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Sample records for grouper cromileptes altivelis

  1. Growth and viability of juvenile humpback grouper (Cromileptes altivelis supplemented with inorganic and organic selenium

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    Muhaimin Hamzah

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effects of inorganic selenium (sodium selenite and organic selenium (selenomethionine supplementation on growth and viability of juvenile humpback grouper (Cromileptes altivelis. The experiment was designed as a completely randomized design with eight treatments and three replications. The treatment being tested was source and dosages of selenium ie., inorganic selenium (sodium selenite supplementation with dosages of 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 mg Se/kg diet and organic selenium (selenomethionine with dosages of 1, 2, and 4 mg Se/kg diet. Another treatment was unsupplemented selenium. Juveniles humpback grouper at an initial average length of 6,39±0,41 cm and body weight of 4,49±0,65 g were reared in 90×40×35 cm3 aquaria and fed artificial diet (pellet two times daily (08.00 and 16.00 at satiation. Fishes were reared for 40 days at a stocking density of 12 fish per aquarium on sea water with salinity of 30–31 ppt and temperature of 28–29 °C. The results of this study showed that the source of selenium supplementation (inorganic or organic affected growth performance, glutathione peroxidase (GPx enzyme activity, and blood profiles of the experimental fish. Generally, it was found that selenomethionine supplementation resulted in better fish performance than sodium selenite. In sodium selenite supplementation, survival declined with the increased dosages of Se in the diet, and the supplementation at dosage of 0,5 mg Se/kg diet showed a toxic effects. Histopatological test showed that there were damage in livers, kidneys, and intestines of fish supplemented with sodium selenite from 0.5 to 4 mg Se/kg diet. On the contrary, supplementation of selenomethionine up to 4 mg Se/kg did not show any signs of toxicity and the survival was on 86.11 to 97.22%. Feed efficiency, protein retention, lipid retention, and Se retention indicated that a dosage of 4 mg Se/kg selenomethionine supplementation was the best dosage

  2. Blood Meal Utilization as Organic Fe Source for Polka Dot Grouper Cromileptes altivelis Growth Performance

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    Mia Setiawati

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was designed to examine the use of spray dried cell blood meal as organic Fe source in polka dot grouper (Cromileptes altivelis feed to substitute inorganic Ferosulphate (FeSO4.7H2O. Two treatments were applied, one with FeSO4.7H2O as Fe source and the other with 6% blood meal. Fish with initial length and weight of 6.48 ± 0.16 cm and 5.60±0.25 g was reared at a density of 10 fish/aquarium (40 x 60 x 50 cm3 in a recirculation system for 40 days. Feed was administrated 3 times a day at satiation. The use of organic Fe with 6% blood meal apparently resulted in a lower body Fe content, feed consumption and lipid retention but a higher protein retention and feed efficiency. There was however no significant difference between treatments in growth and survival (P>0.05.   Keywords : Spray dried cell, polka dot grouper, growth, Fe, blood meal   ABSTRAK Penelitian dirancang untuk melihat pemanfaatan tepung darah spray-dried cell (SBC sebagai sumber zat besi organik dalam pakan kerapu bebek (Cromileptes altivelis, menggantikan bahan anorganik Ferosulfat (FeSO4.7H2O. Penelitian menggunakan 2 jenis perlakuan yaitu pakan Fe-anorganik dengan sumber Fe dari FeSO4.7H2O dan sumber Fe-organik dari tepung darah 6 %. Panjang awal ikan 6,48±0,16 cm dan bobot awal 5,60±0,25 gr/ekor, kepadatan 10 ekor/akuarium (40x60x50cm3 dalam sistem resirkulasi. Pemeliharaan ikan selama 40 hari dengan pemberian pakan 3 kali sehari  sekenyangnya (at satiation. Parameter uji meliputi kinerja pertumbuhan dan komposisi tubuh ikan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan penggunaan Fe-organik dengan 6 % tepung darah sebagai pengganti sumber Fe-anorganik pada kerapu bebek memberikan pengaruh terhadap penurunan kandungan Fe tubuh, konsumsi pakan dan retensi lemak, tetapi laju pertumbuhan harian, panjang relatif dan kelangsungan hidup sama (P>0,05. Penggunaan Fe-organik memberikan pengaruh terhadap peningkatan retensi protein dan efisiensi pakan. Kata kunci : spray-dried cell

  3. THE EFFECTS OF CRUDE RECOMBINANT VIRAL PROTEIN VACCINES AGAINST GROUPER SLEEPY DISEASE IRIDOVIRUS (GSDIV ON HUMPBACK GROUPER (Cromileptes altivelis

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    Ketut Mahardika

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Infection of Megalocytivirus cause serious mass mortality in marine fish in South East Asian countries. The aim of this study was to produce recombinant of GSDIV capsid protein and its protection to humpback grouper Cromileptes altivelis against grouper sleepy disease iridovirus (GSDIV. A major capsid protein (MCP was selected for use as a crude subunit vaccines. This gene target (MCP was inserted to the protein expression system vector of pET SUMO and cloned in cells bacteria Escherichia coli strain BL-21. The MCP was succeded to be induced using 1 mM of IPTG. Results of protein analysis using MALDI TOF-TOF indicated that the MCP has measurement of 49.566 kDa with PI index of 6.00, and contained 453 amino acids. BLAST homology analysis exhibited that the amino acid sequence of the MCP showed high similarity with MCP of Red Sea Bream Iridovirus (RSIV. E. coli expressing MCP protein was inactivated using 0.03% formalin overnight and washed using PBS. The inactivated E. coli as a crude subunit vaccine was then injected intramuscularly to humpback grouper juveniles. Subsequently, the juveniles were challenged tested with GSDIV. The juveniles vaccinated with the MCP recombinant bacteria showed significantly higher survival rates than control those vaccinated with PBS. Thus, the MCP fusion protein is considered as a potential vaccine against GSDIV infections in grouper.

  4. DISTRIBUTION ANALYSIS OF ENLARGED CELLS DERIVED FROM GROUPER SLEEPY DISEASE IRIDOVIRUS (GSDIV INFECTED HUMPBACK GROUPER Cromileptes altivelis

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    Indah Mastuti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Characteristic of Megalocytivirus infection has been known to produce formation of inclusion body bearing cells (IBCs on internals organs of fish predominantly on spleen and kidney. Megalocytivirus that infected grouper is known as Grouper Sleepy Disease Iridovirus (GSDIV. This study was conducted to answer the effect of entry sites of GSDIV on distribution of enlarged cells formed on the internal organs of humpback grouper Cromileptes altivelis. Enlarged cells were observed histologically under the light microscope on spleen, head kidney, trunk kidney, liver, gill, heart, stomach, intestine, muscle and brain. Entry sites were designated to intramuscularly injection, intraperitoneally injection, dipped gill and inoculum added feed. Enlarged cells were formed on spleen, head kidney, trunk kidney, liver, gill, heart, stomach, muscle, except on intestine and brain. All the entry sites resulted in formation of enlarged cells on spleen, head kidney, trunk kidney, liver, heart. Spleen and head kidney were the most frequent observed organ. These results suggested that distribution of enlarged cells were not affected by the entry site of GSDIV.

  5. Free Amino Acid Enriched Rotifer for Larval Grouper Cromileptes altivelis (Pengkayaan Rotifer dengan Asam Amino Bebas Untuk Larva Kerapu Bebek Cromileptes altivelis

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    Dedi Jusadi

    2015-12-01

    , taurin lebih baik dibanding glutamin karena memberi efek ke pertumbuhan ikan yang lebih cepat. Kata kunci: taurin, glutamin, kerapu bebek, Cromileptes altivelis. The hatchery production of grouper faced to the problem of low surival rate, especially during the first feeding period. During this period, the digestive organ of larvae was underdeveloped, and the nutrient in live food was not readily absorbed by larvae. Feeding on free amino acids, such as taurine or glutamine, enriched rotifer would be enhanced the nutrient readily absorbed thereby resulting to the improvement of growth and survival rate of larvae. A duplicate experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of rotifer enriched with free amino acid of glutamine or taurine, on the growth and survival rate of larval grouper Cromileptes altivelis. One day old larvae were cultured in 500 l fiberglass containing 330 l of sea water with a density of 10 ind.L-1. Larvae were fed on rotifer enriched with either 0.5 g glutamine, 0.5 g taurine, or without glutamine nor taurine. Larvae were fed on rotifer twice a day at 08.00 and 14.00, and cultured for 16 days. One h after feeding, rotifer content in the gut of larvae were observed. Results showed that larvae fed on rotifer enriched with 0.5 g taurine or 0.5 g glutamie had higher rotifer content in the gut than that in the other group. Larvae fed on rotifer enriched with 0.5 g glutamine or 0.5 g taurine had the same survival rate (P>0.05, 19.2±2.25% and 24.5±1.20%, respectively; these values were significantly higher than that in the other group which was 13.0±1.70%.  The total length of larvae fed on rotifer enriched with 0.5 g taurine (5.5±0.18 mm significantly was the biggest compared than others; while those fed on rotifer enriched with 0.5 g glutamine (5.3±0.12 mm was bigger than fish fed on rotifer without glutamine nor taurine (5.0±0.16 mm. Thus, it can be concluded that survival rate and growth of larvae were improved when feeding on rotifer enriched with

  6. ADDITION OF ADJUVANTS IN RECOMBINANT SUBUNIT VACCINES FOR THE PREVENTION OF GROUPER SLEEPY DISEASE IRIDOVIRUS (GSDIV INFECTION IN HUMPBACK GROUPER, Cromileptes altivelis

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    Ketut Mahardika

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection of grouper sleepy disease iridovirus (GSDIV which is a member of Megalocytivirus causes mass mortalities in marine fish in Indonesia. This study was conducted to know the effectiveness of recombinant subunit vaccine of GSDIV with an addition of adjuvants against GSDIV infection. Inactive bacteria Eschericia coli containing recombinant MCP-GSDIV protein was added with montanide ISA adjuvant at a ratio of 3:7. The vaccine was administered to humpback grouper, Cromileptes altivelis by intramuscular and intraperitoneal injection at a dose of 0.1 mL/fish. Test of the vaccine in humpback grouper was performed in four replicates (four trials. Results of the vaccination showed that the recombinant protein vaccine added with the adjuvant increased immunity of humpback grouper, indicated by higher relative percent survival (RPS= 77.78% compared to negative control (PBS and 50% higher compared to protein control (pET Sumo CAT at two weeks post vaccination. The RPS values of the recombinant protein vaccine were still higher (53.57%-72.73% than those of the control vaccine and 25%-53.33% of the protein control in the 4th week post vaccination. GSDIV detection by PCR showed that MCP-GSDIV-DNA and pET Sumo CAT-DNA were not detected in the vaccinated fish after one, two, three, and four weeks post vaccination. The fish died in both of vaccinated and control groups after experimental challenge with GSDIV were found to be infected with GSDIV. It can be stated that recombinant subunit vaccine of GSDIV with the addition of montanide ISA adjuvant could be used to prevent and diminish mortalities of grouper against GSDIV infection.

  7. Dietary Methionine Requirement for Growth of Juvenile Humpback Grouper (Cromileptes altivelis

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    Nyoman Adiasmara Giri

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment to find out amino acid methionine requirement for growth of juvenile humpback grouper has been conducted in 18 polycarbonate 100 L tanks. Each tank was equipped with flow-through water system. Twelve juveniles of humpback grouper (5.6 ± 0.7 g each were randomly selected and stocked in each tank. Juveniles humpback grouper for the experiment were purchased from back yard hatchery in Gondol. Fish fed test diets twice everyday at satiation level for 49 days. Test diets were prepared as dry pellet with casein and fish meal as the intact protein sources, supplemented with the mixture of crystalline L-amino acids to correspond to the amino acid pattern found in the whole body protein of the juvenile humpback grouper, except methionine. Basal diet (diet-1 containing 0.86% methionine was supplied from casein and fish meal. Graded level (0.3% of L-methionine was added to the basal diet to get the final methionine level in each test diet of 0.86%, 1.16%, 1.46%, 1.76%, 2.06%, and 2.36 %. The experiment was designed according to completely random design (CRD with 6 treatments (methionine levels and three replicates for each treatment. Result of the experiment showed that dietary methionine content influenced final weight, weight gain, specific growth rate, feed efficiency, protein retention, and body protein content of juvenile humpback grouper. Optimum dietary methionine for juvenile humpback grouper was calculated using broken line regression analysis.  Optimum dietary methionine requirement for growth of juvenile humpback grouper was 1.18% (2.41% of dietary protein and 1.16% (2.37% of dietary protein based on weight gain data and feed efficiency, respectively.

  8. Substitution of fishmeal with soybean meal in humpback Grouper, Cromileptes altivelis juvenile diets supplemented with phytase

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    Rachman Syah

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Feeding experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of replacing fishmeal with soybean meal in diet on growth of humpback grouper. Fifteen cages of 1 x 1 x 1.2 m3 each stocked with 16 humpback grouper juveniles (61.3 ± 0.4 g/pc were set up randomly in seawater. Fish were fed to satiation twice daily for 112 days. The control diet contained 61.9% fishmeal (63.34% crude protein. Four isonitrogenous (48% crude protein and isocaloric (4.7 kcal/g feed diets supplemented with commercial phytase “Rhonozyme-P” at 0.075% were formulated to contain different levels (8%, 16%, 24%, and 32% soybean meal (43.65% crude protein as a partial replacement for fishmeal. These diets contained total phosphorus levels between 3.6—4.5 (±0.4 % and 0.7—1.5 (±0.04 % available phosphorus. Replacement of fishmeal with soybean meal (8 to 32% replacement was not significantly different (P>0.05 to the control diet on daily growth rate (DGR, food conversion ratio (FCR, protein efficiency ratio (PER, and daily food consumption (DFC. However, the dietary levels of soybean meal significantly affected (P<0.05 whole body protein and phosphorus retention (Table 1. These data suggest that addition of phytase in diets could improve protein and phosphorus availability and reduce nitrogen and phosphorus loading in the environment. Phytase can therefore play an important role in formulating eco-friendly feed for humpback grouper. Based on P loading, supplementation of phytase enable up to 24% fishmeal replacement with soybean meal.

  9. QUANTITATIVE HISTOPATHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF ENLARGED CELLS DERIVED FROM HUMPBACK GROUPER, Cromileptes altivelis INFECTED WITH GROUPER SLEEPY DISEASE IRIDOVIRUS (GSDIV

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    Indah Mastuti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Pathognomonic sign of grouper sleepy disease iridovirus (GSDIV was proposed to be the formation of enlarged cells and necrotic cells, in which under electron microscope, it is revealed to be the inclusion body bearing cells (IBCs and necrotic cells containing GSDIV viral particles. Spleen and kidney tissues are the major sites for formation of enlarged cells. This paper described the result of histopatological analysis of enlarged cells found in the spleen and kidney of moribund fish after GSDIV challenge. A pathogenicity test was conducted on fish stocked in two tanks for infected groups and the other two tanks for uninfected control groups (15 fish per tank. The infected groups were injected intramuscularly with 0.1 ml of the viral inoculum. The uninfected groups were injected with the same amount of EMEM-2. The GSDIV-infected humpback grouper began to die after 6 days post infection and all died after 7 dpi, excluding one fish which had survived until the end of experimental infection periods (93% to 100% mortality. All of the diseased fish showed massive formation of enlarged cells in their spleen, head kidney and trunk kidney. The largest number of enlarged cells was observed on head kidneys and subsequently followed by spleens, trunk kidney (2.0-200.3/field of view. This result suggested that the number of enlarged cells in the affected organs was not the direct factor that led to the mortality of fish.

  10. Engineering Technology Of Fish Farming Floating Nets Cages On Polka Dot Grouper (Cromileptes Altivelis) Used Artificial Feed Enriched Phytase Enzyme

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    Samidjan, Istiyanto; Rachmawati, Diana

    2018-02-01

    One solution is to utilize engineering technology cultivation floating cage net polka dot grouper (ducker grouper), which is given artificial feed enriched with phytase enzymes. The objectives of this study was to examine the use of technology engineering floating net on ducker grouper on artificial feed that is enriched with different dose phytase enzymes to accelerate growth and survival. The research method used ducker grouper fish size 15,5 ± 0,5 cm in the net cages unit (1 m x 1 m x 1 m), 250 fish per cage, using 12 cages. Each net-cages was made of polyethylens netting, mesh size 12.5 mm. with complete randomized design (CRD) 4 treatment and 3 replication were feed Artificial enriched of phytase enzyme with the doses of A (0 FTU · kg-1 diet), B (200 FTU · kg-1 diet), C (500 FTU · kg-1 diet), and D (800 FTU · kg-1 diet) phytase enzyme. Feed was given 2 times a day in the morning and afternoon with 5% biomass per day. Data includes the growth of absolute weight polka dot grouper, FCR, and survival rate analyzed variety and Test Tukey.The result of the research showed that the difference of artificial feeding enriched phytase enzyme significantly (P food conversion ratio (FCR), survival rete of polka dot grouper. The best treatment at C (500 mg / kg of feed) increase growth of absolute weight of 128.75 g, 1.75 (FCR), and a survival rate of 93.5%.

  11. KEBUTUHAN ASAM AMINO LISIN UNTUK BENIH IKAN KERAPU BEBEK (Cromileptes altivelis

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    Nyoman Adiasmara Giri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Percobaan penentuan kebutuhan asam amino lisin untuk benih ikan kerapu bebek (Cromileptes altivelis telah dilakukan dengan metode pemeliharaan ikan menggunakan pakan yang mempunyai kandungan lisin berbeda. Ikan dengan bobot rata-rata 4,4 ± 0,3 gram dipelihara dalam bak polikarbonat volume 100 L dengan kepadatan 12 ekor ikan per bak. Setiap bak dilengkapi dengan sistem air mengalir dan aerasi. Pakan percobaan dibuat dalam bentuk pelet kering dengan kandungan protein 49% yang bersumber dari kasein dan tepung ikan serta campuran asam amino murni sehingga menyerupai komposisi asam amino tubuh ikan kerapu bebek, kecuali untuk lisin. Pakan percobaan mempunyai kandungan lisin berbeda, yaitu 1,77%; 2,27%; 2,77%; 3,27%; 3,77%; dan 4,27%. Ikan diberi pakan percobaan 2 kali sehari pada level satiasi selama 63 hari. Hasil percobaan menunjukkan bahwa bobot ikan akhir, persen pertambahan bobot, laju pertumbuhan spesifik, efisiensi pakan, retensi protein, dan kandungan protein tubuh ikan dipengaruhi oleh kandungan lisin pakan. Kadar optimum lisin dalam pakan untuk benih ikan kerapu bebek dihitung dengan regresi broken line berdasarkan data persen pertambahan bobot. Dari perhitungan ini diperoleh bahwa kebutuhan lisin untuk benih ikan kerapu bebek mencapai 2,77% dalam pakan atau setara dengan 5,63% dari protein pakan. The experiment to find out an amino acid lysine requirement for growth of  humpback grouper  juvenile has been conducted in 18 polycarbonate tanks, 100 liters volume. Each tank is equipped with flow-through water system. Twelve juveniles of humpback grouper (4.4 ± 0.3 gram in body weight, which were produced in hatchery, were randomly selected, and stock in each tank. Fish fed with experimental diets twice everyday at satiation level for 63 days. Experimental diets were prepared as dry pellet with casein and fish meal as the intact protein sources, and the mixture of crystalline amino acids to reach protein level of 49% and the composition of

  12. The application of pigment-protein fraction from Nannochloropsis oculata on β-actin response of Cromileptes altivelis infected with viral nervous necrosis

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    Uun Yanuhar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT  β-actin is a prominent protein in the immune system. An outcome from gene transcription, the protein protects against pathogen infection, such as receptor clustering, antigen internalization, and regulating vesicle for antigen processing. ß - actin expression will determine the success of immune response of the organism. This study aimed to understand the role of pigment-protein fraction (PPF from Nannochloropsis oculata in the increase of β-actin expression in humpback grouper Cromileptes altivelis infected by viral nervous necrosis (VNN. The experiment was performed with one negative control (A: normal fish and three PPF treatments (B: fish + PPF, C: fish + VNN, and D: fish + PPF + VNN. PPF was applied through the sonde method and analyzed with immunohistochemistry technique and Immunoratio software. The results showed that PPF was able to increase β-actin expression on all treatments: A (34.9%, B (38.1%, C (39.1%, and D (51.6%. It demonstrated PPF ability to induce the increase of β-actin expression indicating an improved defense of humpback grouper C. altivelis against VNN infection. Keywords: β-actin, pigment-protein fraction, Nannochloropsis oculata, VNN  ABSTRAK β-aktin adalah protein yang berfungsi penting sebagai salah satu sistem pertahanan tubuh. Protein ini merupakan hasil transkripsi dari gen yang memiliki fungsi penting dalam sistem pertahanan tubuh terhadap infeksi patogen, seperti kelompok reseptor, internalisasi antigen, dan mengatur keluar masuknya vesikel untuk pemrosesan antigen. Ekpresi β-aktin menjadi penentu berhasil atau tidaknya respons imun pada tubuh organisme. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui peran fraksi protein pigment (FPP dari Nannochloropsis oculata dalam meningkatkan respons β-aktin pada ikan kerapu tikus Cromileptes altivelis yang terinfeksi viral nervous necrosis (VNN. Pengamatan dilakukan pada empat percobaan yaitu, satu kontrol (A : ikan normal dan tiga perlakuan FPP (B

  13. Pengembangan pemakaian hasil samping agroindustri berbahan dasar jagung sebagai alternatif bahan baku pakan ikan kerapu tikus Cromileptes altivelis

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    Muhammad Agus Suprayudi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis experiment was conducted to evaluate the use of by product of corn ethanol industry, DDGS (distiller dried grain with soluble and hominy as feed raw material on digestibility and the growth performance of humpback grouper Cromileptes altivelis juvenile. Three experimental diets containing isoprotein (48% but different in DDGS contain were used. Diet A containing 0% of DDGS and hominy while diet B and C containing 10.13% (6.13% of DDGS and 4% of hominy and 19.05% (15.05% of DDGS and 4% of hominy. Reduce of fish meal level in the diet was happen as a consequence of balancing amino acid. For digestibility experiment and Cr2O3 at level of 0.05% was used as a tracer. The feces were daily collected 30‒60 minutes after feeding for 14 days. Dry matter and protein were used as digestibility parameters. Completely randomized design with three treatments and two replicates was used in this experiment. Humpback grouper with an average weight of 11‒14 g were reared at floating net cages (FNG of 3×2×1.5 m3. The stocking density for each cage was 167 fish/FNG and reared for six months. For digestibility measurement 30 fish were held in cylindrical fiber tank filled with 800 L of sea water. Fish were fed three times daily at satiation level. For maintaining net in a clean condition net was changed in every ten days. Feed consumption, digestibility of protein and total, growth performance indicator i,e specific growth rate, feed efficiency protein and lipid retention were used as evaluating parameters. The results showed that the fish fed with diet containing DDGS (6.13% dan hominy (4%, at the level of 10.13% (diet B, shows similar growth performance indicators with the fish fed diet A (0% of DDGS and hominy and the growth performance indicator was higher when being compared to those fish fed diet C (containing 19.05% of DDGS (15.05% and hominy (4% (p<0.05. More over the inclusion of DDGS and hominy at the level of 10,13% give no negatif

  14. Modeling the potential spread of the recently identified non-native panther grouper (Chromileptes altivelis in the Atlantic using a cellular automaton approach.

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    Matthew W Johnston

    Full Text Available The Indo-pacific panther grouper (Chromileptes altiveli is a predatory fish species and popular imported aquarium fish in the United States which has been recently documented residing in western Atlantic waters. To date, the most successful marine invasive species in the Atlantic is the lionfish (Pterois volitans/miles, which, as for the panther grouper, is assumed to have been introduced to the wild through aquarium releases. However, unlike lionfish, the panther grouper is not yet thought to have an established breeding population in the Atlantic. Using a proven modeling technique developed to track the lionfish invasion, presented is the first known estimation of the potential spread of panther grouper in the Atlantic. The employed cellular automaton-based computer model examines the life history of the subject species including fecundity, mortality, and reproductive potential and combines this with habitat preferences and physical oceanic parameters to forecast the distribution and periodicity of spread of this potential new invasive species. Simulations were examined for origination points within one degree of capture locations of panther grouper from the United States Geological Survey Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database to eliminate introduction location bias, and two detailed case studies were scrutinized. The model indicates three primary locations where settlement is likely given the inputs and limits of the model; Jupiter Florida/Vero Beach, the Cape Hatteras Tropical Limit/Myrtle Beach South Carolina, and Florida Keys/Ten Thousand Islands locations. Of these locations, Jupiter Florida/Vero Beach has the highest settlement rate in the model and is indicated as the area in which the panther grouper is most likely to become established. This insight is valuable if attempts are to be made to halt this potential marine invasive species.

  15. PENGARUH KEPADATAN Nannochloropsis sp. PADA PEMELIHARAAN LARVA KERAPU BEBEK (Cromileptes altivelis SECARA TERKONTROL

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    Suko Ismi

    2012-12-01

    pada perlakuan D (penambahan Nannochloropsis sp. 500.000 sel/mL menghasilkan sintasan 26,8%; lebih tinggi dari perlakuan yang lain, berikut perlakuan C, B, dan A masing-masing 19,5%; 14,2%; dan 3,5% sedangkan panjang total larva umur 45 hari relatif sama antara 2,47-2,53 cm.

  16. Population Genetic Structure and Evidence of Demographic Expansion of the Ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis in East Asia

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    Ye-Seul Kwan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Plecoglossus altivelis (ayu is an amphidromous fish widely distributed in Northeastern Asia from the East China Sea to the northern Japanese coastal waters, encompassing the Korean Peninsula within its range. The shore lines of northeastern region in Asia have severely fluctuated following glaciations in the Quaternary. In the present study, we investigate the population genetic structure and historical demographic change of P. altivelis at a population level in East Asia. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA based on 244 mitochondrial control region DNA sequences clearly showed that as the sampling scope extended to a larger geographic area, genetic differentiation began to become significant, particularly among Northeastern populations. A series of hierarchical AMOVA could detect the genetic relationship of three closely located islands between Korea and Japan that might have been tightly connected by the regional Tsushima current. Neutrality and mismatch distribution analyses revealed a strong signature of a recent population expansion of P. altivelis in East Asia, estimated at 126 to 391 thousand years ago during the late Pleistocene. Therefore it suggests that the present population of P. altivelis traces back to its approximate demographic change long before the last glacial maximum. This contrasts our a priori expectation that the most recent glacial event might have the most crucial effect on the present day demography of marine organisms through bottleneck and subsequent increase of effective population size in this region.

  17. 78 FR 36113 - Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the Southern Atlantic States; Regulatory Amendment 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ... snapper, misty grouper, sand tilefish, queen snapper, black snapper, and blackfin snapper); shallow-water groupers (red hind, rock hind, yellowmouth grouper, yellowfin grouper, coney, and graysby); snappers (gray...

  18. Pengaruh Pemberian Probiotik dan Prebiotik Terhadap Performan Juvenile ikan Kerapu Bebek (Comileptes altivelis

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    Fariq Azhar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk melihat efek pemberian pakan berupa probiotik (Bacillus sp. dan prebiotik (Ipomoea batatas pada performan pertumbuhan, sintasan, respon imun dan resistensi penyakit pada juvenil ikan kerapu bebek (Comileptes altivelis (berat rata-rata 3 g ± 0.48. Lima perlakuan pakan digunakan yang terdiri dari kontrol negatif, kontrol positif, probiotik, prebiotik dan sinbiotik. Masing-masing perlakuan disusun secara acak dan terdiri dari tiga ulangan masing-masing berisi 8 juvenil ikan kerapu bebek. Penelitian in dilakukan pada akuarium (50 x 40 x 35 cm selama 12 minggu. Diakhir perlakuan pakan, total eritrosit (TE, total leukosit (TL, hemoglobin (Hb, hematokrit (He, diferensial  leukosit (DL, aktifitas respiratory burst (RB, aktifitas fagositik (AF and total bakteri (TB diukur dan dilakukan uji tantang pada bagian intramuskular dengan Vibrio alginolyticus. Hasil yang diperoleh menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan pakan probiotik, prebiotik dan sinbiotik secara signifikan meningkatkan laju pertumbuhan harian (SGR (a > 0.05 dan rasio konversi pakan (FCR (a > 0.05 dibandingkan dengan kontrol. Total eritrosit, total leukosit, dan limfosit secara signifikan terjadi peningkatan pada ikan dengan pakan perlakuan probiotik, prebiotik dan sinbiotik. Hemoglobin secara signifikan meningkat pada perlakuan prebiotik. Perlakuan prebiotik dan sinbiotik secara signifikan meningkatkan hematokrit. Ikan dengan pakan perlakuan probiotik, prebiotik dan sinbiotik secara signifikan meningkatkan aktifitas fagositik. Aktifitas respiratory burst secara signifikan meningkat pada pakan perlakuan dengan penambahan probiotik, prebiotik dan sinbiotik. Total bakteri secara signifikan meningkat pada perlakuan probiotik, prebiotik dan sinbiotik. Hasil tersebut menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan dengan penambahan pakan sinbiotik meningkatkan pertumbuhan, rasio konversi pakan, respon imun non-spesi?k and resistensi penyakit pada juvenile ikan kerapu bebek (Comileptes altivelis.

  19. Molecular characterization of an IL-1β gene from ayu, Plecoglossus altivelis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xin-Jiang; Chen, Jiong; He, Yu-Qing; Shi, Yu-Hong

    2013-05-01

    IL-1β plays a crucial role as a prototypical proinflammatory cytokine in immune responses and has been shown to affect macrophage functions. However, the effects of putative IL-1β homologs on fish macrophages are still less known. Here, we cloned the full-length cDNA sequence of IL-1β (aIL-1β) gene from ayu, Plecoglossus altivelis. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that aIL-1β was closest to that of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) revealed that aIL-1β transcript was mainly expressed in spleen, head kidney and gill, and dramatically increased in various tissues after Listonella anguillarum infection. Subsequently, aIL-1β was prokaryotic expressed and purified to prepare anti-aIL-1β antibody. After L. anguillarum challenge, the aIL-1β mRNA and protein levels were significantly up-regulated in ayu monocytes/macrophages. Moreover, aIL-1β neutralization did not change phagocytic capability, but reduced bacterial killing capability in ayu head kidney-derived monocytes/macrophages. Therefore, aIL-1β may play an important role in immune response of ayu, especially, contributing to bacterial killing of monocytes/macrophages. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A Comprehensive Description and Evolutionary Analysis of 22 Grouper (Perciformes, Epinephelidae) Mitochondrial Genomes with Emphasis on Two Novel Genome Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiang; Ding, Shaoxiong

    2013-01-01

    Groupers of the family Epinephelidae are a diverse and economically valuable group of reef fishes. To investigate the evolution of their mitochondrial genomes we characterized and compared these genomes among 22 species, 17 newly sequenced. Among these fishes we identified three distinct genome organizations, two of them never previously reported in vertebrates. In 19 of these species, mitochondrial genomes followed the typical vertebrate canonical organization with 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNAs, two rRNAs, and a non-coding control region. Differing from this, members of genus Variola have an extra tRNA-Ile between tRNA-Val and 16S rRNA. Evidence suggests that this evolved from tRNA-Val via a duplication event due to slipped strand mispairing during replication. Additionally, Cephalopholis argus has an extra tRNA-Asp in the midst of the control region, likely resulting from long-range duplication of the canonical tRNA-Asp through illicit priming of mitochondrial replication by tRNAs. Along with their gene contents, we characterized the regulatory elements of these mitochondrial genomes’ control regions, including putative termination-associated sequences and conserved sequence blocks. Looking at the mitochondrial genomic constituents, rRNA and tRNA are the most conserved, followed by protein-coding genes, and non-coding regions are the most divergent. Divergence rates vary among the protein-coding genes, and the three cytochrome oxidase subunits (COI, II, III) are the most conserved, while NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 (ND6) and the ATP synthase subunit 8 (ATP8) are the most divergent. We then tested the phylogenetic utility of this new mt genome data using 12 protein-coding genes of 48 species from the suborder Percoidei. From this, we provide further support for the elevation of the subfamily Epinephelinae to family Epinephelidae, the resurrection of the genus Hyporthodus, and the combination of the monotypic genera Anyperodon and Cromileptes to genus

  1. Differential expression and localization of four connexins in the ovary of the ayu (Plecoglossus Altivelis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Y.; Yoshizaki, G.; Takeuchi, T.; Soyano, K.; Itoh, F.; Patino, R.

    2007-01-01

    The post-vitellogenic oocytes of teleost fish are generally unresponsive to maturation-inducing hormone (MIH) until a luteinizing hormone (LH) surge stimulates sensitivity via the acquisition of oocyte-maturational competence (OMC). Heterologous gap junctions (GJs) between granulosa cells and the oocyte have been previously implicated in the regulation of oocyte maturation in various vertebrate species. Although heterologous GJ are present in ovarian follicles of ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis), their role in maturation remains unclear. In the present study, we cloned and characterized complementary DNAs for GJ protein connexin (Cx), and examined the expression pattern of Cx messenger RNAs in the ayu ovary. Four Cx cDNAs with predicted molecular masses of 32.1 (Cx32.1), 34.9 (Cx34.9), 44.1 (Cx44.1), and 44.2 (Cx44.2) kDa, respectively, were cloned. Northern blot analysis revealed that the levels of Cx44.1 and Cx44.2 transcripts were similar during the vitellogenic and ovulatory stages. Cx32.1 transcripts were more abundant during the vitellogenic stage, but their levels declined thereafter. Cx34.9 transcript levels increased during the vitellogenic stage and remained high during the acquisition of OMC. In situ hybridization revealed that Cx44.1 and Cx44.2 signals were restricted to the oocyte, whereas the Cx32.1 and Cx34.9 signals were detected in both cellular fractions. Furthermore, a dye-transfer assay revealed the presence of functional GJs between the oocytes and follicle cells. These results suggest that Cx34.9 contributes to the formation of heterologous GJs between oocytes and granulosa cells. Moreover, GJs formed by Cx34.9 may function during the LH-dependent acquisition of OMC and the MIH-dependent resumption of meiosis in ayu. ?? 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Grouper as a Natural Biocontrol of Invasive Lionfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumby, Peter J.; Harborne, Alastair R.; Brumbaugh, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    Lionfish (Pterois volitans/miles) have invaded the majority of the Caribbean region within five years. As voracious predators of native fishes with a broad habitat distribution, lionfish are poised to cause an unprecedented disruption to coral reef diversity and function. Controls of lionfish densities within its native range are poorly understood, but they have been recorded in the stomachs of large-bodied Caribbean groupers. Whether grouper predation of lionfish is sufficient to act as a biocontrol of the invasive species is unknown, but pest biocontrol by predatory fishes has been reported in other ecosystems. Groupers were surveyed along a chain of Bahamian reefs, including one of the region's most successful marine reserves which supports the top one percentile of Caribbean grouper biomass. Lionfish biomass exhibited a 7-fold and non-linear reduction in relation to the biomass of grouper. While Caribbean grouper appear to be a biocontrol of invasive lionfish, the overexploitation of their populations by fishers, means that their median biomass on Caribbean reefs is an order of magnitude less than in our study. Thus, chronic overfishing will probably prevent natural biocontrol of lionfishes in the Caribbean. PMID:21731769

  3. Grouper as a natural biocontrol of invasive lionfish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Mumby

    Full Text Available Lionfish (Pterois volitans/miles have invaded the majority of the Caribbean region within five years. As voracious predators of native fishes with a broad habitat distribution, lionfish are poised to cause an unprecedented disruption to coral reef diversity and function. Controls of lionfish densities within its native range are poorly understood, but they have been recorded in the stomachs of large-bodied Caribbean groupers. Whether grouper predation of lionfish is sufficient to act as a biocontrol of the invasive species is unknown, but pest biocontrol by predatory fishes has been reported in other ecosystems. Groupers were surveyed along a chain of Bahamian reefs, including one of the region's most successful marine reserves which supports the top one percentile of Caribbean grouper biomass. Lionfish biomass exhibited a 7-fold and non-linear reduction in relation to the biomass of grouper. While Caribbean grouper appear to be a biocontrol of invasive lionfish, the overexploitation of their populations by fishers, means that their median biomass on Caribbean reefs is an order of magnitude less than in our study. Thus, chronic overfishing will probably prevent natural biocontrol of lionfishes in the Caribbean.

  4. Structure of grouper iridovirus purine nucleoside phosphorylase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, You-Na; Zhang, Yang; Allan, Paula W.; Parker, William B.; Ting, Jing-Wen; Chang, Chi-Yao; Ealick, Steven E.

    2010-01-01

    The crystal structure of purine nucleoside phosphorylase from grouper iridovirus was solved at 2.38 Å resolution. Purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) catalyzes the reversible phosphorolysis of purine ribonucleosides to the corresponding free bases and ribose 1-phosphate. The crystal structure of grouper iridovirus PNP (givPNP), corresponding to the first PNP gene to be found in a virus, was determined at 2.4 Å resolution. The crystals belonged to space group R3, with unit-cell parameters a = 193.0, c = 105.6 Å, and contained four protomers per asymmetric unit. The overall structure of givPNP shows high similarity to mammalian PNPs, having an α/β structure with a nine-stranded mixed β-barrel flanked by a total of nine α-helices. The predicted phosphate-binding and ribose-binding sites are occupied by a phosphate ion and a Tris molecule, respectively. The geometrical arrangement and hydrogen-bonding patterns of the phosphate-binding site are similar to those found in the human and bovine PNP structures. The enzymatic activity assay of givPNP on various substrates revealed that givPNP can only accept 6-oxopurine nucleosides as substrates, which is also suggested by its amino-acid composition and active-site architecture. All these results suggest that givPNP is a homologue of mammalian PNPs in terms of amino-acid sequence, molecular mass, substrate specificity and overall structure, as well as in the composition of the active site

  5. Grouper: A Compact, Streamable Triangle Mesh Data Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luffel, Mark [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). Visualization and Usability Center (GVU); Gurung, Topraj [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). Visualization and Usability Center (GVU); Lindstrom, Peter [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rossignac, Jarek [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). Visualization and Usability Center (GVU)

    2014-01-01

    Here, we present Grouper: an all-in-one compact file format, random-access data structure, and streamable representation for large triangle meshes. Similarly to the recently published SQuad representation, Grouper represents the geometry and connectivity of a mesh by grouping vertices and triangles into fixed-size records, most of which store two adjacent triangles and a shared vertex. Unlike SQuad, however, Grouper interleaves geometry with connectivity and uses a new connectivity representation to ensure that vertices and triangles can be stored in a coherent order that enables memory-efficient sequential stream processing. We also present a linear-time construction algorithm that allows streaming out Grouper meshes using a small memory footprint while preserving the initial ordering of vertices. In this construction, we show how the problem of assigning vertices and triangles to groups reduces to a well-known NP-hard optimization problem, and present a simple yet effective heuristic solution that performs well in practice. Our array-based Grouper representation also doubles as a triangle mesh data structure that allows direct access to vertices and triangles. Storing only about two integer references per triangle-i.e., less than the three vertex references stored with each triangle in a conventional indexed mesh format-Grouper answers both incidence and adjacency queries in amortized constant time. Our compact representation enables data-parallel processing on multicore computers, instant partitioning and fast transmission for distributed processing, as well as efficient out-of-core access. We demonstrate the versatility and performance benefits of Grouper using a suite of example meshes and processing kernels.

  6. Bioekologi Ikan Kerapu di Kepulauan Karimunjawa (Bioecology of Groupers in Karimunjawa Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujiyanto Mujiyanto

    2014-06-01

    Fish target groups in Karimunjawa waters consist of associated coral reef fish species such as grouper (Epinephelus sp. and Plectropomus sp.. This study aims to determine bioecology the condition of grouper in Karimunjawa waters. The study was conducted during 2011-2013. Data collection was performed using line transect method at 5-6 and 10-11 meters depth. The ecological value of grouper in waters Karimunjawa showed low diversity and the species of groupers is evenly distributed across the waters. There is species dominance in Cendikian Island. The species also showed closest similarity (> 95 % in both the depth and formed 4 groups. The closest similarity (​​> 95 % happened among the waters of north side of Kembang Islands Beetles (north side,  Kembar Island and Batu Lawang. The condition of groupers in Karimunjawa waters is affected by physical-chemical factors, the availability of nutrients, fishing activities and community activity.   Keywords: fish; grouper; ecological index; Karimunjawa

  7. 78 FR 30779 - Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic; 2013 Recreational Accountability Measure and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ... Accountability Measure and Closure for South Atlantic Snowy Grouper AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS implements accountability measures (AMs) for the recreational sector of snowy...

  8. Lagenidium callinectes INFECTION ON ROTIFERS Brachionus sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Des Roza

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Milkfish, Chanos chanos and humpback grouper, Cromileptes altivelis hatcheries have developed at Gondol, Bali since 1995 and until now still rely on rotifers, the main natural food, supply. Recent problem on mass culture of rotifer, Brachionus sp. is harvest failure caused by fungus infection. Under light microscope, infected eggs and bodies of the rotifers was filled with numerous aseptate hyphae. Two isolates of fungi were isolated from rotifer eggs and carcass on June 21st, 2004 and on June 25th, 2004 obtained from milkfish and humpback grouper hatcheries at Gondol. Based on its morphological characteristics, the pathogenic fungus was identified as Lagenidium callinectes which grows optimally at 25°C and survives in 1.0%, 2.5%, and 5.0% NaCl as well as in 1.0% and 2.5% KCl. Both of the present isolates utilize only 8 out of 26 carbohydrates and derivatives tested as carbon, nutrition and energy sources. This finding is the first report on rotifer, Brachionus sp. infected with L. callinectes causing up to 100% mortality.

  9. 78 FR 31511 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ...-economic benefits to snapper-grouper fishermen and communities that utilize the snapper-grouper resource... cyanopterus Gray snapper, Lutjanus griseus Mahogany snapper, Lutjanus mahogoni Dog snapper, Lutjanus jocu Lane...

  10. Role of gap junctions and protein kinase A during the development of oocyte maturational competence in Ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Y.; Yoshizaki, G.; Takeuchi, T.; Soyano, K.; Patino, R.

    2008-01-01

    Meiotic resumption in teleost oocytes is induced by a maturation-inducing hormone (MIH). The sensitivity of oocytes to MIH, also known as oocyte maturational competence (OMC), is induced by LH via mechanisms that are not fully understood. A previous study of Ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis) showed the presence of functional heterologous gap junctions (GJs) between oocytes and their surrounding granulosa cells. The objectives of this study were to determine the role of ovarian GJs and of protein kinase A (PKA) during the acquisition of OMC. We examined the effects of the specific GJ inhibitor carbenoxolone (CBX) and 18??-glycyrrhetinic acid (??-GA) on the LH-(hCG)-dependent acquisition of OMC and on MIH-(17,20??-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one)-dependent meiotic resumption; measured the cAMP content of ovarian follicles during the hCG-dependent acquisition of OMC; and determined the effects of PK activators and inhibitors on hCG-dependent OMC. Production of follicular cAMP increased during the hCG-dependent acquisition of OMC. Both GJ inhibitors and the PKA inhibitor H8-dihydrochloride, but not the PKC inhibitor GF109203X, suppressed the hCG-dependent acquisition of OMC in a dose-dependent manner. The PKA activator forskolin induced OMC with a similar potency to hCG. Unlike previous observations with teleosts where disruption of heterologous GJ either blocks or stimulates meiotic resumption, treatment with GJ inhibitors did not affect MIH-dependent meiotic resumption in maturationally competent follicles of Ayu. These observations suggest that ovarian GJs are essential for LH-dependent acquisition of OMC but not for MIH-dependent meiotic resumption, and that the stimulation of OMC by LH is mediated by cAMP-dependent PKA. They are also consistent with the view that a precise balance between GJ-mediated signals (positive or negative) and oocyte maturational readiness is required for hormonally regulated meiotic resumption. ?? 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Characterization of P2X7R and its function in the macrophages of ayu, Plecoglossus altivelis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Qing He

    Full Text Available P2X purinoceptor 7 (P2X7R, an ATP-gated ion channel, plays an important role during the innate immune response in mammals. However, relatively little is known about the role of P2X7R in the fish immune system. Here, we cloned a cDNA sequence encoding ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis P2X7R (aP2X7R. The predicted protein was composed of 574 amino acid residues with a P2X family signature, two transmembrane domains, and a long C-terminal. aP2X7R transcripts were mainly distributed in ayu immune tissues and significantly increased in all tested tissues and in macrophages after Listonella anguillarum infection. The aP2X7R protein was upregulated significantly in macrophages upon bacterial challenge. An antibody against the ectodomain of aP2X7R (aEPAb and an antagonist (oATP were used to block aP2X7R. aP2X7R siRNA was also used to knockdown the receptor expression in ayu macrophages. Cell death induced by ATP was significantly inhibited in ayu macrophages after aEPAb, oATP, or siRNA treatment. Moreover, aP2X7R ablation also resulted in suppression of phagocytic activity and ATP-induced bacterial killing in ayu macrophages. Our results indicated that aP2X7R was upregulated after infection and mediated cell death, phagocytosis, and bacterial killing of ayu macrophages.

  12. Characterization of P2X7R and its function in the macrophages of ayu, Plecoglossus altivelis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yu-Qing; Chen, Jiong; Lu, Xin-Jiang; Shi, Yu-Hong

    2013-01-01

    P2X purinoceptor 7 (P2X7R), an ATP-gated ion channel, plays an important role during the innate immune response in mammals. However, relatively little is known about the role of P2X7R in the fish immune system. Here, we cloned a cDNA sequence encoding ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis) P2X7R (aP2X7R). The predicted protein was composed of 574 amino acid residues with a P2X family signature, two transmembrane domains, and a long C-terminal. aP2X7R transcripts were mainly distributed in ayu immune tissues and significantly increased in all tested tissues and in macrophages after Listonella anguillarum infection. The aP2X7R protein was upregulated significantly in macrophages upon bacterial challenge. An antibody against the ectodomain of aP2X7R (aEPAb) and an antagonist (oATP) were used to block aP2X7R. aP2X7R siRNA was also used to knockdown the receptor expression in ayu macrophages. Cell death induced by ATP was significantly inhibited in ayu macrophages after aEPAb, oATP, or siRNA treatment. Moreover, aP2X7R ablation also resulted in suppression of phagocytic activity and ATP-induced bacterial killing in ayu macrophages. Our results indicated that aP2X7R was upregulated after infection and mediated cell death, phagocytosis, and bacterial killing of ayu macrophages.

  13. 77 FR 19169 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... higher. The third alternative for a recreational sector AM would specify a recreational sector in-season... rule would establish red grouper commercial and recreational sector annual catch limits (ACLs); establish red grouper sector accountability measures (AMs); and remove the combined gag, black grouper, and...

  14. 77 FR 27374 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    ... commercial trips targeting blueline tilefish off North Carolina (19 percent of those trips contained an... not targeted as much as in the past. Harvest of snowy grouper is severely restricted (regulations... speckled hind and warsaw grouper when targeting snowy grouper, tilefish, and queen snapper in deep water...

  15. Environmental DNA for Detection of Endangered Grouper Species (Epinephelus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Servet A. Doğdu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Marine ecosystems nestle species or populations known to be threatened due to human overexploitation. Reliable detection and monitoring of threatened organisms is crucial for data-driven conservation actions. Furthermore, misidentification of species represents a major problem. Here, we investigate the potential of using metabarcoding of environmental DNA (eDNA obtained directly from seawater samples to detect endangered grouper species (Epinephelus spp.. Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI fragment of mtDNA was used to detect groupers species in the Mediterranean Coasts. We conducted eDNA sampling at sites by underwater diving across the range of the Grouper species habitats in Northeastern Mediterranean (Antalya-Kas Region and Iskenderun Bay. eDNA was isolated from 2 liter seawater samples which were vacuum-filtered onto 0.45-mm membrane filters. Filters were then folded inwards, placed in 2 ml tubes and stored at -20 oC until DNA extraction, which took place within 24 hours. DNA was extracted from the water sample filters using the DNeasy Blood and Tissue Kit (Qiagen, USA. Manufacturer’s protocols were used during all steps. PCR amplification of eDNA samples were done using selective primers of COI region of mitochondrial DNA, and next-generation DNA sequencing of PCR application was conducted. For the successfully obtained COI sequences, maximum matching rates were revealed as 80% for Epinephelus marginatus, 78,95% for Epinephelus aeneus, 73,48% for Epinephelus costae, 63,45% for Epinephelus caninus, 60,12% for Mycteroperca rubra and 57,12% for Hyporthodus haifensis. Despite the methodological challenges inherent in eDNA analysis, the results demonstrated that eDNA method may be proved to step towards a new beginning to detect and monitor endangered grouper species.

  16. Ecology and conservation of dusky grouper (Epinephelidae in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Vinicius Condini

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus has a broad global distribution and is currently listed as an endangered species at the IUCN Red List. This species has large commercial and ecological importance, but only at the last decade the first studies were carried out on its bioecology at its southernmost distribution limit in Southwestern Atlantic. This region is largely formed by sand bottoms, where the occurrence of reefs and rocks are scarce. Rocky bottoms occur in the neritic region (along 20 to 30 m isobaths and in the jetties in the littoral region, and in both areas the dusky grouper occur frequently. Our studies showed that immature individuals (mean: 4 yrs of dusky groupers inhabiting rocky jetties in the littoral region represents an important economical incoming for artisanal fishermen, whereas adults (mean: 8 yrs are mostly caught at offshore banks 15-25 m deep by coastal fisheries. Microscopic analyses of gonads of littoral and neritic individuals suggest that the littoral region is a growing nursery area and the neritic is a reproductive site. Feeding ecology studies based on stomach content and stable isotopes showed that the species has an important role as top predators in both regions. Future studies on the residence time of immature individuals in the littoral using telemetry are fundamental to further understand the ecology of this endangered species in the Southwestern Atlantic and to help its fishing management and conservation.

  17. Reproductive biology of the dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade Áthila Bertoncini

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were carried out about the reproductive biology of the dusky grouper, Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834 a serranid protogynous hermaphrodite fish inhabitant of rocky bottoms from shallow waters up to 200 m depth. Samples were caught in the islands that form Arvoredo Biological Marine Reserve (SC - Brazil and the coastal islands near Florianópolis region from March 1998 to May 2000. Data from samples of juvenile groupers on intertidal pools were used to link their occurrence in the pools to the post-spawning season. To describe the histological changes on gonads along the reproductive cycle and to establish maturation scales, 109 groupers were histologically tested for sex determination. First maturation size was determined for females (L50=470 mm; r²=0.99. The results of calculated gonadosomatic (GSI and hepatosomatic (HSI indexes, showed that maturation occurred along the spring months and the spawning activity during the summer with a peak in December. Liver recovery (HSI elevation was evident in the autumn, was the post spawning season. The relationship between length and weight was W = 9 · 10-6 · TL3.1149 (r²=0.998; n=246.

  18. Antiviral function of grouper MDA5 against iridovirus and nodavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Youhua; Yu, Yepin; Yang, Ying; Yang, Min; Zhou, Linli; Huang, Xiaohong; Qin, Qiwei

    2016-07-01

    Melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) is a critical member of retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptor (RLR) family which can recognize viral RNA and enhances antiviral response in host cells. In this study, a MDA5 homolog from orange spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) (EcMDA5) was cloned, and its roles on grouper virus infection were characterized. The full-length EcMDA5 cDNA encoded a polypeptide of 982 amino acids with 74% identity with MDA5 homolog from rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus). Amino acid alignment analysis indicated that EcMDA5 contained three functional domains: two caspase activation and recruitment domain (CARDs), a DEAD box helicase-like (DExDc) domain, a helicase superfamily C-terminal domain (HELICc), and a C-terminal regulatory domain (RD). Upon challenge with Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) or polyinosin-polycytidylic acid (poly I:C), the transcript of EcMDA5 was significantly up-regulated especially at the early stage post-injection. Under fluorescence microscopy, we observed that EcMDA5 mostly localized in the cytoplasm of grouper spleen (GS) cells. Interestingly, during virus infection, the distribution pattern of EcMDA5 was significantly altered in SGIV infected cells, but not in red spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) infected cells, suggested that EcMDA5 might interact with viral proteins during SGIV infection. The ectopic expression of EcMDA5 in vitro obviously delayed virus infection induced cytopathic effect (CPE) progression and significantly inhibited viral gene transcription of RGNNV and SGIV. Moreover, overexpression of EcMDA5 not only significantly increased interferon (IFN) and IFN-stimulated response element (ISRE) promoter activities in a dose dependent manner, but also enhanced the expression of IRF3, IRF7 and TRAF6. In addition, the transcription level of the proinflammatory factors, including TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8 were differently altered by EcMDA5 overexpression during SGIV or

  19. Effects of salinity on gastric emptying time in hybrid grouper, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus x E. lanceolattus juveniles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Noorashikin Md.; Das, Simon Kumar; Cob, Zaidi Che; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.

    2018-04-01

    The newly developed hybrid grouper: tiger grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) × giant grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) (TG×GG), has a high resistance towards different environmental condition (eg. in euryhaline environment) due to its genetic improvement. This study aims to investigate the effects of different salinities (10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 ppt) on the gastric emptying time (GET) of the TG×GG hybrid grouper juveniles. The fish were fed with commercial pellet over a 30 days experimental period under controlled laboratory conditions. The GET was determined by X-radiographic method, using barium sulfate (BaSO4) as an inert food marker. The X-radiography images showed that the shortest GET (12 h) was observed in the 15 ppt group, whereas the longest GET (18 h) in 30 ppt group. The results suggests to culture TG×GG hybrid grouper juveniles in 15 ppt with commercial pellet diet as this salinity proliferates faster digestion process which may contribute faster growth rate of this important fish species. Overall, these findings would be useful for the betterment of TG×GG hybrid grouper aquaculture which will eventually boost up the production of this newly developed hybrid grouper species.

  20. Species identification of ciguatoxin-carrying grouper implicated in food poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Cheng-Hong; Hwang, Ken-Lin; Lee, Ming-Ming; Lan, Chi-Hsun; Lin, Wen-Feng; Hwang, Deng-Fwu

    2009-11-01

    Food poisoning due to ingestion of an unknown red grouper occurred in southern Taiwan. To identify the species of toxic red grouper implicated in food poisoning, a 475-bp sequence of the cytochrome b gene from six species of fresh red grouper meat was amplified by using a pair of primers (L14735/H15149). This fragment could be amplified when fish meat was treated with different heating processes. After sequencing, it was found that no variation in sequences was detected among individuals within each species. The species of toxic red grouper meat implicated in food poisoning was judged to be Lutjanus bohar based on sequence analysis. In addition, restriction enzyme analysis with HaeIII rapidly distinguished these six species of red grouper and the two samples implicated in food poisoning. No toxicity of viscera in 18 specimens of six red grouper species was detected, but two food poisoning samples were found to be toxic. This study indicated that DNA sequence and restriction enzyme analysis are powerful methods for identifying potentially toxic red grouper species as L. bohar.

  1. Large Outbreaks of Ciguatera after Consumption of Brown Marbled Grouper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Y. K. Chan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Brown marbled grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus is an apex predator from coral reefs of the Indo-Pacific region. All five published case series of ciguatera after consumption of brown marbled grouper were reviewed to characterize the types, severity and chronicity of ciguatera symptoms associated with its consumption. Three of these case series were from large outbreaks affecting over 100–200 subjects who had eaten this reef fish served at banquets. Affected subjects generally developed a combination of gastrointestinal, neurological and, less commonly, cardiovascular symptoms. Gastrointestinal symptoms occurred early and generally subsided in 1–2 days. Some neurological symptoms (e.g., paresthesia of four limbs could last for weeks or months. Sinus bradycardia and hypotension occurred early, but could be severe and prolonged, necessitating the timely use of intravenous fluids, atropine and dopamine. Other cardiovascular and neurological features included atrial ectopics, ventricular ectopics, dyspnea, chest tightness, PR interval >0.2 s, ST segment changes, polymyositis and coma. Concomitant alcohol consumption was associated with a much higher risk of developing bradycardia, hypotension and altered skin sensation. The public should realize that consumption of the high-risk fish (especially the ciguatoxin-rich parts and together with alcohol use and repeated ciguatoxin exposures will result in more severe and chronic illness.

  2. Large Outbreaks of Ciguatera after Consumption of Brown Marbled Grouper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Thomas Y. K.

    2014-01-01

    Brown marbled grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) is an apex predator from coral reefs of the Indo-Pacific region. All five published case series of ciguatera after consumption of brown marbled grouper were reviewed to characterize the types, severity and chronicity of ciguatera symptoms associated with its consumption. Three of these case series were from large outbreaks affecting over 100–200 subjects who had eaten this reef fish served at banquets. Affected subjects generally developed a combination of gastrointestinal, neurological and, less commonly, cardiovascular symptoms. Gastrointestinal symptoms occurred early and generally subsided in 1–2 days. Some neurological symptoms (e.g., paresthesia of four limbs) could last for weeks or months. Sinus bradycardia and hypotension occurred early, but could be severe and prolonged, necessitating the timely use of intravenous fluids, atropine and dopamine. Other cardiovascular and neurological features included atrial ectopics, ventricular ectopics, dyspnea, chest tightness, PR interval >0.2 s, ST segment changes, polymyositis and coma. Concomitant alcohol consumption was associated with a much higher risk of developing bradycardia, hypotension and altered skin sensation. The public should realize that consumption of the high-risk fish (especially the ciguatoxin-rich parts and together with alcohol use) and repeated ciguatoxin exposures will result in more severe and chronic illness. PMID:25019942

  3. Restricted grouper reproductive migrations support community-based management

    KAUST Repository

    Waldie, Peter A.

    2016-03-09

    Conservation commonly requires trade-offs between social and ecological goals. For tropical small-scale fisheries, spatial scales of socially appropriate management are generally small—the median no-take locally managed marine area (LMMA) area throughout the Pacific is less than 1 km2. This is of particular concern for large coral reef fishes, such as many species of grouper, which migrate to aggregations to spawn. Current data suggest that the catchment areas (i.e. total area from which individuals are drawn) of such aggregations are at spatial scales that preclude effective community-based management with no-take LMMAs. We used acoustic telemetry and tag-returns to examine reproductive migrations and catchment areas of the grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus at a spawning aggregation in Papua New Guinea. Protection of the resultant catchment area of approximately 16 km2 using a no-take LMMA is socially untenable here and throughout much of the Pacific region. However, we found that spawning migrations were skewed towards shorter distances. Consequently, expanding the current 0.2 km2 no-take LMMA to 1–2 km2 would protect approximately 30–50% of the spawning population throughout the non-spawning season. Contrasting with current knowledge, our results demonstrate that species with moderate reproductive migrations can be managed at scales congruous with spatially restricted management tools.

  4. 77 FR 74119 - Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic; 2012 Commercial Accountability Measure and Closure...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    ... Accountability Measure and Closure for South Atlantic Snowy Grouper AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS implements accountability measures (AMs) for the commercial sector for snowy...

  5. Acoustic Tonal and Vector Properties of Red Hind Grouper Vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Cameron Anthony

    Vertebrates are the most prodigious vocalizing animals in existence, and the most diverse methods of acoustic communication among vertebrates can be found in the ocean. Relatively many teleost fish are gifted with the ability to communicate acoustically, and the family of serranidae often performs this as a function of the swim bladder. Epinephelus Guttatus (E. guttatus), or more commonly the red hind grouper, is equipped with a drum shaped swim bladder acting as a monopole under typical ocean conditions. This configuration allows for what is understood to be omnidirectional projection of tones approximately centered between 40 and 440 Hz and spanning anywhere from 40 to 200 Hz of bandwidth and modulation effects based on observed data provided by researchers. Prior studies on many other fish show correlation in acoustic communication profile with length, size and sexual identity. In the red hind, sexual dimorphism leads to an inherent female identity in all juvenile fish which converts to male according to environmental factors, recommending at least consistent organs across both sexes be assumed even if not in use. Much research has been performed on male fish vocalization in terms of spectral content. Communication in fish is a complex multi-modal process, with acoustic communication being important for many of the species, particularly those in the littoral regions of the worlds' oceans. If identifying characteristics of the red hind vocalization can be isolated based on detection, classification, tracking and localizing methodologies, then these identifying characteristics may indeed lead to passive feature identification that allows for estimation of individual fish mass. Hypotheses based on vector, cyclostationary and classical tonal mechanics are presented for consideration. A battery of test data collection events, applying pre-recorded fish vocalizations to a geolocated undersea sound source were conducted. The results are supplied with the intent of

  6. Does copepods influence dusky grouper (Epinephelus marginatus early development?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Mateus

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Good knowledge on the development of early life stages is essential for successful conservation programs of threatened fish species. Diet and rearing system affects early life survival and juvenile quality. Copepods are the natural food of fish larvae in the wild possessing high nutritional value, when compared with live feeds used in aquaculture (rotifers and artemia, and a wide range of size classes. Rearing systems with low water column disturbance and low larval densities enhanced the survival of fragile fish larvae. The aim of this work is to evaluate the effect of the introduction of copepods in the diet of early dusky grouper larvae reared in controlled mesocosm systems using larval development and juvenile quality as indicators. Two feeding protocols were tested, one composed only by rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis, brine shrimp (Artemia spp. and dry feed and the other supplemented with copepods (Paracartia grani from mouth opening (2 day after hatching - DAH to 8 DAH. Feeding behavior, growth, survival, skeletal malformations and digestive enzymes activity was assessed at different developmental stages. The addition of copepods to the early larvae diet of dusky grouper resulted in faster development and higher survival rates. Larvae fed with copepods improved their development. At 20 DAH all larvae reared at the mesocosm with copedods were already at the stage of post-flexion while in the system without copepods this stage was attained later. At 25 DAH only 64% of the larvae were in post flexion in the mesoscosm without copepods. At 30 DAH larvae supplemented with copepods attained an acidic digestion (high specific activity of pepsin earlier than at the system without copepods. In this last system alkaline digestion (trypsin specific activity, characteristic of early larval stages, was significantly higher reinforcing the faster development of larvae fed with copepods. In both systems the incidence of skeletal malformations was low.

  7. Temperature effect on gastric emptying time of hybrid grouper (Epinephelus spp.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De, Moumita; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd. [School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Das, Simon K. [School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia and Marine Ecosystem Research Centre (EKOMAR), Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    Knowledge of fish gastric emptying time is a necessary component for understanding the fish feeding rates, energy budgets and commercial production of fishes in aquaculture. The hybrid grouper Epinephelus spp. is getting popular as a culture species in Malaysia for their faster growth rate compared to commonly cultured grouper species (giant grouper Epinephelus lanceolatus and tiger grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus). There are data suggests that elevated sea water temperature affects gastric emptying time (GET) of fishes. Hence, this study aims to study the GET of hybrid grouper at different temperature (22, 26, 30, 34°C) in laboratory condition with commercial diet pellet. The gastric emptying times (GETs) at different temperatures were determined X-radiographically, using barium sulfate (BaSO{sub 4}) as a contrast medium food marker. The food marker and X-radiography showed that initial voidance of fecal matter began 4-6 h after feeding at all temperature. The fastest GET (13 h) was obsereved in the 30°C group, whereas the longest (17 h) GET was seen in 22°C group fed with artificial diet pellet. Not much differences in GET were recorded between the 26 and 34°C groups as 34°C groups fed lesser amount compared to 26°C groups. Nevertheless a substantial delay in GET was observed in the 22°C group. The findings of this study suggest to culture hybrid grouper between 26 to 30°C with commercial diet pellet as this temperature ranges proliferate the faster digestion process which may contribute faster growth rate of this commerical important fish species. Overall, these findings may have important consequences for optimization of commercial production of hybrid grouper.

  8. Temperature effect on gastric emptying time of hybrid grouper (Epinephelus spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Moumita; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.; Das, Simon K.

    2014-09-01

    Knowledge of fish gastric emptying time is a necessary component for understanding the fish feeding rates, energy budgets and commercial production of fishes in aquaculture. The hybrid grouper Epinephelus spp. is getting popular as a culture species in Malaysia for their faster growth rate compared to commonly cultured grouper species (giant grouper Epinephelus lanceolatus and tiger grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus). There are data suggests that elevated sea water temperature affects gastric emptying time (GET) of fishes. Hence, this study aims to study the GET of hybrid grouper at different temperature (22, 26, 30, 34°C) in laboratory condition with commercial diet pellet. The gastric emptying times (GETs) at different temperatures were determined X-radiographically, using barium sulfate (BaSO4) as a contrast medium food marker. The food marker and X-radiography showed that initial voidance of fecal matter began 4-6 h after feeding at all temperature. The fastest GET (13 h) was obsereved in the 30°C group, whereas the longest (17 h) GET was seen in 22°C group fed with artificial diet pellet. Not much differences in GET were recorded between the 26 and 34°C groups as 34°C groups fed lesser amount compared to 26°C groups. Nevertheless a substantial delay in GET was observed in the 22°C group. The findings of this study suggest to culture hybrid grouper between 26 to 30°C with commercial diet pellet as this temperature ranges proliferate the faster digestion process which may contribute faster growth rate of this commerical important fish species. Overall, these findings may have important consequences for optimization of commercial production of hybrid grouper.

  9. Temperature effect on gastric emptying time of hybrid grouper (Epinephelus spp.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De, Moumita; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.; Das, Simon K.

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of fish gastric emptying time is a necessary component for understanding the fish feeding rates, energy budgets and commercial production of fishes in aquaculture. The hybrid grouper Epinephelus spp. is getting popular as a culture species in Malaysia for their faster growth rate compared to commonly cultured grouper species (giant grouper Epinephelus lanceolatus and tiger grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus). There are data suggests that elevated sea water temperature affects gastric emptying time (GET) of fishes. Hence, this study aims to study the GET of hybrid grouper at different temperature (22, 26, 30, 34°C) in laboratory condition with commercial diet pellet. The gastric emptying times (GETs) at different temperatures were determined X-radiographically, using barium sulfate (BaSO 4 ) as a contrast medium food marker. The food marker and X-radiography showed that initial voidance of fecal matter began 4-6 h after feeding at all temperature. The fastest GET (13 h) was obsereved in the 30°C group, whereas the longest (17 h) GET was seen in 22°C group fed with artificial diet pellet. Not much differences in GET were recorded between the 26 and 34°C groups as 34°C groups fed lesser amount compared to 26°C groups. Nevertheless a substantial delay in GET was observed in the 22°C group. The findings of this study suggest to culture hybrid grouper between 26 to 30°C with commercial diet pellet as this temperature ranges proliferate the faster digestion process which may contribute faster growth rate of this commerical important fish species. Overall, these findings may have important consequences for optimization of commercial production of hybrid grouper

  10. 77 FR 34254 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... magnitude could be lower or higher. The third alternative for a recreational sector AM would specify a... grouper commercial and recreational sector annual catch limits (ACLs); establishes red grouper sector... commercial and recreational sector ACLs and AMs. The intent of this final rule is to specify ACLs and AMs for...

  11. 75 FR 62488 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ... (ACLs), and accountability measures (AMs) for eight snapper- grouper species undergoing overfishing.... This proposed rule is intended to address overfishing of eight snapper-grouper species while..., FMPs for the fisheries determined by the Secretary to be subject to overfishing must establish a...

  12. Isolation and characterization of Vibrio carchariae, a causative agent of gastroenteritis in the groupers, Epinephelus coioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yii, K C; Yang, T I; Lee, K K

    1997-08-01

    An outbreak of serious mortality among the cultured groupers Epinephelus coioides, characterized by a swollen intestine containing yellow fluid, occurred in the summer of 1993 in Taiwan. A motile strain EmI82KL was isolated from the intestinal yellow fluid of the moribund groupers with tryptic soy agar supplemented with 2% NaCl and/or thiosulfate citrate bile salt sucrose agar. This strain was characterized and identified as Vibrio carchariae and was susceptible to chloramphenicol, doxycycline-HCl, nalidixic acid, oxolinic acid, oxytetracycline, and sulfonamide while resistant to ampicillin and penicillin G. In addition, the strain was neither auto-agglutinating nor hemagglutinating, but it was hemolytic against erythrocytes from sheep, rabbit, tilapia, and grouper. The bacteria could be reisolated from kidney, liver, and the transparent yellow fluid of swollen intestine of moribund groupers after bacterial challenge and re-identified as the same species. The LD50 value was 2.53 x 10(7) colony forming units/g grouper body weight.

  13. Re-examining the relationship between invasive lionfish and native grouper in the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Valdivia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Biotic resistance is the idea that native species negatively affect the invasion success of introduced species, but whether this can occur at large spatial scales is poorly understood. Here we re-evaluated the hypothesis that native large-bodied grouper and other predators are controlling the abundance of exotic lionfish (Pterois volitans/miles on Caribbean coral reefs. We assessed the relationship between the biomass of lionfish and native predators at 71 reefs in three biogeographic regions while taking into consideration several cofactors that may affect fish abundance, including among others, proxies for fishing pressure and habitat structural complexity. Our results indicate that the abundance of lionfish, large-bodied grouper and other predators were not negatively related. Lionfish abundance was instead controlled by several physical site characteristics, and possibly by culling. Taken together, our results suggest that managers cannot rely on current native grouper populations to control the lionfish invasion.

  14. DNA barcoding approaches for fishing authentication of exploited grouper species including the endangered and legally protected goliath grouper Epinephelus itajara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo A. Torres

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Fishing strategies are constantly changing to meet the needs for new or alternative food sources. Consequently, management of fishing activities regarding rates of exploitation is essential, as a number of resources have reached situations of overexploitation. The aim of the present study was to use DNA barcoding from the goliath grouper and other exploited epinephelids in order to provide procedures for DNA authentication to be used as evidence for combating putative illegal fishing. The species studied were Epinephelus adscensionis, Mycteroperca bonaci, Mycteroperca interstitialis, Epinephelus itajara, Mycteroperca venenosa, Epinephelus mystacinus, Dermatolepis inermis, Alphestes afer, Cephalopholis fulva, Mycteroperca acutirostris, Rypticus saponaceus, Mycteroperca marginata and Epinephelus morio. Four of these species are the main epinephelids fished in the Atlantic Ocean. Differential patterns of polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism were obtained from the species and additional single nucleotide polymorphisms were also detected among the four main epinephelids studied. The procedures proved very efficient and we suggest their applicability to the other fish groups as a way to control illegal capture and retail around the world, especially in cases in which filleting and other forms of de-characterization cause a lack of morpho-anatomical key characters.

  15. 50 CFR 622.20 - Individual fishing quota (IFQ) program for Gulf groupers and tilefishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... applicable historical landings. Shares determine the amount of IFQ allocation for Gulf groupers and... section will remain in effect until it is modified or terminated; however, the program will be evaluated... received by NMFS no later than 15 days after the date of the initial landing transaction. (2) IFQ cost...

  16. Patterns of color phase indicate spawn timing at a Nassau grouper Epinephelus striatus spawning aggregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie K ARCHER, Scott A HEPPELL, Brice X SEMMENS,Christy V PATTENGILL-SEMMENS, Phillippe G BUSH, Croy M MCCOY,Bradley C JOHNSON

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Nassau grouper Epinephelus striatus are a large bodied, top level predator that is ecologically important throughout the Caribbean. Although typically solitary, Nassau grouper form large annual spawning aggregations at predictable times in specific locations. In 2003, The Cayman Islands Marine Conservation Board established protection for a newly rediscovered Nassau grouper spawning aggregation on Little Cayman, British West Indies. The large size of this aggregation provides a unique opportunity to study the behavior of Nassau grouper on a relatively intact spawning aggregation. During non-spawning periods Nassau grouper display a reddish-brown-and-white barred coloration. However, while aggregating they exhibit three additional color phases: “bicolor”, “dark”, and “white belly”. We video sampled the population on multiple days leading up to spawning across five spawning years. Divers focused a laser caliper equipped video camera on individual fish at the aggregation. We later analyzed the video to determine the length of the fish and record the color phase. Our observations show that the relative proportion of fish in the bicolor color phase increases significantly on the day leading up to the primary night of spawning. The increase in the proportion of the bicolor color phase from 0.05 early in the aggregation to 0.40 on the day of spawning suggests that this color phase conveys that a fish is behaviorally and physiologically prepared to spawn. Additionally, 82.7% of fish exhibiting dark or white belly coloration early in the aggregation period suggests that these color phases are not only shown by female fish as was previously posited [Current Zoology 58 (1: 73–83, 2012].

  17. Molecular Characterization of E-Type Prostanoid Receptor 4 (EP4 from Ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis and Its Functional Analysis in the Monocytes/Macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye-Jing Rong

    Full Text Available Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 plays an important role in a broad spectrum of physiological and pathological processes by interacting with E-type prostanoid receptors (EPs. EP4 is one of four EP subtypes known to mediate the immune response in mammalian monocytes/macrophages. However, the precise function and characteristics of EP4 in fish remain unclear. In this study, we characterized a novel EP4-like (PaEP4L gene from ayu, Plecoglossus altivelis. The cDNA sequence of PaEP4L is 2781 nucleotides (nts in length, encoding a polypeptide of 459 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular weight of 51.17 kDa. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic tree analysis showed that PaEP4L shared 76% amino acid identity with that of the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar. PaEP4L mRNA was detected by real-time quantitative PCR (QPCR in all tested tissues and head kidney-derived monocytes/macrophages (MO/MФ. It varied greatly in liver, spleen and MO/MФ upon Vibrio anguillarum infection. Western blot analysis revealed a significant increase of PaEP4L in cell homogenates from ayu MO/MФ upon V. anguillarum infection. Moreover, anti-PaEP4L IgG reversed the down-regulation of interleukin 1β (IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α mRNA expression as well as phagocytosis in ayu MO/MФ caused by PGE2. There were no significant differences in the respiratory burst response between PGE2 treated and untreated cells. We further found that cAMP mediated PGE2/PaEP4L signal in ayu MO/MФ. In conclusion, our results indicate that PaEP4L mediates PGE2 effects on ayu MO/MФ function, revealing that EP4 also plays a role in the modulation of cells of the fish's innate immune system.

  18. Pseudorhabdosynochus species (Monogenoidea, Diplectanidae parasitizing groupers (Serranidae, Epinephelinae, Epinephelini in the western Atlantic Ocean and adjacent waters, with descriptions of 13 new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kritsky Delane C.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Seventeen of twenty-three species of groupers collected from the western Atlantic Ocean and adjacent waters were infected with 19 identified species (13 new of Pseudorhabdosynochus Yamaguti, 1958 (Dactylogyridea, Diplectanidae; specimens of the Spanish flag Gonioplectrus hispanus, coney Cephalopholis fulva, marbled grouper Dermatolepis inermis, mutton hamlet Alphestes afer, and misty grouper Hyporthodus mystacinus were not infected; the yellowmouth grouper Mycteroperca interstitialis and yellowfin grouper Mycteroperca venenosa were infected with unidentified species of Pseudorhabdosynochus; the Atlantic creolefish Paranthias furcifer was infected with an unidentified species of Diplectanidae that could not be accommodated in Pseudorhabdosynochus. The following species of Pseudorhabdosynochus are described or redescribed based entirely or in part on new collections: Pseudorhabdosynochus americanus (Price, 1937 Kritsky & Beverley-Burton, 1986 from Atlantic goliath grouper Epinephelus itajara; Pseudorhabdosynochus yucatanensis Vidal-Martínez, Aguirre-Macedo & Mendoza-Franco, 1997 and Pseudorhabdosynochus justinella n. sp. from red grouper Epinephelus morio; Pseudorhabdosynochus kritskyi Dyer, Williams & Bunkley-Williams, 1995 from gag Mycteroperca microlepis; Pseudorhabdosynochus capurroi Vidal-Martínez & Mendoza-Franco, 1998 from black grouper Mycteroperca bonaci; Pseudorhabdosynochus hyphessometochus n. sp. from Mycteroperca interstitialis; Pseudorhabdosynochus sulamericanus Santos, Buchmann & Gibson, 2000 from snowy grouper Hyporthodus niveatus and Warsaw grouper Hyporthodus nigritus (new host record; Pseudorhabdosynochus firmicoleatus n. sp. from yellowedge grouper Hyporthodus flavolimbatus and snowy grouper H. niveatus; Pseudorhabdosynochus mcmichaeli n. sp., Pseudorhabdosynochus contubernalis n. sp., and Pseudorhabdosynochus vascellum n. sp. from scamp Mycteroperca phenax; Pseudorhabdosynochus meganmarieae n. sp. from graysby Cephalopholis

  19. Ciguatoxic Potential of Brown-Marbled Grouper in Relation to Fish Size and Geographical Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Thomas Y. K.

    2015-01-01

    To determine the ciguatoxic potential of brown-marbled grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) in relation to fish size and geographical origin, this review systematically analyzed: 1) reports of large ciguatera outbreaks and outbreaks with description of the fish size; 2) Pacific ciguatoxin (P-CTX) profiles and levels and mouse bioassay results in fish samples from ciguatera incidents; 3) P-CTX profiles and levels and risk of toxicity in relation to fish size and origin; 4) regulatory measures restricting fish trade and fish size preference of the consumers. P-CTX levels in flesh and size dependency of toxicity indicate that the risk of ciguatera after eating E. fuscoguttatus varies with its geographical origin. For a large-sized grouper, it is necessary to establish legal size limits and control measures to protect public health and prevent overfishing. More risk assessment studies are required for E. fuscoguttatus to determine the size threshold above which the risk of ciguatera significantly increases. PMID:26324735

  20. Historical Processes and Contemporary Anthropogenic Activities Influence Genetic Population Dynamics of Nassau Grouper (Epinephelus striatus within The Bahamas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krista D. Sherman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Severe declines of endangered Nassau grouper (Epinephelus striatus across The Bahamas and Caribbean have spurred efforts to improve their fisheries management and population conservation. The Bahamas is reported to hold the majority of fish spawning aggregations for Nassau grouper, however, the status and genetic population structure of fish within the country is largely unknown, presenting a major knowledge gap for their sustainable management. Between August 2014–February 2017, 464 individual Nassau grouper sampled from The Bahamas were genotyped using 15 polymorphic microsatellite loci to establish measures of population structure, genetic diversity and effective population size (Ne. Nassau grouper were characterized by mostly high levels of genetic diversity, but we found no evidence for geographic population structure. Microsatellite analyses revealed weak, but significant genetic differentiation of Nassau grouper throughout the Bahamian archipelago (Global FST 0.00236, p = 0.0001. Temporal analyses of changes in Ne over the last 1,000 generations provide evidence in support of a pronounced historic decline in Bahamian Nassau grouper that appears to pre-date anthropogenic fishing activities. M-ratio results corroborate significant reductions in Ne throughout The Bahamas, with evidence for population bottlenecks in three islands and an active fish spawning aggregation along with apparent signs of inbreeding at two islands. Current estimates of Ne for Nassau grouper are considerably lower compared with historic levels. These findings represent important new contributions to our understanding of the evolutionary history, demographics and genetic connectivity of this endangered species, which are of critical importance for advancing their sustainable management.

  1. Successful sperm cryopreservation of the brown-marbled grouper, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus using propylene glycol as cryoprotectant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, Maisarah; Hassan, Badrul Nizam; Ikhwanuddin, Muhd; Sheriff, Shahreza Md; Hashim, Fatimah; Mustafa, Sufian; Koh, Ivan Chong Chu

    2018-01-30

    This study developed the cryopreservation of brown-marbled grouper spermatozoa for practical application. We examined 32 cryodiluents, developed from four types of cryoprotectants [propylene glycol (PG), dimethyl-sulphoxide (Me 2 SO), dimethyl-acetamide (DMA) and ethylene glycol (EG)] at four concentrations of 5, 10, 15 and 20% in combination with two extenders [Fetal bovine serum (FBS) and artificial seminal plasma (ASP). Cooling rates were examined by adjusting the height of straws (2.5-12.5 cm) from the liquid nitrogen (LN) vapor and cooled for 5 min before immersion into LN. DNA laddering was used to detect DNA damage in cryopreserved sperm. In fertilization trials, 0.5 g of eggs was mixed with cryopreserved sperm stored for 30 days in LN. The best motility of post-thaw sperm was achieved using 15% PG + 85% FBS (76.7 ± 8.8%); 10% PG + 90% FBS was also effective as cryodiluent. Generally, FBS gave better post-thaw motility compared to ASP. The optimum cooling rate was at 17.6 °C min -1 obtained by freezing at the height of 7.5 cm surface of LN. The results obtained showed that cryopreserved sperm of brown-marbled grouper suffered slight DNA fragmentation, which resulted in significantly lower motility. However, the fertilization (90.9 ± 0.5%), hatching (64.5 ± 4.1%) and deformity rates (3.8 ± 0.2%) obtained from cryopreserved sperm showed no significant difference with fresh sperm. These findings show that the developed protocol for cryopreservation of brown-marbled grouper sperm was viable and will be useful for successful breeding and seed production of brown-marbled grouper. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Selection of probiotic bacteria from the coral reef and tiger grouper fish (Epinephelus foscoguttatus farming environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Ilmiah

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of probiotic bacteria is one of the methods in aquaculture to control infectious diseases. This study aims to obtain candidates probiotic bacteria from the coral reef and tiger grouper aquaculture environment (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus. Steps of the study included of: 1 isolation of candidates probiotic bacteria, 2 selection of candidates probiotic bacteria: inhibition test and co-culture methods, 3 enzymatic test, 4 the growth of bacteria test 5 pathogenicity test and 6 the molecular identification of probiotic bacteria. The results showed that of 124 isolates in test zone of inhibition, the four isolates with the widest zone of inhibition of isolate K7, K8, K21, and T4, a total of 51 isolates on co-culture methods, the four isolates were able to suppress the growth of pathogenic Vibrio bacteria, isolates K15, K68, K55, and T36. The results of hydrolyzing the highest protease amylase and lipase enzyme, respectively isolates K15 and T36; isolates T41 and K8; isolates K55 and K68. Candidates probiotic bacteria reached the exponential phase at 16‒18 h. The results of pathogenicity test isolate K7, K8, T36, and T41 provided the highest survival that can be used as candidates probiotics in the tiger grouper. Keywords: selection, probiotics, tiger grouper

  3. Present status of grouper fisheries at waters of Kotania Bay, Western Seram District Maluku Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huliselan, N. V.; Wawo, M.; Tuapattinaja, M. A.; Sahetapy, D.

    2017-10-01

    Study on present status of groupers fishes at waters of Kotania Bay was conducted from 2016 to 2017. Survey and Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) method were used to collect and examine data and information concerning species potential and utilization of these species. The result shows that there are 35 species of grouper fishes inhabit Kotania Bay waters. From six genera recorded, Epinephelus found to have more varieties species richness compared to other five genera. In general, main habitat of adult grouper is coral reef, whilst mangrove and seagrass are habitat for nursery and grow out. The potency of the Epinephelus, Cephalopholis and Plectropomus genus tend to decrease started in 2000 up to 2017. At the same period, the production of these genera was also declined. Species potency and production declined was attributable to habitat (coral reef) degradation and high fishing intensity as a result of high market demand. Hand line, bottom long line and trap net are general fishing gear used in harvesting of theses fishes. Fishing activities took place all year round except for bottom long line which only lasted from June to October (East monsoon). Spatial fishing ground distribution is predominantly at coral reef ecosystem of Kotania Bay.

  4. INDUCED FUCTIONAL MALE OF CORAL TROUT GROUPER (Plectropomus leopardus USING 17α-METHYLTESTOSTERONE HORMONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sar Budi Moria Sembiring

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The success of grouper seeds production is depends on the availability of qualified broodstock. The nature of grouper is protogynous hermaphrodite, causing difficulties to mantain female and a bit difficult to get male broodstock, one possibility to accelerate sex revers is by hormone manipulation. The aim of this experiment was to find effectiveness of 17α-methyl testosterone hormone to produce coral trout grouper (Plectropomus leopardus functional male. The experiment was conducted in floating net cage by using 6 net cages with size of 2 m x 2 m x 2 m at density of 25 fish/cage, size of fish were 377.27±21.49 g. The fishes were treated by hormone implantation at concentration of 50 μg/kg body weight and without hormone implantation as a control with 3 replicates. The results showed that the highest concentration of testosteron in fish blood (1.144±0.135 pg/mL was detected after four months of hormone treatment, but the concentration of testosteron in fish blood declined after 8th months of treatment. The treated fish with hormone grew faster than control. Based on histological analysis of gonad, female gonado somatic index was higher for treated fish compare to control. Its seems that hormone tratment lead to promote development of female maturity and than sex reverse into male become faster.

  5. Spatial distribution and conservation of speckled hind and warsaw grouper in the Atlantic Ocean off the southeastern U.S.

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    Nicholas A Farmer

    Full Text Available There is broad interest in the development of efficient marine protected areas (MPAs to reduce bycatch and end overfishing of speckled hind (Epinephelus drummondhayi and warsaw grouper (Hyporthodus nigritus in the Atlantic Ocean off the southeastern U.S. We assimilated decades of data from many fishery-dependent, fishery-independent, and anecdotal sources to describe the spatial distribution of these data limited stocks. A spatial classification model was developed to categorize depth-grids based on the distribution of speckled hind and warsaw grouper point observations and identified benthic habitats. Logistic regression analysis was used to develop a quantitative model to predict the spatial distribution of speckled hind and warsaw grouper as a function of depth, latitude, and habitat. Models, controlling for sampling gear effects, were selected based on AIC and 10-fold cross validation. The best-fitting model for warsaw grouper included latitude and depth to explain 10.8% of the variability in probability of detection, with a false prediction rate of 28-33%. The best-fitting model for speckled hind, per cross-validation, included latitude and depth to explain 36.8% of the variability in probability of detection, with a false prediction rate of 25-27%. The best-fitting speckled hind model, per AIC, also included habitat, but had false prediction rates up to 36%. Speckled hind and warsaw grouper habitats followed a shelf-edge hardbottom ridge from North Carolina to southeast Florida, with speckled hind more common to the north and warsaw grouper more common to the south. The proportion of habitat classifications and model-estimated stock contained within established and proposed MPAs was computed. Existing MPAs covered 10% of probable shelf-edge habitats for speckled hind and warsaw grouper, protecting 3-8% of speckled hind and 8% of warsaw grouper stocks. Proposed MPAs could add 24% more probable shelf-edge habitat, and protect an additional

  6. Development of Pedigree Classification Using Microsatellite and Mitochondrial Markers for Giant Grouper Broodstock (Epinephelus lanceolatus Management in Taiwan

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    Hsiao-Che Kuo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Most giant groupers in the market are derived from inbred stock. Inbreeding can cause trait depression, compromising the animals’ fitness and disease resistance, obligating farmers to apply increased amounts of drugs. In order to solve this problem, a pedigree classification method is needed. Here, microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA were used as genetic markers to analyze the genetic relationships among giant grouper broodstocks. The 776-bp fragment of high polymorphic mitochondrial D-loop sequence was selected for measuring sibling relatedness. In a sample of 118 giant groupers, 42 haplotypes were categorized, with nucleotide diversity (π of 0.00773 and haplotype diversity (HD of 0.983. Furthermore, microsatellites were used for investigation of parentage. Six out of 33 microsatellite loci were selected as markers based on having a high number of alleles and compliance with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Microsatellite profiles based on these loci provide high variability with low combined non-exclusion probability, permitting practical use in aquaculture. The method described here could be used to improve grouper broodstock management and lower the chances of inbreeding. This approach is expected to lead to production of higher quality groupers with higher disease resistance, thereby reducing the need for drug application.

  7. Development of pedigree classification using microsatellite and mitochondrial markers for Giant grouper broodstock (Epinephelus lanceolatus) management in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Hsiao-Che; Hsu, Hao-Hsuan; Chua, Chee Shin; Wang, Ting-Yu; Chen, Young-Mao; Chen, Tzong-Yueh

    2014-04-30

    Most giant groupers in the market are derived from inbred stock. Inbreeding can cause trait depression, compromising the animals' fitness and disease resistance, obligating farmers to apply increased amounts of drugs. In order to solve this problem, a pedigree classification method is needed. Here, microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA were used as genetic markers to analyze the genetic relationships among giant grouper broodstocks. The 776-bp fragment of high polymorphic mitochondrial D-loop sequence was selected for measuring sibling relatedness. In a sample of 118 giant groupers, 42 haplotypes were categorized, with nucleotide diversity (π) of 0.00773 and haplotype diversity (HD) of 0.983. Furthermore, microsatellites were used for investigation of parentage. Six out of 33 microsatellite loci were selected as markers based on having a high number of alleles and compliance with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Microsatellite profiles based on these loci provide high variability with low combined non-exclusion probability, permitting practical use in aquaculture. The method described here could be used to improve grouper broodstock management and lower the chances of inbreeding. This approach is expected to lead to production of higher quality groupers with higher disease resistance, thereby reducing the need for drug application.

  8. A formalin-inactivated vaccine provides good protection against Vibrio harveyi infection in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hai Trong; Thu Nguyen, Thuy Thi; Tsai, Ming-An; Ya-Zhen, E; Wang, Pei-Chyi; Chen, Shih-Chu

    2017-06-01

    Vibrio harveyi is one of the most common threats to farmed grouper, so considerable efforts are in practice to control the pathogen. This study presents a highly effective vaccine against V. harveyi in the orange-spotted grouper with the help of a single intraperitoneal immunization. The vaccine candidate was in form of whole, formalin-inactivated V. harveyi cells combined with a metabolizable ISA763 AVG adjuvant. Our results indicated that the vaccine triggered a remarkably higher expression level of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 in the groupers' kidneys and spleens, as recorded after 1 and 3 days of immunization. Antibody titers were significantly elevated in the vaccinated fish. A pivotal observation was that the vaccine highly protected the grouper from a homologous V. harveyi strain challenge with relative percentage survival values of 100% and 91.7% at 6 and 12 weeks post-immunization, respectively. Vaccinated fish also demonstrated strong cross-protection against a heterologous bacterial isolate challenge. Therefore, the inactivated V. harveyi vaccine is a promising candidate that could stimulate good immune responses and confer remarkable protection in farmed groupers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparative Transcriptomic Study of Muscle Provides New Insights into the Growth Superiority of a Novel Grouper Hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinhui; Ruan, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Xiaomeng; Guo, Chuanyu; Tang, Zhujing; Li, Xiaofeng; You, Xinxin; Lin, Haoran; Zhang, Yong; Shi, Qiong

    2016-01-01

    Grouper (Epinephelus spp.) is a group of fish species with great economic importance in Asian countries. A novel hybrid grouper, generated by us and called the Hulong grouper (Hyb), has better growth performance than its parents, E. fuscoguttatus (Efu, ♀) and E. lanceolatus (Ela, ♂). We previously reported that the GH/IGF (growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor) system in the brain and liver contributed to the superior growth of the Hyb. In this study, using transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), we analyzed RNA expression levels of comprehensive genes in the muscle of the hybrid and its parents. Our data showed that genes involved in glycolysis and calcium signaling in addition to troponins are up-regulated in the Hyb. The results suggested that the activity of the upstream GH/IGF system in the brain and liver, along with the up-regulated glycolytic genes as well as ryanodine receptors (RyRs) and troponins related to the calcium signaling pathway in muscle, led to enhanced growth in the hybrid grouper. Muscle contraction inducing growth could be the major contributor to the growth superiority in our novel hybrid grouper, which may be a common mechanism for hybrid superiority in fishes. PMID:28005961

  10. Comparison of grouper infection with two different iridoviruses using transcriptome sequencing and multiple reference species selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chun-Cheng; Ho, Li-Ping; Yang, Cin-Hang; Kao, Tsung-Yu; Chou, Hsin-Yiu; Pai, Tun-Wen

    2017-12-01

    Due to high-density aquafarming in Taiwan, groupers are commonly infected with two different iridoviruses: Megalocytivirus (grouper iridovirus of Taiwan, TGIV) and Ranavirus (grouper iridovirus, GIV). Iridoviral diseases cause mass mortality, and surviving fish retain these pathogens, which can then be horizontally transferred. These viruses have therefore become a major challenge for grouper aquaculture. In this study, comparisons of the biological responses of groupers to infection with these two different iridoviruses were performed. A novel approach for transcriptomic analysis was proposed to enhance the discovery of differentially expressed genes and associated biological pathways. In this method, suitable and available reference species are selected from the NCBI taxonomy tree and the Ensembl and KEGG databases instead of either choosing only one model species or adopting the NCBI non-redundant dataset as references. Our results show that selection of multiple appropriate model species as references increases the efficiency and performance of analyses compared to those of traditional approaches. Using this method, 17 shared pathways and 5 specific pathways were found to be significantly differentially expressed following infection with the two iridoviruses, among which 11 pathways were additionally identified based on the proposed method of multiple reference species selection. Among the pathways responsive to infection with a specific iridovirus, the spliceosomal pathway (ko03040; p-value = 0.0011) was exclusively associated with TGIV infection, while the glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathway (ko00010; p-value = 0.0032) was associated with GIV infection. These findings and designed corresponding biological experiments may facilitate a deeper understanding of the mechanisms by which both TGIV and GIV cause fatal infections, as well as the ways in which they induce different pathologies and symptoms. We believe that the proposed novel mechanism for de novo

  11. Suitability analysis of Lampung Bay waters for grouper Epinephelus sp. farming activities

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    Herman Yulianto

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Grouper Epinephelus sp. farming activities in Lampung Bay is limited to an area of 77 hectares, while areas that are potential to be used for grouper farming are still very wide. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the suitability of Lampung Bay waters for grouper farming activities. The study was conducted in 20 stations with ecological preference considerations. The parameters observed were physicochemical (water depth, temperature, water transparency, the load of suspended solids, pH, dissolved oxygen, salinity, nitrate, and phosphate and biological parameters (phytoplankton abundance and chlorophyll-a concentration. After the data were completely obtained, the data were processed into suitability matrix resulting in scores that will be grouped into four classes, namely S1 (highly suitable, S2 (moderately suitable, S3 (marginally suitable, N (not suitable. The geostatistical model was used to perform the earth’s surface mapping based on biotic and abiotic parameters that were analyzed. Based on the results of the analysis in this study, the conditions of Lampung Bay waters were suitable for grouper farming activities. Marine area that could be used for grouper farming was 33,847.12 hectares (S1: 15,712.6 ha, S2: 13,294.7 ha and S3: 4,209.82 ha in the area around Puhawang Island, Kelagian Island, Maitem Island, Tegal Island to Hurun Bay. Keywords: Lampung Bay, grouper, suitability analysis, fish farming   ABSTRAK Kegiatan budidaya ikan kerapu Epinephelus sp. di Teluk Lampung masih terbatas pada lahan seluas 77 hektar, sedangkan lahan yang berpotensi digunakan untuk budidaya ikan kerapu masih sangat luas. Oleh karena itu, penelitian ini bertujuan mengkaji kesesuaian perairan Teluk Lampung untuk kegiatan budidaya ikan kerapu. Penelitian dilakukan di 20 stasiun dengan pertimbangan ecological preference. Parameter yang diamati yaitu parameter fisika-kimia perairan (kedalaman, suhu, kecerahan, muatan padatan tersuspensi, p

  12. FERMENTED BLOOD MEAL USE FOR TIGER GROUPER, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus GROW-OUT DIET

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    Usman Usman

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The experiment aimed to evaluate the optimal level of fermented blood meal used in grow-out diets for tiger grouper, as an alternative protein source to fish meal. Juvenile tiger grouper, initial weight 31.1 ± 2.1 g, were stocked into 1 m x 1 m x 2 m floating net cages at 20 fish cage-1. The treatment applied was isoprotein and isocaloric diets formulated to contain fermented blood meal (FBM of 0%, 7.5%, 15.0%, 22.5%, and 30.0% replacement of fish meal protein. The diets were fed to the fish twice a day to satiation for 20 weeks. Based on the Tukey test, the fish fed 0%–15.0% FBM demonstrated similar performance (P>0.05 to those fed the control diet (FBM0 in terms of specific growth rate, weight gain, and feed and protein efficiency. Specific growth rate, weight gain, feed efficiency and protein efficiency of the fish fed 22.5%–30.5% FBM were significantly lower (P<0.05 than those of the fish fed control diet (FBM0. However, there was a significant culvilinier decliner in overall fish performance with increasing inclusion of FPM and most notable for weight gain, feed efficiency and feed consumption. Based on regression analysis, the asymptote where fish growth deteriorates as a function of FBM inclusion was determined to be 8.9%. Tiger grouper diets incorporating up to 9% FBM as fish meal replacement had no adverse affects on fish growth and survival.

  13. Hydroacoustics for the discovery and quantification of Nassau grouper ( Epinephelus striatus) spawning aggregations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egerton, J. P.; Johnson, A. F.; Le Vay, L.; McCoy, C. M.; Semmens, B. X.; Heppell, S. A.; Turner, J. R.

    2017-06-01

    Fish spawning aggregations (FSAs) are vital life-history events that need to be monitored to determine the health of aggregating populations; this is especially true of the endangered Nassau grouper ( Epinephelus striatus). Hydroacoustics were used to locate Nassau grouper FSAs at sites on the west end of Little Cayman (LCW), and east ends of Grand Cayman (GCE) and Cayman Brac (CBE). Fish abundance and biomass at each FSA were estimated via echo integration and FSA extent. Acoustic mean fish abundance estimates (±SE) on the FSA at LCW (893 ± 459) did not differ significantly from concurrent SCUBA estimates (1150 ± 75). Mean fish densities (number 1000 m-3) were significantly higher at LCW (33.13 ± 5.62) than at the other sites (GCE: 7.01 ± 2.1, CBE: 4.61 ± 1.16). We investigate different acoustic post-processing options to obtain target strength (TS), and we examine the different TS to total length (TL) formulas available. The SCUBA surveys also provided measures of TL through the use of laser callipers allowing development of an in situ TS to TL formula for Nassau grouper at the LCW FSA. Application of this formula revealed mean fish TL was significantly higher at LCW (65.4 ± 0.7 cm) than GCE (60.7 ± 0.4 cm), but not CBE (61.1 ± 2.5 cm). Use of the empirical TS to TL formula resulted in underestimation of fish length in comparison with diver measurements, highlighting the benefits of secondary length data and deriving specific TS to TL formulas for each population. FSA location examined with reference to seasonal marine protected areas (Designated Grouper Spawning Areas) showed FSAs were partially outside these areas at GCE and very close to the boundary at CBE. As FSAs often occur at the limits of safe diving operations, hydroacoustic technology provides an alternative method to monitor and inform future management of aggregating fish species.

  14. 78 FR 72868 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-BD78 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the South Atlantic States; Regulatory Amendment 16 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and...

  15. 78 FR 72867 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-BD77 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the South Atlantic States; Regulatory Amendment 17 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and...

  16. 78 FR 76285 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-BD77 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the South Atlantic States; Regulatory Amendment 17 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and...

  17. 77 FR 32408 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... year round and prevent market gluts when the black sea bass season opens. Response: This comment is... rule modifies the current system of accountability measures for black sea bass, limits effort in the black sea bass segment of the snapper-grouper fishery, and improves fisheries data in the for-hire...

  18. 76 FR 66273 - Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the Southern Atlantic States and Coral and Coral Reefs Fishery in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-26

    ...-Grouper Fishery Off the Southern Atlantic States and Coral and Coral Reefs Fishery in the South Atlantic... Aquariums to collect, with certain conditions, various species of reef fish and live rock in Federal waters... the South Atlantic Region and the FMP for Coral, Coral Reefs, and Live/Hard Bottom Habitats of the...

  19. 76 FR 61285 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; South Atlantic Snapper-Grouper...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ... reduce overfishing of the South Atlantic black sea bass resource. DATES: This rule is effective October 4... overfishing and prevent overfishing from occurring. AMs are management controls to prevent ACLs from being... ACLs for eight snapper-grouper species in the FMP that are undergoing overfishing, including black sea...

  20. 76 FR 23728 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-28

    ... snapper-grouper fishermen, without subjecting the red snapper resource to overfishing. DATES: This final... overfishing. The stock status was determined through a Southeast Data Assessment and Review (SEDAR) benchmark... assessment, Amendment 17A to the FMP was developed to end the overfishing of red snapper and rebuild the...

  1. 75 FR 82280 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-30

    ... from the required use of such tools or techniques, the Council has the option to consider the issue... and age. These species are not often targeted due to the current bag limits (one of each per vessel... sale of bag limit-caught snapper-grouper. The report also notes a lack of data on the range where...

  2. 77 FR 1908 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-12

    .... SUMMARY: NMFS announces that the South Atlantic Fishery Management Council (Council) has submitted Amendment 20A to the Fishery Management Plan (FMP) for the Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic... for the wreckfish individual transferable quota (ITQ) program, including actions to define and revert...

  3. Conditioning of broodstock of tiger grouper, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus, in a recirculating aquaculture system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleem Mustafa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Closing the cycle of commercial species of fish in a recirculating aquaculture system is gaining importance for a number of practical advantages. Founder broodstock originating from the wild population is conditioned to live in hatchery tanks under suitable environmental and feeding conditions and is induced to breed. The juveniles are grown to maturity and facilitated to spawn in captivity to close the life cycle in the hatchery. This experiment was carried out on tiger grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus. After preliminary observations, it was possible to identify appropriate environmental conditions in terms of water quality parameters, volume of broodstock tanks and ration. Growth was nearly isometric (growth exponent = 2.9185 and the condition factor = 1.86. This reflected good management conditions. Cues that trigger sex reversal in this protogynous fish in the hatchery were different from those that operate in nature. It appears that the differentiation of some individuals of a cohort into male sex is linked to socio-demographic cues as well as internal condition of the fish because it related to age and physiological condition. This view was reinforced by a lack of response in young fish to similar cues. The information generated through this study defines what is required for optimum conditioning of tiger grouper broodstock and explains the cues involved in sex differentiation.

  4. TEMPORAL VARIATION IN THE RED GROUPER, EPINEPHELUS MORIO, DEMOGRAPHIC STRUCTURE FROM SOUTHERN GULF OF MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doralice Caballero-Arango

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the demographic structure of red grouper Epinephelus morio from the southern part of the Gulf of Mexico, were evaluated during periods when total catches, CPUE and annual yields of the specie decreased. Fishery-dependent samples (n = 1887 were obtained between August 1989 and February 2004 from the Campeche Bank, and size-frequency distributions by sex, sex ratios and sizes of sexual maturation and sex change were compared between three periods: P11989-1992 (n = 886; P21996-1998 (n = 413; and P32003-2004 (n = 588. The temporal stability of size-frequency distribution by sex, with males always being larger than females, and the sex ratios always biased towards females, were consistent with this species’ type of sexuality. Size for females and males, as well as sizes at first sexual maturity and at sex reversal all decreased from the oldest period to the more recent one and could be a consequence of the fishing intensity applied to this stock. The reductions in size of females and males associated with a relatively stable sex ratio and the lack of any drastic decrease in the number of males can be explained by this species’ reproductive ecology. Results are discussed regarding the capacity for reproductive resilience of red grouper in response to fishing pressure like that currently experienced by the Campeche Bank stock.

  5. In situ observation data from the grouper roi (Cephalopholis argus) removal project in West Hawaii from 2010-2011 (NODC Accession 0082197)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In situ observations of the introduced predatory grouper roi (Cephalopholis argus) were taken within the coral reef ecosystem of Puako, northwest side of the Island...

  6. First release of hatchery juveniles of the dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834 (Serranidae: Teleostei at artificial reefs in the Mediterranean: results from a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele La Mesa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A pilot experiment of stock enhancement based on the release of hatchery-reared juveniles of dusky grouper, Epinephelus marginatus, was carried out at two artificial reefs located 0.9 km offshore the south-western Sicilian coast (Central Mediterranean. The fish assemblages inhabiting the reefs were characterized using underwater visual census (UVC surveys. Despite some differences in fish species richness, diversity and abundance, both artificial reefs provide suitable feeding resources and shelter opportunities for the settlement of dusky grouper juveniles. A total of 95 dusky grouper juveniles, which were 3 and 4 years old, were released. No stress-related effects on fish swimming or behaviour were observed during the step by step transportation to the sea-bottom at 20 m depth. After release, several groupers showed very low reactivity; freezing and schooling were the most common behaviours. The sighting rate after one month of UVC surveys was 15.7% and 20% at the two artificial reefs. No effect of fish size at release on grouper survival was observed. Some groupers were not recorded on the pyramid of release but elsewhere in the same artificial reef, which demonstrated their ability to move around the reef. The extent of dispersal of the released juveniles largely exceeded the area encompassed by the reefs, which was shown by recaptures of tagged groupers by local fishermen up to 13 km from the release site. This result provides a first insight into the potential of stock enhancement of hatchery reared dusky grouper juveniles for marine ranching and conservation purposes.

  7. Behavior, color change and time for sexual inversion in the protogynous grouper (Epinephelus adscensionis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J Kline

    Full Text Available Hermaphroditism, associated with territoriality and dominance behavior, is common in the marine environment. While male sex-specific coloration patterns have been documented in groupers, particularly during the spawning season, few data regarding social structure and the context for these color displays are available. In the present study, we define the social structure and male typical behavior of rock hind (Epinephelus adscensionis in the wild. In addition, we detail the captive conditions and time period necessary to induce the onset of the sex-specific coloration and sexual change. At six oil production platform locations in the Gulf of Mexico, rock hind social group size and typical male rock hind social behavior were documented. We observed a rapid temporary color display in rock hind that could be turned on and off within three seconds and was used for confronting territory intruders and displays of aggression towards females. The male-specific "tuxedo" pattern consists of a bright yellow tail, a body with alternating dark brown and white patches and a dark bar extending from the upper mandible to the operculum. Identification and size ranges of male, female and intersex fish collected from oil platforms were determined in conjunction with gonadal histology. Rock hind social order is haremic with one dominant male defending a territory and a linear dominance hierarchy among individuals. In five captive experiments, the largest remaining female rock hind displayed the male specific color pattern within 32d after dominant male removal from the social group. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence in a grouper species of color patterning used to display territoriality and dominance outside of spawning aggregations. The behavioral paradigm described here is a key advance that will enable mechanistic studies of this complex sex change process.

  8. Behavior, color change and time for sexual inversion in the protogynous grouper (Epinephelus adscensionis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Richard J; Khan, Izhar A; Holt, G Joan

    2011-01-01

    Hermaphroditism, associated with territoriality and dominance behavior, is common in the marine environment. While male sex-specific coloration patterns have been documented in groupers, particularly during the spawning season, few data regarding social structure and the context for these color displays are available. In the present study, we define the social structure and male typical behavior of rock hind (Epinephelus adscensionis) in the wild. In addition, we detail the captive conditions and time period necessary to induce the onset of the sex-specific coloration and sexual change. At six oil production platform locations in the Gulf of Mexico, rock hind social group size and typical male rock hind social behavior were documented. We observed a rapid temporary color display in rock hind that could be turned on and off within three seconds and was used for confronting territory intruders and displays of aggression towards females. The male-specific "tuxedo" pattern consists of a bright yellow tail, a body with alternating dark brown and white patches and a dark bar extending from the upper mandible to the operculum. Identification and size ranges of male, female and intersex fish collected from oil platforms were determined in conjunction with gonadal histology. Rock hind social order is haremic with one dominant male defending a territory and a linear dominance hierarchy among individuals. In five captive experiments, the largest remaining female rock hind displayed the male specific color pattern within 32d after dominant male removal from the social group. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence in a grouper species of color patterning used to display territoriality and dominance outside of spawning aggregations. The behavioral paradigm described here is a key advance that will enable mechanistic studies of this complex sex change process.

  9. Complete mitochondrial genome and the phylogenetic position of the brown-spotted grouper Epinephelus chlorostigma (Perciformes: Epinephelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao; Chen, Hao; Yang, Weidi; Lin, Lingling; Liu, Min

    2016-11-01

    The complete mitogenome of the brown-spotted grouper Epinephelus chlorostigma was determined in this study. It is 16,894 bp in length, containing 37 genes with the typical order and transcriptional direction in the vertebrates. The overall nucleotide composition is: 28.7% A; 28.0% C; 16.3% G and 27.0% T. The lengths of 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes range from 67 (tRNA-Cys) to 76 (tRNA-Leu1) bp. Two start codons (GTG and ATG) and two stop codons (TAG and TAA/T) were found in the protein-coding genes. The nodes of phylogenetic tree were strongly supported based on the complete mitogenomes of available groupers. The phylogenetic results suggested E. chlorostigma is the closest to E. areolatus within the genus Epinephelus.

  10. Parasites infestation on juvenile tiger grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus nursed in net cage at Sea Farming Instalation Kepulauan Seribu, Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yani Hadiroseyani

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to identify fauna parasite of juvenile tiger grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus on the two locations of floating net at Floating Net Sea Farming Center, Pulau Seribu Jakarta. A total of five tiger grouper fry from each location, checked every two weeks during the nursery period in August-September 2008 and June-August 2009. Parasites of young tiger grouper found were protozoa (Trichodina and myxosporea, monogenea Diplectanum, metaserkaria digenea, and isopods Alitropus. Diplectanum infestation was dominant with prevalence reached 100% and the average intensity of 2,87-72,8. Fish nursed in the Perairan Pulau Semak Daun was more susceptible compared to the fish nursed in Pulau Karang Congkak. Keywords: tiger grouper, parasite, infestation, Seribu Island. ABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi penyakit yang menyerang benih kerapu macan pada masa pendederan dalam karamba jaring apung di dua lokasi Karamba Jaring Apung Balai Sea Farming, Kepulauan Seribu, yaitu di Perairan Pulau Semak Daun dan Perairan Pulau Karang Congkak. Sebanyak 5 ekor benih kerapu macan dari masing-masing lokasi, diperiksa setiap minggu selama dua periode pendederan pada bulan Agustus-September 2008 dan bulan Juni-Agustus 2009. Fauna parasit benih kerapu macan pada masa pendederan dalam jaring apung tersebut meliputi protozoa (Trichodina dan myxosporea, monogenea Diplectanum, metaserkaria digenea, dan isopoda Alitropus. Diplectanum merupakan parasit yang mendominasi dengan prevalensi mencapai 100% dan intensitas rerata 2.87–72,8. Pada Perairan Pulau Semak Daun lebih banyak ditemukan jenis parasit dengan prevalensi dan intensitas yang cukup tinggi dibandingkan dengan Perairan Pulau Karang Congkak.Kata kunci: ikan kerapu macan, parasit, infestasi, Pulau Seribu.

  11. Interleukin-1β secreted from betanodavirus-infected microglia caused the death of neurons in giant grouper brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Yu-Hui; Wu, Yu-Chi; Chi, Shau-Chi

    2017-05-01

    High interleukin (IL)-1β gene expression was observed in dead giant grouper brains after nervous necrosis virus (NNV) infection. To investigate the neuronal death caused by NNV infection, primary tissue culture of giant grouper brains (pGB) was performed. In NNV-infected pGB cells, the viral capsid protein was detected in both neurons and microglia; furthermore, microglial proliferation and neuronal death were observed. The culture supernatant (CS) of NNV-infected pGB cells contained IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α, which were mainly released from the microglia. A new batch of pGB cells was treated with CS, resulting in neuronal death, which could be prevented by blocking the IL-1β in the CS by using anti-IL-1β polyclonal antibodies. Moreover, pGB cells treated with recombinant IL-1β showed microglial proliferation and neuronal death. Thus, NNV infection may activate microglial proliferation and stimulate microglial secretion of IL-1β, which is a critical cytokine responsible for neuronal death in NNV-infected grouper brains. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Parasite fauna of wild and cultured dusky-grouper Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834 from Ubatuba, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Roumbedakis

    Full Text Available This study aimed at identifying and quantifying the parasites of wild and cultured dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus. During a year and thereby all four seasons, 20 wild and 20 cultured groupers were examined for the presence of parasites, except in the last season, in which 19 wild and 20 cultured fish were examined, totalling 159 groupers analysed from Ubatuba, southeastern Brazil. Prevalence, mean intensity of infection, mean abundance and mean relative dominance were calculated. Five species of parasites were identified in fish from both origins: Pseudorhabdosynochus beverleyburtonae (Monogenea, Neobenedenia melleni (Monogenea, Pseudempleurosoma sp. (Monogenea, Helicometrina nimia (Digenea and larvae of Contracaecum sp. (Nematoda. The prevalence of ectoparasites, in most cases, was higher than endoparasites. The most abundant parasite was the monogenea Pseudorhabdosynochus beverleyburtonae in both wild and cultured fish, along all seasons. Neobenedenia melleni was observed in wild and cultured fish in all seasons, with a gradual increase in the number of parasites from the coldest to the hottest seasons, with the highest prevalence and mean intensity in the summer. Helicometrina nimia was found in all seasons in both wild and cultured fish, except for summer, where its presence was detected only in wild fish. Pseudempleurosoma sp. and larvae of Contracaecum sp. showed low prevalence occurring in wild and cultured fish in the autumn and spring, respectively. This study revealed high intensities of potentially pathogenic parasites that could favour disease outbreaks in culture conditions.

  13. Gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from groupers Epinephelus spp. (Osteichthyes: Serranidae) in the Bay of Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, František; Manoharan, Jayaraman

    2014-10-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, two new and one specifically not identified gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda: Philometridae) are described from the ovary of marine fishes of the genus Epinephelus Bloch (Serranidae, Perciformes) in the Bay of Bengal, off the eastern coast of India: P. indica sp. nov. (male and females) from the honeycomb grouper E. merra Bloch, P. tropica sp. nov. (males and females) from the duskytail grouper E. bleekeri (Vaillant) and Philometra sp. (only females) from the cloudy grouper E. erythrurus (Valenciennes). Philometra indica is mainly characterized by the length of spicules 192-195 μm and the gubernaculum 84 μm, the distal tip of the gubernaculum without a dorsal protuberance, and by the presence of five pairs of caudal papillae. Philometra tropica is mainly characterized by the spicules conspicuously ventrally distended at their posterior halves, the distal tip of the gubernaculum with a dorsal protuberance, and the presence of three pairs of caudal papillae.

  14. Construction of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) DNA vaccine and its protective efficiency on the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) challenged with Vibrio harveyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haiyang; Zhu, Fan; Huang, Yucong; Ding, Yu; Jian, Jichang; Wu, Zaohe

    2017-01-01

    The main aims of this study were to construct glutathione peroxidase (GPx) DNA vaccine of Vibrio harveyi ZJ0603 and to investigate its immune protective efficiency as a vaccine candidate on the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) treated with V. harveyi. Base on the cloning of ZJ0603 GPx gene, a DNA vaccine, named as pcDNA-GPx, was constructed by inserting GPx gene into pcDNA3.1 (+) plasmid. Orange-spotted groupers were immunized with the pcDNA-GPx plasmid by injection intramuscularly. The relative percent of survival (RPS) of fish vaccinated with the DNA vaccine against pathogenic V. harveyi infection was 77.5%. The expression of DNA vaccine was analyzed in the tissues of orange-spotted grouper by PCR and RT-PCR. The results indicated that pcDNA-GPx distributed and expressed in the head kidney, liver, spleen, gill and injected muscle at 7 and 28 days after vaccination. Significant specific antibody responses were also detected in the vaccinated orange-spotted groupers by indirect ELISA method. In a conclusion, DNA vaccine pcDNA-GPx showed an effective immune protection to the orange-spotted grouper treated with V. harveyi. The GPx can be used as a candidate DNA vaccine for the control of vibriosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Dispersal of grouper larvae drives local resource sharing in a coral reef fishery

    KAUST Repository

    Almany, Glenn R.

    2013-04-01

    In many tropical nations, fisheries management requires a community-based approach because small customary marine tenure areas define the spatial scale of management [1]. However, the fate of larvae originating from a community\\'s tenure is unknown, and thus the degree to which a community can expect their management actions to replenish the fisheries within their tenure is unclear [2, 3]. Furthermore, whether and how much larval dispersal links tenure areas can provide a strong basis for cooperative management [4, 5]. Using genetic parentage analysis, we measured larval dispersal from a single, managed spawning aggregation of squaretail coral grouper (Plectropomus areolatus) and determined its contribution to fisheries replenishment within five community tenure areas up to 33 km from the aggregation at Manus Island, Papua New Guinea. Within the community tenure area containing the aggregation, 17%-25% of juveniles were produced by the aggregation. In four adjacent tenure areas, 6%-17% of juveniles were from the aggregation. Larval dispersal kernels predict that 50% of larvae settled within 14 km of the aggregation. These results strongly suggest that both local and cooperative management actions can provide fisheries benefits to communities over small spatial scales. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Dynamic camouflage by Nassau groupers Epinephelus striatus on a Caribbean coral reef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, A C; Siemann, L A; Hanlon, R T

    2014-11-01

    This field study describes the camouflage pattern repertoire, associated behaviours and speed of pattern change of Nassau groupers Epinephelus striatus at Little Cayman Island, British West Indies. Three basic camouflaged body patterns were observed under natural conditions and characterized quantitatively. The mean speed of pattern change across the entire body was 4.44 s (range = 0.97-9.87 s); the fastest pattern change as well as contrast change within a fixed pattern occurred within 1 s. Aside from apparent defensive camouflage, E. striatus used camouflage offensively to approach crustacean or fish prey, and three successful predation events were recorded. Although animal camouflage is a widespread tactic, dynamic camouflage is relatively uncommon and has been studied rarely in marine teleosts under natural conditions. The rapid changes observed in E. striatus suggest direct neural control of some skin colouration elements, and comparative studies of functional morphology and behaviour of colour change in other coral-reef teleosts are likely to reveal new mechanisms and adaptations of dynamic colouration. © 2014 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  17. Grouper (Epinephelus coioides) MyD88 and Tollip: intracellular localization and signal transduction function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Wei; Wang, Zheng; Mo, Ze-Quan; Li, Xia; Luo, Xiao-Chun; Dan, Xue-Ming; Li, An-Xing

    2015-01-01

    Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) and Toll-interacting protein (Tollip) are two important regulatory proteins of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathways. In this paper, a Tollip sequence of grouper (Epinephelus coioides) was identified and the signal transduction functions of Tollip and MyD88 were studied. The full length of E. coioides Tollip (EcTollip) cDNA with an open reading frame (ORF) of 1734 nucleotides encoded a putative protein of 274 amino acid residues. The EcTollip protein had conservative domains with mammalian homologous proteins, and high identity (78%-95%) with other vertebrates. MyD88 and Tollip were distributed in the HeLa cytoplasm in a highly condensed form. Over-expression of MyD88 could activate nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and its function was dependent on the death domain and ID domain on the N-terminal. Some important functional sites of mammalian MyD88 also affected fish MyD88 signal transduction. Tollip impaired NF-κB signals activated by MyD88, and its activity was dependent on the coupling of ubiquitin to the endoplasmic reticulum degradation (CUE) domain on the C-terminal. These results suggest that MyD88 and Tollip of fish and mammals are conservative on function during evolution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Sex Reversal and Masculinization according to Growth in Longtooth Grouper Epinephelus bruneus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Seong-Rip; Kang, Hyeong-Cheol; Lee, Chi-Hoon; Hur, Sang-Woo; Lee, Young-Don

    2013-06-01

    To understand the sex reversal characteristics in the longtooth grouper (Epinephelus bruneus), this study examined the sex reversal and artificial masculinization of wild caught E. bruneus reared in indoor rearing tank after a 17α-methyltestosterone injection. To domesticate a broodstock, 64 wild caught E. bruneus, between 47.0 to 110.0 cm in total length and from 1.5 to 21.4 kg in body weight, were reared in indoor rearing tank (4.0 to 5.0 m wide, and 2.5 to 3.0 m depth) for four years. Seven specimens showed sex reversal from female to male during indoor rearing condition, whose total length and body weights were from 63.0 to 99.0 cm and from 4.4 to 13.2 kg, respectively. After inducing artificial masculinization in 14 female E. bruneus with a 17α-methyltestosterone (2.0 mg/kg BW) implants for 3 years, spermiation occurred in 9 specimens (total length: 54.0 to 68.0 cm, body weight: 2.3 to 4.3 kg). Among the female to male sex reversals, two specimens returned back to being female, whose body weights were 2.8 kg (initially 2.6 kg) and 2.7 kg (initially 2.3 kg). Therefore, this study suggested that E. bruneus (> 3.0 kg) was more effective in masculinizing by 17α-methyltestosterone implants.

  19. Early endocytosis pathways in SSN-1 cells infected by dragon grouper nervous necrosis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wangta; Hsu, Chi-Hsin; Hong, Yi-Ren; Wu, Shu-Chuan; Wang, Chun-Hsiung; Wu, Yi-Min; Chao, Chia-Ben; Lin, Chan-Shing

    2005-09-01

    Many fish undergo betanodavirus infection. To study the infection process of dragon grouper nervous necrosis virus (DGNNV), native virus and virus-like particles (VLPs) were used to analyse the binding and internalization in SSN-1 cells. The binding of DGNNV and VLPs to SSN-1 cells was demonstrated using Western blotting and immunofluorescence microscopy. As estimated by indirect ELISA, the DGNNV particles bound SSN-1 cells in a dose-dependent manner up to 8 x 10(4) particles per cell. The binding of VLPs was sensitive to neuraminidase and tunicamycin, suggesting that cell-surface sialic acid is involved in binding. The penetration of DGNNV into cells, which was monitored by electron microscopy, appeared to occur mainly via the spherical pit and membrane ruffling pathways. Occasionally, a spherical pit was engulfed by membrane ruffling so as to form a large figure-of-eight-shaped vesicle with an open connection. Our observations suggest that DGNNV utilizes both micro- and macropinocytosis pathways to enter SSN-1 cells.

  20. Orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) toll-like receptor 22: molecular characterization, expression pattern and pertinent signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xu; Lu, Dan-qi; Hou, Qing-hua; Li, Shui-sheng; Liu, Xiao-chun; Zhang, Yong; Lin, Hao-ran

    2012-09-01

    The toll-like receptors (TLRs) are an important gene family in host innate immunologic surveillance. The TLR22 gene is an essential member of the TLRs that is only found in aquatic animals and has been detected in some bony fish. Here, a TLR22 homolog, EcTLR22, was characterized in the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) via homology cloning. The 3321 bp full-length cDNA sequence of EcTLR22 was obtained, which included an open reading frame of 2880 bp encoding a putative peptide of 960 amino acids containing three highly typical domains with the characteristics of TLR family members. The deduced amino acid sequence of EcTLR22 showed a relatively high similarity to flounder TLR22. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the orange-spotted grouper TLR22 sequence was clustered with those of Perciforme, such as flounder and croaker. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed broad expression of EcTLR22, with relatively high expression detected in the head kidney, trunk kidney, spleen, peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) and heart of orange-spotted grouper. After injection with Vibrio alginolyticus, there was significant up-regulation of the expression of EcTLR22 in the spleen. In evaluating unstimulated/stimulated head kidney leukocytes and spleen leukocytes, a significant increase in EcTLR22 mRNA expression was detected, which implied a sensitive immune response. Furthermore, four important molecules for signal transduction, MyD88, TRIF, TNF-α and IRF3, were chosen to analyze the role of the EcTLR22 signaling pathway in anti-pathogen responses. Upon LPS or Poly I:C challenge, expression of the four genes was induced, with an increasing tendency detected in head kidney leukocytes, suggesting that the four genes might work with EcTLR22 in host defense against pathogenic microbes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. First record of a spawning aggregation for the tropical eastern Pacific endemic grouper Mycteroperca olfax in the Galapagos Marine Reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-de-León, P; Rastoin, E; Acuña-Marrero, D

    2015-07-01

    This study provides direct and indirect evidence of temporally and spatially consistent spawning aggregations for the grouper Mycteroperca olfax. Recently reported declines in population numbers, probably related to the direct targeting of aggregations by artisanal fishermen, highlight the urgent need for species-specific management actions in the Galapagos Marine Reserve, such as minimum and maximum landing sizes, and the importance of protecting key aggregation sites with the declaration of no-take areas and the establishment of total fishing bans during the reproductive season. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  2. Identification and characterization of three TLR1 subfamily members from the orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Wei; Xu, Dong-Dong; Li, Xia; Mo, Ze-Quan; Luo, Xiao-Chun; Li, An-Xing; Dan, Xue-Ming

    2016-08-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which play important roles in host defense against pathogen infection, are the most intensively studied pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). In this study, we identified three novel TLR1 subfamily members, including TLR1 (EcTLR1b), TLR2 (EcTLR2b) and TLR14 (EcTLR14), from the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). EcTLR1b and EcTLR2b displayed low sequence identity with the previously reported grouper TLR1 (EcTLR1a) and TLR2 (EcTLR2a), respectively. The open reading frames (ORFs) of EcTLR1b, EcTLR2b and EcTLR14 contain 2484 bp, 2394 bp and 2640 bp, which encode the corresponding 827 amino acids (aa), 797 aa and 879 aa, respectively. All three TLRs have leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domains (including an LRR-NT (except for EcTLR1b), several LRR motifs and an LRR-CT), a trans-membrane region and a Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain. The TIR domains of the three TLRs exhibited conserved boxes, namely box1, box2 and box3, and their 3D models were similar to those of human TLR1 or TLR2. Sequence alignment demonstrated that the TIR domains of the three TLRs shared higher sequence identity with those of other species than the full-length receptors. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that EcTLR1s and EcTLR2s are characterized by their differing evolutionary status, whereas EcTLR14 was found to be in the same group as other piscine TLR14/18s. The three TLRs were ubiquitously expressed in seven tested tissues of healthy groupers, although their expression profiles were different. Post Cryptocaryon irritans infection, TLR1s expression was up-regulated in the gills. The expression of TLR2b was mainly increased in the spleen, but decreased in the gills, which was similar to the expression pattern of TLR2a post C. irritans infection. Unlike EcTLR1b and EcTLR2b, however, the grouper TLR14 transcript was substantially induced in both tissues post challenge. These findings may be helpful in understanding the innate immune mechanism of host

  3. Institutional analysis of marine reserves and fisheries governance policy experiments : a case study of Nassau grouper conservation in the Turks and Caicos Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudd, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Keywords: Ecosystem-based fisheries management; marine reserves; marine protected areas; social capital; institutional analysis; Turks and Caicos Islands; Nassau grouper Many tropical fisheries around the world are in crisis because of the depletion of valuable reef species and the destruction of

  4. Acoustic telemetry survey of the dusky grouper (Epinephelus marginatus) in the Marine Reserve of Cerbère-Banyuls: informations on the territoriality of this emblematic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, Jérémy; Verdoit-Jarraya, Marion; Astruch, Patrick; Dalias, Nicolas; Nelva Pasqual, Jean-Sébastien; Saragoni, Gilles; Lenfant, Philippe

    2009-08-01

    The Marine Reserve of Cerbère-Banyuls represents a refuge for dusky grouper populations (Epinephelus marginatus). Density survey and observation of the reproductive behavior of this species have been conducted there for the last 30 years. However, information on the behavior or habitat utilization for this species during winter time is limited. We conducted acoustic telemetry surveys from September 2005 to June 2006 in the Marine Reserve of Cerbère-Banyuls for a dusky grouper population. Six groupers were tagged and followed within the integral reserve and in the adjacent partial reserve. The results from the tracking of these individuals indicated that the largest dusky groupers are sedentary fishes with a high degree of site fidelity and a high sensitivity to variations of environmental conditions such as storms. This together with the life history characteristics of this species encourages the conservation and the protection of essential habitats of this species. Acoustic tracking coupled to the use of a fixed Kernel can be proposed to follow fish populations.

  5. Parasites of the grouper fish Epinephelus coioides (Serranidae) as potential environmental indicators in Indonesian coastal ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinertz, S; Palm, H W

    2015-01-01

    A total of 195 Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton, 1822) were studied for fish parasites from Javanese (Segara Anakan lagoon) and Balinese waters. Up to 25 different parasite species belonging to the following taxa: one Ciliata, one Microsporea, five Digenea, one Monogenea, four Cestoda, four Nematoda, one Acanthocephala, one Hirudinea and seven Crustacea were identified with four new host and locality records. The dominant parasites included the monogenean Pseudorhabdosynochus lantauensis (53.3-97.1%), the nematode Spirophilometra endangae (23.3-42.9%), the digenean Didymodiclinus sp. (2.9-40.0%), the nematodes Philometra sp. (22.6-34.3%) and Raphidascaris sp. (2.9-28.6%), and the isopod Alcirona sp. (6.7-31.4%). Regional differences for E. coioides were found in terms of endoparasite diversity, total diversity according to Shannon-Wiener, Simpson index and Evenness. A comparison with published data from Sumatera revealed highest endoparasite diversity (Shannon-Wiener: 1.86/1.67-2.04) and lowest ectoparasite/endoparasite ratio (0.73/0.57-0.88) off the Balinese coast, followed by Lampung Bay, Sumatera (1.84; 0.67), off the coast of Segara Anakan lagoon (1.71; 0.71), and in the lagoon (0.30/0.19-0.66; 0.85/0.67-1.00). The presented data demonstrate the natural range of these parameters and parasite prevalences according to habitat and region, allowing adjustment of the scale that has been used in the visual integration of the parasite parameters into a star graph. The parasite fauna of E. coioides in Segara Anakan lagoon 'improved' from 2004 until 2008/09, possibly related to earlier oil spill events in 2002 and 2004. The use of grouper fish parasites as an early warning system for environmental change in Indonesian coastal ecosystems is discussed.

  6. Hybridisation among groupers (genus Cephalopholis) at the eastern Indian Ocean suture zone: taxonomic and evolutionary implications

    KAUST Repository

    Payet, Samuel D.

    2016-08-05

    Hybridisation is a significant evolutionary process that until recently was considered rare in the marine environment. A suture zone in the eastern Indian Ocean is home to numerous hybridising sister species, providing an ideal opportunity to determine how hybridisation affects speciation and biodiversity in coral reef fishes. At this location, hybridisation between two grouper (Epinephelidae) species: Cephalopholis urodeta (Pacific Ocean) and C. nigripinnis (Indian Ocean) was investigated to determine the genetic basis of hybridisation and to compare the ecology and life history of hybrids and their parent species. This approach aimed to provide insights into the taxonomic and evolutionary consequences of hybridisation. Despite clear phenotypic differences, multiple molecular markers revealed hybrids, and their parent species were genetically homogenous within and (thousands of kilometres) outside of the hybrid zone. Hybrids were at least as fit as their parent species (in terms of growth, reproduction, and abundance) and were observed in a broad range of intermediate phenotypes. The two species appear to be interbreeding at Christmas Island due to inherent biological and ecological compatibilities, and the lack of genetic structure may be explained by three potential scenarios: (1) hybridisation and introgression; (2) discordance between morphology and genetics; and (3) incomplete lineage sorting. Further molecular analyses are necessary to discriminate these scenarios. Regardless of which applies, C. urodeta and C. nigripinnis are unlikely to evolve in reproductive isolation as they cohabit where they are common (Christmas Island) and will source congeneric mates where they are rare (Cocos Keeling Islands). Our results add to the growing body of evidence that hybridisation among coral reef fishes is a dynamic evolutionary factor. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

  7. Grouper iridovirus GIV66 is a Bcl-2 protein that inhibits apoptosis by exclusively sequestering Bim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banjara, Suresh; Mao, Jiahao; Ryan, Timothy M; Caria, Sofia; Kvansakul, Marc

    2018-04-13

    Programmed cell death or apoptosis is a critical mechanism for the controlled removal of damaged or infected cells, and proteins of the Bcl-2 family are important arbiters of this process. Viruses have been shown to encode functional and structural homologs of Bcl-2 to counter premature host-cell apoptosis and ensure viral proliferation or survival. Grouper iridovirus (GIV) is a large DNA virus belonging to the Iridoviridae family and harbors GIV66, a putative Bcl-2-like protein and mitochondrially localized apoptosis inhibitor. However, the molecular and structural basis of GIV66-mediated apoptosis inhibition is currently not understood. To gain insight into GIV66's mechanism of action, we systematically evaluated its ability to bind peptides spanning the BH3 domain of pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members. Our results revealed that GIV66 harbors an unusually high level of specificity for pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 and displays affinity only for Bcl-2-like 11 (Bcl2L11 or Bim). Using crystal structures of both apo-GIV66 and GIV66 bound to the BH3 domain from Bim, we unexpectedly found that GIV66 forms dimers via an interface that results in occluded access to the canonical Bcl-2 ligand-binding groove, which breaks apart upon Bim binding. This observation suggests that GIV66 dimerization may affect GIV66's ability to bind host pro-death Bcl-2 proteins and enables highly targeted virus-directed suppression of host apoptosis signaling. Our findings provide a mechanistic understanding for the potent anti-apoptotic activity of GIV66 by identifying it as the first single-specificity, pro-survival Bcl-2 protein and identifying a pivotal role of Bim in GIV-mediated inhibition of apoptosis. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Phenotype and genotype of  lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from the tiger grouperEpinephelus fuscoguttatusalimentary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nursyirwani, Nursyirwani; Asmara, Widya; Wahyuni, Agnesia Endang Tri Hastuti; Triyanto, Triyanto; Fauzi, Muhammad; Muchlisin, Zainal Abidin

    2017-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been isolated successfully from the tiger grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus intestine. However, their genus or species have not been identified. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to characterize the three isolated LAB (KSBU-12C, KSBU-5Da, and KSBU-9) based on their phenotype and genotype. The LAB phenotype was examined by observing morphological features including cell morphology, spore production and motility. The physiological tests were performed in 6.5% NaCl at the  temperatures of 10 o C and 45 o C, and the biochemical tests were evaluated based on the production of enzymes catalase, oxidase and arginine dehydrolase, following  the Standard Analytical Profile Index, API 50 CH kit.  The genotype was examined based on 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis , and the products were analyzed using the BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool) NCBI database. The three isolates (KSBU-5Da, KSBU-12C, and KSBU-9) were categorized into the genus Enterococcus . 16S rDNA sequence analysis indicated that the isolates had 99% similarity to E. hirae ATCC 9790, registered in GenBank with accession number NR_075022.1. It was concluded that the three LAB isolates taken from the tiger grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus are E. hirae .

  9. An automated microfluidic chip system for detection of piscine nodavirus and characterization of its potential carrier in grouper farms.

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    Hsiao-Che Kuo

    Full Text Available Groupers of the Epinephelus spp. are an important aquaculture species of high economic value in the Asia Pacific region. They are susceptible to piscine nodavirus infection, which results in viral nervous necrosis disease. In this study, a rapid and sensitive automated microfluidic chip system was implemented for the detection of piscine nodavirus; this technology has the advantage of requiring small amounts of sample and has been developed and applied for managing grouper fish farms. Epidemiological investigations revealed an extremely high detection rate of piscine nodavirus (89% of fish samples from 5 different locations in southern Taiwan. In addition, positive samples from the feces of fish-feeding birds indicated that the birds could be carrying the virus between fish farms. In the present study, we successfully introduced this advanced technology that combines engineering and biological approaches to aquaculture. In the future, we believe that this approach will improve fish farm management and aid in reducing the economic loss experienced by fish farmers due to widespread disease outbreaks.

  10. Molecular cloning of orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) TLR21 and expression analysis post Cryptocaryon irritans infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Wei; Luo, Xiao-Chun; Dan, Xue-Ming; Qiao, Wei; Huang, Xia-Zi; Li, An-Xing

    2012-03-01

    TLR21, a non-mammalian Toll like receptor, was recently identified in chicken as a pattern recognition receptor of unmethyl-CpG ODN, functionally similar to that of mammalian TLR9. Its role in fish immune defense and whether it is involved in anti-parasite immunity has not yet been proven. In this study, we identified a cDNA sequence encoding orange-spotted grouper Toll-like receptor 21 (EcTLR21), the open reading frame (ORF) was 2937 bp encoding a putative polypeptide of 979 amino acid residues. Some conserved motifs in mammalian TLR9 were also conserved in grouper and other fish species' TLR9 and TLR21. Tissue distribution analysis indicated that EcTLR21 is broadly expressed in all the tissue we tested except muscle. High expression levels were found in the head kidney, trunk kidney, spleen and heart. Post Cryptocaryon irritans infection, TLR21 and TLR9 transcripts were induced at the local infection sites (skin and gill), while suppressed in systemic immune organs (spleen and head kidney), indicating that these two receptors may play a role in host anti-parasitic immune responses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Spatial dynamics of the red grouper Epinephelus morio (Pisces: Serranidae on the Campeche Bank, Gulf of Mexico

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    Jorge A. López-Rocha

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The spatial dynamics of the red grouper Epinephelus morio plays a fundamental role in the fishery management on the Campeche Bank, where it is overfished. The objective of this study was to characterize the spatial dynamics of this population. We used a dynamic model of spatial distribution to estimate population movement rates between adjacent areas. The model was applied using information on catch per unit effort and length-frequency distributions for the Mexican mid-sized fleet that operated in the area in the period 1973-1977. These data were chosen to ensure that the information would reflect the condition of the resource before overfishing. It was possible to quantify the spatial dynamics of the red grouper and the results were consistent with previously known movement patterns. The results showed different movement rates and temporal patterns of movement for different population sectors. The spawning aggregations and the seasonal upwelling occurring in the eastern part of the Bank were considered as key factors influencing the pattern of population movements.

  12. The ups and downs of coral reef fishes: the genetic characteristics of a formerly severely overfished but currently recovering Nassau grouper fish spawning aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, A. M.; Feldheim, K. A.; Nemeth, R.; Kadison, E.; Blondeau, J.; Semmens, B. X.; Shivji, M. S.

    2016-03-01

    The Nassau grouper ( Epinephelus striatus) has sustained large declines across its distribution, including extirpation of many of its fish spawning aggregations (FSAs). Within US Virgin Islands (USVI) waters, Nassau grouper FSAs were overfished until their disappearance in the 1970s and 1980s. In the early 2000s, however, Nassau grouper were found gathering at Grammanik Bank, USVI, a mesophotic coral reef adjacent to one of the extinct aggregation sites, and regulatory protective measures were implemented to protect this fledgling FSA. The population genetic dynamics of this rapid FSA deterioration followed by protection-facilitated, incipient recovery are unknown. We addressed two objectives: (1) we explored which factors (i.e., local vs. external recruitment) might be key in shaping the USVI FSA recovery; and (2) we examined the consequences of severe past overfishing on this FSA's current genetic status. We genotyped individuals (15 microsatellites) from the USVI FSA comprising three successive spawning years (2008-2010), as well as individuals from a much larger, presumably less impacted, Nassau grouper FSA in the Cayman Islands, to assess their comparative population dynamics. No population structure was detected between the USVI and Cayman FSAs ( F ST = -0.0004); however, a temporally waning, genetic bottleneck signal was detected in the USVI FSA. Parentage analysis failed to identify any parent-offspring matches between USVI FSA adults and nearby juveniles, and relatedness analysis showed low levels of genetic relatedness among USVI FSA individuals. Genetic diversity across USVI FSA temporal collections was relatively high, and no marked differences were found between the USVI and Cayman FSAs. These collective results suggest that external recruitment is an important driver of the USVI FSA recovery. Furthermore, despite an apparent genetic bottleneck, the genetic diversity of USVI Nassau grouper has not been severely compromised. Our findings also provide a

  13. Mitochondrial DNA evidences reflect an incipient population structure in Atlantic goliath grouper (Epinephelus itajara, Epinephelidae in Brazil

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    Júnio S. Damasceno

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Atlantic goliath grouper is a critically endangered species that inhabits estuarine and reef environments and is threatened primarily by fishing activities and habitat destruction. Despite the urgent need for protection, its genetic conservation status remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the gene flow among the populations of the species along the coast of Brazil based on the control region of the mitochondrial DNA. The results indicate low haplotype diversity (0.40-0.86 and very low nucleotide diversity (0.1-0.5%. They also show that the genetic diversity of the species varies considerably along the coast and that this finding may be especially important for the identification of priority areas for its conservation. The population analyses indicate a low but significant degree of genetic structuring (ΦST =0.111, probably due to the occurrence of rare haplotypes at some locations, although the genetic differentiation between sites was not correlated with geographic distance (r=0.0501; p=0.7719, and the shared haplotypes indicate that gene flow occurs among all locations along the Brazilian coast. The results of the pairwise FST indicate a high degree of genetic differentiation between locations. The incipient population structuring detected in the present study is not related systematically to the geological or physical features of the Brazilian coast. The complex interaction of fluctuations in sea level, marine currents, and the reproductive characteristics of the species hampers the identification of the specific role of each of these processes in the gene flow dynamics of the population units of the Atlantic goliath grouper. The low overall levels of genetic diversity, the pairwise FST values and the significant population structuring among groups (ΦCT identified in the present study all reinforce the critically endangered status of the species and are inconsistent with the presence of a single, panmictic

  14. Roe Protein Hydrolysates of Giant Grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus Inhibit Cell Proliferation of Oral Cancer Cells Involving Apoptosis and Oxidative Stress

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    Jing-Iong Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Roe protein hydrolysates were reported to have antioxidant property but the anticancer effects were less addressed, especially for oral cancer. In this study, we firstly used the ultrafiltrated roe hydrolysates (URH derived from giant grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus to evaluate the impact of URH on proliferation against oral cancer cells. We found that URH dose-responsively reduced cell viability of two oral cancer cells (Ca9-22 and CAL 27 in terms of ATP assay. Using flow cytometry, URH-induced apoptosis of Ca9-22 cells was validated by morphological features of apoptosis, sub-G1 accumulation, and annexin V staining in dose-responsive manners. URH also induced oxidative stress in Ca9-22 cells in terms of reactive oxygen species (ROS/superoxide generations and mitochondrial depolarization. Taken together, these data suggest that URH is a potential natural product for antioral cancer therapy.

  15. Application of biomarkers in Epaulet grouper (Epinephelus stoliczkae) to assess chromium pollution in the Chabahar Bay and Gulf of Oman

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghi, Parvin; Kazerouni, Faranak; Savari, Ahmad; Movahedinia, Abdolali; Safahieh, Alireza; Ajdari, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    In the present study plasma levels of erythropoietin (EPO) hormone and kidney histological changes were assessed as biomarkers to evaluate the chromium pollution in Epaulet grouper (Epinephelus stoliczkae) obtained from different areas in Chabahar Bay and Gulf of Oman. Chemical analyses included the evaluation of chromium in the fish kidney tissue and sediment. The highest and lowest concentrations of chromium were measured in the kidney of fish and sediment collected from Konarak (47.53 ± 1.23 and 110 ± 1.4 μg g –1 ) and the mouth of Chabahar Bay (3.43 ± 1.31 and 13.5 ± 3.23 μg g –1 ), respectively. There was significant difference (P < 0.05) of EPO plasma levels between Konarak, Beris and Ramin stations with the mouth of Chabahar Bay as the cleanest station. Reduction of Bowman's space, occlusion of the tubule lumen, leukocytes infiltration, melanomacrophage centers aggregation, nuclear vacuolation, nuclei hypertrophy of tubule cells, necrosis of the tubules, lifting of the tubular basement membrane and dilatation of glomerular capillaries were the most alterations observed in the kidney. The HAI values of Epaulet grouper from Konarak, Beris and Ramin stations were significantly higher than other stations (P < 0.05). It was concluded that selected biomarkers as a first investigation could be useful tools to environmental biomonitoring programs. - Highlights: • Plasma EPO level and kidney HAI were assessed as Cr biomarkers in E. stoliczkae. • Chromium was measured in the sediment and kidney of E. stoliczkae in the Gulf of Oman. • Highest Cr concentration was in the sediment and E. stoliczkae kidney from Konarak. • The analyzed biomarkers in E. stoliczkae are suitable to monitor Cr pollution

  16. Application of biomarkers in Epaulet grouper (Epinephelus stoliczkae) to assess chromium pollution in the Chabahar Bay and Gulf of Oman

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadeghi, Parvin, E-mail: parvin.sadeghi@gmail.com [Marine Biology Department, Marine Science Faculty, Chabahar Maritime University, Chabahar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kazerouni, Faranak [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Faculty of Paramedical Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Savari, Ahmad; Movahedinia, Abdolali; Safahieh, Alireza [Marine Biology Department, Marine and Oceanic Science Faculty, Khorramshahr University of Marine Science and Technology, Khorramshahr (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ajdari, Daniel [Iranian Fisheries Research Organization, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    In the present study plasma levels of erythropoietin (EPO) hormone and kidney histological changes were assessed as biomarkers to evaluate the chromium pollution in Epaulet grouper (Epinephelus stoliczkae) obtained from different areas in Chabahar Bay and Gulf of Oman. Chemical analyses included the evaluation of chromium in the fish kidney tissue and sediment. The highest and lowest concentrations of chromium were measured in the kidney of fish and sediment collected from Konarak (47.53 ± 1.23 and 110 ± 1.4 μg g{sup –1}) and the mouth of Chabahar Bay (3.43 ± 1.31 and 13.5 ± 3.23 μg g{sup –1}), respectively. There was significant difference (P < 0.05) of EPO plasma levels between Konarak, Beris and Ramin stations with the mouth of Chabahar Bay as the cleanest station. Reduction of Bowman's space, occlusion of the tubule lumen, leukocytes infiltration, melanomacrophage centers aggregation, nuclear vacuolation, nuclei hypertrophy of tubule cells, necrosis of the tubules, lifting of the tubular basement membrane and dilatation of glomerular capillaries were the most alterations observed in the kidney. The HAI values of Epaulet grouper from Konarak, Beris and Ramin stations were significantly higher than other stations (P < 0.05). It was concluded that selected biomarkers as a first investigation could be useful tools to environmental biomonitoring programs. - Highlights: • Plasma EPO level and kidney HAI were assessed as Cr biomarkers in E. stoliczkae. • Chromium was measured in the sediment and kidney of E. stoliczkae in the Gulf of Oman. • Highest Cr concentration was in the sediment and E. stoliczkae kidney from Konarak. • The analyzed biomarkers in E. stoliczkae are suitable to monitor Cr pollution.

  17. Expression profile of amh/Amh during bi-directional sex change in the protogynous orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides.

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    Guan-Chung Wu

    Full Text Available Gonadal differentiation is tightly regulated by the initial sex determining gene and the downstream sex-related genes in vertebrates. However, sex change in fish can alter the sexual fate from one sex to the other. Chemical-induced maleness in the protogynous orange-spotted grouper is transient, and a reversible sex change occurs after the chemical treatment is withdrawn. We used these characteristics to study Amh signaling during bi-directional sex change in the grouper. We successfully induced the female-to-male sex change by chemical (aromatase inhibitor, AI, or methyltestosterone, MT treatment. A dormant gonad (a low proliferation rate of early germ cells and no characteristics of both sexes was found during the transient phase of reversible male-to-female sex change after the withdrawal of chemical administration. Our results showed that amh (anti-mullerian hormone and its receptor amhr2 (anti-mullerian hormone receptor type 2 were significantly increased in the gonads during the process of female-to-male sex change. Amh is expressed in the Sertoli cells surrounding the type A spermatogonia in the female-to-male grouper. Male-related gene (dmrt1 and sox9 expression was immediately decreased in MT-terminated males during the reversible male-to-female sex change. However, Amh expression was found in the surrounding cells of type A spermatogonia-like cells during the transient phase of reversible male-to-female sex change. This phenomenon is correlated with the dormancy of type A spermatogonia-like cells. Thus, Amh signaling is suggested to play roles in regulating male differentiation during the female-to-male sex change and in inhibiting type-A spermatogonia-like cell proliferation/differentiation during the reversible male-to-female sex change. We suggest that Amh signaling might play dual roles during bi-directional sex change in grouper.

  18. Sexual dimorphic expression of dnd in germ cells during sex reversal and its requirement for primordial germ cell survival in protogynous hermaphroditic grouper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhi-Hui; Zhou, Li; Li, Zhi; Liu, Xiao-Chun; Li, Shui-Sheng; Wang, Yang; Gui, Jian-Fang

    2017-06-01

    Dead end (dnd), vertebrate-specific germ cell marker, had been demonstrated to be essential for primordial germ cell (PGC) migration and survival, and the link between PGC number and sex change had been revealed in some teleost species, but little is known about dnd in hermaphroditic vertebrates. In the present study, a protogynous hermaphroditic orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) dnd homologue (Ecdnd) was identified and characterized. Quantitative real-time PCR and in situ hybridization analysis revealed a dynamic and sexually dimorphic expression pattern in PGCs and germ cells of gonads. During sex changing, the Ecdnd transcript sharply increased in early transitional gonad, reached the highest level at late transitional gonad stage, and decreased after testis maturation. Visualization of zebrafish PGCs by injecting with RFP-Ecdnd-3'UTR RNA and GFP-zfnanos3-3'UTR RNA confirmed importance of Ecdnd 3'UTR for the PGC distribution. In addition, knockdown of EcDnd by using antisense morpholinos (MO) caused the ablation of PGCs in orange-spotted grouper. Therefore, the current data indicate that Ecdnd is essential for PGCs survival and may serve as a useful germ cell marker during gametogenesis in hermaphroditic grouper. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Singapore grouper iridovirus, a large DNA virus, induces nonapoptotic cell death by a cell type dependent fashion and evokes ERK signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaohong; Huang, Youhua; Ouyang, Zhengliang; Xu, Lixiao; Yan, Yang; Cui, Huachun; Han, Xin; Qin, Qiwei

    2011-08-01

    Virus induced cell death, including apoptosis and nonapoptotic cell death, plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of viral diseases. Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV), a novel iridovirus of genus Ranavirus, causes high mortality and heavy economic losses in grouper aquaculture. Here, using fluorescence microscopy, electron microscopy and biochemical assays, we found that SGIV infection in host (grouper spleen, EAGS) cells evoked nonapoptotic programmed cell death (PCD), characterized by appearance of cytoplasmic vacuoles and distended endoplasmic reticulum, in the absence of DNA fragmentation, apoptotic bodies and caspase activation. In contrast, SGIV induced typical apoptosis in non-host (fathead minnow, FHM) cells, as evidenced by caspase activation and DNA fragmentation, suggesting that SGIV infection induced nonapoptotic cell death by a cell type dependent fashion. Furthermore, viral replication was essential for SGIV induced nonapoptotic cell death, but not for apoptosis. Notably, the disruption of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm) and externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) were not detected in EAGS cells but in FHM cells after SGIV infection. Moreover, the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling was involved in SGIV infection induced nonapoptotic cell death and viral replication. This is a first demonstration of ERK-mediated nonapoptotic cell death induced by a DNA virus. These findings contribute to understanding the mechanisms of iridovirus pathogenesis.

  20. Sex inversion of dusky grouper “Epinephelus marginatus” Inversão sexual da garoupa-verdadeira "Epinephelus marginatus"

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    Idili da Rocha Oliveira

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the induced hormonal sex inversion of females using the androgenic 17 alpha-methyltestosterone supplied orally and injectable. Twenty-seven fish with 863.9 ± 231.2 g were divided into three treatments: T1 = control (groupers that did not receive hormone, T2 = orally treatment (groupers fed pieces of fish by which the hormone was administered and T3 = injectable treatment (groupers that received the hormone by intramuscular injection and maintained in floating net cages, in Ubatuba, State of São Paulo, Brazil. In the orally treatment the androgenic dosage was 1 mg/kg of body weight, daily, for 5 days a week, and in the injectable treatment, the dosage was 5 mg/kg of body weight, weekly, in a single dose. After 180 days, 100 and 77.8% of fish of the orally and injectable treatments, respectively, produced semen and the control group remained as females. The most effective sex inversion of Epinephelus marginatus females was achieved by the use of hormone 17 alpha-methyltestosterone in the dosage of 1 mg/kg of body weight, administered orally with the food. The hormone 17 alpha-methyltestosterone produces an anabolyzant parallel effect and increase weight gain of the fish treated with oral application.Neste estudo pretendeu-se avaliar a inversão sexual de fêmeas por meio de indução hormonal, utilizando-se o andrógeno 17 alfa-metiltestosterona, ministrado via oral e injetável. Vinte e sete peixes com 863,9 ± 231,2 g foram divididos em três tratamentos: T1 = controle (garoupas que não receberam hormônio, T2 = tratamento via oral (garoupas alimentadas com pedaços de peixe através do qual foi administrado o hormônio e T3 = tratamento via injetável (garoupas que receberam o hormônio por injeção intramuscular e mantidos em tanques-rede no mar, em Ubatuba/SP. No tratamento via oral, a dosagem de andrógeno foi de 1 mg/kg de peso corporal, diariamente, durante 5 dias por semana, e no tratamento via injet

  1. Pharmacokinetics of florfenicol and behaviour of its metabolite florfenicol amine in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) after oral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, J-B; Huang, D-R; Zhong, M; Liu, P; Dong, J-D

    2016-07-01

    Pharmacokinetics and elimination of florfenicol and florfenicol amine in grouper held in sea water at 23.3 ± 0.8 °C were studied using HPLC method after they were given a single peroral dose of florfenicol at 24 mg kg(-1) body weight. Florfenicol was rapidly absorbed from intestine and distributed extensively to all the tissues examined. The maximum concentrations (Cmax , μg g(-1) or μg mL(-1) ) in plasma and tissues were observed at 2-6 h (the time to reach maximum concentration, Tmax ) except for bile (Tmax  = 24 h) and were in the order of intestine (52.02 ± 25.07) > bile (49.41 ± 28.16) > gill (45.12 ± 11.10) > plasma (28.28 ± 5.43) > liver (21.97 ± 12.08) > muscle (21.63 ± 6.12) > kidney (20.88 ± 11.28) > skin (19.10 ± 5.88). The drug distribution level was higher in plasma than in extravascular tissues except for bile, based on the ratios of the area under concentration-time curve between tissue and plasma (AUCtissue/plasma ). The elimination of florfenicol was rapid in fish, and the corresponding half-lives (T1/2β ) in the order of magnitude were bile (13.92 h) > muscle or liver (12.31 h) > skin (11.77 h) > plasma (11.57) > gill (11.04 h) > intestine (10.55 h) > kidney (10.05 h). The delayed Tmax , lower Cmax and longer T1/2β for florfenicol amine compared with florfenicol were measured in grouper. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Fishery of the Goliath grouper, Epinephelus itajara (Teleostei: Epinephelidae) based on local ecological knowledge and fishery records in Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Perera, Alfonso; González-Salas, Carlos; Tuz-Sulub, Armin; Villegas-Hernández, Harold

    2009-09-01

    The Goliath grouper, Epinephelus itajara, a large-bodied (approximately 2.5 m TL, > 400 kg) and critically endangered fish (Epinephelidae), is highly vulnerable to overfishing. Although protected from fishing in many countries, its exploitation in Mexico is unregulated; a situation that puts its populations at risk. Fishery records of E. itajara are scarce, which prevents determination of its fishery status. This work aimed to elucidate the E. itajara fishery in the northern Yucatan Peninsula by 1) analyzing available catch records and 2) interviewing veteran fishermen (local ecological knowledge) from two traditional landing sites: Dzilam de Bravo and Puerto Progreso. Historic fishery records from two fishing cooperatives were analyzed in order to elucidate the current situation and offer viable alternatives for conservation and management. Catches have decreased severely. Local knowledge obtained from fishermen represented a very important source of information for reconstructing the fisheries history of this species. Conservation measures that incorporate regional and international regulations on critically endangered fish species are suggested.

  3. Two gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from groupers (Serranidae) off Tunisia, with a key to Philometra species infecting serranid gonads

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies of nematode specimens (males and mature females) collected from the ovary of groupers (Serranidae, Perciformes) in the Mediterranean Sea off Tunisia (near Tunis and Sfax), two gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda, Philometridae) are reported: Philometra inexpectata n. sp. from the mottled grouper Mycteroperca rubra and P. jordanoi (López-Neyra, 1951) from the dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus. Identification of both fish species was confirmed by molecular barcoding. The new species is mainly characterized by the length of equally long spicules (147–165 μm), the gubernaculum (63–93 μm long) bearing at the tip two dorsolateral lamellar parts separated from each other by a smooth median field, a V-shaped mound on the male caudal extremity, the presence of a pair of large caudal papillae located posterior to the cloaca and by the body length of the males (1.97–2.43 mm). Philometra inexpectata n. sp. is the fifth known gonad-infecting philometrid species parasitizing serranid fishes in the Mediterranean region. The males of P. jordanoi were examined by scanning electron microscopy for the first time; this detailed study revealed some new taxonomically important morphological features, such as the number and arrangement of cephalic and caudal papillae, presence of amphids and phasmids and mainly the lamellate structures at the posterior end of the gubernaculum. A key to gonad-infecting species of Philometra parasitic in serranid fishes is provided. PMID:26956219

  4. Entry of a novel marine DNA virus, Singapore grouper iridovirus, into host cells occurs via clathrin-mediated endocytosis and macropinocytosis in a pH-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaowen; Huang, Xiaohong; Huang, Youhua; Hao, Xian; Xu, Haijiao; Cai, Mingjun; Wang, Hongda; Qin, Qiwei

    2014-11-01

    Iridoviruses are nucleocytoplasmic DNA viruses which cause great economic losses in the aquaculture industry but also show significant threat to global biodiversity. However, a lack of host cells has resulted in poor progress in clarifying iridovirus behavior. We investigated the crucial events during virus entry using a combination of single-virus tracking and biochemical assays, based on the established virus-cell infection model for Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV). SGIV infection in host cells was strongly inhibited when cells were pretreated with drugs blocking clathrin-mediated endocytosis, including sucrose and chlorpromazine. Inhibition of key regulators of macropinocytosis, including Na(+)/H(+) exchanger, Rac1 GTPase, p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1), protein kinase C (PKC), and myosin II, significantly reduced SGIV uptake. Cy5-labeled SGIV particles were observed to colocalize with clathrin and macropinosomes. In contrast, disruption of cellular cholesterol by methyl-β-cyclodextrin and nystatin had no effect on virus infection, suggesting that SGIV entered grouper cells via the clathrin-mediated endocytic pathway and macropinocytosis but not via caveola-dependent endocytosis. Furthermore, inhibitors of endosome acidification such as chloroquine and bafilomycin A1 blocked virus infection, indicating that SGIV entered cells in a pH-dependent manner. In addition, SGIV particles were observed to be transported along both microtubules and actin filaments, and intracellular SGIV motility was remarkably impaired by depolymerization of microtubules or actin filaments. The results of this study for the first time demonstrate that not only the clathrin-dependent pathway but also macropinocytosis are involved in fish DNA enveloped virus entry, thus providing a convenient tactic for exploring the life cycle of DNA viruses. Virus entry into host cells is critically important for initiating infections and is usually recognized as an ideal target for the design of

  5. Molecular cloning and characterization of a new G-type lysozyme gene (Ec-lysG) in orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shina; Huang, Youhua; Huang, Xiaohong; Cai, Jia; Wei, Jingguang; Li, Pengfei; Ouyang, Zhengliang; Qin, Qiwei

    2014-10-01

    Lysozyme acts as an innate immunity molecule against pathogen infection. In this study, a new G-type lysozyme gene with a typical G-type lysozyme domain (designated as Ec-lysG) was cloned and characterized from the orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides. The full-length Ec-lysG cDNA contains 1419 bp and encodes a 256-residue protein containing a 25-residue signal peptide at the N-terminus. BLAST analysis reveals Ec-lysG shares 64% identity with Siniperca chuatsi, but 63% to another reported G-type lysozyme from orange-spotted grouper (OSG-lysG). The genomic DNA of Ec-lysG contains four exons and three introns, with a total length of 2062 bp. An amino acid sequence alignment showed that Ec-lysG shares the fundamental structural features of G-type lysozyme, including the catalytic residues, substrate binding sites, and soluble lytic transglycosylase domain. Quantitative PCR showed that Ec-lysG transcript is most abundant in the head kidney, and less abundant in the heart. The expression of Ec-lysG was differentially upregulated in the head kidney after stimulation with lipopolysaccharide, Vibrio alginolyticus, and Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV). A subcellular localization analysis showed that Ec-lysG is distributed predominantly in the cytoplasm. Recombinant Ec-lysG (rEc-lysG) has optimal activity at pH 7.5 and 35°C. rEc-lysG showed lytic activities against Gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus iniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Micrococcus lysodeikticus, and the Gram-negative bacterium V. alginolyticus. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that rEc-lysG acts on M. lysodeikticus cell walls. The overexpression of Ec-lysG in grouper cells did not significantly delay the occurrence of the cytopathic effect (CPE) induced by SGIV, and did not inhibit viral gene transcription. In conclusion, Ec-lysG might be a potent antibacterial protein, with a role in innate immunity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Improved estimates of age, growth and reproduction for the regionally endemic Galapagos sailfin grouper Mycteroperca olfax (Jenyns, 1840).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usseglio, Paolo; Friedlander, Alan M; DeMartini, Edward E; Schuhbauer, Anna; Schemmel, Eva; Salinas de Léon, Pelayo

    2015-01-01

    The Galapagos Sailfin grouper, Mycteroperca olfax, locally known as bacalao and listed as vulnerable by the IUCN, is culturally, economically, and ecologically important to the Galapagos archipelago and its people. It is regionally endemic to the Eastern Tropical Pacific, and, while an important fishery resource that has shown substantial declines in recent years, to date no effective management regulations are in place to ensure the sustainability of the Galapagos fishery for this species. Previous estimates of longevity and size at maturity for bacalao are inconsistent with estimates for congeners, which brings into question the accuracy of prior estimates. We set out to assess the age, growth, and reproductive biology of bacalao in order to provide more accurate life history information to inform more effective fisheries management for this species. The oldest fish in our sample was 21 years old, which is 2-3 times greater than previously reported estimates of longevity. Parameter estimates for the von Bertalanffy growth function (k = 0.11, L ∞ = 110 cm TL, and to = - 1.7 years) show bacalao to grow much slower and attain substantially larger asymptotic maximum length than previous studies. Mean size at maturity (as female) was estimated at 65.3 cm TL, corresponding to a mean age of 6.5 years. We found that sex ratios were extremely female biased (0.009 M:1F), with a large majority of the individuals in our experimental catch being immature (79%). Our results show that bacalao grow slower, live longer, and mature at a much larger size and greater age than previously thought, with very few mature males in the population. These findings have important implications for the fishery of this valuable species and provide the impetus for a long-overdue species management plan to ensure its long-term sustainability.

  7. So Long and Thanks for All the Fish: Overexploitation of the Regionally Endemic Galapagos Grouper Mycteroperca olfax (Jenyns, 1840).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usseglio, Paolo; Friedlander, Alan M; Koike, Haruko; Zimmerhackel, Johanna; Schuhbauer, Anna; Eddy, Tyler; Salinas-de-León, Pelayo

    2016-01-01

    The regionally endemic Galapagos Grouper, locally known as bacalao, is one of the most highly prized finfish species within the Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR). Concerns of overfishing, coupled with a lack of fishing regulations aimed at this species raises concerns about the current population health. We assessed changes in population health over a 30-year period using three simple indicators: (1) percentage of fish below reproductive size (Lm); (2) percentage of fish within the optimum length interval (Lopt); and (3) percentage of mega-spawners in the catch. Over the assessed period, none of the indicators reached values associated with healthy populations, with all indicators declining over time. Furthermore, the most recent landings data show that the vast majority of the bacalao caught (95.7%,) were below Lm, the number of fish within the Lopt interval was extremely low (4.7%), and there were virtually no mega-spawners (0.2%). Bacalao fully recruit to the fishery 15 cm below the size at which 50% of the population matures. The Spawning Potential Ratio is currently 5% of potential unfished fecundity, strongly suggesting severe overfishing. Our results suggest the need for bacalao-specific management regulations that should include minimum (65 cm TL) and maximum (78 cm TL) landing sizes, slot limits (64-78 cm TL), as well as a closed season during spawning from October to January. It is recognized that these regulations are harsh and will certainly have negative impacts on the livelihoods of fishers in the short term, however, continued inaction will likely result in a collapse of this economically and culturally valuable species. Alternative sources of income should be developed in parallel with the establishment of fishing regulations to limit the socio-economic disruption to the fishing community during the transition to a more sustainable management regime.

  8. Connectivity of the Longfin Grouper (Epinephelus Quoyanus) in a marine reserve in the Great Keppel Island Group

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Salamah, Manalle

    2014-12-01

    With a dramatic decrease of biodiversity as a result of the increase in exploitation of marine ecosystems, the establishment of marine protected areas (MPAs) serves as an important means of protecting those resources. Although there is support for the effectiveness of these MPAs and MPA networks, there is room for improvement in terms of MPA management and design. For example, a better understanding of the dispersal dynamics of targeted species across these MPAs will serve as a more accurate means of reserve as well as fisheries management. While there have been many methods used to determine the larval dispersal of a certain species, parentage analysis is becoming the most robust. In this thesis, I attempt to determine the patterns of self-recruitment and larval dispersal of the Longfin Grouper (Epinephelus quoyanus) in one focal marine reserve within the Great Keppel Island group through the method of parentage. For this, I developed 14 microsatellite markers and with those, genotyped 610 adults as well as 478 juveniles from the study site. These genotypes allowed me to assign offspring to their potential parents, which then allowed me to measure the self-recruitment, local retention as well as larval dispersal percentages of this species from and within the reserve. My results indicate that there is 32% local retention to the reserve while 68% of the assigned juveniles were dispersed to other areas (4% of which dispersed to another reserve). Previous studies conducted in the same area showed higher reserve self-recruitment rates for both Plectropomus maculatus (~30%) and Lutjanus carponotatus (64%) despite their similar life history traits. The results from this study add to the growing evidence that dispersal patterns cannot be generalized across marine systems or even between species within a single system.

  9. Improved estimates of age, growth and reproduction for the regionally endemic Galapagos sailfin grouper Mycteroperca olfax (Jenyns, 1840

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Usseglio

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Galapagos Sailfin grouper, Mycteroperca olfax, locally known as bacalao and listed as vulnerable by the IUCN, is culturally, economically, and ecologically important to the Galapagos archipelago and its people. It is regionally endemic to the Eastern Tropical Pacific, and, while an important fishery resource that has shown substantial declines in recent years, to date no effective management regulations are in place to ensure the sustainability of the Galapagos fishery for this species. Previous estimates of longevity and size at maturity for bacalao are inconsistent with estimates for congeners, which brings into question the accuracy of prior estimates. We set out to assess the age, growth, and reproductive biology of bacalao in order to provide more accurate life history information to inform more effective fisheries management for this species. The oldest fish in our sample was 21 years old, which is 2–3 times greater than previously reported estimates of longevity. Parameter estimates for the von Bertalanffy growth function (k = 0.11, L∞ = 110 cm TL, and to = − 1.7 years show bacalao to grow much slower and attain substantially larger asymptotic maximum length than previous studies. Mean size at maturity (as female was estimated at 65.3 cm TL, corresponding to a mean age of 6.5 years. We found that sex ratios were extremely female biased (0.009 M:1F, with a large majority of the individuals in our experimental catch being immature (79%. Our results show that bacalao grow slower, live longer, and mature at a much larger size and greater age than previously thought, with very few mature males in the population. These findings have important implications for the fishery of this valuable species and provide the impetus for a long-overdue species management plan to ensure its long-term sustainability.

  10. Roles of cysteines Cys115 and Cys201 in the assembly and thermostability of grouper betanodavirus particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun-Hsiung; Hsu, Chi-Hsin; Wu, Yi-Min; Luo, Yu-Chun; Tu, Mei-Hui; Chang, Wei-hau; Cheng, R. Holland

    2010-01-01

    The virus-like particle (VLP) assembled from capsid subunits of the dragon grouper nervous necrosis virus (DGNNV) is very similar to its native T = 3 virion. In order to investigate the effects of four cysteine residues in the capsid polypeptide on the assembly/dissociation pathways of DGNNV virions, we recombinantly cloned mutant VLPs by mutating each cysteine to destroy the specific disulfide linkage as compared with thiol reduction to destroy all S–S bonds. The mutant VLPs of C187A and C331A mutations were similar to wild-type VLPs (WT-VLPs); hence, the effects of Cys187 and Cys331 on the particle formation and thermostability were presumably negligible. Electron microscopy showed that either C115A or C201A mutation disrupted de novo VLP formation significantly. As shown in micrographs and thermal decay curves, β-mercaptoethanol-treated WT-VLPs remained intact, merely resulting in lower tolerance to thermal disruption than native WT-VLPs. This thiol reduction broke disulfide linkages inside the pre-fabricated VLPs, but it did not disrupt the appearance of icosahedrons. Small dissociated capsomers from EGTA-treated VLPs were able to reassemble back to icosahedrons in the presence of calcium ions, but additional treatment with β-mercaptoethanol during EGTA dissociation resulted in inability of the capsomers to reassemble into the icosahedral form. These results indicated that Cys115 and Cys201 were essential for capsid formation of DGNNV icosahedron structure in de novo assembly and reassembly pathways, as well as for the thermal stability of pre-fabricated particles. PMID:20446029

  11. Phenotype and genotype of  lactic acid bacteria (LAB isolated from the tiger grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus alimentary tract [version 1; referees: 2 approved, 1 approved with reservations

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    Nursyirwani Nursyirwani

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (LAB have been isolated successfully from the tiger grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus intestine. However, their genus or species have not been identified. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to characterize the three isolated LAB (KSBU-12C, KSBU-5Da, and KSBU-9 based on their phenotype and genotype. The LAB phenotype was examined by observing morphological features including cell morphology, spore production and motility. The physiological tests were performed in 6.5% NaCl at the  temperatures of 10oC and 45oC, and the biochemical tests were evaluated based on the production of enzymes catalase, oxidase and arginine dehydrolase, following  the Standard Analytical Profile Index, API 50 CH kit.  The genotype was examined based on 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis , and the products were analyzed using the BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool NCBI database. The three isolates (KSBU-5Da, KSBU-12C, and KSBU-9 were categorized into the genus Enterococcus. 16S rDNA sequence analysis indicated that the isolates had 99% similarity to E. hirae ATCC 9790, registered in GenBank with accession number NR_075022.1. It was concluded that the three LAB isolates taken from the tiger grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus are E. hirae.

  12. Rapid and sensitive detection of redspotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) infection by aptamer-coat protein-aptamer sandwich enzyme-linked apta-sorbent assay (ELASA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, L; Li, P; Ni, S; Yu, Y; Yang, M; Wei, S; Qin, Q

    2017-12-01

    Redspotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) is one of the most devastating pathogens in the aquaculture of the grouper, Epinephlus sp., worldwide. The early and rapid diagnosis of RGNNV is important for the prevention of RGNNV infection. In this study, an aptamer (A10)-based sandwich enzyme-linked apta-sorbent assay (ELASA) was developed for RGNNV diagnosis. This sandwich ELASA showed high specificity for the RGNNV coat protein (CP) and virions in virus-infected cells and tissues. At the optimized working concentration of 200 nM of aptamer, the ELASA could detect RGNNV in the lysates of as few as 4 × 10 3 RGNNV-infected GB cells. Incubation for 10 min was sufficient to produce accurate results. The sandwich ELASA was most stable at incubation temperatures of 4-25°C, but could still distinguish RGNNV-infected samples from the controls at 37°C. It could detect RGNNV infection in brain lysates diluted 1/10, with results consistent with those of reverse transcription PCR, although with 10% less sensitivity. The main equipment required includes dissection tools, a water bath, Pierce™ Streptavidin Coated Plates and a microplate reader. The sandwich ELASA has great potential utility for the rapid and sensitive diagnosis of RGNNV in its early stages by fish farmers. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Pleurocidin Peptide Enhances Grouper Anti-Vibrio harveyi Immunity Elicited by Poly(lactide-co-glycolide)-Encapsulated Recombinant Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate Dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Shu-Chun; Huang, Wan-Ling; Kau, Sau-Wei; Yang, Yun-Pei; Yang, Chung-Da

    2014-05-14

    Outer membrane proteins, such as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), are considered immunodominant antigens for eliciting protective immunity against Vibrio harveyi, the main etiological agent of vibriosis in fish. Cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), such as pleurocidin (PLE), play important roles in activating and recruiting immune cells, thereby contributing to subsequent innate and adaptive immune responses. In the present study, we aimed to use PLE peptide as a potent adjuvant to improve the immunogenicity of V. harveyi recombinant GAPDH (rGAPDH). In order to prepare a controlled-release vaccine, PLE peptide and rGAPDH protein were simultaneously encapsulated into polymeric microparticles made from the biodegradable poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG) polymer. The resulting PLG-encapsulated PLE plus rGAPDH (PLG-PLE/rGAPDH) microparticles, 3.21-6.27 μm in diameter, showed 72%-83% entrapment efficiency and durably released both PLE and rGAPDH for a long 30-day period. Following peritoneal immunization in grouper (Epinephelus coioides), PLG-PLE/rGAPDH microparticles resulted in significantly higher (p PLE/rGAPDH microparticles conferred a high survival rate (85%), which was significantly higher (p PLE peptide exhibits an efficacious adjuvant effect to elicit not only improved immunity, but also enhanced protection against V. harveyi in grouper induced by rGAPDH protein encapsulated in PLG microparticles.

  14. Orexin-A stimulates the expression of GLUT4 in a glucose dependent manner in the liver of orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cong; Sun, Caiyun; Wang, Bin; Yan, Peipei; Wu, Amin; Yang, Guokun; Li, Wensheng

    2016-09-01

    Orexins are hypothalamic neuropeptides involved in the central regulation of feeding behavior, sleep-wake cycle and other physiological functions. Orexin-A can regulate energy metabolism and increase glucose uptake, suggesting a role in glucose metabolism. In this study, we investigated the effects of orexin-A on GLUT4 mRNA and protein levels and the intracellular signaling mechanisms mediating orexin-A activity in the hepatocytes of grouper. Our results demonstrate that intraperitoneal injection of orexin-A increased the expression of GLUT4 in the liver, and this effect was significantly enhanced by co-injection of glucose. Treatment of primary cultured hepatocytes with either orexin-A or glucose alone had no effect on the expression of GLUT4, while co-treatment with orexin-A and glucose significantly increased the expression of GLUT4. This stimulatory effect was partially blocked by inhibitors to ERK1/2, JNK or p38 MAPK and was further blocked by an orexin receptor antagonist, which indicates that orexin-A could stimulate the expression of GLUT4 in a glucose dependent manner in primary hepatocytes via ERK1/2, JNK and p38 signaling. Our results suggest that orexin-A could play a pivotal role in stimulating glucose utilization in grouper, for a long-term goal, which might be useful in reducing costs in the aquaculture industry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The effects of fishing, climate change, and other anthropogenic disturbances on red grouper and other reef fishes in the Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Felicia C; Koenig, Christopher C

    2010-08-01

    In this article, we consider the potential effects of anthropogenic disturbances on marine fish species known or suspected to be habitat engineers. The three species of interest inhabit different marine habitats at different life stages, and therefore can have significant influences across the sea floor at broad spatial scales. The primary species include the shallow-water Atlantic goliath grouper (Epinephelus itajara), which inhabits mangrove root systems as juveniles, and caves, shipwrecks, and rocky reefs as adults; red grouper (E. morio), which excavates habitat throughout its benthic life in Karst regions of the Gulf of Mexico and western Atlantic, from the coast to the shelf-edge; and tilefish (Lopholatilus chamaeleonticeps), a species that lives on the continental slope and constructs elaborate, pueblo-esque burrows. The anthropogenic disturbances of greatest interest in the Gulf of Mexico include fishing, hypoxia, red tide, oil and gas exploration, and climatic change. We suggest that to understand the broader effects of both natural and anthropogenic disturbances on biomass and productivity in these species requires that we first understand the strength of interactions between them and the other species residing within their communities (e.g., predators, prey, commensals, and mutualists).

  16. Diet and feeding strategy of the dusky grouper Mycteroperca marginata (Actinopterygii: Epinephelidae in a man-made rocky habitat in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario V. Condini

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The dusky grouper (Mycteroperca marginata is a marine species usually associated with rocky bottoms and reefs. The present work investigated the diet and feeding strategy of a dusky grouper population inhabiting a 4.5 km long pair of rocky jetties located in the mouth of Patos Lagoon estuary. No prior research has been conducted in such man-made habitat and the current study provides a basis for comparative studies on the diet of the dusky grouper populations inhabiting natural vs. man-made rocky habitats. Similarly with previous studies on natural substrates, crabs and fishes were the main food categories consumed (%IRI = 85.1 and %IRI = 12.6, respectively, whereas shrimps and mollusks had lower importance in the diet (%IRI = 1.9 and 0.4, respectively. As previously reported for dusky grouper populations inhabiting reefs and rocky bottoms, the present work revealed conspicuous size related dietary shifts. Blue crabs and fishes become increasingly important food items in the diet of larger individuals (> 500 mm, TL. Finally, it was found that the studied dusky population has a generalist feeding strategy with a high between-individual variation in prey consumption. Such strategy remained similar across the size increment of the species. Our findings suggest that man-made rocky substrates provide suitable feeding grounds for the dusky grouper in southern Brazil and could be used as an additional tool in the conservation efforts of this endangered species.A garoupa-verdadeira (Mycteroperca marginata é uma espécie marinha geralmente associada a fundos rochosos e recifes. O presente trabalho investiga a dieta e estratégia alimentar de uma população da garoupa-verdadeira que habita um longo (4,5 km par de molhes de pedra na desembocadura do estuário da laguna dos Patos, sul do Brasil. Não há trabalhos anteriores realizados nesse tipo de habitat construído pelo homem e este trabalho fornece uma base de comparação com estudos de dieta de

  17. Genetic variation in the mitochondrial genome of the giant grouper Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch, 1790 and its application for the identification of broodstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seng S. Cheng

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA markers are ideal for the validation of maternal inheritance and the identification of brood-stock in aquaculture breeding programs. The complete mitochondrial genomes of 11 species of grouper are currently available at the GenBank. This study was directed towards the characterization of mtDNA loci which can be applied for identification of interspecific F1 hybrids developed from Epinephelus fuscoguttatus and Epinephelus lanceolatus in aquaculture breeding programs. DNA was extracted from the fin clip of one specimen of E. lanceolatus which the source of sperm for the artificial spawning of the interspecific F1 hybrid E. fuscoguttatus × E. lanceolatus. Specific primers were designed to amplify the DNA after comparative analysis of the mtDNA genomes available at the GenBank. The primers were applied to test for cross-amplification in F1 hybrids as well as in the maternal parent E. fuscoguttatus (Forsskål, 1775 and the genetically related species Epinephelus coioides and Epinephelus corallicola (Valenciennes, 1828. DNA sequence analysis revealed that the Malaysian variety of E. lanceolatus exhibited variation at 11 of the 13 ORFs when compared to the variety from Taiwan. A distinct segmented duplication was observed in the D-loop region which was determined to be unique to the E. lanceolatus specimen obtained from Sabah, Malaysia. Cross amplification of mtDNA loci in the groupers E. fuscoguttatus, E. coioides, E. corallicola and the F1 hybrid of E. fuscoguttatus × E. lanceolatus revealed distinct profiles for each of the species with a clear indication that mtDNA were inherited from the maternal parent of the F1 hybrid.. mtDNA loci can be applied by fish breeders to determine interspecific hybridization events.

  18. Single or combined effects of Lactobacillus sakei and inulin on growth, non-specific immunity and IgM expression in leopard grouper (Mycteroperca rosacea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Becerril, Martha; Ascencio, Felipe; Gracia-Lopez, Vicente; Macias, Ma Esther; Roa, Marcos Cadena; Esteban, María Ángeles

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the single or combined effects of Lactobacillus sakei with inulin suitable for immunological in vivo studies in farmed fish. By in vitro assays, L. sakei strain 5-4 showed antibacterial activities against all assayed fish pathogens (except the Vibrio harveyi strain CAIM-1793). L. sakei was able to survive at high fish bile concentrations. Fermentation of the agave inulin resulted in a large increase in number of lactobacilli. For the in vivo study, fish were fed for 8 weeks four practical diets: control diet (control), L. sakei 5-4 (10(7) CFU/g), inulin (1% or 10 g/kg) and L. sakei + inulin (10(7) CFU/g + 10 g/kg). The weight gain showed clearly the synergistic effect of L. sakei 5-4 and inulin at 6 and 8 weeks of treatments. Leopard grouper fed with L. sakei alone or combined with inulin have significantly increased the assayed physiological and humoral immune parameters. By real-time PCR assays, the mRNA transcripts of immunoglobulin M (IgM) were found to be higher expressed in intestine, head kidney, mucus, gill, spleen and skin. Moreover, mRNA expression levels of IgM in head kidney and anterior intestine were measured by real-time PCR. L. sakei 5-4 and L. sakei + inulin supplemented diet up-regulated the expression of IgM at week 4 and 8 in intestine and head kidney, respectively. These results support the idea that the L. sakei 5-4 alone or combined with agave inulin improved growth performance and stimulates the immune system of leopard grouper.

  19. Effects of small peptides, probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics on growth performance, digestive enzymes, and oxidative stress in orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides, juveniles reared in artificial seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Cheng, Yongzhou; Chen, Xiaoyan; Liu, Zhaopu; Long, Xiaohua

    2017-01-01

    Aquaculture production efficiency may increase by using feed additives. This study investigated the effects of different dietary additives [w/w: 2% small peptides, 0.01% probiotics ( Bacillus licheniformis) and 0.2% prebiotics (inulin)] on growth performance, digestive enzyme activities, and oxidative stress in juvenile Epinephelus coioides reared in artificial seawater of two salt concentrations (13.5 vs. 28.5). Weight gain rate was significantly higher in fish fed the diet supplemented with small peptides, B. licheniformis, inulin, or synbiotics than that in fish fed the basal diet; the greatest weight gain rate was found in fish fed the small peptide treatment [56.0% higher than basal diet]. Higher feed efficiency was detected in fish fed the diet supplemented with small peptides than that of fish in the other dietary treatments. Total protease activity in the stomach and intestines was highest in fish fed the small peptide-treated diet, whereas lipase activity was highest in those fed synbiotics (combination of Bacillus licheniformis and inulin) than that in fish fed the other treatments. Antioxidant enzyme (total superoxide dismutase and catalase) activities and hepatic malondialdehyde content were higher in fish receiving the dietary supplements and maintained in artificial seawater containing 13.5 salinity compared with those in the control (28.5). Hepatic catalase activity in grouper fed the diets with small peptides or synbiotics decreased significantly compared with that in control fish. Overall, the three types of additives improved growth rate of juvenile grouper and digestive enzymes activities to varying degrees but did not effectively improve antioxidant capacity under low-salinity stress conditions.

  20. Pleurocidin Peptide Enhances Grouper Anti-Vibrio harveyi Immunity Elicited by Poly(lactide-co-glycolide-Encapsulated Recombinant Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate Dehydrogenase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Chun Chuang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Outer membrane proteins, such as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, are considered immunodominant antigens for eliciting protective immunity against Vibrio harveyi, the main etiological agent of vibriosis in fish. Cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs, such as pleurocidin (PLE, play important roles in activating and recruiting immune cells, thereby contributing to subsequent innate and adaptive immune responses. In the present study, we aimed to use PLE peptide as a potent adjuvant to improve the immunogenicity of V. harveyi recombinant GAPDH (rGAPDH. In order to prepare a controlled-release vaccine, PLE peptide and rGAPDH protein were simultaneously encapsulated into polymeric microparticles made from the biodegradable poly(lactide-co-glycolide (PLG polymer. The resulting PLG-encapsulated PLE plus rGAPDH (PLG-PLE/rGAPDH microparticles, 3.21–6.27 μm in diameter, showed 72%–83% entrapment efficiency and durably released both PLE and rGAPDH for a long 30-day period. Following peritoneal immunization in grouper (Epinephelus coioides, PLG-PLE/rGAPDH microparticles resulted in significantly higher (p < 0.05, nested design long-lasting GAPDH-specific immunity (serum titers and lymphocyte proliferation than PLG-encapsulated rGAPDH (PLG-rGAPDH microparticles. After an experimental challenge of V. harveyi, PLG-PLE/rGAPDH microparticles conferred a high survival rate (85%, which was significantly higher (p < 0.05, chi-square test than that induced by PLG-rGAPDH microparticles (67%. In conclusion, PLE peptide exhibits an efficacious adjuvant effect to elicit not only improved immunity, but also enhanced protection against V. harveyi in grouper induced by rGAPDH protein encapsulated in PLG microparticles.

  1. Putative apolipoprotein A-I, natural killer cell enhancement factor and lysozyme g are involved in the early immune response of brown-marbled grouper, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus, Forskal, to Vibrio alginolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, C-F; Shamsudin, M N; Chee, H-Y; Aliyu-Paiko, M; Idrus, E S

    2014-08-01

    The gram-negative bacterium, Vibrio alginolyticus, has frequently been identified as the pathogen responsible for the infectious disease called vibriosis. This disease is one of the major challenges facing brown-marbled grouper aquaculture, causing fish farmers globally to suffer substantial economic losses. The objective of this study was to investigate the proteins involved in the immune response of brown-marbled grouper fingerlings during their initial encounter with pathogenic organisms. To achieve this objective, a challenge experiment was performed, in which healthy brown-marbled grouper fingerlings were divided into two groups. Fish in the treated group were subjected to intraperitoneal injection with an infectious dose of V. alginolyticus suspended in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), and those in the control group were injected with an equal volume of PBS. Blood samples were collected from a replicate number of fish from both groups at 4 h post-challenge and analysed for immune response-related serum proteins via two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The results showed that 14 protein spots were altered between the treated and control groups; these protein spots were further analysed to determine the identity of each protein via MALDI-TOF/TOF. Among the altered proteins, three were clearly overexpressed in the treated group compared with the control; these were identified as putative apolipoprotein A-I, natural killer cell enhancement factor and lysozyme g. Based on these results, these three highly expressed proteins participate in immune response-related reactions during the initial exposure (4 h) of brown-marbled grouper fingerling to V. alginolyticus infection. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Genes involved in fatty acid metabolism: molecular characterization and hypothalamic mRNA response to energy status and neuropeptide Y treatment in the orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhiguo; Sun, Caiyun; Yan, Aifen; Wu, Shuge; Qin, Chaobin; Zhang, Yanhong; Li, Wensheng

    2013-08-25

    As in mammals, fatty acid (FA) metabolism plays diverse and vital roles in regulating food intake in fish. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that the effect of FA metabolism on food intake is linked to changes in the level of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the hypothalamus of the rainbow trout. In mammals, the evidence suggests that FA metabolism regulates feeding via hypothalamic NPY. NPY is therefore considered an important factor that mediates the modulation of food intake by FA metabolism in vertebrates. The stimulatory effect of NPY on food intake is well known. However, to the best of our knowledge, the effect of NPY on FA metabolism in the hypothalamus has not been examined. In this study, we cloned the cDNA of four key enzymes involved in FA metabolism and assessed the effect of energy status and NPY on their mRNA expression in the hypothalamus of grouper. The full-length cDNAs of UCP2 and CPT1a and the partial coding sequence (CDS) of ACC1 and FAS were isolated from the grouper hypothalamus. These genes are expressed in the hypothalamus and during the organogenetic stage of embryogenesis. A feeding rhythm study showed that the hypothalamic expression level of NPY and CPT1a was highly correlated with feeding rhythm. Long-term fasting was found to significantly induce the hypothalamic mRNA expression of NPY, CPT1a and UCP2. An in vitro study demonstrated that NPY strongly stimulated CPT1a and UCP2 mRNA expression in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Collectively, these results suggest that these four genes related to FA metabolism may play a role in regulating food intake in grouper and, that NPY modulates FA metabolism in the grouper hypothalamus. This study showed, for the first time in vertebrates, the effect of NPY on the gene expression of FA metabolism-related enzymes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Amino Acid Absorption by Tiger Grouper Fish (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus Larvae. (Absorbsi Asam Amino oleh Larva Ikan Kerapu Macan (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambariyanto Ambariyanto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Ikan Kerapu merupakan salah satu ikan unggulan yang ditargetkan sebagai komoditi eksport Indonesia. Usaha budidayanya saat ini sangat terganggu dengan tingginya mortalitas pada stadia larva. Usaha untuk mengatasi masalah tersebut adalah dengan menggunakan obat seperti antibiotik yang ternyata tidak membuahkan hasil maksimal tetapi justru menimbulkan resistensi beberapa jenis bakteria. Salah satu aspek yang belum pernah dilihat dalam rangka mengatasi masalah ini adalah dengan mengusahakan percepatan pertumbuhan pada stadia larva sehingga akan lebih mampu menghindari dari beberapa penyebab mortalitas. Salah satu sumber energi yang terdapat dalam perairan namun dalam jumlah yang tidak besar adalah dissolved organic matter (DOM. Penelitian ini ditekankan untuk melihat kemampuan larva ikan Kerapu dalam memanfaatkan DOM (digunakan asam amino terlarut ;ATT yang terdapat di air laut. Sebanyak 16 (enam belas jenis asam amino yang terdiri dari tiga klas yakni neutral, basic, dan acidic digunakan dalam penelitian ini. Sedangkan larva ikan Kerapu yang digunakan berumur 2 hari. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa larva ikan Kerapu menyerap seluruh jenis asam amino baik neutral, basic, dan acidic. Namun jenis asam amino yang diserap adalah glutamat, histidin, lisin, serin, metionin, tritopan dan iso leusin. Sedangkan yang paling banyak diserap oleh larva ikan ini adalah lisin. Hal yang menarik dalam penelitian ini adalah terdapat beberapa jenis asam amino yang diduga justru dikeluarkan oleh larva ikan tersebut yakni glysin, alanin, tyrosin, valin, phenil alanin dan leusin. Penyerapan beberapa jenis asam amino ini diduga dimanfaatkan oleh larva ikan Kerapu dalam proses pertumbuhannya. Kata kunci : asam amino terlarut, larva, Kerapu Macan, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus   Kerapu (grouper fish is known as an important and highly economic value fish and a good candidate for major export commodity for Indonesia. However, there is an important problem faced by its

  4. Age, growth, and reproductive aspects of the dusky grouper Mycteroperca marginata (Actinopterygii: Epinephelidae in a man-made rocky habitat in southern Brazil

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    Elisa Seyboth

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The dusky grouper, Mycteroperca marginata, is an important commercial marine fish that is currently considered an endangered species worldwide and listed as overexploited in Brazil. Although its reproductive biology has been studied elsewhere, no information is available for populations in its southernmost distribution limit on the Brazilian coast. The present work investigates age structure, growth and reproduction of individuals inhabiting a pair of rocky jetties, about 4.5 km long each, located in the mouth of Patos Lagoon in the municipality of Rio Grande, in the southwestern Atlantic Ocean. A total of 130 individuals obtained between February 2007 and May 2009 were analyzed, with total length ranging from 260 to 800 mm. The growth coefficient found in the present study (K: 0.069 was lower than values reported for dusky grouper populations from the Mediterranean Sea (0.087 and southeast Africa (0.09. This difference could be related to higher average water temperatures in these regions compared to the current study site or due to poorer habitat quality in terms of the shelters available for dusky grouper individuals to establish their territories. Microscopic ovarian analyses of individuals during three years of sampling revealed only the occurrence of immature and resting females. The absence of ripe or post-spawning individuals, associated with low GSI values (A garoupa-verdadeira, Mycteroperca marginata, é uma espécie de importância comercial que atualmente é considerada como ameaçada mundialmente e sobre-explotada no Brasil. Embora sua biologia reprodutiva tenha sido estudada em outras regiões, nenhuma informação está disponível sobre populações que habitam o extremo sul da sua distribuição na costa brasileira. O presente trabalho investiga a estrutura de idade, crescimento e reprodução de indivíduos que habitam dois molhes de pedra, com cerca de 4,5 km de extensão cada, localizados na desembocadura da laguna dos Patos

  5. Plasma immune protein analysis in the orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides: Evidence for altered expressions of immune factors associated with a choline-supplemented diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiu, Ya-Li; Chiu, Kuo-Hsun; Huynh, Truong-Giang; Liu, Ping-Chung; Liu, Chun-Hung

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to unravel the regulatory roles of choline in activating immune responses and disease resistance of the orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides. Fish were fed a choline-supplemented diet at 1 g kg -1 of feed for 30 days. Fish fed a fish meal basal diet without choline-supplement served as controls. At the end of the feeding trial, fish were challenged with Vibrio alginolyticus. Meanwhile, plasma proteomics of fish in each group were also evaluated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), and differentially expressed proteins were identified by tandem mass spectrophotometry (MS/MS), then a Western blot analysis or real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to confirm differential expressions of immune-enhancing proteins. Results showed that choline significantly increased survival of E. coioides 48 days after being injected with V. alginolyticus. From maps of plasma proteins, a comparative analysis between the control and choline groups revealed that 111 spots matched, with 26 altered expression spots in the choline group. Of these 26 spots, 16 were upregulated and 10 downregulated. After protein identification by reverse-phase nano-high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization MS/MS analysis, eight of 26 proteins were found to be immune-related proteins, all of which were upregulated, including complement 3 (C3), alpha-2-macroglobulin-P-like isoform (A2M), fibrinogen beta chain precursor (FBG), and immunoglobulin heavy constant mu (Ighm) proteins. Expression of the A2M protein and A2M enzyme activity in plasma of fish fed choline significantly increased compared to the control group. Additionally, A2M messenger (m)RNA transcripts were also upregulated in the liver and kidneys. Significantly higher C3 expressions at both the mRNA and protein levels were detected in the liver of fish in the choline group. Moreover, FBG gene expressions in the liver and kidneys significantly increased, while Ighm increased in the

  6. Study of the Influence Hormone LHRH-a and 17a-MT of Hemocytology on Orange Spot Grouper Broodstock, Epinephelus coioides

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    F. Johnny

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment to study the influence of the chronic hormone LHRH-a and 17a-MT on haematology orange spot grouper, Epinephelus coioides broodstock was conducted at Gondol Research Institute for Mariculture, Bali.  Fish weights were ranged 4.7-10.4 kg (female and 10.4-17.8 kg (male.  The females broodstock was treated by hormone 17a-MT with dosage 50 mg/kg body weight, and males was by hormone LHRH-a with dosage 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight.  Fish were kept on two concrete tank contained 100 m3 sea water and 2 meters depth and density 15 fishes/tank,  male ratio and female was 1 : 2.  Hormone treatment was peformed every two months until six months culture.  Blood were collected before treatment by hormone and every two months.  Hemocytology parameters measured were hematocrit, hemoglobin, total erythrocyte, and total leucocyte.  Result of the average indicator of hemacytology to influence on haemological parameters. Keywords:  Epinephelus coioides, chronic hormone, hemocytology, orange spot grouper broodstock.   ABSTRAK Suatu percobaan dengan tujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh  hormon LHRH-a dan 17a-MT terhadap keragaan hemositologi induk ikan kerapu lumpur, Epinephelus coioides telah dilakukan di Balai Besar Riset Perikanan Budidaya Laut Gondol, Bali.  Ikan uji yang digunakan adalah induk ikan kerapu lumpur kelamin betina dengan bobot antara 4,7-10,4 kg dan induk kelamin jantan dengan bobot antara 10,4-17,8 kg.  Ikan uji dipelihara dalam bak beton volume 100 m3 dengan kepadatan 15 ekor/bak, dilengkapi aerasi dan pergantian air sistim mengalir.  Induk kelamin betina diberikan perlakuan implantasi pelet hormon LHRH-a dosis 50 mg/kg bobot, dan induk kelamin jantan dengan hormon 17a-MT dosis 50 dan 100 mg/kg bobot ikan.  Implantasi dilakukan setiap 2 bulan, pada awal percobaan (sebelum perlakuan hormon/bulan ke-0, bulan ke-2, bulan ke-4, dan bulan ke-6 dilakukan sampling darah untuk pengujian keragaan hemositologi, meliputi; persentase

  7. Sexual Fate Reprogramming in the Steroid-Induced Bi-Directional Sex Change in the Protogynous Orange-Spotted Grouper, Epinephelus coioides.

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    Guan-Chung Wu

    Full Text Available Androgen administration has been widely used for masculinization in fish. The mechanism of the sex change in sexual fate regulation is not clear. Oral administration or pellet implantation was applied. We orally applied an aromatase inhibitor (AI, to decrease estrogen levels and 17α-methyltestosterone (MT, to increase androgen levels to induce masculinization to clarify the mechanism of the sex change in the protogynous orange-spotted grouper. After 3 mo of AI/MT administration, male characteristics were observed in the female-to-male sex change fish. These male characteristics included increased plasma 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT, decreased estradiol (E2 levels, increased male-related gene (dmrt1, sox9, and cyp11b2 expression, and decreased female-related gene (figla, foxl2, and cyp19a1a expression. However, the reduced male characteristics and male-to-female sex change occurred after AI/MT-termination in the AI- and MT-induced maleness. Furthermore, the MT-induced oocyte-depleted follicle cells (from MT-implantation had increased proliferating activity, and the sexual fate in a portion of female gonadal soma cells was altered to male function during the female-to-male sex change. In contrast, the gonadal soma cells were not proliferative during the early process of the male-to-female sex change. Additionally, the male gonadal soma cells did not alter to female function during the male-to-female sex change in the AI/MT-terminated fish. After MT termination in the male-to-female sex-changed fish, the differentiated male germ cells showed increased proliferating activities together with dormancy and did not show characteristics of both sexes in the early germ cells. In conclusion, these findings indicate for the first time in a single species that the mechanism involved in the replacement of soma cells is different between the female-to-male and male-to-female sex change processes in grouper. These results also demonstrate that sexual fate

  8. Molecular identification of StAR and 3βHSD1 and characterization in response to GnIH stimulation in protogynous hermaphroditic grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

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    Wang, Qingqing; Qi, Xin; Tang, Haipei; Guo, Yin; Li, Shuisheng; Li, Gaofei; Yang, Xiaoli; Zhang, Haifa; Liu, Xiaochun; Lin, Haoran

    2017-04-01

    Gonadal steroids are critical factors in reproduction and sex reverse process. StAR (steroidogenic acute regulatory protein), transferring the cholesterol from the outer mitochondrial membrane to the inner membrane, is the rate-limiting factor of steroidogenesis. 3βHSD (3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Δ5-Δ4 isomerase), converting Δ5-steroids into Δ4-steroids, is an important oxidoreductase in steroidogenesis. In the present study, StAR and 3βHSD1 were cloned and characterized from protogynous orange-spotted grouper. StAR cDNA contains an 861bp open reading frame (ORF), encoding a predicted protein of 286 amino acids, and the ORF of 3βHSD1 was 1125bp, encoding a predicted protein of 374 amino acids. The transcript of StAR was mainly expressed in gonad, while 3βHSD1 mRNA was predominantly detected in brain and gonad. In the previous study, we found the expression of GnIH mRNA level in male, as well as in 17 alpha-methyltestosterone (MT)-induced male fish was significantly higher than in female fish, this indicating that GnIH/GnIHR signaling might be involved in the regulation of sex reversal and male maintenance. In order to figure out the function of GnIH in steroidogenesis, the expression of StAR and 3βHSD1 regulated by GnIH was examined. In vitro study showed that treatment of cultured ovary fragments with gGnIH peptides significantly stimulated the expression of StAR and 3βHSD1. In addition, the mRNA levels of StAR and 3βHSD1 were significantly increased after intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) with gGnIH peptides. Moreover, during MT-induced sex change from female to male, the levels of StAR mRNA significantly increased by 5.2, 24.8 and 353.5 folds, and that of 3βHSD1 mRNA by 3.5, 32.5 and 55.4 folds at the 2nd, 4th and 6th week after MT implantation, respectively. Collectively, our results indicate that GnIH may be involved in the regulation of sex reversal or male maintenance by stimulating the expression of StAR and 3βHSD1 in protogynous grouper

  9. GHRH, PRP-PACAP and GHRHR Target Sequencing via an Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine Reveals an Association with Growth in Orange-Spotted Grouper (Epinephelus coioides

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    Liang Guo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH and the receptor, GHRHR, constitute important components of the hypothalamus-pituitary growth axis and act on the downstream growth hormone (GH. PACAP-related peptide/pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PRP-PACAP is a paralog of GHRH. These genes all play key roles in development and growth patterns. To improve the quality of cultured fish strains, natural genetic variation must be examined and understood. A mixed linear model has been widely used in association mapping, taking the population structures and pairwise kinship patterns into consideration. In this study, a mass cross population of orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides was examined. These candidate genes were found to harbor low nucleotide diversity (θw from 0.00154 to 0.00388 and linkage disequilibrium levels (delay of 50% within 2 kbp. Association mapping was employed, and two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (KR269823.1:g.475A>C and KR269823.1:g.2143T>C were found to be associated with growth (false discovery rate Q < 0.05, explaining 9.0%–17.0% of the phenotypic variance. The association of KR269823.1:g.2143T>C was also found via haplotype-based association (p < 0.05. The identified associations offer new insights into gene functions, and the associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs may be used for breeding purposes.

  10. Genetic characterisation of populations of the critically endangered Goliath grouper ( Epinephelus itajara, Serranidae from the Northern Brazilian coast through analyses of mtDNA

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    Gláucia C. Silva-Oliveira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The Goliath grouper ( Epinephelus itajara is one of the most endangered species of fish of the subfamily Epinephelinae. Slow to develop and mature, and dependent on mangrove habitats for breeding, the species also suffers intense harvesting, which has reduced drastically in numbers in many areas. To contribute to the understanding of the characteristics of E. itajara populations, we conducted a molecular genetics study of the species, focusing on populations from the Northern Brazilian coast. The mtDNA control region (D-loop of 116 individuals from five localities (Bragança, Ajuruteua, Parnaíba, Fortaleza and Natal was analysed, and a sequence of 499 base pairs identified. Analyses of the sequences indicated that genetic variability was generally lower in E. itajara than in other endangered species of the genus. AMOVA found no significant grouping structure among the populations. Nested Clade Analysis revealed a significant association between genetic variability and geographic distribution among only three populations (Ajuruteua, Parnaíba and Natal. Genetic diversity was higher in populations from the Amazon region, which may be related to the better conservation of mangrove habitats in this area. Therefore, the present study could be used for the implementation of conservation and management measures in order to protect and consolidate these populations.

  11. Genetic Analyses and Simulations of Larval Dispersal Reveal Distinct Populations and Directional Connectivity across the Range of the Hawaiian Grouper (Epinephelus quernus

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    Malia Ana J. Rivera

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Integration of ecological and genetic data to study patterns of biological connectivity can aid in ecosystem-based management. Here we investigated connectivity of the Hawaiian grouper Epinephelus quernus, a species of management concern within the Main Hawaiian Islands (MHI, by comparing genetic analyses with simulated larval dispersal patterns across the species range in the Hawaiian Archipelago and Johnston Atoll. Larval simulations revealed higher dispersal from the MHI to the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI than in the opposite direction and evidence for a dispersal corridor between Johnston and the middle of the Hawaiian Archipelago. Genetic analyses using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA control region sequences and microsatellites revealed relatively high connectivity across the Hawaiian Archipelago, with the exception of genetically distinct populations and higher mtDNA diversity in the mid-Archipelago. These analyses support the preservation of the mid-archipelago as a source of genetic diversity and a region of connectivity with locations outside the Hawaiian Archipelago. Additionally, our evidence for directional dispersal away from the MHI lends caution to any management decisions that would rely on the NWHI replenishing depleted MHI stocks.

  12. Age estimation and growth pattern of the island grouper, Mycteroperca fusca (Serranidae in an island population on the northwest coast of Africa

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    Rocío Bustos

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Mycteroperca fusca is one of the main predators of the Canarian archipelago coastal marine ecosystem. Nothing is known on the life history or population dynamics of this predatory serranid fish. In this study, age and growth of M. fusca were investigated by annual growth increment counts from 214 fish collected between January 2004 and December 2005. A year’s growth is represented by one opaque and one translucent ring. The island grouper is a slow-growing and long-lived species, with ages up to twenty years recorded. Length at age was described by the von Bertalanffy growth model (L∞=898 mm; k=0.062 year-1; and t0= −3.83 year, the Schnute growth model (y1=262 mm; y2=707 mm; a=0.008; and b=1.98, and the seasonalised von Bertalanffy growth model (L∞=908 mm; k=0.061 year-1; t0= −3.83 year; C=2.58; and ts=0.542. Males and females show differences in growth.

  13. OBSERVATION ON SKELETAL DEFORMITY IN HATCHERY-REARED RED SPOTTED GROUPER, Epinephelus akaara (Temmick et Schlegel FROM LARVAL TO JUVENILE STAGE

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    Eri Setiadi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal deformity is a significant problem in fish culture. The skeletal deformities in red spotted grouper from yolk-sac to juvenile stages were examined through clearing and staining of the cartilage and bone using Alcian Blue and Alizarin Red S. The overall results showed that the pattern of incidence of deformities showed an increase from preflexion to juvenile stages. The rate of deformities based on ten elements of bone from preflexion to juvenile stages were as follows: vertebral (42.6%—9.0%, dorsal proximal radials (4.8%—25.2%, neural spine (0%—8.4%, haemal spine (0%—6.8%, hypural (1.3%—5.4%, anal proximal radials (0%—5.4%, epural (1.3%—4.9%, arypural (2.0%—4.5%, lower jaw (1.3%—2.5%, and upper jaw (0%. Vertebral and dorsal proximal radials were recognized as the most susceptible parts to deformation. The main types of bone deformity were lordosis, scoliosis, fusion, shortening, branching, supernumerary elements, and saddleback syndrome. Development of saddleback syndrome was detected initially in preflexion stage, which was accompanied by deformity of the neural spines, dorsal proximal radials, and disposition of the distal radials and dorsal spines in later life stages. The skeletal deformity encountered during the larval rearing period could be caused by water surface tension.

  14. GHRH, PRP-PACAP and GHRHR Target Sequencing via an Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine Reveals an Association with Growth in Orange-Spotted Grouper (Epinephelus coioides)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Liang; Xia, Junhong; Yang, Sen; Li, Mingming; You, Xinxin; Meng, Zining; Lin, Haoran

    2015-01-01

    Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) and the receptor, GHRHR, constitute important components of the hypothalamus-pituitary growth axis and act on the downstream growth hormone (GH). PACAP-related peptide/pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PRP-PACAP) is a paralog of GHRH. These genes all play key roles in development and growth patterns. To improve the quality of cultured fish strains, natural genetic variation must be examined and understood. A mixed linear model has been widely used in association mapping, taking the population structures and pairwise kinship patterns into consideration. In this study, a mass cross population of orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) was examined. These candidate genes were found to harbor low nucleotide diversity (θw from 0.00154 to 0.00388) and linkage disequilibrium levels (delay of 50% within 2 kbp). Association mapping was employed, and two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (KR269823.1:g.475A>C and KR269823.1:g.2143T>C) were found to be associated with growth (false discovery rate Q C was also found via haplotype-based association (p < 0.05). The identified associations offer new insights into gene functions, and the associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may be used for breeding purposes. PMID:26540042

  15. miR-homoHSV of Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV inhibits expression of the SGIV pro-apoptotic factor LITAF and attenuates cell death.

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    Chuanyu Guo

    Full Text Available Growing evidence demonstrates that various large DNA viruses could encode microRNAs (miRNAs that regulate host and viral genes to achieve immune evasion. In this study, we report that miR-homoHSV, an miRNA encoded by Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV, can attenuate SGIV-induced cell death. Mechanistically, SGIV miR-homoHSV targets SGIV ORF136R, a viral gene that encodes the pro-apoptotic lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-α (LITAF-like factor. miR-homoHSV suppressed exogenous and endogenous SGIV LITAF expression, and thus inhibited SGIV LITAF-induced apoptosis. Meanwhile, miR-homoHSV expression was able to attenuate cell death induced by viral infection, presumably facilitating viral replication through the down-regulation of the pro-apoptotic gene SGIV LITAF. Together, our data suggest miR-homoHSV may serve as a feedback regulator of cell death during viral infection. The findings of this study provide a better understanding of SGIV replication and pathogenesis.

  16. Molecular identification of an androgen receptor and its changes in mRNA levels during 17α-methyltestosterone-induced sex reversal in the orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yu; Liu, Xiaochun; Zhang, Haifa; Zhang, Yong; Lu, Danqi; Lin, Haoran

    2012-09-01

    Androgens play a crucial role in sex differentiation, sexual maturation, and spermatogenesis in vertebrates. The action of androgens is mediated via androgen receptors (ARs). The present study reports the cloning of the cDNA sequence of the ar in the orange-spotted grouper, with high expression in testis and relatively low in subdivision of brain areas. The cDNA sequence of ar was 2358 bp, encoding a protein of 759 amino acids (aa). Phylogenetic analysis showed that the ar cDNA sequence was closely related to that of threespot wrasse (Halichoeres trimaculatus) and medaka (Oryzias latipes) arβ. As deduced from the phylogenetic tree and the high amino acid identity with the ARβ subtype of other teleosts, grouper ar seems to be more closely related to the beta than the alpha subtype cloned to date. In the first week after 17α-methyltestosterone (MT) implantation, the transcript levels of ar in the hypothalamus declined significantly, and consistently stayed at low level expression to the second week, but increased back to the control levels in the third and fourth week. In the gonad, the mRNA expression of ar was not changed in the first week compared with the control, but increased significantly in the second week, consistently reached the highest level in the third week, dropped slightly but still higher than that of the control in the fourth week. The expression pattern of ar in hypothalamus and gonad during MT-induced sex reversal suggests the involvement of ar in regulating this process in the orange-spotted grouper. The present study provides the data of the changes in the mRNA levels of ar during MT-induced sex reversal in detail to help understand the complicated signals under sex reversal. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Pseudorhabdosynochus sulamericanus (Monogenea, Diplectanidae, a parasite of deep-sea groupers (Serranidae occurs transatlantically on three congeneric hosts (Hyporthodus spp., one from the Mediterranean Sea and two from the western Atlantic

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    Amira Chaabane

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Little is known of the diversity of the monogenean parasites infesting deep-sea groupers, and there is even less information available about their geographic distributions within the ranges of their hosts. To improve our understanding of these host-parasite relationships we conducted parasitological evaluations of the deep-water Haifa grouper Hyporthodus haifensis from the southern Mediterranean off Tunisia and Libya. We collected more than one species of diplectanid monogeneans from this host, but among these only one dominant species was abundant. This proved to be morphologically very similar to Pseudorhabdosynochus sulamericanus Santos, Buchmann & Gibson, 2000, a species originally described from the congeneric host H. niveatus off Brazil and also recorded from H. niveatus and H. nigritus off Florida. Here, we conducted a morphological comparison between newly collected specimens and those previously deposited in museum collections by other authors. Further, we used COI barcoding to ascertain the specific identity of the three host species to better elucidate the circumstances that might explain the unexpectedly broad distribution of P. sulamericanus. We assigned our specimens from H. haifensis to P. sulamericanus primarily on the basis of morphological characteristics of the sclerotized vagina. We also noted morphological characteristics of eastern and western Atlantic specimens that are not clearly described or not given in previous descriptions and so prepared a redescription of the species. We confirmed, by COI barcoding, that no sister-species relationships were evident among the three hosts of P. sulamericanus. Our observation that P. sulamericanus infects unrelated host species with putatively allopatric distributions was unexpected given the very limited dispersive capabilities and the high degree of host specificity common to members of Pseudorhabdosynochus. This transatlantic distribution raises questions with regard to

  18. Monitoring metal levels in water and multiple biomarkers in the grouper ( Epinephelus tauvina) to assess environmental stressors on the Arabian Gulf coast of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Moneim, Ashraf M; Al-Kahtani, Mohamed A; Elmenshawy, Omar M; Elsawy, Hany; Hafez, Aly M; Genena, Marwa A

    2018-01-01

    In this field study, the levels of heavy metals (Pb, Fe, Co, Cu, and Zn) in water and a suite of biochemical and histological biomarkers in the grouper ( Epinephelus tauvina) were assessed at four sites in the Arabian Gulf. Samples were taken from a relatively non-urban reference site, called Salwa (S1), and three effluent-dominated sites, namely Al-aziziyah in southern Dammam city (S2), the Al-Jubail coast (S3), and Manifa (S4). Toxic metals, namely Pb and Co (at all sites) and Fe (at S3), were elevated in water samples relative to the internationally permissible limits. In fish, induced levels of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) in the liver at S3 and S4 were higher than those of the reference fish at S1. Additionally, the level of the lipid peroxidation (LPO) product (malondialdehyde (MDA)) was significantly increased in gills (at S3) and liver (at S2 and S3). There was an inhibition of catalase activities in the gills of fish from S2 to S4 and significantly higher activity levels of superoxide dismutase in the gills of fish from S4. Histopathological features such as aneurysms in gill vessels, deformed gill lamellae, increases in liver melano-macrophage centers, and hepatocellular necrosis were most abundant at sites where significant pollution problems exist (i.e. S2-S4). The results reveal that the eastern coast of Saudi Arabia, in the Arabian Gulf, is still contaminated, as indicated by elevated HSP70, LPO content and numbers of histological lesions, and that monitoring of contaminants and their effects should be continued in this region.

  19. Real-time isothermal detection of Abalone herpes-like virus and red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus using recombinase polymerase amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fang; Jiang, Jing-Zhe; Wang, Jiang-Yong; Wei, Hong-Ying

    2018-01-01

    Abalone herpes-like virus (AbHV) and Red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) are two serious viruses that infect animal populations in aquaculture. Both viruses cause diseases associated with high mortality rates, resulting in dramatic economic losses in the aquaculture industry. There are currently no effective treatments for either of these two viral diseases. Thus, early, rapid, and accurate diagnosis plays a fundamental role in disease prevention and control in aquaculture. Traditional methods of diagnosis, such as virus culture, enzyme-linked immunoassay, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), are either time consuming or require sophisticated temperature control devices. In this study, one sets of specific primers and probes were designed for the real-time quantitative recombinase polymerase amplification (qRPA) detection of AbHV and RGNNV separately. The sensitivity and specificity of detection were evaluated by comparison with detection by conventional PCR and quantitative PCR. The optimal reaction temperature and time for virus detection is 37°C for 20min. The detection limit is 100 copies per reaction, making this approach faster and more sensitive than qPCR in this study. In a field application, the detection percentage of qRPA was higher than that of qPCR for both AbHV and NNV. Additionally, good correlation was found between qRPA and qPCR detection (R 2 >0.8). The methods presented here can be used as alternatives to qPCR for quick and quantitative detection of pathogens infecting aquaculture species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Transcriptomic profiles of striped snakehead fish cells (SSN-1) infected with red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) with an emphasis on apoptosis pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenjie; Yi, Lizhu; Feng, Shuangshuang; Liu, Xiaodan; Asim, Muhammad; Zhou, Yongcan; Lan, Jiangfeng; Jiang, Sanjie; Tu, Jiagang; Lin, Li

    2017-01-01

    Nervous necrosis virus (NNV), the causative agent of viral nervous necrosis (VNN) disease, has caused mass mortality of cultured marine and freshwater fish worldwide, resulting in enormous economic losses in the aquaculture industry. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenicity of NNV are still poorly understood. In this study, the transcriptomic profiles of striped snakehead fish (Channa striatus) cells (SSN-1) infected with red-spotted grouper NNV (RGNNV) were investigated using deep RNA sequencing technique. From 254,955,234 raw reads, a total of 253,338,544 clean reads were obtained and they were assembled into 93,372 unigenes. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified from RGNNV-infected or mock-infected SSN-1 cells, including 1184 up-regulated and 1456 down-regulated genes at 3 h (h) post of infection (poi), and 1138 up-regulated and 2073 down-regulated genes at 24 h poi, respectively. These DEGs were involved in many pathways related to viral pathogenesis, including retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) like receptors pathway, apoptosis pathway, oxidative phosphorylation, PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, and MAPK signaling pathway. Subsequent analysis focusing on the apoptosis pathway showed that the expression of Endonuclease G (EndoG) was up-regulated upon RGNNV infection at both 3 and 24 h poi. Therefore, EndoG gene was cloned and its function was further characterized. The results showed that over-expression of EndoG could also induce cellular apoptosis in SSN-1 cells, indicating that RGNNV infection might induce apoptosis of SSN-1 cells via EndoG-associated mitochondrial pathway. These results will shed a new light on the pathogenesis of NNV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Genome-Wide Mapping of Growth-Related Quantitative Trait Loci in Orange-Spotted Grouper (Epinephelus coioides) Using Double Digest Restriction-Site Associated DNA Sequencing (ddRADseq).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hui; You, Xinxin; Li, Jia; Liu, Hankui; Meng, Zining; Xiao, Ling; Zhang, Haifa; Lin, Hao-Ran; Zhang, Yong; Shi, Qiong

    2016-04-06

    Mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) is essential for the discovery of genetic structures that related to complex quantitative traits. In this study, we identified 264,072 raw SNPs (single-nucleotide polymorphisms) by double digest restriction site associated DNA sequencing (ddRADseq), and utilized 3029 of these SNPs to construct a genetic linkage map in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) using a regression mapping algorithm. The genetic map contained 24 linkage groups (LGs) spanning a total genetic distance of 1231.98 cM. Twenty-seven significant growth-related QTLs were identified. Furthermore, we identified 17 genes (fez2, alg3, ece2, arvcf, sla27a4, sgk223, camk2, prrc2b, mchr1, sardh, pappa, syk, tert, wdrcp91, ftz-f1, mate1 and notch1) including three (tert, ftz-f1 and notch1) that have been reported to be involved in fish growth. To summarize, we mapped growth-related QTLs in the orange-spotted grouper. These QTLs will be useful in marker-assisted selection (MAS) efforts to improve growth-related traits in this economically important fish.

  2. Genome-Wide Mapping of Growth-Related Quantitative Trait Loci in Orange-Spotted Grouper (Epinephelus coioides Using Double Digest Restriction-Site Associated DNA Sequencing (ddRADseq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Yu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL is essential for the discovery of genetic structures that related to complex quantitative traits. In this study, we identified 264,072 raw SNPs (single-nucleotide polymorphisms by double digest restriction site associated DNA sequencing (ddRADseq, and utilized 3029 of these SNPs to construct a genetic linkage map in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides using a regression mapping algorithm. The genetic map contained 24 linkage groups (LGs spanning a total genetic distance of 1231.98 cM. Twenty-seven significant growth-related QTLs were identified. Furthermore, we identified 17 genes (fez2, alg3, ece2, arvcf, sla27a4, sgk223, camk2, prrc2b, mchr1, sardh, pappa, syk, tert, wdrcp91, ftz-f1, mate1 and notch1 including three (tert, ftz-f1 and notch1 that have been reported to be involved in fish growth. To summarize, we mapped growth-related QTLs in the orange-spotted grouper. These QTLs will be useful in marker-assisted selection (MAS efforts to improve growth-related traits in this economically important fish.

  3. Genome-Wide Mapping of Growth-Related Quantitative Trait Loci in Orange-Spotted Grouper (Epinephelus coioides) Using Double Digest Restriction-Site Associated DNA Sequencing (ddRADseq)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hui; You, Xinxin; Li, Jia; Liu, Hankui; Meng, Zining; Xiao, Ling; Zhang, Haifa; Lin, Hao-Ran; Zhang, Yong; Shi, Qiong

    2016-01-01

    Mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) is essential for the discovery of genetic structures that related to complex quantitative traits. In this study, we identified 264,072 raw SNPs (single-nucleotide polymorphisms) by double digest restriction site associated DNA sequencing (ddRADseq), and utilized 3029 of these SNPs to construct a genetic linkage map in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) using a regression mapping algorithm. The genetic map contained 24 linkage groups (LGs) spanning a total genetic distance of 1231.98 cM. Twenty-seven significant growth-related QTLs were identified. Furthermore, we identified 17 genes (fez2, alg3, ece2, arvcf, sla27a4, sgk223, camk2, prrc2b, mchr1, sardh, pappa, syk, tert, wdrcp91, ftz-f1, mate1 and notch1) including three (tert, ftz-f1 and notch1) that have been reported to be involved in fish growth. To summarize, we mapped growth-related QTLs in the orange-spotted grouper. These QTLs will be useful in marker-assisted selection (MAS) efforts to improve growth-related traits in this economically important fish. PMID:27058532

  4. Description of Acleotrema maculatus sp. nov. (Monogenea: Diplectanidae infecting the spotted coral grouper Plectropomus maculatus (F:Serranidea from the Red Sea and its histopathological impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kareem Morsy

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Acleotrema maculatus sp. nov. (Monogenea: Diplectanidae was described from the gills of The spotted coral grouper Plectropomus maculatus (F:Serranidea, Forsskal, 1775. Fish were collected from boot landing sites and fishermen at different water locations along the Red Sea at Hurghada City, Egypt. The morphology and morphometric characterization of the recovered worms were described by means of light microscopy. Eight (53.3% out 15 specimens of P. maculatus were infected. Most of the infected fish had very pale gills. Morphologically, the adult worm of A. maculatus sp. nov., possessed a body which was elongated, fusiform with a total length 0.86–0.90 (0.88 ± 0.02 mm, and a maximum width 0.09–0.13 (0.11 ± 0.02 mm at the level of ovary. Haptor, broad, differentiated from the rest of the body, measured 0.04–0.08 (0.06 ± 0.02 mm and provided with continuous rows of squamodiscs. Two pairs of lateral hamuli, three bars and 14 marginal hooklets were also observed. Lateral (dorsal bars two, stout, dumbbell-shaped, measured 0.052–0.056 (0.054 ± 0.002 mm in length. Ventral bar slender, with transverse groove, measured 0.09–0.11 (0.10 ± 0.01 mm in length. Ventral hamuli measured 0.02–0.06 (0.04 ± 0.02 mm in total length with an outer root that was very long measured 0.016–0.02 (0.018 ± 0.002, stout, slightly notched at broad proximal end; inner root was conical and measured 0.013–0.017 (0.015 ± 0.002 mm, with shaft measured 0.025–0.029 (0.027 ± 0.002 mm and point length 0.007–0.009 (0.008 ± 0.002 mm. Dorsal hamuli measured 0.034–0.038 (0.036 ± 0.002 in total length; base large, stout, with only lateral rudiment of roots; blade and point were long and curved with shaft length measured 0.024–0.028 (0.026 ± 0.002 mm and 0.02–0.06 (0.04 ± 0.02 mm point length. The worm is hermaphrodite, male copulatory organ measured 0.058–0.062 (0.060 ± 0.002 mm in length with a sclerotized part composed of

  5. Collaborative approach in the study of the reproductive biology of the dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834 (Perciformes: Serranidae = Abordagem colaborativa no estudo da biologia reprodutiva da garoupa verdadeira Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834 (Perciformes: Serranidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leopoldo Cavaleri Gerhardinger

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Several aspects of the reproductive biology of the dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus were investigated using a collaborative methodology. 193 specimens of dusky groupers were obtained in collaboration with fish market personnel in the city of São Francisco do Sul, Santa Catarina State, Southern Brazil. Fish market staff were trained and encouraged to collect biological material required for reproductive studies, giving access to many specimens which otherwise would have been unavailable. E. marginatus was found to reproduce in early summer, spawning between November and December. Females reachedsexual maturity at approximately 460 mm total length. Sampled males ranged from 900-1000 mm and females from 300-960 mm in total length. No transitional (i.e. sex changing males were observed. The regression equation for the relationship between total length (TL (mm and total weight (TW (g was TW = 4.4x10-5TL2.8. Suggestions to improve the performance of future collaborative sampling projects are discussed.Diversos aspectos da biologia reprodutiva da garoupa verdadeira Epinephelus marginatus foram abordados através de uma metodologia colaborativa. Ao todo, 193 exemplares da garoupa verdadeira foram obtidas em peixarias colaboradoras no município de São Francisco do Sul, Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil. Os funcionários das peixarias foram treinados e incentivados a realizar a coleta de todo material biológico necessário para estudos reprodutivos, possibilitando o acesso a um grande número de vísceras que teriam de outra maneira sido dispensadas. Epinephelus marginatus esteve em atividade reprodutiva no inicio do verão, com desova provável entre novembro e dezembro. Fêmeas atingiram a maturidade sexual com aproximadamente 460 mm de comprimento total. Machos variaram de 900mm a 1000 mm e fêmeas de 300 mm a 960 mm. Não foram observados machos em transição sexual. A equação de regressão da relação entre o comprimento total (CT (mm e

  6. Redescription of Philometra margolisi Moravec, Vidal-Martínez et Aguirre-Macedo, 1995 (Nematoda: Philometridae), a gonad-infecting parasite of the red grouper Epinephelus morio (Serranidae) in the Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, František; Bakenhaster, Micah D; Leone, Erin H

    2017-06-01

    The insufficiently known nematode species Philometra margolisi Moravec, Vidal-Martínez et Aguirre-Macedo, 1995 (Philometridae) is redescribed based on light and scanning electron microscopical (SEM) examinations of specimens collected from the gonad of the type host, the red grouper Epinephelus morio (Valenciennes) (Serranidae, Perciformes), in the northern Gulf of Mexico off Florida, USA. Also, new prevalence data for females of P. margolisi were derived from 188 fish, and a subset of these (n = 38) were used to determine prevalence and intensity of male nematodes. The male of this species was studied with SEM for the first time, which revealed some new, taxonomically important morphological features. The male posterior end had a V-shaped caudal mound, four pairs of minute adanal papillae, a pair of large papillae located posterior to the cloacal aperture and a pair of very small phasmids. The distal end of the gubernaculum is unique among all gonad-infecting species of Philometra parasitizing serranids in that its ventral surface is flat, smooth, without the usual two longitudinal grooves; the dorsal lamellate structures on the gubernaculum are also different in this species. In contrast to data in the original species description, the body length of gravid females of P. margolisi was 132-280 mm. Overall prevalence for male nematodes (76.3%) was much higher than for females (15.4%), and female nematode prevalence was higher in samples collected during host spawing season than out of season (27.1% and 3.3%, respectively).

  7. Two Distinct Interferon-γ in the Orange-Spotted Grouper (Epinephelus coioides: Molecular Cloning, Functional Characterization, and Regulation in Toll-Like Receptor Pathway by Induction of miR-146a

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Peng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Interferon gamma (IFNγ is a Th1 cytokine that is critical for innate and adaptive immunity. Toll-like receptors (TLRs signaling pathways are critical in early host defense against invading pathogens. miR-146a has been reported to participate in the regulation of host immunity. The known mechanisms of integrations between the IFNγ and TLR signaling pathways are incompletely understood, especially in teleosts. In this study, orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides IFNγ1 and IFNγ2, their biological activities, especially their involvements in TLR pathway, were explored. We identified and cloned two IFNγ genes of E. coioides, namely EcIFNγ1 and EcIFNγ2. The produced recombinant E. coioides IFNγ1 (rEcIFNγ1 and IFNγ2 (rEcIFNγ2 proteins showed functions, which are similar to those of other bony fishes, such as enhancing nitric oxide responses and respiratory burst response. rEcIFNγ2 could regulate TLR pathway by enhancing the promoter activity of miR-146a upstream sequence and thus increasing the expression level of miR-146a, which possibly targets TNF receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6, a key adapter molecule in TLR signaling pathway. Taken together, these findings unravel a novel regulatory mechanism of anti-inflammatory response by IFNγ2, which could mediate TLR pathway through IFNγ2–miR-146a–TRAF6 negative regulation loop. It is suggested that IFNγ2 may provide a promising therapeutic, which may help to fine tune the immune response.

  8. Controle de Neobenedenia melleni (MacCallum, 1927 (Monogenea: Capsalidae em garoupa-verdadeira, Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834, cultivada em tanques-rede Control of Neobenedenia melleni (MacCallum, 1927 (Monogenea: Capsalidae in dusky grouper, Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834, reared in floating net cages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Gomes Sanches

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O diagnóstico precoce de patologias no meio aquático constitui-se em uma necessidade vital para o sucesso dos cultivos. Considerados como parasitos oportunistas, surtos de infestação de monogenóides capsalídeos podem ocasionar mortalidades massivas gerando enormes prejuízos nos cultivos. Exemplares de garoupa-verdadeira Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834, com peso médio de 142,74 ± 38,65 g, apresentaram recusa da alimentação e sintomas como o escurecimento do corpo, natação errática, opacidade dos olhos, exoftalmia e hemorragias em diversas áreas do corpo. Alguns peixes apresentavam lesões no globo ocular e cegueira. Após análises dos peixes foi identificada a ocorrência do parasito Neobenedenia melleni. Este trabalho teve por objetivo testar o efeito de diferentes tratamentos por imersão em diferentes concentrações de formalina e água doce na erradicação de monogenoides capsalideos na garoupa-verdadeira. Foram testados três tratamentos em forma de banhos: T1 (água doce por 10 minutos; T2 (formalina: 1:2.000 por 10 minutos e T3: (formalina: 1:4.000 por 10 minutos. Os tratamentos foram avaliados através de raspado de tecido epitelial, montados entre lâminas e lamínulas e observado ao microscópio de luz. Observou-se que nas condições testadas o T1 e o T2 foram eficientes na eliminação dos monogenóides capsalídeos na garoupa-verdadeira.The precocious diagnosis of pathologies in the aquatic way is constituted in a vital need for the success of the cultivations. Considered as parasites opportunists, infestations of monogeneans capsalides can cause missal mortalities resulting in enormous damages in the cultivations. Juveniles of dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834, with medium weight of 142.74 ± 38.65 g, presented refusal of the feeding and symptoms as the darkening of the body, erratic swimming, opacity of the eyes and hemorrhages in several areas of the body. Some fishes presented lesions in the

  9. Anatomia e histologia gastrintestinal da garoupa-verdadeira Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834 (Teleostei, Serranidae - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i4.4462 Dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834 (Teleostei, Serranidae gastrintestinal anatomy and histology - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i4.4462

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Machado Cunha da Silva

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A garoupa-verdadeira (Epinephelus marginatus é uma espécie de serranídeo com grande importância ecológica e boas perspectivas para o cultivo. A investigação da morfologia do trato digestório, associada à atividade alimentar, é fundamental para a compreensão da biologia dessa espécie e premissa básica para pesquisas sobre requerimentos nutricionais, desenvolvimento de rações e práticas adequadas de manejo alimentar. O presente trabalho descreve a anatomia e, por meio da microscopia de luz, as variações histológicas ao longo do tubo digestório de juvenis de Epinephelus marginatus, correlacionando a histologia de cada seguimento com as respectivas funções e o hábito alimentar. Verificou-se que essa espécie possui elevado número de tipos celulares ao longo do tubo digestório que estão intimamente relacionados com a resposta imunológica inata e adaptativa, permitindo o hábito alimentar detritívoro.The dusky grouper (Epinephelus marginatus is a serranida species with great ecological importance and good perspectives for rearing. The investigation of the digestive tract morphology associated to the feeding activity is essential for the understanding of the biology of this species and a basic premise for research on feed requirements, feed development and appropriate feeding methods. The present study describes the anatomy and histological variations along the digestive tract of Epinephelus marginatus juveniles associating the histology with function and feeding habit. It was verified that this species possesses a high number of different cellular types along the digestive tube intimately related with the innate and adaptative immunological responses.

  10. 78 FR 18247 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; 2013 Accountability Measures for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... Unit 2 (cardinal and queen snapper), and groupers in Grouper Unit 3 (coney, graysby, red hind, and rock hind), Grouper Unit 4 (black grouper, red grouper, tiger grouper, and yellowfin grouper), and Grouper..., puddingwife, and Spanish hogfish), triggerfish (ocean triggerfish, queen triggerfish, and sargassum...

  11. 78 FR 17336 - Snapper-Grouper Fishery off the Southern Atlantic States; Snapper-Grouper Management Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ... nation, particularly with respect to providing food production and recreational opportunities, and... and sustainability of the fishery and how many fish can be harvested the following year. Since the... identified. The rule would apply directly to licensed commercial fishermen in the Finfish Fishing Industry...

  12. 77 FR 42688 - Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the Southern Atlantic States; Snapper-Grouper Management Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    .... The third alternative would specify a recreational sector in-season AM and includes two sub... measures for golden tilefish in the commercial and recreational sectors in the South Atlantic based on new...) and commercial (97 percent) sector allocation. Therefore, if implemented, this proposed rule would set...

  13. 77 FR 61295 - Snapper-Grouper Fishery off the Southern Atlantic States; Snapper-Grouper Management Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-09

    ... recreational sector. The third alternative would specify a recreational sector in-season AM and includes two... final rule, NMFS announces the reopening of the golden tilefish commercial sector with a commercial trip... measures for golden tilefish in the commercial and recreational sectors in the South Atlantic based on new...

  14. サケ亜目魚類の生化学的系統分類

    OpenAIRE

    松岡, 教理; 北野, 誉

    2011-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships among seven species of four families of the suborder Salmonoidea were investigated by allozyme analysis. The seven species examined here were the followings: Hypomesus trarspacificus nipponensis, Sprinchus lanceolatus, Mallotus villosus, Osmerus eperlanus mordax of the family Osmeridae; Salangichthys microdon of the family Salangidae; Onchorhynchus masou masou of the family Salmonidae and Plecoglossus altivelis altivelis (Ayu). From allozyme analysis of 15 diffe...

  15. Characterization of 10 novel microsatellite loci for the brown marbled grouper, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus (Serranidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtar, M A A; Normah, M N; Kumar, S V; Baharum, S N

    2011-05-17

    Epinephelus fuscoguttatus is a commercially important marine fish species in southeast Asia. Due to overfishing and water pollution, this species has been declared as near-threatened. Thus, to provide information to help maintain and preserve the species, microsatellites were developed, using an enriched genomic library method. Thirty individuals were collected from the hatchery of the Fishery Research Institute, Terengganu, Malaysia. These individuals, from four to six years old, originated from Sabah and are maintained in captive culture as broodstock. Genomic DNA was extracted from the fins of selected individuals that weighed 3-8 kg. Ten microsatellite loci were found to be polymorphic in this population, with 5 to 21 alleles per locus. Observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.53 to 0.97 and 0.59 to 0.95, respectively. Only one locus deviated significantly from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and no significant linkage disequilibrium was found among the pairs of loci. These polymorphic microsatellite loci will be used by the Malaysian Fishery Research Institute for investigating genetic diversity and for developing breeding strategies.

  16. Bioactive potency of epidermal mucus extracts from greasy grouper, Epinephelus tauvina (Forsskal, 1775

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh Manikantan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the bio-potency of epidermal mucus from Epinephelus tauvina. Methods: Mucus was extracted with acidic, organic and aqueous solvents. Protein, carbohydrate, lipid, amino acid and fatty acid content of mucus extracts were quantified by UV-spectrophotometer, high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatographymass spectrometer, respectively. Antimicrobial activity was tested against five human and fish pathogens by using agar well diffusion method. The molecular weight of peptides was determined using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The haemolytic activity of extracts was tested against chick, goat, cow and human red blood cell. Results: Protein contributed with maximum of 26.25% in crude mucus. Arginine was recorded maximum of (133.9 nmol/mL in crude mucus. 2,4,6-Decatrienoic acid and bis (a-chloroethyl sulfone were confirmed in organic extract. The antimicrobial activity of acidic extract was significant. Among the human pathogens, maximum zone of inhibition [(26.0 ± 0.3 mm] was observed against Proteus mirabilis. Whereas, among fish pathogens maximum zone of inhibition [(25.0 ± 0.1 mm] was observed against Vibrio parahemolyticus. The activity of other two extracts was not remarkable. The molecular weight of peptides ranged from 115.5– 37.1 kDa in acidic extract was determined. Chicken and goat blood were found to be highly vulnerable to the lysis. Conclusions: The whole mucus could be a promising source with numerous bioactivepotency. Consequently, this preliminary information suggested that mucus is a source of novel antimicrobial agents for fish and human health related applications.

  17. Early Life History of the Sevenband Grouper, Epinephelus septemfasciatus from Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae-Min; Cho, Jae-Kwon; Han, Kyeong-Ho; Kim, Na-Ri; Hwang, Hyung-Kyu; Kim, Kyong-Min; Myeong, Jeong-In; Son, Maeng-Hyun

    2014-03-01

    This study is conducted to monitor the morphological developmental features of the egg development, larvae and juvenile of Epinephelus septemfasciatus, the fertilized eggs were gotton using artificial insemination. Matured parents are collected from marine caged fish farms in Geomun-ri, Samsan-myeon, Yeosu-si, Jeollanamdo Korea in June 2012. The fertilized eggs were pelagic eggs containing one oil globule, and measured 0.81~0.89 mm (0.85±0.04 mm, n=50) in diameter. In regard to rearing environment, the water temperature is 21.0~23.0°C and the salinity is 32.0~33.2‰. Hatching was observed from 48 hours after fertilization, the mouth and anus of prelarvae was not opened but had egg yolk at newly hatched. 4 days after hatching, the mouth and anus of postlarvae was opened and began to eat Rotifer and was measured 2.40~2.49 mm (2.45±0.03 mm n=10) in total length. 12 days after hatching, postlarvae was measured 3.77~4.67 mm (4.27±0.33 mm) in total length, its the second pole tide of dorsal fin and the first pole tide of pelvic fin was extended longitudinally. 71 days after hatching, juvenile was measured 40.5~45.4 mm (42.6±2.04 mm) in total length. Seven bands were observed in body, and pole tides of dorsal and pelvic fins were shortened.

  18. A bridge too far: dispersal barriers and cryptic speciation in an Arabian Peninsula grouper (Cephalopholis hemistiktos)

    KAUST Repository

    Priest, Mark

    2015-12-12

    Aim: We use genetic and age-based analyses to assess the evidence for a biogeographical barrier to larval dispersal in the yellowfin hind, Cephalopholis hemistiktos, a commercially important species found across the Arabian Peninsula. Location: Red Sea, Gulf of Aden, Gulf of Oman and Arabian Gulf. Methods: Mitochondrial DNA cytochrome-c oxidase subunit-I and nuclear DNA (S7) sequences were obtained for C. hemistiktos sampled throughout its distributional range. Phylogeographical and population-level analyses were used to assess patterns of genetic structure and to identify barriers to dispersal. Concurrently, age-based demographic analyses using otoliths determined differences in growth and longevity between regions. Results: Our analyses revealed significant genetic structure congruent with growth parameter differences observed across sampling sites, suggesting cryptic speciation between populations in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden versus the Gulf of Oman and Arabian Gulf. Coalescence analyses indicated these two regions have been isolated for > 800,000 years. Main conclusions: Our results indicate historical disruption to gene flow and a contemporary dispersal barrier in the Arabian Sea, which C. hemistiktos larvae are unable to effectively traverse. This provides yet another example of a (cryptic) species with high dispersive potential whose range is delimited by a lack of suitable habitat between locations or an inability to successfully recruit at the range edge. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. 50 CFR 622.18 - South Atlantic snapper-grouper limited access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...: husband, wife, son, daughter, brother, sister, mother, or father; or (B) From an individual to a...: husband, wife, son, daughter, brother, sister, mother, or father. The application for transfer of a permit... permit will not be renewed if the annual report shows a new shareholder other than a husband, wife, son...

  20. Survey of Participants in the Gulf of Mexico Grouper-Tilefish Individual Fishing Quota Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data includes qualitative responses regarding participant satisfaction with the IFQ, changes in fishing operations due to IFQ, hiring crew, and availability of...

  1. 77 FR 32914 - Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic; 2012 Recreational Accountability Measure and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... Accountability Measure and Closure for South Atlantic Golden Tilefish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS implements accountability measures (AMs) for the recreational sector of golden...

  2. 78 FR 32995 - Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic; 2013 Recreational Accountability Measure and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ... Accountability Measure and Closure for South Atlantic Golden Tilefish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS implements accountability measures (AMs) for the recreational sector of golden...

  3. Life-history strategies of the rock hind grouper Epinephelus adscensionis at Ascension Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, E T; Downes, K J; Richardson, A; Arkhipkin, A; Brickle, P; Brown, J; Mrowicki, R J; Shcherbich, Z; Weber, N; Weber, S B

    2017-12-01

    Epinephelus adscensionis sampled from Ascension Island, South Atlantic Ocean, exhibits distinct life-history traits, including larger maximum size and size at sexual maturity than previous studies have demonstrated for this species in other locations. Otolith analysis yielded a maximum estimated age of 25 years, with calculated von Bertalanffy growth parameters of: L ∞  = 55·14, K = 0·19, t 0  = -0·88. Monthly gonad staging and analysis of gonad-somatic index (I G ) provide evidence for spawning from July to November with an I G peak in August (austral winter), during which time somatic growth is also suppressed. Observed patterns of sexual development were supportive of protogyny, although further work is needed to confirm this. Mean size at sexual maturity for females was 28·9 cm total length (L T ; 95% C.I. 27·1-30·7 cm) and no females were found >12 years and 48·0 cm L T , whereas all confirmed males sampled were mature, >35·1 cm L T with an age range from 3 to 18 years. The modelled size at which 50% of individuals were male was 41·8 cm (95% C.I. 40·4-43·2 cm). As far as is known, this study represents the first comprehensive investigation into the growth and reproduction of E. adscensionis at its type locality of Ascension Island and suggests that the population may be affected less by fisheries than elsewhere in its range. Nevertheless, improved regulation of the recreational fishery and sustained monitoring of abundance, length frequencies and life-history parameters are needed to inform long-term management measures, which could include the creation of marine reserves, size or temporal catch limits and stricter export controls. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  4. 50 CFR 622.2 - Definitions and acronyms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... coral growth abounds, including patch reefs, outer bank reefs, deep water banks, and hard bottoms... transfer ashore. Deep-water grouper (DWG) means yellowedge grouper, misty grouper, warsaw grouper, snowy... hours. Headrope length means the distance, measured along the forwardmost webbing of a trawl net...

  5. 78 FR 39700 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... net present value of these profit increases would be approximately $930,000, of which $614,000 would... present value of increased revenues to the commercial sector would be approximately $2.5 million. As a... an OY formula of ABC = OY = ACL, using values from SEDAR 25 (2011) and the SSC's ABC recommendation...

  6. 78 FR 58249 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... years. For the 2013-2014, 2014- 2015, and 2015-2016 fishing years, the net present value of increased... net present value of these profit increases will be approximately $930,000, of [[Page 58252

  7. 78 FR 10102 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Resources of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ... Reduction AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Temporary rule; trip limit reduction. SUMMARY: NMFS reduces the commercial trip limit for golden tilefish in the South Atlantic to 300 lb (136 kg), gutted weight, per trip in or...

  8. 78 FR 61939 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Resources of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-07

    ... 500 lb (227 kg), gutted weight. This trip limit reduction is necessary to protect the South Atlantic... Reduction AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Temporary rule; trip limit reduction. SUMMARY: NMFS reduces the commercial...

  9. 78 FR 50394 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE...), Commerce. ACTION: Supplemental Notice of Intent (NOI); correction; extension of public comment period... to read as follows: Electronic Submission: Submit all electronic public comments via the Federal e...

  10. 77 FR 55448 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ... effects of a catch share program at this time. This rule would allow transfer of a black sea bass pot... to increase individual profitability of those owning the endorsement because of the increased value...

  11. 78 FR 59635 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    ... blue runner. This alternative would tend to maintain the current profitability of commercial vessels... melanurum Bank sea bass, Centropristis ocyurus Rock sea bass, Centropristis philadelphica Longspine porgy...

  12. 77 FR 59129 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    ... in the recreational sector, restaurant and seafood businesses, and a consulting firm. Comments.... Risenhoover, Director, Office of Sustainable Fisheries, performing the functions and duties of the Deputy...

  13. 75 FR 59690 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; Notice of 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Warsaw Grouper...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ... range; (2) overutilization for commercial, recreational, scientific, or educational purposes; (3... exploitation'' ( http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/7860/0 ). In apparent contradiction with this...

  14. 77 FR 16991 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... implementing this action at this time. The document identifies the wrong preferred alternative selected for... alternatives and the text describing and analyzing this alternative in Amendment 18A. The decision not to.... The for-hire fleet consists of charterboats, which charge a fee on a vessel basis, and headboats...

  15. 78 FR 44461 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... person per day. Response: South Atlantic red snapper are overfished and undergoing overfishing and their... portion of released red snapper do not survive the trauma of capture, the Council and NMFS decided that...

  16. 78 FR 26740 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-08

    ... food production and recreational opportunities, and protecting marine ecosystems. To further this goal... excess biomass without jeopardizing the sustainability of the stock. Prior to the SEDAR 17 update, the... established small entity size criteria for all major industry sectors in the U.S., including fish harvesters...

  17. 75 FR 49447 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... electronic comments will be accepted in Microsoft Word, Excel, WordPerfect, or Adobe PDF file formats only... require monitoring of dead discards so that total removal would not exceed the ACL. The difficulty of monitoring dead discards, together with the likelihood that self-reported discards would be understated...

  18. 75 FR 27658 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-18

    ... effective date of interim measures to reduce overfishing of red snapper in the South Atlantic implemented by...). The intended effect of this rule is to reduce overfishing of red snapper in the South Atlantic. DATES... interim measures and this extension of the rule is to reduce the overfishing of red snapper while long...

  19. 75 FR 76890 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    ... snapper to be overfished and undergoing overfishing, however, the rate of overfishing found in SEDAR 24 is less than the rate of overfishing found in the previous stock assessment (SEDAR 15). The SSC concluded... conservative that what is needed to end overfishing of red snapper. Temporarily delaying the effective date of...

  20. 78 FR 49183 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    ... 15. The purpose of Regulatory Amendment 15 and this final rule is to provide socio-economic benefits... griseus Mahogany snapper, Lutjanus mahogoni Dog snapper, Lutjanus jocu Lane snapper, Lutjanus synagris...

  1. 78 FR 46925 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... during large whale migration and the right whale calving season. Subsequent to the publication of the NOI... address potential gear interactions with large whale migration and right whales during calving season. If... of No Significant Impact (FONSI), the EA and FONSI will be the final environmental documents required...

  2. 77 FR 75093 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ... longline component to the hook-and-line component. This, in theory, would result in negative effects on the... for the applicable landings history, to the current permit owner, including golden tilefish landings reported by a person(s) who held the permit prior to the current permit owner. Only legal landings reported...

  3. 78 FR 23858 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ..., in theory, will result in negative effects on the longline component and positive effects on the hook... owner, including golden tilefish landings reported by a person(s) who held the permit prior to the current permit owner. Only legal landings reported in compliance with applicable state and Federal...

  4. 78 FR 15672 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... and possession of red snapper in or from the South Atlantic exclusive economic zone (EEZ) could occur... projections from the most recent stock assessment. Estimated landings and dead discards of red snapper from... and dead discards that occurred in the previous year are equal to or greater than the ABC for the...

  5. Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (South Florida): Black, Red and Nassau Groupers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-01

    Venezuela. Fundacion La Salle de 6200. 54 pp. Ciencias Naturales . Caracas, Venezuela. 951 pp. Deue], D.G., and j.R. Clark. 1968. The Coln, P.L. 1982...Baltimore, Md. 05 pp. Colombia. Instituto de Desarrollo de los Recursos Naturales , Bogota, Colombia. 391 pp. Goodyear, C.P. 1988. The Gulf of Mexico fishery

  6. 75 FR 57734 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ... to remain anonymous). Attachments to electronic comments will be accepted in Microsoft Word, Excel...-571-4366 or 866-SAFMC-10 (toll free); fax: 843-769-4520; e-mail: [email protected]net . Amendment 17B...

  7. 76 FR 9530 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    ... you wish to remain anonymous). You may submit attachments to electronic comments in Microsoft Word...-4520; e-mail [email protected]net ; or may be downloaded from the Council's Web site at http://www.safmc.net... economic analysis done for the proposed rule estimated the changes in net operating revenues to commercial...

  8. 76 FR 5325 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ..., if you wish to remain anonymous). Attachments to electronic comments will be accepted in Microsoft...-571-4366; [email protected]net . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: At the September 2010 meeting, the...

  9. 75 FR 44753 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-29

    ... electronic comments will be accepted in Microsoft Word, Excel, WordPerfect, or Adobe PDF file formats only...-769-4520; e-mail: [email protected]net . Amendment 17A includes an Environmental Assessment, an Initial...

  10. 76 FR 46718 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... wish to remain anonymous). You may submit attachments to electronic comments in Microsoft Word, [email protected]net . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Previously, the Council established a control date of March...

  11. 78 FR 25047 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-29

    ... to remain anonymous). Attachments to electronic comments will be accepted in Microsoft Word, Excel... cannot be provided at this time. However, this action generates a positive probability the ACL will be sufficiently large to allow for a commercial and recreational season. In turn, there is a positive probability...

  12. 77 FR 61559 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Nassau Grouper as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-10

    ... submissions. Attachments to electronic comments will be accepted in Microsoft Word, Excel, Corel WordPerfect... warranted (a ``positive 90-day finding''), we are required to promptly commence a review of the status of...'' that a species is either threatened or endangered to support a positive 90-day finding. We evaluate the...

  13. Review of Historical Case-Mix Indices and the Impact of Updating to the Version 8 DRG Grouper,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-02-24

    Malignancy as Secondary Diagnosis 472 Extensive Burns with O.R. Procedure 481 Bone Marrow Transplant 0 484 Craniotomy for Multiple Significant Trauma 488...C zU N0 0 8 N r-n. C’flY V l N V t2 N ea. c0.- ci cicl .; N i - C 00 o w 0 ~ 5NeenN ~Now Mn U- M: avNý02 D"-V Y v NA 0 00 or cOc N N 0; N -On FnewcLnN

  14. 75 FR 76873 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    ... would benefit from the required use of such tools or techniques, the Council has the option to consider.... Comment 18: Twelve commenters offered several alternative management methods for red snapper including bag... (50.8 cm) total length (TL) minimum size limit and a 2-fish red snapper bag limit within a 10-fish...

  15. Effects of cryopreservation at various temperatures on the survival of kelp grouper (Epinephelus moara) embryos from fertilization with cryopreserved sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yongsheng; Chen, Zhangfan; Tang, Jiang; Duan, Huimin; Zhai, Jieming; Li, Bo; Ma, Wenhui; Liu, Jiangchun; Hou, Yunxia; Sun, Zhengxiang

    2017-04-01

    Fish embryo cryopreservation is highly important for the long-term preservation of genomic and genetic information; however, few successful cases of fish embryo cryopreservation have been reported over the past 60 years. This is the first study to use Epinephelus moara embryos from fertilization with cryopreserved sperm as experimental material. Embryos that developed to the 16-22 somite stage and tail-bud stage were treated with the vitrification solution PMG3T according to a five-step equilibration method and cryopreserved at various temperatures and storage duration. Only 19.9 ± 9.2% of 16-22 somite stage embryos and 1.3 ± 1.1% of tail-bud stage embryos survived when cooled at 4 °C for 60 min. In total, 8.0 ± 3.0% of 16-22 somite stage embryos survived when cooled at -25.7 °C for 30 min, 22.4 ± 4.7% of tail-bud stage embryos survived after 45 min of cooling at -25.7 °C, and none survived after 60 min. Only 2.0 ± 2.7% of embryos survived when cryopreserved at -140 °C for 20 min. However, 9.7% of tail-bud stage embryos survived after cryopreservation in liquid nitrogen (-196 °C) for 2 h. Most surviving embryos developed normally. Embryonic volume decreased and spherical segments appeared when embryos were treated with higher concentrations of vitrification solution. Additionally, the volume recovered gradually after rinsing with sucrose and seawater. This is the first estimate of the survival of E. moara embryos and larvae after cryopreservation. These findings provide a foundation for further explorations of fish embryo cryopreservation techniques. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. 78 FR 78770 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ..., penalties for unlicensed sale of blue runner, a Saltwater Products License requirement, and trip ticket... same trips as blue runner, of which $111,000 (2011 dollars) were from sales of blue runner. Each vessel... of about $799,000 from sales of king mackerel and $57,000 from sales of blue runner. For the same...

  17. Gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from groupers Epinephelus spp. (Osteichthyes: Serranidae) in the Bay of Bengal, India

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, František; Manoharan, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 4 (2014), s. 596-605 ISSN 1230-2821 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Parasitic nematode * new species * Dracunculoidea * marine fish * Indian Ocean Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.905, year: 2014

  18. 78 FR 11628 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ... genetic analysis, and age and growth studies. Additional information on the geographic origin, degree of connectivity, and life history of red snapper would provide the South Atlantic Fishery Management Council... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE...

  19. 76 FR 34072 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ..., Management Measures, Red Grouper--Annual Catch Limits, Management Measures, Grouper Accountability Measures.../25/2011, Contact: Daniel Doyle 301-415-3748. EIS No. 20110179, Draft EIS, USFS, CO, Ski Resort Peak 6...

  20. First record of the Indo-Pacific areolate grouper Epinephelus areolatus (Forsskål, 1775) (Perciformes: Epinephelidae) in the Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Shevy B S; Stern, Nir; Goren, Menachem

    2016-01-25

    The number of alien species in the Mediterranean Sea is steadily increasing and it seems that the pace has been accelerating since the turn of the century (Galil et al. 2014). In 2015 alone five additional fish species have been reported, Epinephelus geoffroyi (Klunzinger, 1870) (Golani et al. 2015); Stolephorus indicus (van Hasselt, 1823) (Fricke et al. 2015); Sardinella gibbosa (Bleeker, 1849) (Stern et al. 2015); Mobula japanica (Müller & Henle, 1841) (Capapé et al. 2015); and Cryptocentrus caeruleopunctatus (Rüppell, 1830) (Rothman & Goren 2015). Among the ca. 100 alien fish species reported from the Mediterranean to date (Galil & Goren 2014), five Indo-Pacific species belong to the genus Epinephelus Bloch, 1793: Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton, 1822), Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål, 1775), Epinephelus malabaricus (Bloch and Schneider, 1804) Epinephelus merra Bloch, 1793 (Golani et al. 2013a) and Epinephelus geoffroyi (Klunzinger, 1870) (Golani et al. 2015). Additional alien Epinephelus species reported from the Mediterranean are excluded for various reasons (Golani et al. 2013b). Here we report the finding of a sixth Indo-Pacific species of this genus along the Mediterranean coast of Israel.

  1. Six new and one previously described species of pseudorhabdosynochus (Monogenoidea, Diplectanidae) infecting the gills of groupers (Perciformes, Serranidae) from the Pacific Coasts of Mexico and Panama

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F.; Violante-González, J.; Rojas Herrera, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 1 (2011), 20-35 ISSN 0022-3395 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : N. SP MONOGENEA * SOUTH CHINA SEA * EPINEPHELUS-MACULATUS PERCIFORMES * E-MERRA PERCIFORMES * SP-NOV MONOGENEA * NEW-CALEDONIA * CYCLOPLECTANUM OLIVER * DAPENG BAY * YUCATAN PENINSULA * YAMAGUTI Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.405, year: 2011

  2. Two gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from groupers (Serranidae) off Tunisia, with a key to Philometra species infecting serranid gonads

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, František; Chaabane, A.; Justine, J.-L.; Neifar, L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 23, MAR 8 (2016), č. článku 8. ISSN 1252-607X R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : parasitic nematode * Philometra * Tunisia Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.545, year: 2016

  3. 76 FR 74046 - Snapper-Grouper Fishery off the Southern Atlantic States; Amendments 18A, 18B, 18C, 20A, and 20B

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-30

    ... Microsoft Word, Excel, WordPerfect, or Adobe PDF file formats only. Comments received through means not..., SC 29405; telephone: (843) 571-4366; fax: (843) 769-4520; email: [email protected]net . SUPPLEMENTARY...

  4. An annotated list of parasites (Isopoda, Copepoda, Monogenea, Digenea, Cestoda and Nematoda) collected in groupers (Serranidae, Epinephelinae) in New Caledonia emphasizes parasite biodiversity in coral reef fish

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Justine, J.-L.; Beveridge, I.; Boxshall, G.A.; Bray, R. A.; Moravec, František; Trilles, J.-P.; Whittington, I.D.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 4 (2010), s. 237-262 ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Isopoda * Copepoda * Monogenea * Digenea * Cestoda * Nematoda * Serranidae * Epinephelinae * parasite biodiversity * coral reef * New Caledonia Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.533, year: 2010

  5. Investigation of a parasitic outbreak of Lernaea cyprinacea Linnaeus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fish samples were collected from impoundments in the Malilangwe Wildlife Reserve in the southeastern lowveld of Zimbabwe and these included the cichlids Oreochromis mossambicus, Oreochromis placidus and Tilapia rendalli, the cyprinids Labeo altivelis and Barbus paludinosus, the clariid Clarias gariepinus, the ...

  6. Catch Composition, Abundance and Length- Weight Relationships ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    loading Salter digital balance for small fish (<2.0 kg) or on a hanging Salter ... white- spotted grouper,. Epinephelus caeruleopunctatus, was numerically the most abundant (15.6%) in the catch followed by Cephalopholis boenak. (13%) and E. fasciatus ... Vanga, the commonly landed species were the white-spotted grouper,.

  7. 76 FR 74757 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Comprehensive Annual Catch Limit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    ... tilefish, queen snapper, black snapper, and blackfin snapper); shallow-water groupers (red hind, rock hind..., queen triggerfish, sheepshead, smallmouth grunt, Spanish grunt, tiger grouper, and yellow jack from the... reported in state waters. Also, three of these species (porkfish, puddingwife, and queen triggerfish) are...

  8. Response of rocky reef top predators (Serranidae: Epinephelinae in and around marine protected areas in the Western Mediterranean Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Werner Hackradt

    Full Text Available Groupers species are extremely vulnerable to overfishing and many species are threatened worldwide. In recent decades, Mediterranean groupers experienced dramatic population declines. Marine protected areas (MPAs can protect populations inside their boundaries and provide individuals to adjacent fishing areas through the process of spillover and larval export. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of six marine reserves in the Western Mediterranean Sea to protect the populations of three species of grouper, Epinephelus marginatus, Epinephelus costae and Mycteroperca rubra, and to understand in which circumstances MPAs are able to export biomass to neighbouring areas. All the studied MPAs, except one where no grouper was observed, were able to maintain high abundance, biomass and mean weight of groupers. Size classes were more evenly distributed inside than outside MPAs. In two reserves, biomass gradients could be detected through the boundaries of the reserve as an indication of spillover. In some cases, habitat structure appeared to exert a great influence on grouper abundance, biomass and mean individual weight, influencing the gradient shape. Because groupers are generally sedentary animals with a small home range, we suggest that biomass gradients could only occur where groupers attain sufficient abundance inside MPA limits, indicating a strongly density-dependent process.

  9. 77 FR 44618 - Medicare Program; Inpatient Rehabilitation Facility Prospective Payment System for Federal Fiscal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ... 95 CMGs using rehabilitation impairment categories (RICs), functional status (both motor and... classification programming called the GROUPER software. The GROUPER software uses specific IRF-PAI data elements... processes the claim through its software system. This software system includes pricing programming called...

  10. 76 FR 41764 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Coral and Coral Reefs off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... EEZ waters off North Carolina, north of Cape Hatteras, as verified by the North Carolina trip ticket... to the fisherman in a condition appropriate for sale. Under the EFP, speckled hind and warsaw grouper would not be eligible for sale, however, other deep-water snapper-grouper species would be eligible for...

  11. Microsatellite analysis of the genetic relationships between wild and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The giant grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus) is a coral fish with high commercial value in Southeast Asia. In the present study, we isolated 11 microsatellite DNA markers, and analysed the genetic diversity and differentiation between cultured stocks and wild populations of the giant grouper originating from the ...

  12. 50 CFR 622.8 - At-sea observer coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... reef fish. A vessel for which a Federal commercial vessel permit for Gulf reef fish or a charter vessel...-grouper or a charter vessel/headboat permit for South Atlantic snapper-grouper has been issued must carry... vessel's communications equipment and personnel upon request for the transmission and receipt of messages...

  13. Two new gonad-infecting philometrids (Nematoda: Philometridae) from the yellowedge grouper Hyporthodus flavolimbatus (Serranidae) and the great northern tilefish Lopholatilus chamaeleonticeps (Malacanthidae) in the northern Gulf of Mexico

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, František; Bakenhaster, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 2 (2013), s. 113-123 ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Philometra * marine fish * Gulf of Mexico Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.035, year: 2013

  14. Redescription of Philometra margolisi Moravec, Vidal-Martinez et Aguirre-Macedo, 1995 (Nematoda: Philometridae), a gonad-infecting parasite of the red grouper Epinephelus morio (Serranidae) in the Gulf of Mexico

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, František; Bakenhaster, M.; Leone, E. H.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 2 (2017), s. 412-421 ISSN 1230-2821 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Nematode parasite * Dracunculoidea * marine fish * USA * seasonal occurrence Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 1.160, year: 2016

  15. Descriptions of Philometra aenei n. sp and P. tunisiensis n. sp (Nematoda: Philometridae) from Epinephelus spp. off Tunisia confirm a high degree of host specificity of gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 in groupers (Serranidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, František; Chaabane, A.; Neifar, L.; Gey, D.; Justine, J.-L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 93, č. 2 (2016), s. 115-128 ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Philometra * Epinephelus * Tunisia Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.181, year: 2016

  16. Occurrence of three red listed species of Epinephelus (Perciformes: Serranidae on Digha coast, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Yennawar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available During routine efforts to maintain diversity in the public aquarium of the Marine Aquarium & regional Center, Digha, of the Zoological Survey of India (ZSI, the authors encountered three more species of the Genus Epinephelus which after thorough literature survey were found to be not reported earlier from this area though listed in IUCN Red list of threatened fauna. Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton, 1822 Orange Spotted Grouper, Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch, 1790 Brindle Grouper and Epinephelus latifasciatus (Temminck & Schlegel, 1842 Striped Grouper are the first time reports from Digha Coast.

  17. Need for risk adjustment in adapting episode grouping software to Medicare data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MaCurdy, Thomas; Kerwin, Jason; Theobald, Nick

    2009-01-01

    Episode grouper software offers a potential framework for developing important components of a pay-for-performance system for healthcare providers. If the costs for treating health conditions can be computed, then policymakers can in principle benchmark different providers' cost distributions and reward the most efficient. This article applies two of the most prominent commercial groupers and examines the properties of the cost distributions calculated for their constructed episodes. The analysis reveals that episode cost distributions exhibit substantial variation and skewness, suggesting the need for innovative risk adjustment methods prior to utilizing groupers for the purpose of physician profiling.

  18. 77 FR 38585 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    ...NMFS announces the receipt of an application for an exempted fishing permit (EFP) from Dr. Chris Koenig (Florida State University) and Dr. Chris Stallings (University of South Florida). If granted, the EFP would authorize the applicants to use trained for-hire fishermen to be able to temporarily possess goliath grouper for non-lethal sampling during the course of their normal fishing activities. This non-lethal sampling would include measuring, tagging, and removing a portion of the goliath grouper dorsal fin rays before releasing the live fish. The intent of this study is to provide regional age structure of recovering goliath grouper populations for fish stock assessments.

  19. 78 FR 57534 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... lobster, South Atlantic coral, South Atlantic snapper-grouper, South Atlantic shrimp, Atlantic dolphin and... installation, use, operation, or maintenance of a vessel monitoring system (VMS) unit or communication service...

  20. 76 FR 12341 - Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-07

    ... reconsider its previous recommendation for an ABC for red grouper in light of new analyses that was reviewed..., mid-water snapper complex (blackfin snapper, silk snapper, Queen snapper, and Wenchman), deep- water...

  1. 50 CFR 622.32 - Prohibited and limited-harvest species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... eggs. (iv) No person may fish for, or possess on board a fishing vessel, a Caribbean queen conch in or.... (iii) Red drum and Nassau grouper may not be harvested or possessed in or from the Gulf EEZ. Such fish...

  2. Deep-Sea Stony Coral Habitat Suitability

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Deep-sea corals, also known as cold water corals, create complex communities that provide habitat for a variety of invertebrate and fish species, such as grouper,...

  3. 77 FR 9211 - South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-16

    ... Grouper AP relating to outreach and will receive presentations on the use of social media tools... notified of the Council's intent to take final action to address the emergency. Except for advertised...

  4. 75 FR 35767 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-23

    ... (SERMA) in the South Atlantic, and receive updates on state enforcement efforts of 2010 snapper grouper... ] Conservation Biology Institute (MCBI) which addresses the challenges of enforcing regulations within the vast...

  5. Analyses of otoliths from juvenile black sea bass collected from estuaries in SC, FL, NJ, and NY: 2008-2009.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — Snappers/Groupers have traditionally been some of the most desired demersal fishes in the South Atlantic Bight and are the most abundant and diverse group of large...

  6. Deep-Sea Soft Coral Habitat Suitability

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Deep-sea corals, also known as cold water corals, create complex communities that provide habitat for a variety of invertebrate and fish species, such as grouper,...

  7. Folk medicine and horticulture

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    The article discusses the uses of marine organisms in folk medicine and in horticulture in the Philippines. Commonly used marine organisms are the different varieties of seaweeds, sea urchin, sea cucumber, turtle, crocodile and fishes such as grouper and rabbitfish.

  8. Hapu'upu'u Ageing Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ryan Nichols (FBSAB LHP) collected this data set and it contains only information pertaining to Hypothordus quernus, Hapu'upu'u, Hawaiian grouper. It contains date,...

  9. 78 FR 47859 - Medicare Program; Inpatient Rehabilitation Facility Prospective Payment System for Federal Fiscal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    ... 95 CMGs using rehabilitation impairment categories (RICs), functional status (both motor and.... Generally, the software product includes patient classification programming called the GROUPER software. The... MAC processes the claim through its software system. This software system includes pricing programming...

  10. Larval transport simulation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of this study is to understand how oceanographic factors affect the annual recruitment success of gag grouper. We use the Connectivity Modeling System...

  11. Wreckfish Logbook Survey (Vessels)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Federally managed fisheries that currently have mandatory logbook and bycatch reporting requirements for the Southeast Region include snapper/grouper/wreckfish....

  12. Hapu'upu'u Reproductive Biology Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Unique specimen "IDNumber" for over 750 specimens of Hawaiian grouper (hapu'upu'u, Hyporthodus quernus; family Epinephelidae) are included in this dataset. Each...

  13. Fish consumption and track to a fish feed formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai-Juan, Soong; Ramli, Razamin; Rahman, Rosshairy Abdul

    2015-12-01

    Strategically located in the equator, Malaysia is blessed with plenty of fish supply. The high demand in fish consumption has helped the development in the fishery industry and provided numerous jobs in the secondary sector, contributing significantly to the nation's income. A survey was conducted to understand the trend of current demands for fish for the purpose of designing a feed formulation, which is still limited in this area of study. Results showed that grouper fish in restaurants commanded a very high price compared to other species of fish. Tiger grouper gained the highest demand in most restaurants, while giant grouper had the highest price in restaurants. Due to the demand and challenges to culture this type of fish, a framework for fish feed formulation is proposed. The formulation framework when materialized could be an alternative to the use of trash fish as the feed for grouper.

  14. Predictability of reef fish recruitment in a highly variable nursery habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aburto-Oropeza, Octavio; Sala, L Enric; Paredes, Gustavo; Mendoza, Abraham; Ballesteros, Enric

    2007-09-01

    There has been a lengthy debate on whether the abundance of adult reef fishes depends on prerecruitment or postrecruitment processes; however, we still do not have the ability to predict the magnitude of local fish recruitment. Here we show that the success of the leopard grouper (Mycteroperca rosacea) recruitment in the Gulf of California, Mexico, is determined by the availability of nursery habitat, which in turn is strongly correlated to climate conditions. Observational and experimental studies showed that leopard grouper larvae recruit preferentially on shallow rocky bottoms with brown algal (Sargassum spp.) beds, and that abundance of recruits is determined by the availability of Sargassum. The biomass of Sargassum decreases linearly with an increase in the Multivariate El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) Index (MEI; an index positively correlated with water temperature and negatively correlated with nutrient availability). We analyzed the relationship between the interannual variation of MEI and the recruitment of the leopard grouper using field estimates of abundance of juvenile groupers. Our results show that there is a nonlinear relationship between recruitment and the oceanographic climate, in that the density of recruits decreases exponentially with increasing MEI. The predictability of leopard grouper recruitment has important implications for fisheries management, since it could allow adaptive management without expensive stock assessment programs.

  15. Predation and landscape characteristics independently affect reef fish community organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stier, Adrian C; Hanson, Katharine M; Holbrook, Sally J; Schmitt, Russell J; Brooks, Andrew J

    2014-05-01

    Trophic island biogeography theory predicts that the effects of predators on prey diversity are context dependent in heterogeneous landscapes. Specifically, models predict that the positive effect of habitat area on prey diversity should decline in the presence of predators, and that predators should modify the partitioning of alpha and beta diversity across patchy landscapes. However, experimental tests of the predicted context dependency in top-down control remain limited. Using a factorial field experiment we quantify the effects of a focal predatory fish species (grouper) and habitat characteristics (patch size, fragmentation) on the partitioning of diversity and assembly of coral reef fish communities. We found independent effects of groupers and patch characteristics on prey communities. Groupers reduced prey abundance by 50% and gamma diversity by 45%, with a disproportionate removal of rare species relative to common species (64% and 36% reduction, respectively; an oddity effect). Further, there was a 77% reduction in beta diversity. Null model analysis demonstrated that groupers increased the importance of stochastic community assembly relative to patches without groupers. With regard to patch size, larger patches contained more fishes, but a doubling of patch size led to a modest (36%) increase in prey abundance. Patch size had no effect on prey diversity; however, fragmented patches had 50% higher species richness and modified species composition relative to unfragmented patches. Our findings suggest two different pathways (i.e., habitat or predator shifts) by which natural and/or anthropogenic processes can drive variation in fish biodiversity and community assembly.

  16. 78 FR 71529 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; 2013 Commercial Accountability...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    .... 130312235-3658-02] RIN 0648-XC982 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; 2013 Commercial Accountability Measure and Closure for South Atlantic Red Porgy AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...: The snapper-grouper fishery of the South Atlantic includes red porgy and is managed under the Fishery...

  17. 78 FR 40271 - Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Home Health Prospective Payment System Rate Update for CY 2014...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ... thalassemia 1 with crisis. 282.5 Sickle-cell trait...... 2 282.62 Hb-SS disease with 1 crisis. 282.64 Sickle... have registered as beta- testers in advance of posting the draft ICD-10 HH PPS Grouper on the CMS Web site. The purpose of early release to the beta testers is to identify any significant issues early in...

  18. 76 FR 22345 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    ..., respectively. Revenue from deep- water grouper (DWG) landings decreased only slightly, from approximately $36... loss in allocation could potentially represent a loss of $670 (2008 dollars) in net revenue per entity... kg). Thus, their potential loss in gross revenue and net revenue, estimated to be nearly $8,600 and...

  19. Reproductive biology and growth of the yellowbelly rockcod ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Other studies indicate that E. marginatus aggregate for spawning, and tagging work has shown that they exhibit high site fidelity. The life history of the species indicates that it is vulnerable to overexploitation. Keywords: grouper, growth, hermaphroditism, protogyny, Serranidae African Journal of Marine Science 2006, 28(1): ...

  20. Catch Composition, Abundance and Length-Weight Relationships of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Significantly higher numbers of groupers were landed during the southeast monsoon (n = 616) compared to the northeast monsoon (n = 184) season (χ2 = 125.812, df = 1, p <0.001). Of the three sites studied, more species were recorded at Shimoni (n = 36) compared to the Msambweni and Vanga sites (14 and 8 species, ...

  1. Redescription of Philometra filiformis (Stossich, 1896) (Nematoda: Philometridae), a gonad-infecting parasite of the common pandora Pagellus erythrinus (Linnaeus) (Sparidae) in the Mediterranean Sea, including new taxonomic features revealed by SEM

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, František; Ghanmi, N.; Chaabane, A.; Gargouri, L.; Justine, J.-L.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 9 (2017), s. 979-987 ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Lateolabracis yamaguti * groupers serranidae * fishes * Tunisia Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 1.181, year: 2016

  2. Microsatellite analysis of the genetic relationships between wild and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1997). In recent years, the large-scale artificial culture of giant grouper has been. ∗For correspondence. E-mail: lsszy@mail.sysu.edu.cn. Qing Wang and Xiang Wang contributed equally to this work. successfully established in China and other Asian countries, alleviating the fishing pressure on wild populations to some.

  3. Microsatellite analysis of the genetic relationships between wild

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present study, we isolated 11 microsatellite DNA markers, and analysed the genetic diversity and differentiation between cultured stocks and wild populations of the giant grouper originating from the South China Sea. A total of 390 alleles at 11 microsatellite loci were detected in 130 individuals from five different ...

  4. 76 FR 67656 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... bycatch and discards from fishermen targeting red grouper or other fish may be higher than assumed in the.... These 8 entities received a much higher initial allocation of gag in 2010, with an average of 3,139 lb... targeting gag are estimated to be approximately $1.56 million per year while NOR for headboats from trips...

  5. 78 FR 19460 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ... meetings of the King & Spanish Mackerel Advisory Panel (AP) and Snapper Grouper AP in North Charleston, SC... & Spanish Mackerel AP Agenda: Monday, April 22, 2013, 9 a.m. Until Tuesday, April 23, 2013, 12 p.m. 1... Spanish mackerel, reduces inactive king mackerel permits, and addresses income requirements for commercial...

  6. 78 FR 52506 - South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ... Committee; King & Spanish Mackerel Committee; Advisory Panel Selection Committee (closed session); Protected... Speckled Hind and Warsaw Grouper; and provide guidance to staff on timing of the amendment. King & Spanish... commercial and recreational catches versus ACLs for Atlantic group King Mackerel, Spanish Mackerel, and Cobia...

  7. 78 FR 79673 - South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ...: [email protected] for Amendment 29 to the Snapper Grouper FMP; Spanish[email protected] for... 2014 would adjust the annual catch limits (ACLs) for both South Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico Spanish... king and Spanish mackerel into designated permits for each region. Scoping via webinar: The Generic...

  8. 76 FR 59375 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Amendments to the Queen Conch and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ... complexes that are classified as undergoing overfishing or that contain sub-units which are classified as undergoing overfishing (i.e. snapper, grouper and parrotfish); allocate ACLs among island management areas... parrotfishes. The intended effects of Amendments 2 and 5 are to prevent overfishing of queen conch and reef...

  9. 75 FR 63780 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ...). List of Subjects in 50 CFR Part 622 Fisheries, Fishing, Puerto Rico, Reporting and recordkeeping...) program. The intended effect of this proposed rule is to help prevent overfishing of red grouper while... natural causes. The hurricanes that impacted the Gulf region in 2005 are not considered to have...

  10. Assessing stocks in data-poor African fisheries: a case study on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessing stocks in data-poor African fisheries: a case study on the white grouper Epinephelus aeneus of Mauritania. ... African Journal of Marine Science ... The lack of reliable stock assessment for numerous exploited stocks in West Africa often results from poor-quality data, high multi-specificity of captures, and the ...

  11. 76 FR 59373 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Generic Annual Catch Limits...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ...) control rules; establish annual catch limits (ACLs) and ACL control rules; modify framework procedures... control rule, an ACL/annual catch target (ACT) control rule, and framework procedures for implementing... state waters, and include: Anchor tilefish, misty grouper, sand perch, dwarf sand perch, blackline...

  12. 77 FR 32083 - Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-31

    ... Framework Actions regarding Venting Tool Requirements and Definition and Intent of For-hire Fishing in the... 37--Gray Triggerfish Rebuilding Plan; and review a Framework Action for the 2013 Gag Season, a... Accountability Measures for Shallow- Water Grouper; a Revision to the Generic Framework Procedure; and a Scoping...

  13. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and habitat preference of the grouper (Serranidae) population of Chumbe Island Coral Park,. Zanzibar, Tanzania. Kimberly D. Nesbitt1 , Matthew D. Richmond2. 1 University of Denver,. School for International Training. 99 Rose Laurel Ct., Pawleys Island,. SC, 29585 USA. (Kim.Nesbitt@du.edu). 2 Samaki Consultants Ltd.,.

  14. Destructive fishing and fisheries enforcement in eastern Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bailey, M.L.; Sumaila, U.R.

    2015-01-01

    A simple bioeconomic leader-follower model was constructed to simulate snapper (family Lutjanidae) and grouper (family Serranidae) fisheries in Raja Ampat, Indonesia, an area of significant coral and fish biodiversity. We developed a leader-follower game, wherein the Regency government as the leader

  15. 78 FR 59916 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice... tilefish, and snowy grouper. 7. Receive a presentation on recent developments in data poor assessment... Marine Fisheries Service. [FR Doc. 2013-23762 Filed 9-27-13; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 3510-22-P ...

  16. 77 FR 56168 - Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico; Gulf of Mexico Individual Fishing Quota Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    .... 090206140-91081-03] RIN 0648-XC227 Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico; Gulf of Mexico Individual... red snapper and grouper/tilefish components of the reef fish fishery in the Gulf of Mexico (Gulf), the... INFORMATION: The reef fish fishery of the Gulf of Mexico is managed under the Fishery Management Plan for Reef...

  17. Microsatellite analysis of the genetic relationships between wild and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present study, we isolated 11 microsatellite DNA markers, and analysed the genetic diversity and differentiation between cultured stocks and wild populations of the giant grouper originating from the South China Sea. A total of 390 alleles at 11 microsatellite loci were detected in 130 individuals from five different ...

  18. 75 FR 12506 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-16

    ... Assessment Workshop is a stock assessment report which describes the fisheries, evaluates the status of the stock, estimates biological benchmarks, projects future population conditions, and recommends research...: The SEDAR assessments of the South Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico stocks of goliath grouper will consist...

  19. 75 FR 37390 - Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public Hearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-29

    ... reliable across all islands. Discussion: Alternative 2 would define aggregate management reference points...: Alternative 3 would define aggregate management reference points or proxies for the snapper, grouper and/or... of available catch data. Discussion: Alternative 4 would define aggregate management reference points...

  20. 75 FR 44223 - Fisheries of the Northeast Region; South Atlantic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    ... the Northeast Region; South Atlantic Region AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... Secretary of Commerce (Secretary), has determined that in the Northeast Region, wolffish is in an overfished condition. In the South Atlantic Region, red grouper is subject to overfishing and is in an overfished...

  1. A preliminary assessment of the status and habitat preference of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A census of the six most commonly occurring grouper (Serranidae) species was conducted on Chumbe Island off the coast of Unguja, Zanzibar, Tanzania in late 2014. The species were Plectropomus laevis, Cephalopholis argus, Cephalopholis miniata, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus, Aethaloperca rogaa and Anyperodon ...

  2. 76 FR 9553 - South Atlantic Fishery Management Council (Council); Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    ... Fishery Management Plan (FMP) addressing commercial trip limits and possible changes to black sea bass bag... Grouper FMP; black sea bass bag limit analysis; and the Comprehensive ACL Amendment. The Comprehensive ACL Amendment will specify ACLs, AMs and other values as mandated in the MSA for species managed by the Council...

  3. The commercial viability of any intensively cultured fish species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    1983), rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (51%;. Austreng and Refstie 1979), red drum Sciaenops ocellatus (45%; Serrano et al. 1992) and grouper. Epinephelus malabaricus (47.8%, Chen and Tsai. 1994). P. commersonnii has been described as an op- portunistic benthivore (Van der Westhuizen and. Marais 1977).

  4. 75 FR 52719 - South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-27

    ... Executive and Finance Committees, Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR) Committee, Snapper Grouper... Conservation and Management Act (MSA) including establishment of Annual Catch Limits (ACLs) and Accountability.... Joint Executive/Finance Committees Meeting: September 14, 2010, 1:30 p.m. until 2:30 p.m. The joint...

  5. KANDUNGAN ASAM AMINO LISIN OPTIMAL DALAM PAKAN UNTUK PERTUMBUHAN BENIH IKAN KERAPU SUNU, Plectropomus leopardus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Adiasmara Giri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Kerapu sunu merupakan salah satu kerapu yang mempunyai nilai ekonomi tinggi. Ketersediaan pakan buatan merupakan salah satu kendala pada pengembangan budidaya kerapu di samping ketersediaan benih. Informasi kebutuhan protein dan lemak optimum, energi, asam lemak, dan vitamin telah dimanfaatkan sebagai dasar untuk pengembangan pakan buatan untuk kerapu. Namun demikian, informasi kebutuhan asam amino untuk kerapu masih terbatas sekali. Untuk itu, telah dilakukan riset untuk mengetahui kandungan asam amino lisin optimal dalam pakan untuk pertumbuhan kerapu sunu. Percobaan dilakukan dalam 18 buah bak polikarbonat volume 30 L yang dilengkapi dengan sistem air mengalir. Setiap bak diisi 12 ekor benih kerapu sunu yang berasal dari hatcheri dengan bobot awal 17,6 ± 3,1g. Ikan diberi pakan percobaan dua kali sehari pada level satiasi selama 84 hari. Enam pakan percobaan dibuat berupa pelet kering dengan kandungan protein 45% dan mempunyai kandungan lisin berbeda, yaitu 1,71%; 2,21%; 2,71%; 3,21%; 3,71% dan 4,21%. Pakan percobaan mempunyai komposisi asam amino yang sama kecuali kandungan lisinnya. Percobaan dirancang menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap dengan 6 perlakuan beda level lisin dan tiap perlakuan terdiri atas 3 ulangan. Hasil percobaan menunjukkan bahwa perbedaan level lisin dalam pakan berpengaruh nyata terhadap pertumbuhan dan sintasan kerapu sunu. Berdasarkan data pertambahan bobot ikan diperoleh bahwa kandungan lisin optimal dalam pakan untuk pertumbuhan kerapu sunu adalah 2,84%. Coral trout grouper is one among the most expensive species of grouper. The availability of a practical diet for grouper is still a major constraint to grow-out production besides of good quality of seed. Information regarding the optimum dietary protein and lipid levels, energy, essential fatty acids and vitamin requirements has been used to develop diet for grouper. However, very limited information is available on amino acid requirement for grouper. The objective

  6. Comparaison de quelques caractéristiques biologiques entre Dinarmus basalis Rond. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae élevé soit sur son hôte habituel Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae soit sur Acanthoscelides macrophthalmus Schaef. ou Bruchidius lineatopygus Pic. identifiés comme hôtes de substitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya, NG.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Artisanal Fishing and Marketing of White Grouper (Epinephelus aeneus Geoffroy Saint Hilaire, 1817 in Ivory Coast. The artisanal fisheries in Ivory Coast is not well developed. It however comes in complement of the products of the industrial trawler and pelagic fisheries to satisfy the needs for the rural populations. Thanks to inexpensive machines and materials, artisanal fishermen exploit the demersal resources in not very deep water of the littoral of Ivory Coast. Their interest is on white Grouper (Epinephelus aeneus, fish living on the rocky bottom, easily accessible to the machines of fishing because of its facility to sell when they come back from the sea in spite of the highest prices they propose to the wholesalers and half wholesalers.

  7. Comparative Use of a Caribbean Mesophotic Coral Ecosystem and Association with Fish Spawning Aggregations by Three Species of Shark.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandria E Pickard

    Full Text Available Understanding of species interactions within mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs; ~ 30-150 m lags well behind that for shallow coral reefs. MCEs are often sites of fish spawning aggregations (FSAs for a variety of species, including many groupers. Such reproductive fish aggregations represent temporal concentrations of potential prey that may be drivers of habitat use by predatory species, including sharks. We investigated movements of three species of sharks within a MCE and in relation to FSAs located on the shelf edge south of St. Thomas, United States Virgin Islands. Movements of 17 tiger (Galeocerdo cuvier, seven lemon (Negaprion brevirostris, and six Caribbean reef (Carcharhinus perezi sharks tagged with acoustic transmitters were monitored within the MCE using an array of acoustic receivers spanning an area of 1,060 km2 over a five year period. Receivers were concentrated around prominent grouper FSAs to monitor movements of sharks in relation to these temporally transient aggregations. Over 130,000 detections of telemetered sharks were recorded, with four sharks tracked in excess of 3 years. All three shark species were present within the MCE over long periods of time and detected frequently at FSAs, but patterns of MCE use and orientation towards FSAs varied both spatially and temporally among species. Lemon sharks moved over a large expanse of the MCE, but concentrated their activities around FSAs during grouper spawning and were present within the MCE significantly more during grouper spawning season. Caribbean reef sharks were present within a restricted portion of the MCE for prolonged periods of time, but were also absent for long periods. Tiger sharks were detected throughout the extent of the acoustic array, with the MCE representing only portion of their habitat use, although a high degree of individual variation was observed. Our findings indicate that although patterns of use varied, all three species of sharks repeatedly

  8. Molecular Characterization of Some Popular Fish Species in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Ayman M. Sabry; Mohamed M. Hassan; Alaa A. Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    The present work aims to molecularly characterize some popular Saudi fish species. Seven popular Saudi fish species namely, Morgan (Nemipteru sjaponicus), Mousa (Solea solea), Hamor (Greasy grouper), Shour (Lethrinus lentjan), Dennis (Caranxsex fasciatus), Harid (Scarus arabicus) and Black surgeon (Acanthurus gahhm) were characterized using six RAPD and three ISSR as well as Rep-PCR markers. These markers produced 187 distinct bands 89.4% were considered as polymorphic bands and 10.6% were co...

  9. B ioeconomic A nalysis of G rouper F ish ( Plectropomus leopardus ) U tilization in S elayar A rchipelago R egency

    OpenAIRE

    Baso, Aris; Najamuddin, Naja; Sajriawati, Sajriawati

    2016-01-01

    The main problem in the management of fishery resources is how the fishery resources produce high economic benefit but its sustainability be maintained. This study aims to analyze the actual and optimal production levels of coral trout grouper in Selayar Archipelago Regency. A survey was conducted in Gusung island, Selayar Archipelago Regency by using simple random cluster sampling. The respondents were 32 fisherman who used fishing rods and 29 fisherman who used traps. Analysis of the data u...

  10. Transcriptome characterization and gene expression of Epinephelus spp in endoplasmic reticulum stress-related pathway during betanodavirus infection in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Ming-Wei

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Grouper (Epinephelus spp is an economically important fish species worldwide. However, viral pathogens such as nervous necrosis virus (NNV have been causing severe infections in the fish, resulting in great loss in the grouper aquaculture industry. Yet, the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenicity of NNV is still inadequate, mainly due to insufficient genomic information of the host. Results De novo assembly of grouper transcriptome in the grouper kidney (GK cells was conducted by using short read sequencing technology of Solexa/Illumina. A sum of 66,582 unigenes with mean length of 603 bp were obtained, and were annotated according to Gene Ontology (GO and Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG. In addition, the tag-based digital gene expression (DGE system was used to investigate the gene expression and pathways associated with NNV infection in GK cells. The analysis revealed endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress response was prominently affected in NNV-infected GK cells. A further analysis revealed an interaction between the NNV capsid protein and the ER chaperone immunoglobulin heavy-chain binding protein (BiP. Furthermore, exogenous expression of NNV capsid protein was able to induce XBP-1 mRNA splicing in vivo, suggesting a role of the capsid protein in the NNV-induced ER stress. Conclusions Our data presents valuable genetic information for Epinephelus spp., which will benefit future study in this non-model but economically important species. The DGE profile of ER stress response in NNV-infected cells provides information of many important components associated with the protein processing in ER. Specifically, we showed that the viral capsid protein might play an important role in the ER stress response.

  11. Changes in Oxidation and Reduction Potential (Eh) and Ph of Tropical Fish During Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Susanto, Eko; Agustini, Tri Winarni; Ritanto, Eko Prasetyo; Dewi, Eko Nurcahya; Swastawati, Fronthea

    2011-01-01

    Four tropical fish species, Thunnus albacares (Yellowfin tuna), Ephinephelus striatus (Nassau Grouper), Cyprinus carpio (Carp), and Osphronemus gourami (Gouramy), were assayed for oxidation reduction potental (Eh) and pH in different temperature,i.e. ambient and chilled temperature. Every species has different pattern of Eh and pH values. Eh values of tropical freshwater fish were higher than tropical marine fish, however pH values four tropical fish have same trend. The rates of the Eh an...

  12. Comparative Use of a Caribbean Mesophotic Coral Ecosystem and Association with Fish Spawning Aggregations by Three Species of Shark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickard, Alexandria E; Vaudo, Jeremy J; Wetherbee, Bradley M; Nemeth, Richard S; Blondeau, Jeremiah B; Kadison, Elizabeth A; Shivji, Mahmood S

    2016-01-01

    Understanding of species interactions within mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs; ~ 30-150 m) lags well behind that for shallow coral reefs. MCEs are often sites of fish spawning aggregations (FSAs) for a variety of species, including many groupers. Such reproductive fish aggregations represent temporal concentrations of potential prey that may be drivers of habitat use by predatory species, including sharks. We investigated movements of three species of sharks within a MCE and in relation to FSAs located on the shelf edge south of St. Thomas, United States Virgin Islands. Movements of 17 tiger (Galeocerdo cuvier), seven lemon (Negaprion brevirostris), and six Caribbean reef (Carcharhinus perezi) sharks tagged with acoustic transmitters were monitored within the MCE using an array of acoustic receivers spanning an area of 1,060 km2 over a five year period. Receivers were concentrated around prominent grouper FSAs to monitor movements of sharks in relation to these temporally transient aggregations. Over 130,000 detections of telemetered sharks were recorded, with four sharks tracked in excess of 3 years. All three shark species were present within the MCE over long periods of time and detected frequently at FSAs, but patterns of MCE use and orientation towards FSAs varied both spatially and temporally among species. Lemon sharks moved over a large expanse of the MCE, but concentrated their activities around FSAs during grouper spawning and were present within the MCE significantly more during grouper spawning season. Caribbean reef sharks were present within a restricted portion of the MCE for prolonged periods of time, but were also absent for long periods. Tiger sharks were detected throughout the extent of the acoustic array, with the MCE representing only portion of their habitat use, although a high degree of individual variation was observed. Our findings indicate that although patterns of use varied, all three species of sharks repeatedly utilized the MCE and

  13. Genetic characterization of a betanodavirus isolated from a clinical disease outbreak in farm-raised tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (L.) in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keawcharoen, J; Techangamsuwan, S; Ponpornpisit, A; Lombardini, E D; Patchimasiri, T; Pirarat, N

    2015-01-01

    Betanodavirus infection was diagnosed in larvae of farm-raised tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (L.), in central Thailand. Extensive vacuolar degeneration and neuronal necrosis were observed in histological sections with positive immunohistochemical staining for betanodavirus. Molecular phylogenetic analysis was performed based on the nucleotide sequences (1333 bases) of the capsid protein gene. The virus strain was highly homologous (93.07-93.88%) and closely related to red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV). © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Coral reef mesopredators switch prey, shortening food chains, in response to habitat degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempson, Tessa N; Graham, Nicholas A J; MacNeil, M Aaron; Williamson, David H; Jones, Geoffrey P; Almany, Glenn R

    2017-04-01

    Diet specificity is likely to be the key predictor of a predator's vulnerability to changing habitat and prey conditions. Understanding the degree to which predatory coral reef fishes adjust or maintain prey choice, in response to declines in coral cover and changes in prey availability, is critical for predicting how they may respond to reef habitat degradation. Here, we use stable isotope analyses to characterize the trophic structure of predator-prey interactions on coral reefs of the Keppel Island Group on the southern Great Barrier Reef, Australia. These reefs, previously typified by exceptionally high coral cover, have recently lost much of their coral cover due to coral bleaching and frequent inundation by sediment-laden, freshwater flood plumes associated with increased rainfall patterns. Long-term monitoring of these reefs demonstrates that, as coral cover declined, there has been a decrease in prey biomass, and a shift in dominant prey species from pelagic plankton-feeding damselfishes to territorial benthic algal-feeding damselfishes, resulting in differences in the principal carbon pathways in the food web. Using isotopes, we tested whether this changing prey availability could be detected in the diet of a mesopredator (coral grouper, Plectropomus maculatus ). The δ 13 C signature in grouper tissue in the Keppel Islands shifted from a more pelagic to a more benthic signal, demonstrating a change in carbon sources aligning with the change in prey availability due to habitat degradation. Grouper with a more benthic carbon signature were also feeding at a lower trophic level, indicating a shortening in food chains. Further, we found a decline in the coral grouper population accompanying a decrease in total available prey biomass. Thus, while the ability to adapt diets could ameliorate the short-term impacts of habitat degradation on mesopredators, long-term effects may negatively impact mesopredator populations and alter the trophic structure of coral

  15. Cell Culture Isolation of Piscine Nodavirus (Betanodavirus) in Fish-Rearing Seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Shinnosuke; Yamashita, Hirofumi; Kawato, Yasuhiko; Nakai, Toshihiro

    2016-04-01

    Piscine nodavirus (betanodavirus) is the causative agent of viral nervous necrosis (VNN) in a variety of cultured fish species, particularly marine fish. In the present study, we developed a sensitive method for cell culture isolation of the virus from seawater and applied the method to a spontaneous fish-rearing environment. The virus in seawater was concentrated by an iron-based flocculation method and subjected to isolation with E-11 cells. A real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) assay was used to quantify the virus in water. After spiking into seawater was performed, a betanodavirus strain (red spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus [RGNNV] genotype) was effectively recovered in the E-11 cells at a detection limit of approximately 10(5)copies (equivalent to 10(2)50% tissue culture infective doses [TCID50])/liter seawater. In an experimental infection of juvenile sevenband grouper (Epinephelus septemfasciatus) with the virus, the virus was isolated from the drainage of a fish-rearing tank when the virus level in water was at least approximately 10(5)copies/liter. The application of this method to seven band grouper-rearing floating net pens, where VNN prevailed, resulted in the successful isolation of the virus from seawater. No differences were found in the partial sequences of the coat protein gene (RNA2) between the clinical virus isolates of dead fish and the cell-cultured virus isolates from seawater, and the viruses were identified as RGNNV. The infection experiment showed that the virus isolates from seawater were virulent to seven band grouper. These results showed direct evidence of the horizontal transmission of betanodavirus via rearing water in marine aquaculture. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Indirect signals of spawning aggregations of three commercial reef fish species on the continental shelf of Bahia, east coast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Rocha França

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractLutjanus analis (Mutton snapper, Lutjanus jocu(Dog snapper and Mycteroperca bonaci (Black grouper are reef fishes of high commercial value, and are among the principal exploited reef resources on the eastern and northeastern coast of Brazil. These species share the habit of forming transient spawning aggregations, predictable in time and space, which leaves them particularly vulnerable. The present study aimed to obtain indirect indicators of periods and places of spawning aggregations for these species, based on the exploratory analysis of available data on commercial catches and fishing efforts in Southern Bahia. Line fishery landings data were monitored in 12 locations in the region, and catch records of Mutton snapper (1320 landings, Dog snapper (654 and Black grouper (1162 were analyzed. A strategy was developed for exploratory analysis of monthly CPUE variation and individual distribution of CPUE per trip. The results showed the occurrence of aggregations in 26 specific sites, with values of relative abundance far above the annual mean, during spring/summer and autumn/winter. The occurrence of these anomalous catches was validated with the fishermen responsible for respective fishing trips. Additional studies are needed to confirm spawning activity at these sites. Analysis of inter-annual variation suggests a decreasing trend in relative abundance of Black grouper and Mutton snapper, possibly associated with unregulated fishing of spawning aggregations.

  17. ANALISIS LINGKUNGAN PERAIRAN UNTUK ZONA PENGEMBANGAN BUDIDAYA LAUT DI TELUK GERUPUK KABUPATEN LOMBOK TENGAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGUS MULIADI PUTRA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to identify the water suitability and carrying capacity level based on marine culture activity used. The research treated on May to July 2011 at Gerupuk Bay, Subdistrict of Pujut, Central Lombok Regency. The methods used in this research are analyzing the parameter, processing the data, and analyzing the data based spatial named Geographic Information System (GIS. This analysis proves that Gerupuk Bay might be used as marine culture development area with total area 339,768 Ha. Highly suitable area with 60,343 Ha, is for seaweeds area. For grouper fish most of the area is marginally suitable area with 99,198 Ha, for moderately suitable is 68,105 Ha and for unsuitable area found is 112,122 Ha. After identifying the data, the total maximum carrying capacity area for seaweeds activity is 8 units for long line which 7 units (87,5% have been used, and 18 units for floating raft method which 10 units (55,5% have been used. The maximum total unit for the grouper fish is 26 units for net floating cages method whlch only 1 unit (4% has been used. Finally, the conclusion of U1is research is that the water environmental for each marine culture activity is less then 50% of all area. For lhe estimation of the maximum carrying capacity of grouper fish is less then 50%, in other hand the maximum carrying capacity of seaweeds is up to 50%.

  18. Development of a spatially distributed model of fish population density for habitat assessment of rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Pengzhe; Iwasaki, Akito; Ryo, Masahiro; Saavedra, Oliver; Yoshimura, Chihiro

    2013-04-01

    discharge (MID) was found to be positively correlated to 9 among 16 fish species. For duration of high and low flows (DHF and DLF), longer DHF/DLF was corresponded to lower population density for 7/6 fish species, respectively, such as Rhinogobius kurodai and Plecoglossus altivelis altivelis. Among physical habitat conditions, sinuosity index (SI, the ratio between actual river section length and straight line length) seems to be the most important parameter for fish population density in Sagami River basin, since it affects 12 out of 16 fish species, followed by mean longitudinal slope (S) and number of downstream dams (NLD). Above results demonstrated the applicability of fish distribution model to provide quantitative information on flow conditions required to maintain fish population, which enabled us to evaluate and project ecological consequences of water resource management policy, such as flood management and water withdrawal.

  19. Ion microprobe Sr isotope analysis of carbonates with about 5 {mu}m spatial resolution: An example from an ayu otolith

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sano, Yuji [Center for Advanced Marine Research, Ocean Research Institute, University of Tokyo, Nakano-ku, Tokyo 164-8639 (Japan)], E-mail: ysano@ori.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Shirai, Kotaro [International Coastal Research Center, Ocean Research Institute, University of Tokyo, Otsuchi, Iwate 028-1102 (Japan); Takahata, Naoto; Amakawa, Hiroshi [Center for Advanced Marine Research, Ocean Research Institute, University of Tokyo, Nakano-ku, Tokyo 164-8639 (Japan); Otake, Tsuguo [International Coastal Research Center, Ocean Research Institute, University of Tokyo, Otsuchi, Iwate 028-1102 (Japan)

    2008-08-15

    A high lateral resolution secondary ion mass spectrometer (NanoSIMS NS50 ion microprobe) has been used to measure {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios in natural CaCO{sub 3} samples. A {approx}2 nA O{sup -} primary beam was used to sputter a 5-7-{mu}m diameter crater on the sample surface and secondary positive ions were extracted for mass analysis using an accelerating voltage of 8 kV and a Mattauch-Herzog geometry. The multi-collector system was adjusted to detect {sup 43}Ca{sup +} (by a detector EM2), {sup 80}Ca{sub 2}{sup +} (EM3), {sup 86}Sr{sup +} (EM4), and {sup 87}Sr{sup +} (EM4b) ions at the same time. Then the magnetic field was scanned for the EM4 to detect {sup 85}Rb{sup +}, {sup 86}Sr{sup +} and {sup 87}Sr{sup +}, while the EM4b can measure {sup 86}Sr{sup +}, {sup 87}Sr{sup +} and {sup 88}Sr{sup +}, respectively. A mass resolution of 3600 at 10% peak height was attained with a flat peak top, while the sensitivity of Sr was about 10 cps/nA/ppm. An aragonite sample (coral skeleton standard; JCp-1) was used as a reference for Sr isotope ratio calibration. Repeated analyses of the JCp-1 show that the {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratio agrees well with the seawater signature within a precision of 0.3 per mille at 2{sigma}, after the series of corrections such as the Ca dimer, {sup 87}Rb, and a mass bias estimated by the {sup 88}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratio. The method was applied to an otolith (ear-stone) from ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis altivelis) collected from the Yodo river, Japan. Although experimental errors are relatively large, up to 3 per mille at 2{sigma}, the ratios of the core region are higher than the seawater signature while more distal values agree well with seawater. The very outermost part again shows the relatively higher {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios. The spatial variation of {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios was consistent with amphidromous migration of the fish, namely, born in the lake and grown in the coastal sea and finally collected in a river.

  20. 'Applications of stable isotopes in life sciences'. Lead and strontium stable isotope measurements by using a high lateral resolution secondary ion mass spectrometer (NanoSIMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sano, Yuji

    2008-01-01

    The method of Pb and Sr isotope measurements at about 5 μm resolution was developed by using a high lateral resolution secondary ion mass spectrometer (NanoSIMS NS50). Since the both elements have radiogenic nuclides such as 206 Pb, 207 Pb, and 87 Sr, natural variations of isotopic ratios are large. It is possible to detect a meaningful variation in a terrestrial sample, even though the experimental error is relatively large. In the case of monazite U-Pb dating, a 4 nA O - primary beam was used to sputter the sample and secondary positive ions were extracted for mass analysis using a Mattauch-Herzog geometry. The multi-collector system was modified to detect 140 Ce + , 204 Pb + , 206 Pb + , 238 U 16 O + , and 238 U 16 O 2 + ions simultaneously. Based on the monazite standard from North-Central Madagascar, we have determined the 206 Pb/ 238 U ratios of samples. 207 Pb/ 206 Pb ratios were measured by a magnet scanning with a single collector mode. 44 monazite grains extracted from a sedimentary rock in Taiwan were analyzed. Observed ages were consistent with the U-Th-Pb chemical ages by EPMA. Then NanoSIMS has been used to measure 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios in natural calcium carbonate samples. Multi-collector system was adjusted to detect 43 Ca + , 80 Ca 2 + , 86 Sr + , and 87 Sr + ions at the same time. Magnetic field was scanning for the EM no.4 counter to detect 85 Rb + , 86 Sr + and 87 Sr + , while the EM no.4b can measure 86 Sr + , 87 Sr + , and 88 Sr + , respectively. Repeated analyses of a coral skeleton standard (JCp-1) show that 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio agrees well with the seawater signature, after the series of corrections such as Ca dimer, 87 Rb, and a mass bias estimated by 88 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio. The method is applied to an otolith from ayu (Pleco-glossus altivelis altivelis) collected from the Yodo river, Japan. The spatial variation of 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios was consistent with amphidromous migration of the fish, namely, born in the lake and grown in the coastal sea

  1. Ion microprobe Sr isotope analysis of carbonates with about 5 μm spatial resolution: An example from an ayu otolith

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sano, Yuji; Shirai, Kotaro; Takahata, Naoto; Amakawa, Hiroshi; Otake, Tsuguo

    2008-01-01

    A high lateral resolution secondary ion mass spectrometer (NanoSIMS NS50 ion microprobe) has been used to measure 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios in natural CaCO 3 samples. A ∼2 nA O - primary beam was used to sputter a 5-7-μm diameter crater on the sample surface and secondary positive ions were extracted for mass analysis using an accelerating voltage of 8 kV and a Mattauch-Herzog geometry. The multi-collector system was adjusted to detect 43 Ca + (by a detector EM2), 80 Ca 2 + (EM3), 86 Sr + (EM4), and 87 Sr + (EM4b) ions at the same time. Then the magnetic field was scanned for the EM4 to detect 85 Rb + , 86 Sr + and 87 Sr + , while the EM4b can measure 86 Sr + , 87 Sr + and 88 Sr + , respectively. A mass resolution of 3600 at 10% peak height was attained with a flat peak top, while the sensitivity of Sr was about 10 cps/nA/ppm. An aragonite sample (coral skeleton standard; JCp-1) was used as a reference for Sr isotope ratio calibration. Repeated analyses of the JCp-1 show that the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio agrees well with the seawater signature within a precision of 0.3 per mille at 2σ, after the series of corrections such as the Ca dimer, 87 Rb, and a mass bias estimated by the 88 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio. The method was applied to an otolith (ear-stone) from ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis altivelis) collected from the Yodo river, Japan. Although experimental errors are relatively large, up to 3 per mille at 2σ, the ratios of the core region are higher than the seawater signature while more distal values agree well with seawater. The very outermost part again shows the relatively higher 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios. The spatial variation of 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios was consistent with amphidromous migration of the fish, namely, born in the lake and grown in the coastal sea and finally collected in a river

  2. Shelf-Scale Mapping of Fish Distribution Using Active and Passive Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Carrie C.

    Fish sound production has been associated with courtship and spawning behavior. Acoustic recordings of fish sounds can be used to identify distribution and behavior. Passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) can record large amounts of acoustic data in a specific area for days to years. These data can be collected in remote locations under potentially unsafe seas throughout a 24-hour period providing datasets unattainable using observer-based methods. However, the instruments must withstand the caustic ocean environment and be retrieved to obtain the recorded data. This can prove difficult due to the risk of PAMs being lost, stolen or damaged, especially in highly active areas. In addition, point-source sound recordings are only one aspect of fish biogeography. Passive acoustic platforms that produce low self-generated noise, have high retrieval rates, and are equipped with a suite of environmental sensors are needed to relate patterns in fish sound production to concurrently collected oceanographic conditions on large, synoptic scales. The association of sound with reproduction further invokes the need for such non-invasive, near-real time datasets that can be used to enhance current management methods limited by survey bias, inaccurate fisher reports, and extensive delays between fisheries data collection and population assessment. Red grouper (Epinephelus morio) exhibit the distinctive behavior of digging holes and producing a unique sound during courtship. These behaviors can be used to identify red grouper distribution and potential spawning habitat over large spatial scales. The goal of this research was to provide a greater understanding of the temporal and spatial distribution of red grouper sound production and holes on the central West Florida Shelf (WFS) using active sonar and passive acoustic recorders. The technology demonstrated here establishes the necessary methods to map shelf-scale fish sound production. The results of this work could aid resource

  3. Effect of V or Zr addition on the mechanical properties of the mechanically alloyed Al-8wt%Ti alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, I.H.; Lee, J.H.; Lee, K.M.; Kim, Y.D.

    1995-01-01

    Mechanical alloying (MA) of Al-Ti alloy, being a solid state process, offers the unique advantage of producing homogeneous and fine dispersions of thermally stable Al 3 Ti phase, where the formation of the fine Al 3 Ti phase by the other method is restricted from the thermodynamic viewpoint. The MA Al-Ti alloys show substantially higher strength than the conventional Al alloys at the elevated temperature due to the presence of Al 3 Ti as well as Al 4 C 3 and Al 2 O 3 , of which the last two phases were introduced during MA process. The addition of V or Zr to Al-Ti alloy was known to decrease the lattice mismatch between the intermetallic compound and the aluminum matrix, and such decrease in lattice mismatching can influence positively the high temperature mechanical strength of the MA Al-Ti by increasing the resistance to dispersoid coarsening at the elevated temperature. In the present study, therefore, the mechanical behavior of the MA Al-Ti-V and Al-Ti-Zr alloys were investigated in order to evaluate the effect of V or Zr addition on the mechanical properties of the MA Al-8Ti alloy at high temperature

  4. Metagonimus yokogawai (Trematoda: Heterophyidae): From Discovery to Designation of a Neotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazu, Takeshi; Kino, Hideto

    2015-01-01

    Metagonimus yokogawai (Katsurada, 1912) Katsurada, 1912 (Trematoda: Heterophyidae) is parasitic in the small intestine of mammals including man and birds in Far Eastern Russia, Korea, Japan, China, and Taiwan. In the present study, the metacercariae and adults of M. yokogawai were redescribed to designate a neotype of this fluke together with reviews of previous studies including study histories from the first discovery to now. We particularly, attempted to review the study histories and morphological descriptions of M. yokogawai for the species validity, and compared with the morphological characteristics and life cycles of the closely related species, Metagonimus takahashii and Metagonimus miyatai. Finally, we proposed a differential key for the 8 known Metagonimus species distributed in East Asia. Metacercariae were obtained from the body muscles of sweetfish (Plecoglossus altivelis) collected in the Asahi River at Takebe-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama City, Okayama Prefecture, Japan. Adults were recovered from the small intestine of Syrian golden hamsters, to which the metacercariae had been fed 14 days before. A neotype was selected out of the present adult specimens. The Asahi River at Takebo-cho became the type locality of M. yokogawai. In conclusion, the present review shows that M. yokogawai, M. takahashii, and M. miyatai are valid and discriminated by means of morphological characteristics. PMID:26537043

  5. Minimum 1D velocity models in Central and Southern Italy: a contribution to better constrain hypocentral determinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Frepoli

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available We computed one-dimensional ( I D velocity models and station corrections for Centrai and Southern Italy, in- verting re-picked P-wave alTival times recorded by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica seismic network. The re-picked data yield resolved P-wave velocity results and proved to be more suited than bulletin data for de- tailed tomographic studies. Using the improved velocity models, we relocated the most significant earthquakes which occurt.ed in the Apennines in the past 7 years, achieving constrained hypocentral determinations for events within most of the Apenninic belt. The interpretation of the obtained lD velocity models allows us to infer interesting features on the deep structure of the Apennines. Smooth velocity gradients with depth and low P-wave velocities are ob,'ierved beneath the Apennines. We believe that our results are effective to constrain hypocentral locations in Italy and may represent a first step towards more detailed seismotectonic analyses.

  6. Burst Speed of Wild Fishes under High-Velocity Flow Conditions Using Stamina Tunnel with Natural Guidance System in River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Mattashi; Yamamoto, Yasuyuki; Yataya, Kenichi; Kamiyama, Kohhei

    Swimming experiments were conducted on wild fishes in a natural guidance system stamina tunnel (cylindrical pipe) installed in a fishway of a local river under high-velocity flow conditions (tunnel flow velocity : 211 to 279 cm·s-1). In this study, the swimming characteristics of fishes were observed. The results show that (1) the swimming speeds of Tribolodon hakonensis (Japanese dace), Phoxinus lagowshi steindachneri (Japanese fat-minnow), Plecoglossus altivelis (Ayu), and Zacco platypus (Pale chub) were in proportion to their body length under identical water flow velocity conditions; (2) the maximum burst speed of Japanese dace and Japanese fat-minnow (measuring 4 to 6 cm in length) was 262 to 319 cm·s-1 under high flow velocity conditions (225 to 230 cm·s-1), while the maximum burst speed of Ayu and Pale chub (measuring 5 cm to 12 cm in length) was 308 to 355 cm·s-1 under high flow velocity conditions (264 to 273 cm·s-1) ; (3) the 50cm-maximum swimming speed of swimming fishes was 1.07 times faster than the pipe-swimming speed; (4) the faster the flow velocity, the shorter the swimming distance became.

  7. PENGGUNAAN TEPUNG SILASE USUS AYAM DALAM PAKAN PEMBESARAN IKAN KERAPU MACAN, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachmansyah Rachmansyah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Substitusi tepung ikan dengan tepung silase usus ayam dalam pakan telah dilakukan untuk mengevaluasi respon pakan terhadap keragaan biologi ikan kerapu macan, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus. Ikan uji diberi pakan yang mengandung tepung silase usus ayam pada level 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, dan 20% sebagai pengganti tepung ikan dan dibuat dalam bentuk pelet basah. Pakan diberikan secara at satiation dua kali sehari selama masa pemeliharaan 20 minggu di keramba jaring apung berukuran 1 x 1 x 2 m. Penggantian tepung ikan dengan tepung silase usus ayam sampai 20% atau setara dengan 39% protein tepung ikan tidak berpengaruh nyata bila dibandingkan dengan perlakuan kontrol terhadap keragaan biologi ikan kerapu. Diduga tepung silase usus ayam cukup memadai sebagai pengganti tepung ikan dengan kadar lebih dari 20% dalam pakan pembesaran ikan kerapu macan jika asam amino methionine dan lysine ditambahkan ke dalam pakan. Feeding experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of replacing fishmeal with poultry offal silage meal (POSM in diet on biological performance of tiger grouper. Dietary inclusion level of PSOM at 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% substitution of fish meal were compared with the fish meal based control diet (0% PSOM. Fish were fed diets (moist pellet at satiation two times daily for 20 weeks rearing at a floating net cage of 1 x 1 x 2 m. The result showed that replacement of fish meal with POSM up to 20% or equivalent to 39% fish meal protein were not significantly different (P>0.05 compared with control diet on all of the biological performance of tiger grouper. From the result, we expected that POSM is suitable as a partial replacement of fish meal more then 20% in tiger grouper diet if methionine and lysine are added.

  8. Foraging mode of the grey reef shark, Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos, under two different scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, W. D.; Renaud, P.

    2016-03-01

    Knowledge of an animal's predatory interactions provides insight into its ecological role. Until now, investigation of reef shark predation has relied on artificial stimuli to facilitate feeding events, with few sightings of natural predation events. Here we document two different foraging modes of the grey reef shark, Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos (f. Carcharhinidae), recorded without the influence of baits or burley. The first mode saw an aggregation of sharks targeting a morning mass spawning event of marbled grouper (f. Serranidae). We observed 120 separate grouper spawns over a 104-min period. Detailed analysis of 52 spawns showed an average of five groupers and 2.7 sharks involved in each spawn, with sharks usually on site within 1.29 s of spawn initiation. The success rate of investigating sharks was relatively low (8.1 %), and conspecific competition, rather than cooperative behaviour, was repeatedly observed among sharks. The second foraging mode documented was the nocturnal predation of individual fishes in the same reef pass 2 weeks later. Here, 128 separate fish pursuits were observed, with fusiliers (f. Caesionidae) comprising 88 % of targeted individuals. Multiple sharks usually investigated each fish, with over 300 interaction events recorded. Over 100 bite attempts were observed, and again the rate of predation was low, with fish taken in only 5.3 % of investigations (16 % of attempted bites). Our findings show that grey reef sharks naturally prey on species across a range of trophic levels, employing foraging techniques optimised for prey species and circumstance. Although a high-order mesopredator, the low rates of predation success observed suggest that grey reef sharks may have limited direct impact on lower-trophic-order species; however, this remains to be verified.

  9. Primeiro registro de Caligus mutabilis (Copepoda) em cultivos de Mycteroperca microlepis (Perciformes: Serranidae) no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Sanches, Eduardo Gomes; Kerber, Claudia Ehlers; Paschoal, Fabiano; Luque, José Luis

    2012-01-01

    Sea lice (copepods) are widespread pathogens in marine teleost cultivation around the world. The sea louse Caligus mutabilis Wilson, 1905, is recorded here for the first time in sea-farmed gag grouper, Mycteroperca microlepis, in Brazil.Os piolhos marinhos (copépodes) são patógenos amplamente difundidos nos cultivos de teleósteos marinhos ao redor do mundo. O copépode Caligus mutabilis Wilson, 1905 é aqui registrado pela primeira vez em cultivos de badejo-de-areia, Mycteroperca microlepis, no...

  10. Kebutuhan Vitamin C Untuk Pertumbuhan dan Meningkatkan Ketahanan Benih Kerapu Macan (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyoman Adiasmara Giri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian untuk mengetahui kebutuhan vitamin C untuk pertumbuhan dan ketahanan benih ikan kerapu macan (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus telah dilakukan, menggunakan 18 buah bak polikarbonat volume 100 liter yang dilengkapi dengan sistem air mengalir dan aerasi. Benih kerapu macan dengan bobot rata-rata 23,0 ± 0,1 gram ditebar dalam bak penelitian dengan kepadatan 12 ekor per bak. Ikan diberi pakan penelitian 2 kali sehari pada level satiasi selama 13 minggu. Pakan penelitian diformulasi dengan kandungan nutrien yang sama kecuali kandungan vitamin C. Pada formula pakan ditambahkan vitamin C (L-ascorbyl-2-phosphate Magnesium, APM dengan dosis berbeda, yaitu 0, 15, 30, 60, 120, dan 250 mg/kg pakan. Pakan dibuat dalam bentuk pelet dan dikeringkan menggunakan freeze dryer. Penelitian dirancang menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap (RAL dengan 6 perlakuan beda kandungan vitamin C dalam pakan dan setiap perlakuan terdiri atas 3 ulangan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ikan yang diberi pakan tanpa penambahan vitamin C pertumbuhannya, kadar hemoglobin dan hematokrit darah, aktivitas fagositik, dan indeks fagositiknya adalah paling rendah dibandingkan dengan kelompok ikan lainnya. Dari hasil ini disimpulkan bahwa diperlukan penambahan vitamin C sebanyak 30 mg/kg pakan untuk pertumbuhan ikan yang baik dan penambahan vitamin C sebanyak 60—120 mg/kg pakan untuk kesehatan ikan kerapu macan. The experiment to determine dietary vitamin C requirement for good growth of tiger grouper has been conducted in 18 polycarbonate tanks, 100 liters volume. Each tank is equipped with flow-through water system. Twelve juvenile of tiger grouper (23.0 ± 0.1 gram in body weight, which were produced in hatchery, were randomly selected and stocked in each tank. Fish fed by experimental diets twice everyday at satiation level for 13 weeks. Experimental diets were formulated to contain the same level of nutrients (protein, lipid, and energy, except for vitamin C. Graded level of

  11. Short Communication: Growth of seaweed Eucheuma cottonii in multi trophic sea farming systems at Gerupuk Bay, Central Lombok, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUKIMAN

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Sukiman, Faturrahman, Rohyani IS, Ahyadi H. 2014. Growth of seaweed Eucheuma cottonii in multi trophic sea farming systems at Gerupuk Bay, Central Lombok, Indonesia. Nusantara Bioscience 6: 82-85. Eucheuma cottonii is a seaweed commodity that has a high economic value because it contains compounds used as raw materials for industries. Various methods of seaweed farming have been developed, one of which is a system of cultivation Multi Trophic Sea Farming. This study aimed to analyze the growth of E. cottonii by observing the production of biomass in four trophic combinations in the system Multi Trophic Sea Farming. The study was conducted in the area of the marine aquaculture Gerupuk bay, Central Lombok, Indonesia. Experiments were performed on four plots cages with trophic combination treatment as follows: K1 (E. cottonii-lobster-abalone, K2 (E. cottonii-abalone-red carp, K3 (E. cottonii-abalone-grouper, and K4 (E. cottonii-abalone-pomfret fish. Seedling of E. cottonii weighing 50 g was tied to a rope and placed at a depth of 5 cm, 50 cm, 100 cm and 150 cm. Measurement of biomass production was done every ten days until the thirtieth day. The highest biomass production of E. cottonii was obtained in K3 trophic combination (E. cottonii-abalone-grouper fish with a depth of seedlings of 5 cm. The combination of K3 trophic is recommended for cultivation of seaweed in the MTSF system.

  12. Environmental and biotic correlates to lionfish invasion success in Bahamian coral reefs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Anton

    Full Text Available Lionfish (Pterois volitans, venomous predators from the Indo-Pacific, are recent invaders of the Caribbean Basin and southeastern coast of North America. Quantification of invasive lionfish abundances, along with potentially important physical and biological environmental characteristics, permitted inferences about the invasion process of reefs on the island of San Salvador in the Bahamas. Environmental wave-exposure had a large influence on lionfish abundance, which was more than 20 and 120 times greater for density and biomass respectively at sheltered sites as compared with wave-exposed environments. Our measurements of topographic complexity of the reefs revealed that lionfish abundance was not driven by habitat rugosity. Lionfish abundance was not negatively affected by the abundance of large native predators (or large native groupers and was also unrelated to the abundance of medium prey fishes (total length of 5-10 cm. These relationships suggest that (1 higher-energy environments may impose intrinsic resistance against lionfish invasion, (2 habitat complexity may not facilitate the lionfish invasion process, (3 predation or competition by native fishes may not provide biotic resistance against lionfish invasion, and (4 abundant prey fish might not facilitate lionfish invasion success. The relatively low biomass of large grouper on this island could explain our failure to detect suppression of lionfish abundance and we encourage continuing the preservation and restoration of potential lionfish predators in the Caribbean. In addition, energetic environments might exert direct or indirect resistance to the lionfish proliferation, providing native fish populations with essential refuges.

  13. Molecular cytogenetic analyses of Epinephelus bruneus and Epinephelus moara (Perciformes, Epinephelidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Minglan; Wang, Shifeng; Su, Yongquan; Zhou, Yongcan; Liu, Min

    2014-01-01

    Genus Epinephelus (Perciformes, Epinephelidae), commonly known as groupers, are usually difficult in species identification for the lack and/or change of morphological specialization. In this study, molecular cytogenetic analyses were firstly performed to identify the closely related species Epinephelus bruneus and E. moara in this genus. The species-specific differences of both fish species showed in karyotype, chromosomal distribution of nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) and localization of 18S rDNA. The heterochromatin (interstitial C-bands) and distribution pattern of telomere (TTAGGG)n in E. bruneus revealed the chromosomal rearrangements and different karyotypic evolutionary characteristics compared to those in E. moara. The cytogenetic data suggested that the lineages of E. bruneus and E. moara were recently derived within the genus Epinephelus, and E. moara exhibited more plesiomorphic features than E. bruneus. All results confirmed that E. moara, which has long been considered a synonym of E. bruneus, is a distinct species in the family Epinephelidae. In addition, molecular cytogenetic analyses are useful in species differentiation and phylogenetic reconstruction in groupers. PMID:24949234

  14. Identification of DLD, by immunoproteomic analysis and evaluation as a potential vaccine antigen against three Vibrio species in Epinephelus coioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Huanying; Chen, Liming; Hoare, Rowena; Huang, Yucong; ZaoheWu; Jian, Jichang

    2016-02-24

    Vibrio spp. represent a serious threat to the culture of Epinephelus coioides (Orange-spotted Grouper) in Southeast Asia. In this study we used two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and Western blotting to identify common immunogenic proteins of Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Membranes were probed with orange-spotted grouper anti-V. alginolyticus sera and accordingly 60, 58 and 48 immunogenic protein spots were detected. By matching analysis for the three Western blotting membranes, 6 cross immunogenic spots for the three Vibrio species were identified. They were Outer membrane protein W (OmpW), dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (DLD), succinate dehydrogenase flavoprotein subunit(SDHA), elongation factor Ts(Ts), peptide ABC transporter periplasmic peptide-binding protein and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase(PEPCK). One of the proteins, DLD, was used to evaluate the cross protective function for E. coioides with a bacterial immunization and challenge method. The relative percent survival rate of E. coioides against V. alginolyticus, V. harveyi and V. parahaemolyticus was 90%, 86% and 80%, respectively. This work may provide potential cross protective vaccine candidate antigens for three Vibrio species, and DLD may be considered as an effective cross-protective immunogen against three Vibrio species. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. A stochastic frontier analysis of technical efficiency of fish cage culture in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Gazi Md Nurul; Tai, Shzee Yew; Kusairi, Mohd Noh

    2016-01-01

    Cage culture plays an important role in achieving higher output and generating more export earnings in Malaysia. However, the cost of fingerlings, feed and labour have increased substantially for cage culture in the coastal areas in Peninsular Malaysia. This paper uses farm level data gathered from Manjung, Perak and Kota Tinggi, Johor to investigate the technical efficiency of brackish water fish cage culture using the stochastic frontier approach. The technical efficiency was estimated and specifically the factors affecting technical inefficiencies of fish cage culture system in Malaysia was investigated. On average, 37 percent of the sampled fish cage farms are technically efficient. The results suggest very high degrees of technical inefficiency exist among the cage culturists. This implies that great potential exists to increase fish production through improved efficiency in cage culture management in Peninsular Malaysia. The results indicate that farmers obtained grouper fingerlings from other neighboring countries due to scarcity of fingerlings from wild sources. The cost of feeding for grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) requires relatively higher costs compared to seabass (Lates calcarifer) production in cage farms in the study areas. Initiatives to undertake extension programmes at the farm level are needed to help cage culturists in utilizing their resources more efficiently in order to substantially enhance their fish production.

  16. Molecular cytogenetic analyses of Epinephelus bruneus and Epinephelus moara (Perciformes, Epinephelidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minglan Guo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Genus Epinephelus (Perciformes, Epinephelidae, commonly known as groupers, are usually difficult in species identification for the lack and/or change of morphological specialization. In this study, molecular cytogenetic analyses were firstly performed to identify the closely related species Epinephelus bruneus and E. moara in this genus. The species-specific differences of both fish species showed in karyotype, chromosomal distribution of nucleolar organizer regions (NORs and localization of 18S rDNA. The heterochromatin (interstitial C-bands and distribution pattern of telomere (TTAGGGn in E. bruneus revealed the chromosomal rearrangements and different karyotypic evolutionary characteristics compared to those in E. moara. The cytogenetic data suggested that the lineages of E. bruneus and E. moara were recently derived within the genus Epinephelus, and E. moara exhibited more plesiomorphic features than E. bruneus. All results confirmed that E. moara, which has long been considered a synonym of E. bruneus, is a distinct species in the family Epinephelidae. In addition, molecular cytogenetic analyses are useful in species differentiation and phylogenetic reconstruction in groupers.

  17. Lionfishes Pterois miles and Pterois volitans in the North-eastern Mediterranean Sea: Distribution, Habitation, Predation and Predators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemal Turan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The lionfish Pterois miles was first recorded in the Iskenderun Bay on 2014 in Turkish Marine waters, and then its distribution was extended to Mersin and Antalya Bays in 2014 in the Mediterranean part of Turkey. The first observation of P. miles in the Aegean Sea was from Fethiye region in July 2015. The extension of P. miles in Turkish marine waters seems to be fast even though it’s slow moving feature. Second species of the lionfish, red lionfish Pterois volitans, was also recorded from Turkish Marine waters on May 2016 by a commercial purse seine at 30 m depth at İskenderun Bay and underwater observation was also recorded on October 2016 at Antakya Bay. Therefore, the number of Pterois species in the Mediterranean Sea has reached to two, P. miles and P. volitans. Based on underwater observations, P. miles and P. volitans are usually observed in rocky and cave habitats and prefer 10-40 meters for feeding that may cause the reduction of populations of vanikoro sweeper (Pemperis spp., cardinal fish (Apagon spp. and red coat (Holocentrus rubrum species. P. miles and P. volitans also show cohabitation and gathering usually with 2-5 individuals. Grouper species such as dusky gruper Ephinephelus marginatus and goldblotch grouper Ephinephelus costae are the main predators of the lionfishes.

  18. AKTIVITAS ENZIM PROTEASE DAN KONDISI PENCERNAAN DI USUS IKAN KERAPU MACAM (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus SETELAH PEMBERIAN PAKAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muh. Yamin

    2016-11-01

    Aims of the research are to figure out proteolitic activities and intestinal digestibility on tiger grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus after feeding. The research was carried out on Research Institute for Coastal Aquaculture (RICA floating net cages at Awarange Bay, Barru Regency, South Sulawesi.The fish has 200 ± 10 g on size and relatively same on age of 6 months. Seven floating net cages of 1x1x1.2 m3 were used to rearing fish with random position for each sampling. The fish fed with 45% protein of moist pellet ad satiation. Sampling was carried out at 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, and 24 after fed. Preparation and analysis of protease enzyme activity collected after grouper was killed. Protease activity was analyzed by modification of Bergmeyer methods. Result of enzyme analysis show that 18 and 21 hours after fed has the highest activities i.e. 13.04 μ/mL and 13.3 μ/mL respectively, and 9 hours after fed has the lowest activities i.e. 5.83 μ/mL. Result of liquid presentation of intestinal shows fluctuation in every time of sampling. The highest presentation of liquid was at 9 hours after fed of 76% and the lowest was 6 hours after fed of 53%.

  19. HASIL TANGKAPAN DAN UPAYA PENANGKAPAN MUROAMI, BUBU DAN PANCING ULUR DI PERAIRAN KEPULAUAN SERIBU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Turni Hartati

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini dilakukan pada bulan Juli dan Nopember 2010, dengan tujuan mengkaji hasil tangkapan ikan ekor kuning (Caesionidae, kerapu (Serranidae, dan kakaktua (Scaridae, melalui kegiatan penangkapan jaring muroami, bubu, dan pancing ulur. Data yang dikumpulkan meliputi kelimpahan dan komposisi hasil tangkapan, aspek biologi ikan, produksi dan upaya penangkapan. Kelimpahan hasil tangkapan muroami berkisar 161-222 kg/perahu/hari didominansi oleh ikan ekor kuning (35,6-44,5%, bubu 9-12 kg/kapal/hari didominansi oleh ikan kakaktua 50% dan kerapu 13%, pancing ulur 1-87 kg/kapal/hari didominansi oleh ikan kurisi (Nemipterus spp. dan kuwe (Caranx spp. dan Carangoides spp. (38,1-41,2% dan kerapu 11,2-20,6%. Sebaran panjang ikan ekor kuning bulan Juli dan Nopember 14,5-30,2 cm dan 13,1-29,5 cm, kakaktua 14,8-26,5 cm dan 12,8-38,7 cm, dan kerapu pada bulan Juli 18,4-23,5 cm. Ikan ekor kuning dan kakaktua mempunyai beberapa kelompok umur, mengindikasikan ada beberapa frekuensi pemijahan dalam setahun. Tingkat kematangan gonad ikan ekor kuning betina bulan Juli didominansi stadia 1, bulan Nopember didominansi stadia 4, dan kakaktua pada bulan Juli dan Nopember didominansi stadia 1. Data tingkat kematangan gonad belum dapat digunakan untuk menduga musim pemijahan. Rendahnya kelimpahan hasil tangkapan ikan kerapu, serta minimnya informasi biologi karena sulitnya memperoleh sampel mengidikasikan bahwa populasi ikan kerapu sudah terdegradasi. Tren catch per unit of effort muroami memiliki kecenderungan meningkat kembali pada tahun 2008 dan 2009, yaitu 12,99 dan 10,26 ton/unit/tahun, setelah mengalami penurunan yang tajam antara tahun 2000-2007 yaitu 0,03-0,64 ton/unit/tahun. Produksi ikan kerapu dan kakaktua relatif rendah, tahun 2008-2010 pada kisaran 75-505 kg/tahun, dan 2.359-3.267 kg/tahun, dan berfluktuasi pada setiap bulannya.   The study was conducted in July and November 2010, with the aim of assessing the catch of yellow tail, grouper, and

  20. Growth stanzas in an Epinephelidae-Lutjanidae complex: considerations to length-weight relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena Renán

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Growth stanzas or abrupt changes in growth rates are present throughout the life span of fish. Identifying growth stanzas will help to adequately described growth taking into account that fishes are indeterminate growers. In this study, we used length-weight (L-W relationships to analyze the growth stanzas in the Grouper-Snapper complex of Southern Gulf of Mexico. For this, the type of sexuality, sex and different sexual maturity phase were considered in the analyses of three species of gonochoric Snappers (Lutjanidae and six species of protogynous hermaphrodite Groupers (Epinephelidae. Welch ANOVA tests were carried out to determine the existence of differences in length and weight between juveniles and adults per sex. According to the observed differences, L-W relationship parameters (a and b, standard error (SE b and coefficients of determination (R2 were calculated for all species separately by sex and sexual maturity phase. Snappers’ juvenile-females b-value ranged from 2.44-2.77, juvenile-males from 2.16-2.94, adult-females from 2.63-2.80 and adult-males from 2.63-2.98. Groupers’ b-value ranged for juvenile-females 2.66-3.20, adult-females from 2.73-3.31 and for adult-males 2.93-3.29. For each relationship b-value was t-tested (t-Student to explore differences from the allometric coefficient (b=3, which indicated changes in body form. Hypothesis test, for regression slopes (b between Snappers’ juvenile-females vs. adult-females and juvenile-males vs. adult-males and Groupers’ juvenile-females vs. adult-females and adult-females vs. adult-males, indicated different growth stanzas related to gonadal development for Snappers, and to gonadal development and sex change in Groupers. The identification of growth stanzas is crucial to avoid an overestimation or misleading growth rate which is used in fisheries management to establish some target reference points, such as maximum sustainable yield or yield-per-recruit.

  1. SUBTITUSI TEPUNG IKAN DENGAN TEPUNG KEONG MAS (Pomacea sp. DALAM PAKAN PEMBESARAN IKAN KERAPU MACAN (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Usman

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mendapatkan informasi tentang dosis optimum subtitusi tepung ikan dengan tepung keong mas dalam pakan pembesaran ikan kerapu macan. Ikan uji yang digunakan berupa gelondongan ikan kerapu macan berukuran bobot rata-rata 27,1 ± 1,38 g ditebar dalam keramba jaring apung ukuran 1 x 1 x 2 m3 dengan kepadatan 16 ekor/keramba. Perlakuan yang dicobakan adalah dosis tepung keong mas (GSM dalam pakan yaitu: 0% (GSM0, 10% (GSM10, 20% (GSM20, 30% (GSM30, dan 40% (GSM40 dengan menurunkan kadar tepung ikan pakan. Unit penelitian diset dengan rancangan acak lengkap. Selama pemeliharaan, ikan diberi pakan uji secara satiasi selama 140 hari. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ikan yang diberi pakan dengan kandungan tepung keong mas 0%—30% memiliki nilai laju pertumbuhan spesifik, pertambahan bobot, efisiensi pakan, efisiensi protein, dan retensi protein yang relatif sama (P>0,05, namun ikan yang diberi pakan dengan kandungan tepung keong mas sebanyak 40% memiliki nilai peubah tersebut yang berbeda nyata (P0,05. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian ini, maka tepung keong mas dapat digunakan hingga 30% dalam formulasi pakan ikan kerapu macan. This research was conducted to examine the effects of partially substitution of fish meal (FM in the diets with golden snail meal (GSM on growth performance of tiger grouper, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus. Fifteen net cages of 1 x 1 x 2 m3, each containing 16 tiger groupers with average initial weight of 27.1 ± 1.38 g, were set up randomly in seawater. Five isoprotein and isocaloric diets were formulated to contain 43.5% FM without GSM as control diet (GSM0; 10% GSM + 34.2% FM (GSM10; 20% GSM + 24.9% FM (GSM20, 30% GSM + 15.6% FM (GSM30; and 40% GSM + 6.3% FM (GSM40. The fish were fed twice daily to satiation for 140 days. The fish fed the diet containing 0%—30% GSM had not significantly different (P>0.05 specific growth rate, weight gain, feed efficiency, protein efficiency, and protein retention

  2. Chlorine trifluoride (1963); Le trifluorure de chlore (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent, L.M.; Gillardeau, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    This monograph on chlorine trifluoride may be considered as a working tool useful in gaseous diffusion research. It consists of data gathered from the literature and includes furthermore a certain amount of original data. This monograph groups together the physical, chemical and physiological properties of chlorine trifluoride, as well as the preparation and analytical methods. It has been thought wise to add some technological information, and the safety regulations governing its use. (authors) [French] Cette monographie sur le trifluorure de chlore doit etre consideree comme un instrument de travail dans le cadre des recherches sur la diffusion gazeuse. Il etait necessaire de grouper les donnees eparses dans la litterature. Elle comprend en outre un certain nombre de donnees originales. Cette monographie groupe les proprietes physiques, chimiques et physiologiques du trifluorure de chlore, ainsi que ses methodes de preparation et d'analyse. On a juge utile de joindre des indications technologiques et les consignes de securite concernant son emploi. (auteurs)

  3. The Ecology of Coral Reef Top Predators in the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan J. Dale

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Coral reef habitats in the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument (PMNM are characterized by abundant top-level predators such as sharks and jacks. The predator assemblage is dominated both numerically and in biomass by giant trevally (Caranx ignobilis and Galapagos sharks (Carcharhinus galapagensis. A lower diversity of predatory teleosts, particularly groupers and snappers, distinguishes the PMNM from other remote, unfished atolls in the Pacific. Most coral reef top predators are site attached to a “home” atoll, but move extensively within these atolls. Abundances of the most common sharks and jacks are highest in atoll fore reef habitats. Top predators within the PMNM forage on a diverse range of prey and exert top-down control over shallow-water reef fish assemblages. Ecological models suggest ecosystem processes may be most impacted by top predators through indirect effects of predation. Knowledge gaps are identified to guide future studies of top predators in the PMNM.

  4. Comparative pathogenicity study of ten different betanodavirus strains in experimentally infected European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax (L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vendramin, Niccolò; Toffan, A.; Mancin, M.

    2014-01-01

    Viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER), otherwise known as viral nervous necrosis (VNN), is a severe pathological condition caused by RNA viruses belonging to the Nodaviridae family, genus Betanodavirus. The disease, described in more than 50 fish species worldwide, is considered as the most...... serious viral threat affecting marine farmed species in the Mediterranean region, thus representing one of the bottlenecks for further development of the aquaculture industry. To date, four different genotypes have been identified, namely red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV), striped jack...... of these genetically different strains could be the reason for the differences in mortality observed in the field. However, very little experimental data are available on the pathogenicity of these viruses in farmed fish. Therefore, in this study, the pathogenicity of 10 isolates has been assessed with an in vivo...

  5. Rapid Seafood Species Identification Using Chip-Based Capillary Electrophoresis and Protein Pattern Matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Calvin C; Lassitter, Cheryl L; Lynn, Shannara N; Ford, Courtney B; Rademacher, Kevin R; Ruple, Angela D; Bell, Jon W

    2017-09-01

    Authenticity is crucial to the seafood industry, as substitution and mislabeling have important economic, environmental, and food safety consequences. To address this problem, protein profiling and software algorithm techniques were developed to classify fish muscle samples by species. The method uses water-based protein extraction, chip-based microfluidic electrophoresis (Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer) for the analysis of high abundance fish muscle proteins, and a novel data analysis method for species-specific protein pattern recognition. The method's performance in distinguishing commercially important fish from commonly reported substitutions was evaluated using sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy determinations with all three performance measures at >98% for common substitutions. This study demonstrates that uncooked seafood products of commercially important species of catfish, snapper, and grouper can be rapidly distinguished from commonly substituted species with a high level of confidence. A tiered testing approach to seafood species verification by sequentially applying a rapid screening method and DNA testing is proposed to more effectively ensure accurate product labeling.

  6. Informatics in managed care: HIM adds value to data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, S D

    2001-09-01

    The third installment of the Journal of AHIMA's special series on managed care focuses on informatics--methods that add value to data, turning it into useful information. How do informatics and managed care fit together and what is HIM's role in this picture? The HIM professional's knowledge is critical to the health team responsible for the interpretation and use of statically valid information. For example, HIM professionals are well positioned in their understanding of the construct and application of coding classification systems (ICD-9-CM, CPT, etc.), and groupers (DRGs, APCs, ETGs, etc.). Their unique training positions them to understand the associated rules, principles, guidelines, and nuances associated with correct coding and grouping. And when codes or groupers change, HIM professionals work closely with the health team to ensure parity, validity and reliability of the appropriate data or data sets. Managed care organizations use value-added data, as you will see in this article, to evaluate contract pricing, develop contracts, evaluate existing services or detail benefit plans, process and in some instances pay claims, and report results to a number of interested parties. The previous article in this series ("Can You Manage Managed Care?" July/August 2001) focused on effective management of data, including data acquisition. This article takes us to the next level, where informatics creates value-added information, and discusses some important uses of this information within managed care. These articles build on two of the functional areas that form the HIM process within managed care organizations. Author Scott Stratton studied under the creators of DRGs and was involved in the development of their nursing home counterpart, RUGs. He also has worked with the creators of ETGs. As a result, he can present the perspective and context within which these systems were created and intended. and how they form the foundation for informatics as a functional area

  7. Fish-Associated Foodborne Disease Outbreaks: United States, 1998-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Kelly A; Nakao, Jolene H; Taylor, Ethel V; Eggers, Carrie; Gould, Lydia Hannah

    2017-09-01

    Each year in the United States, ∼260,000 people get sick from contaminated fish. Fish is also the most commonly implicated food category in outbreaks. We reviewed the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System for outbreaks resulting from consumption of fish during the period 1998-2015. We found 857 outbreaks associated with fish, resulting in 4815 illnesses, 359 hospitalizations, and 4 deaths. The median number of illnesses per outbreak was three (range: 2-425). The annual number of fish-associated outbreaks declined from an average of 62 per year during the period 1998-2006 to 34 per year during the period 2007-2015. Hawaii (221 outbreaks [26%]) and Florida (203 [24%]) reported the most outbreaks. Among 637 outbreaks (74%) with a confirmed etiology, scombrotoxin (349 [55%]) and ciguatoxin (227 [36%]) were by far most common. Most outbreak-associated illnesses were caused by scombrotoxin (1299 [34%]), Salmonella (978 [26%]), and ciguatoxin (894 [23%]). Most hospitalizations were caused by Salmonella (97 [31%]) and ciguatoxin (96 [31%]). Norovirus (105 average illnesses; range: [6-380]) and Salmonella (54 [3-425]) caused the largest outbreaks. Fish types implicated most often were tuna (37%), mahi-mahi (10%), and grouper (9%). The etiology-fish pairs responsible for the most outbreaks were scombrotoxin and tuna (223 outbreaks), scombrotoxin and mahi-mahi (64), and ciguatoxin and grouper (54). The pairs responsible for the most illnesses were scombrotoxin and tuna (720 illnesses) and Salmonella and tuna (660). Of the 840 outbreaks (98%) with a single location of food preparation, 52% were associated with fish prepared in a restaurant and 33% with fish prepared in a private home. Upstream control measures targeted to the most common etiologies and controls during processing and preparation could further reduce outbreaks caused by fish.

  8. Patterns of Coral-Reef Finfish Species Disappearances Inferred from Fishers' Knowledge in Global Epicentre of Marine Shorefish Diversity.

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    Margarita N Lavides

    Full Text Available In the Philippines, very high fishing pressure coincides with the globally greatest number of shorefish species, yet no long-term fisheries data are available to explore species-level changes that may have occurred widely in the most species rich and vulnerable marine ecosystem, namely coral reefs. Through 2655 face-to-face interviews conducted between August 2012 and July 2014, we used fishers' recall of past catch rates of reef-associated finfish to infer species disappearances from catches in five marine key biodiversity areas (Lanuza Bay, Danajon Bank, Verde Island Passage, Polillo Islands and Honda Bay. We modeled temporal trends in perceived catch per unit effort (CPUE based on fishers' reports of typical good days' catches using Generalized Linear Mixed Modelling. Fifty-nine different finfish disappeared from catches between the 1950s and 2014; 42 fish were identified to species level, two to genus, seven to family and eight to local name only. Five species occurring at all sites with the greatest number of fishers reporting zero catches were the green bumphead parrotfish (Bolbometopon muricatum, humphead wrasse (Cheilinus undulatus, African pompano (Alectis ciliaris, giant grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus and mangrove red snapper (Lutjanus argentimaculatus. Between the 1950s and 2014, the mean perceived CPUE of bumphead parrotfish declined by 88%, that of humphead wrasse by 82%, African pompano by 66%, giant grouper by 74% and mangrove red snapper by 64%. These declines were mainly associated with excess and uncontrolled fishing, fish life-history traits like maximum body size and socio-economic factors like access to market infrastructure and services, and overpopulation. The fishers' knowledge is indicative of extirpations where evidence for these losses was otherwise lacking. Our models provide information as basis for area-based conservation and regional resource management particularly for the more vulnerable, once common, large

  9. Patterns of Coral-Reef Finfish Species Disappearances Inferred from Fishers' Knowledge in Global Epicentre of Marine Shorefish Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavides, Margarita N; Molina, Erina Pauline V; de la Rosa, Gregorio E; Mill, Aileen C; Rushton, Stephen P; Stead, Selina M; Polunin, Nicholas V C

    2016-01-01

    In the Philippines, very high fishing pressure coincides with the globally greatest number of shorefish species, yet no long-term fisheries data are available to explore species-level changes that may have occurred widely in the most species rich and vulnerable marine ecosystem, namely coral reefs. Through 2655 face-to-face interviews conducted between August 2012 and July 2014, we used fishers' recall of past catch rates of reef-associated finfish to infer species disappearances from catches in five marine key biodiversity areas (Lanuza Bay, Danajon Bank, Verde Island Passage, Polillo Islands and Honda Bay). We modeled temporal trends in perceived catch per unit effort (CPUE) based on fishers' reports of typical good days' catches using Generalized Linear Mixed Modelling. Fifty-nine different finfish disappeared from catches between the 1950s and 2014; 42 fish were identified to species level, two to genus, seven to family and eight to local name only. Five species occurring at all sites with the greatest number of fishers reporting zero catches were the green bumphead parrotfish (Bolbometopon muricatum), humphead wrasse (Cheilinus undulatus), African pompano (Alectis ciliaris), giant grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus) and mangrove red snapper (Lutjanus argentimaculatus). Between the 1950s and 2014, the mean perceived CPUE of bumphead parrotfish declined by 88%, that of humphead wrasse by 82%, African pompano by 66%, giant grouper by 74% and mangrove red snapper by 64%. These declines were mainly associated with excess and uncontrolled fishing, fish life-history traits like maximum body size and socio-economic factors like access to market infrastructure and services, and overpopulation. The fishers' knowledge is indicative of extirpations where evidence for these losses was otherwise lacking. Our models provide information as basis for area-based conservation and regional resource management particularly for the more vulnerable, once common, large, yet wide

  10. Experiments on radionuclide accumulation by fishes from the Angra Dos Reis region of Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, J.R.D.

    1988-11-01

    To follow the bioaccumulation and tissue distribution of 137 Cs and 60 Co in fish from tropical waters near the Angra nuclear power station in Brazil, juvenile grouper (Epinephelus sp.) were exposed under laboratory conditions to Angra sea water containing the two radionuclides initially added in chloride form. During the 4-month exposure period, the sea water was not changed and the fish received regular rations of non-radioactive food. Following uptake, the fish were dissected and composite tissue samples monitored for radioactivity. 137 Cs concentration factors (CFs) were 3 and 5 in whole fish and muscle, respectively. The highest concentration of 137 Cs was found in the muscle which accounted for 66% of the total body burden. In contrast, the highest concentration and greatest fraction (19%) of 60 Co was located in the liver. Whole body and muscle CFs for 60 Co, 0.2 and 0.08 respectively, were much lower than those for 137 Cs. Compared with published data, only very small amounts of both radionuclides were taken up by bone in the present study. This observation and the fact that much higher 137 Cs CFs have been reported in fish from field studies suggests that uptake through the food chain is the principal pathway for bioaccumulation in nature. Elution of freshly-prepared and previously-used radioactive sea water through chelating resins indicated that 60 Co added in the cationic form was almost totally converted to neutral or anionic forms after four months. Additional experiments carried out with the previously-used experimental media demonstrated that the possibly ligand-bound 60 Co was approximately 2.5 times more available for uptake by grouper than the cationic forms initially present. It is concluded that the uptake of 60 Co by fish exposed to radioactive effluents would be a function of the different forms of 60 Co present. 20 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  11. Effect of temperature and diet on growth and gastric emptying time of the hybrid, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus ♀ × E. lanceolatus ♂

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    Moumita De

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of temperatures (22, 26, 30 and 34 °C and diets (commercial pellet and shrimp on the growth properties and gastric emptying time (GET of the tiger grouper × giant grouper (TGGG hybrid were analyzed over a 30 day experimental period under controlled laboratory conditions. Food consumption (FC, food conversion rate (FCR, specific growth rate (SGR and GET were significantly influenced by temperature and diet type. The highest mean SGR (1.00% BM day−1, p  0.05 were observed between any of the groups at 22 and 34 °C fed on either the shrimp or the pellet diet. The lowest statistically significant (p < 0.05 FC was observed at 22 °C on both diets. The highest FCR (1.208, p < 0.05 was observed in the 22 °C + shrimp and 22 °C + pellet groups. The fastest GETs were observed at 30 °C, 12 h for fish on the shrimp diet and 13 h for fish on the pellet diet. A significant delay in gastric emptying (16 h was observed at 22 °C in the group fed the commercial pellet diet (16 h. The best growth performances and digestion rates were observed at 30 °C followed by 26, 34 and 22 °C regardless of diet. The results suggest that 26 and 30 °C are optimum water temperatures for the aquaculture of this newly developed fish species fed on either a shrimp or pellet diet.

  12. Impact of Eastern Caribbean Circulation Seasonality on two Reef Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherubin, L. M.; Paris, C. B.; Baums, I. B.; Idrisi, N.

    2008-05-01

    The variability of the Caribbean current is under the influence of the fresh water input from the Orinoco and Amazon rivers. Sea Surface Salinity maps of the eastern Caribbean show the seasonal extension of the riverine fresh water across the Caribbean basin, from August to December (wet season). The plume is divided into two main cores: one flows into the Caribbean Sea mostly through the Grenada Passage where it merges with the Caribbean Current while the other core is formed further north by advection of the river plume by the North Brazil Current rings. Due to the presence of fresh water the Caribbean Sea mesoscale activity is strongly increased during the wet season. Therefore, both coral reef ecosystems and coastal flows are under the scope of the large scale flow seasonality. The impact of the flow mesoscale seasonality on reef organisms is studied through two reef organisms: (1) Reef-building coral: Genetic analyzes show that populations of the Caribbean reef-building coral, Acropora palmata, have experienced little or no recent genetic exchange between the western and eastern Caribbean. Western Puerto Rico is identified as an area of mixing between the two subregions. Using a bio- physical coupled model accounting for larvae life history traits, we verify the plausibility of a present day oceanographic barrier caused by the Caribbean Current seasonal variability in the vicinity of Mona Passage. (2) Grouper: Several grouper species form spawning aggregations at the shelf edge of the US Virgin Islands starting at the end of the wet season in December. Using ADCP current measurements and numerical simulations, unusual large 'dispersion' pulses are shown to be associated with the presence of sub-mesoscale coherent features more likely to be formed during the wet season. Spawning occurring during the dry season (January to April) is mostly tide driven, suggesting a limited dispersal.

  13. Local ecological knowledge and scientific data reveal overexploitation by multigear artisanal fisheries in the southwestern Atlantic.

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    Mariana G Bender

    Full Text Available In the last decades, a number of studies based on historical records revealed the diversity loss in the oceans and human-induced changes to marine ecosystems. These studies have improved our understanding of the human impacts in the oceans. They also drew attention to the shifting baseline syndrome and the importance of assessing appropriate sources of data in order to build the most reliable environmental baseline. Here we amassed information from artisanal fishermen's local ecological knowledge, fisheries landing data and underwater visual census to assess the decline of fish species in Southeastern Brazil. Interviews with 214 fishermen from line, beach seine and spearfishing revealed a sharp decline in abundance of the bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix, the groupers Epinephelus marginatus, Mycteroperca acutirostris, M. bonaci and M. microlepis, and large parrotfishes in the past six decades. Fisheries landing data from a 16-year period support the decline of bluefish as pointed by fishermen's local knowledge, while underwater visual census campaigns show reductions in groupers' abundance and a sharp population decline of the Brazilian endemic parrotfish Scarus trispinosus. Despite the marked decline of these fisheries, younger and less experienced fishermen recognized fewer species as overexploited and fishing sites as depleted than older and more experienced fishermen, indicating the occurrence of the shifting baseline syndrome. Here we show both the decline of multigear fisheries catches - combining anecdotal and scientific data - as well as changes in environmental perceptions over generations of fishermen. Managing ocean resources requires looking into the past, and into traditional knowledge, bringing historical baselines to the present and improving public awareness.

  14. Radiological impact of the nuclear power plant accident on freshwater fish in Fukushima: An overview of monitoring results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Toshihiro; Tomiya, Atsushi; Enomoto, Masahiro; Sato, Toshiyuki; Morishita, Daigo; Izumi, Shigehiko; Niizeki, Kouji; Suzuki, Shunji; Morita, Takami; Kawata, Gyo

    2016-01-01

    Radionuclide ((131)I, (134)Cs, and (137)Cs) concentrations of monitored freshwater fish species collected from different habitats (rivers, lakes, and culture ponds) in Fukushima Prefecture during March 2011-December 2014 (total 16 species, n = 2692) were analyzed to present a detailed description of radionuclide contamination after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, and to elucidate species-specific spatiotemporal declining trends of (137)Cs concentration for their respective habitats. Low concentrations of (131)I (≤24 Bq kg(-1)-wet) were detected from only 11 samples collected during March-June 2011, demonstrating that (131)I transferred to freshwater fish were not intense. In river and lake fishes, a more gradual decrease and higher radiocesium ((134)Cs, (137)Cs) concentrations were observed than in culture pond fishes, which strongly implied that radiocesium in freshwater fish species was mainly bioaccumulated through the food web in the wild. During 2011-2014, percentages above the Japanese regulatory limit of 100 Bq kg(-1)-wet for radiocesium in river and lake fish (14.0% and 39.6%, respectively) were higher than in monitored marine fish (9.9%), indicating longer-term contamination of freshwater fish species, especially in lakes. Higher radiocesium concentrations (maximum 18.7 kBq kg(-1)-wet in Oncorhynchus masou) were found in the northwestern areas from the FDNPP with higher deposition. However, radiocesium contamination levels were regarded as 1-2 orders of magnitude less than those after the Chernobyl accident. Lagged increase of (137)Cs concentration and longer ecological half-lives (Teco: 1.2-2.6 y in the central part of Fukushima Prefecture) were observed in carnivorous salmonids (O. masou, Salvelinus leucomaenis), whereas a rapid increase and decrease of (137)Cs concentration and shorter Teco (0.99 and 0.69 y) were found in herbivorous and planktivorous osmerids (Plecoglossus altivelis, Hypomesus nipponensis) with

  15. PENGARUH RANGSANGAN HORMON AROMATASE INHIBITOR DAN OODEV TERHADAP PERUBAHAN KELAMIN DAN PERKEMBANGAN GONAD IKAN KERAPU SUNU, Plectropomus leopardus

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    Hirmawan Tirta Yudha

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Permasalahan utama yang dihadapi dalam penyediaan calon induk ikan kerapu sunu Plectropomus leopardus hasil budidaya yang bersifat hermaprodit sekuensial adalah keterlambatan dalam perkembangan gonad dan perubahan gonad dari betina menjadi jantan. Manipulasi hormonal merupakan cara yang paling efektif dan efisien dalam memacu perkembangan reproduksi dan pematangan gonad. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mendapatkan dosis hormon aromatase inhibitor dan oodev yang tepat untuk memacu perubahan kelamin dan perkembangan gonad ikan kerapu sunu. Ikan uji yang digunakan sebanyak 35 ekor F-1 dengan bobot rerata 2,3 ± 0,28 kg. Penelitian dilakukan selama dua bulan. Induksi hormon dilakukan melalui penyuntikan setiap dua minggu sekali dengan empat dosis aromatase inhibitor dan oodev yang berbeda; A (aromatase inhibitor 1 mg kg-1 ikan, O (oodev 1 mL kg-1 ikan, AO1 (aromatase inhibitor 0,1 mg kg-1 ikan + oodev 1 mL kg-1 ikan, AO2 (aromatase inhibitor 1 mg kg-1 ikan + oodev 1 mL kg-1 ikan, dan K (plasebo. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kombinasi aromatase inhibitor 1 mg kg-1 ikan dan oodev 1 mL kg-1 ikan efektif untuk merangsang perubahan kelamin. Perlakuan tersebut dapat meningkatkan konsentrasi testosteron dalam darah (2,819 ng/mL setelah delapan minggu pemeliharaan. Berdasarkan hasil histologi gonad dan observasi terhadap ekspresi gen terkait reproduksi menggunakan gen target DMRT1 dan SOX3 menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan hormon AO2 (Aromatase inhibitor 1 mg kg-1 ikan + oodev 1 mL kg-1 ikan terbukti dapat memacu perubahan kelamin dari betina menjadi jantan dan kematangan gonad pada ikan kerapu sunu Plectropomus leopardus. The main problems faced in providing prospective broodstock of protogynous hermaphrodite coral trout grouper Plectropomus leopardus are lateness of gonadal development and gonadal sex reversal from female to male. Hormonal manipulation is the most effective way to induce reproductive development and gonadal maturation. The present

  16. Complete sequence determination of a novel reptile iridovirus isolated from soft-shelled turtle and evolutionary analysis of Iridoviridae

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    Wang Xiujie

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Soft-shelled turtle iridovirus (STIV is the causative agent of severe systemic diseases in cultured soft-shelled turtles (Trionyx sinensis. To our knowledge, the only molecular information available on STIV mainly concerns the highly conserved STIV major capsid protein. The complete sequence of the STIV genome is not yet available. Therefore, determining the genome sequence of STIV and providing a detailed bioinformatic analysis of its genome content and evolution status will facilitate further understanding of the taxonomic elements of STIV and the molecular mechanisms of reptile iridovirus pathogenesis. Results We determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the STIV genome using 454 Life Science sequencing technology. The STIV genome is 105 890 bp in length with a base composition of 55.1% G+C. Computer assisted analysis revealed that the STIV genome contains 105 potential open reading frames (ORFs, which encode polypeptides ranging from 40 to 1,294 amino acids and 20 microRNA candidates. Among the putative proteins, 20 share homology with the ancestral proteins of the nuclear and cytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDVs. Comparative genomic analysis showed that STIV has the highest degree of sequence conservation and a colinear arrangement of genes with frog virus 3 (FV3, followed by Tiger frog virus (TFV, Ambystoma tigrinum virus (ATV, Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV, Grouper iridovirus (GIV and other iridovirus isolates. Phylogenetic analysis based on conserved core genes and complete genome sequence of STIV with other virus genomes was performed. Moreover, analysis of the gene gain-and-loss events in the family Iridoviridae suggested that the genes encoded by iridoviruses have evolved for favoring adaptation to different natural host species. Conclusion This study has provided the complete genome sequence of STIV. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that STIV and FV3 are strains of the same viral species belonging to the

  17. KANIBALISME PADA YUWANA IKAN KERAPU MACAN (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus DALAM KONDISI PEMELIHARAAN SECARA TERKONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eri Setiadi

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Ikan kerapu macan (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus merupakan ikan yang memiliki nilai ekonomi penting sebagai komoditas ekspor dan telah berhasil dibudidayakan di Indonesia. Kendala yang dihadapi dalam budi daya ikan tersebut yaitu masih tingginya tingkat kanibalisme pada pemeliharaan secara intensif. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui frekuensi gigitan, menelan, dan mortalitas pada pemeliharaan yuwana ikan kerapu macan dan upaya pengendaliannya. Penelitian ini terdiri atas dua tahap, yaitu penelitian variasi ukuran yang dipuasakan (Penelitian I dan variasi ukuran dengan kepadatan jembret yang berbeda (Penelitian II terhadap terjadinya kanibalisme, seperti frekuensi gigitan, menelan, dan mortalitas telah dilakukan. Ukuran yuwana kerapu macan yang digunakan sebagai hewan uji terdiri atas tiga ukuran, yaitu ukuran kecil, sedang, dan besar. Hasil penelitian I menunjukkan bahwa ada perbedaan (P<0,0001 di antara perlakuan terhadap frekuensi gigitan, menelan, dan mortalitas. Penelitian II menunjukkan juga adanya perbedaan (P<0,0006 di antara perlakuan terhadap frekuensi gigitan, menelan dan mortalitas. Kepadatan jembret 1.000 individu/L dapat mengurangi kanibalisme. Tiger grouper, E. fusoguttatus is one of the marine finfish species have a high economic value as an export commodity in Indonesia. Mass production of this species has largely been successful in Indonesia. However, cannibalism is a main problem can be reduced mass production during in an intensive culture system. The aim of this experiment is to examine frequency of bitting and swallowing, mortality, and its control. This experiment was focused on size variation and mysid density that affect on frequency of bitting, frequency of swallowing, and mortality. The fry of tiger grouper used in this experiment was consisted of three sizes (small, medium, and big. Two kinds of experiments were set up namely size variation and starvation (experiment I and size variation and mysid density

  18. PERFORMA KOMODITAS BUDIDAYA LAUT PADA SISTEM INTEGRATED MULTI-TROPHIC AQUACULTURE (IMTA DI TELUK GERUPUK, LOMBOK TENGAH, NUSA TENGGARA BARAT

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    Nyoman Radiarta

    2016-11-01

    ikan bawal bintang sebesar 161,27 ± 30,05 g/ekor. Pertumbuhan rumput laut selama tiga siklus menunjukkan bahwa siklus pertama (Juni-Juli dan siklus kedua (Agustus-September menghasilkan pertumbuhan yang lebih baik dibandingkan dengan siklus ketiga (Oktober–November. Laju pertumbuhan harian rumput laut di sekitar keramba jarring apung (KJA ikan sebesar 4,22%-6,09%/hari lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan kontrol (jarak 2-3 km dari KJA ikan yaitu 3,90%-5,53%/hari. Hasil dari penelitian ini menunjukkan efektivitas sistem IMTA dalam hal peningkatan produktivitas budidaya rumput laut. Model IMTA dapat diterapkan sebagai model pengembangan budidaya laut yang berwawasan lingkungan melalui peningkatan produksi, sistem produksi bersih, dan berkelanjutan. Mariculture activity with Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture (IMTA is an aquaculture development technique which in line with environment conservation concept. This study was aimed to analyze perfomance of mariculture commodities that cultured under integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA system. The study was conducted in Gerupuk Bay, Central Lombok, West Nusa Tenggara during June-November 2015. The IMTA model was combined between tiger grouper fish (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus, silver pompano fish (Trachinotus blochii, Lacepede, and seaweed (Kappaphycus alvarezii. The result showed that during 150 days of cultured periods, both of grouper and pompano indicated a good growth performance, with mean body weight at the end of culture period about 173.45 ± 36.61 g/ind. and 161.27 ± 30.05 g/ind., respectively. Seaweed growth performance from three cultivation cycles showed that cycle-1 (June- July and cycle-2 (August-September had better growth performance than cycle-3 (October November. Daily growth rate of seaweed that cultured near fish cages was higher (4.22%-6.09% than control, 2-3 km distance to fish cages (3.90%-5.53%. This study indicated the effectiveness of IMTA system to increase seaweed culture production. IMTA

  19. Regional Variation in Parasite Species Richness and Abundance in the Introduced Range of the Invasive Lionfish, Pterois volitans.

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    Andrew J Sellers

    Full Text Available Parasites can play an important role in biological invasions. While introduced species often lose parasites from their native range, they can also accumulate novel parasites in their new range. The accumulation of parasites by introduced species likely varies spatially, and more parasites may shift to new hosts where parasite diversity is high. Considering that parasitism and disease are generally more prevalent at lower latitudes, the accumulation of parasites by introduced hosts may be greater in tropical regions. The Indo-Pacific lionfish (Pterois volitans has become widely distributed across the Western Atlantic. In this study, we compared parasitism across thirteen locations in four regions, spanning seventeen degrees of latitude in the lionfish's introduced range to examine potential spatial variation in parasitism. In addition, as an initial step to explore how indirect effects of parasitism might influence interactions between lionfish and ecologically similar native hosts, we also compared parasitism in lionfish and two co-occurring native fish species, the graysby grouper, Cephalopholis cruentata, and the lizardfish, Synodus intermedius, in the southernmost region, Panama. Our results show that accumulation of native parasites on lionfish varies across broad spatial scales, and that colonization by ectoparasites was highest in Panama, relative to the other study sites. Endoparasite richness and abundance, on the other hand, were highest in Belize where lionfish were infected by twice as many endoparasite species as lionfish in other regions. The prevalence of all but two parasite species infecting lionfish was below 25%, and we did not detect an association between parasite abundance and host condition, suggesting a limited direct effect of parasites on lionfish, even where parasitism was highest. Further, parasite species richness and abundance were significantly higher in both native fishes compared to lionfish, and parasite

  20. Effects of preservation methods of muscle tissue from upper-trophic level reef fishes on stable isotope values (δ13C and δ15N

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    Christopher D. Stallings

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Research that uses stable isotope analysis often involves a delay between sample collection in the field and laboratory processing, therefore requiring preservation to prevent or reduce tissue degradation and associated isotopic compositions. Although there is a growing literature describing the effects of various preservation techniques, the results are often contextual, unpredictable and vary among taxa, suggesting the need to treat each species individually. We conducted a controlled experiment to test the effects of four preservation methods of muscle tissue from four species of upper trophic-level reef fish collected from the eastern Gulf of Mexico (Red Grouper Epinephelus morio, Gag Mycteroperca microlepis, Scamp Mycteroperca phenax, and Red Snapper Lutjanus campechanus. We used a paired design to measure the effects on isotopic values for carbon and nitrogen after storage using ice, 95% ethanol, and sodium chloride (table salt, against that in a liquid nitrogen control. Mean offsets for both δ13C and δ15N values from controls were lowest for samples preserved on ice, intermediate for those preserved with salt, and highest with ethanol. Within species, both salt and ethanol significantly enriched the δ15N values in nearly all comparisons. Ethanol also had strong effects on the δ13C values in all three groupers. Conversely, for samples preserved on ice, we did not detect a significant offset in either isotopic ratio for any of the focal species. Previous studies have addressed preservation-induced offsets in isotope values using a mass balance correction that accounts for changes in the isotope value to that in the C/N ratio. We tested the application of standard mass balance corrections for isotope values that were significantly affected by the preservation methods and found generally poor agreement between corrected and control values. The poor performance by the correction may have been due to preferential loss of lighter isotopes

  1. Radiological impact of the nuclear power plant accident on freshwater fish in Fukushima: An overview of monitoring results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Toshihiro; Tomiya, Atsushi; Enomoto, Masahiro; Sato, Toshiyuki; Morishita, Daigo; Izumi, Shigehiko; Niizeki, Kouji; Suzuki, Shunji; Morita, Takami; Kawata, Gyo

    2016-01-01

    Radionuclide ( 131 I, 134 Cs, and 137 Cs) concentrations of monitored freshwater fish species collected from different habitats (rivers, lakes, and culture ponds) in Fukushima Prefecture during March 2011–December 2014 (total 16 species, n = 2692) were analyzed to present a detailed description of radionuclide contamination after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, and to elucidate species-specific spatiotemporal declining trends of 137 Cs concentration for their respective habitats. Low concentrations of 131 I (≤24 Bq kg −1 -wet) were detected from only 11 samples collected during March–June 2011, demonstrating that 131 I transferred to freshwater fish were not intense. In river and lake fishes, a more gradual decrease and higher radiocesium ( 134 Cs, 137 Cs) concentrations were observed than in culture pond fishes, which strongly implied that radiocesium in freshwater fish species was mainly bioaccumulated through the food web in the wild. During 2011–2014, percentages above the Japanese regulatory limit of 100 Bq kg −1 -wet for radiocesium in river and lake fish (14.0% and 39.6%, respectively) were higher than in monitored marine fish (9.9%), indicating longer-term contamination of freshwater fish species, especially in lakes. Higher radiocesium concentrations (maximum 18.7 kBq kg −1 -wet in Oncorhynchus masou) were found in the northwestern areas from the FDNPP with higher deposition. However, radiocesium contamination levels were regarded as 1–2 orders of magnitude less than those after the Chernobyl accident. Lagged increase of 137 Cs concentration and longer ecological half-lives (T eco : 1.2–2.6 y in the central part of Fukushima Prefecture) were observed in carnivorous salmonids (O. masou, Salvelinus leucomaenis), whereas a rapid increase and decrease of 137 Cs concentration and shorter T eco (0.99 and 0.69 y) were found in herbivorous and planktivorous osmerids (Plecoglossus altivelis, Hypomesus

  2. Pathways from marine protected area design and management to ecological success

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    Murray A. Rudd

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Using an international dataset compiled from 121 sites in 87 marine protected areas (MPAs globally (Edgar et al., 2014, I assessed how various configurations of design and management conditions affected MPA ecological performance, measured in terms of fish species richness and biomass. The set-theoretic approach used Boolean algebra to identify pathways that combined up to five ‘NEOLI’ (No-take, Enforced, Old, Large, Isolated conditions and that were sufficient for achieving positive, and negative, ecological outcomes. Ecological isolation was overwhelming the most important condition affecting ecological outcomes but Old and Large were also conditions important for achieving high levels of biomass among large fishes (jacks, groupers, sharks. Solution coverage was uniformly low (0.50 for negative results (i.e., the absence of high biomass among the large commercially-exploited fishes, implying asymmetries in how MPAs may rebuild populations on the one hand and, on the other, protect against further decline. The results revealed complex interactions involving MPA design, implementation, and management conditions that affect MPA ecological performance. In general terms, the presence of no-take regulations and effective enforcement were insufficient to ensure MPA effectiveness on their own. Given the central role of ecological isolation in securing ecological benefits from MPAs, site selection in the design phase appears critical for success.

  3. Epidemiology and Clinical Features of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Thomas Y. K.

    2014-01-01

    In the present review, the main objective was to describe the epidemiology and clinical features of ciguatera fish poisoning in Hong Kong. From 1989 to 2008, the annual incidence of ciguatera varied between 3.3 and 64.9 (median 10.2) per million people. The groupers have replaced the snappers as the most important cause of ciguatera. Pacific-ciguatoxins (CTX) are most commonly present in reef fish samples implicated in ciguatera outbreaks. In affected subjects, the gastrointestinal symptoms often subside within days, whereas the neurological symptoms can persist for weeks or even months. Bradycardia and hypotension, which can be life-threatening, are common. Treatment of ciguatera is primarily supportive and symptomatic. Intravenous mannitol (1 g/kg) has also been suggested. To prevent ciguatera outbreaks, the public should be educated to avoid eating large coral reef fishes, especially the CTX-rich parts. A Code of Practice on Import and Sale of Live Marine Fish for Human Consumption for Prevention and Control of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning was introduced from 2004 to 2013. The Food Safety Ordinance with a tracing mechanism came into full effect in February 2012. The Government would be able to trace the sources of the fishes more effectively and take prompt action when dealing with ciguatera incidents. PMID:25333356

  4. Detection of ciguatoxin in fish tissue using sandwich ELISA and neuroblastoma cell bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Empey Campora, Cara; Dierking, Jan; Tamaru, Clyde S; Hokama, Yoshitsugi; Vincent, Douglas

    2008-01-01

    The applicability of a new enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) for detecting ciguatoxin (CTX) in fish tissue was evaluated by testing three fish species commonly implicated in ciguatera fish poisoning in Hawaii. A total of 164 individual almaco jack (Seriola rivoliana) and greater amberjack (S. dumerili) and a total of 175 individuals of the blue-spotted grouper (Cephalopholis argus) were caught at various locations in the Hawaiian Islands. Muscle tissue from each individual was assessed for the presence of CTX using two methods: a semi-quantitative ELISA that was recently developed for detecting picogram levels of CTX in fish extract and a neuroblastoma (NB) cell assay commonly used to screen for marine toxins in fish. Results of the tests were highly correlated, with the ELISA indicating the presence of CTX in 9.4% of all fish samples, and the NB assay indicating toxicity in 6.8% of the fish samples. We conclude that the ELISA produces reliable and accurate results that are consistent with those provided by the accepted NB assay and that the ELISA has potential for future applications in screening fish populations for CTX.

  5. Detailed LC-MS/MS analysis of ciguatoxins revealing distinct regional and species characteristics in fish and causative alga from the Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogi, Kentaro; Oshiro, Naomasa; Inafuku, Yasuo; Hirama, Masahiro; Yasumoto, Takeshi

    2011-12-01

    Toxin profiles of representative ciguatera species caught at different locations of Japan were investigated in fish flesh by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. Identification and quantification of 16 toxins were facilitated by the use of 14 reference toxins prepared by either synthesis or isolation from natural sources and the previous LC-MS data thereof. Sodium adduct ions [M + Na](+) were used as parent and product ions. Distinct regional differences were unveiled: ciguatoxin-1B type toxins were found in snappers and groupers from Okinawa, ciguatoxin-3C type toxins were found in a spotted knifejaw, Oplegnathus punctatus, from Miyazaki located 730 km north of Okinawa, and both types of toxins were found in a red snapper, Lutjanus bohar, from Minamitorishima (Marcus) Island. Twelve toxins were identified in a dinoflagellate, Gambierdiscus toxicus, collected as the primary toxin source in French Polynesia. Occurrence of M-seco-toxins in fish and oxidized toxins in the dinoflagellate was confirmed for the first time. The present LC-MS/MS method is rapid, specific, and accurate. It not only outperforms the currently employed mouse bioassays but also enables the study of the toxin dynamics during the food chain transmission.

  6. Developing immunological methods for detecting Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus and extra small virus using a recombinant protein preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C-S; Chang, C-Y; Wen, C-M

    2016-06-01

    Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus (XSV) have been identified as the causative agents for white tail disease (WTD) of M. rosenbergii. In this study, the gene sequences encoding MrNV and XSV capsid proteins were separately ligated into the pGEX-4T-3 expression vector and transformed into Escherichia coli. After induction, glutathione-S-transferase (GST)-tagged MrNV and XSV fusion proteins were obtained with molecular masses of 68 and 43 kDa, respectively. Specific polyclonal antibodies for MrNV and XSV against viral recombinant proteins and infected prawn tissues were verified using Western blotting. According to immunodot blot assay results, the detection sensitivities of antibodies were approximately 5 ng μL(-1) for both recombinant proteins GST-MrNV and GST-XSV. In additional, MrNV and XSV were detected at dilution levels of 1:2560 and 1:640 in the infected prawn tissues, respectively. No cross-reactions with white spot syndrome virus or grouper nervous necrosis virus were observed using immunodot blot assays. MrNV and XSV in infected muscle tissues were detected using immunohistochemistry. Although the detection limit of the immunodot blot assay was lower than that of nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, these polyclonal antibodies can be useful for confirming MrNV and XSV infections in field tests. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Microplastic in the gastrointestinal tract of fishes along the Saudi Arabian Red Sea coast

    KAUST Repository

    Baalkhuyur, Fadiyah M.

    2018-04-24

    This study assesses the presence of microplastic litter in the contents of the gastrointestinal tract of 26 commercial and non-commercial fish species from four difference habitats sampled along the Saudi Arabian coast of the Red Sea. A total of 178 individual were examined for microplastics. In total, 26 microplastic fragments were found. Of these, 16 being films (61.5%) and 10 being fishing thread (38.5%). FTIR analysis revealed that the most abundant polymers were polypropylene and polyethylene. The grouper (Epinephelus spp.) sampled at Jazan registered the highest number of ingested microplastics. This fish species is benthic and feeds on benthic invertebrates. Although differences in the abundance of microplastic ingestion among species were not statistically significant, a significant change was observed when the level of ingestion of microplastics particles was compared among the habitats. The higher abundance of microplastics particles may be related to the habitats of fish and the presence of microplastics debris near the seabed. The results of this study represent a first evidence that microplastic pollution represents an emerging threat to Red Sea fishes, their food web and human consumers.

  8. Establishment of a cell line from kidney of seabass, Lates calcarifer (Bloch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phromkunthong, W.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary cell culture from caudal fin and kidney of seabass (Lates calcarifer Bloch using tissue explant method were cultured in three different medias with various salt concentrations. Only seabass kidney (SK cells grew well in Leibovitze's-15 medium containing 8 g/l of NaCl supplemented with 10 % fetal bovine serum at an optimum temperature of 25 oC. Over a period of 24 months, SK cells were subcultured over than 75 passages and exhibited epithelial-like cells. The chromosome number of SK cells was 42. The cells were found to be free from bacterial, fungal and mycoplasma contamination. Seabass cells can be kept at -80 oC and/or in liquid nitrogen (-196 oC for at least 24 months with a survival rate of 83.20 and 74.50 %, respectively. Nine fish viruses were tested for their infectivity and this SK cells were susceptible to sand goby virus (SGV, chub reovirus (CRV, snake-head rhabdovirus (SHRV, red seabream iridovirus (RSIV, seabass iridovirus (SIV and grouper iridovirus-2 (GIV-2.

  9. Productivity growth, case mix and optimal size of hospitals. A 16-year study of the Norwegian hospital sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthun, Kjartan Sarheim; Kittelsen, Sverre Andreas Campbell; Magnussen, Jon

    2017-04-01

    This paper analyses productivity growth in the Norwegian hospital sector over a period of 16 years, 1999-2014. This period was characterized by a large ownership reform with subsequent hospital reorganizations and mergers. We describe how technological change, technical productivity, scale efficiency and the estimated optimal size of hospitals have evolved during this period. Hospital admissions were grouped into diagnosis-related groups using a fixed-grouper logic. Four composite outputs were defined and inputs were measured as operating costs. Productivity and efficiency were estimated with bootstrapped data envelopment analyses. Mean productivity increased by 24.6% points from 1999 to 2014, an average annual change of 1.5%. There was a substantial growth in productivity and hospital size following the ownership reform. After the reform (2003-2014), average annual growth was productivity growth as around time of the reform. This study addresses the issues of both cross-sectional and longitudinal comparability of case mix between hospitals, and thus provides a framework for future studies. The study adds to the discussion on optimal hospital size. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Epidemiology and Clinical Features of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Y. K. Chan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present review, the main objective was to describe the epidemiology and clinical features of ciguatera fish poisoning in Hong Kong. From 1989 to 2008, the annual incidence of ciguatera varied between 3.3 and 64.9 (median 10.2 per million people. The groupers have replaced the snappers as the most important cause of ciguatera. Pacific-ciguatoxins (CTX are most commonly present in reef fish samples implicated in ciguatera outbreaks. In affected subjects, the gastrointestinal symptoms often subside within days, whereas the neurological symptoms can persist for weeks or even months. Bradycardia and hypotension, which can be life-threatening, are common. Treatment of ciguatera is primarily supportive and symptomatic. Intravenous mannitol (1 g/kg has also been suggested. To prevent ciguatera outbreaks, the public should be educated to avoid eating large coral reef fishes, especially the CTX-rich parts. A Code of Practice on Import and Sale of Live Marine Fish for Human Consumption for Prevention and Control of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning was introduced from 2004 to 2013. The Food Safety Ordinance with a tracing mechanism came into full effect in February 2012. The Government would be able to trace the sources of the fishes more effectively and take prompt action when dealing with ciguatera incidents.

  11. A combined RT-PCR and dot-blot hybridization method reveals the coexistence of SJNNV and RGNNV betanodavirus genotypes in wild meagre (Argyrosomus regius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Jimena, B; Cherif, N; Garcia-Rosado, E; Infante, C; Cano, I; Castro, D; Hammami, S; Borrego, J J; Alonso, M C

    2010-10-01

    To detect the possible coexistence of striped jack nervous necrosis virus (SJNNV) and red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) genotypes in a single fish, a methodology based on the combination of PCR amplification and blot hybridization has been developed and applied in this study. The degenerate primers designed for the PCR procedure target the T4 region within the capsid gene, resulting in the amplification of both genotypes. The subsequent hybridization of these amplification products with two different specific digoxigenin-labelled probes resulted in the identification of both genotypes separately. The application of the RT-PCR protocol to analyse blood samples from asymptomatic wild meagre (Argyrosomus regius) specimens has shown a 46.87% of viral nervous necrosis virus carriers. The combination of RT-PCR and blot hybridization increases the detection rate up to 90.62%, and, in addition, it has shown the coexistence of both genotypes in 18 out of the 32 specimens analysed (56.25%). This study reports the coexistence of betanodaviruses belonging to two different genotypes (SJNNV and RGNNV) in wild fish specimens. This is the first report demonstrating the presence of SJNNV and RGNNV genotypes in the same specimen. This study also demonstrates a carrier state in this fish species for the first time. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. Ciguatera caused by consumption of humphead wrasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Thomas Y K

    2013-12-15

    Humphead wrasse (Cheilinus undulatus) is an apex predator from coral reefs of the Indo-Pacific region. A food surveillance project using a validated mouse bioassay revealed the presence of ciguatoxins in significantly greater amounts in its flesh than in groupers and other coral reef fishes commonly available in Hong Kong wholesale market. Humphead wrasse has long been known to cause ciguatera, but there was a lack of clinical reports. A 45-year-old woman developed ciguatera after eating humphead wrasse. She required ICU care and infusions of intravenous fluids and dopamine for management of severe hypotension. All 5 published case series are also reviewed to characterise the types, severity and chronicity of ciguatera symptoms after its consumption. In addition to the gastrointestinal, neurological and other features that were typical of ciguatera, some subjects developed sinus bradycardia, hypotension, shock, neuropsychiatric features (e.g. mental exhaustion, depression, insomnia and memory loss), other central nervous system symptoms (e.g. coma, convulsions and ataxia) and myocardial ischaemia. Other subjects still experienced residual symptoms 6 months later; these were mainly neurological or neuropsychiatric complaints and skin pruritus. To prevent ciguatera, the public should avoid eating humphead wrasse and other large coral reef fishes. They should realise that consumption of the high-risk fish may result in more severe and chronic illness, including life-threatening complications and neuropsychiatric features. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Rapid review on the use of new age induced breeding agent ‘LHRHa’ in Indian finfish seed production sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koushik Roy

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A focused review on the use of LHRHa in induced breeding of fishes in India was made. Use of LHRHa is mainly restricted to high value brackish water and marine fish species whose market value generally exceeds INR 300-400/kg (USD 4.5-6/kg. Published information on use of LHRHa in induced breeding of fishes in India could document only twelve species out of which nine were brackishwater or marine fish. Besides length and weight, the egg diameter of female fishes (>0.45–0.7 mm is an important criterion for treating the fishes with LHRHa. LHRHa is either used alone or in combination with HCG (most popular, PGE, 17α-MT and Pimozide. Dosage of 20-70 µg/kg body weight for females and 10-40 µg/kg body weight for males with a latency period of 24-36 hours is most common in India. Experiments with LHRHa are being carried out mainly by ICAR-CIBA, Chennai (dominant and ICAR-CMFRI, Kochi. Standardization and optimization of LHRHa dosage has been attained in Asian Seabass (Lates calcarifer, Cobia (Rachycentron canadum, Grey mullet (Mugil cephalus and Spotted scat (Scatophagus argus while in Grouper (Epinephelus tauvina, Moonfish (Monodactylus argenteus, Milk fish (Chanos chanos, Crescent Bass (Terapon jarbua and Silver Pompano (Trachinotus blochii, it is under progress.

  14. Epidemiology and clinical features of ciguatera fish poisoning in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Thomas Y K

    2014-10-20

    In the present review, the main objective was to describe the epidemiology and clinical features of ciguatera fish poisoning in Hong Kong. From 1989 to 2008, the annual incidence of ciguatera varied between 3.3 and 64.9 (median 10.2) per million people. The groupers have replaced the snappers as the most important cause of ciguatera. Pacific-ciguatoxins (CTX) are most commonly present in reef fish samples implicated in ciguatera outbreaks. In affected subjects, the gastrointestinal symptoms often subside within days, whereas the neurological symptoms can persist for weeks or even months. Bradycardia and hypotension, which can be life-threatening, are common. Treatment of ciguatera is primarily supportive and symptomatic. Intravenous mannitol (1 g/kg) has also been suggested. To prevent ciguatera outbreaks, the public should be educated to avoid eating large coral reef fishes, especially the CTX-rich parts. A Code of Practice on Import and Sale of Live Marine Fish for Human Consumption for Prevention and Control of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning was introduced from 2004 to 2013. The Food Safety Ordinance with a tracing mechanism came into full effect in February 2012. The Government would be able to trace the sources of the fishes more effectively and take prompt action when dealing with ciguatera incidents.

  15. First report of viral nervous necrosis-induced mass mortality in hatchery-reared larvae of clownfish, Amphiprion sebae Bleeker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binesh, C P; Renuka, K; Malaichami, N; Greeshma, C

    2013-12-01

    Frequent mortality was observed in the larval rearing facility of marine clownfish, Amphiprion sebae Bleeker. Mortality resulted in 80% loss of larval stock. Moribund larvae showed clinical signs typical of viral nervous necrosis, such as uncoordinated, corkscrew-like swimming behaviour, hypersensitivity to stimuli, darkening of body and assembly into large groups, similar to bunches of grapes. The aetiology of the disease was confirmed by gross observation of clinical signs, histopathology and molecular diagnosis. Histological studies revealed severe vacuolation in the brain and in the bipolar and ganglion layers of the eye. Molecular diagnosis by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) specific to piscine nodavirus yielded a positive result. The partial nucleotide sequences of the PCR-amplified fragment were 97-98% similar to other betanodavirus isolates reported globally and more closely aligned with red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV). This is the first report of susceptibility of clownfish, A. sebae, to betanodavirus and the presence of the RGNNV in India. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Monitoring of irradiated food products marketed in Italy and evaluation of electron spin resonance signal sensitivity of experimentally irradiated fish scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Marrone

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Many countries, in order to authorise the use of food irradiation, claim the availability of methods to detect the occurred treatment in addition to the respect of safe use of this technology. Among physical methods, the electron spin resonance (ESR measuring the number of free radicals that are formed during irradiation can be applied only to those foods with cellulose, a crystalline or bone structure, in which free radicals have a shelf life greater than irradiated product. The aim of this study was to highlight an irradiation treatment in European and extra-European foods marketed in Southern Italy by the means of ESR technique. Furthermore, in order to optimise the preparation procedures the efficacy of the above mentioned method in fish scales experimentally irradiated has been evaluated. From February to September 2012, a total number of 83 samples of food products of animal and plant origin were taken at the border inspection post and at retail market and finally analysed. At the same time, the scales of grouper and barracuda have been experimentally irradiated at 0.5 kGy and were subsequently analysed using ESR. Results showed 5 frog legs out of 83 samples positive for treatment and confirm the applicability of ESR also for fish scales.

  17. Importance of geology to fisheries management: Examples from the northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, Kathryn M.; Koenig, C.C.; Coleman, F.C.; Miller, M.

    2003-01-01

    Seafloor mapping of shelf-edge habitats in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico demonstrates how sidescan-sonar imagery, seismic-reflection profiling, video data, geologic mapping, sediment sampling, and understanding the regional geologic history can enhance, support, and guide traditional fisheries research and management. New data from the Madison Swanson and Steamboat Lumps Marine Reserves reveal complex benthic habitats consisting of high-relief calcareous pinnacles, low-relief karstic hardbottom, rocky outcrops several kilometers in length, and variable thickness of fine-grained and apparently mobile coarse-grained sediments. Our data also show that certain fish alter the landscape by clearing sediment from hardbottom areas (e.g., red grouper Epinephelus morio) and by burrowing extensively in fine-grained sediment (e.g., tilefish Lopholatilus chamaeleonticeps). The seafloor imagery and geologic maps show that (a) sea level fluctuations played a dominant role in the development of the present-day regional geology, and (b) habitats (and benthic communities) are tied closely to geologic character. Understanding the geologic setting allowed for efficient and representative sampling of the biology. The geologic data can be used to set meaningful boundaries for fishery reserves and to help predict habitats in areas that are not well mapped. This interdisciplinary work added value to traditional research disciplines by providing management with integrated tools to make better decisions. 

  18. Antibiotic resistance and biofilm formation of some bacteria isolated from sediment, water and fish farms in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faja, Orooba Meteab; Usup, Gires; Ahmad, Asmat

    2018-04-01

    A total of 90 isolates of bacteria were isolated, from sediment (10) samples, water (10) samples and fish (12) samples (Sea bass, Snapper, Grouper and Tilapia). These include 22 isolates of bacteria from sediment, 28 isolates from water and 40 isolates from fish. All the isolates were tested for sensitivity to 13 antibiotics using disc diffusion method. The isolates showed high resistance to some antibiotics based on samples source. Isolates from sediment showed highest resistance toward novobiocin, kanamycin, ampicillin and streptomycin while isolates from water showed highest resistance against vancomycin, penicillin, streptomycin and tetracycline, in contrast, in fish sample showed highest resistance toward vancomycin, ampicillin, streptomycin and tetracycline. Most of the isolates showed biofilm formation ability with different degrees. Out of 22 bacteria isolates from water, two isolates were weak biofilm formers, six isolates moderate biofilm formers and fourteen isolates strong biofilm formers. While, out of 28 bacteria isolates from water one isolate was weak biofilm former, five isolates moderate biofilm formers and 22 strong biofilm formers Fish isolate showed three isolates (8%) moderate biofilm formers and 27 isolates strong biofilm formers. Biofilm formation was one of the factors that lead to antibiotic resistance of the bacterial isolates from these samples.

  19. FISHERIES ASSOCIATED WITH MANGROVE ECOSYSTEM IN INDONESIA: A View from a Mangrove Ecologist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUKRISTIJONO SUKARDJO

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Blessed with mangrove area of some 9.6 million ha in extent, Indonesia represents an important country with fishery resources being a source of food an d nutrients. The fishery resources utilized by man, such as fishes, crustaceans and mollusks that are found in the mangrove ecosystem/swamp ar ea arc enormous. There is a range of species caught in the mangrove and surrounding areas with over 70 species. However, commercially valued species are limited to a few such as rabbit fish, snapper, grouper, marline catfish, fringe-scale sard ine, and anchovy. Leaf detritus from mangroves contribute a major energy input into fisheries. But information about the study on the relationship between fishery species and mangroves, ecologically and biologically, arc scanty. The mangrove is a physiographic unit, the principal components of which arc organisms. Therefore, the problems are predominantly of a biological nature (e.g., mangroves - fishery relationship. Positive correlation between the mangrove area and penaeid shrimp catch found in Indonesia, the Philippines, Australia and Mexico. Finally, the most important part of the variance of the MSY (Maximum Sustainable Yield of penaieds (53% of the variance could be explained by a combination of area of mangrove habitats and latitude.

  20. Rapidly shifting environmental baselines among fishers of the Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáenz-Arroyo, Andrea; Roberts, Callum M; Torre, Jorge; Cariño-Olvera, Micheline; Enríquez-Andrade, Roberto R

    2005-01-01

    Shifting environmental baselines are inter-generational changes in perception of the state of the environment. As one generation replaces another, people's perceptions of what is natural change even to the extent that they no longer believe historical anecdotes of past abundance or size of species. Although widely accepted, this phenomenon has yet to be quantitatively tested. Here we survey three generations of fishers from Mexico's Gulf of California (N=108), where fish populations have declined steeply over the last 60 years, to investigate how far and fast their environmental baselines are shifting. Compared to young fishers, old fishers named five times as many species and four times as many fishing sites as once being abundant/productive but now depleted (Kruskal–Wallis tests, both pGulf grouper Mycteroperca jordani as young fishers on their best ever fishing day (regression r2=0.62, p<0.001). Despite times of plentiful large fish still being within living memory, few young fishers appreciated that large species had ever been common or nearshore sites productive. Such rapid shifts in perception of what is natural help explain why society is tolerant of the creeping loss of biodiversity. They imply a large educational hurdle in efforts to reset expectations and targets for conservation. PMID:16191603

  1. Baselines and Comparison of Coral Reef Fish Assemblages in the Central Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Kattan, Alexander

    2014-12-01

    In order to properly assess human impacts and appropriate restoration goals, baselines of pristine conditions on coral reefs are required. In Saudi Arabian waters of the central Red Sea, widespread and heavy fishing pressure has been ongoing for decades. To evaluate this influence, we surveyed the assemblage of offshore reef fishes in both this region as well as those of remote and largely unfished southern Sudan. At comparable latitudes, of similar oceanographic influence, and hosting the same array of species, the offshore reefs of southern Sudan provided an ideal location for comparison. We found that top predators (jacks, large snappers, groupers, and others) dominated the reef fish community biomass in Sudan’s deep south region, resulting in an inverted (top-heavy) biomass pyramid. In contrast, the Red Sea reefs of central Saudi Arabia exhibited the typical bottom-heavy pyramid and show evidence for trophic cascades in the form of mesopredator release. Biomass values from Sudan’s deep south are quite similar to those previously reported in the remote and uninhabited Northwest Hawaiian Islands, northern Line Islands, Pitcairn Islands, and other remote Pacific islands and atolls. The findings of this study suggest that heavy fishing pressure has significantly altered the fish community structure of Saudi Arabian Red Sea reefs. The results point towards the urgent need for enhanced regulation and enforcement of fishing practices in Saudi Arabia while simultaneously making a strong case for protection in the form of marine protected areas in the southern Sudanese Red Sea.

  2. High population density enhances recruitment and survival of a harvested coral reef fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wormald, Clare L; Steele, Mark A; Forrester, Graham E

    2013-03-01

    A negative relationship between population growth and population density (direct density dependence) is necessary for population regulation and is assumed in most models of harvested populations. Experimental tests for density dependence are lacking for large-bodied, harvested fish because of the difficulty of manipulating population density over large areas. We studied a harvested coral reef fish, Lutjanus apodus (schoolmaster snapper), using eight large, isolated natural reefs (0.4-1.6 ha) in the Bahamas as replicates. An initial observational test for density dependence was followed by a manipulation of population density. The manipulation weakened an association between density and shelter-providing habitat features and revealed a positive effect of population density on recruitment and survival (inverse density dependence), but no effect of density on somatic growth. The snappers on an individual reef were organized into a few shoals, and we hypothesize that large shoals on high-density reefs were less vulnerable to large piscivores (groupers and barracudas) than the small shoals on low-density reefs. Reductions in predation risk for individuals in large social groups are well documented, but because snapper shoals occupied reefs the size of small marine reserves, these ecological interactions may influence the outcome of management actions.

  3. Susceptibilities of medaka (Oryzias latipes cell lines to a betanodavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adachi Kei

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Betanodaviruses, members of the family Nodaviridae, have bipartite, positive-sense RNA genomes and are the causal agents of viral nervous necrosis in many marine fish species. Recently, the viruses were shown to infect a few freshwater fish species including a model fish medaka (Oryzias latipes. Although virological study using cultured medaka cells would provide a lot of insight into virus-fish interactions in molecular aspects, no such cells have yet been tested for virus susceptibility. Results We tested ten medaka cell lines for susceptibilities to redspotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV. Although the viral coat protein was detected in all the cell lines inoculated, the levels of cytopathic effect development and viral propagation were quite different among the cell lines. Those levels were especially high in OLHNI-1 and OLHNI-2 cells, but were extremely low in OLME-104 cells. Some cell lines entered into antiviral state after RGNNV infections probably because of inducing an antiviral system. This is the first report to examine the susceptibilities of cultured medaka cells against a virus. Conclusion OLHNI-1 and OLHNI-2 cells are candidates of new standard cells for betanodavirus study because of their high susceptibilities to the virus and their several advantages as model fish cells.

  4. Predicting Human Mobility Patterns in Marine Ecosystems: Entropy and Home Range Calculations Based on High-Resolution Fishing Vessel Tracking Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murawski, S. A.

    2016-02-01

    A number of recent studies have developed metrics of human mobility patterns based on georeferenced cell phone records. The studies generally indicate a high degree of predictability in human location and relatively narrow home ranges for most people. In marine ecosystems there are a number of important uses for such calculations including marine spatial planning and predicting the impacts of marine management options such as establishing marine protected areas (MPAs). In this study we use individual fishing vessel satellite tracking (VMS) records ( 30 million records) obtained from commercial reef fish fishing vessels in the Gulf of Mexico during 2006-2014. This period witnessed the establishment of a variety of new regulations including individual fishing quotas (IFQs) for snapper, grouper, and tilefish, establishment of spatial-area closures, and the temporary closure of as much as 85,000 nautical miles of productive fishing grounds associated with the Deepwater Horizon oil spill accident. Vessel positions were obtained, with a location frequency of one hour. From these VMS data we calculated three measures of entropy (degree of repeatability in spatial use), as well as calculated the axis of gyration (home range) for each vessel in the data set. These calculations were related to a variety of descriptor variables including vessel size, distance from home port to predominant fishing grounds, revenue generated on fishing trips, and fishing regulations. The applicability of these calculations to marine resource management applications is discussed.

  5. Amino acid and proximate composition of fish bone gelatin from different warm-water species: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atma, Y.

    2017-03-01

    Research on fish bone gelatin has been increased in the last decade. The quality of gelatin depends on its physicochemical properties. Fish bone gelatin from warm-water fishes has a superior amino acid composition than cold-water fishes. The composition of amino acid can determine the strength and stability of gelatin. Thus, it is important to analyze the composition of amino acid as well as proximate composition for potential gelatin material. The warm water fish species used in this study were Grass carp, Pangasius catfish, Catfish, Lizard fish, Tiger-toothed croaker, Pink perch, Red snapper, Brown spotted grouper, and King weakfish. There werre five dominant amino acid in fish bone gelatin including glycine (21.2-36.7%), proline (8.7-11.7%), hydroxyproline (5.3-9.6%), alanine (8.48-12.9%), and glutamic acid (7.23-10.15%). Different warm-water species has some differences in amino acid composition. The proximate composition showed that fishbone gelatin from Pangasius catfish has the highest protein content. The water composition of all fishbone gelatin was well suited to the standard. Meanwhile, based on ash content, only gelatin from gelatin Pangasius catfish met the standard for food industries.

  6. Largest global shark biomass found in the northern Galápagos Islands of Darwin and Wolf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelayo Salinas de León

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Overfishing has dramatically depleted sharks and other large predatory fishes worldwide except for a few remote and/or well-protected areas. The islands of Darwin and Wolf in the far north of the Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR are known for their large shark abundance, making them a global scuba diving and conservation hotspot. Here we report quantitative estimates of fish abundance at Darwin and Wolf over two consecutive years using stereo-video surveys, which reveal the largest reef fish biomass ever reported (17.5 t ${\\mathrm{ha}}^{-1}$ ha − 1 on average, consisting largely of sharks. Despite this, the abundance of reef fishes around the GMR, such as groupers, has been severely reduced because of unsustainable fishing practices. Although Darwin and Wolf are within the GMR, they were not fully protected from fishing until March 2016. Given the ecological value and the economic importance of Darwin and Wolf for the dive tourism industry, the current protection should ensure the long-term conservation of this hotspot of unique global value.

  7. Alternative reproductive tactics and inverse size-assortment in a high-density fish spawning aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkarey, Rucha; Zambre, Amod; Isvaran, Kavita; Arthur, Rohan

    2017-02-28

    At high densities, terrestrial and marine species often employ alternate reproductive tactics (ARTs) to maximize reproductive benefits. We describe ARTs in a high-density and unfished spawning aggregation of the squaretail grouper (Plectropomus areolatus) in Lakshadweep, India. As previously reported for this species, territorial males engage in pair-courtship, which is associated with a pair-spawning tactic. Here, we document a previously unreported school-courtship tactic; where territorial males court multiple females in mid-water schools, which appears to culminate in a unique 'school-spawning' tactic. Courtship tactics were conditional on body size, local mate density and habitat, likely associated with changing trade-offs between potential mating opportunities and intra-sexual competition. Counter-intuitively, the aggregation showed a habitat-specific inverse size-assortment: large males courted small females on the reef slope while small males courted equal-sized or larger females on the shelf. These patterns remained stable across two years of observation at high, unfished densities. These unique density-dependent behaviours may disappear from this aggregation as overall densities decline due to increasing commercial fishing pressure, with potentially large consequences for demographics and fitness.

  8. Two new species of nematode parasites, Cucullanus epinepheli sp. n. (Cucullanidae) and Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) sinespinis sp. n. (Camallanidae), from marine serranid and haemulid fishes off New Caledonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, Frantisek; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2017-04-05

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, two new species of parasitic nematodes are described from marine perciform fishes off New Caledonia: Cucullanus epinepheli sp. n. (Cucullanidae) from the intestine of the brownspotted grouper Epinephelus chlorostigma (Valenciennes) (Serranidae) and Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) sinespinis sp. n. from the intestine of the silver grunt Pomadasys argenteus (Forsskål) (Haemulidae). Cucullanus epinepheli sp. n. differs from its congeners mainly in possessing a unique structure of the anterior, elevated cloacal lip with a large posterior outgrowth covering the cloacal aperture and in the presence of cervical alae and two small preanal papillae on the median dome-shaped precloacal elevation. This is the second known nominal species of this genus parasitising fishes of the family Serranidae and the second representative of Cucullanus Müller, 1777 recorded from fishes in New Caledonian waters. Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) sinespinis sp. n. is mainly characterised by 10-12 spiral ridges in the buccal capsule, the presence of wide caudal alae, three pairs of pedunculate preanal papillae, two unequally long spicules (465-525 µm and 218-231 µm) and by the tail tip with a knob-like structure in the male, and the broad, rounded tail with a terminal digit-like protrusion without cuticular spikes in the female. This is the fifth nominal species of the subgenus Spirocamallanus Olsen, 1952 reported from fishes in New Caledonian waters.

  9. Prediction of Disease Case Severity Level To Determine INA CBGs Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puspitorini, Sukma; Kusumadewi, Sri; Rosita, Linda

    2017-03-01

    Indonesian Case-Based Groups (INA CBGs) is case-mix payment system using software grouper application. INA CBGs consisting of four digits code where the last digits indicating the severity level of disease cases. Severity level influence by secondary diagnosis (complications and co-morbidity) related to resource intensity level. It is medical resources used to treat a hospitalized patient. Objectives of this research is developing decision support system to predict severity level of disease cases and illustrate INA CBGs rate by using data mining decision tree classification model. Primary diagnosis (DU), first secondary diagnosis (DS 1), and second secondary diagnosis (DS 2) are attributes that used as input of severity level. The training process using C4.5 algorithm and the rules will represent in the IF-THEN form. Credibility of the system analyzed through testing process and confusion matrix present the results. Outcome of this research shows that first secondary diagnosis influence significant to form severity level predicting rules from new disease cases and INA CBGs rate illustration.

  10. Largest global shark biomass found in the northern Galápagos Islands of Darwin and Wolf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-de-León, Pelayo; Acuña-Marrero, David; Rastoin, Etienne; Friedlander, Alan M; Donovan, Mary K; Sala, Enric

    2016-01-01

    Overfishing has dramatically depleted sharks and other large predatory fishes worldwide except for a few remote and/or well-protected areas. The islands of Darwin and Wolf in the far north of the Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR) are known for their large shark abundance, making them a global scuba diving and conservation hotspot. Here we report quantitative estimates of fish abundance at Darwin and Wolf over two consecutive years using stereo-video surveys, which reveal the largest reef fish biomass ever reported (17.5 t [Formula: see text] on average), consisting largely of sharks. Despite this, the abundance of reef fishes around the GMR, such as groupers, has been severely reduced because of unsustainable fishing practices. Although Darwin and Wolf are within the GMR, they were not fully protected from fishing until March 2016. Given the ecological value and the economic importance of Darwin and Wolf for the dive tourism industry, the current protection should ensure the long-term conservation of this hotspot of unique global value.

  11. Shallow rocky nursery habitat for fish: Spatial variability of juvenile fishes among this poorly protected essential habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheminée, Adrien; Rider, Mary; Lenfant, Philippe; Zawadzki, Audrey; Mercière, Alexandre; Crec'hriou, Romain; Mercader, Manon; Saragoni, Gilles; Neveu, Reda; Ternon, Quentin; Pastor, Jérémy

    2017-06-15

    Coastal nursery habitats are essential for the renewal of adult fish populations. We quantified the availability of a coastal nursery habitat (shallow heterogeneous rocky bottoms) and the spatial variability of its juvenile fish populations along 250km of the Catalan coastline (France and Spain). Nurseries were present in 27% of the coastline, but only 2% of them benefited from strict protection status. For nine taxa characteristic of this habitat, total juvenile densities varied significantly between nursery sites along the coastline, with the highest densities being found on the northern sites. Recruitment level (i.e. a proxy of nursery value) was not explained by protection level, but it was moderately and positively correlated with an anthropization index. Patterns of spatial variations were taxa-specific. Exceptional observations of four juveniles of the protected grouper Epinephelus marginatus were recorded. Our data on habitat availability and recruitment levels provides important informations which help to focus MPA management efforts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Towards an ecosystem approach to small island fisheries: A preliminary study of a balanced fishery in Kotania Bay (Seram Island, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.G. Hutubessy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries (EAF is a holistic one as EAF considers all species as important elements within the eco-system. An EAF requires that community and ecosystem structure should be maintained by harvesting fish communities in proportion to their natural productivity, thereby sustaining the balance of species and sizes in a community. This article draws from research on the reef fish community and catch in Kotania Bay on Seram Island in Maluku, Indonesia, an area of approximately 6000 ha. Based on the trophic guild (ie the aggregation of species utilizing similar food resources on the reef, the biomass of predator fish currently being captured now represents 40.4% of the total catch biomass. Members of the grouper family, the humphead wrasse (Cheilinus undulatus and trevally (Caranx melampygus in particular, have become targeted for sale in fish markets. If these predators are selectively targeted and exploited, the overall reef fishery and the human populations that depend on it may become imperilled, given these species’ significant roles in controlling those lower in the food chain. This study thereby emphasizes the need for balanced fisheries informed by the EAF model in small island fisheries management in order to sustain food security in such regions.

  13. Spatial variation in coral reef fish and benthic communities in the central Saudi Arabian Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Khalil, Maha T.

    2017-06-06

    Local-scale ecological information is critical as a sound basis for spatial management and conservation and as support for ongoing research in relatively unstudied areas. We conducted visual surveys of fish and benthic communities on nine reefs (3–24 km from shore) in the Thuwal area of the central Saudi Arabian Red Sea. Fish biomass increased with increasing distance from shore, but was generally low compared to reefs experiencing minimal human influence around the world. All reefs had a herbivore-dominated trophic structure and few top predators, such as sharks, jacks, or large groupers. Coral cover was considerably lower on inshore reefs, likely due to a 2010 bleaching event. Community analyses showed inshore reefs to be characterized by turf algae, slower-growing corals, lower herbivore diversity, and highly abundant turf-farming damselfishes. Offshore reefs had more planktivorous fishes, a more diverse herbivore assemblage, and faster-growing corals. All reefs appear to be impacted by overfishing, and inshore reefs seem more vulnerable to thermal bleaching. The study provides a description of the spatial variation in biomass and community structure in the central Saudi Arabian Red Sea and provides a basis for spatial prioritization and subsequent marine protected area design in Thuwal.

  14. Clarifying the relationship between nonradiologists' financial interest in imaging and their utilization of imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargavan, Mythreyi; Sunshine, Jonathan H; Hughes, Danny R

    2011-11-01

    Several limitations and deficiencies have been identified in existing studies of physician financial interest in imaging that show financial interest is associated with more imaging. We conducted extensive quantitative analysis of seven deficiencies that have been identified. Using Symmetry's Episode Grouper, we created episodes of care from all the 2004-2007 health care claims for a random 5% sample of Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries. We compared utilization of imaging in nonhospital episodes having a nonradiologist physician who had a financial interest in imaging with utilization in episodes with no such physician. We studied 23 combinations of medical conditions with imaging modalities commonly used for these conditions. Across four different definitions of financial interest and the 23 combinations, the relative probability (risk ratio) of imaging was uniformly higher for episodes of physicians with a financial interest, predominantly at p financial interest used or the definition of the physician deemed responsible for the imaging. Controlling for patient characteristics, illness severity, and physician specialty likewise had little effect. Physicians who had acquired a financial interest averaged a 49% increase in the odds of imaging relative to physicians who had not. Physicians with a financial interest in an imaging modality used other modalities more than did physicians without a financial interest in the index modality. The Deficit Reduction Act's 2007 payment reductions had little effect. A financial interest in imaging is associated with higher utilization, probably causally. Limiting nonradiologists' financial interest in imaging may be desirable.

  15. Temperature-dependency of Betanodavirus infection in SSN-1 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciulli, S; Gallardi, D; Scagliarini, A; Battilani, M; Hedrick, R P; Prosperi, S

    2006-03-02

    This study examined the in vitro effects of temperature on Betanodavirus infection in the SSN-1 cell line. A Betanodavirus isolated from moribund sea bass fry Dicentrarchus labrax farmed in the Adriatic Sea and characterised as a RGNNV (Redspotted Grouper Nervous Necrosis Virus) genotype was used. Virus-infected SSN-1 cells were incubated at temperatures between 10 and 30 degrees C and observed for cytopathic effects daily for 15 d. Cell-free and cell-associated viral growth were evaluated by 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50) titration at 0, 24, 48, 72, 96, 144, 192, 240, 312 and 360 h post-infection. Virus replication was observed at all temperatures from 15 to 30 degrees C. The optimal temperature for virus growth was 25 degrees C. A temperature of 10 degrees C was detrimental to the growth of the SSN-1 cells and cell death interfered with interpretations of viral growth. The isolate of Betanodavirus from Italian sea bass in this study demonstrates a different temperature range for growth compared to previous reports for related Betanodavirus strains, most likely due to an adaptation to the normal environmental temperatures of the host fish species of origin.

  16. Cloning of the fish cell line SSN-1 for piscine nodaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, T; Nakai, T; Mori, K; Arimoto, M; Furusawa, I

    2000-11-14

    Six cell clones were derived from the SSN-1 cell line, which is composed of a mixed cell population and persistently infected with a C-type retrovirus (SnRV). These clones were susceptible to 4 piscine nodavirus strains belonging to different genotypes (SJNNV, RGNNV, TPNNV and *BFNNV [striped jack, redspotted grouper, tiger puffer and barfin flounder nervous necrosis viruses]). Three clones, designated A-6, E-9, and E-11, were highly permissive to nodavirus infection and production. The virus-induced cytopathic effects appeared as cytoplasmic vacuoles and intensive disintegration at 3 to 5 d post-incubation. These observations were highly reproducible and formed the basis for a successful virus titration system. Quantitative analysis using the cloned E-11 cell line clearly revealed differences in the optimal growth temperatures among the 4 genotypic variants: 25 to 30 degrees C for strain SGWak97 (RGNNV), 20 to 25 degrees C for strain SJNag93 (SJNNV), 20 degrees C for strain TPKag93 (TPNNV), and 15 to 20 degrees C for strain JFIwa98 (BFNNV). Electron microscopy demonstrated SnRV retrovirus particles only in A-6 and E-9 cells, but PCR amplification for the pol gene and LTR region of the proviral DNA indicated the presence of the retrovirus in the other clones, including E-11. The cell clones obtained in the present study will be more useful for qualitative and quantitative analyses of piscine nodaviruses than the SSN-1 cell line.

  17. Comparison of Reef Fish Survey Data Gathered by Open and Closed Circuit SCUBA Divers Reveals Differences in Areas With Higher Fishing Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Andrew E; Williams, Ivor D; Stamoulis, Kostantinos A; Boland, Raymond C; Lino, Kevin C; Hauk, Brian B; Leonard, Jason C; Rooney, John J; Asher, Jacob M; Lopes, Keolohilani H; Kosaki, Randall K

    2016-01-01

    Visual survey by divers using open-circuit (OC) SCUBA is the most widely used approach to survey coral reef fishes. Therefore, it is important to quantify sources of bias in OC surveys, such as the possibility that avoidance of OC divers by fishes can lead to undercounting in areas where targeted species have come to associate divers with a risk of being speared. One potential way to reduce diver avoidance is to utilize closed circuit rebreathers (CCRs), which do not produce the noise and bubbles that are a major source of disturbance associated with OC diving. For this study, we conducted 66 paired OC and CCR fish surveys in the Main Hawaiian Islands at locations with relatively high, moderate, and light fishing pressure. We found no significant differences in biomass estimates between OC and CCR surveys when data were pooled across all sites, however there were differences at the most heavily fished location, Oahu. There, biomass estimates from OC divers were significantly lower for several targeted fish groups, including surgeonfishes, targeted wrasses, and snappers, as well as for all targeted fishes combined, with mean OC biomass between 32 and 68% of mean CCR biomass. There were no clear differences between OC and CCR biomass estimates for these groups at sites with moderate or low fishing pressure, or at any location for other targeted fish groups, including groupers, parrotfishes, and goatfishes. Bias associated with avoidance of OC divers at heavily fished locations could be substantially reduced, or at least calibrated for, by utilization of CCR. In addition to being affected by fishing pressure, the extent to which avoidance of OC divers is problematic for visual surveys varies greatly among taxa, and is likely to be highly influenced by the survey methodology and dimensions used.

  18. Validation of an accelerated solvent extraction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for Pacific ciguatoxin-1 in fish flesh and comparison with the mouse neuroblastoma assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jia Jun; Mak, Yim Ling; Murphy, Margaret B; Lam, James C W; Chan, Wing Hei; Wang, Mingfu; Chan, Leo L; Lam, Paul K S

    2011-07-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is a global foodborne illness caused by consumption of seafood containing ciguatoxins (CTXs) originating from dinoflagellates such as Gambierdiscus toxicus. P-CTX-1 has been suggested to be the most toxic CTX, causing ciguatera at 0.1 μg/kg in the flesh of carnivorous fish. CTXs are structurally complex and difficult to quantify, but there is a need for analytical methods for CFP toxins in coral reef fishes to protect human health. In this paper, we describe a sensitive and rapid extraction method using accelerated solvent extraction combined with high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) for the detection and quantification of P-CTX-1 in fish flesh. By the use of a more sensitive MS system (5500 QTRAP), the validated method has a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.01 μg/kg, linearity correlation coefficients above 0.99 for both solvent- and matrix-based standard solutions as well as matrix spike recoveries ranging from 49% to 85% in 17 coral reef fish species. Compared with previous methods, this method has better overall recovery, extraction efficiency and LOQ. Fish flesh from 12 blue-spotted groupers (Cephalopholis argus) was assessed for the presence of CTXs using HPLC-MS/MS analysis and the commonly used mouse neuroblastoma assay, and the results of the two methods were strongly correlated. This method is capable of detecting low concentrations of P-CTX-1 in fish at levels that are relevant to human health, making it suitable for monitoring of suspected ciguateric fish both in the environment and in the marketplace.

  19. Contrasts in the marine ecosystem of two Macaronesian islands: A comparison between the remote Selvagens Reserve and Madeira Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, Alan M; Ballesteros, Enric; Clemente, Sabrina; Gonçalves, Emanuel J; Estep, Andrew; Rose, Paul; Sala, Enric

    2017-01-01

    The islands of Madeira and Selvagens are less than 300 km apart but offer a clear contrast between a densely populated and highly developed island (Madeira), and a largely uninhabited and remote archipelago (Selvagens) within Macaronesia in the eastern Atlantic. The Madeira Archipelago has ~260,000 inhabitants and receives over six million visitor days annually. The Selvagens Islands Reserve is one of the oldest nature reserves in Portugal and comprises two islands and several islets, including the surrounding shelf to a depth of 200 m. Only reserve rangers and a small unit of the maritime police inhabit these islands. The benthic community around Selvagens was dominated by erect and turf algae, while the community at Madeira was comprised of crustose coralline and turf algae, sessile invertebrates, and sea urchin barrens. The sea urchin Diadema africanum was 65% more abundant at Madeira than at Selvagens. Total fish biomass was 3.2 times larger at Selvagens than at Madeira, and biomass of top predators was more than 10 times larger at Selvagens. Several commercially important species (e.g., groupers, jacks), which have been overfished throughout the region, were more common and of larger size at Selvagens than at Madeira. Important sea urchin predators (e.g., hogfishes, triggerfishes) were also in higher abundance at Selvagens compared to Madeira. The effects of fishing and other anthropogenic influences are evident around Madeira. This is in stark contrast to Selvagens, which harbors healthy benthic communities with diverse algal assemblages and high fish biomass, including an abundance of large commercially important species. The clear differences between these two island groups highlights the importance of expanding and strengthening the protection around Selvagens, which harbors one of the last intact marine ecosystems in the North Atlantic, and the need to increase management and protection around Madeira.

  20. Molecular identification and functional analysis of Ctrp9 inEpinephelus coioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guokun; Qin, Chaobin; Wang, Bin; Jia, Jirong; Yuan, Xi; Sun, Caiyun; Li, Wensheng

    2017-05-01

    CTRP9 is a member of the C1q/TNF-related protein (CTRP) superfamily and has been studied in mammals, whereas the comparative studies of CTRP9 in non-mammalian species are still absent. In this study, ctrp9 was isolated and characterized from the orange-spotted grouper ( Epinephelus coioides ). The full-length cDNA of ctrp9 was 1378 bp in size with an ORF (open reading frame) of 1020 bp that encodes a 339 amino acid pre-pro hormone. The mRNA expression of ctrp9 showed a rather high level in the kidney and brain, but a low level in other tissues. Furthermore, the mRNA expression of ctrp9 decreased significantly in the liver after fasting for 7 days and restored to the normal levels after refeeding. In contrast, the ctrp9 mRNA level increased in the hypothalamus after fasting. The recombinant gCtrp9 (globular Ctrp9) was prepared using the Pichia pastoris expression system and was verified by Western blot as well as mass spectrometry assays. In the primary hepatocytes culture, the recombinant gCtrp9 could inhibit the glucose production after 12-h treatment. After i.p. (intraperitoneal) injection with recombinant gCtrp9, in hypothalamus, mRNA expression levels of npy and orexin (orexigenic factors) decreased, whereas the expression levels of crh and pomc (anorexigenic factors) increased. Moreover, i.p. injection with the recombinant gCtrp9 could reduce the serum concentrations of glucose, TG and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol but increase the content of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Our studies for the first time unveil the structure of Ctrp9 and its potential role as a regulatory factor of metabolism and food intake in teleost. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  1. Large-scale, multidirectional larval connectivity among coral reef fish populations in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, David H; Harrison, Hugo B; Almany, Glenn R; Berumen, Michael L; Bode, Michael; Bonin, Mary C; Choukroun, Severine; Doherty, Peter J; Frisch, Ashley J; Saenz-Agudelo, Pablo; Jones, Geoffrey P

    2016-12-01

    Larval dispersal is the key process by which populations of most marine fishes and invertebrates are connected and replenished. Advances in larval tagging and genetics have enhanced our capacity to track larval dispersal, assess scales of population connectivity, and quantify larval exchange among no-take marine reserves and fished areas. Recent studies have found that reserves can be a significant source of recruits for populations up to 40 km away, but the scale and direction of larval connectivity across larger seascapes remain unknown. Here, we apply genetic parentage analysis to investigate larval dispersal patterns for two exploited coral reef groupers (Plectropomus maculatus and Plectropomus leopardus) within and among three clusters of reefs separated by 60-220 km within the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, Australia. A total of 69 juvenile P. maculatus and 17 juvenile P. leopardus (representing 6% and 9% of the total juveniles sampled, respectively) were genetically assigned to parent individuals on reefs within the study area. We identified both short-distance larval dispersal within regions (200 m to 50 km) and long-distance, multidirectional dispersal of up to ~250 km among regions. Dispersal strength declined significantly with distance, with best-fit dispersal kernels estimating median dispersal distances of ~110 km for P. maculatus and ~190 km for P. leopardus. Larval exchange among reefs demonstrates that established reserves form a highly connected network and contribute larvae for the replenishment of fished reefs at multiple spatial scales. Our findings highlight the potential for long-distance dispersal in an important group of reef fishes, and provide further evidence that effectively protected reserves can yield recruitment and sustainability benefits for exploited fish populations. © 2016 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Stable isotopes in fish eye lenses as potential recorders of trophic and geographic history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Amy A; Hollander, David J; Peebles, Ernst B

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated eye lenses as potential recorders of stable isotope histories in fish because they consist of metabolically inert optical proteins that are deposited in successive, concentric circles (laminae) much like otolith circuli and tree rings. We conducted four different tests on lenses from red snapper, red grouper, gag, and white grunt. The first test was a low-resolution screening of multiple individuals (4-5 radial groups of laminae per lens, all species except white grunt). Along the radial axis, all individuals exhibited substantial isotopic variability. Red snapper individuals separated into two groups based on δ15N and gag separated into two groups based on δ13C. Two gag with the greatest variation were chosen for high-resolution temporal analysis using individual laminae from their second eye lenses. The first-order patterns from the high-resolution analysis generally mimicked patterns from the low-resolution screening of grouped laminae, yet the high-resolution plots revealed early-life details that were not apparent in the low-resolution screenings. For the third test, left- versus right-eye variation was compared using high-resolution methods. White grunt left- and right-eye radial isotopic patterns were almost identical for both δ13C and δ15N, suggesting the variations observed among individual fish were not artifacts. The final test evaluated intra-laminar variation; multiple samples were analyzed from different parts of the same lamina. Seven laminae from three individuals of two species were analyzed in this manner; variations among laminae were found to be much higher than variations within laminae. However, nominal intra-laminar variations were comparable to nominal differences between left and right lenses, suggesting intra-laminar variation established measurement precision. Eye lens isotopes appear to be useful for reconstructing the isotopic histories of individual fish; these histories can be compared with spatially-derived isoscapes

  3. Fish consumption behavior and rates in native and non-native people in Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Burger, Joanna

    2014-08-01

    Fish are a healthy source of protein and nutrients, but contaminants in fish may provide health risks. Determining the risk from contaminants in fish requires site-specific information on consumption patterns. We examine consumption rates for resident and expatriates in the Jeddah region of Saudi Arabia, by species of fish and fishing location. For Saudis, 3.7% of males and 4.3% of females do not eat fish; for expatriates, the percent not eating fish is 6.6% and 6.1% respectively. Most people eat fish at home (over 90%), and many eat fish at restaurants (65% and 48%, respectively for Saudis and expatriates). Fish eaten at home comes from local fish markets, followed by supermarkets. Saudis included fish in their diets at an average of 1.4±1.2 meals/week at home and 0.8±0.7 meals/week at restaurants, while expats ate 2.0±1.7 meals/week at home and 1.1±1.1 meals/week in restaurants. Overall, Saudis ate 2.2 fish meals/week, while expats ate 3.1 meals/week. Grouper (Epinephelus and Cephalopholis) were eaten by 72% and 60% respectively. Plectropomus pessuliferus was the second favorite for both groups and Hipposcarus harid and Lethrinus lentjan were in 3rd and 4th place in terms of consumption. Average meal size was 68. g for Saudis and 128. g for expatriates. These data can be used by health professionals, risk assessors, and environmental regulators to examine potential risk from contaminants in fish, and to compare consumption rates with other sites. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

  4. Do national advisories serve local consumers: an assessment of mercury in economically important North Carolina fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petre, Sally Jane; Sackett, Dana K; Aday, D Derek

    2012-05-01

    Consumption of marine fish provides both benefits (lean protein, omega-3 fatty acids and essential nutrients) and risks (main source of mercury (Hg) exposure for humans). Mercury is a potent neurotoxin and the source of more fish advisories nationwide than any other toxicant. Despite the widespread nature of Hg, it is unknown whether local Hg contamination reflects national and regional levels often used as bases to inform consumers of potential fish consumption risk. Thus, the objectives of our study were to examine Hg levels of six commonly consumed marine species harvested locally off the North Carolina coast and to compare our results to published regional (Monterey Bay Aquarium's Seafood Watch List) and national (Environmental Protection Agency, EPA, and Food and Drug Administration, FDA) Hg averages, action levels, and guidelines. We found significant differences in Hg concentrations among collected species, and we identified correlations between Hg concentration and fish length and trophic levels. Collected mahi mahi and triggerfish were below the EPA fish tissue action level (0.3ppm). Wahoo and grouper exceeded the EPA action level but were below the FDA action level (1.0ppm). King mackerel had the highest Hg concentration among targeted species, exceeding both EPA and FDA action levels. Further, our local results were not always consistent with calculated averages from EPA and FDA databases for the same species, and although many of our findings were consistent with Monterey Bay Aquarium's Seafood Watch List (southeast region), recommendations based on Hg levels would conflict with recommendations they provide based on sustainability. We find regional and national averages are not always reflective of local Hg contamination and suggest local data may be needed to accurately assess consumer risk.

  5. The importance of the marine ornamental reef fish trade in the wider Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckner, A W

    2005-05-01

    The marine ornamental fish trade began in the 1930s in Sri Lanka, spread to Hawaii and the Philippines in the 1950s, and expanded to a multi-million dollar industry in the 1970s with fisheries established throughout the tropical Pacific, Indian and Atlantic Oceans. Currently, 45 countries supply global markets an estimated 14-30 million fish annually, with an import value of US$28-44 million. The largest suppliers are Indonesia and the Philippines, followed by Brazil, Maldives, Vietnam, Sri Lanka and Hawaii. In the tropical Western Atlantic, 16 countries have export fisheries, including the U.S. (Florida and Puerto Rico). The U.S. is the world's largest buyer, followed by the European Union and Japan. The global trade consists of over 1400 species of reef fishes, of which only about 25 are captive bred on a commercial scale. Damselfish, anemonefish, and angelfish constitute over 50% of the global volume; butterflyfish, wrasses, blennies, gobies, triggerfish, filcfish, hawkfishes, groupers and basselets account for 31% of the trade, and the remaining 16% is represented by 33 families. The most important fishes from the Caribbean are angelfish (six species), seahorses (two species), royal gramma, jawfish, queen triggerfish, redlip blenny, puddingwife, bluehead wrasse, and blue chromis. The Caribbean currently supplies a small percentage of the global trade in marine ornamental species, but ornamental fisheries in this region represent important emerging industries. It is critical that effective ornamental fishery management plans and regulations are developed and enforced, and fishery-dependent and fishery-independent data are collected and utilized in decision making processes to ensure sustainable ornamental fisheries throughout the region.

  6. Antibody characterization and immunoassays for palytoxin using an SPR biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakes, Betsy Jean; DeGrasse, Stacey L; Poli, Mark; Deeds, Jonathan R

    2011-07-01

    Palytoxin (PLTX), a polyether marine toxin originally isolated from the zoanthid Palythoa toxica, is one of the most toxic non-protein substances known. Fatal poisonings have been linked to ingestion of PLTX-contaminated seafood, and effects in humans have been associated with dermal and inhalational exposure to PLTX containing organisms and waters. Additionally, PLTX co-occurrence with other well-characterized seafood toxins (e.g., ciguatoxins, saxitoxins, tetrodotoxin) has hindered direct associations of PLTX to seafood-borne illnesses. There are currently no validated methods for the quantitative detection of PLTX(s). As such, a well-characterized, robust, specific analytical technique is needed for the detection of PLTX(s) in source organisms, surrounding waters, and clinical samples. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensors are ideally suited for antibody characterization and quantitative immunoassay detection. Herein, we describe a newly developed SPR assay for PLTX. An anti-mouse substrate was used to characterize the kinetic values for a previously developed monoclonal anti-PLTX. The characterized antibody was then incorporated into a sensitive, rapid, and selective PLTX assay. Buffer type, flow rate, analyte-binding time, and regeneration conditions were optimized for the antibody-PLTX system. Cross-reactivity to potentially co-occurring seafood toxins was also evaluated. We show that this optimized assay is capable of measuring low- to sub-ng/mL PLTX levels in buffer and two seafood matrices (grouper and clam). Preliminary results indicate that this SPR biosensor assay allows for (1) rapid characterization of antibodies and (2) rapid, sensitive PLTX concentration determination in seafood matrices. Method development information contained herein may be broadly applied to future PLTX detection and/or antibody characterization efforts.

  7. The paraty artisanal fishery (southeastern Brazilian coast: ethnoecology and management of a social-ecological system (SES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begossi Alpina

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study intends to give recommendations to the management of Paraty fishery in Brazil through an interplay of local and scientific knowledge. In particular, the objectives are the following: 1 to describe the Paraty fishery; 2 to compare the fishermen’s local ecological knowledge with recorded fish landings and previous studies in Paraty; 3 to combine the data on local fishing and on local/Caiçara livelihoods with the SES (social-ecological systems Model. The methods include a systematic survey of fishing in Tarituba and Praia Grande, which are located in the northern end and the central part of the Paraty municipality, respectively. For four days each month, systematic data on catches at landing points were collected, as well as macroscopic gonad analysis data for the fishes Centropomus parallelus and C. undecimalis (snook, robalo, Epinephelus marginatus (grouper, garoupa, Scomberomorus cavalla (King mackerel, cavala, and Lutjanus synagris (Lane snapper, vermelho. Spring and summer are important seasons during which some species reproduce, and the integration of fishing periods for some target species could assist in fishing management through the use of closed seasons. Fishermen could obtain complementary earnings from tourism and from the “defeso system” (closed season including a salary payment to conserve fishing stocks. The SES model facilitates an understanding of the historical context of fishing, its economic importance for local livelihoods, the constraints from conservation measures that affect fishermen, and the management processes that already exist, such as the defeso. If used to integrate fishing with complementary activities (tourism, such a system could improve the responsibility of fishermen regarding the conservation of fish stocks.

  8. Fatty Acid and Cholesterol Concentrations in Usually Consumed Fish in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Scherr

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several studies have demonstrated clinical benefits of fish consumption for the cardiovascular system. These effects are attributed to the increased amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids in these foods. However, the concentrations of fatty acids may vary according to region. Objective: The goal of this study was to determine the amount of,cholesterol and fatty acids in 10 Brazilian fishes and in a non-native farmed salmon usually consumed in Brazil. Methods: The concentrations of cholesterol and fatty acids, especially omega-3, were determined in grilled fishes. Each fish sample was divided in 3 sub-samples (chops and each one was extracted from the fish to minimize possible differences in muscle and fat contents. Results: The largest cholesterol amount was found in white grouper (107.6 mg/100 g of fish and the smallest in badejo (70 mg/100 g. Omega-3 amount varied from 0.01 g/100 g in badejo to 0.900 g/100 g in weakfish. Saturated fat varied from 0.687 g/100 g in seabass to 4.530 g/100 g in filhote. The salmon had the greatest concentration of polyunsaturated fats (3.29 g/100 g and the highest content of monounsaturated was found in pescadinha (5.98 g/100 g. Whiting and boyfriend had the best omega-6/omega 3 ratios respectively 2.22 and 1.19, however these species showed very little amounts of omega-3. Conclusion: All studied Brazilian fishes and imported salmon have low amounts of saturated fat and most of them also have low amounts of omega-3.

  9. The Paraty artisanal fishery (southeastern Brazilian coast): ethnoecology and management of a social-ecological system (SES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begossi, Alpina; Salyvonchyk, Svetlana; Nora, Vinicius; Lopes, Priscila F; Silvano, Renato A M

    2012-06-27

    This study intends to give recommendations to the management of Paraty fishery in Brazil through an interplay of local and scientific knowledge. In particular, the objectives are the following: 1) to describe the Paraty fishery; 2) to compare the fishermen's local ecological knowledge with recorded fish landings and previous studies in Paraty; 3) to combine the data on local fishing and on local/Caiçara livelihoods with the SES (social-ecological systems) Model. The methods include a systematic survey of fishing in Tarituba and Praia Grande, which are located in the northern end and the central part of the Paraty municipality, respectively. For four days each month, systematic data on catches at landing points were collected, as well as macroscopic gonad analysis data for the fishes Centropomus parallelus and C. undecimalis (snook, robalo), Epinephelus marginatus (grouper, garoupa), Scomberomorus cavalla (King mackerel, cavala), and Lutjanus synagris (Lane snapper, vermelho). Spring and summer are important seasons during which some species reproduce, and the integration of fishing periods for some target species could assist in fishing management through the use of closed seasons. Fishermen could obtain complementary earnings from tourism and from the "defeso system" (closed season including a salary payment) to conserve fishing stocks. The SES model facilitates an understanding of the historical context of fishing, its economic importance for local livelihoods, the constraints from conservation measures that affect fishermen, and the management processes that already exist, such as the defeso. If used to integrate fishing with complementary activities (tourism), such a system could improve the responsibility of fishermen regarding the conservation of fish stocks.

  10. Comparison of Reef Fish Survey Data Gathered by Open and Closed Circuit SCUBA Divers Reveals Differences in Areas With Higher Fishing Pressure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew E Gray

    Full Text Available Visual survey by divers using open-circuit (OC SCUBA is the most widely used approach to survey coral reef fishes. Therefore, it is important to quantify sources of bias in OC surveys, such as the possibility that avoidance of OC divers by fishes can lead to undercounting in areas where targeted species have come to associate divers with a risk of being speared. One potential way to reduce diver avoidance is to utilize closed circuit rebreathers (CCRs, which do not produce the noise and bubbles that are a major source of disturbance associated with OC diving. For this study, we conducted 66 paired OC and CCR fish surveys in the Main Hawaiian Islands at locations with relatively high, moderate, and light fishing pressure. We found no significant differences in biomass estimates between OC and CCR surveys when data were pooled across all sites, however there were differences at the most heavily fished location, Oahu. There, biomass estimates from OC divers were significantly lower for several targeted fish groups, including surgeonfishes, targeted wrasses, and snappers, as well as for all targeted fishes combined, with mean OC biomass between 32 and 68% of mean CCR biomass. There were no clear differences between OC and CCR biomass estimates for these groups at sites with moderate or low fishing pressure, or at any location for other targeted fish groups, including groupers, parrotfishes, and goatfishes. Bias associated with avoidance of OC divers at heavily fished locations could be substantially reduced, or at least calibrated for, by utilization of CCR. In addition to being affected by fishing pressure, the extent to which avoidance of OC divers is problematic for visual surveys varies greatly among taxa, and is likely to be highly influenced by the survey methodology and dimensions used.

  11. New method of beam bunching in free-ion lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bessonov, E.G. [Lebedev Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    An effective ion beam bunching method is suggested. This method is based on a selective interaction of line spectrum laser light (e.g. axial mode structure light) with non-fully stripped ion beam cooled in a storage rings, arranging the ion beam in layers in radial direction of an energy-longitudinal coordinate plane and following rotation of the beam at the right angle after switching on the RF cavity or undulator grouper/buncher. Laser cooling of the ion beam can be used at this position after switching off the resonator to decrease the energy spread caused by accelerating field of the resonator. A relativistic multilayer ion mirror will be produced this way. Both monochromatic laser beams and intermediate monochromaticity and bandwidth light sources of spontaneous incoherent radiation can be used for production of hard and high power electromagnetic radiation by reflection from this mirror. The reflectivity of the mirror is rather high because of the cross-section of the backward Rayleigh scattering of photon light by non-fully stripped relativistic ions ({approximately}{lambda}{sup 2}) is much greater ({approximately} 10{divided_by}15 orders) then Thompson one ({approximately} r{sub e}{sup 2}). This position is valid even in the case of non-monochromatic laser light ({Delta}{omega}/{omega} {approximately} 10{sup -4}). Ion cooling both in longitudinal plane and three-dimensional radiation ion cooling had been proposed based on this observation. The using of these cooling techniques will permit to store high current and low emittance relativistic ion beams in storage rings. The bunched ion beam can be used in ordinary Free-Ion Lasers as well. After bunching the ion beam can be extracted from the storage ring in this case. Storage rings with zero momentum compaction function will permit to keep bunching of the ion beam for a long time.

  12. Global warming may disproportionately affect larger adults in a predatory coral reef fish

    KAUST Repository

    Messmer, Vanessa

    2016-11-03

    Global warming is expected to reduce body sizes of ectothermic animals. Although the underlying mechanisms of size reductions remain poorly understood, effects appear stronger at latitudinal extremes (poles and tropics) and in aquatic rather than terrestrial systems. To shed light on this phenomenon, we examined the size dependence of critical thermal maxima (CTmax) and aerobic metabolism in a commercially important tropical reef fish, the leopard coral grouper (Plectropomus leopardus) following acclimation to current-day (28.5 °C) vs. projected end-of-century (33 °C) summer temperatures for the northern Great Barrier Reef (GBR). CTmax declined from 38.3 to 37.5 °C with increasing body mass in adult fish (0.45-2.82 kg), indicating that larger individuals are more thermally sensitive than smaller conspecifics. This may be explained by a restricted capacity for large fish to increase mass-specific maximum metabolic rate (MMR) at 33 °C compared with 28.5 °C. Indeed, temperature influenced the relationship between metabolism and body mass (0.02-2.38 kg), whereby the scaling exponent for MMR increased from 0.74 ± 0.02 at 28.5 °C to 0.79 ± 0.01 at 33 °C, and the corresponding exponents for standard metabolic rate (SMR) were 0.75 ± 0.04 and 0.80 ± 0.03. The increase in metabolic scaling exponents at higher temperatures suggests that energy budgets may be disproportionately impacted in larger fish and contribute to reduced maximum adult size. Such climate-induced reductions in body size would have important ramifications for fisheries productivity, but are also likely to have knock-on effects for trophodynamics and functioning of ecosystems.

  13. Using industry ROV videos to assess fish associations with subsea pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, D. L.; Partridge, J. C.; Bond, T.; Birt, M. J.; Bornt, K. R.; Langlois, T. J.

    2017-06-01

    Remote Operated Vehicles are routinely used to undertake inspection and maintenance activities of underwater pipelines in north-west Australia. In doing so, many terabytes of geo-referenced underwater video are collected at depths, and on a scale usually unobtainable for ecological research. We assessed fish diversity and abundance from existing ROV videos collected along 2-3 km sections of two pipelines in north-west Australia, one at 60-80 m water depth and the other at 120-130 m. A total of 5962 individual fish from 92 species and 42 families were observed. Both pipelines were characterised by a high abundance of commercially important fishes including: snappers (Lutjanidae) and groupers (Epinephelidae). The presence of thousands of unidentifiable larval fish, in addition to juveniles, sub-adults and adults suggests that the pipelines may be enhancing, rather than simply attracting, fish stocks. The prevalence and high complexity of sponges on the shallower pipeline and of deepwater corals on the deeper pipeline had a strong positive correlation with the fish abundance. These habitats likely offer a significant food source and refuge for fish, but also for invertebrates upon which fish feed. A greater diversity on the shallower pipeline, and a higher abundance of fishes on both pipelines, were associated with unsupported pipeline sections (spans) and many species appeared to be utilising pipeline spans as refuges. This study is a first look at the potential value of subsea pipelines for fishes on the north-west shelf. While the results suggest that these sections of pipeline appear to offer significant habitat that supports diverse and important commercially fished species, further work, including off-pipeline surveys on the natural seafloor, are required to determine conclusively the ecological value of pipelines and thereby inform discussions regarding the ecological implications of pipeline decommissioning.

  14. Large-scale, multidirectional larval connectivity among coral reef fish populations in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park

    KAUST Repository

    Williamson, David H.

    2016-11-15

    Larval dispersal is the key process by which populations of most marine fishes and invertebrates are connected and replenished. Advances in larval tagging and genetics have enhanced our capacity to track larval dispersal, assess scales of population connectivity, and quantify larval exchange among no-take marine reserves and fished areas. Recent studies have found that reserves can be a significant source of recruits for populations up to 40 km away, but the scale and direction of larval connectivity across larger seascapes remain unknown. Here, we apply genetic parentage analysis to investigate larval dispersal patterns for two exploited coral reef groupers (Plectropomus maculatus and Plectropomus leopardus) within and among three clusters of reefs separated by 60–220 km within the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, Australia. A total of 69 juvenile P. maculatus and 17 juvenile P. leopardus (representing 6% and 9% of the total juveniles sampled, respectively) were genetically assigned to parent individuals on reefs within the study area. We identified both short-distance larval dispersal within regions (200 m to 50 km) and long-distance, multidirectional dispersal of up to ~250 km among regions. Dispersal strength declined significantly with distance, with best-fit dispersal kernels estimating median dispersal distances of ~110 km for P. maculatus and ~190 km for P. leopardus. Larval exchange among reefs demonstrates that established reserves form a highly connected network and contribute larvae for the replenishment of fished reefs at multiple spatial scales. Our findings highlight the potential for long-distance dispersal in an important group of reef fishes, and provide further evidence that effectively protected reserves can yield recruitment and sustainability benefits for exploited fish populations.

  15. Phylogeographic analyses of submesophotic snappers Etelis coruscans and Etelis "marshi" (family Lutjanidae reveal concordant genetic structure across the Hawaiian Archipelago.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly R Andrews

    Full Text Available The Hawaiian Archipelago has become a natural laboratory for understanding genetic connectivity in marine organisms as a result of the large number of population genetics studies that have been conducted across this island chain for a wide taxonomic range of organisms. However, population genetic studies have been conducted for only two species occurring in the mesophotic or submesophotic zones (30+m in this archipelago. To gain a greater understanding of genetic connectivity in these deepwater habitats, we investigated the genetic structure of two submesophotic fish species (occurring ∼200-360 m in this archipelago. We surveyed 16 locations across the archipelago for submesophotic snappers Etelis coruscans (N = 787 and E. "marshi" (formerly E. carbunculus; N = 770 with 436-490 bp of mtDNA cytochrome b and 10-11 microsatellite loci. Phylogeographic analyses reveal no geographic structuring of mtDNA lineages and recent coalescence times that are typical of shallow reef fauna. Population genetic analyses reveal no overall structure across most of the archipelago, a pattern also typical of dispersive shallow fishes. However some sites in the mid-archipelago (Raita Bank to French Frigate Shoals had significant population differentiation. This pattern of no structure between ends of the Hawaiian range, and significant structure in the middle, was previously observed in a submesophotic snapper (Pristipomoides filamentosus and a submesophotic grouper (Hyporthodus quernus. Three of these four species also have elevated genetic diversity in the mid-archipelago. Biophysical larval dispersal models from previous studies indicate that this elevated diversity may result from larval supplement from Johnston Atoll, ∼800 km southwest of Hawaii. In this case the boundaries of stocks for fishery management cannot be defined simply in terms of geography, and fishery management in Hawaii may need to incorporate external larval supply into management

  16. Molecular characterization of rockfish (Sebastes schlegeli) gonadotropin subunits and their mRNA expression profiles during oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Jung; Cho, Yong Chul; Sohn, Young Chang

    2005-05-01

    In an attempt to understand the reproductive regulation in viviparous teleosts, gonadotropin (GTH) subunit cDNAs were characterized and the expression levels of GTH subunit mRNAs in the pituitary glands of the rockfish, Sebastes schlegeli (Scorpaeniformes, Scorpaenidae), were examined by Northern blot analysis. The complete sequences of rockfish GTH subunits (GTHalpha, FSHbeta, and LHbeta) were determined by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) and nucleotide sequencing. Based on the RACE analysis, the cDNAs of GTHalpha, FSHbeta, and LHbeta consisted of 655, 540, and 529 nucleotides encoding peptides of 132, 130, and 143 amino acids, respectively. The mature peptides of rockfish FSHbeta, LHbeta, and common GTHalpha showed high sequence identities (FSHbeta, 58-62%; LHbeta, 86-94%; and GTHalpha, 87-88%) to those of other perciforme (e.g., orange spotted grouper, red seabream, stripped bass, and sea bass). In a sequence alignment of the mature peptides, rockfish FSHbeta exhibited a unique feature, the lack of a conserved N-glycosylation site. This is in contrast to both LHbeta and GTHalpha which contain one and two N-glycosylation sites, respectively, and is consistent with those of other teleosts. The mRNA levels of the GTHalpha subunit increased at the vitellogenic stage and remained steady from ovulation to post-parturition. FSHbeta mRNA levels increased abruptly during the vitellogenic stages and then decreased during ovulation, embryonic development, and post-parturition. LHbeta mRNA levels were observed to rapidly increase during the vitellogenic stage, reached its highest levels during ovulation and was then followed by a decrease at post-parturition. These results suggest that in the female rockfish FSH and LH syntheses are predominant during vitellogenesis and oocyte maturation, respectively.

  17. Marine and inland fishes of St. Croix, U. S. Virgin Islands: an annotated checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Vaniz, William F.; Jelks, Howard L.

    2014-01-01

    An historical account is given for the ichthyological research at St. Croix, U. S. Virgin Islands, followed by an annotated list of 544 species of mostly marine shore fishes known or reported from the island to depths of 200 m. Color photographs are included for 103 of these species. Collections made at Buck Island Reef National Monument with the ichthyocide rotenone in 2001 and 2005 increased the known ichthyofauna by about 80 species. The rational for inclusion of each species in the checklist is given, with remarks for those species for which additional documentation or voucher specimens are needed. Reports of species known or presumed to have been based on misidentifications are discussed. Of the total marine fish fauna of the island, 404 species (75%) are restricted to the western Atlantic Ocean, (223 of these species are essentially Caribbean endemics that do not occur south of the Amazon River outflow), and no St. Croix endemic species are known. An additional 17 species (3.2%) also occur at mid-Atlantic islands, 57 species (10.6 %) are limited to both sides of the Atlantic Ocean, and 40 species (7.4%) have circumtropical distributions. The four most species-rich families are the Gobiidae (47 species), Serranidae (groupers and sea basses, 41), Labridae (wrasses and parrotfishes, 31), and Labrisomidae (scaly blennies, 27). Literature reports of Mosquitofish, Gambusia sp., from St. Croix apparently were based on misidentifications of a different introduced poeciliid genus. Four species of the amphidromus goby genus Sicydium occur in St. Croix inland waters, together with three established introduced species (one cichlid and two poeciliids). Also included are one catfish (Ictaluridae) and three sunfishes (Centrarchidae) known only from ponds. The Lionfish, Pterois volitans, the only introduced marine species, was first reported from St. Croix in 2008 and is now common despite control efforts.

  18. Refining Measurement of Substance Use Disorders Among Women of Child-Bearing Age Using Hospital Records: The Development of the Explicit-Mention Substance Abuse Need for Treatment in Women (EMSANT-W) Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrington, Taletha Mae; Bernstein, Judith; Belanoff, Candice; Cabral, Howard J; Babakhanlou-Chase, Hermik; Diop, Hafsatou; Evans, Stephen R; Kotelchuck, Milton

    2015-10-01

    Substance use disorder (SUD) in women of reproductive age is associated with adverse health consequences for both women and their offspring. US states need a feasible population-based, case-identification tool to generate better approximations of SUD prevalence, treatment use, and treatment outcomes among women. This article presents the development of the Explicit Mention Substance Abuse Need for Treatment in Women (EMSANT-W), a gender-tailored tool based upon existing International Classification of Diseases, 9th Edition, Clinical Modification diagnostic code-based groupers that can be applied to hospital administrative data. Gender-tailoring entailed the addition of codes related to infants, pregnancy, and prescription drug abuse, as well as the creation of inclusion/exclusion rules based on other conditions present in the diagnostic record. Among 1,728,027 women and associated infants who accessed hospital care from January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2008 in Massachusetts, EMSANT-W identified 103,059 women with probable SUD. EMSANT-W identified 4,116 women who were not identified by the widely used Clinical Classifications Software for Mental Health and Substance Abuse (CCS-MHSA) and did not capture 853 women identified by CCS-MHSA. Content and approach innovations in EMSANT-W address potential limitations of the Clinical Classifications Software, and create a methodologically sound, gender-tailored and feasible population-based tool for identifying women of reproductive age in need of further evaluation for SUD treatment. Rapid changes in health care service infrastructure, delivery systems and policies require tools such as the EMSANT-W that provide more precise identification methods for sub-populations and can serve as the foundation for analyses of treatment use and outcomes.

  19. Comparison of Reef Fish Survey Data Gathered by Open and Closed Circuit SCUBA Divers Reveals Differences in Areas With Higher Fishing Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamoulis, Kostantinos A.; Boland, Raymond C.; Lino, Kevin C.; Hauk, Brian B.; Leonard, Jason C.; Asher, Jacob M.; Lopes, Keolohilani H.; Kosaki, Randall K.

    2016-01-01

    Visual survey by divers using open-circuit (OC) SCUBA is the most widely used approach to survey coral reef fishes. Therefore, it is important to quantify sources of bias in OC surveys, such as the possibility that avoidance of OC divers by fishes can lead to undercounting in areas where targeted species have come to associate divers with a risk of being speared. One potential way to reduce diver avoidance is to utilize closed circuit rebreathers (CCRs), which do not produce the noise and bubbles that are a major source of disturbance associated with OC diving. For this study, we conducted 66 paired OC and CCR fish surveys in the Main Hawaiian Islands at locations with relatively high, moderate, and light fishing pressure. We found no significant differences in biomass estimates between OC and CCR surveys when data were pooled across all sites, however there were differences at the most heavily fished location, Oahu. There, biomass estimates from OC divers were significantly lower for several targeted fish groups, including surgeonfishes, targeted wrasses, and snappers, as well as for all targeted fishes combined, with mean OC biomass between 32 and 68% of mean CCR biomass. There were no clear differences between OC and CCR biomass estimates for these groups at sites with moderate or low fishing pressure, or at any location for other targeted fish groups, including groupers, parrotfishes, and goatfishes. Bias associated with avoidance of OC divers at heavily fished locations could be substantially reduced, or at least calibrated for, by utilization of CCR. In addition to being affected by fishing pressure, the extent to which avoidance of OC divers is problematic for visual surveys varies greatly among taxa, and is likely to be highly influenced by the survey methodology and dimensions used. PMID:27936044

  20. Stable isotopes in fish eye lenses as potential recorders of trophic and geographic history.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy A Wallace

    Full Text Available We evaluated eye lenses as potential recorders of stable isotope histories in fish because they consist of metabolically inert optical proteins that are deposited in successive, concentric circles (laminae much like otolith circuli and tree rings. We conducted four different tests on lenses from red snapper, red grouper, gag, and white grunt. The first test was a low-resolution screening of multiple individuals (4-5 radial groups of laminae per lens, all species except white grunt. Along the radial axis, all individuals exhibited substantial isotopic variability. Red snapper individuals separated into two groups based on δ15N and gag separated into two groups based on δ13C. Two gag with the greatest variation were chosen for high-resolution temporal analysis using individual laminae from their second eye lenses. The first-order patterns from the high-resolution analysis generally mimicked patterns from the low-resolution screening of grouped laminae, yet the high-resolution plots revealed early-life details that were not apparent in the low-resolution screenings. For the third test, left- versus right-eye variation was compared using high-resolution methods. White grunt left- and right-eye radial isotopic patterns were almost identical for both δ13C and δ15N, suggesting the variations observed among individual fish were not artifacts. The final test evaluated intra-laminar variation; multiple samples were analyzed from different parts of the same lamina. Seven laminae from three individuals of two species were analyzed in this manner; variations among laminae were found to be much higher than variations within laminae. However, nominal intra-laminar variations were comparable to nominal differences between left and right lenses, suggesting intra-laminar variation established measurement precision. Eye lens isotopes appear to be useful for reconstructing the isotopic histories of individual fish; these histories can be compared with spatially

  1. Use of monitoring data to support conservation management and policy decisions in Micronesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montambault, Jensen Reitz; Wongbusarakum, Supin; Leberer, Trina; Joseph, Eugene; Andrew, Wayne; Castro, Fran; Nevitt, Brooke; Golbuu, Yimnang; Oldiais, Noelle W; Groves, Craig R; Kostka, Willy; Houk, Peter

    2015-10-01

    Adaptive management implies a continuous knowledge-based decision-making process in conservation. Yet, the coupling of scientific monitoring and management frameworks remains rare in practice because formal and informal communication pathways are lacking. We examined 4 cases in Micronesia where conservation practitioners are using new knowledge in the form of monitoring data to advance marine conservation. These cases were drawn from projects in Micronesia Challenge jurisdictions that received funding for coupled monitoring-to-management frameworks and encompassed all segments of adaptive management. Monitoring in Helen Reef, Republic of Palau, was catalyzed by coral bleaching and revealed evidence of overfishing that led to increased enforcement and outreach. In Nimpal Channel, Yap, Federated States of Micronesia (FSM), monitoring the recovery of marine food resources after customary restrictions were put in place led to new, more effective enforcement approaches. Monitoring in Laolao Bay, Saipan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, was catalyzed by observable sediment loads from poor land-use practices and resulted in actions that reduced land-based threats, particularly littering and illegal burning, and revealed additional threats from overfishing. Pohnpei (FSM) began monitoring after observed declines in grouper spawning aggregations. This data led to adjusting marine conservation area boundaries and implementing market-based size class restrictions. Two themes emerged from these cases. First, in each case monitoring was conducted in a manner relevant to the social and ecological systems and integrated into the decision-making process. Second, conservation practitioners and scientists in these cases integrated culturally appropriate stakeholder engagement throughout all phases of the adaptive management cycle. More broadly, our study suggests, when describing adaptive management, providing more details on how monitoring and management activities are

  2. Parrotfish size: a simple yet useful alternative indicator of fishing effects on Caribbean reefs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallès, Henri; Oxenford, Hazel A

    2014-01-01

    There is great need to identify simple yet reliable indicators of fishing effects within the multi-species, multi-gear, data-poor fisheries of the Caribbean. Here, we investigate links between fishing pressure and three simple fish metrics, i.e. average fish weight (an estimate of average individual fish size), fish density and fish biomass, derived from (1) the parrotfish family, a ubiquitous herbivore family across the Caribbean, and (2) three fish groups of "commercial" carnivores including snappers and groupers, which are widely-used as indicators of fishing effects. We hypothesize that, because most Caribbean reefs are being heavily fished, fish metrics derived from the less vulnerable parrotfish group would exhibit stronger relationships with fishing pressure on today's Caribbean reefs than those derived from the highly vulnerable commercial fish groups. We used data from 348 Atlantic and Gulf Rapid Reef Assessment (AGRRA) reef-surveys across the Caribbean to assess relationships between two independent indices of fishing pressure (one derived from human population density data, the other from open to fishing versus protected status) and the three fish metrics derived from the four aforementioned fish groups. We found that, although two fish metrics, average parrotfish weight and combined biomass of selected commercial species, were consistently negatively linked to the indices of fishing pressure across the Caribbean, the parrotfish metric consistently outranked the latter in the strength of the relationship, thus supporting our hypothesis. Overall, our study highlights that (assemblage-level) average parrotfish size might be a useful alternative indicator of fishing effects over the typical conditions of most Caribbean shallow reefs: moderate-to-heavy levels of fishing and low abundance of highly valued commercial species.

  3. Quantitative Determination of Fatty Acids in Marine Fish and Shellfish from Warm Water of Straits of Malacca for Nutraceutical Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurnadia Abd Aziz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to quantitatively determine the fatty acid contents of 20 species of marine fish and four species of shellfish from Straits of Malacca. Most samples contained fairly high amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, especially alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, C18:3 n3, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5 n3, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6 n3. Longtail shad, yellowstripe scad, and moonfish contained significantly higher (P<0.05 amounts of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, respectively. Meanwhile, fringescale sardinella, malabar red snapper, black pomfret, Japanese threadfin bream, giant seaperch, and sixbar grouper showed considerably high content (537.2–944.1 mg/100g wet sample of desirable omega-3 fatty acids. The polyunsaturated-fatty-acids/saturated-fatty-acids (P/S ratios for most samples were higher than that of Menhaden oil (P/S=0.58, a recommended PUFA supplement which may help to lower blood pressure. Yellowstripe scad (highest DHA, ω-3/ω-6=6.4, P/S=1.7, moonfish (highest ALA, ω-3/ω-6=1.9, P/S=1.0, and longtail shad (highest EPA, ω-3/ω-6=0.8, P/S=0.4 were the samples with an outstandingly desirable overall composition of fatty acids. Overall, the marine fish and shellfish from the area contained good composition of fatty acids which offer health benefits and may be used for nutraceutical purposes in the future.

  4. Financial impact of accurate discharge coding in a liaison psychiatry service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Iain; Barry, Helen; Clancy, Maurice; O'Toole, Desmond; Machale, Siobhan

    2012-12-01

    Previous research has shown that patients seen by liaison psychiatry services are a complex and expensive patient group and that the psychiatric co-morbidities of hospital inpatients are poorly attested at discharge for assignment to diagnosis-related groups (DRGs). The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of discharge coding in a neuropsychiatry liaison population. We also aimed to establish whether or not, had the correct diagnosis been assigned, additional funding would have been allocated to the hospital. Diagnostic codes were retrospectively collected from the discharge diagnoses for all inpatients (n=276) referred to the neuropsychiatry liaison service in a university hospital over a 12 month period and these were compared to a consensus diagnosis. Using grouper software, codes were then changed to reflect the consensus diagnoses and DRGs were recalculated to see if the change in diagnosis led to a change in reimbursement for those patients. Discharge diagnosis and consensus diagnosis were in agreement in 30% of cases. When discharge codes were corrected, patients changed to a higher paying DRG in 28/220 (12.7%) of patients. The increase in costing associated with this change in DRG was €305,349. According to these results, not only is the complexity of patients seen by psychiatry consult services in general hospitals not reflected in the discharge diagnosis, but, in this sample of patients, the additional complexity would have led to a significant increase in reimbursement to the hospital. Further training of doctors should increase awareness of this important issue. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Some camallanid nematodes from marine perciform fishes off New Caledonia.

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    Moravec, Frantisek; Justine, Jean-Lou; Rigby, Mark C

    2006-09-01

    Two new, one known and three unidentified species of the nematode family Camallanidae are reported and described from the intestines of marine perciform fishes off the southwestern coast of New Caledonia, South Pacific: Camallanus carangis Olsen, 1952 from the forked-tailed threadfin bream Nemipterus furcosus (Nemipteridae), the yellowstriped goatfish Upeneus vittatus and the whitesaddle goatfish Parupeneus ciliatus (both Mullidae) (new host records); Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) variolae sp. n. from the white-edged lyretail Variola albimarginata (type host) and the blacktip grouper Epinephelus fasciatus (both Serranidae); Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) longus sp. n. from the twotone tang Zebrasoma scopas (Acanthuridae); Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) sp. 1 (female tail with 2 terminal spikes on a digit-like projection) from the speckled sand-perch Parapercis hexophtalma (Pinguipedidae); Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) sp. 2 (female tail with 1 spike on a digit-like projection) from the drab emperor Lethrinus ravus (Lethrinidae) and Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) sp. 3 (female tail with a smooth digit-like protrusion) from the two-lined monocle bream Scolopsis bilineata (Nemipteridae). Camallanus paracarangis Velasquez, 1980 is synonymized with C. carangis. Several additional species of Camallanus from marine fish of the Indo-Pacific region may be synonymous with C. carangis as it has a poorly sclerotized left spicule and 3 small caudal projections on the tail of young (i.e., non-gravid) females. The fourth-stage larva of C. carangis is described for the first time. P. (S.) variolae differs from most similar species of this region mainly in the position (i.e., at level or posterior to the nerve ring) and shape of deirids. P. (S.) longus differs from the similar P. (S.) chaimha mainly in a different arrangement of postanal papillae, shape of the female tail, much longer right spicule (429 microm) and longer body of gravid females (38-55 mm). All Camallanus and

  6. Spatial and temporal dynamics of commercial reef-fish fisheries on the West Florida Shelf: Understanding drivers of fleet behavior and the implications for future management

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    Cockrell, M.; Murawski, S. A.; Sanchirico, J. N.; O'Farrell, S.; Strelcheck, A.

    2016-02-01

    Spatial and temporal patterns of fishing activity have historically been described over relatively coarse scales or with limited datasets. However, new and innovative approaches for fisheries management will require an understanding of both species population dynamics and fleet behavior at finer spatial and temporal resolution. In this study we describe the spatial and temporal patterns of commercial reef-fish fisheries on the West Florida Shelf (WFS) from 2006-14, using a combination of on-board observer, catch logbook, and vessel satellite tracking data. The satellite tracking data is both high resolution (ie, records from each vessel at least once every hour for the duration of a trip), and required of all federally-permitted reef fish vessels in the Gulf of Mexico, making this a uniquely rich and powerful dataset. Along with spatial and temporal fishery dynamics, we quantified concomitant patterns in fishery economics and catch metrics, such as total landings and catch composition. Fishery patterns were correlated to a number of variables across the vessel, trip, and whole fleet scales, including vessel size, distance from home port, number of days at sea, and days available to fish. Notably, changes in management structure during the years examined (eg, establishment of a seasonal closed area in 2009 and implementation of an individual fishing quota system for Grouper-Tilefish in 2010), as well as emergency spatial closures during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in 2010, enabled us to examine the impacts of specific management frameworks on the WFS reef-fish fishery. This research highlights the need to better understand the biological, economic, and social impacts within fisheries when managing for conservation and fisheries sustainability. We discuss our results in the context of a changing policy and management landscape for marine and coastal resources in the Gulf of Mexico.

  7. The shallow-water fish assemblage of Isla del Coco National Park, Costa Rica: structure and patterns in an isolated, predator-dominated ecosystem

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    Alan M. Friedlander

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Fishes at Isla del Coco National Park, Costa Rica, were surveyed as part of a larger scientific expedition to the area in September 2009. The average total biomass of nearshore fishes was 7.8 tonnes per ha, among the largest observed in the tropics, with apex predators such as sharks, jacks, and groupers accounting for nearly 40% of the total biomass. The abundance of reef and pelagic sharks, particularly large aggregations of threatened species such as the scalloped hammerhead shark (up to 42 hammerheads ha-1 and large schools of jacks and snappers show the capacity for high biomass in unfished ecosystems in the Eastern Tropical Pacific. However, the abundance of hammerhead and reef whitetip sharks appears to have been declining since the late 1990s, and likely causes may include increasing fishing pressure on sharks in the region and illegal fishing inside the Park. One Galapagos shark tagged on September 20, 2009 in the Isla del Coco National Park moved 255km southeast towards Malpelo Island in Colombia, when it stopped transmitting. These results contribute to the evidence that sharks conduct large-scale movements between marine protected areas (Isla del Coco, Malpelo, Galápagos in the Eastern tropical Pacific and emphasize the need for regional-scale management. More than half of the species and 90% of the individuals observed were endemic to the tropical eastern Pacific. These high biomass and endemicity values highlight the uniqueness of the fish assemblage at Isla del Coco and its importance as a global biodiversity hotspot.

  8. PENAMBAHAN MIKROBA, Aspergillus niger DALAM BUNGKIL KELAPA SAWIT SEBAGAI BAHAN BAKU PAKAN UNTUK PEMBESARAN IKAN KERAPU MACAN

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    Neltje Nobertine Palinggi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mendapatkan informasi tentang pengaruh dosis Aspergillus niger dalam bungkil kelapa sawit sebagai bahan pakan pada pembesaran ikan kerapu macan. Ikan uji yang digunakan berukuran bobot rata-rata 23,15±0,23 g; ditebar dalam keramba jaring apung ukuran 1 m x 1 m x 2 m, dengan kepadatan 16 ekor/keramba. Perlakuan yang diuji adalah penambahan Aspergillus niger sebanyak 2, 4, 8, 16 g/kg bungkil kelapa sawit dan kontrol. Masing-masing perlakuan diulang tiga kali dan disain adalah rancangan acak lengkap. Selama pemeliharaan, ikan diberi pakan uji dua kali sehari (pagi dan sore secara satiasi selama 20 minggu. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penambahan 8 g Aspergillus niger/kg bungkil kelapa sawit memberikan pertambahan bobot dan laju spesifik lebih tinggi daripada kontrol (P0,05, namun nilainya nyata lebih tinggi (P0.05 among those of the juveniles fed on the diets with 2, 4, 16 g of A. niger/kg palm oil cake. Although the feed efficiency, protein efficiency ratio and protein retention of juveniles fed on the diet with 8 g A. niger/kg palm oil cake were not significantly different (P>0.05 from those of the juveniles fed on the diets with 2 and 4 g of A. niger/kg palm oil cake, those of juveniles the fed diet with 8 g of A. niger/kg palm oil cake were significantly higher (P<0.05 than those of the juveniles fed the diet with 16 g A. niger/kg palm oil cake. The best of growth rate of tiger grouper juveniles occurred at the dosage of 7.8—8.2 g A. niger/kg palm oil cake.

  9. Control Strategy Scenarios for the Alien Lionfish Pterois volitans in Chinchorro Bank (Mexican Caribbean: Based on Semi-Quantitative Loop Analysis.

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    Marco Ortiz

    Full Text Available Ecological and eco-social network models were constructed with different levels of complexity in order to represent and evaluate management strategies for controlling the alien species Pterois volitans in Chinchorro bank (Mexican Caribbean. Levins´s loop analysis was used as a methodological framework for assessing the local stability (considered as a component of sustainability of the modeled management interventions represented by various scenarios. The results provided by models of different complexity (models 1 through 4 showed that a reduction of coral species cover would drive the system to unstable states. In the absence of the alien lionfish, the simultaneous fishing of large benthic epifaunal species, adult herbivorous fish and adult carnivorous fish could be sustainable only if the coral species present high levels of cover (models 2 and 3. Once the lionfish is added to the simulations (models 4 and 5, the analysis suggests that although the exploitation or removal of lionfish from shallow waters may be locally stable, it remains necessary to implement additional and concurrent human interventions that increase the holistic sustainability of the control strategy. The supplementary interventions would require the implementation of programs for: (1 the restoration of corals for increasing their cover, (2 the exploitation or removal of lionfish from deeper waters (decreasing the chance of source/sink meta-population dynamics and (3 the implementation of bans and re-stocking programs for carnivorous fishes (such as grouper that increase the predation and competition pressure on lionfish (i.e. biological control. An effective control management for the alien lionfish at Chinchorro bank should not be optimized for a single action plan: instead, we should investigate the concurrent implementation of multiple strategies.

  10. Global warming may disproportionately affect larger adults in a predatory coral reef fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messmer, Vanessa; Pratchett, Morgan S; Hoey, Andrew S; Tobin, Andrew J; Coker, Darren J; Cooke, Steven J; Clark, Timothy D

    2017-06-01

    Global warming is expected to reduce body sizes of ectothermic animals. Although the underlying mechanisms of size reductions remain poorly understood, effects appear stronger at latitudinal extremes (poles and tropics) and in aquatic rather than terrestrial systems. To shed light on this phenomenon, we examined the size dependence of critical thermal maxima (CTmax) and aerobic metabolism in a commercially important tropical reef fish, the leopard coral grouper (Plectropomus leopardus) following acclimation to current-day (28.5 °C) vs. projected end-of-century (33 °C) summer temperatures for the northern Great Barrier Reef (GBR). CTmax declined from 38.3 to 37.5 °C with increasing body mass in adult fish (0.45-2.82 kg), indicating that larger individuals are more thermally sensitive than smaller conspecifics. This may be explained by a restricted capacity for large fish to increase mass-specific maximum metabolic rate (MMR) at 33 °C compared with 28.5 °C. Indeed, temperature influenced the relationship between metabolism and body mass (0.02-2.38 kg), whereby the scaling exponent for MMR increased from 0.74 ± 0.02 at 28.5 °C to 0.79 ± 0.01 at 33 °C, and the corresponding exponents for standard metabolic rate (SMR) were 0.75 ± 0.04 and 0.80 ± 0.03. The increase in metabolic scaling exponents at higher temperatures suggests that energy budgets may be disproportionately impacted in larger fish and contribute to reduced maximum adult size. Such climate-induced reductions in body size would have important ramifications for fisheries productivity, but are also likely to have knock-on effects for trophodynamics and functioning of ecosystems. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. REVIEW OF AQUACULTURE GENETIC RESEARCHES IN THAILAND

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    UTHAIRAT NA-NAKORN

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture business has been well established in Thailand for more than 40 years. The most recent data indicated a total production of 260 380 tons. Sixty-five percent of the total production came from coastal aquaculture, mainly tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon culture. Other important species for coastal aquaculture are banana prawn (P. merguensis, cockle (Anadara granosa, green mussel (Perna viridis, oyster (Crassostrea belcheri, Saccostrea commercialis, sea bass (Lates calcarifer and grouper (Epinephelus tauvina. Freshwater aquaculture, although produced only 35% of the annual production, provides major protein source for people in rural areas. Important freshwater species are Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, tawes (Puntius gonionotus, sepat Siam (Trichogasterpectoralis, walking catfish (Glorias spp., stripped catfish (Pangasius sutchi and giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Optimum aquacultural practises, namely stocking density, nutrition requirement and water quality have been obtained in most cultured species. But genetic approach has not been considered, thus resulting in deterioration in economic traits which might be due to excessive inbreeding (reviewed by Uraiwan 1989 and/or negative selection (Wongsangchan 1985. The history of researches on genetics in aquaculture in Thailand started in 1982 when the aquaculture genetic programme in form of a network has been established at the National Inland Fisheries Institute, Department of Fisheries. This programme was supported by the International Development Research Centre (IDRC, Canada in cooperation with Dalhousie University, Canada (Uraiwan 1989. In the same year a genetic improvement programme aiming at improving economic characters of some economic fish species has been conducted at the Department of Aquaculture, Kasetsart University. Paralelly a course in Fish Genetics has been offered. Since then different approaches of genetics have been applied with final

  12. Pemantauan Kondisi Ikan Karang Menggunakan Metode Reef Check Di Perairan Selat Sempu Malang Selatan

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    Oktiyas Muzaky Luthfi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Reef Check is an activity to find out the condition of coral reefs and its surrounding ecosystems be then described and categorized its healthiness. The island of Java is one of the Islands in Indonesia that has lots of beaches, especially for East Java, here they have several areas that has become our research site in Sempu Strait, Sendang Biru, South Malang they are called Teluk Semut, Watu Meja, and Waru-waru. Underwater Visual Census (UVC was used as a method for this research to identify reef fish in a transect of 100 x 5 x 5m scale in (Length, Width, and Height. Results shows several fishes was used to identify yet the family of  Chaetodontidae with mean abundance 8 in Teluk Semut 1 station, 2.25 in Teluk Semut 2 station, 12.5 in Rumah Ikan station, & 13.5 in Watu Meja station. Watu Meja and Fish Apartment station shows higher mean abundance than other station, this indicates coral reefs ecosystem in this station have a better health & condition compare to the other stations. Results for family family Haemulidae, Snapper and Grouper shows low mean abundance, that indicates overfishing on Sempu Strait, South Malang. In other cases, the purposes of Reef Check is to determine the extents of human activities and its impact against the distribution and the healthiness of coral reefs in the area. For further extent, there has been still indications toward its management system yet fisheries potential in certain areas for this research.

  13. Quantifying the spatial ecology of wide-ranging marine species in the Gulf of California: implications for marine conservation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anadón, José Daniel; D'Agrosa, Caterina; Gondor, Anne; Gerber, Leah R

    2011-01-01

    There is growing interest in systematic establishment of marine protected area (MPA) networks and representative conservation sites. This movement toward networks of no-take zones requires that reserves are deliberately and adequately spaced for connectivity. Here, we test the network functionality of an ecoregional assessment configuration of marine conservation areas by evaluating the habitat protection and connectivity offered to wide-ranging fauna in the Gulf of California (GOC, Mexico). We first use expert opinion to identify representative species of wide-ranging fauna of the GOC. These include leopard grouper, hammerhead sharks, California brown pelicans and green sea turtles. Analyzing habitat models with both structural and functional connectivity indexes, our results indicate that the configuration includes large proportions of biologically important habitat for the four species considered (25-40%), particularly, the best quality habitats (46-57%). Our results also show that connectivity levels offered by the conservation area design for these four species may be similar to connectivity levels offered by the entire Gulf of California, thus indicating that connectivity offered by the areas may resemble natural connectivity. The selected focal species comprise different life histories among marine or marine-related vertebrates and are associated with those habitats holding the most biodiversity values (i.e. coastal habitats); our results thus suggest that the proposed configuration may function as a network for connectivity and may adequately represent the marine megafauna in the GOC, including the potential connectivity among habitat patches. This work highlights the range of approaches that can be used to quantify habitat protection and connectivity for wide-ranging marine species in marine reserve networks.

  14. Quantifying the spatial ecology of wide-ranging marine species in the Gulf of California: implications for marine conservation planning.

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    José Daniel Anadón

    Full Text Available There is growing interest in systematic establishment of marine protected area (MPA networks and representative conservation sites. This movement toward networks of no-take zones requires that reserves are deliberately and adequately spaced for connectivity. Here, we test the network functionality of an ecoregional assessment configuration of marine conservation areas by evaluating the habitat protection and connectivity offered to wide-ranging fauna in the Gulf of California (GOC, Mexico. We first use expert opinion to identify representative species of wide-ranging fauna of the GOC. These include leopard grouper, hammerhead sharks, California brown pelicans and green sea turtles. Analyzing habitat models with both structural and functional connectivity indexes, our results indicate that the configuration includes large proportions of biologically important habitat for the four species considered (25-40%, particularly, the best quality habitats (46-57%. Our results also show that connectivity levels offered by the conservation area design for these four species may be similar to connectivity levels offered by the entire Gulf of California, thus indicating that connectivity offered by the areas may resemble natural connectivity. The selected focal species comprise different life histories among marine or marine-related vertebrates and are associated with those habitats holding the most biodiversity values (i.e. coastal habitats; our results thus suggest that the proposed configuration may function as a network for connectivity and may adequately represent the marine megafauna in the GOC, including the potential connectivity among habitat patches. This work highlights the range of approaches that can be used to quantify habitat protection and connectivity for wide-ranging marine species in marine reserve networks.

  15. Higher Abundance Of Marine Predators And Changes In Fishers’ Behavior Following Spatial Protection Within The World’s Biggest Shark Fishery

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    Vanessa Flora Jaiteh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fisheries are complex social-ecological systems, where managers struggle to balance the socio-economic interests of fishing communities with the biology and ecology of fisheries species. Spatial closures are a popular measure to address conservation and fisheries management goals, including the protection of shark populations. However, very little research has been published on the effectiveness of shark-specific closures to protect sharks, or their impacts on fisher behavior. Situated within the global center of tropical marine biodiversity, Indonesia’s shark fishery contributes more to the international shark fin trade than any other nation. Here we evaluate the effect of shark-specific closures on sharks and other species of interest, as well as shark fishers’ responses to losing access to their former fishing grounds. We assessed shark diversity and abundance in an open access zone (OAZ and two No-Take Zones (NTZs of a Marine Protected Area within the recently established shark sanctuary in Raja Ampat, Indonesia, where sharks have high monetary value as a tourism attraction. Shark abundance was significantly higher in the privately managed NTZs than in the OAZ. Across all management zones, neither zone size, depth nor reef complexity explained variations in shark abundance, suggesting that governance is the main driver of successful shark conservation areas. These trends were also reflected in species targeted by small-scale reef fisheries, including snappers, emperor, groupers, tunas, mackerels, and large-bodied wrasse and parrotfish. Interviews with shark fishers who lost access to their primary fishing grounds when the shark sanctuary was established showed that while most fishers (88% knew that sharks were protected in Raja Ampat, many were unsure about the purpose of the sanctuary. Few fishers felt that the agencies implementing fishing bans understood their livelihood needs. We found that shark fishers adapted to the loss of former

  16. Coastal rocky reef fishes of Santa Catarina's northern islands, Brazil

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    Johnatas Adelir Alves

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The coast of the state of Santa Catarina only has non-biogenic reefs, i.e. rocky and artificial reefs, and is considered the geographic south limit for many reef fish species. At present the diversity of organisms associated with reef environments is threatened. This study aimed to record the number of families and species of reef fish fauna of the north coast of the state of Santa Catarina. The data were collected through underwater visual census performed on Graças archipelago (26°12'S /48º29'W, Tamboretes archipelago (26°22'S/48°31'W and Barra do Sul islands (26°27'S/48º35'W. A total of 166 species was observed (6 elasmobranchii and 160 actinopterygii belonging to 66 families. The families with more species richness were Carangidae (16, Epinephelidae (9, Blenidae (8, Serranidae (7, Haemulidae (6, Sparidae (6 Tetraodontidae (6, Labridae-Scarini (5, Labrisomidae (5 Pomacentridae (5, Lutjanidae (5 and Muraenidae (5. This study add to the current published list, new 115 species, including new occurrences (e.g. Chromis limbata, and some endemic (e.g. Sparisoma amplum, exotic (e.g. Omobranchus punctatus, endangered (e.g. Hippocampus erectus and overexploited (e.g. Lutjanus analis species. Twenty one species are present in the IUCN’s list, twelve in the IBAMA’s list and four in the local list. All elasmobranchii recorded here are considered threatened species, like the brazilian guitarfish (Rhinobatos horkelii, which appears in three red lists, and it is considered critically endangered. All species of Epinephelidae are mentioned in the list of risk categories of the IUCN and five are cited as overexploited or threatened with overexploitation by IBAMA. Among Epinephelidae, the goliath grouper (Epinephelus itajara, is present in all red lists and has specific protection rules in Brazil. The gathered information will allow to take appropriate conservation measures, such as the establishment of marine protected areas, monitoring of fishing

  17. A numerical similarity approach for using retired Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes for electronic phenotyping in the Scalable Collaborative Infrastructure for a Learning Health System (SCILHS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klann, Jeffrey G; Phillips, Lori C; Turchin, Alexander; Weiler, Sarah; Mandl, Kenneth D; Murphy, Shawn N

    2015-12-11

    Interoperable phenotyping algorithms, needed to identify patient cohorts meeting eligibility criteria for observational studies or clinical trials, require medical data in a consistent structured, coded format. Data heterogeneity limits such algorithms' applicability. Existing approaches are often: not widely interoperable; or, have low sensitivity due to reliance on the lowest common denominator (ICD-9 diagnoses). In the Scalable Collaborative Infrastructure for a Learning Healthcare System (SCILHS) we endeavor to use the widely-available Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) procedure codes with ICD-9. Unfortunately, CPT changes drastically year-to-year - codes are retired/replaced. Longitudinal analysis requires grouping retired and current codes. BioPortal provides a navigable CPT hierarchy, which we imported into the Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside (i2b2) data warehouse and analytics platform. However, this hierarchy does not include retired codes. We compared BioPortal's 2014AA CPT hierarchy with Partners Healthcare's SCILHS datamart, comprising three-million patients' data over 15 years. 573 CPT codes were not present in 2014AA (6.5 million occurrences). No existing terminology provided hierarchical linkages for these missing codes, so we developed a method that automatically places missing codes in the most specific "grouper" category, using the numerical similarity of CPT codes. Two informaticians reviewed the results. We incorporated the final table into our i2b2 SCILHS/PCORnet ontology, deployed it at seven sites, and performed a gap analysis and an evaluation against several phenotyping algorithms. The reviewers found the method placed the code correctly with 97 % precision when considering only miscategorizations ("correctness precision") and 52 % precision using a gold-standard of optimal placement ("optimality precision"). High correctness precision meant that codes were placed in a reasonable hierarchal position that a reviewer

  18. Megalocytiviruses

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    Kazuhiro Nakajima

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The genus Megalocytivirus, represented by red sea bream iridovirus (RSIV, the first identified and one of the best characterized megalocytiviruses, Infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV, the type species of the genus, and numerous other isolates, is the newest genus within the family Iridoviridae. Viruses within this genus are causative agents of severe disease accompanied by high mortality in multiple species of marine and freshwater fish. To date outbreaks of megalocytivirus-induced disease have occurred primarily in south-east Asia and Japan, but infections have been detected in Australia and North America following the importation of infected ornamental fish. The first outbreak of megalocytiviral disease was recorded in cultured red sea bream (Pagrus major in Japan in 1990 and was designated red sea bream iridovirus disease (RSIVD. Following infection fish became lethargic and exhibited severe anemia, petechiae of the gills, and enlargement of the spleen. Although RSIV was identified as an iridovirus, sequence analyses of RSIV genes revealed that the virus did not belong to any of the four known genera within the family Iridoviridae. Thus a new, fifth genus was established and designated Megalocytivirus to reflect the characteristic presence of enlarged basophilic cells within infected organs. Indirect immunofluorescence tests employing recently generated monoclonal antibodies and PCR assays are currently used in the rapid diagnosis of RSIVD. For disease control, a formalin-killed vaccine was developed and is now commercially available in Japan for several fish species. Following the identification of RSIV, markedly similar viruses such as infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV, dwarf gourami iridovirus (DGIV, turbot reddish body iridovirus (TRBIV, Taiwan grouper iridovirus (TGIV, and rock bream iridovirus (RBIV were isolated in East and Southeast Asia. Phylogenetic analyses of the major capsid protein (MCP and

  19. Fishers' knowledge on the coast of Brazil.

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    Begossi, Alpina; Salivonchyk, Svetlana; Lopes, Priscila F M; Silvano, Renato A M

    2016-06-01

    Although fishers' knowledge has been recently considered into management programmes, there is still the need to establish a better understanding of fishers' perceptions and cognition. Fishers can provide novel information on the biology and ecology of species, which can potentially be used in the management of fisheries. The knowledge fishers have and how they classify nature is empirically based. It is common, for example, to observe that fishers' taxonomy is often represented by the generic level, one of the hierarchical categories of folk classification that is somewhat analogous to the Linnean genus, as it groups organisms of a higher rank than the folk species.In this study we compiled the knowledge fishers have on local fish, such as their folk names, diet and habitat. Five coastal communities widely distributed along the Brazilian coast were studied: two from the northeast (Porto Sauípe and Itacimirim, in Bahia State, n of interviewees = 34), two from the southeast (Itaipu at Niterói and Copacabana at Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro State, n = 35) and one from the south coast (Pântano do Sul, in Santa Catarina State, n = 23). Fish pictures were randomly ordered and the same order was presented to all interviewees (n = 92), when they were then asked about the species name and classification and its habitat and diet preferences. Fishers make clusters of fish species, usually hierarchically; fishers of the coast of Brazil use mostly primary lexemes (generic names) to name fish; and fishers did not differentiate between scientific species, since the same folk generic name included two different scientific species. Fishers provide information on species to which there is scarce or no information on diet and habitat, such as Rhinobatos percellens (chola guitarfish, arraia viola or cação viola), Sphoeroides dorsalis (marbled puffer, baiacu), Mycteroperca acutirostris (comb grouper, badejo) and Dasyatis guttata (longnose stingray, arraia, arraia

  20. Asymmetric connectivity of spawning aggregations of a commercially important marine fish using a multidisciplinary approach

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    Adrian Munguia-Vega

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding patterns of larval dispersal is key in determining whether no-take marine reserves are self-sustaining, what will be protected inside reserves and where the benefits of reserves will be observed. We followed a multidisciplinary approach that merged detailed descriptions of fishing zones and spawning time at 17 sites distributed in the Midriff Island region of the Gulf of California with a biophysical oceanographic model that simulated larval transport at Pelagic Larval Duration (PLD 14, 21 and 28 days for the most common and targeted predatory reef fish, (leopard grouper Mycteroperca rosacea. We tested the hypothesis that source–sink larval metapopulation dynamics describing the direction and frequency of larval dispersal according to an oceanographic model can help to explain empirical genetic data. We described modeled metapopulation dynamics using graph theory and employed empirical sequence data from a subset of 11 sites at two mitochondrial genes to verify the model predictions based on patterns of genetic diversity within sites and genetic structure between sites. We employed a population graph describing a network of genetic relationships among sites and contrasted it against modeled networks. While our results failed to explain genetic diversity within sites, they confirmed that ocean models summarized via graph and adjacency distances over modeled networks can explain seemingly chaotic patterns of genetic structure between sites. Empirical and modeled networks showed significant similarities in the clustering coefficients of each site and adjacency matrices between sites. Most of the connectivity patterns observed towards downstream sites (Sonora coast were strictly asymmetric, while those between upstream sites (Baja and the Midriffs were symmetric. The best-supported gene flow model and analyses of modularity of the modeled networks confirmed a pulse of larvae from the Baja Peninsula, across the Midriff Island region

  1. Foodborne toxins of marine origin: ciguatera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juranovic, L R; Park, D L

    1991-01-01

    Ciguatera poisoning has long been recognized as a serious problem in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Due to international and interstate commerce and tourist travel the phenomenon is spreading to other parts of the globe. Various species of fish (surgeonfish, snapper, grouper, barracuda, jack, amberjack among others) have been implicated in this type of poisoning. These fish accumulate toxins in their flesh and viscera through the consumption of smaller fish that have been previously contaminated by feeding on toxic dinoflagellates. The most probable source of ciguatera is thought to be the benthic microorganism, Gambierdiscus toxicus, which produces both CTX and MTX, but other species of dinoflagellates such as Prorocentrum lima may also contribute with secondary toxins associated with the disease. Potentially ciguatoxic dinoflagellates have been isolated, cultured under laboratory conditions and dinoflagellate growth requirements as well as some factors affecting toxin production have been determined. Also, data from their ecological environment have been accumulated in an attempt to reveal a relationship with the epidemiology of ciguatera outbreaks. Several bioassays have been employed to determine the ciguatoxicity of fish. Cats have been used due to their sensitivity, but regurgitation has made dosage information difficult to obtain. Mongooses have also been used but they often carry parasitic and other type of diseases which complicate the bioassay. Mice have been used more commonly; they offer a more reliable model, can be easily housed, readily are dosed in several ways, and manifest diverse symptoms similar to human intoxications; but the amount of toxic extract needed, time consumed, complicated extraction techniques, and instrumentation involved limit the use of this assay commercially. Other bioassays have been explored including the brine shrimp, chicken, mosquito, crayfish nerve cord, guinea pig ileum, guinea pig atrium, and other

  2. PENGELOLAAN KAWASAN PESISIR KABUPATEN BULELENG MELALUI PENGEMBANGAN MINA WISATA BAHARI (Management of Buleleng Coastal Areas Through the Marine Fisheries Tourism Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gede Ari Yudasmara

    2016-09-01

    have not given an optimum benefit for the community and tend to experience saturation. This study was aimed at investigating the condition and potentiality of the coastal area and the sea, the degree of fit of Buleleng coastal area in supporting the development of fisheries tourism and at producing a model of the coastal area tourism activities that are integrated and sustainable. This study used the approach of area suitability with field survey design. The results showed that Buleleng regency coastal area, viewed from the point of the condition and the potentiality of the natural resources still has the capacity to support fisheries tourism. The model plannings of fisheries tourisms that can be developed, among others, are: the East Buleleng coastal area is suitable for marine culture fisheries tourism (ornamental fish and coral and fished fisheries tourism (fishing and spearfishing adventures; the central Buleleng coastal area for marine culture fisheries tourism (seaweed and fished fisheries tourism (fishing and spearfishing adventures, and the West Buleleng coastal area for marine culture fisheries tourism (seaweed, milk fish, grouper, pearl, ornamental fish and coral and fished fisheries tourism (fishing and spearfishing adventures.

  3. Phylogenetic perspectives on the evolution of functional hermaphroditism in teleost fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erisman, Brad E; Petersen, Christopher W; Hastings, Philip A; Warner, Robert R

    2013-10-01

    Hermaphroditism is taxonomically widespread among teleost fishes and takes on many forms including simultaneous, protogynous, and protandrous hermaphroditism, bidirectional sex change, and androdioecy. The proximate mechanisms that influence the timing, incidence, and forms of hermaphroditism in fishes are supported by numerous theoretical and empirical studies on their mating systems and sexual patterns, but few have examined aspects of sex-allocation theory or the evolution of hermaphroditism for this group within a strict phylogenetic context. Fortunately, species-level phylogenetic reconstructions of the evolutionary history of many lineages of fishes have emerged, providing opportunities for understanding fine-scale evolutionary pathways and transformations of sex allocation. Examinations of several families of fishes with adequate data on phylogeny, patterns of sex allocation, mating systems, and with some form of hermaphroditism reveal that the evolution and expression of protogyny and other forms of sex allocation show little evidence of phylogenetic inertia within specific lineages but rather are associated with particular mating systems in accordance with prevalent theories about sex allocation. Transformations from protogyny to gonochorism in groupers (Epinephelidae), seabasses (Serranidae), and wrasses and parrotfishes (Labridae) are associated with equivalent transformations in the structure of mating groups from spawning of pairs to group spawning and related increases in sperm competition. Similarly, patterns of protandry, androdioecy, simultaneous hermaphroditism, and bidirectional sex change in other lineages (Aulopiformes, Gobiidae, and Pomacentridae) match well with particular mating systems in accordance with sex-allocation theory. Unlike other animals and plants, we did not find evidence that transitions between hermaphroditism and gonochorism required functional intermediates. Two instances in which our general conclusions might not hold

  4. Growth and Maturation of Plectropomus spp. in the Saudi Arabian Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    DesRosiers, Noah

    2011-05-01

    Two species of plectropomid grouper (Plectropomus areolatus and P. pessuliferus) are found in the Red Sea. In Saudi Arabia these are the most valuable fishes by weight, averaging wholesale prices around US $15 per kilogram (personal observation). Over the past two decades, the number of fishing vessels in the Saudi Arabian Red Sea has tripled. Despite this increase in fishing effort Saudi Arabia has not implemented any marine resource management for Red Sea fisheries. Little biological data are currently available to inform managers. The research presented here addresses knowledge gaps on the growth pattern, longevity and sexual ontogeny of Plectropomus spp. in the Red Sea. Collections of each species were established by purchasing landed individuals from fishermen and fish markets distributed evenly between three latitudinal regions around the country. The total length of each fish was measured to the nearest millimeter. Age was estimated by enumerating annual bands visualized in transverse sections of sagittal otoliths. Sexual stage was determined via histological examination of gonadal tissue. Plots of total length versus age were fitted with reparameterized von Bertalanffy growth functions constrained to a size-at-settlement estimate of 20 mm. P. pessuliferus achieved a larger size (maximum 960 mm) and an older age (maximum 19 years) than P. areolatus (maximum size 570 mm, maximum age 9 years). While no regional patterns were found for P. pesuliferus, likelihood ratio tests revealed regional differences in growth pattern for P. areolatus, finding an increasing mean age, increasing mean length, and decreasing growth rate with decreasing latitude. In addition, males of P. areolatus were more abundant in the Southern region. These findings contradict existing theories about the effects of latitudinal temperature gradients on life history. It is hypothesized that the broader continental shelf in the Southern region may be providing a haven for these species in the

  5. The status of coral reefs and associated fishes and invertebrates of commercial importance in Pedro Bank, Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew W. Bruckner

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The coral reefs located off the north coast of the Jamaican mainland are some of the best and most studied reefs in the world. Coral reefs of Pedro Bank, Jamaica were assessed in March, 2012 as part of the KSLOF Global Reef Expedition using a modified Atlantic and Gulf Rapid Reef Assessment (AGRRA protocol. The main objectives were to: 1 characterize the distribution, structure and health of coral reefs; and 2 evaluate the population status of commercially important reef fishes and invertebrates. This work was conducted to assist in characterizing coral reef habitats within and outside a proposed fishery reserve, and identify other possible conservation zones. Within 20 reefs, live coral cover ranged from 4.9% to 19.2%. Coral communities were dominated by small corals (esp. Agaricia, Porites and Siderastrea although many sites had high abundances of large colonies of Montastraea annularis and M. faveolata, and these were generally in good condition. A single area, within the proposed fishery reserve, had extensive Acropora cervicornis thickets, and several shallow locations had small, but recovering A. palmata stands. Macroalgal cover at all sites was relatively low, with only three sites having greater than 30% cover; crustose coralline algae (CCA was high, with eight sites exceeding 20% cover. Fish biomass at all sites near the Cays was low, with a dominance of herbivores (parrotfish and surgeonfish and a near absence of groupers, snappers and other commercially important species. While parrotfish were the most abundant fish, these were all extremely small (mean size= 12cm; <4% over 29cm, and they were dominated by red band parrotfish (Sparisoma aurofrenatum followed by striped parrotfish (Scarus iseri. While coral communities remain in better condition than most coastal reefs in Jamaica, intense fishing pressure using fish traps (main target species: surgeonfish and hookah/spear fishing (main target: parrotfish is of grave concern to the

  6. High permissivity of the fish cell line SSN-1 for piscine nodaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, T; Mori, K; Arimoto, M; Nakai, T

    1999-12-22

    Seventeen isolates of piscine nodavirus from larvae or juveniles of 13 marine fish species affected with viral nervous necrosis (VNN) were examined for their infectivity to a fish cell line SSN-1. Based on cytopathic effects (CPE) and virus antigen detection by fluorescent antibody technique (FAT) after incubation at 25 degrees C, the infectivity of these virus isolates was divided into 4 groups. Group 1, including 9 virus isolates from 4 species of grouper, 2 species of sea bass, barramundi, rock porgy, and Japanese flounder showed CPE characterized by rounded, granular cells with heavy cytoplasmic vacuoles within 3 d post-incubation (p.i.), and the monolayer partially or completely disintegrated over 3 to 6 d p.i. Scattered FAT-positive cells appeared at 3 h p.i. and spread through the cell sheet with an increasing fluorescence signal over 24 h p.i. Group 2, consisting of 3 virus isolates from striped jack, induced CPE with thin or rounded, granular, refractile cells without conspicuous vacuole formation, and extensive FAT-positive reaction was observed in a time course similar to that of Group 1. Cells inoculated with Group 3 (1 isolate from tiger puffer) developed no distinct CPE but viral infection was evidenced by localized FAT-positive cells. There were no FAT-positive cells in Group 4, which included 4 isolates from Japanese flounder, Pacific cod and Atlantic halibut. However, when incubation was performed at 20 degrees C, the SSN-1 cells inoculated with the Group 3 isolate showed CPE similar to that of Group 1 and extensive FAT-positive reaction. Evidence of virus proliferation at 20 degrees C was also obtained in Group 4 isolates. The virus titers in the infected fish varied from 10(11) to 10(16) tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50) g(-1) of fish. There is a good correlation between these infectivities to the SSN-1 cells and the coat protein gene genotypes of the isolates. The present results indicate that SSN-1 cells are useful for propagating and

  7. PERFORMA PERTUMBUHAN IKAN CUPANG ALAM (Betta imbellis YANG DIBERI HORMON PERTUMBUHAN REKOMBINAN MELALUI PERENDAMAN DAN PAKAN ALAMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erma Primanita Hayuningtyas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pemberian hormon pertumbuhan rekombinan (recombinant growth hormone/rGH dapat meningkatkan pertumbuhan ikan. Pemberian rGH yang berasal dari ikan kerapu kertang (rEIGH diharapkan meningkatkan pertumbuhan ikan cupang alam (Betta imbellis. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengevaluasi performa pertumbuhan ikan cupang alam (Betta imbellis yang telah diberi rGH ikan kerapu kertang (rEIGH melalui perendaman dan pakan alami. Pemberian rGH dilakukan melalui perendaman dengan dosis yang sama 1,5 mg/L pada larva umur lima hari. Kejut salinitas pada 20 ppt selama 90 detik dilakukan sebelum direndam dalam 100 mL larutan rGH selama satu jam. Pemberian rGH dilanjutkan setelah satu minggu menggunakan pakan alami yang sudah diperkaya rGH dengan dosis 0; 0,3; 3; dan 30 mg/L; serta kontrol tanpa perlakuan. Setiap perlakuan diulang tiga kali. Pakan alami yang digunakan meliputi nauplii Artemia, Moina, cacing Tubifex, dan bloodworm yang diberi secara bertahap mengikuti bukaan mulut, dengan frekuensi pemberian dua kali sehari. Pemberian pakan rGH dilakukan dua kali dalam seminggu pada hari senin dan kamis dan diberikan pada pagi hari saja. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan kombinasi terbaik adalah pemberian rGH melalui perendaman 1,5 mg/L yang dikombinasikan dengan oral dosis 3 mg/L air. Laju pertumbuhan ikan cupang yang dihasilkan sebesar 5,54% dan rataan bobot akhir 1,03 ± 0,26 g atau sekitar 2,4 kali lebih tinggi dibandingkan kontrol (P<0,05. Pemberian rGH melalui perendaman saja sudah dapat meningkatkan pertumbuhan ikan cupang alam tetapi akan lebih baik jika dikombinasikan dengan pemberian rGH melalui pakan alami dosis berkisar 0,3-3 mg/L. The used of recombinant growth hormone (rGH for wild betta fish could enhance growth performance. The use of rGH of giant grouper fish (rEIGH is expected to enhance the growth performance of wild betta fish. The aim of this study is to determine the performance of wild betta fish treated with the

  8. Cruise report RV Ocean Surveyor Cruise 0-1-00-GM; the bathymetry and acoustic backscatter of the Pinnacles area; northern Gulf of Mexico, May 23, through June 10, 2000; Venice, LA to Venice, LA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, James V.; Sulak, Kenneth J.; Dartnell, Peter; Hellequin, Laurent; Calder, Brian R.; Mayer, Larry A.

    2000-01-01

    and juvenile habitats for economically important sport/food fishes. Also, deep-reef ecosystems as well as the fish populations they sustain are impacted by intensive oil-field development. It is now known that deep OCS reefs function as a key source of re-population (via seasonal and ontogenetic migration) of already heavily impacted inshore reefs. A reflection of this realization is the recent closure by the Gulf States Fisheries Management Council of a 600 mi 2 area of the Florida Middle Grounds (another unmapped major "40-fathom" OCS reef complex) to commercial fishing to preserve grouper spawning aggregations. It is known that the Pinnacles reefs support a lush fauna of ahermatypic hard corals, soft corals, black corals, sessile crinoids and sponges—together forming a living habitat for a well-developed fish fauna. The fish fauna comprises typical Caribbean reef fishes and Carolinian shelf fishes, plus epipelagic fishes, and a few deep-sea fishes. The base of the megafaunal invertebrate food web is plankton, borne by essentially continuous semi-laminar currents flowing predominantly out of the SW, up, along and across the shelf edge. These currents are intercepted by pinnacles reefs, which lie roughly in two linear tracts, parallel to the coastline (see fig. 1 in report). USGS research initiated in 1997 (Sulak et al., in progress) has demonstrated that the Pinnacles reef fish fauna is dominated by planktivorous fishes. Ongoing food habits, trophic web and stable isotope analyses by the USGS are reinforcing a basic picture of deep OCS reefs as ecosystems based on exogenous current-borne plankton. Long-term current meter deployments have demonstrated that the >3 m,

  9. The shallow-water fish assemblage of Isla del Coco National Park, Costa Rica: structure and patterns in an isolated, predator-dominated ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan M. Friedlander

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Fishes at Isla del Coco National Park, Costa Rica, were surveyed as part of a larger scientific expedition to the area in September 2009. The average total biomass of nearshore fishes was 7.8 tonnes per ha, among the largest observed in the tropics, with apex predators such as sharks, jacks, and groupers accounting for nearly 40% of the total biomass. The abundance of reef and pelagic sharks, particularly large aggregations of threatened species such as the scalloped hammerhead shark (up to 42 hammerheads ha-1 and large schools of jacks and snappers show the capacity for high biomass in unfished ecosystems in the Eastern Tropical Pacific. However, the abundance of hammerhead and reef whitetip sharks appears to have been declining since the late 1990s, and likely causes may include increasing fishing pressure on sharks in the region and illegal fishing inside the Park. One Galapagos shark tagged on September 20, 2009 in the Isla del Coco National Park moved 255km southeast towards Malpelo Island in Colombia, when it stopped transmitting. These results contribute to the evidence that sharks conduct large-scale movements between marine protected areas (Isla del Coco, Malpelo, Galápagos in the Eastern tropical Pacific and emphasize the need for regional-scale management. More than half of the species and 90% of the individuals observed were endemic to the tropical eastern Pacific. These high biomass and endemicity values highlight the uniqueness of the fish assemblage at Isla del Coco and its importance as a global biodiversity hotspot.La biomasa promedio de peces costeros en el Parque Nacional Isla del Coco en septiembre de 2010 fue de 7,8 toneladas por hectárea, entre las más elevadas halladas jamás en zonas tropicales. Los grandes depredadores representaron el 40% de la biomasa total. La abundancia de tiburones costeros y pelágicos, particularmente las enormes agregaciones de tiburón martillo (hasta 42 individuos por hectárea y los

  10. Is mannitol the treatment of choice for patients with ciguatera fish poisoning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Michael E; Hoffman, Robert S

    2017-11-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning arises primarily from consumption of carnivorous reef fish caught in tropical and sub-tropical waters. Ciguatoxins, a class of tasteless, heat-stable, polycyclic toxins produced by dinoflagellates, accumulate through the food chain and concentrate in various carnivorous fish, such as groupers, barracudas, wrasses, amberjack, kingfishes, and eels. Characteristics of ciguatera fish poisoning include early nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea in the first one to two days post ingestion, followed by the appearance of sensory disturbances. The classic dysaesthesia is cold allodynia, often described as reversal of hot and cold sensation, but a more accurate description is burning pain on exposure to cold. To discuss and appraise the evidence regarding the use of mannitol or other drugs in treating ciguatera framed in the historical context of the last four decades. We searched PubMed and Embase for all years from 1966 to March 31, 2017 with search terms "ciguatera", "mannitol", and "treatment". These searches identified 85 articles, of which 36 were relevant to the review question. We searched Google Scholar to supplement the primary search and reviewed the references of articles for sources overlooked in the original searches. These secondary searches identified another 23 references. We excluded six clinical reports (two case series and four case reports) which did not clearly describe ciguatera or which lacked information on treatment or outcome. Fifty-three clinical articles remained for review. We searched PubMed using "ciguatera" AND "treatment" NOT "mannitol" to better identify reports describing other treatments. The search identified 128 articles, of which nine described specific pharmacological treatments and their outcomes. We combined our findings into a consensus review of the evidence both for and against the use of mannitol or other medications for ciguatera fish poisoning. Early human evidence of effectiveness of mannitol: A 1988 report

  11. Mercury in fish available in supermarkets in Illinois: Are there regional differences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Joanna [Division of Life Sciences, Rutgers University, 604 Allison Road, Piscataway, New Jersey, 08854-8082 (United States) and Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation (CRESP) and Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Piscataway, New Jersey (United States)]. E-mail: burger@biology.rutgers.edu; Gochfeld, Michael [Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation (CRESP), and Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Piscataway, New Jersey (United States); Environmental and Community Medicine, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, New Jersey, 08854 (United States)

    2006-08-31

    tuna had the most. The mean concentrations reported in this study were generally similar to those reported by the FDA, but there were important differences: 1) although the mean mercury concentrations for orange roughy for the Chicago data was similar to the FDA data, the maximum concentration was higher; 2) the mean for the Chicago swordfish was higher than the FDA data (1.26 vs 0.97 ppm, methylmercury); 3) the maximum for tuna steaks was higher in the FDA data set; and, 4) mean values for grouper (Epinephelus spp.) were higher in the FDA data set than the Chicago data. Further, the FDA has virtually no data on walleye and none on 'gourmet tuna'. These conclusions suggest that there are enough variations between the local data (Chicago) and the FDA data to warrant periodic local monitoring of commercial fish to provide up-to-date information to consumers about mercury in the fish they eat.

  12. Temporal and spatial dynamics of Lutjanus cyanopterus (Pisces: Lutjanidae and L. jocu spawning aggregations in the United States Virgin Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Kadison

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The Grammanik bank is a deep reef (35-40 m located approximately 14 km south of St. Thomas USVI, on the southern edge of the Puerto Rico shelf. The relatively narrow 1.5 km long reef annually hosts spawning aggregations of several species of groupers, snappers and jacks. Until February of 2005, when temporary seasonal protection was offered by the Caribbean Fisheries Management Council, the bank was subject to moderate or heavy exploitation from fishers. Cubera snapper (Lutjanus cyanopterus were observed aggregating on the Grammanik bank in relatively large numbers from 2003 to 2005 and dog snapper (L. jocu aggregations were observed in 2005. The arrival and departure of these aggregations appeared to be seasonal and to revolve around the moon phase. Cubera snapper spawning seasonality coincided with that elsewhere in the Caribbean and off south Florida. Schools of up to 1000 fish of each species were observed as well as pre-spawning behavior and milt release. Aggregations of both species showed high site fidelity within seasons but cubera snapper aggregations sites moved between seasons. The authors recommend year-round closure of the Grammanik bank based on its importance as critical fish habitat and a multi-species aggregation area. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (Suppl. 3: 69-78. Epub 2007 Jan. 15.El banco Grammanik es un arrecife profundo (35-40 m ubicado aproximadamente 14 km al Sur de St. Thomas (Islas Vírgenes EUA, en el límite sur de la plataforma de Puerto Rico. Este arrecife relativamente angosto y de 1.5 km de longitud, recibe anualmente agrupaciones de varias especies de meros, pargos y jureles, durante sus desoves. Fue objeto de explotación de moderada a alta por parte de los pescadores hasta febrero del 2005, cuando el Consejo de Pesca del Caribe le ofreció protección temporal. El pargo cubera (Lutjanus cyanopterus fue observado en el banco Grammanik en agrupaciones numerosas entre el año 2003 y el 2005, a su vez, agrupaciones del

  13. Mercury in fish available in supermarkets in Illinois: Are there regional differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

    2006-01-01

    most. The mean concentrations reported in this study were generally similar to those reported by the FDA, but there were important differences: 1) although the mean mercury concentrations for orange roughy for the Chicago data was similar to the FDA data, the maximum concentration was higher; 2) the mean for the Chicago swordfish was higher than the FDA data (1.26 vs 0.97 ppm, methylmercury); 3) the maximum for tuna steaks was higher in the FDA data set; and, 4) mean values for grouper (Epinephelus spp.) were higher in the FDA data set than the Chicago data. Further, the FDA has virtually no data on walleye and none on 'gourmet tuna'. These conclusions suggest that there are enough variations between the local data (Chicago) and the FDA data to warrant periodic local monitoring of commercial fish to provide up-to-date information to consumers about mercury in the fish they eat

  14. PERKIRAAN PADAT PENEBARAN IKAN KERAPU MACAN (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus YANG OPTIMUM BERDASARKAN PADA KEBUTUHAN OKSIGEN TERLARUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Dwi Santoso

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Studi tentang perkiraan padat penebaran optimum pada ikan kerapu macan (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus berdasarkan pada kebutuhan oksigen terlarut telah dilakukan pada areal Teluk Hurun, Lampung pada bulan Juli 2003. Rata-rata hasil pengukuran kualitas lingkungan keramba jaring apung 13,5 m3 yang berisi ikan kerapu macan meliputi oksigen terlarut 3,68—6,76 (5,35 ± 0,25 mg/L suhu air 28,64—29,72 (29,09 ± 0,09 oC. Salinitas 32,69—33,0 (32,94 ± 0,13 psu and turbiditas 0,27—13,62 (1,15 ± 0,41 NTU. Data tambahan meliputi laju pemasukan air sungai sekitar 0,02 m3/detik dan kecepatan arus 2,3—5,1 cm/detik. Dari analisis data laju respirasi ikan kerapu macan yang diukur dengan mengunakan fish chamber menghasilkan fungsi korelasi terhadap bobot badan ikan yaitu Y= 0,0038 + 0,6108 dengan R2= 0,7437 dan fungsi padat penebaran yang optimum yaitu Y= 1505,6 X -0.632; R2= 0,7419. Dari kedua fungsi tersebut didapatkan rekomendasi penentuan padat penebaran yang optimum berdasarkan kebutuhan oksigen terlarut dengan batasan sebagai berikut: stok ikan berukuran kurang dari 50 g disarankan ditebar dengan kepadatan 175 ekor/m3, ikan ukuran 100--200 g sekitar 63 ekor/m3 dan ikan ukuran lebih dari 1.200 g sekitar 17 ekor/m3. Study on the optimum stocking rate estimation on tiger grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus base on dissolved oxygen budged was held in aquaculture area Hurun Bay Lampung in July 2003. Environmental parameters of Hurun Bay estuary were monitored at the site of 13.5 m3 floating net cages for E. fuscoguttatus in July 2003. Average dissolved oxygen inside cages was 3.68—6.76 (5.35 ± 0.25 mg/L with water temperature 28.64—29.72 (29.09 ± 0.09 oC. Salinity 32.69—33.0 (32.94 ± 0.13 psu and turbidity 0.27—13.62 (1.15 ± 0.41 NTU. Inflow rate of cages was 0.02 m3/sec with current velocity 2.3—5.1 cm/s. Results showed that the functions of respiration rate for correlation between respiration of E. fucoguttatus and their weight was Y= 0

  15. Phylogenetic Analysis of the Darkfin Hind, Cephalopholis urodeta (Serranidae Using Partial Mitochondrial CO1 Gene Sequences (Analisis Filogenetik Cephalopholis urodeta (Serranidae Menggunakan Runutan Gen CO1 Mitokondria Parsial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanti Ariyanti

    2015-03-01

    various species. Phenotypically, an adult C. urodeta similar to a juvenile of C. sonnerati, since both of them have a striking trait, two white oblique stripes or bands on the caudal fins. This work was conducted to investigate the genetic relationships of this species using CO1 gene segment. Fish were collected from several sampling point in South Sulawesi areas such as Sinjai and Selayar Island. The phenotypic characterizations were identified using the FAO species catalogue of groupers of the world, and the species that seemed to have C. urodeta morphology then separated. Tissue samples from dorsal muscle tissue were used as the source of DNA. Using part of the CO1 gene sequence, it can be confirmed that our samples are exactly C. urodeta species. The 22 C. urodeta sequences from GeneBank compared with our sequences. Interestingly, because based on the phylogenetic tree, our sequences clustered with the other C. urodeta sequences from several part of the world except the Arabian Sea off the coast of India, which is a separate branch. The present study reveals less genetic distance in C. urodeta than some other parts of the ocean as follows; South Pacific Ocean (Polynesia, North Pacific Ocean (Northern Mariana, South China Sea (Philippines, Andaman, west coast of Réunion Island, Arabian Sea and Indo West Pacific (Indonesia. This has implications for understanding the migration pattern of the species and may affect conservation policy decisions. Keywords: Cephalopholis urodeta, CO1, phylogenetics, Serranidae, South Sulawesi

  16. Exploration of the West Florida Shelf Blue Holes Investigation of Physical and Biological Characteristics and Archaeological Implications of Unique Karst Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culter, J. K.

    2006-12-01

    The west Florida continental shelf is nearly as large as peninsular Florida and embraces a vast mosaic of marine habitats. The dominant shelf habitats have been described and studied to some degree. However, the offshore submerged sinkhole and spring features (blue holes) have not been scientifically described or studied, with the exception of one site called the Mudhole, a saltwater spring off Ft. Myers Beach. These features are relatively small habitats by standards of aerial coverage, but are probably more common than previously thought. These habitats are very unique shelf features, a reef in reverse, representing island habitats on the Florida shelf. This study was initiated in summer 2005 to describe the biota associated with the offshore blue hole features of this region and search for new sites. Eleven sites off the west central Florida coast have been verified and data has been collected at eight locations, all greater than 30 miles offshore. Most blue holes exhibit similar structural features, which divide the biota into zones. Pelagic species, such as amberjack, occupy the water column above the holes and reef species populate the rim. All of the sites investigated harbor one or more goliath grouper (Epinephelus itajara) and most of the features have resident nurse sharks (Ginglymostoma cirratum). Pelagic sharks periodically visit the sites and sea turtles are frequently observed at or near the holes. Whale sharks (Rhincodon typus) also seem to have an affinity for these features. The reef fauna that occupy the rim rapidly decline in abundance and diversity deeper into the holes with the deepest fauna being calcareous tube dwelling polychaetes that grow down to the edges of the hydrogen sulfide layer. There is pronounced temperature stratification within all holes. All of the sites investigated to date are relatively deep, by standards of recreational scuba diving, and divers utilized open circuit trimix to conduct the investigations. The key components

  17. The importance of the marine ornamental reef fish trade in the wider Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.W Bruckner

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The marine ornamental fish trade began in the 1930s in Sri Lanka,spread to Hawaii and the Philippines in the 1950s,and expanded to a multi-million dollar industry in the 1970s with fisheries established throughout the tropical Pacific,Indian and Atlantic Oceans.Currently,45 countries supply global markets an estimated 14-30 million fish annually,with an import value of US$28-44 million.The largest suppliers are Indonesia and the Philippines,followed by Brazil,Maldives,Vietnam,Sri Lanka and Hawaii.In the tropical Western Atlantic,16 countries have export fisheries, including the U.S.(Florida and Puerto Rico.The U.S.is the world ’s largest buyer,followed by the European Union and Japan.The global trade consists of over 1400 species of reef fishes,of which only about 25 are captive bred on a commercial scale.Damselfish,anemonefish, and angelfish constitute over 50%of the global volume; butterflyfish, wrasses,blennies,gobies,triggerfish,file-fish,hawkfishes,groupers and basselets account for 31%of the trade,and the remaining 16%is represented by 33 families.The most important fishes from the Caribbean are angelfish (six species, seahorses (two species, royal gramma, jawfish,queen triggerfish,redlip blenny,puddingwife,bluehead wrasse,and blue chromis.The Caribbean currently supplies a small percentage of the global trade in marine ornamental species,but ornamental fisheries in this region represent important emerging industries.It is critical that effective ornamental fishery management plans and regulations are developed and enforced,and fishery-dependent and fishery-independent data are collected and utilized in decision making processes to ensure sustainable ornamental fisheries throughout the region.El comercio de peces marinos ornamentales se inició en la década de 1930 en Sri Lanka y se extendió a Hawai y Las Filipinas en la década de 1950.Posteriormente se convirtió en una industria multimillonaria cuando,en la década de 1970,se

  18. La clasificación climática de Holdridge: incoherencias y soluciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colotti Bizarri, Eva

    2003-03-01

    la aplicación de: 1. Una técnica numérica, como el Análisis de Conglomerados (Cluster Analysis, cuya base es un sistema rectangular de ejes coordenados, donde la distancia entre los individuos se utiliza para determinar su asignación a distintos grupos, cada uno con características homogéneas. 2. Una técnica gráfica, como el uso del software AutoCAD, Versión 14 para el diseño del nomograma digital de Holdridge, para disminuir la discrepancia gráfico-visual y permitir establecer de manera unívoca la zona de vida asociada a cada localidad estudiada. [fr] En climatologie, les classifications sont frécuentement utilisées a fin de grouper et/ou différencier comportements dún ou plus éléments météorologiques. Comme dernier phase dans la recherche scientifique, la classification constitue la base de l'évalauation de résultats et de la synthèse. Malgré, dans le cas particulier de la classification climatique de Holdridge quelques incohérences de concept et visuels, ces derniers là produitt de différences grafiques, conduit a résultats pas concluants, due qu'une lacalité puisse appartenir a deux o trois zones de vie différent, selon Holdridge. Comme ça, cet travail est une contribution qu'essayer de régler ces limitations moyennant l'application d'une técnique numérique comme est 1'analysis de conglomérés (cluster analysis et, autre grapique, comme l'use de software Autocad dans le dissein d'un nomogramme digitel.

  19. Using multi-country household surveys to understand who provides reproductive and maternal health services in low- and middle-income countries: a critical appraisal of the Demographic and Health Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Footman, K; Benova, L; Goodman, C; Macleod, D; Lynch, C A; Penn-Kekana, L; Campbell, O M R

    2015-01-01

    êtes démographiques et de santé (EDS) sont une ressource vitale de données pour des analyses comparatives entre les pays. Cet article fait partie d'une série d'analyses évaluant les types de prestataires utilisés pour les soins de santé reproductive et maternelle dans 57 pays. Ici, nous examinons certains des défis rencontrés, en utilisant les données EDS à cette fin, présentons la classification que nous avons utilisée pour les prestataires et fournissons des recommandations pour permettre des comparaisons plus détaillées et précises entre les pays sur la prestation des soins de santé. Méthodes Nous avons utilisé les plus récents relevés EDS entre 2000 et 2012; 57 pays avaient des données sur la planification familiale et les prestataires de soins d'accouchement et 47 pays avaient des données sur les soins prénatals. Chaque option de réponse possible dans les 57 pays a été répertoriée et classée. Nous avons ensuite développé une classification pour grouper les options de réponses des prestataires selon deux dimensions clés: la nature clinique et la recherche du profit. Résultats Nous avons classé les différents types de prestataires de soins de santé maternelle et reproductive, et les personnes qui fournissent des soins. Les défis documentées rencontrées durant ce processus étaient les limitations inhérentes aux données de l'enquête sur les ménages sur la base de l'auto-report des répondants, l'amalgame d'options de réponse dans le questionnaire ou à l’étape de traitement des données, les erreurs de catégories du lieu par rapport à la profession pour l'accouchement, l'incapacité à déterminer si les soins reçus à domicile étaient du secteur public ou privé, un grand nombre d'options de réponse négligeables, des incohérences dans le codage et l'analyse des ensembles de données, et l'utilisation de rubriques incompatibles. Conclusions Pour améliorer la clarté, nous recommandons de tacler les probl