females (control). In Experiment 2, we tested the existence of male volatile pheromones by evaluating female behaviour when exposed to artificial burrows connected to tubes containing males, females or empty tubes (control). Our results suggest the occurrence of male volatile pheromones that trigger female courtship in both Allocosa species. The sex-role reversal postulated for these wolf spiders could be driving the consequent reversal in typical pheromone-emitter and detector roles expected for spiders.

  3. Aromatherapy and Aromatic Plants for the Treatment of Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease: Clinical Evidence and Possible Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scuteri, Damiana; Morrone, Luigi Antonio; Rombolà, Laura; Avato, Pina Rosa; Corasaniti, Maria Tiziana; Sakurada, Shinobu; Sakurada, Tsukasa

    2017-01-01

    The treatment of agitation and aggression, typical Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSDs) of Alzheimer's Disease (AD), is one of the most complicated aspects of handling patients suffering from dementia. Currently, the management of these symptoms often associated with an increased pain perception, which notably reduces the patients' quality of life (QoL), relies on the employment of antipsychotic drugs. Unfortunately, the use of these pharmacological agents has some limits: in the long term, they do not result in being equally effective as in the first weeks of treatment and they present important side effects. Therefore, there is growing interest, supported by clinical evidence, in aromatherapy for the control of agitation, aggression, and psychotic symptoms. Some molecular mechanisms have been proposed to explain the behavioural effects of essential oils, as the whole phytocomplex or the single components, but important basic research effort is still needed. For this reason, rigorous preclinical studies are necessary in order to understand the pharmacological basis of aromatherapy in the treatment of BPSDs and to widen the cluster of effective essential oils in pharmacotherapeutic practice. PMID:28465709

  4. Aromatherapy and Aromatic Plants for the Treatment of Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease: Clinical Evidence and Possible Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scuteri, Damiana; Morrone, Luigi Antonio; Rombolà, Laura; Avato, Pina Rosa; Bilia, Anna Rita; Corasaniti, Maria Tiziana; Sakurada, Shinobu; Sakurada, Tsukasa; Bagetta, Giacinto

    2017-01-01

    The treatment of agitation and aggression, typical Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSDs) of Alzheimer's Disease (AD), is one of the most complicated aspects of handling patients suffering from dementia. Currently, the management of these symptoms often associated with an increased pain perception, which notably reduces the patients' quality of life (QoL), relies on the employment of antipsychotic drugs. Unfortunately, the use of these pharmacological agents has some limits: in the long term, they do not result in being equally effective as in the first weeks of treatment and they present important side effects. Therefore, there is growing interest, supported by clinical evidence, in aromatherapy for the control of agitation, aggression, and psychotic symptoms. Some molecular mechanisms have been proposed to explain the behavioural effects of essential oils, as the whole phytocomplex or the single components, but important basic research effort is still needed. For this reason, rigorous preclinical studies are necessary in order to understand the pharmacological basis of aromatherapy in the treatment of BPSDs and to widen the cluster of effective essential oils in pharmacotherapeutic practice.

  5. Aromatherapy and Aromatic Plants for the Treatment of Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia in Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease: Clinical Evidence and Possible Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damiana Scuteri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of agitation and aggression, typical Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSDs of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD, is one of the most complicated aspects of handling patients suffering from dementia. Currently, the management of these symptoms often associated with an increased pain perception, which notably reduces the patients’ quality of life (QoL, relies on the employment of antipsychotic drugs. Unfortunately, the use of these pharmacological agents has some limits: in the long term, they do not result in being equally effective as in the first weeks of treatment and they present important side effects. Therefore, there is growing interest, supported by clinical evidence, in aromatherapy for the control of agitation, aggression, and psychotic symptoms. Some molecular mechanisms have been proposed to explain the behavioural effects of essential oils, as the whole phytocomplex or the single components, but important basic research effort is still needed. For this reason, rigorous preclinical studies are necessary in order to understand the pharmacological basis of aromatherapy in the treatment of BPSDs and to widen the cluster of effective essential oils in pharmacotherapeutic practice.

  6. Father involvement in early child-rearing and behavioural outcomes in their pre-adolescent children: evidence from the ALSPAC UK birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opondo, Charles; Redshaw, Maggie; Savage-McGlynn, Emily; Quigley, Maria A

    2016-11-22

    To explore the nature of paternal involvement in early child-rearing adopting a social developmental perspective, and estimate its effect on behavioural outcomes of children aged 9 and 11 years. The data come from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort recruited in the former county of Avon in the southwest of England. Out of the 14 701 children in this cohort who were alive at 1 year, 10 440 children were living with both parents at 8 months and were therefore eligible. Outcome data were available for 6898 children at 9 years and 6328 children at 11 years. Paternal involvement was measured using factor scores obtained through factor analysis of fathers' responses on their participation in, understanding of, and feelings about their child's early upbringing. Behavioural problems were measured using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) total difficulties score. 3 factors were identified in the factor analysis: Factor 1 described fathers' emotional response to the child; factor 2 measured the frequency of fathers' involvement in domestic and childcare activities; factor 3 characterised fathers' feelings of security in their role as parent and partner. Children of fathers with high scores on factors 1 and 3 had 14% (OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.79 to 0.94, p=0.001) and 13% (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.79 to 0.96, p=0.006), respectively, lower adjusted odds of behavioural problems at 9 years. Factors 1 and 3 were associated with comparable reduction in adjusted odds of behavioural problems at 11 years (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.81 to 0.98, p=0.017 and OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.81 to 0.99, p=0.034, respectively). Factor 2 was not associated with the outcome. Psychological and emotional aspects of paternal involvement in children's early upbringing, particularly how new fathers see themselves as parents and adjust to the role, rather than the quantity of direct involvement in childcare, is associated with positive behavioural outcomes in children

  7. Group A Rotaviruses in Chinese Bats: Genetic Composition, Serology, and Evidence for Bat-to-Human Transmission and Reassortment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Biao; Huang, Xiaohong; Zhang, Fuqiang; Tan, Weilong; Matthijnssens, Jelle; Qin, Shaomin; Xu, Lin; Zhao, Zihan; Yang, Ling'en; Wang, Quanxi; Hu, Tingsong; Bao, Xiaolei; Wu, Jianmin; Tu, Changchun

    2017-06-15

    Bats are natural reservoirs for many pathogenic viruses, and increasing evidence supports the notion that bats can also harbor group A rotaviruses (RVAs), important causative agents of diarrhea in children and young animals. Currently, 8 RVA strains possessing completely novel genotype constellations or genotypes possibly originating from other mammals have been identified from African and Chinese bats. However, all the data were mainly based on detection of RVA RNA, present only during acute infections, which does not permit assessment of the true exposure of a bat population to RVA. To systematically investigate the genetic diversity of RVAs, 547 bat anal swabs or gut samples along with 448 bat sera were collected from five South Chinese provinces. Specific reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) screening found four RVA strains. Strain GLRL1 possessed a completely novel genotype constellation, whereas the other three possessed a constellation consistent with the MSLH14-like genotype, a newly characterized group of viruses widely prevalent in Chinese insectivorous bats. Among the latter, strain LZHP2 provided strong evidence of cross-species transmission of RVAs from bats to humans, whereas strains YSSK5 and BSTM70 were likely reassortants between typical MSLH14-like RVAs and human RVAs. RVA-specific antibodies were detected in 10.7% (48/448) of bat sera by an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IIFA). Bats in Guangxi and Yunnan had a higher RVA-specific antibody prevalence than those from Fujian and Zhejiang provinces. These observations provide evidence for cross-species transmission of MSLH14-like bat RVAs to humans, highlighting the impact of bats as reservoirs of RVAs on public health. IMPORTANCE Bat viruses, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), Ebola, Hendra, and Nipah viruses, are important pathogens causing outbreaks of severe emerging infectious diseases. However, little is known about bat viruses capable

  8. Theoretical predictions of properties and gas-phase chromatography behaviour of bromides of group-5 elements Nb, Ta, and element 105, Db.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pershina, V; Anton, J

    2012-01-21

    Fully relativistic, four-component density functional theory electronic structure calculations were performed for MBr(5), MOBr(3), MBr(6)(-), KMBr(6), and MBr(5)Cl(-) of group-5 elements Nb, Ta, and element 105, Db, with the aim to predict adsorption behaviour of the bromides in gas-phase chromatography experiments. It was shown that in the atmosphere of HBr/BBr(3), the pentabromides are rather stable, and their stability should increase in the row Nb Ta > Db. This sequence is in agreement with the one observed in the "one-atom-at-a-time" chromatography experiments. Some other scenarios, such as surface oxide formation were also considered but found to be irrelevant. © 2012 American Institute of Physics

  9. Exploring the effectiveness of combined mentalization-based group therapy and dialectical behaviour therapy for inpatients with borderline personality disorder - A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edel, Marc-Andreas; Raaff, Vanessa; Dimaggio, Giancarlo; Buchheim, Anna; Brüne, Martin

    2017-03-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by emotional instability, interpersonal dysfunction, and other features that typically develop before a background of insecure attachment and traumatic experiences. Dialectical behaviour therapy (DBT) has proven highly effective in reducing self-harm and improving emotion regulation, whereby problems concerning social cognition, which are also characteristic of BPD, may need additional approaches such as mentalization-based treatment (MBT). Here, we examined, in a pilot study, the effectiveness of MBT given adjunct to DBT, compared to DBT alone, in an inpatient sample with BPD, whereby mentalization was measured using a novel cartoon-based task. Both treatments were highly effective in reducing symptom severity. The combination of DBT and MBT was superior in reducing fearful attachment and in improving affective mentalizing. Mentalization-based treatment in combination with DBT may improve certain aspects of social cognitive skills and attachment security, as compared to DBT alone, although the exact mechanisms that led to these changes need to be studied further. Clinical implications Dialectical behaviour therapy (DBT) can usefully be combined with mentalization-based treatment (MBT). The combination of DBT and MBT reduces self-harm more than DBT alone. DBT plus MBT may lead to a reduction in fearful attachment and improvement of affective mentalizing. Short-term combinations of evidence-based borderline treatments may enrich psychiatric inpatient care. Therefore, such approaches deserve further research. Limitations The treatment condition was therapeutically more intense than the control condition. The study lacked a follow-up assessment. The impact of comorbid conditions on treatment response was not taken into account. Adherence to the manualized approach was not measured. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  10. Risk behaviours and prevalence of sexually transmitted infections and HIV in a group of Dominican gay men, other men who have sex with men and transgender women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Maximo O; Hodge, David; Donastorg, Yeycy; Khosla, Shaveta; Lerebours, Leonel; Pope, Zachary

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of this study were to estimate the point prevalence of sexually transmitted infection (STI) and to investigate the sexual practices and behaviours associated with STIs in a group of gay men, other men who have sex with men and transgender women (GMT) in the province of La Romana, Dominican Republic. Design A cross-sectional study of a convenience sample of GMT persons. Setting The study was conducted in the province of La Romana, Dominican Republic, in June–July 2013. Participants Out of 117 GMT persons screened, a total of 100 completed the study. Participants had to be at least 18 years of age, reside in La Romana and have had sex with another man in the preceding 12 months. All participants were interviewed and tested for STI. Primary outcome measure The main outcome of interest was the detection of any STI (HIV, herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), syphilis, hepatitis B or C) by serology. Results Among 100 participants, the median age was 22 years (range 18–65). One-third had consumed illicit drugs the preceding year and only 43% consistently used condoms. Prevalence was 38% for HSV-2, 5% for HIV and 13% for syphilis. There were no cases of hepatitis B or C. Factors associated with the odds of a STI were age >22 years (OR=11.1, 95% CI 3.6 to 34.5), receptive anal intercourse (OR=4.2, 95% CI 1.3 to 13.6) and having ≥2 male sexual partners during the preceding month (OR=4, 95% CI 1.3 to 12.5). Conclusions In this group of GMT persons, seroprevalence of STI was high, and a number of risk behaviours were associated with STI. These preliminary data will help inform policy and programmes to prevent HIV/STI in GMT persons in the region. PMID:25926151

  11. The Nigeria wealth distribution and health seeking behaviour: evidence from the 2012 national HIV/AIDS and reproductive health survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagbamigbe, Adeniyi F; Bamgboye, Elijah A; Yusuf, Bidemi O; Akinyemi, Joshua O; Issa, Bolakale K; Ngige, Evelyn; Amida, Perpetua; Bashorun, Adebobola; Abatta, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Recently, Nigeria emerged as the largest economy in Africa and the 26th in the world. However, a pertinent question is how this new economic status has impacted on the wealth and health of her citizens. There is a dearth of empirical study on the wealth distribution in Nigeria which could be important in explaining the general disparities in their health seeking behavior. An adequate knowledge of Nigeria wealth distribution will no doubt inform policy makers in their decision making to improve the quality of life of Nigerians. This study is a retrospective analysis of the assets of household in Nigeria collected during the 2012 National HIV/AIDS and Reproductive Health Survey (NARHS Plus 2). We used the principal component analysis methods to construct wealth quintiles across households in Nigeria. At 5% significance level, we used ANOVA to determine differences in some health outcomes across the WQs and chi-square test to assess association between WQs and some reproductive health seeking behaviours. The wealth quintiles were found to be internally valid and coherent. However, there is a wide gap in the reproductive health seeking behavior of household members across the wealth quintiles with members of households in lower quintiles having lesser likelihood (33.0%) to receive antenatal care than among those in the highest quintiles (91.9%). While only 3% were currently using modern contraceptives in the lowest wealth quintile, it was 17.4% among the highest wealth quintile (p wealth quintiles showed a great disparity in the standard of living of Nigerian households across geo-political zones, states and rural-urban locations which had greatly influenced household health seeking behavior.

  12. [Short-term effects of a cognitive-behavioural group therapy in social phobia: evaluation of sixty patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camart, N; André, C; Trybou, V; Bourdel, M-C

    2006-01-01

    This study analyses the short term effects of a cognitive-behavioral group therapy with 60 patients suffering from social phobia according to the diagnostic criteria of the DSM IV. The therapeutic program is based on 12 sessions of 2 hours (for 6 to 9 subjects) and includes exposure, cognitive restructuring and social skills training. The sample included 34 women and 26 men, with an average age of 34.8 years (SD=9.3). Most patients presented generalized social phobia (n=42; not generalized social phobia: n=18), and 24 received at least one comorbid axis I diagnosis. Subjects were evaluated before and after the therapy with instruments measuring the intensity of social phobia (Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale), the assertiveness (Rathus Assertiveness Schedule), the disability associated with the disorder (Sheehan Disability Scale), anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale and Beck shortened Depression Inventory), and self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale). The results show significant differences (pScale, total score) to 0.51 (Sheehan item 3), exhibiting patients' improvement on all variables. The highest effect sizes are observed with the instruments specifically designed for the assessment of social phobia (Liebowitz, Rathus and Sheehan scales). Our patients show the major improvements in the Liebowitz Scale (ES=1.29), the best indicator for social phobia, concerning the intensity of anxiety in social situations (ES=1.28) and concerning the frequency of avoidance (ES=1.16). Logically, the effect sizes are somehow lower on Sheehan (ES=1.06) and Rathus (ES=1.00) scales, which are less specifically centered on the score symptoms of social phobia. The improvement is also significant but less remarkable in the other measurements. The Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale reveals a reduction in the level of anxiety and depression, however more significant for anxiety (ES=0.88) than for depression (ES=0.60), that is consistent with the fact that social

  13. Alcohol consumption and risky sexual behaviour in the fishing communities: evidence from two fish landing sites on Lake Victoria in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumwesigye, Nazarius M; Atuyambe, Lynn; Wanyenze, Rhoda K; Kibira, Simon Ps; Li, Qing; Wabwire-Mangen, Fred; Wagner, Glenn

    2012-12-11

    The fishing communities are among population groups that are most at risk of HIV infection, with some studies putting the HIV prevalence at 5 to 10 times higher than in the general population. Alcohol consumption has been identified as one of the major drivers of the sexual risk behaviour in the fishing communities. This paper investigates the relationship between alcohol consumption patterns and risky behaviour in two fishing communities on Lake Victoria. Face-to-face interviews were conducted among 303 men and 172 women at the fish landing sites; categorised into fishermen, traders of fish or fish products and other merchandise, and service providers such as casual labourers and waitresses in bars and hotels, including 12 female sexual workers. Stratified random sampling methodology was used to select study units. Multivariable analysis was conducted to assess independent relationship between alcohol consumption and sexual risky behaviour. Measures of alcohol consumption included the alcohol use disorder test score (AUDIT), having gotten drunk in previous 30 days, drinking at least 2 times a week while measures for risky behaviour included engaging in transactional sex, inconsistent condom use, having sex with non-regular partner and having multiple sexual partners. The level of harmful use of alcohol in the two fishing communities was quite high as 62% of the male and 52% of the female drinkers had got drunk in previous 30 days. The level of risky sexual behaviour was equally high as 63% of the men and 59% of the women had unprotected sex at last sexual event. Of the 3 occupations fishermen had the highest levels of harmful use of alcohol and risky sexual behaviour followed by service providers judging from values of most indicators. The kind of alcohol consumption variables correlated with risky sexual behaviour variables, varied by occupation. Frequent alcohol consumption, higher AUDIT score, having got drunk, longer drinking hours and drinking any day of

  14. Alcohol consumption and risky sexual behaviour in the fishing communities: evidence from two fish landing sites on Lake Victoria in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumwesigye Nazarius M

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fishing communities are among population groups that are most at risk of HIV infection, with some studies putting the HIV prevalence at 5 to 10 times higher than in the general population. Alcohol consumption has been identified as one of the major drivers of the sexual risk behaviour in the fishing communities. This paper investigates the relationship between alcohol consumption patterns and risky behaviour in two fishing communities on Lake Victoria. Methods Face-to-face interviews were conducted among 303 men and 172 women at the fish landing sites; categorised into fishermen, traders of fish or fish products and other merchandise, and service providers such as casual labourers and waitresses in bars and hotels, including 12 female sexual workers. Stratified random sampling methodology was used to select study units. Multivariable analysis was conducted to assess independent relationship between alcohol consumption and sexual risky behaviour. Measures of alcohol consumption included the alcohol use disorder test score (AUDIT, having gotten drunk in previous 30 days, drinking at least 2 times a week while measures for risky behaviour included engaging in transactional sex, inconsistent condom use, having sex with non-regular partner and having multiple sexual partners. Results The level of harmful use of alcohol in the two fishing communities was quite high as 62% of the male and 52% of the female drinkers had got drunk in previous 30 days. The level of risky sexual behaviour was equally high as 63% of the men and 59% of the women had unprotected sex at last sexual event. Of the 3 occupations fishermen had the highest levels of harmful use of alcohol and risky sexual behaviour followed by service providers judging from values of most indicators. The kind of alcohol consumption variables correlated with risky sexual behaviour variables, varied by occupation. Frequent alcohol consumption, higher AUDIT score, having

  15. Behavioural ecology and group cohesion of juvenile western lowland gorillas (Gorilla g. gorilla during rehabilitation in the Batéké Plateaux National Park, Gabon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Le Flohic

    Full Text Available Rehabilitation of animals followed by reintroduction into the wild can benefit conservation by supplementing depleted wild populations or reintroducing a species in an area where it has been extirpated or become extinct. The western lowland gorilla (WLG, Gorilla g. gorilla is persistently poached; infants are often illegally traded and used as pets. Some are confiscated and rehabilitated, then kept in sanctuaries or reintroduced into the wild. Prior to reintroduction, the ability of the orphans to survive independently in their environment needs to be assessed. Here, we performed a multivariate analysis, including diet composition, activity-budget, and pattern of strata using of a group of five juvenile WLG in the process of rehabilitation and distinguished three sub-periods of ecological significance: the high furgivory period, the Dialium fruits consumption period, and the high folivory period. The consequences of these variations on their well-being (play behaviour and the group cohesion (spatial proximity and social interactions were examined. Like wild WLGs, diets shifted seasonally from frugivorous to folivorous, while the same staple foods were consumed and large amounts of Dialium fruits were seasonally gathered high in trees. When succulent fruit intake was the highest, thus providing high energy from sugar, juveniles spent less time feeding, more time playing and group cohesion was the highest. Conversely, the cohesion decreased with increasing folivory, individuals spent more time feeding and less time playing together. Nonetheless, the group cohesion also decreased after the death of one highly social, wild-born orphan. This may underscore the importance of skilled individuals in the cohesion and well-being of the entire group and, ultimately, to rehabilitation success. This study evaluates the rehabilitation success with regards to the methods used and highlights the need to consider a set of individual and environmental factors for

  16. Behavioural ecology and group cohesion of juvenile western lowland gorillas (Gorilla g. gorilla) during rehabilitation in the Batéké Plateaux National Park, Gabon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Flohic, Guillaume; Motsch, Peggy; DeNys, Hélène; Childs, Simon; Courage, Amos; King, Tony

    2015-01-01

    Rehabilitation of animals followed by reintroduction into the wild can benefit conservation by supplementing depleted wild populations or reintroducing a species in an area where it has been extirpated or become extinct. The western lowland gorilla (WLG, Gorilla g. gorilla) is persistently poached; infants are often illegally traded and used as pets. Some are confiscated and rehabilitated, then kept in sanctuaries or reintroduced into the wild. Prior to reintroduction, the ability of the orphans to survive independently in their environment needs to be assessed. Here, we performed a multivariate analysis, including diet composition, activity-budget, and pattern of strata using of a group of five juvenile WLG in the process of rehabilitation and distinguished three sub-periods of ecological significance: the high furgivory period, the Dialium fruits consumption period, and the high folivory period. The consequences of these variations on their well-being (play behaviour) and the group cohesion (spatial proximity and social interactions) were examined. Like wild WLGs, diets shifted seasonally from frugivorous to folivorous, while the same staple foods were consumed and large amounts of Dialium fruits were seasonally gathered high in trees. When succulent fruit intake was the highest, thus providing high energy from sugar, juveniles spent less time feeding, more time playing and group cohesion was the highest. Conversely, the cohesion decreased with increasing folivory, individuals spent more time feeding and less time playing together. Nonetheless, the group cohesion also decreased after the death of one highly social, wild-born orphan. This may underscore the importance of skilled individuals in the cohesion and well-being of the entire group and, ultimately, to rehabilitation success. This study evaluates the rehabilitation success with regards to the methods used and highlights the need to consider a set of individual and environmental factors for enhancing

  17. The effect of group attachment and social position on prosocial behavior. Evidence from lab-in-the-field experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia Baldassarri

    Full Text Available Social life is regulated by norms of fairness that constrain selfish behavior. While a substantial body of scholarship on prosocial behavior has provided evidence of such norms, large inter- and intra-personal variation in prosocial behavior still needs to be explained. The article identifies two social-structural dimensions along which people's generosity varies systematically: group attachment and social position. We conducted lab-in-the-field experiments involving 2,597 members of producer organizations in rural Uganda. Using different variants of the dictator game, we demonstrate that group attachment positively affects prosocial behavior, and that this effect is not simply the by-product of the degree of proximity between individuals. Second, we show that occupying a formal position in an organization or community leads to greater generosity toward in-group members. Taken together, our findings show that prosocial behavior is not an invariant social trait; rather, it varies according to individuals' relative position in the social structure.

  18. Dabrafenib for Treating Unresectable, Advanced or Metastatic BRAF V600 Mutation-Positive Melanoma: An Evidence Review Group Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleeman, Nigel; Bagust, Adrian; Beale, Sophie; Boland, Angela; Dickson, Rumona; Dwan, Kerry; Richardson, Marty; Dundar, Yenal; Davis, Helen; Banks, Lindsay

    2015-09-01

    The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) invited GlaxoSmithKline, the manufacturer of dabrafenib, to submit evidence for the clinical and cost effectiveness of dabrafenib for the treatment of unresectable, advanced or metastatic BRAF V600 mutation-positive melanoma in accordance with the Institute's Single Technology Appraisal (STA) process. The Liverpool Reviews and Implementation Group (LRiG) at the University of Liverpool was commissioned to act as the Evidence Review Group (ERG). This article summarizes the ERG's review of the evidence submitted by the company and provides a summary of the Appraisal Committee's (AC) final decision in October 2014. The clinical evidence for dabrafenib was derived from an ongoing phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, international, multicentre clinical trial (BREAK-3) involving 230 patients randomized 2:1 to receive either dabrafenib or dacarbazine. A significant improvement in median progression-free survival (PFS) but not overall survival (OS) was reported in the dabrafenib arm compared with dacarbazine. Vemurafenib is considered a more appropriate comparator than is dacarbazine. The clinical evidence for vemurafenib was derived from a completed phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, international, multicentre clinical trial (BRIM-3) involving 675 patients randomized 1:1 to receive either vemurafenib or dacarbazine. A significant improvement in median PFS and OS was reported in the vemurafenib arm compared with dacarbazine. As there is no direct evidence comparing dabrafenib versus vemurafenib, the company presented an indirect treatment comparison (ITC) that demonstrated no statistical differences between dabrafenib and vemurafenib for PFS or OS. The ERG expressed concerns with the ITC, mainly in relation to the validity of the assumptions underpinning the methodology; the ERG concluded this resulted in findings that are unlikely to be robust or reliable. Dabrafenib and

  19. Mepolizumab for Treating Severe Eosinophilic Asthma: An Evidence Review Group Perspective of a NICE Single Technology Appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermejo, Iñigo; Stevenson, Matt; Cooper, Katy; Harnan, Sue; Hamilton, Jean; Clowes, Mark; Carroll, Christopher; Harrison, Tim; Saha, Shironjit

    2018-02-01

    As part of its single technology appraisal (STA) process, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) invited the company (GlaxoSmithKline) that manufactures mepolizumab (Nucala ® ) to submit evidence on the clinical and cost effectiveness of mepolizumab for the treatment of severe eosinophilic asthma. The School of Health and Related Research Technology Appraisal Group (ScHARR-TAG) at the University of Sheffield was commissioned to act as the independent evidence review group (ERG). The ERG produced a review of the evidence for the clinical and cost effectiveness of mepolizumab as add-on to standard of care (SoC) compared with SoC and omalizumab, based upon the company's submission to NICE. The clinical-effectiveness evidence in the company's submission was based predominantly on three randomised controlled trials (DREAM, MENSA and SIRIUS) comparing add-on mepolizumab with placebo plus SoC. The relevant population was defined in terms of degree of asthma severity (four or more exacerbations in the previous year and/or dependency on maintenance oral corticosteroids [mOCS]) and degree of eosinophilia (a blood eosinophil count of ≥ 300 cells/µl in the previous year) based on post hoc subgroup analyses of the pivotal trials. Other subpopulations were considered throughout the appraisal, defined by different eosinophil measurements, number of exacerbations and dependency (or lack thereof) on mOCS. Statistically significant reductions in clinically significant exacerbations were observed in patients receiving mepolizumab compared with SoC meta-analysed across MENSA and DREAM in the modified intention-to-treat (ITT) population (rate ratio [RR] 0.51; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.42-0.62) as well as in the relevant population (RR 0.47; 95% CI 0.36-0.62). In terms of quality of life, differences on the St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire in MENSA for add-on subcutaneous mepolizumab 100 mg vs. placebo were 7 and 7.5 units in the modified ITT and

  20. Evidence-based recommendations for bowel cleansing before colonoscopy in children: a report from a national working group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, D; Levine, A; Weiss, B; Hirsh, A; Shamir, R; Shaoul, R; Berkowitz, D; Bujanover, Y; Cohen, S; Eshach-Adiv, O; Jamal, Gera; Kori, M; Lerner, A; On, A; Rachman, L; Rosenbach, Y; Shamaly, H; Shteyer, E; Silbermintz, A; Yerushalmi, B

    2010-12-01

    There are no current recommendations for bowel cleansing before colonoscopy in children. The Israeli Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition (ISPGAN) established an iterative working group to formulate evidence-based guidelines for bowel cleansing in children prior to colonoscopy. Data were collected by systematic review of the literature and via a national-based survey of all endoscopy units in Israel. Based on the strength of evidence, the Committee reached consensus on six recommended protocols in children. Guidelines were finalized after an open audit of ISPGAN members. Data on 900 colonoscopies per year were accrued, which represents all annual pediatric colonoscopies performed in Israel. Based on the literature review, the national survey, and the open audit, several age-stratified pediatric cleansing protocols were proposed: two PEG-ELS protocols (polyethylene-glycol with electrolyte solution); Picolax-based protocol (sodium picosulphate with magnesium citrate); sodium phosphate protocol (only in children over the age of 12 years who are at low risk for renal damage); stimulant laxative-based protocol (e. g. bisacodyl); and a PEG 3350-based protocol. A population-based analysis estimated that the acute toxicity rate of oral sodium phosphate is at most 3/7320 colonoscopies (0.041 %). Recommendations on diet and enema use are provided in relation to each proposed protocol. There is no ideal bowel cleansing regimen and, thus, various protocols are in use. We propose several evidence-based protocols to optimize bowel cleansing in children prior to colonoscopy and minimize adverse events. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Ixazomib for Relapsed or Refractory Multiple Myeloma: Review from an Evidence Review Group on a NICE Single Technology Appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armoiry, Xavier; Connock, Martin; Tsertsvadze, Alexander; Cummins, Ewen; Melendez-Torres, G J; Royle, Pam; Clarke, Aileen

    2018-03-26

    Ixazomib is an oral proteasome inhibitor used in combination with lenalidomide plus dexamethasone (IXA-LEN-DEX) and licensed for relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. As part of a single technology appraisal (ID807) undertaken by the National Institute of Health and Care Excellence, the Evidence Review Group, Warwick Evidence was invited to independently review the evidence submitted by the manufacturer of ixazomib, Takeda UK Ltd. The main source of clinical effectiveness data about IXA-LEN-DEX came from the Tourmaline-MM1 randomized controlled trial in which 771 patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma received either IXA-LEN-DEX or placebo-LEN-DEX as their second-, third-, or fourth-line treatment. Takeda estimated the cost effectiveness of IXA-LEN-DEX using a de-novo partitioned-survival model with three health states (pre-progression, post-progression, and dead). In their first submission, this model was used to estimate the cost effectiveness of IXA-LEN-DEX vs. bortezomib plus dexamethasone (BORT-DEX) in second-line treatment, and of IXA-LEN-DEX vs. LEN-DEX in third-line treatment. To estimate the relative clinical performance of IXA-LEN-DEX vs. BORT-DEX, Takeda conducted network meta-analyses for important outcomes. The network meta-analysis for overall survival was found to be flawed in several respects, but mainly because a hazard ratio input for one of the studies in the network had been inverted, resulting in a large inflation of the claimed superiority of IXA-LEN-DEX over BORT-DEX and a considerable overestimation of its cost effectiveness. In subsequent submissions, Takeda withdrew second-line treatment as an option for IXA-LEN-DEX. The manufacturer's first submission comparing IXA-LEN-DEX with LEN-DEX for third-line therapy employed Tourmaline-MM1 data from third- and fourth-line patients as proxy for a third-line population. The appraisal committee did not consider this reasonable because randomization in Tourmaline-MM1 was stratified

  2. Single case design studies in music therapy: resurrecting experimental evidence in small group and individual music therapy clinical settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Kamile; Hitchcock, John H

    2014-01-01

    The profession would benefit from greater and routine generation of causal evidence pertaining to the impact of music therapy interventions on client outcomes. One way to meet this goal is to revisit the use of Single Case Designs (SCDs) in clinical practice and research endeavors in music therapy. Given the appropriate setting and goals, this design can be accomplished with small sample sizes and it is often appropriate for studying music therapy interventions. In this article, we promote and discuss implementation of SCD studies in music therapy settings, review the meaning of internal study validity and by extension the notion of causality, and describe two of the most commonly used SCDs to demonstrate how they can help generate causal evidence to inform the field. In closing, we describe the need for replication and future meta-analysis of SCD studies completed in music therapy settings. SCD studies are both feasible and appropriate for use in music therapy clinical practice settings, particularly for testing effectiveness of interventions for individuals or small groups. © the American Music Therapy Association 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Revisiting measurement invariance in intelligence testing in aging research: Evidence for almost complete metric invariance across age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Briana N; Hyun, Jinshil; Molenaar, Peter C M

    2017-01-01

    Invariance of intelligence across age is often assumed but infrequently explicitly tested. Horn and McArdle (1992) tested measurement invariance of intelligence, providing adequate model fit but might not consider all relevant aspects such as sub-test differences. The goal of the current paper is to explore age-related invariance of the WAIS-R using an alternative model that allows direct tests of age on WAIS-R subtests. Cross-sectional data on 940 participants aged 16-75 from the WAIS-R normative values were used. Subtests examined were information, comprehension, similarities, vocabulary, picture completion, block design, picture arrangement, and object assembly. The two intelligence factors considered were fluid and crystallized intelligence. Self-reported ages were divided into young (16-22, n = 300), adult (29-39, n = 275), middle (40-60, n = 205), and older (61-75, n = 160) adult groups. Results suggested partial metric invariance holds. Although most of the subtests reflected fluid and crystalized intelligence similarly across different ages, invariance did not hold for block design on fluid intelligence and picture arrangement on crystallized intelligence for older adults. Additionally, there was evidence of a correlated residual between information and vocabulary for the young adults only. This partial metric invariance model yielded acceptable model fit compared to previously-proposed invariance models of Horn and McArdle (1992). Almost complete metric invariance holds for a two-factor model of intelligence. Most of the subtests were invariant across age groups, suggesting little evidence for age-related bias in the WAIS-R. However, we did find unique relationships between two subtests and intelligence. Future studies should examine age-related differences in subtests when testing measurement invariance in intelligence.

  4. Teenagers and emergency contraception in the UK: a focus group study of salient beliefs using concepts from the Theory of Planned Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayley, Julie; Brown, Katherine; Wallace, Louise

    2009-06-01

    To explore teenagers' beliefs about emergency contraception (EC) within a Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) framework. Six single sex focus groups comprising a total of 25 female and 23 male pupils aged 13-16 years conducted in schools in Central England. Attitudes to emergency contraception (EC) were mainly positive about the rewards of avoiding teenage pregnancy. Participants had positive beliefs about the effectiveness of EC, although knowledge of crucial time limits varied. EC use was more socially acceptable than teenage pregnancy, yet both outcomes were perceived negatively. Motivation to comply with social pressure was influenced by the appraisal of individuals' intentions. Participants reported high self efficacy in accessing EC, but had concerns over confidentiality and access. Desire to avoid pregnancy was high in this group, but practical factors and attitudes may be more important for those ambivalent about pregnancy. Adolescents perceive accessing EC as difficult, are concerned about confidentiality, and anticipate negative reactions from staff. Data support the TPB as a suitable framework for understanding attitudes to EC use. Further research should apply quantitative TPB measures to EC use in a wider teenage sample in order to identify potential psychological factors to target in an intervention.

  5. Ultraviolet vision in lacertid lizards: evidence from retinal structure, eye transmittance, SWS1 visual pigment genes and behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez i de Lanuza, Guillem; Font, Enrique

    2014-08-15

    Ultraviolet (UV) vision and UV colour patches have been reported in a wide range of taxa and are increasingly appreciated as an integral part of vertebrate visual perception and communication systems. Previous studies with Lacertidae, a lizard family with diverse and complex coloration, have revealed the existence of UV-reflecting patches that may function as social signals. However, confirmation of the signalling role of UV coloration requires demonstrating that the lizards are capable of vision in the UV waveband. Here we use a multidisciplinary approach to characterize the visual sensitivity of a diverse sample of lacertid species. Spectral transmission measurements of the ocular media show that wavelengths down to 300 nm are transmitted in all the species sampled. Four retinal oil droplet types can be identified in the lacertid retina. Two types are pigmented and two are colourless. Fluorescence microscopy reveals that a type of colourless droplet is UV-transmitting and may thus be associated with UV-sensitive cones. DNA sequencing shows that lacertids have a functional SWS1 opsin, very similar at 13 critical sites to that in the presumed ancestral vertebrate (which was UV sensitive) and other UV-sensitive lizards. Finally, males of Podarcis muralis are capable of discriminating between two views of the same stimulus that differ only in the presence/absence of UV radiance. Taken together, these results provide convergent evidence of UV vision in lacertids, very likely by means of an independent photopigment. Moreover, the presence of four oil droplet types suggests that lacertids have a four-cone colour vision system. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Ponatinib for Treating Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia: An Evidence Review Group Perspective of a NICE Single Technology Appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandor, Abdullah; Stevenson, Matt; Stevens, John; James, Marrissa Martyn-St; Hamilton, Jean; Byrne, Jenny; Rudin, Claudius; Rawdin, Andrew; Wong, Ruth

    2018-02-26

    As part of its single technology appraisal process, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) invited the company that manufactures ponatinib (Inclusig ® ; Incyte Corporation) to submit evidence for the clinical and cost effectiveness for previously treated chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) and Philadelphia-chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (Ph+ ALL). This paper focusses on the three phases of CML: the chronic phase (CP), the accelerated phase (AP) and the blast crisis phase (BP). The School of Health and Related Research Technology Appraisal Group at the University of Sheffield was commissioned to act as the independent Evidence Review Group (ERG). This article presents the critical review of the company's submission by the ERG and the outcome of the NICE guidance. Clinical evidence for ponatinib was derived from a phase II, industry-sponsored, single-arm, open-label, multicentre, non-comparative study. Despite the limited evidence and potential for biases, this study demonstrated that ponatinib was likely to be an effective treatment (in terms of major cytogenetic response and major haematological response) with an acceptable safety profile for patients with CML. Given the absence of any head-to-head studies comparing ponatinib with other relevant comparators, the company undertook a matching-adjusted indirect comparison (MAIC) of ponatinib with bosutinib. The approach was only used for patients with CP-CML because comprehensive data were not available for the AP- or BP-CML groups to allow the matching technique to be used. Despite the uncertainty about the MAIC approach, ponatinib was considered likely to offer advantages over bosutinib in the third-line setting, particularly for complete cytogenetic response. The company developed two health economic models to assess the cost effectiveness of ponatinib for the treatment of patients in CP-CML or in advanced CML (AP- or BP-CML, which were modelled separately). The company did

  7. Video games as virtual teachers: Prosocial video game use by children and adolescents from different socioeconomic groups is associated with increased empathy and prosocial behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Harrington, Brian; O'Connell, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The main aim of this study was to determine if there was a positive relationship between prosocial video game use and prosocial behaviour in children and adolescents. Method: This study had a cross-sectional correlational design. Data were collected from 538 9–15 year old children and adolescents between March and December 2014. Participants completed measures of empathy, prosocial behaviour and video game habits. Teachers rated the prosocial behaviour of participants. The socioeco...

  8. Does a one-day workshop improve clinical faculty's comfort and behaviour in practising and teaching evidence-based medicine? A Canadian mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, David; Abourbih, Jacques; Maar, Marion; Boesch, Lisa; Goertzen, James; Cervin, Catherine

    2017-07-13

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of a 1-day evidence-based medicine (EBM) workshop on physician attitudes and behaviours around teaching and practicing EBM. A mixed methods study using a before/after cohort. A medical school delivering continuing professional development to 1250 clinical faculty over a large geographic area in Canada. 105 physician clinical faculty members. A 1-day workshop presented at 11 different sites over an 18-month period focusing on EBM skills for teaching and clinical practice. (1) A quantitative survey administered immediately before and after the workshop, and 3-6 months later, to assess the hypothesis that comfort with teaching and practising EBM can be improved.(2) A qualitative survey of the expectations for, and impact of the workshop on, participant behaviours and attitudes using a combination of pre, post and 3 to 6-month follow-up questionnaires, and telephone interviews completed 10-14 months after the workshop. Physician comfort with their EBM clinical skills improved on average by 0.93 points on a 5-point Likert scale, and comfort with EBM teaching skills by 0.97 points (p values 0.001). Most of this improvement was sustained 3-6 months later. Three to fourteen months after the workshop, half of responding participants reported that they were using the Population Intervention Comparator Outcome (PICO) methodology of question framing for teaching, clinical practice or both. Comfort in teaching and practicing EBM can be improved by a 1-day workshop, with most of this improvement sustained 3-6 months later. PICO question framing can be learnt at a 1-day workshop, and is associated with a self-reported change in clinical and teaching practice 3-14 months later. This represents both level 2 (attitudes) and level 3 (behaviours) change using the Kirkpatrick model of evaluation. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial

  9. Fanconi anemia group A and C double-mutant mice: functional evidence for a multi-protein Fanconi anemia complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Meenakshi; Battaile, Kevin P; Bateman, Raynard; Lax, Timothy P; Rathbun, Keany; Reifsteck, Carol; Bagby, Grover; Finegold, Milton; Olson, Susan; Grompe, Markus

    2002-07-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder associated with defects in at least eight genes. The biochemical function(s) of the FA proteins are unknown, but together they define the FA pathway, which is involved in cellular responses to DNA damage and in other cellular processes. It is currently unknown whether all FA proteins are involved in controlling a single function or whether some of the FA proteins have additional roles. The aim of this study was 1) to determine whether the FA group A and group C genes have identical or partially distinct functions, and 2) to have a better model for human FA. We generated mice with a targeted mutation in fanca and crossed them with fancc disrupted animals. Several phenotypes including sensitivity to DNA cross linkers and ionizing radiation, hematopoietic colony growth, and germ cell loss were analyzed in fanca-/-, fancc-/-, fanca/fancc double -/-, and controls. Fibroblast cells and hematopoietic precursors from fanca/fancc double-mutant mice were not more sensitive to MMC than those of either single mutant. fanca/fancc double mutants had no evidence for an additive phenotype at the cellular or organismal level. These results support a model where both FANCA and FANCC are part of a multi-protein nuclear FA complex with identical function in cellular responses to DNA damage and germ cell survival.

  10. Polymorphism of CRISPR shows separated natural groupings of Shigella subtypes and evidence of horizontal transfer of CRISPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chaojie; Li, Peng; Su, Wenli; Li, Hao; Liu, Hongbo; Yang, Guang; Xie, Jing; Yi, Shengjie; Wang, Jian; Cui, Xianyan; Wu, Zhihao; Wang, Ligui; Hao, Rongzhang; Jia, Leili; Qiu, Shaofu; Song, Hongbin

    2015-01-01

    Clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) act as an adaptive RNA-mediated immune mechanism in bacteria. They can also be used for identification and evolutionary studies based on polymorphisms within the CRISPR locus. We amplified and analyzed 6 CRISPR loci from 237 Shigella strains belonging to the 4 species groups, as well as 13 Escherichia coli strains. The CRISPR-associated (cas) gene sequence arrays of these strains were screened and compared. The CRISPR sequences from Shigella were conserved among subtypes, suggesting that CRISPR may represent a new identification tool for the detection and discrimination of Shigella species. Secondary structure analysis showed a different stem-loop structure at the terminal repeat, suggesting a distinct recognition mechanism in the formation of crRNA. In addition, the presence of “self-target” spacers and polymorphisms within CRISPR in Shigella indicated a selective pressure for inhibition of this system, which has the potential to damage “self DNA.” Homology analysis of spacers showed that CRISPR might be involved in the regulation of virulence transmission. Phylogenetic analysis based on CRISPR sequences from Shigella and E. coli indicated that although phenotypic properties maintain convergent evolution, the 4 Shigella species do not represent natural groupings. Surprisingly, comparative analysis of Shigella repeats with other species provided new evidence for CRISPR horizontal transfer. Our results suggested that CRISPR analysis is applicable for the detection of Shigella species and for investigation of evolutionary relationships. PMID:26327282

  11. Polymorphism of CRISPR shows separated natural groupings of Shigella subtypes and evidence of horizontal transfer of CRISPR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chaojie; Li, Peng; Su, Wenli; Li, Hao; Liu, Hongbo; Yang, Guang; Xie, Jing; Yi, Shengjie; Wang, Jian; Cui, Xianyan; Wu, Zhihao; Wang, Ligui; Hao, Rongzhang; Jia, Leili; Qiu, Shaofu; Song, Hongbin

    2015-01-01

    Clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) act as an adaptive RNA-mediated immune mechanism in bacteria. They can also be used for identification and evolutionary studies based on polymorphisms within the CRISPR locus. We amplified and analyzed 6 CRISPR loci from 237 Shigella strains belonging to the 4 species groups, as well as 13 Escherichia coli strains. The CRISPR-associated (cas) gene sequence arrays of these strains were screened and compared. The CRISPR sequences from Shigella were conserved among subtypes, suggesting that CRISPR may represent a new identification tool for the detection and discrimination of Shigella species. Secondary structure analysis showed a different stem-loop structure at the terminal repeat, suggesting a distinct recognition mechanism in the formation of crRNA. In addition, the presence of "self-target" spacers and polymorphisms within CRISPR in Shigella indicated a selective pressure for inhibition of this system, which has the potential to damage "self DNA." Homology analysis of spacers showed that CRISPR might be involved in the regulation of virulence transmission. Phylogenetic analysis based on CRISPR sequences from Shigella and E. coli indicated that although phenotypic properties maintain convergent evolution, the 4 Shigella species do not represent natural groupings. Surprisingly, comparative analysis of Shigella repeats with other species provided new evidence for CRISPR horizontal transfer. Our results suggested that CRISPR analysis is applicable for the detection of Shigella species and for investigation of evolutionary relationships.

  12. An exploration of beliefs and attitudes regarding healthy lifestyle behaviour in an urban population in The Netherlands: Results from a focus group study in a community-based prevention project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloosterboer, Sanne M; van den Brekel, Karolien; Rengers, Antonia H; Peek, Niels; de Wit, Niek J

    2015-06-01

    The positive effects of lifestyle intervention programmes might be enhanced when targeted to the health-related behaviour of the users. This study explores the beliefs and attitudes regarding a healthy lifestyle, the influences on lifestyle behavioural change and the needs to support a healthy lifestyle in the local community, during an integrated community-based prevention project in newly developed urban area in the Netherlands. Three focus groups were conducted with urban residents aged 45-70 (n = 28). Thematic qualitative analysis was applied to verbatim transcripts to identify emerging themes. The following themes were identified: beliefs to healthy behaviour, responsibility for health, perceived behavioural control, external influences on behavioural change and needs in the local community. Within these themes, personal responsibility for health and the influence of the social and physical environment emerged to be important for health and lifestyle. The participants expressed the need for clearly organized health and lifestyle facilities, a personalized approach and an easily accessible health risk assessment to support lifestyle behavioural change in the community. In our study, urban residents experienced a strong influence of the social and physical environment to their lifestyle behaviour. This finding supports an integrated approach for preventive health services in this population. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  13. Testing of Models for Predicting the Behaviour of Radionuclides in Freshwater Systems and Coastal Areas. Report of the Aquatic Working Group of EMRAS Theme 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    During last decades a number of projects have been launched to validate models for predicting the behaviour of radioactive substances in the environment. Such projects took advantage from the great deal of experimental data gathered, following the accidental introduction of radionuclides into the environment (the accident at the Chernobyl power plant was the most obvious example), to assess the contamination levels of components of the ecosystem and of the human food chain. These projects stimulated intensive efforts for improving the reliability of the models aimed at predicting the migration of 137 Cs in lakes and of 137 Cs and 90 Sr in rivers. However, there are few examples of similar extensive model validation studies for other aquatic systems, such as coastal waters, or for other long lived radionuclides of potential radiological importance for freshwater systems. The validation of models for predicting the behaviour of radionuclides in the freshwater environment and coastal areas was the object of the EMRAS working group on testing of models for predicting the behaviour of radionuclides in freshwater systems and coastal areas. Five scenarios have been considered: (1) Wash-off of 90 Sr and 137 Cs deposits from the Pripyat floodplain (Ukraine). Modellers were asked to predict the time dependent water contamination of Pripyat River following the inundation of the river floodplain heavily contaminated following the Chernobyl accident. Available input data were the deposits of radionuclides in the floodplain, the time dependent contamination of water in the river entering the floodplain, the water fluxes and several other morphological, meteorological and hydrological data. Concentrations of radionuclides in the water of the River Prypiat down-stream of the floodplain were supplied to assess the performances of the models. (2) Radionuclide discharge from the Dnieper River (Ukraine) into its estuary in the Black Sea. Modellers were asked to predict the time

  14. A review of evidence-based early intervention for behavioural problems in children with autism spectrum disorder: the core components of effective programs, child-focused interventions and comprehensive treatment models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonge, Bruce J; Bull, Kerry; Brereton, Avril; Wilson, Rebecca

    2014-03-01

    This article reviews recent evidence and other earlier relevant articles regarding early intervention studies for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). There is a well-established body of empirical evidence for the effectiveness of Early Intensive Behavioural Intervention (EIBI) with young children with ASD. The importance of parent skills training, education and positive behaviour support is also a key factor in influencing outcomes. Drug treatment is of short-term benefit for disruptive behaviour but long-term outcome and metabolic side-effects have not been studied. Few studies have measured the long-term value and effectiveness of early intervention treatments, and currently there are no articles published on effects into adulthood of such treatments. Such research would indicate whether early intervention results in reduced reliance on health services into adulthood.

  15. Allochronic speciation, secondary contact, and reproductive character displacement in periodical cicadas (Hemiptera: Magicicada spp.): genetic, morphological, and behavioural evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, J R; Simon, C; Marshall, D C; Slon, K; Ehrhardt, C

    2001-03-01

    Periodical cicadas have proven useful in testing a variety of ecological and evolutionary hypotheses because of their unusual life history, extraordinary abundance, and wide geographical range. Periodical cicadas provide the best examples of synchronous periodicity and predator satiation in the animal kingdom, and are excellent illustrations of habitat partitioning (by the three morphologically distinct species groups), incipient species (the year classes or broods), and cryptic species (a newly discovered 13-year species, Magicicada neotredecim). They are particularly useful for exploring questions regarding speciation via temporal isolation, or allochronic speciation. Recently, data were presented that provided strong support for an instance of allochronic speciation by life-cycle switching. This speciation event resulted in the formation of a new 13-year species from a 17-year species and led to secondary contact between two formerly separated lineages, one represented by the new 13-year cicadas (and their 17-year ancestors), and the other represented by the pre-existing 13-year cicadas. Allozyme frequency data, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), and abdominal colour were shown to be correlated genetic markers supporting the life-cycle switching/allochronic speciation hypothesis. In addition, a striking pattern of reproductive character displacement in male call pitch and female pitch preference between the two 13-year species was discovered. In this paper we report a strong association between calling song pitch and mtDNA haplotype for 101 individuals from a single locality within the M. tredecim/M. neotredecim contact zone and a strong association between abdomen colour and mtDNA haplotype. We conclude by reviewing proposed mechanisms for allochronic speciation and reproductive character displacement.

  16. Issues Related to the Frequency of Exploratory Analyses by Evidence Review Groups in the NICE Single Technology Appraisal Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltenthaler, Eva; Carroll, Christopher; Hill-McManus, Daniel; Scope, Alison; Holmes, Michael; Rice, Stephen; Rose, Micah; Tappenden, Paul; Woolacott, Nerys

    2017-06-01

    Evidence Review Groups (ERGs) critically appraise company submissions as part of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) Single Technology Appraisal (STA) process. As part of their critique of the evidence submitted by companies, the ERGs undertake exploratory analyses to explore uncertainties in the company's model. The aim of this study was to explore pre-defined factors that might influence or predict the extent of ERG exploratory analyses. The aim of this study was to explore predefined factors that might influence or predict the extent of ERG exploratory analyses. We undertook content analysis of over 400 documents, including ERG reports and related documentation for the 100 most recent STAs (2009-2014) for which guidance has been published. Relevant data were extracted from the documents and narrative synthesis was used to summarise the extracted data. All data were extracted and checked by two researchers. Forty different companies submitted documents as part of the NICE STA process. The most common disease area covered by the STAs was cancer (44%), and most ERG reports (n = 93) contained at least one exploratory analysis. The incidence and frequency of ERG exploratory analyses does not appear to be related to any developments in the appraisal process, the disease area covered by the STA, or the company's base-case incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). However, there does appear to be a pattern in the mean number of analyses conducted by particular ERGs, but the reasons for this are unclear and potentially complex. No clear patterns were identified regarding the presence or frequency of exploratory analyses, apart from the mean number conducted by individual ERGs. More research is needed to understand this relationship.

  17. Staying in the Here-and-Now: A Pilot Study on the Use of Dialectical Behaviour Therapy Group Skills Training for Forensic Clients with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakdalan, J. A.; Shaw, J.; Collier, V.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Dialectic behaviour therapy (DBT) has been widely used with individuals diagnosed with borderline personality disorder who exhibit severe emotional and behavioural dysregulation. There is a paucity of research in assessing the effectiveness of DBT with forensic clients with intellectual disability (ID). Methods: This pilot study aims…

  18. Strategies in behaviour modification: theoretical background : an introductory literature study for the OECD-Expert Group on "Enforcement and Rewarding: Strategies and effects"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koornstra, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    In the domain of traffic safety, attempts in the past to modify the behaviour of individuals through punishment and rewards have been carried out in a largely ad hoc and unsystematic manner, despite the fact that behaviour modification has been a central topic in psychology for nearly a century. In

  19. No evidence of the effect of extreme weather events on annual occurrence of four groups of ectothermic species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka H Malinowska

    Full Text Available Weather extremes may have strong effects on biodiversity, as known from theoretical and modelling studies. Predicted negative effects of increased weather variation are found only for a few species, mostly plants and birds in empirical studies. Therefore, we investigated correlations between weather variability and patterns in occupancy, local colonisations and local extinctions (metapopulation metrics across four groups of ectotherms: Odonata, Orthoptera, Lepidoptera, and Reptilia. We analysed data of 134 species on a 1×1 km-grid base, collected in the last 20 years from the Netherlands, combining standardised data and opportunistic data. We applied dynamic site-occupancy models and used the results as input for analyses of (i trends in distribution patterns, (ii the effect of temperature on colonisation and persistence probability, and (iii the effect of years with extreme weather on all the three metapopulation metrics. All groups, except butterflies, showed more positive than negative trends in metapopulation metrics. We did not find evidence that the probability of colonisation or persistence increases with temperature nor that extreme weather events are reflected in higher extinction risks. We could not prove that weather extremes have visible and consistent negative effects on ectothermic species in temperate northern hemisphere. These findings do not confirm the general prediction that increased weather variability imperils biodiversity. We conclude that weather extremes might not be ecologically relevant for the majority of species. Populations might be buffered against weather variation (e.g. by habitat heterogeneity, or other factors might be masking the effects (e.g. availability and quality of habitat. Consequently, we postulate that weather extremes have less, or different, impact in real world metapopulations than theory and models suggest.

  20. Simple, low-cost group-counselling programme vs treatment as usual for patients with newly notified occupational hand eczema-Exploratory analyses of effects on knowledge, behaviour and personal resources of the randomized PREVEX clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Maja H; Agner, Tove; Sørensen, Jennifer A

    2018-01-01

    and knowledge regarding skin protection and care, as well as personal resources, in patients with occupational hand eczema. METHODS: PREVEX is an individually randomized clinical trial investigating the 1-year effects of a simple, low-cost group-counselling programme vs treatment as usual for patients...... with notified occupational hand eczema. Exploratory outcomes were behaviour, knowledge, self-efficacy, and self-evaluated skin care ability. RESULTS: In total, 1668 patients with notified occupational skin disease were invited to participate, of whom 769 were randomized and 756 were analysed: intervention group...... (n = 376) vs control group (n = 380). Behaviour was improved and the knowledge score increased in the intervention group as compared with the control group (respectively: estimate 0.08; 95%CI: 0.02-0.19; P = .01; and estimate 0.49; 95%CI: 0.28-0.70; P 

  1. Micro worlds versus boundary objects in group model building; evidence from the literature on problem definition and model conceptulization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zagonel, Aldo A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Systems Engineering & Analysis; Andersen, David F. [University in Albany, NY (United States). The Rockefeller College of Public Affairs & Policy

    2007-03-01

    Based upon participant observation in group model building and content analysis of the system dynamics literature, we postulate that modeling efforts have a dual nature. On one hand, the modeling process aims to create a useful representation of a real-world system. This must be done, however, while aligning the clients’ mental models around a shared view of the system. There is significant overlap and confusion between these two goals and how they play out on a practical level. This research clarifies these distinctions by establishing an ideal-type dichotomy. To highlight the differences, we created two straw men: “micro world” characterizes a model that represents reality and “boundary object” represents a socially negotiated model. Using this framework, the literature was examined, revealing evidence for several competing views on problem definition and model conceptualization. The results are summarized in the text of this article, substantiated with strikingly polarized citations, often from the same authors. We also introduce hypotheses for the duality across the remaining phases of the modeling process. Finally, understanding and appreciation of the differences between these ideal types can promote constructive debate on their balance in system dynamics theory and practice.

  2. Characteristics of physicians and patients who join team-based primary care practices: evidence from Quebec's Family Medicine Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Natalie; Strumpf, Erin; Fiset-Laniel, Julie; Tousignant, Pierre; Roy, Yves

    2014-06-01

    New models of delivering primary care are being implemented in various countries. In Quebec, Family Medicine Groups (FMGs) are a team-based approach to enhance access to, and coordination of, care. We examined whether physicians' and patients' characteristics predicted their participation in this new model of primary care. Using provincial administrative data, we created a population cohort of Quebec's vulnerable patients. We collected data before the advent of FMGs on patients' demographic characteristics, chronic illnesses and health service use, and their physicians' demographics, and practice characteristics. Multivariate regression was used to identify key predictors of joining a FMG among both patients and physicians. Patients who eventually enrolled in a FMG were more likely to be female, reside outside of an urban region, have a lower SES status, have diabetes and congestive heart failure, visit the emergency department for ambulatory sensitive conditions and be hospitalized for any cause. They were also less likely to have hypertension, visit an ambulatory clinic and have a usual provider of care. Physicians who joined a FMG were less likely to be located in urban locations, had fewer years in medical practice, saw more patients in hospital, and had patients with lower morbidity. Physicians' practice characteristics and patients' health status and health care service use were important predictors of joining a FMG. To avoid basing policy decisions on tenuous evidence, policymakers and researchers should account for differential selection into team-based primary health care models. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  3. Baricitinib for Previously Treated Moderate or Severe Rheumatoid Arthritis: An Evidence Review Group Perspective of a NICE Single Technology Appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Shijie; Bermejo, Iñigo; Simpson, Emma; Wong, Ruth; Scott, David L; Young, Adam; Stevenson, Matt

    2018-03-03

    As part of its single technology appraisal process, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence invited the manufacturer (Eli Lilly) of baricitinib (BARI; Olumiant ® ; a Janus kinase inhibitor that is taken orally) to submit evidence of its clinical and cost effectiveness for the treatment of moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis (RA) after the failure of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs). The School of Health and Related Research Technology Appraisal Group at the University of Sheffield was commissioned to act as the independent Evidence Review Group (ERG). The ERG produced a detailed review of the evidence for the clinical and cost effectiveness of the technology, based on the company's submission (CS) to NICE. The clinical-effectiveness evidence in the CS for BARI was based predominantly on three randomised controlled trials comparing the efficacy of BARI against adalimumab or placebo, as well as one long-term extension study. The clinical-effectiveness review identified no head-to-head evidence on the efficacy of BARI against all the comparators within the scope. Therefore, the company performed network meta-analyses (NMAs) in two different populations: one in patients who had experienced an inadequate response to conventional DMARDs (cDMARD-IR), and the other in patients who had experienced an inadequate response to tumour necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFi-IR). The company's NMAs concluded BARI had comparable efficacy as the majority of its comparators in both populations. The company submitted a de novo discrete event simulation model that analysed the incremental cost-effectiveness of BARI versus its comparators for the treatment of RA from the perspective of the National Health Service (NHS) in four different populations: (1) cDMARD-IR patients with moderate RA, defined as a 28-Joint Disease Activity Score (DAS28) > 3.2 and no more than 5.1; (2) cDMARD-IR patients with severe RA (defined as a DAS28 > 5.1); (3) TNFi-IR patients

  4. Factors associated with faith-based health counselling in the United States: implications for dissemination of evidence-based behavioural medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, Elizabeth A; Bopp, Melissa; Webb, Benjamin

    2013-03-01

    Health counselling is an evidence-based behavioural medicine approach and the most commonly reported form of faith-based health interventions. Yet, no research has explored the factors influencing the implementation of faith-based health counselling. Therefore, this study examined individual, organisational and environmental factors associated with offering/not offering faith-based health counselling programmes within faith-based organisations. A national, internet-based, opt-in, cross-sectional survey of faith leaders (N = 676) was conducted (March-December 2009) to assess faith leaders' demographic information, health status, fatalism, health-related attitudes and normative beliefs, attitudes towards health counselling, institutional and occupational information, and perceptions of parent organisation support for health and wellness interventions. Most faith leaders reported offering some type of health counselling in the past year [n = 424, 62.7%, 95% CI (59.0, 66.3)]. Results of a multivariate logistic regression showed that faith leaders reporting greater proxy efficacy (OR = 1.40, P = 0.002), greater comfort in speaking with church members about health (OR = 1.25, P = 0.005), greater perceived health (OR = 1.27, P = 0.034), and who worked at larger churches (OR ≥ 3.2, P ≤ 0.001) with greater parent organisation support (OR = 1.33, P = 0.002) had significantly higher odds of offering faith-based health counselling. Church size and parent organisation support for faith-based health interventions appear to be important factors in the presence of faith leader health counselling. The content of faith leader health counselling training should aim to increase faith leaders' confidence that church members will successfully change their health behaviours as a result of the health counselling and increase faith leaders' comfort in speaking with church members about health. Future research is needed to examine efficacious and effective dissemination methods such as

  5. Memories of early attachment: the use of PBI as a predictor of outcome in Pesso-Boyden System Psychomotor (PBSP) group therapy, Cognitive-Behavioural Group Therapy (CBGT), Individual Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy (CBT) and Individual Treatment As Usual (TAU) with adult out-patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryum, Truls; Vogel, Patrick A; Hagen, Roger; Stiles, Tore C

    2008-01-01

    To examine the predictive validity of the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) for outcome in individual and group psychotherapy. Data from four different clinical trials were combined, yielding a total of 105 patients. After controlling for gender, age and initial symptomatic distress, the predictive validity of the PBI subscales was investigated using the symptom checklist-90-revised (SCL-90-R) and inventory of interpersonal problems-64 (IIP-64) at termination as dependent measures in each treatment condition using separate hierarchical multiple regression analyses. Using the SCL-90-R at termination as dependent measure, reports of higher paternal and maternal care were related to a worse outcome in the Pesso-Boyden System Psychomotor condition, whereas reports of higher paternal care were related to a better outcome in the Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy condition. Also, higher maternal protection was related to a better outcome in the Cognitive-Behavioral Group condition. Using the IIP-64 at termination as dependent measure, reports of higher paternal protection were related to a better outcome in the Treatment As Usual condition. The study shows that the PBI may function as a clinical predictor for treatment response, although the results were somewhat contrary to previous reportings. Future studies should contrast and investigate possible differences between individual and group treatments further, as well as more clearly defined diagnostic groups. Clinical implications are presented. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. "I've Lost My Husband, My House and I Need a New Knee...Why Should I Smile?": Action Research Evaluation of a Group Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Program for Older Adults with Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Lisa; Reid, Corinne

    2006-01-01

    The current paper details an action research approach to developing and evaluating a group cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) program for older adults (65+ years) experiencing depression. This approach allowed the development of a novel program and for each component of the program to be evaluated and modified in an iterative, developmental…

  7. Negotiating Left-Hand and Right-Hand Bends: A Motorcycle Simulator Study to Investigate Experiential and Behaviour Differences Across Rider Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crundall, Elizabeth; Crundall, David; Stedmon, Alex W.

    2012-01-01

    Why do motorcyclists crash on bends? To address this question we examined the riding styles of three groups of motorcyclists on a motorcycle simulator. Novice, experienced and advanced motorcyclists navigated a series of combined left and right bends while their speed and lane position were recorded. Each rider encountered an unexpected hazard on both a left- and right-hand bend section. Upon seeing the hazards, all riders decreased their speed before steering to avoid the hazard. Experienced riders tended to follow more of a racing line through the bends, which resulted in them having to make the most severe changes to their position to avoid a collision. Advanced riders adopted the safest road positions, choosing a position which offered greater visibility through the bends. As a result, they did not need to alter their road position in response to the hazard. Novice riders adopted similar road positions to experienced riders on the left-hand bends, but their road positions were more similar to advanced riders on right-hand bends, suggesting that they were more aware of the risks associated with right bends. Novice riders also adopted a safer position on post-hazard bends whilst the experienced riders failed to alter their behaviour even though they had performed the greatest evasive manoeuvre in response to the hazards. Advanced riders did not need to alter their position as their approach to the bends was already optimal. The results suggest that non-advanced riders were more likely to choose an inappropriate lane position than an inappropriate speed when entering a bend. Furthermore, the findings support the theory that expertise is achieved as a result of relearning, with advanced training overriding ‘bad habits’ gained through experience alone. PMID:22253845

  8. The life of relationship in globalized financial economic devices: Evidences from the experience of a group-analytic transcultural workshop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Lo Mauro

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present contribution - starting from the experience of the EATGA Workshop 2011 that took place in Palermo and that had as its theme “Intersubjective bonds in the globalized economy” - invites to reflect on the quality of the life of relationship and intersubjective connectedness in social contemporary world. One of the characterizing cultural phenomena influencing contemporary reality is made up by the dominant and pervasive presence of logic and language of financial markets in policies and activities that organize and articulate daily life. Theoretical hypothesis driving our research is that the structures of subjectivity, the meaning and the way of being in a relationship are characteristics (cultural themes that emerge within a defined cultural and historical system. In such a theoretical perspective, cultural themes are incorporated or interiorized by men belonging a shared cultural system and so became elements of the shared subjectivity and of the meanings given to intersubjective exchanges and bonds. From the workshop experience some meanings emerge concerning the role of economical-financial system in promoting codes and symbols that define the shape and the sense of relationship. The cultural codes of the market have gone out from the economic circle in which they were born and they are offered as organizers of affections and relationships. This is an evidence for the critical actual historical moment, in which the values and the cultural codes organized on the trust, on the reciprocity, on the common share and participation seems to be interdicted.Keywords: Transcultural Group-Analysis, Intersubjective Relationship, Cultural Models of the Exchange

  9. The Type and Impact of Evidence Review Group Exploratory Analyses in the NICE Single Technology Appraisal Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Christopher; Kaltenthaler, Eva; Hill-McManus, Daniel; Scope, Alison; Holmes, Michael; Rice, Stephen; Rose, Micah; Tappenden, Paul; Woolacott, Nerys

    2017-06-01

    As part of the UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) single technology appraisal process, independent evidence review groups (ERGs) critically appraise a company's submission relating to a specific technology and indication. To explore the type of additional exploratory analyses conducted by ERGs and their impact on the recommendations made by NICE. The 100 most recently completed single technology appraisals with published guidance were selected for inclusion. A content analysis of relevant documents was undertaken to identify and extract relevant data, and narrative synthesis was used to rationalize and present these data. The types of exploratory analysis conducted in relation to companies' models were fixing errors, addressing violations, addressing matters of judgment, and the provision of a new, ERG-preferred base case. Ninety-three of the 100 ERG reports contained at least one of these analyses. The most frequently reported type of analysis in these 93 ERG reports related to the category "Matters of judgment," which was reported in 83 reports (89%). At least one of the exploratory analyses conducted and reported by an ERG is mentioned in 97% of NICE appraisal consultation documents and 94% of NICE final appraisal determinations, and had a clear influence on recommendations in 72% of appraisal consultation documents and 47% of final appraisal determinations. These results suggest that the additional analyses undertaken by ERGs in the appraisal of company submissions are highly influential in the policy-making and decision-making process. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Venetoclax for Treating Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia: An Evidence Review Group Perspective of a NICE Single Technology Appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Hema; Nduka, Chidozie; Connock, Martin; Colquitt, Jill; Mantopoulos, Theodoros; Loveman, Emma; Walewska, Renata; Mason, James

    2018-04-01

    Venetoclax is licensed to treat relapsed or refractory (R/R) chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). As part of the Single Technology Appraisal (STA) ID944, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) invited AbbVie, the manufacturer, to submit evidence on the use of venetoclax, within its licensed indication. The Evidence Review Group (ERG), Warwick Evidence, was asked to provide an independent and critical review of the submitted evidence. Evidence came from three single-arm trials in CLL patients with or without 17p deletion [del(17p])/TP53 chromosomal abnormalities. The anticipated licensed indication specified that venetoclax-eligible del(17p)/TP53 patients should have not responded to, or be deemed unsuitable for, B-cell receptor inhibitor (BCRi) therapy, and that non-del(17p)/TP53 patients should have not responded to both chemoimmunotherapy and BCRi therapy. The three trials were heterogeneous in terms of both del(17p)/TP53 status and previous exposure to BCRi therapy. The M13-982 study investigated 158 R/R CLL patients with the 17p deletion, but only a small number had received previous BCRi therapy; the M12-175 study investigated 67 patients with CLL or small lymphocytic lymphoma, some with the 17p deletion, but very few previously treated with BCRi therapy; and the M14-032 study included 105 patients previously treated with BCRi therapy (either idelalisib or ibrutinib), some of whom had unknown mutation status. The ERG concluded that the study populations did not directly conform to those specified in the licensed indication or in the NICE scope. Outcomes reported included overall response rate (ORR), duration of response, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS); adverse events were reported for the pooled population of all three studies, as well as separately for each study. The median PFS was 41.4 and 27.2 months among patients in the M12-175 and M13-982 trials, respectively, whereas the median PFS was not reached in

  11. Some Possible Effects of Behaviour Management Training on Teacher Confidence and Competence: Evidence from a Study of Primary School Teachers in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Paul; Yan, Zi

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to explore the relationships between the extent and perceived quality of teachers' experience of training in behaviour management (BM), and their awareness of the nature and extent of behavioural problems among school students, and their confidence in their own competence to deal with such problems. Teachers (n = 183) from Hong…

  12. Group decision making in fission-fusion societies : Evidence from two-field experiments in Bechstein's bats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerth, Gerald; Ebert, Cornelia; Schmidtke, Christine

    2006-01-01

    Group decisions are required when group coordination is beneficial, but individuals can choose between alternatives. Despite the increased interest in animal group decision making, there is a lack of experimental field studies that investigate how animals with conflicting information make group

  13. Is concern about young people's anti-social behaviour associated with poor health? cross-sectional evidence from residents of deprived urban neighbourhoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egan Matt

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Young people in disadvantaged neighbourhoods are often the focus of concerns about anti-social behaviour (ASB. There is inconsistent evidence to support the hypothesis that perceptions of ASB (PASB are associated with poor health. We ask whether perceptions of young people's ASB are associated with poor health; and whether health, demographic and (psychosocial characteristics can help explain why PASB varies within disadvantaged neighbourhoods (Glasgow, UK. Methods Regression analysis of survey data exploring associations between perceiving teenagers hanging around to be a serious neighbourhood problem and SF-12v2 mental and physical health scores (higher = better, including adjustment for demographic characteristics. Further analysis explored associations with self-reported measures of health service use, psychosocial characteristics of homes and neighbourhoods and social contacts. Results 6008 adults participated (50% response and 22% (n = 1,332 said teenagers were a serious neighbourhood problem (the most frequently reported local problem. Demographic characteristics associated with perceiving serious teenager problems included regular health service use, age (inverse relationship, financial problems and living with children. Lower SF-12v2 physical health scores were associated with perceiving teenager problems after adjustment for demographic variables (OR 0.98; 95%CI 0.97,0.99; p = p = 0.103. Further analysis suggested that perceiving teenager problems was more strongly associated with a number of self-reported psychosocial factors: e.g. lacking social support, Conclusions Given the evidence we found of weak and small associations between PASB and health, we caution against assuming that tackling concern about teenagers' ASB will lead to substantial public health gains in disadvantaged areas. Although the findings do not present a compelling case for making PASB a public health priority, it is still important to address

  14. Cochrane Qualitative and Implementation Methods Group guidance series-paper 5: methods for integrating qualitative and implementation evidence within intervention effectiveness reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Angela; Thomas, James; Cargo, Margaret; Harris, Janet; Pantoja, Tomas; Flemming, Kate; Booth, Andrew; Garside, Ruth; Hannes, Karin; Noyes, Jane

    2018-05-01

    The Cochrane Qualitative and Implementation Methods Group develops and publishes guidance on the synthesis of qualitative and mixed-method evidence from process evaluations. Despite a proliferation of methods for the synthesis of qualitative research, less attention has focused on how to integrate these syntheses within intervention effectiveness reviews. In this article, we report updated guidance from the group on approaches, methods, and tools, which can be used to integrate the findings from quantitative studies evaluating intervention effectiveness with those from qualitative studies and process evaluations. We draw on conceptual analyses of mixed methods systematic review designs and the range of methods and tools that have been used in published reviews that have successfully integrated different types of evidence. We outline five key methods and tools as devices for integration which vary in terms of the levels at which integration takes place; the specialist skills and expertise required within the review team; and their appropriateness in the context of limited evidence. In situations where the requirement is the integration of qualitative and process evidence within intervention effectiveness reviews, we recommend the use of a sequential approach. Here, evidence from each tradition is synthesized separately using methods consistent with each tradition before integration takes place using a common framework. Reviews which integrate qualitative and process evaluation evidence alongside quantitative evidence on intervention effectiveness in a systematic way are rare. This guidance aims to support review teams to achieve integration and we encourage further development through reflection and formal testing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Behavioural treatment for chronic low-back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henschke, Nicholas; Ostelo, Raymond Wjg; van Tulder, Maurits W; Vlaeyen, Johan Ws; Morley, Stephen; Assendelft, Willem Jj; Main, Chris J

    2010-07-07

    Behavioural treatment is commonly used in the management of chronic low-back pain (CLBP) to reduce disability through modification of maladaptive pain behaviours and cognitive processes. Three behavioural approaches are generally distinguished: operant, cognitive, and respondent; but are often combined as a treatment package. To determine the effects of behavioural therapy for CLBP and the most effective behavioural approach. The Cochrane Back Review Group Trials Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO were searched up to February 2009. Reference lists and citations of identified trials and relevant systematic reviews were screened. Randomised trials on behavioural treatments for non-specific CLBP were included. Two review authors independently assessed the risk of bias in each study and extracted the data. If sufficient homogeneity existed among studies in the pre-defined comparisons, a meta-analysis was performed. We determined the quality of the evidence for each comparison with the GRADE approach. We included 30 randomised trials (3438 participants) in this review, up 11 from the previous version. Fourteen trials (47%) had low risk of bias. For most comparisons, there was only low or very low quality evidence to support the results. There was moderate quality evidence that:i) operant therapy was more effective than waiting list (SMD -0.43; 95%CI -0.75 to -0.11) for short-term pain relief;ii) little or no difference exists between operant, cognitive, or combined behavioural therapy for short- to intermediate-term pain relief;iii) behavioural treatment was more effective than usual care for short-term pain relief (MD -5.18; 95%CI -9.79 to -0.57), but there were no differences in the intermediate- to long-term, or on functional status;iv) there was little or no difference between behavioural treatment and group exercise for pain relief or depressive symptoms over the intermediate- to long-term;v) adding behavioural therapy to inpatient rehabilitation was

  16. Health needs and care seeking behaviours of Yazidis and other minority groups displaced by ISIS into the Kurdistan Region of Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetorelli, Valeria; Burnham, Gilbert; Shabila, Nazar

    2017-01-01

    During the summer of 2014, ISIS overran Nineveh governorate in Northern Iraq. Yazidis and other religious minorities were subjected to brutal attacks and forced to seek refuge into the neighbouring Kurdistan Region, where they remain living in local communities or in camps. This survey provides a population-based assessment of the health needs and care seeking behaviours of Yazidis and other groups currently residing in camps. The survey covered 13 camps managed by the Kurdish Board of Relief and Humanitarian Affairs. A systematic random sample of 1,300 households with a total of 8,360 members were interviewed between November and December 2015. Participants were asked if any household members had needed care for a health condition in the two weeks preceding the survey, and whether care was obtained from the camp primary health care centre, an outside public hospital or a private clinic. If care was received, the out-of-pocket payment was recorded; otherwise, the reason for not seeking care was queried. In 33.9% (CI: 31.0-37.0) of households one or more members had needed care for a health condition in the two weeks preceding the survey. The most likely to have needed care were older persons (18.5%; CI: 13.6-24.6) and infants (18.0%; CI: 11.6-26.8). The reported health conditions revealed a complex picture of communicable and non-communicable diseases as well as mental health problems and physical injuries. Care was primarily sought from private clinics (41.8%; CI: 36.4-47.4) or public hospitals (27.3%; CI: 22.6-32.7) rather than from the camp primary health care clinics (23.6%; CI: 19.5-28.2). The mean out-of-pocket payment for care received was nearly 3 times higher in public hospitals than in the camp primary health care clinics and nearly 11 times higher in private clinics. Cost was the main perceived barrier to obtaining health services. Demand for health services was high among Yazidis and other minorities living in camps. Private services were preferred in

  17. Effect of antenatal exposure to maternal smoking on behavioural problems and academic achievement in childhood : prospective evidence from a Dutch birth cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batstra, L; Hadders-Algra, M; Neeleman, J

    2003-01-01

    Aim: To examine effects of maternal smoking during pregnancy on academic achievement and emotional and behavioural problems during childhood. Methods: Least squares regression was used to examine associations between maternal smoking prior to delivery and subsequent academic performance and

  18. The Influence of Socio-economic, Behavioural and Environmental Factors on Taenia spp. Transmission in Western Kenya: Evidence from a Cross-Sectional Survey in Humans and Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardrop, Nicola A.; Thomas, Lian F.; Atkinson, Peter M.; de Glanville, William A.; Cook, Elizabeth A. J.; Wamae, C. Njeri; Gabriël, Sarah; Dorny, Pierre; Harrison, Leslie J. S.; Fèvre, Eric M.

    2015-01-01

    Taenia spp. infections, particularly cysticercosis, cause considerable health impacts in endemic countries. Despite previous evidence of spatial clustering in cysticercosis and the role of environmental factors (e.g. temperature and humidity) in the survival of eggs, little research has explored these aspects of Taenia spp. epidemiology. In addition, there are significant gaps in our understanding of risk factors for infection in humans and pigs. This study aimed to assess the influence of socio-economic, behavioural and environmental variables on human and porcine cysticercosis. A cross-sectional survey for human taeniasis (T. solium and T. saginata), human cysticercosis (T. solium) and pig cysticercosis (T. solium) in 416 households in western Kenya was carried out. These data were linked to questionnaire responses and environmental datasets. Multi-level regression was used to examine the relationships between covariates and human and porcine cysticercosis. The HP10 Ag-ELISA sero-prevalence (suggestive of cysticercosis) was 6.6% for humans (95% CI 5.6%–7.7%), and 17.2% for pigs (95% CI 10.2%–26.4%). Human taeniasis prevalence, based on direct microscopic observation of Taenia spp. eggs (i.e. via microscopy results only) was 0.2% (95% CI 0.05%–0.5%). Presence of Taenia spp. antigen in both humans and pigs was significantly associated with a range of factors, including positive correlations with land cover. The presence of HP10 antigen in humans was correlated (non-linearly) with the proportion of land within a 1 km buffer that was flooding agricultural land and grassland (odds ratio [OR] = 1.09 and 0.998; p = 0.03 and 0.03 for the linear and quadratic terms respectively), gender (OR = 0.58 for males compared to females, p = 0.02), level of education (OR = 0.62 for primary level education versus no formal education, p = 0.09), use of well water for drinking (OR = 2.76 for those who use well water versus those who do not, p = 0.02) and precipitation (OR = 0

  19. The Influence of Socio-economic, Behavioural and Environmental Factors on Taenia spp. Transmission in Western Kenya: Evidence from a Cross-Sectional Survey in Humans and Pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola A Wardrop

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Taenia spp. infections, particularly cysticercosis, cause considerable health impacts in endemic countries. Despite previous evidence of spatial clustering in cysticercosis and the role of environmental factors (e.g. temperature and humidity in the survival of eggs, little research has explored these aspects of Taenia spp.In addition, there are significant gaps in our understanding of risk factors for infection in humans and pigs. This study aimed to assess the influence of socio-economic, behavioural and environmental variables on human and porcine cysticercosis. A cross-sectional survey for human taeniasis (T. solium and T. saginata, human cysticercosis (T. solium and pig cysticercosis (T. solium in 416 households in western Kenya was carried out. These data were linked to questionnaire responses and environmental datasets. Multi-level regression was used to examine the relationships between covariates and human and porcine cysticercosis. The HP10 Ag-ELISA sero-prevalence (suggestive of cysticercosis was 6.6% for humans (95% CI 5.6%-7.7%, and 17.2% for pigs (95% CI 10.2%-26.4%. Human taeniasis prevalence, based on direct microscopic observation of Taenia spp. eggs (i.e. via microscopy results only was 0.2% (95% CI 0.05%-0.5%. Presence of Taenia spp. antigen in both humans and pigs was significantly associated with a range of factors, including positive correlations with land cover. The presence of HP10 antigen in humans was correlated (non-linearly with the proportion of land within a 1 km buffer that was flooding agricultural land and grassland (odds ratio [OR] = 1.09 and 0.998; p = 0.03 and 0.03 for the linear and quadratic terms respectively, gender (OR = 0.58 for males compared to females, p = 0.02, level of education (OR = 0.62 for primary level education versus no formal education, p = 0.09, use of well water for drinking (OR = 2.76 for those who use well water versus those who do not, p = 0.02 and precipitation (OR = 0.998, p = 0

  20. Cochrane Rapid Reviews Methods Group to play a leading role in guiding the production of informed high-quality, timely research evidence syntheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garritty, Chantelle; Stevens, Adrienne; Gartlehner, Gerald; King, Valerie; Kamel, Chris

    2016-10-28

    Policymakers and healthcare stakeholders are increasingly seeking evidence to inform the policymaking process, and often use existing or commissioned systematic reviews to inform decisions. However, the methodologies that make systematic reviews authoritative take time, typically 1 to 2 years to complete. Outside the traditional SR timeline, "rapid reviews" have emerged as an efficient tool to get evidence to decision-makers more quickly. However, the use of rapid reviews does present challenges. To date, there has been limited published empirical information about this approach to compiling evidence. Thus, it remains a poorly understood and ill-defined set of diverse methodologies with various labels. In recent years, the need to further explore rapid review methods, characteristics, and their use has been recognized by a growing network of healthcare researchers, policymakers, and organizations, several with ties to Cochrane, which is recognized as representing an international gold standard for high-quality, systematic reviews. In this commentary, we introduce the newly established Cochrane Rapid Reviews Methods Group developed to play a leading role in guiding the production of rapid reviews given they are increasingly employed as a research synthesis tool to support timely evidence-informed decision-making. We discuss how the group was formed and outline the group's structure and remit. We also discuss the need to establish a more robust evidence base for rapid reviews in the published literature, and the importance of promoting registration of rapid review protocols in an effort to promote efficiency and transparency in research. As with standard systematic reviews, the core principles of evidence-based synthesis should apply to rapid reviews in order to minimize bias to the extent possible. The Cochrane Rapid Reviews Methods Group will serve to establish a network of rapid review stakeholders and provide a forum for discussion and training. By facilitating

  1. People’s Motivation to Participate in Social Network Sites, Subsequent Behaviours, and Situation Self-Awareness following a Crisis: Evidence from the MH370 Flight Incident

    OpenAIRE

    Xuequn Wang

    2016-01-01

    As people increasingly integrate social network sites (SNSs) into their daily lives, they also turn to these sites for timely information following crises. To date, few studies have examined the effects of different types of motivation on participatory behaviours within SNSs following crises. In this study, self-determination theory (SDT) is applied to examine how individuals are motivated to participate in SNSs following a crisis and how individuals’ participatory behaviours can better assis...

  2. The Maintenance Effect of Cognitive-Behavioural Treatment Groups for the Chinese Parents of Children with Intellectual Disabilities in Melbourne, Australia: A 6-Month Follow-Up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, D. F. K.; Poon, A.; Kwok, Y. C. Lai

    2011-01-01

    Background: Caring for a child with intellectual disability can be stressful. No data on the longer-term effects of cognitive-behavioural treatment (CBT) on parents from a Chinese-speaking background who have children with intellectual disabilities are available in the literature. This study attempted to fill this research gap by examining the…

  3. Evidence from a Large Sample on the Effects of Group Size and Decision-Making Time on Performance in a Marketing Simulation Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treen, Emily; Atanasova, Christina; Pitt, Leyland; Johnson, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Marketing instructors using simulation games as a way of inducing some realism into a marketing course are faced with many dilemmas. Two important quandaries are the optimal size of groups and how much of the students' time should ideally be devoted to the game. Using evidence from a very large sample of teams playing a simulation game, the study…

  4. Group-based multimodal exercises integrated with cognitive-behavioural therapy improve disability, pain and quality of life of subjects with chronic neck pain: a randomized controlled trial with one-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monticone, Marco; Ambrosini, Emilia; Rocca, Barbara; Cazzaniga, Daniele; Liquori, Valentina; Pedrocchi, Alessandra; Vernon, Howard

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of a group-based multidisciplinary rehabilitation programme on disability, pain and quality of life in subjects with chronic neck pain. Randomized controlled trial. Specialized rehabilitation centre. A total of 170 patients (mean age of 53 years (13); 121 females). The multidisciplinary group underwent a multidisciplinary rehabilitation programme combining multimodal exercises with psychologist-lead cognitive-behavioural therapy sessions. The general exercise group underwent general physiotherapy. Both groups followed group-based programmes once a week for ten weeks. Additionally, the multidisciplinary group met with the psychologist once a week for a 60-minute session. The Neck Disability Index (primary outcome), the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia, the Pain Catastrophizing Scale, a pain numerical rating scale and the Short-Form Health Survey. The participants were evaluated before, after training and after 12 months. A linear mixed model for repeated measures was used for each outcome measure. Significant effects ( p-value rehabilitation programme including cognitive-behavioural therapy was superior to group-based general physiotherapy in improving disability, pain and quality of life of subjects with chronic neck pain. The effects lasted for at least one year.

  5. No evidence for a direct effect of von Willebrand factor's ABH blood group antigens on von Willebrand factor clearance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, D J; van Bekkum, T; Cheung, K L; Dirven, R J; Castaman, G; Reitsma, P H; van Vlijmen, B; Eikenboom, J

    BACKGROUND: One of the major determinants of von Willebrand factor (VWF) plasma levels is ABO blood group status, and individuals with blood group O have ~ 25% lower plasma levels. The exact mechanism behind this relationship remains unknown, although effects on clearance have been postulated.

  6. Group Incentives for Teachers and Their Effects on Student Learning: A Systematic Review of Theory and Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirivayi, Nyasha; Maasen van den Brink, Henriette; Groot, Wim

    2014-01-01

    The effects of teachers' group incentives on student achievement are examined by reviewing theoretical arguments and empirical studies published between 1990 and 2011. Studies from developing countries reported positive effects of group incentives on student test scores. However, experimental studies from developed countries reported insignificant…

  7. Evaluation of electronic discussion groups as a teaching/learning strategy in an evidence-based medicine course: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamin, C; Glicken, A; Hall, M; Quarantillo, B; Merenstein, G

    2001-01-01

    As course directors, we wished to incorporate small group learning into our Evidence-based Medicine course for students to get feedback on the development of a well constructed, researchable clinical question. Scheduling of these groups was problematic. We sought to evaluate computer-mediated communication as an alternative to face-to-face small groups. Students were randomly assigned to either face-to-face small groups or asynchronous, electronic, small groups. Final examination scores were analyzed with an analysis of variance to determine if there were differences in student performance based on group type. Student survey items were analyzed using Fisher's Exact test to determine if there were differences in student attitudes based on group type. There were no significant differences found in overall student performance. Significant differences in student attitudes were found to exist with respect to: (1) participation in discussions, with face-to-face groups reporting greater participation; (2) putting more thought into comments, with electronic groups reporting more thought put into comments; and (3) difficulty relating to other students in the class, with electronic groups reporting more difficulty. We found electronic discussion groups (computer-mediated communication) to be a viable teaching/learning strategy with no adverse effects on student performance or attitudes.

  8. Identification with social groups is associated with mental health in adolescents: Evidence from a Scottish community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kirsty; Wakefield, Juliet R H; Sani, Fabio

    2015-08-30

    The promotion and maintenance of mental health is an increasingly important societal issue. Previous research has shown that identification with social groups is positively associated with adult mental wellbeing, with multiple group identifications being particularly beneficial. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether the same is true for adolescents. 1111 Scottish secondary school students aged 13-17 completed a questionnaire investigating mental health symptoms and the extent of their identification with their family, school, and friendship groups. Higher identification with each group predicted better mental health. There was also an additive effect of group identification, with the odds of reporting psychiatric disturbance decreasing for every additional group with which participants identified strongly. These effects held even when age, gender, and group contact were controlled for. Our findings have implications for the prevention and treatment of mental problems, offering an alternative to traditional ways of viewing mental illness in adolescence and beyond. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Common RNA replication signals exist among group 2 coronaviruses: evidence for in vivo recombination between animal and human coronavius molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, H.-Y.; Guy, James S.; Yoo, Dongwan; Vlasak, Reinhard; Urbach, Ena; Brian, David A.

    2003-01-01

    5' and 3' UTR sequences on the coronavirus genome are known to carry cis-acting elements for DI RNA replication and presumably also virus genome replication. 5' UTR-adjacent coding sequences are also thought to harbor cis-acting elements. Here we have determined the 5' UTR and adjacent 289-nt sequences, and 3' UTR sequences, for six group 2 coronaviruses and have compared them to each other and to three previously reported group 2 members. Extensive regions of highly similar UTR sequences were found but small regions of divergence were also found indicating group 2 coronaviruses could be subdivided into those that are bovine coronavirus (BCoV)-like (BCoV, human respiratory coronavirus-OC43, human enteric coronavirus, porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus, and equine coronavirus) and those that are murine hepatitis virus (MHV)-like (A59, 2, and JHM strains of MHV, puffinosis virus, and rat sialodacryoadenitis virus). The 3' UTRs of BCoV and MHV have been previously shown to be interchangeable. Here, a reporter-containing BCoV DI RNA was shown to be replicated by all five BCoV-like helper viruses and by MHV-H2 (a human cell-adapted MHV strain), a representative of the MHV-like subgroup, demonstrating group 2 common 5' and 3' replication signaling elements. BCoV DI RNA, furthermore, acquired the leader of HCoV-OC43 by leader switching, demonstrating for the first time in vivo recombination between animal and human coronavirus molecules. These results indicate that common replication signaling elements exist among group 2 coronaviruses despite a two-cluster pattern within the group and imply there could exist a high potential for recombination among group members

  10. Impact of the WHO FCTC over the first decade: a global evidence review prepared for the Impact Assessment Expert Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung-Hall, Janet; Craig, Lorraine; Gravely, Shannon; Sansone, Natalie; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2018-06-07

    To present findings of a narrative review on the implementation and effectiveness of 17 Articles of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) during the Treaty's first decade. Published reports on global FCTC implementation; searches of four databases through June 2016; hand-search of publications/online resources; tobacco control experts. WHO Convention Secretariat global progress reports (2010, 2012, 2014); 2015 WHO report on the global tobacco epidemic; studies of social, behavioural, health, economic and/or environmental impacts of FCTC policies. Progress in the implementation of 17 FCTC Articles was categorised (higher/intermediate/lower) by consensus. 128 studies were independently selected by multiple authors in consultation with experts. Implementation was highest for smoke-free laws, health warnings and education campaigns, youth access laws, and reporting/information exchange, and lowest for measures to counter industry interference, regulate tobacco product contents, promote alternative livelihoods and protect health/environment. Price/tax increases, comprehensive smoking and marketing bans, health warnings, and cessation treatment are associated with decreased tobacco consumption/health risks and increased quitting. Mass media campaigns and youth access laws prevent smoking initiation, decrease prevalence and promote cessation. There were few studies on the effectiveness of policies in several domains, including measures to prevent industry interference and regulate tobacco product contents. The FCTC has increased the implementation of measures across several policy domains, and these implementations have resulted in measurable impacts on tobacco consumption, prevalence and other outcomes. However, FCTC implementation must be accelerated, and Parties need to meet all their Treaty obligations and consider measures that exceed minimum requirements. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article

  11. Gender and theory of mind in preschoolers' group effort: evidence for timing differences behind children's earliest social loafing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R Bruce; Thornton, Bill

    2014-01-01

    This study explored mental state reasoning within the context of group effort and possible differences in development between boys and girls. Preschool children (59 girls, 47 boys) were assessed for theory of mind (ToM) ability using classic false belief tests. Children participated in group effort conditions that alternated from one condition, where individual effort was transparent and obvious, to one where individual effort remained anonymous. The aim was to investigate if emergent mental state reasoning, after controlling for age, was associated with the well-known phenomenon of reduced effort in group tasks ("social loafing"). Girls had slightly higher ToM scores and social loafing than boys. Hierarchical regression, controlling for age, indicated that understanding of others' false beliefs uniquely predicted social loafing and interacted weakly with gender status.

  12. Are Firms in Corporate Groups More Resilient During an Economic Crisis? Evidence from the Manufacturing Sector in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Jankowska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Corporate groups are specific types of business networks that generate particular advantages for firms. They allow corporates to reduce costs, develop the pool of resources and increase the flexibility of operations and responses to external shocks among others. The above mentioned benefits are of even greater importance during times of economic turbulence. Their involvement in a corporate group should theoretically allow firms to perform better. The aim of this study is to verify whether corporate group membership truly translated into a firm’s higher input competitiveness and a firm’s better performance during the recent economic crisis. First, we try to investigate if the input competitiveness is higher in the case of firms being members of corporate groups. Second, we test whether the involvement in a corporate group matters for the performance of the firms. Using critical in-depth literature studies and conducting the primary empirical research using the CATI (computer-assisted telephone interviewing method we strive to verify the following hypothesis - the higher a company’s input competitiveness during the economic crisis, the better a competitive position the company achieves. The empirical research encompasses more than 700 corporates from the manufacturing sector in Poland during the global economic crisis and shortly afterwards. To investigate the issue we use the following methods of statistical analysis – cluster analysis, non-parametric tests and correlation coefficients. The results of the study show that firms involved in both Polish and international corporate groups were more resilient during the economic crisis than those which were not.

  13. Pertuzumab for the Neoadjuvant Treatment of Early-Stage HER2-Positive Breast Cancer: An Evidence Review Group Perspective of a NICE Single Technology Appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, Hazel; Pandor, Abdullah; Thokala, Praveen; Stevens, John W; Kaltenthaler, Eva; Clowes, Mark; Coleman, Robert; Wyld, Lynda

    2018-01-01

    As part of its single technology appraisal process, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence invited the manufacturer of pertuzumab (Perjeta ® ; Roche Products Limited) to submit evidence of its clinical and cost- effectiveness for the neoadjuvant treatment of women with high-risk, early-stage, HER2-positive breast cancer when used in combination with trastuzumab and chemotherapy. High-risk women included those with locally advanced (including inflammatory) breast cancer and women with high-risk early-stage breast cancer (classified as T2/3 or N1). The School of Health and Related Research Technology Appraisal Group at the University of Sheffield was commissioned to act as the independent Evidence Review Group. This article presents the critical review of the company's submission by the Evidence Review Group and the outcome of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidance. The clinical data were mainly taken from a phase II, randomised, open-label, active controlled study (NeoSphere), which reported a significant advantage in terms of pathological complete response rates of pertuzumab in combination with trastuzumab and chemotherapy, compared with trastuzumab alone with chemotherapy (45.8 vs. 29.0%, p = 0.0141). The company did not make any indirect comparisons. A meta-analysis of 12 neoadjuvant studies investigating the relationship between pathological complete response and event-free survival was used to extrapolate the outcomes reported in the NeoSphere study. A cardiac safety study (TRYPHAENA) demonstrated the safety of pertuzumab. The company undertook a model-based economic evaluation of neoadjuvant pertuzumab plus trastuzumab and docetaxel compared with neoadjuvant trastuzumab and docetaxel over a lifetime horizon from the National Health Service and Personal Social Services perspective. The probabilistic incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was estimated to be £20,104 per quality-adjusted life-year gained for pertuzumab

  14. Legal physician‐assisted dying in Oregon and the Netherlands: evidence concerning the impact on patients in “vulnerable” groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battin, Margaret P; van der Heide, Agnes; Ganzini, Linda; van der Wal, Gerrit

    2007-01-01

    Background Debates over legalisation of physician‐assisted suicide (PAS) or euthanasia often warn of a “slippery slope”, predicting abuse of people in vulnerable groups. To assess this concern, the authors examined data from Oregon and the Netherlands, the two principal jurisdictions in which physician‐assisted dying is legal and data have been collected over a substantial period. Methods The data from Oregon (where PAS, now called death under the Oregon Death with Dignity Act, is legal) comprised all annual and cumulative Department of Human Services reports 1998–2006 and three independent studies; the data from the Netherlands (where both PAS and euthanasia are now legal) comprised all four government‐commissioned nationwide studies of end‐of‐life decision making (1990, 1995, 2001 and 2005) and specialised studies. Evidence of any disproportionate impact on 10 groups of potentially vulnerable patients was sought. Results Rates of assisted dying in Oregon and in the Netherlands showed no evidence of heightened risk for the elderly, women, the uninsured (inapplicable in the Netherlands, where all are insured), people with low educational status, the poor, the physically disabled or chronically ill, minors, people with psychiatric illnesses including depression, or racial or ethnic minorities, compared with background populations. The only group with a heightened risk was people with AIDS. While extralegal cases were not the focus of this study, none have been uncovered in Oregon; among extralegal cases in the Netherlands, there was no evidence of higher rates in vulnerable groups. Conclusions Where assisted dying is already legal, there is no current evidence for the claim that legalised PAS or euthanasia will have disproportionate impact on patients in vulnerable groups. Those who received physician‐assisted dying in the jurisdictions studied appeared to enjoy comparative social, economic, educational, professional and other privileges. PMID

  15. NMR evidence for Co-Al-Co molecular groups trapped in cages of Co4Al13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeglic, P.; Heggen, M.; Feuerbacher, M.; Bauer, B.; Gille, P.; Haarmann, F.

    2009-01-01

    We present the results of 27 Al nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments on the phase Co 4 Al 13 . These results are compared to a recent structure model [1], which demonstrates a unique bonding for Al atoms in the Co-Al-Co molecular groups. In our measurement, two 27 Al signals were identified. The first one originates from Al atoms forming cages. The second signal corresponds to Al sites with exceptionally large almost axially symmetric quadrupole coupling. This finding is in perfect agreement with isolated Co-Al-Co molecular groups in accordance to Ref. [1].

  16. The evolutionary transition from subsocial to eusocial behaviour in Dictyoptera: phylogenetic evidence for modification of the "shift-in-dependent-care" hypothesis with a new subsocial cockroach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellens, Roseli; D'Haese, Cyrille A; Bellés, Xavier; Piulachs, Maria-Dolors; Legendre, Frédéric; Wheeler, Ward C; Grandcolas, Philippe

    2007-05-01

    Cockroaches have always been used to understand the first steps of social evolution in termites because they are close relatives with less complex and integrated social behaviour. Termites are all eusocial and ingroup comparative analysis would be useless to infer the origin of their social behaviour. The cockroach genus Cryptocercus was used as a so-called "prototermite" model because it shows key-attributes similar to the termites (except Termitidae): wood-feeding, intestinal flagellates and subsocial behaviour. In spite of these comparisons between this subsocial cockroach and eusocial termites, the early and remote origin of eusocial behaviour in termites is not well understood yet and the study of other relevant "prototermite" models is however needed. A molecular phylogenetic analysis was carried out to validate a new "prototermite" model, Parasphaeria boleiriana which shows a peculiar combination of these key-attributes. It shows that these attributes of Parasphaeria boleiriana have an independent origin from those of other wood-eating cockroaches and termites. The case of P. boleiriana suggests that a short brood care was selected for with life on an ephemeral wood resource, even with the need for transmission of flagellates. These new phylogenetic insights modify evolutionary hypotheses, contradicting the assumption made with Cryptocercus model that a long brood care is necessary for cooperation between broods in the "shift-in-dependent-care" hypothesis. An ephemeral wood resource is suggested to prompt generation overlap and the evolution of cooperation, even if brood care is shortened.

  17. A Systematic Review of the Evidence Regarding Cognitive Therapy Skills That Assist Cognitive Behavioural Therapy in Adults Who Have an Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooney, Patricia; Tunney, Conall; O'Reilly, Gary

    2018-01-01

    Background: Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is being increasingly adapted for use with people who have an intellectual disability. However, it remains unclear whether inherent cognitive deficits that are present in adults who have an intellectual disability preclude the use of cognitive-based therapies. This review aims to systematically…

  18. Parent Training with High-Risk Immigrant Chinese Families: A Pilot Group